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Sample records for campbelli auditory laterality

  1. Social and emotional values of sounds influence human (Homo sapiens and non-human primate (Cercopithecus campbelli auditory laterality.

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    Muriel Basile

    Full Text Available The last decades evidenced auditory laterality in vertebrates, offering new important insights for the understanding of the origin of human language. Factors such as the social (e.g. specificity, familiarity and emotional value of sounds have been proved to influence hemispheric specialization. However, little is known about the crossed effect of these two factors in animals. In addition, human-animal comparative studies, using the same methodology, are rare. In our study, we adapted the head turn paradigm, a widely used non invasive method, on 8-9-year-old schoolgirls and on adult female Campbell's monkeys, by focusing on head and/or eye orientations in response to sound playbacks. We broadcast communicative signals (monkeys: calls, humans: speech emitted by familiar individuals presenting distinct degrees of social value (female monkeys: conspecific group members vs heterospecific neighbours, human girls: from the same vs different classroom and emotional value (monkeys: contact vs threat calls; humans: friendly vs aggressive intonation. We evidenced a crossed-categorical effect of social and emotional values in both species since only "negative" voices from same class/group members elicited a significant auditory laterality (Wilcoxon tests: monkeys, T = 0 p = 0.03; girls: T = 4.5 p = 0.03. Moreover, we found differences between species as a left and right hemisphere preference was found respectively in humans and monkeys. Furthermore while monkeys almost exclusively responded by turning their head, girls sometimes also just moved their eyes. This study supports theories defending differential roles played by the two hemispheres in primates' auditory laterality and evidenced that more systematic species comparisons are needed before raising evolutionary scenario. Moreover, the choice of sound stimuli and behavioural measures in such studies should be the focus of careful attention.

  2. Lateralization of auditory-cortex functions.

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    Tervaniemi, Mari; Hugdahl, Kenneth

    2003-12-01

    In the present review, we summarize the most recent findings and current views about the structural and functional basis of human brain lateralization in the auditory modality. Main emphasis is given to hemodynamic and electromagnetic data of healthy adult participants with regard to music- vs. speech-sound encoding. Moreover, a selective set of behavioral dichotic-listening (DL) results and clinical findings (e.g., schizophrenia, dyslexia) are included. It is shown that human brain has a strong predisposition to process speech sounds in the left and music sounds in the right auditory cortex in the temporal lobe. Up to great extent, an auditory area located at the posterior end of the temporal lobe (called planum temporale [PT]) underlies this functional asymmetry. However, the predisposition is not bound to informational sound content but to rapid temporal information more common in speech than in music sounds. Finally, we obtain evidence for the vulnerability of the functional specialization of sound processing. These altered forms of lateralization may be caused by top-down and bottom-up effects inter- and intraindividually In other words, relatively small changes in acoustic sound features or in their familiarity may modify the degree in which the left vs. right auditory areas contribute to sound encoding. PMID:14629926

  3. Effects of an Auditory Lateralization Training in Children Suspected to Central Auditory Processing Disorder

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    Lotfi, Yones; Moosavi, Abdollah; Bakhshi, Enayatollah; Sadjedi, Hamed

    2016-01-01

    Background and Objectives Central auditory processing disorder [(C)APD] refers to a deficit in auditory stimuli processing in nervous system that is not due to higher-order language or cognitive factors. One of the problems in children with (C)APD is spatial difficulties which have been overlooked despite their significance. Localization is an auditory ability to detect sound sources in space and can help to differentiate between the desired speech from other simultaneous sound sources. Aim of this research was investigating effects of an auditory lateralization training on speech perception in presence of noise/competing signals in children suspected to (C)APD. Subjects and Methods In this analytical interventional study, 60 children suspected to (C)APD were selected based on multiple auditory processing assessment subtests. They were randomly divided into two groups: control (mean age 9.07) and training groups (mean age 9.00). Training program consisted of detection and pointing to sound sources delivered with interaural time differences under headphones for 12 formal sessions (6 weeks). Spatial word recognition score (WRS) and monaural selective auditory attention test (mSAAT) were used to follow the auditory lateralization training effects. Results This study showed that in the training group, mSAAT score and spatial WRS in noise (p value≤0.001) improved significantly after the auditory lateralization training. Conclusions We used auditory lateralization training for 6 weeks and showed that auditory lateralization can improve speech understanding in noise significantly. The generalization of this results needs further researches.

  4. Auditory priming of frequency and temporal information: Effects of lateralized presentation

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    List, Alexandra; Justus, Timothy

    2007-01-01

    Asymmetric distribution of function between the cerebral hemispheres has been widely investigated in the auditory modality. The current approach borrows heavily from visual local-global research in an attempt to determine whether, as in vision, local-global auditory processing is lateralized. In vision, lateralized local-global processing likely relies on spatial frequency information. Drawing analogies between visual spatial frequency and auditory dimensions, two sets of auditory stimuli wer...

  5. A lateralized auditory evoked potential elicited when auditory objects are defined by spatial motion.

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    Butcher, Andrew; Govenlock, Stanley W; Tata, Matthew S

    2011-02-01

    Scene analysis involves the process of segmenting a field of overlapping objects from each other and from the background. It is a fundamental stage of perception in both vision and hearing. The auditory system encodes complex cues that allow listeners to find boundaries between sequential objects, even when no gap of silence exists between them. In this sense, object perception in hearing is similar to perceiving visual objects defined by isoluminant color, motion or binocular disparity. Motion is one such cue: when a moving sound abruptly disappears from one location and instantly reappears somewhere else, the listener perceives two sequential auditory objects. Smooth reversals of motion direction do not produce this segmentation. We investigated the brain electrical responses evoked by this spatial segmentation cue and compared them to the familiar auditory evoked potential elicited by sound onsets. Segmentation events evoke a pattern of negative and positive deflections that are unlike those evoked by onsets. We identified a negative component in the waveform - the Lateralized Object-Related Negativity - generated by the hemisphere contralateral to the side on which the new sound appears. The relationship between this component and similar components found in related paradigms is considered. PMID:21056097

  6. Lateralized auditory brain function in children with normal reading ability and in children with dyslexia.

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    Johnson, Blake W; McArthur, Genevieve; Hautus, Michael; Reid, Melanie; Brock, Jon; Castles, Anne; Crain, Stephen

    2013-03-01

    We examined central auditory processing in typically- and atypically-developing readers. Concurrent EEG and MEG brain measurements were obtained from a group of 16 children with dyslexia aged 8-12 years, and a group of 16 age-matched children with normal reading ability. Auditory responses were elicited using 500ms duration broadband noise. These responses were strongly lateralized in control children. Children with dyslexia showed significantly less lateralisation of auditory cortical functioning, and a different pattern of development of auditory lateralization with age. These results provide further evidence that the core neurophysiological deficit of dyslexia is a problem in the balance of auditory function between the two hemispheres. PMID:23333528

  7. Lateralization of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) activation in the auditory pathway of patients with lateralized tinnitus

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    Smits, Marion [Erasmus MC - University Medical Center Rotterdam, Department of Radiology, Hs 224, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Kovacs, Silvia; Peeters, Ronald R.; Hecke, Paul van; Sunaert, Stefan [University Hospitals of the Catholic University Leuven, Department of Radiology, Leuven (Belgium); Ridder, Dirk de [University of Antwerp, Department of Neurosurgery, Edegem (Belgium)

    2007-08-15

    Tinnitus is hypothesized to be an auditory phantom phenomenon resulting from spontaneous neuronal activity somewhere along the auditory pathway. We performed fMRI of the entire auditory pathway, including the inferior colliculus (IC), the medial geniculate body (MGB) and the auditory cortex (AC), in 42 patients with tinnitus and 10 healthy volunteers to assess lateralization of fMRI activation. Subjects were scanned on a 3T MRI scanner. A T2*-weighted EPI silent gap sequence was used during the stimulation paradigm, which consisted of a blocked design of 12 epochs in which music presented binaurally through headphones, which was switched on and off for periods of 50 s. Using SPM2 software, single subject and group statistical parametric maps were calculated. Lateralization of activation was assessed qualitatively and quantitatively. Tinnitus was lateralized in 35 patients (83%, 13 right-sided and 22 left-sided). Significant signal change (P{sub corrected} < 0.05) was found bilaterally in the primary and secondary AC, the IC and the MGB. Signal change was symmetrical in patients with bilateral tinnitus. In patients with lateralized tinnitus, fMRI activation was lateralized towards the side of perceived tinnitus in the primary AC and IC in patients with right-sided tinnitus, and in the MGB in patients with left-sided tinnitus. In healthy volunteers, activation in the primary AC was left-lateralized. Our paradigm adequately visualized the auditory pathways in tinnitus patients. In lateralized tinnitus fMRI activation was also lateralized, supporting the hypothesis that tinnitus is an auditory phantom phenomenon. (orig.)

  8. Mapping auditory core, lateral belt, and parabelt cortices in the human superior temporal gyrus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sweet, Robert A; Dorph-Petersen, Karl-Anton; Lewis, David A

    2005-01-01

    The goal of the present study was to determine whether the architectonic criteria used to identify the core, lateral belt, and parabelt auditory cortices in macaque monkeys (Macaca fascicularis) could be used to identify homologous regions in humans (Homo sapiens). Current evidence indicates that...

  9. Music-induced cortical plasticity and lateral inhibition in the human auditory cortex as foundations for tonal tinnitus treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Christo Pantev; Hidehiko Okamoto

    2013-01-01

    Over the past 15 years, we have studied plasticity in the human auditory cortex by means of magnetoencephalography (MEG). Two main topics nurtured our curiosity: the effects of musical training on plasticity in the auditory system, and the effects of lateral inhibition. One of our plasticity studies found that listening to notched music for 3 h inhibited the neuronal activity in the auditory cortex that corresponded to the center-frequency of the notch, suggesting suppression of neural activi...

  10. Lateralization of Music Processing with Noises in the Auditory Cortex: An fNIRS Study

    OpenAIRE

    Hendrik eSantosa; Melissa Jiyoun Hong; Keum-Shik eHong

    2014-01-01

    The present study is to determine the effects of background noise on the hemispheric lateralization in music processing by exposing fourteen subjects to four different auditory environments: music segments only, noise segments only, music+noise segments, and the entire music interfered by noise segments. The hemodynamic responses in both hemispheres caused by the perception of music in 10 different conditions were measured using functional near-infrared spectroscopy. As a feature to distingui...

  11. Lateralization of music processing with noises in the auditory cortex: an fNIRS study

    OpenAIRE

    Santosa, Hendrik; Hong, Melissa Jiyoun; Hong, Keum-Shik

    2014-01-01

    The present study is to determine the effects of background noise on the hemispheric lateralization in music processing by exposing 14 subjects to four different auditory environments: music segments only, noise segments only, music + noise segments, and the entire music interfered by noise segments. The hemodynamic responses in both hemispheres caused by the perception of music in 10 different conditions were measured using functional near-infrared spectroscopy. As a feature to distinguish s...

  12. Mirrored patterns of lateralized neuronal activation reflect old and new memories in the avian auditory cortex.

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    Olson, Elizabeth M; Maeda, Rie K; Gobes, Sharon M H

    2016-08-25

    In monolingual humans, language-related brain activation shows a distinct lateralized pattern, in which the left hemisphere is often dominant. Studies are not as conclusive regarding the localization of the underlying neural substrate for language in sequential language learners. Lateralization of the neural substrate for first and second language depends on a number of factors including proficiency and early experience with each language. Similar to humans learning speech, songbirds learn their vocalizations from a conspecific tutor early in development. Here, we show mirrored patterns of lateralization in the avian analog of the mammalian auditory cortex (the caudomedial nidopallium [NCM]) in sequentially tutored zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata​) in response to their first tutor song, learned early in development, and their second tutor song, learned later in development. The greater the retention of song from their first tutor, the more right-dominant the birds were when exposed to that song; the more birds learned from their second tutor, the more left-dominant they were when exposed to that song. Thus, the avian auditory cortex may preserve lateralized neuronal traces of old and new tutor song memories, which are dependent on proficiency of song learning. There is striking resemblance in humans: early-formed language representations are maintained in the brain even if exposure to that language is discontinued. The switching of hemispheric dominance related to the acquisition of early auditory memories and subsequent encoding of more recent memories may be an evolutionary adaptation in vocal learners necessary for the behavioral flexibility to acquire novel vocalizations, such as a second language. PMID:27288718

  13. Modulatory Effects of Attention on Lateral Inhibition in the Human Auditory Cortex.

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    Alva Engell

    Full Text Available Reduced neural processing of a tone is observed when it is presented after a sound whose spectral range closely frames the frequency of the tone. This observation might be explained by the mechanism of lateral inhibition (LI due to inhibitory interneurons in the auditory system. So far, several characteristics of bottom up influences on LI have been identified, while the influence of top-down processes such as directed attention on LI has not been investigated. Hence, the study at hand aims at investigating the modulatory effects of focused attention on LI in the human auditory cortex. In the magnetoencephalograph, we present two types of masking sounds (white noise vs. withe noise passing through a notch filter centered at a specific frequency, followed by a test tone with a frequency corresponding to the center-frequency of the notch filter. Simultaneously, subjects were presented with visual input on a screen. To modulate the focus of attention, subjects were instructed to concentrate either on the auditory input or the visual stimuli. More specific, on one half of the trials, subjects were instructed to detect small deviations in loudness in the masking sounds while on the other half of the trials subjects were asked to detect target stimuli on the screen. The results revealed a reduction in neural activation due to LI, which was larger during auditory compared to visual focused attention. Attentional modulations of LI were observed in two post-N1m time intervals. These findings underline the robustness of reduced neural activation due to LI in the auditory cortex and point towards the important role of attention on the modulation of this mechanism in more evaluative processing stages.

  14. Lateralization of music processing with noises in the auditory cortex: an fNIRS study

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    Santosa, Hendrik; Hong, Melissa Jiyoun; Hong, Keum-Shik

    2014-01-01

    The present study is to determine the effects of background noise on the hemispheric lateralization in music processing by exposing 14 subjects to four different auditory environments: music segments only, noise segments only, music + noise segments, and the entire music interfered by noise segments. The hemodynamic responses in both hemispheres caused by the perception of music in 10 different conditions were measured using functional near-infrared spectroscopy. As a feature to distinguish stimulus-evoked hemodynamics, the difference between the mean and the minimum value of the hemodynamic response for a given stimulus was used. The right-hemispheric lateralization in music processing was about 75% (instead of continuous music, only music segments were heard). If the stimuli were only noises, the lateralization was about 65%. But, if the music was mixed with noises, the right-hemispheric lateralization has increased. Particularly, if the noise was a little bit lower than the music (i.e., music level 10~15%, noise level 10%), the entire subjects showed the right-hemispheric lateralization: This is due to the subjects' effort to hear the music in the presence of noises. However, too much noise has reduced the subjects' discerning efforts. PMID:25538583

  15. Processing of harmonics in the lateral belt of macaque auditory cortex.

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    Kikuchi, Yukiko; Horwitz, Barry; Mishkin, Mortimer; Rauschecker, Josef P

    2014-01-01

    Many speech sounds and animal vocalizations contain components, referred to as complex tones, that consist of a fundamental frequency (F0) and higher harmonics. In this study we examined single-unit activity recorded in the core (A1) and lateral belt (LB) areas of auditory cortex in two rhesus monkeys as they listened to pure tones and pitch-shifted conspecific vocalizations ("coos"). The latter consisted of complex-tone segments in which F0 was matched to a corresponding pure-tone stimulus. In both animals, neuronal latencies to pure-tone stimuli at the best frequency (BF) were ~10 to 15 ms longer in LB than in A1. This might be expected, since LB is considered to be at a hierarchically higher level than A1. On the other hand, the latency of LB responses to coos was ~10 to 20 ms shorter than to the corresponding pure-tone BF, suggesting facilitation in LB by the harmonics. This latency reduction by coos was not observed in A1, resulting in similar coo latencies in A1 and LB. Multi-peaked neurons were present in both A1 and LB; however, harmonically-related peaks were observed in LB for both early and late response components, whereas in A1 they were observed only for late components. Our results suggest that harmonic features, such as relationships between specific frequency intervals of communication calls, are processed at relatively early stages of the auditory cortical pathway, but preferentially in LB. PMID:25100935

  16. Music-induced cortical plasticity and lateral inhibition in the human auditory cortex as foundations for tonal tinnitus treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christo Pantev

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Over the past 15 years, we have studied plasticity in the human auditory cortex by means of magnetoencephalography (MEG. Two main topics nurtured our curiosity: the effects of musical training on plasticity in the auditory system, and the effects of lateral inhibition. One of our plasticity studies found that listening to notched music for three hours inhibited the neuronal activity in the auditory cortex that corresponded to the center-frequency of the notch, suggesting suppression of neural activity by lateral inhibition. Crucially, the overall effects of lateral inhibition on human auditory cortical activity were stronger than the habituation effects. Based on these results we developed a novel treatment strategy for tonal tinnitus - tailor-made notched music training (TMNMT. By notching the music energy spectrum around the individual tinnitus frequency, we intended to attract lateral inhibition to auditory neurons involved in tinnitus perception. So far, the training strategy has been evaluated in two studies. The results of the initial long-term controlled study (12 months supported the validity of the treatment concept: subjective tinnitus loudness and annoyance were significantly reduced after TMNMT but not when notching spared the tinnitus frequencies. Correspondingly, tinnitus-related auditory evoked fields (AEFs were significantly reduced after training. The subsequent short-term (5 days training study indicated that training was more effective in the case of tinnitus frequencies ≤ 8 kHz compared to tinnitus frequencies > 8 kHz, and that training should be employed over a long-term in order to induce more persistent effects. Further development and evaluation of TMNMT therapy are planned. A goal is to transfer this novel, completely non-invasive, and low-cost treatment approach for tonal tinnitus into routine clinical practice.

  17. Between- and within-Ear Congruency and Laterality Effects in an Auditory Semantic/Emotional Prosody Conflict Task

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    Techentin, Cheryl; Voyer, Daniel; Klein, Raymond M.

    2009-01-01

    The present study investigated the influence of within- and between-ear congruency on interference and laterality effects in an auditory semantic/prosodic conflict task. Participants were presented dichotically with words (e.g., mad, sad, glad) pronounced in either congruent or incongruent emotional tones (e.g., angry, happy, or sad) and…

  18. Processing of harmonics in the lateral belt of macaque auditory cortex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    YukikoKikuchi

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Many speech sounds and animal vocalizations contain components, referred to as complex tones, that consist of a fundamental frequency (F0 and higher harmonics. In this study we examined single-unit activity recorded in the core (A1 and lateral belt (LB areas of auditory cortex in two rhesus monkeys as they listened to pure tones and pitch-shifted conspecific vocalizations (‘coos’. The latter consisted of complex-tone segments in which F0 was matched to a corresponding pure-tone stimulus. In both animals, neuronal latencies to pure-tone stimuli at the best frequency (BF were ~10 to 15 ms longer in LB than in A1. This might be expected, since LB is considered to be at a hierarchically higher level than A1. On the other hand, the latency of LB responses to coos was ~10 to 20 ms shorter than to the corresponding pure-tone BF, suggesting facilitation in LB by the harmonics. This latency reduction by coos was not observed in A1, resulting in similar coo latencies in A1 and LB. Multi-peaked neurons were present in both A1 and LB; however, harmonically-related peaks were observed in LB for both early and late response components, whereas in A1 they were observed only for late components. Our results suggest that harmonic features, such as relationships between specific frequency intervals of communication calls, are processed at relatively early stages of the auditory cortical pathway, but preferentially in LB.

  19. Modulatory Effects of Spectral Energy Contrasts on Lateral Inhibition in the Human Auditory Cortex: An MEG Study

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    Stein, Alwina; Engell, Alva; Okamoto, Hidehiko; Wollbrink, Andreas; Lau, Pia; Wunderlich, Robert; Rudack, Claudia; Pantev, Christo

    2013-01-01

    We investigated the modulation of lateral inhibition in the human auditory cortex by means of magnetoencephalography (MEG). In the first experiment, five acoustic masking stimuli (MS), consisting of noise passing through a digital notch filter which was centered at 1 kHz, were presented. The spectral energy contrasts of four MS were modified systematically by either amplifying or attenuating the edge-frequency bands around the notch (EFB) by 30 dB. Additionally, the width of EFB amplification/attenuation was varied (3/8 or 7/8 octave on each side of the notch). N1m and auditory steady state responses (ASSR), evoked by a test stimulus with a carrier frequency of 1 kHz, were evaluated. A consistent dependence of N1m responses upon the preceding MS was observed. The minimal N1m source strength was found in the narrowest amplified EFB condition, representing pronounced lateral inhibition of neurons with characteristic frequencies corresponding to the center frequency of the notch (NOTCH CF) in secondary auditory cortical areas. We tested in a second experiment whether an even narrower bandwidth of EFB amplification would result in further enhanced lateral inhibition of the NOTCH CF. Here three MS were presented, two of which were modified by amplifying 1/8 or 1/24 octave EFB width around the notch. We found that N1m responses were again significantly smaller in both amplified EFB conditions as compared to the NFN condition. To our knowledge, this is the first study demonstrating that the energy and width of the EFB around the notch modulate lateral inhibition in human secondary auditory cortical areas. Because it is assumed that chronic tinnitus is caused by a lack of lateral inhibition, these new insights could be used as a tool for further improvement of tinnitus treatments focusing on the lateral inhibition of neurons corresponding to the tinnitus frequency, such as the tailor-made notched music training. PMID:24349019

  20. Endocranial Morphology of the Primitive Nodosaurid Dinosaur Pawpawsaurus campbelli from the Early Cretaceous of North America

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    Paulina-Carabajal, Ariana; Lee, Yuong-Nam; Jacobs, Louis L.

    2016-01-01

    Background Ankylosaurs are one of the least explored clades of dinosaurs regarding endocranial anatomy, with few available descriptions of braincase anatomy and even less information on brain and inner ear morphologies. The main goal of this study is to provide a detailed description of the braincase and internal structures of the Early Cretaceous nodosaurid Pawpawsaurus campbelli, based on recently made CT scans. Methodology/Principal Findings The skull of Pawpawsaurus was CT scanned at University of Texas at Austin (UTCT). Three-dimensional models were constructed using Mimics 18.0 (Materialise). The digital data and further processed 3D models revealed inaccessible anatomic structures, allowing a detailed description of the lateral wall of the braincase (obscured by other bones in the articulated skull), and endocranial structures such as the cranial endocast, the most complete inner ear morphology for a nodosaurid, and the interpretation of the airflow system within the nasal cavities. Conslusions/Significance The new information on the endocranial morphology of Pawpawsaurus adds anatomical data to the poorly understand ankylosaur paleoneurology. The new set of data has potential use not only in taxonomy and phylogeny, but also in paleobiological interpretations based on the relative development of sense organs, such as olfaction, hearing and balance. PMID:27007950

  1. Leftward lateralization of auditory cortex underlies holistic sound perception in Williams syndrome.

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    Martina Wengenroth

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Individuals with the rare genetic disorder Williams-Beuren syndrome (WS are known for their characteristic auditory phenotype including strong affinity to music and sounds. In this work we attempted to pinpoint a neural substrate for the characteristic musicality in WS individuals by studying the structure-function relationship of their auditory cortex. Since WS subjects had only minor musical training due to psychomotor constraints we hypothesized that any changes compared to the control group would reflect the contribution of genetic factors to auditory processing and musicality. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Using psychoacoustics, magnetoencephalography and magnetic resonance imaging, we show that WS individuals exhibit extreme and almost exclusive holistic sound perception, which stands in marked contrast to the even distribution of this trait in the general population. Functionally, this was reflected by increased amplitudes of left auditory evoked fields. On the structural level, volume of the left auditory cortex was 2.2-fold increased in WS subjects as compared to control subjects. Equivalent volumes of the auditory cortex have been previously reported for professional musicians. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: There has been an ongoing debate in the neuroscience community as to whether increased gray matter of the auditory cortex in musicians is attributable to the amount of training or innate disposition. In this study musical education of WS subjects was negligible and control subjects were carefully matched for this parameter. Therefore our results not only unravel the neural substrate for this particular auditory phenotype, but in addition propose WS as a unique genetic model for training-independent auditory system properties.

  2. Disruption of Lateral Efferent Pathways: Functional Changes in Auditory Evoked Responses

    OpenAIRE

    Le Prell, Colleen G.; Shore, Susan E.; Hughes, Larry F.; Bledsoe, Sanford C.

    2003-01-01

    The functional consequences of selectively lesioning the lateral olivocochlear efferent system in guinea pigs were studied. The lateral superior olive (LSO) contains the cell bodies of lateral olivocochlear neurons. Melittin, a cytotoxic chemical, was injected into the brain stem using stereotaxic coordinates and near-field evoked potentials to target the LSO. Brain stem histology revealed discrete damage to the LSO following the injections. Functional consequences of this damage were reflect...

  3. Infant temperament and the brainstem auditory evoked response in later childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodward, S A; McManis, M H; Kagan, J; Deldin, P; Snidman, N; Lewis, M; Kahn, V

    2001-07-01

    Brainstem auditory evoked responses (BAERs) were evaluated on 10-12-year-old children (N = 56) who had been classified as high or low reactive to unfamiliar stimuli at 4 months of age. BAER measurement was selected because high reactive infants tend to become inhibited or fearful young children, and adult introverts have a faster latency to wave V of the BAER than do extroverts. Children previously classified as high reactive at 4 months had larger wave V components than did low reactive children, a finding that possibly suggests greater excitability in projections to the inferior colliculus. The fact that a fundamental feature of brainstem activity differentiated preadolescent children belonging to two early temperamental groups supports the value of gathering physiological data in temperament research. PMID:11444488

  4. Synaptic Plasticity and NO-cGMP-PKG Signaling Coordinately Regulate ERK-Driven Gene Expression in the Lateral Amygdala and in the Auditory Thalamus Following Pavlovian Fear Conditioning

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    Ota, Kristie T.; Monsey, Melissa S.; Wu, Melissa S.; Young, Grace J.; Schafe, Glenn E.

    2010-01-01

    We have recently hypothesized that NO-cGMP-PKG signaling in the lateral nucleus of the amygdala (LA) during auditory fear conditioning coordinately regulates ERK-driven transcriptional changes in both auditory thalamic (MGm/PIN) and LA neurons that serve to promote pre- and postsynaptic alterations at thalamo-LA synapses, respectively. In the…

  5. Adapting to alcohol: Dwarf hamster (Phodopus campbelli) ethanol consumption, sensitivity, and hoard fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lupfer, Gwen; Murphy, Eric S; Merculieff, Zoe; Radcliffe, Kori; Duddleston, Khrystyne N

    2015-06-01

    Ethanol consumption and sensitivity in many species are influenced by the frequency with which ethanol is encountered in their niches. In Experiment 1, dwarf hamsters (Phodopus campbelli) with ad libitum access to food and water consumed high amounts of unsweetened alcohol solutions. Their consumption of 15%, but not 30%, ethanol was reduced when they were fed a high-fat diet; a high carbohydrate diet did not affect ethanol consumption. In Experiment 2, intraperitoneal injections of ethanol caused significant dose-related motor impairment. Much larger doses administered orally, however, had no effect. In Experiment 3, ryegrass seeds, a common food source for wild dwarf hamsters, supported ethanol fermentation. Results of these experiments suggest that dwarf hamsters may have adapted to consume foods in which ethanol production naturally occurs. PMID:25712038

  6. Manual laterality for pointing gestures compared to grasping actions in guenons and mangabeys

    OpenAIRE

    Maille, Audrey; Chapelain, Amandine; Déruti, Laure; Bec, Philippe; Blois-Heulin, Catherine

    2013-01-01

    In both humans and apes, the production of communicative gestures appears to be controlled by cerebral structures in the left hemisphere that would be distinct from those involved in noncommunicative actions. Whether communicative gestures also rely on specific lateralized systems in monkeys remains unclear. We assessed manual laterality for requesting gestures, i.e. pointing, and for grasping actions in two species of Old World monkeys, Campbell's monkeys, Cercopithecus campbelli, and red-ca...

  7. Polyspecific associations of Cercopithecus campbelli and C. petaurista with C. diana: what are the costs and benefits?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buzzard, Paul J

    2010-10-01

    Polyspecific associations (PSA) are common in many African primate communities, including the diurnal primates at Taï Forest, Côte d'Ivoire. In this paper I use data on the PSA of two forest guenons, Campbell's (Cercopithecus campbelli) and lesser spot-nosed monkeys (C. petaurista), with Diana monkeys (C. diana) and other primates to clarify interspecific relationships during 17 months including a 3-month low-fruit period. I analyzed association in relation to fruit availability and measured forest strata use for C. campbelli and C. petaurista when alone and in associations with and without C. diana. I also measured predator risk and reactions to potential predators. C. campbelli and C. petaurista had high association rates with C. diana monkeys, and fruit availability did not influence association rates. C. campbelli and C. petaurista used higher strata when in association with C. diana than when alone, but they used even higher strata when associated with other primates without C. diana. This suggested that C. diana competitively exclude C. campbelli and C. petaurista from higher strata. There were relatively large numbers of potential predators, and C. diana were usually the first callers to threatening stimuli, suggesting that antipredator benefits of association with C. diana outweighed the competitive costs. C. campbelli spent more time in association with C. diana than C. petaurista did and appeared to be more reliant on C. diana for antipredator benefits. C. petaurista were less reliant on C. diana because of a cryptic strategy and may have associated less in some months because of high chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes) presence. PMID:20535628

  8. Laterality of pain in migraine distinguished by interictal rates of habituation of electrodermal responses to visual and auditory stimuli.

    OpenAIRE

    Gruzelier, J. H.; Nicolaou, T; Connolly, J. F.; Peatfield, R. C.; Davies, P T; Clifford-Rose, F

    1987-01-01

    Support is provided for a primary neural factor in migraine by studies in autonomic responsiveness to sensory stimuli in relation to the laterality of pain. Migraineurs with consistently lateralised headaches were found in two studies to exhibit extremes of autonomic responsiveness to sensory stimuli during the interictal phase. The direction of responsiveness was predictive of the laterality of pain; left-sided pain was associated with under-responsiveness and fast habituation, right-sided p...

  9. Auditory Processing Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auditory Processing Disorders Auditory processing disorders (APDs) are referred to by many names: central auditory processing disorders , auditory perceptual disorders , and central auditory disorders . APDs ...

  10. Auditory Display

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    volume. The conference's topics include auditory exploration of data via sonification and audification; real time monitoring of multivariate date; sound in immersive interfaces and teleoperation; perceptual issues in auditory display; sound in generalized computer interfaces; technologies supporting...

  11. Auditory agnosia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slevc, L Robert; Shell, Alison R

    2015-01-01

    Auditory agnosia refers to impairments in sound perception and identification despite intact hearing, cognitive functioning, and language abilities (reading, writing, and speaking). Auditory agnosia can be general, affecting all types of sound perception, or can be (relatively) specific to a particular domain. Verbal auditory agnosia (also known as (pure) word deafness) refers to deficits specific to speech processing, environmental sound agnosia refers to difficulties confined to non-speech environmental sounds, and amusia refers to deficits confined to music. These deficits can be apperceptive, affecting basic perceptual processes, or associative, affecting the relation of a perceived auditory object to its meaning. This chapter discusses what is known about the behavioral symptoms and lesion correlates of these different types of auditory agnosia (focusing especially on verbal auditory agnosia), evidence for the role of a rapid temporal processing deficit in some aspects of auditory agnosia, and the few attempts to treat the perceptual deficits associated with auditory agnosia. A clear picture of auditory agnosia has been slow to emerge, hampered by the considerable heterogeneity in behavioral deficits, associated brain damage, and variable assessments across cases. Despite this lack of clarity, these striking deficits in complex sound processing continue to inform our understanding of auditory perception and cognition. PMID:25726291

  12. [Testosterone and Induced Humoral Immunity in Male Campbell Dwarf Hamsters (Phodopus campbelli, Thomas, 1905, Rodentia, Cricetidae): Experimental Manipulation of Testosterone Levels].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasilieva, N Yu; Khrushchova, A M; Shekarova, N; Rogovin, K A

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we report the results of testosterone manipulation in the blood of male Campbell dwarf hamsters Phodopus campbelli Thomas, 1905 through castration, followed by testosterone treatment. Under these conditions, we studied antibody production rates in response to injection with sheep red blood cells (SRBC). It was shown that castration induced a dramatic decrease in blood testosterone but had no effect on the humoral response to SRBC. Males that received a testosterone compound with a long-lasting action (omnadren) exhibited a poor response to SRBC following re-exposure in the context of elevated testosterone compared to castrated males inoculated with an oil base of the drug. PMID:26349233

  13. Auditory Neuropathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... field differ in their opinions about the potential benefits of hearing aids, cochlear implants, and other technologies for people with auditory neuropathy. Some professionals report that hearing aids and personal listening devices such as frequency modulation (FM) systems are ...

  14. Hypermnesia using auditory input.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, J

    1992-07-01

    The author investigated whether hypermnesia would occur with auditory input. In addition, the author examined the effects of subjects' knowledge that they would later be asked to recall the stimuli. Two groups of 26 subjects each were given three successive recall trials after they listened to an audiotape of 59 high-imagery nouns. The subjects in the uninformed group were not told that they would later be asked to remember the words; those in the informed group were. Hypermnesia was evident, but only in the uninformed group. PMID:1447564

  15. Behavioral responses of predator-naïve dwarf hamsters (Phodopus campbelli) to odor cues of the European ferret fed with different prey species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apfelbach, Raimund; Soini, Helena A; Vasilieva, Nina Y; Novotny, Milos V

    2015-07-01

    Many mammalian predators are able to identify their prey by odors and, vice versa, numerous prey species recognize predator odors as well. The present paper reports on the behavioral responses of predator-naïve dwarf hamsters (Phodopus campbelli) towards the urine odors of carnivorous ferrets, which were raised on either a chicken, mouse or hamster diet. Chemical composition from ferret urines of the different diet groups was analyzed, while quantitative differences in urinary volatile constituents were observed through capillary gas chromatography–mass spectrometry. In a Y-maze arrangement, hamsters were offered several two-choice odor discrimination tasks and their behavior was quantified. Hamsters were easily able to discriminate the urine odor of ferrets fed with mice against ferrets fed with hamsters. This is probably the first report indicating that a prey species can distinguish urine odors of even an unknown predator species that has been fed different prey species. The analytical data complemented behavioral assays. PMID:26066723

  16. Seeing the song: left auditory structures may track auditory-visual dynamic alignment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia A Mossbridge

    Full Text Available Auditory and visual signals generated by a single source tend to be temporally correlated, such as the synchronous sounds of footsteps and the limb movements of a walker. Continuous tracking and comparison of the dynamics of auditory-visual streams is thus useful for the perceptual binding of information arising from a common source. Although language-related mechanisms have been implicated in the tracking of speech-related auditory-visual signals (e.g., speech sounds and lip movements, it is not well known what sensory mechanisms generally track ongoing auditory-visual synchrony for non-speech signals in a complex auditory-visual environment. To begin to address this question, we used music and visual displays that varied in the dynamics of multiple features (e.g., auditory loudness and pitch; visual luminance, color, size, motion, and organization across multiple time scales. Auditory activity (monitored using auditory steady-state responses, ASSR was selectively reduced in the left hemisphere when the music and dynamic visual displays were temporally misaligned. Importantly, ASSR was not affected when attentional engagement with the music was reduced, or when visual displays presented dynamics clearly dissimilar to the music. These results appear to suggest that left-lateralized auditory mechanisms are sensitive to auditory-visual temporal alignment, but perhaps only when the dynamics of auditory and visual streams are similar. These mechanisms may contribute to correct auditory-visual binding in a busy sensory environment.

  17. Seeing the song: left auditory structures may track auditory-visual dynamic alignment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mossbridge, Julia A; Grabowecky, Marcia; Suzuki, Satoru

    2013-01-01

    Auditory and visual signals generated by a single source tend to be temporally correlated, such as the synchronous sounds of footsteps and the limb movements of a walker. Continuous tracking and comparison of the dynamics of auditory-visual streams is thus useful for the perceptual binding of information arising from a common source. Although language-related mechanisms have been implicated in the tracking of speech-related auditory-visual signals (e.g., speech sounds and lip movements), it is not well known what sensory mechanisms generally track ongoing auditory-visual synchrony for non-speech signals in a complex auditory-visual environment. To begin to address this question, we used music and visual displays that varied in the dynamics of multiple features (e.g., auditory loudness and pitch; visual luminance, color, size, motion, and organization) across multiple time scales. Auditory activity (monitored using auditory steady-state responses, ASSR) was selectively reduced in the left hemisphere when the music and dynamic visual displays were temporally misaligned. Importantly, ASSR was not affected when attentional engagement with the music was reduced, or when visual displays presented dynamics clearly dissimilar to the music. These results appear to suggest that left-lateralized auditory mechanisms are sensitive to auditory-visual temporal alignment, but perhaps only when the dynamics of auditory and visual streams are similar. These mechanisms may contribute to correct auditory-visual binding in a busy sensory environment. PMID:24194873

  18. Extinction, applied after retrieval of auditory fear memory, selectively increases zinc-finger protein 268 and phosphorylated ribosomal protein S6 expression in prefrontal cortex and lateral amygdala.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tedesco, Vincenzo; Roquet, Rheall F; DeMis, John; Chiamulera, Cristiano; Monfils, Marie-H

    2014-11-01

    Retrieval of consolidated memories induces a labile phase during which memory can be disrupted or updated through a reconsolidation process. A central component of behavioral updating during reconsolidation using a retrieval-extinction manipulation (Ret+Ext) is the synaptic removal of a calcium-permeable-α-amino-3-hydroxyl-5-methyl-4-isoxazole-propionate receptor (CP-AMPARs) in the lateral amygdala-a metabotropic GluR1 receptor (mGluR1) dependent mechanism. In the present study, we investigate the effect of Ret+Ext on the expression of molecular markers that could play a role in the reconsolidation process. Specifically, we tested the effects of Ret+Ext on the global expression of zinc-finger 268 protein (Zif268), a marker previously found to be implicated in memory reconsolidation, to confirm its occurrence after retrieval (Ret) and Ret+Ext. We also evaluated the global expression of phosphorylated ribosomal protein S6 (rpS6P), here proposed as a marker of the mGluR1-mediated memory process induced by Ret+Ext. The expression of both markers (zif268, rpS6P) was assessed by immunolocalization in prelimbic cortex (PRL), infralimbic cortex (IL), ventral subdivision of the lateral amygdala (LA) and hippocampus CA1 (CA1) in fear-conditioned rats. Our results showed that retrieval and Ret+Ext, but not extinction alone, increased Zif268 expression in prefrontal cortex and lateral amygdala. Ret+Ext, but not retrieval, retrieval followed by context exposure or extinction alone, increased the expression of rpS6P in prefrontal cortex and LA. In summary, (i) Zif268 increased after retrieval confirming that reconsolidation is engaged in our conditions, (ii) Zif268 increased after Ret+Ext confirming that it does not simply reflect an extinction or reconsolidation disruption (Zif268 level of expression should be lower in both cases) and (iii) rpS6P increased after Ret+Ext, but not after extinction, suggesting, as expected, a potential mGluR1 mediated molecular mechanism specific

  19. The Impact of Maternal Smoking on Fast Auditory Brainstem Responses

    OpenAIRE

    Kable, Julie A.; Coles, Claire D.; Lynch, Mary Ellen; Carroll, Julie

    2009-01-01

    Deficits in auditory processing have been posited as one of the underlying neurodevelopmental consequences of maternal smoking during pregnancy that leads to later language and reading deficits. Fast auditory brainstem responses were used to assess differences in the sensory processing of auditory stimuli among infants with varying degrees of prenatal cigarette exposure. Maternal report of consumption of cigarettes and blood samples were collected in the hospital to assess exposure levels and...

  20. Electrophysiological correlates of auditory change detection and change deafness in complex auditory scenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puschmann, Sebastian; Sandmann, Pascale; Ahrens, Janina; Thorne, Jeremy; Weerda, Riklef; Klump, Georg; Debener, Stefan; Thiel, Christiane M

    2013-07-15

    Change deafness describes the failure to perceive even intense changes within complex auditory input, if the listener does not attend to the changing sound. Remarkably, previous psychophysical data provide evidence that this effect occurs independently of successful stimulus encoding, indicating that undetected changes are processed to some extent in auditory cortex. Here we investigated cortical representations of detected and undetected auditory changes using electroencephalographic (EEG) recordings and a change deafness paradigm. We applied a one-shot change detection task, in which participants listened successively to three complex auditory scenes, each of them consisting of six simultaneously presented auditory streams. Listeners had to decide whether all scenes were identical or whether the pitch of one stream was changed between the last two presentations. Our data show significantly increased middle-latency Nb responses for both detected and undetected changes as compared to no-change trials. In contrast, only successfully detected changes were associated with a later mismatch response in auditory cortex, followed by increased N2, P3a and P3b responses, originating from hierarchically higher non-sensory brain regions. These results strengthen the view that undetected changes are successfully encoded at sensory level in auditory cortex, but fail to trigger later change-related cortical responses that lead to conscious perception of change. PMID:23466938

  1. Auditory imagery: empirical findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubbard, Timothy L

    2010-03-01

    The empirical literature on auditory imagery is reviewed. Data on (a) imagery for auditory features (pitch, timbre, loudness), (b) imagery for complex nonverbal auditory stimuli (musical contour, melody, harmony, tempo, notational audiation, environmental sounds), (c) imagery for verbal stimuli (speech, text, in dreams, interior monologue), (d) auditory imagery's relationship to perception and memory (detection, encoding, recall, mnemonic properties, phonological loop), and (e) individual differences in auditory imagery (in vividness, musical ability and experience, synesthesia, musical hallucinosis, schizophrenia, amusia) are considered. It is concluded that auditory imagery (a) preserves many structural and temporal properties of auditory stimuli, (b) can facilitate auditory discrimination but interfere with auditory detection, (c) involves many of the same brain areas as auditory perception, (d) is often but not necessarily influenced by subvocalization, (e) involves semantically interpreted information and expectancies, (f) involves depictive components and descriptive components, (g) can function as a mnemonic but is distinct from rehearsal, and (h) is related to musical ability and experience (although the mechanisms of that relationship are not clear). PMID:20192565

  2. Lateral Asymmetries in Human Evolution

    OpenAIRE

    John L. Bradshaw; Nettleton, Norman C.

    1989-01-01

    Lateral asymmetries are not confined to humans. Palaeozoic trilobites and calcichordates are now known to have been asymmetrical; song control in passerines is vested in the left cerebral hemisphere; learning which is lateralized to the left forebrain of chicks includes imprinting, visual discrimination learning and auditory habituation, while responses to novelty, attack and copulation are activated by the right; in rats the right hemisphere is involved in emotional behavior and spatial disc...

  3. Cooperative dynamics in auditory brain response

    CERN Document Server

    Kwapien, J; Liu, L C; Ioannides, A A

    1998-01-01

    Simultaneous estimates of the activity in the left and right auditory cortex of five normal human subjects were extracted from Multichannel Magnetoencephalography recordings. Left, right and binaural stimulation were used, in separate runs, for each subject. The resulting time-series of left and right auditory cortex activity were analysed using the concept of mutual information. The analysis constitutes an objective method to address the nature of inter-hemispheric correlations in response to auditory stimulations. The results provide a clear evidence for the occurrence of such correlations mediated by a direct information transport, with clear laterality effects: as a rule, the contralateral hemisphere leads by 10-20ms, as can be seen in the average signal. The strength of the inter-hemispheric coupling, which cannot be extracted from the average data, is found to be highly variable from subject to subject, but remarkably stable for each subject.

  4. Specialized prefrontal “auditory fields”: organization of primate prefrontal-temporal pathways

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MariaMedalla

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available No other modality is more frequently represented in the prefrontal cortex than the auditory, but the role of auditory information in prefrontal functions is not well understood. Pathways from auditory association cortices reach distinct sites in the lateral, orbital, and medial surfaces of the prefrontal cortex in rhesus monkeys. Among prefrontal areas, frontopolar area 10 has the densest interconnections with auditory association areas, spanning a large antero-posterior extent of the superior temporal gyrus from the temporal pole to auditory parabelt and belt regions. Moreover, auditory pathways make up the largest component of the extrinsic connections of area 10, suggesting a special relationship with the auditory modality. Here we review anatomic evidence showing that frontopolar area 10 is indeed the main frontal “auditory field” as the major recipient of auditory input in the frontal lobe and chief source of output to auditory cortices. Area 10 is thought to be the functional node for the most complex cognitive tasks of multitasking and keeping track of information for future decisions. These patterns suggest that the auditory association links of area 10 are critical for complex cognition. The first part of this review focuses on the organization of prefrontal-auditory pathways at the level of the system and the synapse, with a particular emphasis on area 10. Then we explore ideas on how the elusive role of area 10 in complex cognition may be related to the specialized relationship with auditory association cortices.

  5. Auditory-motor learning influences auditory memory for music.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Rachel M; Palmer, Caroline

    2012-05-01

    In two experiments, we investigated how auditory-motor learning influences performers' memory for music. Skilled pianists learned novel melodies in four conditions: auditory only (listening), motor only (performing without sound), strongly coupled auditory-motor (normal performance), and weakly coupled auditory-motor (performing along with auditory recordings). Pianists' recognition of the learned melodies was better following auditory-only or auditory-motor (weakly coupled and strongly coupled) learning than following motor-only learning, and better following strongly coupled auditory-motor learning than following auditory-only learning. Auditory and motor imagery abilities modulated the learning effects: Pianists with high auditory imagery scores had better recognition following motor-only learning, suggesting that auditory imagery compensated for missing auditory feedback at the learning stage. Experiment 2 replicated the findings of Experiment 1 with melodies that contained greater variation in acoustic features. Melodies that were slower and less variable in tempo and intensity were remembered better following weakly coupled auditory-motor learning. These findings suggest that motor learning can aid performers' auditory recognition of music beyond auditory learning alone, and that motor learning is influenced by individual abilities in mental imagery and by variation in acoustic features. PMID:22271265

  6. Biological impact of auditory expertise across the life span: musicians as a model of auditory learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strait, Dana L; Kraus, Nina

    2014-02-01

    Experience-dependent characteristics of auditory function, especially with regard to speech-evoked auditory neurophysiology, have garnered increasing attention in recent years. This interest stems from both pragmatic and theoretical concerns as it bears implications for the prevention and remediation of language-based learning impairment in addition to providing insight into mechanisms engendering experience-dependent changes in human sensory function. Musicians provide an attractive model for studying the experience-dependency of auditory processing in humans due to their distinctive neural enhancements compared to nonmusicians. We have only recently begun to address whether these enhancements are observable early in life, during the initial years of music training when the auditory system is under rapid development, as well as later in life, after the onset of the aging process. Here we review neural enhancements in musically trained individuals across the life span in the context of cellular mechanisms that underlie learning, identified in animal models. Musicians' subcortical physiologic enhancements are interpreted according to a cognitive framework for auditory learning, providing a model in which to study mechanisms of experience-dependent changes in human auditory function. PMID:23988583

  7. Auditory Integration Training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Jafari

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available Auditory integration training (AIT is a hearing enhancement training process for sensory input anomalies found in individuals with autism, attention deficit hyperactive disorder, dyslexia, hyperactivity, learning disability, language impairments, pervasive developmental disorder, central auditory processing disorder, attention deficit disorder, depressin, and hyperacute hearing. AIT, recently introduced in the United States, and has received much notice of late following the release of The Sound of a Moracle, by Annabel Stehli. In her book, Mrs. Stehli describes before and after auditory integration training experiences with her daughter, who was diagnosed at age four as having autism.

  8. Auditory intensity processing: Effect of MRI background noise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angenstein, Nicole; Stadler, Jörg; Brechmann, André

    2016-03-01

    Studies on active auditory intensity discrimination in humans showed equivocal results regarding the lateralization of processing. Whereas experiments with a moderate background found evidence for right lateralized processing of intensity, functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies with background scanner noise suggest more left lateralized processing. With the present fMRI study, we compared the task dependent lateralization of intensity processing between a conventional continuous echo planar imaging (EPI) sequence with a loud background scanner noise and a fast low-angle shot (FLASH) sequence with a soft background scanner noise. To determine the lateralization of the processing, we employed the contralateral noise procedure. Linearly frequency modulated (FM) tones were presented monaurally with and without contralateral noise. During both the EPI and the FLASH measurement, the left auditory cortex was more strongly involved than the right auditory cortex while participants categorized the intensity of FM tones. This was shown by a strong effect of the additional contralateral noise on the activity in the left auditory cortex. This means a massive reduction in background scanner noise still leads to a significant left lateralized effect. This suggests that the reversed lateralization in fMRI studies with loud background noise in contrast to studies with softer background cannot be fully explained by the MRI background noise. PMID:26778471

  9. Overriding auditory attentional capture

    OpenAIRE

    Dalton, Polly; Lavie, Nilli

    2007-01-01

    Attentional capture by color singletons during shape search can be eliminated when the target is not a feature singleton (Bacon & Egeth, 1994). This suggests that a "singleton detection" search strategy must be adopted for attentional capture to occur. Here we find similar effects on auditory attentional capture. Irrelevant high-intensity singletons interfered with an auditory search task when the target itself was also a feature singleton. However, singleton interference was eliminated when ...

  10. [Central auditory prosthesis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenarz, T; Lim, H; Joseph, G; Reuter, G; Lenarz, M

    2009-06-01

    Deaf patients with severe sensory hearing loss can benefit from a cochlear implant (CI), which stimulates the auditory nerve fibers. However, patients who do not have an intact auditory nerve cannot benefit from a CI. The majority of these patients are neurofibromatosis type 2 (NF2) patients who developed neural deafness due to growth or surgical removal of a bilateral acoustic neuroma. The only current solution is the auditory brainstem implant (ABI), which stimulates the surface of the cochlear nucleus in the brainstem. Although the ABI provides improvement in environmental awareness and lip-reading capabilities, only a few NF2 patients have achieved some limited open set speech perception. In the search for alternative procedures our research group in collaboration with Cochlear Ltd. (Australia) developed a human prototype auditory midbrain implant (AMI), which is designed to electrically stimulate the inferior colliculus (IC). The IC has the potential as a new target for an auditory prosthesis as it provides access to neural projections necessary for speech perception as well as a systematic map of spectral information. In this paper the present status of research and development in the field of central auditory prostheses is presented with respect to technology, surgical technique and hearing results as well as the background concepts of ABI and AMI. PMID:19517084

  11. Auditory feedback and memory for music performance: sound evidence for an encoding effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finney, Steven A; Palmer, Caroline

    2003-01-01

    Research on the effects of context and task on learning and memory has included approaches that emphasize processes during learning (e.g., Craik & Tulving, 1975) and approaches that emphasize a match of conditions during learning with conditions during a later test of memory (e.g., Morris, Bransford, & Franks, 1977; Proteau, 1992; Tulving & Thomson, 1973). We investigated the effects of auditory context on learning and retrieval in three experiments on memorized music performance (a form of serial recall). Auditory feedback (presence or absence) was manipulated while pianists learned musical pieces from notation and when they later played the pieces from memory. Auditory feedback during learning significantly improved later recall. However, auditory feedback at test did not significantly affect recall, nor was there an interaction between conditions at learning and test. Auditory feedback in music performance appears to be a contextual factor that affects learning but is relatively independent of retrieval conditions. PMID:12699143

  12. [Auditory hallucinations in lesions of the brain stem].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cambier, J; Decroix, J P; Masson, C

    1987-01-01

    Since the publication by Jean Lhermitte in 1922 of his paper on hallucinosis, the peduncular type has been described as a purely visual phenomenon. However, limited brain stem lesions can give rise to analogous manifestations in the auditory field. Five cases of auditory hallucinosis are reviewed, the first four resulting from a lesion of tegmentum of pons responsible for contralateral hemi-anesthesia and homolateral facial palsy with paralysis of laterality. Central type hypoacusis and a severe disorder of localization of sounds revealed a lesion of trapezoid body. The fifth case resulted from a peduncular lesion in region supplied by superior cerebellar artery, the auditory deficit being related to a lesion of inferior corpus quadrigeminum. In one patient, the auditory hallucinosis was followed by a period of visual hallucinations and oneiric delusions. Both auditory and visual hallucinosis can be related to hypnagogic hallucinations. Dream mechanisms (the geniculo-occipital spikes system) escape from normal inhibitory control exerted by the raphe nuclei. Auditory deafferentation could predispose to auditory hallucinosis. PMID:3629075

  13. How Do Batters Use Visual, Auditory, and Tactile Information about the Success of a Baseball Swing?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Rob

    2009-01-01

    Bat/ball contact produces visual (the ball leaving the bat), auditory (the "crack" of the bat), and tactile (bat vibration) feedback about the success of the swing. We used a batting simulation to investigate how college baseball players use visual, tactile, and auditory feedback. In Experiment 1, swing accuracy (i.e., the lateral separation…

  14. Overriding auditory attentional capture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalton, Polly; Lavie, Nilli

    2007-02-01

    Attentional capture by color singletons during shape search can be eliminated when the target is not a feature singleton (Bacon & Egeth, 1994). This suggests that a "singleton detection" search strategy must be adopted for attentional capture to occur. Here we find similar effects on auditory attentional capture. Irrelevant high-intensity singletons interfered with an auditory search task when the target itself was also a feature singleton. However, singleton interference was eliminated when the target was not a singleton (i.e., when nontargets were made heterogeneous, or when more than one target sound was presented). These results suggest that auditory attentional capture depends on the observer's attentional set, as does visual attentional capture. The suggestion that hearing might act as an early warning system that would always be tuned to unexpected unique stimuli must therefore be modified to accommodate these strategy-dependent capture effects. PMID:17557587

  15. Auditory and Visual Sensations

    CERN Document Server

    Ando, Yoichi

    2010-01-01

    Professor Yoichi Ando, acoustic architectural designer of the Kirishima International Concert Hall in Japan, presents a comprehensive rational-scientific approach to designing performance spaces. His theory is based on systematic psychoacoustical observations of spatial hearing and listener preferences, whose neuronal correlates are observed in the neurophysiology of the human brain. A correlation-based model of neuronal signal processing in the central auditory system is proposed in which temporal sensations (pitch, timbre, loudness, duration) are represented by an internal autocorrelation representation, and spatial sensations (sound location, size, diffuseness related to envelopment) are represented by an internal interaural crosscorrelation function. Together these two internal central auditory representations account for the basic auditory qualities that are relevant for listening to music and speech in indoor performance spaces. Observed psychological and neurophysiological commonalities between auditor...

  16. Concentric scheme of monkey auditory cortex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosaki, Hiroko; Saunders, Richard C.; Mishkin, Mortimer

    2003-04-01

    The cytoarchitecture of the rhesus monkey's auditory cortex was examined using immunocytochemical staining with parvalbumin, calbindin-D28K, and SMI32, as well as staining for cytochrome oxidase (CO). The results suggest that Kaas and Hackett's scheme of the auditory cortices can be extended to include five concentric rings surrounding an inner core. The inner core, containing areas A1 and R, is the most densely stained with parvalbumin and CO and can be separated on the basis of laminar patterns of SMI32 staining into lateral and medial subdivisions. From the inner core to the fifth (outermost) ring, parvalbumin staining gradually decreases and calbindin staining gradually increases. The first ring corresponds to Kaas and Hackett's auditory belt, and the second, to their parabelt. SMI32 staining revealed a clear border between these two. Rings 2 through 5 extend laterally into the dorsal bank of the superior temporal sulcus. The results also suggest that the rostral tip of the outermost ring adjoins the rostroventral part of the insula (area Pro) and the temporal pole, while the caudal tip adjoins the ventral part of area 7a.

  17. Resizing Auditory Communities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kreutzfeldt, Jacob

    2012-01-01

    Heard through the ears of the Canadian composer and music teacher R. Murray Schafer the ideal auditory community had the shape of a village. Schafer’s work with the World Soundscape Project in the 70s represent an attempt to interpret contemporary environments through musical and auditory...... of sound as an active component in shaping urban environments. As urban conditions spreads globally, new scales, shapes and forms of communities appear and call for new distinctions and models in the study and representation of sonic environments. Particularly so, since urban environments...

  18. Association between language development and auditory processing disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline Nunes Rocha-Muniz

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: It is crucial to understand the complex processing of acoustic stimuli along the auditory pathway ;comprehension of this complex processing can facilitate our understanding of the processes that underlie normal and altered human communication. AIM: To investigate the performance and lateralization effects on auditory processing assessment in children with specific language impairment (SLI, relating these findings to those obtained in children with auditory processing disorder (APD and typical development (TD. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Prospective study. Seventy-five children, aged 6-12 years, were separated in three groups: 25 children with SLI, 25 children with APD, and 25 children with TD. All went through the following tests: speech-in-noise test, Dichotic Digit test and Pitch Pattern Sequencing test. RESULTS: The effects of lateralization were observed only in the SLI group, with the left ear presenting much lower scores than those presented to the right ear. The inter-group analysis has shown that in all tests children from APD and SLI groups had significantly poorer performance compared to TD group. Moreover, SLI group presented worse results than APD group. CONCLUSION: This study has shown, in children with SLI, an inefficient processing of essential sound components and an effect of lateralization. These findings may indicate that neural processes (required for auditory processing are different between auditory processing and speech disorders.

  19. Auditory-model-based Feature Extraction Method for Mechanical Faults Diagnosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Yungong; ZHANG Jinping; DAI Li; ZHANG Zhanyi; LIU Jie

    2010-01-01

    It is well known that the human auditory system possesses remarkable capabilities to analyze and identify signals. Therefore, it would be significant to build an auditory model based on the mechanism of human auditory systems, which may improve the effects of mechanical signal analysis and enrich the methods of mechanical faults features extraction. However the existing methods are all based on explicit senses of mathematics or physics, and have some shortages on distinguishing different faults, stability, and suppressing the disturbance noise, etc. For the purpose of improving the performances of the work of feature extraction, an auditory model, early auditory(EA) model, is introduced for the first time. This auditory model transforms time domain signal into auditory spectrum via bandpass filtering, nonlinear compressing, and lateral inhibiting by simulating the principle of the human auditory system. The EA model is developed with the Gammatone filterbank as the basilar membrane. According to the characteristics of vibration signals, a method is proposed for determining the parameter of inner hair cells model of EA model. The performance of EA model is evaluated through experiments on four rotor faults, including misalignment, rotor-to-stator rubbing, oil film whirl, and pedestal looseness. The results show that the auditory spectrum, output of EA model, can effectively distinguish different faults with satisfactory stability and has the ability to suppress the disturbance noise. Then, it is feasible to apply auditory model, as a new method, to the feature extraction for mechanical faults diagnosis with effect.

  20. Auditory Neuropathy: Findings of Behavioral, Physiological and Neurophysiological Tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Farhadi

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Auditory neuropathy (AN can be diagnosed by abnormal auditory brainstem response (ABR, in the presence of normal cochlear microphonic (CM and otoacoustic emissions (OAEs.The aim of this study was to investigate the ABR and other electrodiagnostic test results of 6 patients suspicious to AN with problems in speech recognition. Materials and Methods: this cross sectional study was conducted on 6 AN patients with different ages evaluated by pure tone audiometry, speech discrimination score (SDS , immittance audiometry. ElectroCochleoGraphy , ABR, middle latency response (MLR, Late latency response (LLR, and OAEs. Results: Behavioral pure tone audiometric tests showed moderate to profound hearing loss. SDS was so poor which is not in accordance with pure tone thresholds. All patients had normal tympanogram but absent acoustic reflexes. CMs and OAEs were within normal limits. There was no contra lateral suppression of OAEs. None of cases had normal ABR or MLR although LLR was recorded in 4. Conclusion: All patients in this study are typical cases of auditory neuropathy. Despite having abnormal input, LLR remains normal that indicates differences in auditory evoked potentials related to required neural synchrony. These findings show that auditory cortex may play a role in regulating presentation of deficient signals along auditory pathways in primary steps.

  1. Auditory Learning. Dimensions in Early Learning Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zigmond, Naomi K.; Cicci, Regina

    The monograph discusses the psycho-physiological operations for processing of auditory information, the structure and function of the ear, the development of auditory processes from fetal responses through discrimination, language comprehension, auditory memory, and auditory processes related to written language. Disorders of auditory learning…

  2. Visual–auditory spatial processing in auditory cortical neurons

    OpenAIRE

    Bizley, Jennifer K.; King, Andrew J

    2008-01-01

    Neurons responsive to visual stimulation have now been described in the auditory cortex of various species, but their functions are largely unknown. Here we investigate the auditory and visual spatial sensitivity of neurons recorded in 5 different primary and non-primary auditory cortical areas of the ferret. We quantified the spatial tuning of neurons by measuring the responses to stimuli presented across a range of azimuthal positions and calculating the mutual information (MI) between the ...

  3. The auditory characteristics of children with inner auditory canal stenosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ai, Yu; Xu, Lei; Li, Li; Li, Jianfeng; Luo, Jianfen; Wang, Mingming; Fan, Zhaomin; Wang, Haibo

    2016-07-01

    Conclusions This study shows that the prevalence of auditory neuropathy spectrum disorder (ANSD) in the children with inner auditory canal (IAC) stenosis is much higher than those without IAC stenosis, regardless of whether they have other inner ear anomalies. In addition, the auditory characteristics of ANSD with IAC stenosis are significantly different from those of ANSD without any middle and inner ear malformations. Objectives To describe the auditory characteristics in children with IAC stenosis as well as to examine whether the narrow inner auditory canal is associated with ANSD. Method A total of 21 children, with inner auditory canal stenosis, participated in this study. A series of auditory tests were measured. Meanwhile, a comparative study was conducted on the auditory characteristics of ANSD, based on whether the children were associated with isolated IAC stenosis. Results Wave V in the ABR was not observed in all the patients, while cochlear microphonic (CM) response was detected in 81.1% ears with stenotic IAC. Sixteen of 19 (84.2%) ears with isolated IAC stenosis had CM response present on auditory brainstem responses (ABR) waveforms. There was no significant difference in ANSD characteristics between the children with and without isolated IAC stenosis. PMID:26981851

  4. The auditory and non-auditory brain areas involved in tinnitus. An emergent property of multiple parallel overlapping subnetworks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanneste, Sven; De Ridder, Dirk

    2012-01-01

    Tinnitus is the perception of a sound in the absence of an external sound source. It is characterized by sensory components such as the perceived loudness, the lateralization, the tinnitus type (pure tone, noise-like) and associated emotional components, such as distress and mood changes. Source localization of quantitative electroencephalography (qEEG) data demonstrate the involvement of auditory brain areas as well as several non-auditory brain areas such as the anterior cingulate cortex (dorsal and subgenual), auditory cortex (primary and secondary), dorsal lateral prefrontal cortex, insula, supplementary motor area, orbitofrontal cortex (including the inferior frontal gyrus), parahippocampus, posterior cingulate cortex and the precuneus, in different aspects of tinnitus. Explaining these non-auditory brain areas as constituents of separable subnetworks, each reflecting a specific aspect of the tinnitus percept increases the explanatory power of the non-auditory brain areas involvement in tinnitus. Thus, the unified percept of tinnitus can be considered an emergent property of multiple parallel dynamically changing and partially overlapping subnetworks, each with a specific spontaneous oscillatory pattern and functional connectivity signature. PMID:22586375

  5. The auditory and non-auditory brain areas involved in tinnitus. An emergent property of multiple parallel overlapping subnetworks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sven Vanneste

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Tinnitus is the perception of a sound in the absence of an external sound source. It is characterized by sensory components such as the perceived loudness, the lateralization, the tinnitus type (pure tone, noise-like and associated emotional components, such as distress and mood changes. Source localization of qEEG data demonstrate the involvement of auditory brain areas as well as several non-auditory brain areas such as the anterior cingulate cortex (dorsal and subgenual, auditory cortex (primary and secondary, dorsal lateral prefrontal cortex, insula, supplementary motor area, orbitofrontal cortex (including the inferior frontal gyrus, parahippocampus, posterior cingulate cortex and the precuneus, in different aspects of tinnitus. Explaining these non-auditory brain areas as constituents of separable subnetworks, each reflecting a specific aspect of the tinnitus percept increases the explanatory power of the non-auditory brain areas involvement in tinnitus. Thus the unified percept of tinnitus can be considered an emergent property of multiple parallel dynamically changing and partially overlapping subnetworks, each with a specific spontaneous oscillatory pattern and functional connectivity signature.

  6. Auditory Discrimination and Auditory Sensory Behaviours in Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Catherine R. G.; Happe, Francesca; Baird, Gillian; Simonoff, Emily; Marsden, Anita J. S.; Tregay, Jenifer; Phillips, Rebecca J.; Goswami, Usha; Thomson, Jennifer M.; Charman, Tony

    2009-01-01

    It has been hypothesised that auditory processing may be enhanced in autism spectrum disorders (ASD). We tested auditory discrimination ability in 72 adolescents with ASD (39 childhood autism; 33 other ASD) and 57 IQ and age-matched controls, assessing their capacity for successful discrimination of the frequency, intensity and duration…

  7. Auditory and non-auditory effects of noise on health

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Basner, M.; Babisch, W.; Davis, A.; Brink, M.; Clark, C.; Janssen, S.A.; Stansfeld, S.

    2013-01-01

    Noise is pervasive in everyday life and can cause both auditory and non-auditory health eff ects. Noise-induced hearing loss remains highly prevalent in occupational settings, and is increasingly caused by social noise exposure (eg, through personal music players). Our understanding of molecular mec

  8. Robust speech features representation based on computational auditory model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LU Xugang; JIA Chuan; DANG Jianwu

    2004-01-01

    A speech signal processing and features extracting method based on computational auditory model is proposed. The computational model is based on psychological, physiological knowledge and digital signal processing methods. In each stage of a hearing perception system, there is a corresponding computational model to simulate its function. Based on this model, speech features are extracted. In each stage, the features in different kinds of level are extracted. A further processing for primary auditory spectrum based on lateral inhibition is proposed to extract much more robust speech features. All these features can be regarded as the internal representations of speech stimulation in hearing system. The robust speech recognition experiments are conducted to test the robustness of the features. Results show that the representations based on the proposed computational auditory model are robust representations for speech signals.

  9. Partial Epilepsy with Auditory Features

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Gordon Millichap

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available The clinical characteristics of 53 sporadic (S cases of idiopathic partial epilepsy with auditory features (IPEAF were analyzed and compared to previously reported familial (F cases of autosomal dominant partial epilepsy with auditory features (ADPEAF in a study at the University of Bologna, Italy.

  10. The Perception of Auditory Motion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlile, Simon; Leung, Johahn

    2016-01-01

    The growing availability of efficient and relatively inexpensive virtual auditory display technology has provided new research platforms to explore the perception of auditory motion. At the same time, deployment of these technologies in command and control as well as in entertainment roles is generating an increasing need to better understand the complex processes underlying auditory motion perception. This is a particularly challenging processing feat because it involves the rapid deconvolution of the relative change in the locations of sound sources produced by rotational and translations of the head in space (self-motion) to enable the perception of actual source motion. The fact that we perceive our auditory world to be stable despite almost continual movement of the head demonstrates the efficiency and effectiveness of this process. This review examines the acoustical basis of auditory motion perception and a wide range of psychophysical, electrophysiological, and cortical imaging studies that have probed the limits and possible mechanisms underlying this perception. PMID:27094029

  11. Pitch-induced responses in the right auditory cortex correlate with musical ability in normal listeners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puschmann, Sebastian; Özyurt, Jale; Uppenkamp, Stefan; Thiel, Christiane M

    2013-10-23

    Previous work compellingly shows the existence of functional and structural differences in human auditory cortex related to superior musical abilities observed in professional musicians. In this study, we investigated the relationship between musical abilities and auditory cortex activity in normal listeners who had not received a professional musical education. We used functional MRI to measure auditory cortex responses related to auditory stimulation per se and the processing of pitch and pitch changes, which represents a prerequisite for the perception of musical sequences. Pitch-evoked responses in the right lateral portion of Heschl's gyrus were correlated positively with the listeners' musical abilities, which were assessed using a musical aptitude test. In contrast, no significant relationship was found for noise stimuli, lacking any musical information, and for responses induced by pitch changes. Our results suggest that superior musical abilities in normal listeners are reflected by enhanced neural encoding of pitch information in the auditory system. PMID:23995293

  12. Changes of brainstem-auditory evoked potential in rat model with brain injury by lateral head rotation%大鼠头颅侧向旋转脑损伤模型脑干听觉诱发电位的变化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贺晓生; 章翔; 费舟

    2007-01-01

    目的 探讨头颅侧向旋转致脑损伤大鼠模型脑干听觉诱发电位(BAEP)的变化及机制.方法 成年大鼠20只,制作头颅瞬间侧向旋转脑损伤模型,测量头颅旋转前及旋转后6 h的BAEP,测量电极置于颅顶左侧C2点,左耳予短暂click声刺激,右耳持续予噪声掩蔽,经1 000次叠加平均,记录BAEP各波形的潜伏期、波间期和波幅值.结果 大鼠头颅旋转后6 h和Ⅴ波潜伏期、Ⅰ~Ⅲ和Ⅲ~Ⅴ波波间期明显较旋转前延长,Ⅰ和Ⅴ波波幅较旋转前明显降低,而旋转前后Ⅰ波潜伏期、Ⅰ~Ⅴ波波间期以及Ⅰ波波幅无显著差异.结论 头颅瞬间侧向旋转可引起BAEP异常,此与脑干内特殊传导通路的破坏有关,其结构基础为脑干广泛神经轴索损伤.%Objective To study the change and mechanism of brainstem-auditory evoked potential (BAEP) in rat model with brain injury by lateral head rotation. Methods The model of brain injury by lateral head rotation was produced with 20 adult rats. The rats'BAEP was measured before rotation and at 6 h after rotation. The test electrode was placed at the left C2 on the head. The short click sound was given to the left ear and continual sheltering was sent to the right ear. One thousand test results were added and then averaged. The latent period, wave-to-wave interval and amplitude of all waves in BAEP were recorded.Results Compared with the BAEP before head rotation, the latent period of wave Ⅰ , Ⅴ and the wave-towave interval of Ⅰ~Ⅲ, Ⅲ~Ⅴ were apparently prolonged, and the amplitude of wave Ⅲ, Ⅴ was markedly reduced at 6 h after rotation; on the other hand, no significant difference was found in the latent period of wave Ⅰ , wave-to-wave interval of Ⅰ , Ⅴ and amplitude of wave Ⅰ . Conclusion Lateral head rotation leads to abnormal BAEP. It is related to the damage of special conductive pathways in brainstem. The diffusely-scattered axonal injury in brainstem is the pathological

  13. Intrahemispheric cortico-cortical connections of the human auditory cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cammoun, Leila; Thiran, Jean Philippe; Griffa, Alessandra; Meuli, Reto; Hagmann, Patric; Clarke, Stephanie

    2015-11-01

    The human auditory cortex comprises the supratemporal plane and large parts of the temporal and parietal convexities. We have investigated the relevant intrahemispheric cortico-cortical connections using in vivo DSI tractography combined with landmark-based registration, automatic cortical parcellation and whole-brain structural connection matrices in 20 right-handed male subjects. On the supratemporal plane, the pattern of connectivity was related to the architectonically defined early-stage auditory areas. It revealed a three-tier architecture characterized by a cascade of connections from the primary auditory cortex to six adjacent non-primary areas and from there to the superior temporal gyrus. Graph theory-driven analysis confirmed the cascade-like connectivity pattern and demonstrated a strong degree of segregation and hierarchy within early-stage auditory areas. Putative higher-order areas on the temporal and parietal convexities had more widely spread local connectivity and long-range connections with the prefrontal cortex; analysis of optimal community structure revealed five distinct modules in each hemisphere. The pattern of temporo-parieto-frontal connectivity was partially asymmetrical. In conclusion, the human early-stage auditory cortical connectivity, as revealed by in vivo DSI tractography, has strong similarities with that of non-human primates. The modular architecture and hemispheric asymmetry in higher-order regions is compatible with segregated processing streams and lateralization of cognitive functions. PMID:25173473

  14. Which People with Specific Language Impairment have Auditory Processing Deficits?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McArthur, G M; Bishop, D V M

    2004-02-01

    An influential theory attributes developmental disorders of language and literacy to low-level auditory perceptual difficulties. However, evidence to date has been inconsistent and contradictory. We investigated whether this mixed picture could be explained in terms of heterogeneity in the language-impaired population. In Experiment 1, the behavioural responses of 16 people with specific language impairment (SLI) and 16 control listeners (aged 10 to 19 years) to auditory backward recognition masking (ABRM) stimuli and unmasked tones indicated that a subgroup of people with SLI are less able to discriminate between the frequencies of sounds regardless of their rate of presentation. Further, these people tended to be the younger participants, and were characterised by relatively poor nonword reading. In Experiment 2, the auditory event-related potentials (ERPs) of the same groups to unmasked tones were measured. Listeners with SLI tended to have age-inappropriate waveforms in the N1-P2-N2 region, regardless of their auditory discrimination scores in Experiment 1. Together, these results suggest that SLI may be characterised by immature development of auditory cortex, such that adult-level frequency discrimination performance is attained several years later than normal. PMID:21038192

  15. Peripheral Auditory Mechanisms

    CERN Document Server

    Hall, J; Hubbard, A; Neely, S; Tubis, A

    1986-01-01

    How weIl can we model experimental observations of the peripheral auditory system'? What theoretical predictions can we make that might be tested'? It was with these questions in mind that we organized the 1985 Mechanics of Hearing Workshop, to bring together auditory researchers to compare models with experimental observations. Tbe workshop forum was inspired by the very successful 1983 Mechanics of Hearing Workshop in Delft [1]. Boston University was chosen as the site of our meeting because of the Boston area's role as a center for hearing research in this country. We made a special effort at this meeting to attract students from around the world, because without students this field will not progress. Financial support for the workshop was provided in part by grant BNS- 8412878 from the National Science Foundation. Modeling is a traditional strategy in science and plays an important role in the scientific method. Models are the bridge between theory and experiment. Tbey test the assumptions made in experim...

  16. Reduced object related negativity response indicates impaired auditory scene analysis in adults with autistic spectrum disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veema Lodhia

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Auditory Scene Analysis provides a useful framework for understanding atypical auditory perception in autism. Specifically, a failure to segregate the incoming acoustic energy into distinct auditory objects might explain the aversive reaction autistic individuals have to certain auditory stimuli or environments. Previous research with non-autistic participants has demonstrated the presence of an Object Related Negativity (ORN in the auditory event related potential that indexes pre-attentive processes associated with auditory scene analysis. Also evident is a later P400 component that is attention dependent and thought to be related to decision-making about auditory objects. We sought to determine whether there are differences between individuals with and without autism in the levels of processing indexed by these components. Electroencephalography (EEG was used to measure brain responses from a group of 16 autistic adults, and 16 age- and verbal-IQ-matched typically-developing adults. Auditory responses were elicited using lateralized dichotic pitch stimuli in which inter-aural timing differences create the illusory perception of a pitch that is spatially separated from a carrier noise stimulus. As in previous studies, control participants produced an ORN in response to the pitch stimuli. However, this component was significantly reduced in the participants with autism. In contrast, processing differences were not observed between the groups at the attention-dependent level (P400. These findings suggest that autistic individuals have difficulty segregating auditory stimuli into distinct auditory objects, and that this difficulty arises at an early pre-attentive level of processing.

  17. Organization of ascending auditory pathways in the pigeon (Columba livia) as determined by autoradiographic methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A mixture of tritiated proline and fucose was injected into the labyrinthine endolymphatic space of 5 white king pigeons (Columba livia). Using standard autoradiographic techniques, the authors observed transsynaptic labeling in ascending auditory pathways to the level of the mesencephalon. Auditory system structures, ipsilateral to the injection site, which labeled heavily were the cochlear nerve, the magnocellular and angular nuclei, and the superior olive. Those ipsilateral structures which were slightly labeled were the lateral lemniscus and the dorsal part of the lateral mesencephalic nucleus. Contralateral structures which labeled were the superior olive, lateral lemniscus, and dorsal part of the lateral mesencephalic nucleus. The results of this study suggest that ascending auditory pathways (to the level of mesencephalon) in the pigeon are more similar to those described for mammals in general than previously thought. (Auth.)

  18. Moving Objects in the Barn Owl's Auditory World.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langemann, Ulrike; Krumm, Bianca; Liebner, Katharina; Beutelmann, Rainer; Klump, Georg M

    2016-01-01

    Barn owls are keen hunters of moving prey. They have evolved an auditory system with impressive anatomical and physiological specializations for localizing their prey. Here we present behavioural data on the owl's sensitivity for discriminating acoustic motion direction in azimuth that, for the first time, allow a direct comparison of neuronal and perceptual sensitivity for acoustic motion in the same model species. We trained two birds to report a change in motion direction within a series of repeating wideband noise stimuli. For any trial the starting point, motion direction, velocity (53-2400°/s), duration (30-225 ms) and angular range (12-72°) of the noise sweeps were randomized. Each test stimulus had a motion direction being opposite to that of the reference stimuli. Stimuli were presented in the frontal or the lateral auditory space. The angular extent of the motion had a large effect on the owl's discrimination sensitivity allowing a better discrimination for a larger angular range of the motion. In contrast, stimulus velocity or stimulus duration had a smaller, although significant effect. Overall there was no difference in the owls' behavioural performance between "inward" noise sweeps (moving from lateral to frontal) compared to "outward" noise sweeps (moving from frontal to lateral). The owls did, however, respond more often to stimuli with changing motion direction in the frontal compared to the lateral space. The results of the behavioural experiments are discussed in relation to the neuronal representation of motion cues in the barn owl auditory midbrain. PMID:27080662

  19. Regulation of the Fear Network by Mediators of Stress: Norepinephrine Alters the Balance between Cortical and Subcortical Afferent Excitation of the Lateral Amygdala

    OpenAIRE

    Johnson, Luke R.

    2011-01-01

    Pavlovian auditory fear conditioning crucially involves the integration of information about and acoustic conditioned stimulus (CS) and an aversive unconditioned stimulus (US) in the lateral nucleus of the amygdala (LA). The auditory CS reaches the LA subcortically via a direct connection from the auditory thalamus and also from the auditory association cortex itself. How neural modulators, especially those activated during stress, such as norepinephrine (NE), regulate synaptic transmission...

  20. Effect of neonatal asphyxia on the impairment of the auditory pathway by recording auditory brainstem responses in newborn piglets: a new experimentation model to study the perinatal hypoxic-ischemic damage on the auditory system.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Jose Alvarez

    Full Text Available Hypoxia-ischemia (HI is a major perinatal problem that results in severe damage to the brain impairing the normal development of the auditory system. The purpose of the present study is to study the effect of perinatal asphyxia on the auditory pathway by recording auditory brain responses in a novel animal experimentation model in newborn piglets.Hypoxia-ischemia was induced to 1.3 day-old piglets by clamping 30 minutes both carotid arteries by vascular occluders and lowering the fraction of inspired oxygen. We compared the Auditory Brain Responses (ABRs of newborn piglets exposed to acute hypoxia/ischemia (n = 6 and a control group with no such exposure (n = 10. ABRs were recorded for both ears before the start of the experiment (baseline, after 30 minutes of HI injury, and every 30 minutes during 6 h after the HI injury.Auditory brain responses were altered during the hypoxic-ischemic insult but recovered 30-60 minutes later. Hypoxia/ischemia seemed to induce auditory functional damage by increasing I-V latencies and decreasing wave I, III and V amplitudes, although differences were not significant.The described experimental model of hypoxia-ischemia in newborn piglets may be useful for studying the effect of perinatal asphyxia on the impairment of the auditory pathway.

  1. Exploration of auditory P50 gating in schizophrenia by way of difference waves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arnfred, Sidse M

    2006-01-01

    ABSTRACT : Electroencephalographic measures of information processing encompass both mid-latency evoked potentials like the pre-attentive auditory P50 potential and a host of later more cognitive components like P300 and N400.Difference waves have mostly been employed in studies of later event...

  2. Present and past: Can writing abilities in school children be associated with their auditory discrimination capacities in infancy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaadt, Gesa; Männel, Claudia; van der Meer, Elke; Pannekamp, Ann; Oberecker, Regine; Friederici, Angela D

    2015-12-01

    Literacy acquisition is highly associated with auditory processing abilities, such as auditory discrimination. The event-related potential Mismatch Response (MMR) is an indicator for cortical auditory discrimination abilities and it has been found to be reduced in individuals with reading and writing impairments and also in infants at risk for these impairments. The goal of the present study was to analyze the relationship between auditory speech discrimination in infancy and writing abilities at school age within subjects, and to determine when auditory speech discrimination differences, relevant for later writing abilities, start to develop. We analyzed the MMR registered in response to natural syllables in German children with and without writing problems at two points during development, that is, at school age and at infancy, namely at age 1 month and 5 months. We observed MMR related auditory discrimination differences between infants with and without later writing problems, starting to develop at age 5 months-an age when infants begin to establish language-specific phoneme representations. At school age, these children with and without writing problems also showed auditory discrimination differences, reflected in the MMR, confirming a relationship between writing and auditory speech processing skills. Thus, writing problems at school age are, at least, partly grounded in auditory discrimination problems developing already during the first months of life. PMID:26479824

  3. Cortical oscillations in auditory perception and speech: evidence for two temporal windows in human auditory cortex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huan eLuo

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Natural sounds, including vocal communication sounds, contain critical information at multiple time scales. Two essential temporal modulation rates in speech have been argued to be in the low gamma band (~20-80 ms duration information and the theta band (~150-300 ms, corresponding to segmental and syllabic modulation rates, respectively. On one hypothesis, auditory cortex implements temporal integration using time constants closely related to these values. The neural correlates of a proposed dual temporal window mechanism in human auditory cortex remain poorly understood. We recorded MEG responses from participants listening to non-speech auditory stimuli with different temporal structures, created by concatenating frequency-modulated segments of varied segment durations. We show that these non-speech stimuli with temporal structure matching speech-relevant scales (~25 ms and ~200 ms elicit reliable phase tracking in the corresponding associated oscillatory frequencies (low gamma and theta bands. In contrast, stimuli with non-matching temporal structure do not. Furthermore, the topography of theta band phase tracking shows rightward lateralization while gamma band phase tracking occurs bilaterally. The results support the hypothesis that there exists multi-time resolution processing in cortex on discontinuous scales and provide evidence for an asymmetric organization of temporal analysis (asymmetrical sampling in time, AST. The data argue for a macroscopic-level neural mechanism underlying multi-time resolution processing: the sliding and resetting of intrinsic temporal windows on privileged time scales.

  4. The Olivocochlear Reflex Strength and Cochlear Sensitivity are Independently Modulated by Auditory Cortex Microstimulation

    OpenAIRE

    Dragicevic, Constantino D.; Aedo, Cristian; León, Alex; Bowen, Macarena; Jara, Natalia; Terreros, Gonzalo; Robles, Luis; Delano, Paul H.

    2015-01-01

    In mammals, efferent projections to the cochlear receptor are constituted by olivocochlear (OC) fibers that originate in the superior olivary complex. Medial and lateral OC neurons make synapses with outer hair cells and with auditory nerve fibers, respectively. In addition to the OC system, there are also descending projections from the auditory cortex that are directed towards the thalamus, inferior colliculus, cochlear nucleus, and superior olivary complex. Olivocochlear function can be as...

  5. Effects of mitochondria-targeted plastoquinone derivative antioxidant (SkQ1) on demography of free-breeding Campbell dwarf hamsters (Phodopus campbelli) kept in outdoor conditions. reproduction and lifespan: explanation in the framework of ultimate loads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogovin, K A; Khrushcheva, A M; Shekarova, O N; Ushakova, M V; Manskikh, V N; Sokolova, O V; Vasilieva, N Yu

    2014-10-01

    We studied demographic effects of the mitochondria-targeted antioxidant SkQ1 on free-breeding Campbell dwarf hamsters (Phodopus campbelli, Thomas, 1905, Rodentia, Cricetidae) in an outdoor vivarium with seasonally varying day length and temperatures. The animals were kept in pairs from their young age. We removed litters from parental cages at their age of 25 days. Experimental hamsters received daily 50 nmol/kg SkQ1 with water by oral dosing, whereas control animals received water. SkQ1 had no effect on the lifespan of either males or females in reproductive pairs. Mortality among females was higher than among males irrespective of SkQ1 treatment, this being related to higher costs of reproduction in females. However, SkQ1 accelerated breeding in pairs in the first half of the reproductive period of a year. Although there were no statistical differences in body mass of males and females between experimental and control animals during most of their life, SkQ1-receiving males had higher body mass at the end of their life. The opposite tendency was characteristic for old females. One-year-old males and females of the experimental and control groups showed no difference in intensity of immune response to sheep red blood cells. The dermal hypersensitivity response to phytohemagglutinin (test for T-cell immunity) was significantly higher in SkQ1-treated 1- and 1.5-year-old males. This was not true for females. There was a tendency toward increased density of the neutrophil population in blood in 1-year-old SkQ1-treated males. However, experimental males showed no difference from control males in the activity of the "peroxidase-endogenous hydrogen peroxide system" of neutrophils. The background level of stress estimated by the concentration of cortisol in blood serum was significantly lower in the SkQ1-treated males during autumn adaptive adjustment of the organism. A similar trend was also observed during the January frosts, when the background level of stress was

  6. Activation of auditory white matter tracts as revealed by functional magnetic resonance imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The ability of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to detect activation in brain white matter (WM) is controversial. In particular, studies on the functional activation of WM tracts in the central auditory system are scarce. We utilized fMRI to assess and characterize the entire auditory WM pathway under robust experimental conditions involving the acquisition of a large number of functional volumes, the application of broadband auditory stimuli of high intensity, and the use of sparse temporal sampling to avoid scanner noise effects and increase signal-to-noise ratio. Nineteen healthy volunteers were subjected to broadband white noise in a block paradigm; each run had four sound-on/off alternations and was repeated nine times for each subject. Sparse sampling (TR = 8 s) was used. In addition to traditional gray matter (GM) auditory center activation, WM activation was detected in the isthmus and midbody of the corpus callosum (CC), tapetum, auditory radiation, lateral lemniscus, and decussation of the superior cerebellar peduncles. At the individual level, 13 of 19 subjects (68 %) had CC activation. Callosal WM exhibited a temporal delay of approximately 8 s in response to the stimulation compared with GM. These findings suggest that direct evaluation of the entire functional network of the central auditory system may be possible using fMRI, which may aid in understanding the neurophysiological basis of the central auditory system and in developing treatment strategies for various central auditory disorders. (orig.)

  7. The olivocochlear reflex strength and cochlear sensitivity are independently modulated by auditory cortex microstimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dragicevic, Constantino D; Aedo, Cristian; León, Alex; Bowen, Macarena; Jara, Natalia; Terreros, Gonzalo; Robles, Luis; Delano, Paul H

    2015-04-01

    In mammals, efferent projections to the cochlear receptor are constituted by olivocochlear (OC) fibers that originate in the superior olivary complex. Medial and lateral OC neurons make synapses with outer hair cells and with auditory nerve fibers, respectively. In addition to the OC system, there are also descending projections from the auditory cortex that are directed towards the thalamus, inferior colliculus, cochlear nucleus, and superior olivary complex. Olivocochlear function can be assessed by measuring a brainstem reflex mediated by auditory nerve fibers, cochlear nucleus neurons, and OC fibers. Although it is known that the OC reflex is activated by contralateral acoustic stimulation and produces a suppression of cochlear responses, the influence of cortical descending pathways in the OC reflex is largely unknown. Here, we used auditory cortex electrical microstimulation in chinchillas to study a possible cortical modulation of cochlear and auditory nerve responses to tones in the absence and presence of contralateral noise. We found that cortical microstimulation produces two different peripheral modulations: (i) changes in cochlear sensitivity evidenced by amplitude modulation of cochlear microphonics and auditory nerve compound action potentials and (ii) enhancement or suppression of the OC reflex strength as measured by auditory nerve responses, which depended on the intersubject variability of the OC reflex. Moreover, both corticofugal effects were not correlated, suggesting the presence of two functionally different efferent pathways. These results demonstrate that auditory cortex electrical microstimulation independently modulates the OC reflex strength and cochlear sensitivity. PMID:25663383

  8. Activation of auditory white matter tracts as revealed by functional magnetic resonance imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tae, Woo Suk [Kangwon National University, Neuroscience Research Institute, School of Medicine, Chuncheon (Korea, Republic of); Yakunina, Natalia; Nam, Eui-Cheol [Kangwon National University, Neuroscience Research Institute, School of Medicine, Chuncheon (Korea, Republic of); Kangwon National University, Department of Otolaryngology, School of Medicine, Chuncheon, Kangwon-do (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Tae Su [Kangwon National University Hospital, Department of Otolaryngology, Chuncheon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Sam Soo [Kangwon National University, Neuroscience Research Institute, School of Medicine, Chuncheon (Korea, Republic of); Kangwon National University, Department of Radiology, School of Medicine, Chuncheon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-07-15

    The ability of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to detect activation in brain white matter (WM) is controversial. In particular, studies on the functional activation of WM tracts in the central auditory system are scarce. We utilized fMRI to assess and characterize the entire auditory WM pathway under robust experimental conditions involving the acquisition of a large number of functional volumes, the application of broadband auditory stimuli of high intensity, and the use of sparse temporal sampling to avoid scanner noise effects and increase signal-to-noise ratio. Nineteen healthy volunteers were subjected to broadband white noise in a block paradigm; each run had four sound-on/off alternations and was repeated nine times for each subject. Sparse sampling (TR = 8 s) was used. In addition to traditional gray matter (GM) auditory center activation, WM activation was detected in the isthmus and midbody of the corpus callosum (CC), tapetum, auditory radiation, lateral lemniscus, and decussation of the superior cerebellar peduncles. At the individual level, 13 of 19 subjects (68 %) had CC activation. Callosal WM exhibited a temporal delay of approximately 8 s in response to the stimulation compared with GM. These findings suggest that direct evaluation of the entire functional network of the central auditory system may be possible using fMRI, which may aid in understanding the neurophysiological basis of the central auditory system and in developing treatment strategies for various central auditory disorders. (orig.)

  9. Auditory perspective taking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinson, Eric; Brock, Derek

    2013-06-01

    Effective communication with a mobile robot using speech is a difficult problem even when you can control the auditory scene. Robot self-noise or ego noise, echoes and reverberation, and human interference are all common sources of decreased intelligibility. Moreover, in real-world settings, these problems are routinely aggravated by a variety of sources of background noise. Military scenarios can be punctuated by high decibel noise from materiel and weaponry that would easily overwhelm a robot's normal speaking volume. Moreover, in nonmilitary settings, fans, computers, alarms, and transportation noise can cause enough interference to make a traditional speech interface unusable. This work presents and evaluates a prototype robotic interface that uses perspective taking to estimate the effectiveness of its own speech presentation and takes steps to improve intelligibility for human listeners. PMID:23096077

  10. Tactile feedback improves auditory spatial localization

    OpenAIRE

    Gori, Monica; Vercillo, Tiziana; Sandini, Giulio; Burr, David

    2014-01-01

    Our recent studies suggest that congenitally blind adults have severely impaired thresholds in an auditory spatial bisection task, pointing to the importance of vision in constructing complex auditory spatial maps (Gori et al., 2014). To explore strategies that may improve the auditory spatial sense in visually impaired people, we investigated the impact of tactile feedback on spatial auditory localization in 48 blindfolded sighted subjects. We measured auditory spatial bisection thresholds b...

  11. Tactile feedback improves auditory spatial localization

    OpenAIRE

    Monica eGori; Tiziana eVercillo; Giulio eSandini; David eBurr

    2014-01-01

    Our recent studies suggest that congenitally blind adults have severely impaired thresholds in an auditory spatial-bisection task, pointing to the importance of vision in constructing complex auditory spatial maps (Gori et al., 2014). To explore strategies that may improve the auditory spatial sense in visually impaired people, we investigated the impact of tactile feedback on spatial auditory localization in 48 blindfolded sighted subjects. We measured auditory spatial bisection thresholds b...

  12. Auditory short-term memory in the primate auditory cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Brian H; Mishkin, Mortimer

    2016-06-01

    Sounds are fleeting, and assembling the sequence of inputs at the ear into a coherent percept requires auditory memory across various time scales. Auditory short-term memory comprises at least two components: an active ׳working memory' bolstered by rehearsal, and a sensory trace that may be passively retained. Working memory relies on representations recalled from long-term memory, and their rehearsal may require phonological mechanisms unique to humans. The sensory component, passive short-term memory (pSTM), is tractable to study in nonhuman primates, whose brain architecture and behavioral repertoire are comparable to our own. This review discusses recent advances in the behavioral and neurophysiological study of auditory memory with a focus on single-unit recordings from macaque monkeys performing delayed-match-to-sample (DMS) tasks. Monkeys appear to employ pSTM to solve these tasks, as evidenced by the impact of interfering stimuli on memory performance. In several regards, pSTM in monkeys resembles pitch memory in humans, and may engage similar neural mechanisms. Neural correlates of DMS performance have been observed throughout the auditory and prefrontal cortex, defining a network of areas supporting auditory STM with parallels to that supporting visual STM. These correlates include persistent neural firing, or a suppression of firing, during the delay period of the memory task, as well as suppression or (less commonly) enhancement of sensory responses when a sound is repeated as a ׳match' stimulus. Auditory STM is supported by a distributed temporo-frontal network in which sensitivity to stimulus history is an intrinsic feature of auditory processing. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled SI: Auditory working memory. PMID:26541581

  13. Auditory and non-auditory effects of noise on health

    OpenAIRE

    Basner, Mathias; Babisch, Wolfgang; Davis, Adrian; Brink, Mark; Clark, Charlotte; Janssen, Sabine; Stansfeld, Stephen

    2013-01-01

    Noise is pervasive in everyday life and can cause both auditory and non-auditory health effects. Noise-induced hearing loss remains highly prevalent in occupational settings, and is increasingly caused by social noise exposure (eg, through personal music players). Our understanding of molecular mechanisms involved in noise-induced hair-cell and nerve damage has substantially increased, and preventive and therapeutic drugs will probably become available within 10 years. Evidence of the non-aud...

  14. Functional studies of the human auditory cortex, auditory memory and musical hallucinations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    of Brodmann, more intense in the contralateral (right) side. There is activation of both frontal executive areas without lateralization. Simultaneously, while area 39 of Brodmann was being activated, the temporal lobe was being inhibited. This seemingly not previously reported functional observation is suggestive that also inhibitory and not only excitatory relays play a role in the auditory pathways. The central activity in our patient (without external auditory stimuli) -who was tested while having musical hallucinations- was a mirror image of that of our normal stimulated volunteers. It is suggested that the trigger role of the inner ear -if any- could conceivably be inhibitory, desinhibitory and not necessarily purely excitatory. Based on our observations the trigger effect in our patient, could occur via the left ear. Finally, our functional studies are suggestive that auditory memory for musical perceptions could be seemingly located in the right area 39 of Brodm

  15. Auditory Processing Disorder in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... free publications Find organizations Related Topics Auditory Neuropathy Autism Spectrum Disorder: Communication Problems in Children Dysphagia Quick ... NIH… Turning Discovery Into Health ® National Institute on Deafness and Other Communication Disorders 31 Center Drive, MSC ...

  16. Auditory Processing Disorder (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and school. A positive, realistic attitude and healthy self-esteem in a child with APD can work wonders. And kids with APD can go on to ... Parents MORE ON THIS TOPIC Auditory Processing Disorder Special ...

  17. Beat gestures modulate auditory integration in speech perception

    OpenAIRE

    Biau, Emmanuel; Soto-Faraco, Salvador, 1970-

    2013-01-01

    Spontaneous beat gestures are an integral part of the paralinguistic context during face-to-face conversations. Here we investigated the time course of beat-speech integration in speech perception by measuring ERPs evoked by words pronounced with or without an accompanying beat gesture, while participants watched a spoken discourse. Words accompanied by beats elicited a positive shift in ERPs at an early sensory stage (before 100 ms) and at a later time window coinciding with the auditory com...

  18. Central organization of eighth nerve and mechanosensory lateral line systems in the brainstem of ictalurid catfish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finger, T E; Tong, S L

    1984-10-10

    The octavolateral sensory systems in teleost fish comprise at least four distinct hair-cell sensory modalities which are processed separately within the CNS. Two of these modalities, the mechanosensory lateral line system and the eighth nerve auditory system, have been implicated in the animal's ability to detect and localize underwater vibrations. Distinct mechanosensory lateral line and auditory nuclei are present within the torus semicircularis, the midbrain homologue of the inferior colliculus. The present study utilized horseradish peroxidase tracing techniques to delineate those areas of the lower brainstem which are involved in auditory as opposed to mechanosensory lateral line processes. The primary mechanosensory nucleus of the medulla, n. medialis, projects directly to the optic tectum and to the mechanosensory nucleus of the torus semicircularis. Nucleus medialis receives input from primary lateral line nerve fibers as well as from a number of sites within the CNS: n. praeeminentialis pars ventralis, and the eminentia granularis and lobus caudalis of the cerebellum. The n. praeeminentialis itself receives a descending input from the mechanosensory nucleus of the torus semicircularis. These mechanosensory lateral line pathways are parallel to, but distinct from, those of the electrosensory lateral line system. Auditory signals reach the midbrain via an entirely separate route. The octaval nerve terminates in a column of five medullary nuclei. Of these, only the anterior and descending octaval nuclei maintain a direct but sparse projection to the auditory nucleus of the midbrain. The bulk of the auditory input to the midbrain involves a newly described medullary nucleus, the medial auditory nucleus of the medulla. This nucleus receives input from the descending octaval nucleus and projects bilaterally to the auditory nucleus of the torus semicircularis. It is suggested that the medial auditory nucleus of the medulla is homologous to portions of the

  19. Psychology of auditory perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lotto, Andrew; Holt, Lori

    2011-09-01

    Audition is often treated as a 'secondary' sensory system behind vision in the study of cognitive science. In this review, we focus on three seemingly simple perceptual tasks to demonstrate the complexity of perceptual-cognitive processing involved in everyday audition. After providing a short overview of the characteristics of sound and their neural encoding, we present a description of the perceptual task of segregating multiple sound events that are mixed together in the signal reaching the ears. Then, we discuss the ability to localize the sound source in the environment. Finally, we provide some data and theory on how listeners categorize complex sounds, such as speech. In particular, we present research on how listeners weigh multiple acoustic cues in making a categorization decision. One conclusion of this review is that it is time for auditory cognitive science to be developed to match what has been done in vision in order for us to better understand how humans communicate with speech and music. WIREs Cogni Sci 2011 2 479-489 DOI: 10.1002/wcs.123 For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website. PMID:26302301

  20. Auditory and non-auditory effects of noise on health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basner, Mathias; Babisch, Wolfgang; Davis, Adrian; Brink, Mark; Clark, Charlotte; Janssen, Sabine; Stansfeld, Stephen

    2014-04-12

    Noise is pervasive in everyday life and can cause both auditory and non-auditory health effects. Noise-induced hearing loss remains highly prevalent in occupational settings, and is increasingly caused by social noise exposure (eg, through personal music players). Our understanding of molecular mechanisms involved in noise-induced hair-cell and nerve damage has substantially increased, and preventive and therapeutic drugs will probably become available within 10 years. Evidence of the non-auditory effects of environmental noise exposure on public health is growing. Observational and experimental studies have shown that noise exposure leads to annoyance, disturbs sleep and causes daytime sleepiness, affects patient outcomes and staff performance in hospitals, increases the occurrence of hypertension and cardiovascular disease, and impairs cognitive performance in schoolchildren. In this Review, we stress the importance of adequate noise prevention and mitigation strategies for public health. PMID:24183105

  1. The cat's meow: A high-field fMRI assessment of cortical activity in response to vocalizations and complex auditory stimuli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Amee J; Butler, Blake E; Lomber, Stephen G

    2016-02-15

    Sensory systems are typically constructed in a hierarchical fashion such that lower level subcortical and cortical areas process basic stimulus features, while higher level areas reassemble these features into object-level representations. A number of anatomical pathway tracing studies have suggested that the auditory cortical hierarchy of the cat extends from a core region, consisting of the primary auditory cortex (A1) and the anterior auditory field (AAF), to higher level auditory fields that are located ventrally. Unfortunately, limitations on electrophysiological examination of these higher level fields have resulted in an incomplete understanding of the functional organization of the auditory cortex. Thus, the current study uses functional MRI in conjunction with a variety of simple and complex auditory stimuli to provide the first comprehensive examination of function across the entire cortical hierarchy. Auditory cortex function is shown to be largely lateralized to the left hemisphere, and is concentrated bilaterally in fields surrounding the posterior ectosylvian sulcus. The use of narrowband noise stimuli enables the visualization of tonotopic gradients in the posterior auditory field (PAF) and ventral posterior auditory field (VPAF) that have previously been unverifiable using fMRI and pure tones. Furthermore, auditory fields that are inaccessible to more invasive techniques, such as the insular (IN) and temporal (T) cortices, are shown to be selectively responsive to vocalizations. Collectively, these data provide a much needed functional correlate for anatomical examinations of the hierarchy of cortical structures within the cat auditory cortex. PMID:26658927

  2. Individual differences in auditory abilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kidd, Gary R; Watson, Charles S; Gygi, Brian

    2007-07-01

    Performance on 19 auditory discrimination and identification tasks was measured for 340 listeners with normal hearing. Test stimuli included single tones, sequences of tones, amplitude-modulated and rippled noise, temporal gaps, speech, and environmental sounds. Principal components analysis and structural equation modeling of the data support the existence of a general auditory ability and four specific auditory abilities. The specific abilities are (1) loudness and duration (overall energy) discrimination; (2) sensitivity to temporal envelope variation; (3) identification of highly familiar sounds (speech and nonspeech); and (4) discrimination of unfamiliar simple and complex spectral and temporal patterns. Examination of Scholastic Aptitude Test (SAT) scores for a large subset of the population revealed little or no association between general or specific auditory abilities and general intellectual ability. The findings provide a basis for research to further specify the nature of the auditory abilities. Of particular interest are results suggestive of a familiar sound recognition (FSR) ability, apparently specialized for sound recognition on the basis of limited or distorted information. This FSR ability is independent of normal variation in both spectral-temporal acuity and of general intellectual ability. PMID:17614500

  3. Prediction of auditory and visual p300 brain-computer interface aptitude.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian Halder

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Brain-computer interfaces (BCIs provide a non-muscular communication channel for patients with late-stage motoneuron disease (e.g., amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS or otherwise motor impaired people and are also used for motor rehabilitation in chronic stroke. Differences in the ability to use a BCI vary from person to person and from session to session. A reliable predictor of aptitude would allow for the selection of suitable BCI paradigms. For this reason, we investigated whether P300 BCI aptitude could be predicted from a short experiment with a standard auditory oddball. METHODS: Forty healthy participants performed an electroencephalography (EEG based visual and auditory P300-BCI spelling task in a single session. In addition, prior to each session an auditory oddball was presented. Features extracted from the auditory oddball were analyzed with respect to predictive power for BCI aptitude. RESULTS: Correlation between auditory oddball response and P300 BCI accuracy revealed a strong relationship between accuracy and N2 amplitude and the amplitude of a late ERP component between 400 and 600 ms. Interestingly, the P3 amplitude of the auditory oddball response was not correlated with accuracy. CONCLUSIONS: Event-related potentials recorded during a standard auditory oddball session moderately predict aptitude in an audiory and highly in a visual P300 BCI. The predictor will allow for faster paradigm selection. SIGNIFICANCE: Our method will reduce strain on patients because unsuccessful training may be avoided, provided the results can be generalized to the patient population.

  4. Auditory Cortical Plasticity Drives Training-Induced Cognitive Changes in Schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dale, Corby L; Brown, Ethan G; Fisher, Melissa; Herman, Alexander B; Dowling, Anne F; Hinkley, Leighton B; Subramaniam, Karuna; Nagarajan, Srikantan S; Vinogradov, Sophia

    2016-01-01

    Schizophrenia is characterized by dysfunction in basic auditory processing, as well as higher-order operations of verbal learning and executive functions. We investigated whether targeted cognitive training of auditory processing improves neural responses to speech stimuli, and how these changes relate to higher-order cognitive functions. Patients with schizophrenia performed an auditory syllable identification task during magnetoencephalography before and after 50 hours of either targeted cognitive training or a computer games control. Healthy comparison subjects were assessed at baseline and after a 10 week no-contact interval. Prior to training, patients (N = 34) showed reduced M100 response in primary auditory cortex relative to healthy participants (N = 13). At reassessment, only the targeted cognitive training patient group (N = 18) exhibited increased M100 responses. Additionally, this group showed increased induced high gamma band activity within left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex immediately after stimulus presentation, and later in bilateral temporal cortices. Training-related changes in neural activity correlated with changes in executive function scores but not verbal learning and memory. These data suggest that computerized cognitive training that targets auditory and verbal learning operations enhances both sensory responses in auditory cortex as well as engagement of prefrontal regions, as indexed during an auditory processing task with low demands on working memory. This neural circuit enhancement is in turn associated with better executive function but not verbal memory. PMID:26152668

  5. Neural Correlates of an Auditory Afterimage in Primary Auditory Cortex

    OpenAIRE

    Noreña, A. J.; Eggermont, J. J.

    2003-01-01

    The Zwicker tone (ZT) is defined as an auditory negative afterimage, perceived after the presentation of an appropriate inducer. Typically, a notched noise (NN) with a notch width of 1/2 octave induces a ZT with a pitch falling in the frequency range of the notch. The aim of the present study was to find potential neural correlates of the ZT in the primary auditory cortex of ketamine-anesthetized cats. Responses of multiunits were recorded simultaneously with two 8-electrode arrays during 1 s...

  6. Posterior internal auditory canal closure following the retrosigmoid approach to the cerebellopontine angle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonetti, J P; Anderson, D E; Newell, D J; Smith, P G

    1993-01-01

    The retrosigmoid approach is utilized in a variety of cerebellopontine angle and internal auditory canal procedures. Drill curettage of the posterior internal auditory canal enhances lateral exposure, however, this step may also increase the patient's risk for postoperative cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) otorrhea. Obliteration of perilabyrinthine air cells is technically difficult and muscle graft displacement frequently occurs. A technique for posterior petrous dural flap stabilization of a temporalis muscle plug has proved successful in decreasing the risk of postoperative CSF fistula following retrosigmoid surgery. Temporal bone air-cell anatomy, as it relates to retrosigmoid, posterior internal auditory canal surgery is reviewed. Our technique for internal auditory canal closure, with bone wax, bone paté, muscle grafts, and petrous ridge dural flaps is outlined. PMID:8424473

  7. Auditory Hallucinations in Acute Stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yair Lampl

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Auditory hallucinations are uncommon phenomena which can be directly caused by acute stroke, mostly described after lesions of the brain stem, very rarely reported after cortical strokes. The purpose of this study is to determine the frequency of this phenomenon. In a cross sectional study, 641 stroke patients were followed in the period between 1996–2000. Each patient underwent comprehensive investigation and follow-up. Four patients were found to have post cortical stroke auditory hallucinations. All of them occurred after an ischemic lesion of the right temporal lobe. After no more than four months, all patients were symptom-free and without therapy. The fact the auditory hallucinations may be of cortical origin must be taken into consideration in the treatment of stroke patients. The phenomenon may be completely reversible after a couple of months.

  8. Adaptation in the auditory system: an overview

    OpenAIRE

    David ePérez-González; Malmierca, Manuel S.

    2014-01-01

    The early stages of the auditory system need to preserve the timing information of sounds in order to extract the basic features of acoustic stimuli. At the same time, different processes of neuronal adaptation occur at several levels to further process the auditory information. For instance, auditory nerve fiber responses already experience adaptation of their firing rates, a type of response that can be found in many other auditory nuclei and may be useful for emphasizing the onset of the s...

  9. Odors bias time perception in visual and auditory modalities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhenzhu eYue

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies have shown that emotional states alter our perception of time. However, attention, which is modulated by a number of factors, such as emotional events, also influences time perception. To exclude potential attentional effects associated with emotional events, various types of odors (inducing different levels of emotional arousal were used to explore whether olfactory events modulated time perception differently in visual and auditory modalities. Participants were shown either a visual dot or heard a continuous tone for 1000 ms or 4000 ms while they were exposed to odors of jasmine, lavender, or garlic. Participants then reproduced the temporal durations of the preceding visual or auditory stimuli by pressing the spacebar twice. Their reproduced durations were compared to those in the control condition (without odor. The results showed that participants produced significantly longer time intervals in the lavender condition than in the jasmine or garlic conditions. The overall influence of odor on time perception was equivalent for both visual and auditory modalities. The analysis of the interaction effect showed that participants produced longer durations than the actual duration in the short interval condition, but they produced shorter durations in the long interval condition. The effect sizes were larger for the auditory modality than those for the visual modality. Moreover, by comparing performance across the initial and the final blocks of the experiment, we found odor adaptation effects were mainly manifested as longer reproductions for the short time interval later in the adaptation phase, and there was a larger effect size in the auditory modality. In summary, the present results indicate that odors imposed differential impacts on reproduced time durations, and they were constrained by different sensory modalities, valence of the emotional events, and target durations. Biases in time perception could be accounted for by a

  10. Odors Bias Time Perception in Visual and Auditory Modalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yue, Zhenzhu; Gao, Tianyu; Chen, Lihan; Wu, Jiashuang

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that emotional states alter our perception of time. However, attention, which is modulated by a number of factors, such as emotional events, also influences time perception. To exclude potential attentional effects associated with emotional events, various types of odors (inducing different levels of emotional arousal) were used to explore whether olfactory events modulated time perception differently in visual and auditory modalities. Participants were shown either a visual dot or heard a continuous tone for 1000 or 4000 ms while they were exposed to odors of jasmine, lavender, or garlic. Participants then reproduced the temporal durations of the preceding visual or auditory stimuli by pressing the spacebar twice. Their reproduced durations were compared to those in the control condition (without odor). The results showed that participants produced significantly longer time intervals in the lavender condition than in the jasmine or garlic conditions. The overall influence of odor on time perception was equivalent for both visual and auditory modalities. The analysis of the interaction effect showed that participants produced longer durations than the actual duration in the short interval condition, but they produced shorter durations in the long interval condition. The effect sizes were larger for the auditory modality than those for the visual modality. Moreover, by comparing performance across the initial and the final blocks of the experiment, we found odor adaptation effects were mainly manifested as longer reproductions for the short time interval later in the adaptation phase, and there was a larger effect size in the auditory modality. In summary, the present results indicate that odors imposed differential impacts on reproduced time durations, and they were constrained by different sensory modalities, valence of the emotional events, and target durations. Biases in time perception could be accounted for by a framework of

  11. Odors Bias Time Perception in Visual and Auditory Modalities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yue, Zhenzhu; Gao, Tianyu; Chen, Lihan; Wu, Jiashuang

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that emotional states alter our perception of time. However, attention, which is modulated by a number of factors, such as emotional events, also influences time perception. To exclude potential attentional effects associated with emotional events, various types of odors (inducing different levels of emotional arousal) were used to explore whether olfactory events modulated time perception differently in visual and auditory modalities. Participants were shown either a visual dot or heard a continuous tone for 1000 or 4000 ms while they were exposed to odors of jasmine, lavender, or garlic. Participants then reproduced the temporal durations of the preceding visual or auditory stimuli by pressing the spacebar twice. Their reproduced durations were compared to those in the control condition (without odor). The results showed that participants produced significantly longer time intervals in the lavender condition than in the jasmine or garlic conditions. The overall influence of odor on time perception was equivalent for both visual and auditory modalities. The analysis of the interaction effect showed that participants produced longer durations than the actual duration in the short interval condition, but they produced shorter durations in the long interval condition. The effect sizes were larger for the auditory modality than those for the visual modality. Moreover, by comparing performance across the initial and the final blocks of the experiment, we found odor adaptation effects were mainly manifested as longer reproductions for the short time interval later in the adaptation phase, and there was a larger effect size in the auditory modality. In summary, the present results indicate that odors imposed differential impacts on reproduced time durations, and they were constrained by different sensory modalities, valence of the emotional events, and target durations. Biases in time perception could be accounted for by a framework of

  12. The impact of severity of hypertension on auditory brainstem responses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gurdev Lal Goyal

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Auditory brainstem response is an objective electrophysiological method for assessing the auditory pathways from the auditory nerve to the brainstem. The aim of this study was to correlate and to assess the degree of involvement of peripheral and central regions of brainstem auditory pathways with increasing severity of hypertension, among the patients of essential hypertension. Method: This study was conducted on 50 healthy age and sex matched controls (Group I and 50 hypertensive patients (Group II. Later group was further sub-divided into - Group IIa (Grade 1 hypertension, Group IIb (Grade 2 hypertension, and Group IIc (Grade 3 hypertension, as per WHO guidelines. These responses/potentials were recorded by using electroencephalogram electrodes on a root-mean-square electromyography, EP MARC II (PC-based machine and data were statistically compared between the various groups by way of one-way ANOVA. The parameters used for analysis were the absolute latencies of Waves I through V, interpeak latencies (IPLs and amplitude ratio of Wave V/I. Result: The absolute latency of Wave I was observed to be significantly increased in Group IIa and IIb hypertensives, while Wave V absolute latency was highly significantly prolonged among Group IIb and IIc, as compared to that of normal control group. All the hypertensives, that is, Group IIa, IIb, and IIc patients were found to have highly significant prolonged III-V IPL as compared to that of normal healthy controls. Further, intergroup comparison among hypertensive patients revealed a significant prolongation of Wave V absolute latency and III-V IPL in Group IIb and IIc patients as compared to Group IIa patients. These findings suggest a sensory deficit along with synaptic delays, across the auditory pathways in all the hypertensives, the deficit being more markedly affecting the auditory processing time at pons to midbrain (IPL III-V region of auditory pathways among Grade 2 and 3

  13. Functional maps of human auditory cortex: effects of acoustic features and attention.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David L Woods

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: While human auditory cortex is known to contain tonotopically organized auditory cortical fields (ACFs, little is known about how processing in these fields is modulated by other acoustic features or by attention. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI and population-based cortical surface analysis to characterize the tonotopic organization of human auditory cortex and analyze the influence of tone intensity, ear of delivery, scanner background noise, and intermodal selective attention on auditory cortex activations. Medial auditory cortex surrounding Heschl's gyrus showed large sensory (unattended activations with two mirror-symmetric tonotopic fields similar to those observed in non-human primates. Sensory responses in medial regions had symmetrical distributions with respect to the left and right hemispheres, were enlarged for tones of increased intensity, and were enhanced when sparse image acquisition reduced scanner acoustic noise. Spatial distribution analysis suggested that changes in tone intensity shifted activation within isofrequency bands. Activations to monaural tones were enhanced over the hemisphere contralateral to stimulation, where they produced activations similar to those produced by binaural sounds. Lateral regions of auditory cortex showed small sensory responses that were larger in the right than left hemisphere, lacked tonotopic organization, and were uninfluenced by acoustic parameters. Sensory responses in both medial and lateral auditory cortex decreased in magnitude throughout stimulus blocks. Attention-related modulations (ARMs were larger in lateral than medial regions of auditory cortex and appeared to arise primarily in belt and parabelt auditory fields. ARMs lacked tonotopic organization, were unaffected by acoustic parameters, and had distributions that were distinct from those of sensory responses. Unlike the gradual adaptation seen for sensory responses

  14. Inactivation of the left auditory cortex impairs temporal discrimination in the rat

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Rybalko, Natalia; Šuta, Daniel; Popelář, Jiří; Syka, Josef

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 209, č. 1 (2010), s. 123-130. ISSN 0166-4328 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA309/07/1336; GA MŠk(CZ) LC554 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50390512 Keywords : auditory cortex * temporal discrimination * hemispheric lateralization Subject RIV: FH - Neurology Impact factor: 3.393, year: 2010

  15. Learning the Phonological Forms of New Words: Effects of Orthographic and Auditory Input

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes-Harb, Rachel; Nicol, Janet; Barker, Jason

    2010-01-01

    We investigated the relationship between the phonological and orthographic representations of new words for adult learners. Three groups of native English speakers learned a set of auditorily-presented pseudowords along with pictures indicating their "meanings". They were later tested on their memory of the words via an auditory word-picture…

  16. Electrophysiological Responses to Auditory Novelty in Temperamentally Different 9-Month-Old Infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Peter J.; Reeb, Bethany C.; Fox, Nathan A.

    2009-01-01

    Behavioral reactivity to novel stimuli in the first half-year of life has been identified as a key aspect of early temperament and a significant precursor of approach and withdrawal tendencies to novelty in later infancy and early childhood. The current study examines the neural signatures of reactivity to novel auditory stimuli in 9-month-old…

  17. High-frequency ex vivo ultrasound imaging of the auditory system.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brown, J.A.; Torbatian, Z.; Adamson, R.B.; Wijhe, R. Van; Pennings, R.J.E.; Lockwood, G.R.; Bance, M.L.

    2009-01-01

    A 50MHz array-based imaging system was used to obtain high-resolution images of the ear and auditory system. This previously described custom built imaging system (Brown et al. 2004a, 2004b; Brown and Lockwood 2005) is capable of 50 microm axial resolution, and lateral resolution varying from 80 mic

  18. [The auditory pathway: levels of integration of information and principal neurotransmitters].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Zamora, Edgar; Poblano, Adrián

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we studied the central auditory pathway (CAP) from an anatomical, physiological and neurochemical standpoint, from the inner ear, brainstem, thalamus to the temporal auditory cortex. The characteristics of the spiral ganglion of Corti, auditory nerve, cochlear nuclei, superior olivary complex, lateral lemniscus, inferior colliculus, medial geniculate body, and auditory cortex, including the auditory efferent pathway, are given. CAP is described as the electrical impulses, travelling through axons, allowing ions to enter a neuron and vesicles with neurotransmitters (NT) and then released into synaptic space. The NT changes the functioning of the cells; when attached to specific receptors on the next nerve cell, NT-receiver union causes input of ions through Gap sites, resulting in a postsynaptic potential that is spread over all CAP. In addition, the effects of the NT are not limited to the transmission, but as trophic agents that promote the formation of new neural networks. Even the anatomy, physiology, neurochemical aspects, and the different types of synapses are not fully understood to comprehend the organization of the CAP, but remain under investigation because of the relevance for the treatment of various central auditory disorders. PMID:25275847

  19. Assessment of auditory cortical function in cochlear implant patients using 15O PET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Cochlear implantation has been an extraordinarily successful method of restoring hearing and the potential for full language development in pre-lingually and post-lingually deaf individuals (Gibson 1996). Post-lingually deaf patients, who develop their hearing loss later in life, respond best to cochlear implantation within the first few years of their deafness, but are less responsive to implantation after several years of deafness (Gibson 1996). In pre-lingually deaf children, cochlear implantation is most effect in allowing the full development language skills when performed within a critical period, in the first 8 years of life. These clinical observations suggest considerable neural plasticity of the human auditory cortex in acquiring and retaining language skills (Gibson 1996, Buchwald 1990). Currently, electrocochleography is used to determine the integrity of the auditory pathways to the auditory cortex. However, the functional integrity of the auditory cortex cannot be determined by this method. We have defined the extent of activation of the auditory cortex and auditory association cortex in 6 normal controls and 6 cochlear implant patients using 15O PET functional brain imaging methods. Preliminary results have indicated the potential clinical utility of 15O PET cortical mapping in the pre-surgical assessment and post-surgical follow up of cochlear implant patients. Copyright (1998) Australian Neuroscience Society

  20. Norepinephrine is necessary for experience-dependent plasticity in the developing mouse auditory cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shepard, Kathryn N; Liles, L Cameron; Weinshenker, David; Liu, Robert C

    2015-02-11

    Critical periods are developmental windows during which the stimuli an animal encounters can reshape response properties in the affected system to a profound degree. Despite this window's importance, the neural mechanisms that regulate it are not completely understood. Pioneering studies in visual cortex initially indicated that norepinephrine (NE) permits ocular dominance column plasticity during the critical period, but later research has suggested otherwise. More recent work implicating NE in experience-dependent plasticity in the adult auditory cortex led us to re-examine the role of NE in critical period plasticity. Here, we exposed dopamine β-hydroxylase knock-out (Dbh(-/-)) mice, which lack NE completely from birth, to a biased acoustic environment during the auditory cortical critical period. This manipulation led to a redistribution of best frequencies (BFs) across auditory cortex in our control mice, consistent with prior work. By contrast, Dbh(-/-) mice failed to exhibit the expected redistribution of BFs, even though NE-deficient and NE-competent mice showed comparable auditory cortical organization when reared in a quiet colony environment. These data suggest that while intrinsic tonotopic patterning of auditory cortical circuitry occurs independently from NE, NE is required for critical period plasticity in auditory cortex. PMID:25673838

  1. Sound-sensitive neurons innervate the ventro-lateral protocerebrum of the heliothine moth brain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pfuhl, Gerit; Zhao, Xin Cheng; Ian, Elena;

    2014-01-01

    soma positioned near the calyces of mushroom bodies and with numerous neuronal processes in the ventro-lateral protocerebrum. Mass-staining of ventral-cord neurons supported the assumption that the ventro-lateral region of the moth brain was the main target for the auditory projections ascending from...

  2. Adaptation in the auditory system: an overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Pérez-González

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The early stages of the auditory system need to preserve the timing information of sounds in order to extract the basic features of acoustic stimuli. At the same time, different processes of neuronal adaptation occur at several levels to further process the auditory information. For instance, auditory nerve fiber responses already experience adaptation of their firing rates, a type of response that can be found in many other auditory nuclei and may be useful for emphasizing the onset of the stimuli. However, it is at higher levels in the auditory hierarchy where more sophisticated types of neuronal processing take place. For example, stimulus-specific adaptation, where neurons show adaptation to frequent, repetitive stimuli, but maintain their responsiveness to stimuli with different physical characteristics, thus representing a distinct kind of processing that may play a role in change and deviance detection. In the auditory cortex, adaptation takes more elaborate forms, and contributes to the processing of complex sequences, auditory scene analysis and attention. Here we review the multiple types of adaptation that occur in the auditory system, which are part of the pool of resources that the neurons employ to process the auditory scene, and are critical to a proper understanding of the neuronal mechanisms that govern auditory perception.

  3. Conceptual priming for realistic auditory scenes and for auditory words.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frey, Aline; Aramaki, Mitsuko; Besson, Mireille

    2014-02-01

    Two experiments were conducted using both behavioral and Event-Related brain Potentials methods to examine conceptual priming effects for realistic auditory scenes and for auditory words. Prime and target sounds were presented in four stimulus combinations: Sound-Sound, Word-Sound, Sound-Word and Word-Word. Within each combination, targets were conceptually related to the prime, unrelated or ambiguous. In Experiment 1, participants were asked to judge whether the primes and targets fit together (explicit task) and in Experiment 2 they had to decide whether the target was typical or ambiguous (implicit task). In both experiments and in the four stimulus combinations, reaction times and/or error rates were longer/higher and the N400 component was larger to ambiguous targets than to conceptually related targets, thereby pointing to a common conceptual system for processing auditory scenes and linguistic stimuli in both explicit and implicit tasks. However, fine-grained analyses also revealed some differences between experiments and conditions in scalp topography and duration of the priming effects possibly reflecting differences in the integration of perceptual and cognitive attributes of linguistic and nonlinguistic sounds. These results have clear implications for the building-up of virtual environments that need to convey meaning without words. PMID:24378910

  4. Rapid context-based identification of target sounds in an auditory scene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamble, Marissa L.; Woldorff, Marty G.

    2015-01-01

    To make sense of our dynamic and complex auditory environment, we must be able to parse the sensory input into usable parts and pick out relevant sounds from all the potentially distracting auditory information. While it is unclear exactly how we accomplish this difficult task, Gamble and Woldorff (2014) recently reported an ERP study of an auditory target-search task in a temporally and spatially distributed, rapidly presented, auditory scene. They reported an early, differential, bilateral activation (beginning ~60 ms) between feature-deviating Target stimuli and physically equivalent feature-deviating Nontargets, reflecting a rapid Target-detection process. This was followed shortly later (~130 ms) by the lateralized N2ac ERP activation, reflecting the focusing of auditory spatial attention toward the Target sound and paralleling attentional-shifting processes widely studied in vision. Here we directly examined the early, bilateral, Target-selective effect to better understand its nature and functional role. Participants listened to midline-presented sounds that included Target and Nontarget stimuli that were randomly either embedded in a brief rapid stream or presented alone. The results indicate that this early bilateral effect results from a template for the Target that utilizes its feature deviancy within a stream to enable rapid identification. Moreover, individual-differences analysis showed that the size of this effect was larger for subjects with faster response times. The findings support the hypothesis that our auditory attentional systems can implement and utilize a context-based relational template for a Target sound, making use of additional auditory information in the environment when needing to rapidly detect a relevant sound. PMID:25848684

  5. Diffusion tensor imaging of dolphin brains reveals direct auditory pathway to temporal lobe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berns, Gregory S; Cook, Peter F; Foxley, Sean; Jbabdi, Saad; Miller, Karla L; Marino, Lori

    2015-07-22

    The brains of odontocetes (toothed whales) look grossly different from their terrestrial relatives. Because of their adaptation to the aquatic environment and their reliance on echolocation, the odontocetes' auditory system is both unique and crucial to their survival. Yet, scant data exist about the functional organization of the cetacean auditory system. A predominant hypothesis is that the primary auditory cortex lies in the suprasylvian gyrus along the vertex of the hemispheres, with this position induced by expansion of 'associative' regions in lateral and caudal directions. However, the precise location of the auditory cortex and its connections are still unknown. Here, we used a novel diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) sequence in archival post-mortem brains of a common dolphin (Delphinus delphis) and a pantropical dolphin (Stenella attenuata) to map their sensory and motor systems. Using thalamic parcellation based on traditionally defined regions for the primary visual (V1) and auditory cortex (A1), we found distinct regions of the thalamus connected to V1 and A1. But in addition to suprasylvian-A1, we report here, for the first time, the auditory cortex also exists in the temporal lobe, in a region near cetacean-A2 and possibly analogous to the primary auditory cortex in related terrestrial mammals (Artiodactyla). Using probabilistic tract tracing, we found a direct pathway from the inferior colliculus to the medial geniculate nucleus to the temporal lobe near the sylvian fissure. Our results demonstrate the feasibility of post-mortem DTI in archival specimens to answer basic questions in comparative neurobiology in a way that has not previously been possible and shows a link between the cetacean auditory system and those of terrestrial mammals. Given that fresh cetacean specimens are relatively rare, the ability to measure connectivity in archival specimens opens up a plethora of possibilities for investigating neuroanatomy in cetaceans and other species

  6. Psychophysiological responses to auditory change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuen, Lorraine; Sears, David; McAdams, Stephen

    2016-06-01

    A comprehensive characterization of autonomic and somatic responding within the auditory domain is currently lacking. We studied whether simple types of auditory change that occur frequently during music listening could elicit measurable changes in heart rate, skin conductance, respiration rate, and facial motor activity. Participants heard a rhythmically isochronous sequence consisting of a repeated standard tone, followed by a repeated target tone that changed in pitch, timbre, duration, intensity, or tempo, or that deviated momentarily from rhythmic isochrony. Changes in all parameters produced increases in heart rate. Skin conductance response magnitude was affected by changes in timbre, intensity, and tempo. Respiratory rate was sensitive to deviations from isochrony. Our findings suggest that music researchers interpreting physiological responses as emotional indices should consider acoustic factors that may influence physiology in the absence of induced emotions. PMID:26927928

  7. Auditory distraction and serial memory

    OpenAIRE

    Jones, D M; Hughes, Rob; Macken, W.J.

    2010-01-01

    One mental activity that is very vulnerable to auditory distraction is serial recall. This review of the contemporary findings relating to serial recall charts the key determinants of distraction. It is evident that there is one form of distraction that is a joint product of the cognitive characteristics of the task and of the obligatory cognitive processing of the sound. For sequences of sound, distraction appears to be an ineluctable product of similarity-of-process, specifically, the seria...

  8. Dopaminergic Modulation of Lateral Amygdala Neuronal Activity: Differential D1 and D2 Receptor Effects on Thalamic and Cortical Afferent Inputs

    OpenAIRE

    Chang, Chun-hui; Grace, Anthony A.

    2015-01-01

    Background: In auditory fear conditioning, the lateral nucleus of the amygdala (LA) integrates a conditioned stimulus (CS) from the auditory thalamus (MGN) and the auditory association cortex (Te3) with an aversive unconditioned stimulus. The thalamic input provides a basic version of the CS, while the cortical input provides a processed representation of the stimulus. Dopamine (DA) is released in the LA under heightened arousal during the presentation of the CS. Methods: In this study we exa...

  9. Left temporal lobe structural and functional abnormality underlying auditory hallucinations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenneth Hugdahl

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available In this article, we review recent findings from our laboratory that auditory hallucinations in schizophrenia are internally generated speech mis-representations lateralized to the left superior temporal gyrus and sulcus. Such experiences are, moreover, not cognitively suppressed due to enhanced attention to the voices and failure of fronto-parietal executive control functions. An overview of diagnostic questionnaires for scoring of symptoms is presented, together with a review of behavioural, structural and functional MRI data. Functional imaging data have either shown increased or decreased activation depending on whether patients have been presented an external stimulus or not during scanning. Structural imaging data have shown reduction of grey matter density and volume in the same areas in the temporal lobe. The behavioral and neuroimaging findings are moreover hypothesized to be related to glutamate hypofunction in schizophrenia. We propose a model for the understanding of auditory hallucinations that trace the origin of auditory hallucinations to uncontrolled neuronal firing in the speech areas in the left temporal lobe, which is not suppressed by volitional cognitive control processes, due to dysfunctional fronto-parietal executive cortical networks.

  10. Auditory learning: a developmental method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yilu; Weng, Juyang; Hwang, Wey-Shiuan

    2005-05-01

    Motivated by the human autonomous development process from infancy to adulthood, we have built a robot that develops its cognitive and behavioral skills through real-time interactions with the environment. We call such a robot a developmental robot. In this paper, we present the theory and the architecture to implement a developmental robot and discuss the related techniques that address an array of challenging technical issues. As an application, experimental results on a real robot, self-organizing, autonomous, incremental learner (SAIL), are presented with emphasis on its audition perception and audition-related action generation. In particular, the SAIL robot conducts the auditory learning from unsegmented and unlabeled speech streams without any prior knowledge about the auditory signals, such as the designated language or the phoneme models. Neither available before learning starts are the actions that the robot is expected to perform. SAIL learns the auditory commands and the desired actions from physical contacts with the environment including the trainers. PMID:15940990

  11. Auditory sequence analysis and phonological skill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grube, Manon; Kumar, Sukhbinder; Cooper, Freya E; Turton, Stuart; Griffiths, Timothy D

    2012-11-01

    This work tests the relationship between auditory and phonological skill in a non-selected cohort of 238 school students (age 11) with the specific hypothesis that sound-sequence analysis would be more relevant to phonological skill than the analysis of basic, single sounds. Auditory processing was assessed across the domains of pitch, time and timbre; a combination of six standard tests of literacy and language ability was used to assess phonological skill. A significant correlation between general auditory and phonological skill was demonstrated, plus a significant, specific correlation between measures of phonological skill and the auditory analysis of short sequences in pitch and time. The data support a limited but significant link between auditory and phonological ability with a specific role for sound-sequence analysis, and provide a possible new focus for auditory training strategies to aid language development in early adolescence. PMID:22951739

  12. Lateral orientation (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    A lateral orientation is a position away from the midline of the body. For instance, the arms are lateral to the ... ears are lateral to the head. A medial orientation is a position toward the midline of the ...

  13. Development of Receiver Stimulator for Auditory Prosthesis

    OpenAIRE

    K. Raja Kumar; P. Seetha Ramaiah

    2010-01-01

    The Auditory Prosthesis (AP) is an electronic device that can provide hearing sensations to people who are profoundly deaf by stimulating the auditory nerve via an array of electrodes with an electric current allowing them to understand the speech. The AP system consists of two hardware functional units such as Body Worn Speech Processor (BWSP) and Receiver Stimulator. The prototype model of Receiver Stimulator for Auditory Prosthesis (RSAP) consists of Speech Data Decoder, DAC, ADC, constant...

  14. Auditory stimulation and cardiac autonomic regulation

    OpenAIRE

    Vitor E Valenti; Guida, Heraldo L.; Frizzo, Ana C F; Cardoso, Ana C. V.; Vanderlei, Luiz Carlos M; Luiz Carlos de Abreu

    2012-01-01

    Previous studies have already demonstrated that auditory stimulation with music influences the cardiovascular system. In this study, we described the relationship between musical auditory stimulation and heart rate variability. Searches were performed with the Medline, SciELO, Lilacs and Cochrane databases using the following keywords: "auditory stimulation", "autonomic nervous system", "music" and "heart rate variability". The selected studies indicated that there is a strong correlation bet...

  15. Behavioural and neural correlates of auditory attention

    OpenAIRE

    Roberts, Katherine Leonie

    2005-01-01

    The auditory attention skills of alterting, orienting, and executive control were assessed using behavioural and neuroimaging techniques. Initially, an auditory analgue of the visual attention network test (ANT) (FAN, McCandliss, Sommer, Raz, & Posner, 2002) was created and tested alongside the visual ANT in a group of 40 healthy subjects. The results from this study showed similarities between auditory and visual spatial orienting. An fMRI study was conducted to investigate whether the simil...

  16. Effects of Methylphenidate (Ritalin) on Auditory Performance in Children with Attention and Auditory Processing Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tillery, Kim L.; Katz, Jack; Keller, Warren D.

    2000-01-01

    A double-blind, placebo-controlled study examined effects of methylphenidate (Ritalin) on auditory processing in 32 children with both attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and central auditory processing (CAP) disorder. Analyses revealed that Ritalin did not have a significant effect on any of the central auditory processing measures, although…

  17. Corticofugal modulation of peripheral auditory responses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Hinckley Delano

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The auditory efferent system originates in the auditory cortex and projects to the medial geniculate body, inferior colliculus, cochlear nucleus and superior olivary complex reaching the cochlea through olivocochlear fibers. This unique neuronal network is organized in several afferent-efferent feedback loops including: the (i colliculo-thalamic-cortico-collicular, (ii cortico-(collicular-olivocochlear and (iii cortico-(collicular-cochlear nucleus pathways. Recent experiments demonstrate that blocking ongoing auditory-cortex activity with pharmacological and physical methods modulates the amplitude of cochlear potentials. In addition, auditory-cortex microstimulation independently modulates cochlear sensitivity and the strength of the olivocochlear reflex. In this mini-review, anatomical and physiological evidence supporting the presence of a functional efferent network from the auditory cortex to the cochlear receptor is presented. Special emphasis is given to the corticofugal effects on initial auditory processing, that is, on cochlear nucleus, auditory nerve and cochlear responses. A working model of three parallel pathways from the auditory cortex to the cochlea and auditory nerve is proposed.

  18. Corticofugal modulation of peripheral auditory responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terreros, Gonzalo; Delano, Paul H

    2015-01-01

    The auditory efferent system originates in the auditory cortex and projects to the medial geniculate body (MGB), inferior colliculus (IC), cochlear nucleus (CN) and superior olivary complex (SOC) reaching the cochlea through olivocochlear (OC) fibers. This unique neuronal network is organized in several afferent-efferent feedback loops including: the (i) colliculo-thalamic-cortico-collicular; (ii) cortico-(collicular)-OC; and (iii) cortico-(collicular)-CN pathways. Recent experiments demonstrate that blocking ongoing auditory-cortex activity with pharmacological and physical methods modulates the amplitude of cochlear potentials. In addition, auditory-cortex microstimulation independently modulates cochlear sensitivity and the strength of the OC reflex. In this mini-review, anatomical and physiological evidence supporting the presence of a functional efferent network from the auditory cortex to the cochlear receptor is presented. Special emphasis is given to the corticofugal effects on initial auditory processing, that is, on CN, auditory nerve and cochlear responses. A working model of three parallel pathways from the auditory cortex to the cochlea and auditory nerve is proposed. PMID:26483647

  19. Neural correlates of auditory temporal predictions during sensorimotor synchronization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadine ePecenka

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Musical ensemble performance requires temporally precise interpersonal action coordination. To play in synchrony, ensemble musicians presumably rely on anticipatory mechanisms that enable them to predict the timing of sounds produced by co-performers. Previous studies have shown that individuals differ in their ability to predict upcoming tempo changes in paced finger-tapping tasks (indexed by cross-correlations between tap timing and pacing events and that the degree of such prediction influences the accuracy of sensorimotor synchronization (SMS and interpersonal coordination in dyadic tapping tasks. The current functional magnetic resonance imaging study investigated the neural correlates of auditory temporal predictions during SMS in a within-subject design. Hemodynamic responses were recorded from 18 musicians while they tapped in synchrony with auditory sequences containing gradual tempo changes under conditions of varying cognitive load (achieved by a simultaneous visual n-back working-memory task comprising three levels of difficulty: observation only, 1-back, and 2-back object comparisons. Prediction ability during SMS decreased with increasing cognitive load. Results of a parametric analysis revealed that the generation of auditory temporal predictions during SMS recruits (1 a distributed network in cortico-cerebellar motor-related brain areas (left dorsal premotor and motor cortex, right lateral cerebellum, SMA proper and bilateral inferior parietal cortex and (2 medial cortical areas (medial prefrontal cortex, posterior cingulate cortex. While the first network is presumably involved in basic sensory prediction, sensorimotor integration, motor timing, and temporal adaptation, activation in the second set of areas may be related to higher-level social-cognitive processes elicited during action coordination with auditory signals that resemble music performed by human agents.

  20. Automaticity and Primacy of Auditory Streaming: Concurrent Subjective and Objective Measures

    OpenAIRE

    Billig, Alexander J.; Robert P Carlyon

    2015-01-01

    Two experiments used subjective and objective measures to study the automaticity and primacy of auditory streaming. Listeners heard sequences of “ABA–” triplets, where “A” and “B” were tones of different frequencies and “–” was a silent gap. Segregation was more frequently reported, and rhythmically deviant triplets less well detected, for a greater between-tone frequency separation and later in the sequence. In Experiment 1, performing a competing auditory task for the first part of the sequ...

  1. Determination of hemispheric language dominance using functional MRI : comparison of visual and auditory stimuli

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To assess the difference between auditory and visual stimuli when determining hemispheric language dominance by using functional MRI. In ten healthy adult volunteers (8 right-handed, 1 left-handed, 1 ambidextrous), motor language activation in axial slices of frontal lobe was mapped on a Simens 1.5T Vision Plus system using single-shot EPI. Series of 120 consecutive images per section were acquired during three cycles of task activation and rest. During each activation, a series of four syllables was delivered by means of both a visual and auditory method, and the volunteers were asked to mentally generate words starting with each syllable. In both in ferior frontal gyri and whole frontal lobes, lateralization indices were calculated from the activated pixels. We determined the language dominant hemisphere, and compared the results of the visual method and the auditory method. Seven right-handed persons were left-hemisphere dominant, and one left-handed and one ambidex-trous person were right-hemisphere dominant. Five of nine persons demonstrated larger lateralization indices with the auditory method than the visual method, while the remaining four showed larger lateralization indices with the visual method. No statistically significant difference was noted when comparing the results of the two methods(p>0.05). When determining hemispheric language dominance using functional MRI, the two methods are equally appropriate

  2. Expectation and Attention in Hierarchical Auditory Prediction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noreika, Valdas; Gueorguiev, David; Blenkmann, Alejandro; Kochen, Silvia; Ibáñez, Agustín; Owen, Adrian M.; Bekinschtein, Tristan A.

    2013-01-01

    Hierarchical predictive coding suggests that attention in humans emerges from increased precision in probabilistic inference, whereas expectation biases attention in favor of contextually anticipated stimuli. We test these notions within auditory perception by independently manipulating top-down expectation and attentional precision alongside bottom-up stimulus predictability. Our findings support an integrative interpretation of commonly observed electrophysiological signatures of neurodynamics, namely mismatch negativity (MMN), P300, and contingent negative variation (CNV), as manifestations along successive levels of predictive complexity. Early first-level processing indexed by the MMN was sensitive to stimulus predictability: here, attentional precision enhanced early responses, but explicit top-down expectation diminished it. This pattern was in contrast to later, second-level processing indexed by the P300: although sensitive to the degree of predictability, responses at this level were contingent on attentional engagement and in fact sharpened by top-down expectation. At the highest level, the drift of the CNV was a fine-grained marker of top-down expectation itself. Source reconstruction of high-density EEG, supported by intracranial recordings, implicated temporal and frontal regions differentially active at early and late levels. The cortical generators of the CNV suggested that it might be involved in facilitating the consolidation of context-salient stimuli into conscious perception. These results provide convergent empirical support to promising recent accounts of attention and expectation in predictive coding. PMID:23825422

  3. Auditory hallucinations suppressed by etizolam in a patient with schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benazzi, F; Mazzoli, M; Rossi, E

    1993-10-01

    A patient presented with a 15 year history of schizophrenia with auditory hallucinations. Though unresponsive to prolonged trials of neuroleptics, the auditory hallucinations disappeared with etizolam. PMID:7902201

  4. Auditory Association Cortex Lesions Impair Auditory Short-Term Memory in Monkeys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colombo, Michael; D'Amato, Michael R.; Rodman, Hillary R.; Gross, Charles G.

    1990-01-01

    Monkeys that were trained to perform auditory and visual short-term memory tasks (delayed matching-to-sample) received lesions of the auditory association cortex in the superior temporal gyrus. Although visual memory was completely unaffected by the lesions, auditory memory was severely impaired. Despite this impairment, all monkeys could discriminate sounds closer in frequency than those used in the auditory memory task. This result suggests that the superior temporal cortex plays a role in auditory processing and retention similar to the role the inferior temporal cortex plays in visual processing and retention.

  5. Auditory Rehabilitation in Rhesus Macaque Monkeys (Macaca mulatta) with Auditory Brainstem Implants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhen-Min Wang; Zhi-Jun Yang; Fu Zhao; Bo Wang; Xing-Chao Wang; Pei-Ran Qu; Pi-Nan Liu

    2015-01-01

    Background:The auditory brainstem implants (ABIs) have been used to treat deafness for patients with neurofibromatosis Type 2 and nontumor patients.The lack of an appropriate animal model has limited the study of improving hearing rehabilitation by the device.This study aimed to establish an animal model of ABI in adult rhesus macaque monkey (Macaca mulatta).Methods:Six adult rhesus macaque monkeys (M.mulatta) were included.Under general anesthesia,a multichannel ABI was implanted into the lateral recess of the fourth ventricle through the modified suboccipital-retrosigmoid (RS) approach.The electrical auditory brainstem response (EABR) waves were tested to ensure the optimal implant site.After the operation,the EABR and computed tomography (CT) were used to test and verify the effectiveness via electrophysiology and anatomy,respectively.The subjects underwent behavioral observation for 6 months,and the postoperative EABR was tested every two weeks from the 1st month after implant surgery.Result:The implant surgery lasted an average of 5.2 h,and no monkey died or sacrificed.The averaged latencies of peaks Ⅰ,Ⅱ and Ⅳ were 1.27,2.34 and 3.98 ms,respectively in the ABR.One-peak EABR wave was elicited in the operation,and one-or two-peak waves were elicited during the postoperative period.The EABR wave latencies appeared to be constant under different stimulus intensities;however,the amplitudes increased as the stimulus increased within a certain scope.Conclusions:It is feasible and safe to implant ABIs in rhesus macaque monkeys (M.mulatta) through a modified suboccipital RS approach,and EABR and CT are valid tools for animal model establishment.In addition,this model should be an appropriate animal model for the electrophysiological and behavioral study of rhesus macaque monkey with ABI.

  6. Spontaneous high-gamma band activity reflects functional organization of auditory cortex in the awake macaque.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukushima, Makoto; Saunders, Richard C; Leopold, David A; Mishkin, Mortimer; Averbeck, Bruno B

    2012-06-01

    In the absence of sensory stimuli, spontaneous activity in the brain has been shown to exhibit organization at multiple spatiotemporal scales. In the macaque auditory cortex, responses to acoustic stimuli are tonotopically organized within multiple, adjacent frequency maps aligned in a caudorostral direction on the supratemporal plane (STP) of the lateral sulcus. Here, we used chronic microelectrocorticography to investigate the correspondence between sensory maps and spontaneous neural fluctuations in the auditory cortex. We first mapped tonotopic organization across 96 electrodes spanning approximately two centimeters along the primary and higher auditory cortex. In separate sessions, we then observed that spontaneous activity at the same sites exhibited spatial covariation that reflected the tonotopic map of the STP. This observation demonstrates a close relationship between functional organization and spontaneous neural activity in the sensory cortex of the awake monkey. PMID:22681693

  7. Narrow, duplicated internal auditory canal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferreira, T. [Servico de Neurorradiologia, Hospital Garcia de Orta, Avenida Torrado da Silva, 2801-951, Almada (Portugal); Shayestehfar, B. [Department of Radiology, UCLA Oliveview School of Medicine, Los Angeles, California (United States); Lufkin, R. [Department of Radiology, UCLA School of Medicine, Los Angeles, California (United States)

    2003-05-01

    A narrow internal auditory canal (IAC) constitutes a relative contraindication to cochlear implantation because it is associated with aplasia or hypoplasia of the vestibulocochlear nerve or its cochlear branch. We report an unusual case of a narrow, duplicated IAC, divided by a bony septum into a superior relatively large portion and an inferior stenotic portion, in which we could identify only the facial nerve. This case adds support to the association between a narrow IAC and aplasia or hypoplasia of the vestibulocochlear nerve. The normal facial nerve argues against the hypothesis that the narrow IAC is the result of a primary bony defect which inhibits the growth of the vestibulocochlear nerve. (orig.)

  8. Auditory brainstem response in dolphins.

    OpenAIRE

    Ridgway, S. H.; Bullock, T H; Carder, D.A.; Seeley, R L; Woods, D.; Galambos, R

    1981-01-01

    We recorded the auditory brainstem response (ABR) in four dolphins (Tursiops truncatus and Delphinus delphis). The ABR evoked by clicks consists of seven waves within 10 msec; two waves often contain dual peaks. The main waves can be identified with those of humans and laboratory mammals; in spite of a much longer path, the latencies of the peaks are almost identical to those of the rat. The dolphin ABR waves increase in latency as the intensity of a sound decreases by only 4 microseconds/dec...

  9. Auditory Processing Disorder and Foreign Language Acquisition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veselovska, Ganna

    2015-01-01

    This article aims at exploring various strategies for coping with the auditory processing disorder in the light of foreign language acquisition. The techniques relevant to dealing with the auditory processing disorder can be attributed to environmental and compensatory approaches. The environmental one involves actions directed at creating a…

  10. Neural correlates of short-term memory in primate auditory cortex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JamesBigelow

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Behaviorally-relevant sounds such as conspecific vocalizations are often available for only a brief amount of time; thus, goal-directed behavior frequently depends on auditory short-term memory (STM. Despite its ecological significance, the neural processes underlying auditory STM remain poorly understood. To investigate the role of the auditory cortex in STM, single- and multi-unit activity was recorded from the primary auditory cortex (A1 of two monkeys performing an auditory STM task using simple and complex sounds. Each trial consisted of a sample and test stimulus separated by a 5-s retention interval. A brief wait period followed the test stimulus, after which subjects pressed a button if the sounds were identical (match trials or withheld button presses if they were different (nonmatch trials. A number of units exhibited significant changes in firing rate for portions of the retention interval, although these changes were rarely sustained. Instead, they were most frequently observed during the early and late portions of the retention interval, with inhibition being observed more frequently than excitation. At the population level, responses elicited on match trials were briefly suppressed early in the sound period relative to nonmatch trials. However, during the latter portion of the sound, firing rates increased significantly for match trials and remained elevated throughout the wait period. Related patterns of activity were observed in prior experiments from our lab in the dorsal temporal pole (dTP and prefrontal cortex (PFC of the same animals. The data suggest that early match suppression occurs in both A1 and the dTP, whereas later match enhancement occurs first in the PFC, followed by A1 and later in dTP. Because match enhancement occurs first in the PFC, we speculate that enhancement observed in A1 and dTP may reflect top-down feedback. Overall, our findings suggest that A1 forms part of the larger neural system recruited during

  11. [Unilateral auditory hallucinations due to left temporal lobe ischemia: a case report].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anegawa, T; Hara, K; Yamamoto, K; Matsuda, M

    1995-10-01

    Unilateral auditory hallucinations are a rare lateralization phenomenon experienced in one ear or from one direction. We recently encountered a 63-year-old right-handed man who developed transient unilateral auditory hallucinations associated with pure word deafness. The patient had a past history of myocardial infarction, lung cancer and aortic aneurysm, but no previous psychiatric or convulsive disorders. About six months before admission, he developed right hemiparesis and motor aphasia caused by a hemorrhagic left parietal infarct. These symptoms gradually improved over three weeks. Two days before admission, he suddenly lost the ability to understand spoken words. He concurrently experienced auditory hallucinations arising from the right anterior direction. On admission, he was very embarrassed to simple verbal commands. He was unable to comprehend spoken words and repeat speech, although he could fairly follow written commands. Confrontation naming, reading aloud, comprehension, spontaneous writing remained relatively unaffected, although he occasionally made paraphasic errors. He could distinguish environmental sounds such as a telephone ringing or running water. After gradual improvement of his auditory incomprehension, he began to describe auditory hallucinations of verbal, musical and elementary types. He was fully aware of the hallucinatory nature of his experience, and took some notes. Two days before admission, from the right anterior side of his head he heard a familiar radio announcer reporting news about the earthquake in Osaka Prefecture and the recommended places of refuge. After similar experiences over several days, he repetitively heard a familiar Japanese traditional song from the right side, which was followed by elementary auditory hallucinations such as a car engine and a siren. These symptoms spontaneously disappeared after nine days. Besides his auditory hallucinations, visual hallucinations and illusional emotion were temporarily present

  12. Heterozygous Reelin Mutations Cause Autosomal-Dominant Lateral Temporal Epilepsy

    OpenAIRE

    Dazzo, Emanuela; Fanciulli, Manuela; Serioli, Elena; Minervini, Giovanni; Pulitano, Patrizia; Binelli, Simona; Di Bonaventura, Carlo; Luisi, Concetta; Pasini, Elena; Striano, Salvatore; Striano, Pasquale; Coppola, Giangennaro; Chiavegato, Angela; Radovic, Slobodanka; Spadotto, Alessandro

    2015-01-01

    Autosomal-dominant lateral temporal epilepsy (ADLTE) is a genetic epilepsy syndrome clinically characterized by focal seizures with prominent auditory symptoms. ADLTE is genetically heterogeneous, and mutations in LGI1 account for fewer than 50% of affected families. Here, we report the identification of causal mutations in reelin (RELN) in seven ADLTE-affected families without LGI1 mutations. We initially investigated 13 ADLTE-affected families by performing SNP-array linkage analysis and wh...

  13. Tactile feedback improves auditory spatial localization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gori, Monica; Vercillo, Tiziana; Sandini, Giulio; Burr, David

    2014-01-01

    Our recent studies suggest that congenitally blind adults have severely impaired thresholds in an auditory spatial bisection task, pointing to the importance of vision in constructing complex auditory spatial maps (Gori et al., 2014). To explore strategies that may improve the auditory spatial sense in visually impaired people, we investigated the impact of tactile feedback on spatial auditory localization in 48 blindfolded sighted subjects. We measured auditory spatial bisection thresholds before and after training, either with tactile feedback, verbal feedback, or no feedback. Audio thresholds were first measured with a spatial bisection task: subjects judged whether the second sound of a three sound sequence was spatially closer to the first or the third sound. The tactile feedback group underwent two audio-tactile feedback sessions of 100 trials, where each auditory trial was followed by the same spatial sequence played on the subject's forearm; auditory spatial bisection thresholds were evaluated after each session. In the verbal feedback condition, the positions of the sounds were verbally reported to the subject after each feedback trial. The no feedback group did the same sequence of trials, with no feedback. Performance improved significantly only after audio-tactile feedback. The results suggest that direct tactile feedback interacts with the auditory spatial localization system, possibly by a process of cross-sensory recalibration. Control tests with the subject rotated suggested that this effect occurs only when the tactile and acoustic sequences are spatially congruent. Our results suggest that the tactile system can be used to recalibrate the auditory sense of space. These results encourage the possibility of designing rehabilitation programs to help blind persons establish a robust auditory sense of space, through training with the tactile modality. PMID:25368587

  14. Tactile feedback improves auditory spatial localization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica eGori

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Our recent studies suggest that congenitally blind adults have severely impaired thresholds in an auditory spatial-bisection task, pointing to the importance of vision in constructing complex auditory spatial maps (Gori et al., 2014. To explore strategies that may improve the auditory spatial sense in visually impaired people, we investigated the impact of tactile feedback on spatial auditory localization in 48 blindfolded sighted subjects. We measured auditory spatial bisection thresholds before and after training, either with tactile feedback, verbal feedback or no feedback. Audio thresholds were first measured with a spatial bisection task: subjects judged whether the second sound of a three sound sequence was spatially closer to the first or the third sound. The tactile-feedback group underwent two audio-tactile feedback sessions of 100 trials, where each auditory trial was followed by the same spatial sequence played on the subject’s forearm; auditory spatial bisection thresholds were evaluated after each session. In the verbal-feedback condition, the positions of the sounds were verbally reported to the subject after each feedback trial. The no-feedback group did the same sequence of trials, with no feedback. Performance improved significantly only after audio-tactile feedback. The results suggest that direct tactile feedback interacts with the auditory spatial localization system, possibly by a process of cross-sensory recalibration. Control tests with the subject rotated suggested that this effect occurs only when the tactile and acoustic sequences are spatially coherent. Our results suggest that the tactile system can be used to recalibrate the auditory sense of space. These results encourage the possibility of designing rehabilitation programs to help blind persons establish a robust auditory sense of space, through training with the tactile modality.

  15. THE EFFECTS OF SALICYLATE ON AUDITORY EVOKED POTENTIAL AMPLITWDE FROM THE AUDITORY CORTEX AND AUDITORY BRAINSTEM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Brian Sawka; SUN Wei

    2014-01-01

    Tinnitus has often been studied using salicylate in animal models as they are capable of inducing tempo-rary hearing loss and tinnitus. Studies have recently observed enhancement of auditory evoked responses of the auditory cortex (AC) post salicylate treatment which is also shown to be related to tinnitus like behavior in rats. The aim of this study was to observe if enhancements of the AC post salicylate treatment are also present at structures in the brainstem. Four male Sprague Dawley rats with AC implanted electrodes were tested for both AC and auditory brainstem response (ABR) recordings pre and post 250 mg/kg intraperitone-al injections of salicylate. The responses were recorded as the peak to trough amplitudes of P1-N1 (AC), ABR wave V, and ABR waveⅡ. AC responses resulted in statistically significant enhancement of ampli-tude at 2 hours post salicylate with 90 dB stimuli tone bursts of 4, 8, 12, and 20 kHz. Wave V of ABR re-sponses at 90 dB resulted in a statistically significant reduction of amplitude 2 hours post salicylate and a mean decrease of amplitude of 31%for 16 kHz. WaveⅡamplitudes at 2 hours post treatment were signifi-cantly reduced for 4, 12, and 20 kHz stimuli at 90 dB SPL. Our results suggest that the enhancement chang-es of the AC related to salicylate induced tinnitus are generated superior to the level of the inferior colliculus and may originate in the AC.

  16. Auditory cortical and hippocampal-system mismatch responses to duration deviants in urethane-anesthetized rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timo Ruusuvirta

    Full Text Available Any change in the invariant aspects of the auditory environment is of potential importance. The human brain preattentively or automatically detects such changes. The mismatch negativity (MMN of event-related potentials (ERPs reflects this initial stage of auditory change detection. The origin of MMN is held to be cortical. The hippocampus is associated with a later generated P3a of ERPs reflecting involuntarily attention switches towards auditory changes that are high in magnitude. The evidence for this cortico-hippocampal dichotomy is scarce, however. To shed further light on this issue, auditory cortical and hippocampal-system (CA1, dentate gyrus, subiculum local-field potentials were recorded in urethane-anesthetized rats. A rare tone in duration (deviant was interspersed with a repeated tone (standard. Two standard-to-standard (SSI and standard-to-deviant (SDI intervals (200 ms vs. 500 ms were applied in different combinations to vary the observability of responses resembling MMN (mismatch responses. Mismatch responses were observed at 51.5-89 ms with the 500-ms SSI coupled with the 200-ms SDI but not with the three remaining combinations. Most importantly, the responses appeared in both the auditory-cortical and hippocampal locations. The findings suggest that the hippocampus may play a role in (cortical manifestation of MMN.

  17. Assembly of the auditory circuitry by a Hox genetic network in the mouse brainstem.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Di Bonito

    Full Text Available Rhombomeres (r contribute to brainstem auditory nuclei during development. Hox genes are determinants of rhombomere-derived fate and neuronal connectivity. Little is known about the contribution of individual rhombomeres and their associated Hox codes to auditory sensorimotor circuitry. Here, we show that r4 contributes to functionally linked sensory and motor components, including the ventral nucleus of lateral lemniscus, posterior ventral cochlear nuclei (VCN, and motor olivocochlear neurons. Assembly of the r4-derived auditory components is involved in sound perception and depends on regulatory interactions between Hoxb1 and Hoxb2. Indeed, in Hoxb1 and Hoxb2 mutant mice the transmission of low-level auditory stimuli is lost, resulting in hearing impairments. On the other hand, Hoxa2 regulates the Rig1 axon guidance receptor and controls contralateral projections from the anterior VCN to the medial nucleus of the trapezoid body, a circuit involved in sound localization. Thus, individual rhombomeres and their associated Hox codes control the assembly of distinct functionally segregated sub-circuits in the developing auditory brainstem.

  18. Auditory agnosia due to long-term severe hydrocephalus caused by spina bifida - specific auditory pathway versus nonspecific auditory pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qing; Kaga, Kimitaka; Hayashi, Akimasa

    2011-07-01

    A 27-year-old female showed auditory agnosia after long-term severe hydrocephalus due to congenital spina bifida. After years of hydrocephalus, she gradually suffered from hearing loss in her right ear at 19 years of age, followed by her left ear. During the time when she retained some ability to hear, she experienced severe difficulty in distinguishing verbal, environmental, and musical instrumental sounds. However, her auditory brainstem response and distortion product otoacoustic emissions were largely intact in the left ear. Her bilateral auditory cortices were preserved, as shown by neuroimaging, whereas her auditory radiations were severely damaged owing to progressive hydrocephalus. Although she had a complete bilateral hearing loss, she felt great pleasure when exposed to music. After years of self-training to read lips, she regained fluent ability to communicate. Clinical manifestations of this patient indicate that auditory agnosia can occur after long-term hydrocephalus due to spina bifida; the secondary auditory pathway may play a role in both auditory perception and hearing rehabilitation. PMID:21413843

  19. A Comparison of Three Auditory Discrimination-Perception Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koenke, Karl

    1978-01-01

    Comparisons were made between scores of 52 third graders on three measures of auditory discrimination: Wepman's Auditory Discrimination Test, the Goldman-Fristoe Woodcock (GFW) Test of Auditory Discrimination, and the Kimmell-Wahl Screening Test of Auditory Perception (STAP). (CL)

  20. Sexuality in Later Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... raquo Sexuality in Later Life Heath and Aging Sexuality in Later Life What Are Normal Changes? What ... Depression can be treated. What Else May Cause Sexuality Problems? Surgery. Many of us worry about having ...

  1. Tennis Elbow (Lateral Epicondylitis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    .org Tennis Elbow (Lateral Epicondylitis) Page ( 1 ) Tennis elbow, or lateral epicondyliti s, is a painful condition of the elbow caused by overuse. Not surprisingly, playing tennis or other racquet sports can ...

  2. Auditory Efferent System Modulates Mosquito Hearing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrés, Marta; Seifert, Marvin; Spalthoff, Christian; Warren, Ben; Weiss, Lukas; Giraldo, Diego; Winkler, Margret; Pauls, Stephanie; Göpfert, Martin C

    2016-08-01

    The performance of vertebrate ears is controlled by auditory efferents that originate in the brain and innervate the ear, synapsing onto hair cell somata and auditory afferent fibers [1-3]. Efferent activity can provide protection from noise and facilitate the detection and discrimination of sound by modulating mechanical amplification by hair cells and transmitter release as well as auditory afferent action potential firing [1-3]. Insect auditory organs are thought to lack efferent control [4-7], but when we inspected mosquito ears, we obtained evidence for its existence. Antibodies against synaptic proteins recognized rows of bouton-like puncta running along the dendrites and axons of mosquito auditory sensory neurons. Electron microscopy identified synaptic and non-synaptic sites of vesicle release, and some of the innervating fibers co-labeled with somata in the CNS. Octopamine, GABA, and serotonin were identified as efferent neurotransmitters or neuromodulators that affect auditory frequency tuning, mechanical amplification, and sound-evoked potentials. Mosquito brains thus modulate mosquito ears, extending the use of auditory efferent systems from vertebrates to invertebrates and adding new levels of complexity to mosquito sound detection and communication. PMID:27476597

  3. Spatial auditory processing in pinnipeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holt, Marla M.

    Given the biological importance of sound for a variety of activities, pinnipeds must be able to obtain spatial information about their surroundings thorough acoustic input in the absence of other sensory cues. The three chapters of this dissertation address spatial auditory processing capabilities of pinnipeds in air given that these amphibious animals use acoustic signals for reproduction and survival on land. Two chapters are comparative lab-based studies that utilized psychophysical approaches conducted in an acoustic chamber. Chapter 1 addressed the frequency-dependent sound localization abilities at azimuth of three pinniped species (the harbor seal, Phoca vitulina, the California sea lion, Zalophus californianus, and the northern elephant seal, Mirounga angustirostris). While performances of the sea lion and harbor seal were consistent with the duplex theory of sound localization, the elephant seal, a low-frequency hearing specialist, showed a decreased ability to localize the highest frequencies tested. In Chapter 2 spatial release from masking (SRM), which occurs when a signal and masker are spatially separated resulting in improvement in signal detectability relative to conditions in which they are co-located, was determined in a harbor seal and sea lion. Absolute and masked thresholds were measured at three frequencies and azimuths to determine the detection advantages afforded by this type of spatial auditory processing. Results showed that hearing sensitivity was enhanced by up to 19 and 12 dB in the harbor seal and sea lion, respectively, when the signal and masker were spatially separated. Chapter 3 was a field-based study that quantified both sender and receiver variables of the directional properties of male northern elephant seal calls produce within communication system that serves to delineate dominance status. This included measuring call directivity patterns, observing male-male vocally-mediated interactions, and an acoustic playback study

  4. Auditory Connections and Functions of Prefrontal Cortex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BethanyPlakke

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The functional auditory system extends from the ears to the frontal lobes with successively more complex functions occurring as one ascends the hierarchy of the nervous system. Several areas of the frontal lobe receive afferents from both early and late auditory processing regions within the temporal lobe. Afferents from the early part of the cortical auditory system, the auditory belt cortex, which are presumed to carry information regarding auditory features of sounds, project to only a few prefrontal regions and are most dense in the ventrolateral prefrontal cortex (VLPFC. In contrast, projections from the parabelt and the rostral superior temporal gyrus (STG most likely convey more complex information and target a larger, widespread region of the prefrontal cortex. Neuronal responses reflect these anatomical projections as some prefrontal neurons exhibit responses to features in acoustic stimuli, while other neurons display task-related responses. For example, recording studies in non-human primates indicate that VLPFC is responsive to complex sounds including vocalizations and that VLPFC neurons in area 12/47 respond to sounds with similar acoustic morphology. In contrast, neuronal responses during auditory working memory involve a wider region of the prefrontal cortex. In humans, the frontal lobe is involved in auditory detection, discrimination, and working memory. Past research suggests that dorsal and ventral subregions of the prefrontal cortex process different types of information with dorsal cortex processing spatial/visual information and ventral cortex processing non-spatial/auditory information. While this is apparent in the non-human primate and in some neuroimaging studies, most research in humans indicates that specific task conditions, stimuli or previous experience may bias the recruitment of specific prefrontal regions, suggesting a more flexible role for the frontal lobe during auditory cognition.

  5. Functional Neurochemistry of the Auditory System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nourollah Agha Ebrahimi

    1993-03-01

    Full Text Available Functional Neurochemistry is one of the fields of studies in the auditory system which has had an outstanding development in the recent years. Many of the findings in the mentioned field had led not only the basic auditory researches but also the clinicians to new points of view in audiology.Here, we are aimed at discussing the latest investigations in the Functional Neurochemistry of the auditory system and have focused this review mainly on the researches which will arise flashes of hope for future clinical studies

  6. Auditory Neuropathy/Dyssynchrony in Biotinidase Deficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaghini, Omid

    2016-01-01

    Biotinidase deficiency is a disorder inherited autosomal recessively showing evidence of hearing loss and optic atrophy in addition to seizures, hypotonia, and ataxia. In the present study, a 2-year-old boy with Biotinidase deficiency is presented in which clinical symptoms have been reported with auditory neuropathy/auditory dyssynchrony (AN/AD). In this case, transient-evoked otoacoustic emissions showed bilaterally normal responses representing normal function of outer hair cells. In contrast, acoustic reflex test showed absent reflexes bilaterally, and visual reinforcement audiometry and auditory brainstem responses indicated severe to profound hearing loss in both ears. These results suggest AN/AD in patients with Biotinidase deficiency. PMID:27144235

  7. Functional Neurochemistry of the Auditory System

    OpenAIRE

    Nourollah Agha Ebrahimi

    1993-01-01

    Functional Neurochemistry is one of the fields of studies in the auditory system which has had an outstanding development in the recent years. Many of the findings in the mentioned field had led not only the basic auditory researches but also the clinicians to new points of view in audiology.Here, we are aimed at discussing the latest investigations in the Functional Neurochemistry of the auditory system and have focused this review mainly on the researches which will arise flashes of hope f...

  8. Assessing the aging effect on auditory-verbal memory by Persian version of dichotic auditory verbal memory test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Shahidipour

    2014-01-01

    Conclusion: Based on the obtained results, significant reduction in auditory memory was seen in aged group and the Persian version of dichotic auditory-verbal memory test, like many other auditory verbal memory tests, showed the aging effects on auditory verbal memory performance.

  9. Physiological Measures of Auditory Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kollmeier, Birger; Riedel, Helmut; Mauermann, Manfred; Uppenkamp, Stefan

    When acoustic signals enter the ears, they pass several processing stages of various complexities before they will be perceived. The auditory pathway can be separated into structures dealing with sound transmission in air (i.e. the outer ear, ear canal, and the vibration of tympanic membrane), structures dealing with the transformation of sound pressure waves into mechanical vibrations of the inner ear fluids (i.e. the tympanic membrane, ossicular chain, and the oval window), structures carrying mechanical vibrations in the fluid-filled inner ear (i.e. the cochlea with basilar membrane, tectorial membrane, and hair cells), structures that transform mechanical oscillations into a neural code, and finally several stages of neural processing in the brain along the pathway from the brainstem to the cortex.

  10. Seeing the Song: Left Auditory Structures May Track Auditory-Visual Dynamic Alignment

    OpenAIRE

    Mossbridge, Julia A.; Grabowecky, Marcia; Suzuki, Satoru

    2013-01-01

    Auditory and visual signals generated by a single source tend to be temporally correlated, such as the synchronous sounds of footsteps and the limb movements of a walker. Continuous tracking and comparison of the dynamics of auditory-visual streams is thus useful for the perceptual binding of information arising from a common source. Although language-related mechanisms have been implicated in the tracking of speech-related auditory-visual signals (e.g., speech sounds and lip movements), it i...

  11. AUDITORY CORTICAL PLASTICITY: DOES IT PROVIDE EVIDENCE FOR COGNITIVE PROCESSING IN THE AUDITORY CORTEX?

    OpenAIRE

    Irvine, Dexter R. F.

    2007-01-01

    The past 20 years have seen substantial changes in our view of the nature of the processing carried out in auditory cortex. Some processing of a cognitive nature, previously attributed to higher order “association” areas, is now considered to take place in auditory cortex itself. One argument adduced in support of this view is the evidence indicating a remarkable degree of plasticity in the auditory cortex of adult animals. Such plasticity has been demonstrated in a wide range of paradigms, i...

  12. Lateral flow strip assay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miles, Robin R.; Benett, William J.; Coleman, Matthew A.; Pearson, Francesca S.; Nasarabadi, Shanavaz L.

    2011-03-08

    A lateral flow strip assay apparatus comprising a housing; a lateral flow strip in the housing, the lateral flow strip having a receiving portion; a sample collection unit; and a reagent reservoir. Saliva and/or buccal cells are collected from an individual using the sample collection unit. The sample collection unit is immersed in the reagent reservoir. The tip of the lateral flow strip is immersed in the reservoir and the reagent/sample mixture wicks up into the lateral flow strip to perform the assay.

  13. Multimodal Diffusion-MRI and MEG Assessment of Auditory and Language System Development in Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey I Berman

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Auditory processing and language impairments are prominent in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD. The present study integrated diffusion MR measures of white-matter microstructure and magnetoencephalography (MEG measures of cortical dynamics to investigate associations between brain structure and function within auditory and language systems in ASD. Based on previous findings, abnormal structure-function relationships in auditory and language systems in ASD were hypothesized. Methods: Evaluable neuroimaging data was obtained from 44 typically developing (TD children (mean age 10.4±2.4years and 95 children with ASD (mean age 10.2±2.6years. Diffusion MR tractography was used to delineate and quantitatively assess the auditory radiation and arcuate fasciculus segments of the auditory and language systems. MEG was used to measure (1 superior temporal gyrus auditory evoked M100 latency in response to pure-tone stimuli as an indicator of auditory system conduction velocity, and (2 auditory vowel-contrast mismatch field (MMF latency as a passive probe of early linguistic processes. Results: Atypical development of white matter and cortical function, along with atypical lateralization, were present in ASD. In both auditory and language systems, white matter integrity and cortical electrophysiology were found to be coupled in typically developing children, with white matter microstructural features contributing significantly to electrophysiological response latencies. However, in ASD, we observed uncoupled structure-function relationships in both auditory and language systems. Regression analyses in ASD indicated that factors other than white-matter microstructure additionally contribute to the latency of neural evoked responses and ultimately behavior. Results also indicated that whereas delayed M100 is a marker for ASD severity, MMF delay is more associated with language impairment. Conclusion: Present findings suggest atypical

  14. Frequency band-importance functions for auditory and auditory-visual speech recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, Ken W.

    2005-04-01

    In many everyday listening environments, speech communication involves the integration of both acoustic and visual speech cues. This is especially true in noisy and reverberant environments where the speech signal is highly degraded, or when the listener has a hearing impairment. Understanding the mechanisms involved in auditory-visual integration is a primary interest of this work. Of particular interest is whether listeners are able to allocate their attention to various frequency regions of the speech signal differently under auditory-visual conditions and auditory-alone conditions. For auditory speech recognition, the most important frequency regions tend to be around 1500-3000 Hz, corresponding roughly to important acoustic cues for place of articulation. The purpose of this study is to determine the most important frequency region under auditory-visual speech conditions. Frequency band-importance functions for auditory and auditory-visual conditions were obtained by having subjects identify speech tokens under conditions where the speech-to-noise ratio of different parts of the speech spectrum is independently and randomly varied on every trial. Point biserial correlations were computed for each separate spectral region and the normalized correlations are interpreted as weights indicating the importance of each region. Relations among frequency-importance functions for auditory and auditory-visual conditions will be discussed.

  15. In search of an auditory engram

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fritz, Jonathan; Mishkin, Mortimer; Saunders, Richard C.

    2005-01-01

    Monkeys trained preoperatively on a task designed to assess auditory recognition memory were impaired after removal of either the rostral superior temporal gyrus or the medial temporal lobe but were unaffected by lesions of the rhinal cortex. Behavioral analysis indicated that this result occurred because the monkeys did not or could not use long-term auditory recognition, and so depended instead on short-term working memory, which is unaffected by rhinal lesions. The findings suggest that monkeys may be unable to place representations of auditory stimuli into a long-term store and thus question whether the monkey's cerebral memory mechanisms in audition are intrinsically different from those in other sensory modalities. Furthermore, it raises the possibility that language is unique to humans not only because it depends on speech but also because it requires long-term auditory memory. PMID:15967995

  16. Auditory stimulation and cardiac autonomic regulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vitor E. Valenti

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies have already demonstrated that auditory stimulation with music influences the cardiovascular system. In this study, we described the relationship between musical auditory stimulation and heart rate variability. Searches were performed with the Medline, SciELO, Lilacs and Cochrane databases using the following keywords: "auditory stimulation", "autonomic nervous system", "music" and "heart rate variability". The selected studies indicated that there is a strong correlation between noise intensity and vagal-sympathetic balance. Additionally, it was reported that music therapy improved heart rate variability in anthracycline-treated breast cancer patients. It was hypothesized that dopamine release in the striatal system induced by pleasurable songs is involved in cardiac autonomic regulation. Musical auditory stimulation influences heart rate variability through a neural mechanism that is not well understood. Further studies are necessary to develop new therapies to treat cardiovascular disorders.

  17. Auditory filters at low-frequencies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Orellana, Carlos Andrés Jurado; Pedersen, Christian Sejer; Møller, Henrik

    2009-01-01

    Prediction and assessment of low-frequency noise problems requires information about the auditory filter characteristics at low-frequencies. Unfortunately, data at low-frequencies is scarce and practically no results have been published for frequencies below 100 Hz. Extrapolation of ERB results...... from previous studies suggests the filter bandwidth keeps decreasing below 100 Hz, although at a relatively lower rate than at higher frequencies. Main characteristics of the auditory filter were studied from below 100 Hz up to 1000 Hz. Center frequencies evaluated were 50, 63, 125, 250, 500, and 1000......-ear transfer function), the asymmetry of the auditory filter changed from steeper high-frequency slopes at 1000 Hz to steeper low-frequency slopes below 100 Hz. Increasing steepness at low-frequencies of the middle-ear high-pass filter is thought to cause this effect. The dynamic range of the auditory filter...

  18. Environment for Auditory Research Facility (EAR)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — EAR is an auditory perception and communication research center enabling state-of-the-art simulation of various indoor and outdoor acoustic environments. The heart...

  19. Auditory motion capturing ambiguous visual motion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ArjenAlink

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, it is demonstrated that moving sounds have an effect on the direction in which one sees visual stimuli move. During the main experiment sounds were presented consecutively at four speaker locations inducing left- or rightwards auditory apparent motion. On the path of auditory apparent motion, visual apparent motion stimuli were presented with a high degree of directional ambiguity. The main outcome of this experiment is that our participants perceived visual apparent motion stimuli that were ambiguous (equally likely to be perceived as moving left- or rightwards more often as moving in the same direction than in the opposite direction of auditory apparent motion. During the control experiment we replicated this finding and found no effect of sound motion direction on eye movements. This indicates that auditory motion can capture our visual motion percept when visual motion direction is insufficiently determinate without affecting eye movements.

  20. Effect of omega-3 on auditory system

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    Vida Rahimi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Omega-3 fatty acid have structural and biological roles in the body 's various systems . Numerous studies have tried to research about it. Auditory system is affected a s well. The aim of this article was to review the researches about the effect of omega-3 on auditory system.Methods: We searched Medline , Google Scholar, PubMed, Cochrane Library and SID search engines with the "auditory" and "omega-3" keywords and read textbooks about this subject between 19 70 and 20 13.Conclusion: Both excess and deficient amounts of dietary omega-3 fatty acid can cause harmful effects on fetal and infant growth and development of brain and central nervous system esspesially auditory system. It is important to determine the adequate dosage of omega-3.

  1. Mechanisms and streams for processing of “what” and “where” in auditory cortex

    OpenAIRE

    Rauschecker, Josef P; Tian, Biao

    2000-01-01

    The functional specialization and hierarchical organization of multiple areas in rhesus monkey auditory cortex were examined with various types of complex sounds. Neurons in the lateral belt areas of the superior temporal gyrus were tuned to the best center frequency and bandwidth of band-passed noise bursts. They were also selective for the rate and direction of linear frequency modulated sweeps. Many neurons showed a preference for a limited number of species-specifi...

  2. Using Concha Electrodes to Measure Cochlear Microphonic Waveforms and Auditory Brainstem Responses

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Ming

    2010-01-01

    During electrocochleography, that is, ECochG or ECoG, a recording electrode can be placed in the ear canal lateral to the tympanic membrane. We designed a concha electrode to record both sinusoidal waveforms of cochlear microphonics (CMs) and auditory brainstem responses (ABRs). The amplitudes of CM waveforms and Wave I or compound action potentials (CAPs) recorded at the concha were greater than those recorded at the mastoid but slightly lower than those recorded at the ear canal. Wave V amp...

  3. Corticofugal modulation of peripheral auditory responses

    OpenAIRE

    Terreros, Gonzalo; Delano, Paul H.

    2015-01-01

    The auditory efferent system originates in the auditory cortex and projects to the medial geniculate body (MGB), inferior colliculus (IC), cochlear nucleus (CN) and superior olivary complex (SOC) reaching the cochlea through olivocochlear (OC) fibers. This unique neuronal network is organized in several afferent-efferent feedback loops including: the (i) colliculo-thalamic-cortico-collicular; (ii) cortico-(collicular)-OC; and (iii) cortico-(collicular)-CN pathways. Recent experiments demonstr...

  4. Corticofugal modulation of peripheral auditory responses

    OpenAIRE

    Paul Hinckley Delano

    2015-01-01

    The auditory efferent system originates in the auditory cortex and projects to the medial geniculate body, inferior colliculus, cochlear nucleus and superior olivary complex reaching the cochlea through olivocochlear fibers. This unique neuronal network is organized in several afferent-efferent feedback loops including: the (i) colliculo-thalamic-cortico-collicular, (ii) cortico-(collicular)-olivocochlear and (iii) cortico-(collicular)-cochlear nucleus pathways. Recent experiments demonstrate...

  5. Auditory memory function in expert chess players

    OpenAIRE

    Fattahi, Fariba; Geshani, Ahmad; Jafari, Zahra; Jalaie, Shohreh; Salman Mahini, Mona

    2015-01-01

    Background: Chess is a game that involves many aspects of high level cognition such as memory, attention, focus and problem solving. Long term practice of chess can improve cognition performances and behavioral skills. Auditory memory, as a kind of memory, can be influenced by strengthening processes following long term chess playing like other behavioral skills because of common processing pathways in the brain. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the auditory memory function of expert...

  6. Music perception, pitch, and the auditory system

    OpenAIRE

    McDermott, Josh H.; Oxenham, Andrew J.

    2008-01-01

    The perception of music depends on many culture-specific factors, but is also constrained by properties of the auditory system. This has been best characterized for those aspects of music that involve pitch. Pitch sequences are heard in terms of relative, as well as absolute, pitch. Pitch combinations give rise to emergent properties not present in the component notes. In this review we discuss the basic auditory mechanisms contributing to these and other perceptual effects in music.

  7. Auditory brain-stem responses in syphilis.

    OpenAIRE

    Rosenhall, U; Roupe, G

    1981-01-01

    Analysis of auditory brain-stem electrical responses (BSER) provides an effective means of detecting lesions in the auditory pathways. In the present study the wave patterns were analysed in 11 patients with secondary or latent syphilis with no clinical symptoms referrable to the central nervous system and in two patients with congenital syphilis and general paralysis. Decreased amplitudes and prolonged latencies occurred frequently in patients with secondary and with advanced syphilis. This ...

  8. Auditory sequence analysis and phonological skill

    OpenAIRE

    Grube, Manon; Kumar, Sukhbinder; Cooper, Freya E.; Turton, Stuart; Griffiths, Timothy D

    2012-01-01

    This work tests the relationship between auditory and phonological skill in a non-selected cohort of 238 school students (age 11) with the specific hypothesis that sound-sequence analysis would be more relevant to phonological skill than the analysis of basic, single sounds. Auditory processing was assessed across the domains of pitch, time and timbre; a combination of six standard tests of literacy and language ability was used to assess phonological skill. A significant correlation between ...

  9. Speech Evoked Auditory Brainstem Response in Stuttering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Akbar Tahaei

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Auditory processing deficits have been hypothesized as an underlying mechanism for stuttering. Previous studies have demonstrated abnormal responses in subjects with persistent developmental stuttering (PDS at the higher level of the central auditory system using speech stimuli. Recently, the potential usefulness of speech evoked auditory brainstem responses in central auditory processing disorders has been emphasized. The current study used the speech evoked ABR to investigate the hypothesis that subjects with PDS have specific auditory perceptual dysfunction. Objectives. To determine whether brainstem responses to speech stimuli differ between PDS subjects and normal fluent speakers. Methods. Twenty-five subjects with PDS participated in this study. The speech-ABRs were elicited by the 5-formant synthesized syllable/da/, with duration of 40 ms. Results. There were significant group differences for the onset and offset transient peaks. Subjects with PDS had longer latencies for the onset and offset peaks relative to the control group. Conclusions. Subjects with PDS showed a deficient neural timing in the early stages of the auditory pathway consistent with temporal processing deficits and their abnormal timing may underlie to their disfluency.

  10. Improvement of auditory hallucinations and reduction of primary auditory area's activation following TMS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background: In the present case study, improvement of auditory hallucinations following transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) therapy was investigated with respect to activation changes of the auditory cortices. Methods: Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), activation of the auditory cortices was assessed prior to and after a 4-week TMS series of the left superior temporal gyrus in a schizophrenic patient with medication-resistant auditory hallucinations. Results: Hallucinations decreased slightly after the third and profoundly after the fourth week of TMS. Activation in the primary auditory area decreased, whereas activation in the operculum and insula remained stable. Conclusions: Combination of TMS and repetitive fMRI is promising to elucidate the physiological changes induced by TMS.

  11. External auditory canal carcinoma treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    External auditory canal (EAC) carcinomas are relatively rare conditions lack on established treatment strategy. We analyzed a treatment modalities and outcome in 32 cases of EAC squamous cell carcinoma treated between 1980 and 2008. Subjects-17 men and 15 women ranging from 33 to 92 years old (average: 66) were divided by Arriaga's tumor staging into 12 T1, 5 T2, 6 T3, and 9 T4. Survival was calculated by the Kaplan-Meier method. Disease-specific 5-year survival was 100% for T1, T2, 44% for T3, and 33% for T4. In contrast to 100% 5-year survival for T1+T2 cancer, the 5-year survival for T3+T4 cancer was 37% with high recurrence due to positive surgical margins. The first 22 years of the 29 years surveyed, we performed surgery mainly, and irradiation or chemotherapy was selected for early disease or cases with positive surgical margins as postoperative therapy. During the 22-years, 5-year survival with T3+T4 cancer was 20%. After we started superselective intra-arterial (IA) rapid infusion chemotherapy combined with radiotherapy in 2003, we achieved negative surgical margins for advanced disease, and 5-year survival for T3+T4 cancer rise to 80%. (author)

  12. Parvalbumin increases in the medial and lateral geniculate nuclei of aged rhesus macaques.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel T Gray

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Subcortical auditory structures in the macaque auditory system increase their densities of neurons expressing the calcium binding protein parvalbumin (PV with age. However, it is unknown whether these increases occur in the thalamic division of the auditory system, the medial geniculate nucleus (MGN. Furthermore, it is also unclear whether these age-related changes are specific to the macaque auditory system or are generalized to other sensory systems. To address these questions, the PV immunoreactivity of the medial and lateral geniculate nuclei (LGN from seven rhesus macaques ranging in age from 15 to 35 was assessed. Densities of PV expressing neurons in the three subdivisions of the MGN and the six layers of the LGN were calculated separately using unbiased stereological sampling techniques. We found that the ventral and magnocellular subdivisions of the MGN and all six layers of the LGN increased their expressions of PV with age, although increases in the MGN were greater in magnitude than in the LGN. Together, these results suggest that the MGN shows age-related increases in PV expression as is seen throughout the macaque ascending auditory system, and that the analogous region of the visual system shows smaller increases. We conclude that, while there are some similarities between sensory systems, the age-related neurochemical changes seen throughout the macaque auditory system cannot be fully generalized to other sensory systems.

  13. Efficacy of auditory training in elderly subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline Albuquerque Morais

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Auditory training (AT  has been used for auditory rehabilitation in elderly individuals and is an effective tool for optimizing speech processing in this population. However, it is necessary to distinguish training-related improvements from placebo and test-retest effects. Thus, we investigated the efficacy of short-term auditory training (acoustically controlled auditory training - ACAT in elderly subjects through behavioral measures and P300. Sixteen elderly individuals with APD received an initial evaluation (evaluation 1 - E1 consisting of behavioral and electrophysiological tests (P300 evoked by tone burst and speech sounds to evaluate their auditory processing. The individuals were divided into two groups. The Active Control Group [ACG (n=8] underwent placebo training. The Passive Control Group [PCG (n=8] did not receive any intervention. After 12 weeks, the subjects were  revaluated (evaluation 2 - E2. Then, all of the subjects underwent ACAT. Following another 12 weeks (8 training sessions, they underwent the final evaluation (evaluation 3 – E3. There was no significant difference between E1 and E2 in the behavioral test [F(9.6=0,.6 p=0.92, λ de Wilks=0.65] or P300 [F(8.7=2.11, p=0.17, λ de Wilks=0.29] (discarding the presence of placebo effects and test-retest. A significant improvement was observed between the pre- and post-ACAT conditions (E2 and E3 for all auditory skills according to the behavioral methods [F(4.27=0.18, p=0.94, λ de Wilks=0.97]. However, the same result was not observed for P300 in any condition. There was no significant difference between P300 stimuli. The ACAT improved the behavioral performance of the elderly for all auditory skills and was an effective method for hearing rehabilitation.

  14. Learning auditory space: generalization and long-term effects.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catarina Mendonça

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Previous findings have shown that humans can learn to localize with altered auditory space cues. Here we analyze such learning processes and their effects up to one month on both localization accuracy and sound externalization. Subjects were trained and retested, focusing on the effects of stimulus type in learning, stimulus type in localization, stimulus position, previous experience, externalization levels, and time. METHOD: We trained listeners in azimuth and elevation discrimination in two experiments. Half participated in the azimuth experiment first and half in the elevation first. In each experiment, half were trained in speech sounds and half in white noise. Retests were performed at several time intervals: just after training and one hour, one day, one week and one month later. In a control condition, we tested the effect of systematic retesting over time with post-tests only after training and either one day, one week, or one month later. RESULTS: With training all participants lowered their localization errors. This benefit was still present one month after training. Participants were more accurate in the second training phase, revealing an effect of previous experience on a different task. Training with white noise led to better results than training with speech sounds. Moreover, the training benefit generalized to untrained stimulus-position pairs. Throughout the post-tests externalization levels increased. In the control condition the long-term localization improvement was not lower without additional contact with the trained sounds, but externalization levels were lower. CONCLUSION: Our findings suggest that humans adapt easily to altered auditory space cues and that such adaptation spreads to untrained positions and sound types. We propose that such learning depends on all available cues, but each cue type might be learned and retrieved differently. The process of localization learning is global, not limited to

  15. Gene Transfer into the Chicken Auditory Organ by In Ovo Micro-electroporation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evsen, Lale; Doetzlhofer, Angelika

    2016-01-01

    Chicken embryos are ideal model systems for studying embryonic development as manipulations of gene function can be conducted with relative ease in ovo. The inner ear auditory sensory organ is critical for our ability to hear. It houses a highly specialized sensory epithelium that consists of mechano-transducing hair cells (HCs) and surrounding glial-like supporting cells (SCs). Despite structural differences in the auditory organs, molecular mechanisms regulating the development of the auditory organ are evolutionarily conserved between mammals and aves. In ovo electroporation is largely limited to early stages at E1 - E3. Due to the relative late development of the auditory organ at E5, manipulations of the auditory organ by in ovo electroporation past E3 are difficult due to the advanced development of the chicken embryo at later stages. The method presented here is a transient gene transfer method for targeting genes of interest at stage E4 - E4.5 in the developing chicken auditory sensory organ via in ovo micro-electroporation. This method is applicable for gain- and loss-of-functions with conventional plasmid DNA-based expression vectors and can be combined with in ovo cell proliferation assay by adding EdU (5-ethynyl-2´-deoxyuridine) to the whole embryo at the time of electroporation. The use of green or red fluorescent protein (GFP or RFP) expression plasmids allows the experimenter to quickly determine whether the electroporation successfully targeted the auditory portion of the developing inner ear. In this method paper, representative examples of GFP electroporated specimens are illustrated; embryos were harvested 18 - 96 hr after electroporation and targeting of GFP to the pro-sensory area of the auditory organ was confirmed by RNA in situ hybridization. The method paper also provides an optimized protocol for the use of the thymidine analog EdU to analyze cell proliferation; an example of an EdU based cell proliferation assay that combines immuno

  16. Functional and effective connectivity in an fMRI study of an auditory-related task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caclin, Anne; Fonlupt, Pierre

    2006-05-01

    This study investigates the sets of brain areas that are functionally connected during an auditory goal-directed task. We used a paradigm including a resting state condition and an active condition, which consisted in active listening to the footsteps of walking humans. The regional brain activity was measured using fMRI and the adjusted values of activity in brain regions involved in the task were analysed using both principal component analysis and structural equation modelling. A first set of connected areas includes regions located in Heschl's gyrus, planum temporale, posterior superior temporal sulcus (in the so-called 'social cognition' area), and parietal lobe. This network could be responsible for the perceptual integration of the auditory signal. A second set encompassing frontal regions is related to attentional control. Dorsolateral- and medial-prefrontal cortex have mutual negative influences which are similar to those described during a visual goal-directed task [T. Chaminade & P. Fonlupt (2003) Eur. J. Neurosci., 18, 675-679.]. Moreover, the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) exerts a positive influence on the auditory areas during the task, as well as a strong negative influence on the visual areas. These results show that: (i) the negative influence between the medial and lateral parts of the frontal cortex during a goal-directed task is not dependent on the input modality (visual or auditory), and (ii) the DLPFC activates the pathway of the relevant sensory modality and inhibits the nonrelevant sensory modality pathway. PMID:16706860

  17. Auditory fMRI of Sound Intensity and Loudness for Unilateral Stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behler, Oliver; Uppenkamp, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    We report a systematic exploration of the interrelation of sound intensity, ear of entry, individual loudness judgments, and brain activity across hemispheres, using auditory functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). The stimuli employed were 4 kHz-bandpass filtered noise stimuli, presented monaurally to each ear at levels from 37 to 97 dB SPL. One diotic condition and a silence condition were included as control conditions. Normal hearing listeners completed a categorical loudness scaling procedure with similar stimuli before auditory fMRI was performed. The relationship between brain activity, as inferred from blood oxygenation level dependent (BOLD) contrasts, and both sound intensity and loudness estimates were analyzed by means of linear mixed effects models for various anatomically defined regions of interest in the ascending auditory pathway and in the cortex. The results indicate distinct functional differences between midbrain and cortical areas as well as between specific regions within auditory cortex, suggesting a systematic hierarchy in terms of lateralization and the representation of sensory stimulation and perception. PMID:27080657

  18. Auditory and motor imagery modulate learning in music performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Rachel M.; Palmer, Caroline

    2013-01-01

    Skilled performers such as athletes or musicians can improve their performance by imagining the actions or sensory outcomes associated with their skill. Performers vary widely in their auditory and motor imagery abilities, and these individual differences influence sensorimotor learning. It is unknown whether imagery abilities influence both memory encoding and retrieval. We examined how auditory and motor imagery abilities influence musicians' encoding (during Learning, as they practiced novel melodies), and retrieval (during Recall of those melodies). Pianists learned melodies by listening without performing (auditory learning) or performing without sound (motor learning); following Learning, pianists performed the melodies from memory with auditory feedback (Recall). During either Learning (Experiment 1) or Recall (Experiment 2), pianists experienced either auditory interference, motor interference, or no interference. Pitch accuracy (percentage of correct pitches produced) and temporal regularity (variability of quarter-note interonset intervals) were measured at Recall. Independent tests measured auditory and motor imagery skills. Pianists' pitch accuracy was higher following auditory learning than following motor learning and lower in motor interference conditions (Experiments 1 and 2). Both auditory and motor imagery skills improved pitch accuracy overall. Auditory imagery skills modulated pitch accuracy encoding (Experiment 1): Higher auditory imagery skill corresponded to higher pitch accuracy following auditory learning with auditory or motor interference, and following motor learning with motor or no interference. These findings suggest that auditory imagery abilities decrease vulnerability to interference and compensate for missing auditory feedback at encoding. Auditory imagery skills also influenced temporal regularity at retrieval (Experiment 2): Higher auditory imagery skill predicted greater temporal regularity during Recall in the presence of

  19. Auditory and motor imagery modulate learning in music performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Rachel M; Palmer, Caroline

    2013-01-01

    Skilled performers such as athletes or musicians can improve their performance by imagining the actions or sensory outcomes associated with their skill. Performers vary widely in their auditory and motor imagery abilities, and these individual differences influence sensorimotor learning. It is unknown whether imagery abilities influence both memory encoding and retrieval. We examined how auditory and motor imagery abilities influence musicians' encoding (during Learning, as they practiced novel melodies), and retrieval (during Recall of those melodies). Pianists learned melodies by listening without performing (auditory learning) or performing without sound (motor learning); following Learning, pianists performed the melodies from memory with auditory feedback (Recall). During either Learning (Experiment 1) or Recall (Experiment 2), pianists experienced either auditory interference, motor interference, or no interference. Pitch accuracy (percentage of correct pitches produced) and temporal regularity (variability of quarter-note interonset intervals) were measured at Recall. Independent tests measured auditory and motor imagery skills. Pianists' pitch accuracy was higher following auditory learning than following motor learning and lower in motor interference conditions (Experiments 1 and 2). Both auditory and motor imagery skills improved pitch accuracy overall. Auditory imagery skills modulated pitch accuracy encoding (Experiment 1): Higher auditory imagery skill corresponded to higher pitch accuracy following auditory learning with auditory or motor interference, and following motor learning with motor or no interference. These findings suggest that auditory imagery abilities decrease vulnerability to interference and compensate for missing auditory feedback at encoding. Auditory imagery skills also influenced temporal regularity at retrieval (Experiment 2): Higher auditory imagery skill predicted greater temporal regularity during Recall in the presence of

  20. Auditory Model Identification Using REVCOR Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lamia Bouafif

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Auditory models are very useful in many applications such as speech coding and compression, cochlea prosthesis, and audio watermarking. In this paper we will develop a new auditory model based on the REVCOR method. This technique is based on the estimation of the impulse response of a suitable filter characterizing the auditory neuron and the cochlea. The first step of our study is focused on the development of a mathematical model based on the gammachirp system. This model is then programmed, implemented and simulated under Matlab. The obtained results are compared with the experimental values (REVCOR experiments for the validation and a better optimization of the model parameters. Two objective criteria are used in order to optimize the audio model estimation which are the SNR (signal to noise ratio and the MQE (mean quadratic error. The simulation results demonstrated that for the auditory model, only a reduced number of channels are excited (from 3 to 6. This result is very interesting for auditory implants because only significant channels will be stimulated. Besides, this simplifies the electronic implementation and medical intervention.

  1. Effects of Caffeine on Auditory Brainstem Response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saleheh Soleimanian

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Blocking of the adenosine receptor in central nervous system by caffeine can lead to increasing the level of neurotransmitters like glutamate. As the adenosine receptors are present in almost all brain areas like central auditory pathway, it seems caffeine can change conduction in this way. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of caffeine on latency and amplitude of auditory brainstem response(ABR.Materials and Methods: In this clinical trial study 43 normal 18-25 years old male students were participated. The subjects consumed 0, 2 and 3 mg/kg BW caffeine in three different sessions. Auditory brainstem responses were recorded before and 30 minute after caffeine consumption. The results were analyzed by Friedman and Wilcoxone test to assess the effects of caffeine on auditory brainstem response.Results: Compared to control group the latencies of waves III,V and I-V interpeak interval of the cases decreased significantly after 2 and 3mg/kg BW caffeine consumption. Wave I latency significantly decreased after 3mg/kg BW caffeine consumption(p<0.01. Conclusion: Increasing of the glutamate level resulted from the adenosine receptor blocking brings about changes in conduction in the central auditory pathway.

  2. Laterally loaded masonry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raun Gottfredsen, F.

    In this thesis results from experiments on mortar joints and masonry as well as methods of calculation of strength and deformation of laterally loaded masonry are presented. The strength and deformation capacity of mortar joints have been determined from experiments involving a constant compressive...... stress and increasing shear. The results show a transition to pure friction as the cohesion is gradually destroyed. An interface model of a mortar joint that can take into account this aspect has been developed. Laterally loaded masonry panels have also been tested and it is found to be characteristic...... that laterally loaded masonry exhibits a non-linear load-displacement behaviour with some ductility....

  3. The effect of background music in auditory health persuasion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elbert, Sarah; Dijkstra, Arie

    2013-01-01

    In auditory health persuasion, threatening information regarding health is communicated by voice only. One relevant context of auditory persuasion is the addition of background music. There are different mechanisms through which background music might influence persuasion, for example through mood (

  4. Musical experience shapes top-down auditory mechanisms: evidence from masking and auditory attention performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strait, Dana L; Kraus, Nina; Parbery-Clark, Alexandra; Ashley, Richard

    2010-03-01

    A growing body of research suggests that cognitive functions, such as attention and memory, drive perception by tuning sensory mechanisms to relevant acoustic features. Long-term musical experience also modulates lower-level auditory function, although the mechanisms by which this occurs remain uncertain. In order to tease apart the mechanisms that drive perceptual enhancements in musicians, we posed the question: do well-developed cognitive abilities fine-tune auditory perception in a top-down fashion? We administered a standardized battery of perceptual and cognitive tests to adult musicians and non-musicians, including tasks either more or less susceptible to cognitive control (e.g., backward versus simultaneous masking) and more or less dependent on auditory or visual processing (e.g., auditory versus visual attention). Outcomes indicate lower perceptual thresholds in musicians specifically for auditory tasks that relate with cognitive abilities, such as backward masking and auditory attention. These enhancements were observed in the absence of group differences for the simultaneous masking and visual attention tasks. Our results suggest that long-term musical practice strengthens cognitive functions and that these functions benefit auditory skills. Musical training bolsters higher-level mechanisms that, when impaired, relate to language and literacy deficits. Thus, musical training may serve to lessen the impact of these deficits by strengthening the corticofugal system for hearing. PMID:20018234

  5. What determines auditory distraction? On the roles of local auditory changes and expectation violations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan P Röer

    Full Text Available Both the acoustic variability of a distractor sequence and the degree to which it violates expectations are important determinants of auditory distraction. In four experiments we examined the relative contribution of local auditory changes on the one hand and expectation violations on the other hand in the disruption of serial recall by irrelevant sound. We present evidence for a greater disruption by auditory sequences ending in unexpected steady state distractor repetitions compared to auditory sequences with expected changing state endings even though the former contained fewer local changes. This effect was demonstrated with piano melodies (Experiment 1 and speech distractors (Experiment 2. Furthermore, it was replicated when the expectation violation occurred after the encoding of the target items (Experiment 3, indicating that the items' maintenance in short-term memory was disrupted by attentional capture and not their encoding. This seems to be primarily due to the violation of a model of the specific auditory distractor sequences because the effect vanishes and even reverses when the experiment provides no opportunity to build up a specific neural model about the distractor sequence (Experiment 4. Nevertheless, the violation of abstract long-term knowledge about auditory regularities seems to cause a small and transient capture effect: Disruption decreased markedly over the course of the experiments indicating that participants habituated to the unexpected distractor repetitions across trials. The overall pattern of results adds to the growing literature that the degree to which auditory distractors violate situation-specific expectations is a more important determinant of auditory distraction than the degree to which a distractor sequence contains local auditory changes.

  6. What Determines Auditory Distraction? On the Roles of Local Auditory Changes and Expectation Violations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Röer, Jan P.; Bell, Raoul; Buchner, Axel

    2014-01-01

    Both the acoustic variability of a distractor sequence and the degree to which it violates expectations are important determinants of auditory distraction. In four experiments we examined the relative contribution of local auditory changes on the one hand and expectation violations on the other hand in the disruption of serial recall by irrelevant sound. We present evidence for a greater disruption by auditory sequences ending in unexpected steady state distractor repetitions compared to auditory sequences with expected changing state endings even though the former contained fewer local changes. This effect was demonstrated with piano melodies (Experiment 1) and speech distractors (Experiment 2). Furthermore, it was replicated when the expectation violation occurred after the encoding of the target items (Experiment 3), indicating that the items' maintenance in short-term memory was disrupted by attentional capture and not their encoding. This seems to be primarily due to the violation of a model of the specific auditory distractor sequences because the effect vanishes and even reverses when the experiment provides no opportunity to build up a specific neural model about the distractor sequence (Experiment 4). Nevertheless, the violation of abstract long-term knowledge about auditory regularities seems to cause a small and transient capture effect: Disruption decreased markedly over the course of the experiments indicating that participants habituated to the unexpected distractor repetitions across trials. The overall pattern of results adds to the growing literature that the degree to which auditory distractors violate situation-specific expectations is a more important determinant of auditory distraction than the degree to which a distractor sequence contains local auditory changes. PMID:24400081

  7. Applied research in auditory data representation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frysinger, Steve P.

    1990-08-01

    A class of data displays, characterized generally as Auditory Data Representation, is described and motivated. This type of data representation takes advantage of the tremendous pattern recognition capability of the human auditory channel. Audible displays offer an alternative means of conveying quantitative data to the analyst to facilitate information extraction, and are successfully used alone and in conjunction with visual displays. The Auditory Data Representation literature is reviewed, along with elements of the allied fields of investigation, Psychoacoustics and Musical Perception. A methodology for applied research in this field, based upon the well-developed discipline of psychophysics, is elaborated using a recent experiment as a case study. This method permits objective estimation of a data representation technique by comparing it to alternative displays for the pattern recognition task at hand. The psychophysical threshold of signal to noise level, for constant pattern recognition performance, is the measure of display effectiveness.

  8. A Circuit for Motor Cortical Modulation of Auditory Cortical Activity

    OpenAIRE

    Nelson, Anders; Schneider, David M.; Takatoh, Jun; Sakurai, Katsuyasu; Wang, Fan; Mooney, Richard

    2013-01-01

    Normal hearing depends on the ability to distinguish self-generated sounds from other sounds, and this ability is thought to involve neural circuits that convey copies of motor command signals to various levels of the auditory system. Although such interactions at the cortical level are believed to facilitate auditory comprehension during movements and drive auditory hallucinations in pathological states, the synaptic organization and function of circuitry linking the motor and auditory corti...

  9. Auditory and motor imagery modulate learning in music performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel M. Brown

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Skilled performers such as athletes or musicians can improve their performance by imagining the actions or sensory outcomes associated with their skill. Performers vary widely in their auditory and motor imagery abilities, and these individual differences influence sensorimotor learning. It is unknown whether imagery abilities influence both memory encoding and retrieval. We examined how auditory and motor imagery abilities influence musicians’ encoding (during Learning, as they practiced novel melodies, and retrieval (during Recall of those melodies. Pianists learned melodies by listening without performing (auditory learning or performing without sound (motor learning; following Learning, pianists performed the melodies from memory with auditory feedback (Recall. During either Learning (Experiment 1 or Recall (Experiment 2, pianists experienced either auditory interference, motor interference, or no interference. Pitch accuracy (percentage of correct pitches produced and temporal regularity (variability of quarter-note interonset intervals were measured at Recall. Independent tests measured auditory and motor imagery skills. Pianists’ pitch accuracy was higher following auditory learning than following motor learning and lower in motor interference conditions (Experiments 1 and 2. Both auditory and motor imagery skills improved pitch accuracy overall. Auditory imagery skills modulated pitch accuracy encoding (Experiment 1: Higher auditory imagery skill corresponded to higher pitch accuracy following auditory learning with auditory or motor interference, and following motor learning with motor or no interference. These findings suggest that auditory imagery abilities decrease vulnerability to interference and compensate for missing auditory feedback at encoding. Auditory imagery skills also influenced temporal regularity at retrieval (Experiment 2: Higher auditory imagery skill predicted greater temporal regularity during Recall in the

  10. Functional neuroanatomy of auditory scene analysis in Alzheimer's disease

    OpenAIRE

    Golden, Hannah L.; Jennifer L. Agustus; Johanna C. Goll; Downey, Laura E; Mummery, Catherine J.; Jonathan M Schott; Crutch, Sebastian J.; Jason D Warren

    2015-01-01

    Auditory scene analysis is a demanding computational process that is performed automatically and efficiently by the healthy brain but vulnerable to the neurodegenerative pathology of Alzheimer's disease. Here we assessed the functional neuroanatomy of auditory scene analysis in Alzheimer's disease using the well-known ‘cocktail party effect’ as a model paradigm whereby stored templates for auditory objects (e.g., hearing one's spoken name) are used to segregate auditory ‘foreground’ and ‘back...

  11. Behavioral correlates of auditory streaming in rhesus macaques

    OpenAIRE

    Christison-Lagay, Kate L.; Cohen, Yale E.

    2013-01-01

    Perceptual representations of auditory stimuli (i.e., sounds) are derived from the auditory system’s ability to segregate and group the spectral, temporal, and spatial features of auditory stimuli—a process called “auditory scene analysis”. Psychophysical studies have identified several of the principles and mechanisms that underlie a listener’s ability to segregate and group acoustic stimuli. One important psychophysical task that has illuminated many of these principles and mechanisms is th...

  12. Auditory ERP response to successive stimuli in infancy

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Ao; Peter, Varghese; Burnham, Denis

    2016-01-01

    Background. Auditory Event-Related Potentials (ERPs) are useful for understanding early auditory development among infants, as it allows the collection of a relatively large amount of data in a short time. So far, studies that have investigated development in auditory ERPs in infancy have mainly used single sounds as stimuli. Yet in real life, infants must decode successive rather than single acoustic events. In the present study, we tested 4-, 8-, and 12-month-old infants’ auditory ERPs to m...

  13. Auditory Neuropathy Spectrum Disorder Masquerading as Social Anxiety

    OpenAIRE

    Behere, Rishikesh V.; Rao, Mukund G.; Mishra, Shree; Varambally, Shivarama; Nagarajarao, Shivashankar; Bangalore N Gangadhar

    2015-01-01

    The authors report a case of a 47-year-old man who presented with treatment-resistant anxiety disorder. Behavioral observation raised clinical suspicion of auditory neuropathy spectrum disorder. The presence of auditory neuropathy spectrum disorder was confirmed on audiological investigations. The patient was experiencing extreme symptoms of anxiety, which initially masked the underlying diagnosis of auditory neuropathy spectrum disorder. Challenges in diagnosis and treatment of auditory neur...

  14. Contralateral parahippocampal gamma-band activity determines noise-like tinnitus laterality: a region of interest analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanneste, S; Heyning, P Van de; Ridder, D De

    2011-12-29

    Tinnitus is described as an auditory perception in the absence of any external sound source. Tinnitus loudness has been correlated to sustained high frequency gamma-band activity in auditory cortex. It remains unknown whether unilateral tinnitus is always generated in the left auditory cortex, irrespective of the side on which the tinnitus is perceived, or in the contralateral auditory cortex. In order to solve this enigma source localized electroencephalographic (EEG) recordings of a homogenous group of unilateral left and right-sided tinnitus patients presenting with noise-like tinnitus was analyzed. Based on a region of interest analysis, the most important result of this study is that tinnitus lateralization depended on the gamma-band activity of the contralateral parahippocampal area. As for the auditory cortex no differences were found between left-sided and right-sided tinnitus patients. However, in comparison to a control group both left and right-sided tinnitus patients had an increased gamma-band activity in both the left and right primary and secondary auditory cortex. Thus whereas in tinnitus the primary and secondary auditory cortices of both sides are characterized by increased gamma-band activity, the side on which the tinnitus is perceived relates to gamma-band activity in the contralateral parahippocampal area. PMID:21920411

  15. Lateral angle: a method for sexing using the petrous bone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Norén, Anna; Lynnerup, Niels; Czarnetzki, Alfred;

    2005-01-01

    very fragmented skeletal remains or cremated bones, where the petrous bone may still be readily recognizable. The method was tested using a forensic sample of 113 petrous bones with known sex. Intra- and interobserver testing was also performed. We found a statistically significant difference in angle......We report on the results of applying the so-called lateral angle method for sex determination on skeletal remains. The lateral angle denotes the angle of the internal auditory canal in relation to the medial surface of the petrous part of the temporal bone. The method involves making a small cast...... size between males and females (mean angle size of males, 39.3 degrees ; mean angle size of females, 48.2 degrees ; P < 0.001). There was no bilateral difference in angle size. In blind trials, 83.2% of petrous bones were assigned to the correct sex. We also tested the lateral angle method against an...

  16. Bilateral lateral periodontal cyst

    OpenAIRE

    Govil, Somya; Gupta, Vishesh; Misra, Neeta; Misra, Pradyumna

    2013-01-01

    The bilateral lateral periodontal cyst is a rare nasological entity, which despite clinical and radiological presentation is being diagnosed by histological characteristics. It is asymptomatic in nature and is observed in routine radiography. The aim and objective of this article is to present a rare case of bilateral lateral periodontal cyst in a 14-year-old child. The clinical and radiographical findings, along with its management have been discussed. Enucleation of bilateral cyst without e...

  17. Auditory Brainstem Response Improvements in Hyperbillirubinemic Infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdollahi, Farzaneh Zamiri; Manchaiah, Vinaya; Lotfi, Yones

    2016-01-01

    Background and Objectives Hyperbillirubinemia in infants have been associated with neuronal damage including in the auditory system. Some researchers have suggested that the bilirubin-induced auditory neuronal damages may be temporary and reversible. This study was aimed at investigating the auditory neuropathy and reversibility of auditory abnormalities in hyperbillirubinemic infants. Subjects and Methods The study participants included 41 full term hyperbilirubinemic infants (mean age 39.24 days) with normal birth weight (3,200-3,700 grams) that admitted in hospital for hyperbillirubinemia and 39 normal infants (mean age 35.54 days) without any hyperbillirubinemia or other hearing loss risk factors for ruling out maturational changes. All infants in hyperbilirubinemic group had serum bilirubin level more than 20 milligram per deciliter and undergone one blood exchange transfusion. Hearing evaluation for each infant was conducted twice: the first one after hyperbilirubinemia treatment and before leaving hospital and the second one three months after the first hearing evaluation. Hearing evaluations included transient evoked otoacoustic emission (TEOAE) screening and auditory brainstem response (ABR) threshold tracing. Results The TEOAE and ABR results of control group and TEOAE results of the hyperbilirubinemic group did not change significantly from the first to the second evaluation. However, the ABR results of the hyperbilirubinemic group improved significantly from the first to the second assessment (p=0.025). Conclusions The results suggest that the bilirubin induced auditory neuronal damage can be reversible over time so we suggest that infants with hyperbilirubinemia who fail the first hearing tests should be reevaluated after 3 months of treatment. PMID:27144228

  18. A virtual auditory environment for investigating the auditory signal processing of realistic sounds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Favrot, Sylvain Emmanuel

    A loudspeaker-based virtual auditory environment (VAE) has been developed to provide a realistic versatile research environment for investigating the auditory signal processing in real environments, i.e., considering multiple sound sources and room reverberation. The VAE allows a full control of...... the acoustic scenario in order to systematically study the auditory processing of reverberant sounds. It is based on the ODEON software, which is state-of-the-art software for room acoustic simulations developed at Acoustic Technology, DTU. First, a MATLAB interface to the ODEON software has been...

  19. Auditory Hypersensitivity in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucker, Jay R.

    2013-01-01

    A review of records was completed to determine whether children with auditory hypersensitivities have difficulty tolerating loud sounds due to auditory-system factors or some other factors not directly involving the auditory system. Records of 150 children identified as not meeting autism spectrum disorders (ASD) criteria and another 50 meeting…

  20. AN EVALUATION OF AUDITORY LEARNING IN FILIAL IMPRINTING

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    BOLHUIS, JJ; VANKAMPEN, HS

    1992-01-01

    The characteristics of auditory learning in filial imprinting in precocial birds are reviewed. Numerous studies have demonstrated that the addition of an auditory stimulus improves following of a visual stimulus. This paper evaluates whether there is genuine auditory imprinting, i.e. the formation o

  1. Auditory Stream Biasing in Children with Reading Impairments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouimet, Tialee; Balaban, Evan

    2010-01-01

    Reading impairments have previously been associated with auditory processing differences. We examined "auditory stream biasing", a global aspect of auditory temporal processing. Children with reading impairments, control children and adults heard a 10 s long stream-bias-inducing sound sequence (a repeating 1000 Hz tone) and a test sequence (eight…

  2. Auditory issues in handheld land mine detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vause, Nancy L.; Letowski, Tomasz R.; Ferguson, Larry G.; Mermagen, Timothy J.

    1999-08-01

    Most handled landmine detection systems use tones or other simple acoustic signals to provide detector information to the operator. Such signals are not necessarily the best carriers of information about the characteristics of hidden objects. To be effective, the auditory signals must present the information in a manner that the operator can comfortably and efficiently, the auditory signals must present the information in a manner that the operator can comfortably and efficiently interpret under stress and high mental load. The signals must also preserve their audibility and specific properties in various adverse acoustic environments. This paper will present several issues on optimizing the audio display interface between the operator and machine.

  3. Auditory Perception of Statistically Blurred Sound Textures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McWalter, Richard Ian; MacDonald, Ewen; Dau, Torsten

    Sound textures have been identified as a category of sounds which are processed by the peripheral auditory system and captured with running timeaveraged statistics. Although sound textures are temporally homogeneous, they offer a listener with enough information to identify and differentiate...... sources. This experiment investigated the ability of the auditory system to identify statistically blurred sound textures and the perceptual relationship between sound textures. Identification performance of statistically blurred sound textures presented at a fixed blur increased over those presented as a...... gradual blur. The results suggests that the correct identification of sound textures is influenced by the preceding blurred stimulus. These findings draw parallels to the recognition of blurred images....

  4. Binaural processing by the gecko auditory periphery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen-Dalsgaard, Jakob; Tang, Ye Zhong; Carr, Catherine E

    2011-01-01

    Tokay gecko with neurophysiological recordings from the auditory nerve. Laser vibrometry shows that their ear is a two-input system with approximately unity interaural transmission gain at the peak frequency (around 1.6 kHz). Median interaural delays are 260 μs, almost three times larger than predicted...... from gecko head size, suggesting interaural transmission may be boosted by resonances in the large, open mouth cavity (Vossen et al., 2010). Auditory nerve recordings are sensitive to both interaural time differences (ITD) and interaural level differences (ILD), reflecting the acoustical interactions...

  5. Multi-Scale Entrainment of Coupled Neuronal Oscillations in Primary Auditory Cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connell, M N; Barczak, A; Ross, D; McGinnis, T; Schroeder, C E; Lakatos, P

    2015-01-01

    Earlier studies demonstrate that when the frequency of rhythmic tone sequences or streams is task relevant, ongoing excitability fluctuations (oscillations) of neuronal ensembles in primary auditory cortex (A1) entrain to stimulation in a frequency dependent way that sharpens frequency tuning. The phase distribution across A1 neuronal ensembles at time points when attended stimuli are predicted to occur reflects the focus of attention along the spectral attribute of auditory stimuli. This study examined how neuronal activity is modulated if only the temporal features of rhythmic stimulus streams are relevant. We presented macaques with auditory clicks arranged in 33 Hz (gamma timescale) quintets, repeated at a 1.6 Hz (delta timescale) rate. Such multi-scale, hierarchically organized temporal structure is characteristic of vocalizations and other natural stimuli. Monkeys were required to detect and respond to deviations in the temporal pattern of gamma quintets. As expected, engagement in the auditory task resulted in the multi-scale entrainment of delta- and gamma-band neuronal oscillations across all of A1. Surprisingly, however, the phase-alignment, and thus, the physiological impact of entrainment differed across the tonotopic map in A1. In the region of 11-16 kHz representation, entrainment most often aligned high excitability oscillatory phases with task-relevant events in the input stream and thus resulted in response enhancement. In the remainder of the A1 sites, entrainment generally resulted in response suppression. Our data indicate that the suppressive effects were due to low excitability phase delta oscillatory entrainment and the phase amplitude coupling of delta and gamma oscillations. Regardless of the phase or frequency, entrainment appeared stronger in left A1, indicative of the hemispheric lateralization of auditory function. PMID:26696866

  6. Multi-scale entrainment of coupled neuronal oscillations in primary auditory cortex.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica Noelle O'Connell

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Earlier studies demonstrate that when the frequency of rhythmic tone sequences or streams is task relevant, ongoing excitability fluctuations (oscillations of neuronal ensembles in primary auditory cortex (A1 entrain to stimulation in a frequency dependent way that sharpens frequency tuning. The phase distribution across A1 neuronal ensembles at time points when attended stimuli are predicted to occur reflects the focus of attention along the spectral attribute of auditory stimuli. This study examined how neuronal activity is modulated if only the temporal features of rhythmic stimulus streams are relevant. We presented macaques with auditory clicks arranged in 33 Hz (gamma timescale quintets, repeated at a 1.6 Hz (delta timescale rate. Such multi-scale, hierarchically organized temporal structure is characteristic of vocalizations and other natural stimuli. Monkeys were required to detect and respond to deviations in the temporal pattern of gamma quintets. As expected, engagement in the auditory task resulted in the multi-scale entrainment of delta- and gamma-band neuronal oscillations across all of A1. Surprisingly, however, the phase-alignment, and thus, the physiological impact of entrainment differed across the tonotopic map in A1. In the region of 11-16 kHz representation, entrainment most often aligned high excitability oscillatory phases with task-relevant events in the input stream and thus resulted in response enhancement. In the remainder of the A1 sites, entrainment generally resulted in response suppression. Our data indicate that the suppressive effects were due to low excitability phase delta oscillatory entrainment and the phase amplitude coupling of delta and gamma oscillations. Regardless of the phase or frequency, entrainment appeared stronger in left A1, indicative of the hemispheric lateralization of auditory function.

  7. Syringocystadenoma Papilliferum of the Bony External Auditory Canal: A Rare Tumor in a Rare Location

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anastasija Arechvo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Tumors originating from ceruminous glands are rare lesions of the external auditory canal. The lack of specific clinical and radiological signs makes their diagnosis challenging. We report the case of an exceptionally rare benign tumor, a syringocystadenoma papilliferum (SCAP, in an atypical location in the bony segment of the external auditory canal with uncommon clinical signs. The special traits of the case included the following: the most lateral component of the tumor was macroscopically cystic and a granular myringitis with an obstructing keratin mass plug was observed behind the mass. The clinical, audiological, radiological, and histological characteristics of the neoplasm are consequently presented. Intraoperative diagnosis of the epidermal cyst was proposed. The final diagnosis of SCAP was determined only by histological analysis after the surgical excision. The educational aspects of the case are critically discussed.

  8. Effects of an auditory biofeedback device on plantar pressure in patients with chronic ankle instability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donovan, Luke; Feger, Mark A; Hart, Joseph M; Saliba, Susan; Park, Joseph; Hertel, Jay

    2016-02-01

    Chronic ankle instability (CAI) patients have been shown to have increased lateral column plantar pressure throughout the stance phase of gait. To date, traditional CAI rehabilitation programs have been unable to alter gait. We developed an auditory biofeedback device that can be worn in shoes that elicits an audible cue when an excessive amount of pressure is applied to a sensor. This study determined whether using this device can decrease lateral plantar pressure in participants with CAI and alter surface electromyography (sEMG) amplitudes (anterior tibialis, peroneus longus, medial gastrocnemius, and gluteus medius). Ten CAI patients completed baseline treadmill walking while in-shoe plantar pressures and sEMG were measured (baseline condition). Next, the device was placed into the shoe and set to a threshold that would elicit an audible cue during each step of the participant's normal gait. Then, participants were instructed to walk in a manner that would not trigger the audible cue, while plantar pressure and sEMG measures were recorded (auditory feedback (AUD FB) condition). Compared to baseline, there was a statistically significant reduction in peak pressure in the lateral midfoot-forefoot and central forefoot during the AUD FB condition. In addition, there were increases in peroneus longus and medial gastrocnemius sEMG amplitudes 200ms post-initial contact during the AUD FB condition. The use of this auditory biofeedback device resulted in decreased plantar pressure in the lateral column of the foot during treadmill walking in CAI patients and may have been caused by the increase in sEMG activation of the peroneus longus. PMID:27004629

  9. The behavioral impact of auditory and visual oddball distracters in a visual and auditory categorization tasks

    OpenAIRE

    Alicia Leiva

    2011-01-01

    Past cross-modal oddball studies have shown that participants respond slower to visual targets following the presentation of an unexpected change in a stream of auditory distracters. In the present study we examined the extent to which this novelty distraction may transcend the sensory distinction between distracter and target. In separate blocks of trials, participants categorized digits presented auditorily or visually in the face of visual or auditory standard and oddball distracters. The ...

  10. Is humanlike cytoarchitectural asymmetry present in another species with complex social vocalization? A stereologic analysis of mustached bat auditory cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherwood, Chet C; Raghanti, Mary Ann; Wenstrup, Jeffrey J

    2005-05-31

    Considerable evidence suggests that left hemispheric lateralization for language comprehension in humans is associated with cortical microstructural asymmetries. However, despite the fact that left hemispheric dominance for the analysis of species-specific social vocalizations has been reported in several other species, little is known concerning microstructural asymmetries in auditory cortex of nonhumans. To test whether such neuroanatomical lateralization characterizes another species with complex social vocalizations, we performed stereologic analyses of Nissl-stained cells in layer III of area DSCF in mustached bats (Pteronotus parnellii). Area DSCF was selected because it contains neurons which are sensitive to several temporal features of conspecific vocalizations. Primary visual cortex (V1) was also studied as a comparative reference. We measured neuron densities, glial densities, and neuronal volumes in both hemispheres of 10 adult male bats. Results indicate that these variables are not significantly lateralized in area DSCF or V1. Additionally, magnopyramidal cells (i.e., the largest 10% of neurons from both hemispheres) were not asymmetric in their frequency of distribution at the population level. Although several individual bats had asymmetric neuron distributions, consistent hemispheric bias was not evident. Absence of population-level microstructural asymmetry in area DSCF of mustached bats suggests alternative evolutionary scenarios including: (1) microstructural lateralization of auditory cortical circuitry may be a unique adaptation for human language, and (2) the specialized biosonar function of mustached bat auditory cortex may require symmetrical cytoarchitectural structure. Resolution of these alternatives will require further data on the microstructure of auditory cortex in species with lateralized perception of acoustic social communication. PMID:15910775

  11. Auditory vocabulary of the right hemisphere following brain bisection or hemidecortication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaidel, E

    1976-09-01

    Unilateral scores of two commissurotomy and three (one left and two right) hemispherectomy patients were obtained on standardized auditory language comprehension tests which use pointing responses to a pictorial array. Unilateral performance by the commissurotomy patients was achieved by restricting the pictorial array to one visual half field, using a novel contact lens system which permits ocular scanning of the lateralized stimulus and self-monitoring of task performance. Using the Peabody and Ammons Picture Vocabulary Tests, the auditory vocabulary in the disconnected or isolated right hemispheres was found to be equivalent to that of normal subjects of ages 8:1 to 16:3 with a mean of 11:7 (eleven years and 7 months old). At the same time, standardized aphasia tests showed that the picture vocabulary in the right hemispheres is similar to that of a heterogeneous population of aphasics, even though the right hemispheres did not behave quite like any classical aphasic diagnostic group. No significant differences were found between right hemisphere comprehension of object vs. action names. Results indicated that vocabulary as a function of word frequency followed the same pattern in the right and left hemisphere although the right hemisphere was consistently lower. This parallel between the two hemispheres was conjectured to reflect some similar or even shared lexical structures in the two hemispheres. Together with other data on the performance of the right hemisphere on the Token Test (Zaidel, 1976), the results suggest a complex model of the development of language laterality in the brain, in which some, but not all, auditory language functions continue to develop in the right hemisphere past what is generally regarded as the critical period for language acquistion. In general, auditory language comprehension is better characterized as that of an "average aphasic" than that of a child of a specific age. PMID:1000988

  12. Reading adn Auditory-Visual Equivalences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidman, Murray

    1971-01-01

    A retarded boy, unable to read orally or with comprehension, was taught to match spoken to printed words and was then capable of reading comprehension (matching printed words to picture) and oral reading (naming printed words aloud), demonstrating that certain learned auditory-visual equivalences are sufficient prerequisites for reading…

  13. The Goldilocks Effect in Infant Auditory Attention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kidd, Celeste; Piantadosi, Steven T.; Aslin, Richard N.

    2014-01-01

    Infants must learn about many cognitive domains (e.g., language, music) from auditory statistics, yet capacity limits on their cognitive resources restrict the quantity that they can encode. Previous research has established that infants can attend to only a subset of available acoustic input. Yet few previous studies have directly examined infant…

  14. Development of Receiver Stimulator for Auditory Prosthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Raja Kumar

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The Auditory Prosthesis (AP is an electronic device that can provide hearing sensations to people who are profoundly deaf by stimulating the auditory nerve via an array of electrodes with an electric current allowing them to understand the speech. The AP system consists of two hardware functional units such as Body Worn Speech Processor (BWSP and Receiver Stimulator. The prototype model of Receiver Stimulator for Auditory Prosthesis (RSAP consists of Speech Data Decoder, DAC, ADC, constant current generator, electrode selection logic, switch matrix and simulated electrode resistance array. The laboratory model of speech processor is designed to implement the Continuous Interleaved Sampling (CIS speech processing algorithm which generates the information required for electrode stimulation based on the speech / audio data. Speech Data Decoder receives the encoded speech data via an inductive RF transcutaneous link from speech processor. Twelve channels of auditory Prosthesis with selectable eight electrodes for stimulation of simulated electrode resistance array are used for testing. The RSAP is validated by using the test data generated by the laboratory prototype of speech processor. The experimental results are obtained from specific speech/sound tests using a high-speed data acquisition system and found satisfactory.

  15. Preferred levels of auditory danger signals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zera, J; Nagórski, A

    2000-01-01

    An important issue at the design stage of the auditory danger signal for a safety system is the signal audibility under various conditions of background noise. The auditory danger signal should be clearly audible but it should not be too loud to avoid fright, startling effects, and nuisance complaints. Criteria for designing auditory danger signals are the subject of the ISO 7731 (International Organization for Standardization [ISO], 1986) international standard and the EN 457 European standard (European Committee for Standardization [CEN], 1992). It is required that the A-weighted sound pressure level of the auditory danger signal is higher in level than the background noise by 15 dB. In this paper, the results of an experiment are reported, in which listeners adjusted most preferred levels of 3 danger signals (tone, sweep, complex sound) in the presence of a noise background (pink noise and industrial noise). The measurements were done for 60-, 70-, 80-, and 90-dB A-weighted levels of noise. Results show that for 60-dB level of noise the most preferred level of the danger signal is 10 to 20 dB above the noise level. However, for 90-dB level of noise, listeners selected a level of the danger signal that was equal to the noise level. Results imply that the criterion in the existing standards is conservative as it requires the level of the danger signal to be higher than the level of noise regardless of the noise level. PMID:10828157

  16. Self-affirmation in auditory persuasion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elbert, Sarah; Dijkstra, Arie

    2011-01-01

    Persuasive health information can be presented through an auditory channel. Curiously enough, the effect of voice cues in health persuasion has hardly been studied. Research concerning visual persuasive messages showed that self-affirmation results in a more open-minded reaction to threatening infor

  17. Late Maturation of Auditory Perceptual Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huyck, Julia Jones; Wright, Beverly A.

    2011-01-01

    Adults can improve their performance on many perceptual tasks with training, but when does the response to training become mature? To investigate this question, we trained 11-year-olds, 14-year-olds and adults on a basic auditory task (temporal-interval discrimination) using a multiple-session training regimen known to be effective for adults. The…

  18. Affective priming with auditory speech stimuli

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Degner

    2011-01-01

    Four experiments explored the applicability of auditory stimulus presentation in affective priming tasks. In Experiment 1, it was found that standard affective priming effects occur when prime and target words are presented simultaneously via headphones similar to a dichotic listening procedure. In

  19. Integration and segregation in auditory scene analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sussman, Elyse S.

    2005-03-01

    Assessment of the neural correlates of auditory scene analysis, using an index of sound change detection that does not require the listener to attend to the sounds [a component of event-related brain potentials called the mismatch negativity (MMN)], has previously demonstrated that segregation processes can occur without attention focused on the sounds and that within-stream contextual factors influence how sound elements are integrated and represented in auditory memory. The current study investigated the relationship between the segregation and integration processes when they were called upon to function together. The pattern of MMN results showed that the integration of sound elements within a sound stream occurred after the segregation of sounds into independent streams and, further, that the individual streams were subject to contextual effects. These results are consistent with a view of auditory processing that suggests that the auditory scene is rapidly organized into distinct streams and the integration of sequential elements to perceptual units takes place on the already formed streams. This would allow for the flexibility required to identify changing within-stream sound patterns, needed to appreciate music or comprehend speech..

  20. Auditory confrontation naming in Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandt, Jason; Bakker, Arnold; Maroof, David Aaron

    2010-11-01

    Naming is a fundamental aspect of language and is virtually always assessed with visual confrontation tests. Tests of the ability to name objects by their characteristic sounds would be particularly useful in the assessment of visually impaired patients, and may be particularly sensitive in Alzheimer's disease (AD). We developed an auditory naming task, requiring the identification of the source of environmental sounds (i.e., animal calls, musical instruments, vehicles) and multiple-choice recognition of those not identified. In two separate studies mild-to-moderate AD patients performed more poorly than cognitively normal elderly on the auditory naming task. This task was also more difficult than two versions of a comparable visual naming task, and correlated more highly with Mini-Mental State Exam score. Internal consistency reliability was acceptable, although ROC analysis revealed auditory naming to be slightly less successful than visual confrontation naming in discriminating AD patients from normal participants. Nonetheless, our auditory naming task may prove useful in research and clinical practice, especially with visually impaired patients. PMID:20981630

  1. Auditory risk estimates for youth target shooting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meinke, Deanna K.; Murphy, William J.; Finan, Donald S.; Lankford, James E.; Flamme, Gregory A.; Stewart, Michael; Soendergaard, Jacob; Jerome, Trevor W.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To characterize the impulse noise exposure and auditory risk for youth recreational firearm users engaged in outdoor target shooting events. The youth shooting positions are typically standing or sitting at a table, which places the firearm closer to the ground or reflective surface when compared to adult shooters. Design Acoustic characteristics were examined and the auditory risk estimates were evaluated using contemporary damage-risk criteria for unprotected adult listeners and the 120-dB peak limit suggested by the World Health Organization (1999) for children. Study sample Impulses were generated by 26 firearm/ammunition configurations representing rifles, shotguns, and pistols used by youth. Measurements were obtained relative to a youth shooter’s left ear. Results All firearms generated peak levels that exceeded the 120 dB peak limit suggested by the WHO for children. In general, shooting from the seated position over a tabletop increases the peak levels, LAeq8 and reduces the unprotected maximum permissible exposures (MPEs) for both rifles and pistols. Pistols pose the greatest auditory risk when fired over a tabletop. Conclusion Youth should utilize smaller caliber weapons, preferably from the standing position, and always wear hearing protection whenever engaging in shooting activities to reduce the risk for auditory damage. PMID:24564688

  2. 40 Hz auditory steady state response to linguistic features of stimuli during auditory hallucinations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ying, Jun; Yan, Zheng; Gao, Xiao-rong

    2013-10-01

    The auditory steady state response (ASSR) may reflect activity from different regions of the brain, depending on the modulation frequency used. In general, responses induced by low rates (≤40 Hz) emanate mostly from central structures of the brain, and responses from high rates (≥80 Hz) emanate mostly from the peripheral auditory nerve or brainstem structures. Besides, it was reported that the gamma band ASSR (30-90 Hz) played an important role in working memory, speech understanding and recognition. This paper investigated the 40 Hz ASSR evoked by modulated speech and reversed speech. The speech was Chinese phrase voice, and the noise-like reversed speech was obtained by temporally reversing the speech. Both auditory stimuli were modulated with a frequency of 40 Hz. Ten healthy subjects and 5 patients with hallucination symptom participated in the experiment. Results showed reduction in left auditory cortex response when healthy subjects listened to the reversed speech compared with the speech. In contrast, when the patients who experienced auditory hallucinations listened to the reversed speech, the auditory cortex of left hemispheric responded more actively. The ASSR results were consistent with the behavior results of patients. Therefore, the gamma band ASSR is expected to be helpful for rapid and objective diagnosis of hallucination in clinic. PMID:24142731

  3. Spectrotemporal resolution tradeoff in auditory processing as revealed by human auditory brainstem responses and psychophysical indices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bidelman, Gavin M; Syed Khaja, Ameenuddin

    2014-06-20

    Auditory filter theory dictates a physiological compromise between frequency and temporal resolution of cochlear signal processing. We examined neurophysiological correlates of these spectrotemporal tradeoffs in the human auditory system using auditory evoked brain potentials and psychophysical responses. Temporal resolution was assessed using scalp-recorded auditory brainstem responses (ABRs) elicited by paired clicks. The inter-click interval (ICI) between successive pulses was parameterized from 0.7 to 25 ms to map ABR amplitude recovery as a function of stimulus spacing. Behavioral frequency difference limens (FDLs) and auditory filter selectivity (Q10 of psychophysical tuning curves) were obtained to assess relations between behavioral spectral acuity and electrophysiological estimates of temporal resolvability. Neural responses increased monotonically in amplitude with increasing ICI, ranging from total suppression (0.7 ms) to full recovery (25 ms) with a temporal resolution of ∼3-4 ms. ABR temporal thresholds were correlated with behavioral Q10 (frequency selectivity) but not FDLs (frequency discrimination); no correspondence was observed between Q10 and FDLs. Results suggest that finer frequency selectivity, but not discrimination, is associated with poorer temporal resolution. The inverse relation between ABR recovery and perceptual frequency tuning demonstrates a time-frequency tradeoff between the temporal and spectral resolving power of the human auditory system. PMID:24793771

  4. McGurk illusion recalibrates subsequent auditory perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lüttke, Claudia S; Ekman, Matthias; van Gerven, Marcel A J; de Lange, Floris P

    2016-01-01

    Visual information can alter auditory perception. This is clearly illustrated by the well-known McGurk illusion, where an auditory/aba/ and a visual /aga/ are merged to the percept of 'ada'. It is less clear however whether such a change in perception may recalibrate subsequent perception. Here we asked whether the altered auditory perception due to the McGurk illusion affects subsequent auditory perception, i.e. whether this process of fusion may cause a recalibration of the auditory boundaries between phonemes. Participants categorized auditory and audiovisual speech stimuli as /aba/, /ada/ or /aga/ while activity patterns in their auditory cortices were recorded using fMRI. Interestingly, following a McGurk illusion, an auditory /aba/ was more often misperceived as 'ada'. Furthermore, we observed a neural counterpart of this recalibration in the early auditory cortex. When the auditory input /aba/ was perceived as 'ada', activity patterns bore stronger resemblance to activity patterns elicited by /ada/ sounds than when they were correctly perceived as /aba/. Our results suggest that upon experiencing the McGurk illusion, the brain shifts the neural representation of an /aba/ sound towards /ada/, culminating in a recalibration in perception of subsequent auditory input. PMID:27611960

  5. Lateral Thinking of Prospective Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, A. S. Arul; Xavier, S. Amaladoss

    2013-01-01

    Edward de Bono who invented the term "lateral thinking" in 1967 is the pioneer of lateral thinking. Lateral thinking is concerned with the generation of new ideas. Liberation from old ideas and the stimulation of new ones are twin aspects of lateral thinking. Lateral thinking is a creative skills from which all people can benefit…

  6. Characterization of auditory synaptic inputs to gerbil perirhinal cortex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vibhakar C Kotak

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The representation of acoustic cues involves regions downstream from the auditory cortex (ACx. One such area, the perirhinal cortex (PRh, processes sensory signals containing mnemonic information. Therefore, our goal was to assess whether PRh receives auditory inputs from the auditory thalamus (MG and ACx in an auditory thalamocortical brain slice preparation and characterize these afferent-driven synaptic properties. When the MG or ACx was electrically stimulated, synaptic responses were recorded from the PRh neurons. Blockade of GABA-A receptors dramatically increased the amplitude of evoked excitatory potentials. Stimulation of the MG or ACx also evoked calcium transients in most PRh neurons. Separately, when fluoro ruby was injected in ACx in vivo, anterogradely labeled axons and terminals were observed in the PRh. Collectively, these data show that the PRh integrates auditory information from the MG and ACx and that auditory driven inhibition dominates the postsynaptic responses in a non-sensory cortical region downstream from the auditory cortex.

  7. Auditory sensory deficits in developmental dyslexia: a longitudinal ERP study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefanics, Gabor; Fosker, Tim; Huss, Martina; Mead, Natasha; Szucs, Denes; Goswami, Usha

    2011-08-01

    The core difficulty in developmental dyslexia across languages is a "phonological deficit", a specific difficulty with the neural representation of the sound structure of words. Recent data across languages suggest that this phonological deficit arises in part from inefficient auditory processing of the rate of change of the amplitude envelope at syllable onset (inefficient sensory processing of rise time). Rise time is a complex percept that also involves changes in duration and perceived intensity. Understanding the neural mechanisms that give rise to the phonological deficit in dyslexia is important for optimising educational interventions. In a three-deviant passive 'oddball' paradigm and a corresponding blocked 'deviant-alone' control condition we recorded ERPs to tones varying in rise time, duration and intensity in children with dyslexia and typically developing children longitudinally. We report here results from test Phases 1 and 2, when participants were aged 8-10 years. We found an MMN to duration, but not to rise time nor intensity deviants, at both time points for both groups. For rise time, duration and intensity we found group effects in both the Oddball and Blocked conditions. There was a slower fronto-central P1 response in the dyslexic group compared to controls. The amplitude of the P1 fronto-centrally to tones with slower rise times and lower intensity was smaller compared to tones with sharper rise times and higher intensity in the Oddball condition, for children with dyslexia only. The latency of this ERP component for all three stimuli was shorter on the right compared to the left hemisphere, only for the dyslexic group in the Blocked condition. Furthermore, we found decreased N1c amplitude to tones with slower rise times compared to tones with sharper rise times for children with dyslexia, only in the Oddball condition. Several other effects of stimulus type, age and laterality were also observed. Our data suggest that neuronal responses

  8. The Essential Complexity of Auditory Receptive Fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorson, Ivar L; Liénard, Jean; David, Stephen V

    2015-12-01

    Encoding properties of sensory neurons are commonly modeled using linear finite impulse response (FIR) filters. For the auditory system, the FIR filter is instantiated in the spectro-temporal receptive field (STRF), often in the framework of the generalized linear model. Despite widespread use of the FIR STRF, numerous formulations for linear filters are possible that require many fewer parameters, potentially permitting more efficient and accurate model estimates. To explore these alternative STRF architectures, we recorded single-unit neural activity from auditory cortex of awake ferrets during presentation of natural sound stimuli. We compared performance of > 1000 linear STRF architectures, evaluating their ability to predict neural responses to a novel natural stimulus. Many were able to outperform the FIR filter. Two basic constraints on the architecture lead to the improved performance: (1) factorization of the STRF matrix into a small number of spectral and temporal filters and (2) low-dimensional parameterization of the factorized filters. The best parameterized model was able to outperform the full FIR filter in both primary and secondary auditory cortex, despite requiring fewer than 30 parameters, about 10% of the number required by the FIR filter. After accounting for noise from finite data sampling, these STRFs were able to explain an average of 40% of A1 response variance. The simpler models permitted more straightforward interpretation of sensory tuning properties. They also showed greater benefit from incorporating nonlinear terms, such as short term plasticity, that provide theoretical advances over the linear model. Architectures that minimize parameter count while maintaining maximum predictive power provide insight into the essential degrees of freedom governing auditory cortical function. They also maximize statistical power available for characterizing additional nonlinear properties that limit current auditory models. PMID:26683490

  9. The lateral angle revisited

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morgan, Jeannie; Lynnerup, Niels; Hoppa, R.D.

    2013-01-01

    measurements taken from computed tomography (CT) scans. Previous reports have observed that the lateral angle size in females is significantly larger than in males. The method was applied to an independent series of 77 postmortem CT scans (42 males, 35 females) to validate its accuracy and reliability. The...

  10. Effects of location and timing of co-activated neurons in the auditory midbrain on cortical activity: implications for a new central auditory prosthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Straka, Małgorzata M.; McMahon, Melissa; Markovitz, Craig D.; Lim, Hubert H.

    2014-08-01

    Objective. An increasing number of deaf individuals are being implanted with central auditory prostheses, but their performance has generally been poorer than for cochlear implant users. The goal of this study is to investigate stimulation strategies for improving hearing performance with a new auditory midbrain implant (AMI). Previous studies have shown that repeated electrical stimulation of a single site in each isofrequency lamina of the central nucleus of the inferior colliculus (ICC) causes strong suppressive effects in elicited responses within the primary auditory cortex (A1). Here we investigate if improved cortical activity can be achieved by co-activating neurons with different timing and locations across an ICC lamina and if this cortical activity varies across A1. Approach. We electrically stimulated two sites at different locations across an isofrequency ICC lamina using varying delays in ketamine-anesthetized guinea pigs. We recorded and analyzed spike activity and local field potentials across different layers and locations of A1. Results. Co-activating two sites within an isofrequency lamina with short inter-pulse intervals (<5 ms) could elicit cortical activity that is enhanced beyond a linear summation of activity elicited by the individual sites. A significantly greater extent of normalized cortical activity was observed for stimulation of the rostral-lateral region of an ICC lamina compared to the caudal-medial region. We did not identify any location trends across A1, but the most cortical enhancement was observed in supragranular layers, suggesting further integration of the stimuli through the cortical layers. Significance. The topographic organization identified by this study provides further evidence for the presence of functional zones across an ICC lamina with locations consistent with those identified by previous studies. Clinically, these results suggest that co-activating different neural populations in the rostral-lateral ICC rather

  11. The role of amygdala nuclei in the expression of auditory signaled two-way active avoidance in rats

    OpenAIRE

    Choi, June-Seek; Cain, Christopher K.; LeDoux, Joseph E.

    2010-01-01

    Using a two-way signaled active avoidance (2-AA) learning procedure, where rats were trained in a shuttle box to avoid a footshock signaled by an auditory stimulus, we tested the contributions of the lateral (LA), basal (B), and central (CE) nuclei of the amygdala to the expression of instrumental active avoidance conditioned responses (CRs). Discrete or combined lesions of the LA and B, performed after the rats had reached an asymptotic level of avoidance performance, produced deficits in th...

  12. Investigation of language lateralization mechanism by Positron Emission Tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As language lateralization in the brain left hemisphere is one of the most well known but less understood characteristics of the human brain, this research thesis reports the use of brain functional imaging to address some specific aspects of this lateralization. In a first part, the author reports the study of mechanisms of recovery from aphasia after a left hemisphere lesion within a population of aphasic right-handers. Based on a contrast between patients with a persistent aphasia despite usual language therapies, and patients with a significant recovery after a melodic and rhythmic therapy (TMR), a PET-based (positron emission tomography) activation study has been developed, based on the opposition between usual language stimuli and stimuli accentuated by TMR. In the second part, the author explored more systematically on sane patients the influence of some physical characteristics of auditory stimulation on the induced functional asymmetry

  13. Shaping the aging brain: Role of auditory input patterns in the emergence of auditory cortical impairments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brishna Soraya Kamal

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Age-related impairments in the primary auditory cortex (A1 include poor tuning selectivity, neural desynchronization and degraded responses to low-probability sounds. These changes have been largely attributed to reduced inhibition in the aged brain, and are thought to contribute to substantial hearing impairment in both humans and animals. Since many of these changes can be partially reversed with auditory training, it has been speculated that they might not be purely degenerative, but might rather represent negative plastic adjustments to noisy or distorted auditory signals reaching the brain. To test this hypothesis, we examined the impact of exposing young adult rats to 8 weeks of low-grade broadband noise on several aspects of A1 function and structure. We then characterized the same A1 elements in aging rats for comparison. We found that the impact of noise exposure on A1 tuning selectivity, temporal processing of auditory signal and responses to oddball tones was almost indistinguishable from the effect of natural aging. Moreover, noise exposure resulted in a reduction in the population of parvalbumin inhibitory interneurons and cortical myelin as previously documented in the aged group. Most of these changes reversed after returning the rats to a quiet environment. These results support the hypothesis that age-related changes in A1 have a strong activity-dependent component and indicate that the presence or absence of clear auditory input patterns might be a key factor in sustaining adult A1 function.

  14. Hyperactive auditory processing in Williams syndrome: Evidence from auditory evoked potentials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarchi, Omer; Avni, Chen; Attias, Josef; Frisch, Amos; Carmel, Miri; Michaelovsky, Elena; Green, Tamar; Weizman, Abraham; Gothelf, Doron

    2015-06-01

    The neurophysiologic aberrations underlying the auditory hypersensitivity in Williams syndrome (WS) are not well defined. The P1-N1-P2 obligatory complex and mismatch negativity (MMN) response were investigated in 18 participants with WS, and the results were compared with those of 18 age- and gender-matched typically developing (TD) controls. Results revealed significantly higher amplitudes of both the P1-N1-P2 obligatory complex and the MMN response in the WS participants than in the TD controls. The P1-N1-P2 complex showed an age-dependent reduction in the TD but not in the WS participants. Moreover, high P1-N1-P2 complex was associated with low verbal comprehension scores in WS. This investigation demonstrates that central auditory processing is hyperactive in WS. The increase in auditory brain responses of both the obligatory complex and MMN response suggests aberrant processes of auditory encoding and discrimination in WS. Results also imply that auditory processing may be subjected to a delayed or diverse maturation and may affect the development of high cognitive functioning in WS. PMID:25603839

  15. Ultrastructural analysis of aminoglycoside-induced hair cell death in the zebrafish lateral line reveals an early mitochondrial response.

    OpenAIRE

    Owens, Kelly,; Cunningham, Dale,; Macdonald, Glen; Rubel, Edwin,; Raible, David,; Pujol, Remy

    2007-01-01

    Loss of the mechanosensory hair cells in the auditory and vestibular organs leads to hearing and balance deficits. To investigate initial, in vivo events in aminoglycoside-induced hair cell damage, we examined hair cells from the lateral line of the zebrafish, Danio rerio. The mechanosensory lateral line is located externally on the animal and therefore allows direct manipulation and observation of hair cells. Labeling with vital dyes revealed a rapid response of hair cells to the aminoglycos...

  16. Implicit temporal expectation attenuates auditory attentional blink.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dawei Shen

    Full Text Available Attentional blink (AB describes a phenomenon whereby correct identification of a first target impairs the processing of a second target (i.e., probe nearby in time. Evidence suggests that explicit attention orienting in the time domain can attenuate the AB. Here, we used scalp-recorded, event-related potentials to examine whether auditory AB is also sensitive to implicit temporal attention orienting. Expectations were set up implicitly by varying the probability (i.e., 80% or 20% that the probe would occur at the +2 or +8 position following target presentation. Participants showed a significant AB, which was reduced with the increased probe probability at the +2 position. The probe probability effect was paralleled by an increase in P3b amplitude elicited by the probe. The results suggest that implicit temporal attention orienting can facilitate short-term consolidation of the probe and attenuate auditory AB.

  17. Anatomy and Physiology of the Auditory Tracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad hosein Hekmat Ara

    1999-03-01

    Full Text Available Hearing is one of the excel sense of human being. Sound waves travel through the medium of air and enter the ear canal and then hit the tympanic membrane. Middle ear transfer almost 60-80% of this mechanical energy to the inner ear by means of “impedance matching”. Then, the sound energy changes to traveling wave and is transferred based on its specific frequency and stimulates organ of corti. Receptors in this organ and their synapses transform mechanical waves to the neural waves and transfer them to the brain. The central nervous system tract of conducting the auditory signals in the auditory cortex will be explained here briefly.

  18. Delayed auditory feedback in polyglot simultaneous interpreters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabbro, F; Darò, V

    1995-03-01

    Twelve polyglot students of simultaneous interpretation and 12 controls (students of the faculty of Medicine) were submitted to a task of verbal fluency under amplified normal auditory feedback (NAF) and under three delayed auditory feedback (DAF) conditions with three different delay intervals (150, 200, and 250 msec). The control group showed a significant reduction in verbal fluency and a significant increase in the number of mistakes in all three DAF conditions. The interpreters' group, however, did not show any significant speech disruption neither in the subjects' mother tongue (L1) nor in their second language (L2) across all DAF conditions. Interpreters' general high verbal fluency along with their ability to pay less attention to their own verbal output make them more resistant to the interfering effects of DAF on speech. PMID:7757448

  19. Central auditory neurons have composite receptive fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozlov, Andrei S; Gentner, Timothy Q

    2016-02-01

    High-level neurons processing complex, behaviorally relevant signals are sensitive to conjunctions of features. Characterizing the receptive fields of such neurons is difficult with standard statistical tools, however, and the principles governing their organization remain poorly understood. Here, we demonstrate multiple distinct receptive-field features in individual high-level auditory neurons in a songbird, European starling, in response to natural vocal signals (songs). We then show that receptive fields with similar characteristics can be reproduced by an unsupervised neural network trained to represent starling songs with a single learning rule that enforces sparseness and divisive normalization. We conclude that central auditory neurons have composite receptive fields that can arise through a combination of sparseness and normalization in neural circuits. Our results, along with descriptions of random, discontinuous receptive fields in the central olfactory neurons in mammals and insects, suggest general principles of neural computation across sensory systems and animal classes. PMID:26787894

  20. Encoding frequency contrast in primate auditory cortex

    OpenAIRE

    Malone, Brian J.; Scott, Brian H.; Semple, Malcolm N.

    2014-01-01

    Changes in amplitude and frequency jointly determine much of the communicative significance of complex acoustic signals, including human speech. We have previously described responses of neurons in the core auditory cortex of awake rhesus macaques to sinusoidal amplitude modulation (SAM) signals. Here we report a complementary study of sinusoidal frequency modulation (SFM) in the same neurons. Responses to SFM were analogous to SAM responses in that changes in multiple parameters defining SFM...

  1. Sonic morphology: Aesthetic dimensional auditory spatial awareness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitehouse, Martha M.

    The sound and ceramic sculpture installation, " Skirting the Edge: Experiences in Sound & Form," is an integration of art and science demonstrating the concept of sonic morphology. "Sonic morphology" is herein defined as aesthetic three-dimensional auditory spatial awareness. The exhibition explicates my empirical phenomenal observations that sound has a three-dimensional form. Composed of ceramic sculptures that allude to different social and physical situations, coupled with sound compositions that enhance and create a three-dimensional auditory and visual aesthetic experience (see accompanying DVD), the exhibition supports the research question, "What is the relationship between sound and form?" Precisely how people aurally experience three-dimensional space involves an integration of spatial properties, auditory perception, individual history, and cultural mores. People also utilize environmental sound events as a guide in social situations and in remembering their personal history, as well as a guide in moving through space. Aesthetically, sound affects the fascination, meaning, and attention one has within a particular space. Sonic morphology brings art forms such as a movie, video, sound composition, and musical performance into the cognitive scope by generating meaning from the link between the visual and auditory senses. This research examined sonic morphology as an extension of musique concrete, sound as object, originating in Pierre Schaeffer's work in the 1940s. Pointing, as John Cage did, to the corporeal three-dimensional experience of "all sound," I composed works that took their total form only through the perceiver-participant's participation in the exhibition. While contemporary artist Alvin Lucier creates artworks that draw attention to making sound visible, "Skirting the Edge" engages the perceiver-participant visually and aurally, leading to recognition of sonic morphology.

  2. Auditory plasticity and speech motor learning

    OpenAIRE

    Nasir, Sazzad M.; Ostry, David J.

    2009-01-01

    Is plasticity in sensory and motor systems linked? Here, in the context of speech motor learning and perception, we test the idea sensory function is modified by motor learning and, in particular, that speech motor learning affects a speaker's auditory map. We assessed speech motor learning by using a robotic device that displaced the jaw and selectively altered somatosensory feedback during speech. We found that with practice speakers progressively corrected for the mechanical perturbation a...

  3. Inhibition in the Human Auditory Cortex

    OpenAIRE

    Koji Inui; Kei Nakagawa; Makoto Nishihara; Eishi Motomura; Ryusuke Kakigi

    2016-01-01

    Despite their indispensable roles in sensory processing, little is known about inhibitory interneurons in humans. Inhibitory postsynaptic potentials cannot be recorded non-invasively, at least in a pure form, in humans. We herein sought to clarify whether prepulse inhibition (PPI) in the auditory cortex reflected inhibition via interneurons using magnetoencephalography. An abrupt increase in sound pressure by 10 dB in a continuous sound was used to evoke the test response, and PPI was observe...

  4. Idealized computational models for auditory receptive fields.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tony Lindeberg

    Full Text Available We present a theory by which idealized models of auditory receptive fields can be derived in a principled axiomatic manner, from a set of structural properties to (i enable invariance of receptive field responses under natural sound transformations and (ii ensure internal consistency between spectro-temporal receptive fields at different temporal and spectral scales. For defining a time-frequency transformation of a purely temporal sound signal, it is shown that the framework allows for a new way of deriving the Gabor and Gammatone filters as well as a novel family of generalized Gammatone filters, with additional degrees of freedom to obtain different trade-offs between the spectral selectivity and the temporal delay of time-causal temporal window functions. When applied to the definition of a second-layer of receptive fields from a spectrogram, it is shown that the framework leads to two canonical families of spectro-temporal receptive fields, in terms of spectro-temporal derivatives of either spectro-temporal Gaussian kernels for non-causal time or a cascade of time-causal first-order integrators over the temporal domain and a Gaussian filter over the logspectral domain. For each filter family, the spectro-temporal receptive fields can be either separable over the time-frequency domain or be adapted to local glissando transformations that represent variations in logarithmic frequencies over time. Within each domain of either non-causal or time-causal time, these receptive field families are derived by uniqueness from the assumptions. It is demonstrated how the presented framework allows for computation of basic auditory features for audio processing and that it leads to predictions about auditory receptive fields with good qualitative similarity to biological receptive fields measured in the inferior colliculus (ICC and primary auditory cortex (A1 of mammals.

  5. Implicit Temporal Expectation Attenuates Auditory Attentional Blink

    OpenAIRE

    Shen, Dawei; Alain, Claude

    2012-01-01

    Attentional blink (AB) describes a phenomenon whereby correct identification of a first target impairs the processing of a second target (i.e., probe) nearby in time. Evidence suggests that explicit attention orienting in the time domain can attenuate the AB. Here, we used scalp-recorded, event-related potentials to examine whether auditory AB is also sensitive to implicit temporal attention orienting. Expectations were set up implicitly by varying the probability (i.e., 80% or 20%) that the ...

  6. Low Power Adder Based Auditory Filter Architecture

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Cochlea devices are powered up with the help of batteries and they should possess long working life to avoid replacing of devices at regular interval of years. Hence the devices with low power consumptions are required. In cochlea devices there are numerous filters, each responsible for frequency variant signals, which helps in identifying speech signals of different audible range. In this paper, multiplierless lookup table (LUT) based auditory filter is implemented. Power aware adder archite...

  7. Adult age effects in auditory statistical learning

    OpenAIRE

    Neger, T.M.; Rietveld, A.C.M.; Janse, E.

    2015-01-01

    Statistical learning plays a key role in language processing, e.g., for speech segmentation. Older adults have been reported to show less statistical learning on the basis of visual input than younger adults. Given age-related changes in perception and cognition, we investigated whether statistical learning is also impaired in the auditory modality in older compared to younger adults and whether individual learning ability is associated with measures of perceptual (i.e., hearing sensitivity) ...

  8. Spontaneous activity in the developing auditory system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Han Chin; Bergles, Dwight E

    2015-07-01

    Spontaneous electrical activity is a common feature of sensory systems during early development. This sensory-independent neuronal activity has been implicated in promoting their survival and maturation, as well as growth and refinement of their projections to yield circuits that can rapidly extract information about the external world. Periodic bursts of action potentials occur in auditory neurons of mammals before hearing onset. This activity is induced by inner hair cells (IHCs) within the developing cochlea, which establish functional connections with spiral ganglion neurons (SGNs) several weeks before they are capable of detecting external sounds. During this pre-hearing period, IHCs fire periodic bursts of Ca(2+) action potentials that excite SGNs, triggering brief but intense periods of activity that pass through auditory centers of the brain. Although spontaneous activity requires input from IHCs, there is ongoing debate about whether IHCs are intrinsically active and their firing periodically interrupted by external inhibitory input (IHC-inhibition model), or are intrinsically silent and their firing periodically promoted by an external excitatory stimulus (IHC-excitation model). There is accumulating evidence that inner supporting cells in Kölliker's organ spontaneously release ATP during this time, which can induce bursts of Ca(2+) spikes in IHCs that recapitulate many features of auditory neuron activity observed in vivo. Nevertheless, the role of supporting cells in this process remains to be established in vivo. A greater understanding of the molecular mechanisms responsible for generating IHC activity in the developing cochlea will help reveal how these events contribute to the maturation of nascent auditory circuits. PMID:25296716

  9. Predictive uncertainty in auditory sequence processing

    OpenAIRE

    Niels Chr.Hansen; MarcusT.Pearce

    2014-01-01

    Previous studies of auditory expectation have focused on the expectedness perceived by listeners retrospectively in response to events. In contrast, this research examines predictive uncertainty - a property of listeners’ prospective state of expectation prior to the onset of an event. We examine the information-theoretic concept of Shannon entropy as a model of predictive uncertainty in music cognition. This is motivated by the Statistical Learning Hypothesis, which proposes that schematic e...

  10. A computational model of the auditory periphery for speech and hearing research. I. Ascending path.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giguère, C; Woodland, P C

    1994-01-01

    A dual analog/digital model of the ascending path through the entire auditory periphery is described. The analog representation consists of the concatenation of electrical circuit submodels for (a) the diffraction of the external ear system; (b) the propagation through the concha and auditory canal; (c) the transmission through the middle ear; (d) the basilar membrane motion and cochlear hydrodynamics; (e) the fast motile mechanism of the outer hair cells; and (f) the neural transduction process of the inner hair cells. Time-domain numerical solutions are obtained by applying the technique of wave digital filtering onto the resulting analog circuit. The present version of the model reproduces the sound pressure gain at the eardrum for lateral sound incidence, the vibration characteristics of the stapes, and the low-frequency attenuation provided by the stapedial muscle. Source elements in the cochlear module provide level-dependent basilar membrane tuning curves leading to dynamic compression of input signals near the characteristic frequency/place. The output is the tonotopic distribution of firing activity in the auditory nerve. A companion article addresses the modeling of the descending paths [C. Giguère and P. C. Woodland, J. Acoust, Soc. Am. 94, 343-349 (1993)]. PMID:8120244

  11. Comparison of Auditory Brainstem Response in Noise Induced Tinnitus and Non-Tinnitus Control Subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghassem Mohammadkhani

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Tinnitus is an unpleasant sound which can cause some behavioral disorders. According to evidence the origin of tinnitus is not only in peripheral but also in central auditory system. So evaluation of central auditory system function is necessary. In this study Auditory brainstem responses (ABR were compared in noise induced tinnitus and non-tinnitus control subjects.Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional, descriptive and analytic study is conducted in 60 cases in two groups including of 30 noise induced tinnitus and 30 non-tinnitus control subjects. ABRs were recorded ipsilateraly and contralateraly and their latencies and amplitudes were analyzed.Results: Mean interpeak latencies of III-V (p= 0.022, I-V (p=0.033 in ipsilatral electrode array and mean absolute latencies of IV (p=0.015 and V (p=0.048 in contralatral electrode array were significantly increased in noise induced tinnitus group relative to control group. Conclusion: It can be concluded from that there are some decrease in neural transmission time in brainstem and there are some sign of involvement of medial nuclei in olivery complex in addition to lateral lemniscus.

  12. Stroke caused auditory attention deficits in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karla Maria Ibraim da Freiria Elias

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To verify the auditory selective attention in children with stroke. METHODS: Dichotic tests of binaural separation (non-verbal and consonant-vowel and binaural integration - digits and Staggered Spondaic Words Test (SSW - were applied in 13 children (7 boys, from 7 to 16 years, with unilateral stroke confirmed by neurological examination and neuroimaging. RESULTS: The attention performance showed significant differences in comparison to the control group in both kinds of tests. In the non-verbal test, identifications the ear opposite the lesion in the free recall stage was diminished and, in the following stages, a difficulty in directing attention was detected. In the consonant- vowel test, a modification in perceptual asymmetry and difficulty in focusing in the attended stages was found. In the digits and SSW tests, ipsilateral, contralateral and bilateral deficits were detected, depending on the characteristics of the lesions and demand of the task. CONCLUSION: Stroke caused auditory attention deficits when dealing with simultaneous sources of auditory information.

  13. BALDEY: A database of auditory lexical decisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ernestus, Mirjam; Cutler, Anne

    2015-01-01

    In an auditory lexical decision experiment, 5541 spoken content words and pseudowords were presented to 20 native speakers of Dutch. The words vary in phonological make-up and in number of syllables and stress pattern, and are further representative of the native Dutch vocabulary in that most are morphologically complex, comprising two stems or one stem plus derivational and inflectional suffixes, with inflections representing both regular and irregular paradigms; the pseudowords were matched in these respects to the real words. The BALDEY ("biggest auditory lexical decision experiment yet") data file includes response times and accuracy rates, with for each item morphological information plus phonological and acoustic information derived from automatic phonemic segmentation of the stimuli. Two initial analyses illustrate how this data set can be used. First, we discuss several measures of the point at which a word has no further neighbours and compare the degree to which each measure predicts our lexical decision response outcomes. Second, we investigate how well four different measures of frequency of occurrence (from written corpora, spoken corpora, subtitles, and frequency ratings by 75 participants) predict the same outcomes. These analyses motivate general conclusions about the auditory lexical decision task. The (publicly available) BALDEY database lends itself to many further analyses. PMID:25397865

  14. Auditory Discrimination Learning: Role of Working Memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yu-Xuan; Moore, David R; Guiraud, Jeanne; Molloy, Katharine; Yan, Ting-Ting; Amitay, Sygal

    2016-01-01

    Perceptual training is generally assumed to improve perception by modifying the encoding or decoding of sensory information. However, this assumption is incompatible with recent demonstrations that transfer of learning can be enhanced by across-trial variation of training stimuli or task. Here we present three lines of evidence from healthy adults in support of the idea that the enhanced transfer of auditory discrimination learning is mediated by working memory (WM). First, the ability to discriminate small differences in tone frequency or duration was correlated with WM measured with a tone n-back task. Second, training frequency discrimination around a variable frequency transferred to and from WM learning, but training around a fixed frequency did not. The transfer of learning in both directions was correlated with a reduction of the influence of stimulus variation in the discrimination task, linking WM and its improvement to across-trial stimulus interaction in auditory discrimination. Third, while WM training transferred broadly to other WM and auditory discrimination tasks, variable-frequency training on duration discrimination did not improve WM, indicating that stimulus variation challenges and trains WM only if the task demands stimulus updating in the varied dimension. The results provide empirical evidence as well as a theoretic framework for interactions between cognitive and sensory plasticity during perceptual experience. PMID:26799068

  15. The effects of auditory enrichment on gorillas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robbins, Lindsey; Margulis, Susan W

    2014-01-01

    Several studies have demonstrated that auditory enrichment can reduce stereotypic behaviors in captive animals. The purpose of this study was to determine the relative effectiveness of three different types of auditory enrichment-naturalistic sounds, classical music, and rock music-in reducing stereotypic behavior displayed by Western lowland gorillas (Gorilla gorilla gorilla). Three gorillas (one adult male, two adult females) were observed at the Buffalo Zoo for a total of 24 hr per music trial. A control observation period, during which no sounds were presented, was also included. Each music trial consisted of a total of three weeks with a 1-week control period in between each music type. The results reveal a decrease in stereotypic behaviors from the control period to naturalistic sounds. The naturalistic sounds also affected patterns of several other behaviors including locomotion. In contrast, stereotypy increased in the presence of classical and rock music. These results suggest that auditory enrichment, which is not commonly used in zoos in a systematic way, can be easily utilized by keepers to help decrease stereotypic behavior, but the nature of the stimulus, as well as the differential responses of individual animals, need to be considered. PMID:24715297

  16. Central auditory masking by an illusory tone.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher J Plack

    Full Text Available Many natural sounds fluctuate over time. The detectability of sounds in a sequence can be reduced by prior stimulation in a process known as forward masking. Forward masking is thought to reflect neural adaptation or neural persistence in the auditory nervous system, but it has been unclear where in the auditory pathway this processing occurs. To address this issue, the present study used a "Huggins pitch" stimulus, the perceptual effects of which depend on central auditory processing. Huggins pitch is an illusory tonal sensation produced when the same noise is presented to the two ears except for a narrow frequency band that is different (decorrelated between the ears. The pitch sensation depends on the combination of the inputs to the two ears, a process that first occurs at the level of the superior olivary complex in the brainstem. Here it is shown that a Huggins pitch stimulus produces more forward masking in the frequency region of the decorrelation than a noise stimulus identical to the Huggins-pitch stimulus except with perfect correlation between the ears. This stimulus has a peripheral neural representation that is identical to that of the Huggins-pitch stimulus. The results show that processing in, or central to, the superior olivary complex can contribute to forward masking in human listeners.

  17. Hierarchical processing of auditory objects in humans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sukhbinder Kumar

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available This work examines the computational architecture used by the brain during the analysis of the spectral envelope of sounds, an important acoustic feature for defining auditory objects. Dynamic causal modelling and Bayesian model selection were used to evaluate a family of 16 network models explaining functional magnetic resonance imaging responses in the right temporal lobe during spectral envelope analysis. The models encode different hypotheses about the effective connectivity between Heschl's Gyrus (HG, containing the primary auditory cortex, planum temporale (PT, and superior temporal sulcus (STS, and the modulation of that coupling during spectral envelope analysis. In particular, we aimed to determine whether information processing during spectral envelope analysis takes place in a serial or parallel fashion. The analysis provides strong support for a serial architecture with connections from HG to PT and from PT to STS and an increase of the HG to PT connection during spectral envelope analysis. The work supports a computational model of auditory object processing, based on the abstraction of spectro-temporal "templates" in the PT before further analysis of the abstracted form in anterior temporal lobe areas.

  18. Across frequency processes involved in auditory detection of coloration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buchholz, Jörg; Kerketsos, P

    2008-01-01

    When an early wall reflection is added to a direct sound, a spectral modulation is introduced to the signal's power spectrum. This spectral modulation typically produces an auditory sensation of coloration or pitch. Throughout this study, auditory spectral-integration effects involved in coloration...... detection are investigated. Coloration detection thresholds were therefore measured as a function of reflection delay and stimulus bandwidth. In order to investigate the involved auditory mechanisms, an auditory model was employed that was conceptually similar to the peripheral weighting model [Yost, JASA...... filterbank was designed to approximate auditory filter-shapes measured by Oxenham and Shera [JARO, 2003, 541-554], derived from forward masking data. The results of the present study demonstrate that a “purely” spectrum-based model approach can successfully describe auditory coloration detection even at high...

  19. Maturation of auditory neural processes in autism spectrum disorder — A longitudinal MEG study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Port, Russell G.; Edgar, J. Christopher; Ku, Matthew; Bloy, Luke; Murray, Rebecca; Blaskey, Lisa; Levy, Susan E.; Roberts, Timothy P.L.

    2016-01-01

    Background Individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) show atypical brain activity, perhaps due to delayed maturation. Previous studies examining the maturation of auditory electrophysiological activity have been limited due to their use of cross-sectional designs. The present study took a first step in examining magnetoencephalography (MEG) evidence of abnormal auditory response maturation in ASD via the use of a longitudinal design. Methods Initially recruited for a previous study, 27 children with ASD and nine typically developing (TD) children, aged 6- to 11-years-old, were re-recruited two to five years later. At both timepoints, MEG data were obtained while participants passively listened to sinusoidal pure-tones. Bilateral primary/secondary auditory cortex time domain (100 ms evoked response latency (M100)) and spectrotemporal measures (gamma-band power and inter-trial coherence (ITC)) were examined. MEG measures were also qualitatively examined for five children who exhibited “optimal outcome”, participants who were initially on spectrum, but no longer met diagnostic criteria at follow-up. Results M100 latencies were delayed in ASD versus TD at the initial exam (~ 19 ms) and at follow-up (~ 18 ms). At both exams, M100 latencies were associated with clinical ASD severity. In addition, gamma-band evoked power and ITC were reduced in ASD versus TD. M100 latency and gamma-band maturation rates did not differ between ASD and TD. Of note, the cohort of five children that demonstrated “optimal outcome” additionally exhibited M100 latency and gamma-band activity mean values in-between TD and ASD at both timepoints. Though justifying only qualitative interpretation, these “optimal outcome” related data are presented here to motivate future studies. Conclusions Children with ASD showed perturbed auditory cortex neural activity, as evidenced by M100 latency delays as well as reduced transient gamma-band activity. Despite evidence for maturation

  20. A review of the generalization of auditory learning

    OpenAIRE

    Wright, Beverly A.; Zhang, Yuxuan

    2008-01-01

    The ability to detect and discriminate attributes of sounds improves with practice. Determining how such auditory learning generalizes to stimuli and tasks that are not encountered during training can guide the development of training regimens used to improve hearing abilities in particular populations as well as provide insight into the neural mechanisms mediating auditory performance. Here we review the newly emerging literature on the generalization of auditory learning, focusing on behavi...

  1. Perspectives on the design of musical auditory interfaces

    OpenAIRE

    Leplatre, G.; Brewster, S.A.

    1998-01-01

    This paper addresses the issue of music as a communication medium in auditory human-computer interfaces. So far, psychoacoustics has had a great influence on the development of auditory interfaces, directly and through music cognition. We suggest that a better understanding of the processes involved in the perception of actual musical excerpts should allow musical auditory interface designers to exploit the communicative potential of music. In this respect, we argue that the real advantage of...

  2. Auditory Cortex Basal Activity Modulates Cochlear Responses in Chinchillas

    OpenAIRE

    León, Alex; Elgueda, Diego; Silva, María A.; Hamamé, Carlos M.; Delano, Paul H.

    2012-01-01

    Background The auditory efferent system has unique neuroanatomical pathways that connect the cerebral cortex with sensory receptor cells. Pyramidal neurons located in layers V and VI of the primary auditory cortex constitute descending projections to the thalamus, inferior colliculus, and even directly to the superior olivary complex and to the cochlear nucleus. Efferent pathways are connected to the cochlear receptor by the olivocochlear system, which innervates outer hair cells and auditory...

  3. Using Facebook to Reach People Who Experience Auditory Hallucinations

    OpenAIRE

    Crosier, Benjamin Sage; Brian, Rachel Marie; Ben-Zeev, Dror

    2016-01-01

    Background Auditory hallucinations (eg, hearing voices) are relatively common and underreported false sensory experiences that may produce distress and impairment. A large proportion of those who experience auditory hallucinations go unidentified and untreated. Traditional engagement methods oftentimes fall short in reaching the diverse population of people who experience auditory hallucinations. Objective The objective of this proof-of-concept study was to examine the viability of leveraging...

  4. Time course of dynamic range adaptation in the auditory nerve

    OpenAIRE

    Wen, Bo; Wang, Grace I.; Dean, Isabel; Delgutte, Bertrand

    2012-01-01

    Auditory adaptation to sound-level statistics occurs as early as in the auditory nerve (AN), the first stage of neural auditory processing. In addition to firing rate adaptation characterized by a rate decrement dependent on previous spike activity, AN fibers show dynamic range adaptation, which is characterized by a shift of the rate-level function or dynamic range toward the most frequently occurring levels in a dynamic stimulus, thereby improving the precision of coding of the most common ...

  5. Auditory hair cell precursors immortalized from the mammalian inner ear.

    OpenAIRE

    Rivolta, M.N.; Grix, N; Lawlor, P.; Ashmore, J. F.; Jagger, D J; Holley, M C

    1998-01-01

    Mammalian auditory hair cells are few in number, experimentally inaccessible, and do not proliferate postnatally or in vitro. Immortal cell lines with the potential to differentiate into auditory hair cells would substantially facilitate auditory research, drug development, and the isolation of critical molecules involved in hair cell biology. We have established two conditionally immortal cell lines that express at least five characteristic hair cell markers. These markers are the transcript...

  6. Fundamental deficits of auditory perception in Wernicke’s aphasia

    OpenAIRE

    Robson, Holly; Grube, Manon; Lambon Ralph, Matthew; Griffiths, Timothy; Sage, Karen

    2012-01-01

    Objective: This work investigates the nature of the comprehension impairment in Wernicke’s aphasia, by examining the relationship between deficits in auditory processing of fundamental, non-verbal acoustic stimuli and auditory comprehension. Wernicke’s aphasia, a condition resulting in severely disrupted auditory comprehension, primarily occurs following a cerebrovascular accident (CVA) to the left temporo-parietal cortex. Whilst damage to posterior superior temporal areas is associated wit...

  7. Speech Perception Within an Auditory Cognitive Science Framework

    OpenAIRE

    Holt, Lori L.; Lotto, Andrew J.

    2008-01-01

    The complexities of the acoustic speech signal pose many significant challenges for listeners. Although perceiving speech begins with auditory processing, investigation of speech perception has progressed mostly independently of study of the auditory system. Nevertheless, a growing body of evidence demonstrates that cross-fertilization between the two areas of research can be productive. We briefly describe research bridging the study of general auditory processing and speech perception, show...

  8. Electrocorticographic Activation within Human Auditory Cortex during Dialog-Based Language and Cognitive Testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nourski, Kirill V; Steinschneider, Mitchell; Rhone, Ariane E

    2016-01-01

    Current models of cortical speech and language processing include multiple regions within the temporal lobe of both hemispheres. Human communication, by necessity, involves complex interactions between regions subserving speech and language processing with those involved in more general cognitive functions. To assess these interactions, we utilized an ecologically salient conversation-based approach. This approach mandates that we first clarify activity patterns at the earliest stages of cortical speech processing. Therefore, we examined high gamma (70-150 Hz) responses within the electrocorticogram (ECoG) recorded simultaneously from Heschl's gyrus (HG) and lateral surface of the superior temporal gyrus (STG). Subjects were neurosurgical patients undergoing evaluation for treatment of medically intractable epilepsy. They performed an expanded version of the Mini-mental state examination (MMSE), which included additional spelling, naming, and memory-based tasks. ECoG was recorded from HG and the STG using multicontact depth and subdural electrode arrays, respectively. Differences in high gamma activity during listening to the interviewer and the subject's self-generated verbal responses were quantified for each recording site and across sites within HG and STG. The expanded MMSE produced widespread activation in auditory cortex of both hemispheres. No significant difference was found between activity during listening to the interviewer's questions and the subject's answers in posteromedial HG (auditory core cortex). A different pattern was observed throughout anterolateral HG and posterior and middle portions of lateral STG (non-core auditory cortical areas), where activity was significantly greater during listening compared to speaking. No systematic task-specific differences in the degree of suppression during speaking relative to listening were found in posterior and middle STG. Individual sites could, however, exhibit task-related variability in the degree of

  9. Electrocorticographic Activation within Human Auditory Cortex during Dialog-Based Language and Cognitive Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nourski, Kirill V.; Steinschneider, Mitchell; Rhone, Ariane E.

    2016-01-01

    Current models of cortical speech and language processing include multiple regions within the temporal lobe of both hemispheres. Human communication, by necessity, involves complex interactions between regions subserving speech and language processing with those involved in more general cognitive functions. To assess these interactions, we utilized an ecologically salient conversation-based approach. This approach mandates that we first clarify activity patterns at the earliest stages of cortical speech processing. Therefore, we examined high gamma (70–150 Hz) responses within the electrocorticogram (ECoG) recorded simultaneously from Heschl’s gyrus (HG) and lateral surface of the superior temporal gyrus (STG). Subjects were neurosurgical patients undergoing evaluation for treatment of medically intractable epilepsy. They performed an expanded version of the Mini-mental state examination (MMSE), which included additional spelling, naming, and memory-based tasks. ECoG was recorded from HG and the STG using multicontact depth and subdural electrode arrays, respectively. Differences in high gamma activity during listening to the interviewer and the subject’s self-generated verbal responses were quantified for each recording site and across sites within HG and STG. The expanded MMSE produced widespread activation in auditory cortex of both hemispheres. No significant difference was found between activity during listening to the interviewer’s questions and the subject’s answers in posteromedial HG (auditory core cortex). A different pattern was observed throughout anterolateral HG and posterior and middle portions of lateral STG (non-core auditory cortical areas), where activity was significantly greater during listening compared to speaking. No systematic task-specific differences in the degree of suppression during speaking relative to listening were found in posterior and middle STG. Individual sites could, however, exhibit task-related variability in the

  10. Sound objects – Auditory objects – Musical objects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjortkjær, Jens

    2016-01-01

    The auditory system transforms patterns of sound energy into perceptual objects but the precise definition of an ‘auditory object’ is much debated. In the context of music listening, Pierre Schaeffer argued that ‘sound objects’ are the fundamental perceptual units in ‘musical objects’. In this...... paper, I review recent neurocognitive research suggesting that the auditory system is sensitive to structural information about real-world objects. Instead of focusing solely on perceptual sound features as determinants of auditory objects, I propose that real-world object properties are inherent in the...

  11. Sound objects – Auditory objects – Musical objects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjortkjær, Jens

    2015-01-01

    The auditory system transforms patterns of sound energy into perceptual objects but the precise definition of an ‘auditory object’ is much debated. In the context of music listening, Pierre Schaeffer argued that ‘sound objects’ are the fundamental perceptual units in ‘musical objects’. In this...... paper, I review recent neurocognitive research suggesting that the auditory system is sensitive to structural information about real-world objects. Instead of focusing solely on perceptual sound features as determinants of auditory objects, I propose that real-world object properties are inherent in the...

  12. Multisensory Interactions between Auditory and Haptic Object Recognition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kassuba, Tanja; Menz, Mareike M; R�der, Brigitte; Siebner, Hartwig R

    2013-01-01

    and haptic object features activate cortical regions that host unified conceptual object representations. The left fusiform gyrus (FG) and posterior superior temporal sulcus (pSTS) showed increased activation during crossmodal matching of semantically congruent but not incongruent object stimuli. In...... the FG, this effect was found for haptic-to-auditory and auditory-to-haptic matching, whereas the pSTS only displayed a crossmodal matching effect for congruent auditory targets. Auditory and somatosensory association cortices showed increased activity during crossmodal object matching which was...

  13. Extrinsic sound stimulations and development of periphery auditory synapses

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kun Hou; Shiming Yang; Ke Liu

    2015-01-01

    The development of auditory synapses is a key process for the maturation of hearing function. However, it is still on debate regarding whether the development of auditory synapses is dominated by acquired sound stimulations. In this review, we summarize relevant publications in recent decades to address this issue. Most reported data suggest that extrinsic sound stimulations do affect, but not govern the development of periphery auditory synapses. Overall, periphery auditory synapses develop and mature according to its intrinsic mechanism to build up the synaptic connections between sensory neurons and/or interneurons.

  14. Evaluation of peripheral compression and auditory nerve fiber intensity coding using auditory steady-state responses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Encina Llamas, Gerard; M. Harte, James; Epp, Bastian

    2015-01-01

    . Evaluation of these properties provides information about the health state of the system. It has been shown that a loss of outer hair cells leads to a reduction in peripheral compression. It has also recently been shown in animal studies that noise over-exposure, producing temporary threshold shifts, can......The compressive nonlinearity of the auditory system is assumed to be an epiphenomenon of a healthy cochlea and, particularly, of outer-hair cell function. Another ability of the healthy auditory system is to enable communication in acoustical environments with high-level background noises...

  15. Contingent capture of involuntary visual attention interferes with detection of auditory stimuli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MarcR.Kamke

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The involuntary capture of attention by salient visual stimuli can be influenced by the behavioral goals of an observer. For example, when searching for a target item, irrelevant items that possess the target-defining characteristic capture attention more strongly than items not possessing that feature. Such contingent capture involves a shift of spatial attention toward the item with the target-defining characteristic. It is not clear, however, if the associated decrements in performance for detecting the target item are entirely due to involuntary orienting of spatial attention. To investigate whether contingent capture also involves a non-spatial interference, adult observers were presented with streams of visual and auditory stimuli and were tasked with simultaneously monitoring for targets in each modality. Visual and auditory targets could be preceded by a lateralized visual distractor that either did, or did not, possess the target-defining feature (a specific color. In agreement with the contingent capture hypothesis, target-colored distractors interfered with visual detection performance (response time and accuracy more than distractors that did not possess the target color. Importantly, the same pattern of results was obtained for the auditory task: visual target-colored distractors interfered with sound detection. The decrement in auditory performance following a target-colored distractor suggests that contingent capture involves a source of processing interference in addition to that caused by a spatial shift of attention. Specifically, we argue that distractors possessing the target-defining characteristic enter a capacity-limited, serial stage of neural processing, which delays detection of subsequently presented stimuli regardless of the sensory modality.

  16. Lateral Lumbar Interbody Fusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawar, Abhijit; Hughes, Alexander; Girardi, Federico; Sama, Andrew; Lebl, Darren; Cammisa, Frank

    2015-12-01

    The lateral lumbar interbody fusion (LLIF) is a relatively new technique that allows the surgeon to access the intervertebral space from a direct lateral approach either anterior to or through the psoas muscle. This approach provides an alternative to anterior lumbar interbody fusion with instrumentation, posterior lumbar interbody fusion, and transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion for anterior column support. LLIF is minimally invasive, safe, better structural support from the apophyseal ring, potential for coronal plane deformity correction, and indirect decompression, which have has made this technique popular. LLIF is currently being utilized for a variety of pathologies including but not limited to adult de novo lumbar scoliosis, central and foraminal stenosis, spondylolisthesis, and adjacent segment degeneration. Although early clinical outcomes have been good, the potential for significant neurological and vascular vertebral endplate complications exists. Nevertheless, LLIF is a promising technique with the potential to more effectively treat complex adult de novo scoliosis and achieve predictable fusion while avoiding the complications of traditional anterior surgery and posterior interbody techniques. PMID:26713134

  17. Creativity in later life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, K A; Tinker, A M

    2014-08-01

    The ageing population presents significant challenges for the provision of social and health services. Strategies are needed to enable older people to cope within a society ill prepared for the impacts of these demographic changes. The ability to be creative may be one such strategy. This review outlines the relevant literature and examines current public health policy related to creativity in old age with the aim of highlighting some important issues. As well as looking at the benefits and negative aspects of creative activity in later life they are considered in the context of the theory of "successful ageing". Creative activity plays an important role in the lives of older people promoting social interaction, providing cognitive stimulation and giving a sense of self-worth. Furthermore, it is shown to be useful as a tool in the multi-disciplinary treatment of health problems common in later life such as depression and dementia. There are a number of initiatives to encourage older people to participate in creative activities such as arts-based projects which may range from visual arts to dance to music to intergenerational initiatives. However, participation shows geographical variation and often the responsibility of provision falls to voluntary organisations. Overall, the literature presented suggests that creative activity could be a useful tool for individuals and society. However, further research is needed to establish the key factors which contribute to patterns of improved health and well-being, as well as to explore ways to improve access to services. PMID:24974278

  18. Weak responses to auditory feedback perturbation during articulation in persons who stutter: evidence for abnormal auditory-motor transformation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shanqing Cai

    Full Text Available Previous empirical observations have led researchers to propose that auditory feedback (the auditory perception of self-produced sounds when speaking functions abnormally in the speech motor systems of persons who stutter (PWS. Researchers have theorized that an important neural basis of stuttering is the aberrant integration of auditory information into incipient speech motor commands. Because of the circumstantial support for these hypotheses and the differences and contradictions between them, there is a need for carefully designed experiments that directly examine auditory-motor integration during speech production in PWS. In the current study, we used real-time manipulation of auditory feedback to directly investigate whether the speech motor system of PWS utilizes auditory feedback abnormally during articulation and to characterize potential deficits of this auditory-motor integration. Twenty-one PWS and 18 fluent control participants were recruited. Using a short-latency formant-perturbation system, we examined participants' compensatory responses to unanticipated perturbation of auditory feedback of the first formant frequency during the production of the monophthong [ε]. The PWS showed compensatory responses that were qualitatively similar to the controls' and had close-to-normal latencies (∼150 ms, but the magnitudes of their responses were substantially and significantly smaller than those of the control participants (by 47% on average, p<0.05. Measurements of auditory acuity indicate that the weaker-than-normal compensatory responses in PWS were not attributable to a deficit in low-level auditory processing. These findings are consistent with the hypothesis that stuttering is associated with functional defects in the inverse models responsible for the transformation from the domain of auditory targets and auditory error information into the domain of speech motor commands.

  19. The Role of Auditory and Kinaesthetic Feedback Mechanisms on Phonatory Stability in Children

    OpenAIRE

    Rathna Kumar, S. B.; Azeem, Suhail; Choudhary, Abhishek Kumar; Prakash, S. G. R.

    2012-01-01

    Auditory feedback plays an important role in phonatory control. When auditory feedback is disrupted, various changes are observed in vocal motor control. Vocal intensity and fundamental frequency (F0) levels tend to increase in response to auditory masking. Because of the close reflexive links between the auditory and phonatory systems, it is likely that phonatory stability may be disrupted when auditory feedback is disrupted or altered. However, studies on phonatory stability under auditory ...

  20. Right hemispheric contributions to fine auditory temporal discriminations: high-density electrical mapping of the duration mismatch negativity (MMN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sophie Molholm

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available That language processing is primarily a function of the left hemisphere has led to the supposition that auditory temporal discrimination is particularly well-tuned in the left hemisphere, since speech discrimination is thought to rely heavily on the registration of temporal transitions. However, physiological data have not consistently supported this view. Rather, functional imaging studies often show equally strong, if not stronger, contributions from the right hemisphere during temporal processing tasks, suggesting a more complex underlying neural substrate. The mismatch negativity (MMN component of the human auditory evoked-potential (AEP provides a sensitive metric of duration processing in human auditory cortex and lateralization of MMN can be readily assayed when sufficiently dense electrode arrays are employed. Here, the sensitivity of the left and right auditory cortex for temporal processing was measured by recording the MMN to small duration deviants presented to either the left or right ear. We found that duration deviants differing by just 15% (i.e. rare 115 ms tones presented in a stream of 100 ms tones elicited a significant MMN for tones presented to the left ear (biasing the right hemisphere. However, deviants presented to the right ear elicited no detectable MMN for this separation. Further, participants detected significantly more duration deviants and committed fewer false alarms for tones presented to the left ear during a subsequent psychophysical testing session. In contrast to the prevalent model, these results point to equivalent if not greater right hemisphere contributions to temporal processing of small duration changes.

  1. Reduced laterality as a trait marker of schizophrenia--evidence from structural and functional neuroimaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oertel, Viola; Knöchel, Christian; Rotarska-Jagiela, Anna; Schönmeyer, Ralf; Lindner, Michael; van de Ven, Vincent; Haenschel, Corinna; Uhlhaas, Peter; Maurer, Konrad; Linden, David E J

    2010-02-10

    Laterality is a characteristic principle of the organization of the brain systems for language, and reduced hemispheric asymmetry has been considered a risk factor for schizophrenia. Here we sought support for the risk factor hypothesis by investigating whether reduced asymmetry of temporal lobe structure and function is also present in unaffected relatives. Sixteen schizophrenia patients, 16 age-matched first-degree relatives, and 15 healthy controls underwent high-resolution three-dimensional anatomical imaging and functional magnetic resonance imaging during auditory stimulation. Both the overall auditory cortex and planum temporale volumes and the lateralization to the left hemisphere were markedly reduced in patients. The decrease of lateralization correlated with increased severity of symptoms. In addition, both the overall functional activation in response to auditory stimulation and its asymmetry were reduced in the patients. Relatives had intermediate values between patients and controls on both structural and functional measures. This study provides added support for the idea that reduced hemispheric asymmetry is a biological risk factor for schizophrenia. PMID:20147555

  2. Lateral conduction infrared photodetector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jin K.; Carroll, Malcolm S.

    2011-09-20

    A photodetector for detecting infrared light in a wavelength range of 3-25 .mu.m is disclosed. The photodetector has a mesa structure formed from semiconductor layers which include a type-II superlattice formed of alternating layers of InAs and In.sub.xGa.sub.1-xSb with 0.ltoreq.x.ltoreq.0.5. Impurity doped regions are formed on sidewalls of the mesa structure to provide for a lateral conduction of photo-generated carriers which can provide an increased carrier mobility and a reduced surface recombination. An optional bias electrode can be used in the photodetector to control and vary a cut-off wavelength or a depletion width therein. The photodetector can be formed as a single-color or multi-color device, and can also be used to form a focal plane array which is compatible with conventional read-out integrated circuits.

  3. Lateral Control”

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Hanne Nina; Veierskov, Bjarke; Hansen-Møller, Jens;

    2010-01-01

    in cytokinins and auxin (IAA). After bud excision, ZRP increased dramatically in the subapical stem within 1 h, followed by ZR within 1 week. Supernormal levels of ZR were maintained through autumn and persisted in spring in the destipitated trees, but had returned to normal in the decapitated trees...... pattern changes followed from destipitation, but few from decapitation. Growth reactions suggest that resource allocation to main branch buds inhibits leader growth in normal trees, a kind of “lateral control.” Auxin and ABA content in buds and stems was largely unaffected by treatments. Data suggest...... that subapical leader tissues beneath the apical bud group are a primary source of cytokinin regulation. Keywords ABA - Apical control - Auxin - Bud development - Cytokinin - Plant architecture...

  4. Laterality and language experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hull, Rachel; Vaid, Jyotsna

    2006-09-01

    A meta-analysis was conducted on studies that examined hemispheric functional asymmetry for language in brain-intact monolingual and bilingual adults. Data from 23 laterality studies that directly compared bilingual and monolingual speakers on the same language were analysed (n = 1234). Variables examined were language experience (monolingual, bilingual), experimental paradigm (dichotic listening, visual hemifield presentation, and dual task) and, among bilinguals, the influence of second language proficiency (proficient vs nonproficient) and onset of bilingualism (early, or before age 6; and late, or after age 6). Overall, monolinguals and late bilinguals showed reliable left hemisphere dominance, while early bilinguals showed reliable bilateral hemispheric involvement. Within bilinguals, there was no reliable effect of language proficiency when age of L2 acquisition was controlled. The findings indicate that early learning of one vs. two languages predicts divergent patterns of cerebral language lateralisation in adulthood. PMID:16882556

  5. Graded and discontinuous EphA-ephrinB expression patterns in the developing auditory brainstem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Matthew M; Harris, J Aaron; Brubaker, Donald Q; Klotz, Caitlyn A; Gabriele, Mark L

    2016-05-01

    Eph-ephrin interactions guide topographic mapping and pattern formation in a variety of systems. In contrast to other sensory pathways, their precise role in the assembly of central auditory circuits remains poorly understood. The auditory midbrain, or inferior colliculus (IC) is an intriguing structure for exploring guidance of patterned projections as adjacent subdivisions exhibit distinct organizational features. The central nucleus of the IC (CNIC) and deep aspects of its neighboring lateral cortex (LCIC, Layer 3) are tonotopically-organized and receive layered inputs from primarily downstream auditory sources. While less is known about more superficial aspects of the LCIC, its inputs are multimodal, lack a clear tonotopic order, and appear discontinuous, terminating in modular, patch/matrix-like distributions. Here we utilize X-Gal staining approaches in lacZ mutant mice (ephrin-B2, -B3, and EphA4) to reveal EphA-ephrinB expression patterns in the nascent IC during the period of projection shaping that precedes hearing onset. We also report early postnatal protein expression in the cochlear nuclei, the superior olivary complex, the nuclei of the lateral lemniscus, and relevant midline structures. Continuous ephrin-B2 and EphA4 expression gradients exist along frequency axes of the CNIC and LCIC Layer 3. In contrast, more superficial LCIC localization is not graded, but confined to a series of discrete ephrin-B2 and EphA4-positive Layer 2 modules. While heavily expressed in the midline, much of the auditory brainstem is devoid of ephrin-B3, including the CNIC, LCIC Layer 2 modular fields, the dorsal nucleus of the lateral lemniscus (DNLL), as well as much of the superior olivary complex and cochlear nuclei. Ephrin-B3 LCIC expression appears complementary to that of ephrin-B2 and EphA4, with protein most concentrated in presumptive extramodular zones. Described tonotopic gradients and seemingly complementary modular/extramodular patterns suggest Eph

  6. Regulation of the fear network by mediators of stress: Norepinephrine alters the balance between Cortical and Subcortical afferent excitation of the Lateral Amygdala

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luke R Johnson

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Pavlovian auditory fear conditioning crucially involves the integration of information about and acoustic conditioned stimulus (CS and an aversive unconditioned stimulus (US in the lateral nucleus of the amygdala (LA. The auditory CS reaches the LA subcortically via a direct connection from the auditory thalamus and also from the auditory association cortex itself. How neural modulators, especially those activated during stress, such as norepinephrine (NE, regulate synaptic transmission and plasticity in this network is poorly understood. Here we show that NE inhibits synaptic transmission in both the subcortical and cortical input pathway but that sensory processing is biased towards the subcortical pathway. In addition binding of NE to β-adrenergic receptors further dissociates sensory processing in the LA. These findings suggest a network mechanism that shifts sensory balance towards the faster but more primitive subcortical input.

  7. Auditory Processing Disorder and Auditory/Language Interventions: An Evidence-Based Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fey, Marc E.; Richard, Gail J.; Geffner, Donna; Kamhi, Alan G.; Medwetsky, Larry; Paul, Diane; Ross-Swain, Deborah; Wallach, Geraldine P.; Frymark, Tobi; Schooling, Tracy

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: In this systematic review, the peer-reviewed literature on the efficacy of interventions for school-age children with auditory processing disorder (APD) is critically evaluated. Method: Searches of 28 electronic databases yielded 25 studies for analysis. These studies were categorized by research phase (e.g., exploratory, efficacy) and…

  8. An auditory-periphery model of the effects of acoustic trauma on auditory nerve responses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruce, Ian C.; Sachs, Murray B.; Young, Eric D.

    2003-01-01

    Acoustic trauma degrades the auditory nerve's tonotopic representation of acoustic stimuli. Recent physiological studies have quantified the degradation in responses to the vowel eh and have investigated amplification schemes designed to restore a more correct tonotopic representation than is achieved with conventional hearing aids. However, it is difficult from the data to quantify how much different aspects of the cochlear pathology contribute to the impaired responses. Furthermore, extensive experimental testing of potential hearing aids is infeasible. Here, both of these concerns are addressed by developing models of the normal and impaired auditory peripheries that are tested against a wide range of physiological data. The effects of both outer and inner hair cell status on model predictions of the vowel data were investigated. The modeling results indicate that impairment of both outer and inner hair cells contribute to degradation in the tonotopic representation of the formant frequencies in the auditory nerve. Additionally, the model is able to predict the effects of frequency-shaping amplification on auditory nerve responses, indicating the model's potential suitability for more rapid development and testing of hearing aid schemes.

  9. Extreme Lateral Interbody Fusion Procedure

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... for spine surgery called XLIF, extreme lateral interbody fusion. Dr. Juan Uribe will perform the procedure. Dr. ... A better term would be extreme lateral interbody fusion. This is a procedure that has been performed ...

  10. A critical period for auditory thalamocortical connectivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rinaldi Barkat, Tania; Polley, Daniel B; Hensch, Takao K

    2011-01-01

    connectivity by in vivo recordings and day-by-day voltage-sensitive dye imaging in an acute brain slice preparation. Passive tone-rearing modified response strength and topography in mouse primary auditory cortex (A1) during a brief, 3-d window, but did not alter tonotopic maps in the thalamus. Gene......-targeted deletion of a forebrain-specific cell-adhesion molecule (Icam5) accelerated plasticity in this critical period. Consistent with its normal role of slowing spinogenesis, loss of Icam5 induced precocious stubby spine maturation on pyramidal cell dendrites in neocortical layer 4 (L4), identifying a primary...

  11. CAVERNOUS HEMANGIOMA OF THE INTERNAL AUDITORY CANAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Hossein Hekmatara

    1993-06-01

    Full Text Available Cavernous hemangioma is a rare benign tumor of the internal auditory canal (IAC of which fourteen cases have been reported so far."nTinnitus and progressive sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL are the chief complaints of the patients. Audiological and radiological planes, CTScan, and magnetic resonance image (MRI studies are helpful in diagnosis. The only choice of treatment is surgery with elective transmastoid trans¬labyrinthine approach. And if tumor is very large, the method of choice will be retrosigmoid approach.

  12. From ear to hand: the role of the auditory-motor loop in pointing to an auditory source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyer, Eric O.; Babayan, Bénédicte M.; Bevilacqua, Frédéric; Noisternig, Markus; Warusfel, Olivier; Roby-Brami, Agnes; Hanneton, Sylvain; Viaud-Delmon, Isabelle

    2013-01-01

    Studies of the nature of the neural mechanisms involved in goal-directed movements tend to concentrate on the role of vision. We present here an attempt to address the mechanisms whereby an auditory input is transformed into a motor command. The spatial and temporal organization of hand movements were studied in normal human subjects as they pointed toward unseen auditory targets located in a horizontal plane in front of them. Positions and movements of the hand were measured by a six infrared camera tracking system. In one condition, we assessed the role of auditory information about target position in correcting the trajectory of the hand. To accomplish this, the duration of the target presentation was varied. In another condition, subjects received continuous auditory feedback of their hand movement while pointing to the auditory targets. Online auditory control of the direction of pointing movements was assessed by evaluating how subjects reacted to shifts in heard hand position. Localization errors were exacerbated by short duration of target presentation but not modified by auditory feedback of hand position. Long duration of target presentation gave rise to a higher level of accuracy and was accompanied by early automatic head orienting movements consistently related to target direction. These results highlight the efficiency of auditory feedback processing in online motor control and suggest that the auditory system takes advantages of dynamic changes of the acoustic cues due to changes in head orientation in order to process online motor control. How to design an informative acoustic feedback needs to be carefully studied to demonstrate that auditory feedback of the hand could assist the monitoring of movements directed at objects in auditory space. PMID:23626532

  13. Source analysis of magnetic field responses from the human auditory cortex elicited by short speech sounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuriki, S; Okita, Y; Hirata, Y

    1995-01-01

    We made a detailed source analysis of the magnetic field responses that were elicited in the human brain by different monosyllabic speech sounds, including vowel, plosive, fricative, and nasal speech. Recordings of the magnetic field responses from a lateral area of the left hemisphere of human subjects were made using a multichannel SQUID magnetometer, having 37 field-sensing coils. A single source of the equivalent current dipole of the field was estimated from the spatial distribution of the evoked responses. The estimated sources of an N1m wave occurring at about 100 ms after the stimulus onset of different monosyllables were located close to each other within a 10-mm-sided cube in the three-dimensional space of the brain. Those sources registered on the magnetic resonance images indicated a restricted area in the auditory cortex, including Heschl's gyri in the superior temporal plane. In the spatiotemporal domain the sources exhibited apparent movements, among which anterior shift with latency increase on the anteroposterior axis and inferior shift on the inferosuperior axis were common in the responses to all monosyllables. However, selective movements that depended on the type of consonants were observed on the mediolateral axis; the sources of plosive and fricative responses shifted laterally with latency increase, but the source of the vowel response shifted medially. These spatiotemporal movements of the sources are discussed in terms of dynamic excitation of the cortical neurons in multiple areas of the human auditory cortex. PMID:7621933

  14. Exploration of auditory P50 gating in schizophrenia by way of difference waves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arnfred Sidse M

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Electroencephalographic measures of information processing encompass both mid-latency evoked potentials like the pre-attentive auditory P50 potential and a host of later more cognitive components like P300 and N400. Difference waves have mostly been employed in studies of later event related potentials but here this method along with low frequency filtering is applied exploratory on auditory P50 gating data, previously analyzed in the standard format (reported in Am J Psychiatry 2003, 160:2236-8. The exploration was motivated by the observation during visual peak detection that the AEP waveform was different in the patient group, although this was not reflected by the peak measures. The sample included un-medicated schizophrenia spectrum patients (n = 17 and healthy controls (n = 24. The patients had an attenuated difference P50. This attenuation was primarily seen in the sub-sample of patients with severe negative symptoms. The difference attenuation was due to low amplitude at the first stimulus. This suggests an abnormality in readiness more than an abnormality in gating in the patient group.

  15. Confusing what you heard with what you did: False action-memories from auditory cues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindner, Isabel; Henkel, Linda A

    2015-12-01

    Creating a mental image of one's own performance, observing someone else performing an action, and viewing a photograph of a completed action all can lead to the illusory recollection that one has performed this action. While there are fundamental differences in the nature of these three processes, they are aligned by the fact that they involve primarily or solely the visual modality. According to the source-monitoring framework, the corresponding visual memory traces later can be mistakenly attributed to self-performance. However, when people perform actions, they do not only engage vision, but also other modalities, such as auditory and tactile systems. The present study focused on the role of audition in the creation of false beliefs about performing an action and explored whether auditory cues alone-in the absence of any visual cues-can induce false beliefs and memories for actions. After performing a series of simple actions, participants listened to the sound of someone performing various actions, watched someone perform the actions, or simultaneously both heard and saw someone perform them. Some of these actions had been performed earlier by the participants and others were new. A later source-memory test revealed that all three types of processing (hearing, seeing, or hearing plus seeing someone perform the actions) led to comparable increases in false claims of having performed actions oneself. The potential mechanisms underlying false action-memories from sound and vision are discussed. PMID:25925600

  16. Auditory Processing Theories of Language Disorders: Past, Present, and Future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Carol A.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this article is to provide information that will assist readers in understanding and interpreting research literature on the role of auditory processing in communication disorders. Method: A narrative review was used to summarize and synthesize the literature on auditory processing deficits in children with auditory…

  17. A Time-Frequency Auditory Model Using Wavelet Packets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agerkvist, Finn

    1996-01-01

    A time-frequency auditory model is presented. The model uses the wavelet packet analysis as the preprocessor. The auditory filters are modelled by the rounded exponential filters, and the excitation is smoothed by a window function. By comparing time-frequency excitation patterns it is shown that...

  18. Auditory Processing Learning Disability, Suicidal Ideation, and Transformational Faith

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Frank S.; Yocum, Russell G.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this personal experience as a narrative investigation is to describe how an auditory processing learning disability exacerbated--and how spirituality and religiosity relieved--suicidal ideation, through the lived experiences of an individual born and raised in the United States. The study addresses: (a) how an auditory processing…

  19. Functional sex differences in human primary auditory cortex

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruytjens, Liesbet; Georgiadis, Janniko R.; Holstege, Gert; Wit, Hero P.; Albers, Frans W. J.; Willemsen, Antoon T. M.

    2007-01-01

    Background We used PET to study cortical activation during auditory stimulation and found sex differences in the human primary auditory cortex (PAC). Regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) was measured in 10 male and 10 female volunteers while listening to sounds (music or white noise) and during a bas

  20. Modeling auditory evoked brainstem responses to transient stimuli

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rønne, Filip Munch; Dau, Torsten; Harte, James;

    2012-01-01

    A quantitative model is presented that describes the formation of auditory brainstem responses (ABR) to tone pulses, clicks and rising chirps as a function of stimulation level. The model computes the convolution of the instantaneous discharge rates using the “humanized” nonlinear auditory-nerve ...

  1. Enhanced Generalization of Auditory Conditioned Fear in Juvenile Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Wataru; Pan, Bing-Xing; Yang, Chao; Thakur, Siddarth; Morozov, Alexei

    2009-01-01

    Increased emotionality is a characteristic of human adolescence, but its animal models are limited. Here we report that generalization of auditory conditioned fear between a conditional stimulus (CS+) and a novel auditory stimulus is stronger in 4-5-wk-old mice (juveniles) than in their 9-10-wk-old counterparts (adults), whereas nonassociative…

  2. Impact of Educational Level on Performance on Auditory Processing Tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Cristina F B; Rabelo, Camila M; Silagi, Marcela L; Mansur, Letícia L; Schochat, Eliane

    2016-01-01

    Research has demonstrated that a higher level of education is associated with better performance on cognitive tests among middle-aged and elderly people. However, the effects of education on auditory processing skills have not yet been evaluated. Previous demonstrations of sensory-cognitive interactions in the aging process indicate the potential importance of this topic. Therefore, the primary purpose of this study was to investigate the performance of middle-aged and elderly people with different levels of formal education on auditory processing tests. A total of 177 adults with no evidence of cognitive, psychological or neurological conditions took part in the research. The participants completed a series of auditory assessments, including dichotic digit, frequency pattern and speech-in-noise tests. A working memory test was also performed to investigate the extent to which auditory processing and cognitive performance were associated. The results demonstrated positive but weak correlations between years of schooling and performance on all of the tests applied. The factor "years of schooling" was also one of the best predictors of frequency pattern and speech-in-noise test performance. Additionally, performance on the working memory, frequency pattern and dichotic digit tests was also correlated, suggesting that the influence of educational level on auditory processing performance might be associated with the cognitive demand of the auditory processing tests rather than auditory sensory aspects itself. Longitudinal research is required to investigate the causal relationship between educational level and auditory processing skills. PMID:27013958

  3. Tinnitus intensity dependent gamma oscillations of the contralateral auditory cortex.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elsa van der Loo

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Non-pulsatile tinnitus is considered a subjective auditory phantom phenomenon present in 10 to 15% of the population. Tinnitus as a phantom phenomenon is related to hyperactivity and reorganization of the auditory cortex. Magnetoencephalography studies demonstrate a correlation between gamma band activity in the contralateral auditory cortex and the presence of tinnitus. The present study aims to investigate the relation between objective gamma-band activity in the contralateral auditory cortex and subjective tinnitus loudness scores. METHODS AND FINDINGS: In unilateral tinnitus patients (N = 15; 10 right, 5 left source analysis of resting state electroencephalographic gamma band oscillations shows a strong positive correlation with Visual Analogue Scale loudness scores in the contralateral auditory cortex (max r = 0.73, p<0.05. CONCLUSION: Auditory phantom percepts thus show similar sound level dependent activation of the contralateral auditory cortex as observed in normal audition. In view of recent consciousness models and tinnitus network models these results suggest tinnitus loudness is coded by gamma band activity in the contralateral auditory cortex but might not, by itself, be responsible for tinnitus perception.

  4. Diagnosis of Auditory Perceptual Disorders in Previously Undiagnosed Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasbrouck, Jon M.

    1983-01-01

    Twenty-four adult patients who presented to a number of hospital services with complaints related to difficulty in hearing, understanding, remembering, or writing were examined for auditory perceptual disorders. Results support the desirability of examining auditory perceptual abilities in adults even though the tools available are designed…

  5. Cortical Auditory Evoked Potentials in Unsuccessful Cochlear Implant Users

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munivrana, Boska; Mildner, Vesna

    2013-01-01

    In some cochlear implant users, success is not achieved in spite of optimal clinical factors (including age at implantation, duration of rehabilitation and post-implant hearing level), which may be attributed to disorders at higher levels of the auditory pathway. We used cortical auditory evoked potentials to investigate the ability to perceive…

  6. TRIMETHYLTIN EFFECTS ON AUDITORY FUNCTION AND COCHLEAR MORPHOLOGY

    Science.gov (United States)

    TMT is neurotoxicant known to alter auditory function. he present study was designed to compare TNT-induced auditory dysfunction using behavioral, electrophysiological, and anatomical techniques. dult male long Evans hooded rats (n=9-l2/group) were acutely exposed to saline, 3, 5...

  7. Effect of Auditory Interference on Memory of Haptic Perceptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anater, Paul F.

    1980-01-01

    The effect of auditory interference on the processing of haptic information by 61 visually impaired students (8 to 20 years old) was the focus of the research described in this article. It was assumed that as the auditory interference approximated the verbalized activity of the haptic task, accuracy of recall would decline. (Author)

  8. Action-related auditory ERP attenuation: Paradigms and hypotheses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horváth, János

    2015-11-11

    A number studies have shown that the auditory N1 event-related potential (ERP) is attenuated when elicited by self-induced or self-generated sounds. Because N1 is a correlate of auditory feature- and event-detection, it was generally assumed that N1-attenuation reflected the cancellation of auditory re-afference, enabled by the internal forward modeling of the predictable sensory consequences of the given action. Focusing on paradigms utilizing non-speech actions, the present review summarizes recent progress on action-related auditory attenuation. Following a critical analysis of the most widely used, contingent paradigm, two further hypotheses on the possible causes of action-related auditory ERP attenuation are presented. The attention hypotheses suggest that auditory ERP attenuation is brought about by a temporary division of attention between the action and the auditory stimulation. The pre-activation hypothesis suggests that the attenuation is caused by the activation of a sensory template during the initiation of the action, which interferes with the incoming stimulation. Although each hypothesis can account for a number of findings, none of them can accommodate the whole spectrum of results. It is suggested that a better understanding of auditory ERP attenuation phenomena could be achieved by systematic investigations of the types of actions, the degree of action-effect contingency, and the temporal characteristics of action-effect contingency representation-buildup and -deactivation. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled SI: Prediction and Attention. PMID:25843932

  9. Deactivation of the Parahippocampal Gyrus Preceding Auditory Hallucinations in Schizophrenia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Diederen, Kelly M. J.; Neggers, Sebastiaan F. W.; Daalman, Kirstin; Blom, Jan Dirk; Goekoop, Rutger; Kahn, Rene S.; Sommer, Iris E. C.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Activation in a network of language-related regions has been reported during auditory verbal hallucinations. It remains unclear, however, how this activation is triggered. Identifying brain regions that show significant signal changes preceding auditory hallucinations might reveal the ori

  10. Preparation and Culture of Chicken Auditory Brainstem Slices

    OpenAIRE

    Sanchez, Jason T.; Seidl, Armin H.; Rubel, Edwin W.; Barria, Andres

    2011-01-01

    The chicken auditory brainstem is a well-established model system that has been widely used to study the anatomy and physiology of auditory processing at discreet periods of development 1-4 as well as mechanisms for temporal coding in the central nervous system 5-7.

  11. Overview of Central Auditory Processing Deficits in Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atcherson, Samuel R; Nagaraj, Naveen K; Kennett, Sarah E W; Levisee, Meredith

    2015-08-01

    Although there are many reported age-related declines in the human body, the notion that a central auditory processing deficit exists in older adults has not always been clear. Hearing loss and both structural and functional central nervous system changes with advancing age are contributors to how we listen, hear, and process auditory information. Even older adults with normal or near normal hearing sensitivity may exhibit age-related central auditory processing deficits as measured behaviorally and/or electrophysiologically. The purpose of this article is to provide an overview of assessment and rehabilitative approaches for central auditory processing deficits in older adults. It is hoped that the outcome of the information presented here will help clinicians with older adult patients who do not exhibit the typical auditory processing behaviors exhibited by others at the same age and with comparable hearing sensitivity all in the absence of other health-related conditions. PMID:27516715

  12. Computational characterization of visually-induced auditory spatial adaptation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David R Wozny

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Recent research investigating the principles governing human perception has provided increasing evidence for probabilistic inference in human perception. For example, human auditory and visual localization judgments closely resemble that of a Bayesian causal inference observer, where the underlying causal structure of the stimuli are inferred based on both the available sensory evidence and prior knowledge. However, most previous studies have focused on characterization of perceptual inference within a static environment, and therefore, little is known about how this inference process changes when observers are exposed to a new environment. In this study we aimed to computationally characterize the change in auditory spatial perception induced by repeated auditory-visual spatial conflict, known as the Ventriloquist Aftereffect. In theory, this change could reflect a shift in the auditory sensory representations (i.e., shift in auditory likelihood distribution, a decrease in the precision of the auditory estimates (i.e., increase in spread of likelihood distribution, a shift in the auditory bias (i.e., shift in prior distribution, or an increase/decrease in strength of the auditory bias (i.e., the spread of prior distribution, or a combination of these. By quantitatively estimating the parameters of the perceptual process for each individual observer using a Bayesian causal inference model, we found that the shift in the perceived locations after exposure was associated with a shift in the mean of the auditory likelihood functions in the direction of the experienced visual offset. The results suggest that repeated exposure to a fixed auditory-visual discrepancy is attributed by the nervous system to sensory representation error and as a result, the sensory map of space is recalibrated to correct the error.

  13. Formal auditory training in adult hearing aid users

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Gil

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Individuals with sensorineural hearing loss are often able to regain some lost auditory function with the help of hearing aids. However, hearing aids are not able to overcome auditory distortions such as impaired frequency resolution and speech understanding in noisy environments. The coexistence of peripheral hearing loss and a central auditory deficit may contribute to patient dissatisfaction with amplification, even when audiological tests indicate nearly normal hearing thresholds. OBJECTIVE: This study was designed to validate the effects of a formal auditory training program in adult hearing aid users with mild to moderate sensorineural hearing loss. METHODS: Fourteen bilateral hearing aid users were divided into two groups: seven who received auditory training and seven who did not. The training program was designed to improve auditory closure, figure-to-ground for verbal and nonverbal sounds and temporal processing (frequency and duration of sounds. Pre- and post-training evaluations included measuring electrophysiological and behavioral auditory processing and administration of the Abbreviated Profile of Hearing Aid Benefit (APHAB self-report scale. RESULTS: The post-training evaluation of the experimental group demonstrated a statistically significant reduction in P3 latency, improved performance in some of the behavioral auditory processing tests and higher hearing aid benefit in noisy situations (p-value < 0,05. No changes were noted for the control group (p-value <0,05. CONCLUSION: The results demonstrated that auditory training in adult hearing aid users can lead to a reduction in P3 latency, improvements in sound localization, memory for nonverbal sounds in sequence, auditory closure, figure-to-ground for verbal sounds and greater benefits in reverberant and noisy environments.

  14. Middle components of the auditory evoked response in bilateral temporal lobe lesions. Report on a patient with auditory agnosia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parving, A; Salomon, G; Elberling, Claus;

    1980-01-01

    An investigation of the middle components of the auditory evoked response (10--50 msec post-stimulus) in a patient with auditory agnosia is reported. Bilateral temporal lobe infarctions were proved by means of brain scintigraphy, CAT scanning, and regional cerebral blood flow measurements. The mi...

  15. Auditory Preferences of Young Children with and without Hearing Loss for Meaningful Auditory-Visual Compound Stimuli

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zupan, Barbra; Sussman, Joan E.

    2009-01-01

    Experiment 1 examined modality preferences in children and adults with normal hearing to combined auditory-visual stimuli. Experiment 2 compared modality preferences in children using cochlear implants participating in an auditory emphasized therapy approach to the children with normal hearing from Experiment 1. A second objective in both…

  16. Organization of the auditory brainstem in a lizard, Gekko gecko. I. Auditory nerve, cochlear nuclei, and superior olivary nuclei

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tang, Y. Z.; Christensen-Dalsgaard, J.; Carr, C. E.

    2012-01-01

    We used tract tracing to reveal the connections of the auditory brainstem in the Tokay gecko (Gekko gecko). The auditory nerve has two divisions, a rostroventrally directed projection of mid- to high best-frequency fibers to the nucleus angularis (NA) and a more dorsal and caudal projection of low...

  17. Auditory performance in an open sound field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fluitt, Kim F.; Letowski, Tomasz; Mermagen, Timothy

    2003-04-01

    Detection and recognition of acoustic sources in an open field are important elements of situational awareness on the battlefield. They are affected by many technical and environmental conditions such as type of sound, distance to a sound source, terrain configuration, meteorological conditions, hearing capabilities of the listener, level of background noise, and the listener's familiarity with the sound source. A limited body of knowledge about auditory perception of sources located over long distances makes it difficult to develop models predicting auditory behavior on the battlefield. The purpose of the present study was to determine the listener's abilities to detect, recognize, localize, and estimate distances to sound sources from 25 to 800 m from the listing position. Data were also collected for meteorological conditions (wind direction and strength, temperature, atmospheric pressure, humidity) and background noise level for each experimental trial. Forty subjects (men and women, ages 18 to 25) participated in the study. Nine types of sounds were presented from six loudspeakers in random order; each series was presented four times. Partial results indicate that both detection and recognition declined at distances greater than approximately 200 m and distance estimation was grossly underestimated by listeners. Specific results will be presented.

  18. Neuroglobin Expression in the Mammalian Auditory System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reuss, Stefan; Banica, Ovidiu; Elgurt, Mirra; Mitz, Stephanie; Disque-Kaiser, Ursula; Riemann, Randolf; Hill, Marco; Jaquish, Dawn V; Koehrn, Fred J; Burmester, Thorsten; Hankeln, Thomas; Woolf, Nigel K

    2016-04-01

    The energy-yielding pathways that provide the large amounts of metabolic energy required by inner ear sensorineural cells are poorly understood. Neuroglobin (Ngb) is a neuron-specific hemoprotein of the globin family, which is suggested to be involved in oxidative energy metabolism. Here, we present quantitative real-time reverse transcription PCR, in situ hybridization, immunohistochemical, and Western blot evidence that neuroglobin is highly expressed in the mouse and rat cochlea. For primary cochlea neurons, Ngb expression is limited to the subpopulation of type I spiral ganglion cells, those which innervate inner hair cells, while the subpopulation of type II spiral ganglion cells which innervate the outer hair cells do not express Ngb. We further investigated Ngb distribution in rat, mouse, and human auditory brainstem centers, and found that the cochlear nuclei and superior olivary complex (SOC) also express considerable amounts of Ngb. Notably, the majority of olivocochlear neurons, those which provide efferent innervation of outer hair cells as identified by neuronal tract tracing, were Ngb-immunoreactive. We also observed that neuroglobin in the SOC frequently co-localized with neuronal nitric oxide synthase, the enzyme responsible for nitric oxide production. Our findings suggest that neuroglobin is well positioned to play an important physiologic role in the oxygen homeostasis of the peripheral and central auditory nervous system, and provides the first evidence that Ngb signal differentiates the central projections of the inner and outer hair cells. PMID:25636685

  19. Happiness increases distraction by auditory deviant stimuli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacheco-Unguetti, Antonia Pilar; Parmentier, Fabrice B R

    2016-08-01

    Rare and unexpected changes (deviants) in an otherwise repeated stream of task-irrelevant auditory distractors (standards) capture attention and impair behavioural performance in an ongoing visual task. Recent evidence indicates that this effect is increased by sadness in a task involving neutral stimuli. We tested the hypothesis that such effect may not be limited to negative emotions but reflect a general depletion of attentional resources by examining whether a positive emotion (happiness) would increase deviance distraction too. Prior to performing an auditory-visual oddball task, happiness or a neutral mood was induced in participants by means of the exposure to music and the recollection of an autobiographical event. Results from the oddball task showed significantly larger deviance distraction following the induction of happiness. Interestingly, the small amount of distraction typically observed on the standard trial following a deviant trial (post-deviance distraction) was not increased by happiness. We speculate that happiness might interfere with the disengagement of attention from the deviant sound back towards the target stimulus (through the depletion of cognitive resources and/or mind wandering) but help subsequent cognitive control to recover from distraction. PMID:26302716

  20. Auditory Processing in Children with Specific Language Impairments: Are there Deficits in Frequency Discrimination, Temporal Auditory Processing or General Auditory Processing?

    OpenAIRE

    Nickisch, Andreas; Massinger, Claudia

    2009-01-01

    Background/Aims: Specific language impairment (SLI) is believed to be associated with nonverbal auditory (NVA) deficits. It remains unclear, however, whether children with SLI show deficits in auditory time processing, time processing in general, frequency discrimination (FD), or NVA processing in general. Patients and Methods: Twenty-seven children (aged 8-11) with SLI and 27 control children (CG), matched for age and gender, were retrospectively compared with regard to their performance on ...

  1. The discovery of human auditory-motor entrainment and its role in the development of neurologic music therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thaut, Michael H

    2015-01-01

    The discovery of rhythmic auditory-motor entrainment in clinical populations was a historical breakthrough in demonstrating for the first time a neurological mechanism linking music to retraining brain and behavioral functions. Early pilot studies from this research center were followed up by a systematic line of research studying rhythmic auditory stimulation on motor therapies for stroke, Parkinson's disease, traumatic brain injury, cerebral palsy, and other movement disorders. The comprehensive effects on improving multiple aspects of motor control established the first neuroscience-based clinical method in music, which became the bedrock for the later development of neurologic music therapy. The discovery of entrainment fundamentally shifted and extended the view of the therapeutic properties of music from a psychosocially dominated view to a view using the structural elements of music to retrain motor control, speech and language function, and cognitive functions such as attention and memory. PMID:25725919

  2. Cosmetic Lateral Canthoplasty: Preserving the Lateral Canthal Angle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kyu Ho; Choi, Hong Lim; Jeong, Eui Cheol

    2016-01-01

    Cosmetic lateral canthoplasty, in which the size of the eye is increased by extending the palpebral fissure and decreasing the degree of the eye slant, has become a prevalent procedure for East Asians. However, it is not uncommon for there to be complications or unfavorable results after the surgery. With this in mind, the authors have designed a surgical method to reduce complications in cosmetic lateral canthoplasty by preserving the lateral canthal angle. We discuss here the anatomy required for surgery, the surgical methods, and methods for reducing complications during cosmetic lateral canthoplasty.

  3. Cosmetic Lateral Canthoplasty: Preserving the Lateral Canthal Angle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yeon-Jun; Lee, Kyu Ho; Choi, Hong Lim; Jeong, Eui Cheol

    2016-07-01

    Cosmetic lateral canthoplasty, in which the size of the eye is increased by extending the palpebral fissure and decreasing the degree of the eye slant, has become a prevalent procedure for East Asians. However, it is not uncommon for there to be complications or unfavorable results after the surgery. With this in mind, the authors have designed a surgical method to reduce complications in cosmetic lateral canthoplasty by preserving the lateral canthal angle. We discuss here the anatomy required for surgery, the surgical methods, and methods for reducing complications during cosmetic lateral canthoplasty. PMID:27462563

  4. LATERAL SURVIVAL: AN OT ACCOUNT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moira Yip

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available When laterals are the targets of phonological processes, laterality may or may not survive. In a fixed feature geometry, [lateral] should be lost if its superordinate node is eliminated by either the spreading of a neighbouring node, or by coda neutralization. So if [lateral] is under Coronal (Blevins 1994, it should be lost under Place assimilation, and if [lateral] is under Sonorant Voicing (Rice & Avery 1991 it should be lost by rules that spread voicing. Yet in some languages lateral survives such spreading intact. Facts like these argue against a universal attachment of [lateral] under either Coronal or Sonorant Voicing, and in favour of an account in terms of markedness constraints on feature-co-occurrence (Padgett 2000. The core of an OT account is that IFIDENTLAT is ranked above whatever causes neutralization, such as SHARE-F or *CODAF. laterality will survive. If these rankings are reversed, we derive languages in which laterality is lost. The other significant factor is markedness. High-ranked feature co-occurrence constraints like *LATDORSAL can block spreading from affecting laterals at all.

  5. Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leigh P Nigel

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS is a neurodegenerative disease characterised by progressive muscular paralysis reflecting degeneration of motor neurones in the primary motor cortex, corticospinal tracts, brainstem and spinal cord. Incidence (average 1.89 per 100,000/year and prevalence (average 5.2 per100,000 are relatively uniform in Western countries, although foci of higher frequency occur in the Western Pacific. The mean age of onset for sporadic ALS is about 60 years. Overall, there is a slight male prevalence (M:F ratio~1.5:1. Approximately two thirds of patients with typical ALS have a spinal form of the disease (limb onset and present with symptoms related to focal muscle weakness and wasting, where the symptoms may start either distally or proximally in the upper and lower limbs. Gradually, spasticity may develop in the weakened atrophic limbs, affecting manual dexterity and gait. Patients with bulbar onset ALS usually present with dysarthria and dysphagia for solid or liquids, and limbs symptoms can develop almost simultaneously with bulbar symptoms, and in the vast majority of cases will occur within 1–2 years. Paralysis is progressive and leads to death due to respiratory failure within 2–3 years for bulbar onset cases and 3–5 years for limb onset ALS cases. Most ALS cases are sporadic but 5–10% of cases are familial, and of these 20% have a mutation of the SOD1 gene and about 2–5% have mutations of the TARDBP (TDP-43 gene. Two percent of apparently sporadic patients have SOD1 mutations, and TARDBP mutations also occur in sporadic cases. The diagnosis is based on clinical history, examination, electromyography, and exclusion of 'ALS-mimics' (e.g. cervical spondylotic myelopathies, multifocal motor neuropathy, Kennedy's disease by appropriate investigations. The pathological hallmarks comprise loss of motor neurones with intraneuronal ubiquitin-immunoreactive inclusions in upper motor neurones and TDP-43

  6. Missing and delayed auditory responses in young and older children with autism spectrum disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Christopher Edgar

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: The development of left and right superior temporal gyrus (STG 50ms (M50 and 100ms (M100 auditory responses in typically developing children (TD and in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD was examined. It was hypothesized that (1 M50 responses would be observed equally often in younger and older children, (2 M100 responses would be observed more often in older than younger children indicating later development of secondary auditory areas, and (3 M100 but not M50 would be observed less often in ASD than TD in both age groups, reflecting slower maturation of later developing auditory areas in ASD. Methods: 35 typically developing controls, 63 ASD without language impairment (ASD-LI, and 38 ASD with language impairment (ASD+LI were recruited.The presence or absence of a STG M50 and M100 was scored. Subjects were grouped into younger (6 to 10-years-old and older groups (11 to 15-years-old. Results: Although M50 responses were observed equally often in older and younger subjects and equally often in TD and ASD, left and right M50 responses were delayed in ASD-LI and ASD+LI. Group comparisons showed that in younger subjects M100 responses were observed more often in TD than ASD+LI (90% vs 66%, p=0.04, with no differences between TD and ASD-LI (90% vs 76% p=0.14 or between ASD-LI and ASD+LI (76% vs 66%, p=0.53. In older subjects, whereas no differences were observed between TD and ASD+LI, responses were observed more often in ASD-LI than ASD+LI. Conclusions: Although present in all groups, M50 responses were delayed in ASD, suggesting delayed development of earlier developing auditory areas. Examining the TD data, findings indicated that by 11 years a right M100 should be observed in 100% of subjects and a left M100 in 80% of subjects. Thus, by 11years, lack of a left and especially right M100 offers neurobiological insight into sensory processing that may underlie language or cognitive impairment.

  7. Ontogenetic Change in the Auditory Conditioned Stimulus Pathway for Eyeblink Conditioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, John H.; Campolattaro, Matthew M.

    2008-01-01

    Two experiments examined the neural mechanisms underlying the ontogenetic emergence of auditory eyeblink conditioning. Previous studies found that the medial auditory thalamus is necessary for eyeblink conditioning with an auditory conditioned stimulus (CS) in adult rats. In experiment 1, stimulation of the medial auditory thalamus was used as a…

  8. The Role of Auditory Cues in the Spatial Knowledge of Blind Individuals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papadopoulos, Konstantinos; Papadimitriou, Kimon; Koutsoklenis, Athanasios

    2012-01-01

    The study presented here sought to explore the role of auditory cues in the spatial knowledge of blind individuals by examining the relation between the perceived auditory cues and the landscape of a given area and by investigating how blind individuals use auditory cues to create cognitive maps. The findings reveal that several auditory cues…

  9. Spatial processing in the auditory cortex of the macaque monkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recanzone, Gregg H.

    2000-10-01

    The patterns of cortico-cortical and cortico-thalamic connections of auditory cortical areas in the rhesus monkey have led to the hypothesis that acoustic information is processed in series and in parallel in the primate auditory cortex. Recent physiological experiments in the behaving monkey indicate that the response properties of neurons in different cortical areas are both functionally distinct from each other, which is indicative of parallel processing, and functionally similar to each other, which is indicative of serial processing. Thus, auditory cortical processing may be similar to the serial and parallel "what" and "where" processing by the primate visual cortex. If "where" information is serially processed in the primate auditory cortex, neurons in cortical areas along this pathway should have progressively better spatial tuning properties. This prediction is supported by recent experiments that have shown that neurons in the caudomedial field have better spatial tuning properties than neurons in the primary auditory cortex. Neurons in the caudomedial field are also better than primary auditory cortex neurons at predicting the sound localization ability across different stimulus frequencies and bandwidths in both azimuth and elevation. These data support the hypothesis that the primate auditory cortex processes acoustic information in a serial and parallel manner and suggest that this may be a general cortical mechanism for sensory perception.

  10. Functional sex differences in human primary auditory cortex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We used PET to study cortical activation during auditory stimulation and found sex differences in the human primary auditory cortex (PAC). Regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) was measured in 10 male and 10 female volunteers while listening to sounds (music or white noise) and during a baseline (no auditory stimulation). We found a sex difference in activation of the left and right PAC when comparing music to noise. The PAC was more activated by music than by noise in both men and women. But this difference between the two stimuli was significantly higher in men than in women. To investigate whether this difference could be attributed to either music or noise, we compared both stimuli with the baseline and revealed that noise gave a significantly higher activation in the female PAC than in the male PAC. Moreover, the male group showed a deactivation in the right prefrontal cortex when comparing noise to the baseline, which was not present in the female group. Interestingly, the auditory and prefrontal regions are anatomically and functionally linked and the prefrontal cortex is known to be engaged in auditory tasks that involve sustained or selective auditory attention. Thus we hypothesize that differences in attention result in a different deactivation of the right prefrontal cortex, which in turn modulates the activation of the PAC and thus explains the sex differences found in the activation of the PAC. Our results suggest that sex is an important factor in auditory brain studies. (orig.)

  11. Functional sex differences in human primary auditory cortex

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruytjens, Liesbet [University Medical Center Groningen, Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Groningen (Netherlands); University Medical Center Utrecht, Department Otorhinolaryngology, P.O. Box 85500, Utrecht (Netherlands); Georgiadis, Janniko R. [University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, Department of Anatomy and Embryology, Groningen (Netherlands); Holstege, Gert [University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, Center for Uroneurology, Groningen (Netherlands); Wit, Hero P. [University Medical Center Groningen, Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Groningen (Netherlands); Albers, Frans W.J. [University Medical Center Utrecht, Department Otorhinolaryngology, P.O. Box 85500, Utrecht (Netherlands); Willemsen, Antoon T.M. [University Medical Center Groningen, Department of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging, Groningen (Netherlands)

    2007-12-15

    We used PET to study cortical activation during auditory stimulation and found sex differences in the human primary auditory cortex (PAC). Regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) was measured in 10 male and 10 female volunteers while listening to sounds (music or white noise) and during a baseline (no auditory stimulation). We found a sex difference in activation of the left and right PAC when comparing music to noise. The PAC was more activated by music than by noise in both men and women. But this difference between the two stimuli was significantly higher in men than in women. To investigate whether this difference could be attributed to either music or noise, we compared both stimuli with the baseline and revealed that noise gave a significantly higher activation in the female PAC than in the male PAC. Moreover, the male group showed a deactivation in the right prefrontal cortex when comparing noise to the baseline, which was not present in the female group. Interestingly, the auditory and prefrontal regions are anatomically and functionally linked and the prefrontal cortex is known to be engaged in auditory tasks that involve sustained or selective auditory attention. Thus we hypothesize that differences in attention result in a different deactivation of the right prefrontal cortex, which in turn modulates the activation of the PAC and thus explains the sex differences found in the activation of the PAC. Our results suggest that sex is an important factor in auditory brain studies. (orig.)

  12. Cochlear Responses and Auditory Brainstem Response Functions in Adults with Auditory Neuropathy/ Dys-Synchrony and Individuals with Normal Hearing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Jafari

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Physiologic measures of cochlear and auditory nerve function may be of assis¬tance in distinguishing between hearing disorders due primarily to auditory nerve impairment from those due primarily to cochlear hair cells dysfunction. The goal of present study was to measure of co-chlear responses (otoacoustic emissions and cochlear microphonics and auditory brainstem response in some adults with auditory neuropathy/ dys-synchrony and subjects with normal hearing. Materials and Methods: Patients were 16 adults (32 ears in age range of 14-30 years with auditory neu¬ropathy/ dys-synchrony and 16 individuals in age range of 16-30 years from both sexes. The results of transient otoacoustic emissions, cochlear microphonics and auditory brainstem response measures were compared in both groups and the effects of age, sex, ear and degree of hearing loss were studied. Results: The pure-tone average was 48.1 dB HL in auditory neuropathy/dys-synchrony group and the fre¬quency of low tone loss and flat audiograms were higher among other audiogram's shapes. Transient oto¬acoustic emissions were shown in all auditory neuropathy/dys-synchrony people except two cases and its average was near in both studied groups. The latency and amplitude of the biggest reversed co-chlear microphonics response were higher in auditory neuropathy/dys-synchrony patients than control peo¬ple significantly. The correlation between cochlear microphonics amplitude and degree of hearing loss was not significant, and age had significant effect in some cochlear microphonics measures. Audi-tory brainstem response had no response in auditory neuropathy/dys-synchrony patients even with low stim¬uli rates. Conclusion: In adults with speech understanding worsen than predicted from the degree of hearing loss that suspect to auditory neuropathy/ dys-synchrony, the frequency of low tone loss and flat audiograms are higher. Usually auditory brainstem response is absent in

  13. Auditory-motor entrainment and phonological skills: precise auditory timing hypothesis (PATH)

    OpenAIRE

    Tierney, Adam; Kraus, Nina

    2014-01-01

    Phonological skills are enhanced by music training, but the mechanisms enabling this cross-domain enhancement remain unknown. To explain this cross-domain transfer, we propose a precise auditory timing hypothesis (PATH) whereby entrainment practice is the core mechanism underlying enhanced phonological abilities in musicians. Both rhythmic synchronization and language skills such as consonant discrimination, detection of word and phrase boundaries, and conversational turn-taking rely on the p...

  14. Air pollution is associated with brainstem auditory nuclei pathology and delayed brainstem auditory evoked potentials

    OpenAIRE

    Calderón-Garcidueñas, Lilian; D’Angiulli, Amedeo; Kulesza, Randy J.; Torres-Jardón, Ricardo; Osnaya, Norma; Romero, Lina; Keefe, Sheyla; Herritt, Lou; Brooks, Diane M.; Avila-Ramirez, Jose; Delgado-Chávez, Ricardo; Medina-Cortina, Humberto; González-González, Luis Oscar

    2011-01-01

    We assessed brainstem inflammation in children exposed to air pollutants by comparing brainstem auditory evoked potentials (BAEPs) and blood inflammatory markers in children age 96.3± 8.5 months from highly polluted (n=34) versus a low polluted city (n=17). The brainstems of nine children with accidental deaths were also examined. Children from the highly polluted environment had significant delays in wave III (t(50)=17.038; p

  15. Psychophysical and Neural Correlates of Auditory Attraction and Aversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patten, Kristopher Jakob

    This study explores the psychophysical and neural processes associated with the perception of sounds as either pleasant or aversive. The underlying psychophysical theory is based on auditory scene analysis, the process through which listeners parse auditory signals into individual acoustic sources. The first experiment tests and confirms that a self-rated pleasantness continuum reliably exists for 20 various stimuli (r = .48). In addition, the pleasantness continuum correlated with the physical acoustic characteristics of consonance/dissonance (r = .78), which can facilitate auditory parsing processes. The second experiment uses an fMRI block design to test blood oxygen level dependent (BOLD) changes elicited by a subset of 5 exemplar stimuli chosen from Experiment 1 that are evenly distributed over the pleasantness continuum. Specifically, it tests and confirms that the pleasantness continuum produces systematic changes in brain activity for unpleasant acoustic stimuli beyond what occurs with pleasant auditory stimuli. Results revealed that the combination of two positively and two negatively valenced experimental sounds compared to one neutral baseline control elicited BOLD increases in the primary auditory cortex, specifically the bilateral superior temporal gyrus, and left dorsomedial prefrontal cortex; the latter being consistent with a frontal decision-making process common in identification tasks. The negatively-valenced stimuli yielded additional BOLD increases in the left insula, which typically indicates processing of visceral emotions. The positively-valenced stimuli did not yield any significant BOLD activation, consistent with consonant, harmonic stimuli being the prototypical acoustic pattern of auditory objects that is optimal for auditory scene analysis. Both the psychophysical findings of Experiment 1 and the neural processing findings of Experiment 2 support that consonance is an important dimension of sound that is processed in a manner that aids

  16. Continuity of visual and auditory rhythms influences sensorimotor coordination.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Varlet

    Full Text Available People often coordinate their movement with visual and auditory environmental rhythms. Previous research showed better performances when coordinating with auditory compared to visual stimuli, and with bimodal compared to unimodal stimuli. However, these results have been demonstrated with discrete rhythms and it is possible that such effects depend on the continuity of the stimulus rhythms (i.e., whether they are discrete or continuous. The aim of the current study was to investigate the influence of the continuity of visual and auditory rhythms on sensorimotor coordination. We examined the dynamics of synchronized oscillations of a wrist pendulum with auditory and visual rhythms at different frequencies, which were either unimodal or bimodal and discrete or continuous. Specifically, the stimuli used were a light flash, a fading light, a short tone and a frequency-modulated tone. The results demonstrate that the continuity of the stimulus rhythms strongly influences visual and auditory motor coordination. Participants' movement led continuous stimuli and followed discrete stimuli. Asymmetries between the half-cycles of the movement in term of duration and nonlinearity of the trajectory occurred with slower discrete rhythms. Furthermore, the results show that the differences of performance between visual and auditory modalities depend on the continuity of the stimulus rhythms as indicated by movements closer to the instructed coordination for the auditory modality when coordinating with discrete stimuli. The results also indicate that visual and auditory rhythms are integrated together in order to better coordinate irrespective of their continuity, as indicated by less variable coordination closer to the instructed pattern. Generally, the findings have important implications for understanding how we coordinate our movements with visual and auditory environmental rhythms in everyday life.

  17. Music perception: information flow within the human auditory cortices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angulo-Perkins, Arafat; Concha, Luis

    2014-01-01

    Information processing of all acoustic stimuli involves temporal lobe regions referred to as auditory cortices, which receive direct afferents from the auditory thalamus. However, the perception of music (as well as speech or spoken language) is a complex process that also involves secondary and association cortices that conform a large functional network. Using different analytical techniques and stimulation paradigms, several studies have shown that certain areas are particularly sensitive to specific acoustic characteristics inherent to music (e.g., rhythm). This chapter reviews the functional anatomy of the auditory cortices, and highlights specific experiments that suggest the existence of distinct cortical networks for the perception of music and speech. PMID:25358716

  18. Auditory pitch imagery and its relationship to musical synchronization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pecenka, Nadine; Keller, Peter E

    2009-07-01

    Musical ensemble performance requires precise coordination of action. To play in synchrony, ensemble musicians presumably anticipate the sounds that will be produced by their co-performers. These predictions may be based on auditory images in working memory. This study examined the contribution of auditory imagery abilities to sensorimotor synchronization (SMS) in 20 musicians. The acuity of single-tone pitch images was measured by an adjustment method and by adaptive threshold estimation. Different types of finger tapping tasks were administered to assess SMS. Auditory imagery and SMS abilities were found to be positively correlated with one another and with musical experience. PMID:19673794

  19. [Auditory guidance systems for the visually impaired people].

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Jing; Nie, Min; Luo, Lan; Tong, Shanbao; Niu, Jinhai; Zhu, Yisheng

    2010-04-01

    Visually impaired people face many inconveniences because of the loss of vision. Therefore, scientists are trying to design various guidance systems for improving the lives of the blind. Based on sensory substitution, auditory guidance has become an interesting topic in the field of biomedical engineering. In this paper, we made a state-of-technique review of the auditory guidance system. Although there have been many technical challenges, the auditory guidance system would be a useful alternative for the visually impaired people. PMID:20481341

  20. An analysis of auditory alphabet confusions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, M E

    1989-04-01

    The present study, using the nonhierarchical overlapping clustering algorithm MAPCLUS to fit the Shepard-Arabie (1979) ADCLUS model, attempted to derive a set of features that would accurately describe the auditory alphabet confusions present in the data matrices of Conrad (1964) and Hull (1973). Separate nine-cluster solutions accounted for 80% and 89% of the variance in the matrices, respectively. The clusters revealed that the most frequently confused letter names contained common vowels and phonetically similar consonants. Further analyses using INDCLUS, an individual differences extension of the MAPCLUS algorithm and ADCLUS model, indicated that while the patterns of errors in the two matrices were remarkably similar, some differences were also apparent. These differences reflected the differing amounts of background noise present in the two studies. PMID:2710632

  1. Cancer of the external auditory canal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nyrop, Mette; Grøntved, Aksel

    2002-01-01

    MEASURE: Recurrence rate. RESULTS: Half of the patients had squamous cell carcinoma. Thirteen of the patients had stage I tumor (65%), 2 had stage II (10%), 2 had stage III (10%), and 3 had stage IV tumor (15%). Twelve patients were cured. All patients with stage I or II cancers were cured except 1 with...... adenoid cystic carcinoma. No patients with stage III or IV cancer were cured. All recurrences developed in patients with incompletely resected tumors. CONCLUSIONS: The outcome was related to the stage of disease, suggesting that the Pittsburgh staging system is useful also in patients with non......OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the outcome of surgery for cancer of the external auditory canal and relate this to the Pittsburgh staging system used both on squamous cell carcinoma and non-squamous cell carcinoma. DESIGN: Retrospective case series of all patients who had surgery between 1979 and 2000...

  2. On Optimality in Auditory Information Processing

    CERN Document Server

    Karlsson, M

    2000-01-01

    We study limits for the detection and estimation of weak sinusoidal signals in the primary part of the mammalian auditory system using a stochastic Fitzhugh-Nagumo (FHN) model and an action-reaction model for synaptic plasticity. Our overall model covers the chain from a hair cell to a point just after the synaptic connection with a cell in the cochlear nucleus. The information processing performance of the system is evaluated using so called phi-divergences from statistics which quantify a dissimilarity between probability measures and are intimately related to a number of fundamental limits in statistics and information theory (IT). We show that there exists a set of parameters that can optimize several important phi-divergences simultaneously and that this set corresponds to a constant quiescent firing rate (QFR) of the spiral ganglion neuron. The optimal value of the QFR is frequency dependent but is essentially independent of the amplitude of the signal (for small amplitudes). Consequently, optimal proce...

  3. Practiced musical style shapes auditory skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vuust, Peter; Brattico, Elvira; Seppänen, Miia; Näätänen, Risto; Tervaniemi, Mari

    2012-04-01

    Musicians' processing of sounds depends highly on instrument, performance practice, and level of expertise. Here, we measured the mismatch negativity (MMN), a preattentive brain response, to six types of musical feature change in musicians playing three distinct styles of music (classical, jazz, and rock/pop) and in nonmusicians using a novel, fast, and musical sounding multifeature MMN paradigm. We found MMN to all six deviants, showing that MMN paradigms can be adapted to resemble a musical context. Furthermore, we found that jazz musicians had larger MMN amplitude than all other experimental groups across all sound features, indicating greater overall sensitivity to auditory outliers. Furthermore, we observed a tendency toward shorter latency of the MMN to all feature changes in jazz musicians compared to band musicians. These findings indicate that the characteristics of the style of music played by musicians influence their perceptual skills and the brain processing of sound features embedded in music. PMID:22524351

  4. Biomedical Simulation Models of Human Auditory Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bicak, Mehmet M. A.

    2012-01-01

    Detailed acoustic engineering models that explore noise propagation mechanisms associated with noise attenuation and transmission paths created when using hearing protectors such as earplugs and headsets in high noise environments. Biomedical finite element (FE) models are developed based on volume Computed Tomography scan data which provides explicit external ear, ear canal, middle ear ossicular bones and cochlea geometry. Results from these studies have enabled a greater understanding of hearing protector to flesh dynamics as well as prioritizing noise propagation mechanisms. Prioritization of noise mechanisms can form an essential framework for exploration of new design principles and methods in both earplug and earcup applications. These models are currently being used in development of a novel hearing protection evaluation system that can provide experimentally correlated psychoacoustic noise attenuation. Moreover, these FE models can be used to simulate the effects of blast related impulse noise on human auditory mechanisms and brain tissue.

  5. Predictive uncertainty in auditory sequence processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niels Chr. eHansen

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies of auditory expectation have focused on the expectedness perceived by listeners retrospectively in response to events. In contrast, this research examines predictive uncertainty - a property of listeners’ prospective state of expectation prior to the onset of an event. We examine the information-theoretic concept of Shannon entropy as a model of predictive uncertainty in music cognition. This is motivated by the Statistical Learning Hypothesis, which proposes that schematic expectations reflect probabilistic relationships between sensory events learned implicitly through exposure.Using probability estimates from an unsupervised, variable-order Markov model, 12 melodic contexts high in entropy and 12 melodic contexts low in entropy were selected from two musical repertoires differing in structural complexity (simple and complex. Musicians and non-musicians listened to the stimuli and provided explicit judgments of perceived uncertainty (explicit uncertainty. We also examined an indirect measure of uncertainty computed as the entropy of expectedness distributions obtained using a classical probe-tone paradigm where listeners rated the perceived expectedness of the final note in a melodic sequence (inferred uncertainty. Finally, we simulate listeners’ perception of expectedness and uncertainty using computational models of auditory expectation. A detailed model comparison indicates which model parameters maximize fit to the data and how they compare to existing models in the literature.The results show that listeners experience greater uncertainty in high-entropy musical contexts than low-entropy contexts. This effect is particularly apparent for inferred uncertainty and is stronger in musicians than non-musicians. Consistent with the Statistical Learning Hypothesis, the results suggest that increased domain-relevant training is associated with an increasingly accurate cognitive model of probabilistic structure in music.

  6. Auditory lateralisation deficits in neglect patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guilbert, Alma; Clément, Sylvain; Senouci, Latifa; Pontzeele, Sylvain; Martin, Yves; Moroni, Christine

    2016-05-01

    Although visual deficits due to unilateral spatial neglect (USN) have been frequently described in the literature, fewer studies have been interested in directional hearing impairment in USN. The aim of this study was to explore sound lateralisation deficits in USN. Using a paradigm inspired by Tanaka et al. (1999), interaural time differences (ITD) were presented over headphones to give the illusion of a leftward or a rightward movement of sound. Participants were asked to respond "right" and "left" as soon as possible to indicate whether they heard the sound moving to the right or to the left side of the auditory space. We additionally adopted a single-case method to analyse the performance of 15 patients with right-hemisphere (RH) stroke and added two additional measures to underline sound lateralisation on the left side and on the right side. We included 15 patients with RH stoke (5 with a severe USN, 5 with a mild USN and 5 without USN) and 11 healthy age-matched participants. We expected to replicate findings of abnormal sound lateralisation in USN. However, although a sound lateralisation deficit was observed in USN, two different deficit profiles were identified. Namely, patients with a severe USN seemed to have left sound lateralisation impairment whereas patients with a mild USN seemed to be more influenced by a systematic bias in auditory representation with respect to body meridian axis (egocentric deviation). This latter profile was unexpected as sounds were manipulated with ITD and, thus, would not be perceived as coming from an external source of the head. Future studies should use this paradigm in order to better understand these two distinct profiles. PMID:27018451

  7. Plasticidade do sistema auditivo Auditory system plasticity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Cristina L. C. Féres

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available O sistema sensorial auditivo tem sido alvo de estudos sobre sua capacidade de desenvolver respostas plásticas a diferentes tipos de lesão. Fenômenos regenerativos se fazem observar no segmento periférico do sistema, com a constatação da neogênese de células ciliadas em aves, em alguns casos acompanhada de recuperação funcional comprovada eletrofisiologicamente. Alterações em estruturas centrais da via auditiva, secundárias a uma lesão do órgão periférico, têm sido freqüentemente relatadas, significando uma provável resposta plástica à perturbação do sinal aferente. Exemplo extremo dessas alterações é encontrado em roedores que desenvolvem, secundariamente à indução de perda auditiva parcial, comportamento motor anômalo em resposta ao som intenso, denominado epilepsia audiogênica. Os autores fazem uma revisão sobre o assunto.The auditory system has been subject of studies that evaluated its capability to develop plastic responses to different kinds of lesions. Regeneration has been observed in the peripheral portions of the system, with neogenesis of the hair cells in avian, sometimes followed by functional rehabilitation as confirmed by electrophysiological testing. The occurrence of central auditory pathway disorders, secondary to peripheral damage, has been frequently noticed, probably due to a plastic reaction to the lack of afferent signal. A great example of these alterations is found in rodents that develop anomalous motor response to loud sounds, secondary to induced partial deafness, named audiogenic seizures. The authors presented a review about the theme.

  8. Sadness increases distraction by auditory deviant stimuli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacheco-Unguetti, Antonia P; Parmentier, Fabrice B R

    2014-02-01

    Research shows that attention is ineluctably captured away from a focal visual task by rare and unexpected changes (deviants) in an otherwise repeated stream of task-irrelevant auditory distractors (standards). The fundamental cognitive mechanisms underlying this effect have been the object of an increasing number of studies but their sensitivity to mood and emotions remains relatively unexplored despite suggestion of greater distractibility in negative emotional contexts. In this study, we examined the effect of sadness, a widespread form of emotional distress and a symptom of many disorders, on distraction by deviant sounds. Participants received either a sadness induction or a neutral mood induction by means of a mixed procedure based on music and autobiographical recall prior to taking part in an auditory-visual oddball task in which they categorized visual digits while ignoring task-irrelevant sounds. The results showed that although all participants exhibited significantly longer response times in the visual categorization task following the presentation of rare and unexpected deviant sounds relative to that of the standard sound, this distraction effect was significantly greater in participants who had received the sadness induction (a twofold increase). The residual distraction on the subsequent trial (postdeviance distraction) was equivalent in both groups, suggesting that sadness interfered with the disengagement of attention from the deviant sound and back toward the target stimulus. We propose that this disengagement impairment reflected the monopolization of cognitive resources by sadness and/or associated ruminations. Our findings suggest that sadness can increase distraction even when distractors are emotionally neutral. PMID:24098923

  9. Predictive uncertainty in auditory sequence processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Niels Chr; Pearce, Marcus T

    2014-01-01

    Previous studies of auditory expectation have focused on the expectedness perceived by listeners retrospectively in response to events. In contrast, this research examines predictive uncertainty-a property of listeners' prospective state of expectation prior to the onset of an event. We examine the information-theoretic concept of Shannon entropy as a model of predictive uncertainty in music cognition. This is motivated by the Statistical Learning Hypothesis, which proposes that schematic expectations reflect probabilistic relationships between sensory events learned implicitly through exposure. Using probability estimates from an unsupervised, variable-order Markov model, 12 melodic contexts high in entropy and 12 melodic contexts low in entropy were selected from two musical repertoires differing in structural complexity (simple and complex). Musicians and non-musicians listened to the stimuli and provided explicit judgments of perceived uncertainty (explicit uncertainty). We also examined an indirect measure of uncertainty computed as the entropy of expectedness distributions obtained using a classical probe-tone paradigm where listeners rated the perceived expectedness of the final note in a melodic sequence (inferred uncertainty). Finally, we simulate listeners' perception of expectedness and uncertainty using computational models of auditory expectation. A detailed model comparison indicates which model parameters maximize fit to the data and how they compare to existing models in the literature. The results show that listeners experience greater uncertainty in high-entropy musical contexts than low-entropy contexts. This effect is particularly apparent for inferred uncertainty and is stronger in musicians than non-musicians. Consistent with the Statistical Learning Hypothesis, the results suggest that increased domain-relevant training is associated with an increasingly accurate cognitive model of probabilistic structure in music. PMID:25295018

  10. Word deafness: one hundred years later.

    OpenAIRE

    Buchman, A.S.; Garron, D C; Trost-Cardamone, J E; Wichter, M D; M. Schwartz

    1986-01-01

    Since its original description the diagnosis of word deafness has been greatly expanded. Confusion has arisen with regard to the usage of the related terms pure word deafness, auditory agnosia, and cortical deafness. Three new cases of word deafness are presented including one case with CT and necropsy correlation. These cases are compared with 34 previously reported cases of various cortical auditory disorders. Our review establishes that patients with word deafness who have had formal testi...

  11. The Potential Overlapping Roles of the Ear and Lateral Line in Driving "Acoustic" Responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higgs, Dennis M; Radford, Craig A

    2016-01-01

    Examination of fish responses to sound stimuli has a rich and varied history but it is not always clear when responses are true measures of hearing or the lateral-line. The central innervation of auditory and lateral-line sensory afferents lie in close proximity in the brainstem and both sets of receptors are, at heart, hair cell-based particle motion detectors. While it is possible to separately measure physiological activity of these two receptor subtypes, many studies of fish "hearing" use whole brain potentials or behavioural assays in complex sound fields where it is not possible to distinguish inputs. We argue here that, as often measured, what is thought of as fish "hearing" is often a multisensory response of both auditory and lateral line receptors. We also argue that in many situations where fish use sound stimuli, the behaviour is also an integrative response of both systems, due to the often close proximity of fish during sound communication. We end with a set of recommendations for better understanding the separate and combined roles of ear and lateral-line hair cells as well as an acknowledgment of the seminal and continuing contributions of Arthur N. Popper and Richard R. Fay to this field. PMID:26515318

  12. Aminoglycoside antibiotics and the sensory hair cells of inner ear and lateral line system in the Atlantic cod, Gadus morhua: effects on fish hearing threshold

    OpenAIRE

    Faucher, Karine; Aas-Hansen, Øyvind; Damsgard, Borge; Bégout, Marie-Laure; Fuhr, Torgrim; Laukli, Einar; Stenklev, Niels-Christian

    2007-01-01

    The aims of the present study were to investigate: a) the potential involvement of the fish lateral line system in hearing at 250 Hz and b) the possible regeneration of the inner ear hair cells in the Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua). The inner ear and lateral line system of the Atlantic cod were inactivated using ototoxic aminoglycoside antibiotics by injection (gentamicin) or bath (gentamicin and streptomycin), respectively. Hearing thresholds were measured in the fish using the Auditory Brainst...

  13. Strictly homogeneous laterally complete modules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chilin, V. I.; Karimov, J. A.

    2016-03-01

    Let A be a laterally complete commutative regular algebra and X be a laterally complete A-module. In this paper we introduce a notion of homogeneous and strictly homogeneous A-modules. It is proved that any homogeneous A-module is strictly homogeneous A-module, if the Boolean algebra of all idempotents in A is multi-σ-finite.

  14. Audiovisual training is better than auditory-only training for auditory-only speech-in-noise identification

    OpenAIRE

    Lidestam, Björn; Moradi, Shahram; Pettersson, Rasmus; Ricklefs, Theodor

    2014-01-01

    The effects of audiovisual versus auditory training for speech-in-noise identification were examined in 60 young participants. The training conditions were audiovisual training, auditory-only training, and no training (n = 20 each). In the training groups, gated consonants and words were presented at 0 dB signal-to-noise ratio; stimuli were either audiovisual or auditory-only. The no-training group watched a movie clip without performing a speech identification task. Speech-in-noise identific...

  15. Sistema auditivo eferente: efeito no processamento auditivo Efferent auditory system: its effect on auditory processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Acaui Ribeiro Burguetti

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available O processamento da informação sonora depende da integridade das vias auditivas aferentes e eferentes. O sistema auditivo eferente pode ser avaliado por meio dos reflexos acústicos e da supressão das emissões otoacústicas. OBJETIVO: Verificar a atividade do sistema auditivo eferente, por meio da supressão das emissões otoacústicas (EOA e da sensibilização do reflexo acústico no distúrbio de processamento auditivo. CASUÍSTICA E MÉTODO: Estudo prospectivo: 50 crianças com alteração de processamento auditivo (grupo estudo e 38 sem esta alteração (grupo controle, avaliadas por meio das EOA na ausência e presença de ruído contralateral e da pesquisa dos limiares do reflexo acústico na ausência e presença de estímulo facilitador contralateral. RESULTADOS: O valor médio da supressão das EOA foi de até 1,50 dB para o grupo controle e de até 1,26 dB para o grupo estudo. O valor médio da sensibilização dos reflexos foi de até 14,60 dB para o grupo estudo e de até 15,21 dB para o grupo controle. Não houve diferença estatisticamente significante entre as respostas dos grupos controle e estudo em ambos os procedimentos. CONCLUSÃO: O grupo estudo apresentou valores reduzidos na supressão das EOA e valores aumentados na sensibilização do reflexo acústico, em relação ao grupo controle.Auditory processing depends on afferent and efferent auditory pathways integrity. The efferent auditory system may be assessed in humans by two non-invasive and objective methods: acoustic reflex and otoacoustic emissions suppression. AIM: Analyze the efferent auditory system activity by otoacoustic emission suppression and acoustic reflex sensitization in human subjects with auditory processing disorders. METHOD: Prospective study: fifty children with auditory processing disorders (study group and thirty-eight children without auditory processing disorders (control group were evaluated using otoacoustic emission with and without

  16. Neural substrates of attentive listening assessed with a novel auditory Stroop task

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas A Christensen

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A common explanation for the interference effect in the classic visual Stroop test is that reading a word (the more automatic semantic response must be suppressed in favor of naming the text color (the slower sensory response. Neuroimaging studies also consistently report anterior cingulate/medial frontal, lateral prefrontal, and anterior insular structures as key components of a network for Stroop-conflict processing. It remains unclear, however, whether automatic processing of semantic information can explain the interference effect in other variants of the Stroop test. It also is not known if these frontal regions serve a specific role in visual Stroop conflict, or instead play a more universal role as components of a more generalized, supramodal executive-control network for conflict processing. To address these questions, we developed a novel auditory Stroop test in which the relative dominance of semantic and sensory feature processing is reversed. Listeners were asked to focus either on voice gender (a more automatic sensory discrimination task or on the gender meaning of the word (a less automatic semantic task while ignoring the conflicting stimulus feature. An auditory Stroop effect was observed when voice features replaced semantic content as the "to-be-ignored" component of the incongruent stimulus. Also, in sharp contrast to previous Stroop studies, neural responses to incongruent stimuli studied with functional magnetic resonance imaging revealed greater recruitment of conflict loci when selective attention was focused on gender meaning (semantic task over voice gender (sensory task. Furthermore, in contrast to earlier Stroop studies that implicated dorsomedial cortex in visual conflict processing, interference-related activation in both of our auditory tasks was localized ventrally in medial frontal areas, suggesting a dorsal-to-ventral separation of function in medial frontal cortex that is sensitive to stimulus context.

  17. Music and the auditory brain: where is the connection?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Israel eNelken

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Sound processing by the auditory system is understood in unprecedented details, even compared with sensory coding in the visual system. Nevertheless, we don't understand yet the way in which some of the simplest perceptual properties of sounds are coded in neuronal activity. This poses serious difficulties for linking neuronal responses in the auditory system and music processing, since music operates on abstract representations of sounds. Paradoxically, although perceptual representations of sounds most probably occur high in auditory system or even beyond it, neuronal responses are strongly affected by the temporal organization of sound streams even in subcortical stations. Thus, to the extent that music is organized sound, it is the organization, rather than the sound, which is represented first in the auditory brain.

  18. Retinoic Acid Stimulates Regeneration of Mammalian Auditory Hair Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lefebvre, Philippe P.; Malgrange, Brigitte; Staecker, Hinrich; Moonen, Gustave; van de Water, Thomas R.

    1993-04-01

    Sensorineural hearing loss resulting from the loss of auditory hair cells is thought to be irreversible in mammals. This study provides evidence that retinoic acid can stimulate the regeneration in vitro of mammalian auditory hair cells in ototoxic-poisoned organ of Corti explants in the rat. In contrast, treatment with retinoic acid does not stimulate the formation of extra hair cells in control cultures of Corti's organ. Retinoic acid-stimulated hair cell regeneration can be blocked by cytosine arabinoside, which suggests that a period of mitosis is required for the regeneration of auditory hair cells in this system. These results provide hope for a recovery of hearing function in mammals after auditory hair cell damage.

  19. Genetics Home Reference: autosomal dominant partial epilepsy with auditory features

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Genetics Home Health Conditions ADPEAF autosomal dominant partial epilepsy with auditory features Enable Javascript to view the ... Accessibility FOIA Viewers & Players U.S. Department of Health & Human Services National Institutes of Health National Library of ...

  20. Statistical representation of sound textures in the impaired auditory system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McWalter, Richard Ian; Dau, Torsten

    Many challenges exist when it comes to understanding and compensating for hearing impairment. Traditional methods, such as pure tone audiometry and speech intelligibility tests, offer insight into the deficiencies of a hearingimpaired listener, but can only partially reveal the mechanisms that...... underlie the hearing loss. An alternative approach is to investigate the statistical representation of sounds for hearing-impaired listeners along the auditory pathway. Using models of the auditory periphery and sound synthesis, we aimed to probe hearing impaired perception for sound textures – temporally...... homogenous sounds such as rain, birds, or fire. It has been suggested that sound texture perception is mediated by time-averaged statistics measured from early auditory representations (McDermott et al., 2013). Changes to early auditory processing, such as broader “peripheral” filters or reduced compression...

  1. Vocoder analysis based on properties of the human auditory system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gold, B.; Tierney, J.

    1983-12-01

    When a person listens to speech corrupted by noise or other adverse environmental factors, speech intelligibility may be impaired slightly or not at all. The same corrupted speech, after being vocoded, often causes drastic intelligibility loss. The loss is due to the fact that the human peripheral auditory system is a superior signal processor to that of the vocoder. This report is based on the premise that a vocoder analyzer that better resembles the peripheral auditory system would function in a superior manner to present-day vocoders. Topics include reviews of speech enhancement techniques, perceptual analysis of diagnostic rhyme test data, a brief description of the peripheral auditory system and an outline of proposed psychophysical tests. The final section is devoted to a discussion of some preliminary work on computer simulation of an auditory model.

  2. Prospects for replacement of auditory neurons by stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Fuxin; Edge, Albert S B

    2013-03-01

    Sensorineural hearing loss is caused by degeneration of hair cells or auditory neurons. Spiral ganglion cells, the primary afferent neurons of the auditory system, are patterned during development and send out projections to hair cells and to the brainstem under the control of largely unknown guidance molecules. The neurons do not regenerate after loss and even damage to their projections tends to be permanent. The genesis of spiral ganglion neurons and their synapses forms a basis for regenerative approaches. In this review we critically present the current experimental findings on auditory neuron replacement. We discuss the latest advances with a focus on (a) exogenous stem cell transplantation into the cochlea for neural replacement, (b) expression of local guidance signals in the cochlea after loss of auditory neurons, (c) the possibility of neural replacement from an endogenous cell source, and (d) functional changes from cell engraftment. PMID:23370457

  3. Auditory Assessment of Visually Impaired Preschoolers: A Team Effort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gleason, Deborah

    1984-01-01

    The paper provides an overview of audiological terms and types of hearing impairments to help teachers of visually impaired preschoolers work more effectively with audiologists. Both functional auditory assessment and formal audiometric evaluations are discussed. (Author/CL)

  4. Auditory spatial localization: Developmental delay in children with visual impairments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cappagli, Giulia; Gori, Monica

    2016-01-01

    For individuals with visual impairments, auditory spatial localization is one of the most important features to navigate in the environment. Many works suggest that blind adults show similar or even enhanced performance for localization of auditory cues compared to sighted adults (Collignon, Voss, Lassonde, & Lepore, 2009). To date, the investigation of auditory spatial localization in children with visual impairments has provided contrasting results. Here we report, for the first time, that contrary to visually impaired adults, children with low vision or total blindness show a significant impairment in the localization of static sounds. These results suggest that simple auditory spatial tasks are compromised in children, and that this capacity recovers over time. PMID:27002960

  5. Prefrontal activity predicts monkeys' decisions during an auditory category task

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jung Hoon Lee

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The neural correlates that relate auditory categorization to aspects of goal-directed behavior, such as decision-making, are not well understood. Since the prefrontal cortex plays an important role in executive function and the categorization of auditory objects, we hypothesized that neural activity in the prefrontal cortex (PFC should predict an animal's behavioral reports (decisions during a category task. To test this hypothesis, we tested PFC activity that was recorded while monkeys categorized human spoken words (Russ et al., 2008b. We found that activity in the ventrolateral PFC, on average, correlated best with the monkeys' choices than with the auditory stimuli. This finding demonstrates a direct link between PFC activity and behavioral choices during a non-spatial auditory task.

  6. Electrophysiologic Assessment of Auditory Training Benefits in Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Samira; Jenkins, Kimberly

    2015-11-01

    Older adults often exhibit speech perception deficits in difficult listening environments. At present, hearing aids or cochlear implants are the main options for therapeutic remediation; however, they only address audibility and do not compensate for central processing changes that may accompany aging and hearing loss or declines in cognitive function. It is unknown whether long-term hearing aid or cochlear implant use can restore changes in central encoding of temporal and spectral components of speech or improve cognitive function. Therefore, consideration should be given to auditory/cognitive training that targets auditory processing and cognitive declines, taking advantage of the plastic nature of the central auditory system. The demonstration of treatment efficacy is an important component of any training strategy. Electrophysiologic measures can be used to assess training-related benefits. This article will review the evidence for neuroplasticity in the auditory system and the use of evoked potentials to document treatment efficacy. PMID:27587912

  7. Listening to another sense: somatosensory integration in the auditory system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Calvin; Stefanescu, Roxana A; Martel, David T; Shore, Susan E

    2015-07-01

    Conventionally, sensory systems are viewed as separate entities, each with its own physiological process serving a different purpose. However, many functions require integrative inputs from multiple sensory systems and sensory intersection and convergence occur throughout the central nervous system. The neural processes for hearing perception undergo significant modulation by the two other major sensory systems, vision and somatosensation. This synthesis occurs at every level of the ascending auditory pathway: the cochlear nucleus, inferior colliculus, medial geniculate body and the auditory cortex. In this review, we explore the process of multisensory integration from (1) anatomical (inputs and connections), (2) physiological (cellular responses), (3) functional and (4) pathological aspects. We focus on the convergence between auditory and somatosensory inputs in each ascending auditory station. This review highlights the intricacy of sensory processing and offers a multisensory perspective regarding the understanding of sensory disorders. PMID:25526698

  8. Comparison of eye tracking, electrooculography and an auditory brain-computer interface for binary communication: a case study with a participant in the locked-in state

    OpenAIRE

    Käthner, Ivo; Kübler, Andrea; Halder, Sebastian

    2015-01-01

    Background In this study, we evaluated electrooculography (EOG), an eye tracker and an auditory brain-computer interface (BCI) as access methods to augmentative and alternative communication (AAC). The participant of the study has been in the locked-in state (LIS) for 6 years due to amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. He was able to communicate with slow residual eye movements, but had no means of partner independent communication. We discuss the usability of all tested access methods and the pros...

  9. Feel What You Say: An Auditory Effect on Somatosensory Perception

    OpenAIRE

    François Champoux; Shiller, Douglas M.; Zatorre, Robert J.

    2011-01-01

    In the present study, we demonstrate an audiotactile effect in which amplitude modulation of auditory feedback during voiced speech induces a throbbing sensation over the lip and laryngeal regions. Control tasks coupled with the examination of speech acoustic parameters allow us to rule out the possibility that the effect may have been due to cognitive factors or motor compensatory effects. We interpret the effect as reflecting the tight interplay between auditory and tactile modalities durin...

  10. The plastic ear and perceptual relearning in auditory spatial perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlile, Simon

    2014-01-01

    The auditory system of adult listeners has been shown to accommodate to altered spectral cues to sound location which presumably provides the basis for recalibration to changes in the shape of the ear over a life time. Here we review the role of auditory and non-auditory inputs to the perception of sound location and consider a range of recent experiments looking at the role of non-auditory inputs in the process of accommodation to these altered spectral cues. A number of studies have used small ear molds to modify the spectral cues that result in significant degradation in localization performance. Following chronic exposure (10-60 days) performance recovers to some extent and recent work has demonstrated that this occurs for both audio-visual and audio-only regions of space. This begs the questions as to the teacher signal for this remarkable functional plasticity in the adult nervous system. Following a brief review of influence of the motor state in auditory localization, we consider the potential role of auditory-motor learning in the perceptual recalibration of the spectral cues. Several recent studies have considered how multi-modal and sensory-motor feedback might influence accommodation to altered spectral cues produced by ear molds or through virtual auditory space stimulation using non-individualized spectral cues. The work with ear molds demonstrates that a relatively short period of training involving audio-motor feedback (5-10 days) significantly improved both the rate and extent of accommodation to altered spectral cues. This has significant implications not only for the mechanisms by which this complex sensory information is encoded to provide spatial cues but also for adaptive training to altered auditory inputs. The review concludes by considering the implications for rehabilitative training with hearing aids and cochlear prosthesis. PMID:25147497

  11. Hierarchical computation in the canonical auditory cortical circuit

    OpenAIRE

    Atencio, Craig A.; Sharpee, Tatyana O.; Schreiner, Christoph E.

    2009-01-01

    Sensory cortical anatomy has identified a canonical microcircuit underlying computations between and within layers. This feed-forward circuit processes information serially from granular to supragranular and to infragranular layers. How this substrate correlates with an auditory cortical processing hierarchy is unclear. We recorded simultaneously from all layers in cat primary auditory cortex (AI) and estimated spectrotemporal receptive fields (STRFs) and associated nonlinearities. Spike-trig...

  12. Presentation of dynamically overlapping auditory messages in user interfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Papp, A.L.

    1997-09-01

    This dissertation describes a methodology and example implementation for the dynamic regulation of temporally overlapping auditory messages in computer-user interfaces. The regulation mechanism exists to schedule numerous overlapping auditory messages in such a way that each individual message remains perceptually distinct from all others. The method is based on the research conducted in the area of auditory scene analysis. While numerous applications have been engineered to present the user with temporally overlapped auditory output, they have generally been designed without any structured method of controlling the perceptual aspects of the sound. The method of scheduling temporally overlapping sounds has been extended to function in an environment where numerous applications can present sound independently of each other. The Centralized Audio Presentation System is a global regulation mechanism that controls all audio output requests made from all currently running applications. The notion of multimodal objects is explored in this system as well. Each audio request that represents a particular message can include numerous auditory representations, such as musical motives and voice. The Presentation System scheduling algorithm selects the best representation according to the current global auditory system state, and presents it to the user within the request constraints of priority and maximum acceptable latency. The perceptual conflicts between temporally overlapping audio messages are examined in depth through the Computational Auditory Scene Synthesizer. At the heart of this system is a heuristic-based auditory scene synthesis scheduling method. Different schedules of overlapped sounds are evaluated and assigned penalty scores. High scores represent presentations that include perceptual conflicts between over-lapping sounds. Low scores indicate fewer and less serious conflicts. A user study was conducted to validate that the perceptual difficulties predicted by

  13. Functional neuroanatomy of auditory scene analysis in Alzheimer's disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hannah L. Golden

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Auditory scene analysis is a demanding computational process that is performed automatically and efficiently by the healthy brain but vulnerable to the neurodegenerative pathology of Alzheimer's disease. Here we assessed the functional neuroanatomy of auditory scene analysis in Alzheimer's disease using the well-known ‘cocktail party effect’ as a model paradigm whereby stored templates for auditory objects (e.g., hearing one's spoken name are used to segregate auditory ‘foreground’ and ‘background’. Patients with typical amnestic Alzheimer's disease (n = 13 and age-matched healthy individuals (n = 17 underwent functional 3T-MRI using a sparse acquisition protocol with passive listening to auditory stimulus conditions comprising the participant's own name interleaved with or superimposed on multi-talker babble, and spectrally rotated (unrecognisable analogues of these conditions. Name identification (conditions containing the participant's own name contrasted with spectrally rotated analogues produced extensive bilateral activation involving superior temporal cortex in both the AD and healthy control groups, with no significant differences between groups. Auditory object segregation (conditions with interleaved name sounds contrasted with superimposed name sounds produced activation of right posterior superior temporal cortex in both groups, again with no differences between groups. However, the cocktail party effect (interaction of own name identification with auditory object segregation processing produced activation of right supramarginal gyrus in the AD group that was significantly enhanced compared with the healthy control group. The findings delineate an altered functional neuroanatomical profile of auditory scene analysis in Alzheimer's disease that may constitute a novel computational signature of this neurodegenerative pathology.

  14. Functional neuroanatomy of auditory scene analysis in Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golden, Hannah L; Agustus, Jennifer L; Goll, Johanna C; Downey, Laura E; Mummery, Catherine J; Schott, Jonathan M; Crutch, Sebastian J; Warren, Jason D

    2015-01-01

    Auditory scene analysis is a demanding computational process that is performed automatically and efficiently by the healthy brain but vulnerable to the neurodegenerative pathology of Alzheimer's disease. Here we assessed the functional neuroanatomy of auditory scene analysis in Alzheimer's disease using the well-known 'cocktail party effect' as a model paradigm whereby stored templates for auditory objects (e.g., hearing one's spoken name) are used to segregate auditory 'foreground' and 'background'. Patients with typical amnestic Alzheimer's disease (n = 13) and age-matched healthy individuals (n = 17) underwent functional 3T-MRI using a sparse acquisition protocol with passive listening to auditory stimulus conditions comprising the participant's own name interleaved with or superimposed on multi-talker babble, and spectrally rotated (unrecognisable) analogues of these conditions. Name identification (conditions containing the participant's own name contrasted with spectrally rotated analogues) produced extensive bilateral activation involving superior temporal cortex in both the AD and healthy control groups, with no significant differences between groups. Auditory object segregation (conditions with interleaved name sounds contrasted with superimposed name sounds) produced activation of right posterior superior temporal cortex in both groups, again with no differences between groups. However, the cocktail party effect (interaction of own name identification with auditory object segregation processing) produced activation of right supramarginal gyrus in the AD group that was significantly enhanced compared with the healthy control group. The findings delineate an altered functional neuroanatomical profile of auditory scene analysis in Alzheimer's disease that may constitute a novel computational signature of this neurodegenerative pathology. PMID:26029629

  15. Neural correlates of auditory-somatosensory interaction in speech perception

    OpenAIRE

    Ito, Takayuki; Gracco, Vincent; Ostry, David J.

    2015-01-01

    Speech perception is known to rely on both auditory and visual information. However, sound specific somatosensory input has been shown also to influence speech perceptual processing (Ito et al., 2009). In the present study we addressed further the relationship between somatosensory information and speech perceptual processing by addressing the hypothesis that the temporal relationship between orofacial movement and sound processing contributes to somatosensory-auditory interaction in speech p...

  16. Dissecting the functional anatomy of auditory word repetition

    OpenAIRE

    ‘Ōiwi Parker Jones; Green, David W.; Cathy J Price

    2014-01-01

    Auditory word repetition involves many different brain regions, whose functions are still far from fully understood. Here, we use a single, multi-factorial, within-subjects fMRI design to identify those regions, and to functionally distinguish the multiple linguistic and non-linguistic processing areas that are all involved in repeating back heard words. The study compared: (1) auditory to visual inputs; (2) phonological to non-phonological inputs; (3) semantic to non-semantic inputs; and (4...

  17. Prospects for Replacement of Auditory Neurons by Stem Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Shi, Fuxin; Edge, Albert S. B.

    2013-01-01

    Sensorineural hearing loss is caused by degeneration of hair cells or auditory neurons. Spiral ganglion cells, the primary afferent neurons of the auditory system, are patterned during development and send out projections to hair cells and to the brainstem under the control of largely unknown guidance molecules. The neurons do not regenerate after loss and even damage to their projections tends to be permanent. The genesis of spiral ganglion neurons and their synapses forms a basis for regene...

  18. The plastic ear and perceptual relearning in auditory spatial perception.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon eCarlile

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The auditory system of adult listeners has been shown to accommodate to altered spectral cues to sound location which presumably provides the basis for recalibration to changes in the shape of the ear over a life time. Here we review the role of auditory and non-auditory inputs to the perception of sound location and consider a range of recent experiments looking at the role of non-auditory inputs in the process of accommodation to these altered spectral cues. A number of studies have used small ear moulds to modify the spectral cues that result in significant degradation in localization performance. Following chronic exposure (10-60 days performance recovers to some extent and recent work has demonstrated that this occurs for both audio-visual and audio-only regions of space. This begs the questions as to the teacher signal for this remarkable functional plasticity in the adult nervous system. Following a brief review of influence of the motor state in auditory localisation, we consider the potential role of auditory-motor learning in the perceptual recalibration of the spectral cues. Several recent studies have considered how multi-modal and sensory-motor feedback might influence accommodation to altered spectral cues produced by ear moulds or through virtual auditory space stimulation using non-individualised spectral cues. The work with ear moulds demonstrates that a relatively short period of training involving sensory-motor feedback (5 – 10 days significantly improved both the rate and extent of accommodation to altered spectral cues. This has significant implications not only for the mechanisms by which this complex sensory information is encoded to provide a spatial code but also for adaptive training to altered auditory inputs. The review concludes by considering the implications for rehabilitative training with hearing aids and cochlear prosthesis.

  19. Modeling of Auditory Neuron Response Thresholds with Cochlear Implants

    OpenAIRE

    Frederic Venail; Thibault Mura; Mohamed Akkari; Caroline Mathiolon; Sophie Menjot de Champfleur; Jean Pierre Piron; Marielle Sicard; Françoise Sterkers-Artieres; Michel Mondain; Alain Uziel

    2015-01-01

    The quality of the prosthetic-neural interface is a critical point for cochlear implant efficiency. It depends not only on technical and anatomical factors such as electrode position into the cochlea (depth and scalar placement), electrode impedance, and distance between the electrode and the stimulated auditory neurons, but also on the number of functional auditory neurons. The efficiency of electrical stimulation can be assessed by the measurement of e-CAP in cochlear implant users. In the ...

  20. Neural Effects of Auditory Distraction on Visual Attention in Schizophrenia

    OpenAIRE

    Smucny, Jason; Rojas, Donald C.; Eichman, Lindsay C.; Tregellas, Jason R.

    2013-01-01

    Sensory flooding, particularly during auditory stimulation, is a common problem for patients with schizophrenia. The functional consequences of this impairment during cross-modal attention tasks, however, are unclear. The purpose of this study was to examine how auditory distraction differentially affects task-associated response during visual attention in patients and healthy controls. To that end, 21 outpatients with schizophrenia and 23 healthy comparison subjects performed a visual attent...

  1. Central auditory development in children with cochlear implants: clinical implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Anu; Dorman, Michael F

    2006-01-01

    A common finding in developmental neurobiology is that stimulation must be delivered to a sensory system within a narrow window of time (a sensitive period) during development in order for that sensory system to develop normally. Experiments with congenitally deaf children have allowed us to establish the existence and time limits of a sensitive period for the development of central auditory pathways in humans. Using the latency of cortical auditory evoked potentials (CAEPs) as a measure we have found that central auditory pathways are maximally plastic for a period of about 3.5 years. If the stimulation is delivered within that period CAEP latencies reach age-normal values within 3-6 months after stimulation. However, if stimulation is withheld for more than 7 years, CAEP latencies decrease significantly over a period of approximately 1 month following the onset of stimulation. They then remain constant or change very slowly over months or years. The lack of development of the central auditory system in congenitally deaf children implanted after 7 years is correlated with relatively poor development of speech and language skills [Geers, this vol, pp 50-65]. Animal models suggest that the primary auditory cortex may be functionally decoupled from higher order auditory cortex due to restricted development of inter- and intracortical connections in late-implanted children [Kral and Tillein, this vol, pp 89-108]. Another aspect of plasticity that works against late-implanted children is the reorganization of higher order cortex by other sensory modalities (e.g. vision). The hypothesis of decoupling of primary auditory cortex from higher order auditory cortex in children deprived of sound for a long time may explain the speech perception and oral language learning difficulties of children who receive an implant after the end of the sensitive period. PMID:16891837

  2. Primate Auditory Recognition Memory Performance Varies With Sound Type

    OpenAIRE

    Chi-Wing, Ng; Bethany, Plakke; Amy, Poremba

    2009-01-01

    Neural correlates of auditory processing, including for species-specific vocalizations that convey biological and ethological significance (e.g. social status, kinship, environment),have been identified in a wide variety of areas including the temporal and frontal cortices. However, few studies elucidate how non-human primates interact with these vocalization signals when they are challenged by tasks requiring auditory discrimination, recognition, and/or memory. The present study employs a de...

  3. Temporal factors affecting somatosensory-auditory interactions in speech processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takayuki eIto

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Speech perception is known to rely on both auditory and visual information. However, sound specific somatosensory input has been shown also to influence speech perceptual processing (Ito et al., 2009. In the present study we addressed further the relationship between somatosensory information and speech perceptual processing by addressing the hypothesis that the temporal relationship between orofacial movement and sound processing contributes to somatosensory-auditory interaction in speech perception. We examined the changes in event-related potentials in response to multisensory synchronous (simultaneous and asynchronous (90 ms lag and lead somatosensory and auditory stimulation compared to individual unisensory auditory and somatosensory stimulation alone. We used a robotic device to apply facial skin somatosensory deformations that were similar in timing and duration to those experienced in speech production. Following synchronous multisensory stimulation the amplitude of the event-related potential was reliably different from the two unisensory potentials. More importantly, the magnitude of the event-related potential difference varied as a function of the relative timing of the somatosensory-auditory stimulation. Event-related activity change due to stimulus timing was seen between 160-220 ms following somatosensory onset, mostly around the parietal area. The results demonstrate a dynamic modulation of somatosensory-auditory convergence and suggest the contribution of somatosensory information for speech processing process is dependent on the specific temporal order of sensory inputs in speech production.

  4. An anatomical and functional topography of human auditory cortical areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle eMoerel

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available While advances in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI throughout the last decades have enabled the detailed anatomical and functional inspection of the human brain non-invasively, to date there is no consensus regarding the precise subdivision and topography of the areas forming the human auditory cortex. Here, we propose a topography of the human auditory areas based on insights on the anatomical and functional properties of human auditory areas as revealed by studies of cyto- and myelo-architecture and fMRI investigations at ultra-high magnetic field (7 Tesla. Importantly, we illustrate that - whereas a group-based approach to analyze functional (tonotopic maps is appropriate to highlight the main tonotopic axis - the examination of tonotopic maps at single subject level is required to detail the topography of primary and non-primary areas that may be more variable across subjects. Furthermore, we show that considering multiple maps indicative of anatomical (i.e. myelination as well as of functional properties (e.g. broadness of frequency tuning is helpful in identifying auditory cortical areas in individual human brains. We propose and discuss a topography of areas that is consistent with old and recent anatomical post mortem characterizations of the human auditory cortex and that may serve as a working model for neuroscience studies of auditory functions.

  5. AUDITORY REACTION TIME IN BASKETBALL PLAYERS AND HEALTHY CONTROLS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghuntla Tejas P.

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Reaction is purposeful voluntary response to different stimuli as visual or auditory stimuli. Auditory reaction time is time required to response to auditory stimuli. Quickness of response is very important in games like basketball. This study was conducted to compare auditory reaction time of basketball players and healthy controls. The auditory reaction time was measured by the reaction time instrument in healthy controls and basketball players. Simple reaction time and choice reaction time measured. During the reaction time testing, auditory stimuli were given for three times and minimum reaction time was taken as the final reaction time for that sensory modality of that subject. The results were statistically analyzed and were recorded as mean + standard deviation and student’s unpaired t-test was applied to check the level of significance. The study shows that basketball players have shorter reaction time than healthy controls. As reaction time gives the information how fast a person gives a response to sensory stimuli, it is a good indicator of performance in reactive sports like basketball. Sportsman should be trained to improve their reaction time to improve their performance.

  6. Auditory temporal processing skills in musicians with dyslexia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishop-Liebler, Paula; Welch, Graham; Huss, Martina; Thomson, Jennifer M; Goswami, Usha

    2014-08-01

    The core cognitive difficulty in developmental dyslexia involves phonological processing, but adults and children with dyslexia also have sensory impairments. Impairments in basic auditory processing show particular links with phonological impairments, and recent studies with dyslexic children across languages reveal a relationship between auditory temporal processing and sensitivity to rhythmic timing and speech rhythm. As rhythm is explicit in music, musical training might have a beneficial effect on the auditory perception of acoustic cues to rhythm in dyslexia. Here we took advantage of the presence of musicians with and without dyslexia in musical conservatoires, comparing their auditory temporal processing abilities with those of dyslexic non-musicians matched for cognitive ability. Musicians with dyslexia showed equivalent auditory sensitivity to musicians without dyslexia and also showed equivalent rhythm perception. The data support the view that extensive rhythmic experience initiated during childhood (here in the form of music training) can affect basic auditory processing skills which are found to be deficient in individuals with dyslexia. PMID:25044949

  7. Verrucous Carcinoma in External Auditory Canal – A Rare Case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md Zillur Rahman

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Verrucous carcinoma is a variant of squamous cell carcinoma. It is of low grade malignancy and rarely present with distant metastasis. Oral cavity is the commonest site of this tumour, other sites are larynx, oesophagus and genitalia. Verrucous carcinoma in external auditory canal is extremely rare. This is the presentation of a 45 years old woman who came to the ENT & Head Neck Surgery department of Delta medical college, Dhaka, Bangladesh with discharging left ear and impairment of hearing on the same side for 7 years. Otoscopic examination showed a mass occupying almost whole of the external auditory canal and the overlying skin was thickened, papillary and blackish. Cytology from external auditory canal scrap showed hyperkeratosis and parakeratosis. External auditory canal bone was found eroded at some parts. Excision of the mass was done under microscope. Split thickness skin grafting was done in external auditory canal. The mass was diagnosed as verrucous carcinoma on histopathological examination. Afterwards she was given radiotherapy. Six months follow up showed no recurrence and healthy epithelialization of external auditory canal.

  8. A unique cellular scaling rule in the avian auditory system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corfield, Jeremy R; Long, Brendan; Krilow, Justin M; Wylie, Douglas R; Iwaniuk, Andrew N

    2016-06-01

    Although it is clear that neural structures scale with body size, the mechanisms of this relationship are not well understood. Several recent studies have shown that the relationship between neuron numbers and brain (or brain region) size are not only different across mammalian orders, but also across auditory and visual regions within the same brains. Among birds, similar cellular scaling rules have not been examined in any detail. Here, we examine the scaling of auditory structures in birds and show that the scaling rules that have been established in the mammalian auditory pathway do not necessarily apply to birds. In galliforms, neuronal densities decrease with increasing brain size, suggesting that auditory brainstem structures increase in size faster than neurons are added; smaller brains have relatively more neurons than larger brains. The cellular scaling rules that apply to auditory brainstem structures in galliforms are, therefore, different to that found in primate auditory pathway. It is likely that the factors driving this difference are associated with the anatomical specializations required for sound perception in birds, although there is a decoupling of neuron numbers in brain structures and hair cell numbers in the basilar papilla. This study provides significant insight into the allometric scaling of neural structures in birds and improves our understanding of the rules that govern neural scaling across vertebrates. PMID:26002617

  9. Correlation of auditory brain stem response and the MRI measurements in neuro-degenerative disorders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamei, Hidekazu (Tokyo Women' s Medical Coll. (Japan))

    1989-06-01

    The purpose of this study is to elucidate correlations of several MRI measurements of the cranium and brain, functioning as a volume conductor, to the auditory brain stem response (ABR) in neuro-degenerative disorders. The subjects included forty-seven patients with spinocerebellar degeneration (SCD) and sixteen of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). Statistically significant positive correlations were found between I-V and III-V interpeak latencies (IPLs) and the area of cranium and brain in the longitudinal section of SCD patients, and between I-III and III-V IPLs and the area in the longitudinal section of those with ALS. And, also there were statistically significant correlations between the amplitude of the V wave and the area of brain stem as well as that of the cranium in the longitudinal section of SCD patients, and between the amplitude of the V wave and the area of the cerebrum in the longitudinal section of ALS. In conclusion, in the ABR, the IPLs were prolonged and the amplitude of the V wave was decreased while the MRI size of the cranium and brain increased. When the ABR is applied to neuro-degenerative disorders, it might be important to consider not only the conduction of the auditory tracts in the brain stem, but also the correlations of the size of the cranium and brain which act as a volume conductor. (author).

  10. Effects of auditory enhancement on the loudness of masker and target components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ningyuan; Oxenham, Andrew J

    2016-03-01

    Auditory enhancement refers to the observation that the salience of one spectral region (the "signal") of a broadband sound can be enhanced and can "pop out" from the remainder of the sound (the "masker") if it is preceded by the broadband sound without the signal. The present study investigated auditory enhancement as an effective change in loudness, to determine whether it reflects a change in the loudness of the signal, the masker, or both. In the first experiment, the 500-ms precursor, an inharmonic complex with logarithmically spaced components, was followed after a 50-ms gap by the 100-ms signal or masker alone, the loudness of which was compared with that of the same signal or masker presented 2 s later. In the second experiment, the loudness of the signal embedded in the masker was assessed with and without a precursor using the same method, as was the loudness of the entire signal-plus-masker complex. The results suggest that the precursor does not affect the loudness of the signal or the masker alone, but enhances the loudness of the signal in the presence of the masker, while leaving the loudness of the surrounding masker unaffected. The results are consistent with an explanation based on "adaptation of inhibition" [Viemeister and Bacon (1982). J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 71, 1502-1507]. PMID:26805025

  11. Automaticity and primacy of auditory streaming: Concurrent subjective and objective measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Billig, Alexander J; Carlyon, Robert P

    2016-03-01

    Two experiments used subjective and objective measures to study the automaticity and primacy of auditory streaming. Listeners heard sequences of "ABA-" triplets, where "A" and "B" were tones of different frequencies and "-" was a silent gap. Segregation was more frequently reported, and rhythmically deviant triplets less well detected, for a greater between-tone frequency separation and later in the sequence. In Experiment 1, performing a competing auditory task for the first part of the sequence led to a reduction in subsequent streaming compared to when the tones were attended throughout. This is consistent with focused attention promoting streaming, and/or with attention switches resetting it. However, the proportion of segregated reports increased more rapidly following a switch than at the start of a sequence, indicating that some streaming occurred automatically. Modeling ruled out a simple "covert attention" account of this finding. Experiment 2 required listeners to perform subjective and objective tasks concurrently. It revealed superior performance during integrated compared to segregated reports, beyond that explained by the codependence of the two measures on stimulus parameters. We argue that listeners have limited access to low-level stimulus representations once perceptual organization has occurred, and that subjective and objective streaming measures partly index the same processes. PMID:26414168

  12. Correlation of auditory brain stem response and the MRI measurements in neuro-degenerative disorders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this study is to elucidate correlations of several MRI measurements of the cranium and brain, functioning as a volume conductor, to the auditory brain stem response (ABR) in neuro-degenerative disorders. The subjects included forty-seven patients with spinocerebellar degeneration (SCD) and sixteen of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). Statistically significant positive correlations were found between I-V and III-V interpeak latencies (IPLs) and the area of cranium and brain in the longitudinal section of SCD patients, and between I-III and III-V IPLs and the area in the longitudinal section of those with ALS. And, also there were statistically significant correlations between the amplitude of the V wave and the area of brain stem as well as that of the cranium in the longitudinal section of SCD patients, and between the amplitude of the V wave and the area of the cerebrum in the longitudinal section of ALS. In conclusion, in the ABR, the IPLs were prolonged and the amplitude of the V wave was decreased while the MRI size of the cranium and brain increased. When the ABR is applied to neuro-degenerative disorders, it might be important to consider not only the conduction of the auditory tracts in the brain stem, but also the correlations of the size of the cranium and brain which act as a volume conductor. (author)

  13. Nonneoplastic enhancement of internal auditory canal contents mimicking intracanalicular acoustic neuroma on MR images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The authors present five patients with inflammation of facial and/or vestibulocochlear nerves that showed enhancement of structures in the internal auditory canal. (IAC) on MR imaging that mimic intracanalicular acoustic neuroma. MR imaging findings of four patients with unilateral sensorineural hearing loss and one with acute facial paralysis were reviewed along with the operative findings. MR imaging included pre-and postcontrast T1- and T2-weighted images. Three patients who presented with unilateral sensorineural hearing loss underwent surgery for exploration and decompression of the IAC. One patient with facial paralysis showed vesicular eruption in the external auditory canal and was diagnosed as having Ramsay Hunt syndrome (herpes zosteroticus) clinically. The fifth patient is also being followed up clinically. MR imaging findings in all five cases were similar. There was focal enhancement in the lateral portion of the IAC on postcontrast T1-weighted images with minimal mass effect. The swollen and edematous nerves were noted on surgery without any evidence of neoplasm. The patients not operated on showed no progression of symptoms. The enhancement of IAC contents on MR imaging in patients with nonspecific neuritis or Ramsay Hunt syndrome may be difficult to differentiate from a small intracanalicular neuroma, which may have important therapeutic implications

  14. Predictors of auditory performance in hearing-aid users: The role of cognitive function and auditory lifestyle (A)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard, Martin David

    2006-01-01

    auditory lifestyle was correlated with self-report outcome. However, overall the predictive leverage of the various measures was moderate, with single predictors explaining only up to 19 percent of the variance in the auditory-performance measures. a)Now at CNBH, Department of Physiology, Development and...... no objective benefit can be measured. It has been suggested that lack of agreement between various hearing-aid outcome components can be explained by individual differences in cognitive function and auditory lifestyle. We measured speech identification, self-report outcome, spectral and temporal...... correlation exists between objective and subjective hearing-aid outcome. Different self-report outcome measures showed a different amount of correlation with objective auditory performance. Cognitive skills were found to play a role in explaining speech performance and spectral and temporal abilities, and...

  15. Selective increase of auditory cortico-striatal coherence during auditory-cued Go/NoGo discrimination learning.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas L. Schulz

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Goal directed behavior and associated learning processes are tightly linked to neuronal activity in the ventral striatum. Mechanisms that integrate task relevant sensory information into striatal processing during decision making and learning are implicitly assumed in current reinforcementmodels, yet they are still weakly understood. To identify the functional activation of cortico-striatal subpopulations of connections during auditory discrimination learning, we trained Mongolian gerbils in a two-way active avoidance task in a shuttlebox to discriminate between falling and rising frequency modulated tones with identical spectral properties. We assessed functional coupling by analyzing the field-field coherence between the auditory cortex and the ventral striatum of animals performing the task. During the course of training, we observed a selective increase of functionalcoupling during Go-stimulus presentations. These results suggest that the auditory cortex functionally interacts with the ventral striatum during auditory learning and that the strengthening of these functional connections is selectively goal-directed.

  16. Effect of histone deacetylase inhibitors trichostatin A and valproic acid on hair cell regeneration in zebrafish lateral line neuromasts

    OpenAIRE

    Chengfu Cai; Huawei Li

    2014-01-01

    In humans, auditory hair cells are not replaced when injured. Thus, cochlear hair cell loss causes progressive and permanent hearing loss. Conversely, nonmammalian vertebrates are capable of regenerating lost sensory hair cells. The zebrafish lateral line has numerous qualities that make it well suited for studying hair cell development and regeneration. Histone deacetylase (HDAC) activity has been shown to have an important role in regenerative processes in vertebrates, but its function in h...

  17. Effect of histone deacetylase inhibitors trichostatin A and valproic acid on hair cell regeneration in zebrafish lateral line neuromasts

    OpenAIRE

    He, Yingzi; Cai, Chengfu; Tang, Dongmei; Sun, Shan; Li, Huawei

    2014-01-01

    In humans, auditory hair cells are not replaced when injured. Thus, cochlear hair cell loss causes progressive and permanent hearing loss. Conversely, non-mammalian vertebrates are capable of regenerating lost sensory hair cells. The zebrafish lateral line has numerous qualities that make it well-suited for studying hair cell development and regeneration. Histone deacetylase (HDAC) activity has been shown to have an important role in regenerative processes in vertebrates, but its function in ...

  18. Extreme Lateral Interbody Fusion Procedure

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... perform the discectomy and place a lot of screws from behind. Well, it's complicated. And both surgeries ... adequate, we can even place a plate and screws from the lateral approach. That also will give ...

  19. Diffusion tensor imaging and MR morphometry of the central auditory pathway and auditory cortex in aging

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Profant, Oliver; Škoch, A.; Balogová, Zuzana; Tintěra, J.; Hlinka, Jaroslav; Syka, Josef

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 260, FEB 28 (2014), s. 87-97. ISSN 0306-4522 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP304/10/1872; GA ČR(CZ) GBP304/12/G069; GA ČR GA13-23940S Grant ostatní: GA MŠk(CZ) Prvouk-P27/LF1/1 Institutional support: RVO:68378041 ; RVO:67985807 Keywords : presbycusis * aging * auditory cortex Subject RIV: FH - Neurology Impact factor: 3.357, year: 2014

  20. A virtual auditory environment for investigating the auditory signal processing of realistic sounds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Favrot, Sylvain Emmanuel; Buchholz, Jörg

    2008-01-01

    reverberation. The environment is based on the ODEON room acoustic simulation software to render the acoustical scene. ODEON outputs are processed using a combination of different order Ambisonic techniques to calculate multichannel room impulse responses (mRIR). Auralization is then obtained by the convolution....... Throughout the VAE development, special care was taken in order to achieve a realistic auditory percept and to avoid “artifacts” such as unnatural coloration. The performance of the VAE has been evaluated and optimized on a 29 loudspeaker setup using both objective and subjective measurement techniques....

  1. Using Facebook to Reach People Who Experience Auditory Hallucinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brian, Rachel Marie; Ben-Zeev, Dror

    2016-01-01

    Background Auditory hallucinations (eg, hearing voices) are relatively common and underreported false sensory experiences that may produce distress and impairment. A large proportion of those who experience auditory hallucinations go unidentified and untreated. Traditional engagement methods oftentimes fall short in reaching the diverse population of people who experience auditory hallucinations. Objective The objective of this proof-of-concept study was to examine the viability of leveraging Web-based social media as a method of engaging people who experience auditory hallucinations and to evaluate their attitudes toward using social media platforms as a resource for Web-based support and technology-based treatment. Methods We used Facebook advertisements to recruit individuals who experience auditory hallucinations to complete an 18-item Web-based survey focused on issues related to auditory hallucinations and technology use in American adults. We systematically tested multiple elements of the advertisement and survey layout including image selection, survey pagination, question ordering, and advertising targeting strategy. Each element was evaluated sequentially and the most cost-effective strategy was implemented in the subsequent steps, eventually deriving an optimized approach. Three open-ended question responses were analyzed using conventional inductive content analysis. Coded responses were quantified into binary codes, and frequencies were then calculated. Results Recruitment netted N=264 total sample over a 6-week period. Ninety-seven participants fully completed all measures at a total cost of $8.14 per participant across testing phases. Systematic adjustments to advertisement design, survey layout, and targeting strategies improved data quality and cost efficiency. People were willing to provide information on what triggered their auditory hallucinations along with strategies they use to cope, as well as provide suggestions to others who experience

  2. Sex differences in concordance rates between auditory event-related potentials and subjective sexual arousal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliver, Taylor L; Meana, Marta; Snyder, Joel S

    2016-08-01

    Much research indicates men show a greater concordance between subjective and genital sexual arousal than do women. We investigated the relationship between subjective sexual arousal and brain activation in men and women. Subjective sexual arousal and auditory N1 and P3b ERP amplitudes were measured while 38 participants viewed erotic and non-erotic films. Most notably, there was a significant correlation between N1 amplitude and sexual arousal in men; for women, there was a significant correlation between the P3b amplitude and sexual arousal. ERP amplitudes were inversely associated with reported arousal, suggesting that sexual arousal interferes with early tone processing for men, and with later tone processing for women. Lastly, for women, pornography/erotica consumption was negatively correlated with P3b amplitudes, suggesting that women who consume more pornography/erotica may also show greater attention to erotic films. PMID:27125689

  3. Surgical Procedures for External Auditory Canal Carcinoma and the Preservation of Postoperative Hearing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroshi Hoshikawa

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Carcinoma of the external auditory canal (EAC is an unusual head and neck malignancy. The pathophysiology of these tumors is different from other skin lesions because of their anatomical and functional characteristics. Early-stage carcinoma of the EAC can be generally cured by surgical treatment, and reconstruction of the EAC with a tympanoplasty can help to retain hearing, thus improving the patients’ quality of life. In this study, we present two cases of early-stage carcinoma of the EAC treated by canal reconstruction using skin grafts after lateral temporal bone resection. A rolled-up skin graft with a temporal muscle flap was useful for keeping the form and maintaining the postoperative hearing. An adequate size of the skin graft and blood supply to the graft bed are important for achieving a successful operation.

  4. An investigation of auditory contagious yawning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnott, Stephen R; Singhal, Anthony; Goodale, Melvyn A

    2009-09-01

    Despite a widespread familiarity with the often compelling urge to yawn after perceiving someone else yawn, an understanding of the neural mechanism underlying contagious yawning remains incomplete. In the present auditory fMRI study, listeners used a 4-point scale to indicate how much they felt like yawning following the presentation of a yawn, breath, or scrambled yawn sound. Not only were yawn sounds given significantly higher ratings, a trait positively correlated with each individual's empathy measure, but relative to control stimuli, random effects analyses revealed enhanced hemodynamic activity in the right posterior inferior frontal gyrus (pIFG) in response to hearing yawns. Moreover, pIFG activity was greatest for yawn stimuli associated with high as opposed to low yawn ratings and for control sounds associated with equally high yawn ratings. These results support a relationship between contagious yawning and empathy and provide evidence for pIFG involvement in contagious yawning. A supplemental figure for this study may be downloaded from http://cabn.psychonomic-journals.org/content/supplemental. PMID:19679768

  5. Auditory evoked potential measurements in elasmobranchs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casper, Brandon; Mann, David

    2005-04-01

    Auditory evoked potentials (AEP) were first used to examine hearing in elasmobranchs by Corwin and Bullock in the late 1970s and early 1980s, marking the first time AEPs had been measured in fishes. Results of these experiments identified the regions of the ear and brain in which sound is processed, though no actual hearing thresholds were measured. Those initial experiments provided the ground work for future AEP experiments to measure fish hearing abilities in a manner that is much faster and more convenient than classical conditioning. Data will be presented on recent experiments in which AEPs were used to measure the hearing thresholds of two species of elasmobranchs: the nurse shark, Ginglymostoma cirratum, and the yellow stingray, Urobatis jamaicencis. Audiograms were analyzed and compared to previously published audiograms obtained using classical conditioning with results indicating that hearing thresholds were similar for the two methods. These data suggest that AEP testing is a viable option when measuring hearing in elasmobranchs and can increase the speed in which future hearing measurements can be obtained.

  6. Auditory evoked potential measurements with cetaceans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann, David; Cook, Mandy; Bauer, Gordon; Fellner, Wendi; Wells, Randy

    2005-04-01

    Auditory evoked potentials (AEPs) allow researchers to measure the hearing abilities of animals that would be difficult or impossible to train for behavioral measurements of hearing. The hearing abilities of live-stranded cetaceans and wild dolphins can only be made with AEP techniques. In these situations, time with the animal is often restricted to an hour or less, and there is often little control over the acoustic environment in which the tests are performed. AEP measurements may be made while the animals are in air or in shallow pools. For cetaceans in air, sounds are typically presented with a suction cup jawphone. For cetaceans in water, sounds may be presented in a direct field (with the transducer located at some distance from the test subject) or with a jawphone. In each of these situations it is important to understand how thresholds derived from AEP measurements compare with behavioral hearing measurements. Examples of AEP measurements from wild and live-stranded cetaceans are presented to illustrate their usefulness and the constraints under which these measurements must be made. AEP measurements from bottlenose dolphins in air and in water are also compared with their behavioral audiograms.

  7. Auditory place theory and frequency difference limen

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Jialu

    2006-01-01

    It has been a barrier that the place code is far too coarse a mechanism to account for the finest frequency difference limen for place theory of hearing since it was proposed in 19th century. A place correlation model, which takes the energy distribution of a pure tone in neighboring bands of auditory filters into full account, was presented in this paper. The model based on the place theory and some experimental results of the psychophysical tuning curves of hearing can explain the finest difference limen for frequency (about 0.02 or 0.3% at 1000 Hz)easily. Using a standard 1/3 octave filter bank of which the relationship between the frequency of a input pure tone apart from the centre frequency of K-th filter band, △f, and the output intensity difference between K-th and (K + 1)-th filters, △E, was established in order to show the fine frequency detection ability of the filter bank. This model can also be used to abstract the fundamental frequency of speech and to measure the frequency of pure tone precisely.

  8. Elastic modulus of cetacean auditory ossicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tubelli, Andrew A; Zosuls, Aleks; Ketten, Darlene R; Mountain, David C

    2014-05-01

    In order to model the hearing capabilities of marine mammals (cetaceans), it is necessary to understand the mechanical properties, such as elastic modulus, of the middle ear bones in these species. Biologically realistic models can be used to investigate the biomechanics of hearing in cetaceans, much of which is currently unknown. In the present study, the elastic moduli of the auditory ossicles (malleus, incus, and stapes) of eight species of cetacean, two baleen whales (mysticete) and six toothed whales (odontocete), were measured using nanoindentation. The two groups of mysticete ossicles overall had lower average elastic moduli (35.2 ± 13.3 GPa and 31.6 ± 6.5 GPa) than the groups of odontocete ossicles (53.3 ± 7.2 GPa to 62.3 ± 4.7 GPa). Interior bone generally had a higher modulus than cortical bone by up to 36%. The effects of freezing and formalin-fixation on elastic modulus were also investigated, although samples were few and no clear trend could be discerned. The high elastic modulus of the ossicles and the differences in the elastic moduli between mysticetes and odontocetes are likely specializations in the bone for underwater hearing. PMID:24523260

  9. Inhibition in the Human Auditory Cortex.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koji Inui

    Full Text Available Despite their indispensable roles in sensory processing, little is known about inhibitory interneurons in humans. Inhibitory postsynaptic potentials cannot be recorded non-invasively, at least in a pure form, in humans. We herein sought to clarify whether prepulse inhibition (PPI in the auditory cortex reflected inhibition via interneurons using magnetoencephalography. An abrupt increase in sound pressure by 10 dB in a continuous sound was used to evoke the test response, and PPI was observed by inserting a weak (5 dB increase for 1 ms prepulse. The time course of the inhibition evaluated by prepulses presented at 10-800 ms before the test stimulus showed at least two temporally distinct inhibitions peaking at approximately 20-60 and 600 ms that presumably reflected IPSPs by fast spiking, parvalbumin-positive cells and somatostatin-positive, Martinotti cells, respectively. In another experiment, we confirmed that the degree of the inhibition depended on the strength of the prepulse, but not on the amplitude of the prepulse-evoked cortical response, indicating that the prepulse-evoked excitatory response and prepulse-evoked inhibition reflected activation in two different pathways. Although many diseases such as schizophrenia may involve deficits in the inhibitory system, we do not have appropriate methods to evaluate them; therefore, the easy and non-invasive method described herein may be clinically useful.

  10. Feedforward and feedback projections of caudal belt and parabelt areas of auditory cortex: refining the hierarchical model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TroyAHackett

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Our working model of the primate auditory cortex recognizes three major regions (core, belt, parabelt, subdivided into thirteen areas. The connections between areas are topographically ordered in a manner consistent with information flow along two major anatomical axes: core-belt-parabelt and caudal-rostral. Remarkably, most of the connections supporting this model were revealed using retrograde tracing techniques. Little is known about laminar circuitry, as anterograde tracing of axon terminations has rarely been used. The purpose of the present study was to examine the laminar projections of three areas of auditory cortex, pursuant to analysis of all areas. The selected areas were: middle lateral belt (ML; caudomedial belt (CM; and caudal parabelt (CPB. Injections of anterograde tracers yielded data consistent with major features of our model, and also new findings that compel modifications. Results supporting the model were: 1 feedforward projection from ML and CM terminated in CPB; 2 feedforward projections from ML and CPB terminated in rostral areas of the belt and parabelt; and 3 feedback projections typified inputs to the core region from belt and parabelt. At odds with the model was the convergence of feedforward inputs into rostral medial belt from ML and CPB. This was unexpected since CPB is at a higher stage of the processing hierarchy, with mainly feedback projections to all other belt areas. Lastly, extending the model, feedforward projections from CM, ML, and CPB overlapped in the temporal parietal occipital area (TPO in the superior temporal sulcus, indicating significant auditory influence on sensory processing in this region. The combined results refine our working model and highlight the need to complete studies of the laminar inputs to all areas of auditory cortex. Their documentation is essential for developing informed hypotheses about the neurophysiological influences of inputs to each layer and area.

  11. Hierarchical auditory processing directed rostrally along the monkey's supratemporal plane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kikuchi, Yukiko; Horwitz, Barry; Mishkin, Mortimer

    2010-09-29

    Connectional anatomical evidence suggests that the auditory core, containing the tonotopic areas A1, R, and RT, constitutes the first stage of auditory cortical processing, with feedforward projections from core outward, first to the surrounding auditory belt and then to the parabelt. Connectional evidence also raises the possibility that the core itself is serially organized, with feedforward projections from A1 to R and with additional projections, although of unknown feed direction, from R to RT. We hypothesized that area RT together with more rostral parts of the supratemporal plane (rSTP) form the anterior extension of a rostrally directed stimulus quality processing stream originating in the auditory core area A1. Here, we analyzed auditory responses of single neurons in three different sectors distributed caudorostrally along the supratemporal plane (STP): sector I, mainly area A1; sector II, mainly area RT; and sector III, principally RTp (the rostrotemporal polar area), including cortex located 3 mm from the temporal tip. Mean onset latency of excitation responses and stimulus selectivity to monkey calls and other sounds, both simple and complex, increased progressively from sector I to III. Also, whereas cells in sector I responded with significantly higher firing rates to the "other" sounds than to monkey calls, those in sectors II and III responded at the same rate to both stimulus types. The pattern of results supports the proposal that the STP contains a rostrally directed, hierarchically organized auditory processing stream, with gradually increasing stimulus selectivity, and that this stream extends from the primary auditory area to the temporal pole. PMID:20881120

  12. Compression of auditory space during forward self-motion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wataru Teramoto

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Spatial inputs from the auditory periphery can be changed with movements of the head or whole body relative to the sound source. Nevertheless, humans can perceive a stable auditory environment and appropriately react to a sound source. This suggests that the inputs are reinterpreted in the brain, while being integrated with information on the movements. Little is known, however, about how these movements modulate auditory perceptual processing. Here, we investigate the effect of the linear acceleration on auditory space representation. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Participants were passively transported forward/backward at constant accelerations using a robotic wheelchair. An array of loudspeakers was aligned parallel to the motion direction along a wall to the right of the listener. A short noise burst was presented during the self-motion from one of the loudspeakers when the listener's physical coronal plane reached the location of one of the speakers (null point. In Experiments 1 and 2, the participants indicated which direction the sound was presented, forward or backward relative to their subjective coronal plane. The results showed that the sound position aligned with the subjective coronal plane was displaced ahead of the null point only during forward self-motion and that the magnitude of the displacement increased with increasing the acceleration. Experiment 3 investigated the structure of the auditory space in the traveling direction during forward self-motion. The sounds were presented at various distances from the null point. The participants indicated the perceived sound location by pointing a rod. All the sounds that were actually located in the traveling direction were perceived as being biased towards the null point. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These results suggest a distortion of the auditory space in the direction of movement during forward self-motion. The underlying mechanism might involve anticipatory spatial

  13. The processing of visual and auditory information for reaching movements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glazebrook, Cheryl M; Welsh, Timothy N; Tremblay, Luc

    2016-09-01

    Presenting target and non-target information in different modalities influences target localization if the non-target is within the spatiotemporal limits of perceptual integration. When using auditory and visual stimuli, the influence of a visual non-target on auditory target localization is greater than the reverse. It is not known, however, whether or how such perceptual effects extend to goal-directed behaviours. To gain insight into how audio-visual stimuli are integrated for motor tasks, the kinematics of reaching movements towards visual or auditory targets with or without a non-target in the other modality were examined. When present, the simultaneously presented non-target could be spatially coincident, to the left, or to the right of the target. Results revealed that auditory non-targets did not influence reaching trajectories towards a visual target, whereas visual non-targets influenced trajectories towards an auditory target. Interestingly, the biases induced by visual non-targets were present early in the trajectory and persisted until movement end. Subsequent experimentation indicated that the magnitude of the biases was equivalent whether participants performed a perceptual or motor task, whereas variability was greater for the motor versus the perceptual tasks. We propose that visually induced trajectory biases were driven by the perceived mislocation of the auditory target, which in turn affected both the movement plan and subsequent control of the movement. Such findings provide further evidence of the dominant role visual information processing plays in encoding spatial locations as well as planning and executing reaching action, even when reaching towards auditory targets. PMID:26253323

  14. Auditory profile and high resolution CT scan in autism spectrum disorders children with auditory hypersensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thabet, Elsaeid M; Zaghloul, Hesham S

    2013-08-01

    Autism is the third most common developmental disorder, following mental retardationand cerebral palsy. ASD children have been described more often as beingpreoccupied with or agitated by noise. The aim of this study was to evaluate theprevalence and clinical significance of semicircular canal dehiscence detected on CTimages in ASD children with intolerance to loud sounds in an attempt to find ananatomical correlate with hyperacusis.14 ASD children with auditory hypersensitivity and 15 ASD children without auditoryhypersensitivity as control group age and gender matched were submitted to historytaking, otological examination, tympanometry and acoustic reflex thresholdmeasurement. ABR was done to validate normal peripheral hearing and integrity ofauditory brain stem pathway. High resolution CT scan petrous and temporal boneimaging was performed to all participated children. All participants had normal hearingsensitivity in ABR testing. Absolute ABR peak waves of I and III showed no statisticallysignificant difference between the two groups, while absolute wave V peak andinterpeak latencies I-V and III-V were shorter in duration in study group whencompared to the control group. CT scans revealed SSCD in 4 out of 14 of the studygroup (29%), the dehiscence was bilateral in one patient and unilateral in threepatients. None of control group showed SSCD. In conclusion, we have reportedevidence that apparent hypersensitivity to auditory stimuli (short conduction time in ABR) despite the normal physiological measures in ASD children with auditoryhypersensitivity can provide a clinical clue of a possible SSCD. PMID:23580033

  15. Salicylate-Induced Auditory Perceptual Disorders and Plastic Changes in Nonclassical Auditory Centers in Rats

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    Guang-Di Chen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies have shown that sodium salicylate (SS activates not only central auditory structures, but also nonauditory regions associated with emotion and memory. To identify electrophysiological changes in the nonauditory regions, we recorded sound-evoked local field potentials and multiunit discharges from the striatum, amygdala, hippocampus, and cingulate cortex after SS-treatment. The SS-treatment produced behavioral evidence of tinnitus and hyperacusis. Physiologically, the treatment significantly enhanced sound-evoked neural activity in the striatum, amygdala, and hippocampus, but not in the cingulate. The enhanced sound evoked response could be linked to the hyperacusis-like behavior. Further analysis showed that the enhancement of sound-evoked activity occurred predominantly at the midfrequencies, likely reflecting shifts of neurons towards the midfrequency range after SS-treatment as observed in our previous studies in the auditory cortex and amygdala. The increased number of midfrequency neurons would lead to a relative higher number of total spontaneous discharges in the midfrequency region, even though the mean discharge rate of each neuron may not increase. The tonotopical overactivity in the midfrequency region in quiet may potentially lead to tonal sensation of midfrequency (the tinnitus. The neural changes in the amygdala and hippocampus may also contribute to the negative effect that patients associate with their tinnitus.

  16. Functional lateralization of speech processing in adults and children who stutter

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    YutakaSato

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Developmental stuttering is a speech disorder in fluency characterized by repetitions, prolongations and silent blocks, especially in the initial parts of utterances. Although their symptoms are motor related, people who stutter show abnormal patterns of cerebral hemispheric dominance in both anterior and posterior language areas. It is unknown whether the abnormal functional lateralization in the posterior language area starts during childhood or emerges as a consequence of many years of stuttering. In order to address this issue, we measured the lateralization of hemodynamic responses in the auditory cortex during auditory speech processing in adults and children who stutter, including preschoolers, with near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS. We used the analysis-resynthesis technique to prepare two types of stimuli: (i a phonemic contrast embedded in Japanese spoken words (/itta/ vs. /itte/ and (ii a prosodic contrast (/itta/ vs. /itta?/. In the baseline blocks, only /itta/ tokens were presented. In phonemic contrast blocks, /itta/ and /itte/ tokens were presented pseudo-randomly, and /itta/ and /itta?/ tokens in prosodic contrast blocks. In adults and children who do not stutter, there was a clear left-hemispheric advantage for the phonemic contrast compared to the prosodic contrast. Adults and children who stutter, however, showed no significant difference between the two stimulus conditions. A subject-by-subject analysis revealed that not a single subject who stutters showed a left advantage in the phonemic contrast over the prosodic contrast condition. These results indicate that the functional lateralization for auditory speech processing is in disarray among those who stutter, even at preschool age. These results shed light on the neural pathophysiology of developmental stuttering.

  17. Listener orientation and spatial judgments of elevated auditory percepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parks, Anthony J.

    How do listener head rotations affect auditory perception of elevation? This investi-. gation addresses this in the hopes that perceptual judgments of elevated auditory. percepts may be more thoroughly understood in terms of dynamic listening cues. engendered by listener head rotations and that this phenomenon can be psychophys-. ically and computationally modeled. Two listening tests were conducted and a. psychophysical model was constructed to this end. The frst listening test prompted. listeners to detect an elevated auditory event produced by a virtual noise source. orbiting the median plane via 24-channel ambisonic spatialization. Head rotations. were tracked using computer vision algorithms facilitated by camera tracking. The. data were used to construct a dichotomous criteria model using factorial binary. logistic regression model. The second auditory test investigated the validity of the. historically supported frequency dependence of auditory elevation perception using. narrow-band noise for continuous and brief stimuli with fxed and free-head rotation. conditions. The data were used to construct a multinomial logistic regression model. to predict categorical judgments of above, below, and behind. Finally, in light. of the psychophysical data found from the above studies, a functional model of. elevation perception for point sources along the cone of confusion was constructed. using physiologically-inspired signal processing methods along with top-down pro-. cessing utilizing principles of memory and orientation. The model is evaluated using. white noise bursts for 42 subjects' head-related transfer functions. The investigation. concludes with study limitations, possible implications, and speculation on future. research trajectories.

  18. Neurofeedback in Learning Disabled Children: Visual versus Auditory Reinforcement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández, Thalía; Bosch-Bayard, Jorge; Harmony, Thalía; Caballero, María I; Díaz-Comas, Lourdes; Galán, Lídice; Ricardo-Garcell, Josefina; Aubert, Eduardo; Otero-Ojeda, Gloria

    2016-03-01

    Children with learning disabilities (LD) frequently have an EEG characterized by an excess of theta and a deficit of alpha activities. NFB using an auditory stimulus as reinforcer has proven to be a useful tool to treat LD children by positively reinforcing decreases of the theta/alpha ratio. The aim of the present study was to optimize the NFB procedure by comparing the efficacy of visual (with eyes open) versus auditory (with eyes closed) reinforcers. Twenty LD children with an abnormally high theta/alpha ratio were randomly assigned to the Auditory or the Visual group, where a 500 Hz tone or a visual stimulus (a white square), respectively, was used as a positive reinforcer when the value of the theta/alpha ratio was reduced. Both groups had signs consistent with EEG maturation, but only the Auditory Group showed behavioral/cognitive improvements. In conclusion, the auditory reinforcer was more efficacious in reducing the theta/alpha ratio, and it improved the cognitive abilities more than the visual reinforcer. PMID:26294269

  19. The role of auditory feedback in sustaining vocal vibrato

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leydon, Ciara; Bauer, Jay J.; Larson, Charles R.

    2003-09-01

    Vocal vibrato and tremor are characterized by oscillations in voice fundamental frequency (F0). These oscillations may be sustained by a control loop within the auditory system. One component of the control loop is the pitch-shift reflex (PSR). The PSR is a closed loop negative feedback reflex that is triggered in response to discrepancies between intended and perceived pitch with a latency of ~100 ms. Consecutive compensatory reflexive responses lead to oscillations in pitch every ~200 ms, resulting in ~5-Hz modulation of F0. Pitch-shift reflexes were elicited experimentally in six subjects while they sustained /you/ vowels at a comfortable pitch and loudness. Auditory feedback was sinusoidally modulated at discrete integer frequencies (1 to 10 Hz) with +/-25 cents amplitude. Modulated auditory feedback induced oscillations in voice F0 output of all subjects at rates consistent with vocal vibrato and tremor. Transfer functions revealed peak gains at 4 to 7 Hz in all subjects, with an average peak gain at 5 Hz. These gains occurred in the modulation frequency region where the voice output and auditory feedback signals were in phase. A control loop in the auditory system may sustain vocal vibrato and tremorlike oscillations in voice F0.

  20. Modeling of Auditory Neuron Response Thresholds with Cochlear Implants

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    Frederic Venail

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The quality of the prosthetic-neural interface is a critical point for cochlear implant efficiency. It depends not only on technical and anatomical factors such as electrode position into the cochlea (depth and scalar placement, electrode impedance, and distance between the electrode and the stimulated auditory neurons, but also on the number of functional auditory neurons. The efficiency of electrical stimulation can be assessed by the measurement of e-CAP in cochlear implant users. In the present study, we modeled the activation of auditory neurons in cochlear implant recipients (nucleus device. The electrical response, measured using auto-NRT (neural responses telemetry algorithm, has been analyzed using multivariate regression with cubic splines in order to take into account the variations of insertion depth of electrodes amongst subjects as well as the other technical and anatomical factors listed above. NRT thresholds depend on the electrode squared impedance (β = −0.11 ± 0.02, P<0.01, the scalar placement of the electrodes (β = −8.50 ± 1.97, P<0.01, and the depth of insertion calculated as the characteristic frequency of auditory neurons (CNF. Distribution of NRT residues according to CNF could provide a proxy of auditory neurons functioning in implanted cochleas.

  1. Automatically detecting auditory P300 in several trials

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    莫少锋; 汤井田; 陈洪波

    2015-01-01

    A method was demonstrated based on Infomax independent component analysis (Infomax ICA) for automatically extracting auditory P300 signals within several trials. A signaling equilibrium algorithm was proposed to enhance the effectiveness of the Infomax ICA decomposition. After the mixed signal was decomposed by Infomax ICA, the independent component (IC) used in auditory P300 reconstruction was automatically chosen by using the standard deviation of the fixed temporal pattern. And the result of auditory P300 was reconstructed using the selected ICs. The experimental results show that the auditory P300 can be detected automatically within five trials. The Pearson correlation coefficient between the standard signal and the signal detected using the proposed method is significantly greater than that between the standard signal and the signal detected using the average method within five trials. The wave pattern result obtained using the proposed algorithm is better and more similar to the standard signal than that obtained by the average method for the same number of trials. Therefore, the proposed method can automatically detect the effective auditory P300 within several trials.

  2. Enhanced representation of spectral contrasts in the primary auditory cortex

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    Nicolas eCatz

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The role of early auditory processing may be to extract some elementary features from an acoustic mixture in order to organize the auditory scene. To accomplish this task, the central auditory system may rely on the fact that sensory objects are often composed of spectral edges, i.e. regions where the stimulus energy changes abruptly over frequency. The processing of acoustic stimuli may benefit from a mechanism enhancing the internal representation of spectral edges. While the visual system is thought to rely heavily on this mechanism (enhancing spatial edges, it is still unclear whether a related process plays a significant role in audition. We investigated the cortical representation of spectral edges, using acoustic stimuli composed of multi-tone pips whose time-averaged spectral envelope contained suppressed or enhanced regions. Importantly, the stimuli were designed such that neural responses properties could be assessed as a function of stimulus frequency during stimulus presentation. Our results suggest that the representation of acoustic spectral edges is enhanced in the auditory cortex, and that this enhancement is sensitive to the characteristics of the spectral contrast profile, such as depth, sharpness and width. Spectral edges are maximally enhanced for sharp contrast and large depth. Cortical activity was also suppressed at frequencies within the suppressed region. To note, the suppression of firing was larger at frequencies nearby the lower edge of the suppressed region than at the upper edge. Overall, the present study gives critical insights into the processing of spectral contrasts in the auditory system.

  3. Brainstem auditory evoked potentials in children with lead exposure

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    Katia de Freitas Alvarenga

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Earlier studies have demonstrated an auditory effect of lead exposure in children, but information on the effects of low chronic exposures needs to be further elucidated. Objective: To investigate the effect of low chronic exposures of the auditory system in children with a history of low blood lead levels, using an auditory electrophysiological test. Methods: Contemporary cross-sectional cohort. Study participants underwent tympanometry, pure tone and speech audiometry, transient evoked otoacoustic emissions, and brainstem auditory evoked potentials, with blood lead monitoring over a period of 35.5 months. The study included 130 children, with ages ranging from 18 months to 14 years, 5 months (mean age 6 years, 8 months ± 3 years, 2 months. Results: The mean time-integrated cumulative blood lead index was 12 µg/dL (SD ± 5.7, range:2.433. All participants had hearing thresholds equal to or below 20 dBHL and normal amplitudes of transient evoked otoacoustic emissions. No association was found between the absolute latencies of waves I, III, and V, the interpeak latencies I-III, III-V, and I-V, and the cumulative lead values. Conclusion: No evidence of toxic effects from chronic low lead exposures was observed on the auditory function of children living in a lead contaminated area.

  4. Effect of background music on auditory-verbal memory performance

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    Sona Matloubi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Music exists in all cultures; many scientists are seeking to understand how music effects cognitive development such as comprehension, memory, and reading skills. More recently, a considerable number of neuroscience studies on music have been developed. This study aimed to investigate the effects of null and positive background music in comparison with silence on auditory-verbal memory performance.Methods: Forty young adults (male and female with normal hearing, aged between 18 and 26, participated in this comparative-analysis study. An auditory and speech evaluation was conducted in order to investigate the effects of background music on working memory. Subsequently, the Rey auditory-verbal learning test was performed for three conditions: silence, positive, and null music.Results: The mean score of the Rey auditory-verbal learning test in silence condition was higher than the positive music condition (p=0.003 and the null music condition (p=0.01. The tests results did not reveal any gender differences.Conclusion: It seems that the presence of competitive music (positive and null music and the orientation of auditory attention have negative effects on the performance of verbal working memory. It is possibly owing to the intervention of music with verbal information processing in the brain.

  5. Auditory hallucinations: A review of the ERC "VOICE" project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hugdahl, Kenneth

    2015-06-22

    In this invited review I provide a selective overview of recent research on brain mechanisms and cognitive processes involved in auditory hallucinations. The review is focused on research carried out in the "VOICE" ERC Advanced Grant Project, funded by the European Research Council, but I also review and discuss the literature in general. Auditory hallucinations are suggested to be perceptual phenomena, with a neuronal origin in the speech perception areas in the temporal lobe. The phenomenology of auditory hallucinations is conceptualized along three domains, or dimensions; a perceptual dimension, experienced as someone speaking to the patient; a cognitive dimension, experienced as an inability to inhibit, or ignore the voices, and an emotional dimension, experienced as the "voices" having primarily a negative, or sinister, emotional tone. I will review cognitive, imaging, and neurochemistry data related to these dimensions, primarily the first two. The reviewed data are summarized in a model that sees auditory hallucinations as initiated from temporal lobe neuronal hyper-activation that draws attentional focus inward, and which is not inhibited due to frontal lobe hypo-activation. It is further suggested that this is maintained through abnormal glutamate and possibly gamma-amino-butyric-acid transmitter mediation, which could point towards new pathways for pharmacological treatment. A final section discusses new methods of acquiring quantitative data on the phenomenology and subjective experience of auditory hallucination that goes beyond standard interview questionnaires, by suggesting an iPhone/iPod app. PMID:26110121

  6. Modulating Human Auditory Processing by Transcranial Electrical Stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heimrath, Kai; Fiene, Marina; Rufener, Katharina S; Zaehle, Tino

    2016-01-01

    Transcranial electrical stimulation (tES) has become a valuable research tool for the investigation of neurophysiological processes underlying human action and cognition. In recent years, striking evidence for the neuromodulatory effects of transcranial direct current stimulation, transcranial alternating current stimulation, and transcranial random noise stimulation has emerged. While the wealth of knowledge has been gained about tES in the motor domain and, to a lesser extent, about its ability to modulate human cognition, surprisingly little is known about its impact on perceptual processing, particularly in the auditory domain. Moreover, while only a few studies systematically investigated the impact of auditory tES, it has already been applied in a large number of clinical trials, leading to a remarkable imbalance between basic and clinical research on auditory tES. Here, we review the state of the art of tES application in the auditory domain focussing on the impact of neuromodulation on acoustic perception and its potential for clinical application in the treatment of auditory related disorders. PMID:27013969

  7. Task-irrelevant auditory feedback facilitates motor performance in musicians

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    Virginia eConde

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available An efficient and fast auditory–motor network is a basic resource for trained musicians due to the importance of motor anticipation of sound production in musical performance. When playing an instrument, motor performance always goes along with the production of sounds and the integration between both modalities plays an essential role in the course of musical training. The aim of the present study was to investigate the role of task-irrelevant auditory feedback during motor performance in musicians using a serial reaction time task (SRTT. Our hypothesis was that musicians, due to their extensive auditory–motor practice routine during musical training, have a superior performance and learning capabilities when receiving auditory feedback during SRTT relative to musicians performing the SRTT without any auditory feedback. Here we provide novel evidence that task-irrelevant auditory feedback is capable to reinforce SRTT performance but not learning, a finding that might provide further insight into auditory-motor integration in musicians on a behavioral level.

  8. Spatial organization of tettigoniid auditory receptors: insights from neuronal tracing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strauß, Johannes; Lehmann, Gerlind U C; Lehmann, Arne W; Lakes-Harlan, Reinhard

    2012-11-01

    The auditory sense organ of Tettigoniidae (Insecta, Orthoptera) is located in the foreleg tibia and consists of scolopidial sensilla which form a row termed crista acustica. The crista acustica is associated with the tympana and the auditory trachea. This ear is a highly ordered, tonotopic sensory system. As the neuroanatomy of the crista acustica has been documented for several species, the most distal somata and dendrites of receptor neurons have occasionally been described as forming an alternating or double row. We investigate the spatial arrangement of receptor cell bodies and dendrites by retrograde tracing with cobalt chloride solution. In six tettigoniid species studied, distal receptor neurons are consistently arranged in double-rows of somata rather than a linear sequence. This arrangement of neurons is shown to affect 30-50% of the overall auditory receptors. No strict correlation of somata positions between the anterio-posterior and dorso-ventral axis was evident within the distal crista acustica. Dendrites of distal receptors occasionally also occur in a double row or are even massed without clear order. Thus, a substantial part of auditory receptors can deviate from a strictly straight organization into a more complex morphology. The linear organization of dendrites is not a morphological criterion that allows hearing organs to be distinguished from nonhearing sense organs serially homologous to ears in all species. Both the crowded arrangement of receptor somata and dendrites may result from functional constraints relating to frequency discrimination, or from developmental constraints of auditory morphogenesis in postembryonic development. PMID:22807283

  9. Modeling of Auditory Neuron Response Thresholds with Cochlear Implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venail, Frederic; Mura, Thibault; Akkari, Mohamed; Mathiolon, Caroline; Menjot de Champfleur, Sophie; Piron, Jean Pierre; Sicard, Marielle; Sterkers-Artieres, Françoise; Mondain, Michel; Uziel, Alain

    2015-01-01

    The quality of the prosthetic-neural interface is a critical point for cochlear implant efficiency. It depends not only on technical and anatomical factors such as electrode position into the cochlea (depth and scalar placement), electrode impedance, and distance between the electrode and the stimulated auditory neurons, but also on the number of functional auditory neurons. The efficiency of electrical stimulation can be assessed by the measurement of e-CAP in cochlear implant users. In the present study, we modeled the activation of auditory neurons in cochlear implant recipients (nucleus device). The electrical response, measured using auto-NRT (neural responses telemetry) algorithm, has been analyzed using multivariate regression with cubic splines in order to take into account the variations of insertion depth of electrodes amongst subjects as well as the other technical and anatomical factors listed above. NRT thresholds depend on the electrode squared impedance (β = -0.11 ± 0.02, P electrodes (β = -8.50 ± 1.97, P < 0.01), and the depth of insertion calculated as the characteristic frequency of auditory neurons (CNF). Distribution of NRT residues according to CNF could provide a proxy of auditory neurons functioning in implanted cochleas. PMID:26236725

  10. Auditory rhythmic cueing in movement rehabilitation: findings and possible mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaefer, Rebecca S.

    2014-01-01

    Moving to music is intuitive and spontaneous, and music is widely used to support movement, most commonly during exercise. Auditory cues are increasingly also used in the rehabilitation of disordered movement, by aligning actions to sounds such as a metronome or music. Here, the effect of rhythmic auditory cueing on movement is discussed and representative findings of cued movement rehabilitation are considered for several movement disorders, specifically post-stroke motor impairment, Parkinson's disease and Huntington's disease. There are multiple explanations for the efficacy of cued movement practice. Potentially relevant, non-mutually exclusive mechanisms include the acceleration of learning; qualitatively different motor learning owing to an auditory context; effects of increased temporal skills through rhythmic practices and motivational aspects of musical rhythm. Further considerations of rehabilitation paradigm efficacy focus on specific movement disorders, intervention methods and complexity of the auditory cues. Although clinical interventions using rhythmic auditory cueing do not show consistently positive results, it is argued that internal mechanisms of temporal prediction and tracking are crucial, and further research may inform rehabilitation practice to increase intervention efficacy. PMID:25385780

  11. The auditory attention status in Iranian bilingual and monolingual people

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    Nayiere Mansoori

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Bilingualism, as one of the discussing issues of psychology and linguistics, can influence the speech processing. Of several tests for assessing auditory processing, dichotic digit test has been designed to study divided auditory attention. Our study was performed to compare the auditory attention between Iranian bilingual and monolingual young adults. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted on 60 students including 30 Turkish-Persian bilinguals and 30 Persian monolinguals aged between 18 to 30 years in both genders. Dichotic digit test was performed on young individuals with normal peripheral hearing and right hand preference. Results: No significant correlation was found between the results of dichotic digit test of monolinguals and bilinguals (p=0.195, and also between the results of right and left ears in monolingual (p=0.460 and bilingual (p=0.054 groups. The mean score of women was significantly more than men (p=0.031. Conclusion: There was no significant difference between bilinguals and monolinguals in divided auditory attention; and it seems that acquisition of second language in lower ages has no noticeable effect on this type of auditory attention.

  12. Prevalence of auditory changes in newborns in a teaching hospital

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    Guimarães, Valeriana de Castro

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The precocious diagnosis and the intervention in the deafness are of basic importance in the infantile development. The loss auditory and more prevalent than other joined riots to the birth. Objective: Esteem the prevalence of auditory alterations in just-born in a hospital school. Method: Prospective transversal study that evaluated 226 just-been born, been born in a public hospital, between May of 2008 the May of 2009. Results: Of the 226 screened, 46 (20.4% had presented absence of emissions, having been directed for the second emission. Of the 26 (56.5% children who had appeared in the retest, 8 (30.8% had remained with absence and had been directed to the Otolaryngologist. Five (55.5% had appeared and had been examined by the doctor. Of these, 3 (75.0% had presented normal otoscopy, being directed for evaluation of the Evoked Potential Auditory of Brainstem (PEATE. Of the total of studied children, 198 (87.6% had had presence of emissions in one of the tests and, 2 (0.9% with deafness diagnosis. Conclusion: The prevalence of auditory alterations in the studied population was of 0,9%. The study it offers given excellent epidemiologists and it presents the first report on the subject, supplying resulted preliminary future implantation and development of a program of neonatal auditory selection.

  13. Neuromagnetic evidence for early auditory restoration of fundamental pitch.

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    Philip J Monahan

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Understanding the time course of how listeners reconstruct a missing fundamental component in an auditory stimulus remains elusive. We report MEG evidence that the missing fundamental component of a complex auditory stimulus is recovered in auditory cortex within 100 ms post stimulus onset. METHODOLOGY: Two outside tones of four-tone complex stimuli were held constant (1200 Hz and 2400 Hz, while two inside tones were systematically modulated (between 1300 Hz and 2300 Hz, such that the restored fundamental (also knows as "virtual pitch" changed from 100 Hz to 600 Hz. Constructing the auditory stimuli in this manner controls for a number of spectral properties known to modulate the neuromagnetic signal. The tone complex stimuli only diverged on the value of the missing fundamental component. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We compared the M100 latencies of these tone complexes to the M100 latencies elicited by their respective pure tone (spectral pitch counterparts. The M100 latencies for the tone complexes matched their pure sinusoid counterparts, while also replicating the M100 temporal latency response curve found in previous studies. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest that listeners are reconstructing the inferred pitch by roughly 100 ms after stimulus onset and are consistent with previous electrophysiological research suggesting that the inferential pitch is perceived in early auditory cortex.

  14. Mapping the after-effects of theta burst stimulation on the human auditory cortex with functional imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andoh, Jamila; Zatorre, Robert J

    2012-01-01

    Auditory cortex pertains to the processing of sound, which is at the basis of speech or music-related processing. However, despite considerable recent progress, the functional properties and lateralization of the human auditory cortex are far from being fully understood. Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (TMS) is a non-invasive technique that can transiently or lastingly modulate cortical excitability via the application of localized magnetic field pulses, and represents a unique method of exploring plasticity and connectivity. It has only recently begun to be applied to understand auditory cortical function. An important issue in using TMS is that the physiological consequences of the stimulation are difficult to establish. Although many TMS studies make the implicit assumption that the area targeted by the coil is the area affected, this need not be the case, particularly for complex cognitive functions which depend on interactions across many brain regions. One solution to this problem is to combine TMS with functional Magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). The idea here is that fMRI will provide an index of changes in brain activity associated with TMS. Thus, fMRI would give an independent means of assessing which areas are affected by TMS and how they are modulated. In addition, fMRI allows the assessment of functional connectivity, which represents a measure of the temporal coupling between distant regions. It can thus be useful not only to measure the net activity modulation induced by TMS in given locations, but also the degree to which the network properties are affected by TMS, via any observed changes in functional connectivity. Different approaches exist to combine TMS and functional imaging according to the temporal order of the methods. Functional MRI can be applied before, during, after, or both before and after TMS. Recently, some studies interleaved TMS and fMRI in order to provide online mapping of the functional changes induced by TMS. However, this

  15. Asymmetric transfer of auditory perceptual learning

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    SygalAmitay

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Perceptual skills can improve dramatically even with minimal practice. A major and practical benefit of learning, however, is in transferring the improvement on the trained task to untrained tasks or stimuli, yet the mechanisms underlying this process are still poorly understood. Reduction of internal noise has been proposed as a mechanism of perceptual learning, and while we have evidence that frequency discrimination (FD learning is due to a reduction of internal noise, the source of that noise was not determined. In this study, we examined whether reducing the noise associated with neural phase locking to tones can explain the observed improvement in behavioural thresholds. We compared FD training between two tone durations (15 and 100 ms that straddled the temporal integration window of auditory nerve fibers upon which computational modeling of phase locking noise was based. Training on short tones resulted in improved FD on probe tests of both the long and short tones. Training on long tones resulted in improvement only on the long tones. Simulations of FD learning, based on the computational model and on signal detection theory, were compared with the behavioral FD data. We found that improved fidelity of phase locking accurately predicted transfer of learning from short to long tones, but also predicted transfer from long to short tones. The observed lack of transfer from long to short tones suggests the involvement of a second mechanism. Training may have increased the temporal integration window which could not transfer because integration time for the short tone is limited by its duration. Current learning models assume complex relationships between neural populations that represent the trained stimuli. In contrast, we propose that training-induced enhancement of the signal-to-noise ratio offers a parsimonious explanation of learning and transfer that easily accounts for asymmetric transfer of learning.

  16. Relationship between Critical Flicker Fusion (CFF) Thresholds and Personality under Three Auditory Stimulus Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, M. R.; Amir, T.

    1988-01-01

    Investigated relationship between critical flicker fusion (CFF) thresholds and five personality characteristics (alienation; social nonconformity; discomfort, expression, and defensiveness) under three auditory stimulus conditions (quiet, noise, meaningful verbal stimuli). Results from 60 college students revealed that auditory stimulation and…

  17. Cholinergic modulation of auditory steady-state response in the auditory cortex of the freely moving rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, J; Ma, L; Li, W; Yang, P; Qin, L

    2016-06-01

    As disturbance in auditory steady-state response (ASSR) has been consistently found in many neuropsychiatric disorders, such as autism spectrum disorder and schizophrenia, there is considerable interest in the development of translational rat models to elucidate the underlying neural and neurochemical mechanisms involved in ASSR. This is the first study to investigate the effects of the non-selective muscarinic antagonist scopolamine and the cholinesterase inhibitor donepezil (also in combination with scopolamine) on ASSR. We recorded the local field potentials through the chronic microelectrodes implanted in the auditory cortex of freely moving rat. ASSRs were recorded in response to auditory stimuli delivered over a range of frequencies (10-80Hz) and averaged over 60 trials. We found that a single dose of scopolamine produced a temporal attenuation in response to auditory stimuli; the most attenuation occurred at 40Hz. Time-frequency analysis revealed deficits in both power and phase-locking to 40Hz. Donepezil augmented 40-Hz steady-state power and phase-locking. Scopolamine combined with donepezil had an enhanced effect on the phase-locking, but not power of ASSR. These changes induced by cholinergic drugs suggest an involvement of muscarinic neurotransmission in auditory processing and provide a rodent model investigating the neurochemical mechanism of neurophysiological deficits seen in patients. PMID:26964684

  18. From sounds to words: a neurocomputational model of adaptation, inhibition and memory processes in auditory change detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garagnani, Max; Pulvermüller, Friedemann

    2011-01-01

    Most animals detect sudden changes in trains of repeated stimuli but only some can learn a wide range of sensory patterns and recognise them later, a skill crucial for the evolutionary success of higher mammals. Here we use a neural model mimicking the cortical anatomy of sensory and motor areas and their connections to explain brain activity indexing auditory change and memory access. Our simulations indicate that while neuronal adaptation and local inhibition of cortical activity can explain aspects of change detection as observed when a repeated unfamiliar sound changes in frequency, the brain dynamics elicited by auditory stimulation with well-known patterns (such as meaningful words) cannot be accounted for on the basis of adaptation and inhibition alone. Specifically, we show that the stronger brain responses observed to familiar stimuli in passive oddball tasks are best explained in terms of activation of memory circuits that emerged in the cortex during the learning of these stimuli. Such memory circuits, and the activation enhancement they entail, are absent for unfamiliar stimuli. The model illustrates how basic neurobiological mechanisms, including neuronal adaptation, lateral inhibition, and Hebbian learning, underlie neuronal assembly formation and dynamics, and differentially contribute to the brain's major change detection response, the mismatch negativity. PMID:20728545

  19. Assessment of auditory processing in children with dyslalia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wlodarczyk £.

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the work was to assess occurrence of central auditory processing disorders in children with dyslalia. Material and method. The material included 30 children at the age 798 years old being under long-term speech therapy care due to articulation disorders. All the children were subjected to the phoniatric and speech examination, including tonal and impedance audiometry, speech therapist's consultation and psychologist's consultation. Electrophysi-ological (N2, P2, N2, P2, P300 record and following psychoacoustic test of central auditory functions were performed (Frequency Pattern Test. Results. Analysis of the results revealed disorders in the process of sound analysis within frequency and P300 wave latency prolongation in children with dyslalia. Conclusions. Auditory processing disorders may be significant in development of correct articulation in children, they also may explain unsatisfactory results of long-term speech therapy

  20. Language and central temporal auditory processing in childhood epilepsies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boscariol, Mirela; Casali, Raquel L; Amaral, M Isabel R; Lunardi, Luciane L; Matas, Carla G; Collela-Santos, M Francisca; Guerreiro, Marilisa M

    2015-12-01

    Because of the relationship between rolandic, temporoparietal, and centrotemporal areas and language and auditory processing, the aim of this study was to investigate language and central temporal auditory processing of children with epilepsy (rolandic epilepsy and temporal lobe epilepsy) and compare these with those of children without epilepsy. Thirty-five children aged between eight and 14 years old were studied. Two groups of children participated in this study: a group with childhood epilepsy (n=19), and a control group without epilepsy or linguistic changes (n=16). There was a significant difference between the two groups, with the worst performance in children with epilepsy for the gaps-in-noise test, right ear (preceptive vocabulary (PPVT) (p<0.001) and phonological working memory (nonwords repetition task) tasks (p=0.001). We conclude that the impairment of central temporal auditory processing and language skills may be comorbidities in children with rolandic epilepsy and temporal lobe epilepsy. PMID:26580215

  1. Stimulator with arbitrary waveform for auditory evoked potentials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martins, H R; Romao, M; Placido, D; Provenzano, F; Tierra-Criollo, C J [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Departamento de Engenharia Eletrica (DEE), Nucleo de Estudos e Pesquisa em Engenharia Biomedica NEPEB, Av. Ant. Carlos, 6627, sala 2206, Pampulha, Belo Horizonte, MG, 31.270-901 (Brazil)

    2007-11-15

    The technological improvement helps many medical areas. The audiometric exams involving the auditory evoked potentials can make better diagnoses of auditory disorders. This paper proposes the development of a stimulator based on Digital Signal Processor. This stimulator is the first step of an auditory evoked potential system based on the ADSP-BF533 EZ KIT LITE (Analog Devices Company - USA). The stimulator can generate arbitrary waveform like Sine Waves, Modulated Amplitude, Pulses, Bursts and Pips. The waveforms are generated through a graphical interface programmed in C++ in which the user can define the parameters of the waveform. Furthermore, the user can set the exam parameters as number of stimuli, time with stimulation (Time ON) and time without stimulus (Time OFF). In future works will be implemented another parts of the system that includes the acquirement of electroencephalogram and signal processing to estimate and analyze the evoked potential.

  2. The Effects of Auditory Contrast Tuning upon Speech Intelligibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Killian, Nathan J.; Watkins, Paul V.; Davidson, Lisa S.; Barbour, Dennis L.

    2016-01-01

    We have previously identified neurons tuned to spectral contrast of wideband sounds in auditory cortex of awake marmoset monkeys. Because additive noise alters the spectral contrast of speech, contrast-tuned neurons, if present in human auditory cortex, may aid in extracting speech from noise. Given that this cortical function may be underdeveloped in individuals with sensorineural hearing loss, incorporating biologically-inspired algorithms into external signal processing devices could provide speech enhancement benefits to cochlear implantees. In this study we first constructed a computational signal processing algorithm to mimic auditory cortex contrast tuning. We then manipulated the shape of contrast channels and evaluated the intelligibility of reconstructed noisy speech using a metric to predict cochlear implant user perception. Candidate speech enhancement strategies were then tested in cochlear implantees with a hearing-in-noise test. Accentuation of intermediate contrast values or all contrast values improved computed intelligibility. Cochlear implant subjects showed significant improvement in noisy speech intelligibility with a contrast shaping procedure.

  3. Altered intrinsic connectivity of the auditory cortex in congenital amusia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leveque, Yohana; Fauvel, Baptiste; Groussard, Mathilde; Caclin, Anne; Albouy, Philippe; Platel, Hervé; Tillmann, Barbara

    2016-07-01

    Congenital amusia, a neurodevelopmental disorder of music perception and production, has been associated with abnormal anatomical and functional connectivity in a right frontotemporal pathway. To investigate whether spontaneous connectivity in brain networks involving the auditory cortex is altered in the amusic brain, we ran a seed-based connectivity analysis, contrasting at-rest functional MRI data of amusic and matched control participants. Our results reveal reduced frontotemporal connectivity in amusia during resting state, as well as an overconnectivity between the auditory cortex and the default mode network (DMN). The findings suggest that the auditory cortex is intrinsically more engaged toward internal processes and less available to external stimuli in amusics compared with controls. Beyond amusia, our findings provide new evidence for the link between cognitive deficits in pathology and abnormalities in the connectivity between sensory areas and the DMN at rest. PMID:27009161

  4. Mismatch negativity in children with specific language impairment and auditory processing disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Caroline Nunes Rocha-Muniz; Débora Maria Befi-Lopes; Eliane Schochat

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Mismatch negativity, an electrophysiological measure, evaluates the brain's capacity to discriminate sounds, regardless of attentional and behavioral capacity. Thus, this auditory event-related potential is promising in the study of the neurophysiological basis underlying auditory processing.OBJECTIVE: To investigate complex acoustic signals (speech) encoded in the auditory nervous system of children with specific language impairment and compare with children with auditory proce...

  5. The role of vowel perceptual cues in compensatory responses to perturbations of speech auditory feedback

    OpenAIRE

    Reilly, Kevin J.; Dougherty, Kathleen E.

    2013-01-01

    The perturbation of acoustic features in a speaker's auditory feedback elicits rapid compensatory responses that demonstrate the importance of auditory feedback for control of speech output. The current study investigated whether responses to a perturbation of speech auditory feedback vary depending on the importance of the perturbed feature to perception of the vowel being produced. Auditory feedback of speakers' first formant frequency (F1) was shifted upward by 130 mels in randomly selecte...

  6. Contribution of psychoacoustics and neuroaudiology in revealing correlation of mental disorders with central auditory processing disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Iliadou, V; Iakovides, S

    2003-01-01

    Background Psychoacoustics is a fascinating developing field concerned with the evaluation of the hearing sensation as an outcome of a sound or speech stimulus. Neuroaudiology with electrophysiologic testing, records the electrical activity of the auditory pathways, extending from the 8th cranial nerve up to the cortical auditory centers as a result of external auditory stimuli. Central Auditory Processing Disorders may co-exist with mental disorders and complicate diagnosis and outcome. Desi...

  7. AUDITORY HAIR CELL EXPLANT CO-CULTURES PROMOTE THE DIFFERENTIATION OF STEM CELLS INTO BIPOLAR NEURONS

    OpenAIRE

    Coleman, B.; Fallon, J. B.; Gillespie, L.N.; Silva, M.G.; Shepherd, R.K.

    2006-01-01

    Auditory neurons, the target neurons of the cochlear implant, degenerate following a sensorineural hearing loss. The goal of this research is to direct the differentiation of embryonic stem cells (SCs) into bipolar auditory neurons that can be used to replace degenerating neurons in the deafened mammalian cochlea. Successful replacement of auditory neurons is likely to result in improved clinical outcomes for cochlear implant recipients. We examined two post-natal auditory co-culture models w...

  8. Task-dependent calibration of auditory spatial perception through environmental visual observation

    OpenAIRE

    Luca Brayda

    2015-01-01

    Visual information is paramount to space perception. Vision influences auditory space estimation. Many studies show that simultaneous visual and auditory cues improve precision of the final multisensory estimate. However, the amount or the temporal extent of visual information, that is sufficient to influence auditory perception, is still unknown. It is therefore interesting to know if vision can improve auditory precision through a short-term environmental observation preceding the audio tas...

  9. Fine functional organization of auditory cortex revealed by Fourier optical imaging

    OpenAIRE

    Kalatsky, Valery A.; Polley, Daniel B.; Merzenich, Michael M.; Schreiner, Christoph E.; Stryker, Michael P.

    2005-01-01

    We provide an overall view of the functional tonotopic organization of the auditory cortex in the rat. We apply a recently developed technique for acquiring intrinsic signal optical maps, Fourier imaging, in the rat auditory cortex. These highly detailed maps, derived in a several-minute-long recording procedure, delineate multiple auditory cortical areas and demonstrate their shapes, sizes, and tonotopic order. Beyond the primary auditory cortex, there are at least three distinct areas with ...

  10. Development of visuo-auditory integration in space and time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica Gori

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Adults integrate multisensory information optimally (e.g. Ernst & Banks, 2002 while children are not able to integrate multisensory visual haptic cues until 8-10 years of age (e.g. Gori, Del Viva, Sandini, & Burr, 2008. Before that age strong unisensory dominance is present for size and orientation visual-haptic judgments maybe reflecting a process of cross-sensory calibration between modalities. It is widely recognized that audition dominates time perception, while vision dominates space perception. If the cross sensory calibration process is necessary for development, then the auditory modality should calibrate vision in a bimodal temporal task, and the visual modality should calibrate audition in a bimodal spatial task. Here we measured visual-auditory integration in both the temporal and the spatial domains reproducing for the spatial task a child-friendly version of the ventriloquist stimuli used by Alais and Burr (2004 and for the temporal task a child-friendly version of the stimulus used by Burr, Banks and Morrone (2009. Unimodal and bimodal (conflictual or not conflictual audio-visual thresholds and PSEs were measured and compared with the Bayesian predictions. In the temporal domain, we found that both in children and adults, audition dominates the bimodal visuo-auditory task both in perceived time and precision thresholds. Contrarily, in the visual-auditory spatial task, children younger than 12 years of age show clear visual dominance (on PSEs and bimodal thresholds higher than the Bayesian prediction. Only in the adult group bimodal thresholds become optimal. In agreement with previous studies, our results suggest that also visual-auditory adult-like behaviour develops late. Interestingly, the visual dominance for space and the auditory dominance for time that we found might suggest a cross-sensory comparison of vision in a spatial visuo-audio task and a cross-sensory comparison of audition in a temporal visuo-audio task.

  11. MRI of discoid lateral meniscus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We retrospectively reviewed the MR examinations of 10 patients (17 knees) with surgically documented discoid lateral meniscus of the knee joint. As MRI of the knee is being used more often, the criteria for diagnosis of this entity with MRI need to be established. We tried to define MRI criteria for the detection of discoid menisci by performing numerical measurements of MR images on a display screen. The transverse diameter of the midbody of a discoid lateral meniscus averaged 21.9 mm (normal control: 8.6 mm), and its proportion to the transverse width of the tibia averaged 29.4% (normal control: 12.0%). The measurable difference in height between the discoid and the medial meniscus was negligible. The number of sagittal sections on which the anterior and posterior horns connected varied from two to five in cases of discoid lateral meniscus, and from zero to two in normal controls. Among these parameters, the transverse diameter and its proportion of the transverse width of the tibia proved to be the most reliable. We concluded that a discoid meniscus is indicated if a transverse diameter of a lateral meniscus exceeds 15 mm (proportion to the tibia: 20%). (author)

  12. Extreme Lateral Interbody Fusion Procedure

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... This muscle is really important for us to work around, and we have to go through that ... levels to approach from the lateral approach. It works really well at L4/5, L3/4, L2/ ...

  13. Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis mimic syndromes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghasemi, Majid

    2016-01-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) misdiagnosis has many broad implications for the patient and the neurologist. Potentially curative treatments exist for certain ALS mimic syndromes, but delay in starting these therapies may have an unfavorable effect on outcome. Hence, it is important to exclude similar conditions. In this review, we discuss some of the important mimics of ALS. PMID:27326363

  14. Fragile Spectral and Temporal Auditory Processing in Adolescents with Autism Spectrum Disorder and Early Language Delay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boets, Bart; Verhoeven, Judith; Wouters, Jan; Steyaert, Jean

    2015-01-01

    We investigated low-level auditory spectral and temporal processing in adolescents with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and early language delay compared to matched typically developing controls. Auditory measures were designed to target right versus left auditory cortex processing (i.e. frequency discrimination and slow amplitude modulation (AM)…

  15. Effects of Hyperbilirubinemia on Auditory Brainstem Response of Neonates Treated with Phototherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Negin Salehi

    2016-01-01

    Conclusion:  The results of this study underline the importance of the Auditory Brainstem Response Test as an efficient tool for monitoring the auditory brainstem pathway in neonates who are at risk of neurotoxicity and for diagnosing the earliest stages of auditory damage caused by high levels of bilirubin.

  16. Medial Auditory Thalamus Is Necessary for Acquisition and Retention of Eyeblink Conditioning to Cochlear Nucleus Stimulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halverson, Hunter E.; Poremba, Amy; Freeman, John H.

    2015-01-01

    Associative learning tasks commonly involve an auditory stimulus, which must be projected through the auditory system to the sites of memory induction for learning to occur. The cochlear nucleus (CN) projection to the pontine nuclei has been posited as the necessary auditory pathway for cerebellar learning, including eyeblink conditioning.…

  17. Neuronal activity in primate auditory cortex during the performance of audiovisual tasks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brosch, Michael; Selezneva, Elena; Scheich, Henning

    2015-03-01

    This study aimed at a deeper understanding of which cognitive and motivational aspects of tasks affect auditory cortical activity. To this end we trained two macaque monkeys to perform two different tasks on the same audiovisual stimulus and to do this with two different sizes of water rewards. The monkeys had to touch a bar after a tone had been turned on together with an LED, and to hold the bar until either the tone (auditory task) or the LED (visual task) was turned off. In 399 multiunits recorded from core fields of auditory cortex we confirmed that during task engagement neurons responded to auditory and non-auditory stimuli that were task-relevant, such as light and water. We also confirmed that firing rates slowly increased or decreased for several seconds during various phases of the tasks. Responses to non-auditory stimuli and slow firing changes were observed during both the auditory and the visual task, with some differences between them. There was also a weak task-dependent modulation of the responses to auditory stimuli. In contrast to these cognitive aspects, motivational aspects of the tasks were not reflected in the firing, except during delivery of the water reward. In conclusion, the present study supports our previous proposal that there are two response types in the auditory cortex that represent the timing and the type of auditory and non-auditory elements of a auditory tasks as well the association between elements. PMID:25728179

  18. 21 CFR 874.3320 - Group hearing aid or group auditory trainer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Group hearing aid or group auditory trainer. 874.3320 Section 874.3320 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... hearing aid or group auditory trainer. (a) Identification. A group hearing aid or group auditory...

  19. Auditory Phoneme Discrimination in Illiterates: Mismatch Negativity--A Question of Literacy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaadt, Gesa; Pannekamp, Ann; van der Meer, Elke

    2013-01-01

    These days, illiteracy is still a major problem. There is empirical evidence that auditory phoneme discrimination is one of the factors contributing to written language acquisition. The current study investigated auditory phoneme discrimination in participants who did not acquire written language sufficiently. Auditory phoneme discrimination was…

  20. Validation of the Emotiv EPOC® EEG gaming system for measuring research quality auditory ERPs

    OpenAIRE

    Badcock, Nicholas A.; Petroula Mousikou; Yatin Mahajan; Peter de Lissa; Johnson Thie; Genevieve McArthur

    2013-01-01

    Background. Auditory event-related potentials (ERPs) have proved useful in investigating the role of auditory processing in cognitive disorders such as developmental dyslexia, specific language impairment (SLI), attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), schizophrenia, and autism. However, laboratory recordings of auditory ERPs can be lengthy, uncomfortable, or threatening for some participants – particularly children. Recently, a commercial gaming electroencephalography (EEG) system ha...

  1. Music Genre Classification using an Auditory Memory Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kristoffer

    2011-01-01

    Audio feature estimation is potentially improved by including higher- level models. One such model is the Auditory Short Term Memory (STM) model. A new paradigm of audio feature estimation is obtained by adding the influence of notes in the STM. These notes are identified when the perceptual...... results, and an initial experiment with sensory dissonance has been undertaken with good results. The parameters obtained form the auditory memory model, along with the dissonance measure, are shown here to be of interest in genre classification....

  2. Inversion of Auditory Spectrograms, Traditional Spectrograms, and Other Envelope Representations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Decorsière, Remi Julien Blaise; Søndergaard, Peter Lempel; MacDonald, Ewen;

    2015-01-01

    implementations of this framework are presented for auditory spectrograms, where the filterbank is based on the behavior of the basilar membrane and envelope extraction is modeled on the response of inner hair cells. One implementation is direct while the other is a two-stage approach that is computationally...... simpler. While both can accurately invert an auditory spectrogram, the two-stage approach performs better on time-domain metrics. The same framework is applied to traditional spectrograms based on the magnitude of the short-time Fourier transform. Inspired by human perception of loudness, a modification...

  3. Germinoma in the Internal Auditory Canal Mimicking a Vestibular Schwannoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rubén Martín-Hernández

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The appearance of a primary germinoma in the central nervous system but not on or near the midline or within the brain is exceptional. It may occur at any age; however, it is rare in patients over 50 years old. Only a handful of cases of germinomas located in the cerebellopontine angle were presented, but to our knowledge, there has been no description of an isolated germinoma in the internal auditory canal. We report a case of germinoma in the internal auditory canal in a 51-year-old man simulating the clinical and radiological characteristics of a vestibular schwannoma.

  4. A loudspeaker-based room auralization system for auditory research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Favrot, Sylvain Emmanuel

    systematically study the signal processing of realistic sounds by normal-hearing and hearing-impaired listeners, a flexible, reproducible and fully controllable auditory environment is needed. A loudspeaker-based room auralization (LoRA) system was developed in this thesis to provide virtual auditory...... investigated the perception of distance in VAEs generated by the LoRA system. These results showed that the distance of far field sources are similarly perceived in these VAEs as in real environments. For close sources (<1 m), a comprehensive study about the near field compensated HOA method was presented and...

  5. Anatomy, Physiology and Function of the Auditory System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kollmeier, Birger

    The human ear consists of the outer ear (pinna or concha, outer ear canal, tympanic membrane), the middle ear (middle ear cavity with the three ossicles malleus, incus and stapes) and the inner ear (cochlea which is connected to the three semicircular canals by the vestibule, which provides the sense of balance). The cochlea is connected to the brain stem via the eighth brain nerve, i.e. the vestibular cochlear nerve or nervus statoacusticus. Subsequently, the acoustical information is processed by the brain at various levels of the auditory system. An overview about the anatomy of the auditory system is provided by Figure 1.

  6. Auditory Short-Term Memory Activation during Score Reading

    OpenAIRE

    Simoens, Veerle L; Mari Tervaniemi

    2013-01-01

    Performing music on the basis of reading a score requires reading ahead of what is being played in order to anticipate the necessary actions to produce the notes. Score reading thus not only involves the decoding of a visual score and the comparison to the auditory feedback, but also short-term storage of the musical information due to the delay of the auditory feedback during reading ahead. This study investigates the mechanisms of encoding of musical information in short-term memory during ...

  7. Contribution of auditory nerve fibers to compound action potential of the auditory nerve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourien, Jérôme; Tang, Yong; Batrel, Charlène; Huet, Antoine; Lenoir, Marc; Ladrech, Sabine; Desmadryl, Gilles; Nouvian, Régis; Puel, Jean-Luc; Wang, Jing

    2014-09-01

    Sound-evoked compound action potential (CAP), which captures the synchronous activation of the auditory nerve fibers (ANFs), is commonly used to probe deafness in experimental and clinical settings. All ANFs are believed to contribute to CAP threshold and amplitude: low sound pressure levels activate the high-spontaneous rate (SR) fibers, and increasing levels gradually recruit medium- and then low-SR fibers. In this study, we quantitatively analyze the contribution of the ANFs to CAP 6 days after 30-min infusion of ouabain into the round window niche. Anatomic examination showed a progressive ablation of ANFs following increasing concentration of ouabain. CAP amplitude and threshold plotted against loss of ANFs revealed three ANF pools: 1) a highly ouabain-sensitive pool, which does not participate in either CAP threshold or amplitude, 2) a less sensitive pool, which only encoded CAP amplitude, and 3) a ouabain-resistant pool, required for CAP threshold and amplitude. Remarkably, distribution of the three pools was similar to the SR-based ANF distribution (low-, medium-, and high-SR fibers), suggesting that the low-SR fiber loss leaves the CAP unaffected. Single-unit recordings from the auditory nerve confirmed this hypothesis and further showed that it is due to the delayed and broad first spike latency distribution of low-SR fibers. In addition to unraveling the neural mechanisms that encode CAP, our computational simulation of an assembly of guinea pig ANFs generalizes and extends our experimental findings to different species of mammals. Altogether, our data demonstrate that substantial ANF loss can coexist with normal hearing threshold and even unchanged CAP amplitude. PMID:24848461

  8. Functional asymmetry and effective connectivity of the auditory system during speech perception is modulated by the place of articulation of the consonant- A 7T fMRI study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karsten eSpecht

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available To differentiate between stop-consonants, the auditory system has to detect subtle place of articulation (PoA and voice onset time (VOT differences between stop-consonants. How this differential processing is represented on the cortical level remains unclear. The present functional magnetic resonance (fMRI study takes advantage of the superior spatial resolution and high sensitivity of ultra high field 7T MRI. Subjects were attentively listening to consonant-vowel syllables with an alveolar or bilabial stop-consonant and either a short or long voice-onset time. The results showed an overall bilateral activation pattern in the posterior temporal lobe during the processing of the consonant-vowel syllables. This was however modulated strongest by place of articulation such that syllables with an alveolar stop-consonant showed stronger left lateralized activation. In addition, analysis of underlying functional and effective connectivity revealed an inhibitory effect of the left planum temporale onto the right auditory cortex during the processing of alveolar consonant-vowel syllables. Further, the connectivity result indicated also a directed information flow from the right to the left auditory cortex, and further to the left planum temporale for all syllables. These results indicate that auditory speech perception relies on an interplay between the left and right auditory cortex, with the left planum temporale as modulator. Furthermore, the degree of functional asymmetry is determined by the acoustic properties of the consonant-vowel syllables.

  9. Differential effects of prenatal chronic high-decibel noise and music exposure on the excitatory and inhibitory synaptic components of the auditory cortex analog in developing chicks (Gallus gallus domesticus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, V; Nag, T C; Sharma, U; Jagannathan, N R; Wadhwa, S

    2014-06-01

    Proper development of the auditory cortex depends on early acoustic experience that modulates the balance between excitatory and inhibitory (E/I) circuits. In the present social and occupational environment exposure to chronic loud sound in the form of occupational or recreational noise, is becoming inevitable. This could especially disrupt the functional auditory cortex development leading to altered processing of complex sound and hearing impairment. Here we report the effects of prenatal chronic loud sound (110-dB sound pressure level (SPL)) exposure (rhythmic [music] and arrhythmic [noise] forms) on the molecular components involved in regulation of the E/I balance in the developing auditory cortex analog/Field L (AuL) in domestic chicks. Noise exposure at 110-dB SPL significantly enhanced the E/I ratio (increased expression of AMPA receptor GluR2 subunit and glutamate with decreased expression of GABA(A) receptor gamma 2 subunit and GABA), whereas loud music exposure maintained the E/I ratio. Expressions of markers of synaptogenesis, synaptic stability and plasticity i.e., synaptophysin, PSD-95 and gephyrin were reduced with noise but increased with music exposure. Thus our results showed differential effects of prenatal chronic loud noise and music exposures on the E/I balance and synaptic function and stability in the developing auditory cortex. Loud music exposure showed an overall enrichment effect whereas loud noise-induced significant alterations in E/I balance could later impact the auditory function and associated cognitive behavior. PMID:24721732

  10. Preserving Dignity in Later Life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    São José, José Manuel

    2016-09-01

    This article examines how elders who receive social care in the community experience loss of dignity and how they preserve their dignity. Qualitative research revealed that loss of dignity is a major concern for these elders and that they preserve their dignity differently, ranging from actively engaging with life to detaching themselves from life. We conclude that, in later life, preserving dignity while receiving social care differs from preserving dignity in the context of health care, especially health care provided in institutional settings. Furthermore, preserving dignity in later life, while receiving social care, is a complex process, depending not only on performing activities and individual action and responsibility, but also on other actions, some of them involving a certain inactivity/passivity, and interactions with others, especially caregivers. This article offers some insights to developing better policies and care practices for promoting dignity in the context of community-based social care. PMID:27456751

  11. BEHAVIOR OF LATERALLY LOADED PILE

    OpenAIRE

    Ashish Mehta; P.D.Pachpor

    2010-01-01

    A finite element analysis is done to predict the responses for single pile subjected to lateral load in layered soils, with consideration of pile soil interaction. Pile and soil are simulated by Solid-3D element. In the computational model, contact surfaces between pile and soil are created. The displacements are determined for pile soil system with linearly constants and linearly varying with depth cases is considered. The engineering properties for soil and pile are considered as variable f...

  12. Depression in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis

    OpenAIRE

    ATASSI, NAZEM; Cook, Amanda; PINEDA, CRISTIANA M. E.; YERRAMILLI-RAO, PADMAJA; PULLEY, DARLENE; Cudkowicz, Merit

    2010-01-01

    Depression is an under-recognized comorbidity associated with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). The goals of this study were to prospectively estimate the prevalence of depression and other ALS related symptoms and to study the impact of depression on enrollment in research studies. One hundred and twenty-seven people with ALS completed the ALS Depression Inventory (ADI-12) and answered questions about ALS related symptoms and research study enrollment preferences. Demographics, ALS sympto...

  13. Cerebral lateralization in simultaneous interpretation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabbro, F; Gran, L; Basso, G; Bava, A

    1990-07-01

    Cerebral asymmetries for L1 (Italian), L2 (English), and L3 (French, German, Spanish, or Russian) were studied, by using a verbal-manual interference paradigm, in a group of Italian right-handed polyglot female students at the Scuola Superiore di Lingue Moderne per Interpreti e Traduttori (SSLM-School for Interpreters and Translators) of the University of Trieste and in a control group of right-handed monolingual female students at the Medical School of the University of Trieste. In an automatic speech production task no significant cerebral lateralization was found for the mother tongue (L1) either in the interpreting students or in the control group; the interpreting students were not significantly lateralized for the third language (L3), while weak left hemispheric lateralization was shown for L2. A significantly higher degree of verbal-manual interference was found for L1 than for L2 and L3. A significantly higher disruption rate occurred in the meaning-based mode of simultaneous interpretation (from L2 into L1 and vice versa) than in the word-for-word mode (from L2 into L1 and vice versa). No significant overall or hemispheric differences were found during simultaneous interpretation from L1 into L2 or from L2 into L1. PMID:2207622

  14. A Psychophysical Imaging Method Evidencing Auditory Cue Extraction during Speech Perception: A Group Analysis of Auditory Classification Images : Auditory Classification Images

    OpenAIRE

    Varnet, Léo; Knoblauch, Kenneth; Serniclaes, Willy; Meunier, Fanny; Hoen, Michel

    2015-01-01

    Although there is a large consensus regarding the involvement of specific acoustic cues in speech perception, the precise mechanisms underlying the transformation from continuous acoustical properties into discrete perceptual units remains undetermined. This gap in knowledge is partially due to the lack of a turnkey solution for isolating critical speech cues from natural stimuli. In this paper, we describe a psychoacoustic imaging method known as the Auditory Classification Image technique t...

  15. Brain activity during divided and selective attention to auditory and visual sentence comprehension tasks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mona eMoisala

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Using functional magnetic resonance imaging, we measured brain activity of human participants while they performed a sentence congruence judgment task in either the visual or auditory modality separately, or in both modalities simultaneously. Significant performance decrements were observed when attention was divided between the two modalities compared with when one modality was selectively attended. Compared with selective attention (i.e., single tasking, divided attention (i.e., dual-tasking did not recruit additional cortical regions, but resulted in increased activity in medial and lateral frontal regions which were also activated by the component tasks when performed separately. Areas involved in semantic language processing were revealed predominantly in the left lateral prefrontal cortex by contrasting incongruent with congruent sentences. These areas also showed significant activity increases during divided attention in relation to selective attention. In the sensory cortices, no crossmodal inhibition was observed during divided attention when compared with selective attention to one modality. Our results suggest that the observed performance decrements during dual-tasking are due to interference of the two tasks because they utilize the same part of the cortex. Moreover, semantic dual-tasking did not appear to recruit additional brain areas in comparison with single tasking, and no crossmodal inhibition was observed during intermodal divided attention.

  16. Serial order in word form retrieval: New insights from the auditory picture-word interference task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilshire, Carolyn; Singh, Sunita; Tattersall, Catherine

    2016-02-01

    One important theoretical question about word production concerns whether the phonemes of a word are retrieved in parallel or in sequential order. To address this question, Meyer and Schriefers (Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition 17:1146-1160, 1991) used an auditory picture-word interference task and manipulated the position of the phonemes shared between a distractor word and a target picture. They found that begin-related distractors (e.g., boat-bone) facilitated naming times when they were presented within 150 ms before or after the picture, whereas end-related distractors (e.g., cone-bone) were effective only if presented within 150 ms after the picture. This suggested that the word's end phonemes were activated later than the beginning ones. However, it remained unclear whether these effects genuinely reflected facilitation at the level of phonological retrieval. In this study, we examined later distractor presentation onsets, so that the distractors had little opportunity to influence earlier, lexical selection processes. At the latest onset tested, end-related-but not begin-related-distractors significantly facilitated naming. We concluded that late-presented distractors do indeed influence phonological encoding, and that their asymmetric effects support a sequential model of phoneme retrieval. PMID:26084878

  17. Visual Timing of Structured Dance Movements Resembles Auditory Rhythm Perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Yi-Huang; Salazar-López, Elvira

    2016-01-01

    Temporal mechanisms for processing auditory musical rhythms are well established, in which a perceived beat is beneficial for timing purposes. It is yet unknown whether such beat-based timing would also underlie visual perception of temporally structured, ecological stimuli connected to music: dance. In this study, we investigated whether observers extracted a visual beat when watching dance movements to assist visual timing of these movements. Participants watched silent videos of dance sequences and reproduced the movement duration by mental recall. We found better visual timing for limb movements with regular patterns in the trajectories than without, similar to the beat advantage for auditory rhythms. When movements involved both the arms and the legs, the benefit of a visual beat relied only on the latter. The beat-based advantage persisted despite auditory interferences that were temporally incongruent with the visual beat, arguing for the visual nature of these mechanisms. Our results suggest that visual timing principles for dance parallel their auditory counterparts for music, which may be based on common sensorimotor coupling. These processes likely yield multimodal rhythm representations in the scenario of music and dance. PMID:27313900

  18. The auditory organ: active amplifier and highly sensitive measuring system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present paper provides a brief review on topical issues of auditory physiology. Recent data on transduction mechanism and adaptation in hair cells as well as on the possible role of outer hair cells in amplifying basilar membrane motion are presented. Strategies of present physiological research in dealing with sensorineural deafness are discussed. (orig.)

  19. MR and genetics in schizophrenia: Focus on auditory hallucinations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Although many structural and functional abnormalities have been related to schizophrenia, until now, no single biological marker has been of diagnostic clinical utility. One way to obtain more valid findings is to focus on the symptoms instead of the syndrome. Auditory hallucinations (AHs) are one of the most frequent and reliable symptoms of psychosis. We present a review of our main findings, using a multidisciplinary approach, on auditory hallucinations. Firstly, by applying a new auditory emotional paradigm specific for psychosis, we found an enhanced activation of limbic and frontal brain areas in response to emotional words in these patients. Secondly, in a voxel-based morphometric study, we obtained a significant decreased gray matter concentration in the insula (bilateral), superior temporal gyrus (bilateral), and amygdala (left) in patients compared to healthy subjects. This gray matter loss was directly related to the intensity of AH. Thirdly, using a new method for looking at areas of coincidence between gray matter loss and functional activation, large coinciding brain clusters were found in the left and right middle temporal and superior temporal gyri. Finally, we summarized our main findings from our studies of the molecular genetics of auditory hallucinations. Taking these data together, an integrative model to explain the neurobiological basis of this psychotic symptom is presented

  20. Auditory hedonic phenotypes in dementia: A behavioural and neuroanatomical analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fletcher, Phillip D; Downey, Laura E; Golden, Hannah L; Clark, Camilla N; Slattery, Catherine F; Paterson, Ross W; Schott, Jonathan M; Rohrer, Jonathan D; Rossor, Martin N; Warren, Jason D

    2015-06-01

    Patients with dementia may exhibit abnormally altered liking for environmental sounds and music but such altered auditory hedonic responses have not been studied systematically. Here we addressed this issue in a cohort of 73 patients representing major canonical dementia syndromes (behavioural variant frontotemporal dementia (bvFTD), semantic dementia (SD), progressive nonfluent aphasia (PNFA) amnestic Alzheimer's disease (AD)) using a semi-structured caregiver behavioural questionnaire and voxel-based morphometry (VBM) of patients' brain MR images. Behavioural responses signalling abnormal aversion to environmental sounds, aversion to music or heightened pleasure in music ('musicophilia') occurred in around half of the cohort but showed clear syndromic and genetic segregation, occurring in most patients with bvFTD but infrequently in PNFA and more commonly in association with MAPT than C9orf72 mutations. Aversion to sounds was the exclusive auditory phenotype in AD whereas more complex phenotypes including musicophilia were common in bvFTD and SD. Auditory hedonic alterations correlated with grey matter loss in a common, distributed, right-lateralised network including antero-mesial temporal lobe, insula, anterior cingulate and nucleus accumbens. Our findings suggest that abnormalities of auditory hedonic processing are a significant issue in common dementias. Sounds may constitute a novel probe of brain mechanisms for emotional salience coding that are targeted by neurodegenerative disease. PMID:25929717