WorldWideScience

Sample records for campania region southern

  1. A model optimizing the port-hinterland logistics of containers: The case of the Campania region in Southern Italy

    OpenAIRE

    Fedele Iannone

    2012-01-01

    This article presents an optimization model for the economic analysis and strategic planning of port-hinterland container logistics systems. The model was employed to investigate the inland multimodal distribution of import/export containers handled at the seaports located in the Campania region of Southern Italy. The loading units can transit through the regional off-dock intermodal and logistic facilities called ‘interports’, as well as through extra-regional locations which have a railway ...

  2. Coupled decadal variability of the North Atlantic Oscillation, regional rainfall and spring discharges in the Campania region (Southern Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. De Vita

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Climate change is one of the issues most debated by the scientific community with a special focus to the combined effects of anthropogenic modifications of the atmosphere and the natural climatic cycles. Various scenarios have been formulated in order to forecast the global atmospheric circulation and consequently the variability of the global distribution of air temperature and rainfall. The effects of climate change have been analysed with respect to the risks of desertification, droughts and floods, remaining mainly limited to the atmospheric and surface components of the hydrologic cycle. Consequently the impact of the climate change on the recharge of regional aquifers and on the groundwater circulation is still a challenging topic especially in those areas whose aqueduct systems depend basically on springs or wells, such as the Campania region (Southern Italy.

    In order to analyse the long-term climatic variability and its influence on groundwater circulation, we analysed decadal patterns of precipitation, air temperature and spring discharges in the Campania region (Southern Italy, coupled with the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO.

    The time series of precipitation and air temperature were gathered over 90 yr, in the period from 1921 to 2010, choosing 18 rain gauges and 9 air temperature stations among those with the most continuous functioning as well as arranged in a homogeneous spatial distribution. Moreover, for the same period, we gathered the time series of the winter NAO index (December to March mean and of the discharges of the Sanità spring, belonging to an extended carbonate aquifer (Cervialto Mount located in the central-eastern area of the Campania region, as well as of two other shorter time series of spring discharges. The hydrogeological features of this aquifer, its relevance due to the feeding of an important regional aqueduct system, as well as the unique availability of a long-lasting time series of

  3. [Epidemiological imaginary in Campania Region].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greco, Pietro

    2012-01-01

    The interviews on the epidemiological imaginary, collected within the framework of the project Sebiorec,(1) clearly demonstrate that also in Campania, on the border between the provinces of Naples and Caserta - where the issue of waste and land devastation take forms that are unprecedented compared to any other part of Europe - there is a widespread, strong, sacrosanct demand of participation in environment and health management. The request of deliberative ecological democracy is pressing.(2) There is an urgent need to meet that plethora of rights emerging in the "knowledge society" and in the "risk society" that someone has called "rights for scientific citizenship."(3) This request of the population of Campania, net of local cultural specificity, it is quite similar to that of the people of any other region of Europe. The context in which this request of participation is expressed, however, is quite different. Not only and not just for that real or perceived social pre-modern and familist web that would replace a modern civil society in Campania and all across the Southern Italian regions, but also and especially for some structural causes that we here try to list. Campania is a unique region in Europe - in many ways different even from other regions of southern Italy - due to the conjunction of at least five factors, not independent from each other. 1) The presence of a widespread organized crime which, in many areas, metropolitan and non-metropolitan alike, and especially in the provinces of Naples and Caserta, is a sort of state against the State and has one of its main levers of power and a major source of its wealth in the illegal control of the territory, in its different dimensions (military, but also economic, social and even cultural). 2) A huge social and economic disintegration, exacerbated in the last twenty years by a process of deindustrialization (until the early nineties Naples was the fifth industrial city of Italy, today it is a desert where

  4. Flow-type landslides magnitude evaluation: the case study of the Campania Region (Southern Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santo, Antonio; De Falco, Melania; Di Crescenzo, Giuseppe

    2015-04-01

    In the last years studies concerning the triggering and the run-out susceptibility for different kind of landslides have become more and more precise. In the most of the cases the methodological approach involve the production of detailed thematic maps (at least 1:5000 scale) which represent a very useful tool for territorial planning, especially in urbanized areas. More recently these researches were accompanied by the growth of other studies dealing with landslide magnitude evaluation (especially in terms of volume and velocity estimate). In this paper the results of a flow-type landslides magnitude evaluation are presented. The study area is located in Southern Italy and is very wide (1,500 square kilometres) including all the Campania region. In this context flow type landslides represent the most frequent instabilities as shown by the large number of victims and the huge economic damage caused in the last few centuries. These shallow landslides involve thin cohesionless, unsaturated pyroclastic soils found over steep slopes around Somma-Vesuvio and Phlegrean district, affecting a wide area where over 100 towns are located. Since the potential volume of flow-type landslides is a measure of event magnitude we propose to estimate the potential volume at the scale of slope or basin for about 90 municipalities affecting 850 hierarchized drainage basins and 900 regular slopes. An empirical approach recently proposed in literature (De Falco et al., 2012), allows to estimate the volume of the pyroclastic cover that can be displaced along the slope. The method derives from the interpretation of numerous geological and geomorphological data gathered from a vast amount of case histories on landslides in volcanic and carbonatic contexts and it is based on determining the thickness of the pyroclastic cover and the width of the detachment and erosion-transport zone. Thickness can be evaluated with a good degree of approximation since, in these landslides, the failure

  5. Campi Flegrei Deep Drilling Project and geothermal activities in Campania Region (Southern Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Natale, Giuseppe; Troise, Claudia; Troiano, Antonio; Giulia Di Giuseppe, Maria; Mormone, Angela; Carlino, Stefano; Somma, Renato; Tramelli, Anna; Vertechi, Enrico; Sangianantoni, Agata; Piochi, Monica

    2013-04-01

    The Campanian volcanic area has a huge geothermal potential (Carlino et al., 2012), similar to the Larderello-Radicondoli-Amiata region, in Tuscany (Italy), which has been the first site in the World exploited for electric production. Recently, the Campi Flegrei Deep Drilling Project (CFDDP), sponsored by ICDP and devoted to understand and mitigate the extreme volcanic risk in the area, has also risen new interest for geothermal exploration in several areas of Italy. Following the new Italian regulations which favour and incentivise innovative pilot power plants with zero emission, several geothermal projects have started in the Campania Region, characterized by strict cooperation among large to small industries, Universities and public Research Centers. INGV department of Naples (Osservatorio Vesuviano) has the technical/scientific leadership of such initiatives. Most of such projects are coordinated in the framework of the Regional District for Energy, in which a large part is represented by geothermal resource. Leading geothermal projects in the area include 'FORIO' pilot plant project, aimed to build two small (5 MWe each one) power plants in the Ischia island and two projects aimed to build pilot power plants in the Agnano-Fuorigrotta area in the city of Naples, at the easternmost part of Campi Flegrei caldera. One of the Campi Flegrei projects, 'SCARFOGLIO', is aimed to build a 5 MWe geothermal power plant in the Agnano area, whereas the 'START' project has the goal to build a tri-generation power plant in the Fuorigrotta area, fed mainly by geothermal source improved by solar termodynamic and bio-mass. Meanwhile such projects enter the field work operational phase, the pilot hole drilling of the CFDDP project, recently completed, represents an important experience for several operational aspects, which should contitute an example to be followed by the next geothermal activities in the area. It has been furthermore a source of valuable data for geothermal

  6. Coupled decadal variability of the North Atlantic Oscillation, regional rainfall and karst spring discharges in the Campania region (southern Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. De Vita

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Thus far, studies on climate change have focused mainly on the variability of the atmospheric and surface components of the hydrologic cycle, investigating the impact of this variability on the environment, especially with respect to the risks of desertification, droughts and floods. Conversely, the impacts of climate change on the recharge of aquifers and on the variability of groundwater flow have been less investigated, especially in Mediterranean karst areas whose water supply systems depend heavily upon groundwater exploitation.

    In this paper, long-term climatic variability and its influence on groundwater recharge were analysed by examining decadal patterns of precipitation, air temperature and spring discharges in the Campania region (southern Italy, coupled with the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO.

    The time series of precipitation and air temperature were gathered over 90 yr, from 1921 to 2010, using 18 rain gauges and 9 air temperature stations with the most continuous functioning. The time series of the winter NAO index and of the discharges of 3 karst springs, selected from those feeding the major aqueducts systems, were collected for the same period.

    Regional normalised indexes of the precipitation, air temperature and karst spring discharges were calculated, and different methods were applied to analyse the related time series, including long-term trend analysis using smoothing numerical techniques, cross-correlation and Fourier analysis.

    The investigation of the normalised indexes highlighted the existence of long-term complex periodicities, from 2 to more than 30 yr, with differences in average values of up to approximately ±30% for precipitation and karst spring discharges, which were both strongly correlated with the winter NAO index.

    Although the effects of the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO had already been demonstrated in the long-term precipitation and streamflow patterns of

  7. Coupled decadal variability of the North Atlantic Oscillation, regional rainfall and karst spring discharges in the Campania region (southern Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Vita, P.; Allocca, V.; Manna, F.; Fabbrocino, S.

    2012-05-01

    Thus far, studies on climate change have focused mainly on the variability of the atmospheric and surface components of the hydrologic cycle, investigating the impact of this variability on the environment, especially with respect to the risks of desertification, droughts and floods. Conversely, the impacts of climate change on the recharge of aquifers and on the variability of groundwater flow have been less investigated, especially in Mediterranean karst areas whose water supply systems depend heavily upon groundwater exploitation. In this paper, long-term climatic variability and its influence on groundwater recharge were analysed by examining decadal patterns of precipitation, air temperature and spring discharges in the Campania region (southern Italy), coupled with the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO). The time series of precipitation and air temperature were gathered over 90 yr, from 1921 to 2010, using 18 rain gauges and 9 air temperature stations with the most continuous functioning. The time series of the winter NAO index and of the discharges of 3 karst springs, selected from those feeding the major aqueducts systems, were collected for the same period. Regional normalised indexes of the precipitation, air temperature and karst spring discharges were calculated, and different methods were applied to analyse the related time series, including long-term trend analysis using smoothing numerical techniques, cross-correlation and Fourier analysis. The investigation of the normalised indexes highlighted the existence of long-term complex periodicities, from 2 to more than 30 yr, with differences in average values of up to approximately ±30% for precipitation and karst spring discharges, which were both strongly correlated with the winter NAO index. Although the effects of the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) had already been demonstrated in the long-term precipitation and streamflow patterns of different European countries and Mediterranean areas, the results

  8. The Irpinia Seismic Network (ISN): a new Monitoring Infrastructure for Seismic Alert Management in Campania Region, Southern Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iannaccone, G.; Satriano, C.; Weber, E.; Cantore, L.; Corciulo, M.; Romano, L.; Martino, C.; Dicrosta, M.; Zollo, A.

    2005-12-01

    The Irpinia Seismic Network is an high dynamics, high density seismographic network under development in the Southern Apenninic chain. It is deployed in the area stroken by several destructive earthquakes during last centuries. In its final configuration the network will consist of more than fourty high dynamic seismic stations subdivided in physical subnetworks inter-connected by a robust data transmission system. The system is being designed with two primary targets: -Monitoring and analysis of background seismic activity produced by the active fault system which is the cause for large earthquakes in the past, included the 1980, Irpinia earthquake (Ms=6.9) - Development and experimentation of a prototype system for seismic early and post-event warning to be used for protecting public infrastructures and buildings of strategic relevance of the Regione Campania The seismic network will be completed in two stages: 1 - Deployment of 30 seismic stations along the Campania-Lucania Apenninic chain (to date almost completed) 2 - Setting up radio communication system for data transmission. Installation of 12 additional seismic stations (end of year 2006) To ensure an high dynamic recording range each site is equipped with two type of sensors: 30 force-balance accelerometer (model Guralp CMG5-T) and a velocimeter. In particular, 25 sites with short period three components instrument (model Geotech S13-J) and 5 with broad-band sensor (Nanometrics Trillium, with frequency response in the 0.033-50 Hz band). The used data logger is the Osiris-6 model produced by Agecodagis whose main features are: six channels, O/N 24 bit A/D converter, ARM processor with embedded Linux and open source software, two PCMCIA slots (used for two 5GB microdrive or one disk and wi-fi card), Ethernet, wi-fi and serial communication, low power cosumption (~1 W). Power is ensured by two 120 W solar panels and two 130 Ah gel batteries. Each recording site is equipped with a control/alarm system through

  9. A Study of the Correlation Between Electrical Resistivity and Matric Suction for Unsaturated Ash-Fall Pyroclastic Soils in the Campania Region (Southern Italy)

    CERN Document Server

    De Vita, Pantaleone; Piegari, Ester

    2011-01-01

    In the territory of the Campania region (southern Italy), critical rainfall events periodically trigger dangerous fast slope movements involving ashy and pyroclastic soils originated by the explosive phases of the Mt. Somma-Vesuvius volcano and deposited along the surrounding mountain ranges. In this paper, an integration of engineering-geological and geophysical measurements is presented to characterize unsaturated pyroclastic samples collected in a test area on the Sarno Mountains (Salerno and Avellino provinces, Campania region). The laboratory analyses were aimed at defining both soil water retention and electrical resistivity curves versus water content. From the matching of the experimental data, a direct relationship between electrical resistivity and matric suction is retrieved for the investigated soil horizons typical of a ash-fall pyroclastic succession. The obtained relation turns out to be helpful in characterizing soils up to close saturation, which is a critical condition for the trigger of slo...

  10. Biochemical Characterization and Antimicrobial and Antifungal Activity of Two Endemic Varieties of Garlic (Allium sativum L.) of the Campania Region, Southern Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fratianni, Florinda; Riccardi, Riccardo; Spigno, Patrizia; Ombra, Maria Neve; Cozzolino, Autilia; Tremonte, Patrizio; Coppola, Raffaele; Nazzaro, Filomena

    2016-07-01

    Extracts of the bulbs of the two endemic varieties "Rosato" and "Caposele" of Allium sativum of the Campania region, Southern Italy, were analyzed. The phenolic content, ascorbic acid, allicin content, and in vitro antimicrobial and antifungal activity were determined. Ultra performance liquid chromatography with diode array detector performed polyphenol profile. The polyphenolic extracts showed antioxidant activity (EC50) lower than 120 mg. The amount of ascorbic acid and allicin in the two extracts was similar. Polyphenol extract exhibited antimicrobial activity against Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and (only by the extract of Rosato) against Bacillus cereus. The extract of Caposele was more effective in inhibiting the growth of Aspergillus versicolor and Penicillum citrinum. On the other hand, the extract of Rosato was effective against Penicillium expansum. PMID:27259073

  11. [Varroa mites in the apiaries of Campania region].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzone, P; Caprio, E; Cringoli, G

    2004-06-01

    Mites in the genus Varroa are obligate ectoparasites of honey bee populations worldwide. Recent evidence from morphological, geographical, and especially genetic variation has spurred an important revision of Varroa taxonomy. Specifically, mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) evidence suggests that the main mite pest on western honey bees (Apis mellifera) is not Varroa jacobsoni, as first described, but a distinct species now named Varroa destructor. Genetic markers also have been used to support a taxonomic basis for regional differences in how Varroa mites impact honey bees. Recent morphometric and molecular studies confirmed the presence of the species V. destructor also in the apiaries of the Campania region of southern Italy. In the three-year period 2001-2003 a survey was conducted in 118 municipalities of the five provinces of the Campania region in order to add data to the limited epidemiological information available regarding Varroa destructor in this zone. The level of infestation by the mite was assessed on a total of 521 apiaries (241 apiaries were inspected on 2001, 154 on 2002, and 126 on 2003). In each apiary, 100 comb cells were examined and in each province the level of infestation was calculated using the following formula: (number of Varroa specimens/number of open comb cells) x 100. In order to display the level of infestation, Geographical Information Systems were used in order to draw parasitological maps.

  12. Promoting ICT Entrepreneurship in the Campania Region of Italy: A Network of Academic Incubators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corti, Eugenio; Torello, Rita Ilenia

    2004-01-01

    The government of the Campania region in southern Italy has established a technology transfer centre for the information and communications technology (ICT) sector. The Regional Centre for ICT Competencies (RCICT) promotes the transfer of ICT to local small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) and encourages the creation of new knowledge-based…

  13. Seroprevalence and risk factors of infections with Neospora caninum and Toxoplasma gondii in hunting dogs from Campania region, southern Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machacova, Tereza; Bartova, Eva; Sedlak, Kamil; Slezakova, Radka; Budikova, Marie; Piantedosi, Diego; Veneziano, Vincenzo

    2016-01-01

    Hunting dogs have probably a higher level of exposure to Neospora caninum Dubey, Carpenter, Speer, Topper et Uggla, 1988 and Toxoplasma gondii Nicolle et Manceaux, 1908 than other canine populations for their different lifestyle. The aim of our survey was to determine the seroprevalence of N. caninum and T. gondii in hunting dogs from southern Italy and assess risk factors related to these protozoan infections. Blood samples were collected from 398 hunting dogs (19 different breeds, aged from 5 month to 14 years). The sera were screened by indirect fluorescence antibody test; a titre ≥ 50 was considered positive. Antibodies to N. caninum and T. gondii were detected in 59 (15%) dogs with titres from 50 to 3 200 and in 94 (24%) dogs with titres from 50 to 1 600, respectively, with co-infection in 25 (6%) dogs. Statistical difference (p ≤ 0.05) was found only for infection with T. gondii between two age groups: ≥ 2-4 years (16%) and ≥ 4-7 years (33%); other observed characteristics were without statistical significance. Our results suggest that the hunting dogs could play an important role in the transmission cycle of N. caninum between wild animals and livestock. This is the first detection of antibodies to T. gondii in hunting dogs in Italy. PMID:27189127

  14. The current spectrum and prevalence of intestinal parasitosis in Campania (region of southern Italy and their relationship with migration from endemic countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberta Belli

    2014-12-01

    Conclusions: Intestinal parasites are still a cause of intestinal infection in Campania. Although immigrants have a significantly higher prevalence of parasitosis than natives, this does not increase the risk of infection for that population. This is likely due to the lack of suitable biological conditions in our area.

  15. REE in karst bauxites: the Campania example (southern Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mondillo, N.; Boni, M.; Balassone, G.; Rollinson, G.

    2012-04-01

    Global production of Rare Earth Element (REE) has dramatically increased in the last years, hence the strong interest to identify new deposits and to understand the processes responsible for their formation. Among REE concentrations related to weathering, the current targets are represented by the ion-adsorption deposit-types, occurring in China, in which REEs are adsorbed onto the surface of clays. Laterites have been also intensively investigated since the discovery of the secondary deposit of Mount Weld (Australia). Most REEs behave as immobile elements in laterites, and tend to be enriched compared to the underlying parent rocks. Many authors debate on a possible REE fractionation along the laterite profiles, resulting in the formation of supergene LREE-minerals. Bauxites are economic Al accumulations, derived from the weathering of alumosilicate-rich parent rocks resulting in the development of laterite profiles. Components as Ca, Mg, K, Si are leached and residual Fe, Al and Ti precipitate in form of hematite>>goethite, gibbsite [Al(OH)3] or amorphous Al hydroxides and anatase. Metabauxites can contain boehmite or diaspore [AlO(OH)]. Chemical composition (including REEs content) of lateritic bauxites generally mirrors the original composition of the parent rock. Geochemistry of REEs in karst bauxites, which lay on carbonate bedrocks and may be also allochthonous to them, is not so straightforward. Cretaceous karst bauxite deposits in the Apennine chain (Southern Italy) are presently uneconomic. A full mineralogical and geochemical study has been performed on several deposits of the Campania district, and three representative profiles have been sampled. In all deposits the bauxite ore has an oolitic-pisolitic texture, but contains also detrital intervals. The mineral association consists of boehmite, kaolinite and hematite, with less goethite and anatase. The main REE-bearing mineral is detrital monazite. In detail, we could detect (SEM) other LREE

  16. Evaluation of antimicrobial consumption in Campania Region, Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simona Cammarota

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: the antibiotic usage in Italy is above the European average. From several years the Campania was the first Italian region in terms of antimicrobial consumption. Aim: to evaluate antibiotic utilisation in primary health care in Campania, a region of approximately 5.7 million inhabitants in the south of Italy. Method: we collected, from an electronic database, all prescription drugs reimbursed in 2005. The cohort was defined as the population of subjects receiving at least one prescription of any antimicrobial agent for systemic use, classified according to their therapeutic role using Anatomic Therapeutic Chemical (ATC classification. Drugs cost and consumption were quantified using National Health Service (NHS prospective and Defined Daily Dose system (DDD respectively. All costs were expressed in Euro 2005. Results: antiinfectives agents (ATC J was the second class of drugs in terms of cost, representing 16.1% of the regional drug expenditure. Their consumption were 33 DDD/1000 inhabitants/day. Stratifying by age antibiotic use was highest in children and elderly subjects. Penicillins, macrolides and cephalosporins were the most prescribed antibiotic classes in all age groups. Discussion: despite guidelines introduced to limit the prescription of parenteral antibiotics to the patients who are most likely to benefit from it, they were mostly prescribed. This represented a serious problem for the development of drug-resistant bacteria.

  17. Mapping Soil Water-Holding Capacity Index to Evaluate the Effectiveness of Phytoremediation Protocols and ExposureRisk to Contaminated Soils in a National Interest Priority Site of the Campania Region (Southern Italy).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romano, N.

    2015-12-01

    Soil moisture is an important state variable that influences water flow and solute transport in the soil-vegetation-atmosphere system, and plays a key role in securing agricultural ecosystem services for nutrition and food security. Especially when environmental studies should be carried out at relatively large spatial scales, there is a need to synthesize the complex interactions between soil, plant behavior, and local atmospheric conditions. Although it relies on the somewhat loosely defined concepts of "field capacity" and "wilting point", the soil water-holding capacity seems a suitable indicator to meet the above-mentioned requirement, yet easily understandable by the public and stakeholders. This parameter is employed in this work to evaluate the effectiveness of phytoremediation protocols funded by the EU-Life project EcoRemed and being implemented to remediate and restore contaminated agricultural soils of the National Interest Priority Site Litorale Domizio-Agro Aversano. The study area is located in the Campania Region (Southern Italy) and has an extent of about 200,000 hectares. A high-level spotted soil contamination is mostly due to the legal or outlaw industrial and municipal wastes, with hazardous consequences also on groundwater quality. With the availability of soil and land systems maps for this study area, disturbed and undisturbed soil samples were collected at two different soil depths to determine basic soil physico-chemical properties for the subsequent application of pedotransfer functions (PTFs). Soil water retention and hydraulic conductivity functions were determined for a number of soil cores, in the laboratory with the evaporation experiments, and used to calibrate the PTFs. Efficient mapping of the soil hydraulic properties benefitted greatly from the use of the PTFs and the physically-based scaling procedure developed by Nasta et al. (2013, WRR, 49:4219-4229).

  18. CHERRY BIODIVERSITY OF CAMPANIA REGION (ITALY: CONTENTS OF ESSENTIAL ELEMENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefania Papa

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The contents of some nutrients [Phosphorus (P, Potassium (K, Magnesium (Mg, Iron(Fe, Calcium(Ca, Selenium(Se, Zinc(Zn and Sodium(Na]  and trace metals [Vanadium (V, Nickel (Ni, Chromium (Cr, Lead (Pb, Copper (Cu, Aluminum (Al and Cadmium (Cd] were determined in 30 cherry accessions from a farm for collections of Campania Region. Data have highlighted a high nutrient contents in the local accessions and often higher than commercial ones. In particular, it was observed that the Bologna accession showed higher contents of P, Mg, K and Se, and also high concentrations of Ca, Na, Zn, Fe. Moreover, they are of a good quality because the concentrations of trace metals, commonly found as pollutants in the environments, did not exceed, where provided, the law limits imposed.

  19. Using Radon-222 as a Naturally Occurring Tracer to investigate the streamflow-groundwater interactions in a typical Mediterranean fluvial-karst landscape: the interdisciplinary case study of the Bussento river (Campania region, Southern Italy).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuomo, Albina; Guida, Michele; Guida, Domenico; Villani, Paolo; Guadagnuolo, Davide; Longobardi, Antonia; Siervo, Vincenzo

    2010-05-01

    Karst aquifers provide 25% of the overall drinking water resources to the world's population and sustain aquatic life in most fluvial systems, providing several ecological services to human beings, although, because of their complex links between surface and groundwater, turn out to be very vulnerable to contamination and pollution. This paper describes the preliminary findings from Radon-222 activity concentration measurement data collected in streamflow and instream springs during monthly field campaigns, performed from September 2007 to December 2008, in a typical Mediterranean karst river: the Bussento river (Campania region, Southern Italy). The general aim is to investigate the complex interactions and exchanges between streamflow and groundwater, at scales that are imperceptible to standard hydrological and hydraulic analyses. In fact, the study area is located inside the Cilento and Vallo di Diano National Park and, therefore, the management of its relevant water resources requires not only groundwater protection for domestic drinking use, but also riverine wildlife preservation and coastal water quality maintenance. As a support for hydro-geomorphological and hydrological modelling for planning tasks, in application of the European Water Framework Directive (EWFD), a Bussento River Monitoring System (BRMS) has been built, at basin, segment and reach scale. Experimental data about 222Rn concentrations, in addition to physical-chemical and streamflow rate, have been acquired and managed from BRMS selected stations, sampling the streamflow and inflow spring waters by means of the Radon-in-Air analyzer, RAD7, together with the Radon-in-water accessories, Radon Water Probe and RAD7H2O (DURRIDGE Co. Inc.), for continuous and batch sampling measurements, respectively. During preliminary surveys, appropriate sampling procedures and measurement protocols have been tested, taking into account the different local hydrogeological and hydrological situations occurring

  20. Contribution of the SISCam Web-based GIS to the seismotectonic study of Campania (Southern Apennines): an example of application to the Sannio-area

    OpenAIRE

    Nappi, R.; Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia, Sezione OV, Napoli, Italia; Alessio, G.; Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia, Sezione OV, Napoli, Italia; Bronzino, G.; Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia, Sezione OV, Napoli, Italia; Terranova, C.; Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia, Sezione OV, Napoli, Italia; Vilardo, G.; Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia, Sezione OV, Napoli, Italia

    2007-01-01

    In this article the implementation and potential of the Seismotectonic Information System of the Campania Region (SISCam) are described, in particular an application of this Web-based GIS system to the seismotectonic analysis of the Sannio area (Southern Apennines) is performed. WEB-GIS technologies greatly contribute to both the environmental monitoring and the disaster management of areas affected by high natural risks. Specifically the SISCam system has been developed with the aim...

  1. A regional approach to the environmental risk assessment in the Campania region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minolfi, Giulia; Albanese, Stefano; Lima, Annamaria; De Vivo, Benedetto

    2016-04-01

    Environmental risk assessment and analysis has a crucial role for guaranteeing the safety of the population, especially in intensive urbanized and industrialized areas, such as the Campania region (Italy). In Italy, since 2006, the human health risk assessment has become mandatory for contaminated soil and waters at contaminated sites. While traditional risk assessment procedures are usually run at site specific level (brownfields), with this work we would like to introduce a freshly developed method to assess risks at regional level by means of GIS, considering the hazard due to the presence in the environment of a contaminated media, the land use variability and the actual distribution of the population. 3535 top soils were collected across the whole Campania region (Italy) with a sampling density of 1 sample/4 km2. Samples were analyzed at ACME Analytical Lab. Ltd (Vancouver, Canada), to determine the concentration of 52 elements, with a combined methods of ICP-MS and ICP-ES following an aqua regia digestion. After a detailed statistical data analysis and geochemical mapping, we reclassified the interpolated maps of some potentially toxic elements (Sb, As, Be, Cd, Co, Cr, Hg, Ni, Pb, Se, Sn, Tl, V, Zn), in accordance with the Italian environmental law (D.Lgs 152/2006), on the base of the trigger and action limits (CSC) for human safety established by this latter. The obtained maps were summed up in the GIS environment in order to get a cumulative map of the potential hazard for the topsoils of Campania region. Considering that environmental risk for the population is strongly influenced by the exposure pathways followed by contaminants to reach the human target, in the case of Campania region we evaluated as relevant pathways both the soil/dust and food ingestion. Furthermore to consider the influence of the land use in the onset of the risk, each land use type was associated with a specific value of a Land Use Risk Coefficient (LURC) which is also dependent on

  2. The promotion of geotourism in protected areas: a proposal of itinerary through the Matese Massif (Campania and Molise regions, Italy).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosskopf, Carmen Maria; Filocamo, Francesca; Amato, Vincenzo; Cesarano, Massimo

    2016-04-01

    The Matese Massif is a ca. 1000 km2 wide and NW-SE elongated carbonate relief, located in the inner sector of the Southern Apennine chain. It has a tabular setting with steep structural slopes bordering the central high mountain sector including its major peaks and is crossed from approximately west to east by the border between Campania and Molise regions. The Matese Mountains represent a key area for the comprehension of the geological and tectonic evolution of the Southern Apennines since Mesozoic times. Its long-term geomorphological evolution has been controlled by Quaternary tectonics and climate variations that have allowed the temporary or permanent establishment of various environments and morphodynamics. Deposits and landforms originated by glacial, periglacial, karst and fluvial processes, along with a rich assemblage of tectonic-structural features and landforms of complex origin have given origin to a geological heritage of exceptional value. The geosites actually censured within the Campanian sector of Matese are reported in the Geosites Map of Campania, available at the website of Campania Region and partly included in the Italian Geosites Inventory of ISPRA. The geosites of the Molise sector have been recently assessed within the geosite inventory carried out by Molise University. They are reported in the Geosites Map of Molise, available at the website of Molise Region, and partly included in the ISPRA's National Inventory of Geosites. The Matese area is largely included in protected areas: the Campania portion falls within the Matese Regional Park, established in 2002, while most of the Molise sector falls in the extensive ZPS/SIC IT72222287. To better protect and exploit the unique natural and geological heritage of the Matese Massif, numerous initiatives aimed at the establishment of the National Park of Matese have continued for several years and very recent attempts to promote the Matese Geopark have been made, but unfortunately without any

  3. New seismo-stratigraphic data of the Volturno Basin (northern Campania, Tyrrhenian margin, southern Italy: implications for tectono-stratigraphy of the Campania and Latium sedimentary basins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ennio Marsella

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available A geological section of the Volturno Basin (northern Campania, continental margin, Italy has been constructed based on new multi-channel seismic data, to show the stratigraphic relationships between the filling in the Quaternary basin and the Meso-Cenozoic acoustic basement. The new seismic sections presented here outline the underlying structures of the basin and their relationships to the filling in the Quaternary basin. Deep exploration wells in Campania and Latium on the Tyrrhenian margin have gathered litho-stratigraphic and commercial multi-channel seismic data that can be used for better integration of the geological data for the area under study. The trending of the seismic units is controlled by the Massico Structural High, which forms the boundary of the Volturno Basin towards the north-west. This produces a geometry that is characteristic of a fan complex, with NE-SW trending. This qualitative calibration of the seismic sequences that fill the sedimentary basin was carried out through the litho-stratigraphic data of the «Castelvolturno 2» well, which highlights the pyroclastic layers and conglomeratic strata of the lagoon and delta environments as they evolve upwards towards marine sediments. Seismo-stratigraphic analysis shows the complex depositional geometries of the filling in the Volturno Basin, which overlie the Meso-Cenozoic carbonatic basement and the related flysch deposits. Coupled with regional geological evidence, the data interpretation here suggests that the Volturno Basin represents a half-graben structure that is characterized by down-thrown blocks along normal faults.

  4. MICROBIOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF MILK FROM DONKEYS FARMED IN CAMPANIA REGION: PRELIMINARY RESULTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Sarno

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Interest in donkey’s milk destined to human consumption is increasing owing to its complex composition and unique functional properties. The microbiological profile of donkeys’ raw milk was investigated. Individual donkey milk samples were collected from 8 asses after mechanical milking and filtration in a farm of Campania region. A total of 133 samples were analyzed. Total plate count bacteria and Enterobacteriaceae were enumerated. Other microbiological characteristics were monitored as established by legislation in force on the sale of raw milk. Results showed a low contamination level of the raw milk in accordance with other authors. No correlations were evidenced between milk contamination and lactation stage.

  5. Landslide hazard and land management in high-density urban areas of Campania region, Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Di Martire

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Results deriving from a research focused on the interplay between landslides and urban development are presented here, with reference to two densely populated settings located in the Campania region, Italy: the city of Naples and the island of Ischia. Both areas suffer adverse consequences from various types of landslides since at least 2000 yr. Our study evidences that, despite the long history of slope instabilities, the urban evolution, often illegal, disregarded the high landslide propensity of the hillsides; thus, unsafe lands have been occupied, even in recent years, when proper and strict rules have been enacted to downgrade the landslide risk. It is finally argued that future guidelines should not be entirely based upon physical countermeasures against mass movements. On the contrary, national and local authorities should enforce the territorial control, obliging citizens to respect the existing regulations and emphasizing the role of alternative, non-structural solutions.

  6. Landslide hazard and land management in high-density urban areas of Campania region, Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Martire, D.; De Rosa, M.; Pesce, V.; Santangelo, M. A.; Calcaterra, D.

    2012-04-01

    Results deriving from a research focused on the interplay between landslides and urban development are presented here, with reference to two densely populated settings located in the Campania region, Italy: the city of Naples and the island of Ischia. Both areas suffer adverse consequences from various types of landslides since at least 2000 yr. Our study evidences that, despite the long history of slope instabilities, the urban evolution, often illegal, disregarded the high landslide propensity of the hillsides; thus, unsafe lands have been occupied, even in recent years, when proper and strict rules have been enacted to downgrade the landslide risk. It is finally argued that future guidelines should not be entirely based upon physical countermeasures against mass movements. On the contrary, national and local authorities should enforce the territorial control, obliging citizens to respect the existing regulations and emphasizing the role of alternative, non-structural solutions.

  7. The potential monetary benefits of reclaiming hazardous waste sites in the Campania region: an economic evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cairns John

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Evaluating the economic benefit of reducing negative health outcomes resulting from waste management is of pivotal importance for designing an effective waste policy that takes into account the health consequences for the populations exposed to environmental hazards. Despite the high level of Italian and international media interest in the problem of hazardous waste in Campania little has been done to reclaim the land and the waterways contaminated by hazardous waste. Objective This study aims to reduce the uncertainty about health damage due to waste exposure by providing for the first time a monetary valuation of health benefits arising from the reclamation of hazardous waste dumps in Campania. Methods First the criteria by which the landfills in the Campania region, in particular in the two provinces of Naples and Caserta, have been classified are described. Then, the annual cases of premature death and fatal cases of cancers attributable to waste exposure are quantified. Finally, the present value of the health benefits from the reclamation of polluted land is estimated for each of the health outcomes (premature mortality, fatal cancer and premature mortality adjusted for the cancer premium. Due to the uncertainty about the time frame of the benefits arising from reclamation, the latency of the effects of toxic waste on human health and the lack of context specific estimates of the Value of Preventing a Fatality (VPF, extensive sensitivity analyses are performed. Results There are estimated to be 848 cases of premature mortality and 403 cases of fatal cancer per year as a consequence of exposure to toxic waste. The present value of the benefit of reducing the number of waste associated deaths after adjusting for a cancer premium is €11.6 billion. This value ranges from €5.4 to €20.0 billion assuming a time frame for benefits of 10 and 50 years respectively. Conclusion This study suggests that there is a strong

  8. Development of a WEB-based information system for natural multi-hazard mitigation in Campania Region (Italy)

    OpenAIRE

    Vilardo, G.; Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia, Sezione OV, Napoli, Italia; Ventura, G.; Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia, Sezione Roma1, Roma, Italia; Terranova, C.; MATTM - Podis - Regione Campania

    2009-01-01

    A WEB-based information system oriented to scientific and technical data production and dissemination has been developed at regional scale with the aim to (a) ensure the fast diffusion and efficient management of the geographic information in an area with high natural hazard, and (b) support National Civil Protection Agency (DPC) and local councils of the Campania Region to enhance the decision support systems for disaster prevention. The WEB-GIS is INSPIRE OGC standard compliant providin...

  9. [Evaluation of work styles using the clinical case method at the departments of mental health in the region of Campania].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morosini, P L; Manaresi, F; Veltro, F; Barone, R; Pasquini, P

    1992-01-01

    In the present study, designed after the Australian "Quality Assurance Project", the same 9 clinical "vignettes" relative to 3 schizophrenia cases, 3 depressives and 3 neurosis were read by 48 psychiatrists of the Campania Region (Italy). For each case, the psychiatrists were requested to give their opinions on best place of treatment, psycoactive drugs, psychotherapy, etc. A remarkable variability among psychiatrists was observed, regarding not only psycotherapy but drug therapy as well.

  10. Hazard and risk assessment in a complex multi-source volcanic area: the example of the Campania Region, Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lirer, L.; Petrosino, P.; Alberico, I.

    2010-05-01

    In order to zone the territory of Campania Region (southern Italy) with regard to the hazard related to future explosive activity of Somma-Vesuvio, Campi Flegrei, and Ischia Island, we drew a multi-source hazard map for tephra and pyroclastic flows. This map, which merges the areas possibly endangered by the three volcanic sources, takes into account a large set of tephra fall and pyroclastic flow events that have occurred in the last 10 ka. In detail, for fall products at Campi Flegrei and Somma-Vesuvio we used the dispersal of past eruption products as deduced by field surveys and their recurrence over the whole area. For pyroclastic flows, the field data were integrated with VEI = 4 simulated events; about 100 simulations sourcing from different points of the area were performed, considering the different probability of vent opening. The spatial recurrence of products of both past eruptions and simulated events was used to assign a weight to the area endangered by the single volcanic sources. The sum of these weights in the areas exposed to the activity of two sources and/or to different kinds of products was used to draw a hazard map, which highlights the spatial trend and the extent of the single equivalent classes at a regional scale. A multi-source risk map was developed for the same areas as the graphic result of the product of volcanic hazard and exposure, assessed in detail from a dasymetric map. The resulting multi-source hazard and risk maps are essential tools for communication among scientists, local authorities, and the public, and may prove highly practical for long-term regional-scale mitigation planning.

  11. Content of Cadmium and Lead in Vegetables and Fruits Grown in the Campania Region of Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esposito, Mauro; Picazio, Giuseppe; Serpe, Paola; Lambiase, Sara; Cerino, Pellegrino

    2015-09-01

    Illegal practices of waste combustion and their burial in some land devoted to agricultural crops caused a severe economic crisis of the agriculture and food sector in the Campania region of Italy. To assess the levels of contamination by lead and cadmium, the only metals subject to European Union legislation, a system of monitoring of plant foods in the whole territory of the region has been promoted, with the goal of certifying productions and consumer protection. In fact, products that comply with European Union standards are assigned a Quick Response Code, which guarantees the traceability of the product (manufacturer and location). The code also ensures the safety of the product, as it allows the consumer to see the results of the analysis performed on the specific chain of production. The content of lead and cadmium was determined in 750 vegetable samples by using the atomic absorption spectrophotometry after microwave mineralization. These levels were below the maximum limits in all but three samples; two samples of tomatoes exceeded the maximum level of cadmium, and one sample of valerian contained an excess of lead.

  12. Content of Cadmium and Lead in Vegetables and Fruits Grown in the Campania Region of Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esposito, Mauro; Picazio, Giuseppe; Serpe, Paola; Lambiase, Sara; Cerino, Pellegrino

    2015-09-01

    Illegal practices of waste combustion and their burial in some land devoted to agricultural crops caused a severe economic crisis of the agriculture and food sector in the Campania region of Italy. To assess the levels of contamination by lead and cadmium, the only metals subject to European Union legislation, a system of monitoring of plant foods in the whole territory of the region has been promoted, with the goal of certifying productions and consumer protection. In fact, products that comply with European Union standards are assigned a Quick Response Code, which guarantees the traceability of the product (manufacturer and location). The code also ensures the safety of the product, as it allows the consumer to see the results of the analysis performed on the specific chain of production. The content of lead and cadmium was determined in 750 vegetable samples by using the atomic absorption spectrophotometry after microwave mineralization. These levels were below the maximum limits in all but three samples; two samples of tomatoes exceeded the maximum level of cadmium, and one sample of valerian contained an excess of lead. PMID:26319733

  13. Geochemical baseline distribution of harmful elements in the surface soils of Campania region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albanese, Stefano; Lima, Annamaria; Qu, Chengkai; Cicchella, Domenico; Buccianti, Antonella; De Vivo, Benedetto

    2015-04-01

    Environmental geochemical mapping has assumed an increasing relevance and the separation of values to discriminate between anthropogenic pollution and natural (geogenic) sources has become crucial to address environmental problems affecting the quality of life of human beings. In the last decade, a number of geochemical prospecting projects, mostly focused on surface soils (topsoils), were carried out at different scales (from regional to local) across the whole Campania region (Italy) to characterize the distribution of both harmful elements and persistent organic pollutants (POP) in the environment and to generating a valuable database to serve as reference in developing geomedical studies. During the 2014, a database reporting the distribution of 53 chemical elements in 3536 topsoil samples, collected across the whole region, was completed. The geochemical data, after necessary quality controls, were georeferenced and processed in a geochemistry dedicated GIS software named GEODAS. For each considered element a complete set of maps was generated to depict both the discrete and the spatially continuous (interpolated) distribution of elemental concentrations across the region. The interpolated maps were generated using the Multifractal Inverse Distance eighted (MIDW) algorithm. Subsequently, the S-A method, also implemented in GEODAS, was applied to MIDW maps to eliminate spatially limited anomalies from the original grid and to generate the distribution patterns of geochemical baselines for each element. For a selected group of elements geochemical data were also treated by means of a Compositional Data Analysis (CoDA) aiming at investigating the regionalised structure of the data by considering the joint behaviour of several elements constituting for each sample its whole composition. A regional environmental risk assessment was run on the basis of the regional distribution of heavy metals in soil, land use types and population. The risk assessment produced a

  14. Priority persistent contaminants in people dwelling in critical areas of Campania Region, Italy (SEBIOREC biomonitoring study)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To investigate if protracted living in degraded environments of the Caserta and Naples provinces (Campania Region, Italy) had an impact on exposure of local people, highly toxic persistent contaminants were measured in blood, blood serum, and human milk of a large number of healthy donors. Sampling was carried out from 2008 to 2009. Blood was collected from over 850 20–64-year old donors; by pooling, 84 blood and 84 serum samples were obtained. Milk was donated by 52 mothers: specimens were pooled into six samples. Polychlorodibenzodioxins (PCDDs), polychlorodibenzofurans (PCDFs), and polychlorobiphenyls (PCBs, dioxin-like (DL) and non-dioxin-like (Σ6PCBs)), arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd), mercury (Hg), and lead (Pb) were measured in serum (organic biomarkers) and blood (metals); these chemicals and polybromobiphenyl ethers (Σ9PBDEs) were analyzed in milk. PCDD + PCDF, DL-PCB, TEQTOT, and Σ6PCB concentration ranges (medians) in serum were 6.26–23.1 (12.4), 3.42–31.7 (11.5), 10.0–52.8 (23.9) pgTEQ97/g fat, and 55.5–647 (219) ng/g fat, respectively, while in milk concentration ranges were 5.99–8.77, 4.02–6.15, 10.0–14.2 pgTEQ97/g fat, and 48.7–74.2 ng/g fat. Likewise, As, Cd, Hg, and Pb findings in blood spanned 2.34–13.4 (5.83), 0.180–0.930 (0.475), 1.09–7.60 (2.60), 10.2–55.9 (28.8) μg/L, respectively; only Pb could be measured in milk (2.78–5.99 μg/L). Σ9PBDE levels in milk samples were 0.965–6.05 ng/g fat. Biomarkers' concentrations were found to be compatible with their current values in European countries and in Italy, and consistent with an exposure primarily determined by consumption of commercial food from the large distribution system. Based on relatively higher biomarker values within the hematic biomonitoring database, the following municipalities were flagged as possibly deserving attention for health-oriented interventions: Brusciano and Caivano (As), Giugliano (Hg), Pianura (PCDDs + PCDFs), and Qualiano–Villaricca (As

  15. Priority persistent contaminants in people dwelling in critical areas of Campania Region, Italy (SEBIOREC biomonitoring study)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Felip, Elena, E-mail: defelip@iss.it [Istituto Superiore di Sanità, Dipartimento Ambiente e connessa Prevenzione Primaria, Rome (Italy); Bianchi, Fabrizio [Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Istituto di Fisiologia Clinica, Pisa and Rome (Italy); Bove, Crescenzo [ASL CE, Servizio di Epidemiologia e Prevenzione, Caserta (Italy); Cori, Liliana [Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Istituto di Fisiologia Clinica, Pisa and Rome (Italy); D' Argenzio, Angelo [ASL CE, Servizio di Epidemiologia e Prevenzione, Caserta (Italy); D' Orsi, Giancarlo [ASL NA2 Nord, Servizio di Epidemiologia e Prevenzione, Naples (Italy); Fusco, Mario [Registro Tumori della Regione Campania, ASL NA3 Sud, Naples (Italy); Miniero, Roberto [Istituto Superiore di Sanità, Dipartimento Ambiente e connessa Prevenzione Primaria, Rome (Italy); Ortolani, Rosanna [ASL NA1 Centro, Servizio di Epidemiologia e Prevenzione, Naples (Italy); Palombino, Raffaele [ASL NA3 Sud, Servizio di Epidemiologia e Prevenzione, Distretto Sanitario 69, Naples (Italy); Parlato, Antonino; Pelliccia, Maria Grazia; Peluso, Filomena [ASL NA2 Nord, Servizio di Epidemiologia e Prevenzione, Naples (Italy); Piscopo, Giovanni [ASL NA3 Sud, Servizio di Epidemiologia e Prevenzione, Distretto Sanitario 69, Naples (Italy); Pizzuti, Renato [Regione Campania, Assessorato alla Sanità, Osservatorio Epidemiologico, Naples (Italy); Porpora, Maria Grazia [Dipartimento di Ginecologia e Ostetricia, Dipartimento di Scienze Ginecologiche, Perinatologia, e Puericultura, Policlinico Umberto I, Università “Sapienza”, Rome (Italy); Protano, Domenico [ASL CE, Servizio di Epidemiologia e Prevenzione, Caserta (Italy); Senofonte, Oreste [Istituto Superiore di Sanità, Dipartimento Ambiente e connessa Prevenzione Primaria, Rome (Italy); and others

    2014-07-01

    To investigate if protracted living in degraded environments of the Caserta and Naples provinces (Campania Region, Italy) had an impact on exposure of local people, highly toxic persistent contaminants were measured in blood, blood serum, and human milk of a large number of healthy donors. Sampling was carried out from 2008 to 2009. Blood was collected from over 850 20–64-year old donors; by pooling, 84 blood and 84 serum samples were obtained. Milk was donated by 52 mothers: specimens were pooled into six samples. Polychlorodibenzodioxins (PCDDs), polychlorodibenzofurans (PCDFs), and polychlorobiphenyls (PCBs, dioxin-like (DL) and non-dioxin-like (Σ{sub 6}PCBs)), arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd), mercury (Hg), and lead (Pb) were measured in serum (organic biomarkers) and blood (metals); these chemicals and polybromobiphenyl ethers (Σ{sub 9}PBDEs) were analyzed in milk. PCDD + PCDF, DL-PCB, TEQ{sub TOT}, and Σ{sub 6}PCB concentration ranges (medians) in serum were 6.26–23.1 (12.4), 3.42–31.7 (11.5), 10.0–52.8 (23.9) pgTEQ{sub 97}/g fat, and 55.5–647 (219) ng/g fat, respectively, while in milk concentration ranges were 5.99–8.77, 4.02–6.15, 10.0–14.2 pgTEQ{sub 97}/g fat, and 48.7–74.2 ng/g fat. Likewise, As, Cd, Hg, and Pb findings in blood spanned 2.34–13.4 (5.83), 0.180–0.930 (0.475), 1.09–7.60 (2.60), 10.2–55.9 (28.8) μg/L, respectively; only Pb could be measured in milk (2.78–5.99 μg/L). Σ{sub 9}PBDE levels in milk samples were 0.965–6.05 ng/g fat. Biomarkers' concentrations were found to be compatible with their current values in European countries and in Italy, and consistent with an exposure primarily determined by consumption of commercial food from the large distribution system. Based on relatively higher biomarker values within the hematic biomonitoring database, the following municipalities were flagged as possibly deserving attention for health-oriented interventions: Brusciano and Caivano (As), Giugliano (Hg), Pianura

  16. An update on microbiological causes of canine otitis externa in Campania Region, Italy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Luisa De Martino; Francesca Paola Nocera; Karina Mallardo; Sandra Nizza; Eleonora Masturzo; Filomena Fiorito; Giuseppe Iovane; Piergiorgio Catalanotti

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To update the recent knowledge of the microbiological causes of canine otitis externa in Campania Region (Italy) and the antibiotic susceptibility patterns of the iso-lated strains. Methods: A total of 122 dogs were examined by otoscopy, and auricular swab samples were collected from both ears in 74 dogs presenting clinical bilateral otitis and from single ears in 48 dogs displaying clinical unilateral otitis. Cytological examination, bacteriological analysis and antimicrobial susceptibility tests were performed. Results: Thirty-one out of 122 dogs were positive for yeast species (25.4%, 95% con-fidence interval (CI): 18.2%–34.2%) with a higher prevalence of Malassezia pachy-dermatis (21/31 isolates, 67.7%, CI: 48.5%–82.7%), and a total of 91 out of 122 dogs were positive for bacterial species (74.6%;CI:65.8%–81.8%) with a higher prevalence of Staphylococcus pseudintermedius (45/143 isolates, 31.5%, CI: 24.1%–39.8%). These results are the first description of Streptococcus agalactiae-associated otitis. The yeasts isolated showed high levels of susceptibility to all antifungal agents tested; on the con-trary all the isolated bacterial strains were highly resistant to at least four out of ten antimicrobial classes. Both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria showed high resistance to amoxicillin/clavulanate and kanamycin hence they are not recommended as initial empirical therapy for the otitis treatment. Conclusions: This update illustrates an increase in antibiotic resistances providing an insight into the current knowledge of the therapeutic procedures followed on canine otitis externa in Italy. It also emphasizes the importance of considering the results of the microbiological and sensitivity tests to decide on an appropriate antibiotic therapy.

  17. Debris-flow susceptibility assessment through cellular automata modeling: an example from 15–16 December 1999 disaster at Cervinara and San Martino Valle Caudina (Campania, southern Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Iovine

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available On 15–16 December 1999, heavy rainfall severely stroke Campania region (southern Italy, triggering numerous debris flows on the slopes of the San Martino Valle Caudina-Cervinara area. Soil slips originated within the weathered volcaniclastic mantle of soil cover overlying the carbonate skeleton of the massif. Debris slides turned into fast flowing mixtures of matrix and large blocks, downslope eroding the soil cover and increasing their original volume. At the base of the slopes, debris flows impacted on the urban areas, causing victims and severe destruction (Vittori et al., 2000. Starting from a recent study on landslide risk conditions in Campania, carried out by the Regional Authority (PAI –Hydrogeological setting plan, in press, an evaluation of the debris-flow susceptibility has been performed for selected areas of the above mentioned villages. According to that study, such zones would be in fact characterised by the highest risk levels within the administrative boundaries of the same villages ("HR-zones". Our susceptibility analysis has been performed by applying SCIDDICA S3–hex – a hexagonal Cellular Automata model (von Neumann, 1966, specifically developed for simulating the spatial evolution of debris flows (Iovine et al., 2002. In order to apply the model to a given study area, detailed topographic data and a map of the erodable soil cover overlying the bedrock of the massif must be provided (as input matrices; moreover, extent and location of landslide source must also be given. Real landslides, selected among those triggered on winter 1999, have first been utilised for calibrating SCIDDICA S3–hex and for defining "optimal" values for parameters. Calibration has been carried out with a GIS tool, by quantitatively comparing simulations with actual cases: optimal values correspond to best simulations. Through geological evaluations, source locations of new phenomena have then been hypothesised within the HR-zones. Initial

  18. The balanced scorecard as a strategic management tool: its application in the regional public health system in Campania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Impagliazzo, Cira; Ippolito, Adelaide; Zoccoli, Paola

    2009-01-01

    Health, as a primary and advanced need, can only be guaranteed through the appropriate management of dedicated resources. As in any situation where funds are limited, it is vital to have logical frameworks and tools to set up structures capable of making a complex system like the health service work. Only through an appropriate and competent activity of governance can such structures be identified, organized, and rendered operational. This can be achieved by using ad hoc tools such as the Balanced Scorecard. Its application in the case of the Regional Government of Campania indicates that it is a valid tool in all circumstances except in situations of crisis. PMID:19225335

  19. The balanced scorecard as a strategic management tool: its application in the regional public health system in Campania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Impagliazzo, Cira; Ippolito, Adelaide; Zoccoli, Paola

    2009-01-01

    Health, as a primary and advanced need, can only be guaranteed through the appropriate management of dedicated resources. As in any situation where funds are limited, it is vital to have logical frameworks and tools to set up structures capable of making a complex system like the health service work. Only through an appropriate and competent activity of governance can such structures be identified, organized, and rendered operational. This can be achieved by using ad hoc tools such as the Balanced Scorecard. Its application in the case of the Regional Government of Campania indicates that it is a valid tool in all circumstances except in situations of crisis.

  20. Decision Support system- DSS- for irrigation management in greenhouses: a case study in Campania Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monaco, Eugenia; De Mascellis, Roberto; Riccardi, Maria; Basile, Angelo; D'Urso, Guido; Magliulo, Vincenzo; Tedeschi, Anna

    2016-04-01

    In Mediterranean Countries the proper management of water resources is important for the preservation of actual production systems. The possibility to manage water resources is possible especially in the greenhouses systems. The challenge to manage the soil in greenhouse farm can be a strategy to maintain both current production systems both soil conservation. In Campania region protected crops (greenhouses and tunnels) have a considerable economic importance both for their extension in terms of surface harvested and also for their production in terms of yields. Agricultural production in greenhouse is closely related to the micro-climatic condition but also to the physical and agronomic characteristics of the soil-crop system. The protected crops have an high level of technology compare to the other production systems, but the irrigation management is still carried out according to empirical criteria. The rational management of the production process requires an appropriate control of climatic parameters (temperature, humidity, wind) and agronomical inputs (irrigation, fertilization,). All these factors need to be monitored as well is possible, in order to identify the optimal irrigation schedule. The aim of this work is to implement a Decision Support system -DSS- for irrigation management in greenhouses focused on a smart irrigation control based on observation of the agro-climatic parameters monitored with an advanced wireless sensors network. The study is conducted in a greenhouse farm of 6 ha located in the district of Salerno were seven plots were cropped with rocket. Preliminary a study of soils proprieties was conducted in order to identify spatial variability of the soil in the farm. So undisturbed soil samples were collected to define chemical and physical proprieties; moreover soil hydraulic properties were determined for two soils profiles deemed representation of the farm. Then the wireless sensors, installed at different depth in the soils

  1. Orthodontic treatment need for adolescents in the Campania region: the malocclusion impact on self-concept

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perillo L

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Letizia Perillo,1 Maria Esposito,2 Alberto Caprioglio,3 Stefania Attanasio,1 Annamaria Chiara Santini,2 Marco Carotenuto2 1Department of Orthodontics, Second University of Naples, Naples, Italy; 2Clinic of Child and Adolescent Neuropsychiatry, Department of Mental Health, Physical and Preventive Medicine, Second University of Naples, Naples, Italy; 3Department of Orthodontics, University of Insubria, Varese, Italy Background: Dental malocclusions can be considered not only as an oral health problem, because they are linked to quality of life perception. Many factors related to malocclusion have strong influences on the perception of facial esthetics (eg, anterior tooth alignment, tooth shape and position, lip thickness, symmetric gingival or tooth contour, lip profile, and overjet. Many reports have shown that the perception of facial esthetics can influence psychological development from early childhood to adulthood. The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of dental malocclusion on self-esteem in a sample of adolescents. Materials and methods: The study population was composed of 516 orthodontically untreated subjects (256 males mean ages 13.75±1.977 years recruited from schools in the Campania region of Italy between January 2011 and July 2011. To evaluate the self-esteem grade in our population, all subjects filled out the Multidimensional Self Concept Scale questionnaire and attended an orthodontic clinical evaluation to estimate dental occlusal aspects. Results: Pearson's analysis shows the relationship in our sample between some occlusal characteristics (crossbite and dental crowding and aspects of self-concept evaluation (social, competence, academic, physical, and global score of the Multidimensional Self Concept Scale questionnaire. Moreover, logistic regression analysis shows the potential role of dental crowding (odds ratio 5.359; 95% confidence interval 3.492–8.225 and crossbite (odds ratio 6.153; 95% confidence

  2. La risorsa mare per la mobilità di merci e persone nella Regione Campania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Mazzeo

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available I 512 chilometri di costa campana rappresentano il 6,7% in tutte le coste italiane (7.687 km. Su di esso si affaccia un sistema urbano consolidato formato da grandi e piccoli centri in cui le infrastrutture portuali sono storicamente presenti: si può affermare che nel corso del tempo il sistema delle attrezzature portuali e l'importanza relativa tra di loro sia cambiata, ma non ne è cambiato il numero e l'ubicazione. La morfologia della costa campana ha reso possibile l’insediamento di impianti portuali di dimensioni significative. Esso è quasi interamente sviluppato nel tratto centrale della costa campana e si basa sui porti di Napoli e Salerno (merci e passeggeri, Torre Annunziata (trasporto merci, Castellammare di Stabia (cantieristica, Pozzuoli (merci e passeggeri, oltre che sul sistema portuale, soprattutto passeggeri, di Ischia, Casamicciola, Capri, Procida e Sorrento. Questo complesso sistema ha molti punti di forza e molte carenze e, in una prospettiva di sviluppo territoriale, può dare apporti significativi all'asfittica economia regionale. Proprio per questo motivo alcuni dei processi di pianificazione che interessano la Regione si stanno concentrando sulle azioni possibili per ridare forza al rapporto secolare tra terra e mare, punti di forza del territorio campano. L'importanza di un uso produttivo della risorsa mare deriva da due considerazioni: la prima è la posizione geografica dell'Italia (e al suo interno, della Campania nel Mediterraneo, lungo le rotte tra l'Europa e l'Asia; il secondo è l'impatto potenziale del trasporto di merci e di passeggeri sul territorio e sul sistema economico campano. Analisi e risultati cambiano a seconda che si tratti il trasporto merci o quello passeggeri: nel primo caso diventa significativa la capacità infrastrutturale e il sistema produttivo locale, con le relative connessioni esterne; nel secondo caso è rilevante la valorizzazione delle potenzialità del sistema culturale e ambientale

  3. Volcanic soils and landslides: the case study of the Ischia island (southern Italy) and relationship with other Campania events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vingiani, S.; Mele, G.; De Mascellis, R.; Terribile, F.; Basile, A.

    2015-01-01

    An integrated investigation has been carried out over the soils involved in the landslide phenomena occurred in the 2006 at Mt. Vezzi in the Ischia island (southern Italy). Chemical, physical (i.e. particle size distribution, hydrological analyses and direct measurements of soil porosity), mineralogical and micromorphological properties of three soil profiles selected in two of the main detachment crowns were analysed. The studied soils, having a volcanic origin, showed a substantial abrupt discontinuity of all the studied properties in correspondence of the 2C horizon, also identified as sliding surface of the landslide phenomena. With respect to the above horizons, the 2C showed (i) as a grey fine ash, almost pumices free, with a silt content increased by the 20%, (ii) ks values one order of magnitude lower, (iii) a porosity concentrated in the small size (15 to 30 μm modal class) pores characterized by very low percolation threshold (around 15-25 μm), (iv) occurrence of expandable clay minerals and (v) higher Na content in the exchange complex. Therefore, most of these properties indicated 2C as a lower permeability horizon than the above. Nevertheless, only the identification of a thin (6.5 mm) finely stratified ash layer on the top of 2C enabled to assume this interface as an impeding layer to vertical and horizontal water fluxes, as testified by the hydromorphic features (e.g. Fe / Mn concretions) within and on the top of the layer. Despite the Mt. Vezzi soil environment has many properties (high gradient northern facing slope, similar forestry, volcanic origin of the parent material) in common with those of many Campania debris-mud flows, the results of this study did not support the found relationship between Andosols and debris-mudflows, but emphasize the role of vertical discontinuities as landslide predisposing factor.

  4. Volcanic soils and landslides: the case study of the Ischia island (southern Italy and relationship with other Campania events

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Vingiani

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available An integrated investigation has been carried out over the soils involved in the landslide phenomena occurred in the 2006 at Mt. Vezzi in the Ischia island (southern Italy. Chemical, physical (i.e. particle size distribution, hydrological analyses and direct measurements of soil porosity, mineralogical and micromorphological properties of three soil profiles selected in two of the main detachment crowns were analysed. The studied soils, having a volcanic origin, showed a substantial abrupt discontinuity of all the studied properties in correspondence of the 2C horizon, also identified as sliding surface of the landslide phenomena. With respect to the above horizons, the 2C showed (i as a grey fine ash, almost pumices free, with a silt content increased by the 20%, (ii ks values one order of magnitude lower, (iii a porosity concentrated in the small size (15 to 30 μm modal class pores characterized by very low percolation threshold (around 15–25 μm, (iv occurrence of expandable clay minerals and (v higher Na content in the exchange complex. Therefore, most of these properties indicated 2C as a lower permeability horizon than the above. Nevertheless, only the identification of a thin (6.5 mm finely stratified ash layer on the top of 2C enabled to assume this interface as an impeding layer to vertical and horizontal water fluxes, as testified by the hydromorphic features (e.g. Fe / Mn concretions within and on the top of the layer. Despite the Mt. Vezzi soil environment has many properties (high gradient northern facing slope, similar forestry, volcanic origin of the parent material in common with those of many Campania debris-mud flows, the results of this study did not support the found relationship between Andosols and debris-mudflows, but emphasize the role of vertical discontinuities as landslide predisposing factor.

  5. Estimating External Costs of Transportation in Regional Areas: Using Available Statistical Data the Case of the Region of Campania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariano Gallo

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper simplified methods for estimating the external costs due to transportation in regional areas are proposed. The methods are based on data available by national and regional statistical sources and do not need specific surveys; they allow obtaining approximate estimates useful for a preliminary evaluation of transportation plans, policies and projects. In more detail, a negative externality is defined as a cost that is produced by subject A and is borne by subject B; moreover, subject A does not consider the effects of his/her behavior on subject B and does not compensate subject B for the costs that this last one is forced to bear. In this paper after a literature review on methodologies proposed for estimating external costs, in national and international ambits, the main external costs produced by transportation systems in the Region of Campania are estimated. The main external costs considered are: greenhouse gas emissions, air pollution, noise, accidents and congestion. In the paper the secondary external costs are neglected; the main ones are: water and soil pollution; landscape and nature damages; upstream and downstream effects; visual intrusion; separation effects; soil occupancy. In this paper the external costs estimated are the ones produced not only by road traffic, that anyway is the main “culprit”, but also by rail and air transportation systems. The evaluation of external costs has required the collection of several data on the regional mobility and the estimation of veh-kms per year produced in Campania by cars and freight vehicles. The estimation of veh-kms per year is based on circulating vehicles, subdivided by the COPERT classification, and on average yearly distances covered by each vehicle class. Other regional statistical data are collected about regional rail transport and air services at the main airports of the region. Moreover, since the evaluation of some external costs is based on damages on human

  6. The geofingerprint of Pyroclastic Rocks/Typic Herorthents/Piedirosso chain surveyed in the Roccamonfina terroir, northwest Campania region, Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercurio, M.; Grilli, E.; Morra, V.; Prohaska, T.; Buondonno, A.; Langella, A.

    2012-04-01

    KEYWORDS: geofingerprint, strontium isotope ratio, Campanian Ignimbrite, Typic Xerorthents, Roccamonfina Investigations were carried out to evaluate the geofingerprint of Piedirosso wine produced in the volcanic areas of Campania region (Southern Italy). The research was focused on the terroir located in the southern area of the Roccamonfina volcanic complex according to a procedure developed by the Authors. The protocol accounts for a careful sampling of the soil and the grapes (branches, leaves) within the vineyards of "Masseria Felicia" farm, located in Carano di Sessa Aurunca (Caserta), followed by a Piedirosso wine production (monocultivar) on a pilot plant scale (grape harvest 2009). Samples were digested by using strong acids (HF, HClO4) and suitably selected digestion programs. Only soil samples were analysed after treatments with NH4NO3 in order to simulate the labile fraction of metals in soil useful to estimate the 87Sr/86Sr isotope ratio. ICP-MC-MS analyses allowed to determine the 87Sr/86Sr isotopic composition whereas ICP-QMS were carried out to measure Li, Be, B, V, Cr, Mn, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Ga, As, Se, Rb, Sr, Mo, Ag, Cd, Ba, Tl, Pb, Bi, U and Rare Earth Elements. Finally, XRPD analyses provided qualitative and semi-quantitative evaluations of the mineral phases occurring in soil samples. Suitable agronomic analyses allowed a careful soil classification. The soil profile exhibits an Ap1-Ap2-Ap3-C1-2C2-3C3-4C4 horizonation. The color varies from dark brown in Ap horizons to light yellowish brown in C horizons. Rock fragments distribution varies irregularly along soil profile. Texture is loam in all horizons, except Ap1, C1 and 3C3 that show a sandy loam texture. Mottles are evident in all horizons except in 3C3 with a contrasting colors as reddish yellow or strong brown. Redoximorphic features occur in poorly (C1) and very poorly (2C2, 4C4) drained horizons as coatings of iron and manganese oxides. Their color ranges between very dark gray and reddish

  7. Geochemical background/baseline values in top soils of Campania region: assessment of the toxic elements threat to ecosystem and human health

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Vivo, B.; Lima, A.; Albanese, S.; Bove, M.; Cicchella, D.; Civitillo, D.; Cosenza, A.; Grezzi, G.

    2009-04-01

    In the late years an intense geochemical prospecting activity on the whole territory of Campania region (Southern Italy) has been carried aiming at the definition of the geochemical backgrounds/baselines at both regional and local scale. At the end of 2003 the first edition of an atlas containing 200 maps showing the distribution patterns of 40 chemical elements on the whole regional territory was published (De Vivo et al., 2003, 2006a; Albanese et al., 2007a). The atlas provided a base knowledge of environmental status of the region and allowed to individuate some critical areas to be further investigated by topsoils sampling follow up activity; the topsoils are considered as the best media in order to examine closely the sources and the distribution patterns of harmful elements at a local scale. The topsoils sampling was mainly focused on anthropized areas (at urban and metropolitan scale), industrial settlments, brownfields and intensely cultivated zones, aimed at: • showing the distribution of concentration values and to determine baseline values (or backgrounds, depending on local conditions) of each analyzed element (38) in the top soils; • assessing harmful elements pollution levels and their geographic distribution; • providing reliable analytical data for assessment of toxic element pollution threat to ecosystem and human health; • creating a sound basis for policy makers and legislators who need to address the public concerns regarding environmental pollution. Five atlases (De Vivo et al., 2006b; Albanese et al., 2007b; Lima et al., 2007; Fedele et al., 2007 Cicchella et al., 2009) were produced reporting soil geochemical maps compiled using 1620 samples collected both in the metropolitan and provincial area of Napoli and in the cities of Avellino, Benevento, Caserta and Salerno. Further studies were also carried out taking into account Pb isotopes (Cicchella et al., 2008a), PGE's (Cicchella et al., 2003; 2008b) and bioavailability of harmful

  8. Chemical Composition and Antimicrobial Activity of the Essential Oils from Three Chemotypes of Origanum vulgare L. ssp. hirtum (Link Ietswaart Growing Wild in Campania (Southern Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felice Senatore

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Essential oils obtained from inflorescences of three Origanum vulgare L.ssp. hirtum (Link Ietswaart samples, growing wild in different locations in Campania (Southern Italy, were analysed. Three chemotypes were found: the first, with a prevalence of carvacrol/thymol; the second, characterized by the prevalence of thymol/α-terpineol; the third, featuring a prevalence of linalyl acetate and linalool. This chemical study attempts to provide a contribution in shedding light on the relationship between chemical composition and biotypes and/or chemotypes in Origanum vulgare ssp. hirtum. The essential oils were also evaluated for their antibacterial activity against 10 selected microorganisms. The data obtained contribute to the future view to use the essential oils as natural preservatives for food products, due to their positive effect on their safety and shelf life.

  9. Are museums places where science and society can really engage in a dialogue? A positive example related to the rubbish emergency in the Campania region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luigi Amodio

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Science musums and science centres are wonderful places to host, support and mediate the dialogue between science and society. In fact, they are a natural crossroad where scientists, general public, media and insitutions for formal and informal learning meet. During the recent political and health crisis concerning the rubbish treatment in the Italian region of Campania, the science centre "Città della Scienza" has promoted an unusual dialogue between citizens and scientists.

  10. Statistical evaluation of PCDD/Fs levels and profiles in milk and feedingstuffs from Campania region - Italy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diletti, G.; Scortichini, G.; Conte, A.; Migliorati, G.; Caporale, V. [Ist. Zooprofilattico Sperimentale dell' Abruzzo e del Molise (Italy)

    2004-09-15

    PCDD/Fs levels exceeding the European Union (EU) tolerance limit were detected in milk and animal feed samples collected in Campania region in the years 2001-2003, as reported in a previous paper1. The analyses were performed on milk samples from different animal species (cow, sheep, goat and buffalo) and on animal feed samples (silage, hay, grass, cereals, premixes and mixed feeds) permitting to assess the levels and the geographical extension of the contamination. The preliminary results of this survey had given clear indications of the dioxin contamination of feedingstuffs and their contribution to the high PCDD/Fs levels recorded in milk but a more detailed analysis was needed in order to confirm the previous observations. Aim of this work is the evaluation of the correlation between the PCDD/Fs levels and patterns found in milk and animal feed samples through the statistical analysis of the congeners profiles and concentrations. Moreover, the typical congeners profiles of milk samples taken in the area under investigation were compared to those obtained from samples collected in the framework of the National Residues Surveillance Plan (NRSP) in 2003. The contamination phenomenon was also studied by means of the spatial correlation analysis.

  11. Self-Assessment of Adherence to Medication: A Case Study in Campania Region Community-Dwelling Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrica Menditto

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. The aim of the study was to assess self-reported medication adherence measure in patients selected during a health education and health promotion focused event held in the Campania region. The study also assessed sociodemographic determinants of adherence. Methods. An interviewer assisted survey was conducted to assess adherence using the Italian version of the 8-item Morisky Medication Adherence Scale (MMAS-8. Participants older than 18 years were interviewed by pharmacists while waiting for free-medical checkup. Results. A total of 312 participants were interviewed during the Health Campus event. A total of 187 (59.9% had low adherence to medications. Pearson’s bivariate correlation showed positive association between the MMAS-8 score and gender, educational level and smoking (P<0.05. A multivariable analysis showed that the level of education and smoking were independent predictors of adherence. Individuals with an average level of education (odds ratio (OR, 2.21, 95% confidence interval (CI, 1.08–4.52 and nonsmoker (odds ratio (OR 1.87, 95% confidence interval (CI, 1.04–3.35 were found to be more adherent to medication than those with a lower level of education and smoking. Conclusion. The analysis showed very low prescription adherence levels in the interviewed population. The level of education was a relevant predictor associated with that result.

  12. A family cluster of hepatitis A virus due to an uncommon IA strain circulating in Campania (southern Italy), not associated with raw shellfish or berries: a wake-up call to implement vaccination against hepatitis A?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tosone, Grazia; Mascolo, Silvia; Bruni, Roberto; Taffon, Stefania; Equestre, Michele; Tosti, Maria Elena; Ciccaglione, Anna Rita; Martucci, Fiorella; Liberti, Alfonso; Iannece, Maria Donata; Orlando, Raffaele

    2016-09-01

    Hepatitis A virus is a widely occurring disease, with different prevalence rates between countries in the North and West and those in the South and East. In Italy endemicity is low/medium, but not homogeneously distributed: in the northern/central regions a large hepatitis A outbreak due to genotype IA, related to the consumption of contaminated mixed frozen berries, occurred between 2013 and 2014, whereas in southern Italian regions recurrent outbreaks of hepatitis A, due to the IB genotype, still result from consumption of raw seafood. In 2014 an uncommon genotype IA strain was isolated from five patients (2 adults and 3 children) with hepatitis A, living in the surroundings of Naples (Campania) who did not have any of the most common risk factors for hepatitis A in Italy, such as consumption of raw shellfish or frozen berries, or travel to endemic countries. Moreover, based on the analysis of viral sequences obtained, this strain differed from several others in the national database, which had been recently isolated during Italian outbreaks. This case report reinforces the need to implement both information campaigns about the prevention of hepatitis A and vaccination programmes in childhood; in addition, it would be suitable to sequence strains routinely not only during large outbreaks of hepatitis A in order to obtain a more detailed national database of HAV strains circulating in Italy.

  13. Assessment of carbon pools in two soils from the Campania region (Southwest, Italy) under different forest types

    Science.gov (United States)

    Álvarez-Romero, Marta; Papa, Stefania; Lozano-García, Beatriz; Parras-Alcántara, Luis; González-Pérez, José A.; Jordán, Antonio; Zavala, Lorena M.; González-Vila, Francisco J.; Coppola, Elio

    2014-05-01

    Soil is the largest carbon reservoir of terrestrial ecosystems, this reservoir is not inert, but it is constantly in a dynamic phase of accumulation an depletion. After the addition, in the soil, of organic residues of different origin and nature, two processes can occur in charge of SOM (Soil Organic Matter) during the pedogenesis: mineralization and humification. The accumulation of SOM in soil is controlled by the balance between carbon inputs and losses through mineralization and/or leaching. In particular the humification process leads to the formation of organic compounds (in some cases even complex organo-mineral) chemically stable able to distribute itself in the soil second rules of site-specific pedogenesis. The transport process along the profile can take very different forms which may extend in the formation of Bh horizons of accumulation in depth also strongly cemented (so-called ortstein). The transport process along the profile occurs for the occurrence of certain conditions such as deposition of high amounts of organic residues on the top of the profile, high porosity of the soil for the presence of coarse solid fractions (coarse sands or skeleton) that determinate a strong infiltrating capacity of the circulating waters, extreme temperatures can slow or stop the process of mineralization and/or humification in one intermediate step of the degradation process releasing organic metabolites with high or medium solubility and high loads of percolating water related to intense rainfall. The nature of the forest cover influence the quantity and quality of the organic materials deposited with marked differences between coniferous and deciduous especially in relation to resistance to degradation and production of intermediate metabolites. Two soils from Campania region located in Monte Santa Croce (Caserta, Italy) with andic properties, different forest cover (pine and chestnut) and that meets the requirements of the place and pedological formation

  14. Volcanic soils and landslides: the case study of the Ischia island (southern Italy) and relationship with other Campania events

    OpenAIRE

    S. Vingiani; G. Mele; R. De Mascellis; F. Terribile; Basile, A.

    2015-01-01

    An integrated investigation has been carried out over the soils involved in the landslide phenomena occurred in the 2006 at Mt. Vezzi in the Ischia island (southern Italy). Chemical, physical (i.e. particle size distribution, hydrological analyses and direct measurements of soil porosity), mineralogical and micromorphological properties of three soil profiles selected in two of the main detachment crowns were analysed. The studied soils, having a volcani...

  15. Volcanic soils and landslides: a case study of the island of Ischia (southern Italy) and its relationship with other Campania events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vingiani, S.; Mele, G.; De Mascellis, R.; Terribile, F.; Basile, A.

    2015-06-01

    An integrated investigation was carried out on the volcanic soils involved in the landslide phenomena that occurred in 2006 at Mt. Vezzi on the island of Ischia (southern Italy). Chemical (soil pH, organic carbon content, exchangeable cations and cation exchange capacity, electrical conductivity, Na adsorption ratio and Al, Fe and Si forms), physical (particle and pore size distribution, pore structure), hydrological (soil water retention, saturated and unsaturated hydraulic conductivity), mineralogical and micromorphological analyses were carried out for three soil profiles selected in two of the main head scarps. The studied soils showed a substantial abrupt discontinuity in all the studied properties at the interface with a buried fine ash layer (namely, the 2C horizon), that was only marginally involved in the sliding surface of the landslide phenomena. When compared to the overlying horizons, 2C showed (i) fine grey ash that is almost pumice free, with the silt content increasing by 20 %; (ii) ks values 1 order of magnitude lower; (iii) a pore distribution concentrated into small (15-30 μm modal class) pores characterised by a very low percolation threshold (approximately 15-25 μm); (iv) the presence of expandable clay minerals; and (v) increasing Na content in the exchange complex. Most of these properties indicated that 2C was a lower permeability horizon compared to the overlying ones. Nevertheless, it was possible to assume this interface to be an impeding layer to vertical water fluxes only by the identification of a thin (6.5 mm) finely stratified ash layer, on top of 2C, and of the hydromorphic features (e.g. Fe / Mn concretions) within and on top of the layer. Although Mt. Vezzi's soil environment has many properties in common with those of other Campania debris-mudflows (e.g. high gradient, north-facing slope, similar forestry, and volcanic origin of the parent material), the results of this study suggest a more complex relationship between soil

  16. Evidence of human-induced morphodynamic changes along the Campania coastal areas (southern Italy) since the 3rd-4th cent. AD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russo Ermolli, Elda; Romano, Paola; Liuzza, Viviana; Amato, Vincenzo; Ruello, Maria Rosaria; Di Donato, Valentino

    2014-05-01

    Campania has always offered suitable climatic and physiographic conditions for human settlements since prehistoric times. In particular, many Graeco-Roman towns developed along its coasts starting from the 7th-6th cent. BC. In the last decade, geoarchaelogical surveys have been carried out in the archaeological excavations of Neapolis, Paestum and Elea-Velia allowing the main steps of the landscape evolution around these towns to be defined in detail. The greek town of Neapolis rose in the late 6th cent. BC [1] on a terrace overlooking a low-relief rocky coast surrounded by volcanic hills. Port activities developed in a protected bay facing the town from the 4th-2nd cent. BC up to the 4th cent. AD, as testified by the discovery of structures and shipwrecks [2, 3, 4]. Starting from the 3rd cent. AD a spit bar formed at the bay entrance causing the progressive establishment of a lagoon which was gradually filled up by alluvial inputs and completely closed in the 5th cent. AD. During the same period, episodes of increased alluvial inputs were also recorded further west along the coast, where a narrow sandy beach formed at the cliff toe. The greek town of Poseidonia, renamed Paestum by the Romans, was founded in the 540 BC on a travertine terrace facing the sandy littoral of a prograding coastal plain [5]. In front of the main town door, a coastal lagoon developed thanks to the growth of a dune ridge and was probably used for harbor activities [5]. After this period the shoreline shifted seawards, another dune ridge formed and the back-ridge depression was filled with fluvial-marshy deposits, slowly drying up. Phases of travertine deposition, which characterized the SE sector of the plain all along the Holocene, were recorded in the northern and southern quarters of the town in historical times and were connected to the abandonment of the town in the early Medieval times. The greek colony of Elea-Velia was located on top of a siliciclastic promontory where the ruins of

  17. Comparazione fra polymerase chain reaction e isolamento batteriologico in campioni di latte crudo e mozzarella di bufala prodotta in provincia di Caserta, regione Campania (Italia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabetta Di Giannatale

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Per contribuire all’individuazione di un possibile nesso epidemiologico tra consumo di mozzarella di bufala preparata con latte crudo (non trattato al calore e casi di brucellosi umana, sono stati analizzati, per ricerca di Brucella spp., 80 campioni di latte bufalino crudo e 315 campioni di mozzarella. Gli alimenti esaminati sono stati prelevati in caseifici della provincia di Caserta dove è presente la più alta concentrazione di allevamenti bufalini sierologicamente positivi alla brucellosi in Campania, regione che, nel periodo 2000-2005, ha registrato il 96,02% dei casi di brucellosi umana notificati in Italia. Al fine de valutare possibili variazioni stagionali, i campioni sono stati acquistati in 72 rivendite associate a caseifici nel periodo febbraio 2006-marzo 2007. La ricerca di Brucella spp. è stata effettuata utilizzando polymerase chain reaction (PCR ed eseguendo contemporaneamente l’isolamento microbiologico. I campioni esaminati sono risultati negativi alla ricerca di Brucella con entrambi i metodi utilizzati. Sono stati, inoltre, definiti i parametri di sensibilità, specificità, ripetibilità, riproducibilità e il limite di rilevazione del metodo molecolare, esaminando campioni artificialmente contaminati, sia con metodo PCR sia con isolamento microbiologico classico. Il limite di rilevazione è risultato inferiore a 1 UFC/g, ripetibiltà e riproducibilità sono stati pari a 100% (p=0,95, sensibilità a 96,7% (p=0,95 e specificità a 100% (p=0,95.

  18. Trace elements in free-range hen eggs in the Campania region (Italy) analyzed by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esposito, Mauro; Cavallo, Stefania; Chiaravalle, Eugenio; Miedico, Oto; Pellicanò, Roberta; Rosato, Guido; Sarnelli, Paolo; Baldi, Loredana

    2016-06-01

    Eggs from hens raised on rural or domestic farms are a good indicator of environmental contamination, as the hens are in close contact with the ground and the air and can therefore accumulate heavy metals and other toxic contaminants from the environment as well as from the diet. In this paper, we report the results of the determination of 19 trace elements (As, Be, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Hg, Mo, Mn, Ni, Pb, Sb, Se, Sn, Sr, Tl, U, V, Zn) in 39 hen egg samples collected from domestic poultry farms in the territory dubbed the "Land of fires" in the Campania region (Italy). This area is characterized by environmental problems caused by the illegal dumping of industrial or domestic waste in fields or by roadsides. In some cases, these wastes have been burned, thereby spreading persistent contaminants into the atmosphere. The content of trace elements in whole egg samples was determined by mass spectrometer after a microwave-assisted digestion procedure. Because European legislation does not indicate maximum values of these elements in this foodstuff, the results were compared with the content of trace elements reported in literature for eggs, in particular home-produced eggs, in various countries. In some cases (Cd, Cu, Ni, Mn), the content determined in this study was in line with those reported elsewhere, in other cases (Pb, Cr), lower values were found. PMID:27147239

  19. Polymerase chain reaction and bacteriological comparative analysis of raw milk samples and buffalo mozzarella produced and marketed in Caserta in the Campania region of Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabetta Di Giannatale

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available To help identify an epidemiological link between the consumption of buffalo mozzarella prepared with raw milk (not heat-treated and cases of human brucellosis, 80 samples of raw buffalo milk and 315 samples of mozzarella were tested for the presence of Brucella spp. Samples originated from Caserta, the province with the highest number of Brucella-positive buffalo herds in Campania, the region in which 96.02% of all cases of human brucellosis reported in 2000-2005 were recorded. To take into account possible seasonal variations, between February 2006 and March 2007, samples were purchased directly from 72 dairy outlets that were representative of the province. Samples were tested for Brucella spp. using the polymerase chain reaction (PCR and bacterial isolation. Samples tested negative for Brucella using both methods. Spiked samples were then prepared and tested by PCR and bacterial isolation and the sensitivity, specificity, repeatability, reproducibility and limit of detection were determined. The PCR limit of detection was below 1 colony-forming unit (cfu/g. The repeatability and reproducibility of the method were 100% (p = 0.95, the sensitivity was 96.7% (p = 0.95 and the specificity was 100% (p = 0.95.

  20. Pb isotopic constrains and environmental risk assessment of the Domizio Flegreo and Agro Aversano area (Campania region, Italy).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezza, Carmela; Albanese, Stefano; Ayuso, Robert; Lima, Annamaria; Sorvari, Jaana; De Vivo, Benedetto

    2016-04-01

    A comprehensive geochemical environmental study focused on topsoil, groundwater, vegetable (corn) and human hair samples has been carried out in the Domizio-Flegreo Littoral and Agro Aversano areas in Southern Italy, covering 1287 km2 and including 90 municipalities. Within the framework of thethis study a focus was also carried on some specific sites (Teverola, Trentola-Ducenta, Giugliano, Castelvolturno and Acerra), that may have been affected by different sources of pollution (industrial and agricultural) and by the large presence of illegal buried waste disposals. Among the industrial sites that are expected to contribute to the contamination of the region a car and a chemical factory producing polyester fibres could be taken into account together with an urban waste incineration plant that is in operation since 2009 within the Acerra municipality administrative area. The research is based on 1064 topsoil samples, 27 groundwater samples, 24 samples of human hair and 13 corn samples taken in across the whole study area. Although samples were analysed for 53 elements at ACME Analytical Laboratories (Vancouver, Canada) by means of ICP-MS and ICP-ES after an aqua regia digestion, we focused on 15 key elements (As, Be, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Hg, Ni, Pb, Sb, Se, Sn, Tl, V and Zn), for which the Italian Environmental Law 152/06 establishes trigger and action limits for both residential/recreational and industrial/commercial land use, based on the risks to human health. All the chemical data were statistically treated and dot and interpolated maps were produced by means of the GeoDAS software. Maps showing the distribution of contamination factors (1) (Hakanson,1980) for each key element were also created. In general, As, Pb, Cr, Cd and Hg resulted to be the most critical pollutants for the area. Furthermore, Pb isotopic analyses on soil, water, corn and hair were conducted in order to distinguish between possible sources of contamination and geogenic and/or anthropogenic

  1. Southern Appalachian Regional Seismic Network

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chiu, S.C.C.; Johnston, A.C.; Chiu, J.M. [Memphis State Univ., TN (United States). Center for Earthquake Research and Information

    1994-08-01

    The seismic activity in the southern Appalachian area was monitored by the Southern Appalachian Regional Seismic Network (SARSN) since late 1979 by the Center for Earthquake Research and Information (CERI) at Memphis State University. This network provides good spatial coverage for earthquake locations especially in east Tennessee. The level of activity concentrates more heavily in the Valley and Ridge province of eastern Tennessee, as opposed to the Blue Ridge or Inner Piedmont. The large majority of these events lie between New York - Alabama lineament and the Clingman/Ocoee lineament, magnetic anomalies produced by deep-seated basement structures. Therefore SARSN, even with its wide station spacing, has been able to define the essential first-order seismological characteristics of the Southern Appalachian seismic zone. The focal depths of the southeastern U.S. earthquakes concentrate between 8 and 16 km, occurring principally beneath the Appalachian overthrust. In cross-sectional views, the average seismicity is shallower to the east beneath the Blue Ridge and Piedmont provinces and deeper to the west beneath the Valley and Ridge and the North American craton. Results of recent focal mechanism studies by using the CERI digital earthquake catalog between October, 1986 and December, 1991, indicate that the basement of the Valley and Ridge province is under a horizontal, NE-SW compressive stress. Right-lateral strike-slip faulting on nearly north-south fault planes is preferred because it agrees with the trend of the regional magnetic anomaly pattern.

  2. A GIS-based approach for estimating volcaniclastic flow susceptibility: a case study from Sorrentina Peninsula (Campania Region)

    OpenAIRE

    Bisson, M.; Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia, Sezione Pisa, Pisa, Italia; Fubelli, G.; Dipartimento di Scienze Geologiche, Università degli Studi "Roma Tre", Roma, Italy; Sulpizio, R.; Dipartimento di scienze della terra e Geoambientali, via Orabona 4, 70125, Bari, Italy; Istituto per la Dinamica dei Processi Ambientali—CNR, via M. Bianco 9, Milan, Italy; Zanchetta, G.; Dipartimento di Scienze della Terra, Pisa, Italy

    2013-01-01

    With the aim to improve volcaniclastic flows hazard zonation and risk mitigation in volcanic areas, this work presents a GIS-based study on the Sorrentina Peninsula, located southwest of the main Neapolitan volcanoes (Ischia, Procida, Campi Flegrei, and Somma-Vesuvius; Campanian Plain, Southern Italy). This area has been heavily affected by historical events with more than 200 volcani - clastic flows recorded in the last 500 years. The study here proposed combines different information, in...

  3. The evidence of toxic wastes dumping in Campania, Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marfe, Gabriella; Di Stefano, Carla

    2016-09-01

    The region of Campania (particularly Naples and Caserta) were subjected to extensive illegal dumping operations of toxic and radioactive wastes since the 1980s. The highly toxic wastes (HTW) dumping operations that have taken place both along the coast and the hinterland, have extremely adverse effects on health, livelihoods and the future prospect of sustainable development of the local population. The toxic wastes dumping in Campania is real and it has compromised (irreversibly) the human health, natural environment, food security and the long-term development prospects of the affected population. To reverse this tragic trend, it is necessery the identification, isolation and reclamation of the polluted sites and full assessment of the nature and the scale of the polluting chemicals and other hazardous wastes. The purpose of this review is to contribute significantly to the available evidence of the long-running toxic waste dumping in Campania and its negative impact on the health of population. PMID:27424919

  4. Amphibians of the “Cilento e Vallo di Diano” National Park (Campania, Southern Italy: updated check list, distribution and conservation notes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Romano

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we present the results of our field and bibliographic survey on the amphibians of the “Cilento and Vallo di Diano” National Park (Southern Italy. Two hundred and thirty three spawning sites (167 original and 66 derived from literature, and 11 amphibian species were found. Reproductive activity was recorded for Salamandra salamandra, Salamandrina terdigitata, Triturus carnifex, Lissotriton italicus, Bufo bufo, Hyla intermedia, Rana italica, Rana dalmatina and Pelophylax synkl. hispanica. The distribution record of many species is widely improved with respect to bibliographic data. Our results also suggested that preservation and restoration of small aquatic sites, in particular of the artificial ones, such as stony wells and drinking-troughs, are fundamental for an appropriate conservation management of amphibians in the “Cilento and Vallo di Diano” National Park.

  5. Effect of antecedent-hydrological conditions on rainfall triggering of debris flows in ash-fall pyroclastic mantled slopes of Campania (southern Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Napolitano, E.; Fusco, F; Baum, Rex L.; Godt, Jonathan W.; De Vita, P.

    2016-01-01

    Mountainous areas surrounding the Campanian Plain and the Somma-Vesuvius volcano (southern Italy) are among the most risky areas of Italy due to the repeated occurrence of rainfallinduced debris flows along ash-fall pyroclastic soil-mantled slopes. In this geomorphological framework, rainfall patterns, hydrological processes taking place within multi-layered ash-fall pyroclastic deposits and soil antecedent moisture status are the principal factors to be taken into account to assess triggering rainfall conditions and the related hazard. This paper presents the outcomes of an experimental study based on integrated analyses consisting of the reconstruction of physical models of landslides, in situ hydrological monitoring, and hydrological and slope stability modeling, carried out on four representative source areas of debris flows that occurred in May 1998 in the Sarno Mountain Range. The hydrological monitoring was carried out during 2011 using nests of tensiometers and Watermark pressure head sensors and also through a rainfall and air temperature recording station. Time series of measured pressure head were used to calibrate a hydrological numerical model of the pyroclastic soil mantle for 2011, which was re-run for a 12-year period beginning in 2000, given the availability of rainfall and air temperature monitoring data. Such an approach allowed us to reconstruct the regime of pressure head at a daily time scale for a long period, which is representative of about 11 hydrologic years with different meteorological conditions. Based on this simulated time series, average winter and summer hydrological conditions were chosen to carry out hydrological and stability modeling of sample slopes and to identify Intensity- Duration rainfall thresholds by a deterministic approach. Among principal results, the opposing winter and summer antecedent pressure head (soil moisture) conditions were found to exert a significant control on intensity and duration of rainfall

  6. Seismic hazard in Andalucia region (Southern Spain)

    OpenAIRE

    Benito Oterino, Belen; Navarro Bernal, Manuel; Gaspar Escribano, Jorge M.; Vidal Sánchez, Francisco; Góngora, Ana; García Rodríguez, María José; Martínez Solares, José Manuel

    2008-01-01

    The global objective of the SISMOSAN Project has been to provide a general seismic risk assessment of Andalusian region (Southern Spain) associated with the ground motions expected for a return period of 475 years. The project was financed by Civil Defence of Andalusia and its results will be applied to the definition of regional emergency plans. We present here the study and main results of the first phase of the project, aimed at evaluating seismic hazard. In contrast to most of the previou...

  7. The Southern Ocean and South Pacific Region

    OpenAIRE

    Kelleher, K.; Warnau, Michel; Failler, Pierre; Pecl, Gretta; Turley, Carol; Boeuf, Gilles; Laffoley, Dan; Parker, Laura; Gurney, Leigh

    2012-01-01

    The Region comprises three sub-regions (FAO Statistical Areas) with very different characteristics. The South Pacific includes the vast and virtually unpopulated Southern Ocean surrounding the Antarctic. It has the world’s largest fisheries off Peru and Chile and some of the world’s best managed fisheries in Australia and New Zealand. The Region has over 27% of the world’s ocean area and over 98% of the Region’s total area of 91 million km2 is ‘open ocean’. The Region contains less than 5% of...

  8. OSSERVAZIONI SULL’ATTIVAZIONE DEL RECETTORE ARILICO (AHR) IN CORRELAZIONE ALLA CONTAMINAZIONE AMBIENTALE DA METALLI PESANTI IN TUMORI SPONTANEI DI CANI DELLA REGIONE CAMPANIA. Correlation between Aryl hydrocarbon Receptor (AhR ) expression and environmental heavy metals contamination in canine tumors.

    OpenAIRE

    Trapani, Francesca

    2010-01-01

    Osservazioni sull’attivazione del recettore arilico (Ahr) in correlazione alla contaminazione ambientale da metalli pesanti in tumori spontanei di cani della regione Campania. La storia e l’evoluzione delle malattie riflette spesso la storia delle modificazioni che sono occorse nell’ambiente. In seguito al moderno sviluppo tecnologico l’inquinamento ambientale ha subìto un forte incremento e, come conseguenza, anche l’incidenza di malattie legate alla contaminazione am...

  9. Campania: Territory and City in front of the Challenge of Logistics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Mazzeo

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Logistics can be defined as the process of planning, organization and control of all the activities of transportand storage of goods and informations; it interests all the productive phases, from the acquisition of rawmaterials, to the production process in the factories, up to the delivery of the finished products to the finalcustomers. In this way the logistics intersects the territory at different stages of its activity: when the rawmaterials are brought to the factory, when the factory sends semi-production units to other factories, whereproducts are stored in equipped areas, and when the final goods are brought to terminal sales.Inside the Southern territorial system the Campania is an important hub in the transport and sorting ofgoods. This role has made stronger after the carrying out of new logistics infrastructures, related to othersupport infrastructures, as railways and motorways.The regional system presents nationwide excellence’s peaks that could encourage its role in this sector, butthere are also negative factors that may to slow the take-off of the sector. The reference is to theinfrastructures and operating bottlenecks interfering its efficiency, but also to the weakness of the regionalproduction’s system that doesn’t ensures a local critical mass to the logistics.A third aspect is the lack of a clear structure of programming investment and of a greater transparency inthe roles assigned to various initiatives, arising mainly on local, uncoordinated pushes.The paper analyzes the situation of logistics and of its spatial interrelationships in Campania, identifyingstrengths, weaknesses, and potential evolutionary factors. The discussion faces up aspects of territoriallogistics: it differs from the urban logistics for the amount of handled commodities and for the concentrationin strategic poles, because these logistics platforms require specialized equipments and wide spaces formovement and deposit.The first part of the paper

  10. Southern Regional Center for Lightweight Innovative Design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Paul T. [Mississippi State Univ., Mississippi State, MS (United States)

    2012-12-01

    The Southern Regional Center for Lightweight Innovative Design (SRCLID) has developed an experimentally validated cradle-to-grave modeling and simulation effort to optimize automotive components in order to decrease weight and cost, yet increase performance and safety in crash scenarios. In summary, the three major objectives of this project are accomplished: To develop experimentally validated cradle-to-grave modeling and simulation tools to optimize automotive and truck components for lightweighting materials (aluminum, steel, and Mg alloys and polymer-based composites) with consideration of uncertainty to decrease weight and cost, yet increase the performance and safety in impact scenarios; To develop multiscale computational models that quantify microstructure-property relations by evaluating various length scales, from the atomic through component levels, for each step of the manufacturing process for vehicles; and To develop an integrated K-12 educational program to educate students on lightweighting designs and impact scenarios. In this final report, we divided the content into two parts: the first part contains the development of building blocks for the project, including materials and process models, process-structure-property (PSP) relationship, and experimental validation capabilities; the second part presents the demonstration task for Mg front-end work associated with USAMP projects.

  11. Southern Regional Center for Lightweight Innovative Design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2012-08-24

    The Southern Regional Center for Lightweight Innovative Design (SRCLID) has developed an experimentally validated cradle-to-grave modeling and simulation effort to optimize automotive components in order to decrease weight and cost, yet increase performance and safety in crash scenarios. In summary, the three major objectives of this project are accomplished: To develop experimentally validated cradle-to-grave modeling and simulation tools to optimize automotive and truck components for lightweighting materials (aluminum, steel, and Mg alloys and polymer-based composites) with consideration of uncertainty to decrease weight and cost, yet increase the performance and safety in impact scenarios; To develop multiscale computational models that quantify microstructure-property relations by evaluating various length scales, from the atomic through component levels, for each step of the manufacturing process for vehicles; and To develop an integrated K-12 educational program to educate students on lightweighting designs and impact scenarios. In this final report, we divided the content into two parts: the first part contains the development of building blocks for the project, including materials and process models, process-structure-property (PSP) relationship, and experimental validation capabilities; the second part presents the demonstration task for Mg front-end work associated with USAMP projects.

  12. Regional integration, FDI and competitiveness in Southern Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Goldstein, Andrea E.

    2015-01-01

    Southern Africa, with its vast natural resources and relatively skilled workforce, should be a magnet for foreign direct investment (FDI). This, however, is not the case. Indeed, even domestic investment is low, though intra-regional investment, mainly from South Africa and Mauritius is notable. This book analyses investment flows within the region and examines the role ofFDI in key industries. It concludes that Southern Africa still has to shake off a reputation for instability and high risk...

  13. Regional investments in Southern European cities

    OpenAIRE

    Metaxas, Theodore

    2011-01-01

    The article examines the capacity of four medium-sized cities in Southern Europe, concerning the current situation of their assets (agglomeration economies, urban infrastructures, factors of labor and cost, etc.), the degree of development policies implementation and effectiveness by local authorities and finally the level of local authorities capacity to plan and implement particular policies and partnerships with the private sector in order to shape a favorable and attractive magnitude inve...

  14. Comparisons of invasive plants in southern Africa originating from southern temperate, northern temperate and tropical regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Henderson

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available A subset of invasive alien plant species in southern Africa was analysed in terms of their history of introduction, rate of spread, countries/region of origin, taxonomy, growth forms, cultivated uses, weed status and current distribution in southern Africa, and comparisons made of those originating from south of the tropic of Capricorn, north of the tropic of Cancer and from the tropics. The subset of 233 species, belonging to 58 families, includes all important declared species and some potentially important species. Almost as many species originate from temperate regions (112 as from the tropics (121. Most southern temperate species came from Australia (28/36, most tropical species from tropical America (92/121 and most northern temperate species from Europe (including the Mediterranean and Asia (58/76. Transformers account for 33% of  all species. More transformers are of tropical origin (36 than of northern temperate (24 and southern temperate origin (18. However. 50% of southern temperate species are transformers, compared to 32% of northern temperate and 29% of tropical species. Southern temperate transformer species are mainly woody trees and shrubs that were established on a grand scale as silvicultural crops, barriers (hedges, windbreaks and screens and cover/binders. Most aquatics, herbs, climbers and succulent shrubs an. trom the tropics. Ornamentals are the single largest category of plants from all three regions, the tropics having contributed twice as many species as temperate regions.

  15. The Southern Regional Education Board and Member States, January 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Southern Regional Education Board (SREB), 2014

    2014-01-01

    This report provides an overview of Southern Regional Education Board (SREB) programs and services and how each member state participated in them from July 2012 through December 2013. The nation's first regional interstate compact for education, SREB is today the most comprehensive, bringing together states to enable them to achieve…

  16. Southern Regional Education Board: Serving Community Colleges in the South

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanco, Cheryl D.

    2015-01-01

    The Southern Regional Education Board (SREB) is a nonprofit, nonpartisan regional compact focused on critical issues with strong potential to improve quality of life by advancing public education. Designed primarily for legislators and other policymakers and policyshapers, SREB's research is policy-oriented, descriptive, and centered on statewide…

  17. A contribution to the seismic hazard of the Apulia Region (Southern Italy): environmental effects triggered by historical earthquakes in last centuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porfido, Sabina; Alessio, Giuliana; Nappi, Rosa; De Lucia, Maddalena; Gaudiosi, Germana

    2016-04-01

    Campania-Lucania Apennines we mention the 1456 (Imax =XI MCS), 1694 (Imax =XI MCS) and 1857 (Imax=XI MCS) earthquakes. More recently, the July 23, 1930 (Imax=X MCS) and the November 23, 1980 (Imax=X MCS) Irpinia earthquakes gave rise to several ground effects, mostly hydrological variations, in the Apulian region. This study is a contribution for a better evaluation of the whole Apulia region seismic hazard that represents one of the most crowded touristic destination of the Southern Italy, all over the summer season.

  18. Virginia and the Southern Regional Education Board, December 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Southern Regional Education Board (SREB), 2014

    2014-01-01

    This document details Virginia's participation in Southern Regional Education Board (SREB) programs and services from December 2013 through November 2014. Each member state receives a number of general services, plus access to targeted programs funded by grants, contracts and fees. Appropriations support SREB's core operations and general…

  19. Texas and the Southern Regional Education Board, December 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Southern Regional Education Board (SREB), 2014

    2014-01-01

    This document details Texas' participation in Southern Regional Education Board (SREB) programs and services from December 2013 through November 2014. Each member state receives a number of general services, plus access to targeted programs funded by grants, contracts and fees. Appropriations from member states support core operations and general…

  20. Florida and the Southern Regional Education Board, December 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Southern Regional Education Board (SREB), 2014

    2014-01-01

    This report details Florida's participation in Southern Regional Education Board (SREB) programs and services from December 2013 through November 2014. Appropriations from member states support SREB's core operations and general services. SREB leverages the long-standing commitment of member states to attract external funding for an array of…

  1. Alabama and the Southern Regional Education Board, December 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Southern Regional Education Board (SREB), 2014

    2014-01-01

    This report details Alabama's participation in Southern Regional Education Board (SREB) programs and services from December 2013 through November 2014. Appropriations from member states support SREB's core operations and general services. SREB leverages the long-standing commitment of member states to attract external funding for an array of…

  2. Louisiana and the Southern Regional Education Board, December 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Southern Regional Education Board (SREB), 2014

    2014-01-01

    This report details Louisiana's participation in Southern Regional Education Board (SREB) programs and services from December 2013 through November 2014. Appropriations from member states support SREB's core operations and general services. SREB leverages the long-standing commitment of member states to attract external funding for an array of…

  3. Delaware and the Southern Regional Education Board, December 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Southern Regional Education Board (SREB), 2014

    2014-01-01

    This report details Delaware's participation in Southern Regional Education Board (SREB) programs and services from December 2013 through November 2014. Appropriations from member states support SREB's core operations and general services. SREB leverages the long-standing commitment of member states to attract external funding for an array of…

  4. North Carolina and the Southern Regional Education Board, December 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Southern Regional Education Board (SREB), 2014

    2014-01-01

    This document details North Carolina's participation in Southern Regional Education Board (SREB) programs and services from December 2013 through November 2014. Appropriations from member states support SREB's core operations and general services. SREB leverages the long-standing commitment of member states to attract external funding for an array…

  5. Tennessee and the Southern Regional Education Board, December 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Southern Regional Education Board (SREB), 2014

    2014-01-01

    This document details Tennessee's participation in Southern Regional Education Board (SREB) programs and services from December 2013 through November 2014. Each member state receives a number of general services, plus access to targeted programs funded by grants, contracts and fees. Appropriations from member states support SREB's core operations…

  6. Kentucky and the Southern Regional Education Board, December 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Southern Regional Education Board (SREB), 2014

    2014-01-01

    This report details Kentucky's participation in Southern Regional Education Board (SREB) programs and services from December 2013 through November 2014. Appropriations from member states support SREB's core operations and general services. SREB leverages the long-standing commitment of member states to attract external funding for an array of…

  7. Oklahoma and the Southern Regional Education Board, December 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Southern Regional Education Board (SREB), 2014

    2014-01-01

    This document details Oklahoma's participation in Southern Regional Education Board (SREB) programs and services from December 2013 through November 2014. Appropriations from member states support SREB's core operations and general services. SREB leverages the long-standing commitment of member states to attract external funding for an array of…

  8. Southern Regional Education Board Final Legislative Report. 2010 Final Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Southern Regional Education Board (SREB), 2010

    2010-01-01

    The Southern Regional Education Board (SREB) follows education budgets and legislation during regular and special legislative sessions. Current actions are found in Legislative Reports that are released on a timely basis during the months that SREB state legislatures are in session, usually from January through July. These reports follow education…

  9. South Carolina and the Southern Regional Education Board, December 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Southern Regional Education Board (SREB), 2014

    2014-01-01

    This document details South Carolina's participation in Southern Regional Education Board (SREB) programs and services from December 2013 through November 2014. Each member state receives a number of general services, plus access to targeted programs funded by grants, contracts and fees. Appropriations from member states support SREB's core…

  10. Maryland and the Southern Regional Education Board, December 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Southern Regional Education Board (SREB), 2014

    2014-01-01

    This report details Maryland's participation in Southern Regional Education Board (SREB) programs and services from December 2013 through November 2014. Appropriations from member states support SREB's core operations and general services. SREB leverages the long-standing commitment of member states to attract external funding for an array of…

  11. The Southern Regional Education Board and Member States, December 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Southern Regional Education Board (SREB), 2014

    2014-01-01

    This report provides an overview of Southern Regional Education Board (SREB) programs and services and how each member state participated in them from December 2013 through November 2014. SREB serves a wide range of education policy leaders, including governors, state legislators, executive and legislative staff, and K-12 and postsecondary agency…

  12. Contamination of organochlorine pesticides in the soils of the Campania Plain, Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Chengkai; Albanese, Stefano; Doherty, Angela; Chen, Wei; Lima, Annamaria; Piccolo, Alessandro; Arienzo, Michele; Qi, Shihua; De Vivo, Benedetto

    2016-04-01

    For the last several decades, organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) have been introduced into the environment through anthropogenic activity. Due to their volatility and persistence, OCPs may undergo long-range atmospheric transport and, as a result, can be redistributed globally. Exposure to OCPs can pose serious health risks, including certain cancers, birth defects, respiratory illness, dysfunctional reproductive and immune systems, greater susceptibility to disease and damages to the central and peripheral nervous systems. To date, only a handful of studies, have reported the OCPs contamination level in water, sediment and organisms in the Campania Region, however a regional study of the soil contamination is still lacking. In our study, the distribution, inventory and potential risk of OCPs, including Hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs) and Dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethanes (DDTs), and their correlation with environmental and anthropological factors were investigated in soils of the Campania Plain. The specific objectives of this study were to (I) investigate the residual levels, distribution and possible sources of legacy OCPs, and further estimate their mass inventories in soils of the Campania Plain, (II) analyze the impact of soil properties on contaminant distribution, and (III) evaluate the potential ecological and health risks of OCPs. The total concentrations of HCHs and DDTs has a geometric mean (GM) of 0.05 ng/g, and 14.4 ng/g, respectively. The significant difference in spatial variations of OCPs (Kruskal-Wallis test, P<0.05) was observed in the Campania Plain. Two specific areas exhibited higher concentrations of OCP residues: one situated in the Acerra-Marigliano conurbation with elevated HCHs and DDTs; and the other in the Sarno River basin which contains elevated levels of DDTs. The recent application of technical HCHs and DDTs in large quantities appears unlikely in light of the ratio of α-HCH/β-HCH and p,p'-DDT/p,p'-DDE, and the prohibition of the use

  13. Managerial perception of regional small business environment in southern Poland

    OpenAIRE

    Wach, Krzysztof

    2007-01-01

    The paper elaborates on managerial perception of regional business environment of small and medium-sized enterprises in southern Poland (i.e. two voivodeships: Małopolska and Śląsk). The paper is based on own empirical research, which was conducted in late-2004 year. The research was conducted on a random sample of 109 micro, small and medium-sized firms located in a studied region. The paper presents statistical verifications of the correlations between the eight regional environment factors...

  14. POLYCHLORODIBENZODIOXINS (PCDDs, POLYCHLORODIBENZO-FURANS (PCDFs, AND DIOXIN-LIKE POLYCHLOROBIPHENYLS (DL-PCBs IN MILK, MOZZARELLA CHEESE, WHEY, AND WHEY CHEESE FROM BUFFALOES RAISED IN THE CAMPANIA REGION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.L. Cortesi

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Dioxins (PCDDs and PCDFs and PCBs are a group of and toxic organo-chlorinated chemicals comprising hundreds of structurally related compounds (congeners classified as persistent organic pollutants (POPs. It is acknowledged that 17 PCDD and PCDF congeners are of major concern due to their toxicity; 12 PCB congeners are also recognized to express dioxin-like toxicity and are thereby identified as DL-PCBs. Due to their high persistence and lipophilic nature, dioxins and PCBs tend to accumulate in fat and their bio-accumulation through the food chain may pose the risk of causing adverse effects to human health. For the general population, dietary intake is the most important pathway of exposure to the aforesaid environmental contaminants: meat, milk and dairy products, and fish and other seafood products contribute to total daily intake for more than 90 %. To prevent excessive human exposure to dioxins and DL-PCBs, the European Commission established maximum levels for dioxins and the sum of dioxins and DL-PCBs in an array of food components mainly of animal origin (Regulation EC 1881/2006. In this study, dioxins and DL-PCB concentrations were measured in buffalo milk collected from three impounded Campania farms producing milk with different contamination levels. The fate of contaminants in mozzarella cheese, whey, and whey cheese was also investigated. Analyses were carried out by HRGC-HRMS using US EPA Method 1613. The results of this study show the carry-over of the contamination from milk to its dairy products.

  15. Incidence and distribution of coeliac disease in Campania (Italy): 2011–2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zingone, Fabiana; West, Joe; Auricchio, Renata; Maria Bevilacqua, Rosa; Bile, Guido; Borgheresi, Patrizia; Erminia Bottiglieri, Maria; Caldore, Mariano; Capece, Giuseppe; Cristina Caria, Maria; Crudele, Antonio; Cuomo, Rosario; Lucia Garofano, Maria; Giardullo, Nicola; Gerarda Gravina, Antonietta; Greco, Luigi; Iannotta, Patrizia; Kosova, Paolo; Lamanda, Roberto; Malamisura, Basilio; Marmo, Riccardo; Napoli, Gianfranco; Nardone, Gerardo; Pacelli, Maria; Pascarella, Filomena; Riccio, Elisabetta; Riegler, Gabriele; Rispo, Antonio; Rocco, Alba; Romano, Marco; Saffiotti, Ottavio; Saviano, Paola; Sorrentini, Italo; Speranza, Pietro; Tolone, Carlo; Tortora, Raffaella; Troncone, Riccardo

    2015-01-01

    Background There exists a wide variation in the reported incidence of coeliac disease in recent decades. We aimed to evaluate the incidence rate of coeliac diagnoses performed in an Italian region, Campania, between 2011 and 2013 and its variation therein. Methods All coeliac diagnoses made from 2011 to 2013 and registered within the Campania coeliac disease register (CeliacDB) were identified. Incidence rates were analysed by sex, age and province of residence, with a Poisson model fitted to determine incidence rate ratios. Results We found 2049 coeliac disease diagnoses registered in the CeliacDB between 2011 and 2013; 1441 of these patients were female (70.4%) and 1059 were aged less than 19 years (51.7%). The overall incidence of coeliac disease in Campania was 11.8 per 100,000 person-years (95% CI 11.3–12.3) during the study period, with marked variation by age [27.4 per 100,000 person-years (95% CI 25.8–29.1) in children under 19 years of age and 7.3 per 100,000 (95% CI 6.8–7.8) in adults] and sex [16.1 per 100,000 person-years in females (95% CI 15.3–16.9) and 7.2 per 100,000 person-years in males (95% CI 6.6–7.8)]. Coeliac disease incidence was roughly similar in Naples, Salerno, Caserta and Avellino, but about half in Benevento. More than 80% of our study population was diagnosed by the combination of positive antitransglutaminase IgA and Marsh 3. More than half of the patients were symptomatic at the time of coeliac disease diagnosis (39.7% had a classical presentation and 21.1% a non-classical one according to the Oslo definition). Conclusions Coeliac disease incidence was roughly similar among Campania provinces, except in Benevento where it was about half, probably due to less awareness of coeliac disease in this area. The incidence of coeliac disease in Campania appears to be lower than that reported by most of the previous literature, suggesting the necessity of new coeliac awareness programmes. PMID:25922679

  16. 40 CFR 81.99 - New Mexico Southern Border Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false New Mexico Southern Border Intrastate... Designation of Air Quality Control Regions § 81.99 New Mexico Southern Border Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The Arizona-New Mexico Southern Border Interstate Air Quality Control Region has been renamed...

  17. [Origin of Lepidoptera fauna of the Southern Transural region].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Utkin, N A

    2000-01-01

    The butterfly fauna of the Southern Transural region began mainly through the migration of insects from the Urals and Kazakhstan, since the end of the Cretaceous Period to the end of Paleogen, the Transural region was covered by an epiplatform sea. As this sea was retreating, the first regions of dry land appeared, which had boundaries with Kazakhstan and the Urals. They were the first to be populated by Lepidoptera. During the Pleocene and then after the Pleistocene cooling events, insects settled generally along the valley of the Tobol River and the Turgai depression, because these territories belong to intrazonal elements. At the present time, the greatest species diversity among insects in the southern Transural area is observed specifically in the Turgai depression and in areas directly adjacent to it. This territory is mainly occupied by populations unique to the Transural regions and belonging to the following species: Mantis religiosa (praying mantis), Saga pedo, Parnassius apollo (apollo), Neolycaena rhymnus, Hyponephele lupina (oriental meadow brown), Chazara persephone (dark rockbrown), Epicallia villica (cream-spot tiger), etc. PMID:11042964

  18. [Origin of Lepidoptera fauna of the Southern Transural region].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Utkin, N A

    2000-01-01

    The butterfly fauna of the Southern Transural region began mainly through the migration of insects from the Urals and Kazakhstan, since the end of the Cretaceous Period to the end of Paleogen, the Transural region was covered by an epiplatform sea. As this sea was retreating, the first regions of dry land appeared, which had boundaries with Kazakhstan and the Urals. They were the first to be populated by Lepidoptera. During the Pleocene and then after the Pleistocene cooling events, insects settled generally along the valley of the Tobol River and the Turgai depression, because these territories belong to intrazonal elements. At the present time, the greatest species diversity among insects in the southern Transural area is observed specifically in the Turgai depression and in areas directly adjacent to it. This territory is mainly occupied by populations unique to the Transural regions and belonging to the following species: Mantis religiosa (praying mantis), Saga pedo, Parnassius apollo (apollo), Neolycaena rhymnus, Hyponephele lupina (oriental meadow brown), Chazara persephone (dark rockbrown), Epicallia villica (cream-spot tiger), etc.

  19. Illegal Dumping of Toxic Waste and Its Effect on Human Health in Campania, Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfredo Mazza

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The region of Campania (particularly Naples and Caserta has experienced an emergency in the waste management cycle during past years. Although the most critical phase has been overcome after the construction of the incineration plant in Acerra (an old-fashioned technology built up over a few months, whose impact on environment and health has not yet been assessed, most of the underlying problems have not been resolved. The illegal burning of wheels, plastics, textiles, and other industrial residuals, along with the detection of two thousand toxic substance dumping sites, still represents major concerns of environmental pollution and population health. This review summarizes the most relevant studies, which analyzed chemical contamination (primarily dioxins and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs of the air, soil, water, animals, and humans in Campania. In addition, we reviewed information on population health (i.e., mortality data, congenital malformations, and cancer incidence. Moving from a detailed mapping of (mostly illegal waste dumping sites in Campania, we have focused on recent studies which have found: (a high concentrations of dioxins (≥5.0 pg TEQ/g fat in milk samples from sheep, cows, and river buffaloes; (b remarkable contamination of dioxin and PCBs in human milk samples from those living in the Naples and Caserta areas (PCDDs+PCDFs and dioxin-like-PCBs (dl-PCBs assessed at 16.6 pg TEQ/g of fat; range: 7.5–43 pg/g of fat; (c potential age-adjusted standardized mortality rates associated with some specific cancer types; (d a statistically significant association between exposure to illegal toxic waste dumping sites and cancer mortality, even after adjustment by socio-economic factors and other environmental indicators.

  20. Illegal Dumping of Toxic Waste and Its Effect on Human Health in Campania, Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazza, Alfredo; Piscitelli, Prisco; Neglia, Cosimo; Della Rosa, Giulia; Iannuzzi, Leopoldo

    2015-06-01

    The region of Campania (particularly Naples and Caserta) has experienced an emergency in the waste management cycle during past years. Although the most critical phase has been overcome after the construction of the incineration plant in Acerra (an old-fashioned technology built up over a few months, whose impact on environment and health has not yet been assessed), most of the underlying problems have not been resolved. The illegal burning of wheels, plastics, textiles, and other industrial residuals, along with the detection of two thousand toxic substance dumping sites, still represents major concerns of environmental pollution and population health. This review summarizes the most relevant studies, which analyzed chemical contamination (primarily dioxins and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs)) of the air, soil, water, animals, and humans in Campania. In addition, we reviewed information on population health (i.e., mortality data, congenital malformations, and cancer incidence). Moving from a detailed mapping of (mostly illegal) waste dumping sites in Campania, we have focused on recent studies which have found: (a) high concentrations of dioxins (≥5.0 pg TEQ/g fat) in milk samples from sheep, cows, and river buffaloes; (b) remarkable contamination of dioxin and PCBs in human milk samples from those living in the Naples and Caserta areas (PCDDs+PCDFs and dioxin-like-PCBs (dl-PCBs) assessed at 16.6 pg TEQ/g of fat; range: 7.5-43 pg/g of fat); (c) potential age-adjusted standardized mortality rates associated with some specific cancer types; (d) a statistically significant association between exposure to illegal toxic waste dumping sites and cancer mortality, even after adjustment by socio-economic factors and other environmental indicators. PMID:26086704

  1. Canine and Human Dirofilariosis in the Rostov Region (Southern Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Kartashev

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Epidemiological data on canine and human dirofilariosis in the Rostov Region (Southern Russia are presented. Prevalence of Dirofilaria spp. infections in 795 autochthonous dogs, assessed by the Knott test, was 20.25%. The highest prevalence was found in Novocherkassk (38.3% and Rostov-on-Don (18.5%, while prevalences were lower in other points of the region. Prevalence of D. repens was 44.7%, prevalence of D. immitis was 30.3%, and coinfections were observed in 25.0% of the dog population. A case finding study carried out during 9 years (2000–2009 revealed 131 cases of human dirofilariosis in the Rostov Region, 129 of subcutaneous dirofilariosis and 2 of pulmonary dirofilariosis. Seroprevalence among 317 healthy blood donors from the Rostov Region was 10.4%, while seroprevalence in policemen living in Rostov city and working in training dogs was 19%. These data show high infection rates of Dirofilaria spp. in both human and dog populations of Rostov, probably because of the existence of favorable conditions for the transmission in this region.

  2. Pliocene Warm Period Upwelling in the Southern Benguela Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrick, B. F.; McClymont, E.; Felder, S.; Leng, M. J.; Rosell Mele, A.; Rueda, G.

    2014-12-01

    The mid-Pliocene has been proposed as a possible analogue for understanding future climate change and testing climate models. Previous work has shown that during the Pliocene the major upwelling systems were relatively warm, and thus either inactive, contracted, or upwelling warmer waters than present. Here we examine evidence from a core site located on the margins of the modern Benguela upwelling system, to test whether the upwelling cells had migrated or contracted relative to present during the Pliocene. We applied several organic geochemistry proxies and foraminiferal analyses to reconstruct the Pliocene history of ODP site 1087 (31º28'S, 15º19'E, 1374m water depth), including the UK37' index and TEX86 index (for reconstructing sea surface temperatures), chlorins (for estimating primary productivity) and planktonic foraminifera assemblages (for inferring water mass changes). These proxies show that between 3.5 and 3.0 Ma the southern Benguela region was significantly cooler than the northern Benguela region, the latter where the main upwelling cells are found today. Coupled with higher primary production, a shift in planktonic foraminifera assemblage, and an offset between the UK37' index and TEX86 index, we infer that more extensive upwelling was present in the southern Benguela region during the Pliocene. We infer that the main Benguela upwelling cells had shifted southward relative to today, as a result of changes in the local wind field. We find evidence for pronounced cooling and a shift in the planktonic foraminifera assemblage during the M2 and KM2 glacial stages, showing a sensitivity of Benguela upwelling to these short-lived climate events.

  3. Lithospheric thinning beneath rifted regions of Southern California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lekic, Vedran; French, Scott W; Fischer, Karen M

    2011-11-11

    The stretching and break-up of tectonic plates by rifting control the evolution of continents and oceans, but the processes by which lithosphere deforms and accommodates strain during rifting remain enigmatic. Using scattering of teleseismic shear waves beneath rifted zones and adjacent areas in Southern California, we resolve the lithosphere-asthenosphere boundary and lithospheric thickness variations to directly constrain this deformation. Substantial and laterally abrupt lithospheric thinning beneath rifted regions suggests efficient strain localization. In the Salton Trough, either the mantle lithosphere has experienced more thinning than the crust, or large volumes of new lithosphere have been created. Lack of a systematic offset between surface and deep lithospheric deformation rules out simple shear along throughgoing unidirectional shallow-dipping shear zones, but is consistent with symmetric extension of the lithosphere.

  4. Simulation of regional land subsidence in the southern Yangtze Delta

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Investigation of the deformation characteristics of individual hydrostratigraphic units is the key to construct a regional land subsidence model. All of 12 hydrostratigraphic units in the study area were discussed throughout. On the basis of the measured data of groundwater level, five kinds of changing patterns of groundwater level were deduced and the relationship between the deformation characteris-tics of aquifer units and the corresponding changing patterns of groundwater level was discussed. The study area is 1.7×104 km2, where the geological condition is complex. The changing patterns of groundwater level the hydrostratigraphic units have experienced vary from site to site and from time to time. Consequently, the deformation characteristics of units are sophisticated. An identical hydros-tratigraphic unit may exhibit different deformation characteristics, such as elasticity, elasto-plasticity, visco-elasticity, and visco-elasto-plasticity, at different sites or during different periods, not to mention the different units. The existing models are difficult to describe the complex visco-elasto-plastic con-stitutive law under the condition of land subsidence. So the Merchant’s model was modified to depict the visco-elasto-plastic behavior of units. Then a three-dimensional flow model with variable parame-ters and a vertical one-dimensional subsidence model were constructed and coupled. The coupled model was applied in simulating land subsidence in the southern Yangtze Delta and a satisfactory re-sult was obtained. The simulation results show that the new coupled model can depict the complex geological conditions and describe the developing process of land subsidence very well in the south-ern Yangtze Delta. The new model can surely be used to predict land subsidence in the future, which is very helpful to taking measurements to control land subsidence.

  5. Simulation of regional land subsidence in the southern Yangtze Delta

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XUE YuQun; WU JiChun; ZHANG Yun; YE ShuJun; SHI XiaoQing; WEI ZiXin; LI QinFen; YU Jun

    2008-01-01

    Investigation of the deformation characteristics of individual hydrostratigraphic units is the key to construct a regional land subsidence model. All of 12 hydrostratigraphic units in the study area were discussed throughout. On the basis of the measured data of groundwater level, five kinds of changing patterns of groundwater level were deduced and the relationship between the deformation characteris-tics of aquifer units and the corresponding changing patterns of groundwater level was discussed. The study area is 1.7×104 km2, where the geological condition is complex. The changing patterns of groundwater level the hydrostratigraphic units have experienced vary from site to site and from time to time. Consequently, the deformation characteristics of units are sophisticated. An identical hydros-tratigraphic unit may exhibit different deformation characteristics, such as elasticity, elasto-plasticity, visco-elasticity, and visco-elasto-plasticity, at different sites or during different periods, not to mention the different units. The existing models are difficult to describe the complex visco-elasto-plastic con-stitutive law under the condition of land subsidence. So the Merchant's model was modified to depict the visco-elasto-plastic behavior of units. Then a three-dimensional flow model with variable parame-ters and a vertical one-dimensional subsidence model were constructed and coupled. The coupled model was applied in simulating land subsidence in the southern Yangtze Delta and a satisfactory re-sult was obtained. The simulation results show that the new coupled model can depict the complex geological conditions and describe the developing process of land subsidence very well in the south-ern Yangtze Delta. The new model can surely be used to predict land subsidence in the future, which is very helpful to taking measurements to control land subsidence.

  6. Southern California Bight 2003 Regional Monitoring Program: V. water quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nezlin, Nikolay P.; DiGiacomo, Paul M.; Weisberg, Stephen B.; Diehl, Dario W.; Warrick, Jonathan A.; Mengel, Michael J.; Jones, Burton H.; Reifel, Kristen M.; Johnson, Scott C.; Ohlmann, J. Carter; Washburn, Libe; Terrill, Eric J.

    2007-01-01

    More than $30 million is expended annually on environmental monitoring in the Southern California Bight (SCB), yet only 5% of the Bight is monitored on an ongoing basis. Therefore, environmental managers in the SCB decided to expand their monitoring program and, starting in 1994, decided to conduct periodic regional assessments of ecosystem condition and assess the overall health of the SCB. Sixty-five different organizations collaborated in 2003 to create the third SCB Regional Monitoring Program (Bight '03). Bight '03 was designed to be integrated regional monitoring program that encompasses regulatory, academic, and non-governmental agencies. Bight '03 had three components: Coastal Ecology, Shoreline Microbiology, and Water Quality. This report addresses the purpose, approach, findings, and recommendations from the Water Quality component, which focused on contamination-laden stormwater runoff, in particularly its variability in time and space as well as its short-term ecological impacts. Specifically, the Bight '03 Water Quality component had three primary goals, the first of which was to described the temporal evolution of stormwater plumes produced by the major southern California rivers. Specifically, the study was intended to determine how far offshore the plumes extended, how rapidly they advected, how long before the plumes dispersed and how these properties differed among storms and river systems. The second goal was to describe how the physical properties (e.g., turbidity, temperature, salinity) of the plume related to biogeochemical and ecological properties that are of more direct concern to the water quality management community. Accomplished primarily through ship-based sampling of water quality parameters, this second goal was to describe how far offshore, and for how ;long after the storm, elevated bacterial concentrations, toxicity, and nutrients could be detected. Similar to the fist goal, the study also addressed how these answers differed

  7. Granites and granitoids of the southern region - Granite molybdenite system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Economic concentrations of molybdenum are genetically closely associated with acidic and moderately acid granitoids-granites, granodiorites, monzonites and diorites, and are located in two geotectonic settings: subduction-related and rift-related. The aim of this paper is twofold, first succinctly approach the geology, tectonic setting and chemical parameters of the 'granite molybdenite system' as defined by Mutschler and/or alcali granite porphyry bodies emplaced in the North American continent for occasion of a Mesozoic-Fanerozoic extensile event; second to relate the computer-assisted evaluation of 422 major element chemical analysis of granites and granitoids of southern region of Brazil, using chemical fingerprints (SiO2 ≥ 74. Owt%, Na2O ≤ 3.6wt%, K2O ≥ 4.5wt%), and K2O/Na2O ratio > 1.5 developed and testified from North American and Finnish occurrences, may locate molybdenite-bearing granite bodies with high exploration potential. These techniques suggest that some late Precambrian to early Paleozoic granite-rhyolite assemblages inserted at domains of the SG. 22/23 Curitiba/Iguape, SH. 21/22 Uruguaiana/Porto Alegre and SI.22 Lagoa Mirim Sheets, have exploration potential for molybdenum. (author)

  8. Campania: territorio e città di fronte alla sfida della logistica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Mazzeo

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available All’interno del sistema territoriale meridionale la Regione Campania si presenta come un polo importante nel settore del trasporto e dello smistamento delle merci. Questo ruolo si è venuto rinforzando in seguito alla realizzazione di infrastrutture dedicate alla logistica, connesse ad infrastrutture di supporto. Il sistema campano presenta punte di eccellenza di livello nazionale che possono incentivare il ruolo della Regione in questo settore, ma presenta anche fattori negativi che possono rallentare il decollo del settore. Si fa riferimento alle strozzature infrastrutturali e gestionali che ne inceppano l’efficienza, ma anche alla debolezza del sistema produttivo regionale che non garantisce una massa critica locale alla logistica campana. Un terzo aspetto è la mancanza di un chiaro disegno di programmazione degli investimenti e una maggiore chiarezza dei ruoli da assegnare alle diverse iniziative, nate soprattutto sulla base di spinte localistiche non coordinate. Il paper analizza la situazione della logistica territoriale in Campania e delle sue interrelazioni territoriali individuando punti di forza e di debolezza e potenziali fattori evolutivi. Gli aspetti della logistica che vengono affrontati sono di tipo territoriale e si differenziano da quelli della logistica urbana per la quantità di merci movimentate e per la concentrazione in pochi poli strategici, in quanto queste piattaforme logistiche richiedono attrezzature specializzate e ampi spazi per la movimentazione e il deposito. L’analisi del rapporto tra territorio e logistica individua quelli che sono i principali elementi di interconnessione e, spesso, di crisi, nell’uso dello spazio fisico, in ragione degli obiettivi a volte divergenti tra il governo del territorio ed i soggetti economici. Si passa successivamente ad analizzare lo stato del movimento merci in relazione alla portualità mediterranea e lo stato del sistema logistico campano (non ancora definito in tutte le

  9. Mantle and crustal processes in the magmatism of the Campania region: inferences from mineralogy, geochemistry, and Sr-Nd-O isotopes of young hybrid volcanics of the Ischia island (South Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Antonio, Massimo; Tonarini, Sonia; Arienzo, Ilenia; Civetta, Lucia; Dallai, Luigi; Moretti, Roberto; Orsi, Giovanni; Andria, Mariachiara; Trecalli, Alberto

    2013-06-01

    Ischia, one active volcano of the Phlegraean Volcanic District, prone to very high risk, is dominated by a caldera formed 55 ka BP, followed by resurgence of the collapsed area. Over the past 3 ka, the activity extruded evolved potassic magmas; only a few low-energy explosive events were fed by less evolved magmas. A geochemical and Sr-Nd-O isotope investigation has been performed on minerals and glass from products of three of such eruptions, Molara, Vateliero, and Cava Nocelle (Ischia volcanism in the past. Detailed study on the most mafic magma has permitted to investigate its origin. The mantle sector below Ischia underwent subduction processes that modified its pristine chemical, isotopic, and redox conditions by addition of ≤1 % of sediment fluids/melts. Similar processes occurred from Southeast to Northwest along the Apennine compressive margin, with addition of up to 2.5 % of sediment-derived material. This is shown by volcanics with poorly variable, typical δ18O mantle values, and 87Sr/86Sr progressively increasing toward typical continental crust values. Multiple partial melting of this modified mantle generated distinct primary magmas that occasionally assimilated continental crust, acquiring more 18O than 87Sr. At Ischia, 7 % of Hercynian granodiorite assimilation produced isotopically distinct, K-basaltic to latitic magmas. A SW-NE regional tectonic structure gave these magmas coming from large depth the opportunity to mingle/mix with felsic magmas stagnating in shallower reservoirs, eventually triggering explosive eruptions.

  10. EUMYCETOMA BY Madurella grisea: REPORT OF THE FIRST CASE OBSERVED IN THE SOUTHERN BRAZILIAN REGION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SEVERO Luiz Carlos

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available The first case of eumycetoma by Madurella grisea occurred in Southern Brazilian Region is herein related. In addition, Brazilian literature on this subject was reviewed and, the geographic distribution of this eumycetoma is presented.

  11. Chemical safety of cassava products in regions adopting cassava production and processing - experience from Southern Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nyirenda, D.B.; Chiwona-Karltun, L.; Chitundu, M.;

    2011-01-01

    The cassava belt area in Southern Africa is experiencing an unforeseen surge in cassava production, processing and consumption. Little documentation exists on the effects of this surge on processing procedures, the prevailing levels of cyanogenic glucosides of products consumed and the levels...... and perceptions concerning cassava and chemical food safety. Chips, mixed biscuits and flour, procured from households and markets in three regions of Zambia (Luapula-North, Western and Southern) as well as products from the Northern, Central and Southern regions of Malawi, were analyzed for total cyanogenic...

  12. Doing Business 2014 Regional Profile : Common Market for Eastern and Southern Africa

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank; International Finance Corporation

    2013-01-01

    This regional profile presents the Doing Business indicators for economies in Common Market for Eastern and Southern Africa (COMESA). It also shows the regional average, the best performance globally for each indicator and data for the following comparator regions: Europe and Central Asia, Economic Community of West African States, Middle East and North Africa, Organization for the Harmoni...

  13. Alien Phytogeographic Regions of Southern Africa: Numerical Classification, Possible Drivers, and Regional Threats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hugo, Sanet; Van Rensburg, Berndt J.; Van Wyk, Abraham E.; Steenkamp, Yolande

    2012-01-01

    The distributions of naturalised alien plant species that have invaded natural or semi-natural habitat are often geographically restricted by the environmental conditions in their new range, implying that alien species with similar environmental requirements and tolerances may form assemblages and characterise particular areas. The aim of this study was to use objective numerical techniques to reveal any possible alien phytogeographic regions (i.e. geographic areas with characteristic alien plant assemblages) in southern Africa. Quarter degree resolution presence records of naturalised alien plant species of South Africa, Lesotho, Swaziland, Namibia and Botswana were analysed through a divisive hierarchical classification technique, and the output was plotted on maps for further interpretation. The analyses revealed two main alien phytogeographic regions that could be subdivided into eight lower level phytogeographic regions. Along with knowledge of the environmental requirements of the characteristic species and supported by further statistical analyses, we hypothesised on the main drivers of alien phytogeographic regions, and suggest that environmental features such as climate and associated biomes were most important, followed by human activities that modify climatic and vegetation features, such as irrigation and agriculture. Most of the characteristic species are not currently well-known as invasive plant species, but many may have potential to become troublesome in the future. Considering the possibility of biotic homogenization, these findings have implications for predicting the characteristics of the plant assemblages of the future. However, the relatively low quality of the dataset necessitates further more in-depth studies with improved data before the findings could be directly beneficial for management. PMID:22574145

  14. Clinical features and lifestyle of patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis in Campania: brief overview of an Italian database

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca Trojsi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Physical activity and occupational exposures appeared to play a relevant role in pathogenesis of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS, a neurodegenerative disease of unknown origin. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We aimed to make an overview of the clinical characteristics and lifestyle (occupation and sport of a population of 395 patients with ALS from Campania, in southern Italy. RESULTS: ALS onset resulted anticipated of about 11 years in industry workers, whilst the more frequent site of onset among farmers was upper limbs. Compared to non-athletes, athletes, particularly soccer players, showed a 7 years anticipation of ALS onset, with higher mortality after 5 years. DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSIONS: We suggest that subjects genetically prone to abnormal response to hypoxia during strenuous physical activity or exposed to neurotoxic agents, such as athletes, farmers or industry workers, might present increased risk to develop ALS. Future case-control and follow-up studies on our population should be implemented to deepen the present results.

  15. Effects of future climate change on grape and wine quality: a case study for the Aglianico grape, Campania. Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonfante, Antonello; Gambuti, Angelita; Monaco, Eugenia; Langella, Giuliano; Manna, Piero; Orefice, Nadia; Albrizio, Rossella; Basile, Angelo; Terribile, Fabio

    2016-04-01

    Water deficits limit yields and this is one of the negative aspects of climate change. However, this applies particularly when emphasis is on biomass production (e.g. for crops like maize, wheat, etc.) but not for plants where quality, not quantity is most relevant. For example, water stress occurring during specific phenological phases of grapevine development is an important factor when producing good quality wines. It induces, for example, the production of anthocyanins and aroma precursors. Water stress due to future increases of temperature and decreases of rainfall due to climate change can, therefore, represent an opportunity to increase winegrowers' incomes. This study was carried out in Campania region (Southern Italy), an area well known for high quality wine production. Growth of the Aglianico grapevine cultivar, with a standard clone population on 1103 Paulsen rootstocks, was studied on two different types of soil: Calcisols and Cambisols occurring along a slope of 90 m length with 11% gradient. The agro-hydrological model SWAP was calibrated and applied to estimate soil-plant water status at the various crop phenological phases for three vintages (2011-2013). Then, the Crop water stress index (CWSI), as estimated by the model, was related to physiological measurements (e.g. leaf water potential), grape bunches measurements (e.g. sugar content) and wine quality (e.g. tannins). For both soils, the correlation between measurements and CWSI were high (e.g. -0.97** with sugar; 0.895* with anthocyanins in the skins). Next, the model was applied to future climate conditions (2021-2051) obtained from statistical downscaling of Global Circulation Models (AOGCM) in order to estimate the effect of the climate on CWSI and hence on vine quality. Results show that the effects of climate change on grape and wine quality are not expected to be significant for this particular grape variety when grown on these Calcisols and Cambisols. However, significant differences

  16. Regional Differences in Spanking Experiences and Attitudes: A Comparison of Northeastern and Southern College Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flynn, Clifton P.

    1996-01-01

    Examines regional differences in college student experiences with corporal punishment as children. Students from a northeastern and a southern university were surveyed. Results indicated that students attending the northeastern university were less likely to have been spanked as children. Effect of region was more important for attitudes than…

  17. Biophysical parameters in a wheat producer region in southern Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leivas, Janice F.; de C. Teixeira, Antonio Heriberto; Andrade, Ricardo G.; de C. Victoria, Daniel; Bolfe, Edson L.; Cruz, Caroline R.

    2014-10-01

    Wheat (Triticum aestivum) is the second most produced cereal in the world, and has major importance in the global agricultural economy. Brazil is a large producer of wheat, especially the Rio Grande do Sul state, located in the south of the country. The purpose of this study was to analyze the estimation of biophysical parameters - evapotranspiration (ET), biomass (BIO) and water productivity (WP) - from satellite images of the municipalities with large areas planted with wheat in Rio Grande do Sul (RS). The evapotranspiration rate was obtained using the SAFER Model (Simple Algorithm for Retrieving Evapotranspiration) on MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) images taken in the agricultural year 2012. In order to obtain biomass and water productivity rates we applied the Monteith model and the ratio between BIO and ET. In the beginning of the cycle (the planting period) we observed low values for ET, BIO and WP. During the development period, we observed an increase in the values of the parameters and decline at the end of the cycle, for the period of the wheat harvest. The SAFER model proved effective for estimating the biophysical parameters evapotranspiration, biomass production and water productivity in areas planted with wheat in Brazilian Southern. The methodology can be used for monitoring the crops' water conditions and biomass using satellite images, assisting in estimates of productivity and crop yield. The results may assist the understanding of biophysical properties of important agro-ecosystems, like wheat crop, and are important to improve the rational use of water resources.

  18. Simulating the link between ENSO and summer drought in Southern Africa using regional climate models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meque, Arlindo; Abiodun, Babatunde J.

    2015-04-01

    This study evaluates the capability of regional climate models (RCMs) in simulating the link between El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) and Southern African droughts. It uses the Standardized Precipitation-Evapotranspiration Index (SPEI, computed using rainfall and temperature data) to identify 3-month drought over Southern Africa, and compares the observed and simulated correlation between ENSO and SPEI. The observation data are from the Climate Research Unit, while the simulation data are from ten RCMs (ARPEGE, CCLM, HIRHAM, RACMO, REMO, PRECIS, RegCM3, RCA, WRF, and CRCM) that participated in the regional climate downscaling experiment (CORDEX) project. The study analysed the rainy season (December-February) data for 19 years (1989-2008). The results show a strong link between ENSO and droughts (SPEI) over Southern Africa. The link is owing to the influence of ENSO on both rainfall and temperature fields, but the correlation between ENSO and temperature is stronger than the correlation between ENSO and rainfall. Hence, using only rainfall to monitor droughts in Southern Africa may underestimate the influence of ENSO on the droughts. Only few CORDEX RCMs simulate the influence of ENSO on Southern African drought as observed. In this regard, the ARPEGE model shows the best simulation, while CRCM shows the worst. The different in the performance may be due to their lateral boundary conditions. The RCA-simulated link between ENSO and Southern African droughts is sensitive to the global dataset used as the lateral boundary conditions. In some cases, using RCA to downscale global circulation models (GCM) simulations adds value to the simulated link between ENSO and the droughts, but in other cases the downscaling adds no value to the link. The added value of RCA to the simulated link decreases as the capability of the GCM to simulate the link increases. This study suggests that downscaling GCM simulations with RCMs over Southern Africa may improve or depreciate the

  19. Assessing and Harmonizing Lying Deadwood Volume with Regional Forest Inventory Data in Wallonia (Southern Region of Belgium)

    OpenAIRE

    Ligot, Gauthier; Lejeune, Philippe; Rondeux, Jacques; Hebert, Jacques

    2012-01-01

    Using lying deadwood or coarse woody debris (CWD) is on the rise among national and local forest inventories. We compared two generally recommended methods for lying deadwood: line intersect sampling and fixed area sampling. We assessed both methods in plots of the regional forest inventory of Wallonia (southern region of Belgium) and we developed bridging functions that converts CWD volume estimates to estimates that would have been obtained with different thresholds. Peer reviewed

  20. Growth without Borders : A Regional Growth Pole Diagnostic for Southern Africa

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2013-01-01

    Several countries in Southern Africa have enormous potential to expand trade and mutually benefit from regional integration, and thus truly achieve 'growth without borders'. At the same time, several African countries are adopting growth pole strategies in order to deepen the economic linkages around the development of their natural resources and improve their competitiveness and connectiv...

  1. Southern Slippage: Growing School Segregation in the Most Desegregated Region of the Country

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegel-Hawley, Genevieve; Frankenberg, Erica

    2012-01-01

    The South remains the most desegregated region in the country for black students, but along every measure of segregation and at each level of geography, gains made during the desegregation era are slipping away at a steady pace. This report shows that the segregation of Southern black students has been progressively increasing since judicial…

  2. Replacement of missing teeth in a southern region of Vietnam--a descriptive dental laboratory study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chau, T.N.; Witter, D.J.; Kreulen, C.M.; Creugers, N.H.J.; Tu, H.H.

    2009-01-01

    AIM: To explore whether tooth replacement in a southern region of Vietnam is in line with the primary health care approach, aiming at health services for all people at affordable costs. METHODS: Tooth replacement was investigated by means of prostheses as delivered by four dental laboratories of whi

  3. Groundwater isotope survey in the Southern Gobi Region, Mongolia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayanzul, B. B.; Nemer, B.; Kaland, V.; Groen, K.; Naidan, J.; Linden, W. V. D.

    2014-12-01

    The strategically biggest mineral deposits are located in South Gobi Region, Mongolia and the Mongolian government has been adhering the policy to operate them in near short terms. Groundwater is one of the important resources since rainfall and surface water availability are limited. This survey was made for the purpose to determination to principle of originating groundwater potentials. For the purpose, groundwater age was investigated with the stable isotope, radiocarbon and tritium method. They were analyzed in the laboratory of CIO of Rijksuniversiteit Groningen (The Centre of Isotope Research), Institute of Groundwater Ecology from the Helmholtz Zentrum and the German Research Center for Environmental Health (GmbH) in Munich, Germany. Deep groundwater has radiocarbon ages from 13,000 to 45,000 years before present (0.4-18.4% modern C) and δ13C values from -10.0 to -4.6‰, for which it is difficult to assign absolute ages, although these values probably represent the Late Glacial period and late Pleistocene age. Shallow groundwater had tritium values of <1 to 20.8 TU, from which only 2 locations can be referred as recently infiltrated (since 1953) - or recent mixed with fossil groundwater. Groundwater aquifers were mainly found in Cretaceous sediments that have filled-up large basins in the Gobi and there is a good possibility that aquifers are interconnected via these basin sediments, although sedimentary facies changes and geological faults may form barriers to groundwater flow.

  4. Regional tectonic deformation in Southern California, inferred from terrestrial geodesy and the global positioning system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Zhengkang

    Tectonic deformation in two regions in Southern California, the Southern Coast Ranges and the Los Angeles Basin, was studied. Results show that in the Southern Coast Ranges, regional deformation is predominantly controlled by deep strike slip motion along the San Andreas Fault, at a rate of 32 plus or minus 2 mm/yr. The deep slip along the San Gregorio-Hosgri Fault is about 1-3 mm/yr, assuming a locked fault depth of 20 km. Convergence normal to the San Andreas Fault in the Southern Coast ranges is not significantly different from zero. About 5 mm/yr convergence is detected from the Santa Maria Basin. In the Los Angeles Basin area, this study demonstrates about 10 mm/yr relative motion trending northwest from San Pedro Hill to the San Gabriel Mountains. The direction of motion closely parallels to the trend of the frontal fault system at the southern margin of the San Gabriel Mountains. The basin suffers from north-south convergence and east-west extension, at a rate of about 0.07 mu rad/yr for either components. The convergence rate normal to the San Andreas across the basin is 4 plus or minus 3 mm/yr, implying smaller compression than previous estimates (e.g., Cline et al. 1984).

  5. Economic development, trade and investment in the Eastern and Southern Mediterranean region

    OpenAIRE

    Dabrowski , Marek; De Wulf, Luc

    2013-01-01

    Despite its many advantages, the Eastern and Southern Mediterranean region remains relatively backward in economic and social terms and is rightly considered a potential source of social and political instability. Its average GDP per capita lags behind the global average and is increasing slowly due to weak economic policies, poor governance and rapid population growth. The region suffers from high unemployment (especially among women and youth), poor education, high levels of income inequali...

  6. Regional context of small and medium-sized enterprises' development. case study of southern Poland

    OpenAIRE

    Wach, Krzysztof

    2010-01-01

    The paper verifies the existence of relations between development of small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) and the particular factors of regional environment as well as demographic parameters of entrepreneurs and their enterprises. SMEs localized in Southern Poland in accordance with NUTS -1 nomenclature, which is made of two voivodeships: Lesser Poland (Małopolska) and Silesia (Śląsk), are research subjects. The main aim of the research is indication factors of regional environment which...

  7. Terracotas del santuario de Calés (Calvi, Campania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. M. BLÁZQUEZ

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available El Museo Arqueológico Nacional de Madrid, entre sus magníficas colecciones, exhibe una compuesta por un numeroso conjunto de terracotas traídas de Italia en el siglo pasado por el Marqués de Salamanca. La colección Calvi, procedente del Santuario de Calés, en Campania, y así llamada del lugar de procedencia, ha sido repartida entre varios museos españoles, pero el grupo más numeroso es el depositado en el Museo Arqueológico Nacional que, a pesar de la alta calidad artística de las piezas y del buen estado de conservación de todas ellas, ha permanecido hasta el presente inédita. Tan sólo F. Benoit y nosotros, hemos publicado algunas terracotas de las que representan caballos. Otros investigadores, como Bianchi Bandinelli, han aludido a esta colección que, como las similares guardadas en los museos de Lecce, Capua, Louvre, Leide, British Museum, etc., se encuentra inédita. Particular interés ofrece el grupo conservado en la Glyptothek Ny Carlsberg, de Copenhague, algunos ejemplares se guardan en el Museo Universitario de Zurich y en el Museum f. ant. Kleinkunst de Munich. En Roma los conjuntos más numerosos de estas terracotas se encuentran depositados en los Museos Gregoriano Etrusco del Vaticano, Villa Giulia, y Nazionale Romano.

  8. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs in traditional smoked dairy products from Campania (Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa Cirillo

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available The smoked mozzarella and caciocavallo cheeses occupy a significant area among the traditional products in the Campania region. Smoked and non-smoked mozzarella and caciocavallo cheeses were screened for the presence of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs. Total PAH concentration in non-smoked mozzarella ranged from 59.11 to 160.05 ìg kg-1 wet weight (w.w. and in that smoked from 67.49 to 399.90 ìg kg-1 w.w.
    The total PAH content in non-smoked caciocavallo was between 36.70 and 248.59 ìg kg-1 w.w.; in the smoked cheese, it varied from 72.52 to 1643.18 ìg kg-1 w.w. The benzo(apyrene (BaP values in all cheeses smoked by liquid smoke were higher than the permissible limit for BaP of 0.03 ìg kg-1 for foods aromatised with liquid smoke.

  9. Climate change on the southern slope of Mt.Qomolangma (Everest) Region in Nepal since 1971

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QI Wei; ZHANG Yili; GAO Jungang; YANG Xuchao; LIU Linshan; Narendra R.KHANAL

    2013-01-01

    Based on monthly mean,maximum,and minimum air temperature and monthly mean precipitation data from 10 meteorological stations on the southern slope of the Mt.Qomolangma region in Nepal between 1971 and 2009,the spatial and temporal characteristics of climatic change in this region were analyzed using climatic linear trend,Sen's Slope Estimates and Mann-Kendall Test analysis methods.This paper focuses only on the southern slope and attempts to compare the results with those from the northern slope to clarify the characteristics and trends of climatic change in the Mt.Qomolangma region.The results showed that:(1) between 1971 and 2009,the annual mean temperature in the study area was 20.0℃,the rising rate of annual mean temperature was 0.25℃/10a,and the temperature increases were highly influenced by the maximum temperature in this region.On the other hand,the temperature increases on the northern slope of Mt.Qomolangma region were highly influenced by the minimum temperature.In 1974 and 1992,the temperature rose noticeably in February and September in the southern region when the increment passed 0.9℃.(2) Precipitation had an asymmetric distribution; between 1971 and 2009,the annual precipitation was 1729.01 mm.In this region,precipitation showed an increasing trend of 4.27mm/a,but this was not statistically significant.In addition,the increase in rainfall was mainly concentrated in the period from April to October,including the entire monsoon period (from June to September) when precipitation accounts for about 78.9% of the annual total.(3) The influence of altitude on climate warming was not clear in the southern region,whereas the trend of climate warming was obvious on the northern slope of Mt.Qomolangma.The annual mean precipitation in the southern region was much higher than that of the northern slope of the Mt.Qomolangma region.This shows the barrier effect of the Himalayas as a whole and Mt.Qomolangma in particular.

  10. Incidence of respiratory tract sarcoidosis in southern and northern regions of Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gumenyuk G.L.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available We conducted a comparative survey of incidence and prevalence of pulmonary sarcoidosis in Southern (Crimean AR and Northern (Zhytomyr region regions of Ukraine by means of analysis of self-referred cases and cases, revealed at prophylactic radiological examination in 2011. The incidence of sarcoidosis in Crimea was 1.08 per 100 000 adult inhabitants; the prevalence was 4,59 per 100 000. In Zhytomyr region the incidence value (2,62 per 100 000 exceeded an equivalent value in Crimea by 2,4 times. The prevalence (7,86 per 100 000 was also higher than in Crimea by 1,7 times. Taking into account a significant impact of climate factor on sarcoidosis epidemiology, the incidence and prevalence of disease in Northern and Southern regions should be considered polar as for the regions of Ukraine. This makes it possoble to conclude that mean incidence of sarcoidosis in Ukraine ranges from 1,1 to 2,6 per 100 000 adult population, whereas the prevalence – from 4,6 to 7,9 per 100 000, which is equivalent to the level of Southern European countries.

  11. The barrier layer in the southern region of the South China Sea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    By analysing the CTD data in the southernregion of the South China Sea gathered during six cruises between 1989 and 1999, a barrier layer with seasonal variation just like what exists in the equatorial oceans is found in this region. It is the first discovery in such a marginal sea yet.It is strong in autunm and a little weak in summer and winter. The thicker the barrier layer, the higher the average temperature of the upper mixed layer. The region with the thicker barrier layer overlaps the region with the higher average temperature of the upper mixed layer, and accords with the thicker region of the warm pool in the South China Sea got from the Levitus data. The barrier layer in the southern region of the South China Sea has significant influence on the heat storage of the upper ocean there.``

  12. Imaging of 3-D seismic velocity structure of Southern Sumatra region using double difference tomographic method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Southern Sumatra region has a high level of seismicity due to the influence of the subduction system, Sumatra fault, Mentawai fault and stretching zone activities. The seismic activities of Southern Sumatra region are recorded by Meteorological Climatological and Geophysical Agency (MCGA’s) Seismograph network. In this study, we used earthquake data catalog compiled by MCGA for 3013 events from 10 seismic stations around Southern Sumatra region for time periods of April 2009 – April 2014 in order to invert for the 3-D seismic velocities structure (Vp, Vs, and Vp/Vs ratio). We applied double-difference seismic tomography method (tomoDD) to determine Vp, Vs and Vp/Vs ratio with hypocenter adjustment. For the inversion procedure, we started from the initial 1-D seismic velocity model of AK135 and constant Vp/Vs of 1.73. The synthetic travel time from source to receiver was calculated using ray pseudo-bending technique, while the main tomographic inversion was applied using LSQR method. The resolution model was evaluated using checkerboard test and Derivative Weigh Sum (DWS). Our preliminary results show low Vp and Vs anomalies region along Bukit Barisan which is may be associated with weak zone of Sumatran fault and migration of partial melted material. Low velocity anomalies at 30-50 km depth in the fore arc region may indicated the hydrous material circulation because the slab dehydration. We detected low seismic seismicity in the fore arc region that may be indicated as seismic gap. It is coincides contact zone of high and low velocity anomalies. And two large earthquakes (Jambi and Mentawai) also occurred at the contact of contrast velocity

  13. Imaging of 3-D seismic velocity structure of Southern Sumatra region using double difference tomographic method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lestari, Titik, E-mail: t2klestari@gmail.com [Meteorological Climatological and Geophysical Agency (MCGA), Jalan Angkasa I No.2 Kemayoran, Jakarta Pusat, 10720 (Indonesia); Faculty of Earth Science and Technology, Bandung Institute of Technology, Jalan Ganesa No.10, Bandung 40132 (Indonesia); Nugraha, Andri Dian, E-mail: nugraha@gf.itb.ac.id [Global Geophysical Research Group, Faculty of Mining and Petroleum Engineering, Bandung Institute of Technology, Jalan Ganesa 10 Bandung 40132 (Indonesia)

    2015-04-24

    Southern Sumatra region has a high level of seismicity due to the influence of the subduction system, Sumatra fault, Mentawai fault and stretching zone activities. The seismic activities of Southern Sumatra region are recorded by Meteorological Climatological and Geophysical Agency (MCGA’s) Seismograph network. In this study, we used earthquake data catalog compiled by MCGA for 3013 events from 10 seismic stations around Southern Sumatra region for time periods of April 2009 – April 2014 in order to invert for the 3-D seismic velocities structure (Vp, Vs, and Vp/Vs ratio). We applied double-difference seismic tomography method (tomoDD) to determine Vp, Vs and Vp/Vs ratio with hypocenter adjustment. For the inversion procedure, we started from the initial 1-D seismic velocity model of AK135 and constant Vp/Vs of 1.73. The synthetic travel time from source to receiver was calculated using ray pseudo-bending technique, while the main tomographic inversion was applied using LSQR method. The resolution model was evaluated using checkerboard test and Derivative Weigh Sum (DWS). Our preliminary results show low Vp and Vs anomalies region along Bukit Barisan which is may be associated with weak zone of Sumatran fault and migration of partial melted material. Low velocity anomalies at 30-50 km depth in the fore arc region may indicated the hydrous material circulation because the slab dehydration. We detected low seismic seismicity in the fore arc region that may be indicated as seismic gap. It is coincides contact zone of high and low velocity anomalies. And two large earthquakes (Jambi and Mentawai) also occurred at the contact of contrast velocity.

  14. Seasonal cycle of hydrography in the Bab el Mandab region, southern Red Sea

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    M A Al Saafani; S S C Shenoi

    2004-09-01

    The seasonal cycle of temperature - salinity variations in the Bab el Mandab region (southern Red Sea) is described using CTD data collected during four cruises spread over the period May 1995-August 1997. A two layer system exists during early summer, winter and spring while a three layer system exists during summer. During summer, a large amount of the Gulf of Aden water intrudes into the Bab el Mandab region; up to the northern limit (14.5°N). The quantity of Red Sea water that flows into the Gulf of Aden is maximum during the winter and minimum during the summer.

  15. Renewable Resources: a national catalog of model projects. Volume 3. Southern Solar Energy Center Region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1980-07-01

    This compilation of diverse conservation and renewable energy projects across the United States was prepared through the enthusiastic participation of solar and alternate energy groups from every state and region. Compiled and edited by the Center for Renewable Resources, these projects reflect many levels of innovation and technical expertise. In many cases, a critique analysis is presented of how projects performed and of the institutional conditions associated with their success or failure. Some 2000 projects are included in this compilation; most have worked, some have not. Information about all is presented to aid learning from these experiences. The four volumes in this set are arranged in state sections by geographic region, coinciding with the four Regional Solar Energy Centers. The table of contents is organized by project category so that maximum cross-referencing may be obtained. This volume includes information on the Southern Solar Energy Center Region. (WHK)

  16. The genesis and composition of waters of sediment volcanoes in the Southern Caspian region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glazovskii, N.F.

    1982-01-01

    Based on a study of the waters of 52 sediment volcanoes in the Southern Caspian region it is demonstrated that the composition and mineralization of the waters depends on the stratigraphic position of the volcanoe cores and the possibility of the inflow of fresh underground waters from the Kavkaz and El'brus side. The mineralization of the volcanoe waters overall increases from the sides to the center sections of the Southern Caspian foredeep, while the composition of the waters varies in this direction from a carbonate composition to a chloride composition. A preliminary computation of the flow of water-soluble components with the volcanoe waters onto the earth's surface demonstrates the important geochemical significance of this process.

  17. Regional clarkes of chemical elements in soils of southern European Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'yachenko, V. V.; Matasova, I. Yu.

    2016-10-01

    Distribution patterns of 19 elements in soils of the southern part of European Russian were estimated on the basis of the analysis of more than 9000 soil samples; regional clarkes of the elements were compared with their global clarkes, The obtained data attest to the fact that southern Russia is characterized by increased concentrations of most of the microelements with a tendency for their rise in the recent decades. The great role of the aerial migration and deposition of elements results in the enrichment of the soils with technophilic elements, so that the geochemical convergence of the soils is observed. It can be concluded that natural element abundances in soils are subjected to the technogenic transformation reflecting the high rate of contamination of the biosphere.

  18. Protists in the polar regions: comparing occurrence in the Arctic and Southern oceans using pyrosequencing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Wolf

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available In the ongoing discussion of the distribution of protists, whether they are globally distributed or endemic to one or both of the polar regions is the subject of heated debate. In this study, we compared next-generation sequencing data from the Arctic and the Southern oceans to reveal the extent of similarities and dissimilarities between the protist communities in the polar regions. We found a total overlap of operational taxonomic units (OTUs between the two regions of 11.2%. On closer inspection of different taxonomic groups, the overlap ranged between 5.5% (haptophytes and 14.5% (alveolates. Within the different groups, the proportion of OTUs occurring in both regions greatly differed between the polar regions. On the one hand, the overlap between these two regions is remarkable, given the geographical distance between them. On the other hand, one could expect a greater overlap of OTUs between these regions on account of the similar environmental conditions. The overlap suggests a connection between the polar regions for at least certain species or that the evolutionary divergence has been slow, relative to the timescales of isolation. The different proportions of common OTUs among the groups or regions may be a result of different life cycle strategies or environmental adaptations.

  19. Spatial genetic structure and regional demography in the southern torrent salamander: Implications for conservation and management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Mark P.; Haig, Susan M.; Wagner, R.S.

    2006-01-01

    The Southern torrent salamander (Rhyacotriton variegatus) was recently found not warranted for listing under the US Endangered Species Act due to lack of information regarding population fragmentation and gene flow. Found in small-order streams associated with late-successional coniferous forests of the US Pacific Northwest, threats to their persistence include disturbance related to timber harvest activities. We conducted a study of genetic diversity throughout this species' range to 1) identify major phylogenetic lineages and phylogeographic barriers and 2) elucidate regional patterns of population genetic and spatial phylogeographic structure. Cytochrome b sequence variation was examined for 189 individuals from 72 localities. We identified 3 major lineages corresponding to nonoverlapping geographic regions: a northern California clade, a central Oregon clade, and a northern Oregon clade. The Yaquina River may be a phylogeographic barrier between the northern Oregon and central Oregon clades, whereas the Smith River in northern California appears to correspond to the discontinuity between the central Oregon and northern California clades. Spatial analyses of genetic variation within regions encompassing major clades indicated that the extent of genetic structure is comparable among regions. We discuss our results in the context of conservation efforts for Southern torrent salamanders.

  20. Measuring Job Satisfaction Patterns in Saudi ArabiaÕs Southern Regions Hospitals: Implications for Hospital Staff Retention

    OpenAIRE

    Alshahrani Bander Sayaf

    2015-01-01

    Saudi Arabia Southern Region hospitals have shortage of health professionals especially doctors. Retention of quality doctors and minimizing staff turnover has, therefore, become a major priority for hospitals. Job satisfaction is recognized as key factor influencing retention of doctors. In our paper special emphasis is put on doctors working is Southern Region hospitals of Saudi Arabia. By conducting correlation analysis we determine the most important factors conducive to job satisfaction....

  1. Measuring Job Satisfaction Patterns in Saudi Arabia’s Southern Regions Hospitals: Implications for Hospital Staff Retention

    OpenAIRE

    Alshahrani Bander Sayaf

    2015-01-01

    Saudi Arabia Southern Region hospitals have shortage of health professionals especially doctors. Retention of quality doctors and minimizing staff turnover has, therefore, become a major priority for hospitals. Job satisfaction is recognized as key factor influencing retention of doctors. In our paper special emphasis is put on doctors working is Southern Region hospitals of Saudi Arabia. By conducting correlation analysis we determine the most important factors conducive to job satisfaction....

  2. AIDS in Southern Africa: a major factor in planning for the region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Place, J L

    1990-01-01

    This article discusses the spread and impact of AIDS in Southern Africa, as well as government responses to the pandemic. A with a total of 14,325 reported AIDS cases as of September 1990, the countries the Southern Africa (Angola, Botswana, Lesotho, Malawi, Mozambique, Namibia, South Africa, Zambia, and Zimbabwe) now account for 20% of all AIDS cases in Africa. This represents an eightfold increase in just over 2 years. Because of the young age structure of the population, which in the next few years will become sexually active, experts fear rapid increases in the rate of infection. With the exception of South Africa, AIDS has struck men and women alike. The region has also witnessed a growing number of HIV-infected babies and children orphaned by the disease. Besides its cost in human lives, the spread of AIDs threatens the economic development of the region, as it effects the most productive segment of the population, and as the resources to combat the disease dwindle, while its destructive potential grows. Surveillance of the disease has proven difficult, especially among refugees and returning exiles. Government responses to the pandemic have differed. In Zambia, where President Kaunda's own son died of the disease, the government has adopted an extensive AIDS program. Kaunda has appealed for a compassionate treatment of people with AIDS. The South African response, however, has met great skepticism. Most of the AIDS cases have been among blacks and homosexuals, 2 groups that have been marginalized by society. Nonetheless, the region has seen a bright note with the formation of the Southern Africa Network of AIDS Service Organization, which is designed to promote cooperation in combating the spread of AIDS. PMID:12284198

  3. Southeast Hoover field: model of foreland tectonics of Arbuckle region, southern Oklahoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beck, J.H.

    1986-05-01

    The Southwest Hoover field, located on the northern side of the Arbuckel Mountains, typifies the structural style common to the foreland of southern Oklahoma. This oil field, which produces primarily from the upper Arbuckle Group carbonates, was created in response to the Late Pennsylvanian Arbuckle orogeny. Various interpretations of the mode of deformation have been proposed such as wrench faulting, gravity sliding, and overthrusting. This research supports the idea of moderately dipping thrust faults created by northeast-southwest compression. Paleozoic rocks, originally deposited on the northern edge of the Southern Oklahoma aulacogen, have been transported to the northeast on southwest-dipping thrust faults, and now comprise the leading edge of the Arbuckle Mountains. In a detailed study, the Southeast Hoover field was reinterpreted in light of the compressional thrust-fault theory. Large-scale structural closure controls the location of hydrocarbon accumulation in the Arbuckle Group. Structures in the shallower horizons are characterized by detached anticlines that were created as a response to volume adjustments in adjacent upward-tightening synclines. Fault cutoff lengths and hanging-wall cutoff angles provide clues to predeformation fault-plane geometry. Comparison of the Southeast Hoover field with other structures in the Arbuckle region indicates a close similarity of style, which suggests this study can be used as a geologic model for interpreting foreland oil fields throughout southern Oklahoma.

  4. Local extirpations and regional declines of endemic upper beach invertebrates in southern California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubbard, D. M.; Dugan, J. E.; Schooler, N. K.; Viola, S. M.

    2014-10-01

    Along the world's highly valued and populous coastlines, the upper intertidal zones of sandy beach ecosystems and the biodiversity that these zones support are increasingly threatened by impacts of human activities, coastal development, erosion, and climate change. The upper zones of beaches typically support invertebrates with restricted distributions and dispersal, making them particularly vulnerable to habitat loss and fragmentation. We hypothesized that disproportionate loss or degradation of these zones in the last century has resulted in declines of upper shore macroinvertebrates in southern California. We identified a suite of potentially vulnerable endemic upper beach invertebrates with direct development, low dispersal and late reproduction. Based on the availability of printed sources and museum specimens, we investigated historical changes in distribution and abundance of two intertidal isopod species (Tylos punctatus, Alloniscus perconvexus) in southern California. Populations of these isopods have been extirpated at numerous historically occupied sites: T. punctatus from 16 sites (57% decrease), and A. perconvexus from 14 sites (64% decrease). During the same period, we found evidence of only five colonization events. In addition, the northern range limit of the southern species, T. punctatus, moved south by 31 km (8% of range on California mainland) since 1971. Abundances of T. punctatus have declined on the mainland coast; only three recently sampled populations had abundances >7000 individuals m-1. For A. perconvexus populations, abundances >100 individuals m-1 now appear to be limited to the northern part of the study area. Our results show that numerous local extirpations of isopod populations have resulted in regional declines and in greatly reduced population connectivity in several major littoral cells of southern California. Two of the six major littoral cells (Santa Barbara and Zuma) in the area currently support 74% of the remaining isopod

  5. Earthquake focal mechanisms and stress inversion in the Irpinia Region (southern Italy)

    OpenAIRE

    Pasquale, Giuseppe; De Matteis, Raffaella; Romeo, Annalisa; Maresca, Rosalba

    2008-01-01

    Abstract The goal of this study was to estimate the stress field acting in the Irpinia Region, an area of southern Italy that has been struck in the past by destructive earthquakes and that is now characterized by low to moderate seismicity. The dataset are records of 2,352 aftershocks following the last strong event: the 23 November 1980 earthquake (M 6.9). The earthquakes were recorded at seven seismic stations, on average, and have been located using a three-dimensi...

  6. Patient satisfaction with nursing care in a regional university hospital in southern Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Valentín, Araceli; Padín-López, Susana; de Ramón-Garrido, Enrique

    2005-01-01

    Patient satisfaction is a valid indicator for measurement of service quality. Patients' opinions are important because dissatisfaction suggests opportunities for improvement. We evaluated the satisfaction of patients with nursing care in a regional university hospital in southern Spain and determined the relevant sociodemographic and attendance characteristics. A cross-sectional descriptive study was undertaken using the SERVQUAL questionnaire. Reliability and validity of the SERVQUAL instrument were established. The only interaction considered was gender and education level. Analysis of covariance showed that the only factors significantly associated with lower patient satisfaction were female gender, higher educational level, lower overall satisfaction with the hospital, and not knowing the name of the nurse. PMID:15686078

  7. Patient satisfaction with nursing care in a regional university hospital in southern Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Valentín, Araceli; Padín-López, Susana; de Ramón-Garrido, Enrique

    2005-01-01

    Patient satisfaction is a valid indicator for measurement of service quality. Patients' opinions are important because dissatisfaction suggests opportunities for improvement. We evaluated the satisfaction of patients with nursing care in a regional university hospital in southern Spain and determined the relevant sociodemographic and attendance characteristics. A cross-sectional descriptive study was undertaken using the SERVQUAL questionnaire. Reliability and validity of the SERVQUAL instrument were established. The only interaction considered was gender and education level. Analysis of covariance showed that the only factors significantly associated with lower patient satisfaction were female gender, higher educational level, lower overall satisfaction with the hospital, and not knowing the name of the nurse.

  8. Southern Africa Regional Office of Astronomy for Development: A New Hub for Astronomy for Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siseho Mutondo, Moola

    2015-08-01

    A new Astronomy for Development hub needs innovative tools and programs. SAROAD is developing exciting tools integrating Raspberry Pi® technology to bring cost-effective astronomy content to learning centres. SAROAD would also like to report achievements in realising the IAU's strategic plan. In order to manage, evaluate and coordinate regional IAU capacity building programmes, including the recruitment and mobilisation of volunteers, SAROAD has built an intranet that is accessible to regional members upon request. Using this resource, regional members can see and participate in regional activities. This resource also forms the foundation for closer collaboration between SAROAD member countries. SAROAD has commenced with projects in the three Task Force areas of Universities and Research, Children and Schools and Public Outreach. Under the three Task Force areas, a total of seven projects have commenced in Zambia. A further two projects involve the collaboration of Zambia and other regional member countries in order to foster engagement with important regional astronomy facilities (e.g. SKA). SAROAD has identified the IAU’s International Year of Light and a starting point for offering regional support for IAU-endorsed global activities. SAROAD has set up a hub dedicated to regional events and activities about the International Year of Light. SAROAD has a database of regional authorities to enable contact with the region's decision makers and experts. SAROAD will hold an annual event which brings forum for astronomy for development. The creation of the database and the SAROAD Road show is a first step towards this goal. The SAROAD website has helped to advertise upcoming events for astronomy development and education; it is used to provide advice, guidance and information for astronomers in all countries in the Southern Africa. Fundraising is the primary goal for SAROAD in 2015 towards financial self-sufficiency by 2020. We report on the methods that work best

  9. Coal and energy: a southern perspective. Regional characterization report for the National Coal Utilization Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boercker, F. D.; Davis, R. M.; Goff, F. G.; Olson, J. S.; Parzyck, D. C.

    1977-08-01

    This publication is the first of several reports to be produced for the National Coal Utilization Assessment, a program sponsored by the Assistant Administrator for Environment and Safety through the Division of Technology Overview of ERDA. The purpose of the report is to present the state and regional perspective on energy-related issues, especially those concerning coal production and utilization for 12 southern states. This report compiles information on the present status of: (1) state government infrastructure that deals with energy problems; (2) the balance between energy consumption and energy production; (3) the distribution of proved reserves of various mineral energy resources; (4) the major characteristics of the population; (5) the important features of the environment; and (6) the major constraints to increased coal production and utilization as perceived by the states and regional agencies. Many energy-related characteristics described vary significantly from state to state within the region. Regional and national generalizations obscure these important local variations. The report provides the state and regional perspective on energy issues so that these issues may be considered objectively and incorporated into the National Coal Utilization Assessment. This Assessment is designed to provide useful outputs for national, regional, and local energy planners.

  10. CBI limits on 31 GHz excess emission in southern HII regions

    CERN Document Server

    Dickinson, C; Bronfman, L; Casassus, S; Davis, R J; Pearson, T J; Readhead, A C S; Wilkinson, P N

    2007-01-01

    We have mapped four regions of the southern Galactic plane at 31 GHz with the Cosmic Background Imager. From the maps, we have extracted the flux densities for six of the brightest \\hii regions in the southern sky and compared them with multi-frequency data from the literature. The fitted spectral index for each source was found to be close to the theoretical value expected for optically thin free-free emission, thus confirming that the majority of flux at 31 GHz is due to free-free emission from ionised gas with an electron temperature of $\\approx 7000-8000$ K. We also found that, for all six sources, the 31 GHz flux density was slightly higher than the predicted value from data in the literature. This excess emission could be due to spinning dust or another emission mechanism. Comparisons with $100 \\mu$m data indicate an average dust emissivity of $3.3\\pm1.7 mu$K (MJy/sr)$^{-1}$, or a 95 per cent confidence limit of $<6.1 \\mu$K (MJy/sr)$^{-1}$. This is lower than that found in diffuse clouds at high Gala...

  11. Biodiversity and spatial distribution of medusae in the Magellan Region (Southern Patagonian Zone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Palma

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Epipelagic medusae collected in the Magellan Region (Southern Patagonian Zone during spring 2009 were analyzed. A total of 27 species of medusae were identified (25 hydromedusae and 2 scyphomedusae. Twelve medusae species were recorded for the first time in the Magellan region. Six dominant species were found: Clytia simplex (19.8%, Rhopalonema funerarium (16.2%, Aurelia sp. (15.9%, Bougainvillia muscoides (15.5%, Proboscidactyla stellata (8.9%, and Obelia spp. (6.0%. The horizontal distribution of all these species, except Obelia spp., showed the highest abundances to the south of 54°S, particularly in the Almirantazgo and Agostini fjords and in the Beagle Channel. Most of the dominant species were collected in shallow strata (0-50 m, with less saline waters (<30, except for R. funerarium, which was mainly collected above depths deeper than 25 m in more saline waters (30-33. These results confirm the success of several species in the colonization of the inland waters of the Southern Patagonian Zone.

  12. Regional differences in plastic ingestion among Southern Ocean fur seals and albatrosses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Peter G; de Bruyn, P J Nico; Bester, Marthán N

    2016-03-15

    We provide data on regional differences in plastic ingestion for two Southern Ocean top predators: Arctocephalus fur seals and albatrosses (Diomedeidae). Fur seals breeding on Macquarie Island in the 1990s excreted small (mainly 2-5 mm) plastic fragments, probably derived secondarily from myctophid fish. No plastic was found in the scats of these seals breeding on three islands in the southwest Indian and central South Atlantic Oceans, despite myctophids dominating their diets at these locations. Compared to recent reports of plastic ingestion by albatrosses off the east coast of South America, we confirm that plastic is seldom found in the stomachs of Thalassarche albatrosses off South Africa, but found no Diomedea albatrosses to contain plastic, compared to 26% off South America. The reasons for such regional differences are unclear, but emphasize the importance of reporting negative as well as positive records of plastic ingestion by marine biota. PMID:26827096

  13. GPS measurements of regional deformation in southern California - Some constraints on performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixon, T.; Blewitt, G.; Larson, K.; Agnew, D.; Hager, B.; Kroger, P.; Krumega, L.; Strange, W.

    1990-01-01

    Results from the first major survey of southern California with GPS equipment are presented along with some limited results from late experiments assessing GPS performance by analysis of day-to-day and longer-term repeatability, as well as comparisons with VLBI. GPS performance on longer (50-500 km or longer) baselines, a length range useful for measurement of regional deformation and fault block velocities, is emphasized. The implications of this level of performance for meeting longer-term scientific objectives is addressed. It is concluded that GPS techniques and yield results comparable to those achieved with mobile VLBI techniques in California, assuming that appropriate network design and analysis techniques are used. GPS can thus provide important constraints on regional deformation in California with five yrs or less of measurements.

  14. Star formation activity in the southern Galactic HII region G351.63-1.25

    CERN Document Server

    Vig, S; Ojha, D K; Verma, R P; Tamura, M

    2014-01-01

    The southern Galactic high mass star-forming region, G351.6-1.3, is a HII region-molecular cloud complex with a luminosity of 2.0 x 10^5 L_sun, located at a distance of 2.4 kpc. In this paper, we focus on the investigation of the associated HII region, embedded cluster and the interstellar medium in the vicinity of G351.6-1.3. We address the identification of exciting source(s) as well as the census of stellar populations. The ionised gas distribution has been mapped using the Giant Metrewave Radio Telescope (GMRT), India at three continuum frequencies: 1280, 610 and 325 MHz. The HII region shows an elongated morphology and the 1280 MHz map comprises six resolved high density regions encompassed by diffuse emission spanning 1.4 pc x 1.0 pc. The zero age main-sequence (ZAMS) spectral type of the brightest radio core is O7.5. We have carried out near-infrared observations in the JHKs bands using the SIRIUS instrument on the 1.4 m Infrared Survey Facility (IRSF) telescope. The near-infrared images reveal the pre...

  15. An Integrated Land Use - Land Cover Change Model for the Southern Africa Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desanker, P. V.

    2001-12-01

    A land use change model covering the Miombo region of Southern Africa region is presented. The model includes a structure that recognizes the scales at which land use change decisions are made in the region, namely the traditional authority for subsistence agricultural land use, and includes social-economic and biophysical constraints to land use at multiple levels. Land cover information for the 1990's based on maps derived from Landsat Thematic Mapper data are used to initiative the model. The model, called MELT, can be used to examine impacts of land use change on carbon pools, emissions from land use change (slash and burn agriculture or as a result of soil carbon changes), and spatial patterning of land cover. MELT provides a suitable representation of the process of land use in this region, and will be essential in providing the correct context for observed fire and emissions across the region of the SAFARI 2000 initiative. MELT is implemented using an object-oriented approach, and allows easy linkage with impacts models.

  16. Simulation of the Arid Climate of the Southern Great Basin Using a Regional Climate Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giorgi, Filippo; Bates, Gary T.; Nieman, Steven J.

    1992-11-01

    As part of the development effort of a regional climate model (RCM)for the southern Great Basin, this paper present savalidation analysis of the climatology generated by a high-resolution RCM driven by observations. The RCM is aversion of the National Center for atmospheric Research-Pennsylvania State University mesoscale model, version 4 (MM4), modified for application to regional climate simulation. Two multiyear simulations, for the periods 1 January 1982 to 31 December 1983 and 1 January 1988 to 25 April 1989, were performed over the western United States with the RCM driven by European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts analyses of observations. The model resolution is 60 km. This validation analysis is the first phase of a project to produce simulations of future climate scenarios over a region surrounding Yucca Mountain, Nevada, the only location currently being considered as a potential high-level nuclear-waste repository site.Model-produced surface air temperatures and precipitation were compared with observations from five southern Nevada stations located in the vicinity of Yucca Mountain. The seasonal cycles of temperature and precipitation were simulated well. Monthly and seasonal temperature biases were generally negative and largely explained by differences in elevation between the observing stations and the model topography. The model-simulated precipitation captured the extreme dryness of the Great Basin. Average yearly precipitation was generally within 30% of observed and the range of monthly precipitation amounts was the same as in the observations. Precipitation biases were mostly negative in the summer and positive in the winter. The number of simulated daily precipitation events for various precipitation intervals was within factors of 1.5-3.5 of observed. Overall, the model tended to overestimate the number of light precipitation events and underestimate the number of heavy precipitation events. At Yucca Mountain, simulated

  17. Teleseismic tomography of the southern Puna plateau in Argentina and adjacent regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianchi, M.; Heit, B.; Jakovlev, A.; Yuan, X.; Kay, S. M.; Sandvol, E.; Alonso, R. N.; Coira, B.; Brown, L.; Kind, R.; Comte, D.

    2013-02-01

    We performed a teleseismic P wave tomography study using seismic events at both teleseismic and regional distances, recorded by a temporary seismic array in the Argentine Puna Plateau and adjacent regions. The tomographic images show the presence of a number of positive and negative anomalies in a depth range of 20-300 km beneath the array. The most prominent of these anomalies corresponds to a low-velocity body, located in the crust, most clearly seen in the center of the array (27°S, 67°W) between the Cerro Peinado volcano, the Cerro Blanco caldera and the Farallon Negro in the east. This anomaly (southern Puna Magmatic Body) extends from the northern most part of the array and follows the line with the highest density of stations towards the south where it becomes smaller. It is flanked by high velocities on the west and the east respectively. On the west, the high velocities might be related to the subducted Nazca plate. On the northeast the high velocity block coincides with the position of the Hombre Muerto basin in the crust and could be indicating an area of lithospheric delamination where we detected a high velocity block at 100 km depth on the eastern border of the Puna plateau, north of Galan. This block might be related to a delamination event in an area with a thick crust of Paleozoic metamorphic rocks at the border between Puna and Eastern Cordillera. In the center of the array the Southern Puna magmatic body is also flanked by high velocities but the most prominent region is located on the east and is interpreted as part of the Sierras Pampeanas lithosphere with high velocities. The position of the Sierras Pampeanas geological province is key in this area as it appears to limit the extension of the plateau towards the south.

  18. Impact of land surface degradation in northern China and southern Mongolia on regional climate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Jingyong; DONG Wenjie; FU Congbin

    2005-01-01

    Clear evidence provided by the singular value decomposition (SVD) analysis to the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) and precipitation data identifies that there exists a sensitive region of vegetation-climate interaction located in the transitional zone over northern China and its surrounding areas, where the vegetation cover change has the most significant influence on summer precipitation over China. Comparison of reanalysis data with station data provides a good method to assess the impacts of land use change on surface temperature, and the most obvious contribution of land use change may be to lead to notable warming over northern China in the interdecadal time scale. Based on the new statistical results, a high-resolution regional integrated environmental model system (RIEMS) is employed to investigate the effects of land surface degradation over the transitional zone and its surrounding areas (northern China and southern Mongolia) on the regional climate. Land degradation results in the decreases in precipitation over northern and southern China, and the increase in between, and increased and decreased temperature over vegetation change areas and the adjacent area to the south, respectively. Not only would it change the surface climate, but also bring the significant influence on the atmospheric circulation. Both the surface climate and circulation changes generally agree to the observed interdecadal anomalies over the last five decades. These integrated statistical and simulated results imply that land surface degradation over the transitional zone in northern China and its surrounding areas could be one of the main causes responsible for the climate anomalies over China, especially the drought over northern China.

  19. Southern Africa’s Water–Energy Nexus: Towards Regional Integration and Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tafadzwanashe Mabhaudhi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The Southern African Development Community’s (SADC water and energy sectors are under increasing pressure due to population growth and agricultural and industrial development. Climate change is also negatively impacting on the region’s water and energy resources. As the majority of SADC’s population lives in poverty, regional development and integration are underpinned by water and energy security as the watercourses in the region are transboundary in nature. This paper reviews the region’s water and energy resources and recommends policies based on the water–energy nexus approach. This is achieved by reviewing literature on water and energy resources as well as policy issues. Water resources governance provides a strong case to create a water–energy nexus platform to support regional planning and integration as SADC countries share similar climatic and hydrological conditions. However, there has been a gap between water and energy sector planning in terms of policy alignment and technical convergence. These challenges hinder national policies on delivering economic and social development goals, as well as constraining the regional goal of greater integration. Regional objectives on sustainable energy and access to clean water for all can only be achieved through the recognition of the water–energy nexus, championed in an integrated and sustainable manner. A coordinated regional water–energy nexus approach stimulates economic growth, alleviates poverty and reduces high unemployment rates. The shared nature of water and energy resources requires far more transboundary water–energy nexus studies to be done in the context of regional integration and policy formulation.

  20. NH_3(1,1) survey toward southern hemisphere HII regions. I

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilas-Boas, J. W. S.; Abraham, Z.

    2000-03-01

    The (J,K) = (1,1) metastable ammonia line was searched for in the direction of more than one hundred southern HII regions located between 270 degr and 15degr in galactic longitude, resulting in new detections toward 21 of them. Ammonia detection rate was about 30 % towards all directions except in the longitude interval 270degr -290degr where no ammonia lines were found in the 15 selected HII regions. A high detection rate (>= 0.6) was observed toward positions where IRAS point sources with color indices of ultra-compact HII regions were in the beam of the telescope. An anticorrelation between the number of detected NH_3 sources and the distance to the Galactic Center was found, compatible with the observed gradient in N abundance. From the value of this gradient and the detection rate of ammonia lines toward HII regions, it is inferred that the number of ammonia sources must be proportional to the inverse of the column density of the molecular cloud.

  1. The geothermal potential of the Campania volcanic district and new heat exchanger technologies for exploitation of highly urbanised areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlino, S.; Somma, R.; Troiano, A.; Di Giuseppe, M. G.; Troise, C.; De Natale, G.

    2012-04-01

    The geothermal research in Campania region (Italy), started since the 1930, and continued until the '80 by the SAFEN, ENEL and AGIP companies. Such exploration activity highlighted that most of the volcanic districts of the Campania Region have a very high geothermal gradient and heat flow. In particular, inside the Campi Flegrei caldera and at Ischia island the geothermal gradient measured inside the deep wells reaches temperatures above 100° C between few tens and few hundreds of metres of depth, while the heat flow varies between 120-160 mWm-2 at Agnano and Mofete (Campi Flegrei main drill sites) to more than 500 mWm-2 at Ischia island (south-western sector). A general review of the available literature data (temperature at depth, stratigraphic sections, logs etc.) of the deep wells (down to 3 km b.s.l.) allowed us to quantify the geothermal potential (thermal and electric) of such district. The geothermal potential is about 6 GWy for the Campi Flegrei (Mofete and S. Vito sectors) and 11 GWy for the Ischia island (south-western sector) showing a geothermal reservoir with water and vapour dominant respectively. This results in strong potential interest for economic exploitation of the geothermal resource, both in the range of low-medium enthalpy at few hundreds of meters depth and of high enthalpy at depths of 1-2 km. In this study we try to model the effectiveness of new technologies of boreholes heat exchangers, which would allow to avoid fluid withdrawal, then strongly decreasing the environmental impact. The proposed technology consists of a double-pipe placed in a borehole heat exchange that can work coupled with an ORC. The two pipes, one inside the other, are located in the well in order to transfer the thermal energy to the working fluid during the descent in the external pipe and then go back through the internal pipe properly isolated. We propose a complete design of the borehole heat exchangers. The design activity is performed on a theoretical basis

  2. A challenge of regional integration: the Southern Argentinian pipeline enlargement; Desafio de integracao regional: ampliacao do gasoduto Sul-Argentino

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sardi, Oscar; Sosa, Damian [Transportadora de Gas del Sur S.A., Buenos Aires (Argentina); Duarte Filho, Arno [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2005-07-01

    The enlargement of the pipelines of Southern Argentina comprised the construction of around 500 km of 30' and 36' loops in the first semester of 2005 and presented many peculiarities. It has been the first enlargement of the argentinian pipeline system since the country's default statement, in 2001, and it has been financed and built by a bi national Brazilian-Argentinian consortium. It has also been the first time that a governmental trusteeship has been used in such an enterprise in Argentina to guarantee the necessary funds. The increasing demand of natural gas to industries and power generation plants brought about by Argentina's recent growth has stated the sense of urgency: the construction must be on duty in June 2005, ready to increase de flow of gas to the Provincia de Buenos Aires and Great Buenos Aires regions. This has represented also a technical challenge, due to the small time to built the loops, the geographical distribution of the construction, which extends from Patagonia to the Great Buenos Aires region and the meteorological conditions of the period of the construction. The article describes the negotiations done to assemble the construction's financial and managerial frameworks, the building and the solutions found to face the challenge and to meet the deadline. (author)

  3. Origin and Distribution of PAHs in Ambient Particulate Samples at High Mountain Region in Southern China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng-hui Li

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available To understand the deposition and transport of PAHs in southern China, a measurement campaign was conducted at a high-elevation site (the summit of Mount Heng, 1269 m A.S.L. from April 4 to May 31, 2009, and a total of 39 total suspended particulate samples were collected for measurement of PAH concentrations. The observed particulate-bound PAHs concentrations ranged from 1.63 to 29.83 ng/m3, with a mean concentration of 6.03 ng/m3. BbF, FLA, and PYR were the predominant compounds. Good correlations were found between individual PAHs and meteorological parameters such as atmospheric pressure, relative humidity, and ambient temperature. The backward trajectory analysis suggested that particulate samples measured at the Mount Heng region were predominantly associated with the air masses from southern China, while the air masses transported over northern and northwestern China had relative higher PAHs concentrations. Based on the diagnostic ratios and factor analysis, vehicular emission, coal combustion, industry emission, and unburned fossil fuels were suggested to be the PAHs sources at Mount Heng site. However, the reactivity and degradation of individual PAHs could influence the results of PAH source profiles, which deserves further investigations in the future.

  4. Low crustal velocities and mantle lithospheric variations in southern Tibet from regional Pnl waveforms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodgers, Arthur J.; Schwartz, Susan Y.

    We report low average crustal P-wave velocities (5.9-6.1 km/s, Poisson's ratio 0.23-0.27, thickness 68-76 km) in southern Tibet from modelling regional Pnl waveforms recorded by the 1991-1992 Tibetan Plateau Experiment. We also find that the mantle lithosphere beneath the Indus-Tsangpo Suture and the Lhasa Terrane is shield-like (Pn velocity 8.20-8.25 km/s, lid thickness 80-140 km, positive velocity gradient 0.0015-0.0025 s-1). Analysis of relative Pn travel time residuals requires a decrease in the mantle velocities beneath the northern Lhasa Terrane, the Banggong-Nujiang Suture and the southern Qiangtang Terrane. Tectonic and petrologic considerations suggest that low bulk crustal velocities could result from a thick (50-60 km) felsic upper crust with vertically limited and laterally pervasive partial melt. These results are consistent with underthrusting of Indian Shield lithosphere beneath the Tibetan Plateau to at least the central Lhasa Terrane.

  5. Seismic structure of the southern Apennines as revealed by waveform modelling of regional surface waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ökeler, Ahmet; Gu, Yu Jeffrey; Lerner-Lam, Arthur; Steckler, Michael S.

    2009-09-01

    We investigate the crust and upper-mantle structures beneath the southern Apennine mountain chain using three-component seismograms from the Calabria-Apennine-Tyrrhenian/Subduction-Collision-Accretion Network (CAT/SCAN) array. Surface wave waveforms from three moderate-sized (Mw > 5.0) regional earthquakes are modelled using multiple frequencies (0.03-0.06 and 0.05-0.2 Hz) and both forward and linearized-inversion algorithms. Our best-fitting shear velocity models clearly reflect the major tectonic units where, for example, the average seismic structure at depths above 50 km beneath Apulia is substantially faster than beneath the Apennine mountain chain. We identify a prominent low-velocity channel under the mountain belt at depths below ~25-30 km and a secondary low-velocity zone at 6-12 km depth near Mt Vulture (a once active volcano). Speed variations between Love and Rayleigh waves provide further constraints on the fabric and dynamic processes. Our analysis indicates that the crustal low-velocity zones are highly anisotropic (maximum 14 per cent) and allow transversely polarized shear waves to travel faster than vertically polarized shear waves. The upper crustal anomaly reveals a layer of highly deformed rocks caused by past collisions and by the active normal faults cutting across the thrust sheets, whereas hot mantle upwelling may be responsible for a high-temperature, partially molten lower crust beneath the southern Apennines.

  6. Association between HLA-C*04 and American cutaneous leishmaniasis in endemic region of southern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribas-Silva, R C; Ribas, A D; Ferreira, E C; Silveira, T G V; Borelli, S D

    2015-11-23

    Leishmaniasis is a parasitic infectious disease with global repercussions. American cutaneous leishmaniasis (ACL) is endemic in southern Brazil and its pathogenesis varies according to parasite species, immune response, and host genetics. In terms of immunogenetics, many host genes, including HLA (human leukocyte antigen), could be involved in susceptibility to and protection against ACL. Accordingly, the aim of this study was to investigate the association between HLA class I genes (HLA-A, -B, and -C) and ACL in an endemic region of southern Brazil. The allele frequencies of 186 patients diagnosed with ACL and 278 healthy individuals were compared. HLA class I (HLA-A, -B, and -C) typing was carried out by PCR-SSO using Luminex technology. The results revealed an association between the HLA-C*04 allele and the patient study group, in which it appeared more frequently than in the control group [21.5 vs 13.49% (P = 0.0016 and Pc = 0.0258; OR = 1.7560; 95%CI = 1.2227-2.5240)], thereby suggesting an increased susceptibility to ACL. Additional allelic groups such as HLA-A*02, HLA-B*35, HLA-B*45, HLA-C*01, and HLA-C*15 were also implicated; however, further investigation is necessary to confirm their association with ACL. Therefore, the results obtained in this study demonstrate the involvement of HLA class I genes in the susceptibility or resistance to ACL, with significant association between HLA-C*04 and ACL susceptibility.

  7. Mechanization in firewood harvesting in southern Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research was to survey current mechanization level of coppice harvesting in Southern Italy. The cooperation of the General Direction of the National Forest Service (NFS has been a basic tool of survey. A questionnaire compiled on purpose was sent to each Forest Station (hereinafter referred to as CS in the following regions: Basilicata, Campania and Calabria. A high percentage (80% of the CSs did fulfill the questionnaire. The answers highlight that: i the main assortment currently produced is firewood; ii the level of harvesting mechanization is rather low, equipment being quite obsolete: indeed, the most widely used machineries are farm tractors partly adapted to forest harvesting and equipped with cages or back winch; iii the use of animals for hauling (mules and oxen, the latter in Calabria is still quite frequent, while forest tractors, polyethylene chutes and cable cranes are almost absent; iv the use of individual protection (DPI and machinery protection devices (DPM is on average quite low.

  8. Physical characterisation of southern massive star-forming regions using Parkes NH$_3$ observations

    CERN Document Server

    Hill, T; Pinte, C; Cunningham, M R; Burton, M G; Minier, V

    2009-01-01

    We have undertaken a Parkes ammonia spectral line study, in the lowest two inversion transitions, of southern massive star formation regions, including young massive candidate protostars, with the aim of characterising the earliest stages of massive star formation. 138 sources from the submillimetre continuum emission studies of Hill et al., were found to have robust (1,1) detections, including two sources with two velocity components, and 102 in the (2,2) transition. We determine the ammonia line properties of the sources: linewidth, flux density, kinetic temperature, NH$_3$ column density and opacity, and revisit our SED modelling procedure to derive the mass for 52 of the sources. By combining the continuum emission information with ammonia observations we substantially constrain the physical properties of the high-mass clumps. There is clear complementarity between ammonia and continuum observations for derivations of physical parameters. The MM-only class, identified in the continuum studies of Hill et a...

  9. Stand structure and dead wood characterization in cork forest of Calabria region (southern Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barreca L

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The cork forests are one the most interesting forest ecosystems in the Mediterranean area. Their distribution and ecological characteristics have undergone a significant transformation after the significant changes following the development and establishment of agricultural crops. Currently, only a few stands, which survive in hard to reach places, prove the wide spread distribution of this species was also in the recent past. This study describes the stand structure of some cork forests in Calabria region (southern Italy. In order, to characterize the vertical structure Latham index has been applied, while for the description of the horizontal distribution NBSI group indices has been used. Detailed surveys on dead wood were also conducted determining the occurring volume and its decay stage according to the decay classes system proposed by Hunter. The aim of this study is to provide guidelines for sustainable management of cork forests, improving and promoting the structural complexity and functional efficiency of these forest stands.

  10. Choir singing in Subsaharan Africa: Acoustic factors of a regional style in southern Mozambique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soeiro de Carvalho, Joao

    2005-09-01

    Choir singing is a most prominent form of expressive behavior in Subsaharan Africa. A vast majority of expressive modes involves multipart singing, both within the framework of European tonal system as well as other structured ways of combining vocal sounds of different frequencies. Vocal improvisation stands as an important process for the course of performance; individual voice ranges, as well as issues of social status and musical competence, determine the ways musicians participate in performance. Aesthetic validation is often expressed by the use of a nonverbal expressive mode, ``kulungwani,'' a vocal technique involving the action of the lower maxillae and tongue in order to produce a low-frequency interruption of sound emission. Choral singing intonation processes seem to rely on harmonic results, rather than melodic. A regional choral style in southern Africa seems to have developed, where a particular distribution of formant frequencies and an emphasis on low-frequency energy play a significant role.

  11. Geodetic measurement of deformation in the Ventura basin region, southern California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donnellan, Andrea; Hager, Bradford H.; King, Robert W.; Herring, Thomas A.

    1993-01-01

    We have measured the deformation in the Ventura basin region, southern California, with Global Positioning System (GPS) measurements carried out over 4.6 years between 1987 and 1992. The deformation within our network is spatically variable on scales of tens of kilometers, with strain rates reaching 0.6 +/- 1 micro-rad/yr in the east-central basin. Blocklike rotations are observed south and northwest of the basin where the maximum shear strain rates are an order of magnitude lower (0.06 +/- 1 micro-rad/yr to the south). We also observed clockwise rotations of 1 deg - 7 deg/m.y. Shear strain rates determined by comparing angle changes from historical triangulation spanning several decades and GPS measurements give consistent, though less precise, results. The geodetic rates of shortening across the basin and Western Transverse Ranges are lower than those estimated from geological observations, but the patterns of deformation from the two methods agree qualitatively.

  12. A new species of Melanophryniscus (Anura, Bufonidae from the Campos Gerais region of Southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanna C. Steinbach-Padilha

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available A new species of Melanophryniscus is described from the Parque Estadual de Vila Velha, municipality of Ponta Grossa, Paraná State,Southern Brazil. The Parque Estadual de Vila Velha is located in the Campos Gerais region, an environment dominated by natural grasslands with patches of Araucaria Forest. The new species is distinguished from all congeners by its small size (12.8-14.0 mm snout-vent length in adult males and unique color pattern of copper brown dorsum covered with small spinulose black warts; ventral surface black finely spotted with white, posterior abdomen and ventral surfaces of the forearm, hand and foot with red stains. The new species is nocturnal and breeds in the water accumulated in the leaf-axils of phytotelmata.

  13. Environmental justice and regional inequality in southern California: implications for future research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morello-Frosch, Rachel; Pastor, Manuel; Porras, Carlos; Sadd, James

    2002-04-01

    Environmental justice offers researchers new insights into the juncture of social inequality and public health and provides a framework for policy discussions on the impact of discrimination on the environmental health of diverse communities in the United States. Yet, causally linking the presence of potentially hazardous facilities or environmental pollution with adverse health effects is difficult, particularly in situations in which diverse populations are exposed to complex chemical mixtures. A community-academic research collaborative in southern California sought to address some of these methodological challenges by conducting environmental justice research that makes use of recent advances in air emissions inventories and air exposure modeling data. Results from several of our studies indicate that communities of color bear a disproportionate burden in the location of treatment, storage, and disposal facilities and Toxic Release Inventory facilities. Longitudinal analysis further suggests that facility siting in communities of color, not market-based "minority move-in," accounts for these disparities. The collaborative also investigated the health risk implications of outdoor air toxics exposures from mobile and stationary sources and found that race plays an explanatory role in predicting cancer risk distributions among populations in the region, even after controlling for other socioeconomic and demographic indicators. Although it is unclear whether study results from southern California can be meaningfully generalized to other regions in the United States, they do have implications for approaching future research in the realm of environmental justice. The authors propose a political economy and social inequality framework to guide future research that could better elucidate the origins of environmental inequality and reasons for its persistence. PMID:11929723

  14. Lake breezes in the southern Great Lakes region and their influence during BAQS-Met 2007

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. M. L. Sills

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Mesoscale observations from the BAQS-Met field experiment during the summer of 2007 were integrated and manually analyzed in order to identify and characterize lake breezes in the southern Great Lakes region of North America, and assess their potential impact on air quality. Lake breezes were found to occur on 90% of study days, often occurring in conditions previously thought to impede their development. They affected all parts of the study region, including southwestern Ontario and nearby portions of southeast Michigan and northern Ohio, occasionally penetrating inland from 100 km to over 200 km. Occurrence rates and penetration distances were found to be higher than previously reported in the literature. This more accurate depiction of observed lake breezes allows a better understanding of their influence on the production and transport of pollutants in this region.

    The observational analyses were compared with output from subsequent runs of a high-resolution numerical weather prediction model. The model accurately predicted lake breeze occurrence in a variety of synoptic wind regimes, but selected cases showed substantial differences in the detailed timing and location of lake-breeze fronts, and with the initiation of deep moist convection. Knowledge of such strengths and weaknesses will assist with interpretation of results from air quality modelling driven by this meteorological model.

  15. Lake breezes in the southern Great Lakes region and their influence during BAQS-Met 2007

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. M. L. Sills

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Meteorological observations from the BAQS-Met field experiment during the summer months of 2007 were integrated and manually analyzed in order to identify and characterize lake breezes in the southern Great Lakes region of North America, and assess their potential impact on air quality. Lake breezes occurred frequently, with one or more lake breezes identified on 90 % of study days. They affected all parts of the study region, including southwestern Ontario and nearby portions of southeast Lower Michigan and northern Ohio, with lake-breeze fronts occasionally penetrating from 100 km to over 200 km inland. Occurrence rates and penetration distances were found to be higher than previously reported in the literature. This comprehensive depiction of observed lake breezes allows an improved understanding of their influence on the transport, dispersion, and production of pollutants in this region.

    The observational analyses were compared with output from subsequent runs of a high-resolution numerical weather prediction model. The model accurately predicted lake breeze occurrence and type in a variety of synoptic wind regimes, but selected cases showed substantial differences in the detailed timing and location of lake-breeze fronts, and with the initiation of deep moist convection. Knowledge of such strengths and weaknesses aids in the interpretation of results from air quality models driven by this meteorological model.

  16. Star formation towards the southern Cometary HII region IRAS 17256-3631

    CERN Document Server

    Veena, V S; Tej, A; Varricatt, W P; Ghosh, S K; Chandrasekhar, T; Ashok, N M

    2015-01-01

    IRAS 17256-3631 is a southern Galactic massive star forming region located at a distance of 2 kpc. In this paper, we present a multiwavelength investigation of the embedded cluster, the HII region, as well as the parent cloud. Radio images at 325, 610 and 1372 MHz were obtained using GMRT, India while the near-infrared imaging and spectroscopy were carried out using UKIRT and Mt. Abu Infrared Telescope, India. The near-infrared K-band image reveals the presence of a partially embedded infrared cluster. The spectral features of the brightest star in the cluster, IRS-1, spectroscopically agrees with a late O or early B star and could be the driving source of this region. Filamentary H_2 emission detected towards the outer envelope indicates presence of highly excited gas. The parent cloud is investigated at far-infrared to millimeter wavelengths and eighteen dust clumps have been identified. The spectral energy distributions (SEDs) of these clumps have been fitted as modified blackbodies and the best-fit peak t...

  17. The Development of Tourist Relations during the Economic Crisis through the Example of the Southern Great Plain Region and Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PÉTER GULYÁS

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Since the beginning of the economic crisis, nearby feeder markets have become increasingly important for Hungary’s tourism sector with cross-border cooperation schemes playing an ever increasing role. This also holds true for Hungary’s Southern Great Plain Region when viewed in its relationship with neighbouring Serbia. This paper examines tourism flow changes in the Southern Hungarian Great Plain Region during the period of the economic crisis especially as far as tourism flows from Serbia are concerned. The analysis is based on official statistical data available in respect of commercial accommodation facilities, analyses on tourism trends carried out at the European level, and regional development documents drawn up for the Hungarian–Serbian cross border region. The economic crisis caused a significant downturn in tourism flows in the Southern Great Plain Region. However, the number of tourists arriving from Serbia to the Southern Great Plain and the number of nights they spent there increased even during the crisis partly because of the favourable geographical location of the region, partly because of the intensive cooperation schemes implemented in the tourism sector, and partly because of organised marketing campaigns.

  18. Late Permian to Triassic intraplate orogeny of the southern Tianshan and adjacent regions, NW China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wei Ju; Guiting Hou

    2014-01-01

    The South Tianshan Orogen and adjacent regions of Central Asia are located in the southwestern part of the Central Asian Orogenic Belt. The formation of South Tianshan Orogen was a diachronous, scissors-like process, which took place during the Palaeozoic, and its western segment was accepted as a site of the final collision between the Tarim Craton and the North Asian continent, which occurred in the late Palaeozoic. However, the post-collisional tectonic evolution of the South Tianshan Orogen and adjacent regions remains debatable. Based on previous studies and recent geochronogical data, we suggest that the final collision between the Tarim Craton and the North Asian continent occurred during the late Carboniferous. Therefore, the Permian was a period of intracontinental environment in the southern Tianshan and adjacent regions. We propose that an earlier, small-scale intraplate orogenic stage occurred in late Permian to Triassic time, which was the first intraplate process in the South Tianshan Orogen and adjacent regions. The later large-scale and well-known Neogene to Quaternary intraplate orogeny was induced by the collision between the India subcontinent and the Eurasian plate. The paper presents a new evolutionary model for the South Tianshan Orogen and adjacent regions, which includes seven stages: (I) late Ordovicianeearly Silurian opening of the South Tianshan Ocean;(II) middle Silurianemiddle Devonian subduction of the South Tianshan Ocean beneath an active margin of the North Asian continent; (III) late Devonianelate Carboniferous closure of the South Tianshan Ocean and collision between the Kazakhstan-Yili and Tarim continental blocks;(IV) early Permian post-collisional magmatism and rifting;(V) late PermianeTriassic the first intraplate orogeny;(VI) JurassicePalaeogene tectonic stagnation and (VII) NeoceneeQuaternary intraplate orogeny.

  19. Proteolytic and lipolytic microbiota of refrigerated raw milk from northeast and southern regions of Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose Carlos Ribeiro Junior

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The shelf life of milk and milk derivatives is directly related to the microbiological quality of refrigerated raw milk. Spoilage microorganisms with proteolytic and/or lipolytic properties are primarily responsible for the decrease in the quality of milk, which is reflected in the shelf life of pasteurized milk and all derivatives. The aim of this study was to determine the spoilage microbial load of refrigerated raw milk from the northeast and southern regions of Brazil, which have different climatic and technological conditions of production. We evaluated 46 samples of milk from the state of Paraná in the southern region, and 10 samples of milk from the state of Maranhão in the northeast region, totaling 56 samples collected from November 2013 to November 2014. The producers of Paraná were divided into large (20 or small (26 according to the average daily production. All producers of Maranhão were considered small (<500L/day. The proteolytic and lipolytic microorganism counts were conducted in milk agar and tributyrin agar, respectively. Milk from the large producers of Paraná had average counts of 1.4 × 104 CFU/mL for proteolytic microorganisms and 1.2 × 103 CFU/mL for lipolytics microorganisms, significantly (p <0.05 lower than the small producers in the same state, and the producers of Maranhão. Producers of Maranhao had counts of 1.1 × 105 CFU/mL for proteolytic microorganisms and 2 × 105 CFU/mL for lipolytic microorganisms, with the proteolytic count significantly lower than that of small Paraná producers. The amount of proteolytic and lipolytic spoilage microorganisms in milk is influenced by the adaptation of the microorganisms to cold, promoted by the cooling of milk, which is practiced less frequently in the country’s northeastern region. The amount of spoilage microorganisms is also affected by the implementation of milking hygiene practices, which reduce contamination. Such practices are more frequently and efficiently

  20. Intestinal spirochaetes (genus Brachyspira colonise wild birds in the southern Atlantic region and Antarctica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Désirée S. Jansson

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The genus Brachyspira contains well-known enteric pathogens of veterinary significance, suggested agents of colonic disease in humans, and one potentially zoonotic agent. There are recent studies showing that Brachyspira are more widespread in the wildlife community than previously thought. There are no records of this genus in wildlife from the southern Atlantic region and Antarctica. Our aim was therefore, to determine whether intestinal spirochaetes of genus Brachyspira colonise marine and coastal birds in this region. Method: Faecal samples were collected from marine and coastal birds in the southern Atlantic region, including sub-Antarctic islands and Antarctica, in 2002, 2009, and 2012, with the aim to isolate and characterise zoonotic agents. In total, 205 samples from 11 bird species were selectively cultured for intestinal spirochaetes of genus Brachyspira. To identify isolates to species level, they were subjected to phenotyping, species-specific polymerase chain reactions, sequencing of partial 16S rRNA, NADH oxidase (nox, and tlyA genes, and phylogenetic analysis. Antimicrobial susceptibility tests were performed. Results: Fourteen unique strains were obtained from 10 birds of three species: four snowy sheathbills (Chionis albus, three kelp geese (Chloephaga hybrida subsp. malvinarum, and three brown skua (Stercorarius antarcticus subsp. lonnbergi sampled on the Falkland Islands, Tierra del Fuego in Argentina, South Georgia, South Shetland Islands, and the Antarctic Peninsula. Five Brachyspira strains were closely related to potentially enteropathogenic Brachyspira sp. of chickens: B. intermedia (n=2, from snowy sheathbills, and B. alvinipulli (n=3, from a kelp goose and two snowy sheathbills. Three strains from kelp geese were most similar to the presumed non-pathogenic species ‘B. pulli’ and B. murdochii, whereas the remaining six strains could not be attributed to currently known species. No isolates related to

  1. Streamflow estimation using WRF-Hydro with dynamically downscaled climate variables over southern tropical Indian region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, S.; Sudheer, K. P.; Gunthe, S. S.

    2015-12-01

    Indian summer monsoon rainfall (ISMR; June to September), which constitutes around 80% of India's annual rainfall, has shown an increasing trend in intensity and frequency of extreme events (Goswami et al., 2006). It is a widely recognized fact that the increasing temperature in association with anthropogenic activities can affect the hydrological cycle, which leads to extreme events. In addition a shift in extremes of the spatial pattern of ISMR has recently been observed (Ghosh et al., 2011). Such changes in rainfall on temporal and spatial scale can further affect the stream flow over a given region subsequently making water resource management a difficult task (Mondal and Mujumdar, 2015). The hydrological models used for the stream flow estimation are dependent on various climate variables as input data. These climate variables could be obtained through either observational networks or climate model outputs. Due to the scarcity of the observational data over the Indian region and the coarse resolution of global climate model output, which is used as input to hydrologic models, large uncertainties are introduced in stream flow output (Overgaard et al., 2007). In the present study we have used the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model (Skamarock et al. 2008) to downscale the essential climate variables (surface temperature, precipitation, relative humidity, etc.) as an input for its coupled hydrological extension, WRF Hydro (NCAR user's guide). We will present the results obtained from the WRF-hydro simulation to estimate the stream flow over the Thamirabarani river basin in Southern Tropical Indian region. Preliminary simulations using WRF to estimate the precipitation showed the reasonable quantitative agreement with observed values. An attempt will be made to demonstrate how these results can further be used for developing flood-forecasting techniques and for local regional water resource management.

  2. Effects of Repeated Fires in the Forest Ecosystems of the Zabaikalye Region, Southern Siberia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kukavskaya, E.; Buryak, L. V.; Conard, S. G.; Petkov, A.; Barrett, K.; Kalenskaya, O. P.; Ivanova, G.

    2014-12-01

    Fire is the main ecological disturbance controlling forest development in the boreal forests of Siberia and contributing substantially to the global carbon cycle. The warmer and dryer climate observed recently in the boreal forests is considered to be responsible for extreme fire weather, resulting in higher fire frequency, larger areas burned, and an increase of fire severity. Because of the increase of fire activity, boreal forests in some regions may not be able to reach maturity before they re-burn, which means less carbon will be stored in the ecosystem and more will remain in the atmosphere. Moreover, if one fire occurs within a few years of another, some stands will not re-grow at all, and even more carbon will accumulate in the atmosphere. Zabaikalye region located in the south of Siberia is characterized by the highest fire activity in Russia. With a use of the satellite-based fire product we found that there are about 7.0 million hectares in the region burned repeatedly during the last decade. We have investigated a number of sites in-situ in light-coniferous (Scots pine and larch) forests and evaluated the impacts of repeated fires on fuel loads, carbon emissions, and tree regeneration. Substantial decrease of carbon stocks, change of the vegetation structure and composition, and soil erosion were observed in many areas disturbed by repeated fires. At drier sites located in the southern regions repeated fires prohibited successful regeneration and resulted in forest conversion to grassland. Detection and monitoring of changes in the areas of Siberia where repeated fires have caused a major shift in ecosystem structure and function is required for the development of sustainable forest management strategies to mitigate climate change. The research was supported by NASA LCLUC Program.

  3. Groundwater storage changes from GRACE satellite in the Southern Gobi Region of Mongolia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemer, B.; Yanping, C.; Bayanzul, B. B.; Altangerel, E. E.

    2014-12-01

    Groundwater is an important resource in the Southern Gobi Region of Mongolia because rainfall and surface water availability are severely limited and the demands are expected to increase rapidly with the development of mining and new population centers. Groundwater systems are more complex and yet its distribution and quantity are poorly known. The purpose of the research is to evaluate the potential utility of GRACE (Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment) satellites to monitor groundwater storage in the arid area. Regional groundwater storage changes in SGR are estimated using monthly GRACE total water storage change data. Groundwater storage change estimates are compared to groundwater level measurements of 66 shallow dug wells and 72 deep boreholes for the period 2004-2012. Groundwater storage decreases during the cold season and increases during the warm season. Seasonal groundwater change calculated from GRACE total water storage is highly correlated to groundwater level measurements in shallow aquifers. There is no correlation between groundwater storage changes derived from GRACE and deep aquifer. The result indicates that GRACE can be used to monitor large area where groundwater observation is limited, especially unconfined shallow aquifers.

  4. Weather derivative design in agriculture – a case study of barley in the Southern Moravia Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Špička

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to point out some problems of index estimation for the purposes of weather derivative valuation considering the particularities of agriculture. The assessment of the sensitivity of barley to weather over 40 years has been the basis for the design and valuation of weather derivative in the Czech Republic (The Southern Moravia Region. The analysis is based on regression modeling using temperature index and barley yield. The burn analysis based on parametric bootstrap is used as the method for the valuation of weather derivative contract. With the effective bootstrap tool, the burn analysis may easily be processed and the uncertainty about the pay-off, option price and statistics of probability distribution of revenues can be effectively determined. Nevertheless, the results of the analysis reveal a significant adverse impact of basis risk on the quality of agricultural weather derivative in the Czech growing conditions. The article outlines the scope for use of weather derivative as the reinsurance tool in regions with frequent occurrence of systematic weather risk.

  5. An assessment of landscape changes in Mediterranean region. A case study of Algarve, southern Portugal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez, Helena; Martins, Fernando; Valín, Maria Isabel; Moreno, Ângela; Pedras, Celestina

    2014-05-01

    Currently, the application of remote sensing techniques is a key factor for the planning and land management to ensure a sustainable development of the regions. Algarve, the most southern region of Portugal is characterized by its Mediterranean climate. This climate is described by irregular precipitation throughout the year with drought during summer months. The regional climate has a profound influence on its particular vegetation and wildlife turning it in a unique habitat for many species. Since the 1970s, increases in tourism have greatly affected the coastal region. This has led to great landscape pressure and urban growth, resulting in population increases due to local economic prosperity. Across Algarve, in recent decades, lawns areas have grown dramatically. Landscape water use has increased mainly because homeowners seldom pay the 'true' cost of water. Continued expansion of water supply is not, therefore, a viable management option in the future, particularly given the anticipated increase in the frequency and severity of droughts in Portugal. There's a need to change the perception of landscape relative to water consumption. Algarve needs a sustainable, 'demand-led' approach to water resource management, focusing on conserving water and using it more efficiently. The water resources available in the Algarve are limited, and decisions regarding sustainability must consider the environment. The aim of this study is to apply the remote sensing techniques to analyse the landscape changes in three municipalities of Algarve (Portugal): Albufeira, Loulé and Faro. The three Landsat images, from April 9th 1973 (Landsat1), March 23th 1989 (Landsat5) and April 26th 2013 (Landsat8) were used. The images were classified based on the radiometric information and the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI). These range of dates of the Landsat images used allowed for the differentiation between classes of the landscape. Land use and water resources are closely

  6. Regional Agricultural Input-Output Model and Countermeasure for Production and Income Increase of Farmers in Southern Xinjiang,China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Agricultural input and output status in southern Xinjiang,China is introduced,such as lack of agricultural input,low level of agricultural modernization,excessive fertilizer use,serious damage of environment,shortage of water resources,tremendous pressure on ecological balance,insignificant economic and social benefits of agricultural production in southern Xinjiang,agriculture remaining a weak industry,agricultural economy as the economic subject of southern Xinjiang,and backward economic development of southern Xinjiang.Taking the Aksu area as an example,according to the input and output data in the years 2002-2007,input-output model about regional agriculture of the southern Xinjiang is established by principal component analysis.DPS software is used in the process of solving the model.Then,Eviews software is adopted to revise and test the model in order to analyze and evaluate the economic significance of the results obtained,and to make additional explanations of the relevant model.Since the agricultural economic output is seriously restricted in southern Xinjiang at present,the following countermeasures are put forward,such as adjusting the structure of agricultural land,improving the utilization ratio of land,increasing agricultural input,realizing agricultural modernization,rationally utilizing water resources,maintaining eco-environmental balance,enhancing the awareness of agricultural insurance,minimizing the risk and loss,taking the road of industrialization of characteristic agricultural products,and realizing the transfer of surplus labor force.

  7. Predictors of Academic Success for the National Board Dental Hygiene Examination and the Southern Regional Testing Agency Clinical Exam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Efurd, Melissa G.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose for conducting this study was to investigate and describe the relationship between applicant criteria for a dental hygiene program and subsequent outcomes on credentialing exams: the National Board Dental Hygiene Exam and the Southern Regional Testing Agency clinical exam. Because admission criteria play a crucial role in applicant…

  8. Genome Sequence of Bacillus anthracis Isolated from an Anthrax Burial Site in Pollino National Park, Basilicata Region (Southern Italy)

    OpenAIRE

    Fasanella, Antonio; Braun, Peter; Grass, Gregor; Hanczaruk, Matthias; Aceti, Angela; Serrecchia, Luigina; Leonzio, Giuseppe; Tolve, Francesco; Georgi, Enrico; Antwerpen, Markus

    2015-01-01

    A Bacillus anthracis strain was isolated from a burial-site in Pollino National Park where a bovine died of anthrax and was buried in 2004. We report the first genome sequence of B. anthracis isolated in the Basilicata region (southern Italy), which is the highest risk area of anthrax infection in Italy.

  9. Regional estimation of Q from seismic coda observations by the Gauribidanur seismic array (southern India)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tripathi, Jayant Nath; Ugalde, Arantza

    2004-07-01

    Attenuation properties of the lithosphere in southern India are estimated from 1219 vertical-component, short-period observations of microearthquake codas recorded by the Gauribidanur seismic array. The magnitudes of the earthquakes range from 0.3 to 3.7 and have focal depths less than 10 km. Coda-wave attenuation ( Qc-1) is estimated by means of a single isotropic scattering method and a multiple lapse time window analysis based on the hypothesis of multiple isotropic scattering and uniform distribution of scatterers is used to estimate the contribution of intrinsic absorption ( Qi-1) and scattering ( Qs-1) to total attenuation ( Qt-1). All the attenuation parameters are estimated, as a function of frequency for hypocentral distances up to 255 km. Results show a frequency dependent relation of the Qc-1 values in the range 1-10 Hz that fit the power law Q -1(f)=Q 0-1(f/f 0) ηA Q 0-1 value of 0.014 and a decrease of f-1.2 have been found using data from the whole region. On the other hand, scattering attenuation is found to be greater than intrinsic absorption for all the frequency bands. A high value of the seismic albedo (which ranges from 0.68 to 1) is found which indicates that scattering is the dominant effect in the study region. Nevertheless, the attenuation parameters estimated are much lower than the obtained for other regions in the world. On the other hand, the observed energy at 0-15 s from the S-wave arrival time bends significantly downward with decreasing distance. In order to clarify this phenomenon, there is a need to take into account the vertical varying velocity structure in the theoretical model.

  10. Wave climate simulation for southern region of the South China Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirzaei, Ali; Tangang, Fredolin; Juneng, Liew; Mustapha, Muzneena Ahmad; Husain, Mohd Lokman; Akhir, Mohd Fadzil

    2013-08-01

    This study investigates long-term variability and wave characteristic trends in the southern region of the South China Sea (SCS). We implemented the state-of-the art WAVEWATCH III spectral wave model to simulate a 31-year wave hindcast. The simulation results were used to assess the inter-annual variability and long-term changes in the SCS wave climate for the period 1979 to 2009. The model was forced with Climate Forecast System Reanalysis winds and validated against altimeter data and limited available measurements from an Acoustic Wave and Current recorder located offshore of Terengganu, Malaysia. The mean annual significant wave height and peak wave period indicate the occurrence of higher wave heights and wave periods in the central SCS and lower in the Sunda shelf region. Consistent with wind patterns, the wave direction also shows southeasterly (northwesterly) waves during the summer (winter) monsoon. This detailed hindcast demonstrates strong inter-annual variability of wave heights, especially during the winter months in the SCS. Significant wave height correlated negatively with Niño3.4 index during winter, spring and autumn seasons but became positive in the summer monsoon. Such correlations correspond well with surface wind anomalies over the SCS during El Nino events. During El Niño Modoki, the summer time positive correlation extends northeastwards to cover the entire domain. Although significant positive trends were found at 95 % confidence levels during May, July and September, there is significant negative trend in December covering the Sunda shelf region. However, the trend appears to be largely influenced by large El Niño signals.

  11. Assessment of Rice Market Competiveness Using Horizontal Price Transmission: Empirical Evidence from Southern Region of Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. B. Akpan

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The study examined the horizontal price transmission and market integration between the local and foreign rice market in the Southern region of Nigeria. The study used average monthly prices of local and foreign rice in the rural and urban markets from January 2005 to June 2014. The findings show that, prices of local and foreign rice in the rural and urban markets have constant exponential growth rate of 0.60%. The Pearson correlation coefficient revealed a strong positive relationship between prices of local and foreign rice in both rural and urban markets. The cross-product Granger causality test revealed bidirectional relationship between prices of local and foreign rice in the region. The results of the cross co-integration test revealed the presence of co-integration between prices of the two products. The coefficients of the price variable in the cross co-integration equations for the local and foreign rice markets converge to the law of one price which connotes instantaneous price adjustment and competitiveness. The result of the cross - product error correction model also confirmed the existence of the short run market integration between the two markets. The study established the fact that, price of local rice competes favorably with its foreign counter part and thus a perfect substitute especially in the rural area. Based on the finding, it is recommended that, short term policies should be used to intervene in the rice sub sector in the region. Policies aimed at boosting local production of rice should be encouraged, while value additions in the domestic produced rice should be pursuit vigorously.

  12. Seismic and gravity study of the lithospheric structure of the Southern Oklahoma Aulacogen and surrounding region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tave, M.; Gurrola, H.; Mickus, K. L.; Thomas, W. A.

    2012-12-01

    The Southern Oklahoma Aulacogen (SOA) is easily recognizable in gravity and magnetic maps as perhaps the second largest gravity anomaly in North America (second to the Mid-continental rift). The SOA lies in the Granite Rhyolite province of Oklahoma. It is characterized by large magnitude basement faults that were active during Cambrian rifting and were reactivated as thrust faults during the late Paleozoic (313-285 Ma) during the Ouachita Orogeny. The SOA was originally considered to be a failed rift of a triple junction associated with Cambrian-aged opening of the Iapetan Ocean. This model is supported by the three-armed pattern of gravity highs at the junction of the SOA with Ouachita orogen, the age of the bimodal series of gabbroic and rhyolitic rock (that are clearly mantle derived), and the interpretation of a thick sequence of clastic metasedimentary rock as rift-fill. These metasedimentary rock, however, have been found to be much older than the SOA faulting and volcanism. More recent investigations favor models that describe the SOA as a system of leaky transform faults that are roughly parallel to the Alabama-Oklahoma transform fault, which partially frames part of the Iapetan margin of Southern Laurentia. This study will try to use seismic and gravity modeling to resolve the nature of the SOA and to determine the depth (into the mantle) to which features related to the formation of the SOA are preserved. The EarthScope transportable array (TA) has completed data acquisition in Oklahoma and Texas. We have made receiver functions (RF) from the TA along the SOA and found that the there is an abrupt change in crustal structure across the SOA. RF analysis shows that a mid-crustal boundary occurs at about 15 km south of the SOA that dips toward the SOA. North of the SOA, this midcrustal boundary appears to be 5 km shallower and flat. The Moho appears to be 45 km deep to the south of the SOA but appears to be at a depth of about 38 km to the north. Additional

  13. Micromorphological and physical properties of southern ravine soils in Dnipropetrovsk region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. M. Bozhko

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The article contains the results of determination of physical and micromorphological properties of soils under natural ravine vegetation in the southern part of Dnipropetrovsk region. The value of ravine forests for the steppe zone of Ukraine is analyzed, and the methods of investigation are shown. Forest typology characteristics of the vegetation stationary test areas, as well as macro- and micromorphological characteristic of the soil profile, structural condition of the soil, its aggregate composition, and water stability of aggregates, are determined. Soil-forming processes in ravine ecosystems of the southern variant in Dnipropetrovsk region are diagnosed. Micromorphological studies of soil in the intact state, as well as analysis of produced thin sections, revealed the high degree of aggregation of the upper (0–60 cm soil horizons. Structure formation is of zoogenic origin. Large amount of soil aggregates of coprolite structure is clearly seen under the microscope. Well decomposed plant residues are visible in the aggregates. Soil over the entire area of the section is of dark brown, almost black color. This is due to the large amount (80% of organic substances indicating the active processes of humification. Fine grained humus is represented by plenty of equally spaced bunches of humones. Humus is in mull form. Skeleton is composed of different sized minerals, with quartz and feldspars dominating in its structure. Plasma is of humus-clay type, uniform over the entire area of the section and anisotropic with point illumination. Visible pore surface area is significant (65% in the upper layers of the soil profile. Pores feature round and oblong regular shape. Often (on 50% of the pore area the outbreaks of small invertebrates are found. With the depth of the soil profile, visible pore area decreases, as well as the aggregation. While correlating with the micromorphological characteristics, water stability of the soil structural aggregates

  14. Evaluating terrestrial water storage variations from regionally constrained GRACE mascon data and hydrological models over Southern Africa – Preliminary results

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krogh, Pernille Engelbredt; Andersen, Ole Baltazar; Michailovsky, Claire Irene B.;

    2010-01-01

    ). In this paper we explore an experimental set of regionally constrained mascon blocks over Southern Africa where a system of 1.25° × 1.5° and 1.5° × 1.5° blocks has been designed. The blocks are divided into hydrological regions based on drainage patterns of the largest river basins, and are constrained...... in different ways. We show that the use of regional constraints, when solving mascon parameters of different hydrological regions independently, yields more detail and variation than comparable spherical harmonic solutions and mascon solutions using isotropic constraints. We validate our results over Lake...

  15. Physical and chemical properties of Red MSX Sources in the southern sky: HII regions

    CERN Document Server

    Yu, Naiping; Li, Nan

    2016-01-01

    We have studied the physical and chemical properties of 18 southern Red Midcourse Space Experiment Sources (RMSs), using archival data taken from the Atacama Pathfinder Experiment (APEX) Telescope Large Area Survey of the Galaxy, the Australia Telescope Compact Array, and the Millimeter Astronomy Legacy Team Survey at 90 GHz. Most of our sources have simple cometary/unresolved radio emissions at 4.8 and/or 8.6GHz. The large number of Lyman continuum fluxes (NL) indicates they are probably massive O- or early B-type star formation regions. Archival IRAS infrared data are used to estimate the dust temperature, which is about 30 K of our sources. Then, the H2 column densities and the volume-averaged H2 number densities are estimated using the 0.87 mm dust emissions. Large-scale infall and ionized accretions may be occurring in G345.4881+00.3148. We also attempt to characterize the chemical properties of these RMSs through molecular line (N2H+ (1-0) and HCO+ (1-0)) observations. Most of the detected N2H+ and HCO+...

  16. GPS scintillations and total electron content climatology in the southern low, middle and high latitude regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luca Spogli

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, several groups have installed high-frequency sampling receivers in the southern middle and high latitude regions, to monitor ionospheric scintillations and the total electron content (TEC changes. Taking advantage of the archive of continuous and systematic observations of the ionosphere on L-band by means of signals from the Global Positioning System (GPS, we present the first attempt at ionospheric scintillation and TEC mapping from Latin America to Antarctica. The climatology of the area considered is derived through Ground-Based Scintillation Climatology, a method that can identify ionospheric sectors in which scintillations are more likely to occur. This study also introduces the novel ionospheric scintillation 'hot-spot' analysis. This analysis first identifies the crucial areas of the ionosphere in terms of enhanced probability of scintillation occurrence, and then it studies the seasonal variation of the main scintillation and TEC-related parameters. The results produced by this sophisticated analysis give significant indications of the spatial/ temporal recurrences of plasma irregularities, which contributes to the extending of current knowledge of the mechanisms that cause scintillations, and consequently to the development of efficient tools to forecast space-weather-related ionospheric events.

  17. Proper Motions of Pre-Main Sequence Stars in Southern Star-Forming Regions

    CERN Document Server

    Teixeira, R G; Sartori, M J; Camargo, J I B; Perié, J P; Lépine, J R D; Benevides-Soares, P

    2000-01-01

    We present proper motion measurements of pre-main sequence (PMS) stars associated with major star-forming regions of the southern hemisphere (Chamaeleon, Lupus, Upper Scorpius - Ophiuchus, Corona Australis), situated in the galactic longitude range l = 290\\degr to l = 360\\degr. A list of PMS stars as complete as possible was established based on the Herbig and Bell catalogue and many new catalogues like the PDS survey, the catalogue of Herbig Ae/Be stars by Th\\'e et al. (1994), X-rays surveys, etc. The measurements made use of public material (mainly AC2000 and USNO--A2.0 catalogues) as well as scans of SERC-J Schmidt plates with the MAMA measuring machine (Paris) and Valinhos CCD meridian circle observations (Brazil). We derived proper motions for 214 stars, with an accuracy of 5 to 10 mas/yr depending mainly on the difference of epochs between the position sources. The main characteristics of the sample are discussed. We show that systematic motions of groups of stars exist, which are not explained by the r...

  18. Incidence and characteristics of distal radius fractures in a southern Swedish region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atroshi Isam

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The incidence of distal radius fracture has increased substantially during the last 50 years according to several studies that estimated the overall incidence in various general populations. The incidence of fracture classified according to severity has not been well documented. The aim of this population-based study was to estimate the overall and type-specific incidence rates of distal radius fracture in a representative population in southern Sweden. Methods During 2001, all persons older than 18 years with acute distal radius fracture in the southern Swedish region of Northeastern Scania were prospectively recorded. A radiologist classified the fractures according to the AO system and measured volar tilt and ulnar variance. A fracture with volar tilt outside a range of -5° to 20° and/or ulnar variance of 2 mm or greater was defined as displaced. Results 335 persons with acute distal radius fracture were recorded during the 1-year period. The overall incidence rate was 26 (95% confidence interval 23–29 per 10,000 person-years. Among women the incidence rate increased rapidly from the age of 50 and reached a peak of 119 per 10,000 person-years in women 80 years and older. The incidence rate among women 50 to 79 years old (56 per 10,000 person-years was lower than that reported in previous studies of similar populations. Among men the incidence rate was low until the age of 80 years and older when it increased to 28 per 10,000 person-years. Fractures classified as AO type A comprised about 80% of the fractures in women and 64% in men. Almost two-thirds of all fractures were displaced and among men and women 80 years and older more than 80% of the fractures were displaced. Conclusion The incidence rate of distal radius fracture in women 50 to 79 years old was lower than previously reported, which may indicate declining incidence in this group. In both sexes, the incidence was highest in the age group of 80 years and older

  19. Crustal structure, seismicity and seismotectonics of the Trentino region (Southern Alps, Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viganò, Alfio; Scafidi, Davide; Martin, Silvana; Spallarossa, Daniele; Froner, Luca; Groaz, Oscar

    2013-04-01

    The Trentino region is located at the junction between the central and eastern Southern Alps (Italy), at the intersection between the Giudicarie, Schio-Vicenza and Valsugana fault systems. This area is characterized by relevant lithological and structural lateral heterogeneities, both at the crustal and lithospheric scales. A low-to-moderate seismicity is located in the upper crust, where faults are seismically active under a dominant compressive with variable strike-slip component regime. Here we study the crustal structure of this portion of the Southern Alps (Adria plate) from interpretation of local earthquake tomography images, in relation with distribution of relocated seismicity and regional tectonic patterns. Local earthquake tomography derives from a set of 476 selected earthquakes in the period 1994-2007, with local magnitudes comprised between 0.8 and 5.3. Hypocenter distribution, and number and quality of manually-repicked phases (6322 P and 5483 S) ensure optimal seismic ray coverage. Original recordings are principally from the Provincia Autonoma di Trento (PAT), that manages the Trentino seismic network since 1981, and from other networks (Istituto Nazionale di Oceanografia e di Geofisica Sperimentale - INOGS; Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia - INGV; others available via the European Integrated Data Archive). The code HYPOELLIPSE is used to perform initial earthquake relocations. The code VELEST is then used to calculate a new minimum 1-D velocity model, as input for tomography. The 3-D tomographic inversion (V P and V P-V S ratio) is obtained via the code SIMULPS, with the implementation of an accurate shooting ray-tracer. The crustal volume is discretized in order to have a regular grid with a homogenous horizontal spatial resolution of 7.5 km. The resolution in depth varies according to the obtained minimum 1-D velocity model. Reliability and accuracy of results are estimated by analyzing the Resolution Diagonal Elements of the

  20. The Southern Region of Peru Earthquake of June 23rd, 2001

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavera, Hernando; Fernández, Efraín; Bernal, Isabel; Antayhua, Yanet; Agüero, Consuelo; Rodríguez, Henry Salas Simeón; Vilcapoma, Luis; Zamudio, Yolanda; Portugal, David; Inza, Adolfo; Carpio, Julia; Ccallo, Freddy; Valdivia, Igor

    2006-04-01

    The western border of South America is one of the most important seismogenic regions in the world. In this region the most damaging earthquake ever recorded occurred. In June 23rd, 2001, another very strong earthquake (Mw = 8.1-8.2) occurred and produced death and damages in the whole southern region of Peru. This earthquake was originated by a friction process between Nazca and South American plates and affected an area of about 300 km × 120 km defined by the distribution of more than 220 aftershocks recorded by a local seismic network that operated 20 days. The epicenter of the main shock was localized in the northwestern extremity of the aftershock area, which suggests that the rupture propagated towards the SE direction. The modeling of P-wave for teleseismic distances permitted to define a focal mechanism of reverse type with NW-SE oriented nodal planes and a possible fault plane moving beneath almost horizontally in NE direction. The source time function (STF) suggests a complex process of rupture during 85 sec with 2 successive sources. The second one of greater size, and located approximately 100-120 km toward the SE direction was estimated to have a rupture velocity of about 2 km/sec on a 28°-dipping plane to the SE (N135°). A second event happened 45 sec after the first one with an epicenter 130km farther to the SE and a complex STF. This event and the second source of the main shock caused a Tsunami with waves from 7 to 8 meters that propagated almost orthogonally to the coast line, by affecting mainly the Camaná area. Three of all the aftershocks presented magnitudes greater or equal to Mw = 6.6, two of them occurred in front of the cities of Ilo and Mollendo (June 26th and July 7th) with focal mechanisms similar to the main seismic event. The aftershock of July 5th shows a normal mechanism at a depth of 75 km, and is therefore most likely located within the subducting Nazca plate and not in the coupling. The aftershocks of June 26th (Mw = 6.6) and

  1. Flash floods along the Italian coastal areas: examples from Pozzuoli city, Campania, Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esposito, Giuseppe; Grimaldi, Giuseppe; Matano, Fabio; Mazzola, Salvatore; Sacchi, Marco

    2014-05-01

    The Italian western coastal areas are the most exposed in the country to low-pressure systems coming from the central-western Mediterranean Sea and Atlantic Ocean. In the last years, many Italian coastal villages were struck by floods and flow processes triggered by high-intensity and short-duration rainfall, typical of flash flood events. In the Campania region (SW Italy) a series of events has caused several fatalities and heavy damages in the last decades, i.e. the flash floods of Casamicciola - Ischia Island (10/11/2009 - 1 fatality) and Atrani (9/9/2010 - 1 fatality). In this work we describe the rainfall properties and the ground effects of the 2009, 2010 and 2011 flash floods which involved the city of Pozzuoli, along the Campi Flegrei coast, where a catastrophic flood event (13 fatalities) is reported in 1918 in the AVI Project database. Rainfall data were measured at a sampling rate of 10 minutes by a regional Civil Protection rain gauge located in the city of Pozzuoli near the areas struck by the flash flood effects. In order to analyze the extreme features of the rainstorms and compare them, we have considered the 1-hour maximum rainfall amount and the 10-min peak storm intensity value for each event. The first rainstorm occurred on 14 September 2009; it was characterized by a 1-hour maximum rainfall amount of 34.4 mm and a 10-min peak storm intensity of 57.6 mm/h. The second rainstorm occurred on 30 July 2010; it was characterized by a 1-hour maximum rainfall amount of 40.6 mm and a 10-min peak storm intensity of 126 mm/h. The third rainstorm occurred on 06 November 2011; it was characterized by a 1-hour maximum rainfall amount of 44.2 mm and a 10-min peak storm intensity of 67.2 mm/h. The three described rainstorms all triggered erosional processes and shallow landslides in the upper part of the Pozzuoli drainage basin that supplied sheet flows and hyperconcentrated flows downstream, with severe damage to the human structures built near or inside the

  2. Impacts of reforestation approaches on runoff control in the hilly red soil region of Southern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Hua; Chen, Falin; Ouyang, Zhiyun; Tu, Naimei; Xu, Weihua; Wang, Xiaoke; Miao, Hong; Li, Xiquan; Tian, Yuxin

    2008-07-01

    SummaryVegetation structure and soil properties are not only correlated with forest management practices, but also affect soil and water loss significantly. To estimate the long-term influences of regenerating forest cover on soil and water loss from degraded land, the runoff and soil loss in the context of different forest restoration approaches, including a control plot (CL) and plantations of slash pine (Pinus elliottii), Chinese fir (Cunninghamia lanceolata), tea-oil camellia (Camellia oleifera), and natural secondary forest, were monitored in runoff plots over a 4-year period (2000-2003) in a hilly red soil region in Southern China. Relevant ecological factors and management intensity, were also measured. The results indicated that the four forest restoration approaches decreased surface runoff by 63.0-88.1% and soil erosion by 75.5-97.1% compared to the control. Moreover, runoff and soil erosion in tea-camellia plantation (TCP) and natural secondary forest (NSF) plots were significantly lower than with other treatments. Canopy cover, litter fall, plant roots, plant life forms, soil properties, and vegetation structure are important ecological factors that determine the magnitude of soil loss. Vegetation structure and plant life forms are the main factors reducing surface runoff and the movement of sediments. Effective control of soil and water loss in NSF and TCP are closely related to multiply stratified communities and the presence of specific plant life forms (the herbaceous keystone species Dicranopteris linearis), respectively. In addition, the above mentioned factors were sensitive to forest management patterns, including improper mechanical cultivation. Management practices should attempt to minimize disturbances to these factors to control runoff and soil erosion in each forest management unit. In particular, mechanical cultivation should loosen the soil around the base of a tree only, instead of over the entire ground surface, in the early stages of

  3. Digital photogrammetric analysis and electrical resistivity tomography for investigating the Picerno landslide (Basilicata region, southern Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Bari, Claudia; Lapenna, Vincenzo; Perrone, Angela; Puglisi, Claudio; Sdao, Francesco

    2011-10-01

    Digital photogrammetric analysis and Electrical Resistivity Tomography (ERT) techniques were applied to evaluate the volume of material involved in a complex roto-translational slide occurred in the territory of Picerno (Basilicata region, southern Italy). Analytical and digital photogrammetric techniques facilitated a multi-temporal analysis of aerial photos for the years 1997, 2004 and 2006. In order to identify different geomorphologic features (scarps, terraces and trenches) of the landslide and their development, the analytical and digital photo interpretation was performed at the maximum scale of 1:5000. Geological and geomorphological surveys were carried out to verify photo-interpretation results. Digital Elevation Models (DEMs) for 1997, 2004 and 2006 were produced by applying the Grid Adaptive method. The differential DEMs (2006-1997; 2006-2004; 2004-1997) for the most dangerous part of the landslide allowed us to recognize the areas affected either by deposition or erosion and also estimate any altitudinal changes in each geomorphologic unit. To detect the sliding surface and estimate the thickness of the sliding material, several transversal and longitudinal ERT profiles were obtained. The electrical images of subsurface supported by stratigraphical data from boreholes were integrated with the information from the DEMs. The altitudinal changes and the sizes of the source and accumulation areas allowed us to estimate the volume of material involved in the mass movement. The fusion of data from different sensors allows us to gather indications on the surface and subsurface characteristics of the landslide providing useful information for landslide mitigation activities. Such an approach can help both to improve our knowledge and overcome the drawbacks of each methodology.

  4. Quality of diabetes care at Armed Forces Hospital, Southern Region, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, 2006

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibrahim S Al-Arfaj

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of this study was to assess the current status of care provided by the Diabetes Center at Armed Forces Hospital, Southern Region. Materials and Methods : A total of 260 patients were randomly selected from the diabetic patients attending the Diabetes Center. Study tools comprised patients′ data sheets and patients′ interview questionnaire. Results : Two-thirds of the patients were aged 50 years or more. Half of patients had had the disease for less than 10 years. Diet therapy alone was followed by 2.3% of diabetic patients. More than half of patients (56.5% were on insulin. Most of the diabetic patients were tested for HbA1c at least once per year (88.1%, and 71.5% had their lipid profile done at least once within two years. Low indicators included having a dilated eye examination (35.4%, assessment for nephropathy (28.8%, and having a well-documented foot examination (12.7%. Highest risk HbA1c level (>9.5% was reached by 38.8% of patients, 48.8% had a low-density lipoprotein level of <130 mg/dl, and 36.5% of patients had controlled blood pressure (≤130/80 mmHg. Most patients were satisfied with their interaction with the treating doctor, 41.5% were satisfied with access to treatment. Hypertension was found to be the most frequent comorbidity (38.5%. Conclusion : The quality of services as regard to process and outcome are low at the Diabetes Center. The overall diabetic patients′ satisfaction was high, whereas their satisfaction was low as regards to access to treatment or health professionals.

  5. Optimized Pathways for Regional H2 Infrastructure Transitions: The Least-Cost Hydrogen for Southern California

    OpenAIRE

    Lin, Zhenhong; Chen, Chien-Wei; Fan, Yueyue; Ogden, Joan M

    2008-01-01

    Southern California has been proposed as a likely site for developing a hydrogen refueling infrastructure. In this paper, we apply dynamic programming to identify optimized strategies for supplying hydrogen over time in Southern California. GIS-based traffic data are used to model the location and magnitude of hydrogen demand over time. Refueling stations are sited based on the location of demand and the trade-off between convenience and costs. We use engineering/economic models to describe a...

  6. Optimized Pathways for Regional H2 Infrastructure Transitions: A Case Study for Southern California

    OpenAIRE

    Lin, Zhenhong; Fan, Yueyue; Ogden, Joan M; Chen, Chien-Wei

    2008-01-01

    Southern California has been proposed as a likely site for developing a hydrogen refueling infrastructure. In this paper, we apply dynamic programming to identify optimized strategies for supplying hydrogen over time in Southern California. GIS-based traffic data are used to model the location and magnitude of hydrogen demand over time. Refueling stations are sited based on the location of demand and the trade-off between convenience and costs. We use engineering/economic models to describe a...

  7. Indian Ocean Dipole and El Niño/Southern Oscillation impacts on regional chlorophyll anomalies in the Indian Ocean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. C. Currie

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The Indian Ocean Dipole (IOD and the El Niño/Southern Oscillation (ENSO are independent climate modes, which frequently co-occur, driving significant interannual changes within the Indian Ocean. We use a four-decade hindcast from a coupled biophysical ocean general circulation model, to disentangle patterns of chlorophyll anomalies driven by these two climate modes. Comparisons with remotely sensed records show that the simulation competently reproduces the chlorophyll seasonal cycle, as well as open-ocean anomalies during the 1997/1998 ENSO and IOD event. Results suggest that anomalous surface and euphotic-layer chlorophyll blooms in the eastern equatorial Indian Ocean in fall, and southern Bay of Bengal in winter, are primarily related to IOD forcing. A negative influence of IOD on chlorophyll concentrations is shown in a region around the southern tip of India in fall. IOD also depresses depth-integrated chlorophyll in the 5–10° S thermocline ridge region, yet the signal is negligible in surface chlorophyll. The only investigated region where ENSO has a greater influence on chlorophyll than does IOD, is in the Somalia upwelling region, where it causes a decrease in fall and winter chlorophyll by reducing local upwelling winds. Yet unlike most other regions examined, the combined explanatory power of IOD and ENSO in predicting depth-integrated chlorophyll anomalies is relatively low in this region, suggestive that other drivers are important there. We show that the chlorophyll impact of climate indices is frequently asymmetric, with a general tendency for larger positive than negative chlorophyll anomalies. Our results suggest that ENSO and IOD cause significant and predictable regional re-organisation of chlorophyll via their influence on near-surface oceanography. Resolving the details of these effects should improve our understanding, and eventually gain predictability, of interannual changes in Indian Ocean productivity, fisheries

  8. Indian Ocean Dipole and El Niño/Southern Oscillation impacts on regional chlorophyll anomalies in the Indian Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Currie, J. C.; Lengaigne, M.; Vialard, J.; Kaplan, D. M.; Aumont, O.; Naqvi, S. W. A.; Maury, O.

    2013-10-01

    The Indian Ocean Dipole (IOD) and the El Niño/Southern Oscillation (ENSO) are independent climate modes, which frequently co-occur, driving significant interannual changes within the Indian Ocean. We use a four-decade hindcast from a coupled biophysical ocean general circulation model, to disentangle patterns of chlorophyll anomalies driven by these two climate modes. Comparisons with remotely sensed records show that the simulation competently reproduces the chlorophyll seasonal cycle, as well as open-ocean anomalies during the 1997/1998 ENSO and IOD event. Results suggest that anomalous surface and euphotic-layer chlorophyll blooms in the eastern equatorial Indian Ocean in fall, and southern Bay of Bengal in winter, are primarily related to IOD forcing. A negative influence of IOD on chlorophyll concentrations is shown in a region around the southern tip of India in fall. IOD also depresses depth-integrated chlorophyll in the 5-10° S thermocline ridge region, yet the signal is negligible in surface chlorophyll. The only investigated region where ENSO has a greater influence on chlorophyll than does IOD, is in the Somalia upwelling region, where it causes a decrease in fall and winter chlorophyll by reducing local upwelling winds. Yet unlike most other regions examined, the combined explanatory power of IOD and ENSO in predicting depth-integrated chlorophyll anomalies is relatively low in this region, suggestive that other drivers are important there. We show that the chlorophyll impact of climate indices is frequently asymmetric, with a general tendency for larger positive than negative chlorophyll anomalies. Our results suggest that ENSO and IOD cause significant and predictable regional re-organisation of chlorophyll via their influence on near-surface oceanography. Resolving the details of these effects should improve our understanding, and eventually gain predictability, of interannual changes in Indian Ocean productivity, fisheries, ecosystems and carbon

  9. Satellite Images for Monitoring Mangrove Cover Changes in a Fast Growing Economic Region in Southern Peninsular Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Kasturi Devi Kanniah; Afsaneh Sheikhi; Arthur P Cracknell; Hong Ching Goh; Kian Pang Tan; Chin Siong Ho; Fateen Nabilla Rasli

    2015-01-01

    Effective monitoring is necessary to conserve mangroves from further loss in Malaysia. In this context, remote sensing is capable of providing information on mangrove status and changes over a large spatial extent and in a continuous manner. In this study we used Landsat satellite images to analyze the changes over a period of 25 years of mangrove areas in Iskandar Malaysia (IM), the fastest growing national special economic region located in southern Johor, Malaysia. We tested the use of two...

  10. The December 2004-January 2005 floods in the Garden Route region of the Southern Cape, South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Johan Tempelhoff; Dewald van Niekerk; Elize van Eeden; Ina Gouws; Karin Botha; Rabson Wurige

    2009-01-01

    The December 2004-January 2005 floods in the Garden Route region of the Southern Cape in South Africa have had a significant impact on local development and economic activities, tourism products andlocal institutions. This article aims to capture the dynamism between a number of related fields within the context of transdisciplinary research. Qualitative research methods were used to target a representative sample of the affected population. This article considers the history of the flooding ...

  11. Development and Research on Rural Regional Characteristic Sports Tourism Industry: A Case Study of Southern Jiangxi Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xianyi; WANG; Yanting; LONG

    2014-01-01

    With the hope of providing basis for sound development of rural sports tourism industry in economic less-developed region and the establishment of macro industry policy,this paper demonstrated the selection of development way,space frame and product system of rural sports tourism industry in southern Jiangxi Province by consulting document literature and conducting field research and based on the analysis of social background for the rise of rural sports tourism.

  12. Development and Research on Rural Regional Characteristic Sports Tourism Industry: A Case Study of Southern Jiangxi Province

    OpenAIRE

    WANG, Xianyi; LONG, Yanting

    2014-01-01

    With the hope of providing basis for sound development of rural sports tourism industry in economic less-developed region and the establishment of macro industry policy, this paper demonstrated the selection of development way, space frame and product system of rural sports tourism industry in southern Jiangxi Province by consulting document literature and conducting field research and based on the analysis of social background for the rise of rural sports tourism.

  13. Mapping regional distribution of land surface heat fluxes on the southern side of the central Himalayas using TESEBS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amatya, Pukar Man; Ma, Yaoming; Han, Cunbo; Wang, Binbin; Devkota, Lochan Prasad

    2016-05-01

    Recent scientific studies based on large-scale climate model have highlighted the importance of the heat release from the southern side of the Himalayas for the development of South Asian Summer Monsoon. However, studies related to land surface heat fluxes are nonexistent on the southern side. In this study, we test the feasibility of deriving land surface heat fluxes on the central Himalayan region using Topographically Enhanced Surface Energy Balance System (TESEBS), which is forced by MODIS land surface products and Global Land Data Assimilation System (GLDAS) meteorological data. The model results were validated using the first eddy covariance measurement system established in the southern side of the central Himalayas. The derived land surface heat fluxes were close to the field measurements with mean bias of 15.97, -19.89, 8.79, and -20.39 W m-2 for net radiation flux, ground heat flux, sensible heat flux, and latent heat flux respectively. Land surface heat fluxes show strong contrast in pre monsoon, summer monsoon, post monsoon, and winter seasons and different land surface states among the different physiographic regions. In the central Himalayas, the latent heat flux is the dominant consumer of available energy for all physiographic regions except for the High Himalaya where the sensible heat flux is high.

  14. Nycteribiidae (Diptera, Hippoboscoidea no Sul do Brasil Nycteribiidae (Diptera, Hippoboscoidea in the Southern Region of Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Graciolli

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Um levantamento taxonômico das espécies de Nycteribiidae e de seus hospedeiros foi realizado na Região Sul do Brasil, utilizando material depositados em coleções e dados de literatura. Foram encontradas um total de 12 espécies de Basilia Miranda-Ribeiro, 1903 sobre oito espécies de morcegos pertencentes as famílias Phyllostomidae e Vespertilionidae. Considerando o número de espécies por estado, houve um decréscimo no sentido norte-sul. No Paraná, foram encontradas nove espécies, em Santa Catarina oito e no Rio Grande do Sul quatro. Basilia speiseri (Miranda-Ribeiro, 1907 é registrada pela primeira vez nos estados do Paraná e de Santa Catarina. Basilia juquiensis Guimarães, 1943 e B. producta Maa, 1968 são novos registros para Santa Catarina e B. plaumanni Scott, 1940 é registrada pela primeira vez no Rio Grande do Sul. Myotis nigricans (Schinz, 1821 é registrado pela primeira vez como hospedeiro de B. producta e Myotis riparius Handley, 1960 de B. juquiensis. O macho de Basilia lindolphoi Graciolli, 2001 é descrito. Chave para as espécies de Basilia encontradas é disponibilizada.A survey of nicteribiid bat flies was carried out in the Southern Region of Brazil. Twelve species of Basilia Miranda-Ribeiro, 1903 were recorded on eight species of bats. The number of species of Basilia decreased north to south. In the State of Paraná nine species were found, eight in Santa Catarina and four in Rio Grande do Sul. Basilia juquiensis Guimarães, 1943 and B. producta Maa, 1968 were recorded for the first time from Santa Catarina and B. plaumanni Scott, 1940 from Rio Grande do Sul. Myotis nigricans (Schinz, 1821 is been reported as a new host for B. producta and Myotis riparius Handley, 1960 for B. juquiensis. The male of Basilia lindolphoi Graciolli, 2001 is described. Key for the collected species of Basilia is given.

  15. Recent, slow normal and strike-slip faulting in the Pasto Ventura region of the southern Puna Plateau, NW Argentina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Renjie; Schoenbohm, Lindsay M.; Cosca, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Recent normal and strike-slip faulting on the Puna Plateau of NW Argentina has been linked to lithospheric foundering, gravitational spreading, plate boundary forces and a decrease in crustal shortening from north to south. However, the timing, kinematics and rate of extension remain poorly constrained. We focus on the Pasto Ventura region (NW Argentina) located on the southern Puna Plateau and recent deformation (cinder cones show that the overall extension direction is subhorizontal, is oriented NE-SW to NNE-SSW, and occurs at a slow, time-integrated rate of 0.02 to 0.08 mm/yr since at least 0.8–0.5 Ma. A regional compilation from this study and existing data shows that recent extension across the Puna Plateau is subhorizontal but varies in azimuthal orientation dramatically. Data from the Pasto Ventura region are consistent with a number of models to explain normal and strike-slip faulting on the Puna Plateau, all of which likely influence the region. Some role for lower lithospheric foundering through dripping appears to be seen based on the regional extension directions and ages of mafic volcanism in the southern Puna Plateau.

  16. Distribution of heavy metals and nutrients in rainwater in coastal regions between the southern Yellow Sea and East China Sea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Changling; ZHANG Guosen; REN Hongbo; ZHANG Jing

    2005-01-01

    Rainwater samples were collected in series in Qianliyan Island (southern Yellow Sea) and Shengsi Archipelago (East China Sea) between May 2000 and May 2002, chemical analysis for pH values,concentrations of heavy metals (Cu, Pb, Zn and Cd) and nutrients (NH4+, NO3-, PO43-, SiO32-) were performed.Results indicate that concentrations of most of the heavy metals and nutrients in rainwater show clear seasonal variation, i.e. high level in winter and low level in summer. Regionally, concentrations are higher in the southern Yellow Sea than in the East China Sea, but the annual input of heavy metals into oceans by wet deposition is similar in both stations. However, the input of nutrients by wet deposition in the East China Sea is 2-3 times higher than that in the southern Yellow Sea. In individual, Pb and PO43- are input to the sea mainly by dry deposition; whereas Cu, Zn, Cd and N compounds are input dominantly by wet deposition, the N/P ratios in the rainwater from two stations are much higher than those in seawater, showing a significant impact of atmospheric wet deposition on marine production and biogeochemical circulation of nutrients in these sea regions.

  17. A regional view of fluctuations in glacier length in southern South America

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lopez, P.; Chevallier, P.; Favier, V.; Pouyaud, B.; Ordenes, F.; Oerlemans, J.

    2010-01-01

    Fluctuations in the length of 72 glaciers in the Northern and Southern Patagonia Icefield (NPI and SPI, respectively) and the Cordillera Darwin Icefield (CDI) were estimated between 1945 and 2005. The information obtained from historical maps based on 1945 aerial photographs was compared to ASTER an

  18. Foraminiferal patterns in two trophically different regions: the northern Adriatic Sea and the southern Levantine Basin.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jannink, N.T.; Duijnstee, Ivo; van der Zwaan, Bert

    2001-01-01

    In spite of the fact that the northern Adriatic Sea and southern Levantine Basin are trophically quite different, the benthic foraminiferal standing stocks through the seasons were found to be in the same range. This suggests that the amount offood (organic matter) available at the sediment-water in

  19. Soils of sinkholes on the western macroslope of the southern Urals: Properties, catenary relationships, and regional specificity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smirnova, M. A.; Gennadiev, A. N.

    2012-06-01

    A series of microcatenas on the slopes of sinkholes were studied on the western macroslope of the southern Urals in the Shulgan-Tash Reserve. The morphological, chemical, physical, and physicochemical characteristics of the soils were analyzed. In order to reveal their regional specificity, the soils of the sinkholes under broadleaved forests in the southern Urals were compared with analogous soils under the northern taiga of the Belomorsk-Kuloi Plateau. It was shown that the full-profile vertically differentiated soils in the upper parts of the microcatenas are replaced by weakly developed and slightly differentiated soils in the lower parts of the microcatenas crossing sinkholes of different diameters in both natural zones.

  20. Etiology of newly-diagnosed cases of chronic liver disease in Southern Italy: results of a prospective multicentric study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Ascione

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The pattern of liver diseases has radically changed in our country over the last few decades. We prospectively collected data on the newly-diagnosed cases of chronic liver diseases in a region of southern Italy after about a decade from the last epidemiological study. We conducted a multicentric prospective study that enrolled 631 patients from 21 Liver Centers of the Campania region (Southern Italy at their first hospital admission or at their first outpatient visit. In our cohort of 631 patients (367 males, 263 females, 397 (62.9% were hepatitis C virus (HCV positive, 75 (11.9% were hepatitis B virus (HBV positive, 8 (1.3% were co-infected by HBV and HCV, 73 (11.6% had an alcoholic liver disease and 64 (10.1% had a nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. HBV infection was present in young people with a higher-than-expected prevalence, despite the vaccination program which should have involved this population. HCV chronic hepatitis still remains the most common cause of liver disease in our region. HBV infection still continues to represent a health problem in young people, despite the vaccination program.

  1. Nonlinear responses of southern African rainfall to forcing from Atlantic SST in a high-resolution regional climate model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, C.; Kniveton, D.; Layberry, R.

    2009-04-01

    It is increasingly accepted that any possible climate change will not only have an influence on mean climate but may also significantly alter climatic variability. A change in the distribution and magnitude of extreme rainfall events (associated with changing variability), such as droughts or flooding, may have a far greater impact on human and natural systems than a changing mean. This issue is of particular importance for environmentally vulnerable regions such as southern Africa. The subcontinent is considered especially vulnerable to and ill-equipped (in terms of adaptation) for extreme events, due to a number of factors including extensive poverty, famine, disease and political instability. Rainfall variability is a function of scale, so high spatial and temporal resolution data are preferred to identify extreme events and accurately predict future variability. In this research, high resolution satellite derived rainfall data from the Microwave Infra-Red Algorithm (MIRA) are used as a basis for undertaking model experiments using a state-of-the-art regional climate model. The MIRA dataset covers the period from 1993-2002 and the whole of southern Africa at a spatial resolution of 0.1 degree longitude/latitude. Once the model's ability to reproduce extremes has been assessed, idealised regions of sea surface temperature (SST) anomalies are used to force the model, with the overall aim of investigating the ways in which SST anomalies influence rainfall extremes over southern Africa. In this paper, results from sensitivity testing of the regional climate model's domain size are briefly presented, before a comparison of simulated daily rainfall from the model with the satellite-derived dataset. Secondly, simulations of current climate and rainfall extremes from the model are compared to the MIRA dataset at daily timescales. Finally, the results from the idealised SST experiments are presented, suggesting highly nonlinear associations between rainfall extremes

  2. Epidemiology of hepatitis C virus infection in the world, Europe, Italy and Campania: an overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giorgio Liguori

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available HCV infection is today the viral epidemic disease second only to AIDS. It is estimated that 3% of the world
    population is infected by hepatitis C and chronic related diseases, with markedly different prevalences between different geographical areas and different categories in the same area.
    The Authors analyse the epidemiological data available to trace the situation worldwide, in Europe, in Italy and in Campania, currently and in the last few years. Also researched was the role that the risk factors related to the different transmission routes play in the spread of the infection.
    Despite the decrease in the incidence reported in recent years, the numerous cases linked to drug abuse, to infections occurring while in health care and after unsafe sexual intercourse reveal the need for further information to be spread on HCV infection and on its modes of transmission.

  3. Geochemistry of fluids discharged over the seismic area of the Southern Apennines (Calabria region, Southern Italy): Implications for Fluid-Fault relationships

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The first comprehensive geochemical data-set of the fluids circulating over a 14,000 km2-wide seismic-prone area of the Southern Apennines, Calabria Region (Italy), is presented here. The geochemical investigations were carried out with the twofold aim of constraining the origin and interactions of the circulating fluids and to investigate possible relationships with local faults. Sixty samples of both thermal and cold waters were collected, from which the dissolved gases were extracted. The geochemical features of the water samples display different types and degrees of water-rock interactions, irrespective of the outlet temperature. The calculated equilibrium temperatures of the thermal waters (60-160 deg. C) and the low heat flow of the whole study area, are consistent with a heating process due to deep water circulation and rapid upflow through lithospheric structures. The composition of the dissolved gases reveals that crustal-originating gases (N2 and CO2-dominated) feed all the groundwaters. The 3He/4He ratios of the dissolved He, in the range of 0.03-0.22Rac for the thermal waters and 0.05-0.63Rac for the cold waters (Rac = He isotope ratio corrected for atmospheric contamination), are mainly the result of a two-component (radiogenic and atmospheric) mixing, although indications of mantle-derived He are found in some cold waters. As the study area had been hit by 18 of the most destructive earthquakes (magnitude ranging from 5.9 to 7.2) occurring over a 280-a time span (1626-1908) in the Southern Apennines, the reported results on the circulating fluids may represent the reference for a better inside knowledge of the fault-fluid relationships and for the development of long-term geochemical monitoring strategies for the area.

  4. Tick-borne pathogens of potential zoonotic importance in the southern African Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simbarashe Chitanga

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this communication is to provide preliminary information on the tick-borne pathogens of potential zoonotic importance present in southern Africa, mainly focusing on their geographical distribution and host range, and to identify research gaps. The following tick-borne zoonoses have been reported to occur in southern Africa based mainly on case reports: Crimean–Congo haemorrhagic fever caused by Crimean–Congo haemorrhagic fever virus; ehrlichiosis caused by Ehrlichia ruminantium, Ehrlichia canis and Anaplasma phagocytophilum; babesiosis caused by Babesia microti; relapsing fever caused by Borrelia duttonii and rickettsioses caused by Rickettsia africae, Rickettsia aeschlimannii and Rickettsia conorii. The epidemiological factors influencing their occurrence are briefly reviewed.

  5. Notes on landscape architecture education in architecture and urban planning courses in the southern region of Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Filla Rosaneli

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper is about Landscape Architecture education in Architecture and Urbanism courses from a quantitative analysis of a set of information collected on courses in Southern Brazil. The selected variables - number and title of disciplines, discipline load, offer period; summary and basic bibliography - representing the essence of any discipline, allowed us to understand the scenery of this learning in most so authorized courses. Thus, by exposing the common aspects and specificities found in the region in two analytical axes - proposed content and offer features - this text promotes inquiries about the challenges of Landscape Architecture education in Brazil today.

  6. Eosinophilic Oesophagitis in Infants and Children in the Region of Southern Denmark: A Prospective Study of Prevalence and Clinical Presentation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalby, Kasper; Nielsen, Rasmus G; Kruse-Andersen, Soren;

    2010-01-01

    H-metry, histology of oesophageal biopsies, and investigations for food allergy (double-blind, placebo-controlled food challenge, skin prick test, S-IgE antibodies, atopy patch test). RESULTS:: Of the 78 referred patients, 28 qualified for a diagnosis of GERD. Six children had >15 eosinophils per high-power field...... in biopsies from the oesophageal mucosa and qualified for the diagnosis of EE. The median age at diagnosis was 9.6 years. In 4 of the 6 patients, food allergy was confirmed by double-blind, placebo-controlled food challenge. In the Region of Southern Denmark with a paediatric population of 256,164 between 0...

  7. Regional structural framework and petroleum assessment of the Brooks Range foothills and southern coastal plain, National Petroleum Reserve, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potter, Christopher J.; Moore, Thomas E.; O'Sullivan, Paul B.; Miller, John J.

    2002-01-01

    New interpretations of the frontal part of the Brooks Range orogen beneath the foothills and coastal plain in the National Petroleum Reserve-Alaska (NPRA) are based on reprocessed regional seismic reflection data, recent geologic field observations, and new apatite fission-track analyses. Three long north-south transects illustrate the configuration of thrust faulting above a basal detachment that, within the southern part of NPRA, steps up from the Triassic Shublik Formation, to the Jurassic Kingak Shale, and finally into Cretaceous Torok mudstones. This thrust system represents the youngest recognized pulse of major shortening, about 60 Ma.

  8. Determinants of Regional Variability in Litter Production of Forests in the Southern Yucatan: Environmental Gradients or Human Legacy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, D.; Lawrence, D.; Foster, D. R.

    2001-05-01

    The Southern Yucatan is the deforestation frontier for the largest block of dry tropical forest north of Brazil. Our goal was to assess how human disturbance alters patterns of productivity driven by natural gradients of precipitation and soil fertility. We sampled litter production and soils in three regions (rainfall 890-1420 mm yr-1). We studied 8-10 stands 2-25 yrs old plus 2-3 mature forest stands per region (36 in total). Litter was collected monthly from four 1-m2 traps within a 500-m2 area, and summed for 1999. Soil chemical and physical properties varied little across the region, but organic matter increased (10.9-13.3% soils 0-15 cm deep) with annual precipitation. Annual litter production was analyzed as a function of region, forest age, number of previous cycles of shifting cultivation, and total number of years in corn production. Region had no significant effect on production, though there was a trend toward higher production in the wettest region. Litterfall increased with age, and production in old secondary forests was not significantly different from that in mature forests. Land-use intensity was negatively correlated with litter production, which declined as a function of both number of cycles and total number of years in corn. In stepwise regression models, age and number of years in corn were the only significant predictors of litter production. Human history, rather than environmental gradients, seems to determine regional variation in productivity in the Yucatan.

  9. On the mass and salt budgets for a region of the continental shelf in the southern Mid-Atlantic Bight

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Yoo Yin; Weatherly, Georges L.; Pietrafesa, Leonard J.

    2001-12-01

    Two field studies were conducted across and along the continental shelf, one from February to May 1996 (deployment 1) and the other from July to October 1996 (deployment 2), in part to determine the mass and salt budgets of shelf water from south of Cape Henry to north of Cape Hatteras, the southernmost portion of the Mid-Atlantic Bight. The temporal means of current meter records indicated that most of the water enters the region across its northern boundary near the shelf break as part of a southward, alongshore current and exits the southeast corner as a southeastward flowing current. Estimates of the volume transports indicated that not all the transport across the northern boundary was accounted for by transport across the southern boundary, and that the remainder occurred as a broad, diffusive flow across the eastern boundary at the shelf break. Time series of volume transport across northern and southern boundaries were very similar and associated with variations in the alongshore wind stress and sea level, indicative of a geostrophic balance. Examination of the individual current meter records indicated these fluctuations were very barotropic even during deployment 2, which included the stratified summer season. Time series of the volume transport across the eastern boundary at the shelf break strongly mirrored the volume transport across the northern boundary minus that across the southern boundary, suggesting that the inferred eastern boundary transport was real and accommodated whatever the southern boundary could not. The turbulent salt flux across each boundary contributes very little to the net respective mass fluxes because the salt fluxes are almost governed by current velocity fields. The instantaneous and mean salt fluxes across each boundary were very well approximated by the instantaneous and mean volume transports across the boundary times the deployment average salinity across that boundary, respectively. The Ocean Margins Program (OMP) moored

  10. The Crywolf Issue in Earthquake Early Warning Applications for the Campania Region

    OpenAIRE

    Iervolino, I.; Dipartimento di Analisi e Progettazione Strutturale, Università di Napoli Federico II, Naples, Italy; Convertito, V.; Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia, Sezione OV, Napoli, Italia; Giorgio, M.;  Dipartimento di Ingegneria Aerospaziale e Meccanica, Seconda Università di Napoli, Aversa, Italy; Manfredi, G.; Dipartimento di Analisi e Progettazione Strutturale, Università di Napoli Federico II, Naples, Italy; Zollo, A.;  RISSC-Lab, Dipartimento di Scienze Fisiche, Università di Napoli Federico II, Naples, Italy

    2007-01-01

    Earthquake early warning systems (EEWS), based on real-time prediction of ground motion or structural response measures, may play a role in re- ducing vulnerability and/or exposure of buildings and lifelines. Indeed, seismologists have recently developed efficient methods for real-time es- timation of an event’s magnitude and location based on limited informa- tion of the P-waves. Therefore, when an event occurs, estimates of magni- tude and source-to-site dis...

  11. TRACE ELEMENTS AND RADIONUCLIDES IN MYTILUS GALLOPROVINCIALIS FROM CAMPANIA REGION (ITALY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Marrone

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Several trace element (As, Al, Cd, Cr, Cu, Pb, Sn, Zn and gamma radionuclide (Bi-214, Cs-134, Cs-137, K-40, Pb-212, Pb-214, Th-234, Tl-208 contents were detected in Mytilus galloprovincialis samples. Analytical checks were carried out to assess higienic status and marine pollution of sea areas in front of Naples and Salerno coasts. Trace elements values show that only two samples of mussels from legal breeding has exceeded the level of Pb (European Regulation 1661/99. Radionuclides values are low and similar according litterature. In this study is confirmed the attitude of Mytilius galloprovincialis to behave as a good marine pollution indicator. Furthermore, the present investigation is a starting point to enhance safety and quality of this particular foodstuff and it’s also a contribution in the risk assessment related to the consumption of this kind of products.

  12. MICROBIOLOGICAL ASSESSMENT OF MUSSELS (MYTILUS GALLOPROVINCIALIS FARMED AND COMMERCIALIZED IN CAMPANIA REGION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Costanzo

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Mytilus galloprovincialis is one of the most commonly consumed bivalve molluscs. Several samples of Mytilus galloprovincialis were collected from different sea farms or bought in retail shops and from irregular peddlers. Total Mesophilic and Psicrophilic Aerobic Bacteria, Enterobatteriacee, E. coli, Salmonella spp., Vibrio spp. and L. monocytogenes were researched following ISO methods and EU Regulations. In mussels taken from the farms the limits were higher than those established by EU Regulation 2073/2005 only in one sample for E.coli and one for Salmonella spp. The mussels bought in retail shops showed good results and no sample exceed the law limits. Only one sample collected from irregular peddlers showed high levels of E.coli.

  13. Orthodontic treatment need for adolescents in the Campania region: the malocclusion impact on self-concept

    OpenAIRE

    Carotenuto, Marco

    2014-01-01

    Letizia Perillo,1 Maria Esposito,2 Alberto Caprioglio,3 Stefania Attanasio,1 Annamaria Chiara Santini,2 Marco Carotenuto2 1Department of Orthodontics, Second University of Naples, Naples, Italy; 2Clinic of Child and Adolescent Neuropsychiatry, Department of Mental Health, Physical and Preventive Medicine, Second University of Naples, Naples, Italy; 3Department of Orthodontics, University of Insubria, Varese, Italy Background: Dental malocclusions can be considered not only as an oral health ...

  14. Contribution to the knowledge of the folk plant medicine in Calabria region (Southern Italy).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Passalacqua, N G; Guarrera, P M; De Fine, G

    2007-01-01

    A series of research on plants used in Calabria (Southern Italy) in the folk plant medicine was carried out in the last twenty years. The use of 104 taxa distributed into 42 families are described. Among the major findings: Ceterach officinarum as hypotensive; Heliotropium europaeum in the case of urinary inflammations; Silybum marianum for haemorrhoids; Arundo donax for pertussis and cystitis; Allium cepa for sties and flu; Laurus nobilis as galactagogue; Passiflora incarnata for burns, haemorrhoids and skin inflammations; Scrophularia canina for rhagas and wounds; Urtica membranacea for tussis and tonsillitis. PMID:17084993

  15. Origin and source regions of nodule-bearing kimberlites and ultramafic lamprophyres in southern Western Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pilbeam, Llewellyn Howard

    High precision high resolution electron microprobe traverses of olivine grains in the Majuagaa kimberlite sensu stricto from southern West Greenland show that the olivine crystallisation is coupled to digestion of xenocrystic orthopyroxene into the melt. This process was previously suspected...... but unconfirmed in kimberlite sensu stricto magmas. It is here termed digestion fractional crystallisation (DFC) and it is argued that the DFC process may account for much of the global varia-bility in kimberlite compositions. The bulk rock trace element geochemistry of the Majuagaa kimberlite is used...

  16. Santa Ana Winds of Southern California: Their Climatology and Variability Spanning 6.5 Decades from Regional Dynamical Modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzman-Morales, J.; Gershunov, A.

    2015-12-01

    Santa Ana Winds (SAWs) are an integral feature of the regional climate of Southern California/Northern Baja California region. In spite of their tremendous episodic impacts on the health, economy and mood of the region, climate-scale behavior of SAW is poorly understood. In the present work, we identify SAWs in mesoscale dynamical downscaling of a global reanalysis product and construct an hourly SAW catalogue spanning 65 years. We describe the long-term SAW climatology at relevant time-space resolutions, i.e, we developed local and regional SAW indices and analyse their variability on hourly, daily, annual, and multi-decadal timescales. Local and regional SAW indices are validated with available anemometer observations. Characteristic behaviors are revealed, e.g. the SAW intensity-duration relationship. At interdecadal time scales, we find that seasonal SAW activity is sensitive to prominent large-scale low-frequency modes of climate variability rooted in the tropical and north Pacific ocean-atmosphere system that are also known to affect the hydroclimate of this region. Lastly, we do not find any long-term trend in SAW frequency and intensity as previously reported. Instead, we identify a significant long-term trend in SAW behavior whereby contribution of extreme SAW events to total seasonal SAW activity has been increasing at the expense of moderate events. These findings motivate further investigation on SAW evolution in future climate and its impact on wildfires.

  17. Chemical Composition and Antimicrobial Activity of the Essential Oils from Two Species of Thymus Growing Wild in Southern Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felice Senatore

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available The volatile constituents of the aerial parts of two samples of Thymus longicaulis C. Presl, collected in Campania and in Sicily, and two samples of Thymus pulegioides L. from the same regions, were extracted by hydrodistillation and analyzed. Considering the four oils together, seventy-eight different compounds were identified: 57 for Thymus longicaulis from Sicily (91.1% of the total oil, 40 for Thymus longicaulis from Campania (91.5% of the oil, 39 for Thymus pulegioides from Sicily (92.5% of the oil and 29 for Thymus pulegioides from Campania (90.1% of the oil. The composition of the oils is different, although the most abundant components are identical in T. pulegioides. The essential oils showed antibacterial activity against eight selected microorganisms.

  18. Electricity access. Southern Africa sub-regional study: South Africa and Zimbabwe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davidson, O.R.; Mwakasonda, S.A.

    2004-07-01

    , grants and other sources. A standard connection subsidy is given to new households under the national electrification programme, with subsidy levels differentiated by geographic region, supply technology or other factors. The Electricity Basic Services Support Tariff (EBSST) is another initiative that the South African Government established in 2002 to provide free electricity of 20-50 kWh per household, per month to the poorest segments of the population. The support tariff is intended to provide an approximate amount of power required for basic lighting, media access and limited cooking. It is worth about ZAR 200 per year to a poor household. The initial cost to government is estimated at about ZAR 630 million annually and it is expected to increase with growth in the rate of electrification. An offgrid electrification programme that mainly involves the dissemination of solar home systems (SHS) to the disadvantaged areas was started in 2000. At present, about 12,000 such systems have been disseminated with over 70 per cent direct subsidy from government. Zimbabwe is a landlocked country in Southern Africa and a member of SADC. Independence in April 1980 ended its white-minority rule, with the country inheriting all the ilts of a racially divided society. Zimbabwe's economy relies heavily on agricultural trops, with significant levels of poverty that are Glosely related to the country's history of governance by the minority white government. After independence, the government embarked on policies aimed at redressing economic inbalances of the past, including reforms in the power sector. Power sector objectives in Zimbabwe include increasing electricity access to previously disadvantaged people through gnid electricity expansion and offgrid electrification. The Zimbabwe Electricity Supply Authority (ZESA) is the main utility responsible for the generation, transmission and distribution of electricity. Unfortunately, ZESA generating capacity is not sufficient to

  19. [Effects of different forest restoration approaches on the soil quality in red soil region of Southern China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yun; Ouyang, Zhi-Yun; Zheng, Hua; Zeng, Jing; Chen, Fa-Lin; Zhang, Kai

    2013-05-01

    In 2008-2009, an investigation was conducted on the effects of three typical forest restoration approaches, i. e., naturally restored secondary forest, artificially restored native species Pinus massoniana plantation (Masson pine plantation), and introduced species Pinus elliottii plantation (slash pine plantation), on the soil quality in red soil region of Southern China. The results showed that the soil moisture content, bulk density, particle composition, and the contents of total carbon (C), total nitrogen (N), total phosphorus (P), organic C, available N, available P, and available potassium (K) in natural secondary forest were all superior to those in artificial plantations. The soil physical, chemical, and microbial properties were integrated into a soil quality index, which was significantly higher (1.20 +/- 0.10) in natural secondary forest than in Masson pine plantation (0.59 +/- 0.03) and slash pine plantation (0.59 +/- 0.06). Our results suggested as compared with the restoration with native species P. massoniana and with introduced P. elliottii, natural restoration could be a better forest restoration approach to improve the soil quality in red soil region of Southern China. PMID:24015552

  20. Impacts of climate warming on heating energy consumption and southern boundaries of severe cold and cold regions in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Impacts of climate warming on heating energy consumption and southern boundaries of severe cold and cold regions of China in the past 20 years are analyzed by using daily and monthly average temperature data from 590 weather stations in China and based on regulations of Heating Ventilation and Air Conditioning Design Rules (GB50019-2003) and Thermal Design Rules for Civil Building (GB50175-93) (China National Standard). The contribution of climate warming to coal saving for heating during cold seasons in major cities is calculated according to indices of coal consumption for heating in major cities during cold seasons defined in Energy Conservation Design Standard for New Heating Residential Buildings (JCJ26-95). Comparing with the period before 1980, southern boundaries of severe cold and cold regions shift toward north up to 2 degrees in latitude since the mid-1980s. Theoretically, climate warming could contribute to 5%―10% coal savings for heating since the mid-1980s in major cities, and even more since the mid-1990s.

  1. SEAWATER INTRUSION TYPES AND REGIONAL DIVISIONS IN THE SOUTHERN COAST OF LAIZHOU BAY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孟广兰; 韩有松; 王少青; 王珍岩

    2002-01-01

    The southern coast of Laizhou Bay, Bohai Sea, is one of the areas in China most seriously impacted by seawater intrusion. Based on the sources of intruding waterbedies, seawater intrusion can be divided into two types: intrusion of saline water derived from modern seawater, and intrusion of subsurface brine and saline water derived from paleo-seawater in shallow Quaternary sediments. There are some distinct differences in their formation, mechanism and damage. The subsurface brine intrusion is a special type, which can cause very serious disaster. The coastal landform and the Quaternary hydrogeological environment are predominant factors in the classification of seawater intrusion types. Various coastal environments in different coastal sections result in three types of intrusion: seawater intrusion, saline groundwater intrusion, and mixed seawater and saline water intrusion, in the southern coast of Laizhou Bay, which can be divided into four areas: the sea-water intrusion area in the northern Laizhou City coast, the mixed seawater and saline groundwater intrusion area in the Baisha River-Jiaolai River mouth plain area, the mixed seawater and saline groundwater intrusion area in the Weihe River mouth plain area northern Changyi county coast, and the saline ground-water intrusion area in the northern Shouguang plains.

  2. SEAWATER INTRUSION TYPES AND REGIONAL DIVISIONS IN THE SOUTHERN COAST OF LAIZHOU BAY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孟广兰; 韩有松; 王少青; 王珍岩

    2002-01-01

    The southern coast of Laizhou Bay, Bohai Sea, is one of the areas in China most seriously impacted by seawater intrusion. Based on the sources of intruding wate rbodies, seawater intrusion can be divided into two types: intrusion of saline water derived from modern seawater, and intrusion of subsurface brine and saline water derived from paleo-seawater in shallow Quaternary sediments. There are so me distinct differences in their formation, mechanism and damage. The subsurface brine intrusion is a special typ e, which can cause very serious disaster.The coastal landform and the Quaternary hydrogeological environment are pr edominant factors in the classification of seawater intrusion types. Various coastal environments in diff erent coastal sections result in three types of intrusion: seawater intrusion, saline groundwater intrusion, and mixed seawater and saline water intrusion, in the southern coast of Laizhou Bay, which can be divided into four areas: the seawater intrusion area in the northern Laizhou City coast, the mixed seawater and saline groundwater in trusion area in the Baisha River-Jiaolai River mouth plain area, the mixed seawater and saline groundwater intrus ion area in the Weihe River mouth plain area northern Changyi county coast, and the saline groundwater intrusion area in the northern Shouguang plains.

  3. Development of a decision support system for setting up a wind energy policy across the Walloon Region (southern Belgium)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lejeune, P. [Unit of Forest and Nature Management, Gembloux Agricultural University, 2, Passage des Deportes, B-5030 Gembloux (Belgium); Feltz, C. [Unit of Soil, Ecology and Territory, Gembloux Agricultural University, 2, Passage des Deportes, B-5030 Gembloux (Belgium)

    2008-11-15

    Wallonia (the region covering southern Belgium) is committed to making a significant increase in its wind-powered electricity production capacity by 2010. Therefore, a decision support system designed to evaluate and map environmental and landscape constraints fundamental to the building of wind farms was developed for the whole Walloon Region (17,000 km{sup 2}). This system is a geodatabase using 40 criteria (landscape or environmental) corresponding to three constraint levels (exclusion, highly sensitive and sensitive). This geodatabase also has analysis functions developed in the ArcGIS 9 software environment that are used to update the overall constraints map, to analyse sensitivity with respect to constraint criteria-defining parameters as well as to perform full diagnostic studies on wind farm projects. (author)

  4. Regional trade and the nutrition transition: opportunities to strengthen NCD prevention policy in the Southern African Development Community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Marie Thow

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Addressing diet-related non-communicable diseases (NCDs will require a multisectoral policy approach that includes the food supply and trade, but implementing effective policies has proved challenging. The Southern African Development Community (SADC has experienced significant trade and economic liberalization over the past decade; at the same time, the nutrition transition has progressed rapidly in the region. This analysis considers the relationship between regional trade liberalization and changes in the food environment associated with poor diets and NCDs, with the aim of identifying feasible and proactive policy responses to support healthy diets. Design: Changes in trade and investment policy for the SADC were documented and compared with time-series graphs of import data for soft drinks and snack foods to assess changes in imports and source country in relation to trade and investment liberalization. Our analysis focuses on regional trade flows. Results: Diets and the burden of disease in the SADC have changed since the 1990s in parallel with trade and investment liberalization. Imports of soft drinks increased by 76% into SADC countries between 1995 and 2010, and processed snack foods by 83%. South Africa acts as a regional trade and investment hub; it is the major source of imports and investment related to these products into other SADC countries. At the same time, imports of processed foods and soft drinks from outside the region – largely from Asia and the Middle East – are increasing at a dramatic rate with soft drink imports growing by almost 1,200% and processed snack foods by 750%. Conclusions: There is significant intra-regional trade in products associated with the nutrition transition; however, growing extra-regional trade means that countries face new pressures in implementing strong policies to prevent the increasing burden of diet-related NCDs. Implementation of a regional nutrition policy framework could

  5. Spatial and temporal changes in desertification in the southern region of the Tengger Desert from 1973 to 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Qingyu; Guan, Wenqian; Yang, Jing; Zhao, Shilei; Pan, Baotian; Wang, Lei; Song, Na; Lu, Min; Li, Fuchun

    2016-04-01

    The sandy land in the southern region of the Tengger Desert is adjacent to cities and towns, and land desertification poses a threat to the livelihood and production of local residents. To determine dynamic changes in local desertification, five periods (1973, 1987, 1992, 2001, and 2009) of remote sensing data are studied by remote sensing (RS) and geographic information system (GIS). The desert contraction area is primarily centered around three units (Wuwei, Gulang, and Jingtai) and nearby regions of Zhongwei City. The primary desert expansion areas include the west side of Helan Mountain (WSHM), the Central Mountainous Area (CMA), and the eastern and western Zhongwei units far from towns. From 1973 to 2009, the degree of change in the contracting part of the primary desert expansion unit showed an increasing trend; in brief, most of the desert (especially after 2001) has been developing in a direction in which desertification has been gradually controlled. The primary desert expansion areas are less affected by human activity, but they are primarily controlled by natural factors (especially wind and terrain). The desert contraction areas occur around the towns and nearby regions with frequent human activity; desertification is primarily controlled by human factors. With rapid economic development (especially after 2000), the scale of the cultivated area, town, and ecological protection engineering has gradually expanded, and the latter two are primarily built on a previous desert, which is the root cause of the reduction in the desert areas around the towns and the shrinkage toward north of border. Therefore, reasonable and effective human activity in the southern region of the Tengger Desert is playing a crucial role in preventing desertification.

  6. Effects of geological structures on groundwater flow and quality in hardrock regions of northern Tirunelveli district, southern India

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    M Senthilkumar; R Arumugam; D Gnanasundar; D S C Thambi; E Sampath Kumar

    2015-03-01

    Geological and structural influences on groundwater flow and quality were evaluated in the present study in the hardrock regions of Tirunelveli District, southern India. Groundwater is a major source of freshwater in this region to cater to the requirements of domestic and agricultural activity, as there are no surface water resources. Geologically, the area is characterized by charnockites and garnetiferous biotite gneiss. Groundwater in this region is found to occur in the weathered portion under unconfined condition and in fractured/fissured portions under unconfined to semi-confined condition. Existence of deep-seated fractures are minimal. Lineaments/dykes play a major role in the occurrence and movement of groundwater in the region. Lineaments/dykes of the study area can be broadly divided into two types: north–south and west–east oriented structures. Analysis and field observations revealed that the north–south dykes act as a barrier of groundwater while the west–east oriented structures behave as a carrier of groundwater. Both quality and quantity of groundwater is different on the upstream and downstream sides of the dyke. Hence, it is conclusive that the west–east oriented dykes in this region are highly potential and act as a conduit for groundwater movement from recharge areas to the discharge area.

  7. Scientific collaboration in the Danish-German border region of Southern Jutland-Schleswig

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Makkonen, Teemu

    2015-01-01

    in border regions, in general, and the studied region, in particular, has rarely been discussed in the academic literature. The integration model of cross-border regional innovation systems provides the conceptual framework for the task. The paper, thus, gives methodological insights for the measurement...... this can be found in the science bases–arguably more than from historic, linguistic or ethnic reasons–of the adjacent sides of the border. The research fields that the local scientists are engaged in seem to be too different between the Danish and German sides of the border region to foster large numbers...

  8. Technical and Economic Efficiency of Palm Oil Marketing in the Niger Delta Region of Southern Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nkasiobi Silas Oguzor

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the structural performance and productive efficiency of palm oil marketing in some selected States in Southern Nigeria. Eighty districts were selected in the Niger Delta Area and data were collected from 1000 palm oil sellers randomly selected in these towns. The tools of analysis were marketing margin, Lorenz curve and Gini coefficient to measure the structural performance while the productive efficiency was measured with the use of the production function analysis using the OLS multiple regression analysis to estimate the parameters of the production function equations. All these phenomena portend a high poor structural performance in the system. The productive efficiency measurement showed that palm oil marketing was in stage one of the production surface in the area and this implies inefficient allocation and utilization of resources. Therefore palm oil marketing in the study is though profitable was grossly inefficient from the view point of market structure and productive efficiency analysis.

  9. College-Bound Seniors, 1979. [College Board ATP Summary Reports for: National, New England, Middle States, Southern, Midwestern, Southwestern, Rocky Mountain, and Western Regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    College Entrance Examination Board, Princeton, NJ.

    The Admissions Testing Program (ATP) is a service of the College Board. The 1979 ATP summary reports on college-bound seniors were produced for each region of the United States, including New England, the Middle, Southern, Midwestern, Southwestern, Rocky Mountain, and Western States. The national and each regional report are in separate booklets.…

  10. Spatial-temporal Pattern and Population Driving Force of Land Use Change in Liupan Mountains Region, Southern Ningxia, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QUAN Bin; M J M R(O)MKENS; LI Bichen; TAO Jianjun; LI Chaokui; YU Guanghui; CHEN Qichun

    2008-01-01

    The Liupan Mountains is located in the southern Ningxia Hui Autonomous Region of China, which forms an important dividing line between iandforms and bio-geographic regions. The populated part of the Liupan Mountains region has suffered tremendous ecological damages over time due to population pressure, excessive demand and inap-propriate use of agricultural land resources. In this paper, datasets of land use between 1990 and 2000 were obtained from Landsat TM imagery, and then spatial models were used to characterize landscape conditions. Also, the relation-ship between the population density and land use/cover change (LUCC) was analyzed. Results indicate that cropland, forestland, and urban areas have increased by 44,186ha, 9001ha and 1550ha, respectively while the grassland area has appreciably decreased by 54,025ha in the study period. The decrease in grassland was most notable. Of the grassland lost, 49.4% was converted into cropland. The largest annual land conversion rate in the study area was less than 2%. These changes are attributed to industrial and agricultural development and population growth. To improve the eco-economic conditions in the study region, population control, urbanization and development of an ecological friendly agriculture were suggested.

  11. The occurrence and pathogenicity of Serratospiculum tendo (Nematoda: Diplotriaenoidea) in birds of prey from southern Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santoro, M; D'Alessio, N; Di Prisco, F; Kinsella, J M; Barca, L; Degli Uberti, B; Restucci, B; Martano, M; Troisi, S; Galiero, G; Veneziano, V

    2016-05-01

    The air sacs of free-ranging birds of prey (n= 652) from southern Italy, including 11 species of Accipitriformes and six of Falconiforms, were examined for infections with Serratospiculum tendo (Nematoda: Diplotriaenoidea). Of the 17 species of birds examined, 25 of 31 (80.6%) peregrine falcons (Falco peregrinus) from Calabria Region and a single northern goshawk (Accipiter gentilis) from Campania Region were infected with S. tendo, suggesting a strong host specificity for the peregrine falcon. The northern goshawk and 18 of 25 infected peregrine falcons showed cachexia and all infected birds had bone fractures. At gross examination, air sacculitis and pneumonia were the most common lesions in infected birds. Microscopically, the air-sac walls showed thickening of the smooth muscle cells, resulting in a papillary appearance, along with hyperplasia of the mesothelium and epithelium, and foci of plasma cell infiltration and macrophages associated with several embryonated eggs and adult parasites. Extensive areas of inflammation were found in the lungs, characterized by lymphocytes, macrophages and fibroblasts surrounding embryonated eggs. The northern goshawk also had detachment of the dextral lung with several necrotic foci. In this case, the death of the bird was directly attributed to S. tendo infection. Lesions and pathological changes observed here suggest that S. tendo can cause disease. PMID:25772632

  12. Glacial geomorphology of the Torres del Paine region (southern Patagonia): Implications for glaciation, deglaciation and paleolake history

    Science.gov (United States)

    García, Juan-Luis; Hall, Brenda L.; Kaplan, Michael R.; Vega, Rodrigo M.; Strelin, Jorge A.

    2014-01-01

    The processes affecting paleoclimate variability and Pleistocene glacial landscape development in the southern mid-latitudes remain poorly understood, in part because of the scarcity of comprehensive, well-studied records. Glacial landforms are invaluable for reconstructing past ice-sheet, climate, and associated environmental changes along the southern Andes, but there are significant spatial and temporal gaps in existing data. In this paper, we present new geomorphic and sedimentologic analyses, including surficial maps, for the Torres del Paine region (51°S, 73°W), southern South America. Our findings provide a new framework for understanding changes in the regional glacier history and Pleistocene landscape development. Glacial extent during the local last glacial maximum (LGM) remains unknown but new chronological data supported by geomorphic evidence afford evidence for a larger ice sheet at Torres del Paine than previously assumed. Deglaciation from the local LGM was underway by 17,400 ± 200 (1σ) cal. yr. BP. As opposed to previous suggestions, we have found that most of the moraines fringing the lakes in the Torres del Paine national park were deposited during a late-glacial expansion that occurred between 14,100 and 12,500 cal. yr. BP. Late-glacial advances also have been documented recently for the Última Esperanza and Lago Argentino basins to the south and north of Torres del Paine, respectively, suggesting an overall regional ice response to a climate signal. The Tehuelche paleolake accompanied each of the ice-sheet fluctuations in Torres del Paine. New data document at least three main phases of this paleolake, which drained eastward to the Atlantic Ocean, while the Andes gaps were blocked with ice. During the late phase of glacial lake formation, when water levels reached 125-155 m a.s.l., the lake likely merged with paleolake Consuelo in the Última Esperanza area at the end of the last glaciation. Lake Tehuelche in Torres del Paine had drained

  13. Developing regional genetic counseling for southern Chinese with nonsyndromic hearing impairment: a unique mutational spectrum

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Kaitian; Zong, Ling; Liu, Min; Wang, Xianren; Zhou, Wei; Zhan, Yuan; Cao, Hui; Dong, De Chang; Tang, Haocheng; Jiang, Hongyan

    2014-01-01

    Background Racial and regional factors are important for the clinical diagnosis of non-syndromic hearing impairment. Comprehensive genetic analysis of deaf patients in different regions of China must be performed to provide effective genetic counseling. To evaluate the mutational spectrum of south Chinese families, we performed genetic analysis for non-syndromic hearing impairment in this population. Methods Complete clinical evaluations were performed on 701 unrelated patients with non-syndr...

  14. Proposed shallow drilling at the interface between the southern Oklahoma aulacogen and Ouachita fold belt, Arbuckle Mountains region, Oklahoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lidiak, E.G. (Univ. of Pittsburgh, PA (United States). Dept. of Geology and Planetary Science); Denison, R.E.

    1993-02-01

    Two major tectonic elements in southern North America are the southern Oklahoma aulacogen and the Ouachita foldbelt. The Aulacogen is characterized by basement-cored high-angle fault blocks along which movement occurred throughout much of Paleozoic time. It is one of the most intensely deformed areas in the stable interior platform of the craton. The fold belt, in contrast, consists primarily of thin-skinned compressional structures that formed in Late Paleozoic time. These two prominent tectonic features strike at a high angle to one another and are juxtaposed in southeast Oklahoma where the contact is buried shallowly beneath Cretaceous rocks of the Gulf Coastal Plain. A drilling program comprised of a series of shallow holes drilled across the contact zone will establish the structural and stratigraphic relationships at this important tectonic interface. The results obtained should be critical in elucidating the effect that the transverse aulacogen structures had on the development of the Ouachita frontal zone. Proposed drilling sites are in northern Bryan and Choctaw counties, Oklahoma, along the Tishomingo--Belton anticlines southeast of the basement-cored eastern Arbuckle Mountains. Crystalline rocks in this region are massive middle Proterozoic granitoid rocks overlain by Cretaceous sedimentary rocks. Farther southeast, rocks in the frontal zone consist mainly of Late Paleozoic flysch-type sedimentary rocks. Depths to Paleozoic and older rocks beneath the coastal plain deposits are about 300--500 meters so that targeted structures can easily be reached.

  15. Iron fertilization and the structure of planktonic communities in high nutrient regions of the Southern Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quéguiner, Bernard

    2013-06-01

    In this review article, plankton community structure observations are analyzed both for artificial iron fertilization experiments and also for experiments dedicated to the study of naturally iron-fertilized systems in the Atlantic, Indian and Pacific sectors of the Southern Ocean in the POOZ (Permanently Open Ocean Zone) and the PFZ (Polar Frontal Zone). Observations made in natural systems are combined with those from artificially perturbed systems, in order to evaluate the seasonal evolution of pelagic communities, taking into account controlling factors related to the life cycles and the ecophysiology of dominant organisms. The analysis considers several types of planktonic communities, including both autotrophs and heterotrophs. These communities are spatially segregated owing to different life strategies. A conceptual general scheme is proposed to account for these observations and their variability, regardless of experiment type. Diatoms can be separated into 2 groups: Group 1 has slightly silicified fast growing cells that are homogeneously distributed in the surface mixed layer, and Group 2 has strongly silicified slowly growing cells within discrete layers. During the growth season, Group 1 diatoms show a typical seasonal succession of dominant species, within time windows of development that are conditioned by physical factors (light and temperature) as well as endogenous specific rhythms (internal clock), and biomass accumulation is controlled by the availability of nutrients. Group 1 diatoms are not directly grazed by mesozooplankton which is fed by protozooplankton, linking the microbial food web to higher trophic levels. Instead, successive dominant species of Group 1 are degraded via bacterial activity at the end of their growth season. Organic detritus fragments feed protozooplankton and mesozooplankton. The effective silicon pump leads to the progressive disappearance of silicic acid in surface waters. In contrast, Group 2 is resistant to grazing

  16. Regional-scale transport of air pollutants: impacts of southern California emissions on Phoenix ground-level ozone concentrations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Li

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In this study, WRF-Chem is utilized at high-resolution (1.333 km grid spacing for the innermost domain to investigate impacts of southern California anthropogenic emissions (SoCal on Phoenix ground-level ozone concentrations ([O3] for a pair of recent exceedance episodes. First, WRF-Chem Control simulations are conducted to evaluate model performance. Compared with surface observations of hourly ozone, CO, NOx, and wind fields, the Control simulations reproduce observed variability well. Simulated [O3] are within acceptance ranges recommended by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA that characterize skillful experiments. Next, the relative contribution of SoCal and Arizona local anthropogenic emissions (AZ to ozone exceedance within the Phoenix metropolitan area is investigated via a trio of sensitivity simulations: (1 SoCal emissions are excluded, with all other emissions as in Control; (2 AZ emissions are excluded with all other emissions as in Control; and (3 SoCal and AZ emissions are excluded (i.e., all anthropogenic emissions are eliminated to account only for biogenic emissions [BEO]. Results for the selected events indicate the impacts of AZ emissions are dominant on daily maximum 8 h average (DMA8 [O3] in Phoenix. SoCal contributions to DMA8 [O3] for the Phoenix metropolitan area range from a few ppbv to over 30 ppbv (10–30% relative to Control experiments. [O3] from SoCal and AZ emissions exhibit the expected diurnal characteristics that are determined by physical and photochemical processes, while BEO contributions to DMA8 [O3] in Phoenix also play a key role. Finally, ozone transport processes and pathways within the lower troposphere are investigated. During daytime, pollutants (mainly ozone near the southern California coasts are pumped into the planetary boundary-layer over the southern California desert through the mountain chimney and pass channel effects, aiding eastward transport along the desert air basins in southern

  17. A see-saw of pre-Columbian boom regions in southern Peru, determined by large-scale circulation changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mächtle, B.; Schittek, K.; Forbriger, M.; Schäbitz, F.; Eitel, B.

    2012-04-01

    Environmental changes and cultural transitions during several periods of Peruvian history show a strong coincidence between humid and dry climatic oscillations and the rise and decline of cultures. It is noteworthy, that alternating periods of geo-ecological fragility and stability occurred in time and space between the coastal Nasca region (14.5° S) and the high Andean northern Titicaca basin, just a few hundred kilometers to the east. Based on a multi-proxy palynological and sedimentological approach to reconstruct palaeoenvironmental changes, we found that the Nasca region received a maximum of precipitation during the archaeological boom times of the Early Horizon and the Early Intermediate Period (800 BC - 650 AD, Paracas and Nasca cultures) as well as during the late intermediate period (1150-1450 AD), whereas, in contrast, the Titicaca region further to the south-east experienced drought and cultural depression during that times. During the Middle Horizon (650 - 1150 AD), the Tiwanaku agronomy and culture boomed in the Titicaca region and expanded to the west, contemporaneous with a raised lake level and more humid conditions. In the Nasca region, runoff for irrigation purposes was reduced and less reliable due to drought. Considering a coincidence between environmental and cultural changes, we state that success and decline of civilizations were controlled by hydrological oscillations, triggering fertility as well as a critical loss of natural resources. In response to spatial changing resources, cultural foci were shifted. Therefore, the success of pre-Columbian civilizations was closely coupled to areas of geo-ecological favorability, which were directly controlled by distinct regional impacts of large-scale circulation mechanisms, including El Niño - Southern Oscillation (ENSO). Changes in the position of the intertropical convergence zone (ITCZ) and the Bolivian anticyclone determined meridional shifts in moisture transport across the Andes, which

  18. Investigating correlations of local seismicty with anomalous geoelectrical, hydrogeological and geochemical signals jointly recorded in Basilicata Region (Southern Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Mucciarelli

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the preliminary results analysing the correlation between local seismicity and geoelectrical, hydrogeological and geochemical signals concomitantly recorded in Basilicata Region, one of the most seismically active areas in Southern Italy. The signals were recorded by two stations: Tito and Tramutola. Tito station measures vertically the Self-Potential field (SP by an array of five no-polarizable electrodes equally spaced with the common electrode at 20 m depth as well as water-level, water-temperature and electrical-conductivity. Tramutola station measures self-potential signals in soil surface, gas flow and water temperature in a thermal-water well, as well as atmospheric barometric pressure and ambient temperature. Correlations were found between the sharp variability of the signals recorded by both stations and the seismic sequence that occurred on September 3 to 4, 2004, allowing us to link these anomalies with the tectonic evolution of the investigated area.

  19. Porphyry copper assessment of the Tethys region of western and southern Asia: Chapter V in Global mineral resource assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zürcher, Lukas; Bookstrom, Arthur A.; Hammarstrom, Jane M.; Mars, John C.; Ludington, Stephen; Zientek, Michael L.; Dunlap, Pamela; Wallis, John C.; Drew, Lawrence J.; Sutphin, David M.; Berger, Byron R.; Herrington, Richard J.; Billa, Mario; Kuşcu, Ilkay; Moon, Charles J.; Richards, Jeremy P.; Zientek, Michael L.; Hammarstrom, Jane M.; Johnson, Kathleen M.

    2015-11-18

    A probabilistic mineral resource assessment of undiscovered resources in porphyry copper deposits in the Tethys region of western and southern Asia was carried out as part of a global mineral resource assessment led by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS). The purpose of the study was to delineate geographic areas as permissive tracts for the occurrence of porphyry copper deposits at a scale of 1:1,000,000 and to provide probabilistic estimates of amounts of copper likely to be contained in undiscovered porphyry copper deposits in those tracts. The team did the assessment using the USGS three-part form of mineral resource assessment, which is based on (1) mineral deposit and grade-tonnage models constructed from known deposits as analogs for undiscovered deposits, (2) delineation of permissive tracts based on geoscientific information, and (3) estimation of numbers of undiscovered deposits.

  20. Porphyry copper assessment of the Tethys region of western and southern Asia: Chapter V in Global mineral resource assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zürcher, Lukas; Bookstrom, Arthur A.; Hammarstrom, Jane M.; Mars, John C.; Ludington, Stephen; Zientek, Michael L.; Dunlap, Pamela; Wallis, John C.; Drew, Lawrence J.; Sutphin, David M.; Berger, Byron R.; Herrington, Richard J.; Billa, Mario; Kuşcu, Ilkay; Moon, Charles J.; Richards, Jeremy P.

    2015-01-01

    A probabilistic mineral resource assessment of undiscovered resources in porphyry copper deposits in the Tethys region of western and southern Asia was carried out as part of a global mineral resource assessment led by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS). The purpose of the study was to delineate geographic areas as permissive tracts for the occurrence of porphyry copper deposits at a scale of 1:1,000,000 and to provide probabilistic estimates of amounts of copper likely to be contained in undiscovered porphyry copper deposits in those tracts. The team did the assessment using the USGS three-part form of mineral resource assessment, which is based on (1) mineral deposit and grade-tonnage models constructed from known deposits as analogs for undiscovered deposits, (2) delineation of permissive tracts based on geoscientific information, and (3) estimation of numbers of undiscovered deposits.

  1. A 3400 year paleolimnological record of prehispanic human–environment interactions in the Holmul region of the southern Maya lowlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahl, David B.; Estrada-Belli, Francisco; Anderson, Lysanna

    2015-01-01

    The timing, magnitude and drivers of late Holocene environmental change in the Holmul region of the southern Maya lowlands are examined by combining paleoenvironmental and archeological data. Environmental proxy analyses on a ~ 3350 cal yr lacustrine sediment record include pollen, charcoal, loss on ignition, magnetic suscep- tibility, and elemental geochemistry. Archeological evidence is derived from extensive settlement surveys conducted near the study site. Results indicate nearby settlement and agricultural activity taking place in an environment characterized by open forest from around 3350 to 950 cal yr BP. The fire history shows a dramatic increase in burning during the Classic period, possibly reflecting changing agricultural strategies. A distinct band of carbonate deposited from 1270 to 1040 cal yr BP suggests decreased hydrologic input associated with drier conditions. Abrupt changes in proxy data around 940 cal yr BP indicate a cessation of human disturbance and local abandonment of the area.

  2. A review about the mechanisms associated with active deformation, regional uplift and subsidence in southern South America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Folguera, Andrés; Gianni, Guido; Sagripanti, Lucía; Rojas Vera, Emilio; Novara, Iván; Colavitto, Bruno; Alvarez, Orlando; Orts, Darío; Tobal, Jonathan; Giménez, Mario; Introcaso, Antonio; Ruiz, Francisco; Martínez, Patricia; Ramos, Victor A.

    2015-12-01

    A broad range of processes acted simultaneously during the Quaternary producing relief in the Andes and adjacent foreland, from the Chilean coast, where the Pacific Ocean floor is being subducted beneath South American, to the Brazilian and the Argentinean Atlantic platform area. This picture shows to be complex and responds to a variety of processes. The Geoid exemplifies this spectrum of uplift mechanisms, since it reflects an important change at 35°S along the Andes and the foreland that could be indicating the presence of dynamic forces modeling the topography with varying intensity through the subduction margin. On the other hand, mountains uplifted in the Atlantic margin, along a vast sector of the Brazilian Atlantic coast and inland regions seem to be created at the area where the passive margin has been hyper-extended and consequently mechanically debilitated and the forearc region shifts eastwardly at a similar rate than the westward advancing continent. Therefore the forearc at the Arica latitudes can be considered as relatively stationary and dynamically sustained by a perpendicular-to-the-margin asthenospheric flow that inhibits trench roll back, determining a highly active orogenic setting at the eastern Andes in the Subandean region. To the south, the Pampean flat subduction zone creates particular conditions for deformation and rapid propagation of the orogenic front producing a high-amplitude orogen. In the southern Central and Patagonian Andes, mountain (orogenic) building processes are attenuated, becoming dominant other mechanisms of exhumation such as the i) impact of mantle plumes originated in the 660 km mantle transition, ii) the ice-masse retreat from the Andes after the Pleistocene producing an isostatic rebound, iii) the dynamic topography associated with the opening of an asthenospheric window during the subduction of the Chile ridge and slab tearing processes, iv) the subduction of oceanic swells linked to transform zones and v) the

  3. Response of runoff and soil loss to reforestation and rainfall type in red soil region of southern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Zhigang; Ouyang, Zhiyun; Li, Fengrui; Zheng, Hua; Wang, Xiaoke

    2010-01-01

    To evaluate the long-term effects of reforestation types on soil erosion on degraded land, vegetation and soil properties under conventional sloping farmland (CSF) and three different reforestation types including a Pinus massoniana secondary forest (PSF), an Eucommia ulmoides artificial economic forest (EEF) and a natural succession type forest (NST), were investigated at runoff plot scale over a six-year period in a red soil region of southern China. One hundred and thirty erosive rainfall events generating runoff in plots were grouped into four rainfall types by means of K-mean clustering method. Erosive rainfall type I is the dominant rainfall type. The amount of runoff and the soil loss under erosive rainfall type III were the most, followed by rain-fall type II, IV and I. Compared with CSF treatment, reforestation treatments decreased the average annual runoff depth and the soil loss by 25.5%-61.8% and 93.9%-96.2% during the study period respectively. Meanwhile, runoff depth at PSF and EEF treatments was significantly lower than that in NST treatment, but no significant difference existed in soil erosion modulus among the three reforestation treatments. This is mainly due to the improved vegetation properties (i.e., vegetation coverage, biomass of above- and below-ground and litter-fall mass) and soil properties (i.e., bulk density, total porosity, infiltration rate and organic carbon content) in the three reforestation treatments compared to CSF treatment. The PSF and EEF are recommended as the preferred reforestation types to control runoff and soil erosion in the red soil region of southern China, with the NST potentially being used as an important supplement.

  4. Study of Patients Absconding Behavior in a General Hospital at Southern Region of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Khammarnia

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background Patients’ escape from hospital imposes a significant cost to patients as well as the health system. Besides, for these patients, exposure to adverse events (such as suicide, self-harm, violence and harm to hospital reputation are more likely to occur compared to others. The present study aimed to determine the characteristics of the absconding patients in a general hospital through a case-control design in Shiraz, Iran. Methods This case-control study was conducted on 413 absconded patients as case and 413 patients as control in a large general hospital in Shiraz, southern Iran. In this study, data on the case and control patients was collected from the medical records using a standard checklist in the period of 2011–3. Then, the data were analyzed using descriptive and analytical statistics, through SPSS 16. Results The finding showed that 413 patients absconded (0.50% and mean of age in case group was 40.98 ± 16.31 years. In univariate analysis, variables of gender [Odds Ratio (OR= 2], ward (OR= 1.22, insurance status (OR= 0.41, job status (OR= 0.34 and residence expenditure were significant. However, in multivariate analysis significant variables were age (ORadj= 0.13, gender (ORadj= 2.15, self-employment/unemployed (ORadj= 0.47, emergency/admission (ORadj= 2.14, internal/admission (ORadj= 3.16, insurance status (ORadj= 4.49 and residence expenditure (ORadj= 1.15. Conclusion Characteristics such as middle age, male gender, no insurance coverage, inability to afford hospital expenditures and admission in emergency department make patients more likely abscond from the hospital. Therefore, it may be necessary to focus efforts on high-risk groups and increase insurance coverage in the country to prevent absconding from hospital.

  5. Naturally Occurring Asbestos in the Southern Nevada Region: Potential for Human Exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buck, B. J.; Metcalf, R. V.; Berry, D.; McLaurin, B.; Kent, D.; Januch, J.; Goossens, D.

    2015-12-01

    Naturally occurring fibrous actinolite, winchite, magnesioriebeckite, richterite, magnesiohornblende, and erionite have been found in rock, soil, and dust in southern Nevada and northwestern Arizona. The areas containing naturally occurring asbestos (NOA) include urban areas (e.g. Boulder City) and rural areas where people routinely enjoy outdoor activities including horseback riding, running, hiking, bicycling, and off-road-vehicle (ORV) recreation. A recent study showing mesothelioma in young people and women suggests some form of environmental exposure. Rock, soil, dust and clothing were analyzed using scanning electron microscope (SEM) and energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS); additional rock samples were analyzed using wavelength dispersive electron probe microanalysis (EPMA); additional soil samples were analyzed using PLM (polarizing light microscopy) and TEM (transmission electron microscopy) using the Fluidized Bed Asbestos Segregator preparation method. Winds have transported and mixed the Ca-amphiboles, which are primarily from Nevada, with the Na-amphiboles that are primarily from northwestern Arizona. Erionite, which has not previously been reported in this area, was a common soil component found in 5 of 6 samples. The erionite source has not yet been determined. Winds have transported the amphibole and erionite particles into the Nellis Dunes Recreation Area - an ORV recreation area located 35 km north of Boulder City that otherwise would not be geologically predicted to contain fibrous amphiboles. In Boulder City, wind directions are primarily bimodal N-NE and S-SW with the strongest winds in the spring coming from the S-SW. The arid climate in this part of the Mojave Desert greatly increases the potential for wind erosion and human exposures. These results suggest that the entire Las Vegas Basin has, at times, received these particles through wind transport. Because the most likely human exposure pathway is through inhalation of dust, the Las Vegas

  6. Effect of different fertilizer application on the soil fertility of paddy soils in red soil region of southern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Wenyi; Zhang, Xinyu; Wang, Huimin; Dai, Xiaoqin; Sun, Xiaomin; Qiu, Weiwen; Yang, Fengting

    2012-01-01

    Appropriate fertilizer application is an important management practice to improve soil fertility and quality in the red soil regions of China. In the present study, we examined the effects of five fertilization treatments [these were: no fertilizer (CK), rice straw return (SR), chemical fertilizer (NPK), organic manure (OM) and green manure (GM)] on soil pH, soil organic carbon (SOC), total nitrogen (TN), C/N ratio and available nutrients (AN, AP and AK) contents in the plowed layer (0-20 cm) of paddy soil from 1998 to 2009 in Jiangxi Province, southern China. Results showed that the soil pH was the lowest with an average of 5.33 units in CK and was significantly higher in NPK (5.89 units) and OM (5.63 units) treatments (Pfertilizers have remarkably improved SOC and TN values compared with the CK, Specifically, the OM treatment resulted in the highest SOC and TN concentrations (72.5% and 51.2% higher than CK) and NPK treatment increased the SOC and TN contents by 22.0% and 17.8% compared with CK. The average amounts of C/N ratio ranged from 9.66 to 10.98 in different treatments, and reached the highest in OM treatment (Pfertility in this region and K fertilizer should be simultaneously applied considering the soil K contents. Considering the long-term fertilizer efficiency, our results also suggest that annual straw returning application could improve soil fertility in this trial region.

  7. Interannual variability in rainy season characteristics over the Limpopo region of southern Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reason, C. J. C.; Hachigonta, S.; Phaladi, R. F.

    2005-11-01

    This study focuses on the interannual variability of dry spell frequencies, dry and wet spell characteristics and onset dates of the austral summer rainy season over the Limpopo region (22-25 °S, 27-32 °E) of northern South Africa. These characteristics of the rainy season are of considerable interest to farmers, water resource managers and other user groups. The Limpopo region supports a large rural population dependent on rain-fed agriculture as well as significant biodiversity, particularly in the Kruger National/Limpopo Transfrontier Park. It is also a region prone to devastating floods and droughts. Evidence is presented that summer dry spell frequency and onset date are related to ENSO via changes in regional circulation. Niño 3.4 sea surface temperature (SST) anomalies appear to show a robust relationship with dry spell frequency during the 1979-2002 period analysed. Anomalies in onset date of the rainy season during 1979-2002 appear to be inversely related to Niño 3.4 SST, with the relationship strengthening after 1986. These results suggest that there may be some predictability in these parameters, particularly in dry spell frequency during austral summer, based on existing skill in predicting tropical Pacific SST. Copyright

  8. Regional variations of seismic attenuation of Lg waves in southern Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    DomíNguez, Tonatiuh; Rebollar, Cecilio J.; Castro, Raúl R.

    1997-12-01

    Attenuation of Lg waves is estimated using 61 events located in the subduction zone of the Middle American trench and recorded by the seismic network of Laguna Verde, Veracruz, Mexico. We estimate the anelastic attenuation coefficient γ of Lg waves or, equivalently, QLg by calculating the rate of acceleration spectra decay with distance. We consider paths from two regions: Guerrero-Veracruz (NE-SW direction) and Oaxaca-Veracruz (North-South direction). Assuming a frequency dependence of γ of the form γ(ƒ) = γ0ƒη, we find that η=0.175±0.05 for both regions and that γ0 was lower for paths from Guerrero to Veracruz (γ0=0.0071±0.002) than for paths from Oaxaca to Veracruz (γ0=0.0161±0.003) in the frequency range from 2 to 7 Hz. In terms of the quality factor QLg, values of QLg= 134±30ƒ0.83±0.2 and QLg=59±10ƒ0.81±0.2 were found for the Guerrero-Veracruz and the Oaxaca-Veracruz paths, respectively. This difference in attenuation may be due to the state of stresses that prevails in both regions including the density and fluid content of fractures, which are attenuation mechanisms also suggested for other regions [Mitchell, 1995].

  9. New debris flow mitigation measures in southern Gansu, China: a case study of the Zhouqu Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Muqi; Meng, Xingmin; Li, Yajun

    2014-05-01

    A devastating debris flow occurred in Zhouqu of Gansu Province, China, on 8th August 2010, resulting in a catastrophic disaster, with 1463 people being perished. The debris flow valleys, as other numerous debris valleys in the mountainous region, had preventive engineering constructions, such as check dames, properly designed based on common engineering practices for safe guiding the town located right on the debris flow fan. However, failures of such preventive measures often cause even heavier disasters than those that have no human interactions, as the mitigations give a false safety impression. Given such a weird situation and in order to explore a much more effective disaster prevention strategy against debris flows in the mountainous region, this paper makes a comparative study based on two cases in the area of which one had preventive structures and one hasn't. The result shows that inappropriate mitigation measures that have commonly been applying in the disaster reduction practices in the region are of questionable. It is concluded that going with the nature and following with the natural rules are the best strategy for disaster reduction in the region. Key words: debris flow disasters, disaster reduction strategy, preventive measures

  10. Imaging 3D seismic velocity along the seismogenic zone of Algarve region (southern Portugal)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocha, João.; Bezzeghoud, Mourad; Caldeira, Bento; Dias, Nuno; Borges, José; Matias, Luís.; Dorbath, Catherine; Carrilho, Fernando

    2010-05-01

    The present seismic tomographic study is focused around Algarve region, in South of Portugal. To locate the seismic events and find the local velocity structure of epicentral area, the P and S arrival times at 38 stations are used. The data used in this study were obtained during the Algarve campaign which worked from January/2006 to July/2007. The preliminary estimate of origin times and hypocentral coordinates are determined by the Hypoinverse program. Linearized inversion procedure was applied to comprise the following two steps: 1) finding the minimum 1D velocity model using Velest and 2) simultaneous relocation of hypocenters and determination of local velocity structure. The velocity model we have reached is a 10 layer model which gave the lowest RMS, after several runnings of eight different velocity models that we used "a priori". The model parameterization assumes a continuous velocity field between 4.5 km/s and 7.0 km/s until 30 km depth. The earth structure is represented in 3D by velocity at discrete points, and velocity at any intervening point is determined by linear interpolation among the surrounding eight grid points. A preliminary analysis of the resolution capabilities of the dataset, based on the Derivative Weight Sum (DWS) distribution, shows that the velocity structure is better resolved in the West part of the region between the surface to15 km. The resulting tomographic image has a prominent low-velocity anomaly that shows a maximum decrease in P-wave velocity in the first 12 kms in the studied region. We also identified the occurrence of local seismic events of reduced magnitude not catalogued, in the neighbourhood of Almodôvar (low Alentejo). The spatial distribution of epicentres defines a NE-SW direction that coincides with the strike of the mapped geological faults of the region and issued from photo-interpretation. Is still expectable to refine the seismicity of the region of Almodôvar and establish more rigorously its role in the

  11. Strongly-sheared wind-forced currents in the nearshore regions of the central Southern California Bight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noble, Marlene A.; Rosenberger, Kurt; Robertson, George L.

    2015-01-01

    Contrary to many previous reports, winds do drive currents along the shelf in the central portion of the Southern California Bight (SCB). Winds off Huntington Beach CA are the dominant forcing for currents over the nearshore region of the shelf (water depths less than 20 m). Winds control about 50–70% of the energy in nearshore alongshelf surface currents. The wind-driven current amplitudes are also anomalously high. For a relatively weak 1 dyne/cm2 wind stress, the alongshelf surface current amplitudes in this region can reach 80 cm/s or more. Mid-depth current amplitudes for the same wind stress are around 30–40 cm/s. These wind-driven surface current amplitudes are much larger than previously measured over other nearshore shelf regions, perhaps because this program is one of the few that measured currents within a meter of the surface. The near-bed cross-shelf currents over the nearshore region of the Huntington Beach shelf have an Ekman response to winds in that they upwell (downwell) for down (up) coast winds. This response disappears further offshore. Hence, there is upwelling in the SCB, but it does not occur across the entire shelf. Subthermocline water in the nearshore region that may contain nutrients and plankton move onshore when winds are southeastward, but subthermocline water over the shelf break is not transported to the beach. The currents over the outer shelf are not predominately controlled by winds, consistent with previous reports. Instead, they are mainly driven by cross-shelf pressure gradients that are independent of local wind stress.

  12. Land Cover Mapping for the Development of Green House Gas (GHG) Inventories in the Eastern and Southern Africa Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakhayanga, J. A.; Oduor, P.; Korme, T.; Farah, H.; Limaye, A. S.; Irwin, D.; Artis, G.

    2014-12-01

    Anthropogenic activities are responsible for the largest share of green house gas (GHG) emissions. Research has shown that greenhouse gases cause radioactive forcing in the stratosphere, leading to ozone depletion. Different land cover types act as sources or sinks of carbon dioxide (CO2), the most dominant GHG.Under the oversight of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) the Eastern and Southern Africa (ESA) region countries are developing Sustainable National GHG Inventory Management Systems. While the countries in the ESA region are making substantial progress in setting up GHG inventories, there remains significant constraints in the development of quality and sustainable National GHG Inventory Systems. For instance, there are fundamental challenges in capacity building and technology transfer, which can affect timely and consistent reporting on the land use, land-use change and forestry (LULUCF) component of the GHG inventory development. SERVIR Eastern and Southern Africa is a partnership project between the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and the Regional Center for Mapping of Resources for Development (RCMRD), an intergovernmental organization in Africa, with 21 member states in the ESA region. With support from the United States Agency for International Development (USAID), SERVIR ESA is implementing the GHG Project in 9 countries. The main deliverables of the project are land cover maps for the years 2000 and 2010 (also 1990 for Malawi and Rwanda), and related technical reports, as well as technical training in land cover mapping using replicable methodologies. Landsat imagery which is freely available forms the main component of earth observation input data, in addition to ancillary data collected from each country. Supervised classification using maximum likelihood algorithm is applied to the Landsat images. The work is completed for the initial 6 countries (Malawi, Zambia, Rwanda, Tanzania, Botswana, and

  13. First results from a NIR survey of High Mass Star Forming Regions on the Southern Hemisphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuernberger, Dieter; Bronfman, Leonardo

    In spite of the lower formation rate and shorter evolutionary time scale of high mass stars (M > 8 M_{\\odot}) in comparison to low mass stars (M Bronfman etal.\\ 1996). As all regions are mapped at mm wavelengths we are able to study the interplay between the young (deeply embedded) high mass stars and their ambient medium of gas and dust. Furthermore, we investigate the multiplicity of the sources as well as the spatial shape and spectral (NIR) characteristic of the UCHIIs.

  14. Non-codified traditional medicine practices from Belgaum Region in Southern India: present scenario

    OpenAIRE

    Upadhya, Vinayak; Hegde, Harsha V; Bhat, Shripad; Kholkute, Sanjiva D

    2014-01-01

    Background Traditional medicine in India can be classified into codified (Ayurveda, Unani, Siddha, Homeopathy) and non-codified (folk medicine) systems. Both the systems contributing equally to the primary healthcare in India. The present study is aimed to understand the current scenario of medicinal practices of non-codified system of traditional medicine in Belgaum region, India. Methods The study has been conducted as a basic survey of identified non-codified traditional practitioners by c...

  15. Millimetre continuum observations of southern massive star formation regions. I. SIMBA observations of cold cores

    CERN Document Server

    Hill, T; Minier, V; Thompson, M A; Walsh, A J; Hunt-Cunningham, M; Garay, G

    2005-01-01

    We report the results of a SEST 1.2 mm continuum emission survey toward regions previously identified as harbouring a methanol maser and/or an UC HII region, typically indicative of massive star formation. Emission is detected toward all of the methanol maser and UC HII regions targeted, implying that these objescts are associated with cold, deeply embedded objects. We have also identified a large number (253) of sources within the SIMBA maps, which are devoid of maser and radio continuum emission. These `mm-only' cores may be an entirely new class of source that represents an earlier stage in the evolution of massive stars, prior to the onset of methanol maser emission. Or, they may harbour protoclusters, which do not contain any high mass stars (i.e. below the HII). Alternatively, they may represent a cross-section of both, where the more massive mm-only cores are a precursor to the methanol maser and the least massive mm-only cores will form intermediate mass stars. Analysis of the mm-only sources shows th...

  16. New synonyms and a new name in Asteraceae: Senecioneae from the southern African winter rainfall region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. C. Manning

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available A review of the genera Othonna and Senecio undertaken for the forthcoming Greater Cape plants 2: Namaqualand-southern Namib and western Karoo (Manning in prep. led to a re-examination of the taxonomic status of several species. This was facilitated by the recent availability of high-resolution digital images on the Aluka website (www.aluka.org of the Drege isotypes in the Paris Herbarium that formed the basis of many species described by De Candolle in his Prodromus systematis naturalis regni vegetabilis. These images made it possible to identify several names whose application had remained uncertain until now. Each case is briefly discussed, with citation of additional relevant herbarium specimens. The following species are reduced to synonomy: O. incisa Harv. is included in O. rosea Harv.; O. spektakelensis Compton and O. zeyheri Sond. ex Harv. are included in O. retrorsa DC.; S. maydae Merxm. is included in S. albopunctatus Bolus, which is now considered to include forms with radiate and discoid capitula; S. cakilefolius DC. is included in  O. arenarius Thunb.; S. pearsonii Hutch, is included in O. aspertdus DC.; S. parvifolius DC. is included in S. carroensis DC.; S. eriobasis DC. is included in S. erosus L.f.; and S. lobelioides DC. is included in S. flavus (Decne. Sch.Bip. The name S. panduratus (Thunb. Less, is identified as a synonym of S. erosus L.f. and plants that are currently know n under this name should be called S. robertiifolius DC. The confusion in the application o f the names O. perfoliata (L.f. Jacq. and O. filicaulis Jacq. is examined. O. perfoliata is lecto- typified against a specimen in the Linnaean Herbarium (LINN  w ith radiate capitula. The name O. filicaulis correctly applies to a radiate species and is treated as a synonym of O. perfoliata. The vegetatively similar taxon with disciform capitula that is currently known as O. filicaulis should be known as (  undulosa (DC. J.C.Manning  & Goldblatt, comb. nov. The

  17. Energy Conservation and Development Plan. Southern Tier Central Region, New York

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-07-01

    A summary is presented of the work of 40 volunteers working with regional planners to imagine, assess, and prescribe for the development of local energy resources (wind, solar, biomass, and water) and for conservation of all forms of energy. The plan contains a brief summary of the process the citizens followed in formulating the plan, the plans themselves, and appendices which contain more detailed comments by citizens on the possible consequences of the development of each resource. The areas (Chemung, Steuben, and Schuyler counties) experienced severe natural gas curtailments during the winter of 1976-1977. The formulation of an emergency energy conservation plan is also presented.

  18. Antioxidant Activity of Some Selected Medicinal Plants in Southern Region of India.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V Rathabai

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study was undertaken to find the antioxidant value of certain medicinal plants in Tamilnadu region. Antioxidants have been reported to prevent oxidative damage caused by free radical and can be usedin cardiovascular, anti-inflammatory, diabetes and cancer diseases. The amount of total phenols, flavonoids and radical scavenging activity has been studied. Major amount of phenols were determined in Corchorusaestuans followed byroot of Coleus Forskohlii. Moreover, maximum flavonoid content was found to be present in the Corchorusaestuans followed by Coleus Forskohlii. However, high radical scavenging activity was observed in Corchorusaestuans followed by leaf of Carica papaya and Coleus Forskohlii.

  19. Population Study of the Hawksbill Turtle Eretmochelys imbricata (Cheloniidae in the Southern Pacific region of Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Tobón-López

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research was to determine biological and ecological population characteristics of the hawksbill turtle (Eretmochelys imbricata found in the southern Colombian Pacific department of Cauca. Morphometric measurements were recorded, the health status of individuals was reviewed, and blood samples were taken for a biochemistry assessment. During the seven months of the investigation, 25 hawksbill turtles were caught (16 different individuals on the reefs of Gorgona Natural National Park. Forty-six percent of the total numbers of turtles assessed were recaptured during the study period. While no obvious health problems were noted, most animals possessed epibionts and filamentous algae covering the carapace, some parts of the limbs, as well as on their neck. Curved carapace length (CCL showed the highest proportion of individuals were between 37 and 45 cm. Sixteen individuals captured in Gorgona Natural National Park were compared with 11 individuals captured in the coastal zone of the department of Cauca. Using the Mann-Whitney U test, a significant difference in CCL was found between these two groups; the animals from Gorgona National Park were larger than those present on the coast of the mainland (Z = -2.59, p = 0.007. Uric acid concentrations were found to be higher than previously referenced values. ESTUDIO POBLACIONAL DE LA TORTUGA CAREY Eretmochelys imbricata (CHELONIIDAE EN EL PACÍFICO SUR DE COLOMBIAEl objetivo de esta investigación fue conocer aspectos poblacionales, biológicos y ecológicos de las tortugas carey (Eretmochelys imbricata presentes en el Pacífico sur de Colombia (Departamento del Cauca, para esto se tomó información de morfometría, se revisó el estado de salud de los individuos y  se tomaron muestras de sangre para valoración de química sanguínea. Durante siete meses de muestreo se capturaron 25 tortugas carey (16 individuos diferentes en los arrecifes del Parque Nacional Natural Gorgona

  20. Temporal and spectral characteristics of aerosol optical depths in a semi-arid region of southern India

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, K. Raghavendra; Narasimhulu, K.; Reddy, R.R.; Gopal, K. Rama [Aerosol and Atmospheric Research Laboratory, Department of Physics Sri Krishnadevaraya University, Anantapur-515 055 (India); Reddy, L. Siva Sankara [Aerosol and Atmospheric Research Laboratory, Department of Physics Sri Krishnadevaraya University, Anantapur-515 055 (India)], E-mail: rajururreddy@yahoo.co.uk; Balakrishnaiah, G. [Aerosol and Atmospheric Research Laboratory, Department of Physics Sri Krishnadevaraya University, Anantapur-515 055 (India); Moorthy, K. Krishna; Babu, S. Suresh [Space Physics Laboratory, Vikram Sarabhai Space Centre, Thiruvananthapuram-695 022 (India)

    2009-04-01

    The spectral and temporal variations of aerosol optical depths (AOD) observed over Anantapur (a semi-arid region) located in the Southern part of India are investigated by analyzing the data obtained from a Multiwavelength Solar Radiometer (MWR) during January 2005-December 2006 (a total of 404 clear-sky observations) using the Langley technique. In this paper, we highlighted the studies on monthly, seasonal and spectral variations of aerosol optical depth and their implications. The results showed seasonal variation with higher values during pre-monsoon (March-May) and lower in the monsoon (June-November) season at all wavelengths. The pre-monsoon increase is found to be due to the high wind speed producing larger amounts of wind-driven dust particles. The post-monsoon (December-February) AOD values decrease more at higher wavelengths, indicating a general reduction in the number of bigger particles. Also during the post-monsoon, direction of winds in association with high or low pressure weather systems and the air brings more aerosol content to the region which is surrounded by a number of cement plants, lime kilns, slab polishing and brick making units. The quantity of AOD values in pre-monsoon is higher (low during post-monsoon) for wavelength, such as shortwave infrared (SWIR) or near infrared (NIR), which shows that coarse particles contribute more compare with the sub-micron particles. The composite aerosols near the surface follow suit with the share of the accumulation mode to the total mass concentration decreasing from {approx} 70% to 30% from post-monsoon to pre-monsoon. Coarse mode particle loading observed to be high during pre-monsoon and accumulation mode particles observed to be high during post-monsoon. The backward trajectories at three representative altitudes with source point at the observing site indicate a possible transport from the outflow regions into Bay of Bengal, southern peninsular India and Arabian Sea. The temporal variations of

  1. Fundamental properties of pre-main sequence stars in young, southern star forming regions: metallicities

    CERN Document Server

    James, D J; Santos, N C; Bouvier, J; James, David J.; Melo, Claudio; Santos, Nuno C.; Bouvier, Jerome

    2005-01-01

    Aims: The primary motivation for this project is to search for metal-rich star forming regions, in which, stars of super-solar metallicity will be created, as hopefully, will be extra-solar planets orbiting them ! Results: We find (pre-main sequence) model-dependent isochronal ages of the Lupus, Chamaeleon and CrA targets to be $9.1 \\pm 2.1$ Myr, $4.5 \\pm 1.6$ Myr and $9.0 \\pm 3.9$ Myr respectively. The majority of the stars have Li I 6707.8A equivalent widths similar to, or above those of, their similar mass Pleiades counterparts, confirming their youthfulness. Most stars are kinematic members, either single or binary, of their regions. We find a mean radial velocity for objects in the Lupus cloud to be ${\\bar {RV}}=+2.6 \\pm 1.8$ km s$^{-1}$, for the Chamaeleon I & II clouds, ${\\bar {RV}}=+12.8 \\pm 3.6$ km s$^{-1}$ whereas for the CrA cloud, we find ${\\bar {RV}}=-1.1 \\pm 0.5$ km s$^{-1}$. All stars are coronally and chromospherically active, exhibiting X-ray and H$\\alpha$ emission levels marginally less,...

  2. Evaluation of hypocenter location techniques with applications to southern Utah: regional earthquake distributions and seismicity of geothermal areas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wechsler, D.J.; Smith, R.B.

    1979-12-01

    Three techniques for the computation of earthquake hypocenter locations were compared through empirical results of synthetic test cases utilizing four different computer programs. The three approaches: (1) the single event method, (2) the master event method, and (3) the joint hypocenter determination method, were analyzed with respect to their application to regional (epicenter-to-station distances from 10 to 500 km) and local (epicentral distances from 0 to 70 km) seismic network recording situations. It was found that the joint hypocenter technique can significantly correct for inadequacies in assumed velocity models by simultaneous computation of station adjustments. Earthquakes located using the joint hypocenter technique are located more precisely with respect to each other. The joint epicenter location technique was then applied to relocations of epicenters in southern Utah below 40/sup 0/N latitude with the intent of resolving some spatial relationships of epicenter occurrence on this regional scale. Earthquakes in Utah occur in a diffuse zone 150 km to 200 km wide that coincides with the physiographic boundary of the Colorado Plateau. Swarm activity is prevalent where the zone changes from a north-south to a southwest orientation, but except for a cluster northwest of Cedar City, the only major alignments of epicenters are north-south.

  3. Mid-21st century projections in temperature extremes in the southern Colorado Rocky Mountains from regional climate models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rangwala, Imtiaz [NOAA Earth System Research Laboratory, Physical Sciences Division, Boulder, CO (United States); Rutgers University, Department of Marine and Coastal Sciences, New Brunswick, NJ (United States); Barsugli, Joseph [NOAA Earth System Research Laboratory, Physical Sciences Division, Boulder, CO (United States); Cozzetto, Karen; Neff, Jason [University of Colorado, Geological Sciences Department and Environmental Studies Program, Boulder, CO (United States); Prairie, James [University of Colorado, Bureau of Reclamation, Boulder, CO (United States)

    2012-10-15

    This study analyzes mid-21st century projections of daily surface air minimum (T{sub min}) and maximum (T{sub max}) temperatures, by season and elevation, over the southern range of the Colorado Rocky Mountains. The projections are from four regional climate models (RCMs) that are part of the North American Regional Climate Change Assessment Program (NARCCAP). All four RCMs project 2 C or higher increases in T{sub min} and T{sub max} for all seasons. However, there are much greater (>3 C) increases in T{sub max} during summer at higher elevations and in T{sub min} during winter at lower elevations. T{sub max} increases during summer are associated with drying conditions. The models simulate large reductions in latent heat fluxes and increases in sensible heat fluxes that are, in part, caused by decreases in precipitation and soil moisture. T{sub min} increases during winter are found to be associated with decreases in surface snow cover, and increases in soil moisture and atmospheric water vapor. The increased moistening of the soil and atmosphere facilitates a greater diurnal retention of the daytime solar energy in the land surface and amplifies the longwave heating of the land surface at night. We hypothesize that the presence of significant surface moisture fluxes can modify the effects of snow-albedo feedback and results in greater wintertime warming at night than during the day. (orig.)

  4. Mapping, cluster detection and evaluation of risk factors of ovine toxoplasmosis in Southern Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Condoleo, Roberto; Musella, Vincenzo; Maurelli, Maria Paola; Bosco, Antonio; Cringoli, Giuseppe; Rinaldi, Laura

    2016-01-01

    Toxoplasmosis, an important cause of reproductive failure in sheep, is responsible for significant economic losses to the ovine industry worldwide. Moreover, ovine meat contaminated by the parasite Toxoplasma gondii is considered as a common source of infection for humans. The aim of this study was to develop point and risk profiling maps of T. gondii seroprevalence in sheep bred in Campania Region (Southern Italy) and analyse risk factors associated at the flock-level. We used serological data from a previous survey of 117 sheep flocks, while environmental and farm management information were obtained from an analysis based on geographical information systems and a questionnaire purveyance, respectively. An univariate Poisson regression model revealed that the type of farm production (milk and meat vs only meat) was the only independent variable associated with T. gondii positivity (Pflock seroprevalence in milking herds suggests that milking practices might influence the spread of the infection on the farm. Neither environmental nor other management variables were significant. Since a majority of flocks were seasonally or permanently on pasture, the animals have a high exposure to infectious T. gondii oocysts, so the high within-flock seroprevalence might derive from this management factor. However, further studies are needed to better assess the actual epidemiological situation of toxoplasmosis in sheep and to clarify the factors that influence its presence and distribution. PMID:27245805

  5. No role for human papillomavirus infection in oral cancers in a region in southern India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laprise, Claudie; Madathil, Sreenath A; Allison, Paul; Abraham, Priya; Raghavendran, Anantharam; Shahul, Hameed P; ThekkePurakkal, Akhil-Soman; Castonguay, Geneviève; Coutlée, François; Schlecht, Nicolas F; Rousseau, Marie-Claude; Franco, Eduardo L; Nicolau, Belinda

    2016-02-15

    Oral cancer is a major public health issue in India with ∼ 77,000 new cases and 52,000 deaths yearly. Paan chewing, tobacco and alcohol use are strong risk factors for this cancer in India. Human papillomaviruses (HPVs) are also related to a subset of head and neck cancers (HNCs). We examined the association between oral HPV and oral cancer in a sample of Indian subjects participating in a hospital-based case-control study. We recruited incident oral cancer cases (N = 350) and controls frequency-matched by age and sex (N = 371) from two main referral hospitals in Kerala, South India. Sociodemographic and behavioral data were collected by interviews. Epithelial cells were sampled using Oral CDx® brushes from the oral cancer site and the normal mucosa. Detection and genotyping of 36 HPV genotypes were done using a polymerase chain reaction protocol. Data collection procedures were performed by qualified dentists via a detailed protocol with strict quality control, including independent HPV testing in India and Canada. HPV DNA was detected in none of the cases or controls. Associations between oral cancer and risk factors usually associated with HPV infection, such as oral sex and number of lifetime sexual partners, were examined by logistic regression and were not associated with oral cancer. Lack of a role for HPV infection in this study may reflect cultural or religious characteristics specific to this region in India that are not conducive to oral HPV transmission. A nationwide representative prevalence study is needed to investigate HPV prevalence variability among Indian regions. PMID:26317688

  6. No role for human papillomavirus infection in oral cancers in a region in southern India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laprise, Claudie; Madathil, Sreenath A; Allison, Paul; Abraham, Priya; Raghavendran, Anantharam; Shahul, Hameed P; ThekkePurakkal, Akhil-Soman; Castonguay, Geneviève; Coutlée, François; Schlecht, Nicolas F; Rousseau, Marie-Claude; Franco, Eduardo L; Nicolau, Belinda

    2016-02-15

    Oral cancer is a major public health issue in India with ∼ 77,000 new cases and 52,000 deaths yearly. Paan chewing, tobacco and alcohol use are strong risk factors for this cancer in India. Human papillomaviruses (HPVs) are also related to a subset of head and neck cancers (HNCs). We examined the association between oral HPV and oral cancer in a sample of Indian subjects participating in a hospital-based case-control study. We recruited incident oral cancer cases (N = 350) and controls frequency-matched by age and sex (N = 371) from two main referral hospitals in Kerala, South India. Sociodemographic and behavioral data were collected by interviews. Epithelial cells were sampled using Oral CDx® brushes from the oral cancer site and the normal mucosa. Detection and genotyping of 36 HPV genotypes were done using a polymerase chain reaction protocol. Data collection procedures were performed by qualified dentists via a detailed protocol with strict quality control, including independent HPV testing in India and Canada. HPV DNA was detected in none of the cases or controls. Associations between oral cancer and risk factors usually associated with HPV infection, such as oral sex and number of lifetime sexual partners, were examined by logistic regression and were not associated with oral cancer. Lack of a role for HPV infection in this study may reflect cultural or religious characteristics specific to this region in India that are not conducive to oral HPV transmission. A nationwide representative prevalence study is needed to investigate HPV prevalence variability among Indian regions.

  7. Empowering Women for Development through Community-Driven Sustainable Programmes: A Response to Traditional Patriarchal Power in the Southern African Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braimoh, Dele; Lekoko, Rebecca; Alade, Eunice B.

    2004-01-01

    In the Southern Africa region, the act of prejudice against women mostly occurs where patriarchal power reigns. This type of power is felt in areas such as inheritance right, division of labour, access to political and economic resources and legal and social matters. Other areas of discrimination against women include access to educational and…

  8. Fossil and modern sponge fauna of southern Australia and adjacent regions compared: interpretation, evolutionary and biogeographic significance of the late Eocene ‘soft’ sponges

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Łukowiak, M.

    2016-01-01

    The late Eocene ‘soft’ sponge fauna of southern Australia is reconstructed based on disassociated spicules and is used to interpret the paleoecology and environmental context of shallow marine communities in this region. The reconstructed sponge association was compared with coeval sponge assemblage

  9. First survey for Babesia bovis and Babesia bigemina infection in cattle from Central and Southern regions of Portugal using serological and DNA detection methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Incidence of bovine babesiosis in Portugal is currently unknown. In this study, a first survey of Babesia bovis and B. bigemina infection in cattle was carried out using blood samples from 406 clinically healthy individuals from different districts from Central and Southern regions of Portugal and a...

  10. Regional CO2 and latent heat surface fluxes in the Southern Great Plains: Measurements, modeling, and scaling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riley, W. J.; Biraud, S.C.; Torn, M.S.; Fischer, M.L.; Billesbach, D.P.; Berry, J.A.

    2009-08-15

    Characterizing net ecosystem exchanges (NEE) of CO{sub 2} and sensible and latent heat fluxes in heterogeneous landscapes is difficult, yet critical given expected changes in climate and land use. We report here a measurement and modeling study designed to improve our understanding of surface to atmosphere gas exchanges under very heterogeneous land cover in the mostly agricultural U.S. Southern Great Plains (SGP). We combined three years of site-level, eddy covariance measurements in several of the dominant land cover types with regional-scale climate data from the distributed Mesonet stations and Next Generation Weather Radar precipitation measurements to calibrate a land surface model of trace gas and energy exchanges (isotope-enabled land surface model (ISOLSM)). Yearly variations in vegetation cover distributions were estimated from Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer normalized difference vegetation index and compared to regional and subregional vegetation cover type estimates from the U.S. Department of Agriculture census. We first applied ISOLSM at a 250 m spatial scale to account for vegetation cover type and leaf area variations that occur on hundred meter scales. Because of computational constraints, we developed a subsampling scheme within 10 km 'macrocells' to perform these high-resolution simulations. We estimate that the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility SGP region net CO{sub 2} exchange with the local atmosphere was -240, -340, and -270 gC m{sup -2} yr{sup -1} (positive toward the atmosphere) in 2003, 2004, and 2005, respectively, with large seasonal variations. We also performed simulations using two scaling approaches at resolutions of 10, 30, 60, and 90 km. The scaling approach applied in current land surface models led to regional NEE biases of up to 50 and 20% in weekly and annual estimates, respectively. An important factor in causing these biases was the complex leaf area index (LAI) distribution

  11. Health risk assessment for residents exposed to atmospheric diesel exhaust particles in southern region of Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chio, Chia-Pin; Liao, Chung-Min; Tsai, Ying-I.; Cheng, Man-Ting; Chou, Wei-Chun

    2014-03-01

    Evidence shows a strong association among air pollution, oxidative stress (OS), deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) damage, and diseases. Recent studies indicated that the aging, human neurodegenerative diseases and cancers resulted from mitochondrial dysfunction and OS. The purpose of this study is to provide a probabilistic risk assessment model to quantify the atmospheric diesel exhaust particles (DEP)-induced pre-cancer biomarker response and cancer incidence risk for residents in south Taiwan. We conducted entirely monthly particulate matter sampling data at five sites in Kaohsiung of south Taiwan in the period 2002-2003. Three findings were found: (i) the DEP dose estimates and cancer risk quantification had heterogeneously spatiotemporal difference in south Taiwan, (ii) the pre-cancer DNA damage biomarker and cancer incidence estimates had a positive yet insignificant association, and (iii) all the estimates of cancer incidence in south Taiwan populations fell within and slight lower than the values from previous cancer epidemiological investigations. In this study, we successfully assessed the tumor incidence for residents posed by DEP exposure in south Taiwan compared with the epidemiological approach. Our approach provides a unique way for assessing human health risk for residences exposed to atmospheric DEP depending on specific combinations of local and regional conditions. Our work implicates the importance of incorporating both environmental and health risk impacts into models of air pollution exposure to guide adaptive mitigation strategies.

  12. Animal-powered tillage erosion assessment in the southern Andes region of Ecuador

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dercon, G.; Govers, G.; Poesen, J.; Sánchez, H.; Rombaut, K.; Vandenbroeck, E.; Loaiza, G.; Deckers, J.

    2007-06-01

    While water erosion has been the focus of past research in the Andes, former studies show that soil erosion could also be related to the methods used in cultivating the fields. The main objective of the present study was to assess (i) tillage erosion caused by the traditional animal-powered "yunta" or ard plough in the Andes and the factors controlling the process and (ii) the implications for soil conservation. Erosion rates were experimentally measured on 27 sites, having slopes from ca. 0% to 60% and soils ranging from Andosols to Cambisols, in the Andes region of Ecuador (Gima, Azuay). Different tillage methods were assessed: (i) tillage parallel to the contour lines ('Paralelo') and (ii) tillage at an angle with the contour lines. Statistical analysis points out that erosion caused by animal-powered tillage is gravity-driven. A strong correlation exists between slope and downslope displacement: furthermore, tillage depth and initial soil condition are important. For the 'Paralelo' tillage method the tillage transportation coefficient ( k) is below 100 kg m - 1 Tillage Pass - 1 , for the combined 'Arado'-'Cruzado' tillage method k may exceed 300 kg m - 1 . Tillage erosion is responsible for the reduction of the slope between the contour strips over a relatively short time period of 20 years, resulting in the formation of terraces and therefore the reduction of the water erosion risk. However, at the same time it may negatively affect soil quality.

  13. Research on present crustal deformation in the southern Tianshan (Jiashi) region by GPS geodesy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    The pattern and range of present crustal movement as well as characteristic of deformation-strain play a key role in cognizing seismogenic mechanism in the Jiashi region, Xinjiang, northwestern China. Using GPS geodesy in 1994 and 1998, here we give geodetic evidence of rapid convergence of about 19 mm/a across the western Tianshan, which is about 50% greater than the seismic moment solution (13 mm/a) by assembling major earthquake in the 20th century. The discrepancy of deformation rate between geodetic observation and seismic energy releasing indicates the possibilities that, there exists a lot of aseismic strain and strain during seismic interval in the western Tianshan, or seismic fault slip in this century could not be enough to compensate the present deformation in the whole area. Whichever it maybe, from the view of accumulation of stress-strain, it suggests that there will be potential strong earthquakes in the western segment of Tianshan and the northeastern corner of Pamir in a long period.

  14. Emission patterns and spatiotemporal variations of halocarbons in the Pearl River Delta region, southern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Y. L.; Guo, H.; Wang, X. M.; Simpson, I. J.; Barletta, B.; Blake, D. R.; Meinardi, S.; Rowland, F. S.; Cheng, H. R.; Saunders, S. M.; Lam, S. H. M.

    2010-08-01

    On 8 selected days between 25 October and 1 December 2007, 198 whole air samples were simultaneously collected at two sites in the greater Pearl River Delta (PRD), namely, Wan Qing Sha (WQS) in inland PRD and Tung Chung (TC) in Hong Kong, for the evaluation of halocarbons including chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs), hydrochlorofluorocarbons (HCFCs) and other chlorinated compounds. The mean mixing ratios of CFC-12, CH3CCl3, CH3Br, C2HCl3, and C2Cl4 at WQS were much higher than those at TC (p refrigeration in 2007 were 1.4-2.0 times those in 2001-2002, and the use of HCFC-22 has significantly increased in these years while the use of C2HCl3 and C2Cl4 in the electronics industry showed a remarkable reduction. By comparing the halocarbon data collected in this study with those observed by other research teams in recent years, we found that the levels of CFCs have declined since 2001, while their substitute HCFC-22 has increased in emissions in recent years, especially in Hong Kong. The annual trends are consistent with the implementation of the Montreal Protocol. The results obtained in this study provide useful information to local government on effective control of halocarbon emissions in this region.

  15. Endocrine disruptors in water filters used in the Rio dos Sinos Basin region, Southern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furtado, C M; von Mühlen, C

    2015-05-01

    The activated carbon filter is used in residences as another step in the treatment of drinking water, based on a physical-chemical process to absorb pollutants that are not removed in conventional treatment. Endocrine disruptors (EDCs) are exogenous substances or mixtures of substances that acts on the endocrine system similarly to the endogenously produced hormones, triggering malfunctions and harmful changes to human and animal health. The objective of the present work was to study EDCs through semi-quantitative analysis of residential water filters collected in the region of Rio dos Sinos basin, focusing on two specific classes: hormones and phenols. The solid phase extraction principle was used for the extraction of compounds and gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry for the separation and characterization of EDCs. Four samples of residential filters collected from public water distribution and artesian wells, from the cities of Novo Hamburgo and São Leopoldo were analysed. Using the developed methodology, it was possible to detect and comparatively quantify selected EDCs in all studied samples, which indicates the presence of these contaminants in drinking water from different sources.

  16. Geomorphological mapping of the San Lorenzo area Sant'arcangelo region Southern Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muh Aris Marfai

    2013-07-01

    The Sant'Arcangelo region is composed of 4 cycles both marine and continental in origin, all deposited on different environments: The Caliandro, Agri, San Lorenzo and Sauro cycles. The study area consists of Sauro and San Lorenzo Cycle. Sauro Cycle is Comprises of three heterotrophic units deposited in sintectonic discordance over the Agri cycle. San Lorenzo Cycle lying in unconformity over the precedent cycles is consisting of three units, namely conglomerates on the base part as well as on the top part of the sequence, and silty clays in the intermediate part. They form a syncline structure which ax has a NW-SE direction. The main structural features are represented by the San Lorenzo syncline and the Alianello fault. The San Lorenzo area has three principal origins: alluvial, denudation, and structural. Due to the geological-tectonic complexity, the structural landform is normally found as structural denudational landform. San Lorenzo area comprises of 41 landform units, namely 3 units of alluvial landforni, 26 units of denudational landform and 11 units of structural denudational landform.

  17. Regional trends of aerosol optical depth and their impact on cloud properties over Southern India using MODIS data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gopal, K. Rama; Obul Reddy, K. Raja; Balakrishnaiah, G.; Arafath, S. MD.; Kumar Reddy, N. Siva; Rao, T. Chakradhar; Reddy, T. Lokeswara; Reddy, R. Ramakrishna

    2016-08-01

    Remote sensing of global aerosols has constituted a great scientific interest in a variety of applications related to global warming and climatic change. In the present study we investigate the spatial and temporal variations of aerosol optical properties and its impact on various properties of clouds over Southern India for the last ten years (2005-2014) by using Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) data retrieved from the onboard Terra and Aqua satellites. The spatial distributions of annual mean lowest Aerosol Optical Depth (AOD) value is observed in Bangalore (BLR) (0.22±0.04) and the highest AOD value is noted in Visakhapatnam (VSK) (0.39±0.05). Similarly high Fine Mode Fraction (FMF) is noticed over VSK and Thiruvananthapuram (TVM), while lower values are observed in Anantapur (ATP), Hyderabad (HYD), Pune (PUNE) and BLR. From the results, a negative correlation was found between AOD and Cloud Top Temperature (CTT), Cloud Top Pressure (CTP) where as, a positive correlation was observed between AOD and Cloud Fraction (CF), Water Vapor (WV) over the selected regions. Monthly average AOD and FMF are plotted for analysis of the trends of aerosol loading in a long-term scale and both values showed statistically significant enhancing trend over all regions as derived from the MODIS measurements. Further, the annual variation of spatial correlation between MODIS and MISR (Multi - Angle Imaging Spectro Radiometer) AOD has been analyzed and the correlation coefficients are found to be higher in two of the regions VSK and PUNE (>0.8), and considerably lower for TVM (<0.7).

  18. Analysis of coastal sea-level station records and implications for tsunami monitoring in the Adriatic Apulia region, southern Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bressan, Lidia; Tinti, Stefano; Tallarico, Andrea

    2015-04-01

    The region of Apulia, southern Italy, was theater of one of the largest tsunami disaster in Italian history (the 30 July 1627 event) and is considered to be exposed to tsunami hazard coming from local Italian sources as well as from sources on the eastern side of the Adriatic and from the Ionian sea, including the Hellenic Arc earthquakes. Scientific interest for tsunami studies and monitoring in the region is only recent and this theme was specifically addressed by the international project OTRIONS, coordinated by the University of Bari. In the frame of this project the University of Bologna contributed to the analysis of the tsunami hazard and to the evaluation of the regional tide-gauge network with the scope of assessing its adequacy for tsunami monitoring. This latter is the main topic of the present work. In eastern Apulia, facing the Adriatic sea, the sea-level data network is sufficiently dense being formed of stations of the Italian tide-gauge network (Rete Mareografica Nazionale, RMN), of four additional stations operated by the Apulia Port Authority (in Brindisi, Ischitella, Manfredonia and Porto Cesareo) and of two more stations that were installed in the harbours of Barletta and Monopoli in the frame of the project OTRIONS with real-time data transmission and 1-sec sampling period. Pre-processing of the sea-level data of these stations included quality check and spectral analysis. Where the sampling rate was adequate, the records were also examined by means of the specific tools provided by the TEDA package. This is a Tsunami Early Detection Algorithm, developed by the Tsunami Research Team of the University of Bologna, that allows one to characterize the sea-level background signal in the typical tsunami frequency window (from 1 to several minutes) and consequently to optimize TEDA parameters for an efficient tsunami detection. The results of the analysis show stability of the spectral content and seasonal variations.

  19. Combined Effect of El Nino Southern Oscillation and Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation on Lake Chad Level Variability Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okonkwo, Churchill; Demoz, Belay; Sakai, Ricardo; Ichoku, Charles; Anarado, Chigozie; Adegoke, Jimmy; Amadou, Angelina; Abdullahi, Sanusu Imran

    2015-01-01

    In this study, the combined effect of the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation (AMO) and El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) on the Lake Chad (LC) level variability is explored. Our results show that the lake level at the Bol monitoring station has a statistically significant correlation with precipitation (R2 = 0.6, at the 99.5% confidence level). The period between the late 1960s and early 1970s marked a turning point in the response of the regional rainfall to climatic drivers, thereby severely affecting the LC level. Our results also suggest that the negative impact of the cold phase of AMO on Sahel precipitation masks and supersedes the positive effect of La Niña in the early the 1970s. The drop in the size of LC level from 282.5 m in the early 1960s to about 278.1 m in 1983/1984 was the largest to occur within the period of study (1900-2010) and coincides with the combined cold phase of AMO and strong El Niño phase of ENSO. Further analyses show that the current warm phase of AMO and increasing La Niña episodes appear to be playing a major role in the increased precipitation in the Sahel region. The LC level is responding to this increase in precipitation by a gradual recovery, though it is still below the levels of the 1960s. This understanding of the AMO-ENSO-rainfall-LC level association will help in forecasting the impacts of similar combined episodes in the future. These findings also have implications for long-term water resources management in the LC region.

  20. Sicily and southern Calabria focal mechanism database: a valuable tool for local and regional stress-field determination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciano Scarfì

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available In this work, we present a new catalog of focal mechanisms calculated for earthquakes recorded in Sicily and southern Calabria. It comprises about 300 solutions, for events with magnitudes ranging from 2.7 to 4.8 that occurred from 1999 to 2011. We used P-wave polarities to compute the fault-plane solutions. Two main goals are achieved. For the first, the catalog allows the stress regime and kinematics characterizing the studied area to be depicted at a regional and more local scale. In particular, moving along the tectonic lineament that extends from the Aeolian Islands to the Ionian Sea, there is a change from a regime characterized by sub-horizontal P-axes, ca. NW-SE directed, to an extensive one in the Calabro-Peloritan Arc, where T-axes striking in a NW-SE direction prevail. Our results also show that part of the seismicity is clustered along the main active seismogenic structures, of which the focal mechanisms indicate the kinematics. Finally, in the Etna volcano area, different stress fields act at different depths due to the combination of the regional tectonics, the strong pressurization of the deep magmatic system, and the dynamics of the shallower portion of the volcano. As a second goal, we highlight that the catalog also represents a valuable tool, through the data distribution on the internet, for further studies directed towards improving our understanding of the geodynamic complexity of the region, and for a better characterization of the seismogenic sources.

  1. A P-wave velocity model of the upper crust of the Sannio region (Southern Apennines, Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Cocco

    1998-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the results of a seismic refraction profile conducted in October 1992 in the Sannio region, Southern Italy, to obtain a detailed P-wave velocity model of the upper crust. The profile, 75 km long, extended parallel to the Apenninic chain in a region frequently damaged in historical time by strong earthquakes. Six shots were fired at five sites and recorded by a number of seismic stations ranging from 41 to 71 with a spacing of 1-2 km along the recording line. We used a two-dimensional raytracing technique to model travel times and amplitudes of first and second arrivals. The obtained P-wave velocity model has a shallow structure with strong lateral variations in the southern portion of the profile. Near surface sediments of the Tertiary age are characterized by seismic velocities in the 3.0-4.1 km/s range. In the northern part of the profile these deposits overlie a layer with a velocity of 4.8 km/s that has been interpreted as a Mesozoic sedimentary succession. A high velocity body, corresponding to the limestones of the Western Carbonate Platform with a velocity of 6 km/s, characterizes the southernmost part of the profile at shallow depths. At a depth of about 4 km the model becomes laterally homogeneous showing a continuous layer with a thickness in the 3-4 km range and a velocity of 6 km/s corresponding to the Meso-Cenozoic limestone succession of the Apulia Carbonate Platform. This platform appears to be layered, as indicated by an increase in seismic velocity from 6 to 6.7 km/s at depths in the 6-8 km range, that has been interpreted as a lithological transition from limestones to Triassic dolomites and anhydrites of the Burano formation. A lower P-wave velocity of about 5.0-5.5 km/s is hypothesized at the bottom of the Apulia Platform at depths ranging from 10 km down to 12.5 km; these low velocities could be related to Permo-Triassic siliciclastic deposits of the Verrucano sequence drilled at the bottom of the Apulia

  2. Numerical Study on the Impact of SST Initialization on Regional Circulation and Air Pollution at Southern Korean Peninsula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, W.; Lee, H.; Lee, S.

    2010-12-01

    Numerical simulations were carried out to investigate the impact of temporal resolution of sea surface temperature on regional circulation and air pollution over southern Korean Peninsula. Well urbanized target area with densely populated inventories called Gwangyang bay is situated at the southern part of the Korean Peninsula, and assessment period is from 15 to 19 August 2007 for investigating the SST impact under various synoptic conditions. A three-dimensional non-hydrostatic atmospheric model RAMS and New Generation Sea Surface Temperature (NGSST) data was applied in this study. Two different numerical experiments were carried out in accordance with the temporal resolution of SST, which are, NGSST without temporal update (case NO-UP), and temporally varied NGSST for whole period (case YES-UP). Based on the Buoy observation, SST at Geoje Island near Gwayang bay region increased 4.1°C for target period. This rapid variation of SST cannot be negligible to estimate the meteorological wind field and the distribution of photochemical ozone emitted at the well urbanized Gwangyang bay. Wind intensity including wind direction is also influenced by the temporal variation of SST distribution. In case YES-UP with high temporal resolution of SST, Sea breeze is stronger and more reasonable than that estimated in any other cases due to the precise information of SST distribution. In IOA analysis, most successfully estimated IOA values for surface air temperature and wind speed arose in case YES-UP and their values reached on the 0.958 and 0.829, respectively. These differences were due to the discrepancy of the temperature gradient caused by different SST initialization. Diurnal variation of temperature and wind speed for YES_UP has indicated great agreement with the observation data and the statistics such as root mean squared error, index of agreement were also better than NO_UP. In order to assess the influence of the difference of the meteorological input data to air

  3. Evidence for post-1620 Ma Proterozoic regional deformation, Lucy Gray Range, southern Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duebendorfer, E.M. (Northern Arizona Univ., Flagstaff, AZ (United States). Dept. of Geology); Christensen, C.H. (Univ. of Nevada, Las Vegas, NV (United States). Dept. of Geoscience); Shafiqullah, M. (Univ. of Arizona, Tucson, AZ (United States). Dept. of Geosciences)

    1993-04-01

    Major mylonite zones in the northern Lucy Gray Range, Nevada, deform and are spatially associated with the 1,425 Ma Beer Bottle Pass pluton, Mylonitic granite yielded a K-Ar biotite date of 1,400 [+-] 30 Ma and is overlain nonconformably by the Cambrian Tapeats Sandstone, thus constraining deformation to the Proterozoic. The mylonites may therefore represent an unrecognized period of Proterozoic deformation in the Southwest. Field and microstructural studies were undertaken to evaluate between 3 possible models for the apparent spatial association of granite and mylonites: (1) deformation directly related to pluton emplacement (ballooning); (2) synkinematic pluton emplacement; or (3) post-emplacement deformation. Mylonite zones up to 50 meters thick strike north to northeast, dip moderately to steeply northwest, and contain a remarkably consistent west-plunging mineral lineation. Mylonites are present locally at the granite-wall rock contact; however, less than 30% of the exposed contact is mylonitic. The authors reject a pluton-emplacement origin for the mylonites because (1) mylonite zones within wall rocks locally strike at high angles to an undeformed pluton-wall rock contact, (2) the consistent (pluton-side-down) shear sense is more compatible with a uniform-sense simple shear zone than a ballooning pluton, (3) plane strain fabrics dominate over flattening fabrics, and (4) mylonites adjacent to pluton contacts lack annealing textures predicted by the ballooning model. If so, the conventional interpretation of 1,400 Ga granitoids as anorogenic may need to be re-evaluated. The authors cannot, however, rule out the possibility that the mylonites completely postdate intrusion of the Beer Bottle Pass pluton. Future work is planned to delimit the regional extent of this previously unrecognized Proterozoic deformational event.

  4. DERMATOGLYPHICS STUDY OF TUBERCULOSIS PATIENTS AND ITS CORRELATION WITH NORMAL PERSONS IN SOUTHERN (HADOTI REGION, RAJASTHAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manisha

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Dermatoglyphics is a scientific study of epidermal ridges and their configuration on palmar and sole region. Dermatoglyphics had proved its importance in medicolegal, anthropological and in clinical fields. Abnormal dermatoglyphic pattern has been in many non-chromosomal genetic disorder and other diseases whose aetiology may be influenced directly or indirectly by genetic disorder. The tuberculosis is partly genetic and partly environmental. The genetic contribution is one of the causes of pulmonary tuberculosis. Tuberculosis caused by mycobacterium tuberculosis. So an attempt has been made to study Dermatoglyphic patterns in pulmonary tuberculosis patients and to compare them with normal individuals. AIMS AND OBJECTIVES To compare the dermatoglyphics patterns of pulmonary tuberculosis patients with normal individuals, both qualitative and quantitative. MATERIAL AND METHODS Dermatoglyphics prints of total 100 (Male 67 and Female 33 pulmonary tuberculosis patients (Sputum Positive and 100 normal individuals (Male 66, Female 34 from July 2013 to June 2014 were studied qualitatively and quantitatively: Dermatoglyphic printing was done by using older and fairly good “Indian Ink Method.” (Cummins and Midlo, 1961. RESULTS TFRC of pulmonary tuberculosis significantly high (140.77+39.63 as compared to TFRC of normal (115.02+39.63 and has high % of whorl and low % of loops as compared to normal. P value is significant in whorl and loops and TFRC. CONCLUSION Racial and genetic factors play important roles in deciding the qualitative and quantitative patterns of dermatoglyphics. Genetic contribution is one of the causes of pulmonary tuberculosis. Further quantitative study is needed to confirm the findings of present study.

  5. Deterioration of coastal groundwater quality in Island and mainland regions of Ramanathapuram District, Southern India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivasankar, Venkataramann; Ramachandramoorthy, Thiagarajan; Chandramohan, A

    2013-01-01

    A study was carried out in the Island and mainland regions of Ramanathapuram District to characterize the physico-chemical characteristics of 87 groundwater samples in Island and 112 groundwater samples in mainland which include pH, EC, TDS, salinity, total alkalinity, calcium hardness, magnesium hardness, total hardness, chloride and fluoride. Heavy inorganic load in majority of the groundwater samples has been estimated due to the salinity, TDS, TH and chloride beyond the threshold level which substantiates the percolation of sea water into the freshwater confined zones. Although the groundwater sources are available in plenty, the scarcity of potable water is most prevalent in this coastal area. The Water Quality Index (WQI) and Langeleir Saturation Index (LSI) have also been calculated to know the potable and corrosive/incrusting nature of the water samples. The statistical tools such as principal component analysis, box plots and correlation matrix have also been used to explain the influence of different physico-chemical parameters with respect to one another among the groundwater samples. The percentage of groundwater samples in mainland was more than that in Island with respect to the acceptable limit of WHO drinking standard, especially in TDS, CH, TH and chloride but the converse is observed in the case of fluoride. About 8% of the mainland aquifers and 42% of Island aquifers were identified to have fluoride greater than 1.5 mg/l. The signature of salt-water intrusion is observed from the ratio of Cl/CO(3)(2-) + HCO(3) and TA/TH. A proper management plan to cater potable water to the immediate needs of the people is to be envisaged.

  6. Urban decline within the region: Understanding the intra-regional differentiation in urban population development in the declining regions Saarland and Southern-Limburg

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.J. Hoekveld

    2014-01-01

    Urban decline, urban shrinkage and population decline are a few terms which describe the transformation processes currently going on in many cities and regions throughout the world. We are beginning to understand the driving forces of these urban transformation processes - such as structural economi

  7. Artificial snowmaking possibilities and climate change based on regional climate modeling in the Southern Black Forest

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmidt, Philipp; Matzarakis, Andreas [Freiburg Univ. (Germany). Meteorological Inst.; Steiger, Robert [alpS - Centre for Climate Change Adaptation Technologies, Innsbruck (Austria)

    2012-04-15

    Winter sport, especially ski tourism - is one of those sectors of tourism that will be affected by climate change. Ski resorts across the Alps and in the adjacent low mountain ranges react to warm winter seasons by investing in artificial snowmaking. But snowmaking in warm winter seasons is fraught with risk, because sufficiently low air temperature will become less frequent in the future. The present study deals with the ski resort Feldberg, which has 14 ski lifts and 16 ski slopes which is the biggest ski resort in the German Federal state Baden-Wuerttemberg. The impact of climate change in this region is extraordinary important because winter tourism is the main source of revenue for the whole area around the ski resort. The study area is in altitudinal range of 850 to 1450 meters above sea level. At the moment, it is possible to supply one third of the whole area with artificial snow, but there is plan for artificial snowmaking of the whole Feldberg area by the year 2020. Based on this, more detailed investigations of season length and the needed volume of produced snow are necessary. A ski season simulation model (SkiSim 2.0) was applied in order to assess potential impacts of climate change on the Feldberg ski area for the A1B and B1 emission scenarios based on the ECHAM5 GCM downscaled by the REMO RCM. SkiSim 2.0 calculates daily snow depth (natural and technically produced snow) and the required amount of artificial snow for 100 m altitudinal bands. Analysing the development of the number of potential skiing days, it can be assessed whether ski operation is cost covering or not. Model results of the study show a more pronounced and rapid shortening of the ski season in the lower ranges until the year 2100 in each climate scenario. In both the A1B and B1 scenario runs of REMO, a cost-covering ski season of 100 days cannot be guaranteed in every altitudinal range even if snowmaking is considered. In this context, the obtained high-resolution snow data can

  8. Influence of explosive volcanic events on the activation versus de-activation of a modern turbidite system: the example of the Dohrn canyon-fan in the continental slope of the Campania volcanic district (Naples Bay, Italy - Western Mediterranean)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roca, M.; Budillon, F.; Pappone, G.; Insinga, D.

    2015-12-01

    The interplay between volcanic activity, volcano-clastic yield and activation/deactivation of a turbidite system can be evaluated along the continental margin of Campania region (Tyrrhenian Sea - Italy), an active volcanic area, where three wide canyon-fans occur at short distances one to another. Actually, the Dohrn, Magnaghi and Cuma canyons cut the continental slope and shelf off Ischia and Procida volcanic islands and off the Campania Plain where Phlegraean Field and Mt. Vesuvius active vents are located. This research, partly supported by the Italian Flagship Project Ritmare, is based on single-channel, high-resolution seismic profiles (Sparker-One 16 kJ, 0.5 s twtt), swath-bathymetry and litho- and tephra-stratigraphy of gravity cores. We focused on the stratigraphic constraint of paleo-thalweg features and channel/levees deposits in seismics, debris flow, turbidites and hemipelagites in cores, to learn more on the activation/deactivation stages of the canyon Dohrn, in the frame of relative eustatic sea level variations over the Middle Pleistocene-Holocene time span.Preliminary outcomes suggest that even major volcanic events occurred in the last 300 ky, such as ignimbrite eruptions or large fallouts, have caused the infilling of the canyon head and the cover of pre-existing seabed morphology. As a consequence, the temporary deactivation of the turbidite system has occurred, despite the volcano-clastic overload in the coastal environment. Phases of renewed activities of the thalweg are observed to be in step with falling stages of sea level, which have driven the re-incision of canyon valleys through continuous volcano-clastic debris and turbidites down-flows. Since Holocene, the quiescence of the Dohrn Canyon has been documented, despite the intense volcano-tectonic activity in the area.

  9. Sea cliff instability susceptibility at regional scale: A statistically based assessment in southern Algarve, Portugal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marques, F.; Matildes, R.; Redweik, P.

    2012-04-01

    /year in strong sandstones to 5x10-2m/year in Miocene calcarenites with frequent karst sinkholes filled with Plio-pleistocene silty sands, reflecting the strength variations of the rock masses that compose the cliffs. The maximum value of local retreat of the cliff top was up to 33m, in man induced failure, with more frequent values in the range of 2m to 6m. For the susceptibility assessment a set of predisposing factors was studied using two statistical methods, the bi-variate Information Value method, and the multi-variate Logistic Regression method, along successive constant length stretches of cliffs. The predisposing factors included: a) major lithostratigraphical units adapted from existing geological surveys; b) rock mass structure based in field observations; c) cliff height measured in 1:2,000 scale aerophotogrammetric surveys; d) general cliff slope angle generated from photogrammetric stereoploting of cliff top and toe; e) maximum cliff slope angle derived from the 1:2,000 scale aerophotogrammetric surveys; f) presence and type of cliff toe protection (plunging cliffs, fallen blocks, beaches, wave cut platforms) obtained in aerial photo interpretation and field work; g) land use; h) cliff exposure; i) cliff face aspect; j) presence of faults or dykes. The two instability assessment models produced were validated using standard Receiver Operator Curves using the cliff failures inventory, and provided very promising results, indicating that these methods are adequate to assess cliff instability susceptibility at regional scale, enabling an objective and validated assessment in this highly complex natural environment.

  10. Ground motion prediction and earthquake scenarios in the volcanic region of Mt. Etna (Southern Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langer, Horst; Tusa, Giuseppina; Luciano, Scarfi; Azzaro, Raffaela

    2013-04-01

    One of the principal issues in the assessment of seismic hazard is the prediction of relevant ground motion parameters, e. g., peak ground acceleration, radiated seismic energy, response spectra, at some distance from the source. Here we first present ground motion prediction equations (GMPE) for horizontal components for the area of Mt. Etna and adjacent zones. Our analysis is based on 4878 three component seismograms related to 129 seismic events with local magnitudes ranging from 3.0 to 4.8, hypocentral distances up to 200 km, and focal depth shallower than 30 km. Accounting for the specific seismotectonic and geological conditions of the considered area we have divided our data set into three sub-groups: (i) Shallow Mt. Etna Events (SEE), i.e., typically volcano-tectonic events in the area of Mt. Etna having a focal depth less than 5 km; (ii) Deep Mt. Etna Events (DEE), i.e., events in the volcanic region, but with a depth greater than 5 km; (iii) Extra Mt. Etna Events (EEE), i.e., purely tectonic events falling outside the area of Mt. Etna. The predicted PGAs for the SEE are lower than those predicted for the DEE and the EEE, reflecting their lower high-frequency energy content. We explain this observation as due to the lower stress drops. The attenuation relationships are compared to the ones most commonly used, such as by Sabetta and Pugliese (1987)for Italy, or Ambraseys et al. (1996) for Europe. Whereas our GMPEs are based on small earthquakes, the magnitudes covered by the two above mentioned attenuation relationships regard moderate to large magnitudes (up to 6.8 and 7.9, respectively). We show that the extrapolation of our GMPEs to magnitues beyond the range covered by the data is misleading; at the same time also the afore mentioned relationships fail to predict ground motion parameters for our data set. Despite of these discrepancies, we can exploit our data for setting up scenarios for strong earthquakes for which no instrumental recordings are

  11. A Comparative Study of the Perceptions of End Users in the Eastern, Western, Central, Southern and Northern Regions of Saudi Arabia About Email Spam and Dealing with it

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasan Alkahtani

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of a survey of email users in different regions of Saudi Arabia about email SPAM. The survey investigated the nature of email SPAM, how email users in the eastern, western, central, southern and northern dealt with it, and the efforts made to combat it. It also investigated the effectiveness of existing Anti-SPAM filters in detecting Arabic and English email SPAM. 1,500 participants located in the eastern, western, central, southern and northern regions of Saudi Arabia were surveyed and completed surveys were collected from 1,020 of the participants. The results showed that there were different definitions for email SPAM based on different users’ opinions in Saudi Arabia. The results showed that the participants in the central and western regions were more aware of SPAM than the participants in other regions. The results revealed that the volume of email SPAM was different from region to another and the volume of SPAM received by the participants in the northern and central regions was larger than that received in other regions. The results indicated that the majority of email SPAM received by the participants in different regions was written in English. The results showed that the most common type of email SPAM received in Arabic was emails related to forums and in English was phishing and fraud, and business advertisements. The results also showed that a few participants in all regions responded to SPAM and the average of the participants who responded to SPAM was larger in the southern region than other regions. The results showed that most of the participants were not aware of Anti-SPAM programs and the participants in the central region were more aware of Anti-SPAM programs than the participants in other regions. The results showed that the participants in all regions estimated that the existing Anti-SPAM programs were more effective in detecting English SPAM than Arabic SPAM. The results showed that most

  12. Precipitation observation using microwave backhaul links in the alpine and pre-alpine region of Southern Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Chwala

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Measuring rain rates over complex terrain is afflicted with large uncertainties because rain gauges are influenced by orography and weather radars are mostly not able to look into mountain valleys. We apply a new method to estimate near surface rain rates exploiting attenuation data from commercial microwave links in the alpine region of Southern Germany. Received signal level (RSL data is recorded minutely with small data loggers at the towers and then sent to a database server via GSM. Due to the large RSL fluctuations in periods without rain, the determination of attenuation caused by precipitation is not straightforward. To be able to continuously process the RSL data from July 2010 to October 2010, we introduce a new method to detect wet and dry periods using spectral time series analysis. We show the performance and limitations of the method and analyse the derived rain rates compared to rain gauge and weather radar measurements. The resulting correlations differ for different links and reach values of R2 = 0.80 for the link-gauge comparison and R2 = 0.84 for the link-radar comparison.

  13. The December 2004-January 2005 floods in the Garden Route region of the Southern Cape, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johan Tempelhoff

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available The December 2004-January 2005 floods in the Garden Route region of the Southern Cape in South Africa have had a significant impact on local development and economic activities, tourism products andlocal institutions. This article aims to capture the dynamism between a number of related fields within the context of transdisciplinary research. Qualitative research methods were used to target a representative sample of the affected population. This article considers the history of the flooding events of December 2004/January 2005 along the Garden Route, as well as the manner in which emergency/disaster management personnel responded to the crisis. The effect of the floods on the tourism sector along the Garden Route was researched in general and the effects of the floods on tourists, local residents, and particularly communities in disadvantaged areas were specifically determined. The research reflects on the disaster risk management strategies that were in place at the time of the floods to determine what local authorities could have done to cope with the potential conditions of crisis. The research found that although some tourism products were severely affected, the 2004/2005 floods did not have a significant impact on the number of tourists frequenting the area. In terms of disaster risk management, concerns remain regarding the lack of the following factors: capacity, adequate early warning systems, proper infrastructure maintenance, local institutions, and an in-depth understanding of the disaster risk profile of the area.

  14. Regional variations in water quality and relationships to soil and bedrock weathering in the southern Sacramento Valley, California, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wanty, R.B.; Goldhaber, M.B.; Morrison, J.M.; Lee, L.

    2009-01-01

    Regional patterns in ground- and surface-water chemistry of the southern Sacramento Valley in California were evaluated using publicly available geochemical data from the US Geological Survey's National Water Information System (NWIS). Within the boundaries of the study area, more than 2300 ground-water analyses and more than 20,000 surface-water analyses were available. Ground-waters from the west side of the Sacramento Valley contain greater concentrations of Na, Ca, Mg, B, Cl and SO4, while the east-side ground-waters contain greater concentrations of silica and K. These differences result from variations in surface-water chemistry as well as from chemical reactions between water and aquifer materials. Sediments that fill the Sacramento Valley were derived from highlands to the west (the Coast Ranges) and east (the Sierra Nevada Mountains), the former having an oceanic provenance and the latter continental. These geologic differences are at least in part responsible for the observed patterns in ground-water chemistry. Thermal springs that are common along the west side of the Sacramento Valley appear to have an effect on surface-water chemistry, which in turn may affect the ground-water chemistry.

  15. [Adhering to or resisting tobacco cultivation? Stories of rural workers from a producing region in southern Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riquinho, Deise Lisboa; Hennington, Elida Azevedo

    2014-10-01

    This study sought to understand the standpoints of farming families who have resisted or abandoned tobacco cultivation and also the perceptions of State representatives, civil society organizations and the tobacco industry regarding the implementation and the continuity of this cultivation in a producing region in southern Brazil. In this ethnographic study, 27 semi-structured interviews were conducted with farming families and key informants. Besides that, participant observation was conducted. For those who abandoned tobacco cultivation, the main reason mentioned was indebtedness, and for those who have never planted, the main reasons alleged were fear of indebtedness, a limited workforce or religious issues. State representatives and civil society organizations highlighted illusory financial returns as the main reason for tobacco cultivation. Tobacco industry representatives insisted on the difficulty of commercializing the production and the low price of foodstuffs as a stimulus to adhere to the integrated system. It is therefore concluded that the formation of associations and the development of crop rotation plans are important strategies to be adopted to facilitate the change of cultivation in order to promote better working and living conditions for the rural population.

  16. Regional differentiation and extensive hybridization between mitochondrial clades of the Southern Ocean giant sea spider Colossendeis megalonyx.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietz, Lars; Arango, Claudia P; Dömel, Jana S; Halanych, Kenneth M; Harder, Avril M; Held, Christoph; Mahon, Andrew R; Mayer, Christoph; Melzer, Roland R; Rouse, Greg W; Weis, Andrea; Wilson, Nerida G; Leese, Florian

    2015-07-01

    Assessing the enormous diversity of Southern Ocean benthic species and their evolutionary histories is a central task in the era of global climate change. Based on mitochondrial markers, it was recently suggested that the circumpolar giant sea spider Colossendeis megalonyx comprises a complex of at least six cryptic species with mostly small and non-overlapping distribution ranges. Here, we expand the sampling to include over 500 mitochondrial COI sequences of specimens from around the Antarctic. Using multiple species delimitation approaches, the number of distinct mitochondrial OTUs increased from six to 15-20 with our larger dataset. In contrast to earlier studies, many of these clades show almost circumpolar distributions. Additionally, analysis of the nuclear internal transcribed spacer region for a subset of these specimens showed incongruence between nuclear and mitochondrial results. These mito-nuclear discordances suggest that several of the divergent mitochondrial lineages can hybridize and should not be interpreted as cryptic species. Our results suggest survival of C. megalonyx during Pleistocene glaciations in multiple refugia, some of them probably located on the Antarctic shelf, and emphasize the importance of multi-gene datasets to detect the presence of cryptic species, rather than their inference based on mitochondrial data alone. PMID:26587257

  17. Temporal changes of eroded soils depending on their agricultural use in the southern Cis-Ural region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabbasova, I. M.; Suleimanov, R. R.; Khabirov, I. K.; Komissarov, M. A.; Fruehauf, M.; Liebelt, P.; Garipov, T. T.; Sidorova, L. V.; Khaziev, F. Kh.

    2016-10-01

    Temporal changes of eroded soils in the southern Cis-Ural region (Republic of Bashkortostan) depending on their agricultural use during the period from 1975 to 2011 were studied. In the northern foreststeppe zone, the development of erosion processes was retarded upon the use of soil-saving management practices and grain-fallow-grass crop rotations. In slightly eroded light gray forest soils (Eutric Retisols (Cutanic)), the thickness of humus-accumulative horizons and the content of humus increased; the conversion of cropland into permanent fallow was found to be the most efficient measure to control soil erosion. In podzolized chernozems (Luvic Greyzemic Chernic Phaeozems) and typical chernozems (Haplic Chernozems) of the Cis-Ural steppe, the content of humus in the plow layer under grain-row crop rotation and classical soil management decreased, especially in moderately eroded soils. The development of water and wind erosion on slopes depended on the slope shape: the texture of soils at different degrees of erosion on slopes with free runoff became coarser by one gradation after 35 years; in the presence of linear obstacles in the lower part of slopes, the content of fine fractions in moderately and strongly eroded soils increased.

  18. Temporal evolution, petrography and composition of dolostones in the Upper Devonian Plavinas Regional Stage, southern Estonia and northern Latvia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Kleesment

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The Upper Devonian Plavinas Regional Stage in southern Estonia and northern Latvia is represented by dolostones containing interlayers of dolomitic marlstones and limestones. Petrographic, cathodoluminescence, electron microprobe and isotope techniques were used to investigate diagenetic evolution of dolostones. The rock succession has been affected by multiple dia­genetic events. Based on petrographic and geochemical data, six dolomite textures were identified. The crystal size (5–1200 μm and morphology of dolomites are variable. Commonly, dolomites are close to the stoichiometric composition, with low iron and manganese content. Their stable isotope composition (δ13C, δ18O differs greatly from that of dolomite precipitated from Frasnian seawater. Dolomitization is more pronounced in the lower part of the studied sequence, in the Snetnaya Gora Formation and Lower Pskov unit where carbonates are completely dolomitized, whereas upwards in the section the dolomite content decreases. Voids and pores of the Lower Pskov unit are mainly open, but partly or completely occluded in the Upper Pskov unit. Void-filling dolomite has slightly and void-filling calcite notably depleted stable isotope signatures. Major dedolomitization and calcite-filling processes took place during the final uplift and emergence of the northern part of the Baltic basin, connected with the migration of karst-related meteoric waters into previously dolomitized horizons within carbonate rocks.

  19. Surfactant damages on coastal vegetation in southern Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Coastal vegetation decline caused by seaspray has been reported to affect a variety of species in several countries: Australia, South of France, along the Italian Tyrrhenian coast, Spain and Tunisia. The most serious injury is due to the interaction between sea salt and surfactants, even if surfactants may cause direct damage on cell membranes. The salt uptake is enhanced by the durfactant-induced erosion of the epicuticular wax, which reduces the water surface tension. The symptoms are non-specific and consist in leaf discoloration and necrosis. In needles, necrosis begins from the apex; in leaves, from the edges. Directionality of crown damage is the main symptom for diagnosing the involvement of polluted seaspray. If an obstacle is placed between trees and sea wind, the trees do not show appreciable damage. In Italy, the tree decline caused by seaspray and surfactants has been investigated with special reference to the pinewoods of the San Rossore (Tuscany, Central Italy, or on the Tyrrhenian coastlands of Central Italy, such as the area around Castelporziano in Lazio. This research is aimed at a preliminary assessment of the extent of surfactant damage to the coastal vegetation in four regions in Southern Italy by: i field surveys and mapping of damage caused by surfactants; ii detecting the presence of surfactants on the tree crowns. The damages have been observed in a lot of zones in Apulia, Basilicata, Campania and Calabria, within 500 m inland from the sea, for a maximum length of 5500 m coastline, near the mouth of a river or stream, near the outlet of sewage canals and in any other coastal areas where the surface currents carry a surfactant load.

  20. The development and evaluation of a health education programme for pregnant women in a regional hospital, southern Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thassri, J; Kala, N; Chusintong, L; Phongthanasarn, J; Boonsrirat, S; Jirojwong, S

    2000-12-01

    The maternal mortality rate (MMR) in Thailand is higher than neighbouring developing countries including Malaysia and Singapore. The 1993 MMR of Thailand was 249 per 100 000 livebirths which was four times higher than the rates in Malaysia and Singapore (World Health Organization 1995). The major causes of these deaths were haemorrhage, toxaemia of pregnancy and sepsis which were likely to be prevented by adequate prenatal care (Thailand Ministry of Public Health 1996). A large proportion of Thai pregnant women have poor health. Between 1994 and 1995, a national study conducted by Thailand Ministry of Health showed that 39% of pregnant women were anaemic, defined as haemoglobin concentration lower than 33% (Supamethaporn 1997). Another study conducted in the southern region also indicated that 13.8% of pregnant women were anaemic caused by iron deficiency (Phatthanapreechakul et al. 1997). Other behaviours which increased risks associated with child birth included non-antenatal care (ANC) attendance, undertaking physically demanding tasks and failure to increase nutritional intake during their pregnancy period (N. Phiriyanuphong et al. 1992, unpublished report). These factors emphasize the importance of a health education programme which could facilitate women to, for example, increase protein and iron intake during pregnancy which would reduce complications from their poor health status. This study was conducted in a regional hospital in Thailand where there was no systematic and well-planned health education programme for pregnant women. The initial aim was to design a health education programme using input from the hospital health care professionals including obstetricians, nurses, nutritionists, health educators and health promoters. An active involvement of these personnel assisted to sustain the provision of the programme provided for pregnant women after the cessation of the study project. Another aim of the study was to evaluate the outcomes of the

  1. Concentrations and solubility of trace elements in fine particles at a mountain site, southern China: regional sources and cloud processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Li

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The concentrations and solubility of twelve trace elements in PM2.5 at Mt. Lushan, southern China, were investigated during the summer of 2011 and the spring of 2012. The average PM2.5 mass was 55.2 ± 20.1 μg m-3 during the observation period. Temporal variations of all trace elements including total and water-soluble fractions with several dust storm spikes for total fraction Al and Fe were observed. The enrichment factor (EF values were one order of magnitude higher for the water-soluble fractions vs. the total fractions of trace elements. Four major emission sources were classified by principal component analysis (PCA, namely nonferrous metal mining and smelting (for Cr, As, Ba and parts of Zn, coal combustion (for Pb, Zn, Se, Cu and Mn, crustal materials (for Al and Fe and municipal solid waste incineration (for Cd and Mo. Trajectory cluster analysis and the potential source contribution function (PSCF consistently identified the Yangtze River Delta (YRD, the Pearl River Delta (PRD and parts of Hunan and Jiangxi as the major source regions and pathways for anthropogenic elements, while northern China was identified for crustal elements. In contrast, the local Jiangxi area has become the most significant contributor to the solubility of most trace elements, apart from the YRD with severe air pollution. In addition, the solubility alteration of trace elements in cloud events was investigated and transmission electron microscopy (TEM analysis indicated that the irreversible alteration of particle morphology by cloud processing was highly responsible for the enhancement of element solubility. Our work implies an important role of regional anthropogenic pollution and cloud processing in the evolution of trace element solubility during transport.

  2. The Suruli shear zone and regional scale folding pattern in Madurai block of Southern Granulite Terrain, south India

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    V Srinivasan; P Rajeshdurai

    2010-04-01

    Through the application of remote sensing techniques followed by field checks, the exact extension and nature of Suruli shear zone in Madurai block of southern granulite terrain (SGT) in south India is brought out for the first time in this work. The dominant rock type exposed in this area is charnockite intruded by granites. The Suruli ductile shear zone extends from just west of Kadaiyanallur in the south to Ganguvarpatti in the north over a length of 150 km. Between Kadaiyanallur and Kambam, the shear zone extends roughly in N–S direction. From Kambam, it swerves towards NE and then towards ENE near Ganguvarpatti. The strongly developed transposed foliation and mylonite foliation within the shear zone dip towards east only and so the eastern block (Varushanad hills) is the hanging wall and the western block (Cardamom hills) is the footwall of the shear zone. In the eastern block, three distinct phases of regional scale folding (F1, F2 and F3) are recognized. In complete contrast, the western block recorded only the last phase (F3) regional scale folding. As the more deformed eastern block (older terrain) moved over the relatively less deformed western block (younger terrain) along the Suruli shear zone, it is proposed that this shear zone is a thrust or reverse fault, probably of Proterozoic age. As there are evidences for decreasing displacement from north to south (i.e., from Ganguvarpatti to Kadaiyanallur), the Suruli shear zone could be a rotational thrust or reverse fault with the pivot located close to Kadaiyanallur. As the pivot is located near Achankovil shear zone which trends WNW-ESE (dip towards SSW), the Suruli shear zone could be splaying (branching) out from Achankovil shear zone. In a nutshell, the Suruli shear zone could be a splay, rotational thrust or reverse fault.

  3. INTERBLOCK ZONES IN THE CRUST OF THE SOUTHERN REGIONS OF EAST SIBERIA: TECTONOPHYSICAL INTERPRETATION OF GEOLOGICAL AND GEOPHYSICAL DATA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Zh. Seminsky

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The zone-block structure of the lithosphere is represented by a hierarchically organized pattern of stable blocks and mobile zones which border such blocks and contain highly dislocated geological medium (Fig. 1. Today, different specialists adhere to different concepts of blocks and zones, which are two main elements of the lithosphere structure. Differences are most significant in determinations of ‘interblock zones’ that are named as deformation / destructive / contact / mobile / fracture zones etc. due to their diversity in different conditions of deformation. One of the most effective approaches to studying the zone-block structure of the lithosphere is a combination of geological and geophysical studies of interblock zones tectonic features on various scales, which can make it possible to reveal the most common patterns of the interblock zones, general regularities of their development and relationships between the interblock zones.The main objectives of our study were (1 to identify the zone-block structure of the crust in the southern regions of East Siberia from tectonophysical analysis of geological and geophysical surveys conducted on four different scales along the 500 km long Shertoy-Krasny Chikoy transect crossing the marginal segment of the Siberian block, the Baikal rift and the Transbaikalian block (Fig. 2; (2 to clarify structural features of the central part of the Baikal rift (representing the tectonic type of interblock extension zone by applying new research methods, such as radon emanation survey, to the Shertoy-Krasny Chikoy transect and using the previously applied methods, such as magnetotelluric sounding, on a smaller scale; and (3 to study manifestation of interblock zones of various ranks in different geological and geophysical fields, to reveal common specific features of their structural patterns for the upper crust, and to establish regularities of hierarchic and spatial relationships between the interblock

  4. Local versus regional active stress field in 5900m San Gregorio Magno 1 well (southern Apennines, Italy).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierdominici, S.; Montone, P.; Mariucci, M. T.

    2009-04-01

    The aim of this work is to characterize the local stress field in a peculiar sector of the southern Apennines by analyzing borehole breakouts, fractures and logging data along the San Gregorio Magno 1 deep well, and to compare the achieved stress field with the regional one. The study area is characterized by diffuse low-Magnitude seismicity, although in historical times it has been repeatedly struck by moderate to large earthquakes. We have analyzed in detail the 5900m San Gregorio Magno 1 well drilled in 1996-97 by ENI S.p.A. and located very close (1.3 km away) to the Irpinia Fault. This fault was responsible of the strongest earthquake happened in this area, the 23rd November 1980 M6.9 earthquake that produced the first unequivocal historical surface faulting ever documented in Italy. The mainshock enucleated on a fault 38 km-long with a strike of 308° and 60-70° northeast-dipping, consistent with a NE-SW T-axis and a normal faulting tectonic regime. Borehole breakouts, active faults and focal mechanism solutions have allowed to define the present-day stress along and around the San Gregorio Magno 1 well and other analysis (logging data) to discriminate the presence of fracture zones and/or faults at depth. We have considered data from 1200m to the bottom of San Gregorio Magno 1 well. Our analysis of stress-induced wellbore breakouts shows an inhomogeneous direction of minimum horizontal stress (N359+-31°) orientation along the well. This direction is moderately consistent with the Shmin-trend determined from breakouts in other wells in this region and also with the regional active stress field inferred from active faults and earthquake focal plane solutions (N44 Shmin oriented). For this reason we have computed for each breakout zone the difference between the local trend and the regional one; comparing these breakout rotations with the spikes or changing trend of logs we have identified possible fractures or faults at different depths. We have correlated

  5. Romulea pilosa and R. quartzicola (Iridaceae: Crocoideae, two new species from the southern African winter rainfall region, with nomenclatural corrections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. C. Manning

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Romulea pilosa J.C.Manning & Goldblatt and R. quartzicola J.C.Manning & Goldblatt are two narrow endemics from the southern African winter rainfall region. An early, fragmentary collection of R. pilosa from Riviersonderend lacked the diagnostic corm and was thus mistakenly associated with R. tetragona (sect. Ciliatae as var. flavandra M.P.de Vos because of the highly distinctive pilose, H-shaped leaf. The rediscovery of the taxon in the wild shows it to be a previously unrecognized member of sect. Aggregatae, distinguished by its unusual foliage and bright orange flowers. R. quartzicola was grown to flowering from seeds collected from quartz patches in southern Namaqualand and proved to be a new species of sect. Ciliatae, distinguished by its early flowering, short, subclavate leaves with reduced sclerenchyma strands, and bright yellow flowers with short bracts. R. neglecta M.P.de Vos, a rare endemic from the Kamiesberg in Northern Cape, is a later homonym for the Mediterranean R. neglecta Jord. & Fourr., and the earliest name for this plant is shown to be R. speciosa (Ker Gawl. Baker, typified by an illustration in Andrews’ The botanist’s repository. An epitype is designated to fix the application of the name. We have also examined the type illustration of R. pudica (Sol. ex Ker Gawl. Baker, hitherto treated as an uncertain species, and are confident that it represents the species currently known as R. amoena Schltr. ex Bég., and takes priority over it as being the earlier name. The type of R. reflexa Eckl., a new name for the later homonym I. reflexa Thunb. and the basionym of R. rosea var. reflexa (Eckl. Bég., has been mistakenly identified as an Ecklon collection but is in fact the collection that formed the basis of Thunberg’s I. reflexa. This collection is actually a form of R. flava Lam., and the name R. rosea var. reflexa is thus moved to the synonomy of that species. The variety currently known under this name should now be

  6. Source and distribution of naturally occurring arsenic in groundwater from Alberta’s Southern Oil Sands Regions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moncur, Michael C.; Paktunc, Dogan; Birks, S. Jean; Ptacek, Carol J.; Welsh, Brent; Thibault, Yves (CanmetMINING); (AER); (Alberta Innov.); (Waterloo)

    2016-06-10

    Arsenic (As) concentrations as high as 179 μg/L have been observed in shallow groundwater in the Alberta’s Southern Oil Sand Regions. The geology of this area of Alberta includes a thick cover (up to 200 m) of unconsolidated glacial deposits, with a number of regional interglacial sand and gravel aquifers, underlain by marine shale. Arsenic concentrations observed in 216 unconsolidated sediment samples ranged from 1 and 17 ppm. A survey of over 800 water wells sampled for As in the area found that 50% of the wells contained As concentrations exceeding drinking water guidelines of 10 μg/L. Higher As concentrations in groundwater were associated with reducing conditions. Measurements of As speciation from 175 groundwater samples indicate that As(III) was the dominant species in 74% of the wells. Speciation model calculations showed that the majority of groundwater samples were undersaturated with respect to ferrihydrite, suggesting that reductive dissolution of Fe-oxyhydroxides may be the source of some As in groundwater. Detailed mineralogical characterization of sediment samples collected from two formations revealed the presence of fresh framboidal pyrite in the deeper unoxidized sediments. Electron microprobe analysis employing wavelength dispersive spectrometry indicated that the framboidal pyrite had variable As content with an average As concentration of 530 ppm, reaching up to 1840 ppm. In contrast, the oxidized sediments did not contain framboidal pyrite, but exhibited spheroidal Fe-oxyhydroxide grains with elevated As concentrations. The habit and composition suggest that these Fe-oxyhydroxide grains in the oxidized sediment were an alteration product of former framboidal pyrite grains. X-ray absorption near edge spectroscopy (XANES) indicated that the oxidized sediments are dominated by As(V) species having spectral features similar to those of goethite or ferrihydrite with adsorbed As, suggesting that Fe-oxyhydroxides are the dominant As carriers

  7. Concentrations and solubility of trace elements in fine particles at a mountain site, southern China: regional sources and cloud processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, T.; Wang, Y.; Li, W. J.; Chen, J. M.; Wang, T.; Wang, W. X.

    2015-08-01

    The concentrations and solubility of twelve trace elements in PM2.5 at Mt. Lushan, southern China, were investigated during the summer of 2011 and the spring of 2012. The average PM2.5 mass was 55.2 ± 20.1 μg m-3 during the observation period. Temporal variations of all trace elements including total and water-soluble fractions with several dust storm spikes in total fractions of Al and Fe were observed. The enrichment factor (EF) values were 1 order of magnitude higher for the water-soluble fractions versus the total fractions of trace elements. Four major emission sources, namely nonferrous metal mining and smelting (for Cr, As, Ba and parts of Zn), coal combustion (for Pb, Zn, Se, Cu and Mn), crustal materials (for Al and Fe) and municipal solid waste incineration (for Cd and Mo), were classified by principal component analysis (PCA). Trajectory cluster analysis and the potential source contribution function (PSCF) consistently identified the Yangtze River delta (YRD), the Pearl River delta (PRD), and the neighbouring provinces of Mt. Lushan as the major source regions and transport pathways for anthropogenic elements. Northern China was identified as a major source region for crustal elements. It should be noted that apart from the YRD, the area around Mt. Lushan has become the most significant contributor to the solubility of most trace elements. Element solubility can be partially determined by emission sources. However, enhanced solubility of trace elements corresponding to increased concentrations of sulfate after the occurrence of cloud events indicated significant effects of cloud processing on aerosol element dissolution. Metal particles mixed with sulfate in cloud droplet residues were further investigated through transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analysis. Irreversible alteration of particle morphology by cloud processing was confirmed to be highly responsible for the enhancement of trace element solubility. The findings from this study imply an

  8. A Magnitude 7.1 Earthquake in the Tacoma Fault Zone-A Plausible Scenario for the Southern Puget Sound Region, Washington

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomberg, Joan; Sherrod, Brian; Weaver, Craig; Frankel, Art

    2010-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey and cooperating scientists have recently assessed the effects of a magnitude 7.1 earthquake on the Tacoma Fault Zone in Pierce County, Washington. A quake of comparable magnitude struck the southern Puget Sound region about 1,100 years ago, and similar earthquakes are almost certain to occur in the future. The region is now home to hundreds of thousands of people, who would be at risk from the shaking, liquefaction, landsliding, and tsunamis caused by such an earthquake. The modeled effects of this scenario earthquake will help emergency planners and residents of the region prepare for future quakes.

  9. Renewable energy resource and technology assessment: Southern Tier Central Region, New York, New York. Renewable Energy Resource Inventory; renewable energy technology handbook; technology assessment workbook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-12-01

    The Renewable Energy Resource Inventory contains regional maps that record the location of renewable energy resources such as insolation, wind, biomass, and hydropower in the Southern Tier Central Region of New York State. It contains an outline of a process by which communities can prepare local renewable energy resource inventories using maps and overlays. The process starts with the mapping of the resources at a regional scale and telescopes to an analysis of resources at a site-specific scale. The resource inventory presents a site analysis of Sullivan Street Industrial Park, Elmira, New York.

  10. Deriving hydrologic conditions in the southern Caucasus region during the Little Ice Age using different geomorphological and paleoenvironmental archives

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Suchodoletz, Hans; Benito, Dario Martin; Pederson, Neil; Faust, Dominik

    2016-04-01

    From the 15th century to ca. 1850 AD, the Little Ice Age (LIA), was one of the most prominent climatic fluctuations during the Holocene. It was characterized by negative temperature anomalies evidenced for many regions of the Northern Hemisphere (Mann 2002). During the LIA, many of these regions showed significant changes of their landscape dynamics such as glacier advances and an intensified hydrological cycle. Although glacier advances and reduced pine growth are reported from the Greater Caucasus for parts of the LIA (Solomina 2005), little is known about the hydrological conditions of the humid to semi-arid Lesser Caucasus and Transcaucasus region during the LIA. Existing pollen records are so strongly disturbed by anthropogenic activity during the last millenia that the LIA is not resolved in the only existing pollen-based precipitation reconstruction for the region (Connor & Kvavadze 2008). Here, we present data derived from different kinds of geomorphological archives from the southern Caucasus region (fluvial sediments, indicators for the timing of incision of recently dry valleys). These data demonstrate intensive geomorphic activity during the LIA obviously caused by a strongly intensified hydrological cycle. Given the rather low temporal resolution of these geomorphological archives, however, more highly-resolved palaeoenvironmental data are needed to better understand also minor climatic and hydrologic fluctuations around the LIA period. To this end, we intend to use a recently developed multispecies tree-ring network from living trees (Martin-Benito et al., in revision). This tree-ring network will be expanded both in space and time using subfossil wood material (stems) found embedded into fluvial LIA-terrace deposits and radiocarbon-dated to the end of the 15th century AD. By overlapping these samples with the living tree network, we will be able to better characterize sub-ordinate climatic and hydrologic fluctuations during the LIA period. References

  11. Invasive blue mussels threaten regional scale genetic diversity in mainland and remote offshore locations: the need for baseline data and enhanced protection in the Southern Ocean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, Jonathan P A; Zbawicka, Małgorzata; Westfall, Kristen M; Wenne, Roman

    2016-09-01

    Human-mediated biological transfers of species have substantially modified many ecosystems with profound environmental and economic consequences. However, in many cases, invasion events are very hard to identify because of the absence of an appropriate baseline of information for receiving sites/regions. In this study, use of high-resolution genetic markers (single nucleotide polymorphisms - SNPs) highlights the threat of introduced Northern Hemisphere blue mussels (Mytilus galloprovincialis) at a regional scale to Southern Hemisphere lineages of blue mussels via hybridization and introgression. Analysis of a multispecies SNP dataset reveals hotspots of invasive Northern Hemisphere blue mussels in some mainland New Zealand locations, as well as the existence of unique native lineages of blue mussels on remote oceanic islands in the Southern Ocean that are now threatened by invasive mussels. Samples collected from an oil rig that has moved between South Africa, Australia, and New Zealand were identified as invasive Northern Hemisphere mussels, revealing the relative ease with which such non-native species may be moved from region to region. In combination, our results highlight the existence of unique lineages of mussels (and by extension, presumably of other taxa) on remote offshore islands in the Southern Ocean, the need for more baseline data to help identify bioinvasion events, the ongoing threat of hybridization and introgression posed by invasive species, and the need for greater protection of some of the world's last great remote areas. PMID:27124277

  12. Invasive blue mussels threaten regional scale genetic diversity in mainland and remote offshore locations: the need for baseline data and enhanced protection in the Southern Ocean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, Jonathan P A; Zbawicka, Małgorzata; Westfall, Kristen M; Wenne, Roman

    2016-09-01

    Human-mediated biological transfers of species have substantially modified many ecosystems with profound environmental and economic consequences. However, in many cases, invasion events are very hard to identify because of the absence of an appropriate baseline of information for receiving sites/regions. In this study, use of high-resolution genetic markers (single nucleotide polymorphisms - SNPs) highlights the threat of introduced Northern Hemisphere blue mussels (Mytilus galloprovincialis) at a regional scale to Southern Hemisphere lineages of blue mussels via hybridization and introgression. Analysis of a multispecies SNP dataset reveals hotspots of invasive Northern Hemisphere blue mussels in some mainland New Zealand locations, as well as the existence of unique native lineages of blue mussels on remote oceanic islands in the Southern Ocean that are now threatened by invasive mussels. Samples collected from an oil rig that has moved between South Africa, Australia, and New Zealand were identified as invasive Northern Hemisphere mussels, revealing the relative ease with which such non-native species may be moved from region to region. In combination, our results highlight the existence of unique lineages of mussels (and by extension, presumably of other taxa) on remote offshore islands in the Southern Ocean, the need for more baseline data to help identify bioinvasion events, the ongoing threat of hybridization and introgression posed by invasive species, and the need for greater protection of some of the world's last great remote areas.

  13. New neotropical sebacinales species from a Pakaraimaea dipterocarpacea forest in the Guayana Region, Southern Venezuela: structural diversity and phylogeography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moyersoen, Bernard; Weiβ, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Pakaraimaea dipterocarpacea, a member of the Dipterocarpaceae endemic in the Guayana region, is associated with a diverse community of ectomycorrhizal (ECM) fungi. Amongst the 41 ECM fungal species detected in a 400 m2 P. dipterocarpacea ssp. nitida plot in Southern Venezuela, three species belonged to the Sebacinales. We tested whether ECM anatomotype characterization can be used as a feasible element in an integrative taxonomy in this diverse fungal group, where the relevance of fruitbody morphology for species delimitation seems limited. Using a combination of ECM morpho-anatomical characterizations and phylogenetic analyses based on nuclear ITS and LSU sequences, we report three new species. The main distinguishing features of Sebacina guayanensis are the yellowish cell walls together with conspicuous undifferentiated, uniform compact (type B) rhizomorphs. Staghorn-like hyphae are characteristic of S. tomentosa. The combination of clusters of thick-walled emanating hyphae, including hyphae similar to awl-shaped cystidia with basal dichotomous or trichotomous ramifications, and the presence of type B rhizomorphs were characteristic of a third, yet unnamed species. The three species belong to three different, possibly specifically tropical clades in Sebacinales Group A. The geographic distribution of phylogenetically related strains was wide, including a Dicymbe forest in Guyana and an Ecuadorian rainforest with Coccoloba species. We show that ECM morpho-anatomy can be used, in combination with other analyses, to delineate species within Sebacinales Group A. In addition to phylogenetic information, type B rhizomorphs observed in different Sebacinales clades have important ecological implications for this fungal group. The phylogeography of Sebacinales suggests that dispersion and host jump are important radiation mechanisms that shaped P. dipterocarpacea ECM fungal community. This study emphasizes the need for more sequence data to evaluate the hypothesis that

  14. New neotropical sebacinales species from a Pakaraimaea dipterocarpacea forest in the Guayana Region, Southern Venezuela: structural diversity and phylogeography.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernard Moyersoen

    Full Text Available Pakaraimaea dipterocarpacea, a member of the Dipterocarpaceae endemic in the Guayana region, is associated with a diverse community of ectomycorrhizal (ECM fungi. Amongst the 41 ECM fungal species detected in a 400 m2 P. dipterocarpacea ssp. nitida plot in Southern Venezuela, three species belonged to the Sebacinales. We tested whether ECM anatomotype characterization can be used as a feasible element in an integrative taxonomy in this diverse fungal group, where the relevance of fruitbody morphology for species delimitation seems limited. Using a combination of ECM morpho-anatomical characterizations and phylogenetic analyses based on nuclear ITS and LSU sequences, we report three new species. The main distinguishing features of Sebacina guayanensis are the yellowish cell walls together with conspicuous undifferentiated, uniform compact (type B rhizomorphs. Staghorn-like hyphae are characteristic of S. tomentosa. The combination of clusters of thick-walled emanating hyphae, including hyphae similar to awl-shaped cystidia with basal dichotomous or trichotomous ramifications, and the presence of type B rhizomorphs were characteristic of a third, yet unnamed species. The three species belong to three different, possibly specifically tropical clades in Sebacinales Group A. The geographic distribution of phylogenetically related strains was wide, including a Dicymbe forest in Guyana and an Ecuadorian rainforest with Coccoloba species. We show that ECM morpho-anatomy can be used, in combination with other analyses, to delineate species within Sebacinales Group A. In addition to phylogenetic information, type B rhizomorphs observed in different Sebacinales clades have important ecological implications for this fungal group. The phylogeography of Sebacinales suggests that dispersion and host jump are important radiation mechanisms that shaped P. dipterocarpacea ECM fungal community. This study emphasizes the need for more sequence data to evaluate the

  15. Investigations of the middle atmospheric thermal structure and oscillations over sub-tropical regions in the Northern and Southern Hemispheres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Som; Kumar, Prashant; Jethva, Chintan; Vaishnav, Rajesh; Bencherif, Hassan

    2016-08-01

    The temperature retrieved from the Sounding of the Atmosphere using Broadband Emission Radiometry (SABER) onboard Thermosphere Ionosphere Mesosphere Energetics and Dynamics (TIMED) satellite during January 2002 to September 2015 are used in this study to delineate the differences of middle atmospheric thermal structure in the Northern Hemisphere (NH) and Southern Hemisphere (SH). Two stations namely Mt. Abu (24.59°N, 72.70°E) in NH and Reunion Island (21.11°S, 55.53°E) in SH are chosen over sub-tropical regions. Temperature climatology from SABER observations suggests that stratopause is warmer, and upper mesosphere is cooler in NH as compared to SH. Three atmospheric models are used to understand the monthly thermal structure differences for different altitudes. Moreover, semi-annual, annual and quasi-biennial oscillations are studied using Lomb Scargle Periodogram and Wavelet transform techniques. Over NH, summer and winter season are warmer (~4 K) and cooler (~3 K) respectively in stratosphere as compared to SH. It is important to note here that Mt. Abu temperature is warmer (~9 K) than Reunion Island in winter but in summer season Mt. Abu temperature is cooler in upper mesosphere and above mesosphere NH shows warming. Results show that annual oscillations are dominated in both hemisphere as compared to semi-annual and quasi-biennial oscillations. In upper mesosphere, strength of annual oscillations is substantial in NH, while semi-annual oscillations are stronger in SH. Wavelet analyses found that annual oscillations are significant in NH near mesopause, while semi-annual oscillations are strengthening in SH.

  16. Land-use and soil depth affect resource and microbial stoichiometry in a tropical mountain rainforest region of southern Ecuador.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tischer, Alexander; Potthast, Karin; Hamer, Ute

    2014-05-01

    Global change phenomena, such as forest disturbance and land-use change, significantly affect elemental balances as well as the structure and function of terrestrial ecosystems. However, the importance of shifts in soil nutrient stoichiometry for the regulation of belowground biota and soil food webs have not been intensively studied for tropical ecosystems. In the present account, we examine the effects of land-use change and soil depth on soil and microbial stoichiometry along a land-use sequence (natural forest, pastures of different ages, secondary succession) in the tropical mountain rainforest region of southern Ecuador. Furthermore, we analyzed (PLFA-method) whether shifts in the microbial community structure were related to alterations in soil and microbial stoichiometry. Soil and microbial stoichiometry were affected by both land-use change and soil depth. After forest disturbance, significant decreases of soil C:N:P ratios at the pastures were followed by increases during secondary succession. Microbial C:N ratios varied slightly in response to land-use change, whereas no fixed microbial C:P and N:P ratios were observed. Shifts in microbial community composition were associated with soil and microbial stoichiometry. Strong positive relationships between PLFA-markers 18:2n6,9c (saprotrophic fungi) and 20:4 (animals) and negative associations between 20:4 and microbial N:P point to land-use change affecting the structure of soil food webs. Significant deviations from global soil and microbial C:N:P ratios indicated a major force of land-use change to alter stoichiometric relationships and to structure biological systems. Our results support the idea that soil biotic communities are stoichiometrically flexible in order to adapt to alterations in resource stoichiometry.

  17. The foot and mouth disease network in the southern cone of South America: an example of regional governance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corrales Irrazábal, H A

    2012-08-01

    The fact that foot and mouth disease is highly contagious, easily spread and of major commercial importance makes it a redoubtable challenge for animal health in South American countries and the world over. A number of factors impact directly on the effectiveness of national programmes to eradicate foot and mouth disease. Therefore, in order to meet the challenges posed by today's globalised world, it is of the utmost importance that national level eradication programmes be considered state policies and that they be the subject of broad political agreement at the highest level and consolidated as regional programmes between national Veterinary Services. The programmes, agreements and technical cooperation projects established jointly by Member Countries of the Southern Common Market (MERCOSUR) were a key factor in building management capacity to control foot and mouth disease in the area. Another key factor has been a partnership with one of the most sensitive sectors--the private production sector. Its active and responsible participation in operational functions has done much to strengthen and ensure the competitive development of South American countries and consolidate their role as global beef exporters. However, to prevent further outbreaks it is essential to maintain and reinforce the structure of national programmes and to have strong and highly trained Veterinary Services and sufficient funding to ensure efficient and sustainable plans. These plans must enable Veterinary Services, by means of good governance, to implement effective measures in the areas of animal health and international trade in animals and animal products/by-products, thereby achieving rapid and more equitable social and economic development.

  18. Selected Ground-Water Data for Yucca Mountain Region, Southern Nevada and Eastern California, January-December 2004

    Science.gov (United States)

    La Camera, Richard J.; Locke, Glenn L.; Habte, Aron M.; Darnell, Jon G.

    2006-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in support of the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Repository Development, collects, compiles, and summarizes hydrologic data in the Yucca Mountain region of southern Nevada and eastern California. These data are collected to allow assessments of ground-water resources during activities to determine the potential suitability or development of Yucca Mountain for storing high-level nuclear waste. Data on ground-water levels at 35 boreholes and 1 fissure (Devils Hole), ground-water discharge at 5 springs, both ground-water levels and discharge at 1 flowing borehole, and total reported ground-water withdrawals within Crater Flat, Jackass Flats, Mercury Valley, and the Amargosa Desert are tabulated from January through December 2004. Also tabulated are ground-water levels, discharges, and withdrawals collected by other agencies (or collected as part of other programs) and data revised from those previously published at monitoring sites. Historical data on water levels, discharges, and withdrawals are presented graphically to indicate variations through time. A statistical summary of ground-water levels at seven boreholes in Jackass Flats is presented for the period 1992-2004 to indicate potential effects of ground-water withdrawals associated with U.S. Department of Energy activities near Yucca Mountain. The statistical summary includes the annual number of measurements, maximum, minimum, and median water-level altitudes, and average deviation of measured water-level altitudes compared to the 1992-93 baseline period. At six boreholes in Jackass Flats, median water levels for 2004 were slightly higher (0.3-2.7 feet) than their median water levels for 1992-93. At one borehole in Jackass Flats, median water level for 2004 equaled the median water level for 1992-93.

  19. Precipitation of lead-zinc ores in the Mississippi Valley-type deposit at Treves, Cevennes region of southern France

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leach, D.; Macquar, J.-C.; Lagneau, V.; Leventhal, J.; Emsbo, P.; Premo, W.

    2006-01-01

    The Trèves zinc–lead deposit is one of several Mississippi Valley-type (MVT) deposits in the Cévennes region of southern France. Fluid inclusion studies show that the ore was deposited at temperatures between approximately 80 and 150°C from a brine that derived its salinity mainly from the evaporation of seawater past halite saturation. Lead isotope studies suggest that the metals were extracted from local basement rocks. Sulfur isotope data and studies of organic matter indicate that the reduced sulfur in the ores was derived from the reduction of Mesozoic marine sulfate by thermochemical sulfate reduction or bacterially mediated processes at a different time or place from ore deposition. The large range of δ34S values determined for the minerals in the deposit (12.2–19.2‰ for barite, 3.8–13.8‰ for sphalerite and galena, and 8.7 to −21.2‰ for pyrite), are best explained by the mixing of fluids containing different sources of sulfur. Geochemical reaction path calculations, based on quantitative fluid inclusion data and constrained by field observations, were used to evaluate possible precipitation mechanisms. The most important precipitation mechanism was probably the mixing of fluids containing different metal and reduced sulfur contents. Cooling, dilution, and changes in pH of the ore fluid probably played a minor role in the precipitation of ores. The optimum results that produced the most metal sulfide deposition with the least amount of fluid was the mixing of a fluid containing low amounts of reduced sulfur with a sulfur-rich, metal poor fluid. In this scenario, large amounts of sphalerite and galena are precipitated, together with smaller quantities of pyrite precipitated and dolomite dissolved. The relative amounts of metal precipitated and dolomite dissolved in this scenario agree with field observations that show only minor dolomite dissolution during ore deposition. The modeling results demonstrate the important control of the reduced

  20. Analysis of magnetotelluric profile data from the Ruby Mountains metamorphic core complex and southern Carlin Trend region, Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wannamaker, Philip E.; Doerner, William M.; Stodt, John A.; Sodergen, Timothy L.; Rodriguez, Brian D.

    2002-01-01

    We have collected about 150 magnetotelluric (MT) soundings in northeastern Nevada in the region of the Ruby Mountains metamorphic core complex uplift and southern Carlin mineral trend, in an effort to illuminate controls on core complex evolution and deposition of world-class gold deposits. The region has experienced a broad range of tectonic events including several periods of compressional and extensional deformation, which have contributed to the total expression of electrical resistivity. Most of the soundings are in three east-west profiles across increasing degrees of core uplift to the north (Bald Mountain, Harrison Pass and Secret Pass latitudes). Two shorter lines cross a prominent east-west structure to the north of the northern profile. MT impedance tensor and vertical magnetic field rotations imply a N-NNE average regional geoelectric strike, similar to surface geologic trends. Model resistivity cross sections were derived using a 2-D inversion algorithm, which damps departures of model parameters from an a priori structure, emphasizing the transverse magnetic (TM) mode and vertical magnetic field data. Geological interpretation of the resistivity combines previous seismic, potential field and isotope models, structural and petrological models for regional compression and extension, and detailed structural/stratigraphic interpretations incorporating drilling for petroleum and mineral exploration. To first order, the resistivity structure is one of a moderately conductive, Phanerozoic sedimentary section fundamentally disrupted by intrusion and uplift of resistive crystalline rocks. Late Devonian and early Mississippian shales of the Pilot and Chainman Formations together form an important conductive marker sequence in the stratigraphy and show pronounced increases in conductance (conductivity-thickness product) from east to west. These increases in conductance are attributed to graphitization caused by Elko-Sevier era compressional shear deformation and

  1. 我国南方石灰岩地区植被恢复探讨%Discussion on Vegetation Recovery of the Southern Limestone Region in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李撰; 王晓红

    2011-01-01

    基于恢复生态学理论,分析我国南方石灰岩地区地势、气候、土壤和植被特点,指出当前植被恢复存在的问题,如何确定南方石灰岩地区植被恢复的目标、步骤和途径,以及今后的主要研究方向.%Based on the theory of vegetation recovery, the characteristics of topography, climate, soil and vegetation in southern limestone region were expounded. Problems in the current vegetation recovery and how to set the goal, steps and methods of vegetation recovery in southern region of China were proposed as the direction for future study.

  2. A physics-based earthquake simulator and its application to seismic hazard assessment in Calabria (Southern Italy) region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Console, Rodolfo; Nardi, Anna; Carluccio, Roberto

    2016-04-01

    The characteristic earthquake hypothesis is not strongly supported by observational data because of the relatively short duration of historical and even paleoseismological records. For instance, for the Calabria (Southern Italy) region, historical information on strong earthquakes exist for at least two thousand years, but they can be considered complete for M > 6.0 only for the latest few centuries. As a consequence, characteristic earthquakes are seldom reported for individual fault segments, and hazard assessment is not reliably estimated by means of only minor seismicity reported in the historical catalogs. Even if they cannot substitute the information contained in a good historical catalog, physics-based earthquake simulators have become popular in the recent literature, and their application has been justified by a number of reasons. In particular, earthquake simulators can provide interesting information on which renewal models can better describe the recurrence statistics, and how this is affected by features as local fault geometry and kinematics. The use of a newly developed earthquake simulator has allowed the production of catalogs lasting 100,000 years and containing more than 100,000 events of magnitudes ≥ 4.5. The algorithm on which this simulator is based is constrained by several physical elements, as an average slip rate due to tectonic loading for every single segment in the investigated fault system, the process of rupture growth and termination, and interaction between earthquake sources, including small magnitude events. Events nucleated in one segment are allowed to expand into neighboring segments, if they are separated by a given maximum range of distance. The application of our simulation algorithm to Calabria region provides typical features in time, space and magnitude behaviour of the seismicity, which can be compared with those of the real observations. These features include long-term periodicity of strong earthquakes, short

  3. From cumulative cultural transmission to evidence-based medicine: Evolution of medicinal plant knowledge in Southern Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco eLeonti

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In Mediterranean cultures written records of medicinal plant use have a long tradition. This written record contributed to building a consensus about what was perceived to be an efficacious pharmacopoeia. Passed down through millennia, these scripts have transmitted knowledge about plant uses, with high fidelity, to scholars and laypersons alike. Herbal medicine’s importance and the long-standing written record call for a better understanding of the mechanisms influencing the transmission of contemporary medicinal plant knowledge. Here we contextualize herbal medicine within evolutionary medicine and cultural evolution. Cumulative knowledge transmission is approached by estimating the causal effect of two seminal scripts about materia medica written by Dioscorides and Galen, two classical Greco-Roman physicians, on today’s medicinal plant use in the Southern Italian regions of Campania, Sardinia and Sicily. Plant-use combinations are treated as transmissible cultural traits (or memes, which in analogy to the biological evolution of genetic traits, are subjected to mutation and selection. Our results suggest that until today ancient scripts have exerted a strong influence on the use of herbal medicine. We conclude that the repeated empirical testing and scientific study of health care claims is guiding and shaping the selection of efficacious treatments and evidence-based herbal medicine.

  4. Environmental Pollution Effects on Reproductive Health – Clinical-Epidemiological Study in Southern Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marra, M.L.; Zullo, F.; De Felice, B.; Nappi, L.; Guida, M.; Trifuoggi, M.; Nappi, C.; Di Spiezio Sardo, A.; Zizolfi, B.; Capece, G.; Visconti, F.; Troisi, J.; Ciccone, C.; Guida, M.

    2012-01-01

    This study aims to address the clinical, statistical and Epidemiological Relationship Between Birth Defects and Environmental Pollution, in the Campania Region and in Salerno. Objectives: We examined four groups of subjects as follows: a sample of pregnant women living in Salerno, a sample of pregnant women living in highly polluted areas, a sample of controls, pregnant women and residents out of the Campania Region, considered in unpolluted areas (Foggia) and in the Salerno area. Methodologies: a toxicological and genetic analysis was conducted on patients examined. Conclusions: there is an epidemiological link between environmental pollution and reproductive health in the Salerno area. Experimentally there are the first evidences of endocrine disruptors by the PCB. It has been inferred an overexpression of the mir-191 as a marker of pollution by dioxin-like compounds. Socially, correct information of populations at risk is necessary and a possible preventive and ongoing medical care must be ensured. PMID:23905062

  5. Implications of land-use change and pasture management on soil microbial function and structure in the mountain rainforest region of southern Ecuador

    OpenAIRE

    Potthast, Karin

    2013-01-01

    In the present thesis, implications of pasture establishment, fertilization and abandonment on soil C and nutrient dynamics were investigated for the mountain rainforest region of southern Ecuador. Over the past decades the natural forest of the study area has been threatened by conversion to cattle pastures. However, the soil fertility of these extensively grazed pastures (active pastures) declines continuously during pasture use. The invasion of bracken fern (Pteridium arachnoideum) leads t...

  6. APPLICATION OF LiDAR DATE TO ASSESS THE LANDSLIDE SUSCEPTIBILITY MAP USING WEIGHTS OF EVIDENCE METHOD – AN EXAMPLE FROM PODHALE REGION (SOUTHERN POLAND)

    OpenAIRE

    Kamiński, Mirosław

    2016-01-01

    Podhale is a region in southern Poland, which is the northernmost part of the Central Carpathian Mountains. It is characterized by the presence of a large number of landslides that threaten the local infrastructure. In an article presents application of LiDAR data and geostatistical methods to assess landslides susceptibility map. Landslide inventory map were performed using LiDAR data and field work. The Weights of Evidence method was applied to assess landslides susceptibility map. Used fac...

  7. Investigation on Newcastle Disease Virus (NDV), Infectious Bursal Disease Virus (IBDV) and Avian Poxvirus (APV) in magellanic penguins in Southern region of Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Cristina Freitas Nunes; Fabiane Fonseca; Alice Teixeira Meirelles Leite; Rodolfo Pinho da Silva Filho; Paula Fonseca Finger; Clarissa Caetano Castro; Geferson Fischer; Gilberto D'Avila Vargas; Silvia de Oliveira Hübner

    2012-01-01

    To investigate the exposure of the Newcastle disease virus (NDV), infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) and avian poxvirus (APV) in Magellanic penguins found on the beaches in Southern regions of Brazil, the frequency of serum antibodies was estimated in 89 samples taken during 2005 and 2006. All the penguins were negative for the presence of antibodies against NDV by hemagglutination inhibition test and to APV by indirect ELISA. The reactivity was similar to the positives controls using ELI...

  8. From Gibraltar through Levant and from Maghreb through the Southern Latin European Countries or about culture and management in the Mediterranean Sea Region

    OpenAIRE

    Amedeo ISTOCESCU

    2010-01-01

    Bordering the southern coast of Europe, the eastern part of the Middle East and northern Africa, representing the most appropriate environment for the development of cultural, social and economic of the maritime regions, influencing decisively the culture and the entire life of the inhabitants in a lot of bordering countries, ensuring the achievement of a natural maritime transportation way between eastern Levantine character and western pragmatism of our ancient continent, or between Maghreb...

  9. Gender and Innovation in Agriculture: A Case Study of Farmers’ Varietal Preference of Drought Tolerant Maize in Southern Guinea Savannah Region of Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    O.E. Ayinde; Abduolaye, T.; Olaoye, G.; J.A. Akangbe

    2013-01-01

    Maize is one of the worlds’ three primary cereal crops, sustainable increasing production of this crop is important to farmers to be able to meet the ever increasing consumption of maize which is one of the major reasons for the development of Drought tolerant maize variety (DTMA). The study analyses farmers’ varietal preference of drought tolerant maize in Southern Guinea Savannah region of Nigeria. It specifically determined the socioeconomic characteristics of farmers, identified their gen...

  10. Unmasking the 1349 earthquake source (southern Italy): paleoseismological and archaeoseismological indications from the Aquae Iuliae fault

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galli, Paolo Antonio Costantino; Naso, José Alfredo

    2009-02-01

    The 9th September, 1349, earthquake was one of the most catastrophic events experienced along the Apennines. At least three main shocks struck a vast area of the Molise-Latium-Abruzzi regions, and damage was even sustained by the distant monumental buildings of Rome. The southern-most shock (Mw ˜ 6.7) occurred at the border between southern Latium and western Molise, razing to the ground the towns of Isernia, Venafro and Cassino, amongst others, and devastating Montecassino Abbey. As with other Medieval catastrophic sequences (e.g., in December 1456, Mw ˜ 6.5-7.0), this earthquake has not yet been associated to any seismogenic source; thus, it still represents a thorn in the flesh of earthquake geologists. We have here carried out a reappraisal of the effects of this earthquake, and through an interpretation of aerial photographs and a field survey, we have carried out paleoseismological analyses across a poorly known, ˜N130 normal fault that crosses the Molise-Campania border. This structure showed repeated surface ruptures during the late Holocene, the last one of which fits excellently with the 1349 event, both in terms of the dating and the rupture dimension. On the other hand, archaeoseismic analyses have also indicated the faulting of an Augustean aqueduct. The amount of apparent offset of the aqueduct across the fault traces shows that there were other surface faulting event(s) during the Roman-High Middle-Age period. Therefore, in trying to ascertain whether these events were associated with known (potentially of 346 AD or 848 AD), or unknown earthquakes in the area, it became possible that this ˜20-km-long fault (here named the Aquae Iuliae fault) is characterized by high slip rates and a short recurrence time. This is in agreement with both the similar behaviour of the neighbouring northern Matese fault system, and with recent GPS analyses showing unexpectedly high extension rates in this area.

  11. El-Niño southern oscillation and rainfall erosivity in the headwater region of the Grande River Basin, Southeast Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. R. Mello

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Relationships between regional climate and oceanic and atmospheric anomalies are important tools in order to promote the development of models for predicting rainfall erosivity, especially in regions with substantial intra-annual variability in the rainfall regime. In this context, this work aimed to analyze the rainfall erosivity in headwaters of Grande River Basin, Southern Minas Gerais State, Brazil. This study considered the two most representative environments, the Mantiqueira Range (MR and Plateau of Southern Minas Gerais (PSM. These areas are affected by the El Nino Southern Oscillation (ENSO indicators Sea Surface Temperature (SST for Niño 3.4 Region and Multivariate ENSO Index (MEI. Rainfall erosivity was calculated for individual rainfall events from January 2006 to December 2010. The analyses were conducted using the monthly data of ENSO indicators and the following rainfall variables: rainfall erosivity (EI30, rainfall depth (P, erosive rainfall depth (E, number of rainfall events (NRE, number of erosive rainfall events (NEE, frequency of occurrence of an early rainfall pattern (EP, occurrence of late rainfall pattern (LP and occurrence of intermediate rainfall patter (IP. Pearson's coefficient of correlation was used to evaluate the relationships between the rainfall variables and SST and MEI. The coefficients of correlation were significant for SST in the PSM sub-region. Correlations between the rainfall variables and negative oscillations of SST were also significant, especially in the MR sub-region, however, the Person's coefficients were lesser than those obtained for the SST positive oscillations. The correlations between the rainfall variables and MEI were also significant but lesser than the SST correlations. These results demonstrate that SST positive oscillations play a more important role in rainfall erosivity, meaning they were more influenced by El-Niño episodes. Also, these results have shown

  12. Regional drought in the southern of South America: physical aspects Seca regional no sul da América do Sul: aspectos físicos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Leonidas Minetti

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available From the indices of monthly and annual climatic drought in six regions in southern South America and their associations with seventeen predictors, the probable physical causes of droughts are analyzed. These indices are used in operational climate monitoring and describe the atmospheric temperature and sea surface temperature (SST near South America. Subtropical anticyclone activity over both coasts of South America is one of the main predictors, together with its interaction with the continental depression and SST at the coast of Brazil. The highest predictability concentrates in November-December-May and the lowest in March, June and August. In the sub regional scale, the main predictors respond to atmospheric pressure anomalies in the Atlantic Ocean for Argentinean Northwest (NOA, SST in the Brazilian coast for Argentinean Northeast (NEA, anticyclonic conditions over the Pacific and Atlantic for the Central West (CO, the latter and their interaction with the continental depression for Humid Pampa (PH, anticyclonic activity over the Pacific for the Patagonia (PAT and trans cordillera circulation for Central Chile and Comahue (CHI.As causas físicas prováveis das secas em seis regiões no sul da América do Sul são analisadas, através de índices da seca climática mensal e em suas associações com dezessete preditores. Esses indices são usados no monitoramento operacional do clima, e descrevem a temperatura atmosférica e a temperatura de superfície do mar (TSM perto de América do Sul. A atividade do anticiclone subtropical sobre ambas as costas de América do Sul é um dos preditores principais, junto com sua interação com a depressão continental e a SST na costa do Brasil. A previsibilidade mais elevada concentra-se nos meses Novembro-Dezembro-Maio e a mais baixa, em março, junho e agosto. Na escala regional secundária, os principais preditores respondem às anomalias da pressão atmosférica sobre o Oceano Atlântico para

  13. Analysis of dissolved gas and fluid chemistry in mountainous region of Goaping river watershed in southern Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Kai-Wen; Chen, Cheng-Hong; Liu, Tsung-Kwei

    2016-04-01

    Annual rainfall in Taiwan is up to 2500 mm, about 2.5 times the average value of the world. However due to high topographic relief of the Central Mountain Range in Taiwan, groundwater storage is critical for water supply. Mountain region of the Goaping river watershed in southern Taiwan is one of the potential areas to develop groundwater recharge model. Therefore the target of this study is to understand sources of groundwater and surface water using dissolved gas and fluid chemistry. Four groundwater and 6 surface water samples were collected from watershed, 5 groundwater and 13 surface water samples were collected from downstream. All samples were analyzed for stable isotopes (hydrogen and oxygen), dissolved gases (including nitrogen, oxygen, argon, methane and carbon dioxide), noble gases (helium and radon) and major ions. Hydrogen and oxygen isotopic ratios of surface water and groundwater samples aligned along meteoric water line. For surface water, dissolved gases are abundant in N2 (>80%) and O2 (>10%); helium isotopic ratio is approximately equal to 1 RA (RA is 3He/4He ratio of air); radon-222 concentration is below the detection limit (helium isotopic ratios (0.9˜0.23 RA) are lower and radon-222 concentrations (300˜6000 Bq/m3) are much higher than the surface water. Some samples have high amounts of dissolved gases, such as CH4 (>20%) or CO2 (>10%), most likely contributed by biogenic or geogenic sources. On the other hand, few samples that have temperature 5° higher than the average of other samples, show significantly high Na+ (>1000 ppm), Ca2+ (>150 ppm) and Cl‑ (>80 ppm) concentrations. An interaction between such groundwater and local hot springs is inferred. Watershed and downstream samples differ in dissolved gas species and fluid chemistry for groundwater and surface water. The higher hydrogen and oxygen isotopic ratios for surface water from downstream are most probably caused by evaporation. Low radon-222 concentrations of some groundwater

  14. Prevalence of metabolic syndrome in Murcia Region, a southern European Mediterranean area with low cardiovascular risk and high obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huerta José M

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Metabolic syndrome (MS is associated with subsequent appearance of diabetes and cardiovascular disease. As compared to other Spanish regions, Murcia (southern Spain registers increased obesity as well as cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of MS and its components, awareness of obesity as a health risk and associated lifestyles. Methods A population-based, cross-sectional study was conducted in 2003, covering a sample of 1555 individuals 20 years and over. MS was defined according to the Revised National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III (R-ATPIII, International Diabetes Federation (IDF and Joint Interim Statement (JIS criteria. Both low (94/80 and high (102/88 waist circumference (WC thresholds were considered. Results Prevalence of MS was 27.2% (95%CI: 25.2-29.2, 32.2% (95%CI: 30.1-34.3 and 33.2% (95%CI: 31.2-35.3 according to the R-ATPIII, IDF and JIS94/80 respectively. It increased with age until reaching 52.6% (R-ATPIII or 60.3% (JIS94/80 among persons aged 70 years and over, and was higher in persons with little or no formal education (51.7% R-ATPIII, 57.3% JIS94/80. The most common risk factors were hypertension (46.6% and central obesity (40.7% and 66.1% according to high and low WC cut-off points respectively. Although most persons were aware that obesity increased health risks, regular exercise was very unusual (13.0% centrally obese, 27.2% non-centrally obese. Adherence to dietary recommendations was similar among centrally obese and non-centrally obese subjects. Conclusions Prevalence of MS is high in our population, is comparable to that found in northern Europe and varies with the definition used. Adherence to preventive recommendations and to adequate weight promotion is very low. In the absence of a specific treatment for MS, integrated intervention based on a sustained increase in physical activity and changes in diet should be

  15. Simulation of wind-driven circulation and temperature in the near-shore region of southern Lake Michigan by using a channelized model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Lubo; FU Xu-dong; WANG Guang-qian

    2013-01-01

    To enhance the efficiency of a pathogen forecasting model in the beach areas of southern Lake Michigan and to reduce the computation time,the near-shore current is approximated as a channelized flow parallel to the shorelines in clockwise or anti-clockwise direction within the accuracy tolerance range.A channelized model with a curvilinear boundary can significantly reduce the computation effort,and at the same time achieve a good agreement between the predicted and measured water surface elevations,currents,and water temperatures.The sensitivity analysis results show that the suitable channel width for the near-shore region of southern Lake Michigan should be no less than 10 km.The modeling results of the water temperature are much less sensitive to the channel width than those of the current velocity and the water surface elevation.The modeling results also show a close correlation between the speeds of the wind and the near-shore current.The current may fully respond the wind stress with a time lag of several hours.The correlation may provide an approximate estimation of the lake circulation under some wind conditions for a practical forecasting purpose.More complex wind-current relationships need to be described with a more sophisticated hydrodynamic model.This verified model can be used for the pathogen forecasting in the near-shore regions of southern Lake Michigan in the future.

  16. Seroprevalence and risk factors associated with Babesia caballi and Theileria equi infections in donkeys from Southern Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piantedosi, D; D'Alessio, N; Di Loria, A; Di Prisco, F; Mariani, U; Neola, B; Santoro, M; Montagnaro, S; Capelli, G; Veneziano, V

    2014-12-01

    Equine piroplasmosis (EP) has been frequently described in donkeys in subtropical and tropical regions, but published data reflecting large scale surveys are very limited in Europe. The seroprevalence of Babesia caballi and Theileria equi was determined in a donkey population from Campania Region in Southern Italy using a commercial indirect fluorescent antibody test (IFAT), and the risk factors associated with the occurrence of the infection were assessed. Of 203 samples, the overall seroprevalence for EP was 57.1% (116/203), with 35.5% (72/203) for B. caballi and 44.3% (90/203) for T. equi. Co-infection was detected in 46 donkeys (22.6%). The distribution of IFAT antibody titres to B. caballi was: 1:80 (n= 67), 1:160 (n= 2), 1:320 (n= 3); while the distribution of IFAT antibody titres to T. equi was: 1:80 (n= 25), 1:160 (n= 42), 1:320 (n= 12), 1:640 (n= 8), 1:1280 (n= 3). All examined donkeys were asymptomatic, except one adult male (with a titre of 1:640 against T. equi) that showed clinical signs corresponding to the acute stage of EP, reported for the first time in Italy. The unique risk factor associated with a higher B. caballi seroprevalence was the presence of horses in the farms, while risk factors associated with a higher T. equi seroprevalence were poor body condition, presence of ruminants in the farms and milk production. The results indicate a high level of exposure in donkeys living in Southern Italy and suggest that donkeys may be an important reservoir of EP.

  17. Metropolitanization and Forest Recovery in Southern Brazil: a Multiscale Analysis of the Florianópolis City-Region, Santa Catarina State, 1970 to 2005

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra R. Baptista

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Within the contexts of globalization and the Atlantic Forest ecoregion, I present a multiscale analysis of anthropogenic landscape dynamics in the Florianópolis city-region, Santa Catarina, southern Brazil. Drawing on field research conducted between 2000 and 2004 and a review of the literature, I examined Brazilian demographic and agricultural census data for the period of 1970 to 1995-1996. I hypothesized that economic restructuring, new institutional arrangements, and the valuation of environmental amenities and ecosystem services have contributed to forest recovery trends and thus a forest transition in the city-region. My results indicate that along with rapid urbanization, in-migration, socioeconomic polarization, and segregation, the city-region has experienced the contraction of private agricultural land area, expansion of protected areas, recovery of forests, and conversion of coastal plain ecosystems to built environments. Future analyses of forest transition dynamics should consider the spatial configurations of socioeconomic inequality in city-regions.

  18. Reactions of Regional and Standard Sweetpotato Breeding Lines to Southern Root-knot Nematode race 3, 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweetpotato breeding lines and cultivars from the 2008 National Sweetpotato Collaborator’s Trial were evaluated for resistance to southern root-knot nematode, Meloidogyne incognita race 3, in a greenhouse test. The experimental design was a randomized complete block with four replicates of five ste...

  19. Selection of Superior Clones of Two Genetic Groups of Gmelina arborea in the Costa Rican Southern Pacific Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Ávila-Arias

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Gmelina arborea has become a very significant choice to guarantee the supply of raw material for the forest industry, mainly by its rapid rate of growth, high productivity, easy settlement, wide range of tolerance to conditions of site and excellent capacity of regrowth. This research was aimed to select clones that recorded superior performance on melina production for a site class I and other class III (Finca Puntarenas and Finca La Amapola, respectively, from two genetic groups (Northern area and Southern area. The selection criterion was based on the following variables: trade volume, quality and trade volume of quality, through the determination of profit or loss percentage rate on the performance of each clone compared to the population mean. For sites class I clones 11 and 22 of the Northern area and 17 and 12 from Southern area were selected to continue with breeding programs; in addition to the previous, clone 16 in the Northern area and 16, 13, 7, 23 and 21 in Southern area were selected for commercial reforestation projects. For sites class III clone 5 from the Northern area was identified to continue in the breeding programs; also clones 5, 16 and from Northern area and 17, 20, 19 and 21 of Southern area were identified for commercial reforestation projects. The remaining clones of both backgrounds should be removed from the production process and stored in germplasm banks for future objectives.

  20. Quaternary volcano-tectonic activity in the Soddo region, western margin of the Southern Main Ethiopian Rift

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Corti, G.; Sani, F.; Philippon, M.; Sokoutis, D.; Willingshofer, E.; Molin, P.

    2013-01-01

    We present an analysis of the distribution, timing, and characteristics of the volcano-tectonic activity on the western margin of the Southern Main Ethiopian Rift in the Soddo area (latitudes between ~7°10'N and ~6°30'N). The margin is characterized by the presence of numerous normal faults, with li

  1. Origin and fate of particulate organic matter in the southern Beaufort Sea - Amundsen Gulf region, Canadian Arctic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Magen, Cedric; Chaillou, Gwenaelle; Crowe, Sean;

    2010-01-01

    To establish the relative importance of terrigenous and marine organic matter in the southern Beaufort Sea, we measured the concentrations and the stable isotopic compositions of organic carbon and total nitrogen in sediments and in settling particles intercepted by sediment traps. The organic ca...

  2. Regional Variation in Lytic and Lysogenic Viral Infection in the Southern Ocean and Its Contribution to Biogeochemical Cycling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Evans, C.; Brussaard, C.P.D.

    2012-01-01

    Lytic and lysogenic viral infection was investigated throughout the Southern Ocean at sites spanning the sub-Antarctic zone, the Antarctic Circumpolar Current, and an Antarctic continental sea. Higher lytic virus activity was recorded in the more productive sub-Antarctic zone than in the iron-limite

  3. Indian Ocean Dipole and El Nino/Southern Oscillation impacts on regional chlorophyll anomalies in the Indian Ocean

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Currie, J.C.; Lengaigne, M.; Vialard, J.; Kaplan, D.M.; Aumont, O.; Naqvi, S.W.A.; Maury, O.

    The Indian Ocean Dipole (IOD) and the El Niño/Southern Oscillation (ENSO) are independent climate modes, which frequently co-occur, driving significant interannual changes within the Indian Ocean. We use a four-decade hindcast from a coupled...

  4. From Gibraltar through Levant and from Maghreb through the Southern Latin European Countries or about culture and management in the Mediterranean Sea Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amedeo ISTOCESCU

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Bordering the southern coast of Europe, the eastern part of the Middle East and northern Africa, representing the most appropriate environment for the development of cultural, social and economic of the maritime regions, influencing decisively the culture and the entire life of the inhabitants in a lot of bordering countries, ensuring the achievement of a natural maritime transportation way between eastern Levantine character and western pragmatism of our ancient continent, or between Maghreb, and the Latin world, especially in southern Europe, the Mediterranean Sea has an another treasure, yet poorly known and only partially recovered, with a history of over six thousands of years, with people proud of their history, culture, customs and traditions with unique cities, impressive by the mixture of cultures and races, its islands

  5. Evaluation of self-esteem among homosexuals in the southern region of the state of Santa Catarina, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Tiago José Canali; Sylvia Marina Soares de Oliveira; Deivid Montero Reduit; Daniele Botelho Vinholes; Viviane Pessi Feldens

    2014-01-01

    This study seeks to evaluate self-esteem in homosexuals from southern Santa Catarina and relate it to several variables such as gender, age, bullying and psychiatric treatment. Participants were selected using the "Snowball" technique. The Rosenberg self-esteem scale was used for self-esteem assessment with subsequent comparison with other variables. A total of 403 individuals were interviewed, including 310 males with a mean age of 24.02. Most of the population studied (80.9%) had high self-...

  6. Environmental challenges posed by veld fires in fragile regions: The case of the Bulilima and Mangwe districts in southern Zimbabwe

    OpenAIRE

    Ernest Dube

    2015-01-01

    This original research confronted challenges to environmental management and sustainability posed by veld fires in the Bulilima and Mangwe Districts of Matabeleland in the South Province in southern Zimbabwe. Veld fires have affected the fauna and flora, polluted air and water, and destroyed livelihoods. The study aimed at establishing challenges to environmental sustainability posed by veld fires, identifying the type of environment upon which veld fires have impacted, analysing legal issues...

  7. Regional Variation in Lytic and Lysogenic Viral Infection in the Southern Ocean and Its Contribution to Biogeochemical Cycling

    OpenAIRE

    Evans, C; Brussaard, C.P.D.

    2012-01-01

    Lytic and lysogenic viral infection was investigated throughout the Southern Ocean at sites spanning the sub-Antarctic zone, the Antarctic Circumpolar Current, and an Antarctic continental sea. Higher lytic virus activity was recorded in the more productive sub-Antarctic zone than in the iron-limited waters of the Antarctic Circumpolar Current during two transects. Reduced lytic viral activity in the Antarctic Circumpolar Current was combined with a shift toward lysogenic infection, probably ...

  8. Regional differentiation and extensive hybridization between mitochondrial clades of the Southern Ocean giant sea spider Colossendeis megalonyx

    OpenAIRE

    Dietz, Lars; Arango, Claudia P.; Dömel, Jana S.; Kenneth M. Halanych; Harder, Avril M.; Held, Christoph; Mahon, Andrew R.; Mayer, Christoph; Roland R Melzer; Rouse, Greg W.; Weis, Andrea; Wilson, Nerida G.; Leese, Florian

    2015-01-01

    Assessing the enormous diversity of Southern Ocean benthic species and their evolutionary histories is a central task in the era of global climate change. Based on mitochondrial markers, it was recently suggested that the circumpolar giant sea spider Colossendeis megalonyx comprises a complex of at least six cryptic species with mostly small and non-overlapping distribution ranges. Here, we expand the sampling to include over 500 mitochondrial COI sequences of specimens from around the Antarc...

  9. Integrated Vulnerability and Impacts Assessment for Natural and Engineered Water-Energy Systems in the Southwest and Southern Rocky Mountain Region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tidwell, Vincent C. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Wolfsberg, Andrew [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Macknick, Jordan [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Middleton, Richard [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-01-01

    In the Southwest and Southern Rocky Mountains (SWSRM), energy production, energy resource extraction, and other high volume uses depend on water supply from systems that are highly vulnerable to extreme, coupled hydro-ecosystem-climate events including prolonged drought, flooding, degrading snow cover, forest die off, and wildfire. These vulnerabilities, which increase under climate change, present a challenge for energy and resource planners in the region with the highest population growth rate in the nation. Currently, analytical tools are designed to address individual aspects of these regional energy and water vulnerabilities. Further, these tools are not linked, severely limiting the effectiveness of each individual tool. Linking established tools, which have varying degrees of spatial and temporal resolution as well as modeling objectives, and developing next-generation capabilities where needed would provide a unique and replicable platform for regional analyses of climate-water-ecosystem-energy interactions, while leveraging prior investments and current expertise (both within DOE and across other Federal agencies).

  10. Crustal and Upper Mantle Investigations Using Receiver Functions and Tomographic Inversion in the Southern Puna Plateau Region of the Central Andes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heit, B.; Yuan, X.; Bianchi, M.; Jakovlev, A.; Kumar, P.; Kay, S. M.; Sandvol, E. A.; Alonso, R.; Coira, B.; Comte, D.; Brown, L. D.; Kind, R.

    2011-12-01

    We present here the results obtained using the data form our passive seismic array in the southern Puna plateau between 25°S to 28°S latitude in Argentina and Chile. In first instance we have been able to calculate P and S receiver functions in order to investigate the Moho thickness and other seismic discontinuities in the study area. The RF data shows that the northern Puna plateau has a thicker crust and that the Moho topography is more irregular along strike. The seismic structure and thickness of the continental crust and the lithospheric mantle beneath the southern Puna plateau reveals that the LAB is deeper to the north of the array suggesting lithospheric removal towards the south. Later we performed a joint inversion of teleseismic and regional tomographic data in order to study the distribution of velocity anomalies that could help us to better understand the evolution of the Andean elevated plateau and the role of lithosphere-asthenosphere interactions in this region. Low velocities are observed in correlation with young volcanic centers (e.g. Ojos del Salado, Cerro Blanco, Galan) and agree very well with the position of crustal lineaments in the region. This is suggesting a close relationship between magmatism and lithospheric structures at crustal scale coniciding with the presence of hot asthenospheric material at the base of the crust probably induced by lithospheric foundering.

  11. Community habitats and biodiversity in the Taburno-Camposauro Regional Park. Woodland, rare species, endangered species and their conservation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guarino C

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The Taburno-Camposauro Regional Park is an area of major natural interest in the region of Campania (southern Italy: it represents a protected area isolated from the main axis of the Campanian Apennines, including two sites of community importance (SCIs - ITA8020007 - ITA8020008 covering about 75% of the whole area. The present study aims to identify and describe the community habitats and forest biodiversity in the park, as well as to provide suggestions for their conservation. By a large survey carried out from March 2004 to October 2005, nine community-interest habitats were identified, five of which are priority habitats. Some 26 tree forest species and 971 other plant species including grasses and shrubs were also identified and classified, 14 of which are listed in the red data book of plants. As conservation of each species is strictly linked to the conservation of its habitat, on the basis of legislation in force at regional, national and EU levels, management guidelines were drawn up for the various habitat types and for the most endangered species in order to ensure biodiversity conservation.

  12. Different degrees of partial melting of the enriched mantle source for Plio-Quaternary basic volcanism, Toprakkale (Osmaniye) Region, Southern Turkey

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bagci, U; Alpaslan, M; Frei, Robert;

    2011-01-01

    ) Ba, Th and U, and show light rare earth element (LREE) enrichment relative to heavy rare earth element (HREE) on primitive mantle trace and rare earth element patterns that indicate different partial melting of the same source. The isotopic 87Sr/86Sr ratio is relatively low (0.703534 –0......The Toprakkale (Osmaniye) region, located in the Yumurtalik fault zone in southern Turkey, contains Quaternary volcanic rocks, shown by their mineralogical and petrographical features to be alkali basaltic and basanitic. These alkaline rocks are enriched in the large ion lithophile elements (LILE...

  13. Two new species of freshwater crabs of the genus Heterochelamon Türkay & Dai, 1997 (Crustacea: Decapoda: Brachyura: Potamidae) from Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region, southern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naruse, Tohru; Zhu, Chunchao; Zhou, Xianmin

    2013-01-01

    Heterochelamon tessellatum n. sp. and H. castanea n. sp. are described trom the Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region, southern China. Heterochelamon tessellatum n. sp. and H. castanea n. sp. are morphologically most similar to H. yangshuoense Türkay & Dai, 1997, and H. guangxiense Türkay & Dai, 1997, respectively. The new species can be differentiated from these allied species by differences in the shape of external orbital tooth, epibranchial tooth, and male first gonopod. The present study brings the number of Heterochelamon species to five. A key to species of the genus Heterochelamon is provided.

  14. Catalog of 162 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in a 4.7-kb region of the HLA-DP loci in southern Chinese ethnic groups

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XiaoyiLiu; ZehuanLiu; BinLin; YuanyuanLiu; ZhuoxunChen; WeicongHe; DongZhong; AnlongXu

    2005-01-01

    HLA class-Ⅱ proteins are cell-surface molecules that present antigens to T cells, and their expressional regulation is crucial to the immune reaction.Sequence variation at the regulatory region can directly affect the gene expression level. We cloned and sequenced a 4.7-kb region containing the regulatory region, exonl, and partial intronl of both HLA-DPA1 and DPB1 genes in 25 variable sequences from southern Chinese ethnic groups and got a high-density map of162 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs): seven in 5′-flanking regions, four in 5′-untranslated regions, and four in the coding regions. By comparing these data with SNPs in dbSNP database in the NCBI, 145 SNPs(89.5%) were novel. In addition, eight genetic variations of insertion-deletion polymorphisms (INDELs) were discovered within the 4.7-kb region. These high-resolution maps can be used as resources of markers for association studies of complex diseases, assessment of individuals' predisposition to diseases, and tailoring oftherapies, as well as research markers for population genetics and evolution.

  15. Functional comparisons between unimodal and bimodal analytical relationships in terms of water balance predictions for the case study of the Vesuvius volcanic area (Naples, Southern Italy).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romano, Nunzio; Nasta, Paolo

    2015-04-01

    Optimal performance of large-scale numerical modeling of the soil-vegetation-atmosphere (SVA) system mandates accurate assessment and description of the soil hydraulic properties, namely the water retention (WRF) and hydraulic conductivity (HCF) functions. These functions are commonly described by simple unimodal analytical relations that guarantee mathematical flexibility with few parameters in the majority of soil types. However, other soils, like volcanic soils, are characterized by a complex structure yielding a bimodal or even a multimodal distribution of pore sizes. In these cases, reliable hydrologic predictions can be obtained resorting to more complex hydraulic functions, yet more accurate and robust ones. To overcome some drawbacks of the classic unimodal hydraulic relationships, Romano et al. (2011) have developed closed-form bimodal lognormal relations for improving the description of both WRF and HCF. However, the reliability of this description of the soil hydraulic behavior is often tested at the curve fitting level only. Comparisons between unimodal and bimodal soil hydraulic relationships are more effective and informative when performed in functional terms. Therefore, as the primary objective of this study, we used a hydrological balance model to quantify and compare soil moisture flow and storage regimes for 14 years (1999-2012), when characterized by unimodal or bimodal approximations of 39 measured soil water retention and hydraulic conductivity characteristics collected in volcanic Vesuvian soil located in the Campania Region Plain (Naples, Southern Italy).

  16. A coupled remote sensing and the Surface Energy Balance based algorithms to estimate actual evapotranspiration over the western and southern regions of Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmoud, Shereif H.; Alazba, A. A.

    2016-07-01

    In countries with absolute water scarcity such as the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA), large-scale actual evapotranspiration estimation is of great concern in water use practices. Herein, spatial and temporal distribution of actual evapotranspiration (AET) in the western and southern regions of KSA during 1992-2014 was estimated using the SEBAL model with field observations. Zonal statistics for each land use-cover type were also identified, in order to understand their effects on water consumption. In addition, daily and seasonal water consumption for major crops was computed. Results revealed a gradual increase in monthly AET values from January to April and subsequent decline from May to December. The maximum monthly AET values were observed for irrigated cropland in southwestern, central, and southeastern regions of Asir Province, central and southwestern regions of Al-Baha Province, central and the plains region of Jazan Province, southern portion of Makkah Province, and limited areas in the northern regions of Madinah Province. The annual AET ranged from 418.8 to 3442.3 mm yr-1. The normal distribution of mean annual AET values ranged from 717 to 1020 mm yr-1. Forty-two percent of the study area had an annual AET that ranged from 717 to 1020 mm yr-1. The second highest range of frequencies was concentrated around 1020-1322 mm yr-1, representing the majority of agricultural land. The consumptive water use of the different land cover types in study area indicated that irrigated cropland which occupied 14.6% of the study area had AET rates much higher than other land uses. Water bodies are the next highest, with forest and shrubland and sparse vegetation slightly lower, and very low AET rates from bare soil. Daily and seasonal water consumption of major cropping systems varied spatially depending on cropping practices and climatic conditions.

  17. THE EFFECT OF APPLICATION OF THE REGIONAL LAW N° 3 “URGENT INTERVENTIONS FOR THE PROTECTION OF THE ITALIAN MEDITERRANEAN WATER BUFFALO IN CAMPANIA” WITH REFERENCE TO FRAUDS IN THE BUFFALO MOZZARELLA CHEESE AND DOP BUFFALO MOZZARELLA CHEESE

    OpenAIRE

    Y.T.R. Proroga; Caligiuri, V.; R. Pellicanò; R. Gagliardi; Guarino, A.; I. La Tela; D. Bove

    2009-01-01

    The Campania Region, in order to protect the Italian Mediterranean Buffalo, established a set of yearly official controls on all buffalo products manufactured in the Region. Our work demonstrates the effect of such a measure on the production of the mozzarella cheese of buffalo and that of the mozzarella cheese of buffalo campana, in favour of the commercialization of aliud pro alio.

  18. Southern high-latitude Digisonde observations of ionosphere E-region Bragg scatter during intense lacuna conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Monselesan, D. P.; Morris, R. J.; P. L. Dyson; Hyde, M. R.

    2004-01-01

    During summer months at solar cycle minimum, F-region lacuna and slant-Es conditions (SEC) are common features of daytime ionograms recorded around local magnetic noon at Casey, Antarctica. Digisonde measurements of drift velocity height profiles show that the occurrence of lacuna prevents the determination of F-region drift velocities and also affects E-region drift velocity measurements. Unique E-region spectral features revealed as intervals of Bragg scatter superimposed on typical backgro...

  19. Concentrations and solubility of trace elements in fine particles at a mountain site, southern China: regional sources and cloud processing

    OpenAIRE

    T. Li; Y Wang; Li, W. J.; Chen, J. M.; Wang, T; Wang, W. X.

    2015-01-01

    The concentrations and solubility of twelve trace elements in PM2.5 at Mt. Lushan, southern China, were investigated during the summer of 2011 and the spring of 2012. The average PM2.5 mass was 55.2 ± 20.1 μg m-3 during the observation period. Temporal variations of all trace elements including total and water-soluble fractions with several dust storm spikes for total fraction Al and Fe were observed. The enrichment factor (EF)...

  20. Concentrations and solubility of trace elements in fine particles at a mountain site, southern China: regional sources and cloud processing

    OpenAIRE

    T. Li; Y Wang; Li, W. J.; Chen, J. M.; Wang, T; Wang, W. X.

    2015-01-01

    The concentrations and solubility of twelve trace elements in PM2.5 at Mt. Lushan, southern China, were investigated during the summer of 2011 and the spring of 2012. The average PM2.5 mass was 55.2 ± 20.1 μg m−3 during the observation period. Temporal variations of all trace elements including total and water-soluble fractions with several dust storm spikes in total fractions of Al and Fe were observed. The enrichment factor (EF) values were 1 order of magnitude higher ...

  1. 陕南汉江走廊区域旅游协作研究%Research on Regional Tourism Cooperation in Southern Shaanxi along Hanjiang River Corridor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何红

    2013-01-01

    Regional tourism cooperation is an effective way of developing tourism economy and improving competitiveness of peripheral regions. Southern Shaanxi along Hanjiang River corridor is a typical peripheral tourism area and a state key ecological function region, for which regional tourism cooperation is of great significance. The main measures for the achievement of regional tourism cooperation are as follows: dominance by government, guidance of policies, coordination mechanism, benefit sharing, scientific construction plan, investment environment, brand image based on regional features, and tourism industrial clusters.%区域旅游协作是实现边缘地区旅游经济突破发展和提升区域旅游竞争力的有效途径.陕南汉江走廊是典型的旅游边缘地区和国家重点生态功能区,区域旅游协作意义重大.实现区域旅游协作的具体举措包括:坚持政府主导,加强政策引导;完善协调机制,坚持利益共享;编制协作规划,凸显三大效益;改善投资环境,坚持多元投入;立足地域特色,共塑品牌形象;培育区域中心,构建产业集群.

  2. Landscape and soil regionalization in southern Brazilian Amazon and contiguous areas: methodology and relevance for ecological studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boris Volkoff

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Soils of a large tropical area with differentiated landscapes cannot be treated uniformly for ecological applications. We intend to develop a framework based on physiography that can be used in regional applications. The study region occupies more than 1.1 million km² and is located at the junction of the savanna region of Central Brazil and the Amazon forest. It includes a portion of the high sedimentary Central Brazil plateau and large areas of mostly peneplained crystalline shield on the border of the wide inner-Amazon low sedimentary plain. A first broad subdivision was made into landscape regions followed by a more detailed subdivision into soil regions. Mapping information was extracted from soil survey maps at scales of 1:250000-1:500000. Soil units were integrated within a homogenized legend using a set of selected attributes such as taxonomic term, the texture of the B horizon and the associated vegetation. For each region, a detailed inventory of the soil units with their area distribution was elaborated. Ten landscape regions and twenty-four soil regions were recognized and delineated. Soil cover of a region is normally characterized by a cluster composed of many soil units. Soil diversity is comparable in the landscape and the soil regions. Composition of the soil cover is quantitatively expressed in terms of area extension of the soil units. Such geographic divisions characterized by grouping soil units and their spatial estimates must be used for regional ecological applications.

  3. Regional contemporaneity of eustatic, subsidence, and tectonic events in the Middle-Upper Ordovician of the Appalachians and Ouachita orogens and the southern Oklahoma aulacogen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Finney, S.C.; Bergstroem, S.M.

    1985-01-01

    On-going graptolite and conodont studies in the Southern Appalachians, the Ouachitas, and the Arbuckle Mountains have revealed contemporaneity of important geological events of regional significance. Reassessment of previous graptolite biostratigraphy has resulted in a revised zonation that has solved some correlation problems and is tied to the Midcontinent and North Atlantic conodont zonations. These zonations are used to date significant geological events in geographically separate regions during two time intervals in the Middle-Upper Ordovician. The base of the graptolite shale succession (Athens) in the Southern Appalachians (Alabama-Tennessee) belongs to the G. teretiusculus Zone, or locally (Georgia) possibly a slightly older unit, and marks the initial shelf-basin development and uplift of source areas to the east reflecting a phase of the Taconic Orogeny. The bases of the Womble and Woods Hollow shales in the Ouachita Orogen represent about the same level. Slightly younger N. gracilis Zone strata tend to be transgressive throughout the world and appear to represent a global eustatic event. In the Arbuckle Mountains this event is reflected by the Tulip Creek Shale. A major subsidence event in the Oklahoma aulacogen, contemporaneous with the regression, produced a transgressive lithofacies sequence represented by the lower Viola Springs Formation in the Arbuckle Mountains. The regressive and subsidence events appear to have been coeval with the emplacement of the Taconic allochthon and Hamburg Klippe in the Northern Appalachians.

  4. Above-ground tree outside forest (TOF) phytomass and carbon estimation in the semiarid region of southern Haryana: A synthesis approach of remote sensing and field data

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Kuldeep Singh; Pritam Chand

    2012-12-01

    Trees outside forest (TOF) play an important role in global carbon cycling, since they are large pools of carbon as well as potential carbon sinks and sources to the atmosphere. In view of the importance of biomass estimates in the global carbon (C) cycle, the present study demonstrates the potential of the standwise tree outside forest inventory data and finer spatial resolution of IRS-P6 LISS-IV satellite data to classify TOF, to estimate above-ground TOF phytomass and the carbon content of TOF in a semiarid region of the southern Haryana, India. The study reports that above-ground TOF phytomass varied from 1.26 tons/ha in the scattered trees in the rural/urban area to 91.5 tons/ha in the dense linear TOF along the canal. The total above-ground TOF phytomass and carbon content was calculated as 367.04 and 174.34 tons/ha, respectively in the study area. The study results conclude that the classification of TOF and estimation of phytomass and carbon content in TOF can be successfully achieved through the combined approach of Remote Sensing and GIS based spatial technique with the supplement of field data. The present approach will help to find out the potential carbon sequestration zone in the semi-arid region of southern Haryana, India.

  5. Nitrogen fixation in the Southern Ocean: a case of study of the Fe-fertilized Kerguelen region (KEOPS II cruise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. L. González

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available N2 fixation rates were measured during the KEOPS2 cruise in the HNLC area of Southern Ocean and in naturally iron-fertilized waters (Kerguelen Island 49.25° S, 69.58° E using the 15N isotopic technique. We detected N2 fixation within the mixed layer at all stations, from the surface to 140 m depth. The data shows high variability with rates ranging between 0.42 and 20.11 nmol N L−1 d−1. The highest rates were concentrated in the euphotic layer and maximum values were obtained north of polar front (station F-L, which coincide with a positive N* ([NO3]–16[PO4], high chlorophyll concentration and dissolved iron. N2 fixation rates were also obtained in stations with moderate (A3-2; E-4W and also low (R-2 iron levels as well as Chl a, suggesting that beside the microbial biomass, its composition/structure is a driving factor controlling N2 fixation activities. Molecular analysis showed a diazotrophic community dominated by heterotrophic bacterioplankton. Size fractioned experiments indicated that most of N2 fixating activities came from 2 fixation is occurring in the Southern Ocean, at rates exceeding previous reports for high latitudes. Our findings suggest an indirect role of dFe in the regulation of N2 fixation through the enhancement of regenerated primary production and the availability of phytoplankton-derived dissolved organic matter, which in turn may stimulate heterotrophic bacterioplankton.

  6. Preliminary observations on the Campania-Basilicata, Italy, earthquake of November 23, 1980

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stratta, J. L.; Escalente, L. E.; Krinitzsky, E.L.; Morelli, U.

    1981-01-01

    The authors comprised a field study team sent by the Earthquake Engineering Research Institue (EERI) and the National Research Council (NRC) of the United States to make a reconnaissance study of the earthquake in southern Italy. The team members were selected for their experience and expertise and served the EERI and the NRC as individuals, into as representatives of employers or agencies with which they are affiliated. The team's preliminary obersvations are given below. A report of the study will be published jointly by EERI and NRC.  

  7. Economic impact of explosive volcanic eruptions: A simulation-based assessment model applied to Campania region volcanoes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuccaro, Giulio; Leone, Mattia Federico; Del Cogliano, Davide; Sgroi, Angelo

    2013-10-01

    PLINIVS Study Centre of University of Naples Federico II has developed a methodology that aims to estimate, in probabilistic terms, the direct and the indirect economic impacts of a Sub-Plinian I or Strombolian type eruption of Vesuvius. The economic model has been implemented as a complementary tool of the Volcanic Impact Simulation Model, a tool developed at PLINIVS Center available to the Italian Civil Protection Department (DPC) decision makers to quantify the potential losses consequent to a possible eruption of Vesuvius or Campi Flegrei. Along the expected time history of the eruptive event all the possible "direct costs" and the "factors" (indirect costs) impacting the economic growth in the event area have been identified. Each cost factor is built up through a specific algorithm that is fed by various providers, in order to run software that will estimate the global amount of economic damage from a volcanic event. The model does not include the economic evaluation of intangibles (e.g. human casualties), while the evaluation of damage to the local cultural heritage (historical buildings, archeological sites, monuments, etc.), is linked to the economic impact on tourism, estimated into indirect costs. The architecture of the model is based on a simulation logic, which allows an evaluation of different economic impact scenarios through input changes, allowing the model to be used as a tool to support the decision making process.

  8. Zeolitized tuffs in pedotechnique for the reclamation of abandoned quarries. A case study in the Campania region (Italy).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buondonno, A; Grilli, E; Capra, G F; Glorioso, C; Langella, A; Leone, A P; Leone, N; Odierna, P; Vacca, S; Vigliotti, R C

    2013-06-15

    The present study aims to assess the evolution of different proto-horizons as embryonic soils built by pedotechnologies for the reclamation and management of derelict and damaged lands, such as abandoned quarries. The model proto-horizons were assembled by utilizing coarse limestone gravel or zeolitized Phlegraean Yellow Tuff (PYT) as mineral components and commercial compost-amendments or a phosphorite-poultry manure mixture as organic matrices for growth of a pasture-grass under controlled conditions. The evolution of the model proto-horizons was followed by an evaluation of the stability and modification of the organic matter (OM) with reference to plant development. The results suggest that the natural carbonatic substrate occurring in limestone quarries was unable to sustain significant plant growth, while the PYT was suitable and efficient as a pedogenic substrate because it supported plant growth and induced a conspicuous accumulation of OM due to root activity. In particular, OM, including humic and non-humic components, greatly increased in the PYT treatment with the phosphorite-poultry manure mixture showing a concurrent trend toward humification. Conversely, an overall tendency toward degradation of OM was detected in the PYT model proto-horizon treated with commercial compost. Feasibility estimates show that quarry restoration costs appear reasonable where environmental impacts are high.

  9. Approaches to supply chain logistics integration in the textile/clothing sector: an exploratory study in the Region of Campania

    OpenAIRE

    De Martino, Marcella; Marasco, Alessandra

    2007-01-01

    Given its potential to reduce lead times and total costs of operations, increase delivery speed, responsiveness and flexibility, and ultimately customer satisfaction, supply chain logistics integration can help to improve the competitiveness of the Italian textile and clothing (T/C) firms. However, little research works on supply chain management in general, and few studies on logistics integration in particular have focused their attention on this sector. This paper analyses the approaches t...

  10. Newborn hearing screening in the Campania region (Italy): early language and perceptual outcomes of infants with permanent hearing loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marciano, E; Laria, C; Malesci, R; Iadicicco, P; Landolfi, E; Niri, C; Papa, C; Franzè, A; Auletta, G

    2013-12-01

    Hearing loss in children causes a deficit in early perceptive and language skills. The objective of this study was to evaluate early receptive and expressive language outcomes in children with hearing loss, identified by hearing screening, compared to the time of diagnosis. We studied 18 severely hearing impaired children who were divided into two groups according to the time of diagnosis. Evaluation of communicative language ability was carried out at 18 month of age using the "MacArthur Child Development Inventory" questionnaire, while evaluation of acoustic-perceptual abilities was assessed with the Genovese-Arslan protocol every three months following diagnosis. The linguistic communicative and acoustic-perceptual outcomes of hearing impaired children diagnosed before 6 months of age followed those expected for normally hearing children, with a trend of temporal progression of skills that were faster than those of children diagnosed after 6 months of age.

  11. Nutrition and Osteoporosis: Preliminary data of Campania Region of European PERsonalised ICT Supported Service for Independent Living and Active Ageing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vuolo, L.; Barrea, L.; Savanelli, MC; Savastano, S.; Rubino, M.; Scarano, E.; Soprano, M.; Illario, M.; Colao, A.; Di Somma, C.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Bone impairment and malnutrition are associated with significant disability and mortality. PERSSILAA is an European project developing health services to detect and prevent frailty in older adults by addressing cognitive, physical and nutritional. Methods: Subjects underwent anthropometric measurements, calcaneal quantitative ultrasound (QUS) scan and PREDIMED (PREvención con DIeta MEDiterránea) questionnaire. Aim: To investigate the association between adherence to the Mediterranean Diet (MD) and bone health. Results: 87 subjects (4 males and 83 females) 70.1±4.9 aged, were examined. Mean Body Mass Index (BMI) was 28.7±4.7(kg/m2): in particular 28 subjects (32.2%) resulted obese, 42 (48.3%) overweight, and only 17 (19.5%) with normal weight. Mean T score was −1.2±1.2: in particular 13 subjects (14.9%) resulted osteoporotic; 43 (49.5%) osteopenic; and 31 (35.6%) with normal bone mineral density. Regarding adherence to MD, 9 subjects (10.3%) were poorly adherent; 41 (47.2%) average adherent; 37 (42.5%) highly adherent. T-score was associated with PREDIMED score and osteoporotic subjects presented the lowest PREDIMED score (5.8±2.2). Conclusions: These preliminary data show a significant correlation between the adherence to the MD and bone health parameters. The association between MD and bone health highlights the potential beneficial effects of nutritional interventions promoting a Mediterranean food pattern, as safe adjuvant treatment in ageing. PMID:27042428

  12. A stochastic ensemble-based model to predict crop water requirements from numerical weather forecasts and VIS-NIR high resolution satellite images in Southern Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelosi, Anna; Falanga Bolognesi, Salvatore; De Michele, Carlo; Medina Gonzalez, Hanoi; Villani, Paolo; D'Urso, Guido; Battista Chirico, Giovanni

    2015-04-01

    Irrigation agriculture is one the biggest consumer of water in Europe, especially in southern regions, where it accounts for up to 70% of the total water consumption. The EU Common Agricultural Policy, combined with the Water Framework Directive, imposes to farmers and irrigation managers a substantial increase of the efficiency in the use of water in agriculture for the next decade. Ensemble numerical weather predictions can be valuable data for developing operational advisory irrigation services. We propose a stochastic ensemble-based model providing spatial and temporal estimates of crop water requirements, implemented within an advisory service offering detailed maps of irrigation water requirements and crop water consumption estimates, to be used by water irrigation managers and farmers. The stochastic model combines estimates of crop potential evapotranspiration retrieved from ensemble numerical weather forecasts (COSMO-LEPS, 16 members, 7 km resolution) and canopy parameters (LAI, albedo, fractional vegetation cover) derived from high resolution satellite images in the visible and near infrared wavelengths. The service provides users with daily estimates of crop water requirements for lead times up to five days. The temporal evolution of the crop potential evapotranspiration is simulated with autoregressive models. An ensemble Kalman filter is employed for updating model states by assimilating both ground based meteorological variables (where available) and numerical weather forecasts. The model has been applied in Campania region (Southern Italy), where a satellite assisted irrigation advisory service has been operating since 2006. This work presents the results of the system performance for one year of experimental service. The results suggest that the proposed model can be an effective support for a sustainable use and management of irrigation water, under conditions of water scarcity and drought. Since the evapotranspiration term represents a staple

  13. An operational real-time flood forecasting system in Southern Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz, Enrique; Coccia, Gabriele; Todini, Ezio

    2015-04-01

    A real-time flood forecasting system has been operating since year 2012 as a non-structural measure for mitigating the flood risk in Campania Region (Southern Italy), within the Sele river basin (3.240 km2). The Sele Flood Forecasting System (SFFS) has been built within the FEWS (Flood Early Warning System) platform developed by Deltares and it assimilates the numerical weather predictions of the COSMO LAM family: the deterministic COSMO-LAMI I2, the deterministic COSMO-LAMI I7 and the ensemble numerical weather predictions COSMO-LEPS (16 members). Sele FFS is composed by a cascade of three main models. The first model is a fully continuous physically based distributed hydrological model, named TOPKAPI-eXtended (Idrologia&Ambiente s.r.l., Naples, Italy), simulating the dominant processes controlling the soil water dynamics, runoff generation and discharge with a spatial resolution of 250 m. The second module is a set of Neural-Networks (ANN) built for forecasting the river stages at a set of monitored cross-sections. The third component is a Model Conditional Processor (MCP), which provides the predictive uncertainty (i.e., the probability of occurrence of a future flood event) within the framework of a multi-temporal forecast, according to the most recent advancements on this topic (Coccia and Todini, HESS, 2011). The MCP provides information about the probability of exceedance of a maximum river stage within the forecast lead time, by means of a discrete time function representing the variation of cumulative probability of exceeding a river stage during the forecast lead time and the distribution of the time occurrence of the flood peak, starting from one or more model forecasts. This work shows the Sele FFS performance after two years of operation, evidencing the added-values that can provide to a flood early warning and emergency management system.

  14. Adaptation options to future climate of maize crop in Southern Italy examined using thermal sums

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Tommasi, P.; Alfieri, S. M.; Bonfante, A.; Basile, A.; De Lorenzi, F.; Menenti, M.

    2012-04-01

    Future climate scenarios predict substantial changes in air temperature within a few decades and agriculture needs to increase the capacity of adaptation both by changing spatial distribution of crops and shifting timing of management. In this context the prediction of future behaviour of crops with respect to present climate could be useful for farm and landscape management. In this work, thermal sums were used to simulate a maize crop in a future scenario, in terms of length of the growing season and of intervals between the main phenological stages. The area under study is the Sele plain (Campania Region), a pedo-climatic homogeneous area, one of the most agriculturally advanced and relevant flatland in Southern Italy. Maize was selected for the present study since it is extensively grown in the Sele Plain for water buffalofeeding,. Daily time-series of climatic data of the area under study were generated within the Italian project AGROSCENARI, and include maximum and minimum temperature and precipitation. The 1961-1990 and the 1998-2008 periods were compared to a future climate scenario (2021-2050). Future time series were generated using a statistical downscaling technique (Tomozeiu et al., 2007) from general circulation models (AOGCM). Differences in crop development length were calculated for different maize varieties under 3 management options for sowing time: custom date (typical for the area), before and after custom date. The interactions between future thermal regime and the length of growing season under the different management options were analyzed. Moreover, frequency of spells of high temperatures during the anthesis was examined. The feasibility of the early sowing option was discussed in relation with field trafficability at the beginning of the crop cycle. The work was carried out within the Italian national project AGROSCENARI funded by the Ministry for Agricultural, Food and Forest Policies (MIPAAF, D.M. 8608/7303/2008)

  15. Regional variation in lytic and lysogenic viral infection in the Southern Ocean and its contribution to biogeochemical cycling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Claire; Brussaard, Corina P D

    2012-09-01

    Lytic and lysogenic viral infection was investigated throughout the Southern Ocean at sites spanning the sub-Antarctic zone, the Antarctic Circumpolar Current, and an Antarctic continental sea. Higher lytic virus activity was recorded in the more productive sub-Antarctic zone than in the iron-limited waters of the Antarctic Circumpolar Current during two transects. Reduced lytic viral activity in the Antarctic Circumpolar Current was combined with a shift toward lysogenic infection, probably resulting from the lower concentration of potential prokaryotic hosts. Superimposed on this variation, lytic viral production was lower in a transect completed in the Drake Passage in autumn (1.8 × 10(8) to 1.5 × 10(9) liter(-1) day(-1)) than over the Greenwich Meridian during summer (5.1 × 10(8) to 2.0 × 10(10) cells liter(-1) day(-1)), indicating that viral activity is linked to the overall seasonal fluctuations in biotic activity. Interestingly, while prokaryotic abundance was lowest in the coastal Weddell Sea, levels of bacterial and lytic viral production (4.3 × 10(8) to 1.7 × 10(10) cells liter(-1) day(-1)) in this area were similar to those of the other zones. This may explain the weak relationship between the distribution of prokaryotes and chlorophyll in the Weddell Sea, as a high turnover of prokaryotic biomass may have been stimulated by the availability of substrates in the form of viral lysate. With estimated carbon and iron releases of 0.02 to 7.5 μg liter(-1) day(-1) and 1.5 to 175.7 pg liter(-1) day(-1), respectively, viral activity in the Southern Ocean is shown to be a major contributor to satisfying the elemental requirements of microbes, notably prokaryotes in the Weddell Sea and phytoplankton in the sub-Antarctic zone. PMID:22798377

  16. Strategies for 2nd Grade zonation on susceptibility to seismic-induced landslides in Southern Apennines, Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarallo, D.; Rapolla, A.; Paoletti, V.; di Nocera, S.; Matano, F.

    2010-12-01

    significances of the first two factors multiplied by the significance of the third factor. The outcome of the study was then compared with a seismic-induced landslide database. The obtained maps show very high susceptibilities in the San Giorgio La Molara, Ariano Irpino and Capo Sele areas. All the landslides occur in zones characterized by the higher susceptibility classes while the spatial area for these classes is kept to a minimum. FELL R., COROMINAS J., BONNARD C., CASCINI L., LEROI E., SAVAGE W.Z. (2008) - Guidelines for landslide susceptibility, hazard and risk zoning for land use planning. Engineering Geology 102, 85-98. RAPOLLA A., PAOLETTI V., SECOMANDI M. (2010) - Seismically-induced landslide susceptibility evaluation: application of a new procedure to the island of Ischia, Campania Region, Southern Italy. Engineering Geology 114, 10-25.

  17. Southern Identity in "Southern Living" Magazine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauder, Tracy

    2012-01-01

    A fantasy-theme analysis of the editors' letters in "Southern Living" magazine shows an editorial vision of valuing the past and showcasing unique regional qualities. In addition, a content analysis of the visual representation of race in the magazine's formative years and recent past validates that inhabitants of the region were portrayed…

  18. A regional and multi-faceted approach to postgraduate water education – the WaterNet experience in Southern Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Love

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports the experience of a regional network of academic departments involved in water education that started as a project and evolved, over a period of 12 yr, into an independent network organisation. The paper pursues three objectives. First, it argues that it makes good sense to organise postgraduate education and research on water resources on a regional scale and presents the WaterNet experience as an example that a regional approach can work. Second, it presents preliminary findings and conclusions that the regional approach presented by WaterNet did make a contribution to the capacity needs of the region both in terms of management and research capacity. Third, it draws two generalised lessons from the WaterNet experience. Lesson one pertains to the importance of legitimate ownership and an accountability structure for network effectiveness. Lesson two is related to the financial and intellectual resources required to jointly developing educational programmes through shared experience.

  19. Rockslide susceptibility and hazard assessment for mitigation works design along vertical rocky cliffs: workflow proposal based on a real case-study conducted in Sacco (Campania), Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pignalosa, Antonio; Di Crescenzo, Giuseppe; Marino, Ermanno; Terracciano, Rosario; Santo, Antonio

    2015-04-01

    The work here presented concerns a case study in which a complete multidisciplinary workflow has been applied for an extensive assessment of the rockslide susceptibility and hazard in a common scenario such as a vertical and fractured rocky cliffs. The studied area is located in a high-relief zone in Southern Italy (Sacco, Salerno, Campania), characterized by wide vertical rocky cliffs formed by tectonized thick successions of shallow-water limestones. The study concerned the following phases: a) topographic surveying integrating of 3d laser scanning, photogrammetry and GNSS; b) gelogical surveying, characterization of single instabilities and geomecanichal surveying, conducted by geologists rock climbers; c) processing of 3d data and reconstruction of high resolution geometrical models; d) structural and geomechanical analyses; e) data filing in a GIS-based spatial database; f) geo-statistical and spatial analyses and mapping of the whole set of data; g) 3D rockfall analysis; The main goals of the study have been a) to set-up an investigation method to achieve a complete and thorough characterization of the slope stability conditions and b) to provide a detailed base for an accurate definition of the reinforcement and mitigation systems. For this purposes the most up-to-date methods of field surveying, remote sensing, 3d modelling and geospatial data analysis have been integrated in a systematic workflow, accounting of the economic sustainability of the whole project. A novel integrated approach have been applied both fusing deterministic and statistical surveying methods. This approach enabled to deal with the wide extension of the studied area (near to 200.000 m2), without compromising an high accuracy of the results. The deterministic phase, based on a field characterization of single instabilities and their further analyses on 3d models, has been applied for delineating the peculiarity of each single feature. The statistical approach, based on geostructural

  20. Serological evidence for Saint Louis encephalitis virus in free-ranging New World monkeys and horses within the upper Paraná River basin region, Southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walfrido Kühl Svoboda

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Saint Louis encephalitis virus (SLEV primarily occurs in the Americas and produces disease predominantly in humans. This study investigated the serological presence of SLEV in nonhuman primates and horses from southern Brazil. Methods From June 2004 to December 2005, sera from 133 monkeys (Alouatta caraya, n=43; Sapajus nigritus, n=64; Sapajus cay, n=26 trap-captured at the Paraná River basin region and 23 blood samples from farm horses were obtained and used for the serological detection of a panel of 19 arboviruses. All samples were analyzed in a hemagglutination inhibition (HI assay; positive monkey samples were confirmed in a mouse neutralization test (MNT. Additionally, all blood samples were inoculated into C6/36 cell culture for viral isolation. Results Positive seroreactivity was only observed for SLEV. A prevalence of SLEV antibodies in sera was detected in Alouatta caraya (11.6%; 5/43, Sapajus nigritus (12.5%; 8/64, and S. cay (30.8%; 8/26 monkeys with the HI assay. Of the monkeys, 2.3% (1/42 of A. caraya, 6.3% 94/64 of S. nigritus, and 15.4% (4/26 of S. cay were positive for SLEV in the MNT. Additionally, SLEV antibodies were detected by HI in 39.1% (9/23 of the horses evaluated in this study. Arboviruses were not isolated from any blood sample. Conclusions These results confirmed the presence of SLEV in nonhuman primates and horses from southern Brazil. These findings most likely represent the first detection of this virus in nonhuman primates beyond the Amazon region. The detection of SLEV in animals within a geographical region distant from the Amazon basin suggests that there may be widespread and undiagnosed dissemination of this disease in Brazil.

  1. Airports and Airfields, Airports in 18 county region in South Georgia, Published in 1999, 1:7200 (1in=600ft) scale, Southern Georgia Regional Commission.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Airports and Airfields dataset, published at 1:7200 (1in=600ft) scale as of 1999. It is described as 'Airports in 18 county region in South Georgia'. Data by...

  2. Railroad Lines, Railroads in 18 county region in South Georgia, Published in 1999, 1:7200 (1in=600ft) scale, Southern Georgia Regional Commission.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Railroad Lines dataset, published at 1:7200 (1in=600ft) scale as of 1999. It is described as 'Railroads in 18 county region in South Georgia'. Data by this...

  3. A late Holocene paleoenvironmental reconstruction from Agua Caliente, southern Belize, linked to regional climate variability and cultural change at the Maya polity of Uxbenká

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Megan K.; Prufer, Keith M.; Culleton, Brendan J.; Kennett, Douglas J.

    2014-07-01

    We report high-resolution macroscopic charcoal, pollen and sedimentological data for Agua Caliente, a freshwater lagoon located in southern Belize, and infer a late Holocene record of human land-use/climate interactions for the nearby prehistoric Maya center of Uxbenká. Land-use activities spanning the initial clearance of forests for agriculture through the drought-linked Maya collapse and continuing into the historic recolonization of the region are all reflected in the record. Human land alteration in association with swidden agriculture is evident early in the record during the Middle Preclassic starting ca. 2600 cal yr BP. Fire slowly tapered off during the Late and Terminal Classic, consistent with the gradual political demise and depopulation of the Uxbenká polity sometime between ca. 1150 and 950 cal yr BP, during a period of multiple droughts evident in a nearby speleothem record. Fire activity was at its lowest during the Maya Postclassic ca. 950-430 cal yr BP, but rose consistent with increasing recolonization of the region between ca. 430 cal yr BP and present. These data suggest that this environmental record provides both a proxy for 2800 years of cultural change, including colonization, growth, decline, and reorganization of regional populations, and an independent confirmation of recent paleoclimate reconstructions from the same region.

  4. Focal mechanisms in the southern Aegean from temporary seismic networks – implications for the regional stress field and ongoing deformation processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Friederich

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The lateral variation of the stress field in the southern Aegean plate and the subducting Hellenic slab is determined from recordings of seismicity obtained with the CYCNET and EGELADOS networks in the years from 2002 to 2007. First motions from 7000 well-located microearthquakes were analysed to produce 540 well-constrained focal mechanisms. They were complemented by another 140 derived by waveform matching of records from larger events. Most of these earthquakes fall into 16 distinct spatial clusters distributed over the southern Aegean region. For each cluster, a stress inversion could be carried out yielding consistent estimates of the stress field and its spatial variation. At crustal levels, the stress field is generally dominated by a steeply dipping compressional principal stress direction except in places where coupling of the subducting slab and overlying plate come into play. Tensional principal stresses are generally subhorizontal. Just behind the forearc, the crust is under arc-parallel tension whereas in the volcanic areas around Kos, Columbo and Astypalea tensional and intermediate stresses are nearly degenerate. Further west and north, in the Santorini–Amorgos graben and in the area of the islands of Mykonos, Andros and Tinos, tensional stresses are significant and point around the NW–SE direction. Very similar stress fields are observed in western Turkey with the tensional axis rotated to NNE–SSW. Intermediate-depth earthquakes below 100 km in the Nisyros region indicate that the Hellenic slab experiences slab-parallel tension at these depths. The direction of tension is close to east–west and thus deviates from the local NW-oriented slab dip presumably owing to the segmentation of the slab. Beneath the Cretan sea, at shallower levels, the slab is under NW–SE compression. Tensional principal stresses in the crust exhibit very good alignment with extensional strain rate principal axes derived from GPS velocities except

  5. Southern high-latitude Digisonde observations of ionosphere E-region Bragg scatter during intense lacuna conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. P. Monselesan

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available During summer months at solar cycle minimum, F-region lacuna and slant-Es conditions (SEC are common features of daytime ionograms recorded around local magnetic noon at Casey, Antarctica. Digisonde measurements of drift velocity height profiles show that the occurrence of lacuna prevents the determination of F-region drift velocities and also affects E-region drift velocity measurements. Unique E-region spectral features revealed as intervals of Bragg scatter superimposed on typical background E-region reflection were observed in Digisonde Doppler spectra during intense lacuna conditions. Daytime E-region Doppler spectra recorded at carrier frequencies from 1.5 to 2.7MHz, below the E-region critical frequency foE, have two side-peaks corresponding to Bragg scatter at approximately ±1-2Hz symmetrically located on each side of a central-peak corresponding to near-zenith total reflections. Angle-of-arrival information and ray-tracing simulations show that echo returns are coming from oblique directions most likely resulting from direct backscatter from just below the total reflection height for each sounding frequency. The Bragg backscatter events are shown to manifest during polar lacuna conditions, and to affect the determination of E-region background drift velocities, and as such must be considered when using standard Doppler-sorted interferometry (DSI techniques to estimate ionospheric drift velocities. Given the Doppler and spatial separation of the echoes determined from high-resolution Doppler measurements, we are able to estimate the Bragg scatter phase velocity independently from the bulk E-region motion. The phase velocity coincides with the ExB direction derived from in situ fluxgate magnetometer records. When ionospheric refraction is considered, the phase velocity amplitudes deduced from DSI are comparable to the ion-acoustic speed expected in the E-region. We briefly consider the plausibility that these

  6. Identification of saline water intrusion in part of Cauvery deltaic region, Tamil Nadu, Southern India: using GIS and VES methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gnanachandrasamy, G.; Ramkumar, T.; Venkatramanan, S.; Chung, S. Y.; Vasudevan, S.

    2016-06-01

    We use electrical resistivity data arrayed in a 2715 km2 region with 30 locations to identify the saline water intrusion zone in part of Cauvery deltaic region, offshore Eastern India. From this dataset we are able to derive information on groundwater quality, thickness of aquifer zone, structural and stratigraphic conditions relevant to groundwater conditions, and permeability of aquifer systems. A total of 30 vertical electrode soundings (VES) were carried out by Schlumberger electrode arrangement to indicate complete lithology of this region using curve matching techniques. The electrical soundings exhibited that H and HK type curves were suitable for 16 shallow locations, and QH, KQ, K, KH, QQ, and HA curves were fit for other location. Low resistivity values suggested that saline water intrusion occurred in this region. According to final GIS map, most of the region was severely affected by seawater intrusion due to the use of over-exploitation of groundwater.The deteriorated groundwater resources in this coastal region should raise environmental and health concerns.

  7. A new algorithm for three-dimensional joint inversion of body wave and surface wave data and its application to the Southern California plate boundary region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Hongjian; Zhang, Haijiang; Yao, Huajian; Allam, Amir; Zigone, Dimitri; Ben-Zion, Yehuda; Thurber, Clifford; van der Hilst, Robert D.

    2016-05-01

    We introduce a new algorithm for joint inversion of body wave and surface wave data to get better 3-D P wave (Vp) and S wave (Vs) velocity models by taking advantage of the complementary strengths of each data set. Our joint inversion algorithm uses a one-step inversion of surface wave traveltime measurements at different periods for 3-D Vs and Vp models without constructing the intermediate phase or group velocity maps. This allows a more straightforward modeling of surface wave traveltime data with the body wave arrival times. We take into consideration the sensitivity of surface wave data with respect to Vp in addition to its large sensitivity to Vs, which means both models are constrained by two different data types. The method is applied to determine 3-D crustal Vp and Vs models using body wave and Rayleigh wave data in the Southern California plate boundary region, which has previously been studied with both double-difference tomography method using body wave arrival times and ambient noise tomography method with Rayleigh and Love wave group velocity dispersion measurements. Our approach creates self-consistent and unique models with no prominent gaps, with Rayleigh wave data resolving shallow and large-scale features and body wave data constraining relatively deeper structures where their ray coverage is good. The velocity model from the joint inversion is consistent with local geological structures and produces better fits to observed seismic waveforms than the current Southern California Earthquake Center (SCEC) model.

  8. Genetic polymorphism of 3' untranslated region of zeta-chain associated protein kinase 70 kDa in southern Taiwanese patients with rheumatoid arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shih-Yao; Liu, Ming-Fei; Wang, Chrong-Reen

    2016-03-01

    T cell activation participates in the pathogenesis of rheumatoid arthritis (RA), and the signaling molecule zeta-chain-associated protein kinase 70 kDa (ZAP-70) plays a crucial role in this process. Different mutations in the coding sequence of ZAP-70 are involved in a variety of immunological phenotypes, and recent evidence indicates that genetic variations within the 3' untranslated regions (UTR) of microRNA binding sites may affect the hybridization with target mRNAs, leading to phenotype changes with disease status. In this study, we evaluated the possible effect of ZAP-70 polymorphism as a genetic risk factor in RA by examining the single-nucleotide polymorphism in 100 patients and 100 ethnicity- and sex-matched healthy individuals from southern Taiwan. In both groups, the genotype distribution of rs2278699 in the 3' UTR was in the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. In RA, there were higher frequencies of the G allele (15.5 versus 8.0 %, odds ratio 2.1, P = 0.020) and significant differences in the trend of various genotypes (P = 0.024). The results suggest that genetic polymorphism in the 3' UTR of ZAP-70 is associated with RA susceptibility in southern Taiwanese.

  9. Late Holocene marine terraces of the Cartagena region, southern Caribbean: The product of neotectonism or a former high stand in sea-level?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ignacio Martínez, J.; Yokoyama, Yusuke; Gomez, Andres; Delgado, Adriana; Matsuzaki, Hiroyuki; Rendon, Esteban

    2010-03-01

    The detailed stratigraphic survey and paleontological study (mollusks, corals, foraminifera and ostracods) of four low-level, ˜3 m, marine terrace sections: Punta Canoas, Manzanillo del Mar, Playa de Oro, and Tierra Bomba Island, from the Cartagena region, southern Caribbean, supplemented with 22 radiocarbon dates, reveals that the northern terraces were deposited as parasequences in a clastic depositional system compared to the Tierra Bomba Island succession that was deposited in a carbonate depositional system between ˜3600 and ˜1700 cal yrs BP. Drier conditions and the southern location of the ITCZ at about 3 ka triggered stronger easterly Trades and more dynamic southwestward sediment drift fed by the Magdalena River mouth, thus promoting the formation of sand spits that ultimately isolated the Cienaga de Tesca coastal lagoon from the Caribbean Sea. Our estimates support the hypothesis that the present position of the terraces is the product of neotectonism rather than a higher 3 ka, sea-level. Upheaval of the terraces varies between ˜3.8 mmyr -1 at Punta Canoas and ˜2.2 mmyr -1 at Tierra Bomba to ˜1.5 mmyr -1 at Manzanillo del Mar and Playa de Oro terraces. Our study corroborates previous contentions on the role of mud diapirism and the dynamics of the Dique Fault as late Holocene upheaval mechanisms.

  10. Development of the steppe zone in southern Russia based on the reconstruction from the loess-soil formation in the Don-Azov Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velichko, A.; Morozova, T. D.; Borisova, O. K.; Timireva, S. N.; Semenov, V. V.; Kononov, Yu. M.; Titov, V. V.; Tesakov, A. S.; Konstantinov, E..; Kurbanov, R. N.

    2012-08-01

    Herbaceous communities in forest ecosystems on the southern part of the Russian Plain appeared in the Middle Miocene (˜10 Ma BP). In the Late Miocene (˜7 Ma BP), feather-grass steppe associations appeared among them. In the time span of 2.7 to 2.1 Ma BP (i.e., in the Early Quaternary, according to the current chronostratigraphic scale), the steppe zone arose on the southern Russian Plain in the Don-Azov Region. Seven stages of this zone development here have been distinguished throughout the Quaternary. The first one (Eopleistocene-Early Pleistocene) was characterized by savanna-like subtropic ecosystems. Then, in the Middle Pleistocene, the temperate zone ecosystems (tallgrass prairie-like steppes) developed here and were followed by steppe ecosystems close to the modern ones in Central Europe. The ecosystems of rich-species forb steppes developed in the Late Pleistocene. Finally, in the optimum of the modern interglacial (Holocene), steppes became similar to the modern ones here, but with a slightly higher precipitation. The general trend is characterized by reduction in heat and water provision and increase in aridization progressing from earlier to later stages.

  11. In Situ Atmospheric Pressure Measurements in the Martian Southern Polar Region: Mars Volatiles and Climate Surveyor Meteorology Package on the Mars Polar Lander

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harri, A.-M.; Polkko, J.; Siili, T.; Crisp, D.

    1998-01-01

    Pressure observations are crucial for the success of the Mars Volatiles and Climate Surveyor (MVACS) Meteorology (MET) package onboard the Mars Polar Lander (MPL), due for launch early next year. The spacecraft is expected to land in December 1999 (L(sub s) = 256 degrees) at a high southern latitude (74 degrees - 78 degrees S). The nominal period of operation is 90 sols but may last up to 210 sols. The MVACS/MET experiment will provide the first in situ observations of atmospheric pressure, temperature, wind, and humidity in the southern hemisphere of Mars and in the polar regions. The martian atmosphere goes through a large-scale atmospheric pressure cycle due to the annual condensation/sublimation of the atmospheric CO2. Pressure also exhibits short period variations associated with dust storms, tides, and other atmospheric events. A series of pressure measurements can hence provide us with information on the large-scale state and dynamics of the atmosphere, including the CO2 and dust cycles as well as local weather phenomena. The measurements can also shed light on the shorter time scale phenomena (e.g., passage of dust devils) and hence be important in contributing to our understanding of mixing and transport of heat, dust, and water vapor.

  12. Potassium, thorium, and uranium contents of upper Cenozoic basalts of the southern Rocky Mountain region, and their relation to the Rio Grande depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipman, Peter W.; Bunker, Carl M.; Bush, Charles A

    1973-01-01

    Late Cenozoic basaltic volcanism in southern Colorado and northern New Mexico was most intense near the Rio Grande rift depression but extended onto stable platforms to the west (Colorado Plateau) and to the east (High Plains). Tholeiitic rocks are largely confined to the Rio Grande depression, and the basalts become increasingly alkalic with distance from the depression. The K, Th, and U contents and the Th/K and U/K ratios consistently increase away from the depression, and Th/U ratios also tend to increase slightly. Geographically distinct suites of petrographicaUy related basalts that are very similar in major-oxide compositions are readily distinguishable by K, Th, and U contents. Sialic crustal contamination did not contribute significantly to development of these compositional variations, and the lateral change from tholeiitic to alkalic basaltic volcanism may be related to different depths of or degrees of partial melting in the mantle. The compositions and compositional ranges of basalts in the southern Rocky Mountain region are similar to those of many Pacific islands, despite the contrasting geologic settings.

  13. An ethnoveterinary study of medicinal plants in treatment of diseases and syndromes of herd dog in southern regions of Ilam province, Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahmani, Mahmoud; Eftekhari, Zohre

    2013-05-01

    This paper describes a selection of the ethnoveterinary medicines used for herd dogs in the southern regions of Ilam province, Iran. Traditional botanical medicine is the primary mode of healthcare for most of the rural population in Ilam province. In this study, a questionnaire was distributed among 45 residential areas in 22 rural zones of the southern areas of Ilam province. The objective of this study was the recognition of natural medicinal methods using medicinal plants, and the classification of ethnoveterinary applications and collection of domestic science. Twenty-two medicinal plants from 16 families were identified. The main application of these plants was for the detection and treatment of digestive disorders using Citrullus colocynthis, Aristolochia clematis, Scrophularia deserti, Quercus brantii, Ceracus microcarpa, Echium strigosa, Pistacia atlantica, and Pistacia khinjuk which have been applied using Euphurbia graminifolius, Peganum harmala, Salsola rigida, Artemisia herba-alba, Amygdalus arabica, jolbak of salt water, Peganum harmala L., and Nicotina tabacum for external and internal parasite disorders. S. deserti for ophthalmic disorders, and P. atlantica, P. khinjuk, and Q. brantii for respiratory disorders were applied. The present study confirmed the traditional medical effects of some plants and revealed the unique medical effects of other plants, which if recognized could be useful in the creation of new ideas and increasing knowledge for the modern pharmaceutical industry. Since very few clinical trials have been conducted on plants native to Ilam province, it is necessary that more research be conducted to ensure that labeled and standardized products are introduced for human consumption.

  14. Regional variations in the lead isotopic composition of galena from southern Korea with implications for the discrimination of lead provenance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Youn-Joong; Cheong, Chang-sik; Shin, Dongbok; Lee, Kwang-Sik; Jo, Hui Je; Gautam, Mukesh Kumar; Lee, Insung

    2012-11-01

    This study presents a comprehensive database (n = 215) of lead isotopes in galena from the southern Korean peninsula using new and published data. Of the 69 metal mines examined, predominantly skarn- and hydrothermal-type Pb-Zn-Au-Ag-Cu deposits were observed and were associated with Mesozoic magmatic activities. Galena samples from each geotectonic unit showed discrete lead isotopic signatures. The Gyeongsang basin samples were characteristically unradiogenic and had restricted variations in lead isotopic composition (206Pb/204Pb = 18.16-18.59, 207Pb/204Pb = 15.48-15.64, 208Pb/204Pb = 37.87-38.77). Their 208Pb/204Pb range indicated an involvement of source materials less thorogenic than the associated granites. The galena samples from Cambro-Ordovician carbonate rocks of the northeastern Yeongnam massif and eastern Taebaeksan basin had the most radiogenic 206Pb/204Pb (19.28 ± 0.14) and 207Pb/204Pb (15.833 ± 0.027) ratios. Their lead isotopic trend indicated a combined contribution of ore lead from granitic magmas, Precambrian basements, and overlain host rocks. Less radiogenic galena samples from the middle to southwestern parts of the Yeongnam massif and Okcheon belt showed limited lead isotopic variations (206Pb/204Pb = 18.332 ± 0.065, 207Pb/204Pb = 15.693 ± 0.012, 208Pb/204Pb = 38.93 ± 0.07 on average), probably resulted from mixing with a common crustal basement. The differences in lead isotopes between the radiogenic and unradiogenic groups from the Yeongnam massif and Okcheon belt may reflect the spatial dissimilarity of involved crustal rocks. The old crust appears to have significantly contributed ore lead to galenas from the western Gyeonggi massif, but the geochronological meaning of their steep 207Pb/204Pb-206Pb/204Pb trend is not clear. The comprehensive database constructed by the present study suggests that lead province in the southern Korean peninsula may be subdivided into four discrete zones. Linear discriminant analysis showed that more

  15. Environmental challenges posed by veld fires in fragile regions: The case of the Bulilima and Mangwe districts in southern Zimbabwe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernest Dube

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available This original research confronted challenges to environmental management and sustainability posed by veld fires in the Bulilima and Mangwe Districts of Matabeleland in the South Province in southern Zimbabwe. Veld fires have affected the fauna and flora, polluted air and water, and destroyed livelihoods. The study aimed at establishing challenges to environmental sustainability posed by veld fires, identifying the type of environment upon which veld fires have impacted, analysing legal issues and other interventions surrounding the control of veld fires and suggesting new control measures for veld fires. A qualitative research design and quota sampling were used. The study involved 30 participants. Data was collected through a questionnaire, an interview guide and participant observation. Challenges to environmental management and sustainability posed by veld fires include property damage, reduced soil fertility, destruction of vegetation, air and water pollution and destruction of wildlife. Most veld fires are a result of human actions that emanate from the disposal of cigarettes, the burning of vegetation when preparing fields, the use of fire by hunters, smoking out bees and the making of fires by motorists along highways. The government should consider reviewing the current environmental statues. Fireguards should be wide enough to lessen veld-fire impact. Lastly, veld-fire campaigns and rehearsals should be run on a regular basis. It is hoped that this work would make a significant contribution through improving the current thinking about environmental management and sustainability, thereby benefiting policy makers, practitioners and stakeholders.

  16. Evaluation of self-esteem among homosexuals in the southern region of the state of Santa Catarina, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canali, Tiago José; Oliveira, Sylvia Marina Soares de; Reduit, Deivid Montero; Vinholes, Daniele Botelho; Feldens, Viviane Pessi

    2014-11-01

    This study seeks to evaluate self-esteem in homosexuals from southern Santa Catarina and relate it to several variables such as gender, age, bullying and psychiatric treatment. Participants were selected using the "Snowball" technique. The Rosenberg self-esteem scale was used for self-esteem assessment with subsequent comparison with other variables. A total of 403 individuals were interviewed, including 310 males with a mean age of 24.02. Most of the population studied (80.9%) had high self-esteem, with a mean score of 5.55 on the Rosenberg scale. Individuals who had only studied up to primary school level, were unemployed, evangelicals, with a history of psychotherapeutic and psychiatric treatment, or who had been subjected to bullying in the last year and those who wished to change their sexual orientation, had significantly lower self-esteem than the others. 114 people had used psychotropic drugs, 47.58% of which were benzodiazepine-based, primarily Clonazepam (27.58%). Most of this population had high self-esteem. There was a difference between some categories of the variables studied, however, all averages corresponded to high self-esteem on the Rosenberg scale. Benzodiazepines were the psychotropic drugs most often used by the individuals in this study.

  17. A TAXONOMICAL AND ECOLOGICAL OVERVIEW OF RECENT AND HOLOCENE OSTRACODES OF HE NAM CO REGION,SOUTHERN TIBET

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    C.Wrozyna; P.Frenzel; Nanping Xie; Liping Zhu; A.Sehwalb

    2009-01-01

    we present a list of living and(sub)fossil Ostracoda[Crustacea)from Holocene sediments from Lake Nam Co,Southern Tibet,including descriptions,distribution and ecological data of the important taxa from the Nam Co catchment.Species associations from lake surface sediments,sediment cores and outcrop samples consist of eight species including Candona candida(O.F.MOiler,1776),Candona xizangensis(Huang,1982),Eucypris afghanistanensis (Hartmann,1964),Fabaeformiscandona danielopoli(Yin & Martens,1997),Ilyocypris cf.mongolica(Martens,1991),? Leucocythere dorsotuberosa(Huang,1982),LeucocythereUa sinensis(Huang,1982)and Limnocythere inopinata(Baird,1843).The dominant species are ? L.dorsotuberosa and L.sinensis.They show morphological variations with different degrees of ornamentation.We regard the variable noding and rib formation as intraspecific variability possibly driven by environmental factors.In general,the number and degree of ribs increases with water depth in ? L.dorsotuberosa.Thus,the ornamentation may present a means to reconstruct(paleo)water depths.Our list is intended to serve as a taxonomical and paleoecological primer for future paleolimnological work.

  18. Evaluation of self-esteem among homosexuals in the southern region of the state of Santa Catarina, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiago José Canali

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This study seeks to evaluate self-esteem in homosexuals from southern Santa Catarina and relate it to several variables such as gender, age, bullying and psychiatric treatment. Participants were selected using the "Snowball" technique. The Rosenberg self-esteem scale was used for self-esteem assessment with subsequent comparison with other variables. A total of 403 individuals were interviewed, including 310 males with a mean age of 24.02. Most of the population studied (80.9% had high self-esteem, with a mean score of 5.55 on the Rosenberg scale. Individuals who had only studied up to primary school level, were unemployed, evangelicals, with a history of psychotherapeutic and psychiatric treatment, or who had been subjected to bullying in the last year and those who wished to change their sexual orientation, had significantly lower self-esteem than the others. 114 people had used psychotropic drugs, 47.58% of which were benzodiazepine-based, primarily Clonazepam (27.58%. Most of this population had high self-esteem. There was a difference between some categories of the variables studied, however, all averages corresponded to high self-esteem on the Rosenberg scale. Benzodiazepines were the psychotropic drugs most often used by the individuals in this study.

  19. Jurassic sedimentary evolution of southern Junggar Basin:Implication for palaeoclimate changes in northern Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shun-Li Li; Xing-He Yu; Cheng-Peng Tan; Ronald Steel

    2014-01-01

    Junggar Basin, located in northern Xinjiang, presents continuous and multi-kilometer-thick strata of the Jurassic deposits. The Jurassic was entirely terrestrial lfuvial and lacustrine deltaic sedimentation. Eight outcrop sections across the Jurassic strata were meas-ured at a resolution of meters in southern Junggar Basin. Controlling factors of sedimentary evolution and palaeoclimate changes in Junggar Basin during the Jurassic were discussed based on lithology, fossils and tectonic setting. In the Early to Middle Jurassic, the warm and wide Tethys Sea generated a strong monsoonal circulation over the central Asian continent, and provided adequate moisture for Junggar Basin. Coal-bearing strata of the Badaowan, Sangonghe, and Xishanyao Formations were developed under warm and humid palaeocli-mate in Junggar Basin. In the late Middle Jurassic, Junggar Basin was in a semi-humid and semi-arid environment due to global warming event. Stratigraphy in the upper part of the Mid-dle Jurassic with less plant fossils became multicolor or reddish from dark color sediments. During the Late Jurassic, collision of Lhasa and Qiangtang Block obstructed monsoon from the Tethys Sea. A major change in climate from semi-humid and semi-arid to arid conditions took place, and reddish strata of the Upper Jurassic were developed across Junggar Basin.

  20. A long-term trend in precipitation of different spatial regions of Bangladesh and its teleconnections with El Niño/Southern Oscillation and Indian Ocean Dipole

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Md. Kawser; Alam, Mohammad Samsul; Yousuf, Abu Hena Muhammad; Islam, Md. Monirul

    2016-04-01

    A long-term (1948 to 2012) trend of precipitation (annual, pre-monsoon, monsoon, and post-monsoon seasons) in Bangladesh was analyzed in different regions using both parametric and nonparametric approaches. Moreover, the possible teleconnections of precipitation (annual and monsoon) variability with El Niño/Southern Oscillation (ENSO) episode and Indian Ocean Dipole (IOD) were investigated using both average and individual (both positive and negative) values of ENSO index and IOD. Our findings suggested that for annual precipitation, a significant increasing monotonic trend was found in whole Bangladesh (4.87 mm/year), its western region (5.82 mm/year) including Rangpur (9.41 mm/year) and Khulna (4.95 mm/year), and Sylhet (10.12 mm/year) and Barisal (6.94 mm/year) from eastern region. In pre-monsoon, only Rangpur (2.88 mm/year) showed significant increasing trend, while in monsoon, whole Bangladesh (3.04 mm/year), Sylhet (7.17 mm/year), and Barisal (6.94 mm/year) showed similar trend. In post-monsoon, there was no significant trend. Our results also revealed that the precipitation (annual or monsoon) of whole Bangladesh and almost all of the spatial regions did not show any significant correlation with ENSO events, whereas the average IOD values showed significant correlation only in monsoon precipitation of western region. The individual positive IODs showed significant correlation in whole Bangladesh, western region, and its two divisions (Rajshahi and Khulna). So, in the context of Bangladesh climate, IOD has the more teleconnection to precipitation than that of ENSO. Our findings indicate that the co-occurrence of ENSO and IOD events may suppress their influence on each other.

  1. Influence of southern oscillation and SSTs over Nino-3.4 region on the winter monsoon rainfall over coastal Andhra Pradesh

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    O S R U Bhanu Kumar; C V Naidu; S R L Rao

    2004-09-01

    An analysis of the mean monthly data of 124 years reveals that the relationship between the Southern Oscillation Index in September and the winter monsoon rainfall (WMR) over Coastal Andhra Pradesh (CAP) is variable and non-stationary. In the recent four decades, however, SOI (Sept) is negatively and significantly correlated with CAP WMR. A similar analysis is performed using 50 years of mean monthly SSTs over Nino-3.4 region in August and September and CAP WMR to detect a possible relationship and there is a striking positive relation between them. In both of the above cases, the September signal is more significant in the recent four decades than for the other months and seasons for probable prediction of CAP WMR. Finally, to examine the influence of SO on the winter monsoon rainfall, a non-parametric test "Mann-Whitney Rank Statistics" test has been applied to the rainfall associated with extreme positive and negative SOI events.

  2. Green turtles (Chelonia mydas) foraging at Arvoredo Island in Southern Brazil: Genetic characterization and mixed stock analysis through mtDNA control region haplotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proietti, Maíra Carneiro; Lara-Ruiz, Paula; Reisser, Júlia Wiener; da Silva Pinto, Luciano; Dellagostin, Odir Antonio; Marins, Luis Fernando

    2009-07-01

    We analyzed mtDNA control region sequences of green turtles (Chelonia mydas) from Arvoredo Island, a foraging ground in southern Brazil, and identified eight haplotypes. Of these, CM-A8 (64%) and CM-A5 (22%) were dominant, the remainder presenting low frequencies (Rocas/Noronha, in Brazil (p > 0.05). Mixed Stock Analysis, incorporating eleven Atlantic and one Mediterranean rookery as possible sources of individuals, indicated Ascension and Aves islands as the main contributing stocks to the Arvoredo aggregation (68.01% and 22.96%, respectively). These results demonstrate the extensive relationships between Arvoredo Island and other Atlantic foraging and breeding areas. Such an understanding provides a framework for establishing adequate management and conservation strategies for this endangered species. PMID:21637527

  3. Investigation on Newcastle Disease Virus (NDV, Infectious Bursal Disease Virus (IBDV and Avian Poxvirus (APV in magellanic penguins in Southern region of Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Freitas Nunes

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available To investigate the exposure of the Newcastle disease virus (NDV, infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV and avian poxvirus (APV in Magellanic penguins found on the beaches in Southern regions of Brazil, the frequency of serum antibodies was estimated in 89 samples taken during 2005 and 2006. All the penguins were negative for the presence of antibodies against NDV by hemagglutination inhibition test and to APV by indirect ELISA. The reactivity was similar to the positives controls using ELISA kit for the IBDV made in the chickens in 50 samples. This reactivity also was demonstrated in 42 samples using agar gel immunodiffusion. No clinical signs related to IBDV infection were observed. The results indicated the absence of infection by NDV and APV but suggested IBDV exposure in the population of penguins studied.

  4. Green turtles (Chelonia mydas foraging at Arvoredo Island in Southern Brazil: genetic characterization and mixed stock analysis through mtDNA control region haplotypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maíra Carneiro Proietti

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available We analyzed mtDNA control region sequences of green turtles (Chelonia mydas from Arvoredo Island, a foraging ground in southern Brazil, and identified eight haplotypes. Of these, CM-A8 (64% and CM-A5 (22% were dominant, the remainder presenting low frequencies ( 0.05. Mixed Stock Analysis, incorporating eleven Atlantic and one Mediterranean rookery as possible sources of individuals, indicated Ascension and Aves islands as the main contributing stocks to the Arvoredo aggregation (68.01% and 22.96%, respectively. These results demonstrate the extensive relationships between Arvoredo Island and other Atlantic foraging and breeding areas. Such an understanding provides a framework for establishing adequate management and conservation strategies for this endangered species.

  5. Molecular characterisation of the clonal emergence of high-level ciprofloxacin-monoresistant Haemophilus influenzae in the Region of Southern Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fuursted, Kurt; Hartmeyer, Gitte Nyvang; Stegger, Marc;

    2016-01-01

    Haemophilus influenzae is an important human pathogen usually susceptible to quinolones. Here we report the emergence of high-level ciprofloxacin-monoresistant H. influenzae in the Region of Southern Denmark. Four isolates were collected for phenotypic and molecular characterisation using whole......-genome sequencing (WGS). During an 18-month period, the occurrence of high-level ciprofloxacin-monoresistant H. influenzae in patients aged 1-77 years from sputum, ear and eye samples was detected. An epidemiological link between the patients could not be identified. The isolates were non-encapsulated, biotype III...... description of the clonal emergence of high-level monoresistant H. influenzae due to amino acid substitutions in gyrA, parC and parE....

  6. The Exploration of the Traditional Blockhouse in southern region of Qinghai%青海南部地区传统碉房民居更新探索

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    崔文河; 王军

    2012-01-01

    青海南部地区地理区位特殊,其自然与人文环境具有鲜明地域特色,随着经济社会的深入发展,传统民居处于变革转型的重要时期。本研究从青南地区资源、气候等客观自然环境出发,分析传统碉房民居绿色环保的生存智慧,总结出有效利用自然资源、适应气候、绿色传统技艺等地域特征;针对新居建设中存在的问题,同时借鉴其中有益经验,基于环境保护为前提,探索从地区环境适应、新老技术融合、民族文化传承等方面建立地区适宜更新模式。%The southern Qinghai is special in its geological location, whose natural and human environment shows lively regional characteristics. With the continuous and increasing development of the economic and social, the vernacular dwellings are brought into an important period of transition. Starting from the regional resources, climate and natural environment of the Southern Qinghai, this study is focus on the analysis of the environmental-friendly living wisdom of the traditional Diaofang, which is in order to summarize the way how to take full advantage of the regional characteristics, such as regional resources, climate and environmental-friendly traditional skills. On the other hand, In view of the existing problems in the construct of new dwellings, we learn from the useful experience, basing on Environmental Protection, explore the way how to set up the renewal mode, which takes advantage of the regional environment, integrates new and traditional technologies, inherit the national culture.

  7. FLORISTIC CHANGES ALONG THE TOPOGRAPHICAL GRADIENT IN MONTANE GRASSLANDS IN MONTI PICENTINI (CAMPANIA, SW ITALY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. CUTINI

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Populations of xerotolerant species (Achnatherum calamagrostis, Stipa crassiculmis subsp. picentina, are scattered along a wide altitudinal gradient on slopes at mid- and high elevation in Monti Picentini, a subcoastal mesozoic limestone ridge in Tyrrhenian Southern Italy. Their stands are widespread in grasslands of mostly secondary origin. At lower altitudes these grasslands replace former deciduous forest communities dominated by oaks or beech, while at higher altitudes they reach the summits, where they apparently merge into the remnants of the still partially grazed, zonal climatogenic, grasslands ranging above the local tree-line. Nevertheless primary stands of these grasslands are to be found around the many clusters of highly dynamic sites of the montane and sub-alpine levels, scattered around screes and rocky outcrops of the prevalently dolomitic morphology of the slopes. This virtual continuity of non arboreal communities across more than 1000 metres of the local topographical gradient, where azonal, relic stands of Pinus nigra s.l. are transitional between the grasslands and the surrounding zonal broadleaved forest vegetation, stresses patterns of the coenological changes between Festuco-Brometea and Elyno-Seslerietea along the catena, which suggest fragmentary persistence of a paleozonation.

  8. Regional Tectonic Control of Tertiary Mineralization and Recent Faulting in the Southern Basin-Range Province, an Application of ERTS-1 Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bechtold, I. C.; Liggett, M. A.; Childs, J. F.

    1973-01-01

    Research based on ERTS-1 MSS imagery and field work in the southern Basin-Range Province of California, Nevada and Arizona has shown regional tectonic control of volcanism, plutonism, mineralization and faulting. This paper covers an area centered on the Colorado River between 34 15' N and 36 45' N. During the mid-Tertiary, the area was the site of plutonism and genetically related volcanism fed by fissure systems now exposed as dike swarms. Dikes, elongate plutons, and coeval normal faults trend generally northward and are believed to have resulted from east-west crustal extension. In the extensional province, gold silver mineralization is closely related to Tertiary igneous activity. Similarities in ore, structural setting, and rock types define a metallogenic district of high potential for exploration. The ERTS imagery also provides a basis for regional inventory of small faults which cut alluvium. This capability for efficient regional surveys of Recent faulting should be considered in land use planning, geologic hazards study, civil engineering and hydrology.

  9. PROBING THE PHYSICS OF NARROW LINE REGIONS IN ACTIVE GALAXIES. II. THE SIDING SPRING SOUTHERN SEYFERT SPECTROSCOPIC SNAPSHOT SURVEY (S7)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dopita, Michael A.; Davies, Rebecca; Kewley, Lisa; Hampton, Elise; Sutherland, Ralph [RSAA, Australian National University, Cotter Road, Weston Creek, ACT 2611 (Australia); Shastri, Prajval; Kharb, Preeti; Jose, Jessy; Bhatt, Harish; Ramya, S. [Indian Institute of Astrophysics, Koramangala 2 B Block, Bangalore 560034 (India); Scharwächter, Julia [LERMA, Observatoire de Paris, CNRS, UMR 8112, 61 Avenue de l’Observatoire, F-75014 Paris (France); Jin, Chichuan [Qian Xuesen Laboratory for Space Technology, Beijing (China); Banfield, Julie [CSIRO Astronomy and Space Science, P.O. Box 76, Epping NSW, 1710 Australia (Australia); Zaw, Ingyin [New York University (Abu Dhabi), 70 Washington Square South, New York, NY 10012 (United States); Juneau, Stéphanie [CEA-Saclay, DSM/IRFU/SAp, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); James, Bethan [Institute of Astronomy, Cambridge University, Madingley Road, Cambridge CB3 0HA (United Kingdom); Srivastava, Shweta, E-mail: Michael.Dopita@anu.edu.au [Astronomy and Astrophysics Division, Physical Research Laboratory, Ahmedabad 380009 (India)

    2015-03-15

    Here we describe the Siding Spring Southern Seyfert Spectroscopic Snapshot Survey (S7) and present results on 64 galaxies drawn from the first data release. The S7 uses the Wide Field Spectrograph mounted on the ANU 2.3 m telescope located at the Siding Spring Observatory to deliver an integral field of 38 × 25 arcsec at a spectral resolution of R = 7000 in the red (530–710 nm), and R = 3000 in the blue (340–560 nm). From these data cubes we have extracted the narrow-line region spectra from a 4 arcsec aperture centered on the nucleus. We also determine the Hβ and [O iii] λ5007 fluxes in the narrow lines, the nuclear reddening, the reddening-corrected relative intensities of the observed emission lines, and the Hβ and [O iii] λ5007 luminosities determined from spectra for which the stellar continuum has been removed. We present a set of images of the galaxies in [O iii] λ5007, [N ii] λ6584, and Hα, which serve to delineate the spatial extent of the extended narrow-line region and also to reveal the structure and morphology of the surrounding H ii regions. Finally, we provide a preliminary discussion of those Seyfert 1 and Seyfert 2 galaxies that display coronal emission lines in order to explore the origin of these lines.

  10. Impacts of climate change on the formation and stability of late Quaternary sand sheets and falling dunes, Black Mesa region, southern Colorado Plateau, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellwein, Amy L.; Mahan, Shannon; McFadden, Leslie D.

    2015-01-01

    Detailed geomorphic mapping and analysis of soil-stratigraphy and optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) dating of eolian sand dunes on Black Mesa, Arizona, reveal eolian sediment deposition occurred from 30 to 16 ka, followed by a period of widespread dune stabilization from 12 to 8 ka. Localized reactivation of the previously stabilized dune forms or local changes in sediment supply have occurred in the middle to late Holocene in this region. Cooler, wetter, and more variable climatic conditions during MIS 3 and 2 led to increased channel and floodplain sediment supply. Eolian sediment derived from these sources was transported up to 60 km. Deposition of this material has reduced regional topographic roughness by filling tributary canyon ‘traps’ oriented perpendicular to the dominant wind and sediment transport direction. Topographically controlled falling dunes and sand ramps in this region are preserved because of their geomorphic position and provide evidence of the paleoenvironmental state of the fluvial and eolian systems before, during, and immediately after the last glacial maximum on the southern Colorado Plateau.

  11. A suggested local regions in the Southern Gulf of Mexico using a diatom database (1979-2002) and oceanic hidrographic features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Licea, Sergio; Zamudio, Ma E; Moreno-Ruiz, J L; Luna, R

    2011-07-01

    A diatom data-base of 255 species obtained from 14 oceanographic cruises (14801 entries of 647 sampling sites) together with the analysis of oceanic features were used to establish four local regions in the southern Gulf of Mexico. In addition, common species for each region were designated. This study is based on the application of cluster analysis and the species frequency data. Material for this undertaking consisted of water and net samples obtained between June 1979 and December 2002. Results show that the most frequent species (> 40%) were: Asterionellopsis glacialis, Bacteriastrum delicatulum, B. hyalinum, Chaetoceros affinis, C. coarctatus, C. compresus, C. curvisetus, C. danicus, C. decipiens, C. diversus, C. lorenzianus, C. pelagicus, C. peruvianus, Coscinodiscus radiatus, Cylindrotheca closterium, Guinardia flaccida, Hemiaulus hauckii, H. membranaceus, H. sinensis, Leptocylindrus danicus, Neocalyptrella robusta, Nitzschia bicapitata, Pleurosigma diverse-striatum, Proboscia alata, Pseudo-nitzschia pungens, Pseudosolenia calcar-avis, Rhizosolenia imbricata, R. setigera, Skeletonema costatum, Thalassionema bacillare, T frauenfeldii, T nitzschioides and Thalassiosira eccentrica. The species composition for each region and season are discussed. Itis concluded that sampling site assemblages are related to oceanographic conditions. A total list of species composition is given, forty-seven species taxa being new records for this area. PMID:22315823

  12. Wild plants, pregnancy, and the food-medicine continuum in the southern regions of Ghana and Benin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Towns, A.M.; Andel, Van Tinde

    2016-01-01

    Ethnopharmacological relevance In West Africa, women utilize wild plant species to maintain and enhance their health throughout the duration of pregnancy. These plants are a culturally resilient and financially accessible form of nourishment for pregnant women in the region, many of whom are maln

  13. A regional and multi-faceted approach to postgraduate water education: The WaterNet experience in Southern Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jonker, L.; Van der Zaag, P.; Gumbo, B.; Rockström, J.; Love, D.; Savenije, H.H.G.

    2012-01-01

    This paper reports the experience of a regional network of academic departments involved in water education that started as a project and evolved, over a period of 12 yr, into an independent network organisation. The paper pursues three objectives. First, it argues that it makes good sense to organi

  14. Research on the Quaternary fluvial geomorphological surface sequence of the foreland region in southern Longmen Shan, eastern Tibet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Dawei; Zhang, Shimin; Li, Wei

    2016-09-01

    Research on the complex structure of the Longmen Shan foreland is of great significance for understanding the tectonism of the eastern Tibetan Plateau. Therefore, using field survey of abandoned alluvial fans that developed during the middle Pleistocene and the terraces of the modern Qingyi River, a geomorphological surface sequence for the foreland region was established to study the tectonic surface processes. We know that the deformations of river terraces can serve as foundations for the study of tectonic activity. Because the Qingyi River ran through the foreland region in the south range of Longmen Shan, it is an appropriate research area and was adopted to solve these problems. However, in the humid temperate region, the terraces are strongly eroded and hardly retain continuous morphological surfaces. In addition, no marker horizons are available that can be utilized to restrain the corresponding relationships among terraces at the same level. To solve these problems, high-precision field measurements of the terraces and alluvial fan were made, and a series of long cross sections were acquired to determine the spatial relationships between the geomorphological surfaces; moreover, based on major element tests and grain size analyses, we found that the sediments of the geomorphological surfaces at all levels had favorable corresponding relationships. Using those specific analyses of geomorphological surfaces and sediments, a geomorphological surface sequence was derived for the foreland region. The surface sequence can be employed to study the tectonism of the foreland region over larger spatial and temporal ranges rather than using the limited modern terraces. In addition, after the ages of the geomorphological surfaces at various levels were further tested, the evolution of Qingyi River especially its two migrations since the middle Pleistocene in the foreland was determined.

  15. Impacts of climate change on sub-regional electricity demand and distribution in the southern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Melissa R.; Fernandez, Steven J.; Fu, Joshua S.; Olama, Mohammed M.

    2016-08-01

    High average temperatures lead to high regional electricity demand for cooling buildings, and large populations generally require more aggregate electricity than smaller ones do. Thus, future global climate and population changes will present regional infrastructure challenges regarding changing electricity demand. However, without spatially explicit representation of this demand or the ways in which it might change at the neighbourhood scale, it is difficult to determine which electricity service areas are most vulnerable and will be most affected by these changes. Here we show that detailed projections of changing local electricity demand patterns are viable and important for adaptation planning at the urban level in a changing climate. Employing high-resolution and spatially explicit tools, we find that electricity demand increases caused by temperature rise have the greatest impact over the next 40 years in areas serving small populations, and that large population influx stresses any affected service area, especially during peak demand.

  16. Impacts of climate change on sub-regional electricity demand and distribution in the southern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Melissa R.; Fernandez, Steven J.; Fu, Joshua S.; Olama, Mohammed M.

    2016-08-01

    High average temperatures lead to high regional electricity demand for cooling buildings, and large populations generally require more aggregate electricity than smaller ones do. Thus, future global climate and population changes will present regional infrastructure challenges regarding changing electricity demand. However, without spatially explicit representation of this demand or the ways in which it might change at the neighbourhood scale, it is difficult to determine which electricity service areas are most vulnerable and will be most affected by these changes. Here we show that detailed projections of changing local electricity demand patterns are viable and important for adaptation planning at the urban level in a changing climate. Employing high-resolution and spatially explicit tools, we find that electricity demand increases caused by temperature rise have the greatest impact over the next 40 years in areas serving small populations, and that large population influx stresses any affected service area, especially during peak demand.

  17. Isotopes as Tracers of Water Origin in and Near a Regional Carbonate Aquifer: The Southern Sacramento Mountains, New Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    Christopher J. Eastoe; Ryan Rodney

    2014-01-01

    High-elevation groundwater sampled in 2003 in the Sacramento Mountains defines a line resembling an evaporation trend in δD-δ18O space. The trend results from recharge of winter precipitation into fractured limestone, with evaporation prior to recharge in broad mountain valleys. The same trend occurs in basin groundwater east and west of the range, indicating the high Sacramento Mountains as the principal regional water source, either direct from the limestone aquifers or from mountain-derive...

  18. Large-scale winds in the southern North Sea region: The wind part of the KNMI'14 climate change scenarios

    OpenAIRE

    Sterl, Andreas; Bakker, A.; Van den Brink, H.; Haarsma, Reindert J.; Stepek, A; Wijnant, I; Winter, R.C. de

    2015-01-01

    The wind climate and its possible change in a warming world are important topics for many applications, among which are marine and coastal safety and wind energy generation. Therefore, wind is an important variable to investigate for climate change scenarios. In developing the wind part of the KNMI'14 climate change scenarios, output from several model categories have been analysed, ranging from global General Circulation Models via regional climate model (RCMs) to suitably re-sampled RCM out...

  19. Sero-Survey of Polio Antibodies during Wild Poliovirus Outbreak in Southern Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region, China

    OpenAIRE

    Hai-Bo Wang; Shuang-Li Zhu; Jing-Shan Zheng; Ai-Li Gou; Hui Cui; Yong Zhang; Gui-Jun Ning; Chun-Xiang Fan; Yuan-Sheng Chen; Ke-Li Li; Ping Yuan; Chao Ma; Jing Ma; Hui Zheng; Xin-Chun Fan

    2014-01-01

    Background After being polio free for more than 10 years, an outbreak following importation of wild poliovirus (WPV) was confirmed in Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region, China, in 2011. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted prior to supplementary immunization activities (SIAs), immediately after the confirmation of the WPV outbreak. In selected prefectures, participants aged ≤60 years old who visited hospitals at county-level or above to have their blood drawn for reasons not related to...

  20. Tectonic geomorphology and volcano-tectonic interaction in the eastern boundary of the Southern Cascades (Hat Creek Graben region, California, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Engielle Mae Raot-raot Paguican

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The eastern boundary of the Southern Cascades (Hat Creek Graben region, California, USA, is an extensively faulted volcanic corridor between the Cascade Range and Modoc Plateau. The east-west extending region is in the transition zone between the convergence and subduction of the Gorda Plate underneath the North American Plate; north-south shortening within the Klamath Mountain region; and transcurrent movement in the Walker Lane. We describe the geomorphological and tectonic features, their alignment and distribution, in order to understand the tectonic geomorphology and volcano-tectonic relationships. One outcome of the work is a more refined morpho-structural description that will affect future hazard assessment in the area.A database of volcanic centers and structures was created from interpretations of topographic models generated from satellite images. Volcanic centers in the region were classified by morphological type into cones, sub-cones, shields and massifs. A second classification by height separated the bigger and smaller edifices and revealed an evolutionary trend. Poisson Nearest Neighbor analysis shows that bigger volcanoes are spatially dispersed while smaller ones are clustered. Using volcano centroid locations, about 90 lineaments consisting of at least three centers within 6km of one another were found, revealing that preferential north-northwest directed pathways control the transport of magma from the source to the surface, consistent with the strikes of the major fault systems. Most of the volcano crater openings are perpendicular to the maximum horizontal stress, expected for extensional environments with dominant normal regional faults. These results imply that the extension of the Hat Creek Graben region and impingement of the Walker Lane is accommodated mostly by extensional faults and partly by the intrusions that formed the volcanoes. Early in the history of a volcano or volcano cluster, melt produced at depth in the

  1. An environmental assessment strategy for the identification of pollution prevention opportunities in the southern Urals Region of Russia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The serious environmental problems of the South Urals Region of Russia have been broadly described in a report coauthored by Russian weapons scientists. The importance of taking the first steps to prevent further environmental damage and adverse public health effects has been recognized by the international scientific community. Scientists at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory have initiated a project to assist the Russians in their pollution prevention efforts. The specific objectives of this project are to: (1) conduct a pragmatic survey of the industrial and governmental pollution sources in a limited geographic region of the South Urals and (2) identify the priorities for pollution prevention and for food and water supply improvements at distribution points. The emphasis is on preventing adverse impacts to human health and improving industrial productivity. This project focuses on immediate pollution problems resulting from current operations and their solutions, not on long-term research related to the large-scale cleanup of legacy wastes. The project emphasizes near-term cost effective solutions to prevent pollution while longer term research aimed at contamination from past practices is pursued by other scientists. The project is being conducted in collaboration with environmental and physical scientists from institutes associated with the Ural Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences; government officials at the national, regional, and local levels; and non-governmental Russian environmental groups. A broad cross section of Russian technical, political, and environmental abilities and interests is mandatory. This cross section will ensure the technical quality, the political acceptability, and the popular credibility of the project results to the affected Russians in the South Urals. Progress on this project is presented in this paper

  2. Field Experience Exchange Meeting for the Southern Region of National Agricultural Standardization Demonstration Area Held in Chengdu

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    @@ An Experience Exchange Meeting of National Agricultural Standardization Demonstration Area was held in Chengdu, Sichuan Province during May 18~21,2004. This meeting was of great importance to the overall promotion of agricultural standardization demonstration area work, more than 100 representatives from quality & technology supervision bureaus of 15 provinces, autonomous regions, municipalities directly under the Central Government and some cities independently listed city in the state plan, the Ministry of Agriculture, the Ministry of Water Resources, All-China Federation of Supply and Marketing Cooperatives, State Forestry Administration, State Grain Administration, State Tobacco Monopoly Administration etc.

  3. Ice core sulfur and methanesulfonic acid (MSA) records from southern Greenland document North American and European air pollution and suggest a decline in regional biogenic sulfur emissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasteris, D. R.; McConnell, J. R.; Burkhart, J. F.; Saltzman, E. S.

    2014-12-01

    Sulfate aerosols have an important cooling effect on the Earth because they scatter sunlight back to space and form cloud condensation nuclei. However, understanding of the atmospheric sulfur cycle is incomplete, leading to uncertainty in the assessment of past, present and future climate forcing. Here we use annually resolved observations of sulfur and methanesulfonic acid (MSA) concentration in an array of precisely dated Southern Greenland ice cores to assess the history of sulfur pollution emitted from North America and Europe and the history of biogenic sulfate aerosol derived from the North Atlantic Ocean over the last 250 years. The ice core sulfur time series is found to closely track sulfur concentrations in North American and European precipitation since records began in 1965, and also closely tracks estimated sulfur emissions since 1850 within the air mass source region as determined by back trajectory analysis. However, a decline to near-preindustrial sulfur concentrations in the ice cores after 1995 that is not so extensive in the source region emissions indicates that there has been a change in sulfur cycling over the last 150 years. The ice core MSA time series shows a decline of 60% since the 1860s, and is well correlated with declining sea ice concentrations around Greenland, suggesting that the phytoplankton source of biogenic sulfur has declined due to a loss of marginal sea ice zone habitat. Incorporating the implied decrease in biogenic sulfur in our analysis improves the match between the ice core sulfur record and the source region emissions throughout the last 150 years, and solves the problem of the recent return to near-preindustrial levels in the Greenland ice. These findings indicate that the transport efficiency of sulfur air pollution has been relatively stable through the industrial era and that biogenic sulfur emissions in the region have declined.

  4. Earliest Marine beds in the Jurassic sedimentary record near the Huajuapan-Petlalcingo region, southern Mexico and their paleogeographic implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contla, D.

    2008-12-01

    A paleogeographic model of Jurassic-Cretaceous is presented, the study area is the region near Huajuapan de Leon in the Mixteca Terrane, Mexico where a sedimentary successions constituted by interlayered terrestrial and marine beds, provides evidence of transgression and regression episodes. The sediments in the study zone were deposited over a Paleozoic metamorphic basement, the Acatlan Complex. The stratigraphic features in the Middle Jurassic of the terrestrial beds indicate a depositional elements varying from alluvial fans to floodplains and channel deposits, represented by conglomerates, sandy conglomerates and sandstones. After, in the same epoch (Bajocian and Bathonian age) a transgression coming from the Pacific Ocean covered the region. A transitional zone between continental and marine sediments is situated between Tezoatlan and Petlalcingo, the actual cross section consists in the earliest marine beds: limestones interlayered with terrestrial beds. Fossil contents in this beds indicate an age between the Oxfordian and the Tithonian. During this period of transgression the paleogeography was dominated by a small bay with shallow waters connected in the south with the Pacific Ocean, represented principally by limestone and dolomite units. At the end of the transgression, volcanic episodes occurred and the land emerged again. The sedimentary beds were later affected by tectonic activity that produced a normal fault near Zapotitlan, putting the metamorphic basement in contact with the sedimentary sequence.

  5. Investigation of the relative fine and coarse mode aerosol loadings and properties in the Southern Arabian Gulf region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaku, Kathleen C.; Reid, Jeffrey S.; Reid, Elizabeth A.; Ross-Langerman, Kristy; Piketh, Stuart; Cliff, Steven; Al Mandoos, Abdulla; Broccardo, Stephen; Zhao, Yongjing; Zhang, Jianglong; Perry, Kevin D.

    2016-03-01

    The aerosol chemistry environment of the Arabian Gulf region is extraordinarily complex, with high concentrations of dust aerosols from surrounding deserts mixed with anthropogenic aerosols originating from a large petrochemical industry and pockets of highly urbanized areas. Despite the high levels of aerosols experienced by this region, little research has been done to explore the chemical composition of both the anthropogenic and mineral dust portion of the aerosol burden. The intensive portion of the United Arab Emirates Unified Aerosol Experiment (UAE2), conducted during August and September 2004 was designed in part to resolve the aerosol chemistry through the use of multiple size-segregated aerosol samplers. The coarse mode mass (derived by subtracting the PM2.5 aerosol mass from the PM10 mass) is largely dust at 76% ± 7% of the total coarse mode mass, but is significantly impacted by anthropogenic pollution, primarily sulfate and nitrate. The PM2.5 aerosol mass also contains a large dust burden, at 38% ± 26%, but the anthropogenic component dominates. The total aerosol burden has significant impact not only on the atmosphere, but also the local population, as the air quality levels for both the PM10 and PM2.5 aerosol masses reached unhealthy levels for 24% of the days sampled.

  6. Clinical Characteristics of Q Fever and Etiology of Community-Acquired Pneumonia in a Tropical Region of Southern Taiwan: A Prospective Observational Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Chung-Hsu; Chang, Lin-Li; Lin, Jiun-Nong; Chen, Wei-Fang; Wei, Yu-Feng; Chiu, Chien-Tung; Wu, Jiun-Ting; Hsu, Chi-Kuei; Chen, Jung-Yueh; Lee, Ho-Sheng; Lin, Hsi-Hsun; Chen, Yen-Hsu

    2014-01-01

    Background The clinical characteristics of Q fever are poorly identified in the tropics. Fever with pneumonia or hepatitis are the dominant presentations of acute Q fever, which exhibits geographic variability. In southern Taiwan, which is located in a tropical region, the role of Q fever in community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) has never been investigated. Methodology/Principal Findings During the study period, May 2012 to April 2013, 166 cases of adult CAP and 15 cases of acute Q fever were prospectively investigated. Cultures of clinical specimens, urine antigen tests for Streptococcus pneumoniae and Legionella pneumophila, and paired serologic assessments for Mycoplasma pneumoniae, Chlamydophila pneumoniae, and Q fever (Coxiella burnetii) were used for identifying pathogens associated with CAP. From April 2004 to April 2013 (the pre-study period), 122 cases of acute Q fever were also included retrospectively for analysis. The geographic distribution of Q fever and CAP cases was similar. Q fever cases were identified in warmer seasons and younger ages than CAP. Based on multivariate analysis, male gender, chills, thrombocytopenia, and elevated liver enzymes were independent characteristics associated with Q fever. In patients with Q fever, 95% and 13.5% of cases presented with hepatitis and pneumonia, respectively. Twelve (7.2%) cases of CAP were seropositive for C. burnetii antibodies, but none of them had acute Q fever. Among CAP cases, 22.9% had a CURB-65 score ≧2, and 45.8% had identifiable pathogens. Haemophilus parainfluenzae (14.5%), S. pneumoniae (6.6%), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (4.8%), and Klebsiella pneumoniae (3.0%) were the most common pathogens identified by cultures or urine antigen tests. Moreover, M. pneumoniae, C. pneumoniae, and co-infection with 2 pathogens accounted for 9.0%, 7.8%, and 1.8%, respectively. Conclusions In southern Taiwan, Q fever is an endemic disease with hepatitis as the major presentation and is not a common etiology of CAP

  7. Clinical characteristics of Q fever and etiology of community-acquired pneumonia in a tropical region of southern Taiwan: a prospective observational study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chung-Hsu Lai

    Full Text Available The clinical characteristics of Q fever are poorly identified in the tropics. Fever with pneumonia or hepatitis are the dominant presentations of acute Q fever, which exhibits geographic variability. In southern Taiwan, which is located in a tropical region, the role of Q fever in community-acquired pneumonia (CAP has never been investigated.During the study period, May 2012 to April 2013, 166 cases of adult CAP and 15 cases of acute Q fever were prospectively investigated. Cultures of clinical specimens, urine antigen tests for Streptococcus pneumoniae and Legionella pneumophila, and paired serologic assessments for Mycoplasma pneumoniae, Chlamydophila pneumoniae, and Q fever (Coxiella burnetii were used for identifying pathogens associated with CAP. From April 2004 to April 2013 (the pre-study period, 122 cases of acute Q fever were also included retrospectively for analysis. The geographic distribution of Q fever and CAP cases was similar. Q fever cases were identified in warmer seasons and younger ages than CAP. Based on multivariate analysis, male gender, chills, thrombocytopenia, and elevated liver enzymes were independent characteristics associated with Q fever. In patients with Q fever, 95% and 13.5% of cases presented with hepatitis and pneumonia, respectively. Twelve (7.2% cases of CAP were seropositive for C. burnetii antibodies, but none of them had acute Q fever. Among CAP cases, 22.9% had a CURB-65 score ≧2, and 45.8% had identifiable pathogens. Haemophilus parainfluenzae (14.5%, S. pneumoniae (6.6%, Pseudomonas aeruginosa (4.8%, and Klebsiella pneumoniae (3.0% were the most common pathogens identified by cultures or urine antigen tests. Moreover, M. pneumoniae, C. pneumoniae, and co-infection with 2 pathogens accounted for 9.0%, 7.8%, and 1.8%, respectively.In southern Taiwan, Q fever is an endemic disease with hepatitis as the major presentation and is not a common etiology of CAP.

  8. An ethnoveterinary study of medicinal plants in treatment of diseases and syndromes of herd dog in southern regions of Ilam province, Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahmani, Mahmoud; Eftekhari, Zohre

    2013-05-01

    This paper describes a selection of the ethnoveterinary medicines used for herd dogs in the southern regions of Ilam province, Iran. Traditional botanical medicine is the primary mode of healthcare for most of the rural population in Ilam province. In this study, a questionnaire was distributed among 45 residential areas in 22 rural zones of the southern areas of Ilam province. The objective of this study was the recognition of natural medicinal methods using medicinal plants, and the classification of ethnoveterinary applications and collection of domestic science. Twenty-two medicinal plants from 16 families were identified. The main application of these plants was for the detection and treatment of digestive disorders using Citrullus colocynthis, Aristolochia clematis, Scrophularia deserti, Quercus brantii, Ceracus microcarpa, Echium strigosa, Pistacia atlantica, and Pistacia khinjuk which have been applied using Euphurbia graminifolius, Peganum harmala, Salsola rigida, Artemisia herba-alba, Amygdalus arabica, jolbak of salt water, Peganum harmala L., and Nicotina tabacum for external and internal parasite disorders. S. deserti for ophthalmic disorders, and P. atlantica, P. khinjuk, and Q. brantii for respiratory disorders were applied. The present study confirmed the traditional medical effects of some plants and revealed the unique medical effects of other plants, which if recognized could be useful in the creation of new ideas and increasing knowledge for the modern pharmaceutical industry. Since very few clinical trials have been conducted on plants native to Ilam province, it is necessary that more research be conducted to ensure that labeled and standardized products are introduced for human consumption. PMID:23667351

  9. Treatment outcome of human immunodeficiency virus and tuberculosis co-infected patients in public hospitals of eastern and southern zone of Tigray region, Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehretu Belayneh

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Background:Tuberculosis is a leading cause of death among people living with human immunodeficiency virus. In sub-Saharan Africa, tuberculosis accounts for more than 78% of all deaths among people with human immunodeficiency virus.Objectives:To assess tuberculosis treatment outcome and the associated factors in adult tuberculosis/human immunodeficiency virus co-infected patients in four public hospitals of eastern and southern zone of Tigray region, Ethiopia.Methodology:Institution based cross-sectional study design was used to examine secondary data from tuberculosis/human immunodeficiency virus co-infected patients attending four public hospitals of eastern and southern zone of Tigray, from January 2009 to August 2011. Systematic random sampling technique was used to select individual patient cards from the respective hospitals. Univariate analysis and multivariate logistic regression modeling was used to assess the impact of each variable in predicting treatment outcome.Results:Out of 342 patients included, 199 (58.2% patients completed treatment, 43 (12.6% patients were cured, 88 (25.7% died, 7 (2% defaulted, and 5 (1.5% patients failed treatment. Treatment success rate was around 71%. In the multivariate logistic regression analysis the factors that were strongly associated with unfavorable tuberculosis treatment outcomes were WHO stage IV (AOR = 3.2, CI = 1.58-6.82, p-value = 0.001, age greater than 45 years (AOR = 6.08, CI = 2.28-16.23 and baseline CD4 count less than 200 cells/L (AOR = 6.19, CI = 2.28-16.89, p-value = 0.001.Conclusion:The rate of treatment success in this study was lower than the rate newly recommended by WHO. Therefore, efforts should be undertaken to improve treatment success rates of both diseases.

  10. Parkes HI observations of galaxies behind the southern Milky Way. II. The Crux and Great Attractor regions (l ~ 289 degree to 338 degree)

    CERN Document Server

    Schroeder, Anja C; Henning, Patricia A

    2009-01-01

    As part of our programme to map the large-scale distribution of galaxies behind the southern Milky Way, we observed 314 optically-selected, partially-obscured galaxies in the Zone of Avoidance (ZOA) in the Crux and Great Attractor (GA) regions. The observations were conducted with the Parkes 64m radio telescope, in a single-pixel pointed mode, reaching an rms noise level of typically 2-6 mJy over the velocity search range of 400regions, which leads to a relatively higher fraction of nearby galaxies. It is also evident from the quite narrow velocity distribution (largely confined to 3000-6000km/s) and deviates significantly from the expectation of a uniform galaxy distribution for the given sensitivity and velocity range. No systematic differences were found between detections and non-detections, in terms of latitude, foreground extinction, or environment, except for the very c...

  11. Evaluating the potential energy of a heliostat field and solar receiver of solar tower power plants in the southern region of Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raad Kadhim Al-Dualimi

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available A prior study on the performance of high-efficient models for a heliostat field and solar receiver at various candidate locations (e.g., certain regions in the south of Turkey helped determine suitable locations for installing solar tower power plant units. This study considered the fact that solar tower power plants are affected by the working conditions of a particular site, which helps realize the highest performance of the solar power tower plant. An optimized heliostat field consisting of 2650 SENER heliostats and a model of a solar receiver based on the data obtained using Gemasolar in Seville, Spain, was used as a reference in this work. Each heliostat position is specified using an optimization algorithm that refines previously proposed models, and two parameters are added to this model to further optimize the heliostat layout. Then, a sample analytical thermal model is used for predicting the radiative and convective heat losses from the receiver system. Article History: Received March 13rd 2016; Received in revised form Jun 22nd 2016; Accepted July 3rd 2016; Available onlineHow to Cite This Article: Ra'ad, K, M, A. and Mehmet, S, S. (2016, Evaluating the potential energy of a heliostat field and solar receiver of solar tower power plants in the southern region of Turkey. Int. Journal of Renewable Energy Development, 5(2, 151-161, http://dx.doi.org/10.14710/ijred.5.2.151-161

  12. Origin of the regional stress field along the Liquine-Ofqui Fault Zone (LOFZ), Southern Chilean Andes by means of FE Simulation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Md. Rafiqul Islam

    2009-01-01

    The Liquine-Ofqui Fault Zone (LOFZ) of southern Chilean Andes is one of the largest active strike-slip fault zones. There is an ongoing debate regarding the origin of the stress field along the LOFZ due to its complex geometry. This paper represents a study of the origins of the LOFZ regional stress field. Stress fields are calculated by finite element (FE) analysis. The two possible stress origins, i.e., oblique plate convergence and ridge collision/indenter tectonics of Chile ridge against Peru-Chile trench, have been emphasized in the present study. Three types of boundary conditions for the three particular models have been applied to calculate stress fields. Models are assumed to be elastic and plane stress condition. Modeling results are presented in terms of four parameters, i. e., orientation of maximum horizontal stress (σHmax), displacement vector, strain distribution, and maximum shear stress (τmax) contour line within the model. The results of the first model with oblique plate convergence show inconsistency between the geometric shape of the LOFZ and the distribution of the four parameters. Although more realistic results are obtained from the second model with normal ridge collision, there are few coincident in the LOFZ geometry and regional stress field. The third model with normal and oblique ridge collision is reasonable in understanding the origin of stress field and geometrical condition in the lithosphere of the LOFZ.

  13. Historical levels of heavy metals reconstructed from sedimentary record in the Hejiang River, located in a typical mining region of Southern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shaopeng; Wang, Yinghui; Zhang, Ruijie; Wang, Weitao; Xu, Daoquan; Guo, Jing; Li, Pingyang; Yu, Kefu

    2015-11-01

    Historical levels of Pb, Zn, Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, As, Fe, Al and Mn were found in C1 and C2 sediment cores from the Hejiang River, which is located in a typical mining region of Southern China, the levels date back approximately 57 and 83 years. Temporal variations in the core C1 around the mining peaked in the 1960s, after which they exhibited a decreasing trend, which reflects successful government management. Historical events such as the Pacific War and China's first 5-year economic plan were recorded in core C2, which was collected from the downstream portion of the Hejiang River. Enrichment factors (EF), geo-accumulation (Igeo), and excess flux indicate that severe contamination occurred during the period between 1956 and 1985 due to the release of high amounts of mining waste from human activities around the core C1 region. The highest EF value was displayed by As (67); this was followed by Pb (64), Cd (39), and Zn (35). In contrast, the core C2 sediments exhibited minor pollution because of dilution from tributaries (the Fu River and the Daning River) that do not flow through the mined area and because C2 was farther from the source of the metals. The results of the risk assessment codes (RAC) for both cores indicate that Cd posed a high risk to the local environment. Principal component analysis (PCA) and correlation analysis (CA) revealed that accumulation of heavy metals was mainly due to mining pollution.

  14. Geographical distribution and age composition of Euphausia superba larvae (Crustacea:Euphausiacea) in the South Shetland Islands region and southern Scotia Sea in relation to environmental conditions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GAO Qian; XU Zhaoli; HUANG Hongliang; CHEN Xuezhong; FENG Chunlei; LI Lingzhi

    2013-01-01

    Spatial distribution patterns of the different life stages of Euphausia superba in the region of the South Shet-land Islands and southern Scotia Sea (Antarctica) were assessed based on scientific survey data collected in January and February of 2010. Adults, eggs, nauplii, metanauplii, calyptopis I-III, and furcilia I-II were found in the investigation. The abundance of larvae averaged 1 172.8 ind./m2, with calyptopis I and II as the dominant stages. Habitat occupancy patterns varied among Euphausia superba at different stages, and three sub-regions were identified by cluster analysis. The degree of larval development increased from west to east. Larvae were not observed north of the South Shetland Islands. Calyptopis I was predominant in the water between Elephant Island and the South Orkney Islands, which featured no thermocline. Older stages, including calyptopis II and III and furcilia I and II, were common in north and northeast of the South Orkney Islands, which were characterized by high temperature and high chlorophyll concentration. Distri-bution and abundance of the early life stages of E. superba were associated with specific environmental con-ditions. According to Biota-Environment matching (BIOENV ), the distributions of E. superba larvae were correlated with a combination of temperature at the surface and 200 m, and 0-100 m integrated chlorophyll a concentration.

  15. El Niño-Southern Oscillation and water resources in Headwaters Region of the Yellow River: links and potential for forecasting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Lü

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Many studies have examined that El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO could result in the variation of rainfall and runoff of different rivers across the world. In this paper, we will look specifically at the Headwaters Region of the Yellow River (HRYR to explore the rainfall-ENSO and runoff-ENSO relationships and discuss the potential for water resources forecasting using these relationships. Cross-correlation analyses were performed to determine the significant correlation between rainfall, runoff and ENSO indicators (e.g. SOI, Niño 1.2, Niño 3, Niño 4, and Niño 3.4 and the lag period for each relationship. Main result include: (1 there are significant correlation at 95% confidence level during three periods, i.e. January and March, from September to November; (2 there were significant correlations between monthly streamflow and monthly ENSO indictors during three periods, i.e. JFM, June, and OND, with lag periods between one and twelve months. As ENSO events can be accurately predicted one to two years in advances using physical model of coupled ocean-atmosphere system, the lead time for forecasting runoff using ENSO indicator in the HRYR can be extent to one to thirty-six months. Therefore, ENSO may have potential as a powerful forecast tool for water resource in headwater regions of Yellow River.

  16. Environmental, Economic and Social Efficiencies of Irrigated Farming Systems: Using Water Footprint Indicators to Compare Farm Income and Labor Generated per Volume of Water Available in Irrigated Farming Systems in Campania, Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altobelli, F.; Meybeck, A.; Gitz, V.; Dalla Marta, A.; Cimino, O.

    2014-12-01

    Agriculture is not only producing food and other products. It is also a major economic sector, representing, especially in developing countries, an important part of GDP; and a major employer, with often more than half of the total workforce in many low income countries. In many of these countries irrigation plays a key role to increase and stabilize income, and it is likely to increase with climate change and increased variability of rain patterns. It is also a crucial mean to increase productivity of small holdings. In many countries, where holdings are small and even in some cases decreasing it is essential to enable farmers to ensure their food security and a decent income. In some countries, including India and many African countries, the workforce is expected to grow, with an important part of it to be employed in agriculture. At the same time many of the regions where agriculture is the most important from an economical and social point of view, are experiencing increasing water scarcity. In many cases, as has been noted for instance for the Mediterranean area, water availability is the main limiting factor to agricultural development. Increasingly agriculture is also in competition for water use with other economic activities. This calls for means to assess and compare agricultural productions systems and irrigation projects not only in terms of physical production of agricultural products but also in terms of income and jobs generated by the activity. In this study, we propose a methodology based on the blue water footprint for assessing and comparing different agricultural productions and farming systems in terms of economic and social outcomes for a given volume of blue water. Examples are drawn from the Campania region of Italy and based on data extracted from the Italian Farm Accountancy Data Network (FADN). This database contains, among other, data on crop production, irrigation management (irrigated surface, length of irrigation season, volumes of

  17. Crystalline Bedrock Geology, Faulting, and Crustal Architecture in the Larse Region of the Transverse Ranges, Southern California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, R. E.

    2001-12-01

    Spanning the Transverse Ranges (TR) between the northern Los Angeles Basin and the western Mojave Desert (MD), the LARSE lines transect several distinct crystalline blocks: western Transverse Ranges (WTR), San Gabriel Mts-Soledad Basin (SGM), Sierra Pelona (SP), and Liebre Mtn. Juxtaposition of disparate blocks evolved during late Cenozoic (Cz) plate-margin reorganization of early Miocene and older paleogeologic and paleotectonic patterns. Crystalline basement rocks, ranging in age from Proterozoic to mid-Cz, constrain tectonic and near-surface crustal evolution of the region in various ways: (1) by their spatial distribution, (2) by basement-derived clast-types in Cz deposits, and (3) by the age and distribution of weathered zones developed on exhumed basement. Reassembly of paleogeologic patterns in the crystalline terrane of S California provides measurements of overall displacement on strike-slip faults of the San Andreas system. In the LARSE region, right-lateral displacements are demonstrable for the San Gabriel fault (SGF) in the SGM (22-23 km), the Vasquez Creek fault (5-15 km), and the SGF NW of the SGM (42-43 km). Displacement on the San Andreas fault NW of the TR (295 km) is partitioned onto the San Andreas-San Francisquito-Fenner-Clemens Well fault (100 km) and the SGF in the TR, and the post-5 Ma San Andreas fault in and south of the TR (ranging from 160 km along the MD-TR segment to 180 km along the Salton Trough segment). Left-lateral displacement has been demonstrated for the Santa Monica-Raymond fault (11-15 km), the Santa Ynez fault (0 km at its E end to as much as 37 km), and the Garlock fault (48-64 km along its central reach and perhaps as little as 12 km along its western reach). The Vasquez Creek and Santa Monica-Raymond faults are conjugate. Pre-Late Miocene extensional deformation is associated with exhumation of the Pelona Schist in SP and the Chocolate Mts and with ENE-trending left-separation faults in SGM. Reverse displacements are

  18. Selected ground-water data for Yucca Mountain Region, southern Nevada and eastern California, through December 22

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in support of the U.S. Department of Energy, Yucca Mountain Site-Characterization Project, collects, compiles, and summarizes hydrologic data in the Yucca Mountain region. The data are collected to allow assessments of ground-water resources during studies to determine the potential suitability of Yucca Mountain for storing high-level nuclear waste. Data on ground-water levels at 36 sites, ground-water discharge at 6 sites, ground-water quality at 19 sites, and ground-water withdrawals within Crater Flat, Jackass Flats, Mercury Valley, and the Amargosa Desert are presented. Data on ground-water levels, discharges, and withdrawals collected by other agencies (or as part of other programs) are included to further indicate variations through time at selected monitoring locations. Data are included in this report from 1910 through 1992

  19. Isotopes as Tracers of Water Origin in and Near a Regional Carbonate Aquifer: The Southern Sacramento Mountains, New Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher J. Eastoe

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available High-elevation groundwater sampled in 2003 in the Sacramento Mountains defines a line resembling an evaporation trend in δD-δ18O space. The trend results from recharge of winter precipitation into fractured limestone, with evaporation prior to recharge in broad mountain valleys. The same trend occurs in basin groundwater east and west of the range, indicating the high Sacramento Mountains as the principal regional water source, either direct from the limestone aquifers or from mountain-derived surface water. Tritium and carbon-14 indicate bulk residence times of a few decades in the high Sacramento Mountains and at Alamogordo, and of thousands of years south of Alamogordo and in the artesian aquifer near Artesia. Stable O, H isotope data fail to demonstrate the presence of Sacramento Mountains water in a saline aquifer of the Hueco Bolson (Texas.

  20. The waste crisis in Campania, South Italy: a historical perspective on an epidemiological controversy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantoni, Roberto

    2016-06-01

    Between 2001 and 2009, the area of Naples, South Italy, repeatedly hit the headlines of national and international media due to the waste management crisis that on many occasions filled up the streets of the region with huge piles of waste. What soon emerged as the main bone of contention concerned the connections between the population's health and the presence of dumps on the territory. What the risks for health actually were, who was entitled to assess them, and whether pollution from proximity to dumps caused health problems were all topics that came to the fore during a debate that took place within the Italian epidemiological community, alongside the political and governance crisis.

  1. Conjunctival cytological examination, bacteriological culture, and antimicrobial resistance proifles of healthy Mediterranean buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis) from Southern Italy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Barbara Lamagna; Luisa De Martino; Maria Pia Pasolini; Sandra Nizza; Karina Mallardo; Maurizio Formicola; Alessandro Costagliola; Gerardo Fatone; Filomena Fiorito; Orlando Paciello

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To assess normal conjunctival cytological and bacteriological/fungal flora features in the Mediterranean buffalo (Bubalus bubalis). Methods:Swabs were taken from the inferior conjunctival sac of both eyes of 57 healthy female buffaloes aged 24-36 months, with no evidence of ocular disease, farmed in Campania region (Southern Italy), for microbiological analysis. Conjunctival eye specimens of both eyes were subsequently obtained by a cyto-brush, for cytological analysis. The antimicrobial susceptibility of bacterial isolates was also determined using the disk-diffusion method on Mueller Hinton agar plates. Results: Cytological examination of conjunctival swab specimens (114 eyes) revealed epithelial cells (basal, intermediate, columnar and superficial) in all samples, whereas neutrophils, lymphocytes and plasma cells were present in 70%, 10%and 2%of samples, respectively. Microorganisms, for a total of 261 aerobic bacteria and 6 fungi, were isolated from 112/114 conjunctival samples (98.25%;95%confidence interval (CI):93.18–99.70). Only two conjunctival swabs did not yield bacteria and/or fungi (2/114, 1.75%;95% CI:0.30–6.82). Gram-positive aerobes were most commonly cultured (181/261, 69.35%;95%CI: 63.31–74.81), with Enterococcus faecium and Staphylococcus lentus predominating. Escherichia coli was the most frequently isolated as Gram-negative bacteria (80/261, 30.65%;95%CI:25.19–36.69). The antimicrobial resistance patterns of the isolated bacteria showed amoxycillin/clavulanic acid and cephalothin as the least sensitive antibiotics for both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. Conclusions: These results provided first information on normal conjunctival ocular microflora and cytological features in Mediterranean buffalo.

  2. Rongbuk re-visited: Geochronology of leucogranites in the footwall of the South Tibetan Detachment System, Everest Region, Southern Tibet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cottle, John M.; Searle, Michael P.; Jessup, Micah J.; Crowley, James L.; Law, Richard D.

    2015-06-01

    The Hermit's Gorge area adjacent to the Rongbuk Glacier on the north side of Mount Everest is a critical location to establish the timing and duration of movement along the ductile strand of the South Tibetan Detachment system (STDS), a low-angle, north-dipping normal fault that bounds the upper part of the Greater Himalayan Sequence. Monazite from four leucogranite samples in the Hermit's Gorge that bracket the timing of ductile fabric development has been dated using both U/Th-Pb ID-TIMS and LA-MC-ICPMS. Results suggest that the earliest, ~ 16.4 Ma, leucogranite sills have been folded and deformed along with the host sillimanite gneisses and calc-silicates whereas structurally higher sills and dykes that post-date fabric development are slightly younger, all within uncertainty of one another at 15.6 to 15.4 Ma. Field relations combined with age data constrain ductile fabric formation associated with movement along this strand of the STDS as being on-going at 16.4 Ma but had ceased prior to 15.6 Ma, while brittle faulting along the STDS is younger than 15.4 Ma. Combined with data from the Everest massif and surrounding region, ages of granite crystallization and ductile shearing propagated up-structural section and northward with time.

  3. Populations of Odontesthes (Teleostei: Atheriniformes in the Andean region of Southern South America: body shape and hybrid individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecilia Conte-Grand

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The original distribution area of the Patagonian 'pejerrey' Odontesthes hatcheri has been subjected to the introduction of a related species; the Bonaerensean 'pejerrey' Odontesthes bonariensis. This species currently coexists with O. hatcheri in lakes and reservoirs, and can interbreed and produce fertile hybrid offspring. The purposes of this study were; a the extensive sampling of Patagonian and Andean-Cuyan populations of pejerrey, b the species identification according to taxonomic key, c validation of taxonomic results on the basis of mitochondrial DNA composition, and d applying morphometric analysis to explore the effects of hybridization and environmental conditions on body shape. Cytochrome b sequence analysis showed a high degree of genetic divergence between species and low intraspecific variation in O. hatcheri. Geometric Morphometric Analyses detected shape differences in agreement with diagnostic characteristics of each species. Putative hybrids exhibiting intermediate diagnostic characteristics were identified by Geometric Morphometric Analysis. Significant regressions between body shape and total phosphorus and altitude were found, suggesting a dependence on trophic web structure. This multi-level approach suggests the introgression of O. bonariensis into several O. hatcheri populations throughout Patagonia. Managers should take this into account when considering further exotic introductions into regions where non-native fishes have not yet become established.

  4. The contribution of gravity method in geothermal exploration of southern part of the Gulf of Suez-Sinai region, Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atef, H.; Abd El-Gawad, A. M. S.; Abdel Zaher, M.; Farag, K. S. I.

    2016-06-01

    The Gulf of Suez region represents the most promising area in Egypt for geothermal exploration which is characterized by superficial thermal manifestations represented by a cluster of hot springs with varying temperatures from 35 to 72 °C. The main purpose of the present study was to shed the light on the integration between gravity work and geothermal data in detecting the main subsurface structures in addition to expecting the geothermal sources in the area under consideration. Correction was applied on the bottom hole temperature data to obtain the true formation equilibrium temperatures that can provide useful information about the subsurface thermal regime. Based on these logging data, temperature gradient and heat flow values were computed at each well, and it is found that the mean geothermal gradient of the study area is 32 °C/km; nevertheless, some local geothermal potential fields were located with more than 40 °C/km. Also, heat flow values are ranging from 45 to 115 mW/m2. The Bouguer anomaly map of the study area was used for delineating the subsurface structures and tectonic trends that have resulted in a potential heat source. The gravity inversion revealed a good correlation between areas of high temperature gradients, high heat flow and positive gravity anomalies. The high temperature gradient and heat flow values suggested being associated with a noticeable hydrothermal source of heat anomaly located at relatively shallow depths which is expected to be due to the uplift of the basement in the area.

  5. Selected ground-water data for Yucca Mountain region, southern Nevada and eastern California, through December 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in support of the U.S. Department of Energy, Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project, collects, compiles, and summarizes hydrologic data in the Yucca Mountain region. The data are collected to allow assessments of ground-water resources during studies to determine the potential suitability of Yucca Mountain for storing high-level nuclear waste. Data on ground-water levels at 36 sites, ground-water discharge at 6 sites, and groundwater withdrawals within Crater Flat, Jackass Flats, Mercury Valley, and the Amargosa Desert are presented for calendar year 1994. Data collected prior to 1994 are graphically presented and data collected by other agencies (or as part of other programs) are included to further indicate variations of ground-water levels, discharges, and withdrawals through time. A statistical summary of ground-water levels at seven wells in Jackass Flats is presented. The statistical summary includes the number of measurements, the maximum, minimum, and median water-level altitudes, and the average deviation of measured water-level altitudes for selected baseline periods and for calendar years 1992-94

  6. The waste crisis in Campania, South Italy: a historical perspective on an epidemiological controversy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantoni, Roberto

    2016-06-01

    Between 2001 and 2009, the area of Naples, South Italy, repeatedly hit the headlines of national and international media due to the waste management crisis that on many occasions filled up the streets of the region with huge piles of waste. What soon emerged as the main bone of contention concerned the connections between the population's health and the presence of dumps on the territory. What the risks for health actually were, who was entitled to assess them, and whether pollution from proximity to dumps caused health problems were all topics that came to the fore during a debate that took place within the Italian epidemiological community, alongside the political and governance crisis. PMID:27180606

  7. Carbon isotopic fractionation in macroalgae from Cádiz Bay (Southern Spain): Comparison with other bio-geographic regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercado, Jesús M.; de los Santos, Carmen B.; Lucas Pérez-Lloréns, J.; Vergara, Juan J.

    2009-11-01

    The 13C signature of forty-five macroalgal species from intertidal zones at Cádiz Bay was analysed in order to research the extension of diffusive vs. non-diffusive utilisation of dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) and to perform a comparison with data published for other bio-geographic regions. The ∂ 13C values ranged from -6.8‰ to -33‰, although the span of variation was different depending on the taxa. Thus, ∂ 13C for Chlorophyta varied from -7‰ ( Codium adhaerens) to -29.6‰ ( Flabellia petiolata), while all the Phaeophyceae (excepting Padina pavonica with ∂ 13C higher than -10‰) had values between -10‰, and -20‰. The widest variation range was recorded in Rhodophyta, from values above -10‰ ( Liagora viscida) to values lower than -30‰ obtained in three species belonging to the subclass Rhodymeniophycidae. Accordingly, the mean ∂ 13C value calculated for red algae (-20.2‰) was significantly lower than that for brown (-15.9‰) and green algae (-15.6‰). Most of the analysed red algae were species inhabiting crevices and the low intertidal fringe which explains that, on average, the shaded-habitat species had a ∂ 13C value lower than those growing fully exposed to sun (i.e. in rockpools or at the upper intertidal zone). The comparison between the capacity for non-diffusive use of DIC (i.e. active or facilitated transport of HCO 3- and/or CO 2) and the ∂ 13C values reveals that values more negative than -30‰ indicate that photosynthesis is dependent on CO 2 diffusive entry, whereas values above this threshold would not indicate necessary the operation of a non-diffusive DIC transport mechanism. Furthermore, external carbonic anhydrase activity ( extCA) and ∂ 13C values were negatively correlated indicating that the higher the dependence of the photosynthesis on the CO 2 supplied from HCO 3- via extCA, the lower the ∂ 13C in the algal material. The comparison between the ∂ 13C values obtained for the analysed species and those

  8. Holocene environmental change in a montane region of southern Europe with a long history of human settlement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrión, J. S.; Fuentes, N.; González-Sampériz, P.; Sánchez Quirante, L.; Finlayson, J. C.; Fernández, S.; Andrade, A.

    2007-06-01

    This paper uses a palynological sequence to examine the Holocene (8390-160 cal yr BP) environmental history of the Sierra de Baza (Granada, southeastern Spain) with the goal of establishing the mechanisms exerting control over vegetation change. During the period ca 8390-6320 cal yr BP, Pinus dominated the pollen spectra, indicating a forested landscape over the high-elevation areas of the Sierra. From ca 6320-3800 cal yr BP, an expansion of deciduous oaks and other broad-leaf trees took place. After an optimum around 5800-5600 cal yr BP, mesophytes decreased in the 3800-2560 cal yr BP interval while a fire-prone scrub became established. The main loss of forest accompanied the spread of thorny matorral after ca 2560 cal yr BP. Overall, this mountain region has shown itself to be sensitive to a range of influences, among which a continental climate that has become increasingly arid over the last 5000 years, the scarcity of soils suitable for cultivation, a geology that includes sources of copper and other metals and, especially, the incidence of grazing as well as the repeated appearance of fires during the last 4000 years, are highlighted. The history of the vegetation of the Sierra de Baza seems clearly influenced by changes in local economy. Here we discuss how ecological transitions have interacted with cultural changes, with emphasis on the locally highly populated Chalcolithic (5700-4400 cal yr BP) and Argaric (4400-3550 cal yr BP) periods, as well as the Iberian period (3200-2220 cal yr BP). The sierra was abandoned during the Iberian Period which was, paradoxically, when the highest human impact on mountain vegetation is noticeable.

  9. Defining seascapes for marine unconsolidated shelf sediments in an eastern boundary upwelling region: The southern Benguela as a case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karenyi, Natasha; Sink, Kerry; Nel, Ronel

    2016-02-01

    Marine unconsolidated sediment habitats, the largest benthic ecosystem, are considered physically controlled ecosystems driven by a number of local physical processes. Depth and sediment type are recognised key drivers of these ecosystems. Seascape (i.e., marine landscape) habitat classifications are based solely on consistent geophysical features and provide an opportunity to define unconsolidated sediment habitats based on processes which may vary in distribution through space and time. This paper aimed to classify unconsolidated sediment seascapes and explore their diversity in an eastern boundary upwelling region at the macro-scale, using the South African west coast as a case study. Physical variables such as sediment grain size, depth and upwelling-related variables (i.e., maximum chlorophyll concentration, austral summer bottom oxygen concentration and sediment organic carbon content) were included in the analyses. These variables were directly measured through sampling, or collated from existing databases and the literature. These data were analysed using multivariate Cluster, Principal Components Ordination and SIMPER analyses (in PRIMER 6 + with PERMANOVA add-in package). There were four main findings; (i) eight seascapes were identified for the South African west coast based on depth, slope, sediment grain size and upwelling-related variables, (ii) three depth zones were distinguished (inner, middle and outer shelf), (iii) seascape diversity in the inner and middle shelves was greater than the outer shelf, and (iv) upwelling-related variables were responsible for the habitat diversity in both inner and middle shelves. This research demonstrates that the inclusion of productivity and its related variables, such as hypoxia and sedimentary organic carbon, in seascape classifications will enhance the ability to distinguish seascapes on continental shelves, where productivity is most variable.

  10. Supranational courts as engines for regional integration? A comparative study of the Southern African Development Community Tribunal, the European Union Court of Justice, and the Andean Court of Justice

    OpenAIRE

    Fanenbruck, Christina; Meißner, Lenya

    2015-01-01

    This paper investigates the role of regional supranational courts in advancing integration within regional organizations by analyzing three courts. Over the course of the last decades the design of the European Court of Justice has been emulated by several other supranational courts, two of which are studied in this paper. The court of the Southern African Development Community (SADC), the SADC Tribunal (SADCT), as well as the court of the Andean Community (CAN), the Andean Court of Justice (...

  11. Il contributo di una Unitá Operativa Complessa: di Infettivologia Pediatrica durante l'epidemia di morbillo in Campania.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. De Lorenzo

    2003-05-01

    Full Text Available

    Il morbillo è un importante problema di Sanità Pubblica che comporta un elevato rischio di complicanze con conseguenti eccessi di ospedalizzazione, mortalità e costi elevati.

    Obiettivi: Valutare incidenza, decorso clinico, complicanze e scelte terapeutiche in bambini ospedalizzati per morbillo, nonché l’impatto dell’epidemia su strutture ed operatori di una U.O.C. di Infettivologia Pediatrica con 16 p.l.

    Metodologia: dalle cartelle cliniche dei bambini ricoverati per morbillo presso l’U.O.C. di Pediatria Infettivologica dell’Ospedale Pausillipon di Napoli, nel corso dell’epidemia verificatasi in Campania tra gennaio e maggio 2002, sono stati raccolti, mediante una apposita griglia di rilevazione, i dati socio anagrafici, quelli relativi a decorso della malattia, eventuali complicanze, scelte terapeutiche adottate, stato immunitario del bambino e della madre, possibile fonte di contagio, motivazione al ricovero. Su 78 bambini ricoverati (38F e 40M, età media di 4,2 anni (range 0,1 14 anni, di cui 20 con età inferiore a 15 mesi, 42 hanno presentato complicanze: 27 broncopolmoniti, di cui 4 di presumibile origine virale e 23 da presumibile sovrainfezione batterica, 7 laringotracheobronchiti (croup, 4 diarrea con disidratazione, 1 otite media, 4 piastrinopenia transitoria, 2 stomatiti, 1 cistite emorragica, 1 meningoencefalite. Oltre alla terapia antibiotica e cortisonica (quando indicate, 27 bambini hanno ricevuto una singola somministrazione di Vitamina A, con decorso favorevole della malattia e nessun effetto collaterale. In soli due bambini era stata praticata la vaccinazione antimorbillo.

    Conclusioni: i dati confermano l’importanza della vaccinazione antimorbillo e l’opportunità di anticiparla a 6 mesi in corso di epidemia (nella quasi totalità dei casi di età ‹15 mesi la fonte di contagio è stata la malattia in

  12. Raised marine terraces in the Northern Calabrian Arc (Southern Italy: a ~ 600 kyr-long geological record of regional uplift

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Cucci

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available The Sibari Plain in the Northeastern Calabrian Arc displays a well-developed suite of marine terraces. This paper deals with i the identification and correlation of the terraces; ii their age assignment and a tentative reconstruction of the uplift history of the area; iii the relationships between terraces and major faults in the study area and between uplift in the Plain and pattern of Quaternary uplift throughout the Calabrian Arc. Identifying wavecut platforms and inner-edge fragments over a linear extent of ~ 100 km was achieved by photo interpretation, 1:25 000 scale map analyses and field survey. Morphological evidence led to the correlation of the identified fragments into five complete strandlines (numbered #1 to #5 lowest to highest, at elevations ranging from 60 m to ~ 650 m. Analysis of two parameters of the emerged platform-cliff systems, namely the platform-cliff ratio and the dissection percentage, further testifies that the two lowest terraces are strongly correlative. A 130 kyr AAR age of in situ fossil samples of Glycymeris collected at 114 m elevation within the deposit of Terrace #2 indicates a key correlation of T#2 with MIS 5.5 (the peak of the last interglacial, 124 kyr, i.e. an uplift rate of ~ 0.98 mm/yr for this strandline. The other four terraces have been tentatively associated with MIS 5.3, 7, 9 and 15. Geological observations independent of geochronological evidence provide consistent lower age boundaries for the terraces and supply further constraints to this interpretation. Investigating the relations between setting of the terraces and location of major tectonic structures in the region is suggestive of no recent activity of two previously recognized faults, the «Sangineto Line» and the «Corigliano-Rossano Line». Instead, some limited anomalies that affect the terraces are tentatively associated with the activity of the Castrovillari Fault. Therefore, sustained uplift has been the long-term dominant

  13. Why is the central area of the Alburni Mts in southern Italy so full of caves?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cafaro, Simona; Gueguen, Erwan; Parise, Mario; Schiattarella, Marcello

    2016-04-01

    The Alburni Mts represent one of the most important karst area of southern Italy, with about 250 registered caves. Located in the southern Apennines, they constitute an impressive carbonate massif within the Mesozoic-Cenozoic Campania-Lucania platform. The study area is located inside the National Park of Cilento, Vallo di Diano and Alburni, and is bounded by two major rivers: the Calore and Tanagro rivers. This area has been repeatedly affected during Pleistocene by the activity of a regional, partly blind, NW-SE-striking fault system responsible for several huge earthquakes. The massif is limited to the north by an important normal fault zone (Alburni Line), whereas towards the E-SE it is bounded by a complex fault system linking the Alburni Mts to the Maddalena Mts across the Auletta basin and the Vallo di Diano valley. The entire massif is structured by NW-SE trending transtensional faults delimiting half-graben basins, and offset also by NE-SW trending faults. In particular, structural and geomorphological data have shown that the central area of the calcareous ridge is characterized by a relative structural low rhombic-shaped in planimetric view. Approximately 180 karst caves of the known 250, including some of the most significant from a speleological viewpoint, are located in this area. Is this simply due to repeated exploration activity in the last 25 years in this specific sector or might it be related to geological matter? New morphometric and structural data suggest that a relevant transversal structure, consisting of a complex NE-SW fault system, responsible for the genesis of the downthrown area in the central sector of the flat-topped ridge, was able to create the tectonic framework for the development of a great number of karst caves which present peculiar features and hydrological behaviour due to such structural controls. In this contribution we present and discuss these data, aimed at contributing to increase the knowledge on an area of sure

  14. Evaluation of the behavior of clouds in a region of severe acid rain pollution in southern China: species, complexes, and variations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Lei; Wang, Yan; Yue, Taixing; Yang, Xueqiao; Xue, Likun; Wang, Wenxing

    2015-09-01

    Cloud samples were collected during the summer of 2011 and the spring of 2012 at a high-elevation site in southern China in an effort to examine the chemical characteristics of acid clouds. In total, 141 cloud samples were collected during 44 cloud events over the observation period. The dominant ionic species were SO4(2-), NH4(+), and NO3(-), contributing approximately 75% of the total inorganic ion concentration. The primary acidifying factors were sulfate and nitrate, and the primary neutralizing factors were ammonium and calcium. The volume-weighted mean (VWM) pH of the cloud water was 3.79, indicating an acidic nature. In these cloud samples, Zn and Al exhibited the highest trace metal concentrations, contributing approximately 60% of the total trace element concentration. Toxic metals, such as Pb, Ba, As, and Cr, were detected at high concentrations, indicating potential hazards for human health, vegetation, and waters in this region. Visual MINTEQ 3.0 results revealed that the majority of Zn(II) and Pb(II) existed in the form of free ions. The behavior of Al, however, differed from the behaviors of zinc and lead. The temporal variation in cloud chemistry indicated that temperature, sandstorms, and long-range transport could affect the concentrations of species. During the lifetime of a cloud event, the concentrations of the chemical species were controlled by the transfer of gases or particles to liquid droplets. PMID:25976330

  15. Probing the Physics of Narrow Line Regions in Active Galaxies II: The Siding Spring Southern Seyfert Spectroscopic Snapshot Survey (S7)

    CERN Document Server

    Dopita, Michael A; Davies, Rebecca; Kewley, Lisa; Hampton, Elise; Scharwächter, Julia; Sutherland, Ralph; Kharb, Preeti; Jose, Jessy; Bhatt, Harish; Ramya, S; Jin, Chichuan; Banfield, Julie; Zaw, Ingyin; Juneau, Stéphanie; James, Bethan; Srivastava, Shweta

    2015-01-01

    Here we describe the \\emph{Siding Spring Southern Seyfert Spectroscopic Snapshot Survey} (S7) and present results on 64 galaxies drawn from the first data release. The S7 uses the Wide Field Spectrograph (WiFeS) mounted on the ANU 2.3m telescope located at the Siding Spring Observatory to deliver an integral field of $38\\times25$~ arcsec at a spectral resolution of $R=7000$ in the red ($530-710$nm), and $R=3000$ in the blue ($340-560$nm). {From these data cubes we have extracted the Narrow Line Region (NLR) spectra from a 4 arc sec aperture centred on the nucleus. We also determine the H$\\beta$ and [OIII]~$\\lambda$5007 fluxes in the narrow lines, the nuclear reddening, the reddening-corrected relative intensities of the observed emission lines, and the H$\\beta$ and \\lOIII\\ luminosities {determined from spectra for which the stellar continuum has been removed.} We present a set of images of the galaxies in [OIII]~$\\lambda$5007, [NII]~$\\lambda$6584 and H$\\alpha$ which serve to delineate the spatial extent of th...

  16. 南宋两淮军事指挥系统运行机制%Operation of Huaihe River region military chain of command of Southern Song Dynasty

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周燕来

    2012-01-01

    This paper,taking the institution and operation of the Southern Song Dynasty,examines the military chain of command in Huaihe River region,the allocation of its subsidiary bodies and the operation mechanism in its goods management.The analysis indicates that it was more similar to the central dispatch but quite different from the subsequent home secretary,and other institutions.Military officers of Song Huai River theater enjoy all the way(actually east of Huainan,west of Huainan) in military dictatorship,and it is relatively independent of the administration,personnel,financial powers.%以南宋都督府的设置和运作为例,考察南宋两淮地区军事指挥系统及其附属机构的人员调配、财物管理等运行机制。分析认为:其性质更接近于中央派出机构,而与日后的制置司等机构迥然不同;南宋两淮战区军事主官享有一路(实际是淮南东、淮南西二路)的军事独裁权以及相对独立的行政、人事、财政权。

  17. Composition of diatom communities and their contribution to plankton biomass in the naturally iron-fertilized region of Kerguelen in the Southern Ocean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lasbleiz, Marine; Leblanc, Karine; Armand, Leanne K; Christaki, Urania; Georges, Clément; Obernosterer, Ingrid; Quéguiner, Bernard

    2016-11-01

    In the naturally iron-fertilized surface waters of the northern Kerguelen Plateau region, the early spring diatom community composition and contribution to plankton carbon biomass were investigated and compared with the high nutrient, low chlorophyll (HNLC) surrounding waters. The large iron-induced blooms were dominated by small diatom species belonging to the genera Chaetoceros (Hyalochaete) and Thalassiosira, which rapidly responded to the onset of favorable light-conditions in the meander of the Polar Front. In comparison, the iron-limited HNLC area was typically characterized by autotrophic nanoeukaryote-dominated communities and by larger and more heavily silicified diatom species (e.g. Fragilariopsis spp.). Our results support the hypothesis that diatoms are valuable vectors of carbon export to depth in naturally iron-fertilized systems of the Southern Ocean. Furthermore, our results corroborate observations of the exported diatom assemblage from a sediment trap deployed in the iron-fertilized area, whereby the dominant Chaetoceros (Hyalochaete) cells were less efficiently exported than the less abundant, yet heavily silicified, cells of Thalassionema nitzschioides and Fragilariopsis kerguelensis Our observations emphasize the strong influence of species-specific diatom cell properties combined with trophic interactions on matter export efficiency, and illustrate the tight link between the specific composition of phytoplankton communities and the biogeochemical properties characterizing the study area.

  18. Application of LiDAR Date to Assess the Landslide Susceptibility Map Using Weights of Evidence Method - AN Example from Podhale Region (southern Poland)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamiński, Mirosław

    2016-06-01

    Podhale is a region in southern Poland, which is the northernmost part of the Central Carpathian Mountains. It is characterized by the presence of a large number of landslides that threaten the local infrastructure. In an article presents application of LiDAR data and geostatistical methods to assess landslides susceptibility map. Landslide inventory map were performed using LiDAR data and field work. The Weights of Evidence method was applied to assess landslides susceptibility map. Used factors for modeling: slope gradient, slope aspect, elevation, drainage density, faults density, lithology and curvature. All maps were subdivided into different classes. Then were converted to grid format in the ArcGIS 10.0. The conditional independence test was carried out to determine factors that are conditionally independent of each other with landslides. As a result, chi-square test for further GIS analysis used only five factors: slope gradient, slope aspect, elevation, drainage density and lithology. The final prediction results, it is concluded that the susceptibility map gives useful information both on present instability of the area and its possible future evolution in agreement with the morphological evolution of the area.

  19. Regional Climate Zone Modeling of a Commercial Absorption Heat Pump Hot Water Heater Part 1: Southern and South Central Climate Zones

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geoghegan, Patrick J [ORNL; Shen, Bo [ORNL; Keinath, Christopher M. [Stone Mountain Technologies, Inc., Johnson City; Garrabrant, Michael A. [Stone Mountain Technologies, Inc., Johnson City

    2016-01-01

    Commercial hot water heating accounts for approximately 0.78 Quads of primary energy use with 0.44 Quads of this amount from natural gas fired heaters. An ammonia-water based commercial absorption system, if fully deployed, could achieve a high level of savings, much higher than would be possible by conversion to the high efficiency nonheat-pump gas fired alternatives. In comparison with air source electric heat pumps, the absorption system is able to maintain higher coefficients of performance in colder climates. The ammonia-water system also has the advantage of zero Ozone Depletion Potential and low Global Warming Potential. A thermodynamic model of a single effect ammonia-water absorption system for commercial space and water heating was developed, and its performance was investigated for a range of ambient and return water temperatures. This allowed for the development of a performance map which was then used in a building energy modeling software. Modeling of two commercial water heating systems was performed; one using an absorption heat pump and another using a condensing gas storage system. The energy and financial savings were investigated for a range of locations and climate zones in the southern and south central United States. A follow up paper will analyze northern and north/central regions. Results showed that the system using an absorption heat pump offers significant savings.

  20. Molecular characterisation of the clonal emergence of high-level ciprofloxacin-monoresistant Haemophilus influenzae in the Region of Southern Denmark.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuursted, Kurt; Hartmeyer, Gitte Nyvang; Stegger, Marc; Andersen, Paal Skytt; Justesen, Ulrik Stenz

    2016-06-01

    Haemophilus influenzae is an important human pathogen usually susceptible to quinolones. Here we report the emergence of high-level ciprofloxacin-monoresistant H. influenzae in the Region of Southern Denmark. Four isolates were collected for phenotypic and molecular characterisation using whole-genome sequencing (WGS). During an 18-month period, the occurrence of high-level ciprofloxacin-monoresistant H. influenzae in patients aged 1-77 years from sputum, ear and eye samples was detected. An epidemiological link between the patients could not be identified. The isolates were non-encapsulated, biotype III and were demonstrated by WGS to be clonal belonging to a single clade with an unknown multilocus sequence type (double-locus variant of ST196). The antibiogram demonstrated that they were all monoresistant to ciprofloxacin with a minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) >32mg/L. In silico resistome analysis revealed identical, both previously characterised and novel, putative resistance-related mutations in gyrA (S84L and D88N), parC (K20R, S84I, D356A or T356A, and M481I) and parE (E151K, I159A, D420N and S599A) in all isolates. The isolates were otherwise negative for any resistance genes. This is the first description of the clonal emergence of high-level monoresistant H. influenzae due to amino acid substitutions in gyrA, parC and parE.

  1. An experience in regional estimates of changes in soil carbon pools of the southern taiga and forest-steppe during the historical period

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chernova, O. V.; Ryzhova, I. M.; Podvezennaya, M. A.

    2016-08-01

    Regional estimates of changes in soil organic carbon (SOC) pools during the historical period were obtained according to a unified approach for Kostroma (southern taiga) and Kursk (forest-steppe) oblasts. The potential pools of soil carbon were calculated with due account for the classification position of particular soils, their texture, and the character of natural vegetation. In the estimates of actual SOC pools, land use patterns and the age structure of forest stands were taken into account. It was shown that modern pools of organic carbon in the soils of Kostroma oblast are only 1-2% smaller than the potential pools; for the soils of Kursk oblast, this difference reaches 23-27%. Mean weighted values of the actual SOC contents in these oblasts decreased by 0.1-0.2 and 6.5-7.6 kg C/m2 in comparison with the potential SOC contents, respectively, which is related to their environmental specificity and to different types of land use at present and in the historical past.

  2. Molecular characterisation of the clonal emergence of high-level ciprofloxacin-monoresistant Haemophilus influenzae in the Region of Southern Denmark.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuursted, Kurt; Hartmeyer, Gitte Nyvang; Stegger, Marc; Andersen, Paal Skytt; Justesen, Ulrik Stenz

    2016-06-01

    Haemophilus influenzae is an important human pathogen usually susceptible to quinolones. Here we report the emergence of high-level ciprofloxacin-monoresistant H. influenzae in the Region of Southern Denmark. Four isolates were collected for phenotypic and molecular characterisation using whole-genome sequencing (WGS). During an 18-month period, the occurrence of high-level ciprofloxacin-monoresistant H. influenzae in patients aged 1-77 years from sputum, ear and eye samples was detected. An epidemiological link between the patients could not be identified. The isolates were non-encapsulated, biotype III and were demonstrated by WGS to be clonal belonging to a single clade with an unknown multilocus sequence type (double-locus variant of ST196). The antibiogram demonstrated that they were all monoresistant to ciprofloxacin with a minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) >32mg/L. In silico resistome analysis revealed identical, both previously characterised and novel, putative resistance-related mutations in gyrA (S84L and D88N), parC (K20R, S84I, D356A or T356A, and M481I) and parE (E151K, I159A, D420N and S599A) in all isolates. The isolates were otherwise negative for any resistance genes. This is the first description of the clonal emergence of high-level monoresistant H. influenzae due to amino acid substitutions in gyrA, parC and parE. PMID:27436470

  3. Population genetic variation of the Southern Ocean krill, Euphausia superba, in the Western Antarctic Peninsula region based on mitochondrial single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batta-Lona, Paola G.; Bucklin, Ann; Wiebe, Peter H.; Patarnello, Tomaso; Copley, Nancy J.

    2011-07-01

    The Southern Ocean krill, Euphausia superba, is one of the best-studied marine zooplankton species in terms of population genetic diversity and structure; with few exceptions, previous studies have shown the species to be genetically homogeneous at larger spatial scales. The goals of this study are to examine sub-regional scale population genetic diversity and structure of E. superba using molecular characters selected with this goal in mind, and to thereby examine hypotheses of the source(s) of recruitment for krill populations of the Western Antarctic Peninsula (WAP). Collections were made throughout the WAP region during US GLOBEC cruises in austral fall, 2001 and 2002. A total of 585 E. superba (including all 6 furcilia larval stages, juveniles, and adults) was analyzed after confirmation of species identification using a competitive multiplexed species-specific PCR (SS-PCR) reaction based on mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase I (mtCOI) sequences. The molecular markers used were allele frequencies at single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) sites in the gene encoding mitochondrial Cytochrome b (cyt b). Four SNP sites that showed desirable patterns of allelic variation were selected; alleles were detected using a multiplexed single-base extension PCR protocol. A total of 22 SNP haplotypes (i.e., strings of polymorphisms at the four SNP sites) was observed; haplotype diversity (Hd)=0.811 (s.d.=0.008). Analysis of molecular variation within and among samples, areas (i.e., Marguerite Bay, Crystal Sound, shelf, and offshore) and collection years revealed no difference between 2001 and 2002 collections overall, although differences between 2001 and 2002 collections from Marguerite Bay explained 7.4% of the variance ( FST=0.072; p=0.002±0.001). Most of the variation (96.3%) occurred within samples each year, with no significant differentiation among areas. There was small, but significant differentiation among samples within areas in 2001 (4.6%; FST=0.045; p=0.015±0

  4. The «Land of Fires»: Environment and Industrial Policy in Southern Italy

    OpenAIRE

    Flora A.

    2015-01-01

    The phenomenon of the so-called «Land of Fires» occurred in the Campania region, namely the use of the illegal waste disposal through their burning in the open air, produces environmental, economic and health damage on local inhabitants. Even if tests have ruled out the toxicity of food in that area, a serious problem of environmental pollution due to dioxins and heavy metals released into the air by the fires remains. The policies adopted so far have been repressing activities of illegal was...

  5. The relationship of meteorological patterns with changes in floristic richness along a large elevational gradient in a seasonally dry region of southern Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salas-Morales, Silvia H.; Meave, Jorge A.; Trejo, Irma

    2015-12-01

    Globally, climate is a fundamental driver of plant species' geographical distributions, yet we still lack a good understanding of climatic variation on tropical mountains and its consequences for elevational floristic patterns. In a seasonally dry region of southern Mexico, we analysed meteorological patterns along a large elevational gradient (0-3670 m a.s.l.) and examined their relationship with changes in floristic richness. Meteorological patterns were characterised using two data sources. First, climatic information was extracted from cartography and records from a few existing meteorological stations. Additionally, air temperature and humidity were recorded hourly during 1 year with data loggers, at sites representing 200-m elevation increments. Floristic information was extracted from a database containing 10,124 records of plant collections, and organized in 200-m elevational belts. Climatic charts distinguished three climate types along the gradient, all with marked rainfall seasonality, but these bore little correspondence with the information obtained with the data loggers. Mean annual air temperature decreased with increasing elevation (lapse rate of 0.542 °C 100 m-1). Thermal oscillation was minimum around 1400 m and increased towards both extremes of the gradient. Relative humidity opposed this pattern, with maxima between 800 and 1800 m, decreasing towards the highest elevations. An analysis of temperature frequency distributions revealed meteorological features undetectable from the annual or monthly means of this variable; despite an overall gradual transition of the proportions of time recorded at different temperatures, some changes did not conform to this pattern. The first discontinuity occurred between 1000-1200 m, where dominant temperatures shifted abruptly; also noticeable was an abrupt increase of the proportion of time elapsed at 0.1-10 °C between 2400 and 2600 m. Air temperature appears to be the most influential climatic factor

  6. Finite element modelling of stress field perturbations and interseismic crustal deformation in the Val d'Agri region, southern Apennines, Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Candela, Stefania; Mazzoli, Stefano; Megna, Antonella; Santini, Stefano

    2015-08-01

    The Val d'Agri area provides the opportunity to analyse active structures in a seismic region for which a large amount of subsurface data is available. This area, which was struck in 1857 by one of the most destructive earthquakes in Italy (MW = 7.03), represents a unique natural laboratory to gain new insights into geometry, modes and rates of faulting controlling crustal deformation in an actively extending orogen. In this study, a crustal geological section through the southern Apennines is discretized into a finite element model (FEM). We present a 2D elastoplastic FEM that reproduces stress perturbations and strain field around the Val d'Agri active fault system. The influence of fault strand activity on interseismic crustal deformation is tested by a series of computer models, whose predictions are compared with the horizontal velocity components of continuous GPS sites in the region and with stress directions and geological data. The best fit with available geological and geophysical constraints is obtained with a 300 km long, 29 km deep model formed by a multilayer including three components having different rheological characteristics and including several shallow, locked fault segments, which branch into a freely slipping major basement fault at depth. Finite element modelling provides new insights into the controversial and widely debated active tectonic setting of the study area, pointing out the fundamental role played by a structural reactivation process involving inherited, long-lived, mature fault systems at depth. Our FEM, reconciling apparently contrasting geological and geophysical constraints from the study area, points to maximum stress build up and strain accumulation at a depth of 15 ± 5 km. Such a depth range is suggested as the most likely one for the nucleation of large events such as the 1857 Val d'Agri earthquake.

  7. Tyrosinase-positive oculocutaneous albinism in Southern African blacks: P gene-associated haplotypes suggest a major mutation in the 5{prime} region of the gene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramsay, M.; Stevens, G.; Beukering, J. van [Univ. of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg (South Africa)] [and others

    1994-09-01

    Tyrosinase-positive oculocutaneous albinism (ty-pos OCA) occurs with a prevalence of 1 in 3900 among Southern African (SA) blacks. The major contributors to morbidity and mortality are skin cancer and decreased visual acuity. Two distinct phenotypes occur, namely individuals with ephelides (darkly pigmented patches) and those without. There is complete concordance with regard to ephelus status among siblings. The disorder is linked to markers on chromosome 15q11.2-q12, and no obligatory cross-overs were observed with polymophic markers at the human homolog, P, of the mouse pink eyed dilute gene, p. Contrary to what has been shown for Caucasoid ty-pos OCA, this condition shows locus homogeneity among SA blacks. The P gene is an excellent candidate for ty-pos OCA and mutations in this gene will confirm its role in causing the common form of albinism in SA. Numerous P gene mutations have been described in other populations. In an attempt to detect mutations, the P gene cDNA was used to search for structural rearrangements or polymorphisms. Six polymorphisms (plR10/Scal, 912/Xbal, 912/HincII, 912/TaqI, 1412/TaqI [two systems] and 1412/HindIII) were detected with subclones of the P cDNA and haplotypes were determined in each family. None were clearly associated with an albinism-related rearrangement. However, strong linkage disequilibrium was observed with alleles at loci toward the 5{prime} region of the gene ({triangle}=0.65, 0.57 and 0.80 for the three polymorphisms detected with the 912 subclone), suggesting a major ty-pos OCA mutation in this region. Haplotype analysis provides evidence for a major mutation associated with the same haplotype in individuals with ephelides (8/12 OCA chromosomes) and those without ephelides (24:30). The presence of other ty-pos OCA associated haplotypes indicates several other less common mutations.

  8. Damage caused by hydrological extremes in a region of southern Italy: comparison between the period 2002-2012 and the past century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrucci, Olga; Pasqua, A. Aurora

    2013-04-01

    The concept of extreme hydrological event should be seen in a relative way, depending on the region for which it is defined, the parameters and the type of data utilized to assess it, and mainly taking into account the length of the period basing on which it is assessed. Measured data concerning rainfall and river flow, which allow statistical analysis of numerical values and assessment of events frequency, can be available for different periods, according to both the study area and the country; nevertheless, the length of the measurement series rarely exceeds 100 years. Thus, the extrapolation to the future of events trend, frequency, seasonality are based on a relatively short and recent period and even the "magnitude" and the classification of "extreme events" can be biased by the length of the observation period. Thus these characteristics may substantially change if their assessment is based on a wider temporal window. Especially in un-gauged basins and concerning severest events, historical data cannot provide systematically measured parameters but they can supply proxy data which allow enlarging the observation period, permitting a better weighing of both recent and old events. The present research is based on the use of a wide historical database concerning phenomena as floods, flash floods and landslides triggered by extreme meteorological events in Calabria (Southern Italy) since 19th century. This database is made of approximately 11,000 records and it includes data coming from different sources as newspapers, archives of national and regional agencies, scientific and technical reports, on-site surveys reports and information collected by interviewing both people involved and local administrators. The recent uploading of data concerning the effects caused in Calabria by these phenomena during the decade 2002-2012 allowed us to analyse a long and updated historical series of events. The aim is to compare -both in terms triggering rainfall and their

  9. Terrestrial Laser Scanner for assessing rockfall susceptibility in the Cilento rocky coast (Southern Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorrentino, Valerio; Matasci, Battista; Abellan, Antonio; Jaboyedoff, Michel; Marino, Ermanno; Pignalosa, Antonio; Santo, Antonio

    2016-04-01

    Rockfalls and other types of landslides are the dominant processes causing a retreat of sea cliffs. The coastal areas constitute an important tourist attraction and a large number of people rest beneath the cliffs on a daily basis, considerably increasing the risk associated to rockfalls. We present an approach to assess rockfall susceptibility at the cliff scale based on terrestrial laser scanner (TLS) point clouds. The test area is a coastal cliff situated in the southern part of the Cilento (Centola Municipality, Campania Region), in which a natural arch was formed. This cliff is constituted by heavy fractured carbonate rock mass with a strong structural control. In June 2015 TLS data were acquired with long-range scanner RIEGL VZ1000®. The structural analysis of the cliff was performed in the field and using Coltop 3D software on the point cloud. As a result, 10 discontinuity sets (joint, faults and bedding planes) were individuated and the different characteristics such as orientation, spacing and persistence were measured. The kinematically unstable areas were highlighted using a script that computes an index of susceptibility to rockfalls based on the spatial distribution of failure mechanisms. The susceptibility index computation is based on the average surface that every joint set (or combinations of two joint sets in the case of wedge failure) forms on the topography according to its spacing, trace length, and incidence angle. This susceptibility index also depends on the steepness of the joint set (or of the intersection line in the case of wedge failure). As a result the most important discontinuity sets in terms of potential planar failure, wedge failure and toppling were individuated and an assessment of rockfall susceptibility at the cliff scale was achieved. Results show that the kinematically feasible failures are not equally distributed along the cliff but concentrated on certain areas. The most susceptible areas for planar failure are related to

  10. Response of regional climate and glacier ice proxies to El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO in the subtropical Andes