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Sample records for camp stimulates apical

  1. Cellular effects of beta-adrenergic and of cAMP stimulation on potassium transport in rat alveolar epithelium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saumon, G; Basset, G; Bouchonnet, F; Crone, C

    1989-07-01

    Alveolar fluid absorption is greatly enhanced by cAMP and by beta-adrenergic agonists via an increase in Na+ transport. Little is known about K+ homeostasis under these circumstances. We studied K+ transport across alveolar epithelium in isolated perfused rat lungs stimulated either by dibutyryl-cAMP or isoproterenol. K+ fluxes and the apparent permeability of 86Rb across the epithelium (alveoli to plasma) were interpreted according to a model involving two types of cells, B and L, distinguished by the location of Na+-K+-ATPases (basal and luminal). Water is considered to be absorbed by B cells in a solute-coupled process energized by a basolateral Na+-K+-ATPase that is stimulated by isoproterenol and cAMP. K+ transport out of the alveoli is due to the activity of a Na+-K+-ATPase located in the apical membrane of L cells. In the present study net transport rate of K+ was -0.5 +/- 0.15 nmol/s, n = 20 (out of alveoli) in control conditions. When the epithelium was stimulated by dibutyryl-cAMP (10(-4) mol/l) net absorption of K+ reversed to net 'secretion' into alveoli (3.2 +/- 0.31 nmol/s), fluid absorption was not stimulated. K+ 'secretion' was abolished by apical Ba2+, indicating it was due to opening of apical K+ channels. Basolateral ouabain reversed net K+ 'secretion' to net absorption indicating that K+ entry into alveoli was dependent on activity of B cell basolateral Na+-K+-ATPase (masking simultaneous K+ removal by apical L cell Na+-K+-pump). When larger concentrations of dibutyryl-cAMP (10(-3) mol/l) or when isoproterenol were used to stimulate the epithelium there was a tripling of fluid absorption.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:2571117

  2. Apical ammonium inhibition of cAMP-stimulated secretion in T84 cells is bicarbonate dependent.

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    Worrell, Roger T; Best, Alison; Crawford, Oscar R; Xu, Jie; Soleimani, Manoocher; Matthews, Jeffrey B

    2005-10-01

    Normal human colonic luminal (NH(4)(+)) concentration ([NH(4)(+)]) ranges from approximately 10 to 100 mM. However, the nature of the effects of NH(4)(+) on transport, as well as NH(4)(+) transport itself, in colonic epithelium is poorly understood. We elucidate here the effects of apical NH(4)(+) on cAMP-stimulated Cl(-) secretion in colonic T84 cells. In HEPES-buffered solutions, 10 mM apical NH(4)(+) had no significant effect on cAMP-stimulated current. In contrast, 10 mM apical NH(4)(+) reduced current within 5 min to 61 +/- 4% in the presence of 25 mM HCO(3)(-). Current inhibition was not simply due to an increase in extracellular K(+)-like cations, in that the current magnitude was 95 +/- 5% with 10 mM apical K(+) and 46 +/- 3% with 10 mM apical NH(4)(+) relative to that with 5 mM apical K(+). We previously demonstrated that inhibition of Cl(-) secretion by basolateral NH(4)(+) occurs in HCO(3)(-)-free conditions and exhibits anomalous mole fraction behavior. In contrast, apical NH(4)(+) inhibition of current in HCO(3)(-) buffer did not show anomalous mole fraction behavior and followed the absolute [NH(4)(+)] in K(+)-NH(4)(+) mixtures, where K(+) concentration + [NH(4)(+)] = 10 mM. The apical NH(4)(+) inhibitory effect was not prevented by 100 microM methazolamide, suggesting no role for apical carbonic anhydrase. However, apical NH(4)(+) inhibition of current was prevented by 10 min of pretreatment of the apical surface with 500 microM DIDS, 100 microM 4,4'-dinitrostilbene-2,2'-disulfonic acid (DNDS), or 25 microM niflumic acid, suggesting a role for NH(4)(+) action through an apical anion exchanger. mRNA and protein for the apical anion exchangers SLC26A3 [downregulated in adenoma (DRA)] and SLC26A6 [putative anion transporter (PAT1)] were detected in T84 cells by RT-PCR and Northern and Western blots. DRA and PAT1 appear to associate with CFTR in the apical membrane. We conclude that the HCO(3)(-) dependence of apical NH(4)(+) inhibition of secretion is

  3. cAmp activation of apical membrane Cl(-) channels: theoretical considerations for impedance analysis.

    OpenAIRE

    Păunescu, T G; Helman, S I

    2001-01-01

    Transepithelial electrical impedance analysis provides a sensitive method to evaluate the conductances and capacitances of apical and basolateral plasma membranes of epithelial cells. Impedance analysis is complicated, due not only to the anatomical arrangement of the cells and their paracellular shunt pathways, but also in particular to the existence of audio frequency-dependent capacitances or dispersions. In this paper we explore implications and consequences of anatomically related Maxwel...

  4. Mechanisms of lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) mediated stimulation of intestinal apical Cl-/OH- exchange.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singla, Amika; Dwivedi, Alka; Saksena, Seema; Gill, Ravinder K; Alrefai, Waddah A; Ramaswamy, Krishnamurthy; Dudeja, Pradeep K

    2010-02-01

    Lysophosphatidic acid (LPA), a potent bioactive phospholipid, is a natural component of food products like soy and egg yolk. LPA modulates a number of epithelial functions and has been shown to inhibit cholera toxin-induced diarrhea. Antidiarrheal effects of LPA are known to be mediated by inhibiting chloride secretion. However, the effects of LPA on chloride absorption in the mammalian intestine are not known. The present studies examined the effects of LPA on apical Cl(-)/OH(-) exchangers known to be involved in chloride absorption in intestinal epithelial cells. Caco-2 cells were treated with LPA, and Cl(-)/OH(-) exchange activity was measured as DIDS-sensitive (36)Cl(-) uptake. Cell surface biotinylation studies were performed to evaluate the effect of LPA on cell surface levels of apical Cl(-)/OH(-) exchangers, downregulated in adenoma (DRA) (SLC26A3), and putative anion transporter-1 (SLC26A6). Treatment of Caco-2 cells with LPA (100 muM) significantly stimulated Cl(-)/OH(-) exchange activity. Specific agonist for LPA2 receptor mimicked the effects of LPA. LPA-mediated stimulation of Cl(-)/OH(-) exchange activity was dependent on activation of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/Akt signaling pathway. Consistent with the functional activity, LPA treatment resulted in increased levels of DRA on the apical membrane. Our results demonstrate that LPA stimulates apical Cl(-)/OH(-) exchange activity and surface levels of DRA in intestinal epithelial cells. This increase in Cl(-)/OH(-) exchange may contribute to the antidiarrheal effects of LPA. PMID:19910524

  5. The sound sensation of apical electric stimulation in cochlear implant recipients with contralateral residual hearing.

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    Diane S Lazard

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Studies using vocoders as acoustic simulators of cochlear implants have generally focused on simulation of speech understanding, gender recognition, or music appreciation. The aim of the present experiment was to study the auditory sensation perceived by cochlear implant (CI recipients with steady electrical stimulation on the most-apical electrode. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Five unilateral CI users with contralateral residual hearing were asked to vary the parameters of an acoustic signal played to the non-implanted ear, in order to match its sensation to that of the electric stimulus. They also provided a rating of similarity between each acoustic sound they selected and the electric stimulus. On average across subjects, the sound rated as most similar was a complex signal with a concentration of energy around 523 Hz. This sound was inharmonic in 3 out of 5 subjects with a moderate, progressive increase in the spacing between the frequency components. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: For these subjects, the sound sensation created by steady electric stimulation on the most-apical electrode was neither a white noise nor a pure tone, but a complex signal with a progressive increase in the spacing between the frequency components in 3 out of 5 subjects. Knowing whether the inharmonic nature of the sound was related to the fact that the non-implanted ear was impaired has to be explored in single-sided deafened patients with a contralateral CI. These results may be used in the future to better understand peripheral and central auditory processing in relation to cochlear implants.

  6. Regulation of cAMP Intracellular Levels in Human Platelets Stimulated by 2-Arachidonoylglycerol.

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    Signorello, Maria Grazia; Leoncini, Giuliana

    2016-05-01

    We demonstrated that in human platelets the endocannabinoid 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG) decreased dose- and time-dependently cAMP intracellular levels. No effect on cAMP decrease induced by 2-AG was observed in the presence of the adenylate cyclase inhibitor SQ22536 as well in platelets pretreated with the thromboxane A2 receptor antagonist, SQ29548 or with aspirin, inhibitor of arachidonic acid metabolism through the cyclooxygenase pathway. An almost complete recovering of cAMP level was measured in platelets pretreated with the specific inhibitor of phosphodiesterase (PDE) 3A, milrinone. In platelets pretreated with LY294002 or MK2206, inhibitors of PI3K/AKT pathway, and with U73122, inhibitor of phospholipase C pathway, only a partial prevention was shown. cAMP intracellular level depends on synthesis by adenylate cyclase and hydrolysis by PDEs. In 2-AG-stimulated platelets adenylate cyclase activity seems to be unchanged. In contrast PDEs appear to be involved. In particular PDE3A was specifically activated, as milrinone reversed cAMP reduction by 2-AG. 2-AG enhanced PDE3A activity through its phosphorylation. The PI3K/AKT pathway and PKC participate to this PDE3A phosphorylation/activation mechanism as it was greatly inhibited by platelet pretreatment with LY294002, MK2206, U73122, or the PKC specific inhibitor GF109203X. Taken together these data suggest that 2-AG potentiates its power of platelet agonist reducing cAMP intracellular level. J. Cell. Biochem. 117: 1240-1249, 2016. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26460717

  7. Basal and adenosine receptor-stimulated levels of cAMP are reduced in lymphocytes from alcoholic patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alcoholism causes serious neurologic disease that may be due, in part, to the ability of ethanol to interact with neural cell membranes and change neuronal function. Adenosine receptors are membrane-bound proteins that appear to mediate some of the effects of ethanol in the brain. Human lymphocytes also have adenosine receptors, and their activation causes increases in cAMP levels. To test the hypothesis that basal and adenosine receptor-stimulated cAMP levels in lymphocytes might be abnormal in alcoholism, the authors studied lymphocytes from 10 alcoholic subjects, 10 age- and sex-matched normal individuals, and 10 patients with nonalcoholic liver disease. Basal and adenosine receptor-stimulated cAMP levels were reduced 75% in lymphocytes from alcoholic subjects. Also, there was a 76% reduction in ethanol stimulation of cAMP accumulation in lymphocytes from alcoholics. Similar results were demonstrable in isolated T cells. Unlike other laboratory tests examined, these measurements appeared to distinguish alcoholics from normal subjects and from patients with nonalcoholic liver disease. Reduced basal and adenosine receptor-stimulated levels of cAMP in lymphocytes from alcoholics may reflect a change in cell membranes due either to chronic alcohol abuse or to a genetic predisposition unique to alcoholic subjects

  8. Mechanisms of lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) mediated stimulation of intestinal apical Cl−/OH− exchange

    OpenAIRE

    Singla, Amika; Dwivedi, Alka; Saksena, Seema; Gill, Ravinder K.; Alrefai, Waddah A.; RAMASWAMY, KRISHNAMURTHY; Dudeja, Pradeep K.

    2009-01-01

    Lysophosphatidic acid (LPA), a potent bioactive phospholipid, is a natural component of food products like soy and egg yolk. LPA modulates a number of epithelial functions and has been shown to inhibit cholera toxin-induced diarrhea. Antidiarrheal effects of LPA are known to be mediated by inhibiting chloride secretion. However, the effects of LPA on chloride absorption in the mammalian intestine are not known. The present studies examined the effects of LPA on apical Cl−/OH− exchangers known...

  9. Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS improves the diabetic cytopathy (DCP via up-regulation of CGRP and cAMP.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liucheng Ding

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to investigate the effects and mechanism of Transcutaneous Electrical Nerve Stimulation (TENS on the diabetic cytopathy (DCP in the diabetic bladder. A total of 45 rats were randomly divided into diabetes mellitus (DM/TENS group (n=15, DM group (n=15 and control group (n=15. The rats in the DM/TENS and TENS groups were electronically stimulated (stimulating parameters: intensity-31 V, frequency-31 Hz, and duration of stimulation of 15 min for three weeks. Bladder histology, urodynamics and contractile responses to field stimulation and carbachol were determined. The expression of calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP was analyzed by RT-PCR and Western blotting. The results showed that contractile responses of the DM rats were ameliorated after 3 weeks of TENS. Furthermore, TENS significantly increased bladder wet weight, volume threshold for micturition and reduced PVR, V% and cAMP content of the bladder. The mRNA and protein levels of CGRP in dorsal root ganglion (DRG in the DM/TENS group were higher than those in the DM group. TENS also significantly up-regulated the cAMP content in the bladder body and base compared with diabetic rats. We conclude that TENS can significantly improve the urine contractility and ameliorate the feeling of bladder fullness in DM rats possibly via up-regulation of cAMP and CGRP in DRG.

  10. Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) improves the diabetic cytopathy (DCP) via up-regulation of CGRP and cAMP.

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    Ding, Liucheng; Song, Tao; Yi, Chaoran; Huang, Yi; Yu, Wen; Ling, Lin; Dai, Yutian; Wei, Zhongqing

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effects and mechanism of Transcutaneous Electrical Nerve Stimulation (TENS) on the diabetic cytopathy (DCP) in the diabetic bladder. A total of 45 rats were randomly divided into diabetes mellitus (DM)/TENS group (n=15), DM group (n=15) and control group (n=15). The rats in the DM/TENS and TENS groups were electronically stimulated (stimulating parameters: intensity-31 V, frequency-31 Hz, and duration of stimulation of 15 min) for three weeks. Bladder histology, urodynamics and contractile responses to field stimulation and carbachol were determined. The expression of calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) was analyzed by RT-PCR and Western blotting. The results showed that contractile responses of the DM rats were ameliorated after 3 weeks of TENS. Furthermore, TENS significantly increased bladder wet weight, volume threshold for micturition and reduced PVR, V% and cAMP content of the bladder. The mRNA and protein levels of CGRP in dorsal root ganglion (DRG) in the DM/TENS group were higher than those in the DM group. TENS also significantly up-regulated the cAMP content in the bladder body and base compared with diabetic rats. We conclude that TENS can significantly improve the urine contractility and ameliorate the feeling of bladder fullness in DM rats possibly via up-regulation of cAMP and CGRP in DRG. PMID:23468996

  11. Calcium-linked increase in coupled cAMP synthesis and hydrolysis is an early event in cholinergic and. beta. -adrenergic stimulation of parotid secretion

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    Deeg, M.A.; Graeff, R.M.; Walseth, T.F.; Goldberg, N.D. (Univ. of Minnesota, Minneapolis (USA))

    1988-11-01

    The dynamics and compartmental characteristics of cAMP metabolism were examined by {sup 18}O labeling of cellular adenine nucleotide {alpha} phosphoryls in rat parotid gland stimulated to secrete with {beta}-adrenergic and cholinergic agents. The secretory response occurred in association with a rapidly increased rate of cAMP hydrolysis apparently coordinated with an equivalent increase in the rate of cAMP synthesis, since the cellular concentration of cAMP remained unchanged. The magnitude of this metabolic response was equivalent to the metabolism of 10-75 times the cellular content of cAMP within the first minute of stimulation. This increased metabolic rate occurred only during the early (1-3 min) period of stimulation, in what appeared to be an exclusive cellular compartment distinguished by a unique distribution of {sup 18}O among adenine nucleotide {alpha} phosphoryls. This {sup 18}O distribution contrasted with that produced by forskolin, which increased cellular cAMP concentration and elicited only a delayed response missing the early secretory component. The early acceleration of cAMP metabolism appeared linked to a stimulus-induced increase in intracellular Ca{sup 2+} concentration, since the Ca{sup 2+} ionophore ionomycin produced the same metabolic response in association with secretion. These observations suggest that cAMP metabolism is involved in stimulus-secretion coupling by a Ca{sup 2+}-linked mechanism different from that in which cAMP plays the role of a second messenger.

  12. Calcium-linked increase in coupled cAMP synthesis and hydrolysis is an early event in cholinergic and β-adrenergic stimulation of parotid secretion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The dynamics and compartmental characteristics of cAMP metabolism were examined by 18O labeling of cellular adenine nucleotide α phosphoryls in rat parotid gland stimulated to secrete with β-adrenergic and cholinergic agents. The secretory response occurred in association with a rapidly increased rate of cAMP hydrolysis apparently coordinated with an equivalent increase in the rate of cAMP synthesis, since the cellular concentration of cAMP remained unchanged. The magnitude of this metabolic response was equivalent to the metabolism of 10-75 times the cellular content of cAMP within the first minute of stimulation. This increased metabolic rate occurred only during the early (1-3 min) period of stimulation, in what appeared to be an exclusive cellular compartment distinguished by a unique distribution of 18O among adenine nucleotide α phosphoryls. This 18O distribution contrasted with that produced by forskolin, which increased cellular cAMP concentration and elicited only a delayed response missing the early secretory component. The early acceleration of cAMP metabolism appeared linked to a stimulus-induced increase in intracellular Ca2+ concentration, since the Ca2+ ionophore ionomycin produced the same metabolic response in association with secretion. These observations suggest that cAMP metabolism is involved in stimulus-secretion coupling by a Ca2+-linked mechanism different from that in which cAMP plays the role of a second messenger

  13. Calcium is not involved in the cAMP-mediated stimulation of Cl- conductance in the apical membrane of Necturus gallbladder epithelium.

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    Kottra, G

    1995-03-01

    The permeability properties of the forskolin-stimulated Cl- conductance in the apical membrane of Necturus gallbladder epithelium and the possible participation of intracellular Ca2+ in its stimulation have been investigated. The anion selectivity sequence as derived from biionic potential measurements (SCN- > I- approximately NO3- > Br- > Cl- > ISE-) differed from the sequence derived from measurements of apical membrane resistance (NO3- approximately Br- approximately Cl- > SCN- > I- approximately ISE-). Accordingly, the conductance was inhibited by SCN- and I- which, from the potential measurements, appeared to be more permeable than Cl-. This finding agrees with observations of the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) Cl- channel reported recently. However, none of the commonly used Cl- channel blockers, such as 5-nitro-2-(3-phenylpropylamino)-benzoic acid (NPPB), 4,4'-diisothiocyanatostilbene-2,2'-disulphonic acid (DIDS), anthracene-9-carboxylic acid (9-AC) and glibenclamide reduced this conductance in Necturus gallbladder. In contrast to the situation in most other epithelia, elevation of intracellular Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]i) by ionomycin stimulated only K+ conductance and not that of Cl- in the apical cell membrane. Chelation of intracellular Ca2+ did not prevent the stimulation of Cl- conductance by forskolin. This indicates that [Ca2+]i does not have even a permissive role in the cyclic adenosine monophosphate-(cAMP)-mediated stimulation process, as would have been expected if exocytosis was involved. Further evidence against the involvement of exocytosis in the stimulation process came from the observation that the stimulation was not associated with an increase in apical membrane capacitance and was not suppressed by disruption of the cytoskeleton by preincubation of the tissue with cytochalasin D. The data indicate that Necturus gallbladder epithelium contains homologues of the CFTR Cl- channel which reside permanently in the

  14. Voluntary running depreciates the requirement of Ca2+-stimulated cAMP signaling in synaptic potentiation and memory formation.

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    Zheng, Fei; Zhang, Ming; Ding, Qi; Sethna, Ferzin; Yan, Lily; Moon, Changjong; Yang, Miyoung; Wang, Hongbing

    2016-08-01

    Mental health and cognitive functions are influenced by both genetic and environmental factors. Although having active lifestyle with physical exercise improves learning and memory, how it interacts with the specific key molecular regulators of synaptic plasticity is largely unknown. Here, we examined the effects of voluntary running on long-term potentiation (LTP) and memory formation in mice lacking type 1 adenylyl cyclase (AC1), a neurospecific synaptic enzyme that contributes to Ca(2+)-stimulated cAMP production. Following 1 mo of voluntary running-wheel exercise, the impaired LTP and object recognition memory in AC1 knockout (KO) mice were significantly attenuated. Running up-regulated exon II mRNA level of BDNF (brain-derived neurotrophic factor), though it failed to increase exon I and IV mRNAs in the hippocampus of AC1 KO mice. Intrahippocampal infusion of recombinant BDNF was sufficient to rescue LTP and object recognition memory defects in AC1 KO mice. Therefore, voluntary running and exogenous BDNF application overcome the defective Ca(2+)-stimulated cAMP signaling. Our results also demonstrate that alteration in Ca(2+)-stimulated cAMP can affect the molecular outcome of physical exercise. PMID:27421897

  15. Histamine receptors on adult rat cardiomyocytes: antagonism of alpha1-receptor stimulation of cAMP degradation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Incubation of intact cardiomyocytes with the histamine antagonist [3H]mepyramine results in rapid reversible binding to a single class of high affinity sites (K/sub D/ = 1.2nM; 50,000 sites/myocyte). In membranes from purified myocytes histamine competition of [3H]mepyramine binding (K/sub D/ = 300nM) is not altered by GTP (10μM). Competition of [3H]mepyramine binding by H-receptor subtype-selective antagonists suggests the presence of a single class of H1-receptors. Incubation of intact myocytes with histamine (luM, H1 receptor activation) plus norepinephrine (NE 1uM, alpha1 + beta1 receptor activation) for 3 min leads to significantly more cAMP accumulation (36.5 pmol/106 myocytes) than NE alone (30 pmol/106 myocytes). Histamine alone does not alter basal cAMP = 10.4 pmol/106 myocytes, or beta1 stimulation (isoproternol, 1uM) = 39.6 pmol/106 myocytes. Cyclic AMP accumulation with NE plus prazosin 10nM, (alpha1 + beta1 + alpha1 blockade) is indistinguishable from NE + histamine, (alpha1 + beta1 + H1) stimulation. Histamine competition for [3H]prazosin binding suggests that histamine does not block alpha1 receptors on the myocyte. These data suggest that H1 receptor activation leads to antagonism of the alpha1 receptor mediated activation of cAMP phosphodiesterase the authors have recently described

  16. Carbon monoxide stimulates the apical 70-pS K+ channel of the rat thick ascending limb

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    Liu, Huajun; Mount, David B.; Nasjletti, Alberto; Wang, WenHui

    1999-01-01

    We have investigated the expression of heme oxygenase (HO) in the rat kidney and the effects of HO-dependent heme metabolites on the apical 70-pS K+ channel in the thick ascending limb (TAL). Reverse transcriptase–PCR (RT-PCR) and Western blot analyses indicate expression of the constitutive HO form, HO-2, in the rat cortex and outer medulla. Patch-clamping showed that application of 10 μM chromium mesoporphyrin (CrMP), an inhibitor of HO, reversibly reduced the activity of the apical 70-pS K...

  17. Elevated cAMP increases aquaporin-3 plasma membrane diffusion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marlar, Saw; Christensen, Eva Arnspang; Koffman, Jennifer Skaarup;

    2014-01-01

    exits via basolateral AQP3 and AQP4. Upon long-term stimulation with AVP or during thirst, expression levels of both AQP2 and AQP3 are increased; however, there is so far no evidence for short-term AVP regulation of AQP3 or AQP4. To facilitate the increase in transepithelial water transport, AQP3 may be.......05)]. Immunoelectron microscopy showed no obvious difference in AQP3-EGFP expression levels or localization in the plasma membrane upon forskolin stimulation. Thus AQP3-EGFP diffusion is altered upon increased cAMP, which may correspond to basolateral adaptations in response to the increased apical water readsorption...

  18. Corticotropin releasing factor stimulates cAMP formation in pituitary corticotropic tumor cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Addition of corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) to membranes from two ACTH-secreting pituitary tumors strikingly increased in a dose-dependent fashion adenylate cyclase (AC) activity. Stimulation of AC activity by CRF in membranes from non-tumoral tissue adjacent to tumoral corticotrophs was considerably lower, and was lacking in membranes from a growth hormone secreting tumor. These data correlated well with in vivo pre-surgery and post-surgery ACTH responsiveness to CRF of the tumor bearing patients. Basal AC activity was higher in pituitary adenomas than in non-tumoral adjacent tissue

  19. The camp analogue, dbcAMP can stimulate rabbit reproductive functions: I. Effect on ovarian folliculogenesis, ovulation and embryo production

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    Chrenek P.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of our study was to examine the influence of administration of N6,2’-dibutyryladenosine 3’5’-cyclic monophosphate (dbcAMP, a cAMP agonist, on ovarian folliculogenesis and atresia, as well as on reproductive efficiency in rabbits, whose ovarian cycle and ovulation was induced by gonadotropins. Ovarian cycle and ovulation of control rabbits were induced by 20 IU/kg PMSG followed by 35 IU/kg hCG administration. Experimental animals received PMSG and hCG together with dbcAMP (at 5, 25 or 50 μg/animal. After ovulation and insemination, the animals were sacrificed. Ovaries were weighted, histological sections of ovaries were prepared, and the presence of ovulated and not ovulated follicles and different stages of atresia was evaluated by light microscopy. The eggs were flushed from the oviducts after insemination and cultured up to blastocyst cell stage. Numbers of ovarian Corpora lutea, ovulated oocytes and oocyte-derived zygotes and embryos reaching hatched blastocyst stage were determined. Administration of dbcAMP (at doses 25 or 50 μg/animal, but not at 5 μg/animal was able to increase the proportion of follicles with cystic and luteinization-related atresia. Furthermore, dbcAMP (50 μg/animal, but not lower doses increased the ovarian mass, number of Corpora lutea, number of harvested oocytes, zygotes and embryos at blastocyst stage derived from these zygotes after culture. These data demonstrate that dbcAMP can stimulate rabbit ovarian follicle atresia, ovulation, oocyte, zygote and embryo yield and development. Furthermore, they confirm in the involvement of cyclic nucleotide-dependent intracellular mechanisms in the control of rabbit reproductive functions and potential practical usefulness of dbcAMP in improving animal reproduction and fertility.

  20. Abnormal apical-to-basal transport of dietary ovalbumin by secretory IgA stimulates a mucosal Th1 response.

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    Abed, J; Lebreton, C; Champier, G; Cuvillier, A; Cogné, M; Meresse, B; Dugave, C; Garfa-Traoré, M; Corthésy, B; Cerf-Bensussan, N; Heyman, M

    2014-03-01

    In celiac disease, enhanced permeability to gliadin peptides can result from their apico-basal transport by secretory immunoglobulin A1 (SIgA1) binding to the CD71 receptor ectopically expressed at the gut epithelial surface. Herein, we have established a mouse model in which there is apico-basal transport of the model antigen ovalbumin (OVA) by specific SIgA1 and have analyzed local T-cell activation. Transgenic DO11.10 mice were grafted with a hybridoma-secreting OVA-specific humanized IgA1, which could bind mouse CD71 and which were released in the intestinal lumen as SIgA. CD71 expression was induced at the gut apical surface by treating the mice with tyrphostin A8. Following gavage of the mice with OVA, OVA-specific CD4⁺ T cells isolated from the mesenteric lymph nodes displayed higher expression of the activation marker CD69 and produced more interferon gamma in mice bearing the hybridoma-secreting OVA-specific IgA1, than in ungrafted mice or in mice grafted with an irrelevant hybridoma. These results indicate that the protective role of SIgA1 might be jeopardized in human pathological conditions associated with ectopic expression of CD71 at the gut surface. PMID:23839063

  1. Gc protein-derived macrophage-activating factor (GcMAF) stimulates cAMP formation in human mononuclear cells and inhibits angiogenesis in chick embryo chorionallantoic membrane assay

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    S. Pacini; G.Morucci; T.Punzi; Gulisano, M; Ruggiero, M

    2010-01-01

    Abstract: The effects of Gc protein-derived macrophage-activating factor (GcMAF) have been studied in cancer and other conditions where angiogenesis is deregulated. In this study, we demonstrate for the first time that the mitogenic response of human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) to GcMAF was associated with 3'-5'-cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) formation. The effect was dose dependent, and maximal stimulation was achieved using 0.1 ng/ml. Heparin inhibited the stimulatory ...

  2. Time-dependent effects of [apyr]BF4 and key contributors to their mixture stimulation on Vibrio qinghaiensis sp.-Q67 at apical and biochemical levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, ZhenYang; Zhang, Jing

    2016-07-15

    Earlier reports studied the time-dependent effects of imidazolium-based ionic liquids ([amim]X) in the aspect of biochemical explanation and that of key contributor in mixture effects. Presently, the effects of N-alkylpyridinium-based ILs ([apyr]BF4) were studied combining the above two aspects, i.e., the time-dependent effects of [bpyr]BF4, [hpyr]BF4 and [opyr]BF4 on luminescence and biochemical indicators in Vibrio qinghaiensis sp.-Q67, and those of the mixtures. In individual results, the inhibition on luminescence increased over concentrations and the side chain length, showing concentration- and side chain-dependence. Moreover, the inhibition of [apyr]BF4 decreased from 0.25 to 24h, showing a time-dependence. Notably, [hpyr]BF4 stimulated the luminescence at 24h. The biochemical effects, including inhibition and stimulation, were well correlated to those on luminescence. In mixture results, the inhibition on luminescence was lower than the predicted effects by concentration addition model which was based on individual results. Moreover, the mixture stimulation on luminescence was significantly higher than individual ones, and the mixture stimulation on biochemical indicators was even greater than that on luminescence. In mixture effects, [bpyr]BF4 was the positive contributor, and [hpyr]BF4 was the negative contributor. Similarities and differences between [amim]X and [apyr]BF4 indicated underlying mechanisms of the commonly observed hormetic effects of ionic liquids. PMID:27017397

  3. Beta-adrenergic stimulation of cFOS via protein kinase A is mediated by cAMP regulatory element binding protein (CREB)-dependent and tissue-specific CREB-independent mechanisms in corticotrope cells.

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    Boutillier, A L; Barthel, F; Roberts, J L; Loeffler, J P

    1992-11-25

    Catecholamines stimulate proopiomelanocortin (POMC) gene expression in corticotrope cells, but the molecular mechanisms of these effects are not known. While beta-adrenergic receptors stimulate the protein kinase A (PKA) system, the POMC promoter does not have classical cAMP-response elements (CREs). Therefore, we investigated the induction of the c-fos protooncogen, previously shown to increase POMC transcription in AtT20 cells. In this corticotrope-derived cell line, we show that activation of beta-receptors with isoprenaline (Iso) induces a transient rise in c-fos mRNA levels. Gel mobility shift assays with a labeled AP1 consensus sequence (TGACTCA) showed induction of specific binding activity after Iso treatment. Cotransfection experiments with dominant inhibitory PKA mutants and reporter genes containing c-fos promoter sequences showed that c-fos induction by Iso is entirely dependent on a functional PKA activity. Furthermore, we show that beta-receptor induction of c-fos in corticotrophs is mediated by at least two distinct cAMP-responsive sequences. cAMP regulatory element binding (CREB)-dependent induction is observed on the CRE located at -60 bp on the c-fos promoter. A region located in the vicinity of the dyad symetry element (-290) is also found to mediate tissue-specific cAMP induction. Transcriptional activation by this site, although sensitive to PKA antagonism, is not blocked by CREB mutants. PMID:1331087

  4. Monoclonal antibodies to the apical chloride channel in Necturus gallbladder inhibit the chloride conductance.

    OpenAIRE

    Finn, A L; Tsai, L M; Falk, R J

    1989-01-01

    Monoclonal antibodies raised by injecting Necturus gallbladder cells into mice were tested for their ability to inhibit the apical chloride conductance induced by elevation of cellular cAMP. Five of these monoclonal antibodies bound to the apical cells, as shown by indirect immunofluorescence microscopy, and inhibited the chloride conductance; one antibody that bound only to subepithelial smooth muscle, by indirect immunofluorescence microscopy, showed no inhibition of chloride transport. The...

  5. Oscillations of cAMP with the cardiac cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wikman-Coffelt, J; Sievers, R; Coffelt, R J; Parmley, W W

    1983-03-16

    Oscillations of cAMP with the cardiac cycle were demonstrated in the rat heart using a stimulator-triggered rapid freeze-clamp to decrease the temperature of the heart from 37 degrees C to -80 degrees C in 5 msec (20,000 degrees/sec) at a predetermined phase of the cardiac cycle. The nucleotide, cAMP, oscillated 60% with the cardiac cycle during normal working conditions, the higher cAMP value occurring during systole. PMID:6301471

  6. Lesbian camp: An unearthing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Elly-Jean

    2016-01-01

    Camp-a sensibility, a style, and a form of artistic self-expression-is an elusive concept said to be in the eye of the beholder. To refute Susan Sontag's ( 1966 ) claims that camp is apolitical and not especially homosexual, a number of recent scholarly works have been geared toward revealing camp's fundamental gayness. With the odd footnote aside, lesbian camp has been collapsed into the category of gay male camp, if not eclipsed entirely. Despite the negligible efforts made to legitimize lesbian camp, there are numerous salient cultural examples one might draw on to illustrate, typify, and substantiate a lesbian camp sensibility. I lay the ground work for this scholarly exercise by outlining various definitions and critiques of camp, and by discussing its history and application to queer theory. Then, to unveil lesbian camp, three non-mutually exclusive categories are discussed: classic, erotic, and radical. By gathering various strands of inquiry, and various textual examples (e.g., photography, artistic performances, and literary tropes), this article attempts to reach a more inclusive and nuanced understanding of lesbian camp. PMID:26701773

  7. Gc protein-derived macrophage-activating factor (GcMAF) stimulates cAMP formation in human mononuclear cells and inhibits angiogenesis in chick embryo chorionallantoic membrane assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacini, Stefania; Morucci, Gabriele; Punzi, Tiziana; Gulisano, Massimo; Ruggiero, Marco

    2011-04-01

    The effects of Gc protein-derived macrophage-activating factor (GcMAF) have been studied in cancer and other conditions where angiogenesis is deregulated. In this study, we demonstrate for the first time that the mitogenic response of human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) to GcMAF was associated with 3'-5'-cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) formation. The effect was dose dependent, and maximal stimulation was achieved using 0.1 ng/ml. Heparin inhibited the stimulatory effect of GcMAF on PBMCs. In addition, we demonstrate that GcMAF (1 ng/ml) inhibited prostaglandin E(1)- and human breast cancer cell-stimulated angiogenesis in chick embryo chorionallantoic membrane (CAM) assay. Finally, we tested different GcMAF preparations on CAM, and the assay proved to be a reliable, reproducible and inexpensive method to determine the relative potencies of different preparations and their stability; we observed that storage at room temperature for 15 days decreased GcMAF potency by about 50%. These data could prove useful for upcoming clinical trials on GcMAF. PMID:21170647

  8. Stimulation of StAR expression by cAMP is controlled by inhibition of highly inducible SIK1 via CRTC2, a co-activator of CREB.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jinwoo; Tong, Tiegang; Takemori, Hiroshi; Jefcoate, Colin

    2015-06-15

    In mouse steroidogenic cells the activation of cholesterol metabolism is mediated by steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR). Here, we visualized a coordinated regulation of StAR transcription, splicing and post-transcriptional processing, which are synchronized by salt inducible kinase (SIK1) and CREB-regulated transcription coactivator (CRTC2). To detect primary RNA (pRNA), spliced primary RNA (Sp-RNA) and mRNA in single cells, we generated probe sets by using fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). These methods allowed us to address the nature of StAR gene expression and to visualize protein-nucleic acid interactions through direct detection. We show that SIK1 represses StAR expression in Y1 adrenal and MA10 testis cells through inhibition of processing mediated by CRTC2. Digital image analysis matches qPCR analyses of the total cell culture. Evidence is presented for spatially separate accumulation of StAR pRNA and Sp-RNA at the gene loci in the nucleus. These findings establish that cAMP, SIK and CRTC mediate StAR expression through activation of individual StAR gene loci. PMID:25662274

  9. Chronic TNFalpha and cAMP pre-treatment of human adipocytes alter HSL, ATGL and perilipin to regulate basal and stimulated lipolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bézaire, Véronic; Mairal, Aline; Anesia, Rodica; Lefort, Corinne; Langin, Dominique

    2009-09-17

    We examined the effects of chronic TNFalpha and dibutyryl-cAMP (Db-cAMP) pre-treatment on the lipolytic machinery of human hMADS adipocytes. TNFalpha decreased adipose triglyceride lipase (ATGL) and hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL) protein content and triglycerides (TG)-hydrolase activity but increased basal lipolysis due to a marked reduction in perilipin (PLIN) protein content. Conversely, Db-cAMP increased ATGL and HSL protein content but prevented PLIN phosphorylation, the net result being accentuated basal lipolysis. In forskolin-stimulated conditions, TNFalpha and Db-cAMP pre-treatment decreased stimulated TG-hydrolase activity and impaired PLIN phosphorylation. Together, this resulted in a severely attenuated response to forskolin-stimulated lipolysis. PMID:19695247

  10. [alpha]2A-Adrenoceptor Stimulation Improves Prefrontal Cortical Regulation of Behavior through Inhibition of cAMP Signaling in Aging Animals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verduzco, Luis; van Dyck, Christopher H.; Arnsten, Amy F. T.; Ramos, Brian P.; Stark, David

    2006-01-01

    The working-memory functions of the prefrontal cortex (PFC) are improved by stimulation of postsynaptic, [alpha]2A-adrenoceptors, especially in aged animals with PFC cognitive deficits. Thus, the [alpha]2A-adrenoceptor agonist, guanfacine, greatly improves working-memory performance in monkeys and rats following systemic administration or…

  11. Recreation Summer Camps 2016

    Data.gov (United States)

    Montgomery County of Maryland — List of all Camps (Register here:https://apm.activecommunities.com/montgomerycounty/Home) to include Aquatics, Basketball, Soccer, Special Interest, General Sports,...

  12. Registration Summer Camp 2016

    CERN Multimedia

    2016-01-01

    Reminder: registration for the CERN Staff Association Summer Camp is now open for children from 4 to 6 years old.   More information on the website: http://nurseryschool.web.cern.ch/. The summer camp is open to all children. The proposed cost is 480.-CHF/week, lunch included. The camp will be open weeks 27, 28, 29 and 30, from 8:30 a.m. to 5:30 p.m. For further questions, you are welcome to contact us by email at Summer.Camp@cern.ch. CERN Staff Association

  13. Camp Joy: Embracing Diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krehbiel, Amy

    2001-01-01

    Camp Joy (Ohio) offers a racially integrated program to disadvantaged inner-city foster children. To attract quality minority staff, the camp recruits through former campers, word of mouth, a leader-in-training program, job and internship fairs, and networking with nearby colleges and social agencies. Staff training and the intrinsic rewards of…

  14. Scrum Code Camps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pries-Heje, Jan; Pries-Heje, Lene; Dahlgaard, Bente

    2013-01-01

    is required. In this paper we present the design of such a new approach, the Scrum Code Camp, which can be used to assess agile team capability in a transparent and consistent way. A design science research approach is used to analyze properties of two instances of the Scrum Code Camp where seven...

  15. Camp's "Disneyland" Effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renville, Gary

    1999-01-01

    Describes the positive mental, physical, and social growth impacts that the camping experience had on the author, and urges camp program evaluation to plan and implement such changes. Sidebar lists steps of effective evaluation: program goals and objectives, goals of evaluation, implementation of evaluation, data analysis, and findings and…

  16. VisionCamp

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lassen, Astrid Heidemann; Løwe Nielsen, Suna

    2009-01-01

    . Baseret på forløbet VisionCamp 2008, der satte eksplicit fokus på at kombinere fagfeltet "supply chain management" og kreativitet, illustrerer artiklen camp-metodens relevans og peger på centrale del-elementer i entreprenante kompetencer (kreative kompetencer, teknisk/faglige kompetencer og relationelle...

  17. Effects of activation of protein kinase C (PKC) on the hormonal stimulation and inhibition of cAMP formation in intact human platelets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Washed platelets, labelled by preincubation with [3H]adenine and [32P]P/sub i/, were studied in the presence of indomethacin, phosphocreatine and creatine phosphokinase to block thromboxane A2 formation and inhibitory effects of released ADP. Addition of phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) or 1,2-dioctanoyl-glycerol (diC8) decreased the initial rate of accumulation of [3H]cAMP observed with PGE1 and 3-isobutyl 1- methylxanthine. Maximal decreases of 31% (1 μM PMA) and 42% (100 μM diC8) were obtained. Also, the inhibition of [3H]cAMP formation by epinephrine (5 μM) was decreased from 68% to 16% and 31% by 1μM PMA and 100 μM diC8, respectively. The effects of increasing concentrations of PMA and diC8 on the stimulation of [3H]cAMp formation by PGE1 and on the inhibitory action of epinephrine correlated with increases in 32P incorporation into the major substrate of PKC (P47) and into two other polypeptides (P41 and P20). These results suggested that activation of PKC might explain the failure of some aggregating agents (e.g. PAF and vasopressin) to inhibit adenylate cyclase in intact platelets, although they are inhibitory with isolated membranes. However, comparison of the effects of PMA and these aggregating agents on the phosphorylation of platelet polypeptides indicated that activation of PKC by aggregating agents is inadequate to block their inhibitory effects on adenylate cyclase, when PGE1 is present

  18. CDC Disease Detective Camp

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2010-08-02

    The CDC Disease Detective Camp gives rising high school juniors and seniors exposure to key aspects of the CDC, including basic epidemiology, infectious and chronic disease tracking, public health law, and outbreak investigations. The camp also helps students explore careers in public health.  Created: 8/2/2010 by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).   Date Released: 8/2/2010.

  19. Exposure to cAMP and β-adrenergic stimulation recruits CaV3 T-type channels in rat chromaffin cells through Epac cAMP-receptor proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novara, M; Baldelli, P; Cavallari, D; Carabelli, V; Giancippoli, A; Carbone, E

    2004-01-01

    T-type channels are expressed weakly or not at all in adult rat chromaffin cells (RCCs) and there is contrasting evidence as to whether they play a functional role in catecholamine secretion. Here we show that 3–5 days after application of pCPT-cAMP, most RCCs grown in serum-free medium expressed a high density of low-voltage-activated T-type channels without altering the expression and characteristics of high-voltage-activated channels. The density of cAMP-recruited T-type channels increased with time and displayed the typical biophysical and pharmacological properties of low-voltage-activated Ca2+ channels: (1) steep voltage-dependent activation from −50 mV in 10 mm Ca2+, (2) slow deactivation but fast and complete inactivation, (3) full inactivation following short conditioning prepulses to −30 mV, (4) effective block of Ca2+ influx with 50 μm Ni2+, (5) comparable permeability to Ca2+ and Ba2+, and (6) insensitivity to common Ca2+ channel antagonists. The action of exogenous pCPT-cAMP (200 μm) was prevented by the protein synthesis inhibitor anisomycin and mimicked in most cells by exposure to forskolin and 1-methyl-3-isobutylxanthine (IBMX) or isoprenaline. The protein kinase A (PKA) inhibitor H89 (0.3 μm) and the competitive antagonist of cAMP binding to PKA, Rp-cAMPS, had weak or no effect on the action of pCPT-cAMP. In line with this, the selective Epac agonist 8CPT-2Me-cAMP nicely mimicked the action of pCPT-cAMP and isoprenaline, suggesting the existence of a dominant Epac-dependent recruitment of T-type channels in RCCs that may originate from the activation of β-adrenoceptors. Stimulation of β-adrenoceptors occurs autocrinally in RCCs and thus, the neosynthesis of low-voltage-activated channels may represent a new form of ‘chromaffin cell plasticity’, which contributes, by lowering the threshold of action potential firing, to increasing cell excitability and secretory activity during sustained sympathetic stimulation and/or increased

  20. Exposure to cAMP and beta-adrenergic stimulation recruits Ca(V)3 T-type channels in rat chromaffin cells through Epac cAMP-receptor proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novara, M; Baldelli, P; Cavallari, D; Carabelli, V; Giancippoli, A; Carbone, E

    2004-07-15

    T-type channels are expressed weakly or not at all in adult rat chromaffin cells (RCCs) and there is contrasting evidence as to whether they play a functional role in catecholamine secretion. Here we show that 3-5 days after application of pCPT-cAMP, most RCCs grown in serum-free medium expressed a high density of low-voltage-activated T-type channels without altering the expression and characteristics of high-voltage-activated channels. The density of cAMP-recruited T-type channels increased with time and displayed the typical biophysical and pharmacological properties of low-voltage-activated Ca(2+) channels: (1) steep voltage-dependent activation from -50 mV in 10 mm Ca(2+), (2) slow deactivation but fast and complete inactivation, (3) full inactivation following short conditioning prepulses to -30 mV, (4) effective block of Ca(2+) influx with 50 microM Ni(2+), (5) comparable permeability to Ca(2+) and Ba(2+), and (6) insensitivity to common Ca(2+) channel antagonists. The action of exogenous pCPT-cAMP (200 microM) was prevented by the protein synthesis inhibitor anisomycin and mimicked in most cells by exposure to forskolin and 1-methyl-3-isobutylxanthine (IBMX) or isoprenaline. The protein kinase A (PKA) inhibitor H89 (0.3 microM) and the competitive antagonist of cAMP binding to PKA, Rp-cAMPS, had weak or no effect on the action of pCPT-cAMP. In line with this, the selective Epac agonist 8CPT-2Me-cAMP nicely mimicked the action of pCPT-cAMP and isoprenaline, suggesting the existence of a dominant Epac-dependent recruitment of T-type channels in RCCs that may originate from the activation of beta-adrenoceptors. Stimulation of beta-adrenoceptors occurs autocrinally in RCCs and thus, the neosynthesis of low-voltage-activated channels may represent a new form of 'chromaffin cell plasticity', which contributes, by lowering the threshold of action potential firing, to increasing cell excitability and secretory activity during sustained sympathetic stimulation and

  1. Rehabilitating camp cities : community driven planning for urbanised refugee camps

    OpenAIRE

    Misselwitz, Philipp

    2009-01-01

    Focussing on Palestine refugee camps in the Near East, this dissertation aims to shed light on the potential relevance of urban planning to refugee camp environments worldwide. In particular, there is a focus on the role architects and urban planners can play in facilitating participatory planning processes as well as providing guidance and expertise in the development of a spatial vision for Camp Cities. Part I - The Urbanisation of Refugee Camps as a Global Challenge The first part o...

  2. CCI: A Worldwide Camping Community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fawver, Gary Keith

    1992-01-01

    Describes the efforts of Christian Camping International (CCI), an alliance of Christian camping associations from Australia, Canada, the Far East, Latin America, New Zealand, United States, South Africa, Japan, and Brazil. The purpose of CCI is to help develop effective Christian camps, conferences, and retreat ministries. (LP)

  3. Thyrotropin Receptor Stimulates Internalization-Independent Persistent Phosphoinositide Signaling

    OpenAIRE

    Boutin, Alisa; Allen, Michael D.; Geras-Raaka, Elizabeth; Huang, Wenwei; Neumann, Susanne; Gershengorn, Marvin C.

    2011-01-01

    The thyrotropin [thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH)] receptor (TSHR) is known to acutely and persistently stimulate cAMP signaling and at higher TSH concentrations to acutely stimulate phosphoinositide signaling. We measured persistent signaling by stimulating TSHR-expressing human embryonic kidney-EM293 cells with TSH and measuring cAMP or inositol monophosphate (IP1) production, a measure of phosphoinositide signaling, 60 min or longer after TSH removal. In contrast to persistent cAMP produc...

  4. The Physics of Quidditch Summer Camp: An Interdisciplinary Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammer, Donna; Uher, Tim

    The University of Maryland Physics Department has developed an innovative summer camp program that takes an interdisciplinary approach to engaging and teaching physics. The Physics of Quidditch Camp uniquely sits at the intersection of physics, sports, and literature, utilizing the real-life sport of quidditch adapted from the Harry Potter novels to stimulate critical thinking about real laws of physics and leaps of imagination, while actively engaging students in learning the sport and discussing the literature. Throughout the camp, middle school participants become immersed in fun physics experiments and exciting physical activities, which aim to build and enhance skills in problem-solving, analytical thinking, and teamwork. This camp has pioneered new ways of teaching physics to pre-college students, successfully engaged middle school students in learning physics, and grown a large demand for such activities.

  5. Running Boot Camp

    CERN Document Server

    Toporek, Chuck

    2008-01-01

    When Steve Jobs jumped on stage at Macworld San Francisco 2006 and announced the new Intel-based Macs, the question wasn't if, but when someone would figure out a hack to get Windows XP running on these new "Mactels." Enter Boot Camp, a new system utility that helps you partition and install Windows XP on your Intel Mac. Boot Camp does all the heavy lifting for you. You won't need to open the Terminal and hack on system files or wave a chicken bone over your iMac to get XP running. This free program makes it easy for anyone to turn their Mac into a dual-boot Windows/OS X machine. Running Bo

  6. A Summer Camp

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    正This summer,I had some special days.I joined Dongzhou International Educational Exchange Summer Camp. First,I will tell you about our foreign teachers,they are Shrina and Rebecca. They are friendly and beautiful.They are students at Oxford University. We talked about many things:famous people,subjects in England,different jobs, our deal days,western star signs,what can we say in a restaurant and so on.

  7. Interprofessional Flight Camp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfes, Celeste M; Rowe, Amanda S

    2016-01-01

    The Dorothy Ebersbach Academic Center for Flight Nursing in Cleveland, OH, holds an annual flight camp designed for master's degree nursing students in the acute care nurse practitioner program, subspecializing in flight nursing at the Frances Payne Bolton School of Nursing at Case Western Reserve University. The weeklong interprofessional training is also open to any health care provider working in an acute care setting and focuses on critical care updates, trauma, and emergency care within the critical care transport environment. This year, 29 graduate nursing students enrolled in a master's degree program from Puerto Rico attended. Although the emergency department in Puerto Rico sees and cares for trauma patients, there is no formal trauma training program. Furthermore, the country only has 1 rotor wing air medical transport service located at the Puerto Rico Medical Center in San Juan. Flight faculty and graduate teaching assistants spent approximately 9 months planning for their participation in our 13th annual flight camp. Students from Puerto Rico were extremely pleased with the learning experiences at camp and expressed particular interest in having more training time within the helicopter flight simulator. PMID:27021671

  8. Biphasic increase of apical Cl- conductance by muscarinic stimulation of ht-29cl.19a human colon carcinoma cell line: Evidence for activation of different cl- conductances by carbachol and forskolin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.B. Bajnath (R.); K. Dekker (K.); A.B. Vaandrager (Arie); H.R. de Jonge (Hugo); J.A. Groot (J.)

    1992-01-01

    textabstractThe modulation of ion transport pathways in filtergrown monolayers of the Cl--secreting subclone (19A) of the human colon carcinoma cell line HT-29 by muscarinic stimulation was studied by combined Ussing chamber and microimpalement experiments. Basolateral addition of 10-4m carbachol in

  9. A Camp in the Desert

    OpenAIRE

    Heise, Aaron Kent

    2006-01-01

    A house is pulled apart into its separate rooms and joined in the out-of-doors. This collection of rooms is recognized as a camp. This move is in agreement with the site of the house, which is the foothills of the Rincon Mountains, twenty miles east of Tucson, Arizona, and bordering along Saguaro National Monument. The collection of structures that make up the buildings of the camp are joined by a path that encircles the camp, and also describes the active life of the camp. The design o...

  10. Registration Day-Camp 2016

    CERN Multimedia

    Nursery School

    2016-01-01

    Reminder Registration for the CERN Staff Association Day-camp are open for children from 4 to 6 years old More information on the website: http://nurseryschool.web.cern.ch/. The day-camp is open to all children. An inscription per week is proposed, cost 480.-CHF/week, lunch included The camp will be open weeks 27, 28, 29 and 30, from 8:30 am to 5:30 pm. For further questions, thanks you for contacting us by email at Summer.Camp@cern.ch.

  11. Summer Camp, July 2016

    CERN Document Server

    Staff Association

    2016-01-01

    During the month of July, the Staff Association’s Children’s Day-Care Centre and School EVEE held a summer camp for 4- to 6-year-olds. 24 children altogether joined in on the adventures. On the summer camp, the children got to “travel” to a different continent of the world every week. Day after day, they would pass through make-believe Customs upon arrival and get their passports stamped by a “customs officer”. For the first week, we went on a trip to Africa. In the spirit of the theme, the children got to do plenty of crafts and coloring, make their own little bindles and play various games. They even had the chance to visit the Museum of Ethnography in Geneva (MEG), learn to play the balafon and make musical instruments with Sterrenlab. For the second week, we set off to discover the Americas, exploring both the South and the North. Alongside different workshops (singing, dancing, storytelling, crafts), the children could enjoy several special ac...

  12. Encountering Child Abuse at Camp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durall, John K.

    1997-01-01

    Defines child abuse, including the three categories: physical, sexual, and psychological. Presents characteristics and behaviors of each type of abuse, and long-term effects. Discusses how to handle abuse that occurs at camp, and the effects on the camp. Sidebars present abuse statistics, 15 activities that promote psychological wellness, and 8…

  13. Explaining the Value of Camp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chenery, Mary Faeth

    1994-01-01

    Overviews the philosophy and theory of camp experiences and discusses the special benefits of camps, including experiences that can lead to significant life-changing outcomes, sound educational goals, a sense of psychological and physical safety, and helping children to deal with social problems such as the degradation of the environment and human…

  14. Copper directs ATP7B to the apical domain of hepatic cells via basolateral endosomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyasae, Lydia K; Schell, Michael J; Hubbard, Ann L

    2014-12-01

    Physiologic Cu levels regulate the intracellular location of the Cu ATPase ATP7B. Here, we determined the routes of Cu-directed trafficking of endogenous ATP7B in the polarized hepatic cell line WIF-B and in the liver in vivo. Copper (10 µm) caused ATP7B to exit the trans-Golgi network (TGN) in vesicles, which trafficked via large basolateral endosomes to the apical domain within 1 h. Although perturbants of luminal acidification had little effect on the TGN localization of ATP7B in low Cu, they blocked delivery to the apical membrane in elevated Cu. If the vesicular proton-pump inhibitor bafilomycin-A1 (Baf) was present with Cu, ATP7B still exited the TGN, but accumulated in large endosomes located near the coverslip, in the basolateral region. Baf washout restored ATP7B trafficking to the apical domain. If ATP7B was staged apically in high Cu, Baf addition promoted the accumulation of ATP7B in subapical endosomes, indicating a blockade of apical recycling, with concomitant loss of ATP7B at the apical membrane. The retrograde pathway to the TGN, induced by Cu removal, was far less affected by Baf than the anterograde (Cu-stimulated) case. Overall, loss of acidification-impaired Cu-regulated trafficking of ATP7B at two main sites: (i) sorting and exit from large basolateral endosomes and (ii) recycling via endosomes near the apical membrane. PMID:25243755

  15. The apical complex provides a regulated gateway for secretion of invasion factors in Toxoplasma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas J Katris

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The apical complex is the definitive cell structure of phylum Apicomplexa, and is the focus of the events of host cell penetration and the establishment of intracellular parasitism. Despite the importance of this structure, its molecular composition is relatively poorly known and few studies have experimentally tested its functions. We have characterized a novel Toxoplasma gondii protein, RNG2, that is located at the apical polar ring--the common structural element of apical complexes. During cell division, RNG2 is first recruited to centrosomes immediately after their duplication, confirming that assembly of the new apical complex commences as one of the earliest events of cell replication. RNG2 subsequently forms a ring, with the carboxy- and amino-termini anchored to the apical polar ring and mobile conoid, respectively, linking these two structures. Super-resolution microscopy resolves these two termini, and reveals that RNG2 orientation flips during invasion when the conoid is extruded. Inducible knockdown of RNG2 strongly inhibits host cell invasion. Consistent with this, secretion of micronemes is prevented in the absence of RNG2. This block, however, can be fully or partially overcome by exogenous stimulation of calcium or cGMP signaling pathways, respectively, implicating the apical complex directly in these signaling events. RNG2 demonstrates for the first time a role for the apical complex in controlling secretion of invasion factors in this important group of parasites.

  16. Apical control of conidiation in Aspergillus nidulans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oiartzabal-Arano, Elixabet; Perez-de-Nanclares-Arregi, Elixabet; Espeso, Eduardo A; Etxebeste, Oier

    2016-05-01

    The infection cycle of filamentous fungi consists of two main stages: invasion (growth) and dispersion (development). After the deposition of a spore on a host, germination, polar extension and branching of vegetative cells called hyphae allow a fast and efficient invasion. Under suboptimal conditions, genetic reprogramming of hyphae results in the generation of asexual spores, allowing dissemination to new hosts and the beginning of a new infection cycle. In the model filamentous fungus Aspergillus nidulans, asexual development or conidiation is induced by the upstream developmental activation (UDA) pathway. UDA proteins transduce signals from the tip, the polarity site of hyphae, to nuclei, where developmental programs are transcriptionally activated. The present review summarizes the current knowledge on this tip-to-nucleus communication mechanism, emphasizing its dependence on hyphal polarity. Future approaches to the topic will also be suggested, as stimulating elements contributing to the understanding of how apical signals are coupled with the transcriptional control of development and pathogenesis in filamentous fungi. PMID:26782172

  17. Comparison of work motivation in camp supervisors and camp counselors in Greek private camps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Costa

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was twofold. First, the study sought to better understand the work motivators that led camp supervisors and counselors to accept their job. Second, the study sought to better understand the ranking and rating of 20 work motivators from supervisors and camp counselors. Responders to the research questionnaire (n=121 were camp supervisory staff and counselors, age 15-55, working in seven private camps in Greece. Two instruments were used to collect data. The first instrument collected demographic data while the second instrument focused on ranking and rating 20 work motivators. The study suggested that Herzberg's theory (Motivator / Hygiene does not apply on a full scale. The results suggested that supervisory staff indicated good working conditions, meeting other people and carrying out personal growth are important. In addition, they don't like travel and don't consider working in a camp, as a stable job. The camp counselors want to have fun in their job and the opportunity to work with youth. They also don't consider working in a camp, as a stable job and they don't accept the responsibility in proportion to their position.

  18. Registration Day-Camp 2016

    CERN Multimedia

    Nursery School

    2016-01-01

    Registration for the CERN SA Day-camp are open for children from 4 to 6 years old From March 14 to 25 for children already enrolled in CERN SA EVE and School From April 4 to 15 for the children of CERN members of the personnel (MP) From April 18 for other children More information on the website: http://nurseryschool.web.cern.ch/. The day-camp is open to all children. An inscription per week is proposed, cost 480.-CHF/week, lunch included The camp will be open weeks 27, 28, 29 and 30, from 8:30 am to 5:30 pm. For further questions, thanks you for contacting us by email at Summer.Camp@cern.ch.

  19. Surgical treatments for vaginal apical prolapse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Mi Kyung; Bai, Sang Wook

    2016-07-01

    Pelvic organ prolapse is a common condition, occurring in up to 11% of women in the United States. Often, pelvic organ prolapse recurs after surgery; when it recurs after hysterectomy, it frequently presents as vaginal apical prolapse. There are many different surgical treatments for vaginal apical prolapse; among them, abdominal sacral colpopexy is considered the gold standard. However, recent data reveal that other surgical procedures also result in good outcome. This review discusses the various surgical treatments for vaginal apical prolapse including their risks and benefits. PMID:27462591

  20. Camp for Youth With Type 1 Diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fegan-Bohm, Kelly; Weissberg-Benchell, Jill; DeSalvo, Daniel; Gunn, Sheila; Hilliard, Marisa

    2016-08-01

    Camps for youth with type 1 diabetes (T1D) have grown in size and scope since they first emerged in the 1920s. Anecdotal evidence suggests that attending camp with other youth with T1D is beneficial, largely attributed to sharing fun, active experiences and removing the isolation of living with diabetes. However, few studies have evaluated the psychosocial and medical impacts of T1D camp attendance during and after camp sessions. In addition, T1D camps have been a setting for numerous studies on a variety of T1D-related research questions not related to camp itself, such as testing novel diabetes management technologies in an active, non-laboratory setting. This paper reviews the evidence of psychosocial and medical outcomes associated with T1D camp attendance across the globe, provides an overview of other research conducted at camp, and offers recommendations for future research conducted at T1D camp. PMID:27292106

  1. Tetramethylpyrazine stimulates cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator-mediated anion secretion in distal colon of rodents

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qiong He; Jin-Xia Zhu; Ying Xing; Lai-Ling Tsang; Ning Yang; Dewi Kenneth Rowlands; Yiu-Wa Chung; Hsiao-Chang Chan

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the effect of tetramethylpyrazine (TMP), an active compound from Ligustiun Wollichii Franchat, on electrolyte transport across the distal colon of rodents and the mechanism involved.METHODS: The short-circuit current (ISC) technique in conjunction with pharmacological agents and specific inhibitors were used in analyzing the electrolyte transport across the distal colon of rodents. The underlying cellular signaling mechanism was investigated by radioimmunoassay analysis (RIA) and a special mouse model of cystic fibrosis.RESULTS: TMP stimulated a concentration-dependent rise in ISC, which was dependent on both Cl- and HCO3-, and inhibited by apical application of diphenylamine-2,2'-dicarboxylic acid (DPC) and glibenclamide, but resistant to 4,4'-diisothiocyanatostilbene-2,2'-disulfonic acid disodium salt hydrate (DIDS). Removal of Na+ from basolateral solution almost completely abolished the ISC response to TMP, but it was insensitive to apical Na+ replacement or apical Na+channel blocker, amiloride. Pretreatment of colonic mucosa with BAPTA-AM, a membrane-permeable selective Ca2+chelator, did not significantly alter the TMP-induced ISC. No additive effect of forskolin and 3-isobutyl-1-methylxanthine (IBMX) was observed on the TMP-induced ISc, but it was significantly reduced by a protein kinase A inhibitor, H89.RIA results showed that TMP (1 mmol/L) elicited a significant increase in cellular cAMP production, which was similar to that elicited by the adenylate cyclase activator, forskolin (10 μmol/L). The TMP-elicited ISC as well as forskolin- or IBMX-induced ISC were abolished in mice with homozygous mutation of the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) presenting defective CFTR functions and secretions.CONCLUSION: TMP may stimulate cAMP-dependent and CFTR-mediated Cl- and HCO3- secretion. This may have implications in the future development of alternative treatment for constipation.

  2. Seafloor Science and Remotely Operated Vehicle (SSROV) Day Camp: A Week-Long, Hands-On STEM Summer Camp

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheat, C. G.; Fournier, T.; Monahan, K.; Paul, C.

    2015-12-01

    RETINA (Robotic Exploration Technologies IN Astrobiology) has developed a program geared towards stimulating our youth with innovative and relevant hands-on learning modules under a STEM umbrella. Given the breadth of potential science and engineering topics that excite children, the RETINA Program focuses on interactive participation in the design and development of simple robotic and sensor systems, providing a range of challenges to engage students through project-based learning (PBL). Thus, young students experience scientific discovery through the use and understanding of technology. This groundwork serves as the foundation for SSROV Camp, a week-long, summer day camp for 6th-8th grade students. The camp is centered on the sensors and platforms that guide seafloor exploration and discovery and builds upon the notion that transformative discoveries in the deep sea result from either sampling new environments or making new measurements with sensors adapted to this extreme environment. These technical and scientific needs are folded into the curriculum. Each of the first four days of the camp includes four team-based, hands-on technical challenges, communication among peer groups, and competition. The fifth day includes additional activities, culminating in camper-led presentations to describe a planned mission based on a given geologic setting. Presentations include hypotheses, operational requirements and expected data products. SSROV Camp was initiated last summer for three sessions, two in Monterey, CA and one in Oxford, MS. Campers from both regions grasped key elements of the program, based on written responses to questions before and after the camp. On average, 32% of the pre-test questions were answered correctly compared with 80% of the post-test questions. Additional confirmation of gains in campers' knowledge, skills, and critical thinking on environmental issues and engineering problems were apparent during the "jeopardy" competition, nightly homework

  3. cAMP dependent and independent regulation of thyroglobulin synthesis by two clones of the OVNIS 6H thyroid cell line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aouani, A; Hovsépian, S; Fayet, G

    1987-07-01

    The hormonal regulation of thyroglobulin synthesis has been studied using two independent clones of the OVNIS 6H cell line. Insulin, hydrocortisone and TSH were able to stimulate thyroglobulin synthesis, whereas transferrin, somatostatin and glycyl-histidyl-lysine were without effect. Insulin stimulated thyroglobulin synthesis without affecting cAMP production. Hydrocortisone, when combined with insulin was a stimulator too; this stimulation was not accompanied by an increase in cAMP. TSH alone was unable to stimulate either cAMP or thyroglobulin synthesis. The stimulatory effect of TSH on thyroglobulin synthesis took place only when combined with insulin or insulin plus hydrocortisone, and was mediated by cAMP. Consequently, insulin and hydrocortisone stimulated thyroglobulin synthesis by cAMP-independent mechanisms, whereas TSH acted via the cAMP system. Forskolin mimicked TSH effects on cAMP and thyroglobulin synthesis. Calf serum inhibited cAMP and thyroglobulin production. Optimal cAMP and thyroglobulin synthesis as well as TSH responsiveness were obtained in serum-free medium supplemented with 5 micrograms/ml insulin, 100 nM hydrocortisone and 1 mU/ml TSH. PMID:3040495

  4. A Comparative Study of Apical Healing of Open Apices Using MTA and Ca(OH2 Apical Plugs in Cats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. H. Zarrabi

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Statement of problem: Endodontic treatment of necrotic teeth with open apices is a challenge. After ruling out surgery as a treatment scheme and introduction of the multivisit apexification which in turn had its disadvantages, apical plug seems to be a suitable substitute treatment plan for such cases. Apical plug makes the treatment through formation of a barrier against the obturating material in a single visit.Purpose: The purpose of this study was to compare histologically the periapical healing using MTA and calcium hydroxide apical plugs after intervals of 4 and 12 weeks in cats.Materials and Methods: In this clinical trial study 64 canines of 16 healthy and mature cats were divided into 3 groups after a periapical lesion formation by over instrumentation in the apical area with files up to no.120. The first group included 24 teeth on which MTA apical plug was applied. The second group included 24 teeth on which Ca (OH 2 apical plug was applied. In both groups the canals were filled with gutta percha and sealer. The third group included 16 control teeth whose canals were left empty after instrumentation and debridement. The access cavities of all teeth were sealed with varnish and amalgam and the vital perfusion of cats was performed in 4 and 12 week intervals. Statistical analysis was established by χ2 and independence test.Results: After 4 weeks, periapical healing in the first group was 90%, in the second group 80% and in the third group, it was only 12.5 %. After 12 weeks, periapical healing occurred in 100% of the MTA group, while it was 57.1% in the second and 40%in the third group .Generally, in the study of histological parameters of healing, no statistical significant difference was observed between the 2 experimental groups,although the MTA group results were much better than the Ca (OH 2 group especially at 12 weeks.Conclusion: The use of MTA apical plug is more effective than Ca (OH 2 in treatment of necrotic teeth with open

  5. Shoot Apical Meristem Organization in Several Philippine Species of Selaginella

    OpenAIRE

    Prescillano Zamora; V. B. Bagaoisan-Cosico

    1993-01-01

    This paper reports for the first time the occurrence of two types of shoot apical meristem organization on the main and lateral shoots of eight Philippine species of Selaginella: (1) shoot apical meristem with a single lenticular apical cell in S. cupressina and S. delicatula and (a) shoot apical meristem with a row of several prominent prismatic apical cells in the lateral plane in S. jagorii, S. halconensis), S. involvens (S. polyura, S. peltata), S. flagellifera (S. biformis), S. nummulari...

  6. 36 CFR 13.1208 - Lake Camp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Lake Camp. 13.1208 Section 13... § 13.1208 Lake Camp. Leaving a boat, trailer, or vehicle unattended for more than 72 hours at the facilities associated with the Lake Camp launching ramp is prohibited without authorization from...

  7. Extension Sustainability Camp: Design, Implementation, and Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brain, Roslynn; Upton, Sally; Tingey, Brett

    2015-01-01

    Sustainability Camps provide an opportunity for Extension educators to be in the forefront of sustainability outreach and to meet the growing demand for sustainability education. This article shares development, implementation, and evaluation of an Extension Sustainability Camp for youth, grades 4-6. Camp impact was measured via daily pre-and…

  8. Applications of Research to Camping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, Karla A.

    1987-01-01

    Considers contributions of basic/theoretical, applied/practical, and marketing research to the field of camping. Outlines research concerns: application of qualitative methods, practical application of marketing research, effective research dissemination, and focus on longitudinal studies using larger samples. Affirms role of research to document…

  9. Lyme Disease Comes to Camp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Michael

    1989-01-01

    Describes one summer camp's plan for dealing with Lyme disease. Describes the disease and the deer tick. Recommends avoiding tick exposure through clothing, frequent examination, showers, and avoiding high grass and brushy areas, and using chemical insect repellents and chemicals to kill ticks in deer mouse nests. (DHP)

  10. AVTC Hosts TechnoCamp

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miner, Brenda

    2006-01-01

    The Area Vo-Tech Center (AVTC) in Russellville, Arkansas, recently hosted its first TechnoCamp to encourage enrollment based on the aptitude and interest level of the students enrolling in the various programs. The center currently offers student enrollment in auto technology, computer engineering, cosmetology, construction technology, drafting…

  11. Apical root resorption in orthodontically treated adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumrind, S; Korn, E L; Boyd, R L

    1996-09-01

    This study analyzed the relationship in orthodontically treated adults between upper central incisor displacement measured on lateral cephalograms and apical root resorption measured on anterior periapical x-ray films. A multiple linear regression examined incisor displacements in four directions (retraction, advancement, intrusion, and extrusion) as independent variables, attempting to account for observed differences in the dependent variable, resorption. Mean apical resorption was 1.36 mm (sd +/- 1.46, n = 73). Mean horizontal displacement of the apex was -0.83 mm (sd +/- 1.74, n = 67); mean vertical displacement was 0.19 mm (sd +/- 1.48, n = 67). The regression coefficients for the intercept and for retraction were highly significant; those for extrusion, intrusion, and advancement were not. At the 95% confidence level, an average of 0.99 mm (se = +/- 0.34) of resorption was implied in the absence of root displacement and an average of 0.49 mm (se = +/- 0.14) of resorption was implied per millimeter of retraction. R2 for all four directional displacement variables (DDVs) taken together was only 0.20, which implied that only a relatively small portion of the observed apical resorption could be accounted for by tooth displacement alone. In a secondary set of univariate analyses, the associations between apical resorption and each of 14 additional treatment-related variables were examined. Only Gender, Elapsed Time, and Total Apical Displacement displayed statistically significant associations with apical resorption. Additional multiple regressions were then performed in which the data for each of these three statistically significant variables were considered separately, with the data for the four directional displacement variables. The addition of information on Elapsed Time or Total Apical Displacement did not explain a significant additional portion of the variability in apical resorption. On the other hand, the addition of information on Gender to the

  12. Is juvenile boot camp policy effective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kübra Gültekin

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Militaristic boot camps became very popular in the U.S. in the early 1990’s as an alternative to traditional prisons and probation. Less recidivism and less cost were the shibboleths of correctional boot camps. The boot camps are believed to reduce the number of repeat offenders and to lower operational costs. The rehabilitation programs and aftercare activities are thought to bring ongoing changes in inmates’ behaviors. Therefore, boot camps are strongly supported by politicians and the public. Tax dollars are spent to operate the boot camps. However, despite the fact that only two decades have passed since the existence of juvenile boot camps, numerous studies have declared that juvenile boot camp prisons are ineffective in reducing future offenses of inmates, operational costs, and in continually changing the behaviors of young offenders.

  13. Incidental apical disease at CT scanning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Apical caps are commonly noted on standard radiographs. This paper determines how often abnormalities in the extreme apex of the lung could be identified on CT scans obtained for other reasons. A total of 158 consecutive CT scans were reviewed prospectively. Excluded were patients with obvious upper lobe pleural or parenchymal disease. Apical abnormalities were identified in 74 (46.8%) of the 158 cases. The prevalence increased with age (19% in the 8-39-year age group and 82% in patients older than 80 years). Opacities were unilateral in 44.5% and bilateral in 55.5%. The most common abnormality was linear opacities (95%)

  14. Epstein-Barr virus infection induces bone resorption in apical periodontitis via increased production of reactive oxygen species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakovljevic, Aleksandar; Andric, Miroslav; Miletic, Maja; Beljic-Ivanovic, Katarina; Knezevic, Aleksandra; Mojsilovic, Slavko; Milasin, Jelena

    2016-09-01

    Chronic inflammatory processes in periapical tissues caused by etiological agents of endodontic origin lead to apical periodontitis. Apart from bacteria, two herpesviruses, Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) and Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) are recognized as putative pathogens in apical periodontitis. Although previous reports suggest the involvement of EBV in the pathogenesis of apical periodontitis, its exact role in periapical bone resorption has not yet been fully elucidated. We hypothesize that EBV infection in apical periodontitis is capable of inducing periapical bone resorption via stimulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) overproduction. Increased levels of ROS induce expression of receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) ligand (RANKL). RANKL binding to receptor activator of nuclear factor κB (RANK) present on the surface of preosteoclasts induces their maturation and activation which consequently leads to bone resorption. The potential benefit of antiviral and antioxidant-based therapies in periapical bone resorption treatment remains to be assessed. PMID:27515196

  15. Huijia School Summer Camp Program

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    As an open and international educational institution, Beijing Huijia Private School is located in Changping, a scenic district in Beijing's northern suburb. In order to strengthen international cultural exchanges, promote the study of Chinese language and the spread of Chinese culture, and make the world know more about China, Huijia School regularly organizes various summer camps for students of different ages every year. Until now, we have already successfully received more than 1,000 students from hom...

  16. Apical dominance in Alstroemeria cultured in vitro

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pumisutapon, P.; Visser, R.G.F.; Klerk, de G.J.M.

    2009-01-01

    Apical dominance in Alstroemeria is studied to develop an improved propagation protocol for this crop. Four types of explants were prepared: an intact rhizome with two intact shoots (+R+2S), an intact rhizome with two decapitated shoots (+R-2S), a decapitated rhizome with two intact shoots (-R+2S),

  17. Cell division activity during apical hook development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Raz, V.; Koornneef, M.

    2001-01-01

    Growth during plant development is predominantly governed by the combined activities of cell division and cell elongation. The relative contribution of both activities controls the growth of a tissue. A fast change in growth is exhibited at the apical hypocotyl of etiolated seedlings where cells gro

  18. Evidence for cAMP as a mediator of gonadotropin secretion from female pituitaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sodium flufenamate, which inhibited gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH)-stimulated increases in adenosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphate (cAMP), was used to evaluate the potential role of cAMP as a mediator of GnRH-stimulated gonadotropin secretion. Quartered pituitaries from diestrous II female rats were perifused at 370C, and sequential effluent fractions were collected every 10 min. Administration of GnRH resulted in a characteristic biphasic response for both luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), whereas 5 μM cycloheximide inhibited the secondary augmented responses (phase II) of both hormones. Infusions of 0.1 mM flufenamate inhibited GnRH-stimulated gonadotropin secretion in a manner similar to that of cycloheximide, whereas the administration of 5 mM dibutyryl cAMP in combination with GnRH and flufenamate resulted in the restoration of LH and FSH secretion. The dibutyryl cAMP-restored response appeared to be protein synthesis dependent and specific for cAMP. These results suggest that although the cyclic nucleotide is not involved in the acute release of LH and FSH, it does appear to play a pivotal but indirect role in phase II release of the hormones, by effects involving the stimulation of de novo protein synthesis

  19. Camping: A Tool for Relationship Maintenance?

    OpenAIRE

    Morrow, Rosie; Rodriguez, Alison; King, Nigel

    2014-01-01

    Purpose - Purpose: To investigate individuals’ lived experience of camping, and to explore the effects of camping on relationships. Design/methodology/approach - Design: The research adopted a descriptive phenomenological approach (Langdridge, 2007). Guided interviews were carried out with four participants, recalling their most memorable camping experience, with the aid of photographs to elicit memories. Analysis followed Colaizzi’s (1978) seven stage analysis and findings were discussed...

  20. College Camp Fairs: Tips for Hosts, Directors, and Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaskill, Paul L.; Campbell, Don

    1995-01-01

    Camp fairs are held on college campuses to recruit students for summer camp positions. Provides marketing and promotion strategies, recruiting suggestions for camp directors, tips for students helping to organize the fair, and suggestions for students who want to secure a summer camp position. Includes a sample camp fair evaluation. (LP)

  1. L'Europe des camps

    OpenAIRE

    Belguendouz, Abdelkrim; Bietlot, Mathieu; Bigo, Didier; Fischer, Nicolas; GARCIA CASTRO, Antonia; Intrand, Caroline; migreurop,; Perrouty, Pierre-Arnaud; Ragazzi, Francesco; Rodier, Claire; Teule, Catherine; VALLUY1, Jérôme

    2005-01-01

    Les pays occidentaux développent une culture politique de séparation et d'opposition entre ceux qui peuvent circuler librement dans le monde et ceux pour qui cela est interdit. Elle porte d'ailleurs un nom : le visa Schengen. Cela se traduit par la prolifération de camps d'exilés, où sont enfermés de force des hommes venus en Europe pour y trouver refuge, et par la subordination de pays voisins réduits à la fonction répressive de gardien des frontières... The countries of the European Union, ...

  2. Type III apical transportation of root canal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiv P Mantri

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Procedural accidents leading to complications such as canal transportation have been ascribed to inapt cleaning and shaping concepts. Canal transportation is an undesirable deviation from the natural canal path. Herewith a case of apical transportation of root canal resulting in endodontic retreatment failure and its management is presented. A healthy 21-year-old young male presented discomfort and swelling associated with painful endodontically retreated maxillary incisor. Radiograph revealed periradicular radiolucency involving underfilled 11 and overfilled 12. Insufficiently obturated 11 exhibited apical transportation of canal. This type III transportation was treated by periradicular surgery and repair using white mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA. Comfortable asymptomatic patient presented uneventful healing at third and fourth month recall visits. A decrease in the size of radiolucency in radiograph supported the clinical finding. In the present case, MTA is useful in repairing the transportation defect. The result of these procedures is predictable and successful.

  3. Shoot Apical Meristem Organization in Several Philippine Species of Selaginella

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prescillano Zamora

    1993-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports for the first time the occurrence of two types of shoot apical meristem organization on the main and lateral shoots of eight Philippine species of Selaginella: (1 shoot apical meristem with a single lenticular apical cell in S. cupressina and S. delicatula and (a shoot apical meristem with a row of several prominent prismatic apical cells in the lateral plane in S. jagorii, S. halconensis, S. involvens (S. polyura, S. peltata, S. flagellifera (S. biformis, S. nummularia, S. aristata, and S. philippina (endemic.

  4. Auxin at the Shoot Apical Meristem

    OpenAIRE

    Vernoux, Teva; Besnard, Fabrice; Traas, Jan,

    2010-01-01

    Plants continuously generate new tissues and organs through the activity of populations of undifferentiated stem cells, called meristems. Here, we discuss the so-called shoot apical meristem (SAM), which generates all the aerial parts of the plant. It has been known for many years that auxin plays a central role in the functioning of this meristem. Auxin is not homogeneously distributed at the SAM and it is thought that this distribution is interpreted in terms of differential gene expression...

  5. Inflammatory Myofibroblastic Tumor Mimicking Apical Periodontitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adachi, Makoto; Kiho, Kazuki; Sekine, Genta; Ohta, Takahisa; Matsubara, Makoto; Yoshida, Takakazu; Katsumata, Akitoshi; Tanuma, Jun-ichi; Sumitomo, Shinichiro

    2015-12-01

    Inflammatory myofibroblastic tumors (IMTs) are rare. IMTs of the head and neck occur in all age groups, from neonates to old age, with the highest incidence occurring in childhood and early adulthood. An IMT has been defined as a histologically distinctive lesion of uncertain behavior. This article describes an unusual case of IMT mimicking apical periodontitis in the mandible of a 42-year-old man. At first presentation, the patient showed spontaneous pain and percussion pain at teeth #28 to 30, which continued after initial endodontic treatment. Panoramic radiography revealed a radiolucent lesion at the site. Cone-beam computed tomographic imaging showed osteolytic lesions, suggesting an aggressive neoplasm requiring incisional biopsy. Histopathological examination indicated an IMT. The lesion was removed en bloc under general anesthesia, and the patient manifested no clinical evidence of recurrence for 24 months. Lesions of nonendodontic origin should be included in the differential diagnosis of apical periodontitis. Every available diagnostic tool should be used to confirm the diagnosis. Cone-beam computed tomographic imaging is very helpful for differential diagnosis in IMTs mimicking apical periodontitis. PMID:26602450

  6. Gravity-induced buds formation from protonemata apical cells in the mosses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyyak, Natalia; Khorkavtsiv, Yaroslava

    The acceleration of moss protonemata development after the exit it to light from darkness is important gravidependent morphogenetic manifestation of the moss protonemata. The accelerated development of mosses shows in transformation of apical protonemata cells into the gametophores buds (Ripetskyj et al., 1999). In order to establish, that such reaction on gravitation is general property of gravisensity species, or its typical only for single moss species, experiments with the following moss species - Bryum intermedium (Ludw.) Brig., Bryum caespiticium Hedw., Bryum argenteum Hedw., Dicranodontium denudatum (Brid.) Britt. were carried out. All these species in response to influence of gravitation were capable to form rich bunches of gravitropical protonemata in darkness, that testified to their gravisensity. After the transference of Petri dishes with gravitropical protonemata from darkness on light was revealed, that in 3 of the investigated species the gametophores buds were absent. Only B. argenteum has reacted to action of gravitation by buds formation from apical cells of the gravitropical protonemata. With the purpose of strengthening of buds formation process, the experiments with action of exogenous kinetin (in concentration of 10 (-6) M) were carried out. Kinetin essentially stimulated apical buds formation of B. argenteum. The quantity of apical buds has increased almost in three times in comparison with the control. Besides, on separate stolons a few (3-4) buds from one apical cell were formed. Experimentally was established, that the gametophores buds formation in mosses is controlled by phytohormones (Bopp, 1985; Demkiv et al., 1991). In conditions of gravity influence its essentially accelerated. Probably, gravity essentially strengthened acropetal transport of phytohormones and formation of attractive center in the protonemata apical cell. Our investigations have allowed to make the conclusion, that gravi-dependent formation of the apical buds is

  7. Forest Fire: A Crisis Reality for Camp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Don; Mickelson, Rhonda

    2002-01-01

    Two camp directors were interviewed about evacuations from their camps due to forest fires. Topics covered include descriptions of the events; actions taken; aspects of advance planning that proved helpful; unexpected portions of the experience and resultant changes made in plans; relations with outside agencies, the media, and parents; working…

  8. Teenagers and Risk-Taking at Camp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woods, Ann

    2002-01-01

    Teen risk-taking is normal, healthy developmental behavior. Teens act out their fantasies--good and bad--at camp because it is a safe place away from parents. Signs of unhealthy risk-taking, camp staff responses, and how the September 11 tragedy might affect risk-taking are discussed. Sidebars describe tips for understanding adolescent behavior…

  9. Children with Cancer: Positive Benefits of Camp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winfree, Christy; Williams, Richard; Powell, Gwynn M.

    2002-01-01

    A relatively new method of helping pediatric cancer patients cope with their illness is specially designed summer camps. Camp helps children with cancer address psychological effects of the disease, bodily changes, and self-concept, and helps parents and siblings cope. Sidebars present resources and tips on incorporating children with cancer into…

  10. Dealing with World Issues in Camp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kujawa, Charles

    1986-01-01

    Discusses dealing with global issues in the camp setting in a way that broadens young people's world views. Topics include the educational advantages of the camp setting, desired outcomes for campers, guidelines for staff, and program ideas for dealing with issues such as environmental awareness, racism, and economic justice. (JHZ)

  11. Day Camp Manual: Staff. Book II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babcock, William

    Book II of a 5-book day camp manual focuses on staff selection and training. Following the philosophy that developing an effective staff is the responsibility of the camp director, the book contains major sections on staff recruitment (sources of staff, problems, selection procedures, job descriptions, personnel practices); guidelines for job…

  12. Accounting Boot Camp for College Juniors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myring, Mark; Wrege, William; Van Alst, Lucinda

    2008-01-01

    We describe a day-long introduction to new accounting majors, which we call a boot camp. Boot camp it is an effort to make juniors more aware of their identity, career purposes and learning resources that are now parts of their world, much of which is not covered explicitly in the accounting curriculum. This paper provides an overview of the…

  13. Opening of a summer camp at CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    Nursery School

    2015-01-01

    The Staff Association has the pleasure to announce the opening of a summer camp in l’EVE et Ecole de l’AP du CERN. With a capacity of 40 children, aged 4 to 6 years, it will be open from July 6 to 30. Registration Summer camp 2015 Registration for the CERN SA Summer camp for children aged 4 to 6 is open 16 to 30 April 2015 More information on the website: http://nurseryschool.web.cern.ch/ The Summer camp is open to all children of CERN Staff. An inscription per week is proposed, cost 480.-CHF/week, lunch included. The camp will be open weeks 28, 29, 30 and 31, from 8:30 am to 5:30 pm.

  14. Monoclonal Antibodies to the Apical Chloride Channel in Necturus Gallbladder Inhibit the Chloride Conductance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finn, Arthur L.; Tsai, Lih-Min; Falk, Ronald J.

    1989-10-01

    Monoclonal antibodies raised by injecting Necturus gallbladder cells into mice were tested for their ability to inhibit the apical chloride conductance induced by elevation of cellular cAMP. Five of these monoclonal antibodies bound to the apical cells, as shown by indirect immunofluorescence microscopy, and inhibited the chloride conductance; one antibody that bound only to subepithelial smooth muscle, by indirect immunofluorescence microscopy, showed no inhibition of chloride transport. The channel or a closely related molecule is present in the membrane whether or not the pathway is open, since, in addition to inhibiting the conductance of the open channel, the antibody also bound to the membrane in the resting state and prevented subsequent opening of the channel. The antibody was shown to recognize, by ELISA, epitopes from the Necturus gallbladder and small intestine. Finally, by Western blot analysis of Necturus gallbladder homogenates, the antibody was shown to recognize two protein bands of Mr 219,000 and Mr 69,000. This antibody should permit isolation and characterization of this important ion channel.

  15. Anagrelide, a potent inhibitor of platelet aggregation, inhibits inositol phosphate generation and elevates cAMP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effects of the potent platelet aggregation inhibitor, anagrelide (6,7-dichloro-1,5-dihydroimidazo[2,1-6]quinazolin-2(3H)-one monohydrochloride; BL-4162A), on polyphosphoinositide metabolism in human platelets was investigated. Anagrelide maximally inhibited the thrombin-stimulated increase in inositol phosphates (IPn) at approximately 3.3 x 10-6M. The time of incubation required for a maximal response was between 15 and 30 min. Since anagrelide has been reported to inhibit low-Km cAMP phosphodiesterase, the authors compared its ability to inhibit stimulated IPn to that of the well known cAMP phosphodiesterase inhibitor IBMX. Both compounds inhibited IPn similarly except in experiments in which the IP phosphatase inhibitor, lithium chloride, was omitted. In these experiments, anagrelide totally inhibited, while IBMX only partially inhibited, the thrombin-stimulated elevation of IPn. The effect of anagrelide on platelet cyclic nucleotide levels was also measured. After 30 min incubation, concentrations of anagrelide which maximally inhibit aggregation induced a 2-fold increase in cAMP without significantly altering cGMP. These results suggest the mechanism of platelet aggregation inhibition includes an anagrelide-induced elevation of cAMP

  16. Apical dominance in Alstroemeria cultured in vitro

    OpenAIRE

    Pumisutapon, P.; Visser, R. G. F.; Klerk, de, L.A.

    2009-01-01

    Apical dominance in Alstroemeria is studied to develop an improved propagation protocol for this crop. Four types of explants were prepared: an intact rhizome with two intact shoots (+R+2S), an intact rhizome with two decapitated shoots (+R-2S), a decapitated rhizome with two intact shoots (-R+2S), and a decapitated rhizome with two decapitated shoots (-R-2S). The explants were cultivated on solid MS medium with 9 µM 6-benzylaminopurine (BAP). -R-2S explants showed the highest and +R+2S the l...

  17. Multimodality imaging in apical hypertrophic cardiomyopathy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rosario; Parisi; Francesca; Mirabella; Gioel; Gabrio; Secco; Rossella; Fattori

    2014-01-01

    Apical hypertrophic cardiomyopathy(AHCM) is a relatively rare morphologic variant of HCM in which the hypertrophy of myocardium is localized to the left ventricular apex. Symptoms of AHCM might vary from none to others mimic coronary artery disease including acute coronary syndrome, thus resulting in inappropriate hospitalization. Transthoracic echocardiography is the firstline imaging technique for the diagnosis of hypertrophic cardiomyopathies. However, when the hypertrophy of the myocardium is localized in the ventricular apex might results in missed diagnosis. Aim of this paper is to review the different imaging techniques used for the diagnosis of AHCM and their role in the detection and comprehension of this uncommon disease.

  18. Vectorial transport of fexofenadine across Caco-2 cells: involvement of apical uptake and basolateral efflux transporters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ming, Xin; Knight, Beverly M; Thakker, Dhiren R

    2011-10-01

    Fexofenadine is a nonsedative antihistamine that exhibits good oral bioavailability despite its zwitterionic chemical structure and efflux by P-gp. Evidence exists that multiple uptake and efflux transporters play a role in hepatic disposition of fexofenadine. However, the roles of specific transporters and their interrelationship in intestinal absorption of this drug are unclear. This study was designed to elucidate vectorial absorptive transport of fexofenadine across Caco-2 cells involving specific apical uptake and efflux transporters as well as basolateral efflux transporters. Studies with cellular models expressing single transporters showed that OATP2B1 expression stimulated uptake of fexofenadine at pH 6.0. Apical uptake of fexofenadine into Caco-2 cells was decreased by 45% by pretreatment with estrone 3-sulfate, an OATP inhibitor, at pH 6.0 but not at pH 7.4, indicating that OATP2B1 mediates apical uptake of fexofenadine into these cells. Examination of fexofenadine efflux from preloaded Caco-2 cells in the presence or absence of (i) the MRP inhibitor MK-571 and (ii) the P-gp inhibitor GW918 showed that apical efflux is predominantly mediated by P-gp, with a small contribution by MRP2, whereas basolateral efflux is predominantly mediated by MRP3. These results also showed that while OSTαβ is functionally active in the basolateral membrane of Caco-2 cells, it does not play a role in the export of fexofenadine. MK-571 decreased the absorptive transport of fexofenadine by 17%. However, the decrease in absorptive transport by MK-571 was 42% when P-gp was inhibited by GW918. The results provide a novel insight into a vectorial transport system mainly consisting of apical OATP2B1 and basolateral MRP3 that may play an important role in delivering hydrophilic anionic and zwitterionic drugs such as pravastatin and fexofenadine into systemic circulation upon oral administration. PMID:21780830

  19. Apical dominance and growth in vitro of Alstroemeria

    OpenAIRE

    Pumisutapon, P.

    2012-01-01

    In Alstroemeria, micropropagation is achieved by axillary bud outgrowth. However, the multiplication rate is rather low (1.2–2.0 per cycle of 4 weeks) due to strong apical dominance. Even though several factors (i.e. culture media, growth regulators, and environmental conditions) have been studied, no significant improvements have been achieved. Basic research on apical dominance mechanism in Alstroemeria is therefore required. This may enhance the understanding how apical dominance con...

  20. Apical hypertrophic cardiomyopathy presenting as acute coronary syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdin, Amr; Eitel, Ingo; de Waha, Suzanne; Thiele, Holger

    2016-06-01

    Apical hypertrophic cardiomyopathy is a rare variant of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. It is characterized by a local hypertrophy of the apical segments and displays typical electrocardiographic and imaging patterns. The clinical manifestations are variable and range from an asymptomatic course to sudden cardiac death. The most frequent symptom is chest pain and thus apical hypertrophic cardiomyopathy can mimic the symptoms and repolarization disturbances indicative of acute coronary syndrome. PMID:26628684

  1. Experimental evidence for apical dominance in the seagrass Cymodocea nodosa

    OpenAIRE

    Terrados, Jorge; Duarte, Carlos M.; Kenworthy, W. Judson

    1997-01-01

    The existence of apical dominance in the seagrass Cymodocea nodosa (Ucria) Ascherson was elucidated by in situ experimental manipulation. Removal of the apical meristem of a C. nodosa horizontal rhizome promoted an increase in the branching rate of the rhizome which was mostly driven by a change in the growth form of the nearest vertical rhizome into horizontal growth. Although the elongation of the branches increased when the rhizome apical meristem was eliminated, total plant growth was red...

  2. "It's not Just Camp!": Understanding the Meaning of Children's Cancer Camps for Children and Families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laing, Catherine M; Moules, Nancy J

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this philosophical hermeneutic inquiry was to understand the meaning of children's cancer camps for the child with cancer and the family. Six childhood cancer families and 5 cancer camp counselors were interviewed, in order to bring understanding to this topic. Findings from this research revealed that camp means different things for different families, and that much is at play in the cancer camp experience: the healing and developmental power of play, finding acceptance and fit, grief as something to live with versus "get over," storytelling as a means of reshaping and understanding traumatic experiences, and the solidarity of the community as one that creates intense, healing bonds. Children's cancer camps, we conclude, should be considered a necessity, versus a luxury, and could even be thought of as a psychosocial intervention for some children and families. Barriers such as structure of funding and access to resources are present and likely due to the separateness of camps from hospital programs. PMID:25643975

  3. (Compendium of State Laws and Regulations for Youth Camps).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brookhiser, Judy, Comp.; van der Smissen, Betty, Comp.

    State laws and regulations applicable to youth camp operations provided by state agencies are organized in this Compendium under ten major headings; personnel; program safety; personal health, first aid, and medical services; site and facilities; sanitation; food service; transportation; primitive camping and out-of-camp trips; day camping; and…

  4. Design and Development Issues for Educational Robotics Training Camps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ucgul, Memet; Cagiltay, Kursat

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study is to explore critical design issues for educational robotics training camps and to describe how these factors should be implemented in the development of such camps. For this purpose, two robotics training camps were organized for elementary school students. The first camp had 30 children attendees, and the second had 22. As…

  5. High adenylyl cyclase activity and in vivo cAMP fluctuations in corals suggest central physiological role.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barott, K L; Helman, Y; Haramaty, L; Barron, M E; Hess, K C; Buck, J; Levin, L R; Tresguerres, M

    2013-01-01

    Corals are an ecologically and evolutionarily significant group, providing the framework for coral reef biodiversity while representing one of the most basal of metazoan phyla. However, little is known about fundamental signaling pathways in corals. Here we investigate the dynamics of cAMP, a conserved signaling molecule that can regulate virtually every physiological process. Bioinformatics revealed corals have both transmembrane and soluble adenylyl cyclases (AC). Endogenous cAMP levels in live corals followed a potential diel cycle, as they were higher during the day compared to the middle of the night. Coral homogenates exhibited some of the highest cAMP production rates ever to be recorded in any organism; this activity was inhibited by calcium ions and stimulated by bicarbonate. In contrast, zooxanthellae or mucus had >1000-fold lower AC activity. These results suggest that cAMP is an important regulator of coral physiology, especially in response to light, acid/base disturbances and inorganic carbon levels. PMID:23459251

  6. 2012 USGS Lidar: Brooks Camp (AK)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) had a requirement for high resolution Lidar needed for mapping the Brooks Camp region of Katmai National Park in Alaska....

  7. Food Safety While Hiking, Camping and Boating

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Standard Forms FSIS United States Department of Agriculture Food Safety and Inspection Service About FSIS District Offices ... Web Content Viewer (JSR 286) Actions ${title} Loading... Food Safety While Hiking, Camping & Boating Outdoor activities are ...

  8. Minimal Apical Enlargement for Penetration of Irrigants to the Apical Third of Root Canal System: A Scanning Electron Microscope Study

    OpenAIRE

    P. Srikanth; Krishna, Amaravadi Gopi; Srinivas, Siva; Reddy, E Sujayeendranatha; Battu, Someshwar; Aravelli, Swathi

    2015-01-01

    Background: The aim of this study was to determine minimal apical enlargement for irrigant penetration into apical third of root canal system using scanning electron microscope (SEM). Materials and Methods: Distobuccal canals of 40 freshly extracted human maxillary first molar teeth were instrumented using crown-down technique. The teeth were divided into four test groups according to size of their master apical file (MAF) (#20, #25, #30, #35 0.06% taper), and two control groups. After final ...

  9. Persistent cAMP Signaling by Internalized LH Receptors in Ovarian Follicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyga, Sandra; Volpe, Silvia; Werthmann, Ruth C; Götz, Konrad; Sungkaworn, Titiwat; Lohse, Martin J; Calebiro, Davide

    2016-04-01

    A crucial event in female reproduction occurs at midcycle, when a LH peak induces the final maturation of ovarian follicles. LH signals via a G protein-coupled receptor selectively expressed in the outermost follicular cell layers. However, how LH signals are relayed inside these cells and finally to the oocyte is incompletely understood. Here, we monitored LH signaling in intact ovarian follicles of transgenic mice expressing a fluorescent cAMP sensor. We found that LH stimulation induces 2 phases of cAMP signaling in all cell layers surrounding the oocyte. Interfering with LH receptor internalization abolished the second, persistent cAMP phase and partially inhibited oocyte meiosis resumption. These data suggest that persistent cAMP signals from internalized LH receptors contribute to transmitting LH effects inside follicle cells and ultimately to the oocyte. Thus, this study indicates that the recently proposed paradigm of cAMP signaling by internalized G protein-coupled receptors is implicated in receptor function and is physiologically relevant. PMID:26828746

  10. [Therapy of chronic apical periodontitis in the elderly age].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parfenov, S A

    2013-01-01

    The article is devoted to the actual problem in modern medicine therapy of chronic apical periodontitis in the elderly age. It is shown that periodontitis remains till today the leading cause of tooth extraction in the elderly age; in addition, periodontitis can lead to serious complications such as periostitis, phlegmon, osteomyelitis, which creates additional scientific interest in the study of the above complications at the junction of the two specialties--gerontology and stomatology. In elderly patients regeneration after the periodontal infectious processes takes more time, in this case the traditional approach to treatment of inflammation in the periodontium shows frequent lack of regression of the focus of periapical destruction. Based on the results of the study it is proved that prolonged antiseptic and immune-stimulating effect of therapeutic paste PED used in conjunction with 5% liniment cycloferon, leads to a rapid and marked reduction in inflammatory activity in the affected area both at granulating, and at granulomatous forms of chronic periodontitis, and is accompanied by a significantly larger share of the achieved remission. PMID:24640710

  11. Effects of radioprotectors on the cAMP and cGMP systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The sulphur-containing radioprotectors mercaptoethylamine (MEA), aminoethylisothiourea (AET), 2-aminothiazoline, 4-oxo-2-amino-thiazoline, and S-S-oxapentane-1,5-diisorthiourea, and the radioprotective biogenic amines serotonin, histamine, and dopamine, caused the elevation of cAMP content and intensified the rate of cAMP-dependent protein phosphorylation in tissues of animals following intraperitoneal injection at radioprotective doses. Biogenic amines stimulated the adenylate cyclase activity in membrane preparations from liver, spleen, and small-intestine mucosa; sulphur-containing radioprotectors caused no such effects. None of the radioprotectors affected CAMP and cGMP phosphodiesterases in vitro. AET and MEA inhibited guanylate cyclase in vitro, whereas serotonin and dopamine stimulated the enzyme. A biphasic change in the level of cGMP was observed in tissues after the administration of MEA and AET (more than 2-fold fally by 1-3 min after the administration of drug and 1.4-fold rise after 15-20 min); serotonin and dopamine caused a slow rise in the cGMP level, the cAMP/cGMP ratio in liver showed biphasic changes in level during the 20 min following injection of serotonin. The data obtained support the conclusion that the action of radioprotectors on cellular metabolism in animals may be mediated by the cAMP system.The reciprocal regulation of radioresistance by cAMP and cGMP is unlikely to exist. (orig.)

  12. APICAL TUBERCULOSIS PRESENTING AS PANCOAST TUMOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Praveen

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available A 73-year-old woman presented with pain in her right shoulder radiating to the right scapula and a tingling sensation of the right arm with involvement of the fourth and fifth finger. Chest x ray showed a well-defined mass in right apical area of lung. HRCT chest showed a well-defined mass in right upper zone in apex destroying the upper 2 ribs. Clinically the diagnosis of Pancoast tumor of the right lung was made. Computed tomographic guided fine needle aspiration cytology was done and it was inconclusive. So gun biopsy was done under ultrasound guidance. The histologic and microbiologic examinations established the diagnosis of tuberculosis (TB.

  13. Reversible transient apical ballooning syndrome with coronary lesions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yunshan Cao; Min Zhang; Xiang Li; Ping Xie; Lynn Cronin

    2009-01-01

    Transient apical ballooning syndrome(Tako-Tsubo syndrome or ampulla cardiomyopathy) occurs predominantly in women over 60 years of age with a history of recent physical or psychological stress. We present a case of a male patient with reversible transient apical ballooning syndrome with significant coronary lesions and other ECG changes that did not explain the clinical symptoms.

  14. Apical Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy in Association with PulmonaryArtery Hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Peighambari

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Apical Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy is an uncommon condition constituting 1% -2% of the cases with Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy (HCM diagnosis. We interestingly report two patients with apical hypertrophic cardiomyopathy in association with significant pulmonary artery hypertension without any other underlying reason for pulmonary hypertension. The patients were assessed by echocardiography, cardiac catheterization and pulmonary function parameters study.

  15. Phosphatidylserine-positive particles in the apical domain of sensory hair cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHI Xiao-rui; Alfred Nuttall

    2006-01-01

    Apical membrane recycling has been proposed to be important for normal hair cell function. The current study reports an in vitro work that demonstrates the presence of phosphatidylserine (PS) and PS-positive vesicles labeled by Annexin V in the apical portion of hair cells. The following characteristics of the PS-positive vesicles were noticed using scanning confocal fluorescence microscopy: (1) variable sizes around 200 nm; (2)variable distribution patterns (either uniformly along individual stereocilia in the hair bundle or irregular) in the stereocilia from cell to cell; (3) variable sizes and numbers at locations along the border of the cuticular plate (CP),with a large number of them located at the vestigal kinocilial location; (4) motility with some of the vesicles during the observation period; (5) increase in PS labeling and the number of PS-positive vesicles after loud sound stimulation; and (6) decreased PS labeling and PS-positive vesicle numbers following treatment with LY-294002, a PI3 -kinase inhibitor. These results suggest that the presence of PS-positive vesicles at the apical area of hair cells may be indicative of vesicle shedding or transportation of a protein or rafts.

  16. Hydrogen sulfide decreases β-adrenergic agonist-stimulated lung liquid clearance by inhibiting ENaC-mediated transepithelial sodium absorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agné, Alisa M; Baldin, Jan-Peter; Benjamin, Audra R; Orogo-Wenn, Maria C; Wichmann, Lukas; Olson, Kenneth R; Walters, Dafydd V; Althaus, Mike

    2015-04-01

    In pulmonary epithelia, β-adrenergic agonists regulate the membrane abundance of the epithelial sodium channel (ENaC) and, thereby, control the rate of transepithelial electrolyte absorption. This is a crucial regulatory mechanism for lung liquid clearance at birth and thereafter. This study investigated the influence of the gaseous signaling molecule hydrogen sulfide (H2S) on β-adrenergic agonist-regulated pulmonary sodium and liquid absorption. Application of the H2S-liberating molecule Na2S (50 μM) to the alveolar compartment of rat lungs in situ decreased baseline liquid absorption and abrogated the stimulation of liquid absorption by the β-adrenergic agonist terbutaline. There was no additional effect of Na2S over that of the ENaC inhibitor amiloride. In electrophysiological Ussing chamber experiments with native lung epithelia (Xenopus laevis), Na2S inhibited the stimulation of amiloride-sensitive current by terbutaline. β-adrenergic agonists generally increase ENaC abundance by cAMP formation and activation of PKA. Activation of this pathway by forskolin and 3-isobutyl-1-methylxanthine increased amiloride-sensitive currents in H441 pulmonary epithelial cells. This effect was inhibited by Na2S in a dose-dependent manner (5-50 μM). Na2S had no effect on cellular ATP concentration, cAMP formation, and activation of PKA. By contrast, Na2S prevented the cAMP-induced increase in ENaC activity in the apical membrane of H441 cells. H441 cells expressed the H2S-generating enzymes cystathionine-β-synthase, cystathionine-γ-lyase, and 3-mercaptopyruvate sulfurtransferase, and they produced H2S amounts within the employed concentration range. These data demonstrate that H2S prevents the stimulation of ENaC by cAMP/PKA and, thereby, inhibits the proabsorptive effect of β-adrenergic agonists on lung liquid clearance. PMID:25632025

  17. Maxillary first premolars: I. Morphology of the apical constriction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Daming Wu; Younong Wu; Ming Hu

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To investigated the apical constriction morphology of maxillary first premolars in the Chinese population. Methods: Eighty recently extracted human maxillary first premolars from a native Chinese population were used. The number and shape of apical constrictions were recorded under a dental operating microscope (DOM) at 12.5X2.5 magnification. After access preparation, a new K-file was inserted into the canal until the tip of the file was just seen at the apical constriction under the DOM. The teeth with files in the canals were X-rayed from a mesiodistal direction using a direct digital radiography (DDR) system, and the distance between the file tip and the center of radiographic apex was directly measured from the computer screen using DDR measurement software. Results: The percentage of teeth with an apical constriction was 78.5% (102/130). The most common apical constriction shapes were oval (55.9%) and round (35.3%). The mean distance between the apical constriction and the anatomical tip of the root was 0.61 mm, and 84.3% (86/102) were within 1 mm. Conclusion: The most common shape of an apical constriction was oval or round, and the distance to the apex was mostly within 1 mm, indicating that root canal therapy should stop 1 mm from the radiographic apex.

  18. A specialized program for children with developmental disabilities within a "typical" overnight summer camp: Camp Ramah's Tikvah Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blas, Howard I

    2007-10-01

    The Tikvah Program is an overnight camping program at Camp Ramah in New England that serves campers with a range of developmental disabilities. The program has evolved over its 37-year history and includes a camping program, vocational training program, and inclusion program. Select graduates are hired by the camp for summer employment. The Tikvah Program offers a model for serving campers with special needs within a larger "typical" summer camp. Although serving the needs of such campers offers unique challenges, the presence of such a program in a regular summer camp offers tremendous opportunities and benefits for campers with special needs and more typically developing campers. PMID:17823062

  19. Regulation of chloride self exchange by cAMP in cortical collecting tubule

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The hormonal control of Cl transport was examined in rabbit cortical collecting tubules using the lumen-to-bath 36Cl tracer rate coefficient (K/sub Cl/, nm/s). Tracer movement via Sl-HCO3 exchange was minimized by using HCO3-CO2-free solutions. The electrical driving force was minimized by treating with amiloride. Under these conditions, net Cl transport was zero, yet there was a large K/sub Cl/ that fell 88% on removing bath (trans) Cl. These results are consistent with the mechanism of tracer flux being predominantly Cl self exchange. K/sub Cl/ fell spontaneously with time in vitro; after this decline K/sub Cl/ could be stimulated with 8-bromo-cAMP. cAMP present from the onset of perfusion prevented the time-dependent fall in K/sub Cl/. When tracer movement was restricted to diffusion by eliminating Cl self exchange (0 Cl bath), cAMP had no effect on K/sub Cl/. Although both isoproterenol and vasopressin are known to stimulate adenylate cyclase in this epithelium, only isoproterenol mimicked the cAMP effect on K/sub Cl/. The isoproterenol effect was blocked by either propranolol or prostaglandin E2. Lumen addition of the disulfonic stilbene DIDS had no effect on K/sub Cl/. Lumen addition of furosemide or trichloromethiazide had minimal or no effect. Taken together, these results indicate that Cl self exchange is regulated by β-adrenergic agents acting via cAMP. The lack of an effect of vasopressin suggests cellular heterogeneity in this response to cAMP

  20. Efficacy of Biodentine as an Apical Plug in Nonvital Permanent Teeth with Open Apices: An In Vitro Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bani, Mehmet; Sungurtekin-Ekçi, Elif; Odabaş, Mesut Enes

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the apical microleakage of Biodentine and MTA orthograde apical plugs and to compare the effect of thickness of these biomaterials on their sealing ability. A total of eighty maxillary anterior teeth were used. The apices were removed by cutting with a diamond disc (Jota, Germany) 2 mm from the apical root end in an attempt to standardize the working length of all specimens to 15 ± 1 mm. Both materials were placed in 1–4 mm thickness as apical plugs root canal. Root canal leakage was evaluated by the fluid filtration technique. One-way ANOVA was used in order to determine normality of dispersal distribution of parameters; thereafter, results were analyzed by Kolmogorov-Smirnov test. Overall, between microleakage values of MTA and Biodentine regardless of apical plug thickness, no difference was observed. In terms of plug thickness, a statistically significant difference was observed between the subgroups of MTA and Biodentine (p Biodentine was comparable to MTA at any apical plug thickness. PMID:26436090

  1. The antimicrobial effect of apical box versus apical cone preparation using iodine potassium iodide as root canal dressing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Markvart, Merete; Dahlén, Gunnar; Reit, Claes-Erik;

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Purpose. The purpose was to study the reduction of intra-canal microflora in premolars with apical periodontitis instrumented with either apical box or apical cone preparation and to provide measurements of intervention effects to allow proper power calculation in future clinical trials...... appointment 1 week later. Between the treatment sessions, the root canals were sealed with IRM cement. In the laboratory, culture techniques were used to measure microbial growth, which was classified as: none, very sparse, sparse, moderate, heavy or very heavy. Results. Initially, microbes were recovered in...

  2. Camp Health Aide Manual = Manual para trabajadores de salud.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, June Grube; And Others

    This bilingual manual serves as a textbook for migrant Camp Health Aides. Camp Health Aides are members of migrant labor camps enlisted to provide information about health and social services to migrant workers and their families. The manual is divided into 12 tabbed sections representing lessons. Teaching notes printed on contrasting paper…

  3. The Effect of a Camp Experience on Self Esteem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorian, Alexia Eve

    Two groups of American adolescents of Greek descent (12-15 year olds N=90 and 16-18 year olds N=166) at an Orthodox Christian Camp in Greece responded to the Rosenberg Self Esteem Scale (1965). Campers took the test on the first day of camp (pretest) and then two weeks later at the camp's conclusion (posttest). All subjects showed a significant…

  4. Summer Camp and Positive Youth Development: Program with Romanian Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feenstra, Jennifer S.

    2015-01-01

    A variety of activities are used in camps to help promote positive youth development, improving social skills and self-esteem in campers. I expanded on previous camp research in this study to address the influence camps have on trust, belief in the honesty of others, empowerment, and care for others in youth in Eastern Europe. Since 1999, New…

  5. 49 CFR 218.80 - Movement of occupied camp cars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Movement of occupied camp cars. 218.80 Section 218... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD OPERATING PRACTICES Protection of Occupied Camp Cars § 218.80 Movement of occupied camp cars. Occupied cars may not be humped or flat switched unless coupled...

  6. 7 CFR 502.6 - Hunting, fishing, camping, horseback riding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Hunting, fishing, camping, horseback riding. 502.6..., MARYLAND § 502.6 Hunting, fishing, camping, horseback riding. The use of BARC grounds for any form of hunting, fishing, camping, or horseback riding is prohibited. Further, the use of these grounds...

  7. Sexual Harassment at Camp: Reducing Liability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oakleaf, Linda; Grube, Angela Johnson

    2003-01-01

    Employers are responsible for sexual harassment perpetrated by a supervisor. Camps may be responsible for sexual harassment between campers. Steps to reduce liability include providing multiple channels for reporting sexual harassment; having written policies prohibiting sexual harassment and procedures for reporting it; posting these policies and…

  8. Conduct Disorders: Are Boot Camps Effective?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeter, LaVaughn V.

    2010-01-01

    Youth diagnosed with "conduct disorder" are often placed in programs using forced compliance and coercive control. One type of intervention used to treat conduct disorder is the boot camp. The basic idea is that disruptive behaviors can be corrected by strict behavioral regulation and an emphasis on skills training (Weis & Toolis 2009; Weis,…

  9. The Gold Mining Camp: A Simulation Game.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoltman, Joseph P.; Keach, Everett T., Jr.

    This economics simulation game complements the third grade Gold Mining Unit developed by Project Social Studies at the University of Minnesota. The simulation is designed for three purposes: 1) to reinforce the prior learning which occurs in the gold mining camp unit; 2) to involve eight-year-olds in the process of solving simulated economic…

  10. The Perspective of Camping Tourism in Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreea Marin-Pantelescu

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The tourists, who dream of a perfect holiday, with long term positive effects, find in camping a form of tourism that diminishes the impact of urban environment, and increase the chances of return to nature in a green place without stress and technology. Nowadays, the quests for technological detoxification methods are at high level and the customers are willing to pay a price for these services. The perspective of camping tourism in Romania represents an economic study regarding the supply and the demand of the camping services in our country and the future evolution of these particular services. The camping services evolution will be forecast using the linear trend statistical method in order to see the number of the tourist willing to use and enjoy the nature, the fresh air and the self-services regarding the accommodation, food and beverage or transportation. The impact of the paper discovery will provide better understanding of a tourism market steadily increasing and producing added value for all the stakeholders involved in the tourism sector.

  11. Camp Crisis Management: Responding to New Challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Will

    2002-01-01

    Camps should have crisis management plans. Steps to formulating a plan include involving appropriate off-site agencies, identifying potential threats, gathering resources, crafting an appropriate response, training via role-playing, managing incoming and outgoing information, and writing it down. Sidebars present resources, successful response…

  12. Pseudoaneurysm of the left ventricle following apical approach TAVI

    OpenAIRE

    Vanezis Andrew P; Baig Mirza K; Mitchel Ian M; Shajar Matloob; Naik Surendra K; Henderson Robert A; Mathew Thomas

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Symptomatic severe aortic stenosis carries a two year survival of only 50%. However many patients are unsuitable for conventional aortic valve replacement as they are considered too high risk due to significant co-morbidities. Transcatheter Aortic Valve Implantation (TAVI) offers a viable alternative for this high risk patient group, either by the femoral or apical route. This article reports a case of a pseudoaneurysm of the left ventricle following an apical approach TAVI in an eld...

  13. Effect of cytokinins on shoot apical meristem in Nicotiana tabacum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uzelac Branka

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Cytokinins are involved in plant cell proliferation leading to plant growth and morphogenesis. The size, activity and maintenance of the shoot apical meristem (SAM are defined by a balanced rate of mitotic cell divisions and functional cell differentiation that are controlled by cytokinins. In order to investigate the effect of exogenous cytokinin on SAM, morpho-anatomical changes in the shoot apices of tobacco treated with benzyladenine (BA were compared to those of untreated control plants.

  14. Effect of cytokinins on shoot apical meristem in Nicotiana tabacum

    OpenAIRE

    Uzelac Branka; Janošević Dušica; Stojičić Dragana; Budimir Snežana

    2012-01-01

    Cytokinins are involved in plant cell proliferation leading to plant growth and morphogenesis. The size, activity and maintenance of the shoot apical meristem (SAM) are defined by a balanced rate of mitotic cell divisions and functional cell differentiation that are controlled by cytokinins. In order to investigate the effect of exogenous cytokinin on SAM, morpho-anatomical changes in the shoot apices of tobacco treated with benzyladenine (BA) were compared to those of untreated control...

  15. Haemostatic agents in apical surgery. A systematic review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clé-Ovejero, Adrià

    2016-01-01

    Background Blood presence in apical surgery can prevent the correct vision of the surgical field, change the physical properties of filling materials and reduce their sealing ability. Objetive To describe which are the most effective and safest haemostatic agents to control bleeding in patients undergoing apical surgery. Material and Methods TWe carried out a systematic review, using Medline and Cochrane Library databases, of human clinical studies published in the last 10 years. Results The agents that proved more effective in bleeding control were calcium sulphate (100%) and collagen plus epinephrine (92.9%) followed by ferric sulphate (60%), gauze packing (30%) and collagen (16.7%). When using aluminium chloride (Expasyl®), over 90% of the apical lesions improved, but this agent seemed to increase swelling. Epinephrine with collagen did not significantly raise either blood pressure or heart rate. Conclusions Despite the use of several haemostatic materials in apical surgery, there is little evidence on their effectiveness and safety. The most effective haemostatic agents were calcium sulphate and epinephrine plus collagen. Epinephrine plus collagen did not seem to significantly raise blood pressure or heart rate during surgery. Aluminium chloride did not increase postoperative pain but could slightly increase postoperative swelling. Randomized clinical trials are needed to assess the haemostatic effectiveness and adverse effects of haemostatic materials in apical surgery. Key words:Haemostasis, apical surgery. PMID:27475689

  16. Healing of apical rarefaction of three nonvital open apex anterior teeth using a white portland cement apical plug

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amitabha Chakraborty

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The major challenge of performing root canal treatment in an open apex pulp-less tooth is to obtain a good apical seal. MTA has been successfully used to achieve a good apical seal, wherein the root canal obturation can be done immediately. MTA and White Portland Cement has been shown similarity in their physical, chemical and biological properties and has also shown similar outcome when used in animal studies and human trials. In our study, open apex of three non vital upper central incisors has been plugged using modified white Portland cement. 3 to 6 months follow up revealed absence of clinical symptoms and disappearance of peri-apical rarefactions. The positive clinical outcome may encourage the future use of white Portland cement as an apical plug material in case of non vital open apex tooth as much cheaper substitute of MTA.

  17. Five-year longitudinal assessment of the prognosis of apical microsurgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    von Arx, Thomas; Jensen, Simon S; Hänni, Stefan;

    2012-01-01

    Apical surgery is an important treatment option for teeth with post-treatment apical periodontitis. Knowledge of the long-term prognosis is necessary when weighing apical surgery against alternative treatments. This study assessed the 5-year outcome of apical surgery and its predictors in a cohor...

  18. Differentiation of Apical Bud Cells in a Newly Developed Apical Bud Transplantation Model Using GFP Transgenic Mice as Donor.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naoki Maruo

    Full Text Available Rodent mandibular incisors have a unique anatomical structure that allows teeth to grow throughout the lifetime of the rodent. This report presents a novel transplantation technique for studying the apical bud differentiation of rodent mandibular incisors. Incisal apical end tissue with green fluorescent protein from transgenic mouse was transplanted to wild type mice, and the development of the transplanted cells were immunohistologically observed for 12 weeks after the transplantation. Results indicate that the green fluorescent apical end tissue replaced the original tissue, and cells from the apical bud differentiated and extended toward the incisal edge direction. The immunostaining with podoplanin also showed that the characteristics of the green fluorescent tissue were identical to those of the original. The green fluorescent cells were only found in the labial side of the incisor up to 4 weeks. After 12 weeks, however, they were also found in the lingual side. Here the green fluorescent cementocyte-like cells were only present in the cementum close to the dentin surface. This study suggests that some of the cells that form the cellular cementum come from the apical tissue including the apical bud in rodent incisors.

  19. Differentiation of Apical Bud Cells in a Newly Developed Apical Bud Transplantation Model Using GFP Transgenic Mice as Donor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakagami, Ryuji; Yoshinaga, Yasunori; Okamura, Kazuhiko

    2016-01-01

    Rodent mandibular incisors have a unique anatomical structure that allows teeth to grow throughout the lifetime of the rodent. This report presents a novel transplantation technique for studying the apical bud differentiation of rodent mandibular incisors. Incisal apical end tissue with green fluorescent protein from transgenic mouse was transplanted to wild type mice, and the development of the transplanted cells were immunohistologically observed for 12 weeks after the transplantation. Results indicate that the green fluorescent apical end tissue replaced the original tissue, and cells from the apical bud differentiated and extended toward the incisal edge direction. The immunostaining with podoplanin also showed that the characteristics of the green fluorescent tissue were identical to those of the original. The green fluorescent cells were only found in the labial side of the incisor up to 4 weeks. After 12 weeks, however, they were also found in the lingual side. Here the green fluorescent cementocyte-like cells were only present in the cementum close to the dentin surface. This study suggests that some of the cells that form the cellular cementum come from the apical tissue including the apical bud in rodent incisors. PMID:26978064

  20. Membrane estrogen receptor-α levels in MCF-7 breast cancer cells predict cAMP and proliferation responses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    17β-estradiol (E2) can rapidly induce cAMP production, but the conditions under which these cAMP levels are best measured and the signaling pathways responsible for the consequent proliferative effects on breast cancer cells are not fully understood. To help resolve these issues, we compared cAMP mechanistic responses in MCF-7 cell lines selected for low (mERlow) and high (mERhigh) expression of the membrane form of estrogen receptor (mER)-α, and thus addressed the receptor subform involved in cAMP signaling. MCF-7 cells were immunopanned and subsequently separated by fluorescence activated cell sorting into mERhigh (mER-α-enriched) and mERlow (mER-α-depleted) populations. Unique (compared with previously reported) incubation conditions at 4°C were found to be optimal for demonstrating E2-induced cAMP production. Time-dependent and dose-dependent effects of E2 on cAMP production were determined for both cell subpopulations. The effects of forskolin, 8-CPT cAMP, protein kinase A inhibitor (H-89), and adenylyl cyclase inhibitor (SQ 22,536) on E2-induced cell proliferation were assessed using the crystal violet assay. We demonstrated a rapid and transient cAMP increase after 1 pmol/l E2 stimulation in mERhigh cells; at 4°C these responses were much more reliable and robust than at 37°C (the condition most often used). The loss of cAMP at 37°C was not due to export. 3-Isobutyl-1-methylxanthine (IBMX; 1 mmol/l) only partially preserved cAMP, suggesting that multiple phosphodiesterases modulate its level. The accumulated cAMP was consistently much higher in mERhigh cells than in mERlow cells, implicating mER-α levels in the process. ICI172,780 blocked the E2-induced response and 17α-estradiol did not elicit the response, also suggesting activity through an estrogen receptor. E2 dose-dependent cAMP production, although biphasic in both cell types, was responsive to 50-fold higher E2 concentrations in mERhigh cells. Proliferation of mERlow cells was stimulated

  1. Summer camps for children with burn injuries: a literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maslow, Gary R; Lobato, Debra

    2010-01-01

    The first summer camps for children with burn injuries started over 25 years ago, and as of 2008, there were 60 camps worldwide. This review examines the literature on summer pediatric burn camps. The authors describe common characteristics of burn camp structure, activities, and staffing and then examine the scientific evidence regarding the effect of burn camp programs on campers and camp staff volunteers. A search of Pubmed and Psychinfo databases from 1970 to 2008 for articles related to pediatric burn summer camps identified 17 articles, of which 13 fit the inclusion criteria. Existing literature consists primarily of qualitative studies, suggesting that burn camp can decrease camper isolation, improve self-esteem, and promote coping and social skills. Studies examining volunteer staff at burn camp have consistently found that there are both personal and professional benefits. Quantitative studies of self-esteem have yielded equivocal results. No studies have examined safety or the effect of burn camp on medical or rehabilitation outcomes. For the past 25 years, pediatric summer camps for children with burn injuries have played an important rehabilitation role and provided a strong community that benefits both campers and staff. Future research using more rigorous research methods and examining a broader range of outcomes (eg, safety and medical/rehabilitation outcomes) is recommended. PMID:20644489

  2. Communication Boot Camp: Discover the Speaker in You!

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zuraidah Binti Ali

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Learning can take place almost anywhere, and this is especially true for our undergraduates who wish to become public speakers. Besides university course and public speaking workshops on campus grounds, undergraduates are now looking for a different learning environment – communication boot camps!! This study presents a compilation of learners’ experience, fun-filled activities, insightful feedback and memorable boot camp moments as captured in camp photos and feedback surveys. It involves a total of thirty seven undergraduates who enrolled in a Communication Boot Camp at Janda Baik, Pahang. Results show that Communication Boot Camp is a successful strategy to groom public speakers with a positive correlation between camp success and camp objectives, particularly in reducing shyness, motivating participants to become public speakers and discovering their talent and skills. In short, the study adds to the promise of zest and delight in public speaking.

  3. Bony change of apical lesion healing process using fractal analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To investigate the change of bone healing process after endodontic treatment of the tooth with an apical lesion by fractal analysis. Radiographic images of 35 teeth from 33 patients taken on first diagnosis, 6 months, and 1 year after endodontic treatment were selected. Radiographic images were taken by JUPITER computerized Dental X-ray System. Fractal dimensions were calculated three times at each area by Scion Image PC program. Rectangular region of interest (30 x 30) were selected at apical lesion and normal apex of each image. The fractal dimension at apical lesion of first diagnosis (L0) is 0.940 ± 0.361 and that of normal area (N0) is 1.186 ± 0.727 (p1) is 1.076 ± 0.069 and that of normal area (N1) is 1.192 ± 0.055 (p2) is 1.163 ± 0.074 and that of normal area (N2) is 1.225 ± 0.079 (p<0.05). After endodontic treatment, the fractal dimensions at each apical lesions depending on time showed statistically significant difference. And there are statistically significant different between normal area and apical lesion on first diagnosis, 6 months after, 1 year after. But the differences were grow smaller as time flows. The evaluation of the prognosis after the endodontic treatment of the apical lesion was estimated by bone regeneration in apical region. Fractal analysis was attempted to overcome the limit of subjective reading, and as a result the change of the bone during the healing process was able to be detected objectively and quantitatively.

  4. N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor activation increases cAMP levels and voltage-gated Ca2+ channel activity in area CA1 of hippocampus.

    OpenAIRE

    Chetkovich, D.M.; Gray., R; Johnston, D.; Sweatt, J D

    1991-01-01

    Tetanic stimulation of the Schaffer collateral inputs into area CA1 of the hippocampus causes N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor activation, an effect that contributes to the induction of long-term potentiation (LTP) in this region. The present studies demonstrate that LTP-inducing tetanic stimulation in rat hippocampal area CA1 elicited increased levels of cAMP. The elevation of cAMP was blocked by the NMDA receptor antagonist DL-2-amino-5-phosphonovaleric acid (APV). Bath application of N...

  5. Evidence that the cAMP pathway controls emergence of both primary and appressorial germ tubes of barley powdery mildew.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinane, J; Dalvin, S; Bindslev, L; Hall, A; Gurr, S; Oliver, R

    2000-05-01

    Development of conidia of barley powdery mildew involves the formation of a primary germ tube (PGT), an appressorial germ tube (AGT), and an appressorium. Previously, it was found that cyclic AMP (cAMP) was involved in these developmental processes. Comparison of development on the host surface with two types of cellulose membrane revealed that frequency of PGT emergence was surface independent. On one type of cellulose, where the frequencies of both AGT and appressorial differentiation were similar to that on the host surface, cAMP levels and protein kinase A (PKA) activities had a biphasic pattern with peaks at 15 min and 4 h after inoculation (prior to PGT and AGT emergence, respectively). The effect of manipulating cAMP levels was tested on another type of cellulose membrane, which stimulated a lower degree of AGT and appressorial formation than the host surface. Cholera toxin and forskolin, activators of adenylyl cyclase, significantly increased PGT emergence, but cAMP did not. Cholera toxin, forskolin, and cAMP increased the frequency of AGT and appressorial formation, but in a time-dependent manner. PMID:10796015

  6. Cl- transport pathways regulated by Ca++, cAMP, and pH in human fibroblasts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Under basal conditions Cl- efflux from human fibroblasts occurs with a rate constant of permeability of 0.08 min-1. 50% of the basal efflux is due to Cl-/anion exchange and is DIDS inhibitable, 25% is due to Na+/K+/Cl- cotransport and is furosemide inhibitable, and 20% is due to an electrically conductive pathway. Increasing intracellular Ca++ with A23187 stimulates Cl- efflux by 30%. This increase appears to occur entirely via an electrically conducting pathway, but unlike basal Cl- conductance, it is DIDS sensitive. Exposure of the cells to dibutyryl cAMP stimulates Cl- efflux by 15%. They do not yet know whether the cAMP stimulated pathway is electrically conductive, but the stimulation is additive with that caused by elevated Ca++ suggesting that different pathways are activated. Elevation of intracellular pH by any of several standard methods increases Cl- efflux by as much as 700%. The pH effect appears to be mediated by a Cl-/anion exchange pathway since it is DIDS sensitive and electroneutral. Previous work from this laboratory describing a transient rapid efflux of Cl- followed by a slower efflux phase can now be explained as the result of a transient alkalinization of cells rather than as 2 subcellular Cl- compartments. This alkalinization occurs when cells are transferred from a 5% CO2 atmosphere during 36Cl- load to ambient CO2 for efflux

  7. Lack of correlation between obturation limits and apical leakage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Machado

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper was to evaluate a possible correlation between obturation limits and leakage. Thirty-six extracted human mandibular incisors were used, characterized by straight and single canals, non-anatomical complexities, absence of previous endodontic treatment, complete root formation and patent foramen. For standardization of the specimens for the leakage analysis, foraminal instrumentation was performed up to a Flexofile #25 (Dentsply-Maillefer, Ballaigues, Switzerland. All specimens were instrumented and filled following the same protocol, and the obturation limits were measured using Axiovision 4.5 Software (Carl Zeiss Vision, Hallbergmoos, Germany. The specimens were then separated into three groups (n = 12 according to the following variables: Group I - obturation limits ranging from 0 mm to 0.76 mm of the main apical foramen. Group II - obturation limits ranging from 0.77 mm to 0.98 mm of the main apical foramen. Group III - obturation limits ranging from 0.99 mm to 1.68 mm of the main apical foramen. Apical leakage was quantified by fluid filtration. The analyses were confronted using Pearson's test (p > 0.05. Groups I, II and III showed Pearson correlation values (r2 of -0.152, -0.186 and 0.058, respectively. No correlation was found between the obturation limits and apical leakage

  8. Xerophthalmia clinics in rural eye camps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desai, N C; Desai, S; Desai, R

    1992-05-01

    Even though the primary prevention of many eye diseases can be effectively incorporated into the existing pattern of rural eye camps, efforts in this direction are restrained and insubstantial. We describe our technique and experience in the prevention of xerophthalmia by organising a distinct entity called a xerophthalmia clinic in our eye camps. The clinic consists of an Ophthalmologist or an Ophthalmic assistant who will exclusively examine children who come to the eye camp. This is perhaps, the first report on rural xerophthalmia clinics, in ophthalmic literature. Over a seven year period from 1984 to 1990 we have conducted 71 xerophthalmia clinics amongst the ninty eye camps organised. A total of 11,370 children were examined in the xerophthalmia clinic out of which 18.9% were afflicted with the disease. Therapeutic doses of Vitamin A were administered on the spot to the afflicted and prophylactic doses were administered to the rest. Intensive health education efforts are made through clinics to effectuate change in dietry habits towards consumption of locally grown DGLV (Dark Green Leafy Vegetables) like Anthenum, chenopodium and Amaranthus. A bipronged offensive consisting of mega-dosing and health education is, for the present and the foreseeable future, the best strategy to combat xerophthalmia in this desert region. A year by year breakdown of prevalence rates in the present study shows that in years of severe drought the prevalence of xerophthalmia increases three fold over the non-drought or mild drought years, thereby demonstrating that drought is a substantial risk factor in developing countries leading to vitamin A deficiency and xerophthalmia. PMID:1452416

  9. Forskolin and derivatives as tools for studying the role of cAMP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alasbahi, R H; Melzig, M F

    2012-01-01

    Forskolin (7beta-acetoxy-1alpha,6beta,9alpha-trihydroxy-8,13-epoxy-labd-14-en-11-one) is the first main labdane diterpenoid isolated from the roots of the Indian Plectranthus barbatus ANDREWS and one of the most extensively studied constituents of this plant. The unique character of forskolin as a general direct, rapid and reversible activator of adenylyl cyclase not only underlies its wide range of pharmacological effects but also renders it as a valuable tool in the study of the role of cAMP. The purpose of this review is to provide data presenting the utility of forskolin--as a cAMP activator--for studying the function of cAMP from different biological viewpoints as follows: 1) Investigation on the role of cAMP in various cellular processes in different organs such as gastrointestinal tract, respiratory tract, reproductive organs, endocrine system, urinary system, olfactory system, nervous system, platelet aggregating system, skin, bones, eyes, and smooth muscles. 2) Studies on the role of cAMP activation and inhibition to understand the pathogenesis (e.g. thyroid autoimmune disorders, leukocyte signal transduction defect in depression, acute malaria infection, secretory dysfunction in inflammatory diseases) as well as its possibly beneficial role for curing diseases such as the regulation of coronary microvascular NO production after heart failure, the attenuation of the development or progression of fibrosis in the heart and lungs, the augmentation of myo-protective effects of ischemic preconditioning especially in the failing hearts after myocardial infarction, the stimulation of the regeneration of injured retinal ganglion cells, the curing of glaucoma and inflammatory diseases, the reducing of cyst formation early in the polycystic kidney disease, and the management of autoimmune disorders by enhancing Fas-mediated apoptosis. 3) Studies on the role of cAMP in the mechanism of actions of a number of drugs and substances such as the effect of the

  10. Core Concepts: Orthopedic Intern Curriculum Boot Camp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seeley, Mark A; Kazarian, Erick; King, Brandon; Biermann, Janet S; Carpenter, James E; Caird, Michelle S; Irwin, Todd A

    2016-01-01

    Orthopedic surgical interns must gain a broad array of clinical skills in a short time. However, recent changes in health care have limited resident-patient exposures. With the reported success of simulation training in the surgical literature, the American Board of Orthopaedic Surgery (ABOS) and Residency Review Committee for Orthopaedic Surgery have required that surgical simulation training be a component of the intern curricula in orthopedic surgical residencies. This study examined the short-term effectiveness of an orthopedic "intern boot camp" covering 7 of 17 simulation training concept modules published by the ABOS. Eight orthopedic post-graduate year 1 (PGY-1) residents (study group) completed a structured 3-month curriculum and were compared with 7 post-graduate year 2 (PGY-2) residents (comparison group) who had just completed their orthopedic surgical internship. Seven core skills were assessed using both task-specific and global rating scales. The PGY-1 residents demonstrated a statistically significant improvement in all 7 modules with respect to their task-specific pre-test scores: sterile technique (P=.001), wound closure (Pcasting and splinting (P<.001), arthrocentesis (P=.01), basics of internal fixation (P<.001), and compartment syndrome evaluation (P=.004). After the camp, PGY-1 and -2 scores in task-specific measures were not significantly different. A 3-month simulation-based boot camp instituted early in orthopedic internship elevated a variety of clinical skills to levels exhibited by PGY-2 residents. PMID:26730688

  11. Spontaneous coronary artery dissection associated with apical hypertrophic cardiomyopathy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Apical hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) is a relatively uncommon inherited disease. Spontaneous coronary artery dissection (SCAD) is also uncommonly observed, which often occurs in pregnant or post partum women but is rare in men. This report describes a 38 years old man with apical hypertrophic cardiomyopathy who developed SCAD leading to acute inferior myocardial infarction. After emergent appendectomy operation at another hospital, he was immediately transferred to the Cardiology Department of our hospital due to acute myocardial infarction. He emergently underwent coronary angiography which showed a long dissection involving the right coronary. He underwent an emergent CABG with cardiopulmonary bypass. Postoperative recovery was uneventful and he was discharged. According to our knowledge, no case of spontaneous coronary artery dissection associated with apical hypertrophic cardiomyopathy unrelated to postpartum period or oral contraceptive use has been reported so far. (author)

  12. Modulatory effects of cAMP and PKC activation on gap junctional intercellular communication among thymic epithelial cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neves-dos-Santos Sandra

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We investigated the effects of the signaling molecules, cyclic AMP (cAMP and protein-kinase C (PKC, on gap junctional intercellular communication (GJIC between thymic epithelial cells (TEC. Results Treatment with 8-Br-cAMP, a cAMP analog; or forskolin, which stimulates cAMP production, resulted in an increase in dye transfer between adjacent TEC, inducing a three-fold enhancement in the mean fluorescence of coupled cells, ascertained by flow cytometry after calcein transfer. These treatments also increased Cx43 mRNA expression, and stimulated Cx43 protein accumulation in regions of intercellular contacts. VIP, adenosine, and epinephrine which may also signal through cyclic nucleotides were tested. The first two molecules did not mimic the effects of 8-Br-cAMP, however epinephrine was able to increase GJIC suggesting that this molecule functions as an endogenous inter-TEC GJIC modulators. Stimulation of PKC by phorbol-myristate-acetate inhibited inter-TEC GJIC. Importantly, both the enhancing and the decreasing effects, respectively induced by cAMP and PKC, were observed in both mouse and human TEC preparations. Lastly, experiments using mouse thymocyte/TEC heterocellular co-cultures suggested that the presence of thymocytes does not affect the degree of inter-TEC GJIC. Conclusions Overall, our data indicate that cAMP and PKC intracellular pathways are involved in the homeostatic control of the gap junction-mediated communication in the thymic epithelium, exerting respectively a positive and negative role upon cell coupling. This control is phylogenetically conserved in the thymus, since it was seen in both mouse and human TEC preparations. Lastly, our work provides new clues for a better understanding of how the thymic epithelial network can work as a physiological syncytium.

  13. Detection of apical hypertrophic cardiomyopathy by cardiovascular MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To investigate the clinical value of cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging (cMRI) in identifying apical hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. Methods: Sixty-five patients with typical apical hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (T-AHCM), 51 patients with pre-apical hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (P-AHCM)and 26 normal controls were confirmed by cMRI. All cases underwent electrocardiogram and echocardiography, of which 16 and 34 cases were studied by radionuclide 99Tcm-MIBI SPECT myocardial scanning and coronary angiography plus left ventriculography, respectively. Results: cMRI confirmed all patients with apical hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, but echocardiography missed 96 cases. Two chamber and four chamber views of cine-cMRI were considered as the best position to show detailed structure of cardiac apex. Forty-seven cases showed spade-like configuration of left ventricular cavity in T-AHCM group, but only 15 patients in P-AHCM group presented the same character. T-AHCM group showed higher apical thickness and ratio of the apical wall thickness to that at basal level than P-AHCM group(18.6±2.7) mm vs (13.6±1.0) mm, 2.2±0.5 vs 1.6±0.3, P<0.05), and the ratios of both T-AHCM group and P-AHCM group were significantly higher than that of control group (9.5±1.7) mm, 1.1±0.1, P<0.05). Hypertrophic wall thickening was lesser in T-AHCM group than in P-AHCM group, while the values of both T-AHCM group and P-AHCM group were significantly lesser than that of control one. Conclusion: MRI is the best diagnostic modality for AHCM, which is highly accurate and better than echocardiography, especially for the diagnosis of mild hypertrophy in the early stage. (authors)

  14. Cardiac cAMP: production, hydrolysis, modulation and detection

    OpenAIRE

    Cédric eBOULARAN; Céline eGALES

    2015-01-01

    Cyclic adenosine 3’,5’-monophosphate (cAMP) modulates a broad range of biological processes including the regulation of cardiac myocyte contractile function where it constitutes the main second messenger for β-adrenergic receptors’ signaling to fulfill positive chronotropic, inotropic and lusitropic effects. A growing number of studies pinpoint the role of spatial organization of the cAMP signaling as an essential mechanism to regulate cAMP outcomes in cardiac physiology. Here, we will briefl...

  15. Cardiac cAMP: production, hydrolysis, modulation and detection

    OpenAIRE

    Boularan, Cédric; Gales, Céline

    2015-01-01

    Cyclic adenosine 3′,5′-monophosphate (cAMP) modulates a broad range of biological processes including the regulation of cardiac myocyte contractile function where it constitutes the main second messenger for β-adrenergic receptors' signaling to fulfill positive chronotropic, inotropic and lusitropic effects. A growing number of studies pinpoint the role of spatial organization of the cAMP signaling as an essential mechanism to regulate cAMP outcomes in cardiac physiology. Here, we will briefl...

  16. Concentration Camp Rituals: Narratives of Former Bosnian Detainees

    OpenAIRE

    Basic, Goran

    2015-01-01

    In the German camps during the Second World War, the aim was to kill from a distance, and the camps were highly efficient in their operations. Previous studies have thus analyzed the industrialized killing and the victims' survival strategies. Researchers have emphasized the importance of narratives but they have not focused on narratives about camp rituals, or analyzed post-war interviews as a continued resistance and defense of one’s self. This article tries to fill this gap by analyzin...

  17. Communication Boot Camp: Discover the Speaker in You!

    OpenAIRE

    Zuraidah Binti Ali; Noor Hafiza Binti Nor Azmi; Alicia a/p Phillip; Mohd Zin bin Mokhtar

    2013-01-01

    Learning can take place almost anywhere, and this is especially true for our undergraduates who wish to become public speakers. Besides university course and public speaking workshops on campus grounds, undergraduates are now looking for a different learning environment – communication boot camps!! This study presents a compilation of learners’ experience, fun-filled activities, insightful feedback and memorable boot camp moments as captured in camp photos and feedback surveys. It involves a ...

  18. Healing of apical rarefaction of three nonvital open apex anterior teeth using a white portland cement apical plug

    OpenAIRE

    Amitabha Chakraborty; Bibhas Dey; Reema Dhar; Prabir Sardar

    2012-01-01

    The major challenge of performing root canal treatment in an open apex pulp-less tooth is to obtain a good apical seal. MTA has been successfully used to achieve a good apical seal, wherein the root canal obturation can be done immediately. MTA and White Portland Cement has been shown similarity in their physical, chemical and biological properties and has also shown similar outcome when used in animal studies and human trials. In our study, open apex of three non vital upper central incisors...

  19. Cardiac cAMP: production, hydrolysis, modulation and detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boularan, Cédric; Gales, Céline

    2015-01-01

    Cyclic adenosine 3',5'-monophosphate (cAMP) modulates a broad range of biological processes including the regulation of cardiac myocyte contractile function where it constitutes the main second messenger for β-adrenergic receptors' signaling to fulfill positive chronotropic, inotropic and lusitropic effects. A growing number of studies pinpoint the role of spatial organization of the cAMP signaling as an essential mechanism to regulate cAMP outcomes in cardiac physiology. Here, we will briefly discuss the complexity of cAMP synthesis and degradation in the cardiac context, describe the way to detect it and review the main pharmacological arsenal to modulate its availability. PMID:26483685

  20. Assessment of apical periodontitis by MRI. A feasibility study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geibel, M.A. [Ulm Univ. (Germany). Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery; Schreiber, E.S.; Bracher, A.K.; Rasche, V. [Ulm Univ. (Germany). Internal Medicine II; Hell, E.; Ulrici, J. [Sirona Dental Systems GmbH, Bensheim (Germany). Dental Imaging; Sailer, L.K. [DOC Praxisklinik im Wiley, Neu-Ulm (Germany). MKG; Ozpeynirci, Y. [Ulm Univ. (Germany). Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology

    2015-04-15

    The purpose of this clinical feasibility study was to evaluate the applicability of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for the assessment of apical periodontitis in direct comparison with cone beam CT (CBCT). 19 consecutive patients (average age 43 ± 13 years) with 34 lesions in total (13 molars, 14 premolars and 7 front teeth) were enrolled in this feasibility study. Periapical lesions were defined as periapical radiolucencies (CBCT) or structural changes in the spongy bone signal (MRI), which were connected with the apical part of a root and with at least twice the width of the periodontal ligament space. The location and dimension of the lesions were compared between MRI and CBCT. While mainly mineralized tissue components such as teeth and bone were visible with CBCT, complimentary information of the soft tissue components was assessable with MRI. The MRI images provided sufficient diagnostic detail for the assessment of the main structures of interest. Heterogeneous contrast was observed within the lesion, with often a clear enhancement close to the apical foramen and the periodontal gap. No difference for lesion visibility was observed between MRI and CBCT. The lesion dimensions corresponded well, but were slightly but significantly overestimated with MRI. A heterogeneous lesion appearance was observed in several patients. Four patients presented with a well circumscribed hyperintense signal in the vicinity of the apical foramen. The MRI capability of soft tissue characterization may facilitate detailed analysis of periapical lesions. This clinical study confirms the applicability of multi-contrast MRI for the identification of periapical lesions.

  1. [Nonsurgical retreatment in a case of a radiolucent apical lesion].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vicente Gómez, A; Rodríguez Ponce, A

    1989-01-01

    We present a case of failure that was helpful solved without surgical endodontic treatment. We don't achieve clinical success besides endodontic treatment was twice remade. Finally we decided to put a temporary filling with calcium hydroxide and wait until apical radiolucency disappear and complete our treatment with gutta-percha, sealer and lateral condensation. PMID:2640036

  2. The apical plasma membrane of chitin-synthesizing epithelia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bernard Moussian

    2013-01-01

    Chitin is the second most abundant polysaccharide on earth.It is produced at the apical side of epidermal,tracheal,fore-,and hindgut epithelial cells in insects as a central component of the protective and supporting extracellular cuticle.Chitin is also an important constituent of the midgut peritrophic matrix that encases the food supporting its digestion and protects the epithelium against invasion by possibly ingested pathogens.The enzyme producing chitin is a glycosyltransferase that resides in the apical plasma membrane forming a pore to extrude the chains of chitin into the extracellular space.The apical plasma membrane is not only a platform for chitin synthases but,probably through its shape and equipment with distinct factors,also plays an important role in orienting and organizing chitin fibers.Here,I review findings on the cellular and molecular constitution of the apical plasma membrane of chitin-producing epithelia mainly focusing on work done in the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster.

  3. Assessment of apical periodontitis by MRI. A feasibility study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this clinical feasibility study was to evaluate the applicability of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for the assessment of apical periodontitis in direct comparison with cone beam CT (CBCT). 19 consecutive patients (average age 43 ± 13 years) with 34 lesions in total (13 molars, 14 premolars and 7 front teeth) were enrolled in this feasibility study. Periapical lesions were defined as periapical radiolucencies (CBCT) or structural changes in the spongy bone signal (MRI), which were connected with the apical part of a root and with at least twice the width of the periodontal ligament space. The location and dimension of the lesions were compared between MRI and CBCT. While mainly mineralized tissue components such as teeth and bone were visible with CBCT, complimentary information of the soft tissue components was assessable with MRI. The MRI images provided sufficient diagnostic detail for the assessment of the main structures of interest. Heterogeneous contrast was observed within the lesion, with often a clear enhancement close to the apical foramen and the periodontal gap. No difference for lesion visibility was observed between MRI and CBCT. The lesion dimensions corresponded well, but were slightly but significantly overestimated with MRI. A heterogeneous lesion appearance was observed in several patients. Four patients presented with a well circumscribed hyperintense signal in the vicinity of the apical foramen. The MRI capability of soft tissue characterization may facilitate detailed analysis of periapical lesions. This clinical study confirms the applicability of multi-contrast MRI for the identification of periapical lesions.

  4. Chapter Four - Shoot apical meristem form and function. In:

    Science.gov (United States)

    The shoot apical meristem (SAM) generates above-ground aerial organs throughout the lifespan of higher plants. In order to fulfill this function, the meristem must maintain a balance between the self-renewal of a reservoir of central stem cells and organ initiation from peripheral cells. The activit...

  5. Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy with apical left ventricular aneurysm: a case report

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    江腾勇; 韩智红; 王京; 吕强; 吴学思

    2002-01-01

    @@ Morphological diversity is one characteristic of hypertrophic cardi omyopathy (HCM), but it is not common that HCM is associated with apical left ve ntricular aneurysm (LVA) without evidence of a coronary artery lesion. We repor t on such a case and review the pathogenesis, manifestations and diagnostic meth ods by collecting the few available papers published on this topic.

  6. Yoga camp in Ayurvedgrams of Chhattisgarh

    OpenAIRE

    Raghavendra Madhu; Nilesh Jain

    2012-01-01

    The clinical and empirical health benefits of yoga and pranayam have been reiterated through research. Yoga is being adopted as a system to alleviate the burden of noncommunicable diseases (NCDs) across the globe. The Directorate of AYUSH, Government of Chhattisgarh (DoA, GoCG) conducts annual 5-day-yoga camp across 146 Ayurvedgrams in the State. The present article brings out the AYUSH initiatives the State is taking toward active ageing. A total of 71,096 people participated in the 5-day-yo...

  7. Complexities of speech in Palestinian refugee camps

    OpenAIRE

    Hawker, Nancy

    2011-01-01

    This paper is a report on work in progress. I have recently finished my fieldwork in three refugee camps in the West Bank: Shuafat RC, which is in the Jerusalem Municipal Area, Dheisheh RC, which is in the Bethlehem Governorate, and Tulkarem RC, which is in the north of the West Bank near the Green Line. I have been recording the speech of respondents in these locations to find out whether contact with Hebrew speakers is effecting language variation and change in spoken Palestinian Arabic. So...

  8. Creating a Healthy Camp Community: A Nurse's Role.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lishner, Kris Miller; Bruya, Margaret Auld

    This book provides an organized, systematic overview of the basic aspects of health program management, nursing practice, and human relations issues in camp nursing. A foremost assumption is that health care in most camps needs improvement. Good health is dependent upon interventions involving social, environmental, and lifestyle factors that…

  9. 14 CFR 91.1417 - CAMP: Mechanical interruption summary report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Ownership Operations Program Management § 91.1417 CAMP: Mechanical interruption summary report. Each program manager who maintains program aircraft under a CAMP must mail or deliver, before the end of the 10th day... and engine and aircraft on which it was installed. Propeller featherings for training,...

  10. Students Become Scientists at Science Skills Boot Camp | Poster

    Science.gov (United States)

    At the 2016 Science Skills Boot Camp (SSBC), a one-day training program designed for NIH summer interns with little or no prior research experience, students gathered to learn about basic research and laboratory skills. The boot camp provided a unique opportunity for interns to expand their knowledge of simple bench techniques, scientific papers, and ways to communicate their research.

  11. "Don't Laugh at Me" Coming to Camps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, Marla

    2000-01-01

    Describes a multimedia resource developed for camps by the American Camping Association and Peter Yarrow, of Peter, Paul, and Mary, to help children express and manage their emotions, cooperate and appreciate the individual strengths that each child brings to a group, celebrate diversity, and practice negotiating and resolving conflict creatively.…

  12. Recidivism among Arkansas Boot Camp Graduates after 12 Months.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toombs, Nancy J.; Benda, Brent B.; Corwyn, Robert Flynn

    1997-01-01

    Examines recidivism among 792 graduates of Arkansas' only boot camp. Results indicate that the primary predictors of recidivism were the type of offenses (drugs vs. others), race, and infractions while in boot camp. However, none of the predictors accounted for more than minor proportions of the variance in recidivism. (RJM)

  13. Making STEM Fun: How to Organize a STEM Camp

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Kimberly E. Bryant; Hardin, Stacey E.

    2013-01-01

    The work from the University of Central Florida's STEM summer camp (sponsored by Workforce Central Florida) is shared. The camps targeted low-SES schools with a high percentage of students on free and reduced lunch as well as high percentages of students with. Students were given preassessments and postassessments to gauge their knowledge of and…

  14. Residential Grief Camps: An Initial Phenomenological Study of Staff Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Tiffany B.; Kimball, Thomas G.

    2012-01-01

    Research has focused primarily on the impact of death on family functioning and the stages and tasks of grief, though little attention has been given to grief camps or the experiences of those who work there. This study explored the experiences of staff at a four-day overnight children's grief camp. Eight participants reported their experience of…

  15. Camp GLOW (Girls Leading Our World): Handbook for Volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peace Corps, Washington, DC. Information Collection and Exchange Div.

    Camp GLOW (Girls Leading Our World) began in Romania in 1995 as a weeklong leadership camp with the purpose of encouraging young women to become active citizens by building their self-esteem and confidence, increasing their self-awareness, and developing their skills in goal-setting, assertiveness, and career and life planning. Since that first…

  16. How Did a Science Camp Affect Children's Conceptions of Science?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metin, Duygu; Leblebicioglu, Gulsen

    2011-01-01

    Science explores nature and the most authentic way of introducing science is creating learning environments in the nature and let children make their own discoveries in the nature as real scientists. Science camps would be an opportunity for this kind of science education. This study introduces a science camp and reports findings regarding its…

  17. Camping under Western Stars: Joan Crawford in "Johnny Guitar."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Pamela

    1995-01-01

    Examines the dissonant and "camp" effect inherent in describing "Johnny Guitar" as a Joan Crawford western. Argues that the film's camp effect depends on its crossing of a female star vehicle with the western, a stereotypically masculine genre. Summarizes Crawford's childhood and rise to fame. Concludes by exploring the lesbian and "butch-femme"…

  18. Vision, Leadership, and Change: The Case of Ramah Summer Camps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reimer, Joseph

    2010-01-01

    In his retrospective essay, Seymour Fox (1997) identified "vision" as the essential element that shaped the Ramah camp system. I will take a critical look at Fox's main claims: (1) A particular model of vision was essential to the development of Camp Ramah; and (2) That model of vision should guide contemporary Jewish educators in creating Jewish…

  19. Architecture of Stalin’s Prison Camps in Yakutia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolai Kradin

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Based on archive and field studies, the article considers architecture of prison camp facilities built on the territory of Yakutia during Stalin’s terror. With the help of field studies, measurements and photofixation we have revealed compositional, planning and design features of bridges and prison camp facilities and analyzed their location.

  20. Summer Camp Experiences: Parental Perceptions of Youth Development Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, Karla A.; Whitaker, Leslie Scheuler; Bialeschki, M. Deborah; Scanlin, Margery M.; Thurber, Christopher

    2007-01-01

    Every summer more than 10 million children attend day or resident (sleep-over) camps sponsored by churches, not-for-profit youth agencies, and independent operators. This study explored the outcomes of a 1-week or longer camp experience from the perspective of parents. A national sample of almost 2,300 parents responded to pre-, post-, and…

  1. Crisis Management: How to Handle a Salmonella Outbreak at Camp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, William A.; Popkin, Rodger

    1992-01-01

    Details events of six days during Salmonella outbreak at camp in North Carolina. Explains how camp handled 280 sick campers and staff, well campers, news media, and parents. Based on an epidemiologic survey of food eaten, it was suspected that the culprit of the outbreak was a meat item. Offers suggestions for crisis management in the camp…

  2. 14 CFR 91.1423 - CAMP: Maintenance organization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false CAMP: Maintenance organization. 91.1423... Operations Program Management § 91.1423 CAMP: Maintenance organization. (a) Each program manager who... the performance of that work, must have an organization adequate to perform the work. (b) Each...

  3. Turning Neighbors into Friends: The Los Angeles Camp Experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenya, Judith

    2002-01-01

    A camp for Los Angeles (California) children traumatized by war, community violence, and hatred gives them time to heal and feel safe. The camp's theme of reconciliation and nonviolence is expressed by an all-volunteer staff through community, teamwork, and cooperation. Nature's diversity is used to show how diverse groups can interact, thrive,…

  4. EduCamp Colombia: Social Networked Learning for Teacher Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonseca, Diego Ernesto Leal

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes a learning experience called EduCamp, which was launched by the Ministry of Education of Colombia in 2007, based on emerging concepts such as e-Learning 2.0, connectivism, and personal learning environments. An EduCamp proposes an unstructured collective learning experience, which intends to make palpable the possibilities of…

  5. Transient apical dyskinesia with a pacemaker: Electrocardiographic features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Núñez-Gil, Iván J; Feltes, Gisela I; Mejía-Rentería, Hernán D; Biagioni, Corina; De Agustín, J Alberto; Vivas, David; Fernández-Ortiz, Antonio

    2015-04-01

    Transient apical dyskinesia syndromes present features similar to acute coronary syndromes, but with normal coronary arteries and rapid complete resolution of wall motion alterations. We report the case of a 73-year-old woman who was admitted to hospital because of typical chest pain at rest after her brother's death. She had had a pacemaker implanted in 2001. Troponin levels were elevated and apical hypokinesia was shown by ventriculography and echocardiography, with normal coronary arteries. Evolving ECG alterations were observed in spite of the continued pacing rhythm. All these alterations were fully resolved after discharge. This case shows that, even in the presence of a pacemaker, evolving ECG alterations can be observed in Takotsubo syndrome. PMID:25840647

  6. Apical versus Basal Neurogenesis Directs Cortical Interneuron Subclass Fate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy J. Petros

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Fate determination in the mammalian telencephalon, with its diversity of neuronal subtypes and relevance to neuropsychiatric disease, remains a critical area of study in neuroscience. Most studies investigating this topic focus on the diversity of neural progenitors within spatial and temporal domains along the lateral ventricles. Often overlooked is whether the location of neurogenesis within a fate-restricted domain is associated with, or instructive for, distinct neuronal fates. Here, we use in vivo fate mapping and the manipulation of neurogenic location to demonstrate that apical versus basal neurogenesis influences the fate determination of major subgroups of cortical interneurons derived from the subcortical telencephalon. Somatostatin-expressing interneurons arise mainly from apical divisions along the ventricular surface, whereas parvalbumin-expressing interneurons originate predominantly from basal divisions in the subventricular zone. As manipulations that shift neurogenic location alter interneuron subclass fate, these results add an additional dimension to the spatial-temporal determinants of neuronal fate determination.

  7. Apical pressures developed by needles for canal irrigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradford, C E; Eleazer, P D; Downs, K E; Scheetz, J P

    2002-04-01

    Drying instrumented canals with pressurized air may result in patient morbidity or even fatality. Low pressure and side vent needles have been suggested to lessen the danger. This study observed apical pressures from different needles inserted deeply into small round and ovoid canals as instrumentation progressed. Low-pressure (5 psi) air was injected through the needles, and apical pressures were recorded after each instrument. Pressures varied greatly within each test group. Generalities that can be drawn are that binding the needle within the canal gives higher pressures than with the needle slightly short of binding and that pressures were higher with apexes instrumented to size 30 and higher. With the needle tightly bound, neither needle size, needle design, nor canal shape resulted in statistically significant mean pressure differences. With the needle slightly withdrawn, larger bore needles gave higher pressures than small diameter needles. Caution is advised with the clinical use of pressurized air in the drying of root canals. PMID:12043877

  8. Modelling apical constriction in epithelia using elastic shell theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Gareth Wyn; Chapman, S Jonathan

    2010-06-01

    Apical constriction is one of the fundamental mechanisms by which embryonic tissue is deformed, giving rise to the shape and form of the fully-developed organism. The mechanism involves a contraction of fibres embedded in the apical side of epithelial tissues, leading to an invagination or folding of the cell sheet. In this article the phenomenon is modelled mechanically by describing the epithelial sheet as an elastic shell, which contains a surface representing the continuous mesh formed from the embedded fibres. Allowing this mesh to contract, an enhanced shell theory is developed in which the stiffness and bending tensors of the shell are modified to include the fibres' stiffness, and in which the active effects of the contraction appear as body forces in the shell equilibrium equations. Numerical examples are presented at the end, including the bending of a plate and a cylindrical shell (modelling neurulation) and the invagination of a spherical shell (modelling simple gastrulation). PMID:19859751

  9. A homogeneous single-label time-resolved fluorescence cAMP assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martikkala, Eija; Rozwandowicz-Jansen, Anita; Hänninen, Pekka; Petäjä-Repo, Ulla; Härmä, Harri

    2011-03-01

    G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) are an important class of pharmaceutical drug targets. Functional high-throughput GPCR assays are needed to test an increasing number of synthesized novel drug compounds and their function in signal transduction processes. Measurement of changes in the cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) concentration is a widely used method to verify GPCR activation in the adenylyl cyclase pathway. Here, a single-label time-resolved fluorescence and high-throughput screening (HTS)-feasible method was developed to measure changes in cAMP levels in HEK293(i) cells overexpressing either β(2)-adrenergic or δ-opioid receptors. In the quenching resonance energy transfer (QRET) technique, soluble quenchers reduce the signal of unbound europium(III)-labeled cAMP in solution, whereas the antibody-bound fraction is fluorescent. The feasibility of this homogeneous competitive assay was proven by agonist-mediated stimulation of receptors coupled to either the stimulatory G(s) or inhibitory G(i) proteins. The reproducibility of the assays was excellent, and Z' values exceeded 0.7. The dynamic range, signal-to-background ratio, and detection limit were compared with a commercial time-resolved fluorescence resonance energy transfer (TR-FRET) assay. In both homogeneous assays, similar assay parameters were obtained when adenylyl cyclase was stimulated directly by forskolin or via agonist-mediated activation of the G(s)-coupled β(2)AR. The advantage of using the single-label approach relates to the cost-effectiveness of the QRET system compared with the two-label TR-FRET assay as there is no need for labeling of two binding partners leading to reduced requirements for assay optimization. PMID:21343601

  10. Anharmonic apical oxygen vibration in high-Tc superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Using time-independent perturbation theory, a theoretical calculation has been performed for the transition temperatures for various high-Tc oxide compounds. It has been assumed that, three electrons are responsible for the superconducting current. Whereas two of these electrons form an exotic bound pair, the third electron causes perturbation H' = βx3 + γx4 with respect to apical oxygen vibrations. From the calculations, the transition temperatures are found to be realistic and comparable with experimental results. (author)

  11. Segmenting the sepal and shoot apical meristem of Arabidopsis thaliana

    OpenAIRE

    Cunha, Alexandre L.; Roeder, Adrienne H. K.; Meyerowitz, Elliot M.

    2010-01-01

    We present methods for segmenting the sepal and shoot apical meristem of the Arabidopsis thaliana plant. We propose a mathematical morphology pipeline and a modified numerical scheme for the active contours without edges algorithm to extract the geometry and topology of plant cells imaged using confocal laser scanning microscopy. We demonstrate our methods in typical images used in the studies of cell endoreduplication and hormone transport and show that in practice they produce highly accura...

  12. Genetic Control of Maize Shoot Apical Meristem Architecture

    OpenAIRE

    Thompson, Addie M.; Crants, James; Schnable, Patrick S.; Yu, Jianming; Timmermans, Marja C. P.; Springer, Nathan M.; Scanlon, Michael J; Muehlbauer, Gary J.

    2014-01-01

    The shoot apical meristem contains a pool of undifferentiated stem cells and generates all above-ground organs of the plant. During vegetative growth, cells differentiate from the meristem to initiate leaves while the pool of meristematic cells is preserved; this balance is determined in part by genetic regulatory mechanisms. To assess vegetative meristem growth and genetic control in Zea mays, we investigated its morphology at multiple time points and identified three stages of growth. We me...

  13. The shoot apical meristem: the dynamics of a stable structure.

    OpenAIRE

    Traas, Jan,; Vernoux, Teva

    2002-01-01

    The shoot apical meristem (SAM) is a group of proliferating, embryonic-type cells that generates the aerial parts of the plant. SAMs are highly organized and stable structures that can function for years or even centuries. This is in apparent contradiction to the behaviour of their constituent cells, which continuously proliferate and differentiate. To reconcile the dynamic nature of the cells with the stability of the overall system the existence of elaborate signalling networks has been pro...

  14. Calcium hydroxide induced apical barrier in fractured nonvital immature permanent incisors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vellore K

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Management of trauma to an immature permanent incisor is a challenge, especially when the pulp is necrotic. The aim of this study is to discuss the management of fractured maxillary right and left central incisors with immature root apex. Radiographic evaluation revealed that the tooth 11 had convergent apical walls, whereas tooth 21 had parallel apical walls; both the incisors were treated with pure calcium hydroxide paste to induce apical development. Follow-up clinical and radiographic examinations confirmed apical barrier at 3 months. Radiograph of tooth 11 with convergent roots showed continued apical development, whereas tooth 21 showed apical bridging, following which root canal was completed in both the teeth. Therefore, in view of the simplicity of this method, we believe that calcium hydroxide can be reemphasized as one of the treatment alternatives for fractured nonvital immature permanent incisors to induce apical barrier.

  15. Camp Sports Injuries: Analysis of Causes, Modes and Frequencies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panagiota Papageorgiou

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was the description of sports injuries sustained by campers at summer camps, aged 7-15 years. A sample of 8 camps from the Greek camp population participated in this sport injury surveillance study. Doctors and camp directors completed reports detailing the number of sports injuries events sustained and provided specific information about each event. During the period of the study, 337 sport injury reports were completed. A total of 237 (70.3% boys and 100 (29.7% girls reported having a sport injury. Age of campers sustaining a sport injury was 10-12 years old (60.8%. The frequency of sports injuries was highest during the first camp season. The leading causes of sports injuries in children’s were: falls, crushed by object, collision with other person and slips. Cut/scratch injuries were the most common diagnoses (38.9%. Football, basketball and volleyball were the most frequent sport activities for injuries. Reports based surveillance systems can be successfully used to conducts sport injury surveillance among children attending summer camps. Data collected via such systems can be used to calculate sports injury rates, to describe patterns of sport injury and to identify risk factors for camper – related sport injuries. The results provide necessary information to develop prevention interventions to decrease the number of youth whose camp experiences are negatively affected by sport injury.

  16. How to run a sports camp – legally speaking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven Monk

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Camps are a great way to keep kids active throughout the summer and to make money for the program sponsoring them. Planning is needed for a sports camp to be safe for both the camp personnel and the athletes, and to minimize legal negligence.  Having a risk management plan in place is important to insure that everyone is aware of the risks of participating. Background checks on camp personnel help ensure the camp leaders and coaches do not have a criminal background.  It is important to inspect the facilities/equipment to make sure they are safe to use.  Athletic trainers help with injuries that may occur with participation.  Supervisors make sure that everyone is accounted for and camp rules help the campers behave in an appropriate manner.  When planning activities, it is important to look at the skill level of the athletes. If all of these areas are covered, camps should be legally protected if an issue were to arise.

  17. [Daily temperature gradients and processes of organogenesis in apical meristem of Cucumis sativus L].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markovskaia, E F; Sysoeva, M I; Vasilevskaia, N V

    2007-01-01

    We studied the influence of daily temperature gradients on organogenesis in apical and axil shoot meristems at different developmental stages in Cucumis sativus L. The level of organogenic activity of meristems was determined according to the number of leaf primordia on the main and lateral shoots, number of 2nd order shoots, and rudiments of flowers of different levels of development. At the studied ontogenetic stages (mesotrophic seedling or juvenile state), plants were grown under the controlled conditions: photoperiod 12 h, light intensity 100 Wt/m2, range of mean daily temperatures 20 ... 30 degrees C, and daily temperature gradients -20 ... +20 degrees C. After the temperature treatment, some plants were returned to the optimal, for growth and development, conditions for two weeks (aftereffect). Three types of organogenic activity of meristems in response to the influence of variable daily temperatures were described: stimulation, inhibition, or absence of effect. The phenomenon of stimulation includes two subtypes: optimization, when a maximum effect, observed at other constant temperatures, was attained under the influence of variable temperatures and maximization, when maximum values markedly exceeded those at constant temperatures. The patterns described are preserved on the whole in the aftereffect of daily temperatures. PMID:17352290

  18. Imaging alterations of cardiomyocyte cAMP microdomains in disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander eFroese

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available 3’,5’-cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP is an important second messenger which regulates heart function by acting in distinct subcellular microdomains. Recent years have provided deeper mechanistic insights into compartmentalized cAMP signaling and its link to cardiac disease. In this mini review, we summarize newest developments in this field achieved by cutting-edge biochemical and biophysical techniques. We further compile the data from different studies into a bigger picture of so far uncovered alterations in cardiomyocyte cAMP microdomains which occur in compensated cardiac hypertrophy and chronic heart failure. Finally, future research directions and translational perspectives are briefly discussed.

  19. Effect of cAMP on short-circuit current in isolated human ciliary body

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Ren-yi; MA Ning; HU Qian-qian

    2013-01-01

    Background Cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) could activate chloride channels in bovine ciliary body and trigger an increase in the ionic current (short-circuit current,Isc) across the ciliary processes in pigs.The purpose of this study was to investigate how cAMP modulates Isc in isolated human ciliary processes and the possible involvement of chloride transport across the tissue in cAMP-induced Isc change.Methods In an Ussing-type chamber system,the Isc changes induced by the cAMP analogue 8-bromo-cAMP and an adenylyl cyclase activator forskolin in isolated human ciliary processes were assessed.The involvement of Cl-component in the bath solution was investigated.The effect of Cl-channel (10 μmol/L niflumic acid and 1 mmol/L 4,4′-diisothiocyanostilbene-2,2′-disulfonic acid (DIDS)),K+ channel (10 mmol/L tetraethylammonium chloride (TEA)),or Na+ channel blockers (1 mmol/L amiloride) on 8-bromo-cAMP-induced Isc change was also studied.Results Dose-dependently,8-bromo-cAMP (10 nmol/L-30 μmol/L) or forskolin (10 nmol/L-3 μmol/L) increased Isc across the ciliary processes with an increase in negative potential difference on the non-pigmented epithelium (NPE) side of the tissue.Isc increase induced by 8-bromo-cAMP was more pronounced when the drug was applied on the NPE side than on the pigmented epithelium side.When the tissue was bathed in low Cl-solutions,the Isc increase was significantly inhibited.Finally,niflumic acid and DIDS,but not TEA or amiloride,significantly prevented the Isc increase induced by 8-bromo-cAMP.Conclusions cAMP stimulates stroma-to-aqueous anionic transport in isolated human ciliary processes.Chloride is likely to be among the ions,the transportation of which across the tissue is triggered by cAMP,suggesting the potential role of cAMP in the process of aqueous humor formation in human eyes.

  20. FRET measurements of intracellular cAMP concentrations and cAMP analog permeability in intact cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Börner, Sebastian; Schwede, Frank; Schlipp, Angela; Berisha, Filip; Calebiro, Davide; Lohse, Martin J; Nikolaev, Viacheslav O

    2011-04-01

    Real-time measurements of second messengers in living cells, such as cAMP, are usually performed by ratiometric fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) imaging. However, correct calibration of FRET ratios, accurate calculations of absolute cAMP levels and actual permeabilities of different cAMP analogs have been challenging. Here we present a protocol that allows precise measurements of cAMP concentrations and kinetics by expressing FRET-based cAMP sensors in cells and modulating them with an inhibitor of adenylyl cyclase activity and a cell-permeable cAMP analog that fully inhibits and activates the sensors, respectively. Using this protocol, we observed different basal cAMP levels in primary mouse cardiomyocytes, thyroid cells and in 293A cells. The protocol can be generally applied for calibration of second messenger or metabolite concentrations measured by FRET, and for studying kinetics and pharmacological properties of their membrane-permeable analogs. The complete procedure, including cell preparation and FRET measurements, takes 3-6 d. PMID:21412271

  1. It's a Small World, after All: A Look at Camp around the World.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicodemus, Teresa

    2000-01-01

    Camping in Malaysia, New Zealand, England, Brazil, and the United States is compared. The basic function of camp, providing a safe place for fun and discovery, seems universal. Differences discussed include camping seasons, family participation, recreational versus educational emphasis, the competitive nature of for-profit camps, and risk…

  2. 49 CFR 218.75 - Methods of protection for camp cars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Methods of protection for camp cars. 218.75... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD OPERATING PRACTICES Protection of Occupied Camp Cars § 218.75 Methods of protection for camp cars. When camp cars requiring protection are on either main...

  3. β2-Agonist induced cAMP is decreased in asthmatic airway smooth muscle due to increased PDE4D.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Trian

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Asthma is associated with airway narrowing in response to bronchoconstricting stimuli and increased airway smooth muscle (ASM mass. In addition, some studies have suggested impaired β-agonist induced ASM relaxation in asthmatics, but the mechanism is not known. OBJECTIVE: To characterize the potential defect in β-agonist induced cAMP in ASM derived from asthmatic in comparison to non-asthmatic subjects and to investigate its mechanism. METHODS: We examined β(2-adrenergic (β(2AR receptor expression and basal β-agonist and forskolin (direct activator of adenylyl cyclase stimulated cAMP production in asthmatic cultured ASM (n = 15 and non-asthmatic ASM (n = 22. Based on these results, PDE activity, PDE4D expression and cell proliferation were determined. RESULTS: In the presence of IBMX, a pan PDE inhibitor, asthmatic ASM had ∼50% lower cAMP production in response to isoproterenol, albuterol, formoterol, and forskolin compared to non-asthmatic ASM. However when PDE4 was specifically inhibited, cAMP production by the agonists and forskolin was normalized in asthmatic ASM. We then measured the amount and activity of PDE4, and found ∼2-fold greater expression and activity in asthmatic ASM compared to non-asthmatic ASM. Furthermore, inhibition of PDE4 reduced asthmatic ASM proliferation but not that of non-asthmatic ASM. CONCLUSION: Decreased β-agonist induced cAMP in ASM from asthmatics results from enhanced degradation due to increased PDE4D expression. Clinical manifestations of this dysregulation would be suboptimal β-agonist-mediated bronchodilation and possibly reduced control over increasing ASM mass. These phenotypes appear to be "hard-wired" into ASM from asthmatics, as they do not require an inflammatory environment in culture to be observed.

  4. Conditions that alter intracellular cAMP levels affect expression of the cAMP phosphodiesterase gene in Dictyostelium.

    OpenAIRE

    Riley, B B; Barclay, S L

    1990-01-01

    We examined expression of the Dictyostelium cAMP phosphodiesterase (PDE) gene under conditions that alter intracellular cAMP levels during in vitro differentiation of wild-type strain V12M2 and a sporogenous derivative, HB200. In control cultures, cellular PDE activity peaked at 6 hr and declined by 8 hr, while secreted PDE activity continued to increase through 8 hr. Lowering intracellular cAMP levels with caffeine or progesterone increased cellular and secreted PDE activities 2-fold, increa...

  5. Control of βAR- and N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) Receptor-Dependent cAMP Dynamics in Hippocampal Neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chay, Andrew; Zamparo, Ilaria; Koschinski, Andreas; Zaccolo, Manuela; Blackwell, Kim T

    2016-02-01

    Norepinephrine, a neuromodulator that activates β-adrenergic receptors (βARs), facilitates learning and memory as well as the induction of synaptic plasticity in the hippocampus. Several forms of long-term potentiation (LTP) at the Schaffer collateral CA1 synapse require stimulation of both βARs and N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors (NMDARs). To understand the mechanisms mediating the interactions between βAR and NMDAR signaling pathways, we combined FRET imaging of cAMP in hippocampal neuron cultures with spatial mechanistic modeling of signaling pathways in the CA1 pyramidal neuron. Previous work implied that cAMP is synergistically produced in the presence of the βAR agonist isoproterenol and intracellular calcium. In contrast, we show that when application of isoproterenol precedes application of NMDA by several minutes, as is typical of βAR-facilitated LTP experiments, the average amplitude of the cAMP response to NMDA is attenuated compared with the response to NMDA alone. Models simulations suggest that, although the negative feedback loop formed by cAMP, cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA), and type 4 phosphodiesterase may be involved in attenuating the cAMP response to NMDA, it is insufficient to explain the range of experimental observations. Instead, attenuation of the cAMP response requires mechanisms upstream of adenylyl cyclase. Our model demonstrates that Gs-to-Gi switching due to PKA phosphorylation of βARs as well as Gi inhibition of type 1 adenylyl cyclase may underlie the experimental observations. This suggests that signaling by β-adrenergic receptors depends on temporal pattern of stimulation, and that switching may represent a novel mechanism for recruiting kinases involved in synaptic plasticity and memory. PMID:26901880

  6. Cardiac cAMP: production, hydrolysis, modulation and detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cédric eBOULARAN

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Cyclic adenosine 3’,5’-monophosphate (cAMP modulates a broad range of biological processes including the regulation of cardiac myocyte contractile function where it constitutes the main second messenger for β-adrenergic receptors’ signaling to fulfill positive chronotropic, inotropic and lusitropic effects. A growing number of studies pinpoint the role of spatial organization of the cAMP signaling as an essential mechanism to regulate cAMP outcomes in cardiac physiology. Here, we will briefly discuss the complexity of cAMP synthesis and degradation in the cardiac context, describe the way to detect it and review the main pharmacological arsenal to modulate its availability.

  7. Camp as a Teaching Method in Health Education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ringby, Betina

    professionals. New learning methods are required to develop new skills. Health students must develop skills that enable them to create, develop and take action upon new services in new or existing organizations. Aim To investigate if CAMP as a learning method can contribute to didactic development in health...... education to support students in gaining innovative and entrepreneurial skills. Participants A total of 33 physiotherapist students each participated in one of three CAMPS of 48, 24 or 12 hours in an elective module named “Sport, innovation and entrepreneurship”. Methods The project was based on case...... Progression Model’ served as background theory. Evaluation Three different camps were evaluated by students in 2012 and 2013. A written individual evaluation form was filled in at the end of CAMP one; two and three. Data consisted of descriptive questionnaires with open answer alternatives. Evaluations were...

  8. Building a Successful Middle School Outreach Effort: Microscopy Camp

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penn, Lee R.; Flynn, Leslie; Johnson, Page

    2007-01-01

    Microscopy Camp program is designed to introduce acceptable representations of crystalline particles and their atomic structure to twelve-year-old middle school students at a developmental and educational stage.

  9. Involvement of auxin and CKs in boron deficiency induced changes in apical dominance of pea plants (Pisum sativum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Guoying; Römheld, Volker; Li, Chunjian; Bangerth, Fritz

    2006-04-01

    It has previously been shown that boron (B) deficiency inhibits growth of the plant apex, which consequently results in a relatively weak apical dominance, and a subsequent sprouting of lateral buds. Auxin and cytokinins (CKs) are the two most important phytohormones involved in the regulation of apical dominance. In this study, the possible involvement of these two hormones in B-deficiency-induced changes in apical dominance was investigated by applying B or the synthetic CK CPPU to the shoot apex of pea plants grown in nutrient solution without B supply. Export of IAA out of the shoot apex, as well as the level of IAA, Z/ZR and isopentenyl-adenine/isopentenyl-adenosine (i-Ade/i-Ado) in the shoot apex were assayed. In addition, polar IAA transport capacity was measured in two internodes of different ages using 3H-IAA. In B-deficient plants, both the level of auxin and CKs were reduced, and the export of auxin from the shoot apex was considerably decreased relative to plants well supplied with B. Application of B to the shoot apex restored the endogenous Z/ZR and IAA level to control levels and increased the export of IAA from the shoot apex, as well as the 3H-IAA transport capacity in the newly developed internodes. Further, B application to the shoot apex inhibited lateral bud growth and stimulated lateral root formation, presumably by stimulated polar IAA transport. Applying CPPU to the shoot apex, a treatment that stimulates IAA export under adequate B supply, considerably reduced the endogenous Z/ZR concentration in the shoot apex, but had no stimulatory effect on IAA concentration and transport in B-deficient plants. A similar situation appeared to exist in lateral buds of B-deficient plants as, in contrast to plants well supplied with B, application of CKs to these plants did not stimulate lateral bud growth. In contrast to the changes of Z/ZR levels in the shoot apex, which occurred after application of B or CPPU, the levels of i-Ade/i-Ado stayed more or

  10. Thinking Big for 25 Years: Astronomy Camp Research Projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hooper, Eric Jon; McCarthy, D. W.; Benecchi, S. D.; Henry, T. J.; Kirkpatrick, J. D.; Kulesa, C.; Oey, M. S.; Regester, J.; Schlingman, W. M.; Camp Staff, Astronomy

    2013-01-01

    Astronomy Camp is a deep immersion educational adventure for teenagers and adults in southern Arizona that is entering its 25th year of existence. The Camp Director (McCarthy) is the winner of the 2012 AAS Education Prize. A general overview of the program is given in an accompanying contribution (McCarthy et al.). In this presentation we describe some of the research projects conducted by Astronomy Camp participants over the years. Many of the Camps contain a strong project-oriented emphasis, which reaches its pinnacle in the Advanced Camps for teenagers. High school students from around the world participate in a microcosm of the full arc of astronomy research. They plan their own projects before the start of Camp, and the staff provide a series of "key projects." Early in the Camp the students submit observing proposals to utilize time on telescopes. (The block of observing time is secured in advance by the staff.) The participants collect, reduce and analyze astronomical data with the help of staff, and they present the results to their peers on the last night of Camp, all in a span of eight days. The Camps provide research grade telescopes and instruments, in addition to amateur telescopes. Some of the Camps occur on Kitt Peak, where we use an ensemble of telescopes: the 2.3-meter (University of Arizona) with a spectrograph; the WIYN 0.9-meter; the McMath-Pierce Solar Telescope; and the 12-meter millimeter wave telescope. Additionally the Camp has one night on the 10-meter Submillimeter Telescope on Mt. Graham. Campers use these resources to study stars, galaxies, AGN, transiting planets, molecular clouds, etc. Some of the camper-initiated projects have led to very high level performances in prestigious international competitions, such as the Intel International Science and Engineering Fair. The key projects often contribute to published astronomical research (e.g., Benecchi et al. 2010, Icarus, 207, 978). Many former Campers have received Ph.D. degrees in

  11. The NO/cGMP pathway inhibits transient cAMP signals through the activation of PDE2 in striatal neurons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina ePolito

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The NO-cGMP signaling plays an important role in the regulation of striatal function although the mechanisms of action of cGMP specifically in medium spiny neurons (MSNs remain unclear. Using genetically encoded fluorescent biosensors, including a novel Epac-based sensor (EPAC-SH150 with increased sensitivity for cAMP, we analyze the cGMP response to NO and whether it affected cAMP/PKA signaling in MSNs. The Cygnet2 sensor for cGMP reported large responses to NO donors in both striatonigral and striatopallidal MSNs, and this cGMP signal was controlled partially by PDE2. At the level of cAMP brief forskolin stimulations produced transient cAMP signals which differed between D1 and D2 medium spiny neurons. NO inhibited these cAMP transients through cGMP-dependent PDE2 activation, an effect that was translated and magnified downstream of cAMP, at the level of PKA. PDE2 thus appears as a critical effector of NO which modulates the post-synaptic response of MSNs to dopaminergic transmission.

  12. EduCamp Colombia: Social Networked Learning for Teacher Training

    OpenAIRE

    Diego Ernesto Leal Fonseca

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes a learning experience called EduCamp, which was launched by the Ministry of Education of Colombia in 2007, based on emerging concepts such as e-Learning 2.0, connectivism, and personal learning environments. An EduCamp proposes an unstructured collective learning experience, which intends to make palpable the possibilities of social software tools in learning and interaction processes while demonstrating face-to-face organizational forms that reflect social networked lear...

  13. Inside the tent: Community and government in refugee camps

    OpenAIRE

    Bulley, Dan

    2014-01-01

    Refugee camps are increasingly managed through a liberal rationality of government similar to that of many industrialized societies, with security mechanisms being used to optimize the life of particular refugee populations. This governmentality has encompassed programmes introduced by the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR) and various non-governmental organizations (NGOs) to build and empower communities through the spatial technology of the camp. The present article argue...

  14. Science and technology camp for girls. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-12-31

    This document reports on the success of Pacific University`s camp held during the summers of 1992 and 1993; ultimate goal of this summer day camp was to increase the number of women in technical and scientific fields. Some experimentation was done with the age groups (7th and 8th grade girls). The curriculum was biology, chemistry, physics, and mathematics/computer science. Laboratory work and field trips were emphasized, along with socialization.

  15. Klambi Lurik Compang-Camping: Sebuah Komposisi Karawitan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SUHARDJONO -

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Klambi Lurik Compang-Camping Karawitan Composition. This article discusses the creation process ofKlambi Lurik Compang Camping karawitan composition. This composition is inspired by Jineman Klambi Lurik,penned by Wasiran –a traditional artist and teaching staff in Karawitan study programme in ISI Yogyakarta. Thisjineman is favoured by both laypeople and karawitan traditional artists. This composition consists of eight parts,united as one full composition. The creation methods are exploration, improvisation, and shaping.

  16. Social Meaning of Culture in a Stalinist Prison Camp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aimar Ventsel

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The Stalinist prison camp system – popularly known as the Gulag archipelago – existed for a relatively short period (from 1931–1960 and became world famous as a synonym for terror, humiliation and human suffering. This article focuses on the social significance of culture in one of the biggest Stalinist prison camp – Karlag in Central Kazakhstan. The first part of the article gives an overview of the institutions of culture in prison camps and their activities. It also gives an overview of unofficial cultural activities and the consequences of being engaged in the unsanctioned creation of art. In the second part of the paper, the social significance of culture in Stalinist prison camps is discussed. Official and non-official art were not separate and existed in symbiosis: people crossed the border between these spheres. Moreover, the camp administration recognised the material value of art produced in the camp and began to organise the production of pictures or handicrafts in order to sell them outside the camp. Nevertheless, both official and unofficial cultures had a deep social meaning for the people. Producing unsanctioned paintings and other objects of artistry can be seen as an act of resistance, producing sanctioned art helped the artists to create their own social and mental space and distance themselves from the everyday grind of the camp. In general, culture and its institutions in the prison failed to fulfill their original purpose – instead of re-educating and changing inmates, culture helped to maintain human dignity and integrity.

  17. Apical Na+ permeability of frog skin during serosal Cl- replacement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leibowich, S; DeLong, J; Civan, M M

    1988-05-01

    Gluconate substitution for serosal Cl- reduces the transepithelial short-circuit current (Isc) and depolarizes short-circuited frog skins. These effects could result either from inhibition of basolateral K+ conductance, or from two actions to inhibit both apical Na+ permeability (PapNa) and basolateral pump activity. We have addressed this question by studying whole-and split-thickness frog skins. Intracellular Na+ concentration (CcNa) and PapNa have been monitored by measuring the current-voltage relationship for apical Na+ entry. This analysis was conducted by applying trains of voltage pulses, with pulse durations of 16 to 32 msec. Estimates of PapNa and CcNa were not detectably dependent on pulse duration over the range 16 to 80 msec. Serosal Cl- replacement uniformly depolarized short-circuited tissues. The depolarization was associated with inhibition of Isc across each split skin, but only occasionally across the whole-thickness preparations. This difference may reflect the better ionic exchange between the bulk medium and the extracellular fluid in contact with the basolateral membranes, following removal of the underlying dermis in the split-skin preparations. PapNa was either unchanged or increased, and CcNa either unchanged or reduced after the anionic replacement. These data are incompatible with the concept that serosal Cl- replacement inhibits PapNa and Na,K-pump activity. Gluconate substitution likely reduces cell volume, triggering inhibition of the basolateral K+ channels, consistent with the data and conclusions of S.A. Lewis, A.G. Butt, M.J. Bowler, J.P. Leader and A.D.C. Macknight (J. Membrane Biol. 83:119-137, 1985) for toad bladder. The resulting depolarization reduces the electrical force favoring apical Na+ entry. The volume-conductance coupling serves to conserve volume by reducing K+ solute loss. Its molecular basis remains to be identified. PMID:2458472

  18. SEM investigation of Er:YAG laser apical preparation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bǎlǎbuc, Cosmin; Todea, Carmen; Locovei, Cosmin; RǎduÅ£ǎ, Aurel

    2016-03-01

    Endodontic surgery involves the incision and flap elevation, the access to the root tip, its resection, the cavity retrograde preparation and filling it with biocompatible material that provides a good seal of the apex[1]. Apicoectomy is compulsory in endodontic surgery. The final stage involves the root retropreparation and the carrying out of the retrograde obturation. In order to perform the retrograde preparation the endodontist can use various tools such as lowspeed conventional handpieces, sonic and ultrasonic equipment. The ideal depth of the preparation should be 3 mm, exceeding this value may affect the long-term success of the obturation [2]. Resection at the depth of 3 mm reduces apical ramifications by 98% and lateral root canals by 93%. The ultrasonic retropreparation has numerous advantages compared to the dental drill. Firstly, the cavity will be in the axis of the tooth which implies a minimum destruction of the root canal morphology. The preparations are precise, and the cutting pattern is perpendicular to the long axis of the root, the advantage being the reduction in the number of dentinal tubules exposed at the resected area [3]. Therefore, the retrograde filling is the procedure when an inert and non-toxic material is compacted in the apically created cavity.[4,5]. The Er:YAG laser is the most common wavelength indicated for dental hard tissue preparation. Its natural selectivity offers a significant advantage compared to the conventional hard tissue preparation [6-9].The purpose of this in vitro study was to investigate the quality of Er:YAG laser apical third preparation using Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), in comparison with the conventional ultrasonic method.

  19. Remodelamento ventricular na estimulação cardíaca apical do ventrículo direito Ventricular remodeling in right ventricular apical pacing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Tavares Silva

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar a taxa de remodelamento ventricular (RV e a importância de variáveis clínico-funcionais em pacientes com função cardíaca normal submetidos à estimulação artificial apical do ventrículo direito (VD. MÉTODOS: Dentre 268 pacientes consecutivos com BAVT e marcapasso convencional, foram excluídos os portadores de fração de ejeção do ventrículo esquerdo (FEVE 53 mm ao eco-Doppler. O RV foi definido como o conjunto de modificações ecocardiográficas documentadas pelo menos 6 meses pós-implante: aumento >10% no DDVE e redução > 20% na FEVE. As variáveis analisadas foram: cardiopatia de base, classe funcional de insuficiência cardíaca (IC, tempo de estimulação ventricular e duração do QRS. A análise estatística incluiu os testes da razão de verossimilhança, exato de Fisher e a soma de postos de Wilcoxon. O valor de p foi significante quando OBJECTIVE: To determine ventricular remodeling (VR and the role of clinical and functional variables in patients with normal cardiac function who underwent right ventricular apical pacing (RVAP. METHODS: Among the 268 consecutive patients with standard pacemaker due to complete atrioventricular block (CAVB, those with left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF 53 mm on Doppler echocardiography were excluded. Ventricular remodeling was defined as echocardiographic changes documented at least six months after implantation, namely, a >10% increase in LVEDD and a > 20% decrease in LVEF. The following variables were analyzed: underlying heart disease, NYHA functional class of heart failure (HF, time of ventricular stimulation, and QRS duration. Statistical analysis included likelihood ratio test, Fisher’s exact test, and Wilcoxon rank-sum test. A p value < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. RESULTS: The study included 75 patients, mean age 70.9 ± 14, of whom 22.6% were male. Mean time between both evaluations was 80.2 months. Before implantation, mean LVEF was

  20. Aminopeptidase N is directly sorted to the apical domain in MDCK cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wessels, H P; Hansen, Gert Helge; Fuhrer, C; Look, A T; Sjöström, H; Norén, Ove; Spiess, M

    In different epithelial cell types, integral membrane proteins appear to follow different sorting pathways to the apical surface. In hepatocytes, several apical proteins were shown to be transported there indirectly via the basolateral membrane, whereas in MDCK cells a direct sorting pathway from...... the trans-Golgi-network to the apical membrane has been demonstrated. However, different proteins had been studied in these cells. To compare the sorting of a single protein in both systems, we have expressed aminopeptidase N, which already had been shown to be sorted indirectly in hepatocytes, in...... transfected MDCK cells. As expected, it was predominantly localized to the apical domain of the plasma membrane. By monitoring the appearance of newly synthesized aminopeptidase N at the apical and basolateral surface, it was found to be directly sorted to the apical domain in MDCK cells, indicating that the...

  1. An evolutionarily conserved mechanism for cAMP elicited axonal regeneration involves direct activation of the dual leucine zipper kinase DLK

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Yan; Frey, Erin; Yoon, Choya; Wong, Hetty; Nestorovski, Douglas; Holzman, Lawrence B; Giger, Roman J; DiAntonio, Aaron; Collins, Catherine

    2016-01-01

    A broadly known method to stimulate the growth potential of axons is to elevate intracellular levels of cAMP, however the cellular pathway(s) that mediate this are not known. Here we identify the Dual Leucine-zipper Kinase (DLK, Wnd in Drosophila) as a critical target and effector of cAMP in injured axons. DLK/Wnd is thought to function as an injury ‘sensor’, as it becomes activated after axonal damage. Our findings in both Drosophila and mammalian neurons indicate that the cAMP effector kinase PKA is a conserved and direct upstream activator of Wnd/DLK. PKA is required for the induction of Wnd signaling in injured axons, and DLK is essential for the regenerative effects of cAMP in mammalian DRG neurons. These findings link two important mediators of responses to axonal injury, DLK/Wnd and cAMP/PKA, into a unified and evolutionarily conserved molecular pathway for stimulating the regenerative potential of injured axons. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.14048.001 PMID:27268300

  2. A restricted set of apical proteins recycle through the trans-Golgi network in MDCK cells.

    OpenAIRE

    Brändli, A W; Simons, K

    1989-01-01

    Sorting of newly synthesized proteins destined for the apical plasma membrane takes place in the trans-Golgi network (TGN) in MDCK cells. This process is most likely receptor mediated and requires components that recycle between both compartments. We have developed an assay to detect apical proteins that recycle through the sialyltransferase-containing TGN. Cell surface glycoproteins were exogalactosylated apically using a mutant cell line derived from MDCK, MDCKII-RCAr. The mutant exhibits i...

  3. Manner of Apical Meristem Destruction Affects Growth, Reproduction, and Survival of Sea Oxeye Daisy

    OpenAIRE

    Spirko, Lisa S.; Rossi, Anthony M.

    2015-01-01

    Although herbivory may result in plant death, the mode and timing of damage may produce variable wounding responses in the attacked plant. In this study, effects of different types of apical meristem damage on growth and performance of sea oxeye daisy Borrichia frutescens (L.) DC were compared. Damage involved either clipping or galling of the apical meristem by the gall midge Asphondylia borrichiae Rossi and Strong. Apical dominance was relatively weak before flowering and stronger in short ...

  4. Is the apical growth of Cymodocea nodosa dependent on clonal integration?

    OpenAIRE

    Terrados, Jorge; Duarte, Carlos M.; Kenworthy, W. Judson

    1997-01-01

    The importance of clonal integration for the production of biomass by the apical meristem of Cymodocea nodosa (Ucria) Ascherson was tested in situ by experimental manipulation. The production of new biomass by the apical meristem of a horizontal rhizome, as well as the leaf growth of the remaining shoots, was greatly reduced when the horizontal rhizome was severed, even when up to 11 shoots were left connected to the apical meristem of the rhizome. In contrast, the elimination of up to ...

  5. Aclidinium bromide combined with formoterol inhibits remodeling parameters in lung epithelial cells through cAMP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambers, Christopher; Costa, Luigi; Ying, Qi; Zhong, Jun; Lardinois, Didier; Dekan, Gerhard; Schuller, Elisabeth; Roth, Michael

    2015-12-01

    Combined muscarinic receptor antagonists and long acting β2-agonists improve symptom control in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) significantly. In clinical studies aclidinium bromide achieved better beneficial effects than other bronchodilators; however, the underlying molecular mechanisms are unknown. This study assessed the effect of aclidinium bromide combined with formoterol on COPD lung (n=20) and non-COPD lung (n=10) derived epithelial cells stimulated with TGF-β1+carbachol on: (i) the generation of mesenchymal cells in relation to epithelial cells, (II) extracellular matrix (ECM) deposition, and (iii) the interaction of ECM on the generation of epithelial and mesenchymal cells. TGF-β1+carbachol enhanced the generation of mesenchymal cells, which was significantly reduced by aclidinium bromide or formoterol. The effect of combined drugs was additive. Inhibition of p38 MAP kinase and Smad by specific inhibitors or aclidinium bromide reduced the generation of mesenchymal cells. In mesenchymal cells, TGF-β1+carbachol induced the deposition of collagen-I and fibronectin which was prevented by both drugs dose-dependently. Formoterol alone reduced collagen-I deposition via cAMP, this however, was overruled by TGF-β1+carbachol and rescued by aclidinium bromide. Inhibition of fibronectin was cAMP independent, but involved p38 MAP kinase and Smad. Seeding epithelial cells on ECM collagen-I and fibronectin induced mesenchymal cell generation, which was reduced by aclidinium bromide and formoterol. Our results suggest that the beneficial effect of aclidinium bromide and formoterol involves cAMP affecting both, the accumulation of mesenchymal cells and ECM remodeling, which may explain the beneficial effect of the drugs on lung function in COPD. PMID:26546746

  6. Regulation of nicotinic acetylcholine receptor phosphorylation in rat myotubes by forskolin and cAMP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miles, K.; Anthony, D.T.; Rubin, L.L.; Greengard, P.; Huganir, R.L.

    1987-09-01

    The nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (Ac-ChoR) from rat myotubes prelabeled in culture with (/sup 32/P)orthophosphate was isolated by acetylcholine affinity chromatography followed by immunoaffinity chromatography. Under basal conditions, the nicotinic AcChoR was shown to be phosphorylated in situ on the ..beta.. and delta subunits. Regulation of AcChoR phosphorylation by cAMP-dependent protein kinase was explored by the addition of forskolin or cAMP analogues to prelabeled cell cultures. Forskolin, an activator of adenylate cyclase, stimulated the phosphorylation of the delta subunit 20-fold over basal phosphorylation and induced phosphorylation of the ..cap alpha.. subunit. The effect of forskolin was dose dependent with a half-maximal response at 8 ..mu..M in the presence of 35 ..mu..M Ro 20-1724, a phosphodiesterase inhibitor. Stimulation of delta subunit phosphorylation was almost maximal within 5 min, whereas stimulation of ..cap alpha.. subunit phosphorylation was not maximal until 45 min after forskolin treatment. Stimulation of AcChoR phosphorylation by 8-benzylthioadenosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphate was identical to that obtained by forskolin. Two-dimensional thermolytic phosphopeptide maps of the delta subunit revealed a single major phosphopeptide. These results correlate closely with the observed effects of forskolin on AcChoR desensitization in muscle and suggest that cAMP-dependent phosphorylation of the delta subunit increases the rate of AcChoR desensitization in rat myotubes.

  7. Regulation of nicotinic acetylcholine receptor phosphorylation in rat myotubes by forskolin and cAMP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (Ac-ChoR) from rat myotubes prelabeled in culture with [32P]orthophosphate was isolated by acetylcholine affinity chromatography followed by immunoaffinity chromatography. Under basal conditions, the nicotinic AcChoR was shown to be phosphorylated in situ on the β and δ subunits. Regulation of AcChoR phosphorylation by cAMP-dependent protein kinase was explored by the addition of forskolin or cAMP analogues to prelabeled cell cultures. Forskolin, an activator of adenylate cyclase, stimulated the phosphorylation of the δ subunit 20-fold over basal phosphorylation and induced phosphorylation of the α subunit. The effect of forskolin was dose dependent with a half-maximal response at 8 μM in the presence of 35 μM Ro 20-1724, a phosphodiesterase inhibitor. Stimulation of δ subunit phosphorylation was almost maximal within 5 min, whereas stimulation of α subunit phosphorylation was not maximal until 45 min after forskolin treatment. Stimulation of AcChoR phosphorylation by 8-benzylthioadenosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphate was identical to that obtained by forskolin. Two-dimensional thermolytic phosphopeptide maps of the δ subunit revealed a single major phosphopeptide. These results correlate closely with the observed effects of forskolin on AcChoR desensitization in muscle and suggest that cAMP-dependent phosphorylation of the δ subunit increases the rate of AcChoR desensitization in rat myotubes

  8. Selamento apical proporcionado por diferentes cimentos endodônticos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karlel Tristão Marques

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available To have success in endodontic treatment it is necessary that the sealing airtight as possible of the root canal system, with suitable material such as gutta-percha and sealer. There are sealers of different compositions, which should allow the sealing of the root canal system, preventing recontamination place and favoring the success of endodontic therapy. In this study were evaluated the apical microleakage after obturation using different root canal sealers widely employed in the market, with different compositions. For this study, 85 single rooted teeth premolars which have removed their crowns and root canals prepared and filled using four types of cement: AH Plus, Endofill, Acroseal and Real Seal SE. All samples were sealed and submitted to microleakage with Indian ink; longitudinal cuts made on both sides of the tooth and cleaved; apical images were obtained. The areas of dye penetration were measured on a computer using specific software and subjected to statistical analysis. It was concluded that the Acroseal ® showed the highest mean microleakage with no statistically significant difference in relation to the RealSeal SE®, but with significant differences compared to Endofill ® and AHPlus ®.

  9. Calcium hydroxide as intracanal dressing for teeth with apical periodontitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sari Dewiyani

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Root canal infection and periapical diseases are caused by bacteria and their products. Long term infection may spread bacteria throughout the root canal system. Apical periodontitis caused by infectious microbe that persistent in root canals can cause radiographic and histopathology periapical changes. Chemomechanical preparation and intracanal dressing then are recommended to be conducted and used in between visits to eliminate microbes in root canals. Calcium hydroxide (Ca(OH2 can be used as intracanal dressing since it can be used as musical physical defense barrier to eliminate re-infection in root canal and to disturb nutrition supply for bacterial development. Purpose: The aim of this study is observe the effectiveness of Ca(OH2 in treating endodontic teeth with apical periodontitis. Cases: Case 1 and 3 are about patients whose left posterior mandibular teeth had spontaneous intermittent pain. Case 2 is about a patient whose left posterior maxillary teeth had gingival abscess and fracture history. Based on the radiographic examination, it was known that the filling of root canal was incomplete and there was radiolucency in the apical area. Case management: The cases were treated with triad endodontics, which involves preparation, disinfection by using 2.5% NaOCl as irrigation substance and calcium hydroxide as intracanal dressing, and then the filling of root canal with gutta percha and endomethasone root canal cement. Evaluations were conducted one month, 12 months, and 24 months after the treatment. Conclusion: Calcium hydroxide is effective to be used as intracanal dressing in apical periodontitis cases.Latar belakang: Infeksi saluran akar dan penyakit periapeks disebabkan oleh mikroba dan produknya. Infeksi yang berlangsung lama memungkinkan bakteri masuk ke dalam seluruh sistem saluran akar. Periodontitis apikal disebabkan oleh infeksi persisten mikroba di dalam sistem saluran akar disertai perubahan radiografik dan

  10. Students' Perceptions of the Long-Term Impact of Attending a "CSI Science Camp"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanowitz, Karen L.

    2016-07-01

    A science summer camp is a popular type of informal science experience for youth. While there is no one model of a science camp, these experiences typically allow for more focused and in-depth exploration of different science domains and are usually hands-on and participatory. The goal of this research was to examine the impact of a short science camp program approximately 1 year after students attended the camp. Overall, the results revealed that attending a 2-day forensic science camp had a positive and continuing influence on the participants. Students' science self-efficacy increased immediately after attending the camp and remained higher than pre-camp levels approximately 1 year later. Students were able to articulate why they believed the camp had a long-term impact on their lives. Furthermore, participants attributed a higher level of engaging in additional informal STEM-related activities during the academic year as a result of attending the camp.

  11. Characterization of the binding of cAMP and cGMP to the CRP*598 mutant of the E. coli cAMP receptor protein.

    OpenAIRE

    Ren, Y. L.; Garges, S; Adhya, S; Krakow, J. S.

    1990-01-01

    Wild type cAMP receptor protein (CRP) activates in vitro lac transcription only in the presence of cAMP. In contrast the mutant CRP*598 (Arg-142 to His, Ala-144 to Thr) can activate lac transcription in the absence of cyclic nucleotide or at concentrations of cAMP below that required by CRP. To further characterize the properties of CRP*598, the binding of cAMP and cGMP to CRP and CRP*598 has been determined. The intrinsic binding constant (K) values obtained for cAMP binding are: CRP, 1.9 x ...

  12. Aluminum Tolerance in Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) (I. Uptake and Distribution of Aluminum in Root Apices).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delhaize, E.; Craig, S.; Beaton, C. D.; Bennet, R. J.; Jagadish, V. C.; Randall, P. J.

    1993-11-01

    We investigated the uptake and distribution of Al in root apices of near-isogenic wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) lines differing in Al tolerance at a single locus (Alt1: aluminum tolerance). Seedlings were grown in nutrient solution that contained 100 [mu]M Al, and the roots were subsequently stained with hematoxylin, a compound that binds Al in vitro to form a colored complex. Root apices of Al-sensitive genotypes stained after short exposures to Al (10 min and 1 h), whereas apices of Al-tolerant seedlings showed less intense staining after equivalent exposures. Differential staining preceded differences observed in either root elongation or total Al concentrations of root apices (terminal 2-3 mm of root). After 4 h of exposure to 100 [mu]M Al in nutrient solution, Al-sensitive genotypes accumulated more total Al in root apices than Al-tolerant genotypes, and the differences became more marked with time. Analysis of freeze-dried root apices by x-ray microanalysis showed that Al entered root apices of Al-sensitive plants and accumulated in the epidermal layer and in the cortical layer immediately below the epidermis. Long-term exposure of sensitive apices to Al (24 h) resulted in a distribution of Al coinciding with the absence of K. Quantitation of Al in the cortical layer showed that sensitive apices accumulated 5- to 10-fold more Al than tolerant apices exposed to Al solutions for equivalent times. These data are consistent with the hypothesis that Alt1 encodes a mechanism that excludes Al from root apices. PMID:12231972

  13. Glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor is present in pancreatic acinar cells and regulates amylase secretion through cAMP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Yanan; Ernst, Stephen A; Heidenreich, Kaeli; Williams, John A

    2016-01-01

    Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) is a glucoincretin hormone that can act through its receptor (GLP-1R) on pancreatic β-cells and increase insulin secretion and production. GLP-1R agonists are used clinically to treat type 2 diabetes. GLP-1 may also regulate the exocrine pancreas at multiple levels, including inhibition through the central nervous system, stimulation indirectly through insulin, and stimulation directly on acinar cells. However, it has been unclear whether GLP-1R is present in pancreatic acini and what physiological functions these receptors regulate. In the current study we utilized GLP-1R knockout (KO) mice to study the role of GLP-1R in acinar cells. RNA expression of GLP-1R was detected in acutely isolated pancreatic acini. Acinar cell morphology and expression of digestive enzymes were not affected by loss of GLP-1R. GLP-1 induced amylase secretion in wild-type (WT) acini. In GLP-1R KO mice, this effect was abolished, whereas vasoactive intestinal peptide-induced amylase release in KO acini showed a pattern similar to that in WT acini. GLP-1 stimulated cAMP production and increased protein kinase A-mediated protein phosphorylation in WT acini, and these effects were absent in KO acini. These data show that GLP-1R is present in pancreatic acinar cells and that GLP-1 can regulate secretion through its receptor and cAMP signaling pathway. PMID:26542397

  14. Direct Light-up of cAMP Derivatives in Living Cells by Click Reactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Xu

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available 8-Azidoadenosine 3′,5′-cyclic monophosphate (8-azido cAMP was directly detected in living cells, by applying Cu-free azide-alkyne cycloaddition to probe cAMP derivatives by fluorescence light-up. Fluorescence emission was generated by two non-fluorescent molecules, 8-azido cAMP as a model target and difluorinated cyclooctyne (DIFO reagent as a probe. The azide-alkyne cycloaddition reaction between 8-azido cAMP and DIFO induces fluorescence in 8-azido cAMP. The fluorescence emission serves as a way to probe 8-azido cAMP in cells.

  15. Direct Measurement of Intrinsic Apical Oxygen Potential in Metallic and Insulating YBa2Cu3O7-σ

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Using pulsed Raman spectroscopy, we directly examined the intrinsic apical O potential in insulating YBa2Cu3O6.25 and metallic YBa2Cu3O6.9. We selectively excited the apical O vibration mode with ultra short laser pulses to obtain a 'hot' apical O vibration mode in a 'cold' bulk phonon background. Measurements showed that the apical O phonon frequency shift and linewidth change are much smaller in the case of selective heating of the apical O vibration mode compared to bulk heating. The results agree well with theoretical predictions and indicate a strong influence of surrounding lattice ions on the apical O potential. (author)

  16. Preliminary Study on the Relationship between cAMP Level and gsp Expression in Cultured Human Pituitary Somatotrophinomas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    In order to investigate the relationship between abnormal intracellular signal transduction and tumorgenesis of human pituitary somatotrophinomas, the effects of protein kinase A (PKA)-dependent growth hormone (GH) releasing hormone (GHRH) and protein kinase C (PKC)-dependent GH-releasing peptide (GHRP-6) on cAMP production were observed by using cell culture and biochemical methods, and the expression of the gsp oncogene was detected by using PCR and direct sequence assay methods in 11 patients with human pituitary somatotrophinomas. It was found that GHRP-6 exerted significant stimulatory effect on cAMP production by 2 gsp-positive tumors and no effect on the gsp-negative tumors. GHRP-6 could enhance the stimulation of cAMP production induced by GHRH in tumor without gsp oncogenes. It was suggested that both GHRH and GHRP-6 exert identical effects on human pituitary soamtotrophinomas, which was contributed to the cross-talk between the two intracellular signal transduction pathways in pituitary cells.

  17. Depression of the radioprotective effect of isoproterenol on mammalian cells in vitro after desensitization of the cAMP system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A short (5 min) incubation of cultured Chinese hamster fibroblasts with the specific β-agonist isoproterenol (1 μM) leads to an increase in the intracellular content of cAMP and a decrease in radiosensitivity of the cells. Prolonged (up to 1 h) incubation induces a desensitization of the cAMP system to isoproterenol and causes a decrease both in the cAMP-stimulating and radioprotective effect of isoproterenol. There were no detectable changes in the β-adrenoreceptor number or binding affinity of β-receptors to the radiolabelled β-antagonist dihydroalprenolol in desensitized cells; cAMP-phosphodiesterase activity was also the same as in intact cells. It is proposed that a 1 h incubation of the cells with isoproterenol induces the first step of desensitization, i.e. the functional 'uncoupling' of β-receptors from adenylate cyclase. Thus, the presence of β-receptors in cells is not enough for the realization of the radioprotective potency of isoproterenol; an intact, non-desensitized, state of the cAMP system is obligatory. (author)

  18. Cryopreservation of Galanthus elwesii Hook. apical meristems by droplet vitrification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maslanka, M; Panis, B; Bach, A

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to develop an efficient cryopreservation protocol for the geophyte giant snowdrop (Galanthus elwesii Hook.) that guarantees a high rate of survival and plant regeneration after cryopreservation. The excised apical meristems were obtained from cultures of in vitro grown bulb scales. Using a vitrification procedure and optimizing the duration of the exposure to the loading solution (LS), meristem post-rewarm survival rates higher than 90 percent were achieved. Also regrowth percentages were very high, ranging from 87 to 91 percent. After optimizing the time of exposure to the plant vitrification solution (PVS2), the survival rate was between 83 and 97 percent. During post-rewarm regeneration, good growth recovery was as high as 76 percent; however, hyperhydration and callusing were also observed. The results demonstrate that cryopreservation of Galanthus elwesii germplasm seems to be feasible. PMID:23435704

  19. Serious arrhythmias in patients with apical hypertrophic cardiomyopathy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okishige, Kaoru; Sasano, Tetsuo; Yano, Kei; Azegami, Kouji; Suzuki, Kou; Itoh, Kuniyasu [Yokohama Red Cross Hospital (Japan)

    2001-05-01

    We report cases of serious arrhythmias associated with apical hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (AHCM). Thirty-one patients were referred to our institute to undergo further assessment of their AHCM from 1988 to 1999. Three patients with nonsustained ventricular tachycardia demonstrated an {sup 123}I-MIBG regional reduction in the tracer uptake. In two patients with ventricular fibrillation (VF), the findings from {sup 123}I-MIBG imaging revealed regional sympathetic denervation in the inferior and lateral regions. Electrophysiologic study demonstrated reproducible induction of VF in aborted sudden death and presyncopal patients, resulting in the need for an implantable defibrillator device and amiodarone in each patient. Patients with refractory atrial fibrillation with a rapid ventricular response suffered from serious congestive heart failure. A prudent assessment and strategy in patients with this disease would be indispensable in avoiding a disastrous outcome. (author)

  20. Serious arrhythmias in patients with apical hypertrophic cardiomyopathy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report cases of serious arrhythmias associated with apical hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (AHCM). Thirty-one patients were referred to our institute to undergo further assessment of their AHCM from 1988 to 1999. Three patients with nonsustained ventricular tachycardia demonstrated an 123I-MIBG regional reduction in the tracer uptake. In two patients with ventricular fibrillation (VF), the findings from 123I-MIBG imaging revealed regional sympathetic denervation in the inferior and lateral regions. Electrophysiologic study demonstrated reproducible induction of VF in aborted sudden death and presyncopal patients, resulting in the need for an implantable defibrillator device and amiodarone in each patient. Patients with refractory atrial fibrillation with a rapid ventricular response suffered from serious congestive heart failure. A prudent assessment and strategy in patients with this disease would be indispensable in avoiding a disastrous outcome. (author)

  1. Estrogen induction of the cyclin D1 promoter: Involvement of a cAMP response-like element

    OpenAIRE

    Sabbah, Michele; Courilleau, Delphine; Mester, Jan; Redeuilh, Gerard

    1999-01-01

    Estrogens induce cell proliferation in target tissues by stimulating progression through the G1 phase of the cell cycle. Induction of cyclin D1 expression is a critical feature of the mitogenic action of estrogen. We have determined a region between −96 and −29 in the cyclin D1 promoter that confers regulation by estrogens in the human mammary carcinoma cells MCF-7. This region encompasses a unique known transcription factor binding site with a sequence of a potential cAMP response element (C...

  2. Oral microbiota species in acute apical endodontic abscesses

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Noelle; Flamiatos, Erin; Kawasaki, Kellie; Kim, Namgu; Carriere, Charles; Phan, Brian; Joseph, Raphael; Strauss, Shay; Kohli, Richie; Choi, Dongseok; Craig Baumgartner, J.; Sedgley, Christine; Maier, Tom; Machida, Curtis A.

    2016-01-01

    Background and objectives Acute apical abscesses are serious endodontic diseases resulting from pulpal infection with opportunistic oral microorganisms. The objective of this study was to identify and compare the oral microbiota in patients (N=18) exhibiting acute apical abscesses, originating from the demographic region in Portland, Oregon. The study hypothesis is that abscesses obtained from this demographic region may contain unique microorganisms not identified in specimens from other regions. Design Endodontic abscesses were sampled from patients at the Oregon Health & Science University (OHSU) School of Dentistry. DNA from abscess specimens was subjected to polymerase chain reaction amplification using 16S rRNA gene-specific primers and Cy3-dCTP labeling. Labeled DNA was then applied to microbial microarrays (280 species) generated by the Human Oral Microbial Identification Microarray Laboratory (Forsyth Institute, Cambridge, MA). Results The most prevalent microorganisms, found across multiple abscess specimens, include Fusobacterium nucleatum, Parvimonas micra, Megasphaera species clone CS025, Prevotella multisaccharivorax, Atopobium rimae, and Porphyromonas endodontalis. The most abundant microorganisms, found in highest numbers within individual abscesses, include F. nucleatum, P. micra, Streptococcus Cluster III, Solobacterium moorei, Streptococcus constellatus, and Porphyromonas endodontalis. Strong bacterial associations were identified between Prevotella multisaccharivorax, Acidaminococcaceae species clone DM071, Megasphaera species clone CS025, Actinomyces species clone EP053, and Streptococcus cristatus (all with Spearman coefficients >0.9). Conclusions Cultivable and uncultivable bacterial species have been identified in endodontic abscesses obtained from the Portland, Oregon demographic region, and taxa identifications correlated well with other published studies, with the exception of Treponema and Streptococcus cristae, which were not commonly

  3. Developmental Corneal Innervation: Interactions between Nerves and Specialized Apical Corneal Epithelial Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Kubilus, James K.; Linsenmayer, Thomas F.

    2010-01-01

    During developmental innervation of the chicken cornea, nerves interact with apical corneal epithelial cells to form synapse-like structures. In addition, these apical epithelial cells express class III β-tubulin, an isoform of β-tubulin generally thought to be neuron specific.

  4. Prognostic factors in apical surgery with root-end filling: a meta-analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    von Arx, Thomas; Peñarrocha, Miguel; Jensen, Storgård

    2010-01-01

    Apical surgery has seen continuous development with regard to equipment and surgical technique. However, there is still a shortage of evidence-based information regarding healing determinants. The objective of this meta-analysis was to review clinical articles on apical surgery with root-end fill...

  5. Changes of Root Length and Root-to-Crown Ratio after Apical Surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    von Arx, Thomas; Jensen, Simon S; Bornstein, Michael M

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Apical surgery is an important treatment option for teeth with post-treatment periodontitis. Although apical surgery involves root-end resection, no morphometric data are yet available about root-end resection and its impact on the root-to-crown ratio (RCR). The present study assess...

  6. Investigation of Sylvatic Typhus at a Wilderness Camp

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2009-06-30

    In this podcast, Dr. Greg Dasch discusses an outbreak of four cases of sylvatic typhus that occurred at a wilderness camp in Pennsylvania. Sylvatic typhus is very rare in the United States, with only 41 cases since it was discovered in the United States in 1975. Lab work at CDC and the discovery that all four camp counselors who became ill had slept in the same bunk at the camp between 2004 and 2006 ultimately led to confirmation that flying squirrels living in the wall of the cabin were to blame for the illnesses.  Created: 6/30/2009 by Emerging Infectious Diseases.   Date Released: 6/30/2009.

  7. Physiological and Molecular Effects of the Cyclic Nucleotides cAMP and cGMP on Arabidopsis thaliana

    KAUST Repository

    Herrera, Natalia M.

    2012-12-01

    The cyclic nucleotide monophosphates (CNs), cAMP and cGMP, are second messengers that participate in the regulation of development, metabolism and adaptive responses. In plants, CNs are associated with the control of pathogen responses, pollen tube orientation, abiotic stress response, membrane transport regulation, stomatal movement and light perception. In this study, we hypothesize that cAMP and cGMP promote changes in the transcription level of genes related to photosynthesis, high light and membrane transport in Arabidopsis thaliana leaves and, that these changes at the molecular level can have functional biological consequences. For this reason we tested if CNs modulate the photosynthetic rate, responses to high light and root ion transport. Real time quantitative PCR was used to assess transcription levels of selected genes and infrared gas analyzers coupled to fluorescence sensors were used to measure the photosynthetic parameters. We present evidence that both cAMP and cGMP modulate foliar mRNA levels early after stimulation. The two CNs trigger different responses indicating that the signals have specificity. A comparison of proteomic and transcriptional changes suggest that both transcriptional and post-transcriptional mechanisms are modulated by CNs. cGMP up-regulates the mRNA levels of components of the photosynthesis and carbon metabolism. However, neither cAMP nor cGMP trigger differences in the rate of carbon assimilation, maximum efficiency of the photosystem II (PSII), or PSII operating efficiency. It was also demonstrated that CN regulate the expression of its own targets, the cyclic nucleotide gated channels - CNGC. Further studies are needed to identify the components of the signaling transduction pathway that mediate cellular changes and their respective regulatory and/or signaling roles.

  8. Science Camp - lystigt eller lærerigt

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahrenkiel, Linda; Albrechtsen, Thomas S. R.

    2013-01-01

    I oplægget vil vi undersøge fænomenet Science Camps nærmere ved at fortælle om dets historiske udvikling og ikke mindst lægge op til en diskussion af en definition. Derudover vil vi præsentere en case, hvor der med udgangspunkt i et aktuelt ph.d.-projekt er blevet undersøgt, hvad deltagerne får ud...... af at deltage i en science camp: Kan man både vække begejstring og medvirke til læring?...

  9. EduCamp Colombia: Social Networked Learning for Teacher Training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Ernesto Leal Fonseca

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes a learning experience called EduCamp, which was launched by the Ministry of Education of Colombia in 2007, based on emerging concepts such as e-Learning 2.0, connectivism, and personal learning environments. An EduCamp proposes an unstructured collective learning experience, which intends to make palpable the possibilities of social software tools in learning and interaction processes while demonstrating face-to-face organizational forms that reflect social networked learning ideas. The experience opens new perspectives for the design of technology training workshops and for the development of lifelong learning experiences.

  10. Science Skills Boot Camp Gets Interns Ready for Research | Poster

    Science.gov (United States)

    By Ashley DeVine, Staff Writer Summer interns learned how to read a scientific paper, present a poster, maintain a laboratory notebook, and much more, at the Science Skills Boot Camp in June. “It was a great experience, and it was a great opportunity to meet some of the other interns also working on the campus,” said Alyssa Klein, a Werner H. Kirsten student intern in the Cellular Immunology Group, Laboratory of Molecular Immunoregulation. “The boot camp covered many topics essential to being a good scientist and science researcher.”

  11. Promoting independence in adolescent paraplegics: a 2-week "camping" experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodzioch, J; Roach, J W; Schkade, J

    1986-01-01

    In the summer of 1982, Texas Scottish Rite Hospital (Dallas, TX, U.S.A.) sponsored a camp for paraplegic adolescents. Six patients, three boys and three girls 14-17 years of age, participated in a 2-week program that was designed to improve their self-esteem, independence, and eventual employability. In their pre- and postcamp psychological evaluations, the campers demonstrated improvement in social skills and self-concept testing as compared with the scores of a matched control group, although this improvement did not reach statistical significance. We believe the camp was immensely successful, an opinion that was shared by both the campers and their parents. PMID:3514667

  12. Evaluation of apical subtype of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy using cardiac magnetic resonance imaging with gadolinium enhancement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kebed, Kalie Y; Al Adham, Raed I; Bishu, Kalkidan; Askew, J Wells; Klarich, Kyle W; Araoz, Philip A; Foley, Thomas A; Glockner, James F; Nishimura, Rick A; Anavekar, Nandan S

    2014-09-01

    Apical hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HC) is an uncommon variant of HC. We sought to characterize cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings among apical HC patients. This was a retrospective review of consecutive patients with a diagnosis of apical HC who underwent cardiac MRI examinations at the Mayo Clinic (Rochester, MN) from August 1999 to October 2011. Clinical and demographic data at the time of cardiac MRI study were abstracted. Cardiac MRI study and 2-dimensional echocardiograms performed within 6 months of the cardiac MRI were reviewed; 96 patients with apical HC underwent cardiac MRI examinations. LV end-diastolic and end-systolic volumes were 130.7 ± 39.1 ml and 44.2 ± 20.9 ml, respectively. Maximum LV thickness was 19 ± 5 mm. Hypertrophy extended beyond the apex into other segments in 57 (59.4%) patients. Obstructive physiology was seen in 12 (12.5%) and was more common in the mixed apical phenotype than the pure apical (19.3 vs 2.6%, p = 0.02). Apical pouches were noted in 39 (40.6%) patients. Late gadolinium enhancement (LGE) was present in 70 (74.5%) patients. LGE was associated with severe symptoms and increased maximal LV wall thickness. In conclusion, cardiac MRI is well suited for studying the apical form of HC because of difficulty imaging the cardiac apex with standard echocardiography. Cardiac MRI is uniquely suited to delineate the presence or absence of an apical pouch and abnormal myocardial LGE that may have implications in the natural history of apical HM. In particular, the presence of abnormal LGE is associated with clinical symptoms and increased wall thickness. PMID:25037678

  13. HISTOLOGIC AND ELECTRON MICROSCOPIC PERIAPICAL TISSUE EXAMINATION RESULTS IN TEETH WITH CHRONIC APICAL PERIODONTITIS.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Gusiyska

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Key stages in the treatment of chronic apical periodontitis (CAP are the assessment of the status of periapical zone, effective decontamination and subsequent sealing of the root canal space. Purpose: The aim of this article is to analyze histologic and electron microscopic results from periapical tissue examination in teeth with chronic apical periodontitis. Material and Methods: The apices of 43 teeth (n = 43 were examined, allocated in two groups. The teeth were stored in saline solution (9% NaCl supplemented with thymol, at 4°C. The apical portions of the roots were resected at 5 mm coronary. After resection, the apices were fixed to stands for SEM-examination. The periapical lesions (n = 24 were carefully removed with a curette from the root or the apical portion of the alveolar socket and were kept in 10% formalin solution to the preparation of histological samples. Results and Discussion: The results of the performed SEM-examinations of the apical zones showed that in 97.6% of the teeth with radiographically diagnosed CAP, there were external resorption around the apical foramen and associated apertures of varying degrees – from the initial to the advanced stage of apical resorption. Despite the limited number of examined cases, the results obtained confirm the histology and the inaccuracy of diagnostic assumptions in some of the cases, resultant from the radiographic examination only Conclusion: Based on the analysis of results, the following conclusions can be drawn: that external resorption around the apical foramen is established in 97.6% of cases in the teeth with radiographically diagnosed CAP.

  14. Assessment of Root Morphology and Apices of First and Second Maxillary Molars in Tehran Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mandana Naseri

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Objective: This study aimed to assess the possible variations in root canal anatomy and topography of the apices of first and second maxillary molars. Materials and methods: A total of 67 first and second maxillary permanent molars were collected. Access cavity was prepared and 2% methylene blue was injected. The teeth were demineralized by 5% nitric acid and cleared with methyl salicylate. Specimens were evaluated under stereomicroscopy and analyzed using the sample t-test. Results: Based on Vertucci’s classification, the mesiobuccal root of maxillary first molars was type I in 87.5% and type IV in 12.5% of the cases. The mesiobuccal root of second maxillary molars was type I in 60%, type II in 8.6%, type IV in 25.7% and type V in 5.7% of cases. In maxillary first and second molars, the distobuccal and palatal roots were type I in 100% of the cases. The distance of the apical constriction from the apical foramen was 0.21±0.09 mm, the distance from the apical constriction tothe anatomic apex was 0.44±0.19 mm and the distance of the apical foramen from the anatomic apex was 0.15±0.15 mm. The mean percentage of delta prevalence was 3.2% in both teeth. Conclusion: The mean distance of the apical foramen and apical constriction from the anatomic apex was less than 0.6 and 1.2 mm, respectively. In maxillary first and second molars, the mean distance of the apical constriction from the apical foramen and anatomic apex was 0.21 and 0.44, respectively and the mean distance of the apical foramen from the anatomic apex was 0.15 mm

  15. AMP-activated protein kinase inhibits alkaline pH- and PKA-induced apical vacuolar H+-ATPase accumulation in epididymal clear cells

    OpenAIRE

    Hallows, Kenneth R.; Alzamora, Rodrigo; Li, Hui; Gong, Fan; Smolak, Christy; Neumann, Dietbert; Pastor-Soler, Núria M.

    2009-01-01

    Acidic luminal pH and low [HCO3−] maintain sperm quiescent during maturation in the epididymis. The vacuolar H+-ATPase (V-ATPase) in clear cells is a major contributor to epididymal luminal acidification. We have shown previously that protein kinase A (PKA), acting downstream of soluble adenylyl cyclase stimulation by alkaline luminal pH or HCO3−, induces V-ATPase apical membrane accumulation in clear cells. Here we examined whether the metabolic sensor AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) reg...

  16. 77 FR 25952 - Oregon Army National Guard, Camp Rilea, Clatsop County, OR; Danger Zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-02

    ... boundaries of the Camp. If a vessel is detected in the danger zone, a cease fire will be called on all active weapons ranges and Camp Rilea will attempt to contact the vessel using marine VHF radio. Cease fire...

  17. Pro-oxidant status and matrix metalloproteinases in apical lesions and gingival crevicular fluid as potential biomarkers for asymptomatic apical periodontitis and endodontic treatment response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dezerega Andrea

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Oxidative stress and matrix metalloproteinases -9 and -2 are involved in periodontal breakdown, whereas gingival crevicular fluid has been reported to reflect apical status. The aim of this study was to characterize oxidant balance and activity levels of MMP -2 and -9 in apical lesions and healthy periodontal ligament; and second, to determine whether potential changes in oxidant balance were reflected in gingival crevicular fluid from asymptomatic apical periodontitis (AAP-affected teeth at baseline and after endodontic treatment. Methods Patients with clinical diagnosis of AAP and healthy volunteers having indication of tooth extraction were recruited. Apical lesions and healthy periodontal ligaments, respectively, were homogenized or processed to obtain histological tissue sections. Matrix metalloproteinase -9 and -2 levels and/or activity were analyzed by Immunowestern blot, zymography and consecutive densitometric analysis, and their tissue localization was confirmed by immunohistochemistry. A second group of patients with AAP and indication of endodontic treatment was recruited. Gingival crevicular fluid was extracted from AAP-affected teeth at baseline, after endodontic treatment and healthy contralateral teeth. Total oxidant and antioxidant status were determined in homogenized tissue and GCF samples. Statistical analysis was performed using STATA v10 software with unpaired t test, Mann-Whitney test and Spearman's correlation. Results Activity of MMP-2 and MMP-9 along with oxidant status were higher in apical lesions (p Conclusions Apical lesions display an oxidant imbalance along with increased activity of matrix metalloproteinase-2 and -9 and might contribute to AAP progression. Oxidant imbalance can also be reflected in GCF from AAP-affected teeth and was restored to normal levels after conservative endodontic treatment. These mediators might be useful as potential biomarkers for chair-side complementary diagnostic

  18. Residential summer camp: a new venue for nutrition education and physical activity promotion

    OpenAIRE

    Ventura, Alison K.; Garst, Barry A

    2013-01-01

    Background Millions of children attend residential summer camps each year. However, few studies have examined the potential of camps for obesity prevention efforts. Research in the domain of positive youth development has shown that camp programs as short as one week have both short- and long-term positive effects on self-esteem, self-efficacy and other youth outcomes. The objective of the present study was to highlight the potential of resident camps as promising venues for the promotion of ...

  19. Synergies in Marketing Management in Camping Tourism on the Slovenian Adriatic Coast

    OpenAIRE

    Bojnec, Štefan; Drakulić, Martina

    2012-01-01

    Purpose - The purpose is to investigate synergies in marketing management in camping tourism to properly understand the perceived client behaviour. Design/methodology/approach - Camping tourism is investigated by using secondary data and the perceived client behaviour by using the primary collected evidence from the interviews and surveys. Findings - The popularity of camping tourism in Slovenia is increasing among foreign tourists. Camping tourism is more significant in accommodation capacit...

  20. An Exploration of Developed Forest Camping Experiences and Meanings in the Mount Rogers National Recreation Area

    OpenAIRE

    Garst, Barry Austin

    2005-01-01

    Developed forest camping has received little attention in the recreation research since the late 1960s and early 1970s. Changes in socio-demographics, technology, and the publicâ s expectations for amenities over the past forty years suggested that the nature of the developed camping experience may have changed. Thus, the purpose of this study was to understand the modern developed forest camping experience and associated meanings and the influence of technology on developed forest camping...

  1. Identification of a specific assembly of the G protein Golf as a critical and regulated module of dopamine and adenosine-activated cAMP pathways in the striatum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denis eHervé

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available In the principal neurons of striatum (medium spiny neurons, MSNs, cAMP pathway is primarily activated through the stimulation of dopamine D1 and adenosine A2A receptors, these receptors being mainly expressed in striatonigral and striatopallidal MSNs, respectively. Since cAMP signaling pathway could be altered in various physiological and pathological situations, including drug addiction and Parkinson’s disease, it is of crucial importance to identify the molecular components involved in the activation of this pathway. In MSNs, cAMP pathway activation is not dependent on the classical Gs GTP-binding protein but requires a specific G protein subunit heterotrimer containing Galpha-olf/beta2/gamma7 in particular association with adenylate cyclase type 5. This assembly forms an authentic functional signaling unit since loss of one of its members leads to defects of cAMP pathway activation in response to D1 or A2A receptor stimulation, inducing dramatic impairments of behavioral responses dependent on these receptors. Interestingly, D1 receptor-dependent cAMP signaling is modulated by the neuronal levels of Galpha-olf, indicating that Galpha-olf represents the rate-limiting step in this signaling cascade and could constitute a critical element for regulation of D1 receptor responses. In both Parkinsonian patients and several animal models of Parkinson’s disease, the lesion of dopamine neurons produces a prolonged elevation of Galpha-olf levels. This observation gives an explanation for the cAMP pathway hypersensitivity to D1 stimulation, occurring despite an unaltered D1 receptor density. In conclusion, alterations in the highly specialized assembly of Galpha-olf/beta2/gamma7 subunits can happen in pathological conditions, such as Parkinson’s disease, and it could have important functional consequences in relation to changes in D1 receptor signaling in the striatum.

  2. Reflections on Refugee Students' Major Perceptions of Education in Kakuma Refugee Camp, Kenya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mareng, Chuei D.

    2010-01-01

    This reflective study explores refugee students' perceptions of the educational approach used in Kakuma Refugee Camp in Kenya. The study focuses on my personal reflections as a teacher and a student in this camp, and as a refugee. My goal of writing this narrative is to reflect fully on the refugee students' life in a camp and then contribute to…

  3. Hack City Summer: Computer Camps Can Bring a Vacation of Keyboard Delights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shell, Ellen Ruppel

    1983-01-01

    Activities at a summer computer camp (Camp Atari held at East Stroudsburg State College PA) are described. The curriculum, using logic, systematic analysis, and other fundamental programing skills, teaches students to interact effectively and creatively with computers. Sources for finding a computer camp are included. (JN)

  4. A Multidisciplinary Science Summer Camp for Students with Emphasis on Environmental and Analytical Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarz, Gunnar; Frenzel, Wolfgang; Richter, Wolfgang M.; Ta¨uscher, Lothar; Kubsch, Georg

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents the course of events of a five-day summer camp on environmental chemistry with high emphasis on chemical analysis. The annual camp was optional and open for students of all disciplines and levels. The duration of the summer camp was five and a half days in the Feldberg Lake District in northeast Germany (federal state of…

  5. Strengthening Families: Exploring the Impacts of Family Camp Experiences on Family Functioning and Parenting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garst, Barry A.; Baughman, Sarah; Franz, Nancy K.; Seidel, Richard W.

    2013-01-01

    Research suggests that family camp experiences can enhance family relationships. Families often participate in family camp experiences for a vacation, as part of a therapeutic and/or intervention strategy, or to gain general enrichment or engagement. To better understand the impacts of family camp experiences on family functioning, a mixed-methods…

  6. Culture Camp, Ethnic Identity, and Adoption Socialization for Korean Adoptees: A Pretest and Posttest Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baden, Amanda L.

    2015-01-01

    This study explores the impact of racial-ethnic socialization on adopted South Korean children and adolescents who attended a sleepaway Korean culture camp for one week. This camp provided racial-ethnic socialization experiences via exposure to camp counselors, staff, and teachers who were Korean Americans, Korean nationals, and Korean adult…

  7. The accidental city : violence, economy and humanitarianism in Kakuma refugee camp Kenya

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, B.J.

    2011-01-01

    In this research I examine social ordering processes in Kakuma refugee camp in Kenya. I view the camp as an accidental city, by which I challenge the image of the camp as a temporary and artificial waiting space or a protracted refugee crisis per se. The reference to the city is both metaphorical

  8. 76 FR 64 - Safety and Health Requirements Related to Camp Cars

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-03

    ... Guidelines for Clean, Safe, and Sanitary Railroad Provided Camp Cars (1990 Guidelines), 55 FR 30892, July 27... Camp Cars AGENCY: Federal Railroad Administration (FRA), Department of Transportation (DOT). ACTION... is proposing to create regulations prescribing minimum safety and health requirements for camp...

  9. 76 FR 67073 - Safety and Health Requirements Related to Camp Cars

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-31

    ... Camp Cars AGENCY: Federal Railroad Administration (FRA), Department of Transportation (DOT). ACTION... prescribing minimum safety and health requirements for camp cars that a railroad provides as sleeping quarters... hazardous material, of a camp car that is occupied exclusively by individuals employed to maintain...

  10. Opposing Effects of cAMP and T259 Phosphorylation on Plasma Membrane Diffusion of the Water Channel Aquaporin-5 in Madin-Darby Canine Kidney Cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer S Koffman

    Full Text Available Aquaporin-5 (AQP5 facilitates passive water transport in glandular epithelia in response to secretory stimuli via intracellular pathways involving calcium release, cAMP and protein kinase A (PKA. In epithelial plasma membranes, AQP5 may be acutely regulated to facilitate water transport in response to physiological stimuli by changes in protein modifications, interactions with proteins and lipids, nanoscale membrane domain organization, and turnover rates. Such regulatory mechanisms could potentially be associated with alteration of diffusion behavior, possibly resulting in a change in the plasma membrane diffusion coefficient of AQP5. We aimed to test the short-term regulatory effects of the above pathways, by measuring lateral diffusion of AQP5 and an AQP5 phospho-mutant, T259A, using k-space Image Correlation Spectroscopy of quantum dot- and EGFP-labeled AQP5. Elevated cAMP and PKA inhibition significantly decreased lateral diffusion of AQP5, whereas T259A mutation showed opposing effects; slowing diffusion without stimulation and increasing diffusion to basal levels after cAMP elevation. Thus, lateral diffusion of AQP5 is significantly regulated by cAMP, PKA, and T259 phosphorylation, which could be important for regulating water flow in glandular secretions.

  11. OUTBREAK OF NORWALK-RELATED GASTROENTERITIS AT A BOYS' CAMP

    Science.gov (United States)

    An acute gastrointestinal illness affected 213 (52%) of 407 campers and 64 (52%) of 121 staff attending a boy's camp in the Catoctin Mountains of Maryland during the summer of 1981. Nausea was the predominant symptom for ill campers and staff (73%), but more staff members experie...

  12. Criticality for Global Citizenship in Korean English Immersion Camps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, So-Yeon

    2015-01-01

    Given a heavy social, ideological pressure for parents to pursue better English education for their children in the globalized world, short-term English immersion camp programs have emerged as an educational option in South Korea, promoted as environments for intercultural communication between native English-speaking teachers and local Korean…

  13. Vietnamese in America, Part Four: Life in the Refugee Camps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, William T.; Murata, Alice K.

    1978-01-01

    The experiences of Vietnamese refugees in transitional camps in the summer and fall of 1975 are described in this paper. The data show that the mental health needs of the refugees were not taken seriously and that it was assumed that assimilation would be problem-free. (Author/AM)

  14. 14 CFR 91.1415 - CAMP: Mechanical reliability reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false CAMP: Mechanical reliability reports. 91.1415 Section 91.1415 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... certificate (including a supplemental type certificate), a Parts Manufacturer Approval, or a...

  15. 14 CFR 91.1441 - CAMP: Transfer of maintenance records.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Ownership Operations Program Management § 91.1441 CAMP: Transfer of maintenance records. When a U.S... aircraft in the management specifications, the program manager must transfer to the purchaser, at the time of the sale, the following records of that aircraft, in plain language form or in coded form...

  16. Gender Differences in the Perceived Severity of Boot Camp

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Peter B.; May, David C.; Grasmick, Harold G.

    2005-01-01

    We analyze survey data from 181 male and 224 female inmates serving brief prison terms for nonviolent offenses to examine offenders' perceptions of the severity of boot camp compared to prison. Building on the limited work in this area, we present reasons those offenders feel are important to both avoid and participate in alternative sanctions.…

  17. Hiring Counselors: Steps to Finding Good Camp Staff.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brockman, Robert A.

    1990-01-01

    Describes favorable practices for hiring outdoor summer camp counselors. Offers tips for looking at resumes and applications. Describes interview process and suggests interview questions for understanding applicants' motivation, maturity, and sense of responsibility. Emphasizes counselor as campers' teacher, leader, friend, and role model. (TES)

  18. Phun Physics 4 Phemales: Physics Camp for High School Girls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Chuhee; Gu, Jiyeong; Henriquez, Laura

    2014-03-01

    The department of Physics and Astronomy with the department of Science Education at California State University, Long Beach hosted summer program of ``Phun Physics 4 Phemales (PP4P)'' during summer 2012 and summer 2013 with the support from APS public outreach program. PP4P summer camp was hosted along with a two-week summer science camp, Young Scientists Camp, which has been institutionalized for the last 14 years since 1999. More than 2,500 3rd -8th grade students and 250 teachers have participated in the program. PP4P program provided the tools and support that female high school students need to pursue careers in physics and/or science, technology, engineering and math (STEM) field. This girls-only camp created connections among the girls and built confidence. In addition PP4P program introduced students to key principles in physics by a hands-on lab environment and demonstrated the real-world social impact of physics. In summer 2012, high school girls worked on physics experimental project on electronics and in summer 2013 they worked on the mechanics. I would share our experience in this program and the impact on the female high school students. This work was supported by 2012 Public Outreach and Informing the Public Grants from American Physical Society.

  19. Academic Boot Camp for the Writing of Psychology Research Reports

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skues, Jason L.; Wise, Lisa

    2014-01-01

    Herein, we describe the implementation of, and responses to, a structured writing workshop in the form of an academic boot camp. Participants were 42 undergraduate psychology students from a medium-sized Australian university who were completing their major assignment for the semester. A majority of the students expressed satisfaction with the…

  20. Meeting the Special Dietary Needs of All Camp Guests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spain, Viki Kappel

    2002-01-01

    More and more people are making personal or doctor-advised dietary changes, and camp kitchen staff must be happy and willing to provide alternative foods. Reasons for being a vegetarian, vegetarian foods, nutrition concerns in the vegetarian diet, and tips for preparing meatless dishes are discussed. Sidebars present indepth information on special…

  1. 29 CFR 1910.142 - Temporary labor camps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... facilities shall be spaced not closer than 36 inches both laterally and end to end, and shall be elevated at... inches both laterally and end to end. The minimum clear space between the lower and upper bunk shall be... such installations. If a camp is used during cold weather, adequate heating equipment shall be...

  2. Modeling for water penetration into narrow gap in CAMP code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An analytical code, CAMP, is being developed at JAERI for thermo-fluiddynamics of a molten core in the lower plenum of the reactor pressure vessel (RPV). Models for the water penetration into narrow gaps based on the flooding of a two-phase flow have been recently incorporated in CAMP code. The in-vessel debris coolability experiments performed at Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI), where an Al2O3 melt was poured into a water-filled lower head experimental vessel and the interfacial gap between the solidified Al2O3 and the vessel was supposed to form, were analyzed with CAMP code. It was found that temperature histories at the vessel outer surface were qualitatively reproduced using the water penetration model. The analysis also implied that an appropriate flooding correlation are needed to increase the predictability of CAMP code and that the steam generation in the interfacial gap, which largely influences on the flooding, was dominated by thermal radiation from the surface of the solidified Al2O3 to the penetrating water. (author)

  3. Snakes Have Feelings, Too: Elements of a Camp Snake Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Robert Ross

    2001-01-01

    A camp snake program can help campers overcome their fear of snakes, and people cannot truly enjoy nature when they carry a phobia about any one part of it. It can also help overcome prejudice by teaching truth and respect, instilling compassion, and helping campers develop empathy. Advice on catching, handling, identifying, keeping, and feeding…

  4. Participant Perspectives on the ESO Astronomy Camp Programme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olivotto, C.; Cenadelli, D.; Gamal, M.; Grossmann, D.; Teller, L. A. I.; Marta, A. S.; Matoni, C. L.; Taillard, A.

    2015-09-01

    This article describes the experience of attending the European Southern Observatory (ESO) Astronomy Camp from the perspective of its participants - students aged between 16 and 18 years old from around the world. The students shared a week together during the winter of 2014 in the Alpine village of Saint-Barthelemy, Italy. The camp was organised by ESO in collaboration with Sterrenlab and the Astronomical Observatory of the Autonomous Region of the Aosta Valley and offered a rich programme of astronomy and leisure activities. This article focuses on the concept of astronomy camps, and their role as a unique tool to complement formal classroom education, rather than on the astronomy activities and the scientific programme. Thus, it is not an academic review of the implemented methodologies, but rather a reflection on the overall experience. The article was brought together from collaborative accounts by some of the participants who were asked to reflect on the experience. The participants who contributed to this article represent the diversity of the ESO Astronomy Camp's alumni community.

  5. Credit-based livelihood interventions in a Zambian refugee camp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jane Travis

    2004-05-01

    Full Text Available Establishing community credit facilities has become an important developmental tool for building livelihood strategies. In the refugee camps where the British NGO Christian Outreach Relief andDevelopment (CORD has worked, programmes have provided credit in the form of cash, agricultural inputs or livestock.

  6. Camp stability predicts patterns of hunter–gatherer cooperation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Humans regularly cooperate with non-kin, which has been theorized to require reciprocity between repeatedly interacting and trusting individuals. However, the role of repeated interactions has not previously been demonstrated in explaining real-world patterns of hunter–gatherer cooperation. Here we explore cooperation among the Agta, a population of Filipino hunter–gatherers, using data from both actual resource transfers and two experimental games across multiple camps. Patterns of cooperation vary greatly between camps and depend on socio-ecological context. Stable camps (with fewer changes in membership over time) were associated with greater reciprocal sharing, indicating that an increased likelihood of future interactions facilitates reciprocity. This is the first study reporting an association between reciprocal cooperation and hunter–gatherer band stability. Under conditions of low camp stability individuals still acquire resources from others, but do so via demand sharing (taking from others), rather than based on reciprocal considerations. Hunter–gatherer cooperation may either be characterized as reciprocity or demand sharing depending on socio-ecological conditions. PMID:27493770

  7. Novel H1N1 Flu and Camp

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2009-06-30

    This podcast gives tips to stay healthy and help prevent infection with novel H1N1 flu if your child or someone you know is going to camp.  Created: 6/30/2009 by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).   Date Released: 6/30/2009.

  8. Evaluation of the distortion rate of panoramic and peri apical radiographs in erupted third molar inclination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Panoramic and peri apical radiographs are normally used in impacted third molar teeth surgeries. The aim of the present study was to evaluate and compare the distortion of the erupted third molar teeth on panoramic and peri apical radiographs. Patients and Methods: A total of 44 radiographs were obtained of 22 patients (age range, 18-24 years) referred to the faculty of dentistry for orthodontic treatment. A plaster cast was prepared and panoramic radiography was taken for all patients to plan the orthodontic treatment and peri apical radiography was taken for investigation of tooth structure details. Therefore, a total of 66 views and samples were studied by two methods: 1) Measuring the angle between the longitudinal plane of the third molar and occlusal plane. 2) Measuring the angle between the longitudinal plane of second and third molar. Finally, 132 records were evaluated by one individual. Results: There was no significant statistical difference between the mean position of the third molar on panoramic, peri apical radiographs and the casts. However, measurements of the third molars on peri apical radiographs were slightly closer to the measurements of the casts compared to the panoramic radiographs. Conclusion: Distortion does not have a specific effect on the diagnosis of the position of the third erupted molars by peri apical or panoramic radiographs, though various studies have shown that these radiographs have an amount of distortion and peri apical radiographical distortion is less than that in panoramic radiography.

  9. Evaluating the Effectiveness of the General Surgery Intern Boot Camp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoolfield, Clint S; Samra, Navdeep; Kim, Roger H; Shi, Runhua; Zhang, Wayne W; Tan, Tze-Woei

    2016-03-01

    The aim of our study is to evaluate the effectiveness of newly implemented general surgery intern boot camp. A 2-day didactic and skills-based intern boot camp was implemented before the start of clinical duties. Participants who did not attend all boot camp activities and had prior postgraduate training were excluded. A survey utilizing a 5-point Likert scale scoring system was used to assess the participants' confidence to perform intern-level tasks before and after the boot camp. Subgroup analyses were performed comparing changes in confidence among graduates from home institution versus others and general surgery versus other subspecialties. In the analysis, 21 participants over two years were included. Among them, 7 were graduates from home institution (4 general surgery, 3 subspecialty) and 14 were from other institutions (6 general surgery and 8 subspecialty). There were significant increases in overall confidence levels (pre = 2.79 vs post = 3.43, P interpersonal skills and communication (3.04 vs 3.53, P = 0.001), and practice-based learning (2.65 vs 3.41, P = 0.001). There was an improvement in confidence level for both home institution graduates (2.89 vs 3.53, P = 0.022) and other graduates (2.74 vs 3.34, P < 0.001). Similarly, participants from general surgery (2.78 vs 3.46, P = 0.001) and other specialties (2.74 vs 3.34, P < 0.001) reported significant improvement in confidence. General surgery intern boot camp before the start of official rotation is effective in improving confidence level in performing level-appropriate tasks of the incoming new interns. PMID:27099061

  10. Variability interexaminer of chronic apical periodontitis diagnostics in panoramic radiographs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The accuracy of radiological diagnosis of Apical Periodontitis (AP) is reported between examiners with differents levels of clinical experience using panoramic radiographs. 1032 teeth in 41 panoramic radiographs have been diagnosed. The evaluation of the x-rays and radiological diagnosis is performed by three independent dentists for AP to each tooth. The teeth have presented without radiological signs of AP in 96.6%. The number of teeth classified with an uncertain diagnosis of AP at the has been inversely proportional to the number of years of experience of the examiner. The examiner A has been used as a reference and compared the diagnoses of other examiners.The percentage agreement for all teeth was 95% for examiner B and 94% for examiner C. Kappa for all has been of 0.44 for examiner B and 0.43 for examiner C. The different categories were analyzed separately, the inferior teeth and the anterior teeth have obtained the best results. The level of clinical experience of the examiner has been indifferent in the diagnosis of AP in panoramic radiographs; however, it is important experience in the number of radiographs extras that will be needed to give a radiological diagnosis definitive. The panoramic radiographs were reliable diagnostic tools for AP. (author)

  11. Apical sealing ability of resilon/epiphany system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepu Roy

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Endodontic leakage research focus mainly on the quality of the apical seal of the root canal system and the newly introduced resilon/epiphany system claim to be superior to Gutta-percha in respect to obturation procedure. The aim of this study is to evaluate the root canal obturation completed by resilon/epiphany system. Materials and Methods: A total of 42 teeth were selected and were divided into four groups. Two experimental groups consisted of 15 teeth each and positive control group consisted of eight teeth and negative control group consisted of four teeth. In the experimental groups, Group 1 was obturated with resilon/epiphany system and Group 2 was obturated with Gutta-percha and endofil sealer by lateral condensation technique. The teeth were then immersed in Methelene blue solution and were split longitudinally to access the amount of dye penetrated in the canal. The specimens were viewed under scanning electron microscope to evaluate the adhesion of the obturating material to the root canal walls. Data was subjected to statistical analysis by Analysis of Variance and Bonferroni multiple comparison test at 1% level of significance. Results: The resilon/epiphany system showed better adaptation to the root canal walls, but the difference in dye penetration was not statistically significant when compared to specimens obturated with Gutta-percha and endofil sealer. Conclusion: Although, there was no statistically significant difference between the groups, but resilon/epiphany system showed better adaptation to the root canal walls.

  12. Policy options to stimulate social innovation initiatives addressing food waste prevention and reduction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vittuari, Matteo; Gaiani, Silvia; Politano, Alessandro; Timmermans, A.J.M.; Bos-Brouwers, H.E.J.

    2016-01-01

    The report builds on the knowledge created by the FUSIONS position paper “Stimulating social innovation through policy measures” that uses as key inputs the range of existing social innovation initiatives catalogued by FUSIONS WP4 in the inventory and draws on the outcomes of the WP3 Social Camp eve

  13. Using Science Camps to Develop Understandings about Scientific Inquiry--Taiwanese Students in a U.S. Summer Science Camp

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antink-Meyer, Allison; Bartos, Stephen; Lederman, Judith S.; Lederman, Norman G.

    2016-01-01

    Recent years have witnessed a dramatic rise in the number of middle and high school students from Asian countries participating in U.S.-based summer experiences (Perlez & Gao, 2013). Although summer science camps have been shown to improve students' attitudes and interests related to science and science learning (Bhattacharyya, Mead &…

  14. Multiple Facets of cAMP Signalling and Physiological Impact: cAMP Compartmentalization in the Lung

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martina Schmidt

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Therapies involving elevation of the endogenous suppressor cyclic AMP (cAMP are currently used in the treatment of several chronic inflammatory disorders, including chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD. Characteristics of COPD are airway obstruction, airway inflammation and airway remodelling, processes encompassed by increased airway smooth muscle mass, epithelial changes, goblet cell and submucosal gland hyperplasia. In addition to inflammatory cells, airway smooth muscle cells and (myofibroblasts, epithelial cells underpin a variety of key responses in the airways such as inflammatory cytokine release, airway remodelling, mucus hypersecretion and airway barrier function. Cigarette smoke, being next to environmental pollution the main cause of COPD, is believed to cause epithelial hyperpermeability by disrupting the barrier function. Here we will focus on the most recent progress on compartmentalized signalling by cAMP. In addition to G protein-coupled receptors, adenylyl cyclases, cAMP-specific phospho-diesterases (PDEs maintain compartmentalized cAMP signalling. Intriguingly, spatially discrete cAMP-sensing signalling complexes seem also to involve distinct members of the A-kinase anchoring (AKAP superfamily and IQ motif containing GTPase activating protein (IQGAPs. In this review, we will highlight the interaction between cAMP and the epithelial barrier to retain proper lung function and to alleviate COPD symptoms and focus on the possible molecular mechanisms involved in this process. Future studies should include the development of cAMP-sensing multiprotein complex specific disruptors and/or stabilizers to orchestrate cellular functions. Compartmentalized cAMP signalling regulates important cellular processes in the lung and may serve as a therapeutic target.

  15. Musik in Konzentrationslagern The Role of Music in Concentration Camps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriele Knapp

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available Die Holocaust-Forschung hat sich jahrzehntelang vorwiegend mit den Verbrechen in den Konzentrationslagern beschäftigt, während Fragen nach dem „Alltag“ der Häftlinge und ihren Strategien des Überlebens nebensächlich erschienen. Untersuchungen zum (ÜberLeben im KZ können aber gerade die Brutalität des Systems deutlich machen. So war Musik ein integraler Bestandteil des Lageralltags und diente keineswegs nur der Erbauung der Häftlinge, sondern bedeutete für sie häufig eine zusätzliche Tortur, wie Forschungsarbeiten für die Zeit von 1939 bis 1945 bereits belegt haben. Inwieweit dies für die frühen Lager von 1933 bis 1936 zutraf, untersucht Guido Fackler in seiner Studie. Darüber hinaus versucht er, musikalische Kontinuitätslinien von den frühen Lagern bis in die späte Phase (1937–1945 zu zeichnen. Eine Gesamtdarstellung zu KZ-Musik von 1933 bis 1945 konnte dem Autor indes nicht gelingen, wenn er auch einzelne Zusammenhänge zwischen musikalischen Phänomenen in unterschiedlichen Lagern aufzeigt. Facklers Buch lässt sich eher als Quellensammlung für Musik in unterschiedlichsten Konzentrationslagern verstehen und gebrauchen – wenn auch fast ausschließlich begrenzt auf Männerlager.In the past decades, Holocaust studies have focused on researching the annihilating structures of concentration camps, while the study of the inmates’ everyday lives and their strategies for survival was not included in this field of work. However, studying aspects of daily life and survival in the concentration camps can serve to truly bring out the brutality of the Holocaust. Music, for example, was an integral part of everyday life in the camps and did not solely serve to entertain the inmates, but also represented an additional form of torture for them, as previous studies for the time period between 1939 and 1945 have documented. Fackler’s study investigates the extent to which this was the case in the early concentration camps between

  16. Angiogenic Potential and Secretome of Human Apical Papilla Mesenchymal Stem Cells in Various Stress Microenvironments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakopoulou, Athina; Kritis, Aristeidis; Andreadis, Dimitrios; Papachristou, Eleni; Leyhausen, Gabriele; Koidis, Petros; Geurtsen, Werner; Tsiftsoglou, Asterios

    2015-11-01

    Stem cells from the apical papilla (SCAP) of human adult teeth are considered an accessible source of cells with angiogenic properties. The aims of this study were to investigate the endothelial transdifferentiation of SCAP, the secretion of pro- and antiangiogenic factors from SCAP, and the paracrine effects of SCAP when exposed to environmental stress to stimulate tissue damage. SCAP were exposed to serum deprivation (SD), glucose deprivation (GD), and oxygen deprivation/hypoxia (OD) conditions, individually or in combination. Endothelial transdifferentiation was evaluated by in vitro capillary-like formation assays, real-time polymerase chain reaction, western blot, and flow cytometric analyses of angiogenesis-related markers; secretome by antibody arrays and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA); and paracrine impact on human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) by in vitro transwell migration and capillary-like formation assays. The short-term exposure of SCAP to glucose/oxygen deprivation (GOD) in the presence, but mainly in deprivation, of serum (SGOD) elicited a proangiogenesis effect indicated by expression of angiogenesis-related genes involved in vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)/VEGFR and angiopoietins/Tie pathways. This effect was unachievable under SD in normoxia, suggesting that the critical microenvironmental condition inducing rapid endothelial shift of SCAP is the combination of SGOD. Interestingly, SCAP showed high adaptability to these adverse conditions, retaining cell viability and acquiring a capillary-forming phenotype. SCAP secreted higher numbers and amounts of pro- (angiogenin, IGFBP-3, VEGF) and lower amounts of antiangiogenic factors (serpin-E1, TIMP-1, TSP-1) under SGOD compared with SOD or SD alone. Finally, secretome obtained under SGOD was most effective in inducing migration and capillary-like formation by HUVECs. These data provide new evidence on the microenvironmental factors favoring endothelial

  17. β-adrenergic receptor-stimulated lipolysis requires the RAB7-mediated autolysosomal lipid degradation

    OpenAIRE

    Lizaso, Analyn; Tan, Kien-Thiam; Lee, Ying-Hue

    2013-01-01

    Hormone-stimulated lipolysis is a rapid way to mobilize fat from its storage depot for use in peripheral tissues. By convention, activation of cytosolic lipases via the β-adrenergic receptor (ADRB2)-cAMP signaling pathway is the only molecular mechanism considered to liberate fatty acids from triglycerides stored in lipid droplets (LDs) of cells. Herein, we provide evidence that, aside from the activation of cytosolic lipases, autophagy contributes to this hormone-stimulated lipolysis. The AD...

  18. Frecuencia de periodontitis apical en tratamientos endodónticos de pregrado Frequency of apical periodontitis in endodontic treatment in undergraduate

    OpenAIRE

    León, P; MJ Ilabaca; M Alcota; FE González

    2011-01-01

    La periodontitis apical es una enfermedad de los tejidos periapicales de etiología bacteriana. Su tratamiento requiere erradicar los microorganismos del conducto radicular y obturarlo para lograr la reparación posterior. El objetivo de éste trabajo fue determinar la frecuencia de periodontitis apical en la población que asiste a la clínica de Endodoncia de la Facultad de Odontología de la Universidad de Chile y su relación con diferentes variables: diagnóstico específico, edad, sexo, agudas v...

  19. Depth of planting and apical dominance on cuttings of red pitaya
    Profundidade de plantio e dominância apical na estaquia de pitaia vermelha

    OpenAIRE

    Virna Braga Marques; Rodrigo Amato Moreira; José Darlan Ramos; Neimar Arcanjo de Araújo; Maria do Céu Monteiro da Cruz

    2012-01-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of planting depth and breaking apical dominance on cutting of red pitaya Hylocereus undatus (Haw.) Britton & Rose. The experiment was conducted in a randomized block design with four replications in a 2x3 factorial, with two kinds of cuttings (with or without apical dominance), cutting not sectioned and sectioned at 5 cm from the upper portion, and three planting depths (1.0, 5.0, and 10.0 cm) and each plot consisted of ten 20 cm long cuttings....

  20. Magnetic Resonance Imaging of Transient Left Ventricular Apical Ballooning Related to Emotional Stress: a Case Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Mu Sook; Choi, Byoung Wook; Choe, Kyu Ok; Chung, Namsik [Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-02-15

    Transient left ventricular apical ballooning is characterized by transient wall motion abnormalities involving the left ventricular apex and mid-ventricle in the absence of coronary arterial occlusion. A 66-year-old woman presented to the emergency department with chest pain that mimicked acute myocardial infarction. An aortogram showed akinesis from the mid to apical left ventricle with sparing of the basal segments. Four days later, she underwent MRI, which demonstrated characteristic apical contractile dysfunction, the same as the aortogram, without evidence of myocardial infarction on the MRI. Two weeks later, her symptoms were resolved and follow-up echocardiography showed normal ventricular function. We suggest that MRI might be an integrated imaging diagnostic tool for the diagnosis of this syndrome, which demonstrated characteristic apical contractile dysfunction with performing cine MRI, the absence of significant coronary artery stenosis with performing coronary MR angiography and the absence of myocardial infarction with performing contrast enhanced delayed MRI.

  1. Magnetic Resonance Imaging of Transient Left Ventricular Apical Ballooning Related to Emotional Stress: a Case Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Transient left ventricular apical ballooning is characterized by transient wall motion abnormalities involving the left ventricular apex and mid-ventricle in the absence of coronary arterial occlusion. A 66-year-old woman presented to the emergency department with chest pain that mimicked acute myocardial infarction. An aortogram showed akinesis from the mid to apical left ventricle with sparing of the basal segments. Four days later, she underwent MRI, which demonstrated characteristic apical contractile dysfunction, the same as the aortogram, without evidence of myocardial infarction on the MRI. Two weeks later, her symptoms were resolved and follow-up echocardiography showed normal ventricular function. We suggest that MRI might be an integrated imaging diagnostic tool for the diagnosis of this syndrome, which demonstrated characteristic apical contractile dysfunction with performing cine MRI, the absence of significant coronary artery stenosis with performing coronary MR angiography and the absence of myocardial infarction with performing contrast enhanced delayed MRI

  2. Pulp microbiology of complete teeth with idiopathic apical lesions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Rodríguez

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Periapical changes named as lesions, in teeth with full crown integrity and without history of trauma, do not show a clear aetiology. Objective: To determine the presence of microorganisms in pulp dental tissue will clarify the cause of its death and therefore the damage to periodontal tissues. Materials and methods: From people between 10 and 39 years old, 23 teeth were selected. The samples were taken with paper points and 0.8 sterile files, and were transported in VMGA III medium, to be processed in the following 24 hours after they were taken and sowed in Brucella-agar. Results: The most affected teeth were upper central incisors, 43.8%. From the 23 studied teeth, microbiological grow was seen on 20 teeth. The following microorganisms species were identified: Fusobacterium spp., 25%, Eubacterium spp., 15%; Peptostreptococcus spp., 10%; Campylobacter spp., 10%; gram negative enteric bacteria, 10%; Porphyromonas gingivalis, 10%; Prevotella intermedia, 5%; Eikenellia corrodens, 5%; Dialister pneumosintes, 5%; and yeasts, 5%. There was no growing evidence of Actinomyces actinomycetemcomitans, Tanerella forsythensis and Streptococcus β  hemolytic. Discussion and conclusions: Sound pulp dental tissue is sterile; an injury over it will cause its inflammation, degeneration, death and bacterial contamination. Results in the present study clearly show the presence of microorganisms in closed apical dental lesions of endodontic origin. In same manner, it was seen that a great part of microorganisms species found can be regarded as periodontal pathogens. This could suggest a management with an endodontic, a periodontic and a pharmacological combined treatment.

  3. Reaction-diffusion pattern in shoot apical meristem of plants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hironori Fujita

    Full Text Available A fundamental question in developmental biology is how spatial patterns are self-organized from homogeneous structures. In 1952, Turing proposed the reaction-diffusion model in order to explain this issue. Experimental evidence of reaction-diffusion patterns in living organisms was first provided by the pigmentation pattern on the skin of fishes in 1995. However, whether or not this mechanism plays an essential role in developmental events of living organisms remains elusive. Here we show that a reaction-diffusion model can successfully explain the shoot apical meristem (SAM development of plants. SAM of plants resides in the top of each shoot and consists of a central zone (CZ and a surrounding peripheral zone (PZ. SAM contains stem cells and continuously produces new organs throughout the lifespan. Molecular genetic studies using Arabidopsis thaliana revealed that the formation and maintenance of the SAM are essentially regulated by the feedback interaction between WUSHCEL (WUS and CLAVATA (CLV. We developed a mathematical model of the SAM based on a reaction-diffusion dynamics of the WUS-CLV interaction, incorporating cell division and the spatial restriction of the dynamics. Our model explains the various SAM patterns observed in plants, for example, homeostatic control of SAM size in the wild type, enlarged or fasciated SAM in clv mutants, and initiation of ectopic secondary meristems from an initial flattened SAM in wus mutant. In addition, the model is supported by comparing its prediction with the expression pattern of WUS in the wus mutant. Furthermore, the model can account for many experimental results including reorganization processes caused by the CZ ablation and by incision through the meristem center. We thus conclude that the reaction-diffusion dynamics is probably indispensable for the SAM development of plants.

  4. 24 Hour ST Segment Analysis in Transient Left Ventricular Apical Ballooning

    OpenAIRE

    Frank Bode; Christof Burgdorf; Heribert Schunkert; Volkhard Kurowski

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The etiologic basis of transient left ventricular apical ballooning, a novel cardiac syndrome, is not clear. Among the proposed pathomechanisms is coronary vasospasm. Long-term ST segment analysis may detect vasospastic episodes but has not been reported. METHODS: 30 consecutive patients with transient left ventricular apical ballooning, left ventricular dysfunction and normal or near-normal coronary arteries were investigated. A 24-hour Holter ECG was obtained after emergency admi...

  5. Quantitative analysis of the lipidomes of the influenza virus envelope and MDCK cell apical membrane

    OpenAIRE

    Gerl, Mathias J.; Sampaio, Julio L; Urban, Severino; Kalvodova, Lucie; Verbavatz, Jean-Marc; Binnington, Beth; Lindemann, Dirk; Lingwood, Clifford A.; Shevchenko, Andrej; Schroeder, Cornelia; Simons, Kai

    2012-01-01

    The influenza virus (IFV) acquires its envelope by budding from host cell plasma membranes. Using quantitative shotgun mass spectrometry, we determined the lipidomes of the host Madin–Darby canine kidney cell, its apical membrane, and the IFV budding from it. We found the apical membrane to be enriched in sphingolipids (SPs) and cholesterol, whereas glycerophospholipids were reduced, and storage lipids were depleted compared with the whole-cell membranes. The virus membrane exhibited a furthe...

  6. Human Coronavirus 229E Infects Polarized Airway Epithelia from the Apical Surface

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Guoshun; Deering, Camille; Macke, Michael; Shao, Jianqiang; Burns, Royce; Blau, Dianna M.; Holmes, Kathryn V.; Davidson, Beverly L.; Perlman, Stanley; McCray, Paul B.

    2000-01-01

    Gene transfer to differentiated airway epithelia with existing viral vectors is very inefficient when they are applied to the apical surface. This largely reflects the polarized distribution of receptors on the basolateral surface. To identify new receptor-ligand interactions that might be used to redirect vectors to the apical surface, we investigated the process of infection of airway epithelial cells by human coronavirus 229E (HCoV-229E), a common cause of respiratory tract infections. Usi...

  7. Apical ballooning with mid-ventricular obstruction: the many faces of Takotsubo cardiomyopathy

    OpenAIRE

    Spadotto, Veronica; ElMaghawry, Mohamed; Zorzi, Alessandro; Migliore, Federico; Marra, Martina Perazzolo

    2013-01-01

    Takotsubo cardiomyopathy (TTC) is a transient left ventricular dysfunction due to akinesia of the left-ventricular (LV) mid-apical segments (apical ballooning), which can cause severe reduction in LV systolic function. The typical clinical picture of TTC include chest pain, electrocardiographic changes consisting of mild ST-segment elevation followed by diffuse deep T-wave inversion, QTc interval prolongation and mild troponin release in the absence of significant coronary stenoses. The syndr...

  8. Comparison of Apical Axial Derotation between Adolescent Idiopathic and Neuromuscular Scoliosis with Pedicle Screw Instrumentation

    OpenAIRE

    Modi, Hitesh N.; Suh, Seung-Woo; Srinivasalu, S.; Mehta, Satyen; Yang, Jae-Hyuk

    2008-01-01

    Study Design A retrospective study. Purpose To compare outcomes of apical derotation with pedicle screws in idiopathic and neuromuscular scoliosis (NMS). Overview of Literature No information about apical derotation in NMS with pedicle screws is available. Methods We performed deformity correcting surgery using pedicle screw constructs on 12 adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) patients (mean age 14.1 years) and 16 NMS patients (mean age 16.5 years). Preoperative, postoperative, and final fo...

  9. RNG1 is a Late Marker of the Apical Polar Ring in Toxoplasma gondii

    OpenAIRE

    Tran, Johnson Q.; de Leon, Jessica C.; Li, Catherine; Huynh, My-Hang; Beatty, Wandy; Morrissette, Naomi S.

    2010-01-01

    The asexually proliferating stages of apicomplexan parasites cause acute symptoms of diseases such as malaria, cryptosporidiosis and toxoplasmosis. These stages are characterized by the presence of two independent microtubule organizing centers (MTOCs). Centrioles are found at the poles of the intranuclear spindle. The apical polar ring (APR), a MTOC unique to apicomplexans, organizes subpellicular microtubules which impose cell shape and apical polarity on these protozoa. Here we describe th...

  10. The Dynamics of Soybean Leaf and Shoot Apical Meristem Transcriptome Undergoing Floral Initiation Process

    OpenAIRE

    Wong, Chui E; Mohan B. Singh; Bhalla, Prem L

    2013-01-01

    Flowering process governs seed set and thus affects agricultural productivity. Soybean, a major legume crop, requires short-day photoperiod conditions for flowering. While leaf-derived signal(s) are essential for the photoperiod-induced floral initiation process at the shoot apical meristem, molecular events associated with early floral transition stages in either leaves or shoot apical meristems are not well understood. To provide novel insights into the molecular basis of floral initiation,...

  11. Can loss of apical dominance in potato tuber serve as a marker of physiological age?

    OpenAIRE

    Eshel, Dani; Teper-Bamnolker, Paula

    2012-01-01

    The potato tuber constitutes a model system for the study of dormancy release and sprouting, suggested to be regulated by endogenous plant hormones and their balance inside the tuber. During dormancy, potato tubers cannot be induced to sprout without some form of stress or exogenous hormone treatment. When dormancy is released, sprouting of the apical bud may be inhibited by sprout control agents or cold temperature. Dominance of the growing apical bud over other lateral buds decreases during...

  12. Cell division pattern influences gene expression in the shoot apical meristem

    OpenAIRE

    Wyrzykowska, Joanna; Fleming, Andrew

    2003-01-01

    The shoot apical meristem of angiosperms shows a highly conserved cellular architecture in which a change of cell division orientation correlates with early events of leaf initiation. However, the causal role of this altered cellular parameter in leaf formation is debatable. We have used the dynamin-like protein phragmoplastin as a tool to modify the pattern of cell division within the apical meristem. Taking a microinduction approach, we show that local alteration in cell division orientatio...

  13. Apical Transport of Influenza A Virus Ribonucleoprotein Requires Rab11-positive Recycling Endosome

    OpenAIRE

    Momose, Fumitaka; Sekimoto, Tetsuya; Ohkura, Takashi; Jo, Shuichi; Kawaguchi, Atsushi; Nagata, Kyosuke; Morikawa, Yuko

    2011-01-01

    Influenza A virus RNA genome exists as eight-segmented ribonucleoprotein complexes containing viral RNA polymerase and nucleoprotein (vRNPs). Packaging of vRNPs and virus budding take place at the apical plasma membrane (APM). However, little is known about the molecular mechanisms of apical transport of newly synthesized vRNP. Transfection of fluorescent-labeled antibody and subsequent live cell imaging revealed that punctate vRNP signals moved along microtubules rapidly but intermittently i...

  14. Effect of needle insertion depth and apical diameter on irrigant extrusion in simulated immature permanent teeth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AKSEL Hacer

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to compare the amount of irrigant extrusion in simulated immature permanent teeth when the apical diameter and needle insertion depth were varied. Thirty single-rooted maxillary incisors with straight root canals were selected. The root length was standardized to a length of 9 mm. The teeth were divided into two experimental groups according to the degree of apical enlargement (n = 15. The apices were enlarged to a diameter of 1.10 mm or 1.70 mm by using a #3 or #6 peeso reamer, respectively, to simulate immature teeth. The irrigation solution was applied 2 or 4 mm short of the working length (WL in each experimental group. The glass vial model was used for the collection of extruded irrigant beyond the root apex. A two-way repeated measures analysis of variance test showed that there was no significant difference between different needle insertion depths (2 and 4 mm short of the WL in the group with an apical diameter of 1.70 mm (p > 0.05. In the group with an apical diameter of 1.10 mm, a 32% increase in irrigant extrusion was observed when the needle was positioned at 2 mm (p < 0.05. Regarding the effect of apical diameter, the group with a diameter of 1.70 mm showed more apical extrusion of the irrigant (34% increase for the needle positioned at 2 mm and 68% increase for the needle positioned at 4 mm. It was observed that the needle insertion depth and apical diameter have a significant effect on irrigant extrusion in immature permanent teeth.

  15. Frecuencia de periodontitis apical en tratamientos endodónticos de pregrado Frequency of apical periodontitis in endodontic treatment in undergraduate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P León

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available La periodontitis apical es una enfermedad de los tejidos periapicales de etiología bacteriana. Su tratamiento requiere erradicar los microorganismos del conducto radicular y obturarlo para lograr la reparación posterior. El objetivo de éste trabajo fue determinar la frecuencia de periodontitis apical en la población que asiste a la clínica de Endodoncia de la Facultad de Odontología de la Universidad de Chile y su relación con diferentes variables: diagnóstico específico, edad, sexo, agudas vs. crónicas, éxito/fracaso del tratamiento y rehabilitación post-tratamiento. Se recolectó información de 292 dientes de pacientes tratados en dicha clínica, analizándose la información de aquellos con dientes diagnosticados con algún tipo de periodontitis apical clasificándolo según la nueva nomenclatura de la asociación de endodoncia americana. La frecuencia de periodontitis apical fue de un 36.7% (92 pacientes, de los cuales un 77.8% presentaron patologías de tipo crónicas. Un 75% de los pacientes pertenecieron al sexo femenino y la 5ta década representó un 34.8% de los pacientes. El 100% de los pacientes que acudieron a control presentó éxito en sus tratamientos según variables clínico-radiográficas, mientras que la restauración más frecuente post-tratamiento fue la resina compuesta (52.4%. Dado el pequeño número de pacientes que concurrieron a la citación de control para determinar el éxito del tratamiento, esta variable debe ser considerada como preliminar. Nuestros resultados mostraron que la condición mas frecuente fue la periodontitis apical de tipo crónica, afectando más a mujeres y a la 5ta década.Apical periodontitis is a microbially induced inflammatory disease of the periapical tissues. Its treatment requires eliminating microorganism from root canal and sealing it properly to induce further tissue repair. The aim of this study was to determine the frequency of apical periodontitis and its distribution by

  16. Comparison of Irrigation Penetration into the Apical Part of Canals in Hand and Rotary Instrumentations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Khabiri

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The penetration of irrigating solution to the apical one third of canals and removal of debris are dependent on the final size of the instruments and instrumentation techniques used in the canals. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of final instrument size, on irrigation penetration into the apical part of canals in hand K-file instrumentation versus rotary system of Hero 642.Methods and Materials: The mesiobuccal canals of 48 first mandibular molar teeth were selected for this study. The teeth were divided into 2 groups of 24 in each and the mesiobuccal canals were instrumented by hand K-file or rotary system of Hero 642 at 2 stages. After each stage, a contrast medium was injected into the canals and radiographs were taken by RVG system. The irrigation penetration was measured in radiographs by Diamax software. The data were analyzed using t – student test.Results: This study showed that instrumentation up to # 25 file is not enough for irrigation penetration into the apical area. Also by more flaring the canals, more irrigating solution penetrates into the apical part of canals (P 0 0.001, but the difference between hand and rotary systems was not statistically significant (P > 0.05.Discussion: According to this study, instrumentation up to # 30 file results in better irrigation penetration into the apical area. The flaring of the canals is essential for better cleaning and irrigation of apical area.

  17. Calcium-enriched mixture cement as artificial apical barrier: A case series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Nosrat

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In comparison to the conventional apexification using calcium hydroxide, artificial apical barrier technique is more valuable and less time consuming. This article describes successful use of calcium-enriched mixture (CEM cement as an artificial apical barrier in open apices. In this study, 13 single-rooted teeth with necrotic pulps and open apices were treated non-surgically. After copious irrigation of the root canals with NaOCl 5.25% and gentle filing, based on need for interappointment dressing, treatments were followed by CEM cement (BioniqueDent, Tehran, Iran apical plug insertion in the first or second appointment. All cases were then permanently restored. All subjects were followed until radiographic evidence of periradicular healing was seen (mean 14.5 months. Clinically, all cases were functional and asymptomatic and complete osseous healing was observed in all the teeth. Considering the biological properties of CEM cement, this new endodontic biomaterial might be appropriate to be used as artificial apical barrier in the open apex teeth.

  18. Microarray gene expression profiling of developmental transitions in Sitka spruce (Picea sitchensis) apical shoots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedmann, Michael; Ralph, Steven G; Aeschliman, Dana; Zhuang, Jun; Ritland, Kermit; Ellis, Brian E; Bohlmann, Joerg; Douglas, Carl J

    2007-01-01

    The apical shoot drives the yearly new stem growth of conifer trees, is the primary site for the establishment of chemical and physical defences, and is important in establishing subsequent perennial growth. This organ presents an interesting developmental system, with growth and development progressing from a meristematic tip through development of a primary vascular system, to a base with fully differentiated and lignified secondary xylem on the inside and bark tissue with constitutive defence structures such as resin, polyphenolic phloem parenchyma cells, and sclereids on the outside. A spruce (Picea spp.) microarray containing approximately 16.7K unique cDNAs was used to study transcript profiles that characterize the developmental transition in apical shoots of Sitka spruce (Picea sitchensis) from their vegetative tips to their woody bases. Along with genes involved in cell-wall modification and lignin biosynthesis, a number of differentially regulated genes encoding protein kinases and transcription factors with base-preferred expression patterns were identified, which could play roles in the formation of woody tissues inside the apical shoot, as well as in regulating other developmental transitions associated with organ maturation. Preferential expression of known conifer defence genes, genes encoding defence-related proteins, and genes encoding regulatory proteins was observed at the apical shoot tip and in the green bark tissues at the apical shoot base, suggesting a commitment to constitutive defence in the apical shoot that is co-ordinated with rapid development of secondary xylem. PMID:17220514

  19. Midbrain raphe stimulation improves behavioral and anatomical recovery from fluid-percussion brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carballosa Gonzalez, Melissa M; Blaya, Meghan O; Alonso, Ofelia F; Bramlett, Helen M; Hentall, Ian D

    2013-01-15

    The midbrain median raphe (MR) and dorsal raphe (DR) nuclei were tested for their capacity to regulate recovery from traumatic brain injury (TBI). An implanted, wireless self-powered stimulator delivered intermittent 8-Hz pulse trains for 7 days to the rat's MR or DR, beginning 4-6 h after a moderate parasagittal (right) fluid-percussion injury. MR stimulation was also examined with a higher frequency (24 Hz) or a delayed start (7 days after injury). Controls had sham injuries, inactive stimulators, or both. The stimulation caused no apparent acute responses or adverse long-term changes. In water-maze trials conducted 5 weeks post-injury, early 8-Hz MR and DR stimulation restored the rate of acquisition of reference memory for a hidden platform of fixed location. Short-term spatial working memory, for a variably located hidden platform, was restored only by early 8-Hz MR stimulation. All stimulation protocols reversed injury-induced asymmetry of spontaneous forelimb reaching movements tested 6 weeks post-injury. Post-mortem histological measurement at 8 weeks post-injury revealed volume losses in parietal-occipital cortex and decussating white matter (corpus callosum plus external capsule), but not hippocampus. The cortical losses were significantly reversed by early 8-Hz MR and DR stimulation, the white matter losses by all forms of MR stimulation. The generally most effective protocol, 8-Hz MR stimulation, was tested 3 days post-injury for its acute effect on forebrain cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP), a key trophic signaling molecule. This procedure reversed injury-induced declines of cAMP levels in both cortex and hippocampus. In conclusion, midbrain raphe nuclei can enduringly enhance recovery from early disseminated TBI, possibly in part through increased signaling by cAMP in efferent targets. A neurosurgical treatment for TBI using interim electrical stimulation in raphe repair centers is suggested. PMID:22963112

  20. [Dental practice in the camps of the Third Reich].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riaud, Xavier

    2003-01-01

    In the Concentration Camps, the Nazis made a mixing of National Socialism ideology, anti-Semitism and war effort. After the arrival of trains in the camps the Nazis selected the weakest inmates for the gas chambers, as far as they considered them to be "useless mouths". The heathly grownups were kept for productive use. However a person suffering from bad tooth was not profitable. Thus some inmate dentists were in position to give dental cares to a few prisoners as they had been allowed by the Nazis to work in precarious circumstances. On the 23rd of September 1940 Himmler ordered to pull out the dental gold from the alive prisoners or at their exit of gas chambers. The decree was reinforced on the 23rd December 1942. The product of gold became a mean to support war effort. On the other hand few dental experiments have been performed by the SS doctors. PMID:12959116

  1. From camp to kitsch: A queer eye on console fandom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rob Gallagher

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Offering a queer perspective on video game fandom, this article considers the factors that fostered a subculture of Western devotees of Japanese video games in the 1990s. Focused on readers of the English publication Sega Saturn Magazine, it shows how, for these players, Japanese games became the basis of a collective identity founded on precisely the kinds of perverse over-attachment, projective identification and hermeneutic ingenuity that Eve Kosofsky Sedgwick identifies with camp. Citing this subculture as an example of how fans transform the texts they put to use, the article also addresses its implications for our understanding of fandom today, at a time when the proliferation of quantitative analysis techniques is transforming the production and consumption of games. Such techniques, I argue, threaten to compromise the contingency and ambiguity on which camp thrives, instead fostering the kinds of cynical calculation Sedgwick associates with kitsch.

  2. CORRECTIVE SURGERY IN CONGENITAL TALIPES EQUINOVARUS DEFORMITY: A CAMP APPROACH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antony R.

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The study was intended to assess the results of soft tissue release and bony corrective surgery in patients of moderate to severe deformed rigid club foot (CTEV and neglected clubfoot (CTEV at free disabled surgical camps at Chhattisgarh state . MATERIAL AND METHODS : In our study 50 patients were included with 70% male and 30% female with 4 - 16 years of age grou p and 70% unilateral and 30% bilateral foot involvement. Patients were admitted and operated in different free disabled surgical camps at Chhattisgarh state over the period of 36 months (1 may 2004 to 30 th April 2007. Improvement in functional ability and locomotion of all operated patients were assessed by physical and clinical examination. RESULTS : All patients who were operated in our study showed significant improvement in functional ability and locomotion after surgery. All patients were maintaining f unctional ability at follow up duration of 12 months (1 year. 75% patients were walking normally, 10% cases were walking with internal rotation of leg and 5% cases were walking with midtarsal varus foot with AFO with medial bar support. CONCLUSION : Our st udy showed and established that excellent results can be obtained in congenital talipes equinovarus (CTEV patients by soft tissue release with bony corrective surgery. The team work of devoted surgeons, paramedical and rehabilitation staff in whole durati on of camps to achieve the goal. With an aim to help more number of CTEV cases by surgery, our team has started doing surgeries in small institutions, and organize charity camps to help poor patients and mankind even in small clinics

  3. Collaborative Tools Used to Organize a Library Camp Unconference

    OpenAIRE

    Crossett, Laura; Kraus, Joseph; Lawson, Steve

    2009-01-01

    From July to October, 2008, Laura Crossett, Joseph Kraus and Steve Lawson organized the Library Camp of the West (http://librarycampwest.pbwiki.com/). This was an unconference that took place on October 10, 2008 at the University of Denver. The authors used many technology tools to organize the event, such as email, wikis, blogs, two tools from Google, the Doodle scheduling Website, Flickr and more. This article will explain how they used those tools to prepare for the unconference.

  4. Bore-hole survey at Camp Century, 1989

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl-Jensen, Dorthe; Gundestrup, NS.; Hansen, BL.; kelty, J.

    1993-01-01

    A combination of the directional surveys of the Camp Century borehole from 1966, 1967, 1969 and 1989 has revealed a deformation pattern similar to that measured at Dye-3, South Greenland and Byrd Station, Antarctica showing high deformation rate for Wisconsin ice. Compared to the Dye-3 profile, t...... deformation shows the same pattern even in details. The surface velocity obtained by integrating the bore hole deformation is in agreement with that obtained from satellite measurements Udgivelsesdato: jan...

  5. Tidal Marsh Vegetation of China Camp, San Pablo Bay, California

    OpenAIRE

    Baye, Peter R.

    2012-01-01

    China Camp (Marin County, California) preserves extensive relict stands of salt marsh vegetation developed on a prehistoric salt marsh platform with a complex sinuous tidal creek network. The low salt marsh along tidal creeks supports extensive native stands of Pacific cordgrass (Spartina foliosa). The outer salt marsh accreted following hydraulic gold mining sedimentation. It consists of a wave-scarped pickleweed-dominated (Sarcocornia pacifica) high salt marsh terrace with a broad fringing ...

  6. Smart and Green Energy (SAGE) for Base Camps Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Engels, Matthias; Boyd, Paul A.; Koehler, Theresa M.; Goel, Supriya; Sisk, Daniel R.; Hatley, Darrel D.; Mendon, Vrushali V.; Hail, John C.

    2014-02-11

    The U.S. Army Logistics Innovation Agency’s (LIA’s) Smart and Green Energy (SAGE) for Base Camps project was to investigate how base camps’ fuel consumption can be reduced by 30% to 60% using commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) technologies for power generation, renewables, and energy efficient building systems. Field tests and calibrated energy models successfully demonstrated that the fuel reductions are achievable.

  7. Camp Pendleton Saves 91% in Parking Lot Lighting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2016-01-01

    Case study describes how Camp Pendleton Marine Corps Base replaced high-pressure sodium (HPS) fixtures in one parking lot with high-efficiency induction fixtures for 91% savings in energy use and $5,700 in cost savings annually. This parking lot is estimated to have a simple payback of 2.9 years. Sitewide up-grades yielded annual savings of 1 million kWh.

  8. Building Energy Audit Report for Camp Smith, HI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chvala, William D.; De La Rosa, Marcus I.; Brown, Daryl R.; Dixon, Douglas R.

    2010-09-30

    A detailed energy assessment was performed by a team of engineers from Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) under contract to the Department of Energy/Federal Energy Management program (FEMP). The effort used the Facility Energy Decision System (FEDS) model to determine how energy is consumed at Camp Smith, identify the most cost-effective energy retrofit measures, and calculate the potential energy and cost savings. This report documents the results of that assessment.

  9. Time-resolved in silico modeling of fine-tuned cAMP signaling in platelets: feedback loops, titrated phosphorylations and pharmacological modulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dandekar Thomas

    2011-10-01

    . Downstream cyclic nucleotide signaling events target different phosphorylation sites for cAMP- and cGMP-dependent protein kinases (PKA, PKG in the vasodilator-stimulated phosphoprotein (VASP. VASP phosphorylation as well as cAMP levels resulting from different drug strengths and combined stimulants were quantitatively modeled. These predictions were again experimentally validated. High sensitivity of the signaling pathway at low concentrations is involved in a fine-tuned balance as well as stable activation of this inhibitory cyclic nucleotide pathway. Conclusions On the basis of experimental data, literature mining and database screening we established a dynamic in silico model of cyclic nucleotide signaling and probed its signaling sensitivity. Thoroughly validated, it successfully predicts drug combination effects on platelet function, including synergism, antagonism and regulatory loops.

  10. Outbreak of chickenpox in a refugee camp of northern Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camélique Olivier

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Although chickenpox is a generally mild, self-limited illness of children, it can cause fatal disease in adults. Accumulating reports from tropical countries showed a high prevalence of seronegativity among the adults, implying that varicella diseases could become a heavy burden in tropical countries. However, in the situation of humanitarian emergencies in tropical areas, chickenpox has largely been ignored as a serious communicable disease, due to lack of data regarding varicella mortality and hospital admissions in such a context. This is the first report describing an outbreak of chickenpox in a refugee camp of tropical region. In 2008, we experienced a varicella outbreak in ethnic Lao Hmong refugee camp in Phetchabun Province, northern Thailand. The attack rate was 4.0% (309/7,815 and this caused 3 hospitalizations including one who developed severe varicella pneumonia with respiratory failure. All hospitalizations were exclusively seen in adults, and the proportion of patients ≥15 years old was 13.6% (42/309. Because less exposure to varicella-zoster virus due to low population density has previously been suggested to be one of the reasons behind higher prevalence of susceptible adults in tropics, the influx of displaced people from rural areas to a densely populated asylum might result in many severe adult cases once a varicella outbreak occurs. Control interventions such as vaccination should be considered even in refugee camp, if the confluence of the risk factors present in this situation.

  11. Exchange Protein Directly Activated by cAMP (epac) : A Multidomain cAMP Mediator in the Regulation of Diverse Biological Functions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schmidt, Martina; Dekker, Frank J.; Maarsingh, Harm

    2013-01-01

    Since the discovery nearly 60 years ago, cAMP is envisioned as one of the most universal and versatile second messengers. The tremendous feature of cAMP to tightly control highly diverse physiologic processes, including calcium homeostasis, metabolism, secretion, muscle contraction, cell fate, and g

  12. Expression of orphan G-protein coupled receptor GPR174 in CHO cells induced morphological changes and proliferation delay via increasing intracellular cAMP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► Expression of GPR174 in CHO cells induces morphological changes and proliferation delay. ► These are due to increase in intracellular cAMP concentration. ► Lysophosphatidylserine was identified to stimulate GPR174 leading to activate ACase. ► The potencies of fatty acid moiety on LysoPS were oleoyl ⩾ stearoyl > palmitoyl. ► We propose that GPR174 is a lysophosphatidylserine receptor. -- Abstract: We established cell lines that stably express orphan GPCR GPR174 using CHO cells, and studied physiological and pharmacological features of the receptor. GPR174-expressing cells showed cell–cell adhesion with localization of actin filaments to cell membrane, and revealed significant delay of cell proliferation. Since the morphological changes of GPR174-cells were very similar to mock CHO cells treated with cholera toxin, we measured the concentration of intracellular cAMP. The results showed the concentration was significantly elevated in GPR174-cells. By measuring intracellular cAMP concentration in GPR174-cells, we screened lipids and nucleotides to identify ligands for GPR174. We found that lysophosphatidylserine (LysoPS) stimulated increase in intracellular cAMP in a dose-dependent manner. Moreover, phosphorylation of Erk was elevated by LysoPS in GPR174 cells. These LysoPS responses were inhibited by NF449, an inhibitor of Gαs protein. These results suggested that GPR174 was a putative LysoPS receptor conjugating with Gαs, and its expression induced morphological changes in CHO cells by constitutively activating adenylyl cycles accompanied with cell conjunctions and delay of proliferation.

  13. Chlorella intake attenuates reduced salivary SIgA secretion in kendo training camp participants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Otsuki Takeshi

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The green alga Chlorella contains high levels of proteins, vitamins, and minerals. We previously reported that a chlorella-derived multicomponent supplement increased the secretion rate of salivary secretory immunoglobulin A (SIgA in humans. Here, we investigated whether intake of this chlorella-derived supplement attenuated the reduced salivary SIgA secretion rate during a kendo training camp. Methods Ten female kendo athletes participated in inter-university 6-day spring and 4-day summer camps. They were randomized into two groups; one took placebo tablets during the spring camp and chlorella tablets during the summer camp, while the other took chlorella tablets during the spring camp and placebo tablets during the summer camp. Subjects took these tablets starting 4 weeks before the camp until post-camp saliva sampling. Salivary SIgA concentrations were measured by ELISA. Results All subjects participated in nearly all training programs, and body-mass changes and subjective physical well-being scores during the camps were comparable between the groups. However, salivary SIgA secretion rate changes were different between these groups. Salivary SIgA secretion rates decreased during the camp in the placebo group (before vs. second, middle, and final day of camp, and after the camp: 146 ± 89 vs. 87 ± 56, 70 ± 45, 94 ± 58, and 116 ± 71 μg/min, whereas no such decreases were observed in the chlorella group (121 ± 53 vs. 113 ± 68, 98 ± 69,115 ± 80, and 128 ± 59 μg/min. Conclusion Our results suggest that a use of a chlorella-derived dietary supplement attenuates reduced salivary SIgA secretion during a training camp for a competitive sport.

  14. A Computational Modeling and Simulation Approach to Investigate Mechanisms of Subcellular cAMP Compartmentation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pei-Chi Yang

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Subcellular compartmentation of the ubiquitous second messenger cAMP has been widely proposed as a mechanism to explain unique receptor-dependent functional responses. How exactly compartmentation is achieved, however, has remained a mystery for more than 40 years. In this study, we developed computational and mathematical models to represent a subcellular sarcomeric space in a cardiac myocyte with varying detail. We then used these models to predict the contributions of various mechanisms that establish subcellular cAMP microdomains. We used the models to test the hypothesis that phosphodiesterases act as functional barriers to diffusion, creating discrete cAMP signaling domains. We also used the models to predict the effect of a range of experimentally measured diffusion rates on cAMP compartmentation. Finally, we modeled the anatomical structures in a cardiac myocyte diad, to predict the effects of anatomical diffusion barriers on cAMP compartmentation. When we incorporated experimentally informed model parameters to reconstruct an in silico subcellular sarcomeric space with spatially distinct cAMP production sites linked to caveloar domains, the models predict that under realistic conditions phosphodiesterases alone were insufficient to generate significant cAMP gradients. This prediction persisted even when combined with slow cAMP diffusion. When we additionally considered the effects of anatomic barriers to diffusion that are expected in the cardiac myocyte dyadic space, cAMP compartmentation did occur, but only when diffusion was slow. Our model simulations suggest that additional mechanisms likely contribute to cAMP gradients occurring in submicroscopic domains. The difference between the physiological and pathological effects resulting from the production of cAMP may be a function of appropriate compartmentation of cAMP signaling. Therefore, understanding the contribution of factors that are responsible for coordinating the spatial and

  15. A Computational Modeling and Simulation Approach to Investigate Mechanisms of Subcellular cAMP Compartmentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Pei-Chi; Boras, Britton W; Jeng, Mao-Tsuen; Docken, Steffen S; Lewis, Timothy J; McCulloch, Andrew D; Harvey, Robert D; Clancy, Colleen E

    2016-07-01

    Subcellular compartmentation of the ubiquitous second messenger cAMP has been widely proposed as a mechanism to explain unique receptor-dependent functional responses. How exactly compartmentation is achieved, however, has remained a mystery for more than 40 years. In this study, we developed computational and mathematical models to represent a subcellular sarcomeric space in a cardiac myocyte with varying detail. We then used these models to predict the contributions of various mechanisms that establish subcellular cAMP microdomains. We used the models to test the hypothesis that phosphodiesterases act as functional barriers to diffusion, creating discrete cAMP signaling domains. We also used the models to predict the effect of a range of experimentally measured diffusion rates on cAMP compartmentation. Finally, we modeled the anatomical structures in a cardiac myocyte diad, to predict the effects of anatomical diffusion barriers on cAMP compartmentation. When we incorporated experimentally informed model parameters to reconstruct an in silico subcellular sarcomeric space with spatially distinct cAMP production sites linked to caveloar domains, the models predict that under realistic conditions phosphodiesterases alone were insufficient to generate significant cAMP gradients. This prediction persisted even when combined with slow cAMP diffusion. When we additionally considered the effects of anatomic barriers to diffusion that are expected in the cardiac myocyte dyadic space, cAMP compartmentation did occur, but only when diffusion was slow. Our model simulations suggest that additional mechanisms likely contribute to cAMP gradients occurring in submicroscopic domains. The difference between the physiological and pathological effects resulting from the production of cAMP may be a function of appropriate compartmentation of cAMP signaling. Therefore, understanding the contribution of factors that are responsible for coordinating the spatial and temporal

  16. AMP-activated protein kinase inhibits alkaline pH- and PKA-induced apical vacuolar H+-ATPase accumulation in epididymal clear cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallows, Kenneth R; Alzamora, Rodrigo; Li, Hui; Gong, Fan; Smolak, Christy; Neumann, Dietbert; Pastor-Soler, Núria M

    2009-04-01

    Acidic luminal pH and low [HCO(3)(-)] maintain sperm quiescent during maturation in the epididymis. The vacuolar H(+)-ATPase (V-ATPase) in clear cells is a major contributor to epididymal luminal acidification. We have shown previously that protein kinase A (PKA), acting downstream of soluble adenylyl cyclase stimulation by alkaline luminal pH or HCO(3)(-), induces V-ATPase apical membrane accumulation in clear cells. Here we examined whether the metabolic sensor AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) regulates this PKA-induced V-ATPase apical membrane accumulation. Immunofluorescence labeling of rat and non-human primate epididymides revealed specific AMPK expression in epithelial cells. Immunofluorescence labeling of rat epididymis showed that perfusion in vivo with the AMPK activators 5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide-1-beta-d-ribofuranoside (AICAR) or A-769662 induced a redistribution of the V-ATPase into subapical vesicles, even in the presence of a luminal alkaline (pH 7.8) buffer compared with that of controls perfused without drug. Moreover, preperfusion with AICAR blocked the PKA-mediated V-ATPase translocation to clear cell apical membranes induced by N(6)-monobutyryl-cAMP (6-MB-cAMP). Purified PKA and AMPK both phosphorylated V-ATPase A subunit in vitro. In HEK-293 cells [(32)P]orthophosphate in vivo labeling of the A subunit increased following PKA stimulation and decreased following RNA interference-mediated knockdown of AMPK. Finally, the extent of PKA-dependent in vivo phosphorylation of the A subunit increased with AMPK knockdown. In summary, our findings suggest that AMPK inhibits PKA-mediated V-ATPase apical accumulation in epididymal clear cells, that both kinases directly phosphorylate the V-ATPase A subunit in vitro and in vivo, and that AMPK inhibits PKA-dependent phosphorylation of this subunit. V-ATPase activity may be coupled to the sensing of acid-base status via PKA and to metabolic status via AMPK. PMID:19211918

  17. Do Parameters Of Irradiation Influences The Apical Sealing Of Er:YAG Laser Apicetomies?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marques, Aparecida Maria Cordeiro; dos Santos, Jean Nunes; Pinheiro, Antonio Luiz Barbosa

    2011-08-01

    Failures on the sealing of the tooth apex are responsible for many failures of apical surgeries. The Er:YAG laser has been proposed as an alternative for the use of rotator instruments on surgical endodontics. 12 human extracted canines had root endodontic treatment being the apical limit was set at 1mm before the apical foramen and were distributed into 2 groups. On group I, apicectomy was performed with the Er:YAG laser (250 mJ/15 Hz). Apical cut was performed of perpendicular mode with 3mm from the apical foramen. On Group II, the same procedures and the same sequence as above was used, varying only the parameters of the Er:YAG laser (400 mJ/6 Hz). The specimens were divided into groups and fixed, by the cervical third, on wax. Impermeabilization of the residual root apical third was performed following the same procedures used in the cervical third but the residual apex was left free from the impermeabilization. After that, the roots were immersed in a 2% methylene blue solution and placed in a bacteriological oven for 48 h. The segments were visually observed and the one showing greatest level of dye leakage was selected and kept in individual container and coded accordingly. Apical staining was measured using a stereoscopic magnifying glass; a compass; and caliper. The results showed that Group I showed significantly different higher mean level of dye leakage (5.67±4.9, p<0.05). There was a significantly difference between the groups. It is concluded that the apicectomies carried out with 400 mJ/6 Hz showed the smallest infiltration value.

  18. Environmental Factors Affecting Mercury in Camp Far West Reservoir, California, 2001-03

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alpers, Charles N.; Stewart, A. Robin; Saiki, Michael K.; Marvin-DiPasquale, Mark C.; Topping, Brent R.; Rider, Kelly M.; Gallanthine, Steven K.; Kester, Cynthia A.; Rye, Robert O.; Antweiler, Ronald C.; De Wild, John F.

    2008-01-01

    water were observed in samples collected during summer from deepwater stations in the anoxic hypolimnion. In the shallow (less than 14 meters depth) oxic epilimnion, concentrations of methylmercury in unfiltered water were highest during the spring and lowest during the fall. The ratio of methylmercury to total mercury (MeHg/HgT) increased systematically from winter to spring to summer, largely in response to the progressive seasonal decrease in total mercury concentrations, but also to some extent because of increases in MeHg concentrations during summer. Water-quality data for Camp Far West Reservoir are used in conjunction with data from linked studies of sediment and biota to develop and refine a conceptual model for mercury methylation and bioaccumulation in the reservoir and the lower Bear River watershed. It is hypothesized that MeHg is produced by sulfate-reducing bacteria in the anoxic parts of the water column and in shallow bed sediment. Conditions were optimal for this process during late summer and fall. Previous work has indicated that Camp Far West Reservoir is a phosphate-limited system - molar ratios of inorganic nitrogen to inorganic phosphorus in filtered water were consistently greater than 16 (the Redfield ratio), sometimes by orders of magnitude. Therefore, concentrations of orthophosphate were expectedly very low or below detection at all stations during all seasons. It is further hypothesized that iron-reducing bacteria facilitate release of phosphorus from iron-rich sediments during summer and early fall, stimulating phytoplankton growth in the fall and winter, and that the MeHg produced in the hypolimnion and metalimnion is released to the entire water column in the late fall during reservoir destratification (vertical mixing). Mercury bioaccumulation factors (BAF) were computed using data from linked studies of biota spanning a range of trophic position: zooplankton, midge larvae, mayfly nymphs, crayfish, threadfin shad, bluegill,

  19. cAMP biosensors applied in molecular pharmacological studies of G protein-coupled receptors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mathiesen, Jesper Mosolff; Vedel, Line; Bräuner-Osborne, Hans

    2013-01-01

    end-point assays for quantifying GPCR-mediated changes in intracellular cAMP levels exist. More recently, fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET)-based cAMP biosensors that can quantify intracellular cAMP levels in real time have been developed. These FRET-based cAMP biosensors have been used...... primarily in single cell FRET microscopy to monitor and visualize changes in cAMP upon GPCR activation. Here, a similar cAMP biosensor with a more efficient mCerulean/mCitrine FRET pair is described for use in the 384-well plate format. After cloning and expression in HEK293 cells, the biosensor is...... characterized in the 384-well plate format and used for measuring the signaling of the G(s)-coupled ß(2)-adrenergic receptor. The procedures described may be applied for other FRET-based biosensors in terms of characterization and conversion to the 384-well plate format....

  20. Síndrome do balonamento apical secundário ao uso abusivo de descongestionante nasal Síndrome del abombamiento apical secundario al uso abusivo de descongestionante nasal Apical ballooning syndrome secondary to nasal decongestant abuse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Wang

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Descrevemos um caso típico de síndrome do balonamento apical em uma paciente octogenária com alteração eletrocardiográfica, de contratilidade do ventrículo esquerdo, e que apresentou recuperação da função ventricular. A paciente é portadora de rinite alérgica e fez uso excessivo de descongestionante nasal horas antes do episódio da dor.Describimos un caso típico de síndrome de abombamiento apical en una paciente octogenaria con alteración electrocardiográfica, de contractilidad del ventrículo izquierdo, y que presentó recuperación de la función ventricular. La paciente es portadora de rinitis alérgica y hace uso excesivo de descongestionante nasal horas antes del episodio del dolor.We describe a typical case of apical ballooning syndrome in an octogenarian female patient with left ventricular wall motion abnormality on electrocardiography, whose ventricular function returned to normal. The patient has allergic rhinitis and had used nasal decongestant excessively a few hours prior to the episode of pain.

  1. WEBSITE AS A MARKETING TOOL IN TOURISM : Website Design for Svanen Camping Site

    OpenAIRE

    Paudel, Binaya

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this thesis was to a give little introduction into modern marketing tools in tourism, such as, websites, Facebook, YouTube, Twitter and Google Plus, and to modify the existing website of Svanen camping, Pietarsaari/ Jakobstad attractively. The Svanen camping is run during the summer by Central Ostrobothnia University of Applied Sciences (COU) since 2004. It is owned by the town of Pietarsaari. The camping is managed by Centria – Research and Development. Jennie Elfving, who is a re...

  2. The effectiveness of an American science camp for Taiwanese high school students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Pi-Chu

    The purposes of this study were: (1) to evaluate the effectiveness of an American science camp for Taiwanese high school students in terms of student attitudes toward science; (2) to understand the factors that affect student attitudes toward science in the American science camp. Qualitative and quantitative data were collected and analyzed to answer my research questions: (1) How did the influence of the abroad science camp differ from the local one in terms of student attitudes toward science? (2) How did gender, grade level, and personality affect student attitudes toward science in the abroad science camp? An Attitudes toward Science Inventory was used in this study to measure student attitudes. The results of factor analysis suggested that the attitudes measured in this study include five common factors: science as school subjects (SC), science in society (SS), value of science (VS), science in laboratory (SL), and nature of science (NS). Significant improvements were found in SS, VS, and NS after the experiences of the abroad science camp. In the local science camp, only NS was non-significant comparing before and after the camp. The results from the comparisons between the two science camps show that different program designs have different impacts on student attitudes toward science. Furthermore, whether the science camps are designed based on learning theory or not, and regardless of how much time the campers spend in science-related activities during science camps, science camps can motivate students' interests in learning science. The results of mixed-design ANOVA for gender, grade level, and personality suggest that most of these personal factors did not significantly affect student attitudes. However, extraversion/introversion and sensing/intuition had impacts on the persuasibility of the abroad science camp.

  3. Modeling Soil Loss to Determine Water Erosion Risk at Camp Williams National Guard Base, Utah

    OpenAIRE

    Bartsch, Kevin P.

    1998-01-01

    Soil erosion was assessed at Camp Williams National Guard Base by creating an erosion risk classification map and comparing the erosion impact of disturbance regimes on different hillslopes. Soil erosion does not appear to be a problem for most of Camp Williams. The Revised Universal Soil Loss Equation was applied using GIS to create a soil erosion risk map for the entire Camp Williams facility. The map indicated where problem areas occurred and showed relative erosion risk, but its lack o...

  4. cAMP Level Modulates Scleral Collagen Remodeling, a Critical Step in the Development of Myopia

    OpenAIRE

    Tao, Yijin; Pan, Miaozhen; Liu, Shufeng; Fang, Fang; Lu, Runxia; Lu, Chanyi; Zheng, Min; An, Jianhong; Xu, Hongjia; Zhao, Fuxin; Chen, Jiang-Fan; Qu, Jia; Zhou, Xiangtian

    2013-01-01

    The development of myopia is associated with decreased ocular scleral collagen synthesis in humans and animal models. Collagen synthesis is, in part, under the influence of cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP). We investigated the associations between cAMP, myopia development in guinea pigs, and collagen synthesis by human scleral fibroblasts (HSFs). Form-deprived myopia (FDM) was induced by unilateral masking of guinea pig eyes. Scleral cAMP levels increased selectively in the FDM eyes and ...

  5. Midventricular Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy with Apical Aneurysm: Potential for Underdiagnosis and Value of Multimodality Imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Archana Sivanandam

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We illustrate a case of midventricle obstructive HCM and apical aneurysm diagnosed with appropriate use of multimodality imaging. A 75-year-old African American woman presented with a 3-day history of chest pain and dyspnea with elevated troponins. Her electrocardiogram showed sinus rhythm, left atrial enlargement, left ventricular hypertrophy, prolonged QT, and occasional ectopy. After medical therapy optimization, she underwent coronary angiography for an initial diagnosis of non-ST segment elevation myocardial infarction. Her coronaries were unremarkable for significant disease but her left ventriculogram showed hyperdynamic contractility of the midportion of the ventricle along with a large dyskinetic aneurysmal apical sac. A subsequent transthoracic echocardiogram provided poor visualization of the apical region of the ventricle but contrast enhancement identified an aneurysmal pouch distal to the midventricular obstruction. To further clarify the diagnosis, cardiac magnetic resonance imaging with contrast was performed confirming the diagnosis of midventricular hypertrophic cardiomyopathy with apical aneurysm and fibrosis consistent with apical scar on delayed enhancement. The patient was medically treated and subsequently underwent elective implantable defibrillator placement in the ensuing months for recurrent nonsustained ventricular tachycardia and was initiated on prophylactic oral anticoagulation with warfarin for thromboembolic risk reduction.

  6. Effects of apical meristem loss on sylleptic branching and growth of hybrid poplar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zeleznik, Joseph D. [North Dakota State University, Fargo, ND (United States). Plant Sciences Department

    2007-07-15

    The effects of apical meristem loss on the growth and development of hybrid poplar trees was investigated. This was done by clipping back either the apical meristem alone (dividing cells), or the apical meristem plus a small amount of additional stem tissue (expanding cells, <1 cm), at various times during the first growing season. Two clones (NM6-nonsylleptic habit, and DN34-slightly sylleptic habit) were tested at close spacing (0.6 m) in the nursery. Clipping generally increased the number of sylleptic branches formed. Clipping 69 days after planting resulted in the largest number of sylleptic branches while clipping 4 weeks later gave no increase in syllepsis. Clipping temporarily reduced height growth of both clones but total height at the end of the first growing season was not affected by any treatment. There were some slight differences in growth during the second growing season; despite these differences, total stem biomass and total tree biomass after 2 years were not affected by temporary loss of the apical meristem in the first growing season. Results suggest that death or removal of hybrid poplar apical meristems by tip borers or ungulates has no long-term effects on aboveground growth as measured by height or biomass. (author)

  7. In vitro study of apical leakage of root canals after different root apex resection techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Augusto Franco MARQUES

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective:The aim of the present study was to evaluate in vitro apicalmarginal leakage of root canals after three root apex resectiontechniques.Material and methods: Thirty maxillary canines wereprepared chemo-mechanically to a size 40 master apical file, andenlarged by using Gates Glidden burs 2, 3 and 4. Teeth were obturatedby Tagger thermomechanical compaction technique and then dividedinto three groups (n = 10. The first group (GI was 3 mm apicalresected with Endo Z in high speed handpiece. The specimens of secondgroup (GII were 3 mm apical weared with Endo Z, and the third group(GIII had 3 mm apical resected with Er:YAG laser (500 impulse, 12pps and 300 mJ energy. After the apical sections, IRM cement wasplaced into the root-end cavity and teeth of each group were immersedin India ink for 5 days and submitted to decalcification and clarifying for marginal apical microleakage visualization with microscope.Results: The results showed statistically difference (p < 0.01 between GI and the other groups.Conclusion: The root apex cut using Endo Z promotes the lowest values of microleakage when used in apicoectomy.

  8. CAMSAP3 orients the apical-to-basal polarity of microtubule arrays in epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toya, Mika; Kobayashi, Saeko; Kawasaki, Miwa; Shioi, Go; Kaneko, Mari; Ishiuchi, Takashi; Misaki, Kazuyo; Meng, Wenxiang; Takeichi, Masatoshi

    2016-01-12

    Polarized epithelial cells exhibit a characteristic array of microtubules that are oriented along the apicobasal axis of the cells. The minus-ends of these microtubules face apically, and the plus-ends face toward the basal side. The mechanisms underlying this epithelial-specific microtubule assembly remain unresolved, however. Here, using mouse intestinal cells and human Caco-2 cells, we show that the microtubule minus-end binding protein CAMSAP3 (calmodulin-regulated-spectrin-associated protein 3) plays a pivotal role in orienting the apical-to-basal polarity of microtubules in epithelial cells. In these cells, CAMSAP3 accumulated at the apical cortices, and tethered the longitudinal microtubules to these sites. Camsap3 mutation or depletion resulted in a random orientation of these microtubules; concomitantly, the stereotypic positioning of the nucleus and Golgi apparatus was perturbed. In contrast, the integrity of the plasma membrane was hardly affected, although its structural stability was decreased. Further analysis revealed that the CC1 domain of CAMSAP3 is crucial for its apical localization, and that forced mislocalization of CAMSAP3 disturbs the epithelial architecture. These findings demonstrate that apically localized CAMSAP3 determines the proper orientation of microtubules, and in turn that of organelles, in mature mammalian epithelial cells. PMID:26715742

  9. Sesamin induces melanogenesis by microphthalmia-associated transcription factor and tyrosinase up-regulation via cAMP signaling pathway

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zequn Jiang; Shasha Li; Yunyi Liu; Pengyi Deng; Jianguo Huang; Guangyuan He

    2011-01-01

    In this study,we confirmed that sesamin,an active lignan isolated from sesame seed and oil,is a novel skin-tanning compound.The melanin content and tyrosinase activity were increased by sesamin in a dose-dependent manner in B16 melanoma cells.The mRNA and protein levels of tyrosinase were also enhanced after the treatment with sesamin.Western blot analysis revealed that sesamin induced and sustained up-regulation of microphthalmiaassociated transcription factor (MITF).Sesamin could activate cAMP response element (CRE) binding protein (CREB),but it had no effect on the phosphorylation of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) or Akt.Moreover,sesamin activated protein kinase A (PKA) via a cAMP-dependent pathway.Consistent with these results,sesamin-mediated increase of melanin synthesis was reduced significantly by H-89,a PKA inhibitor,but not by SB203580,a p38 MAPK inhibitor or by LY294002,a phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase (PI3K) inhibitor.Sesamin-mediated phosphorylation of CREB and induction of MITF and tyrosinase expression were also inhibited by H-89.These findings indicated that sesamin could stimulate melanogenesis in B16 cells via the up-regulation of MITF and tyrosinase,which was,in turn,due to the activation of cAMP signaling.

  10. Sesamin induces melanogenesis by microphthalmia-associated transcription factor and tyrosinase up-regulation via cAMP signaling pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Zequn; Li, Shasha; Liu, Yunyi; Deng, Pengyi; Huang, Jianguo; He, Guangyuan

    2011-10-01

    In this study, we confirmed that sesamin, an active lignan isolated from sesame seed and oil, is a novel skin-tanning compound. The melanin content and tyrosinase activity were increased by sesamin in a dose-dependent manner in B16 melanoma cells. The mRNA and protein levels of tyrosinase were also enhanced after the treatment with sesamin. Western blot analysis revealed that sesamin induced and sustained up-regulation of microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (MITF). Sesamin could activate cAMP response element (CRE) binding protein (CREB), but it had no effect on the phosphorylation of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) or Akt. Moreover, sesamin activated protein kinase A (PKA) via a cAMP-dependent pathway. Consistent with these results, sesamin-mediated increase of melanin synthesis was reduced significantly by H-89, a PKA inhibitor, but not by SB203580, a p38 MAPK inhibitor or by LY294002, a phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase (PI3K) inhibitor. Sesamin-mediated phosphorylation of CREB and induction of MITF and tyrosinase expression were also inhibited by H-89. These findings indicated that sesamin could stimulate melanogenesis in B16 cells via the up-regulation of MITF and tyrosinase, which was, in turn, due to the activation of cAMP signaling. PMID:21896570

  11. Estudio sobre la adaptación apical de conos maestros de gutapercha en conductos radiculares instrumentados con limas Lightspeed

    OpenAIRE

    Pumarola Suñé, José; García Campaña, Ana M.; Brau Aguadé, Esteban; Canalda Sahli, Carlos

    2000-01-01

    El objetivo de este trabajo fue establecer la coincidencia entre el calibre del cono maestro apical y la lima maestra apical, así como medir cualitativamente la adaptación de diferentes marcas de conos de gutapercha en el tercio apical de conductos radiculares instrumentados con limas Lightspeed. Se instrumentaron 100 conductos de molares naturales extraídos con el sistema Lightspeed. Las muestras se distribuyeron aleatoriamente en cinco grupos. Cada grupo fue obturado mediante condensación l...

  12. Roles of external and cellular Cl- ions on the activation of an apical electrodiffusional Cl- pathway in toad skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Procopio, J; Lacaz-Vieira, F

    1990-07-01

    This study is concerned with the short-circuit current, Isc, responses of the Cl(-)-transporting cells of toad skin submitted to sudden changes of the external Cl- concentration, [Cl]o. Sudden changes of [Cl]o, carried out under apical membrane depolarization, allowed comparison of the roles of [Cl]o and [Cl]cell on the activation of the apical Cl- pathways. Equilibration of short-circuited skins symmetrically in K-Ringer's solutions of different Cl- concentrations permitted adjustment of [Cl]cell to different levels. For a given Cl- concentration (in the range of 11.7 to 117 mM) on both sides of a depolarized apical membrane, this structure exhibits a high Cl- permeability, P(Cl)apical. On the other hand, for the same range of [Cl]cell but with [Cl]o = 0, P(Cl)apical is reduced to negligible values. These observations indicate that when the apical membrane is depolarized P(Cl)apical is modulated by [Cl]o; in the absence of external Cl- ions, intracellular Cl- is not sufficient to activate P(Cl)apical. Computer simulation shows that the fast Cl- currents induced across the apical membrane by sudden shifts of [Cl]o from a control equilibrium value strictly follow the laws of electrodiffusion. For each experimental group, the computer-generated Isc versus [( Cl]cell - [Cl]o) curve which best fits the experimental data can only be obtained by a unique pair of P(Cl)apical and Rb (resistance of the basolateral membrane), thus allowing the calculation of these parameters. The electrodiffusional behavior of the net Cl- flux across the apical membrane supports the channel nature of the apical Cl- pathways in the Cl(-)-transporting cells. Cl- ions contribute significantly to the overall conductance of the basolateral membrane even in the presence of a high K concentration in the internal solution. PMID:1698229

  13. Human Cytomegalovirus Glycoprotein B Contains Autonomous Determinants for Vectorial Targeting to Apical Membranes of Polarized Epithelial Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Tugizov, Sharof; Maidji, Ekaterina; Xiao, Jianqiao; Zheng, Zhenwei; Pereira, Lenore

    1998-01-01

    We previously reported that human cytomegalovirus (CMV) glycoprotein B (gB) is vectorially transported to apical membranes of CMV-infected polarized human retinal pigment epithelial cells propagated on permeable filter supports and that virions egress predominantly from the apical membrane domain. In the present study, we investigated whether gB itself contains autonomous information for apical transport by expressing the molecule in stably transfected Madine-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells ...

  14. Tissue reaction to Endométhasone sealer in root canal fillings short of or beyond the apical foramen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia Suzuki

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: This study evaluated the response of periapical tissues to the endodontic sealer Endométhasone in root canal fillings short of or beyond the apical foramen. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Twenty root canals of premolars and incisors of 2 mongrel dogs were used. After coronal access and pulp extirpation, the canals were instrumented up to a size 55 K-file and the apical cemental barrier was penetrated with a size 15 K-file to obtain a main apical foramen, which was widened to a size 25 K-file. The canals were irrigated with saline at each change of file. The root canals were obturated either short of or beyond the apical foramen by the lateral condensation of gutta-percha and Endométhasone, originating 2 experimental groups: G1: Endométhasone/short of the apical foramen; G2: Endométhasone/beyond the apical foramen. The animals were killed by anesthetic overdose 90 days after endodontic treatment. The individual roots were obtained and serial histological sections were prepared for histomorphological analysis (H&E and Brown & Brenn techniques under light microscopy. The following parameters were examined: closure of the apical foramen of the main root canal and apical opening of accessory canals, apical cementum resorption, intensity of the inflammatory infiltrate, presence of giant cells and thickness and organization of the apical periodontal ligament. Each parameter was scored 1 to 4, 1 being the best result and 4 the worst. Data were analyzed statistically by the Wilcoxon nonparametric tests (p=0.05. RESULTS: Comparing the 2 groups, the best result (p<0.05 was obtained with root canal filling with Endométhasone short of the apical foramen but a chronic inflammatory infiltrate was present in all specimens. CONCLUSIONS: Limiting the filling material to the root canal space apically is important to determine the best treatment outcome when Endométhasone is used as sealer.

  15. Algae blooms and their consequences on camping tourism destinations: The case of Öland, Sweden

    OpenAIRE

    Foghagen, Christer

    2011-01-01

    In Sweden camping tourism holds the position as one of the largest niches within the tourism accommodation sector. The camping sector represents more than 17 million or 35% of commercial overnight stays in total. On the island of Öland which is located in Kalmar county, and in Kalmar county itself, the camping sector represents more than 1.75 million or 65% of the annual overnight stays which positions Kalmar and Öland as the second largest camping region in Sweden. However, tourism businesse...

  16. USE OF MODIFIED CAMP TEST FOR PRELIMINARY NONSEROLOGIC IDENTIFICATION OF VIBRIO CHOLERAE IN STOOL SPECIMENS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murad Lesmana

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Suatu modifikasi uji CAMP digunakan bersama dengan reaksi biokimiawi untuk identifikasi Vibrio cholerae pada sampel klinis. Dari 579 usap dubur penderita diare, 92 (16% memberikan hasil isolasi V. cholerae 01 biotipe El Tor dan 34 (6% V. cholerae non-01. Semua isolat V. cholerae 01 El Tor menunjukkan reaksi CAMP positif kuat dengan gambaran hemolisis sinergistik lengkap berbentuk sosis; sedangkan V. cholerae non-01 memberikan reaksi CAMP yang sempit dengan pola hemolisis menyerupai bulan sabit. Hasil uji CAMP yang dilakukan bersama dengan reaksi biokimiawi sesuai dengan metode biakan konvensional yang menyertakan tes aglutinasi dengan antiserum V. cholerae 01 untuk mengidentifikasi V. cholerae.

  17. "cAMP sponge": a buffer for cyclic adenosine 3', 5'-monophosphate.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konstantinos Lefkimmiatis

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: While intracellular buffers are widely used to study calcium signaling, no such tool exists for the other major second messenger, cyclic AMP (cAMP. METHODS/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here we describe a genetically encoded buffer for cAMP based on the high-affinity cAMP-binding carboxy-terminus of the regulatory subunit RIbeta of protein kinase A (PKA. Addition of targeting sequences permitted localization of this fragment to the extra-nuclear compartment, while tagging with mCherry allowed quantification of its expression at the single cell level. This construct (named "cAMP sponge" was shown to selectively bind cAMP in vitro. Its expression significantly suppressed agonist-induced cAMP signals and the downstream activation of PKA within the cytosol as measured by FRET-based sensors in single living cells. Point mutations in the cAMP-binding domains of the construct rendered the chimera unable to bind cAMP in vitro or in situ. Cyclic AMP sponge was fruitfully applied to examine feedback regulation of gap junction-mediated transfer of cAMP in epithelial cell couplets. CONCLUSIONS: This newest member of the cAMP toolbox has the potential to reveal unique biological functions of cAMP, including insight into the functional significance of compartmentalized signaling events.

  18. Growth, 14C-sucrose uptake, and metabolites of starch synthesis in apical and basal kernels of corn (Zea mays L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Developing field-grown kernels of corn (Zea mays L. cv. Cornell 175) from the base and apex of the ear were sampled from seven to 70 days after pollination (DAP) an compared with respect to dry weight, ability to take up 14C-sucrose from solution in vitro, and content of sucrose, glucose, starch, glucose-1-P (G1P), glucose-6-P (G6P), fructose-6-P (F6P), ADP-glucose (ADPG), and UDP-glucose (UDPG). ADPG and UDPG were analyzed by HPLC. All other metabolites were analyzed enzymatically. Simultaneous hand-pollination of all ovaries in an ear did not reduce the difference between apical and basal kernels in dry weight, indicating that the latter fertilization of apical kernels was not responsible for their lesser mature dry weight. Detached kernels took up 14C-sucrose (0.3-400 mM) and glucose (5-100 mM) at rates linearly proportional to the sugar concentration. Glucose, fructose, and sorbitol did not inhibit uptake of 14C-sucrose. Uptake was not stimulated by 5 mM CaCl2 or the addition of buffers (pH 4.5-6.7) to the medium. Sulfhydryl reagents (PCMBS, NEM) and metabolic inhibitors (TNBS, DNP, NaF) did not reduce uptake. These observations suggest that sucrose is taken up by a non-saturable, non-energy-requiring mechanism. Sucrose uptake increased throughout development, especially at the stage when basal kernels began to accumulate more dry weight than apical kernels (10-20 DAP in freely pollinated ears; 25 DAP in synchronously pollinated ears). Hydrolysis of incorporated sucrose increased from 87% at 14 DAP to 99% by 57 DAP

  19. Classification of MEC with the ALLTEM at Camp Stanley, Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asch, T.; Moulton, C.; Smith, D.V.

    2011-01-01

    The ALLTEM is a multi-axis electromagnetic induction system designed for unexploded ordnance UXO applications. It uses a continuous triangle-wave excitation and provides good late-time signal-to-noise ratio SNR especially for ferrous targets. Multi-axis transmitter Tx and receiver Rx systems such as ALLTEM provide a richer data set from which to invert for the target parameters required to distinguish between clutter and UXO. Inversions of field data acquired between 2006 and 2010 over the Army's UXO Standardized Test sites at the Yuma Proving Ground YPG in Arizona and at the Aberdeen Proving Ground APG in Maryland have produced reasonable and generally repeatable results for many UXO items buried at different orientations and depths. In February-March 2011 ALLTEM data was acquired at two locations on the Camp Stanley Storage Activity CSSA just north of San Antonio, Texas. Camp Stanley is used to store munitions as well as test, fire, and overhaul munitions components. Site B-20 is an open burn/open detonation OBOD area and Site B-27 consists of narrow trenches blasted into limestone containing buried range and munitions debris and possibly MEC. The processing, analysis, and classification techniques developed at the controlled environments of YPG and APG have been applied to these two "live" sites at Camp Stanley. ALLTEM data analysis includes both classical numerical inversion of data from each anomaly and clustering of the raw data by means of a self-organizing map SOM via generalized neural network algorithms. Final classification consists of an integration of both the numerical and SOM results. ?? 2011 Society of Exploration Geophysicists.

  20. Metabolites of an Epac-selective cAMP analog induce cortisol synthesis by adrenocortical cells through a cAMP-independent pathway.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judith A Enyeart

    Full Text Available Adrenal zona fasciculata (AZF cells express a cAMP-activated guanine nucleotide exchange protein (Epac2 that may function in ACTH-stimulated cortisol synthesis. Experiments were done to determine whether cAMP analogs that selectively activate Epacs could induce cortisol synthesis and the expression of genes coding for steroidogenic proteins in bovine AZF cells. Treatment of AZF cells with the Epac-selective cAMP analog (ESCA 8CPT-2'-OMe-cAMP induced large (>100 fold, concentration-dependent, delayed increases in cortisol synthesis and the expression of mRNAs coding for the steroid hydroxylases CYP11a1, CYP17, CYP21, and the steroid acute regulatory protein (StAR. However, a non-hydrolyzable analog of this ESCA, Sp-8CPT-2'-OMe-cAMP, failed to stimulate cortisol production even at concentrations that activated Rap1, a downstream effector of Epac2. Accordingly, putative metabolites of 8CPT-2'-OMe-cAMP, including 8CPT-2'-OMe-5'AMP, 8CPT-2'-OMe-adenosine, and 8CPT-adenine all induced cortisol synthesis and steroid hydroxylase mRNA expression with a temporal pattern, potency, and effectiveness similar to the parent compound. At concentrations that markedly stimulated cortisol production, none of these metabolites significantly activated cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA. These results show that one or more metabolites of the ESCA 8CPT-2'-OMe-cAMP induce cortico-steroidogenesis by activating a panel of genes that code for steroidogenic proteins. The remarkable increases in cortisol synthesis observed in this study appear to be mediated by a novel cAMP-, Epac- and PKA-independent signaling pathway.

  1. Analyses of Interactions Between Heparin and the Apical Surface Proteins of Plasmodium falciparum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Kyousuke; Takano, Ryo; Takemae, Hitoshi; Sugi, Tatsuki; Ishiwa, Akiko; Gong, Haiyan; Recuenco, Frances C.; Iwanaga, Tatsuya; Horimoto, Taisuke; Akashi, Hiroomi; Kato, Kentaro

    2013-11-01

    Heparin, a sulfated glycoconjugate, reportedly inhibits the blood-stage growth of the malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum. Elucidation of the inhibitory mechanism is valuable for developing novel invasion-blocking treatments based on heparin. Merozoite surface protein 1 has been reported as a candidate target of heparin; however, to better understand the molecular mechanisms involved, we characterized the molecules that bind to heparin during merozoite invasion. Here, we show that heparin binds only at the apical tip of the merozoite surface and that multiple heparin-binding proteins localize preferentially in the apical organelles. To identify heparin-binding proteins, parasite proteins were fractionated by means of heparin affinity chromatography and subjected to immunoblot analysis with ligand-specific antibodies. All tested members of the Duffy and reticulocyte binding-like families bound to heparin with diverse affinities. These findings suggest that heparin masks the apical surface of merozoites and blocks interaction with the erythrocyte membrane after initial attachment.

  2. The apical oblique view of the clavicle: Its usefulness in neonatal and childhood trauma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We analyzed clavicular radiographs of 26 patients with a history of trauma. The apical oblique projection of the clavicle was obtained with the injured side of the patient angled 450 towards the X-ray tube and a 200 cephalad angulation of the X-ray beam. This view proved to be more informative than the routine apical anteroposterior projection. It is especially effective in detecting nondisplaced fractures of the middle third of the clavicle in neonates and children. To verify our findings, we obtained apical anteroposterior and oblique radiographs of a specimen adult of the X-ray beam, the measurements of the projected lengths of the anatomical specimen, especially those of the middle portion of the clavicle, were very close to the corresponding anatomical lengths. (orig.)

  3. Efficacy of three techniques in cleaning the apical portion of curved root canals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, M K; Wesselink, P R

    1995-04-01

    Various techniques for root canal instrumentation may have different effects in cleaning curved root canals, especially their apical portions. One hundred thirty-five mesiobuccal canals with an average curvature of 25 degrees from human mandibular molars were treated with step-back, crown-down pressureless, or balanced-force techniques with 2% sodium hypochlorite used as an irrigant. The cleaning efficacy of these techniques was evaluated by counting the remaining surface debris under a stereomicroscope with a calibrated eyepiece micrometer. The results indicated that the apical portion of the canal was less clean than the middle and coronal portions regardless of the technique performed and that the balanced-force technique produced a cleaner apical portion of the canal than did the other techniques studied. PMID:7614212

  4. Depth of planting and apical dominance on cuttings of red pitayaProfundidade de plantio e dominância apical na estaquia de pitaia vermelha

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virna Braga Marques

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of planting depth and breaking apical dominance on cutting of red pitaya Hylocereus undatus (Haw. Britton & Rose. The experiment was conducted in a randomized block design with four replications in a 2x3 factorial, with two kinds of cuttings (with or without apical dominance, cutting not sectioned and sectioned at 5 cm from the upper portion, and three planting depths (1.0, 5.0, and 10.0 cm and each plot consisted of ten 20 cm long cuttings. After 60 days of planting, counts of the number of shoots were began weekly and 90 days after planting survival rooting, number and length of shoots, dry weight of shoots and root dry mass were evaluated. Data were subjected to analysis of variance and polynomial regression at 5% significance level. The percentage of rooting and the survival were 100% in all treatments. With increasing depth of planting it was observed linear reduction in numbers of shoots, dry weight of shoot and root dry mass. The cladodes with apical dominance had longer shoots. The planting of red pitaya cuttings at 1 cm of planting depth with apical dominance is more suited to the production of nursery plants. O trabalho foi conduzido com o objetivo de avaliar os efeitos da profundidade de plantio e da quebra de dominância apical na estaquia de pitaia vermelha Hylocereus undatus (Haw. Britton & Rose. O experimento foi instalado no delineamento em blocos casualizados, com quatro repetições no esquema fatorial 2x3, sendo dois tipos de estacas (com e sem dominância apical, estacas não seccionadas e seccionadas a 5 cm da porção superior, e três profundidades de plantio (1,0; 5,0; 10,0 cm e cada parcela foi constituída de dez estacas com 20 cm de comprimento. Após 60 dias do plantio, foram iniciadas as avaliações semanais do número de brotações e aos 90 dias após o plantio foram avaliados sobrevivência, enraizamento, número e comprimento de brotações, massa seca das brota

  5. Thyroid bud morphogenesis requires CDC42- and SHROOM3-dependent apical constriction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loebel, David A. F.; Plageman, Timothy F.; Tang, Theresa L.; Jones, Vanessa J.; Muccioli, Maria; Tam, Patrick P. L.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Early development of the gut endoderm and its subsequent remodeling for the formation of organ buds are accompanied by changes to epithelial cell shape and polarity. Members of the Rho-related family of small GTPases and their interacting proteins play multiple roles in regulating epithelial morphogenesis. In this study we examined the role of Cdc42 in foregut development and organ bud formation. Ablation of Cdc42 in post-gastrulation mouse embryos resulted in a loss of apical-basal cell polarity and columnar epithelial morphology in the ventral pharyngeal endoderm, in conjunction with a loss of apical localization of the known CDC42 effector protein PARD6B. Cell viability but not proliferation in the foregut endoderm was impaired. Outgrowth of the liver, lung and thyroid buds was severely curtailed in Cdc42-deficient embryos. In particular, the thyroid bud epithelium did not display the apical constriction that normally occurs concurrently with the outgrowth of the bud into the underlying mesenchyme. SHROOM3, a protein that interacts with Rho GTPases and promotes apical constriction, was strongly expressed in the thyroid bud and its sub-cellular localization was disrupted in Cdc42-deficient embryos. In Shroom3 gene trap mutant embryos, the thyroid bud epithelium showed no apical constriction, while the bud continued to grow and protruded into the foregut lumen. Our findings indicate that Cdc42 is required for epithelial polarity and organization in the endoderm and for apical constriction in the thyroid bud. It is possible that the function of CDC42 is partly mediated by SHROOM3. PMID:26772200

  6. Sequential development of apical-basal and planar polarities in aggregating epitheliomuscular cells of Hydra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seybold, Anna; Salvenmoser, Willi; Hobmayer, Bert

    2016-04-01

    Apical-basal and planar cell polarities are hallmarks of metazoan epithelia required to separate internal and external environments and to regulate trans- and intracellular transport, cytoskeletal organization, and morphogenesis. Mechanisms of cell polarization have been intensively studied in bilaterian model organisms, particularly in early embryos and cultured cells, while cell polarity in pre-bilaterian tissues is poorly understood. Here, we have studied apical-basal and planar polarization in regenerating (aggregating) clusters of epitheliomuscular cells of Hydra, a simple representative of the ancestral, pre-bilaterian phylum Cnidaria. Immediately after dissociation, single epitheliomuscular cells do not exhibit cellular polarity, but they polarize de novo during aggregation. Reestablishment of the Hydra-specific epithelial bilayer is a result of short-range cell sorting. In the early phase of aggregation, apical-basal polarization starts with an enlargement of the epithelial apical-basal diameter and by the development of belt-like apical septate junctions. Specification of the basal pole of epithelial cells occurs shortly later and is linked to synthesis of mesoglea, development of hemidesmosome-like junctions, and formation of desmosome-like junctions connecting the basal myonemes of neighbouring cells. Planar polarization starts, while apical-basal polarization is already ongoing. It is executed gradually starting with cell-autonomous formation, parallelization, and condensation of myonemes at the basal end of each epithelial cell and continuing with a final planar alignment of epitheliomuscular cells at the tissue level. Our findings reveal that epithelial polarization in Hydra aggregates occurs in defined steps well accessible by histological and ultrastructural techniques and they will provide a basis for future molecular studies. PMID:26921448

  7. Estudio de la filtración apical de cuatro cementos de obturación

    OpenAIRE

    Roig Cayón, Miguel; Ribot Porta, J. de; Jané Noblom, L.; Canalda Sahli, Carlos

    1996-01-01

    Los autores estudian in vitro la microfiltración apical con cuatro cementos de obturación, mediante la utilización de un colorante y técnicas de diafanización. Analizan dos cementos a base de hidróxido de calcio, y uno de ionómero de vidrio, comparándolos con un cemento clásico a base de óxido de zinc-eugenol. La filtración apical del cemento sellador Apexit fue significativamente superior a la de los cementos Sealapex y Endomethasone. No se observaron diferencias significativas entre los dem...

  8. Apical Ballooning Syndrome (Takotsubo Cardiomyopathy after Permanent Dual-Chamber Pacemaker Implantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Armando Gardini

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Apical ballooning syndrome, also called takotsubo cardiomyopathy, has been recently reported. It may mimic acute myocardial infarction and is typically observed in postmenopausal women after stressful events. A 75-year-old female after permanent dual chamber pacemaker implant complained of chest pain with repolarization alterations suggesting acute myocardial ischemia. Echocardiography showed a left ventricle with akinesia of the apical portions and reduced global systolic function. The patient was treated with antithrombotic agents and intravenous nitrates. No coronary lesions were found at angiography. At ventriculography, a typical takotsubo-like shape of the left ventricle was observed. The clinical and echocardiographic picture normalized at discharge.

  9. SEALING ABILITY OF GRAY MTA ANGELUS™, CPM™ AND MBPC USED AS APICAL PLUGS

    OpenAIRE

    Fernando Accorsi Orosco; Clovis Monteiro Bramante; Roberto Brandão Garcia; Norberti Bernadineli; Ivaldo Gomes de Moraes

    2008-01-01

    This study evaluated the sealing ability of apical plugs fabricated with gray MTA AngelusTM sealer, CPM TM sealer and MBPc sealer. The root canals of 98 extracted single-rooted human teeth were instrumented with #5 to #1 Gates Glidden drills according to the crown-down technique until the #1 drill could pass through the apical foramen. The specimens were then prepared with K-files, starting with an ISO 50 until an ISO 90 could be visualized 1 mm beyond the apex. After root canal preparation, ...

  10. Apical Localization of Sodium-Dependent Glucose Transporter SGLT1 is Maintained by Cholesterol and Microtubules

    OpenAIRE

    Suzuki, Takeshi; Matsuzaki, Toshiyuki; Hagiwara, Haruo; Aoki, Takeo; Tajika-Takahashi, Yukiko; Takata, Kuniaki

    2006-01-01

    A GFP-labeled sodium-dependent glucose transporter SGLT1 (SGLT-GFP) was transfected into MDCK cells. SGLT-GFP was localized at the apical membrane in confluent cells. When cellular cholesterol was depleted by methyl-β-cyclodextrin (MβCD) treatment, the localization of SGLT-GFP gradually switched from apical to whole plasma membrane. Time-lapse microscopy revealed that the effect of MβCD appeared within 30 min, and that the transition of SGLT-GFP to the whole plasma membrane was completed with...

  11. Genetically-encoded tools for cAMP probing and modulation in living systems.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valeriy M Paramonov

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Intracellular 3'-5'-cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP is one of the principal second messengers downstream of a manifold of signal transduction pathways, including the ones triggered by G protein-coupled receptors. Not surprisingly, biochemical assays for cAMP have been instrumental for basic research and drug discovery for decades, providing insights into cellular physiology and guiding pharmaceutical industry. However, despite impressive track record, the majority of conventional biochemical tools for cAMP probing share the same fundamental shortcoming - all the measurements require sample disruption for cAMP liberation. This common bottleneck, together with inherently low spatial resolution of measurements (as cAMP is typically analyzed in lysates of thousands of cells, underpin the ensuing limitations of the conventional cAMP assays: 1 genuine kinetic measurements of cAMP levels over time in a single given sample are unfeasible; 2 inability to obtain precise information on cAMP spatial distribution and transfer at subcellular levels, let alone the attempts to pinpoint dynamic interactions of cAMP and its effectors. At the same time, tremendous progress in synthetic biology over the recent years culminated in drastic refinement of our toolbox, allowing us not only to bypass the limitations of conventional assays, but to put intracellular cAMP life-span under tight control – something, that seemed scarcely attainable before. In this review article we discuss the main classes of modern genetically-encoded tools tailored for cAMP probing and modulation in living systems. We examine the capabilities and weaknesses of these different tools in the context of their operational characteristics and applicability to various experimental set-ups involving living cells, providing the guidance for rational selection of the best tools for particular needs.

  12. Functional involvement of Annexin-2 in cAMP induced AQP2 trafficking.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tamma, G.; Procino, G.; Mola, M.G.; Svelto, M.; Valenti, G.

    2008-01-01

    Annexin-2 is required for the apical transport in epithelial cells. In this study, we investigated the involvement of annexin-2 in cAMP-induced aquaporin-2 (AQP2) translocation to the apical membrane in renal cells. We found that the cAMP-elevating agent forskolin increased annexin-2 abundance in th

  13. Rapid Assessment of Seismic Vulnerability in Palestinian Refugee Camps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Dabbeek, Jalal N.; El-Kelani, Radwan J.

    Studies of historical and recorded earthquakes in Palestine demonstrate that damaging earthquakes are occurring frequently along the Dead Sea Transform: Earthquake of 11 July 1927 (ML 6.2), Earthquake of 11 February 2004 (ML 5.2). In order to reduce seismic vulnerability of buildings, losses in lives, properties and infrastructures, an attempt was made to estimate the percentage of damage degrees and losses at selected refugee camps: Al Ama`ri, Balata and Dhaishe. Assessing the vulnerability classes of building structures was carried out according to the European Macro-Seismic Scale 1998 (EMS-98) and the Fedral Emergency Management Agency (FEMA). The rapid assessment results showed that very heavy structural and non structural damages will occur in the common buildings of the investigated Refugee Camps (many buildings will suffer from damages grades 4 and 5). Bad quality of buildings in terms of design and construction, lack of uniformity, absence of spaces between the building and the limited width of roads will definitely increase the seismic vulnerability under the influence of moderate-strong (M 6-7) earthquakes in the future.

  14. cAMP signaling in cortisol-producing adrenal adenoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calebiro, Davide; Di Dalmazi, Guido; Bathon, Kerstin; Ronchi, Cristina L; Beuschlein, Felix

    2015-10-01

    The cAMP signaling pathway is one of the major players in the regulation of growth and hormonal secretion in adrenocortical cells. Although its role in the pathogenesis of adrenocortical hyperplasia associated with Cushing's syndrome has been clarified, a clear involvement of the cAMP signaling pathway and of one of its major downstream effectors, the protein kinase A (PKA), in sporadic adrenocortical adenomas remained elusive until recently. During the last year, a report by our group and three additional independent groups showed that somatic mutations of PRKACA, the gene coding for the catalytic subunit α of PKA, are a common genetic alteration in patients with Cushing's syndrome due to adrenal adenomas, occurring in 35-65% of the patients. In vitro studies revealed that those mutations are able to disrupt the association between catalytic and regulatory subunits of PKA, leading to a cAMP-independent activity of the enzyme. Despite somatic PRKACA mutations being a common finding in patients with clinically manifest Cushing's syndrome, the pathogenesis of adrenocortical adenomas associated with subclinical hypercortisolism seems to rely on a different molecular background. In this review, the role of cAMP/PKA signaling in the regulation of adrenocortical cell function and its alterations in cortisol-producing adrenocortical adenomas will be summarized, with particular focus on recent developments. PMID:26139209

  15. Photovoltaic Technology of Electricity Generation for Desert Camping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shafiqur Rehman

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available This study presents a case study on the utilization of global solar radiation data on horizontal surface to perform economical feasibility of using Photovoltaic (PV panels with battery backup to meet a small load for a camping site in Saudi Arabia. The analysis considers three scenarios with daily average energy demands of: (i full load, (ii 75% load and (iii half load with annual peak load of 3.84, 3.06 and 2.27 kW, respectively. Each of these loads is further studied economically to investigate the effect of battery storage for 1 to 5 days. The study also compares the cost of electricity generation in $/kWh from PV system and diesel generating systems. The lower mean temperature (~20°C and high intensity of radiation (~ 6.3 kWh m2/day in Abha make it a promising site for the usage of PV systems for desert camping. Analysis of the data indicates that the battery storage capacity cost plays an important role in the overall cost of the PV system. The economical indicators suggest that larger PV systems be preferred over the smaller ones with minimal storage option. The energy generation cost analysis indicated that the diesel generating cost was found to be 29, 56 and 116% higher than the PV system for full, 75% and half load systems, respectively.

  16. A Temporal-Specific and Transient cAMP Increase Characterizes Odorant Classical Conditioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Wen; Smith, Andrew; Darby-King, Andrea; Harley, Carolyn W.; McLean, John H.

    2007-01-01

    Increases in cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) are proposed to initiate learning in a wide variety of species. Here, we measure changes in cAMP in the olfactory bulb prior to, during, and following a classically conditioned odor preference trial in rat pups. Measurements were taken up to the point of maximal CREB phosphorylation in olfactory…

  17. Interpreting Camp to Parents: A Better Way to Observe--Record--Report. An Occasional Paper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shopper, Moisy

    1980-01-01

    Camps offer a unique opportunity to inform parents of the psychological workings of their child through information based on a large repertoire of situations. Camps can be interpreted to parents as a better way to observe, record, and report how their children: (1) reacted to "on-hand contact"; (2) accepted duties and responsibility; (3) improved…

  18. Assessment of the Psychosocial Development of Children Attending Nursery Schools in Karen Refugee Camps in Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Akiko

    2013-01-01

    The Karen, an ethnic minority group in Burma, have experienced a prolonged state of exile in refugee camps in neighboring Thailand because of ethnic conflict in their home country. Nursery schools in the three largest Karen refugee camps aim to promote the psychosocial development of young children by providing a child-centered, creative,…

  19. Which Social Emotional Competencies Are Enhanced at a Social Emotional Learning Camp?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ee, Jessie; Ong, Chew Wei

    2014-01-01

    Research studies have shown that educational programmes such as camps and field trips can develop affective and social relationships through personal exposure to outdoor experiences among students. This study will illustrate the outcome of a social emotional learning camp organized for 93 Secondary Two students (mean age 14.1) in Singapore. Both…

  20. The Efficacy of Mammography Boot Camp to Improve the Performance of Radiologists

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Eun Hye [Dept. of Radiology, Bucheon Hospital, Soonchunhyang University College of Medicine, Bucheon (Korea, Republic of); Jun, Jae Kwan [National Cancer Control Institute, National Cancer Center, Goyang (Korea, Republic of); Jung, Seung Eun [Dept. of Radiology, Seoul St. Mary' s Hospital, College of Medicine, The Catholic University of Korea, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, You Me [Dept. of Radiology, Dankook University Hospital, Cheonan (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Nami [Dept. of Radiology, Konkuk University Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-10-15

    To evaluate the efficacy of a mammography boot camp (MBC) to improve radiologists' performance in interpreting mammograms in the National Cancer Screening Program (NCSP) in Korea. Between January and July of 2013, 141 radiologists were invited to a 3-day educational program composed of lectures and group practice readings using 250 digital mammography cases. The radiologists' performance in interpreting mammograms were evaluated using a pre- and post-camp test set of 25 cases validated prior to the camp by experienced breast radiologists. Factors affecting the radiologists' performance, including age, type of attending institution, and type of test set cases, were analyzed. The average scores of the pre- and post-camp tests were 56.0 ± 12.2 and 78.3 ± 9.2, respectively (p < 0.001). The post-camp test scores were higher than the pre-camp test scores for all age groups and all types of attending institutions (p < 0.001). The rate of incorrect answers in the post-camp test decreased compared to the pre-camp test for all suspicious cases, but not for negative cases (p > 0.05). The MBC improves radiologists' performance in interpreting mammograms irrespective of age and type of attending institution. Improved interpretation is observed for suspicious cases, but not for negative cases.

  1. 78 FR 55671 - Hospital Care and Medical Services for Camp Lejeune Veterans

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-11

    ... hospital care and medical services. As discussed in a separate notice (78 FR 39832, July 2, 2013), we are... their service at Camp Lejeune. Section 102 of Public Law 112-154 requires VA to provide hospital care... AFFAIRS 38 CFR Part 17 RIN 2900-AO78 Hospital Care and Medical Services for Camp Lejeune Veterans...

  2. Camp Thunderbird: Taking Flight with Dance and Physical Education for Special Populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keglon, Johnnye

    2011-01-01

    This article describes the Dallas-based Camp Thunderbird, an enrichment program that brought together minority students in special education and students from general education for a summer of physical activity and the arts. Among the camp participants were students who functioned at a high level in the areas of autism spectrum disorders, mental…

  3. Strategies for Developing a University-Sponsored Youth Sports Summer Camp

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, David

    2011-01-01

    During the summer, universities have the ability to offer on-campus camps that serve the health, physical activity, and educational needs of youths. However, the tasks, responsibilities, time, and knowledge needed to run a camp can be overwhelming. This article describes the administrative components of the lessons learned from the development of…

  4. The modulation of cell surface cAMP receptors from Dictyostelium disscoideum by ammonium sulfate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haastert, Peter J.M. van

    1985-01-01

    Dictyostelium discoideum cells contain a heterogeneous population of cell surface cAMP receptors with components possessing different affinities (Kd between 15 and 450 nM) and different off-rates of the cAMP-receptor complex (t½ between 0.7 and 150 s). The association of cAMP to the receptor and the

  5. Camper learning and friendship at pediatric oncology camps in North America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martiniuk, Alexandra L C; Amylon, Michael D; Briery, Brandon G; Shea-Perry, Marci; Kelsey, Kathleen P; Lam, Gary W; Körver, Sarah

    2014-01-01

    Children with cancer and their families often attend specialized camps (therapeutic recreation) through their cancer treatment journey, yet little is known about the effects of these camps. A qualitative cohort study was used to assess learning and friendship development by campers attending one of four pediatric oncology summer camps during 2010 in North America. Standardized perceived change questionnaires developed by the American Camp Association were administered following camp attendance. Five-hundred and eighteen campers were enrolled: 120 (age 6-9 years) and 398 (age 10 and older). The largest positive response from the younger campers was observed for the question, "At camp did you learn to look forward to trying new activities?" For the older campers' survey, the items "Becoming better at enjoying being with my friends," "Becoming better at helping my friends have a good time when they are with me," and "Becoming better at getting to know more things about my friends" were perceived to increase the most for the majority of campers compared to other questions. Items for which older campers most often perceived little change were "Becoming better at choosing people who would be good friends to be with" and "Becoming better at understanding friends' emotions." Camp helps children learn new activities as well as enjoy good times with friends. Dealing with one's own mistakes and understanding others' emotions are areas for improvement. Ultimately it is hoped that these skills gained at camp will help build coping and resiliency for children/siblings affected by pediatric cancers. PMID:24364990

  6. Alexander Pechersky Testifies: an Open Page of Sobibor Death Camp History

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lev S. Simkin

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Here, the author introduces the interrogation of the witness Alexander Aronovich Pechersky, the leader of the German death camp Sobibor Revolt during the World War II. Special attention is attached to the daily life of the death camp. The picture of revolt preparation was completed

  7. Science Camps in Europe--Collaboration with Companies and School, Implications and Results on Scientific Literacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindner, M.; Kubat, C.

    2014-01-01

    The paper informs on the characteristics of a Comenius Network of seven organizations, who are collaborating in exchanging best practice on science camps. This exchange includes evaluation results on more science camps of European organizations, which will deliver information on organization, collaboration with companies, pedagogical aspects, as…

  8. Offering a Forensic Science Camp to Introduce and Engage High School Students in Interdisciplinary Science Topics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahrenkiel, Linda; Worm-Leonhard, Martin

    2014-01-01

    In this article, we present details of a one-week interdisciplinary science camp for high school students in Denmark, "Criminal Camp". We describe the use of forensic science and simulated crimes as a common foundation for teaching the theory and practice of concepts in chemistry, physics, and medicine or biology. The main goal of the…

  9. Dimensions of Flow in Academic and Social Activities among Summer Music Camp participants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz, Frank M.; Silveira, Jason M.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the occurrence of flow experiences among high school music students attending a two-week summer instrumental music camp. Specifically, the study sought to determine if: (1) students do indeed experience flow in summer camp settings; (2) what activities are conducive to flow; (3) what is the relationship…

  10. Student-Designed Mapping Project as Part of a Geology Field Camp

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelley, Daniel F.; Sumrall, Jeanne L.; Sumrall, Jonathan B.

    2015-01-01

    During the summer of 2012, the Louisiana State University (LSU) field camp program was affected by close proximity to the large Waldo Canyon Fire in Colorado Springs, CO, as well as by a fire incident on the field camp property. A mapping exercise was created that incorporated spatial data acquired on the LSU property to investigate research…

  11. Camp Read-a-Rama® and Fully-Engaged Literacy Learning: Implications for LIS Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Copeland, Clayton A.; Martin, Michelle H.

    2016-01-01

    Literacy and literacy skill development remain critical concerns in the U.S. "Two of every three students in the U.S. do not have the necessary reading proficiencies to successfully complete grade-level work" (Allington, 2011). Camp Read-a-Rama, a summer day camp in South Carolina for 4- to 11-year-olds, creates innovative programming…

  12. A summer blender camp: modeling, rendering, and animation for high school students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Mike; Law, Cathy

    2014-01-01

    At Camp Blender, high-school students of varying backgrounds learned how to use the Blender software package to create computer graphics content. In a postclass survey, most of them indicated that the camp affected how they thought about their career path. PMID:24808169

  13. The progressive nature of concentration camp syndrome in former prisoners of Nazi concentration camps--Not just history, but the important issue of contemporary medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jabłoński, Robert; Rosińczuk, Joanna; Leszek, Jerzy; Uchmanowicz, Izabella; Panaszek, Bernard

    2016-04-01

    Constant stress, slave labor, tortures, and starvation all affected the health of concentration camp prisoners, contributing to multimorbidities, increased mortality and accelerated development of chronic illnesses, what we have shown in an earlier publication. The interrelated somatic and psychological symptoms gave rise to concentration camp syndrome (KZ-syndrome), which has many features of PTSD, occurring frequently nowadays. The paper attempts at assessing the influence of concentration camp conditions on functional disorders in each system of the human body, occurring in KZ-syndrome, and at demonstrating the progressive nature of the syndrome. A retrospective assessment of the former prisoners' health after 5 and 30 years following their leaving camps was performed based on medical records and surveys. The materials included 250 former prisoners who underwent medical examination in 1950, i.e. 5 years after leaving the camp, of whom 120 former prisoners survived and were examined and surveyed in 1975, i.e. 30 years after leaving the camp. KZ-syndrome was shown to occur in 58.8% of former prisoners 5 years after leaving the camp, and in 77.5% after 30 years (p < 0.001), which confirms the syndrome's chronic and progressive nature. Pathological sequels of internment in concentration camps, in the form of KZ-syndrome, were observed in most former prisoners. Over time, the number of morbidities and the intensity of symptoms increased, which indicates that the syndrome has a chronic and progressive nature. KZ-syndrome is a multi-organ disorder, with numerous chronic comorbidities exacerbating the progression. PMID:26783727

  14. A possible association between early apical resorption of primary teeth and ectodermal characteristics of the permanent dentition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bille, M L B; Kvetny, M J; Kjaer, I

    2008-01-01

    apical resorption in the primary dentition. Panoramic radiographs of 12 children (7 boys and 5 girls) aged 6 years 4 months to 8 years 9 months with unexpected early apical resorption of primary teeth were identified from a dental archive of 588 patients. After written request, follow-up radiographs were...

  15. Evaluation of undergraduate nursing students' clinical confidence following a mental health recovery camp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowley, Thomas; Sumskis, Sue; Moxham, Lorna; Taylor, Ellie; Brighton, Renee; Patterson, Chris; Halcomb, Elizabeth

    2016-02-01

    In the present study, we evaluate the impact of participation in a mental health recovery camp on the clinical confidence of undergraduate nursing students in dealing with individuals with mental illness. Twenty undergraduate nursing students who participated in the recovery camp completed the Mental Health Nursing Clinical Confidence Scale both before and directly after attending the camp. Data were analysed using descriptive and inferential statistics. Participation in the recovery camp was associated with a statistically-significant increase in students' level of overall confidence between the pretest and post-test data (P level of confidence in both the pre- and post-results. The clinical confidence of undergraduate nursing students improved through participation in an immersive clinical experience within the recovery camp. PMID:26767715

  16. Free will in total institutions: The case of choice inside Nazi death camps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidov, Jonathan; Eisikovits, Zvi

    2015-07-01

    Nazi death camps, as any total institutions, were designed to deny any free will or choice from inmates. Furthermore, former inmates in such extreme conditions often account for their own actions and behavior in such settings as inevitable ("I had no other choice"). This study examines the questions of free will vs. determinism in death camps from a descriptive-phenomenological perspective. Data was collected through in-depth interviews with 20 former death camp inmates. The following themes emerged from the qualitative analysis of the data: the 'selection' experience; 'borrowed time' perception; and the experience of 'nothingness'. A conceptual model grounded in these data was developed to illustrate the inmate's lived experience of choice in the reality of the camps. Analysis of the model indicates that under the extreme conditions of the death camp, free will and existence are interchangeable: "I choose - therefore I am". PMID:25881235

  17. Comparative evaluation of total RNA extraction methods in Theobroma cacao using shoot apical meristems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, D V; Branco, S M J; Holanda, I S A; Royaert, S; Motamayor, J C; Marelli, J P; Corrêa, R X

    2016-01-01

    Theobroma cacao is a species of great economic importance with its beans used for chocolate production. The tree has been a target of various molecular studies. It contains many polyphenols, which complicate the extraction of nucleic acids with the extraction protocols requiring a large amount of plant material. These issues, therefore, necessitate the optimization of the protocols. The aim of the present study was to evaluate different methods for extraction of total RNA from shoot apical meristems of T. cacao 'CCN 51' and to assess the influence of storage conditions for the meristems on the extraction. The study also aimed to identify the most efficient protocol for RNA extraction using a small amount of plant material. Four different protocols were evaluated for RNA extraction using one shoot apical meristem per sample. Among these protocols, one that was more efficient was then tested to extract RNA using four different numbers of shoot apical meristems, subjected to three different storage conditions. The best protocol was tested for cDNA amplification using reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction; the cDNA quality was determined to be satisfactory for molecular analyses. The study revealed that with the best RNA extraction protocol, one shoot apical meristem was sufficient for extraction of high-quality total RNA. The results obtained might enable advances in genetic analyses and molecular studies using reduced amount of plant material. PMID:26985935

  18. Pulp Revascularization in Immature Permanent Tooth with Apical Periodontitis Using Mineral Trioxide Aggregate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katsura Saeki

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA is a material that has been used worldwide in several clinical applications, such as apical barriers in teeth with immature apices, repair of root perforations, root-end filling, pulp capping, and pulpotomy. The purpose of this case report was to describe successful revascularization treatment of an immature mandibular right second premolar with apical periodontitis in a 9-year-old female patient. After preparing an access cavity without anesthesia, the tooth was isolated using a rubber dam and accessed. The canal was gently debrided using 5% sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl and 3% hydrogen peroxide irrigant. And then MTA was packed into the canal. X-ray photographic examination showed the dentin bridge 5 months after the revascularization procedure. Thickening of the canal wall and complete apical closure were confirmed 10 months after the treatment. In this case, MTA showed clinical and radiographic success at revascularization treatment in immature permanent tooth. The successful outcome of this case suggests that MTA is reliable and effective for endodontic treatment in the pediatric dentistry.

  19. Responses of Metabolites in Soybean Shoot Apices to Changing Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide Concentrations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Sicher

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Soybean seedlings were grown in controlled environment chambers with CO2 partial pressures of 38 (ambient and 72 (elevated Pa. Five or six shoot apices were harvested from individual 21- to 24-day-old plants. Metabolites were analyzed by gas chromatography and, out of 21 compounds, only sucrose and fructose increased in response to CO2 enrichment. One unidentified metabolite, Unk-21.03 decreased up to 80% in soybean apices in response to elevated CO2. Levels of Unk-21.03 decreased progressively when atmospheric CO2 partial pressures were increased from 26 to 100 Pa. Reciprocal transfer experiments showed that Unk-21.03, and sucrose in soybean apices were altered slowly over several days to changes in atmospheric CO2 partial pressures. The mass spectrum of Unk-21.03 indicated that this compound likely contained both an amino and carboxyl group and was structurally related to serine and aspartate. Our findings suggested that CO2 enrichment altered a small number of specific metabolites in soybean apices. This could be an important step in understanding how plant growth and development are affected by carbon dioxide enrichment.

  20. Effects of ADH on the apical and basolateral membranes of toad urinary bladder epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donaldson, P J; Leader, J P

    1993-11-01

    Short-circuited urinary bladders from Bufo marinus were supported on their apical surface by an agar mounting method and impaled with microelectrodes via their basolateral membrane. This arrangement provided stable and long-lasting impalements of epithelial cells and yielded reliable membrane potentials and voltage divider ratios (Ra/Rb), where Ra and Rb are apical and basolateral membrane resistances respectively. The membrane potential under short-circuit conditions (Vsc) was -51.4 +/- 2.2 mV (n = 59), while under open-circuit conditions apical membrane potential (Va) and basolateral membrane potential (Vb) were -31.0 +/- 2.4 and 59.5 +/- 2.4 mV, respectively. This yields a "well-shaped" potential profile across the toad urinary bladder, where Va is inversely related to the rate of transport, Isc. Antidiuretic hormone (ADH) produced a hyperpolarisation of Vsc and Vb but had no significant effect on Va. In addition, Ra/Rb was significantly increased by ADH (4.6 +/- 0.5 to 10.2 +/- 3.6). Calculation of individual membrane resistances following the addition of amiloride showed that ADH produced a parallel decrease in Ra and Rb membrane resistance, with the observed increase in Ra/Rb being due to a greater percentage decrease in Rb than in Ra. The ability of ADH to effect parallel changes in apical and basolateral membrane conductance helps to maintain a constant cellular volume despite an increase in transepithelial transport. PMID:8309781

  1. Apical Gene Transfer into Quiescent Human and Canine Polarized Intestinal Epithelial Cells by Lentivirus Vectors

    OpenAIRE

    Seppen, Jurgen; Barry, Simon C.; Klinkspoor, J. Henriette; Katen, Louis J.; Lee, Sum P; Garcia, J. Victor; Osborne, William R. A.

    2000-01-01

    Intestinal epithelial cells secrete a protective luminal mucus barrier inhibiting viral gene transfer. Quiescent, polarized monolayers of primary epithelial cells from dog gallbladder and human colon are efficiently transduced through the apical mucus side by lentivirus vectors, suggesting their application to intestinal gene therapy.

  2. Apical Third Morphology and Intrusive Force Application: 3D Finite Element Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Geramy

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Intrusion as a type of tooth movement is managed by different mechanothera-pies during various treatment stages. The morphology of the apical third of the teeth to be intruded plays an important role in the risk of root resorption due to the raise of stresses.The main goal of this study was to compare various types of apical third of the teeth while loaded by an intrusive force.Materials and Methods: Four 3D Finite element models were designed with all support-ing structures. Normal, needle form, short and sharp apices were considered. Intrusiveforces of 0.5 N were applied and the VonMises stress along the mesial side of the root was assessed.Results: A tendency to show increased stresses at the cervical area of the teeth was no-ticed. The lowest stress was noticed in the blunt apex and the highest findings were shown to be in the needle form apex model.Conclusion: Normal variation in apical third of the teeth in intrusion can cause an in-creased stress level and also increased chance of root resorption which should be consid-ered carefully in force applications.

  3. USAGE OF PASTE FOR TEMPORARY PLACEMENT IN THE TREATMENT OF CHRONIC APICAL PERIODONTITIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.V. Borysenko

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Summary: The aim of the present investigation was usage of medicamental paste with antibacterial and regeneration action for temporary placement in the treatment of chronic apical periodontitis. Materials and method: The medicamental paste for temporary placement of root canals consists of a mixture of metronidazole, Enterosgel (Silm and Alflutop (Biotehnos S.A., Romania. Thë paste was used for the treatment of 30 teeth with chronic apical periodontitis. Final obturation of the root canals was performed with gutta percha cones and sealer. The efficiency of the treatment was appreciated after examination on the basis of clinical and radiographic findings. Results: During the treatment of the 30 teeth, no exacerbations of the pathological process were recorded. Pain after obturation of the root canals was revealed in only 6 (20% of the treated teeth. No pain, pathologic changes of gingiva, good mastication efficiency in all teeth after treatment were revealed. Conclusions: The high clinical efficiency of the medicamental paste with antibacterial and regeneration action at the level of temporary root canals placement in the treatment of chronic apical periodontitis was shown. Keywords: chronic apical periodontitis, medicamental paste for temporary root canals placement, metronidazole, Enterosgel (Silm and Alflutop (Biotehnos S.A., Romania

  4. An improved cryopreservation protocol for pineapple apices using encapsulation-vitrification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gámez-Pastrana, R; Martínez-Ocampo, Y; Beristain, C I; González-Arnao, M T

    2004-01-01

    Several modifications to the cryogenic protocols previously described for pineapple apices were performed using vitrification and encapsulation-vitrification. Pregrowth of apices in sucrose-proline before loading significantly reduced the exposure duration to PVS2 and PVS3 required for successful cryopreservation. Encapsulation and treatments with PVS3 at 0 degree C gave the highest survival before and after cooling. Optimal conditions involved the encapsulation of pineapple apices in calcium alginate (3 percent) followed by a 2-d preculture in liquid medium with 0.16 M sucrose + 0.3 M proline for 24 h and then transfer to 0.3 M sucrose + 0.3 M proline for an additional 24 h. After preculture, samples were loaded in 0.75 M sucrose + 1 M glycerol solution at room temperature (25 min) and dehydrated with PVS3 at 0 degree C for 60 min before immersion into liquid nitrogen. Following this procedure 54 percent and 83 percent of apices from MD-2 and Puerto Rico varieties respectively survived. PMID:15660167

  5. A novel mitochondrial ATP8 gene mutation in a patient with apical hypertrophic cardiomyopathy and neuropathy.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jonckheere, A.I.; Hogeveen, M.; Nijtmans, L.G.J.; Brand, M.A.M. van den; Janssen, A.J.M.; Diepstra, J.H.S.; Brandt, FC van den; Heuvel, L.P.W.J. van den; Hol, F.A.; Hofste, T.G.; Kapusta, L.; Dillmann, U.; Shamdeen, M.G.; Smeitink, J.A.M.; Rodenburg, R.J.T.

    2008-01-01

    PURPOSE: To identify the biochemical and molecular genetic defect in a 16-year-old patient presenting with apical hypertrophic cardiomyopathy and neuropathy suspected for a mitochondrial disorder. METHODS: Measurement of the mitochondrial energy-generating system (MEGS) capacity in muscle and enzyme

  6. Electric current affects the rate of development in isolated apical parts of rape in vitro

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Filek, M.; Koscielniak, J.; Marcińska, I.; Krekule, Jan; Macháčková, Ivana; Dubert, F.

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 50, č. 3 (2006), s. 465-468. ISSN 0006-3134 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5038910 Keywords : apical meristem differentiation * flowering factors * vernalization Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 1.198, year: 2006

  7. The ERECTA receptor kinase regulates Arabidopsis shoot apical meristem size, phyllotaxy and floral meristem identity

    Science.gov (United States)

    In plants, the shoot apical meristem (SAM) serves as a reservoir of pluripotent stem cells from which all above ground organs originate. To sustain proper growth, the SAM must maintain homeostasis between the self-renewal of pluripotent stem cells and cell recruitment for lateral organ formation. At...

  8. Feasibility of transapical aortic valve replacement through a left ventricular apical diverticulum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferrari Enrico

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Transapical aortic valve replacement is an established technique performed in high-risk patients with symptomatic aortic valve stenosis and vascular disease contraindicating trans-vascular and trans-aortic procedures. The presence of a left ventricular apical diverticulum is a rare event and the treatment depends on dimensions and estimated risk of embolisation, rupture, or onset of ventricular arrhythmias. The diagnosis is based on standard cardiac imaging and symptoms are very rare. In this case report we illustrate our experience with a 81 years old female patient suffering from symptomatic aortic valve stenosis, respiratory disease, chronic renal failure and severe peripheral vascular disease (logistic euroscore: 42%, who successfully underwent a transapical 23 mm balloon-expandable stent-valve implantation through an apical diverticulum of the left ventricle. Intra-luminal thrombi were absent and during the same procedure were able to treat the valve disease and to successfully exclude the apical diverticulum without complications and through a mini thoracotomy. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first time that a transapical procedure is successfully performed through an apical diverticulum.

  9. Deep-apical tubules: dynamic lipid-raft microdomains in the brush-border region of enterocytes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Gert H; Pedersen, Jens; Niels-Christiansen, Lise-Lotte;

    2003-01-01

    raft microdomains. Deep-apical tubules were positioned close to the actin rootlets of adjacent microvilli in the terminal web region, which had a diameter of 50-100 nm, and penetrated up to 1 microm into the cytoplasm. Markers for transcytosis, IgA and the polymeric immunoglobulin receptor, as well as...... lipid raft-containing compartments, but little is otherwise known about these raft microdomains. We therefore studied in closer detail apical lipid-raft compartments in enterocytes by immunogold electron microscopy and biochemical analyses. Novel membrane structures, deep-apical tubules, were visualized...... the resident brush-border enzyme aminopeptidase N, were present in these deep-apical tubules. We propose that deep-apical tubules are a specialized lipid-raft microdomain in the brush-border region functioning as a hub in membrane trafficking at the brush border. In addition, the sensitivity to...

  10. Memorizing of Gravistimulus in apical protonemal cells of the moss Ceratodon purpureus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lesniak, Y. I.; Khorkavtsiv, O. Y.; Oksyniuk, U. A.; Demkiv, O. T.

    Moss protonemata sense and realize gravity by apical cells of stolones, the function of gravisensors being performed by amyloplasts which sediment on lower side of the cell wall. The pattern of amyloplasts distribution and dynamics of their sedimentation were described in detail in different moss species (Sack, 1991; 1997; Young, Sack, 1992; Chaban et al., 1998; Schwuchow et al., 2002). The pathways of gravity transduction to growth process remain, however, still-uncleared (Sack, 1997; Kern et al., 2001; Schwuchow et al., 2002). The processes of the perception and transduction of the gravistimulus in the apical cells were uncoupled experimentally. It has been shown in our experiments that susception of gravistimulus takes place under conditions of low temperature, while the growth of apical cells is blocked. Being, however, transferred into usual conditions gravistimulated protonemata realize their gravitropic bend. To receive such effect gravistimulation of different duration, from 15 min to 24 h, was conducted at 20C and the gravistimulated protonemata were then clinorotating for 8-20 h. Gravistimulus manifested itself in bending of tip zone of the stolons only in case of 8-20 h gravistimulation. 15-30 min was found to be uneffective, the stolons bends were not formed. Gravistimulation for 1 h and more proportionally the increased the bend angle. Probably, the gravistimulus may retain in cells for comparatively long time under low temperature being realized only under favourable conditions. The participation of growth substances, in particular that of IAA, in realization of gravistimulus in tip growing protonemal cells remains not quite clear. It has been established that realization of gravistimulus can be experimentally blocked by the inhibitors of calcium channels and pumps, respectively by 0.1--1.0 μ M of verapamil and 1.0--10.0 μ M of sodium orthovanadate. 0.1--1.0 μ M of exogenous IAA and α -NAA did not significantly influence the growth and gravi

  11. Potentiation of Sulfonylurea Action by an EPAC-selective cAMP Analog in INS-1 Cells: Comparison of Tolbutamide and Gliclazide and a Potential Role for EPAC Activation of a 2-APB-sensitive Ca2+ Influx

    OpenAIRE

    Jarrard, Rachel E.; Wang, Yuchen; Salyer, Amy E.; Pratt, Evan P. S.; Soderling, Ian M.; Guerra, Marcy L.; Lange, Allison M.; Broderick, Hilary J.; Hockerman, Gregory H.

    2013-01-01

    Tolbutamide and gliclazide block the KATP channel Kir6.2/Sur1, causing membrane depolarization and stimulating insulin secretion in pancreatic beta cells. We examined the ability of the EPAC-selective cAMP analog 8-pCPT-2′-O-Me-cAMP-AM to potentiate the action of these drugs and the mechanism that might account for it. Insulin secretion stimulated by both 200 μM tolbutamide and 20 μM gliclazide, concentrations that had equivalent effects on membrane potential, was inhibited by thapsigargin (1...

  12. Resting easier : large or small, Canada's flock of remote camp operators senses better times ahead

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flackstad, N.

    2010-09-15

    This article described recent trends in the provision of remote mobile housing in the oil patch. Contemporary camps are used as recruiting tools to help attract workers, and they feature modern conveniences. Many mobile camps stay in place for years, moving only when a major project is completed or the resource depleted. Smaller camp configurations tend to be moved more frequently. Mobile camps can move from a resource site without leaving any imprint. The business models of various companies involved in remote camp operations were described, along with both large and small projects. Some companies supply inclusive packages covering accommodation, catering, water/sanitation services, camp management, and related logistics, whereas others focus on a single aspect. The slowdown in drilling had depressed remote-camp utilization, but the increase in activity is spurring the demand for remote-camp operators, and the outlook for utilization rates is optimistic. There is an increasing movement towards an open camp housing model. Whereas past work camps would serve one project or one company, open camps are more like remote, temporary hotels. Open camps are suitable when travel distances to permanent accommodations are lengthy and the long-term economics make setting up permanent hotels close to field operations unfeasible. 4 figs.

  13. Evaluation of the endodontic apical seal after post insertion by synchrotron radiation microtomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Contardo, L. [Dipartimento di Scienze, Chirurgiche Specialistiche, University of Trieste, Trieste (Italy)]. E-mail: olivo@ts.infn.it; De Luca, M. [Dipartimento di Scienze, Chirurgiche Specialistiche, University of Trieste, Trieste (Italy); Biasotto, M. [Dipartimento di Scienze, Chirurgiche Specialistiche, University of Trieste, Trieste (Italy); Longo, R. [Dipartment of Physics of the University of Trieste and INFN, Trieste (Italy); Olivo, A. [Dipartment of Physics of the University of Trieste and INFN, Trieste (Italy); Pani, S. [Dipartment of Physics of the University of Trieste and INFN, Trieste (Italy); Di Lenarda, R. [Dipartimento di Scienze, Chirurgiche Specialistiche, University of Trieste, Trieste (Italy)

    2005-08-11

    The commonly used methods for evaluating the endodontic apical seal, such as longitudinal and transversal section and diaphanization, show some operative difficulties and intrinsic limitation. This study suggests and describes a new method of analysis using a synchrotron radiation microtomography to analyse the root apex after post insertion, creating a three-dimensional image and analysing sections of the specimen every 5{mu}m. The study was performed at SYRMEP beam line at the Electra Synchrotron in Trieste using monochromatic X-rays of 32KeV. Eleven monoradicular teeth were prepared using NiTi GT Rotary files instruments to an apical size 20 with conicity .06 and divided in four groups: in G1 (n=4) and G2 (n=2), the specimens were endodontically filled with guttapercha and a zinc-oxide sealer, in G3 (n=3) and G4 (n=2) guttapercha and a silicon-based sealer were used. An endodontic post was inserted in specimens of groups 1 and 3 following the manufacturer's instructions. Specimens were analysed using monochromatic X-rays of 32KeV. A CCD detector with pixel dimension pf 5x5{mu}m{sup 2} was used for the acquisition process. Seven hundred and twenty projections were performed over 180{sup o} range using a high-resolution rotator. The projections were reconstructed using standard algorithms for tomographic reconstruction. The apical infiltration was evaluated by verifying if black spots were detectable on the images. The specimens of groups 3 and 4 showed a better apical seal than the ones of groups 1 and 2. Post insertion, when a ZOE-based sealer is used, increases the apical gap even if it does not seem to be clinically relevant and sufficient to be a cause of endodontic failure. The new method for analysis appeared to be effective to detect small defects in endodontic obturation, analysing guttapercha-sealer and sealer-dentin interfaces.

  14. Apical accumulation of MARCKS in neural plate cells during neurulation in the chick embryo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arruti Cristina

    2001-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The neural tube is formed by morphogenetic movements largely dependent on cytoskeletal dynamics. Actin and many of its associated proteins have been proposed as important mediators of neurulation. For instance, mice deficient in MARCKS, an actin cross-linking membrane-associated protein that is regulated by PKC and other kinases, present severe developmental defects, including failure of cranial neural tube closure. Results To determine the distribution of MARCKS, and its possible relationships with actin during neurulation, chick embryos were transversely sectioned and double labeled with an anti-MARCKS polyclonal antibody and phalloidin. In the neural plate, MARCKS was found ubiquitously distributed at the periphery of the cells, being conspicuously accumulated in the apical cell region, in close proximity to the apical actin meshwork. This asymmetric distribution was particularly noticeable during the bending process. After the closure of the neural tube, the apically accumulated MARCKS disappeared, and this cell region became analogous to the other peripheral cell zones in its MARCKS content. Actin did not display analogous variations, remaining highly concentrated at the cell subapical territory. The transient apical accumulation of MARCKS was found throughout the neural tube axis. The analysis of another epithelial bending movement, during the formation of the lens vesicle, revealed an identical phenomenon. Conclusions MARCKS is transiently accumulated at the apical region of neural plate and lens placode cells during processes of bending. This asymmetric subcellular distribution of MARCKS starts before the onset of neural plate bending. These results suggest possible upstream regulatory actions of MARCKS on some functions of the actin subapical meshwork.

  15. Morphology of bacterial flora in root canals associated with apical abscesses

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guo Huijie; Gao Chengzhi; Zhang Chengfei; Zheng Shuying; Yue Lin

    2014-01-01

    Background Apical abscess is an inflammatory process in the peri-radicular tissues caused by biofllms in the necrotic root canal systems.Therefore,a comprehensive analysis of the bacterial colonization is required for a better understanding of the pathogenesis.This study aimed to investigate the patterns of bacterial infection of root canals of teeth with apical abscesses and to determine whether histological and microbiological findings correlated with clinical conditions.Methods Eighteen samples from 18 teeth with apical pathological lesions were analyzed.Nine patients with acute apical abscesses experienced severe pain,and nine patients were asymptomatic with a sinus tract.After extraction,each affected root was divided into two halves.One half was processed for histobacteriologic analysis and examined using light microscopy,and the other half was analyzed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) to determine the patterns of microbial colonization of the root canals.Results The appearance of each sample subjected to SEM was consistent with the histobacteriologic findings despite the presence or absence of clinical symptoms.Intraradicular biofilms comprising cocci,rods,and/or filaments of amorphous materials were observed in the apical third of the main root canals in all samples.The bacterial biofilms covering the main root canal walls also penetrated the dentinal tubules to varying depths.The morphologies of biofilms varied,and a unique pattern of intraradicular infection was not identified.Conclusion Intraradicular infections formed complex and variable multispecies biofilms and their presence did not correlate with clinical symptoms.

  16. CASE OF DIAGNOSIS OF APICAL FORM OF HYPERTROPHIC CARDIOMYOPATHY WITH A PATIENT WITH PROGRESSIVE ANGINA CLINIC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. S. Krylova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective of work: to describe the apical form of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (AFHC developing under the "mask" of the ischemic heart disease not diagnosed for a long period.Materials and methods. Patient B., 73 y.o., female, was brought to the cardiology department with complains of severe pressing pain behind the breastbone caused with no apparent reason and lasting for over 4 hours. The following examination of the patient was performed: electrocardiography (ECG, echocardiography (EchoCG, Holter ECG monitoring, coronary angiography (CAG, ventriculography.Results. The final diagnosis for the patient was set on the basis of the following readings: ECG data (basic rhythm – atrial fibrillation, left ventricle (LV hypertrophy, negative T-waves in leads V1–6, ST segment depression up to 1–2 mm in leads V4–6, EchoCG (hypertrophy of apical segments of the LV with decreasing of its cavity, moderate dilatation of the left atrium, intraventricular obstruction in the apical third of the LV with the maximum pressure gradient of up to 48 mm Hg., CAG (stenotic lesions of coronary arteries were found, ventriculography (LV volume is not increased, no violations of local contractility, narrowing of the LV cavity in the lower third is observed with thinning in the apex, which indicatesexpressed apical hypertrophy of the LV myocard. AFHC, apical form with moderate obstruction in the lower third of the left ventricle. Stress angina syndrome. CAG and ventriculography were main diagnostic methods that allowed setting the final diagnosis.Conclusion. The clinical case sets forth the peculiarities of diagnostics, therapy, and post-therapy management of patients with this form of AFHC.

  17. CASE OF DIAGNOSIS OF APICAL FORM OF HYPERTROPHIC CARDIOMYOPATHY WITH A PATIENT WITH PROGRESSIVE ANGINA CLINIC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. S. Krylova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective of work: to describe the apical form of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (AFHC developing under the "mask" of the ischemic heart disease not diagnosed for a long period.Materials and methods. Patient B., 73 y.o., female, was brought to the cardiology department with complains of severe pressing pain behind the breastbone caused with no apparent reason and lasting for over 4 hours. The following examination of the patient was performed: electrocardiography (ECG, echocardiography (EchoCG, Holter ECG monitoring, coronary angiography (CAG, ventriculography.Results. The final diagnosis for the patient was set on the basis of the following readings: ECG data (basic rhythm – atrial fibrillation, left ventricle (LV hypertrophy, negative T-waves in leads V1–6, ST segment depression up to 1–2 mm in leads V4–6, EchoCG (hypertrophy of apical segments of the LV with decreasing of its cavity, moderate dilatation of the left atrium, intraventricular obstruction in the apical third of the LV with the maximum pressure gradient of up to 48 mm Hg., CAG (stenotic lesions of coronary arteries were found, ventriculography (LV volume is not increased, no violations of local contractility, narrowing of the LV cavity in the lower third is observed with thinning in the apex, which indicatesexpressed apical hypertrophy of the LV myocard. AFHC, apical form with moderate obstruction in the lower third of the left ventricle. Stress angina syndrome. CAG and ventriculography were main diagnostic methods that allowed setting the final diagnosis.Conclusion. The clinical case sets forth the peculiarities of diagnostics, therapy, and post-therapy management of patients with this form of AFHC.

  18. Activation of an apical Cl- conductance by Ca2+ ionophores in cystic fibrosis airway epithelia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willumsen, N J; Boucher, R C

    1989-02-01

    Cystic fibrosis (CF) airway epithelia express a defect in adenosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphate (cAMP)-dependent regulation of apical membrane Cl- channels. Recent patch-clamp studies have raised the possibility that Ca2+ -dependent mechanisms for the activation of Cl- secretion may be preserved in CF airway epithelia. To determine 1) whether intact normal (N1) and CF airway epithelia exhibit a Ca2+ -dependent mechanism for activation of Cl- secretion and 2) whether Ca2+ -dependent mechanism for activation of Cl- secretion and 2) whether Ca2+ -dependent mechanisms initiate Cl- secretion via activation of an apical membrane Cl- conductance (GCl-), nasal epithelia from N1 and CF subjects were cultured on collagen membranes, and responses to isoproterenol or Ca2- ionophores [A23187 10(-6) M; ionomycin (10(-5)M)] were measured with transepithelial and intracellular techniques. Isoproterenol induced activation of an apical membrane GCl- in N1 cultures but was ineffective in CF. In contrast, in both N1 and CF amiloride-pretreated cultures, A23187 induced an increase in the equivalent short-circuit current that was associated with an activation of an apical membrane Gc1- and was bumetanide inhibitable. A23187 addition during superfusion of the lumen with a low Cl- (3 mM) solution reduced intracellular Cl- activity of CF cells. A Ca2+ ionophore of different selectivity properties, ionomycin, was also an effective Cl- secretagogue in both N1 and CF cultures. We conclude that 1) the A23187 induced Cl- secretion via activation of an apical GCl- in N1 human nasal epithelium, and 2) in contrast to an isoproterenol-dependent path, a Ca2+ -dependent path for GCl- activation is preserved in CF epithelia. PMID:2465689

  19. Evaluation of the endodontic apical seal after post insertion by synchrotron radiation microtomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The commonly used methods for evaluating the endodontic apical seal, such as longitudinal and transversal section and diaphanization, show some operative difficulties and intrinsic limitation. This study suggests and describes a new method of analysis using a synchrotron radiation microtomography to analyse the root apex after post insertion, creating a three-dimensional image and analysing sections of the specimen every 5μm. The study was performed at SYRMEP beam line at the Electra Synchrotron in Trieste using monochromatic X-rays of 32KeV. Eleven monoradicular teeth were prepared using NiTi GT Rotary files instruments to an apical size 20 with conicity .06 and divided in four groups: in G1 (n=4) and G2 (n=2), the specimens were endodontically filled with guttapercha and a zinc-oxide sealer, in G3 (n=3) and G4 (n=2) guttapercha and a silicon-based sealer were used. An endodontic post was inserted in specimens of groups 1 and 3 following the manufacturer's instructions. Specimens were analysed using monochromatic X-rays of 32KeV. A CCD detector with pixel dimension pf 5x5μm2 was used for the acquisition process. Seven hundred and twenty projections were performed over 180o range using a high-resolution rotator. The projections were reconstructed using standard algorithms for tomographic reconstruction. The apical infiltration was evaluated by verifying if black spots were detectable on the images. The specimens of groups 3 and 4 showed a better apical seal than the ones of groups 1 and 2. Post insertion, when a ZOE-based sealer is used, increases the apical gap even if it does not seem to be clinically relevant and sufficient to be a cause of endodontic failure. The new method for analysis appeared to be effective to detect small defects in endodontic obturation, analysing guttapercha-sealer and sealer-dentin interfaces

  20. Effects of fluorotelomer alcohol 8:2 FTOH on steroidogenesis in H295R cells: Targeting the cAMP signalling cascade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Previous studies have demonstrated that perfluorinated chemicals (PFCs) can affect reproduction by disruption of steroidogenesis in experimental animals. However, the underlying mechanism(s) of this disruption remain unknown. Here we investigated the effects and mechanisms of action of 1H, 1H, 2H, 2H-perfluoro-decan-1-ol (8:2 FTOH) on steroidogenesis using a human adrenocortical carcinoma cell line (H295R) as a model. H295R cells were exposed to 0, 7.4, 22.2 or 66.6 μM 8:2 FTOH for 24 h and productions of progesterone, 17α-OH-progesterone, androstenedione, testosterone, deoxycorticosterone, corticosterone and cortisol were quantified by HPLC-MS/MS. With the exception of progesterone, 8:2 FTOH treatment significantly decreased production of all hormones in the high dose group. Exposure to 8:2 FTOH significantly down-regulated cAMP-dependent mRNA expression and protein abundance of several key steroidogenic enzymes, including StAR, CYP11A, CYP11B1, CYP11B2, CYP17 and CYP21. Furthermore, a dose-dependent decrease of cellular cAMP levels was observed in H295R cells exposed to 8:2 FTOH. The observed responses are consistent with reduced cellular cAMP levels. Exposure to 8:2 FTOH resulted in significantly less basal (+ GTP) and isoproterenol-stimulated adenylate cyclase activities, but affected neither total cellular ATP level nor basal (-GTP) or NaF-stimulated adenylate cyclase activities, suggesting that inhibition of steroidogenesis may be due to an alteration in membrane properties. Metabolites of 8:2 FTOH were not detected by HPLC-MS/MS, suggesting that 8:2 FTOH was not metabolized by H295R cells. Overall, the results show that 8:2 FTOH may inhibit steroidogenesis by disrupting the cAMP signalling cascade.

  1. G-Protein-Coupled Receptor MrgD Is a Receptor for Angiotensin-(1-7) Involving Adenylyl Cyclase, cAMP, and Phosphokinase A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tetzner, Anja; Gebolys, Kinga; Meinert, Christian; Klein, Sabine; Uhlich, Anja; Trebicka, Jonel; Villacañas, Óscar; Walther, Thomas

    2016-07-01

    Angiotensin (Ang)-(1-7) has cardiovascular protective effects and is the opponent of the often detrimental Ang II within the renin-angiotensin system. Although it is well accepted that the G-protein-coupled receptor Mas is a receptor for the heptapeptide, the lack in knowing initial signaling molecules stimulated by Ang-(1-7) prevented definitive characterization of ligand/receptor pharmacology as well as identification of further hypothesized receptors for the heptapeptide. The study aimed to identify a second messenger stimulated by Ang-(1-7) allowing confirmation as well as discovery of the heptapeptide's receptors. Ang-(1-7) elevates cAMP concentration in primary cells, such as endothelial or mesangial cells. Using cAMP as readout in receptor-transfected human embryonic kidney (HEK293) cells, we provided pharmacological proof that Mas is a functional receptor for Ang-(1-7). Moreover, we identified the G-protein-coupled receptor MrgD as a second receptor for Ang-(1-7). Consequently, the heptapeptide failed to increase cAMP concentration in primary mesangial cells with genetic deficiency in both Mas and MrgD Mice deficient in MrgD showed an impaired hemodynamic response after Ang-(1-7) administration. Furthermore, we excluded the Ang II type 2 receptor as a receptor for the heptapeptide but discovered that the Ang II type 2 blocker PD123319 can also block Mas and MrgD receptors. Our results lead to an expansion and partial revision of the renin-angiotensin system, by identifying a second receptor for Ang-(1-7), by excluding Ang II type 2 as a receptor for the heptapeptide, and by enforcing the revisit of such publications which concluded Ang II type 2 function by only using PD123319. PMID:27217404

  2. Crisis DSM Generation To Support Refugee Camp Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gstaiger, Veronika; d'Angelo, Pablo; Schneiderhan, Tobais; Krauss, Thomas

    2013-12-01

    The extraction of high resolution surface information from satellite data has become an important area of research. One of the numerous fields of application is disaster management. Detailed information about the affected terrain is not only needed for analyses during the emergency relief phase, but also for reconstruction and prevention activities. In this paper the authors present the generation of a Digital Surface Model (DSM) based on three very high resolution optical satellite images. The DSM was produced to supplement a flood mapping activity in Jordan and serves as example for the implementation of scientific results during an emergency request. The flood affected the Zaatari refugee camp in Jordan and was mapped by the Center for Satellite Based Crisis Information (ZKI) at the German Aerospace Center (DLR) in January 2013 under emergency mapping conditions.

  3. Agitation and Propagandistic Work in Soviet POW Camps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gulzhaukhar K. Kokebayeva

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper studies the problem of agitation work done among POWs in Soviet camps, the creation of military units and political organizations from POWs. Not only armed force was used during the Second World War, but also the power of words. The battles were accompanied by the information warfare. Opponents tried to use all possible means to manipulate people’s minds. Main directions of agitation and propaganda were defined by the «Soviet bureau of military and political propaganda», as well as the 7th Division of Soviet army. In the propaganda work among German POWs, the priority was given on shaping the ideological and political views of former soldiers and officers of the Wehrmacht. As the result of the analysis of sources the author comes to conclusion that POWs of the Second World War period became the object of testing means and methods of ideological struggle of warring nations.

  4. Laser camp: shining a light on optics careers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donnelly, Judith; Goyette, Donna; Magnani, Nancy; Wosczyna-Birch, Karen

    2008-08-01

    Three Rivers Community College offers two associate degree programs in optics/photonics, and graduates have their choice of jobs in New England and across the United States. Nonetheless, students, their parents, teachers and guidance counselors are largely unaware of the career opportunities in the photonics industry. To promote optics/photonics career awareness, we hosted two versions of "Laser Camp" in 2007 and 2008. Hands-on activities were chosen to promote awareness of optical science and technology careers and to provide "take home" information and souvenirs to share with family and friends. In this paper, we discuss the logistics of funding, marketing, permissions, transportation and food service and share our student-tested activities.

  5. UAV Survey Data from Clifton Camp (ST56557330, Bristol, UK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen Gray

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This data was collected via low-altitude UAV (Unmanned Aerial Vehicle survey of an area of Clifton Camp (ST565557330, best known for its Iron Age promontory fort. The dataset comprises of metadata records, near-vertical photographs and a derived 3D polygonal mesh. This dataset has been constructed with two kinds of reuse in mind: Firstly, the area surveyed is culturally rich and underexplored; while some of the non-natural features detected by this survey can be identified, others cannot. This data is intended to inform future investigations of the site. Secondly, the survey methodologies employed and the structuring of the resulting dataset are intended to act as an exemplar, a standard method of creating survey data while prioritising open technologies, and of organising UAV survey datasets to ensure maximum re-usability.

  6. Characterization of thyroid-stimulating blocking antibodies that appeared during transient hypothyroidism after radioactive iodine therapy

    OpenAIRE

    Kung, AWC; Lau, KS; Kohn, LD

    2000-01-01

    Hypothyroidism after radioactive iodine (RAI) therapy for Graves' disease can be transient or permanent. The cause for early transient hypothyroidism is unknown. We evaluated 11 patients who developed transient hypothyroidism within 6 months of RAI and 12 who remained euthyroid after RAI. Approximately equal numbers of patients in each group had thyroid-stimulating antibody (TSAb) that increased cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) levels in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells transfected with...

  7. Policy options to stimulate social innovation initiatives addressing food waste prevention and reduction

    OpenAIRE

    Vittuari, Matteo; Gaiani, Silvia; Politano, Alessandro; Timmermans, A.J.M.; Bos-Brouwers, H.E.J.

    2016-01-01

    The report builds on the knowledge created by the FUSIONS position paper “Stimulating social innovation through policy measures” that uses as key inputs the range of existing social innovation initiatives catalogued by FUSIONS WP4 in the inventory and draws on the outcomes of the WP3 Social Camp event that gathered together a number of social innovators to discuss the major challenges and policy barriers they encounter. The position paper identified a preliminary set of policies aimed to stim...

  8. Suicide in Inmates in Nazis and Soviet Concentration Camps: Historical Overview and Critique

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Muñoz, Francisco; Cuerda-Galindo, Esther

    2016-01-01

    Living conditions in concentration camps were harsh and often inhumane, leading many prisoners to commit suicide. We have reviewed this topic in Nazi concentration camps (KL), Soviet special camps, and gulags, providing some preliminary data for our research. Data show that the incidence of suicide in Nazi KL could be up to 30 times higher than the general population and was also much higher than in Soviet special camps (maybe due to more favorable conditions for prisoners and the abolishment of death penalty), while available data on Soviet gulags are contradictory. However, data interpretation is very controversial, because, for example, the Nazi KL authorities used to cover-up the murder victims as suicides. Most of the suicides were committed in the first years of imprisonment, and the method of suicide most commonly used was hanging, although other methods included cutting blood vessels, poisoning, contact with electrified wire, or starvation. It is possible to differentiate two behaviors when committing suicide; impulsive behavior (contact with electrified barbed wire fences) or premeditated suicide (hanging up or through poison). In Soviet special camps, possible motives for suicides could include feelings of guilt for crimes committed, fear of punishment, and a misguided understanding of honor on the eve of criminal trials. Self-destructive behaviors, such as self-mutilation in gulag camps or prisoners who let themselves die, have been widely reported. Committing suicide in concentration camps was a common practice, although precise data may be impossible to obtain. PMID:27303312

  9. The effect of radioprotectors and ionizing radiation on the cAMP system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A number of changes characteristic of all the radioprotectors which appear to play a key role in the radioprotective effect can be distinguished from a variety of radioprotector-caused processes in cells and tissues known to date. Experiments have revealed an increase in cAMP concentration in cells and tissues under the effect of radioprotectors belonging to different classes of chemical compounds. Biogenic amines account for the following reaction sequence: adenylate cyclase activation followed by an increase in cAMP concentration. The augmentation of cAMP level resultant from the effect of sulfur-containing protectors takes an indirect route since adenylate cyclase activation or phosphodiesterase inhibition have not been recorded. It is suggested that an increase in cAMP concentration brought about by sulfur-containing protectors is mediated by biogenic amines as these protectors activate biogenic amine synthesis to increase the level of biogenic amines in tissues, biogenic amines in these concentrations activating adenylate cyclase. The evidence on the dynamics of cAMP level changes after administration of radioprotectors are consistent with the above suggestion. Investigations of the effect of ionizing radiations on the intracellular regulator (cAMP) system account for some of the manifestations of radiation disease. Some data on the effect of radiations on the cAMP system enzymes are given. Changes in the enzyme activity are noted. Possible mechanisms and consequences of these changes are discussed

  10. Suicide in Inmates in Nazis and Soviet Concentration Camps: Historical Overview and Critique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Muñoz, Francisco; Cuerda-Galindo, Esther

    2016-01-01

    Living conditions in concentration camps were harsh and often inhumane, leading many prisoners to commit suicide. We have reviewed this topic in Nazi concentration camps (KL), Soviet special camps, and gulags, providing some preliminary data for our research. Data show that the incidence of suicide in Nazi KL could be up to 30 times higher than the general population and was also much higher than in Soviet special camps (maybe due to more favorable conditions for prisoners and the abolishment of death penalty), while available data on Soviet gulags are contradictory. However, data interpretation is very controversial, because, for example, the Nazi KL authorities used to cover-up the murder victims as suicides. Most of the suicides were committed in the first years of imprisonment, and the method of suicide most commonly used was hanging, although other methods included cutting blood vessels, poisoning, contact with electrified wire, or starvation. It is possible to differentiate two behaviors when committing suicide; impulsive behavior (contact with electrified barbed wire fences) or premeditated suicide (hanging up or through poison). In Soviet special camps, possible motives for suicides could include feelings of guilt for crimes committed, fear of punishment, and a misguided understanding of honor on the eve of criminal trials. Self-destructive behaviors, such as self-mutilation in gulag camps or prisoners who let themselves die, have been widely reported. Committing suicide in concentration camps was a common practice, although precise data may be impossible to obtain. PMID:27303312

  11. Distancing Students From Nature: Science Camp and the Representation of the Human-Nature Relationship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terrill, Laura Anne

    This study investigated the curricular representations of the environment and the human-environment relationship at one residential school sponsored science camp. Data gathered included field notes from observational time at the camp, interviews with staff and classroom teachers, and documents from the site's website, guides, manuals, and curricular guides. These data were analyzed to understand how the camp represented the human-environment relationship and the "proper" human-environment relationship to its participants. Analysis indicated that the camp's official and enacted curriculum was shaped in response to two perceived problems, (1) students were perceived as having a disconnected relationship with the outdoors and lacking in outdoor experiences; and (2) staff members of the camp believed that time for science during the school day had diminished and that students were not receiving adequate science instruction at school. In response, the goal of the camp was to connect students to the outdoors through hands-on, sensory, experience based science and outdoor education experiences. However, key aspects of the camp experience and the formal and enacted curriculum unintentionally positioned students as separate from nature. The camp experience presented a vacation like understanding of the human-environment relationship as students became tourists of the outdoors. Despite the site's goal of connecting students to the outdoors, the science camp experience worked to distance students from the outdoors by unintentionally representing the outdoors as a place that existed away from home and students' everyday lives. Notably, nature became a place that existed in the past, separate from modernity. Students were tourists in an exotic location - nature. They received tours of the foreign outdoors, had fun, and returned home to their ordinary lives that were separate and distinct from the natural world.

  12. The accidental city : violence, economy and humanitarianism in Kakuma refugee camp Kenya

    OpenAIRE

    Jansen, B.J.

    2011-01-01

    In this research I examine social ordering processes in Kakuma refugee camp in Kenya. I view the camp as an accidental city, by which I challenge the image of the camp as a temporary and artificial waiting space or a protracted refugee crisis per se. The reference to the city is both metaphorically and physically relevant. First, the metaphorical dimension of the city places refugees and their negotiation of space into the realm of the normal and the possible, contrary to prevailing notions o...

  13. cAMP prevents TNF-induced apoptosis through inhibiting DISC complex formation in rat hepatocytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhattacharjee, Rajesh [Department of Surgery, University of Pittsburgh Medical Center, Pittsburgh, PA 15213 (United States); Xiang, Wenpei [Department of Surgery, University of Pittsburgh Medical Center, Pittsburgh, PA 15213 (United States); Family Planning Research Institute, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430030, People' s Republic of China (China); Wang, Yinna [Vascular Medicine Institute, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, 10051-5A BST 3, 3501 Fifth Avenue, Pittsburgh, PA 15261 (United States); Zhang, Xiaoying [Department of Medicine/Endocrinology Division, University of Pittsburgh Medical Center, 200 Lothrop St., Pittsburgh, PA 15213 (United States); Billiar, Timothy R., E-mail: billiartr@upmc.edu [Department of Surgery, University of Pittsburgh Medical Center, Pittsburgh, PA 15213 (United States)

    2012-06-22

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer cAMP blocks cell death induced by TNF and actinomycin D in cultured hepatocytes. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer cAMP blocks NF-{kappa}B activation induced by TNF and actinomycin D. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer cAMP blocks DISC formation following TNF and actinomycin D exposure. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer cAMP blocks TNF signaling at a proximal step. -- Abstract: Tumor necrosis factor {alpha} (TNF) is a pleiotropic proinflammatory cytokine that plays a role in immunity and the control of cell proliferation, cell differentiation, and apoptosis. The pleiotropic nature of TNF is due to the formation of different signaling complexes upon the binding of TNF to its receptor, TNF receptor type 1 (TNFR1). TNF induces apoptosis in various mammalian cells when the cells are co-treated with a transcription inhibitor like actinomycin D (ActD). When TNFR1 is activated, it recruits an adaptor protein, TNF receptor-associated protein with death domain (TRADD), through its cytoplasmic death effector domain (DED). TRADD, in turn, recruits other signaling proteins, including TNF receptor-associated protein 2 (TRAF2) and receptor-associated protein kinase (RIPK) 1, to form a complex. Subsequently, this complex combines with FADD and procaspase-8, converts into a death-inducing signaling complex (DISC) to induce apoptosis. Cyclic AMP (cAMP) is a second messenger that regulates various cellular processes such as cell proliferation, gene expression, and apoptosis. cAMP analogues are reported to act as anti-apoptotic agents in various cell types, including hepatocytes. We found that a cAMP analogue, dibutyryl cAMP (db-cAMP), inhibits TNF + ActD-induced apoptosis in rat hepatocytes. The protein kinase A (PKA) inhibitor KT-5720 reverses this inhibitory effect of cAMP on apoptosis. Cytoprotection by cAMP involves down-regulation of various apoptotic signal regulators like TRADD and FADD and inhibition of caspase-8 and caspase-3 cleavage. We also found

  14. Active site coupling in PDE:PKA complexes promotes resetting of mammalian cAMP signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnamurthy, Srinath; Moorthy, Balakrishnan Shenbaga; Xin Xiang, Lim; Xin Shan, Lim; Bharatham, Kavitha; Tulsian, Nikhil Kumar; Mihalek, Ivana; Anand, Ganesh S

    2014-09-16

    Cyclic 3'5' adenosine monophosphate (cAMP)-dependent-protein kinase (PKA) signaling is a fundamental regulatory pathway for mediating cellular responses to hormonal stimuli. The pathway is activated by high-affinity association of cAMP with the regulatory subunit of PKA and signal termination is achieved upon cAMP dissociation from PKA. Although steps in the activation phase are well understood, little is known on how signal termination/resetting occurs. Due to the high affinity of cAMP to PKA (KD ∼ low nM), bound cAMP does not readily dissociate from PKA, thus begging the question of how tightly bound cAMP is released from PKA to reset its signaling state to respond to subsequent stimuli. It has been recently shown that phosphodiesterases (PDEs) can catalyze dissociation of bound cAMP and thereby play an active role in cAMP signal desensitization/termination. This is achieved through direct interactions with the regulatory subunit of PKA, thereby facilitating cAMP dissociation and hydrolysis. In this study, we have mapped direct interactions between a specific cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase (PDE8A) and a PKA regulatory subunit (RIα isoform) in mammalian cAMP signaling, by a combination of amide hydrogen/deuterium exchange mass spectrometry, peptide array, and computational docking. The interaction interface of the PDE8A:RIα complex, probed by peptide array and hydrogen/deuterium exchange mass spectrometry, brings together regions spanning the phosphodiesterase active site and cAMP-binding sites of RIα. Computational docking combined with amide hydrogen/deuterium exchange mass spectrometry provided a model for parallel dissociation of bound cAMP from the two tandem cAMP-binding domains of RIα. Active site coupling suggests a role for substrate channeling in the PDE-dependent dissociation and hydrolysis of cAMP bound to PKA. This is the first instance, to our knowledge, of PDEs directly interacting with a cAMP-receptor protein in a mammalian system, and

  15. 1992 Environmental Summer Science Camp Program evaluation. The International Environmental Institute of Westinghouse Hanford Company

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-07-01

    This report describes the 1992 Westinghouse Hanford Company/US Department of Energy Environmental Summer Science Camp. The objective of the ``camp`` was to motivate sixth and seventh graders to pursue studies in math, science, and the environment. This objective was accomplished through hands-on fun activities while studying the present and future challenges facing our environment. The camp was funded through Technical Task Plan, 424203, from the US Department of Energy-Headquarters, Office of Environmental Restoration and Waste Management, Technology Development,to Westinghouse Hanford Company`s International Environmental Institute, Education and Internship Performance Group.

  16. Family camping: a case study of the potential for personal development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivo Jirásek

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to examine the family camping phenomenon and its educative potential in education between generations. The study focused on the tradition of family camping in the Czech countryside and it shows the club Veteran Green as a typical Czech example of this leisure activity. This study used a sequential combine design of empirical research based on an autoethnographic examination and survey of both adult (n = 14 and children (n = 14 participants (together from 9 families of a family camp in the Czech Republic. The paper indicated four dimensions of the leisure experience: the phenomena of family, community, nature and spirituality.

  17. Exogenous Camp upregulates the expression of glnII and glnK-amtB genes in Sinorhizobium meliloti 1021

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TIAN Zhexian; MAO Xianjun; SU Wei; LI Jian; BECKER Anke; WANG Yiping

    2006-01-01

    The existence of multiple adenylate cyclase encoding genes implies the importance of Camp in Sinorhizobium meliloti 1021. In this study, as a pioneer step of understanding Camp roles, microarray analysis on S. Meliloti was carried out for the function of exogenous Camp. To our surprise, the result showed that the transcriptions of glnII and glnK genes were significantly upshifted in the presence of exogenous Camp in S. Meliloti. This phenomenon is further confirmed in S. Meliloti that the expression of either glnII or glnK promoter-lacZ translational fusion is higher in the presence of exogenous Camp.Therefore, for the first time, we have identified genes from S. Meliloti whose expression is activated by Camp. The potential physiological role of upregulation of glnII and glnK by Camp is discussed.

  18. Cultural behaviour and the invention of traditions: music and musical practices in the early concentration camps, 1933-6/7.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fackler, Guido

    2010-01-01

    This article investigates music in the concentration camps before the second world war. For the camp authorities, ordering prisoners to sing songs or play in orchestras was an instrument of domination. But for the prisoners, music could also be an expression of solidarity and survival: inmates could retain a degree of their own agency in the pre-war camps, despite the often unbearable living conditions and harsh treatment by guards. The present article emphasizes this ambiguity of music in the early camps. It illustrates the emergence of musical traditions in the pre-war camps which came to have a significant impact on everyday life in the camps. It helps to overcome the view that concentration camp prisoners were simply passive victims. PMID:20845575

  19. Apical Plasma Membrane Proteins and Endolyn-78 Travel through a Subapical Compartment in Polarized WIF-B Hepatocytes

    OpenAIRE

    Ihrke, Gudrun; Martin, Greg V.; Shanks, Michael R.; Schrader, Michael; Schroer, Trina A.; Hubbard, Ann L.

    1998-01-01

    We studied basolateral-to-apical transcytosis of three classes of apical plasma membrane (PM) proteins in polarized hepatic WIF-B cells and then compared it to the endocytic trafficking of basolaterally recycling membrane proteins. We used antibodies to label the basolateral cohort of proteins at the surface of living cells and then followed their trafficking at 37°C by indirect immunofluorescence. The apical PM proteins aminopeptidase N, 5′nucleotidase, and the polymeric IgA receptor were ef...

  20. Filtración apical versus filtración coronal

    OpenAIRE

    Tabares Martínez, Pablo

    2016-01-01

    La filtración del conducto radicular es la principal causa de los fracasos en endodoncia (19). Esta recontaminación puede producirse a través de dos vías principales de filtración que son los orificios coronal y apical. En la actualidad hay controversia entre diferentes autores sobre cuál es la vía de filtración más importante, si la apical (9, 167) o la coronal (4, 76). Existen diversas técnicas de obturación y materiales de obturación, entre las que puede elegir el clínico en función de cad...

  1. Inadvertent Apical Extrusion of Sodium Hypochlorite with Evaluation by Dental Volumetric Tomography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elif Delve Başer Can

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This case report describes the tissue injury caused by inadvertently extruded NaOCl through the apical constriction. A 56-year-old female patient with complaints of pain, swelling, and ecchymosis on the left side of her face was referred to our clinic. The symptoms had emerged following root canal treatment of the maxillary left first premolar, and a soft tissue complication due to apical extrusion of NaOCl was diagnosed. Antibiotics and analgesics were prescribed. DVT images revealed that the buccal root apex had perforated the maxillary bone. The patient was followed up every other day and became asymptomatic on the 10th day. Endodontic therapy was completed with routine procedures. Determining working length precisely and following irrigation protocols meticulously are indispensable to prevent this type of complication. 3D visualization of the affected area may reveal the cause of the incident.

  2. [Endodontic re-treatment or apical surgery, is an evidence-based choice possible?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Lange, J

    2016-02-01

    Treatment of a recurrence after an initial endodontic treatment can consist of endodontic re-treatment or apical surgery. The literature reports comparable success rates for these two options. However, randomised controlled trials that are truly comparable to each other are unavailable as a result of which comparison and an informed choice are not really possible. In addition to the treatment outcome, consideration also has to be given to cost-effectiveness and other patient-related factors, such as pain, swelling and medication. Regarding these considerations, too, little reliable information can be found in the literature. Moreover, factors relating to insurance play an important role in the Netherlands, where only apical surgery is covered by the basic healthcare insurance. In conclusion, all of these factors should be carefully considered before proceeding to an individual treatment strategy. PMID:26878715

  3. Multiple Apical Radiolucencies and External Cervical Resorption Associated with Varicella Zoster Virus: A Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Kreena; Schirru, Elia; Niazi, Sadia; Mitchell, Philip; Mannocci, Francesco

    2016-06-01

    Varicella zoster virus (VZV) is responsible for the primary infection chickenpox. After the initial infection, it remains latent but can reactivate, resulting in shingles (herpes zoster). Previous reports have implicated VZV in the pathogenesis of apical periodontitis, but the involvement of the virus has not been investigated fully. The present case describes a patient who suffered from a severe episode of shingles and subsequently developed periapical radiolucencies of all the teeth in the affected nerve distribution. Molecular and culture techniques showed the presence of VZV DNA in the root canal system in the absence of bacteria. This confirms that VZV can cause localized pulp necrosis and apical periodontitis. The lesions healed after endodontic treatment, implying chemomechanical debridement using sodium hypochlorite irrigation and a calcium hydroxide interim dressing may be effective against the virus. PMID:27133503

  4. Apical ballooning with mid-ventricular obstruction: the many faces of Takotsubo cardiomyopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spadotto, Veronica; Elmaghawry, Mohamed; Zorzi, Alessandro; Migliore, Federico; Marra, Martina Perazzolo

    2013-01-01

    Takotsubo cardiomyopathy (TTC) is a transient left ventricular dysfunction due to akinesia of the left-ventricular (LV) mid-apical segments (apical ballooning), which can cause severe reduction in LV systolic function. The typical clinical picture of TTC include chest pain, electrocardiographic changes consisting of mild ST-segment elevation followed by diffuse deep T-wave inversion, QTc interval prolongation and mild troponin release in the absence of significant coronary stenoses. The syndrome often affects post-menopausal women and is triggered by sympathetic overstimulation, like intense physical or emotional stress, so that it is called the "broken heart syndrome". Although left-ventricular systolic dysfunction usually fully recovers within few days, heart failure can still complicate the early phase. We report a case of stress-induced cardiomyopathy that had full recovery after 4 weeks of follow up. The main electrocardiographic, angiographic and imaging features are discussed. PMID:24689016

  5. Apical microleakage of primary teeth root canal filling materials by clearing technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayhan, H; Alacam, A; Olmez, A

    1996-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate apical leakage of primary teeth root canals sealed with four different root canal filling materials by clearing technique. Dye penetration ratios of all groups were measured by light microscopy. The mean dye penetration was determined in the group of ZOE to be 0.57 mm. This ratio was 1.05 mm in the group of ZOE + glutaraldehyde (GA). In the groups of Kri I and Ca(OH)2, dye penetrations were 0.47 mm, 0.56 mm respectively. The highest apical leakage value was evaluated in the glutaraldehyde + ZOE group (p<0.05), whereas, no statistical difference was found between the other groups. PMID:8619969

  6. Genome-wide analyses for dissecting gene regulatory networks in the shoot apical meristem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bustamante, Mariana; Matus, José Tomás; Riechmann, José Luis

    2016-04-01

    Shoot apical meristem activity is controlled by complex regulatory networks in which components such as transcription factors, miRNAs, small peptides, hormones, enzymes and epigenetic marks all participate. Many key genes that determine the inherent characteristics of the shoot apical meristem have been identified through genetic approaches. Recent advances in genome-wide studies generating extensive transcriptomic and DNA-binding datasets have increased our understanding of the interactions within the regulatory networks that control the activity of the meristem, identifying new regulators and uncovering connections between previously unlinked network components. In this review, we focus on recent studies that illustrate the contribution of whole genome analyses to understand meristem function. PMID:26956505

  7. Micro‐CT analyses of apical enlargement and molar root canal complexity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Markvart, M.; Darvann, Tron Andre; Larsen, P.;

    2012-01-01

    Markvart M, Darvann TA, Larsen P, Dalstra M, Kreiborg S, Bjørndal L. Micro‐CT analyses of apical enlargement and molar root canal complexity. International Endodontic Journal, 45, 273–281, 2012. Aim To compare the effectiveness of two rotary hybrid instrumentation techniques with focus on apical...... enlargement in molar teeth and to quantify and visualize spatial details of instrumentation efficacy in root canals of different complexity. Methodology Maxillary and mandibular molar teeth were scanned using X‐ray microcomputed tomography. Root canals were prepared using either a GT/Profile protocol or a Ra......Ce/NiTi protocol. Variables used for evaluation were the following: distance between root canal surfaces before and after preparation (distance after preparation, DAP), percentage of root canal area remaining unprepared and increase in canal volume after preparation. Root canals were classified according to size...

  8. Feldspar, Infrared Stimulated Luminescence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jain, Mayank

    2014-01-01

    This entry primarily concerns the characteristics and the origins of infrared-stimulated luminescence in feldspars.......This entry primarily concerns the characteristics and the origins of infrared-stimulated luminescence in feldspars....

  9. Comparison of apical debris extrusion of two rotary systems and one reciprocating system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paramasivam Vivekanandhan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Postoperative inflammation and endodontic failure occur due to apical extrusion of debris. Aim: To evaluate the amount of apically extruded debris after preparation of straight root canals in extracted human teeth using three rotary systems. Materials and Methods: Sixty single-rooted human teeth with single root canal and apical foramen were selected and randomly divided into three experimental groups (n = 20 according to the rotary system used: Group 1 - ProTaper, Group 2 - Revo-S, Group 3 - WaveOne. Apical enlargement was done up to size 40/0.06 for Groups 1 and 2 and 40/0.08 for Group 3. For debris collection, each tooth was held in a preweighed Eppendorf tube fixed inside a glass vial through rubber plug. After instrumentation, each tooth was separated from the Eppendorf tube and the debris adhering to the root surface was collected by washing the root with 1 mL of bi-distilled water and incubated at 70°C for 5 days. The dry weight of extruded debris was weighed in an electronic balance. Statistical Analysis: The mean weights of extruded debris were statistically analyzed using GraphPad prism version 6 and the intergroup comparison was done using unpaired t-test. Results: There was a statistically significant difference in the mean debris score among all the three groups - ProTaper (0.00065 g, Revo-S (0.00045 g and WaveOne (0.00089 g. Conclusion: Revo-S system was associated with significantly less debris extrusion compared with ProTaper or WaveOne.

  10. Apical Oxygen Anharmonicity Induced Spontaneous Polarization in YBa2Cu3O7

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A model suggesting an asymmetric double-well form for the effective vibrational potential for the apical oxygen atoms in YBa2Cu3O7 is formulated in the pseudo-spin representation and its phase diagram is studied. A set of parameters is found for which a spontaneous polarization may occur at a temperature close to the superconducting Tc, implying the possibility of formation of a ferroelectric state in the temperature region 90degK-250degK. (author)

  11. An investigation on the effects of resection angle on apical sea!

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Razmi H

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available Statement of Problem: The goal of a successful endodontic surgery is to establish an adequate seal in apical region. Therefore during surgery, root-end resection is essential for an appropriate situation and proper access."nPurpose: The aim of this study was to determine the most appropriate root-end resection angle to establish adequate apical seal in periapical surgery,"nMaterials and Methods: Forty-five intact extracted human maxillary central incisors were randomly divided into three 15-tooth groups. The root canals were instrumented and then obturated using lateral condensation technique. AM roots were resected at 3mm from apical portion. Angles of root resection for each group were 0, 30 and 45 degrees. Then all teeth surfaces, except the cut ones, were covered with nail polish and immersed in methylen blue for 7 days. After 7 days, nail polish was removed from the surfaces and samples were split in buccolingual direction. Then, dye penetration (mm was measured using a stereozoom microscope (Loupe [X4 magnification] and eye lens. In order to analyze the data, unilateral variance analysis was used."nResults: The values of dye penetration were: 7.23±3.34 (0°, 8.46±3.01(30° and 9.74±4.11 (45°. There"nwas no significant difference between three groups (P>0.05. Conclusion: It is suggested that the angle of root-end resection put a limited effect on apical seal if retrograde cavity depth is increased.

  12. 24 hour ST segment analysis in transient left ventricular apical ballooning.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank Bode

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The etiologic basis of transient left ventricular apical ballooning, a novel cardiac syndrome, is not clear. Among the proposed pathomechanisms is coronary vasospasm. Long-term ST segment analysis may detect vasospastic episodes but has not been reported. METHODS: 30 consecutive patients with transient left ventricular apical ballooning, left ventricular dysfunction and normal or near-normal coronary arteries were investigated. A 24-hour Holter ECG was obtained after emergency admission. ST segment analysis was performed automatically in 2 leads and confirmed by visual inspection. Criteria for an ischemic event were: 1. ST elevation or 2. horizontal or down-sloping ST segments ≥1 min duration and ≥100 µV J+80 point deviation corrected for baseline ST-deviation. RESULTS: Patients presented with ST segment elevation (n = 19 and/or T wave inversion (n = 20 on admission ECG. Ejection fraction was 50±12%. No transient ST elevations were observed during Holter ECG analysis. In 3 patients, 8 transient episodes of ST depression were recorded. Durations of episodes varied between 75 s and 790 s (mean 229 s. Maximal ST deviation averaged -191±71 µV. Ischemic burden was -1 to -22 mVs (mean -8 mVs. 27 patients showed no ischemic events. CONCLUSIONS: ST segment analysis of 24 h Holter recordings revealed minor ischemic events in only 10% of patients with transient left ventricular apical ballooning. Overall, ST segment changes were not indicative of recurrent coronary spasm playing a major role in the genesis of transient left ventricular apical ballooning.

  13. Prevalence of apical periodontitis and endodontic treatment in a Kosovar adult population

    OpenAIRE

    Kamberi Blerim; Hoxha Veton; Stavileci Miranda; Dragusha Edmond; Kuçi Astrit; Kqiku Lumnije

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Despite numerous studies on the prevalence of apical periodontitis (AP) and endodontic treatment in diverse geographical populations, there are currently no data on the prevalence of these conditions in populations of adults native to Kosovo. Therefore, little is known about how widespread these conditions are, and whether there is any correlation between root canal treatment and AP. The purpose of our research was to address this anomaly by investigating AP and endodontic...

  14. Uptake and Distribution of Aluminum in Root Apices of Two Rice Varieties under Aluminum Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MIFTAHUDIN

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Aluminum (Al toxicity is the major limiting factor of plant growth and production in acid soils. The target of Al toxicity is the root tip, which affects mainly on root growth inhibition. The aim of this research was to study the uptake and distribution of Al in root apices of two rice varieties IR64 (Al-sensitive and Krowal (Al-tolerant, which were grown on nutrient solution containing 0, 15, 30, 45, and 60 ppm of Al. The root growth was significantly inhibited in both rice varieties at as low as 15 ppm Al concentration. The adventive roots of both varieties showed stunted growth in respons to Al stress. There was no difference in root growth inhibition between both rice varieties as well as among Al concentrations. Al uptake on root apices was qualitatively and quantitatively analyzed. Histochemical staining of roots using hematoxylin showed dark purple color on 1 mm region of Al-treated root apices. Rice var. IR 64 tended to take up more Al in root tip than Krowal did. However, there was no statistically significant difference (p = 0.176 in root Al content of both varieties in response to different concentration and period of Al treatments. Al distribution in root apices was found in the epidermal and subepidermal region in both rice varieties. Based on those results, rice var. Krowal that was previously grouped as Al-tolerant variety has similar root growth and physiological response to Al stress as compared to Al-sensitive variety IR64.

  15. Isolation of Highly Enriched Apical Plasma Membranes of the Placental Syncytiotrophoblast

    OpenAIRE

    Robinson, John M.; Ackerman, William E.; Tewari, Arun K.; Kniss, Douglas A.; Dale D Vandre

    2009-01-01

    The human placenta is a complex organ whose proper function is crucial for the development of the fetus. The placenta contains within its structure elements of the maternal and fetal circulatory systems. The interface with maternal blood is the lining of the placenta, that is a unique compartment known as the syncytiotrophoblast. This large syncytial structure is a single cell layer in thickness, and the apical plasma membrane of the syncytiotrophoblast interacts directly with maternal blood....

  16. A glycophospholipid membrane anchor acts as an apical targeting signal in polarized epithelial cells

    OpenAIRE

    1989-01-01

    Glycosyl-phosphatidylinositol- (GPI) anchored proteins contain a large extracellular protein domain that is linked to the membrane via a glycosylated form of phosphatidylinositol. We recently reported the polarized apical distribution of all endogenous GPI-anchored proteins in the MDCK cell line (Lisanti, M. P., M. Sargiacomo, L. Graeve, A. R. Saltiel, and E. Rodriguez-Boulan. 1988. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA. 85:9557-9561). To study the role of this mechanism of membrane anchoring in targeti...

  17. A new approach to supply chain management based on pooling ITIL and APICS Principles and Practices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdelaali Himi

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available APICS (Advanced Productivity, Innovation and Competitive Success - The Association for Operations Management is known as the repository providing a set of best practices in Supply Chain Management. The ITIL (Information Technology Infrastructure Library also provides best practices for IT service management. Noting the existence of a similarity between these two standards, this paper identifies the ITIL concepts used in the supply chain context and describe their contributions.

  18. The shoot apical meristem of oil palm (Elaeis guineensis; Arecaceae): developmental progression and dynamics

    OpenAIRE

    Jouannic, Stefan; Lartaud, Marc; Hervé, Jonathan; Collin, Myriam; Orieux, Yves; Verdeil, Jean-Luc; Tregear, James W

    2011-01-01

    Background and Aims Oil palm, an unbranched perennial monocotyledon, possesses a single shoot apical meristem (SAM), which is responsible for the initiation of the entire above-ground structure of the plant. To compare the palm SAM structure with those of other monocots and to study variations in its structure throughout the life of the plant, its organization was characterized from the embryonic stage to that of the reproductive plant. Methods SAM structure was studied by a combination of st...

  19. [Apical root pins of high-karat gold alloys for resected roots].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handtmann, S; Lindemann, W; Sculte, W

    1989-02-01

    Following earlier studies on corrosion of silver pins in the root canal experience will be presented with the use of high-karat gold pins for apical closure of root amputations. The commercially available standardized Ackermann silver pins were replaced by high-karat gold pins of similar Vicker hardness and inserted in 218 patients with 264 root amputations since 1986. A clinical and radiological follow-up demonstrated a success rate of over 90%. PMID:2598876

  20. Mostre virtuali per il Centro Apice – Una proposta culturale e didattica

    OpenAIRE

    Francesco Tissoni

    2012-01-01

    Intendo presentare in questa sede i primi risultati di un progetto avviato nell’anno accademico 2008-2009 presso l’Università degli Studi di Milano, consistente nella realizzazione, nella forma di tesi di laurea magistrali, di una serie di mostre virtuali dedicate ad alcuni fondi archivistico-librari custoditi presso il Centro Apice – Archivi della Parola, dell’Immagine e della Comunicazione editoriale.

  1. Mostre virtuali per il Centro Apice – Una proposta culturale e didattica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Tissoni

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Intendo presentare in questa sede i primi risultati di un progetto avviato nell’anno accademico 2008-2009 presso l’Università degli Studi di Milano, consistente nella realizzazione, nella forma di tesi di laurea magistrali, di una serie di mostre virtuali dedicate ad alcuni fondi archivistico-librari custoditi presso il Centro Apice – Archivi della Parola, dell’Immagine e della Comunicazione editoriale.

  2. Evaluation of the anatomical alterations of lower molars mesial root?s apical third

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FRÖNER Izabel Cristina

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available The anatomical apex of the mesial root of the lower molars presents a morphological complexity related to the number and shape of the root canals as well as of the apical foramen and isthmus presence. The knowledge of the complexity of the endodontic system of the molar root area is essencial to select more carefully the best instrumentation and obturation technique, to obtain a more successful endodontic therapy.

  3. Pseudo-acute myocardial infarction due to transient apical ventricular dysfunction syndrome (Takotsubo syndrome)

    OpenAIRE

    Maciel, Bruno Araújo; Cidrão, Alan Alves de Lima; Sousa, Ítalo Bruno dos Santos; Ferreira, José Adailson da Silva; Messias Neto, Valdevino Pedro

    2013-01-01

    Takotsubo syndrome is characterized by predominantly medial-apical transient left ventricular dysfunction, which is typically triggered by physical or emotional stress. The present article reports the case of a 61-year-old female patient presenting with dizziness, excessive sweating, and sudden state of ill feeling following an episode involving intense emotional stress. The physical examination and electrocardiogram were normal upon admission, but the troponin I and creatine kinase-MB concen...

  4. Length and activity of the root apical meristem revealed in vivo by infrared imaging

    OpenAIRE

    Bizet, François; Hummel, Iréne; Bogeat-Triboulot, Marie-Béatrice

    2014-01-01

    Understanding how cell division and cell elongation influence organ growth and development is a long-standing issue in plant biology. In plant roots, most of the cell divisions occur in a short and specialized region, the root apical meristem (RAM). Although RAM activity has been suggested to be of high importance to understand how roots grow and how the cell cycle is regulated, few experimental and numeric data are currently available. The characterization of the RAM is difficult and essenti...

  5. Effect of methods of evaluation on sealing ability of mineral trioxide aggregate apical plug

    OpenAIRE

    Nikhil, Vineeta; Jha, Padmanabh; Suri, Navleen Kaur

    2016-01-01

    Aim: The purpose of the study was to evaluate and compare the sealing ability of mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) with three different methods. Materials and Methods: Forty single canal teeth were decoronated, and root canals were enlarged to simulate immature apex. The samples were randomly divided into Group MD = MTA-angelus mixed with distilled water and Group MC = MTA-angelus mixed with 2% chlorhexidine, and apical seal was recorded with glucose penetration method, fluid filtration method...

  6. The effect of irrigation solutions on the apical sealing ability in different root canal sealers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emre Bodrumlu

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to assess the effect of three root canal irrigation solutions on the apical sealing ability of three root canal obturation materials: gutta-percha/AH plus or MM-seal and Resilon/Epiphany SE. A total of 100 teeth with single straight root canals were randomly divided into three equal groups of 30 samples each, with the other 10 teeth (5 positive and 5 negative used as controls. Each irrigation group was divided into three groups according to the use of three different root canal obturation materials (n = 10: Gutta-percha with AH plus or MM-seal, Resilon with Epiphany SE. The crowns were removed at the cementoenamel junction with a diamond disc under water coolant. The root canals were prepared using step-back technique and irrigation with either sodium hypochlorite (2.5%, chlorhexidine (2%, or MTAD solutions. The roots were obturated with lateral condensation technique using one of the obturation materials. The root surfaces was coated with two layer nail varnish (except apex, placed in 2% methylene blue dye solution, and centrifuged at 3,000 rpm for 5 minutes. Irrigation solutions affected the apical sealing ability of all the sealers. The chlorhexidine irrigation solution exhibited higher apical leakage values than did MTAD and NaOCl in all canal sealers, although the MTAD irrigation solution groups showed the least leakage values. The apical sealing ability of AH plus, Epiphany SE and MM-seal root canal sealers decreased when the chlorhexidine was used as an irrigation solution.

  7. Apical groove type and molecular phylogeny suggests reclassification of Cochlodinium geminatum as Polykrikos geminatum.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dajun Qiu

    Full Text Available Traditionally Cocholodinium and Gymnodinium sensu lato clade are distinguished based on the cingulum turn number, which has been increasingly recognized to be inadequate for Gymnodiniales genus classification. This has been improved by the combination of the apical groove characteristics and molecular phylogeny, which has led to the erection of several new genera (Takayama, Akashiwo, Karenia, and Karlodinium. Taking the apical groove characteristics and molecular phylogeny combined approach, we reexamined the historically taxonomically uncertain species Cochlodinium geminatum that formed massive blooms in Pearl River Estuary, China, in recent years. Samples were collected from a bloom in 2011 for morphological, characteristic pigment, and molecular analyses. We found that the cingulum in this species wraps around the cell body about 1.2 turns on average but can appear under the light microscopy to be >1.5 turns after the cells have been preserved. The shape of its apical groove, however, was stably an open-ended anticlockwise loop of kidney bean shape, similar to that of Polykrikos. Furthermore, the molecular phylogenetic analysis using 18S rRNA-ITS-28S rRNA gene cistron we obtained in this study also consistently placed this species closest to Polykrikos within the Gymnodinium sensu stricto clade and set it far separated from the clade of Cochlodinium. These results suggest that this species should be transferred to Polykrikos as Polykrikos geminatum. Our results reiterate the need to use the combination of apical groove morphology and molecular phylogeny for the classification of species within the genus of Cochlodinium and other Gymnodiniales lineages.

  8. An auxin responsive CLE gene regulates shoot apical meristem development in Arabidopsis

    OpenAIRE

    Guo, Hongyan; Zhang, Wei; Tian, Hainan; Zheng, Kaijie; Dai, Xuemei; Liu, Shanda; Hu, Qingnan; Wang, Xianling; Liu, Bao; Wang, Shucai

    2015-01-01

    Plant hormone auxin regulates most, if not all aspects of plant growth and development, including lateral root formation, organ pattering, apical dominance, and tropisms. Peptide hormones are peptides with hormone activities. Some of the functions of peptide hormones in regulating plant growth and development are similar to that of auxin, however, the relationship between auxin and peptide hormones remains largely unknown. Here we report the identification of OsCLE48, a rice (Oryza sativa) CL...

  9. An auxin responsive CLE gene regulates shoot apical meristem development in Arabidopsis

    OpenAIRE

    Hongyan eGuo; Wei eZhang; Hainan eTian; Kaijie eZheng; Xuemei eDai; Shanda eLiu; Qingnan eHu; Xianling eWang; Bao eLiu; Shucai eWang

    2015-01-01

    Plant hormone auxin regulates most, if not all aspects of plant growth and development, including lateral root formation, organ pattering, apical dominance and tropisms. Peptide hormones are peptides with hormone activities. Some of the functions of peptide hormones in regulating plant growth and development are similar to that of auxin, however, the relationship between auxin and peptide hormones remains largely unknown. Here we report the identification of OsCLE48, a rice (Oryza sativa) CLE...

  10. Sealing ability of grar MTA AngelusTM, CPM TM and MBPc used as apical plugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orosco, Fernando Accorsi; Bramante, Clovis Monteiro; Garcia, Roberto Brandão; Bernadineli, Norberti; Moraes, Ivaldo Gomes de

    2008-01-01

    This study evaluated the sealing ability of apical plugs fabricated with gray MTA Angelus sealer, CPM TM sealer and MBPc sealer. The root canals of 98 extracted single-rooted human teeth were instrumented with #5 to #1 Gates Glidden drills according to the crown-down technique until the #1 drill could pass through the apical foramen. The specimens were then prepared with K-files, starting with an ISO 50 until an ISO 90 could be visualized 1 mm beyond the apex. After root canal preparation, the external surface of each root was rendered impermeable and roots were assigned to 3 experimental groups (n = 30), which received a 5-mm thick apical plug of gray MTA Angelus, CPM and MBPc, and two control groups (n=4). The remaining portion of the canal in the experimental groups was filled by the lateral condensation technique. The teeth of each group, properly identified, were fixed on utility wax by their crowns and were placed in plastic flasks, leaving the apex free and facing upward. The flasks were filled with 0.2% Rhodamine B solution, pH 7.0, so as to completely cover the root apex of all teeth. The sealing ability was analyzed by measuring 0.2% Rhodamine B leakage after all groups had been maintained in this solution for 48 hours. Data were analyzed statistically by Kruskal-Wallis test and Dunn test with a=5%. The results showed that, among the tested materials used for fabrication of apical plugs, MBPc sealer had the least amount of leakage with statistically significant difference (p<0.05). PMID:19089289

  11. Sealing ability of grar MTA AngelusTM, CPM TM and MBPc used as apical plugs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Accorsi Orosco

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the sealing ability of apical plugs fabricated with gray MTA AngelusTM sealer, CPM TM sealer and MBPc sealer. The root canals of 98 extracted single-rooted human teeth were instrumented with #5 to #1 Gates Glidden drills according to the crown-down technique until the #1 drill could pass through the apical foramen. The specimens were then prepared with K-files, starting with an ISO 50 until an ISO 90 could be visualized 1 mm beyond the apex. After root canal preparation, the external surface of each root was rendered impermeable and roots were assigned to 3 experimental groups (n = 30, which received a 5-mm thick apical plug of gray MTA AngelusTM, CPM TM and MBPc, and two control groups (n=4. The remaining portion of the canal in the experimental groups was filled by the lateral condensation technique. The teeth of each group, properly identified, were fixed on utility wax by their crowns and were placed in plastic flasks, leaving the apex free and facing upward. The flasks were filled with 0.2% Rhodamine B solution, pH 7.0, so as to completely cover the root apex of all teeth. The sealing ability was analyzed by measuring 0.2% Rhodamine B leakage after all groups had been maintained in this solution for 48 hours. Data were analyzed statistically by Kruskal-Wallis test and Dunn test with a=5%. The results showed that, among the tested materials used for fabrication of apical plugs, MBPc sealer had the least amount of leakage with statistically significant difference (p<0.05.

  12. Argonautes compete for miR165/166 to regulate shoot apical meristem development

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Zhonghui; Zhang, Xiuren

    2012-01-01

    Plant stem cells in the shoot apical meristem (SAM) possess the unique abilities of both self-renewal for SAM maintenance and providing undifferentiated daughter cells for initiation and subsequent development of aerial organs. The coordination between stem cell renewal and cell differentiation during organogenesis is regulated by elaborate genetic pathways involving numerous transcription factors and other molecules. In the past decade, microRNAs (miRNAs) have emerged as pivotal regulators i...

  13. Genetic control of morphometric diversity in the maize shoot apical meristem

    OpenAIRE

    Leiboff, Samuel; Li, Xianran; Hu, Heng-Cheng; Todt, Natalie; YANG, JINLIANG; Li, Xiao; Yu, Xiaoqing; Muehlbauer, Gary J.; Timmermans, Marja C. P.; Yu, Jianming; Schnable, Patrick S.; Scanlon, Michael J

    2015-01-01

    The maize shoot apical meristem (SAM) comprises a small pool of stem cells that generate all above-ground organs. Although mutational studies have identified genetic networks regulating SAM function, little is known about SAM morphological variation in natural populations. Here we report the use of high-throughput image processing to capture rich SAM size variation within a diverse maize inbred panel. We demonstrate correlations between seedling SAM size and agronomically important adult trai...

  14. The ERECTA receptor kinase regulates Arabidopsis shoot apical meristem size, phyllotaxy and floral meristem identity

    OpenAIRE

    Mandel, Tali; Moreau, Fanny; Kutsher, Yaarit; Fletcher, Jennifer C; Carles, Cristel C.; Williams, Leor Eshed

    2014-01-01

    In plants, the shoot apical meristem (SAM) serves as a reservoir of pluripotent stem cells from which all above ground organs originate. To sustain proper growth, the SAM must maintain homeostasis between the self-renewal of pluripotent stem cells and cell recruitment for lateral organ formation. At the core of the network that regulates this homeostasis in Arabidopsis are the WUSCHEL (WUS) transcription factor specifying stem cell fate and the CLAVATA (CLV) ligand-receptor system limiting WU...

  15. Comparison of Domain Nucleation Mechanisms in a Minimal Model of Shoot Apical Meristem

    OpenAIRE

    Battogtokh, Dorjsuren; Tyson, John J.

    2016-01-01

    Existing mathematical models of the shoot apical meristem (SAM) explain nucleation and confinement of a stem cell domain by Turing's mechanism, assuming that the diffusion coefficients of the activator (WUSCHEL) and inhibitor (CLAVATA) are significantly different. As there is no evidence for this assumption of differential diffusivity, we recently proposed a new mechanism based on a bistable switch model of the SAM. Here we study the bistable-switch mechanism in detail, demonstrating that it ...

  16. Function and regulation of transcription factors involved in root apical meristem and stem cell maintenance

    OpenAIRE

    Drisch, Rebecca C.; Stahl, Yvonne

    2015-01-01

    Plant roots are essential for overall plant development, growth, and performance by providing anchorage in the soil and uptake of nutrients and water. The primary root of higher plants derives from a group of pluripotent, mitotically active stem cells residing in the root apical meristem (RAM) which provides the basis for growth, development, and regeneration of the root. The stem cells in the Arabidopsis thaliana RAM are surrounding the quiescent center (QC), which consists of a group of rar...

  17. Sample preparation for laser-microdissection of soybean shoot apical meristem

    OpenAIRE

    Wong, Chui E; Mohan B. Singh; Bhalla, Prem L

    2012-01-01

    The shoot apical meristem houses stem cells responsible for the continuous formation of aerial plant organs including leaves and stems throughout the life of plants. Laser-microdissection in combination with high-throughput technology such as next generation sequencing permits an in-depth analysis of molecular events associated with specific cell type of interest. Sample preparation is the most critical step in ensuring good quality RNA to be extracted from samples following laser-microdissec...

  18. Dichotomous branching: the plant form and integrity upon the apical meristem bifurcation

    OpenAIRE

    Gola, Edyta M

    2014-01-01

    The division of the apical meristem into two independently functioning axes is defined as dichotomous branching. This type of branching typically occurs in non-vascular and non-seed vascular plants, whereas in seed plants it presents a primary growth form only in several taxa. Dichotomy is a complex process, which requires a re-organization of the meristem structure and causes changes in the apex geometry and activity. However, the mechanisms governing the repetitive apex divisions are hardly...

  19. The Shoot Apical Meristem Regulatory Peptide CLV3 Does Not Activate Innate Immunity

    OpenAIRE

    Segonzac, Cécile; Nimchuk, Zachary L.; Beck, Martina; Tarr, Paul T.; Robatzek, Silke; Meyerowitz, Elliot M.; Zipfel, Cyril

    2012-01-01

    The Arabidopsis thaliana leucine-rich repeat receptor kinase FLAGELLIN SENSING2 (FLS2) is required for the recognition of bacterial flagellin in innate immunity. Recently, FLS2 was proposed to act as a multispecific receptor recognizing unrelated exogenous and endogenous peptide ligands, including CLAVATA3 (CLV3), a key regulator of shoot meristem stem cell production. Here, we report experimental evidence demonstrating that FLS2 does not recognize CLV3 and that the shoot apical meristem is i...

  20. Diversity of Maize Shoot Apical Meristem Architecture and Its Relationship to Plant Morphology

    OpenAIRE

    Thompson, Addie M.; Yu, Jianming; Timmermans, Marja C. P.; Schnable, Patrick; Crants, James C.; Scanlon, Michael J; Muehlbauer, Gary J.

    2015-01-01

    The shoot apical meristem contains a pool of undifferentiated stem cells and controls initiation of all aerial plant organs. In maize (Zea mays), leaves are formed throughout vegetative development; on transition to floral development, the shoot meristem forms the tassel. Due to the regulated balance between stem cell maintenance and organogenesis, the structure and morphology of the shoot meristem are constrained during vegetative development. Previous work identified loci controlling merist...

  1. Homeostasis of the apical plasma membrane during regulated exocytosis in the salivary glands of live rodents

    OpenAIRE

    Masedunskas, Andrius; Sramkova, Monika; Weigert, Roberto

    2011-01-01

    In exocrine organs such as the salivary glands, fluids and proteins are secreted into ductal structures by distinct mechanisms that are tightly coupled. In the acinar cells, the major secretory units of the salivary glands, fluids are secreted into the acinar canaliculi through paracellular and intracellular transport, whereas proteins are stored in large granules that undergo exocytosis and fuse with the apical plasma membranes releasing their content into the canaliculi. Both secretory proc...

  2. Assessment of apically extruded debris and irrigant produced by different nickel-titanium instrument systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ebru KÜÇÜKYILMAZ

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the preparation time and the amounts of apically extruded debris and irrigant using different nickel-titanium instrumentation systems. Forty-five extracted single-rooted mandibular premolar teeth were selected and divided into three groups. The root canals were instrumented according to the manufacturers’ instructions, using a reciprocating single-file system, a single-file rotary system and a multiple-file rotary system. Bidistilled water was used as the irrigant solution. The apically extruded debris and irrigant were collected into preweighed Eppendorf tubes. The amounts of extruded debris and irrigant were assessed with a precision micro-balance. The Eppendorf tubes were incubated at 37°C for 15 days. After the incubation period, they were weighed again to assess the debris extrusion. The time required to prepare the canals was also recorded. The results were statistically analyzed using MANOVA and Bonferroni’s adjustment. Considering the apically extruded debris and irrigant, there were no statistically significant differences among the groups (p > 0.05. The Reciproc group produced the highest debris (0.000632 ± 0.000162 gr and irrigant (0.844587 ± 0.437814 ml extrusion values. While the least extruded debris was observed with OneShape (0,000431 ± 0,000171 gr, the least extruded irrigant was observed with ProTaper system (0.564147 ± 0.370596 ml. Instrumentation was faster using the Reciproc than the other two instruments (70.27 ± 13.38 s (p < 0.05. All of the instrumentation systems used in this study produced apical debris and irrigant extrusion. The reciprocating single-file system tended to produce more debris and irrigant extrusion, compared with the rotary systems. Considering the preparation time, the single-file systems appeared to be advantageous due to their working time.

  3. Comparison of apical debris extrusion of two rotary systems and one reciprocating system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vivekanandhan, Paramasivam; Subbiya, Arunajatesan; Mitthra, Suresh; Karthick, Arumugam

    2016-01-01

    Background: Postoperative inflammation and endodontic failure occur due to apical extrusion of debris. Aim: To evaluate the amount of apically extruded debris after preparation of straight root canals in extracted human teeth using three rotary systems. Materials and Methods: Sixty single-rooted human teeth with single root canal and apical foramen were selected and randomly divided into three experimental groups (n = 20) according to the rotary system used: Group 1 - ProTaper, Group 2 - Revo-S, Group 3 - WaveOne. Apical enlargement was done up to size 40/0.06 for Groups 1 and 2 and 40/0.08 for Group 3. For debris collection, each tooth was held in a preweighed Eppendorf tube fixed inside a glass vial through rubber plug. After instrumentation, each tooth was separated from the Eppendorf tube and the debris adhering to the root surface was collected by washing the root with 1 mL of bi-distilled water and incubated at 70°C for 5 days. The dry weight of extruded debris was weighed in an electronic balance. Statistical Analysis: The mean weights of extruded debris were statistically analyzed using GraphPad prism version 6 and the intergroup comparison was done using unpaired t-test. Results: There was a statistically significant difference in the mean debris score among all the three groups - ProTaper (0.00065 g), Revo-S (0.00045 g) and WaveOne (0.00089 g). Conclusion: Revo-S system was associated with significantly less debris extrusion compared with ProTaper or WaveOne. PMID:27217638

  4. Comparative evaluation of apical extrusion of bacteria using hand and rotary systems : An in vitro study

    OpenAIRE

    Ghivari, Sheetal B; Kubasad, Girish C; Preethi Deshpande

    2012-01-01

    Aim: To evaluate the bacteria extruded apically during root canal preparation using two hand and rotary instrumentation techniques. Materials and Methods: Eighty freshly extracted mandibular premolars were mounted in bacteria collection apparatus. Root canals were contaminated with the pure culture of Enterococcus fecalis (ATCC 29212) and dried at 37°C for 24 h. Bacteria extruded were collected, incubated in brain heart infusion agar for 24 h at 36°C and the colony forming units (CFU) wer...

  5. Remoção do meristema apical e adensamento em plantas de soja visando sua utilização no método descendente de uma única semente = Removal of apical meristem and increase in plant density of soybean plants for the single seed descent method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcia Ribeiro Toledo

    2009-01-01

    branches per plant, number of pods per plant, number of seeds per plant and weight of 100 seeds. Removal of the apical meristem carried out at the 6th trifoliate leaf was more efficient, stimulating branching, reducing plant height and height of the first pod insertion. Removal of apical meristem at the density of ten plants/container provided the production of at least one pod/plant, allowing the use of the SSD method in greenhouse conditions.

  6. Transcranial Electric Field Stimulation

    OpenAIRE

    Arfaee, Arash

    2015-01-01

    Nervous stimulation with electric methods not only has a long history in the treatment of many conditions but also in the last two decades has been used increasingly as a powerful functional brain mapping tool alongside other imaging techniques. This technology has been used to record the stimulation-evoked activity of the stimulated location. This research describes work surrounding a novel technique for brain and nervous stimulation using the electric field as the medium; particularly tra...

  7. Epidermal growth factor-stimulated protein phosphorylation in rat hepatocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Epidermal growth factor (EGF) causes a 6-fold increase in the phosphorylation state of a cytosolic protein (pp36, M/sub r/ = 36,000, pI = 5.5) in hepatocytes isolated from fasted, male, Wistar rats. Stimulation of 32P incorporation is observed as early as 1 min following treatment of hepatocytes with EGF and is still present at 30 min after exposure to the growth factor. The phosphate incorporated into pp36 in response to EGF is located predominantly in serine but not tyrosine residues. Phosphorylation of pp36 does not occur in response to insulin or to agents which specifically activate the cAMP-dependent protein kinase (S/sub p/ -cAMPS), protein kinase C (PMA) or Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinases (A23187) in these cells. Prior treatment of hepatocytes with the cAMP analog, S/sub p/-cAMPS, or ADP-ribosylation of N/sub i/, the inhibitory GTP-binding protein of the adenylate cyclase complex, does not prevent EGF-stimulated phosphorylation of pp36. However, as seen in other cell types, pretreatment of hepatocytes with PMA abolishes all EGF-mediated responses including phosphorylation of pp36. These results suggest that EGP specifically activates an uncharacterized, serine protein kinase in hepatocytes that is distal to the intrinsic EGF receptor tyrosine protein kinase. The rapid activation of this kinase suggests that it may play an important role in the early response of the cell to EGF

  8. Iodothyronine Release from the Perfused Canine Thyroid following Cessation of Stimulation: RAPID DECLINE OF TRIIODOTHYRONINES IN COMPARISON WITH THYROXINE

    OpenAIRE

    Laurberg, Peter

    1980-01-01

    The kinetics of thyroid secretion after termination of stimulation by 100 μU/ml bovine thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) or 5 mM cyclic AMP (cAMP) were studied using perfused canine thyroid lobes. All experiments were performed as paired comparisons, one thyroid lobe acting as a control continuing to receive infusion of the stimulator. 2.5 h after termination of TSH infusion, the secretion of thyroxine (T4), 3,5,3′-triiodothyronine (T3), and 3,3′,5′-triiodothyronine (rT3) was not significantl...

  9. Dictamine Stimulates Cystic Fibrosis Transmembrane Conductance Regulator Cl- Transport

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Jun; YANG Hong; LIU Li-dan; WANG Su-mei; XU Li-na; YU Bo; LIN Sen; HOU Shu-guang; ZHOU Na; JIN Ling-ling

    2007-01-01

    Dictamine is a furoquinoline alkaloid isolated from Dictamus dasycarpus Turcz. In the present study, we found that dictamine is able to stimulate the chloride transport activity of wild-type and △F508 mutant CFTR. The activity is cAMP-dependent and can be completely reversed by specific CFTR inhibitor CFTRinh-172. In addition, dictamine can further increase the chloride transport activity when CFTR is maximally activated by the combination of cAMP stimulators forskolin(FSK) and IBMX, suggesting direct interaction of dictamine with CFTR. Dictamine may be useful for probing CFTR channel gating mechanisms and used as a lead compound to develop the pharmacological therapy of CFTR-related diseases such as idiopathic chronic pancreatitis and keratoconjunctivitis sicca and cystic fibrosis.

  10. Apical Extrusion of Debris Produced during Continuous Rotating and Reciprocating Motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nevares, Giselle; Xavier, Felipe; Gominho, Luciana; Cavalcanti, Flávia; Cassimiro, Marcely; Romeiro, Kaline; Alvares, Pamella; Queiroz, Gabriela; Sobral, Ana Paula; Gerbi, Marleny; Silveira, Marcia; Albuquerque, Diana

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to analyse and compare apical extrusion of debris in canals instrumented with systems used in reciprocating and continuous motion. Sixty mandibular premolars were randomly divided into 3 groups (n = 20): the Reciproc (REC), WaveOne (WO), and HyFlex CM (HYF) groups. One Eppendorf tube per tooth was weighed in advance on an analytical balance. The root canals were instrumented according to the manufacturer's instructions, and standardised irrigation with 2.5% sodium hypochlorite was performed to a total volume of 9 mL. After instrumentation, the teeth were removed from the Eppendorf tubes and incubated at 37°C for 15 days to evaporate the liquid. The tubes were weighed again, and the difference between the initial and final weight was calculated to determine the weight of the debris. The data were statistically analysed using the Shapiro-Wilk, Wilcoxon, and Mann-Whitney tests (α = 5%). All systems resulted in the apical extrusion of debris. Reciproc produced significantly more debris than WaveOne (p < 0.05), and both systems produced a greater apical extrusion of debris than HyFlex CM (p < 0.001). Cross section and motion influenced the results, despite tip standardization. PMID:26543896

  11. In vitro analysis of the apical deformation, using a different number of files during the instrumentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucas da Fonseca Roberti GARCIA

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction and objective: The aim of the present study was toevaluate in vitro the apical deformation in roots of crooked lowerincisors with mesio-distal flattening, using a different number of files during the instrumentation. Material and methods: Twenty rootswere randomly divided into two groups (n = 10. Group I: roots wereinitially instrumented with a K #15 file until a #35 file, through stepback technique. During instrumentation, the canals were irrigated with 1 mL of 1% NaOCl between every instrument change. Obturation wasperformed with Grossman sealer by lateral condensation technique.Group II: procedure was similar to group I, except for the files number, using file #40 as memory instrument. After that, each root was 1mm apical weared in order to reveal the filling. A 3 mm cut from the root apex was performed, resulting in samples with the same length, which were examined with an optical microscope (X40. The images captured by the Image Tool software were analyzed and the area occupied by sealer, gutta-percha and possible empty spaces was quantified. Results: Data was submitted to statistical analysis and showed no statistical significant differences between groups I and II (p > 0.05. Conclusion: The variation in the number of files during instrumentation did not promote apical deformation, but resulted in a similar hermetic sealing between the studied groups.

  12. Integrins Regulate Apical Constriction via Microtubule Stabilization in the Drosophila Eye Disc Epithelium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vilaiwan M. Fernandes

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available During morphogenesis, extracellular signals trigger actomyosin contractility in subpopulations of cells to coordinate changes in cell shape. To illuminate the link between signaling-mediated tissue patterning and cytoskeletal remodeling, we study the progression of the morphogenetic furrow (MF, the wave of apical constriction that traverses the Drosophila eye imaginal disc preceding photoreceptor neurogenesis. Apical constriction depends on actomyosin contractility downstream of the Hedgehog (Hh and bone morphogenetic protein (BMP pathways. We identify a role for integrin adhesion receptors in MF progression. We show that Hh and BMP regulate integrin expression, the loss of which disrupts apical constriction and slows furrow progression; conversely, elevated integrins accelerate furrow progression. We present evidence that integrins regulate MF progression by promoting microtubule stabilization, since reducing microtubule stability rescues integrin-mediated furrow acceleration. Thus, integrins act as a genetic link between tissue-level signaling events and morphological change at the cellular level, leading to morphogenesis and neurogenesis in the eye.

  13. Heterogeneity of myocardial fluoro-18 2-deoxyglucose uptake in patients with apical hypertrophic cardiomyopathy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have shown that myocardial glucose metabolism is heterogeneous in patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. It is not known, however, whether glucose metabolism is impaired in patients with apical hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, which is fairly common in Japan. We studied 7 patients with apical hypertrophic cardiomyopathy and 5 normal subjects using fluoro-18 2-deoxyglucose (FDG) and positron emission tomography (PET). We calculated regional FDG fractional uptake and the inter-regional coefficient of variation (CV) of FDG fractional uptake in the interventricular septal, anteroapical, and posterolateral regions. The regional FDG fractional uptake was similar in the 2 groups and among the 3 different segments within each group. However, the inter-regional CV of FDG fractional uptake was increased in the anteroapical wall segment of the patient group compared with the control group and also with the other 2 regions in the patient group. The results did not differ when we studied another 5 patients and 6 normal control subjects with a PET scanner with higher spatial resolution. These data suggest that myocardial glucose metabolism may be impaired in the anteroapical wall segment of patients with apical hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. (author)

  14. Master apical file size - smaller or larger: a systematic review of microbial reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aminoshariae, A; Kulild, J

    2015-11-01

    The purpose of this systematic review was to determine, in patients undergoing root canal treatment, whether apical enlargement of canals affected microbial reduction. A PICO (population, intervention, comparison and outcome) strategy was developed to identify previously published studies dealing with apical size of canal and microbial reduction. The MEDLINE, Embase, Cochrane and PubMed databases were searched. Additionally, the bibliographies of all relevant articles and textbooks were manually searched. Based on inclusion and exclusion criteria, two reviewers independently selected the relevant articles. Due to the variety of methodologies and different techniques used to measure outcome for master apical file enlargement, it was not possible to standardize the research data and to apply a meta-analysis. Seven articles were identified that met the inclusion criteria. Five of the seven articles generally concluded that canal enlargement reduced bioburden in the root canal system. Two articles reported no difference in canals enlarged to size 25 or 40. The results of the systematic review confirmed that more evidence-based research in this area is needed. With the limited information currently available, the best current available clinical evidence suggests that contemporary chemomechanical debridement techniques with canal enlargement techniques do not eliminate bacteria during root canal treatment at any size. PMID:25387434

  15. Diagnosis and planning in apical surgery: use of cone-beam tomography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Regina Karla de Pontes Lima

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction and objective: The ability to tridimensionally evaluate pathological and anatomical areas, in apical surgery planning, presents a number of advantages. Cone beam computed tomography (CBCT was developed for dental applications. This paper aims to present a literature review on CBCT, highlighting its advantages over both conventional computed tomography (CT and radiography. Moreover, its clinical applications in apical surgery are discussed. Literature review and conclusion: Unlikely CT, CBCT captures a volume of data in a single 360° rotation, providing benefits such as higher accuracy, better resolution, reduced scanning time and reduced radiation dose. In the maxillofacial region, CBCT has been mainly used in the assessment of dento-alveolar pathology and oral traumatology. CBCT provides a better diagnosis and quantitative information on periodontal bone levels than conventional radiography. It has also been used for patients requiring surgical facial reconstruction, orthognathic surgery, dental implants, and more complex tooth extractions. Besides that, it seems to be a significant tool in modern endodontic practice, presenting useful applications in apical surgery.

  16. Genetic interaction of centrosomin and bazooka in apical domain regulation in Drosophila photoreceptor.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geng Chen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Cell polarity genes including Crumbs (Crb and Par complexes are essential for controlling photoreceptor morphogenesis. Among the Crb and Par complexes, Bazooka (Baz, Par-3 homolog acts as a nodal component for other cell polarity proteins. Therefore, finding other genes interacting with Baz will help us to understand the cell polarity genes' role in photoreceptor morphogenesis. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here, we have found a genetic interaction between baz and centrosomin (cnn. Cnn is a core protein for centrosome which is a major microtubule-organizing center. We analyzed the effect of the cnn mutation on developing eyes to determine its role in photoreceptor morphogenesis. We found that Cnn is dispensable for retinal differentiation in eye imaginal discs during the larval stage. However, photoreceptors deficient in Cnn display dramatic morphogenesis defects including the mislocalization of Crumbs (Crb and Bazooka (Baz during mid-stage pupal eye development, suggesting that Cnn is specifically required for photoreceptor morphogenesis during pupal eye development. This role of Cnn in apical domain modulation was further supported by Cnn's gain-of-function phenotype. Cnn overexpression in photoreceptors caused the expansion of the apical Crb membrane domain, Baz and adherens junctions (AJs. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These results strongly suggest that the interaction of Baz and Cnn is essential for apical domain and AJ modulation during photoreceptor morphogenesis, but not for the initial photoreceptor differentiation in the Drosophila photoreceptor.

  17. Effect of nickel titanium file design on the root surface strain and apical microcracks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamleh, Ahmed; Adorno, Carlos G; Ebihara, Arata; Suda, Hideaki

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effect of nickel titanium file design on the root surface strain generated and apical microcracks caused during canal shaping. Thirty-three mandibular incisors were distributed into LightSpeed X, FlexMaster and a control group. A strain gauge was fixed apically on the proximal root surface to determine the maximum strain during canal shaping. Except for the control group, all root canals were enlarged to size 50. Images were taken after removing the apical 1 and 2 mm of the root end. Mean maximum strain values and presence of microcracks were statistically compared using the t-test and chi-square test, respectively. During canal shaping, the strain increased cumulatively with mean maximum strains of 808.2 ± 228.8 and 525.1 ± 168.9 microstrain in LightSpeed X and FlexMaster, respectively (P = 0.004). Both systems caused comparable microcracks. Although LightSpeed X produced higher maximum strain, no difference in microcrack development was found between both systems. PMID:26420627

  18. Relationship of apical lymph node involvement to survival in resected colon carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malassagne, B; Valleur, P; Serra, J; Sarnacki, S; Galian, A; Hoang, C; Hautefeuille, P

    1993-07-01

    In a prospective study of 197 patients with resected colon carcinoma treated between 1974 and 1985, we explored the relationships between pathologic parameters, and the effect of the latter on survival, to identify the parameter whose systematic measurement would improve the predictive capacity of pathologic staging. Prognostic characteristics were studied by univariate analysis. The results showed significant relationships between the location and number of lymph nodes involved, blood vessel invasion, depth of tumor penetration, and metastases. The five-year survival rates were 45 percent and 17 percent (P < 0.001) for patients without and with apical lymph node involvement, respectively, and 44 percent and 6 percent (P < 0.05) for those with four or less nodes involved and more than four involved, respectively. Among the patients treated by incomplete resection, the respective survival rates of those resected for metastases and of those resected for apical lymph node involvement did not differ significantly. We conclude that the involvement of apical lymph nodes has a significant effect on prognosis and suggest systematic pathologic examination of these nodes to allow simpler and more reproducible selection of patients for treatment by incomplete resection who are at high risk of disease-related death. PMID:8394236

  19. LLC-PK1 cells express Na+-lactate cotransport in apical membranes after confluency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    L-[3H]lactate uptake was characterized in LLC-PK1 cell apical membrane vesicles obtained by intensive culture on microcarrier beads. The apical membrane preparation technique involved MgCl2 precipitation. Na+-dependent L-[3H]lactate uptake was present only after confluency; its appearance paralleled the subcellular localization of aminopeptidase in apical membranes. L-[3H]lactate uptake was Na+-dependent and electrogenic. Only the Na+-dependent component of L[3H]lactate uptake was saturable with one family of independent carriers. The apparent affinity constant was 1.1 ± 0.25 mM and the apparent maximal velocity was 29 ± 3 nmol·mg-1·min-1. The Na+-lactate cotransport stoichiometry was 2 Na+ for 1 lactate. The specificity of the L-lactate transport system was compatible with that of the monocarboxylic acid pathway described previously brush-border membranes of kidney cortex and discrete from the tricarboxylic acid carrier, the D-glucose transporter, and the general pathway for anions. The LLC-PK1 cell line appears to be a useful tool for study of the regulation of L-lactate uptake and biosynthesis of the renal monocarboxylic acid transporter

  20. Sample preparation for laser-microdissection of soybean shoot apical meristem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chui E. Wong

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The shoot apical meristem houses stem cells responsible for the continuous formation of aerial plant organs including leaves and stems throughout the life of plants. Laser-microdissection in combination with high-throughput technology such as next generation sequencing permits an in-depth analysis of molecular events associated with specific cell type of interest. Sample preparation is the most critical step in ensuring good quality RNA to be extracted from samples following laser-microdissection. Here, we optimized the sample preparation for a major legume crop, soybean. We used Farmer’s solution as a fixative and paraffin as the embedding medium for soybean shoot apical meristem tissue without the use of any specialized equipment. Shorter time for tissue fixation (two days was found to be critical for the preservation of RNA in soybean shoot apical meristem. We further demonstrated the utility of this method for different tissues derived from soybean and rice. The method outlined here shall facilitate studies on crop plants involving laser-microdissection.