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Sample records for camp stimulates apical

  1. Adenylyl cyclase alpha and cAMP signaling mediate Plasmodium sporozoite apical regulated exocytosis and hepatocyte infection.

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    Takeshi Ono

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Malaria starts with the infection of the liver of the host by Plasmodium sporozoites, the parasite form transmitted by infected mosquitoes. Sporozoites migrate through several hepatocytes by breaching their plasma membranes before finally infecting one with the formation of an internalization vacuole. Migration through host cells induces apical regulated exocytosis in sporozoites. Here we show that apical regulated exocytosis is induced by increases in cAMP in sporozoites of rodent (P. yoelii and P. berghei and human (P. falciparum Plasmodium species. We have generated P. berghei parasites deficient in adenylyl cyclase alpha (ACalpha, a gene containing regions with high homology to adenylyl cyclases. PbACalpha-deficient sporozoites do not exocytose in response to migration through host cells and present more than 50% impaired hepatocyte infectivity in vivo. These effects are specific to ACalpha, as re-introduction of ACalpha in deficient parasites resulted in complete recovery of exocytosis and infection. Our findings indicate that ACalpha and increases in cAMP levels are required for sporozoite apical regulated exocytosis, which is involved in sporozoite infection of hepatocytes.

  2. Iron deficiency stimulates anthocyanin accumulation in grapevine apical leaves.

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    Caramanico, Leila; Rustioni, Laura; De Lorenzis, Gabriella

    2017-10-01

    Iron chlorosis is a diffuse disorder affecting Mediterranean vineyards. Beside the commonly described symptom of chlorophyll decrease, an apex reddening was recently observed. Secondary metabolites, such as anthocyanins, are often synthetized to cope with stresses in plants. The present work aimed to evaluate grapevine responses to iron deficiency, in terms of anthocyanin metabolism (reflectance spectrum, total anthocyanin content, HPLC profile and gene expression) in apical leaves of Cabernet sauvignon and Sangiovese grown in hydroponic conditions. Iron supply interruption produced after one month an increasing of anthocyanin content associated to a more stable profile in both cultivars. In Cabernet sauvignon, the higher red pigment accumulation was associated to a lower intensity of chlorotic symptoms, while in Sangiovese, despite the activation of the metabolism, the lower anthocyanin accumulation was associated to a stronger decrease in chlorophyll concentration. Gene expression data showed a significant increase of anthocyanin biosynthesis. The effects on the expression of structural and transcription factor genes of phenylpropanoid pathway were cultivar dependent. F3H, F3'H, F3'5'H and LDOX genes, in Cabernet sauvignon, and AOMT1 and AOMT genes, in Sangiovese, were positively affected by the treatment in response to iron deficiency. All data support the hypothesis of an anthocyanin biosynthesis stimulation rather than a decreased degradation of them due to iron chlorosis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  3. Parathyroid hormone stimulates juxtaglomerular cell cAMP accumulation without stimulating renin release

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    Atchison, Douglas K.; Harding, Pamela; Cecilia Ortiz-Capisano, M.; Peterson, Edward L.

    2012-01-01

    Parathyroid hormone (PTH) is positively coupled to the generation of cAMP via its actions on the PTH1R and PTH2R receptors. Renin secretion from juxtaglomerular (JG) cells is stimulated by elevated intracellular cAMP, and every stimulus that increases renin secretion is thought to do so via increasing cAMP. Thus we hypothesized that PTH increases renin release from primary cultures of mouse JG cells by elevating intracellular cAMP via the PTH1R receptor. We found PTH1R, but not PTH2R, mRNA expressed in JG cells. While PTH increased JG cell cAMP content from (log10 means ± SE) 3.27 ± 0.06 to 3.92 ± 0.12 fmol/mg protein (P renin release. The PTH1R-specific agonist, parathyroid hormone-related protein (PTHrP), also increased JG cell cAMP from 3.13 ± 0.09 to 3.93 ± 0.09 fmol/mg protein (P renin release. PTH2R receptor agonists had no effect on cAMP or renin release. PTHrP increased cAMP in the presence of both low and high extracellular calcium from 3.31 ± 0.17 to 3.83 ± 0.20 fmol/mg protein (P renin release. PTHrP increased JG cell cAMP in the presence of adenylyl cyclase-V inhibition from 2.85 ± 0.17 to 3.44 ± 0.14 fmol/mg protein (P renin release. As a positive control, forskolin increased JG cell cAMP from 3.39 ± 0.13 to 4.48 ± 0.07 fmol/mg protein (P renin release from 2.96 ± 0.10 to 3.29 ± 0.08 ng ANG I·mg prot−1·h−1 (P renin release. These data suggest compartmentalization of cAMP signaling in JG cells. PMID:22896038

  4. The MRP4/ABCC4 gene encodes a novel apical organic anion transporter in human kidney proximal tubules: putative efflux pump for urinary cAMP and cGMP.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aubel, R.A.M.H. van; Smeets, P.H.E.; Peters, J.G.P.; Bindels, R.J.M.; Russel, F.G.M.

    2002-01-01

    The cyclic nucleotides cAMP and cGMP play key roles in cellular signaling and the extracellular regulation of fluid balance. In the kidney, cAMP is excreted across the apical proximal tubular membrane into urine, where it reduces phosphate reabsorption through a dipyridamole-sensitive mechanism that

  5. Lipoic Acid Stimulates cAMP Production in Healthy Control and Secondary Progressive MS Subjects.

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    Fiedler, Sarah E; Yadav, Vijayshree; Kerns, Amelia R; Tsang, Catherine; Markwardt, Sheila; Kim, Edward; Spain, Rebecca; Bourdette, Dennis; Salinthone, Sonemany

    2017-11-15

    Lipoic acid (LA) exhibits antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties; supplementation reduces disease severity and T lymphocyte migration into the central nervous system in a murine model of multiple sclerosis (MS), and administration in secondary progressive MS (SPMS) subjects reduces brain atrophy compared to placebo. The mechanism of action (MOA) of LA's efficacy in suppression of MS pathology is incompletely understood. LA stimulates production of the immunomodulator cyclic AMP (cAMP) in vitro. To determine whether cAMP could be involved in the MOA of LA in vivo, we performed a clinical trial to examine whether LA stimulates cAMP production in healthy control and MS subjects, and whether there are differences in the bioavailability of LA between groups. We administered 1200 mg of oral LA to healthy control, relapsing remitting MS (RRMS) and SPMS subjects, and measured plasma LA and cAMP levels in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). There were no significant differences between the groups in pharmacokinetic (PK) parameters. Healthy and SPMS subjects had increased cAMP at 2 and 4 h post-LA treatment compared to baseline, while RRMS subjects showed decreases in cAMP. Additionally, plasma concentrations of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2, a known cAMP stimulator) were significantly lower in female RRMS subjects compared to female HC and SPMS subjects 4 h after LA ingestion. These data indicate that cAMP could be part of the MOA of LA in SPMS, and that there is a divergent response to LA in RRMS subjects that may have implications in the efficacy of immunomodulatory drugs. This clinical trial, "Defining the Anti-inflammatory Role of Lipoic Acid in Multiple Sclerosis," NCT00997438, is registered at https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/record/NCT00997438 .

  6. Sweet taste receptors in rat small intestine stimulate glucose absorption through apical GLUT2

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    Mace, Oliver J; Affleck, Julie; Patel, Nick; Kellett, George L

    2007-01-01

    Natural sugars and artificial sweeteners are sensed by receptors in taste buds. T2R bitter and T1R sweet taste receptors are coupled through G-proteins, α-gustducin and transducin, to activate phospholipase C β2 and increase intracellular calcium concentration. Intestinal brush cells or solitary chemosensory cells (SCCs) have a structure similar to lingual taste cells and strongly express α-gustducin. It has therefore been suggested over the last decade that brush cells may participate in sugar sensing by a mechanism analogous to that in taste buds. We provide here functional evidence for an intestinal sensing system based on lingual taste receptors. Western blotting and immunocytochemistry revealed that all T1R members are expressed in rat jejunum at strategic locations including Paneth cells, SCCs or the apical membrane of enterocytes; T1Rs are colocalized with each other and with α-gustducin, transducin or phospholipase C β2 to different extents. Intestinal glucose absorption consists of two components: one is classical active Na+–glucose cotransport, the other is the diffusive apical GLUT2 pathway. Artificial sweeteners increase glucose absorption in the order acesulfame potassium ∼ sucralose > saccharin, in parallel with their ability to increase intracellular calcium concentration. Stimulation occurs within minutes by an increase in apical GLUT2, which correlates with reciprocal regulation of T1R2, T1R3 and α-gustducin versus T1R1, transducin and phospholipase C β2. Our observation that artificial sweeteners are nutritionally active, because they can signal to a functional taste reception system to increase sugar absorption during a meal, has wide implications for nutrient sensing and nutrition in the treatment of obesity and diabetes. PMID:17495045

  7. The sound sensation of apical electric stimulation in cochlear implant recipients with contralateral residual hearing.

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    Diane S Lazard

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Studies using vocoders as acoustic simulators of cochlear implants have generally focused on simulation of speech understanding, gender recognition, or music appreciation. The aim of the present experiment was to study the auditory sensation perceived by cochlear implant (CI recipients with steady electrical stimulation on the most-apical electrode. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Five unilateral CI users with contralateral residual hearing were asked to vary the parameters of an acoustic signal played to the non-implanted ear, in order to match its sensation to that of the electric stimulus. They also provided a rating of similarity between each acoustic sound they selected and the electric stimulus. On average across subjects, the sound rated as most similar was a complex signal with a concentration of energy around 523 Hz. This sound was inharmonic in 3 out of 5 subjects with a moderate, progressive increase in the spacing between the frequency components. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: For these subjects, the sound sensation created by steady electric stimulation on the most-apical electrode was neither a white noise nor a pure tone, but a complex signal with a progressive increase in the spacing between the frequency components in 3 out of 5 subjects. Knowing whether the inharmonic nature of the sound was related to the fact that the non-implanted ear was impaired has to be explored in single-sided deafened patients with a contralateral CI. These results may be used in the future to better understand peripheral and central auditory processing in relation to cochlear implants.

  8. ELMOD1 stimulates ARF6-GTP hydrolysis to stabilize apical structures in developing vestibular hair cells.

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    Krey, Jocelyn F; Dumont, Rachel A; Wilmarth, Philip A; David, Larry L; Johnson, Kenneth R; Barr-Gillespie, Peter G

    2017-12-08

    Sensory hair cells require control of physical properties of their apical plasma membranes for normal development and function. Members of the ARF small GTPase family regulate membrane trafficking and cytoskeletal assembly in many cells. We identified ELMOD1, a guanine nucleoside triphosphatase activating protein (GAP) for ARF6, as the most highly enriched ARF regulator in hair cells. To characterize ELMOD1 control of trafficking, we analyzed mice of both sexes from a strain lacking functional ELMOD1 (roundabout; rda). In rda/rda mice, cuticular plates of utricle hair cells initially formed normally, then degenerated after postnatal day 5 (P5); large numbers of vesicles invaded the compromised cuticular plate. Hair bundles initially developed normally, but the cell's apical membrane lifted away from the cuticular plate, and stereocilia elongated and fused. Membrane trafficking in type I hair cells, measured by FM1-43 dye labeling, was altered in rda/rda mice. Consistent with the proposed GAP role for ELMOD1, the ARF6 GTP/GDP ratio was significantly elevated in rda/rda utricles as compared to controls, and the level of ARF6-GTP was correlated with the severity of the rda/rda phenotype. These results suggest that conversion of ARF6 to its GDP-bound form is necessary for final stabilization of the hair bundle.SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENTAssembly of the mechanically sensitive hair bundle of sensory hair cells requires growth and reorganization of apical actin and membrane structures. Hair bundles and apical membranes in mice with mutations in the Elmod1 gene degenerate after formation, suggesting that the ELMOD1 protein stabilizes these structures. We show that ELMOD1 is a GTPase-activating protein in hair cells for the small GTP-binding protein ARF6, known to participate in actin assembly and membrane trafficking. We propose that conversion of ARF6 into the GDP-bound form in the apical domain of hair cells is essential for stabilizing apical actin structures like the hair

  9. Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) improves the diabetic cytopathy (DCP) via up-regulation of CGRP and cAMP.

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    Ding, Liucheng; Song, Tao; Yi, Chaoran; Huang, Yi; Yu, Wen; Ling, Lin; Dai, Yutian; Wei, Zhongqing

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effects and mechanism of Transcutaneous Electrical Nerve Stimulation (TENS) on the diabetic cytopathy (DCP) in the diabetic bladder. A total of 45 rats were randomly divided into diabetes mellitus (DM)/TENS group (n=15), DM group (n=15) and control group (n=15). The rats in the DM/TENS and TENS groups were electronically stimulated (stimulating parameters: intensity-31 V, frequency-31 Hz, and duration of stimulation of 15 min) for three weeks. Bladder histology, urodynamics and contractile responses to field stimulation and carbachol were determined. The expression of calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) was analyzed by RT-PCR and Western blotting. The results showed that contractile responses of the DM rats were ameliorated after 3 weeks of TENS. Furthermore, TENS significantly increased bladder wet weight, volume threshold for micturition and reduced PVR, V% and cAMP content of the bladder. The mRNA and protein levels of CGRP in dorsal root ganglion (DRG) in the DM/TENS group were higher than those in the DM group. TENS also significantly up-regulated the cAMP content in the bladder body and base compared with diabetic rats. We conclude that TENS can significantly improve the urine contractility and ameliorate the feeling of bladder fullness in DM rats possibly via up-regulation of cAMP and CGRP in DRG.

  10. Insulin-like peptide 3 stimulates testosterone secretion in mouse Leydig cells via cAMP pathway.

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    Pathirana, Indunil N; Kawate, Noritoshi; Büllesbach, Erika E; Takahashi, Masahiro; Hatoya, Shingo; Inaba, Toshio; Tamada, Hiromichi

    2012-10-10

    Testicular Leydig cells secrete insulin-like peptide 3 (INSL3) and express its receptor, RXFP2. However, the effects of INSL3 on endocrine function of Leydig cells are unknown. The present study examines the effects of INSL3 on mouse Leydig cells taking testosterone and cAMP secretions as endpoints. Leydig cells were isolated from testicular interstitial cells obtained from 8-week-old male mice. Cells were then plated in the presence or absence of mouse, human, canine or bovine INSL3 (0-100 ng/ml) for 18 h in multiwell-plates (96 wells) in different cell densities (2500, 5000, 10,000 or 20,000 cells per well). The effects of bovine INSL3 (100 ng/ml) on testosterone secretion by Leydig cells were examined in the presence or absence of, an adenylate cyclase inhibitor, SQ 22536 (1μM) or INSL3 antagonist (bovine and human; 100 ng/ml). Testosterone and cAMP in spent medium were measured by enzyme immunoassay. All INSL3 species tested significantly stimulated the testosterone secretion in Leydig cells, and the maximum stimulation was observed with 100 ng/ml bovine INSL3 at the lowest Leydig cell density (2500 cells per well). Moreover, bovine INSL3 (100 ng/ml) significantly stimulated the cAMP production from Leydig cells maximally at 1h, and remained significantly elevated even at 18 h. SQ 22536 and INSL3 antagonists (bovine and human) significantly reduced INSL3-stimulated testosterone secretion from Leydig cells. Taken together, stimulatory effects of INSL3 on testosterone secretion in Leydig cells are exerted via the activation of cAMP, suggesting a new autocrine function of INSL3 in males. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Hypo-osmotic challenge stimulates transepithelial K+ secretion and activates apical IsK channel in vestibular dark cells.

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    Wangemann, P; Liu, J; Shen, Z; Shipley, A; Marcus, D C

    1995-10-01

    data demonstrate that a hypo-osmotic challenge stimulates transepithelial K+ secretion and activates the apical IsK channel. The hypo-osmotically-induced increase in K+ secretion exceeded the estimated amount of K+ release necessary for the maintenance of constant cell volume, suggesting that the rate of basolateral K+ uptake was upregulated in the presence of the hypo-osmotic challenge and that cross-talk exists between the apical membrane and the basolateral membrane.

  12. Uniform cAMP stimulation of Dictyostelium cells induces localized patches of signal transduction and pseudopodia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Postma, M.; Roelofs, J.; Goedhart, J.; Gadella, T.W.J.; Visser, A.J.W.G.; Haastert, van P.J.M.

    2003-01-01

    The chemoattractant cAMP induces the translocation of cytosolic PHCrac-GFP to the plasma membrane. PHCrac-GFP is a green fluorescent protein fused to a PH domain that presumably binds to phosphatydylinositol polyphosphates in the membrane. We determined the relative concentration of PHCrac-GFP in

  13. Acute application of TNF stimulates apical 70-pS K+ channels in the thick ascending limb of rat kidney.

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    Wei, Yuan; Babilonia, Elisa; Pedraza, Paulina L; Ferreri, Nicholas R; Wang, Wen-Hui

    2003-09-01

    TNF has been shown to be synthesized by the medullary thick ascending limb (mTAL) (21). In the present study, we used the patch-clamp technique to study the acute effect of TNF on the apical 70-pS K+ channel in the mTAL. Addition of TNF (10 nM) significantly stimulated activity of the 70-pS K+ channel and increased NPo [a product of channel open probability (Po) and channel number (N)] from 0.20 to 0.97. The stimulatory effect of TNF was observed only in cell-attached patches but not in excised patches. Moreover, addition of TNF had no effect on the ROMK-like small-conductance K+ channels in the TAL. The dose-response curve of the TNF effect yielded a Km value of 1 nM, a concentration that increased channel activity to 50% maximal stimulatory effect of TNF. The concentrations required for reaching the plateau of the TNF effect were between 5 and 10 nM. The stimulatory effect of TNF on the 70-pS K+ channel was observed in the presence of N(omega)-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester. This indicated that the effect of TNF was not mediated by a nitric oxide-dependent pathway. Also, inhibition of PKA did not affect the stimulatory effect of TNF. In contrast, inhibition of protein tyrosine kinase not only increased activity of the 70-pS K+ channel but also abolished the effect of TNF. Moreover, inhibition of protein tyrosine phosphatase (PTP) blocked the stimulatory effect of TNF on the 70-pS K+ channel. The notion that the TNF effect results from stimulation of PTP activity is supported by PTP activity assay in which treatment of mTAL cells with TNF significantly increased the activity of PTP. We conclude that TNF stimulates the 70-pS K+ channel via stimulation of PTP in the mTAL.

  14. Calcium and cAMP signaling induced by gamma-hydroxybutyrate receptor(s) stimulation in NCB-20 neurons.

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    Coune, P; Taleb, O; Mensah-Nyagan, A G; Maitre, M; Kemmel, V

    2010-04-28

    The NCB-20 neurohybridoma cells differentiated with dibutyryl-cyclic-AMP represent an interesting model to study several components of the gamma-hydroxybutyrate (GHB) system in brain. In particular, an active Na(+)-dependent uptake and a depolarization-evoked release of GHB is expressed by these cells, together with high affinity specific binding sites for this substance. However, only little is known about cellular mechanisms following GHB receptor(s) stimulation in these neurons. Electrophysiological data indicate that GHB can differently affect Ca(2+) currents. L-type calcium channels were typically inhibited by GHB when NCB-20 cells were depolarized. In contrast, when NCB-20 cells were at resting potential, GHB induced a specific Ca(2+) entry through T-type calcium channels. In this study, we investigated the effect induced on cytosolic free Ca(2+) level and cAMP production by GHB receptor(s) stimulated with micromolar concentrations of GHB or structural analogues of GHB. Ca(2+) movements studied by cellular imaging were dose-dependently increased but disappeared for GHB concentrations >25 microM. In addition, nanomolar doses of GHB inhibited forskolin-stimulated adenylate cyclase. This effect was also rapidly desensitized at higher GHB concentrations. Acting as an antagonist, NCS-382 decreased GHB receptor(s) mediated cAMP and calcium signals. The agonist NCS-356 mimicked GHB effects which were not affected by the GABA(B) receptor antagonist CGP-55-845. Our results reveal the occurrence of Ca(2+)-dependent adenylate cyclase inhibition in NCB-20 neurons after GHB receptor(s) stimulation by GHB concentrations NCB-20 neurons of GHB receptors belonging to GPCR family that may recruit various G protein subtypes. Copyright 2010 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Rp-cAMPS Prodrugs Reveal the cAMP Dependence of First-Phase Glucose-Stimulated Insulin Secretion.

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    Schwede, Frank; Chepurny, Oleg G; Kaufholz, Melanie; Bertinetti, Daniela; Leech, Colin A; Cabrera, Over; Zhu, Yingmin; Mei, Fang; Cheng, Xiaodong; Manning Fox, Jocelyn E; MacDonald, Patrick E; Genieser, Hans-G; Herberg, Friedrich W; Holz, George G

    2015-07-01

    cAMP-elevating agents such as the incretin hormone glucagon-like peptide-1 potentiate glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS) from pancreatic β-cells. However, a debate has existed since the 1970s concerning whether or not cAMP signaling is essential for glucose alone to stimulate insulin secretion. Here, we report that the first-phase kinetic component of GSIS is cAMP-dependent, as revealed through the use of a novel highly membrane permeable para-acetoxybenzyl (pAB) ester prodrug that is a bioactivatable derivative of the cAMP antagonist adenosine-3',5'-cyclic monophosphorothioate, Rp-isomer (Rp-cAMPS). In dynamic perifusion assays of human or rat islets, a step-wise increase of glucose concentration leads to biphasic insulin secretion, and under these conditions, 8-bromoadenosine-3',5'-cyclic monophosphorothioate, Rp-isomer, 4-acetoxybenzyl ester (Rp-8-Br-cAMPS-pAB) inhibits first-phase GSIS by up to 80%. Surprisingly, second-phase GSIS is inhibited to a much smaller extent (≤20%). Using luciferase, fluorescence resonance energy transfer, and bioluminescence resonance energy transfer assays performed in living cells, we validate that Rp-8-Br-cAMPS-pAB does in fact block cAMP-dependent protein kinase activation. Novel effects of Rp-8-Br-cAMPS-pAB to block the activation of cAMP-regulated guanine nucleotide exchange factors (Epac1, Epac2) are also validated using genetically encoded Epac biosensors, and are independently confirmed in an in vitro Rap1 activation assay using Rp-cAMPS and Rp-8-Br-cAMPS. Thus, in addition to revealing the cAMP dependence of first-phase GSIS from human and rat islets, these findings establish a pAB-based chemistry for the synthesis of highly membrane permeable prodrug derivatives of Rp-cAMPS that act with micromolar or even nanomolar potency to inhibit cAMP signaling in living cells.

  16. PKA-independent cAMP stimulation of white adipocyte exocytosis and adipokine secretion: modulations by Ca2+ and ATP.

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    Komai, Ali M; Brännmark, Cecilia; Musovic, Saliha; Olofsson, Charlotta S

    2014-12-01

    We examined the effects of cAMP, Ca(2+) and ATP on exocytosis and adipokine release in white adipocytes by a combination of membrane capacitance patch-clamp recordings and biochemical measurements of adipokine secretion. 3T3-L1 adipocyte exocytosis proceeded even in the complete absence of intracellular Ca(2+) ([Ca(2+)]i; buffered with BAPTA) provided cAMP (0.1 mm) was included in the intracellular (pipette-filling) solution. Exocytosis typically plateaued within ∼10 min, probably signifying depletion of a releasable vesicle pool. Inclusion of 3 mm ATP in combination with elevation of [Ca(2+)]i to ≥700 nm augmented the rate of cAMP-evoked exocytosis ∼2-fold and exocytosis proceeded for longer periods (≥20 min) than with cAMP alone. Exocytosis was stimulated to a similar extent upon substitution of cAMP by the Epac (exchange proteins activated by cAMP) agonist 8-Br-2'-O-Me-cAMP (1 mm included in the pipette solution). Inhibition of protein kinase A (PKA) by addition of Rp-cAMPS (0.5 mm) to the cAMP-containing pipette solution was without effect. A combination of the adenylate cyclase activator forskolin (10 μm) and the phosphodiesterase inhibitor IBMX (200 μm; forsk-IBMX) augmented adiponectin secretion measured over 30 min 3-fold and 2-fold in 3T3-L1 and human subcutaneous adipocytes, respectively. This effect was unaltered by pre-loading of cells with the Ca(2+) chelator BAPTA-AM and 2-fold amplified upon inclusion of the Ca(2+) ionophore ionomycin (1 μm) in the extracellular solution. Adiponectin release was also stimulated by the membrane-permeable Epac agonist 8-Br-2'-O-Me-cAMP-AM but unaffected by inclusion of the membrane-permeable PKA inhibitor Rp-8-Br-cAMPS (200 μm). The adipokines leptin, resistin and apelin were present in low amounts in the incubation medium (1-6% of measured adiponectin). Adipsin was secreted in substantial quantities (50% of adiponectin concentration) but release of this adipokine was unaffected by forsk

  17. cAMP inhibits CSF-1-stimulated tyrosine phosphorylation but augments CSF-1R-mediated macrophage differentiation and ERK activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Nicholas J; Cross, Maddalena; Nguyen, Thao; Hamilton, John A

    2005-08-01

    Macrophage colony stimulating factor (M-CSF) or CSF-1 controls the development of the macrophage lineage through its receptor tyrosine kinase, c-Fms. cAMP has been shown to influence proliferation and differentiation in many cell types, including macrophages. In addition, modulation of cellular ERK activity often occurs when cAMP levels are raised. We have shown previously that agents that increase cellular cAMP inhibited CSF-1-dependent proliferation in murine bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMM) which was associated with an enhanced extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) activity. We report here that increasing cAMP levels, by addition of either 8-bromo cAMP (8BrcAMP) or prostaglandin E(1) (PGE1), can induce macrophage differentiation in M1 myeloid cells engineered to express the CSF-1 receptor (M1/WT cells) and can potentiate CSF-1-induced differentiation in the same cells. The enhanced CSF-1-dependent differentiation induced by raising cAMP levels correlated with enhanced ERK activity. Thus, elevated cAMP can promote either CSF-1-induced differentiation or inhibit CSF-1-induced proliferation depending on the cellular context. The mitogen-activated protein kinase/extracellular signal-related protein kinase kinase (MEK) inhibitor, PD98059, inhibited both the cAMP- and the CSF-1R-dependent macrophage differentiation of M1/WT cells suggesting that ERK activity might be important for differentiation in the M1/WT cells. Surprisingly, addition of 8BrcAMP or PGE1 to either CSF-1-treated M1/WT or BMM cells suppressed the CSF-1R-dependent tyrosine phosphorylation of cellular substrates, including that of the CSF-1R itself. It appears that there are at least two CSF-1-dependent pathway(s), one MEK/ERK dependent pathway and another controlling the bulk of the tyrosine phosphorylation, and that cAMP can modulate signalling through both of these pathways.

  18. Interleukin-1 and tumour necrosis factor alpha induced polymorphonuclear leukocyte-endothelial cell adhesion and transendothelial migration in vitro: the effect of apical versus basal monolayer stimulation.

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    Morzycki, W; Sadowska, J; Issekutz, A C

    1990-09-01

    The cytokines interleukin-1 (IL-1) and tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF alpha) enhance polymorphonuclear leukocyte (PMNL) adhesion to vascular endothelium by an endothelial cell dependent mechanism in vitro and induce PMNL infiltration in vivo In this study, we employed human umbilical vein endothelium (HUVE) cultured on microporous membrane filters to form a monolayer, a system in which PMNL adherence and PMNL transendothelial migration could be measured using 51Cr-labelled human PMNL. In this system, it was found that PMNL adhesion and migration were dependent on prior treatment of the HUVE monolayer with IL-1 or TNF alpha for at least 2 h and that cytokine could be removed prior to the addition of PMNL without any effect on the response. PMNL adherence to the HUVE was maximal by 30 min and was followed by progressive migration of PMNL across the monolayer and the membrane filter into the lower chamber. The effect of apical surface versus basal surface exposure of the HUVE monolayer to IL-1 alpha and TNF alpha on subsequent PMNL interaction with the HUVE monolayer in the absence of cytokine was examined. Apical or basal stimulation induced comparable PMNL adherence at 30 min following addition of PMNL (35.5% and 43.1%). However, basal (i.e., abluminal) exposure to IL-1 or TNF alpha of the HUVE induced significantly greater PMNL transendothelial migration (e.g., 27.8% vs. 15.4%; P less than 0.01). The expression of endothelial-leukocyte adhesion molecules ELAM-1 and ICAM-1 following apical versus basal stimulation was determined by ELISA on viable cells. These adhesion molecules were upregulated to a similar extent under both conditions. These observations suggest that spacial localization or orientation of adhesion molecules may be influenced by basal versus apical cytokine stimulation or that other mechanisms are responsible for the preferential PMNL migration with basal stimulation. These findings may have implications for the in vivo interactions of PMNL with

  19. Apical cap

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    McLoud, T.C.; Isler, R.J.; Novelline, R.A.; Putman, C.E.; Simeone, J.; Stark, P.

    1981-08-01

    Apical caps, either unilateral or bilateral, are a common feature of advancing age and are usually the result of subpleural scarring unassociated with other diseases. Pancoast (superior sulcus) tumors are a well recognized cause of unilateral asymmetric apical density. Other lesions arising in the lung, pleura, or extrapleural space may produce unilateral or bilateral apical caps. These include: (1) inflammatory: tuberculosis and extrapleural abscesses extending from the neck; (2) post radiation fibrosis after mantle therapy for Hodgkin disease or supraclavicular radiation in the treatment of breast carcinoma; (3) neoplasm: lymphoma extending from the neck or mediastinum, superior sulcus bronchogenic carcinoma, and metastases; (4) traumatic: extrapleural dissection of blood from a ruptured aorta, fractures of the ribs or spine, or hemorrhage due to subclavian line placement; (5) vascular: coarctation of the aorta with dilated collaterals over the apex, fistula between the subclavian artery and vein; and (6) miscellaneous: mediastinal lipomatosis with subcostal fat extending over the apices.

  20. The camp analogue, dbcAMP can stimulate rabbit reproductive functions: I. Effect on ovarian folliculogenesis, ovulation and embryo production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chrenek P.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of our study was to examine the influence of administration of N6,2’-dibutyryladenosine 3’5’-cyclic monophosphate (dbcAMP, a cAMP agonist, on ovarian folliculogenesis and atresia, as well as on reproductive efficiency in rabbits, whose ovarian cycle and ovulation was induced by gonadotropins. Ovarian cycle and ovulation of control rabbits were induced by 20 IU/kg PMSG followed by 35 IU/kg hCG administration. Experimental animals received PMSG and hCG together with dbcAMP (at 5, 25 or 50 μg/animal. After ovulation and insemination, the animals were sacrificed. Ovaries were weighted, histological sections of ovaries were prepared, and the presence of ovulated and not ovulated follicles and different stages of atresia was evaluated by light microscopy. The eggs were flushed from the oviducts after insemination and cultured up to blastocyst cell stage. Numbers of ovarian Corpora lutea, ovulated oocytes and oocyte-derived zygotes and embryos reaching hatched blastocyst stage were determined. Administration of dbcAMP (at doses 25 or 50 μg/animal, but not at 5 μg/animal was able to increase the proportion of follicles with cystic and luteinization-related atresia. Furthermore, dbcAMP (50 μg/animal, but not lower doses increased the ovarian mass, number of Corpora lutea, number of harvested oocytes, zygotes and embryos at blastocyst stage derived from these zygotes after culture. These data demonstrate that dbcAMP can stimulate rabbit ovarian follicle atresia, ovulation, oocyte, zygote and embryo yield and development. Furthermore, they confirm in the involvement of cyclic nucleotide-dependent intracellular mechanisms in the control of rabbit reproductive functions and potential practical usefulness of dbcAMP in improving animal reproduction and fertility.

  1. Basolateral cholesterol depletion alters Aquaporin-2 post-translational modifications and disrupts apical plasma membrane targeting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moeller, Hanne B; Fuglsang, Cecilia Hvitfeldt; Pedersen, Cecilie Nøhr; Fenton, Robert A

    2018-01-01

    Apical plasma membrane accumulation of the water channel Aquaporin-2 (AQP2) in kidney collecting duct principal cells is critical for body water homeostasis. Posttranslational modification (PTM) of AQP2 is important for regulating AQP2 trafficking. The aim of this study was to determine the role of cholesterol in regulation of AQP2 PTM and in apical plasma membrane targeting of AQP2. Cholesterol depletion from the basolateral plasma membrane of a collecting duct cell line (mpkCCD14) using methyl-beta-cyclodextrin (MBCD) increased AQP2 ubiquitylation. Forskolin, cAMP or dDAVP-mediated AQP2 phosphorylation at Ser269 (pS269-AQP2) was prevented by cholesterol depletion from the basolateral membrane. None of these effects on pS269-AQP2 were observed when cholesterol was depleted from the apical side of cells, or when MBCD was applied subsequent to dDAVP stimulation. Basolateral, but not apical, MBCD application prevented cAMP-induced apical plasma membrane accumulation of AQP2. These studies indicate that manipulation of the cholesterol content of the basolateral plasma membrane interferes with AQP2 PTM and subsequently regulated apical plasma membrane targeting of AQP2. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. PKC-α-dependent augmentation of cAMP and CREB phosphorylation mediates the angiotensin II stimulation of renin in the collecting duct.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, Alexis A; Liu, Liu; Lara, Lucienne S; Bourgeois, Camille R T; Ibaceta-Gonzalez, Cristobal; Salinas-Parra, Nicolas; Gogulamudi, Venkateswara R; Seth, Dale M; Prieto, Minolfa C

    2015-11-15

    In contrast to the negative feedback of angiotensin II (ANG II) on juxtaglomerular renin, ANG II stimulates renin in the principal cells of the collecting duct (CD) in rats and mice via ANG II type 1 (AT1R) receptor, independently of blood pressure. In vitro data indicate that CD renin is augmented by AT1R activation through protein kinase C (PKC), but the exact mechanisms are unknown. We hypothesize that ANG II stimulates CD renin synthesis through AT1R via PKC and the subsequent activation of cAMP/PKA/CREB pathway. In M-1 cells, ANG II increased cAMP, renin mRNA (3.5-fold), prorenin, and renin proteins, as well as renin activity in culture media (2-fold). These effects were prevented by PKC inhibition with calphostin C, PKC-α dominant negative, and by PKA inhibition. Forskolin-induced increases in cAMP and renin expression were prevented by calphostin C. PKC inhibition and Ca2+ depletion impaired ANG II-mediated CREB phosphorylation and upregulation of renin. Adenylate cyclase 6 (AC) siRNA remarkably attenuated the ANG II-dependent upregulation of renin mRNA. Physiological activation of AC with vasopressin increased renin expression in M-1 cells. The results suggest that the ANG II-dependent upregulation of renin in the CD depends on PKC-α, which allows the augmentation of cAMP production and activation of PKA/CREB pathway via AC6. This study defines the intracellular signaling pathway involved in the ANG II-mediated stimulation of renin in the CD. This is a novel mechanism responsible for the regulation of local renin-angiotensin system in the distal nephron. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  3. Keratoconus fittings: apical clearance or apical support?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMonnies, Charles W

    2004-07-01

    To examine the relative merits of apical support and apical clearance fitting of rigid gas-permeable contact lenses for keratoconus. After an historic review of fitting approaches for keratoconus, a case report is described in which an adventitious apical clearance fitting for early keratoconus might have been associated with accelerated progress of the ectasia. The hypothesis that apical clearance fittings increase the risk of accelerating ectasia progression in early keratoconus is examined in counterpoint to the hypothesis that apical support fittings increase the risk of apical scarring. Reference is made to the responses of normal corneas to apical clearance fitting and to apical contact fittings used in orthokeratology fittings. The tendency for corneas to mold to contact lens curvature is reviewed. The possibility that reduced corneal thickness or tissue softening and associated changes to the biomechanical properties of the cornea in keratoconus may facilitate molding with apical clearance fitting is examined. Known and putative risk factors for fitting complications that are associated with apical clearance and apical touch contact lens fitting are given as a basis for the reader to draw conclusions about the management of contact lens fitting for keratoconus. The possibility of symptomless adverse responses is a strong indication for frequent routine aftercare reviews.

  4. Low reversibility of intracellular cAMP accumulation in mouse Leydig tumor cells (MLTC-1) stimulated by human Luteinizing Hormone (hLH) and Chorionic Gonadotropin (hCG).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klett, Danièle; Meslin, Philippine; Relav, Lauriane; Nguyen, Thi Mong Diep; Mariot, Julie; Jégot, Gwenhaël; Cahoreau, Claire; Combarnous, Yves

    2016-10-15

    In order to study the intracellular cAMP response kinetics of Leydig cells to hormones with LH activity, we used MLTC-1 cells transiently expressing a chimeric cAMP-responsive luciferase so that real-time variations of intracellular cAMP concentration could be followed using oxiluciferin luminescence produced from catalyzed luciferin oxidation. The potencies of the different LHs and CGs were evaluated using areas under the curves (AUC) of their kinetics over 60 min stimulation. All mammalian LHs and CGs tested were found to stimulate cAMP accumulation in these cells. The reversibility of this stimulation was studied by removing the hormone from the culture medium after 10 min of incubation. The ratios of kinetics AUC after removing or not the hormone were used to evaluate the stimulation reversibility of each hormone. Natural and recombinant hLHs and hCGs were found to exhibit slowly reversible activation compared to pituitary rat, ovine, porcine, camel and equine LHs, serum-derived eCG (PMSG) and recombinant eLH/CGs. Carbohydrate side chains are not involved in this phenomenon since natural and recombinant homologous hormones exhibit the same reversibility rates. It is still unknown whether only one human subunit, α or β, is responsible for this behaviour or whether it is due to a particular feature of the hLH and hCG quaternary structure. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Apical Patency or Apical Plug: A Literature Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Durr-e-Sadaf

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to undertake a literature review on two different techniques of apical preparation of root canals e.g. apical patency and apical plug. Apical patency is a technique in which apical constriction and apical foramen are kept patent throughout the instrumentation of root canals. This technique prevents packing of debris at the apical area. It also helps to maintain working length. A small patent file 1mm longer than the working length is passed through the apical foramen passively. This technique is thought to ensure complete debridement of root canals. It is associated with less postoperative pain. The objections to this technique are the extrusion of debris, irrigating solutions, sealer and filling materials. It may also cause over instrumentation and foramen transportation. Enlargement of apical constriction or apical foramen through patency files is not supported by literature. Apical plug is the technique in which instrumentation is kept within working length of the root canals without using any patency file. This results in the formation of an apical plug composed of dentinal chips in the apical third of the root canal. Apical plug may be contaminated with micro flora and necrotic tissues leading to inflammatory reactions in the periapical tissues. This technique prevents the extrusion of debris, irrigating solution, sealers and thermoplastic gutta-percha. However, intentional packing with dentinal chips or biological compatible materials at the apical area is required in teeth with immature apices, root resorption, or when apical constriction is violated due to over instrumentation.

  6. Consulting to summer camps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ditter, Bob

    2007-10-01

    There has been an increased need for consultation to summer camps from the allied health/mental health fields because camps are available to children with medical and psychological illnesses. Factors in camp programs that are necessary for effective consultation and the various roles a consultant may serve within the camp community are discussed in this article.

  7. Victory Junction Gang Camp

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shell, Ryan

    2007-01-01

    This article describes the Victory Junction Gang Camp, a not-for-profit, NASCAR-themed camp for children with chronic medical conditions that serves 24 different disease groups. The mission of the camp is to give children life-changing camping experiences that are exciting, fun, and empowering in a safe and medically sound environment. While doing…

  8. Camp and Human Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, Karla A.

    1995-01-01

    Addresses the potential of camp to promote self-esteem and nurture a sense of community. Summarizes articles in this journal issue that focus on individual and group behavior including homesickness, how camps can promote positive attitudes toward disabled campers, and a camp program that provides respite care for families of children with AIDS.…

  9. The Vasopressin Type-2 Receptor and Prostaglandin Receptors EP2 and EP4 can Increase Aquaporin-2 Plasma Membrane Targeting Through a cAMP Independent Pathway

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Emma Tina Bisgaard; Moeller, Hanne Bjerregaard; Assentoft, Mette

    2016-01-01

    AMP-dependent. However, on the basis of recent reports, it was hypothesized in the current study that increased cAMP levels are not necessary for AQP2 membrane targeting. The role and dynamics of cAMP signaling on AQP2 membrane targeting in Madin-Darby Canine Kidney and mouse cortical collecting duct (mpkCCD14) cells......Apical membrane targeting of the collecting duct water channel aquaporin-2 (AQP2) is essential for body water balance. As this event is regulated by Gs coupled 7-transmembrane receptors such as the vasopressin type 2 receptor (V2R) and the prostanoid receptors EP2 and EP4, it is believed to be c...... was examined using selective agonists against the V2R (dDAVP), EP2 (butaprost) and EP4 (CAY10580). During EP2 stimulation, AQP2 membrane targeting continually increased during 80 min of stimulation; whereas cAMP levels reached a plateau after 10 min. EP4 stimulation caused a rapid and transient increase in AQP...

  10. Stimulation of StAR expression by cAMP is controlled by inhibition of highly inducible SIK1 via CRTC2, a co-activator of CREB.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jinwoo; Tong, Tiegang; Takemori, Hiroshi; Jefcoate, Colin

    2015-06-15

    In mouse steroidogenic cells the activation of cholesterol metabolism is mediated by steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR). Here, we visualized a coordinated regulation of StAR transcription, splicing and post-transcriptional processing, which are synchronized by salt inducible kinase (SIK1) and CREB-regulated transcription coactivator (CRTC2). To detect primary RNA (pRNA), spliced primary RNA (Sp-RNA) and mRNA in single cells, we generated probe sets by using fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). These methods allowed us to address the nature of StAR gene expression and to visualize protein-nucleic acid interactions through direct detection. We show that SIK1 represses StAR expression in Y1 adrenal and MA10 testis cells through inhibition of processing mediated by CRTC2. Digital image analysis matches qPCR analyses of the total cell culture. Evidence is presented for spatially separate accumulation of StAR pRNA and Sp-RNA at the gene loci in the nucleus. These findings establish that cAMP, SIK and CRTC mediate StAR expression through activation of individual StAR gene loci. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Abceso apical agudo

    OpenAIRE

    Jara Ortiz, M.; López, M.; Gómez Viglino, L.; Maydana, N.; Hervit, M.; Bertola, N.

    2015-01-01

    En casos de urgencia, muchas veces debemos poner a prueba distintos elementos de diagnóstico para encontrar la mejor respuesta posible. En este caso se reporta un absceso apical agudo en la zona palatina del sector 1, que, de acuerdo al test de vitalidad pulpar y correcta interpretación radiográfica se localiza la pieza causal N° 1.8.Asistió a la consulta un paciente masculino 30 años de edad, dolor a la masticación, edema y tumefacción, en zona palatina comprendida en piezas 1.5; 1.6; 1.7 y ...

  12. 5D imaging approaches reveal the formation of distinct intracellular cAMP spatial gradients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rich, Thomas C.; Annamdevula, Naga; Trinh, Kenny; Britain, Andrea L.; Mayes, Samuel A.; Griswold, John R.; Deal, Joshua; Hoffman, Chase; West, Savannah; Leavesley, Silas J.

    2017-02-01

    Cyclic AMP (cAMP) is a ubiquitous second messenger known to differentially regulate many cellular functions. Several lines of evidence suggest that the distribution of cAMP within cells is not uniform. However, to date, no studies have measured the kinetics of 3D cAMP distributions within cells. This is largely due to the low signal-tonoise ratio of FRET-based probes. We previously reported that hyperspectral imaging improves the signal-to-noise ratio of FRET measurements. Here we utilized hyperspectral imaging approaches to measure FRET signals in five dimensions (5D) - three spatial (x, y, z), wavelength (λ), and time (t) - allowing us to visualize cAMP gradients in pulmonary endothelial cells. cAMP levels were measured using a FRET-based sensor (H188) comprised of a cAMP binding domain sandwiched between FRET donor and acceptor - Turquoise and Venus fluorescent proteins. We observed cAMP gradients in response to 0.1 or 1 μM isoproterenol, 0.1 or 1 μM PGE1, or 50 μM forskolin. Forskolin- and isoproterenol-induced cAMP gradients formed from the apical (high cAMP) to basolateral (low cAMP) face of cells. In contrast, PGE1-induced cAMP gradients originated from both the basolateral and apical faces of cells. Data suggest that 2D (x,y) studies of cAMP compartmentalization may lead to erroneous conclusions about the existence of cAMP gradients, and that 3D (x,y,z) studies are required to assess mechanisms of signaling specificity. Results demonstrate that 5D imaging technologies are powerful tools for measuring biochemical processes in discrete subcellular domains.

  13. Recreation Summer Camps

    Data.gov (United States)

    Montgomery County of Maryland — List of all Camps (Register here:https://apm.activecommunities.com/montgomerycounty/Home) to include Aquatics, Basketball, Soccer, Special Interest, General Sports,...

  14. Registration Summer Camp 2016

    CERN Multimedia

    2016-01-01

    Reminder: registration for the CERN Staff Association Summer Camp is now open for children from 4 to 6 years old.   More information on the website: http://nurseryschool.web.cern.ch/. The summer camp is open to all children. The proposed cost is 480.-CHF/week, lunch included. The camp will be open weeks 27, 28, 29 and 30, from 8:30 a.m. to 5:30 p.m. For further questions, you are welcome to contact us by email at Summer.Camp@cern.ch. CERN Staff Association

  15. Two cases of apical ballooning syndrome masking apical hypertrophic cardiomyopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Ranjini Raina; Hakim, Fayaz A; Hurst, R Todd; Simper, David; Appleton, Christopher P

    2014-04-01

    Apical akinesis and dilation in the absence of obstructive coronary artery disease is a typical feature of stress-induced (takotsubo) cardiomyopathy, whereas apical hypertrophy is seen in apical-variant hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. We report the cases of 2 patients who presented with takotsubo cardiomyopathy and were subsequently found to have apical-variant hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, after the apical ballooning from the takotsubo cardiomyopathy had resolved. The first patient, a 43-year-old woman with a history of alcohol abuse, presented with shortness of breath, electrocardiographic and echocardiographic features consistent with takotsubo cardiomyopathy, and no significant coronary artery disease. An echocardiogram 2 weeks later revealed a normal left ventricular ejection fraction and newly apparent apical hypertrophy. The 2nd patient, a 70-year-old woman with pancreatitis, presented with chest pain, apical akinesis, and a left ventricular ejection fraction of 0.39, consistent with takotsubo cardiomyopathy. One month later, her left ventricular ejection fraction was normal; however, hypertrophy of the left ventricular apex was newly noted. To our knowledge, these are the first reported cases in which apical-variant hypertrophic cardiomyopathy was masked by apical ballooning from stress-induced cardiomyopathy.

  16. Colgajo de reposición apical Apically positioned flap

    OpenAIRE

    L. Pérez-Salcedo; A. Bascones Martínez

    2011-01-01

    Se describe la técnica del colgajo de reposición apical desde el primer autor, Nabers en 1954, así como las modificaciones realizadas por Ariaudo y Tyrrel en 1957 y Friedman en 1962. También se presenta un caso clínico donde se describen los diferentes pasos de la cirugía de reposición apical. Por último, se hace una revisión evaluando la eficacia del colgajo de reposición apical en el tratamiento de la periodontitis.This paper describes the technique apically positioned flap since the first ...

  17. Elevated cAMP increases aquaporin-3 plasma membrane diffusion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marlar, Saw; Christensen, Eva Arnspang; Koffman, Jennifer Skaarup

    2014-01-01

    Regulated urine concentration takes place in the renal collecting duct upon arginine vasopressin (AVP) stimulation, where subapical vesicles containing aquaporin-2 (AQP2) are inserted into the apical membrane instantly increasing water reabsorption and urine concentration. The reabsorped water ex...

  18. Scrum Code Camps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pries-Heje, Jan; Pries-Heje, Lene; Dahlgaard, Bente

    2013-01-01

    is required. In this paper we present the design of such a new approach, the Scrum Code Camp, which can be used to assess agile team capability in a transparent and consistent way. A design science research approach is used to analyze properties of two instances of the Scrum Code Camp where seven agile teams...

  19. Friends' Discovery Camp

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seymour, Seth

    2008-01-01

    This article features Friends' Discovery Camp, a program that allows children with and without autism spectrum disorder to learn and play together. In Friends' Discovery Camp, campers take part in sensory-rich experiences, ranging from hands-on activities and performing arts to science experiments and stories teaching social skills. Now in its 7th…

  20. Lubiprostone activates Cl- secretion via cAMP signaling and increases membrane CFTR in the human colon carcinoma cell line, T84.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ao, Mei; Venkatasubramanian, Jayashree; Boonkaewwan, Chaiwat; Ganesan, Nivetha; Syed, Asma; Benya, Richard V; Rao, Mrinalini C

    2011-02-01

    Lubiprostone, used clinically (b.i.d.) to treat constipation, has been reported to increase transepithelial Cl(-) transport in T84 cells by activating ClC-2 channels. To identify the underlying signaling pathway, we explored the effects of short-term and overnight lubiprostone treatment on second messenger signaling and Cl(-) transport. Cl(-) transport was assessed either as I(sc) across T84 monolayers grown on Transwells and mounted in Ussing chambers or by the iodide efflux assay. [cAMP](i) was measured by enzyme immunoassay, and [Ca(2+)](i) by Fluo-3 fluorescence. Quantitation of apical cell surface CFTR protein levels was assessed by Western blotting and biotinylation with the EZ-Link Sulfo-NHS-LC-LC-Biotin. ClC-2 mRNA level was studied by RT-PCR. Lubiprostone and the cAMP stimulator, forskolin, caused comparable and maximal increases of I(sc) in T84 cells. The I(sc) effects of lubiprostone and forskolin were each suppressed if the tissue had previously been treated with the other agent. These responses were unaltered even if the monolayers were treated with lubiprostone overnight. Lubiprostone-induced increases in iodide efflux were ~80% of those obtained with forskolin. Lubiprostone increased [cAMP](i). H89, bumetanide, or CFTR(inh)-172 greatly attenuated lubiprostone-stimulated Cl(-) secretion, whereas the ClC-2 inhibitor CdCl(2) did not. Compared to controls, FSK-treatment increased membrane-associated CFTR by 1.9 fold, and lubiprostone caused a 2.6-fold increase in apical membrane CFTR as seen by immunoblotting following cell surface biotinylation. Lubiprostone activates Cl(-) secretion in T84 cells via cAMP, protein kinase A, and by increasing apical membrane CFTR protein.

  1. Summer camp nurtures student

    OpenAIRE

    Earl Anderson

    2017-01-01

    Summer camp is a coordinated program for youths or teenagers driven in the midst of the late spring months in a couple of countries. Adolescents and young people who go to summer camp are known as campers. It is each parent's stress: What is the perfect way for your adolescent to contribute his or her free vitality in the midst of summer and school breaks? Research Paper Help. To a couple, it is a period for youths to play and have an incredible time. By joining the late spring camp, yout...

  2. Apical instrumentation in endodontic therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kurniasri Darliana

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Cleaning and shaping of the root canal as the foundation for successful endodontic therapy. Cleaning of the root canal as the removal of all the contents of the root canal systems before and during shaping. Mechanical cleaning as the most important part of the root canal therapy. Instrumentation of the apical region has long been considered to be an essential component in the cleaning and shaping process. The apical area as the critical zone for instrumentation. The apical portion of the root canal system can retain microorganisms that could potentially cause periradicular inflammation. The nickel-titanium rotary instrumentation system to facilitate the cleaning and shaping process. Larger instrumentation sizes not only allow proper irrigation but also significantly decrease remaining bacteria in the canal system. How the larger apical sizes preparation must be achieved to clinical success. This paper will describe the major factors impacting the selection of final apical size, the factors are the anatomy of the apical constriction, root canal diameter, apical instrumentation, and bacteria in dentin tubuli.

  3. Hitler's Death Camps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wieser, Paul

    1995-01-01

    Presents a high school lesson on Hitler's death camps and the widespread policy of brutality and oppression against European Jews. Includes student objectives, instructional procedures, and a chart listing the value of used clothing taken from the Jews. (CFR)

  4. CDC Disease Detective Camp

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2010-08-02

    The CDC Disease Detective Camp gives rising high school juniors and seniors exposure to key aspects of the CDC, including basic epidemiology, infectious and chronic disease tracking, public health law, and outbreak investigations. The camp also helps students explore careers in public health.  Created: 8/2/2010 by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).   Date Released: 8/2/2010.

  5. Spilanthol from Acmella Oleracea Lowers the Intracellular Levels of cAMP Impairing NKCC2 Phosphorylation and Water Channel AQP2 Membrane Expression in Mouse Kidney.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Gerbino

    Full Text Available Acmella oleracea is well recognized in Brazilian traditional medicine as diuretic, although few scientific data have been published to support this effect. Aim of this study was to determine the molecular effect of Acmella oleracea extract and its main alkylamide spilanthol on two major processes involved in the urine concentrating mechanism: Na-K-2Cl symporter (NKCC2 activity in the thick ascending limb and water channel aquaporin 2 accumulation at the apical plasma membrane of collecting duct cells. Phosphorylation of NKCC2 was evaluated as index of its activation by Western blotting. Rate of aquaporin 2 apical expression was analyzed by confocal laser microscopy. Spilanthol-induced intracellular signalling events were dissected by video-imaging experiments. Exposure to spilanthol reduced the basal phosphorylation level of NKCC2 both in freshly isolated mouse kidney slices and in NKCC2-expresing HEK293 cells. In addition, exposure to spilanthol strongly reduced both desmopressin and low Cl--dependent increase in NKCC2 phosphorylation in mouse kidney slices and NKCC2-expressing HEK293 cells, respectively. Similarly, spilanthol reduced both desmopressin- and forskolin-stimulated aquaporin 2 accumulation at the apical plasma membrane of collecting duct in mouse kidney slice and MCD4 cells, respectively. Of note, when orally administered, spilanthol induced a significant increase in both urine output and salt urinary excretion associated with a markedly reduced urine osmolality compared with control mice. Finally, at cellular level, spilanthol rapidly reduced or reversed basal and agonist-increased cAMP levels through a mechanism involving increases in intracellular [Ca2+]. In conclusion, spilanthol-induced inhibition of cAMP production negatively modulates urine-concentrating mechanisms thus holding great promise for its use as diuretic.

  6. The camp model for entrepreneurship teaching

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bager, Torben

    2011-01-01

    Artiklen omhandler brugen af camps i entrepreneurship undervising - illustreret med danske camp eksempler Udgivelsesdato: online 31.03.2010......Artiklen omhandler brugen af camps i entrepreneurship undervising - illustreret med danske camp eksempler Udgivelsesdato: online 31.03.2010...

  7. Multiple idiopathic apical root resorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanungo, Manish; Khandelwal, Vishal; Nayak, Ullal Anand; Nayak, Prathibha Anand

    2013-04-23

    Idiopathic external root resorption is a rarely reported condition which has been observed in single or multiple teeth. This is a rare case of multiple idiopathic apical root resorption (MIARR) in a 16-year-old boy. External root resorption of the permanent teeth is a multifactorial process. Well-recognised causes of apical root resorption in permanent teeth include orthodontic therapy, trauma, periapical or periodontal inflammation, tumours, cysts, occlusal stresses, impacted teeth, systemic conditions, endocrine imbalances and dietary habits. When none of these causes are present, it is termed idiopathic root resorption which may be either cervical or apical. MIARR is a rare condition which is usually detected as an incidental radiographic finding. However, it may cause pain and mobility in severe cases.

  8. Geographies of the camp

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Minca, C.

    2015-01-01

    Facing the current growing global archipelago of encampments – including concentration, detention, transit, identification, refugee, military and training camps, this article is a geographical reflection on ‘the camp’, as a modern institution and as a spatial bio-political technology. In particular,

  9. Camp Sea Lab Visit

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited On Wednesday July 8th, CAVR hosted 32 eight to thirteen year olds from California State Monterey Bay’s summer Camp SEA Lab. The students had the opportunity to interact with robotic dogs, an autonomous underwater vehicle (AUV), remotely operated vehicle (ROV), and unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV).

  10. Left ventricular apical masses: distinguishing benign tumours from apical thrombi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirmani, Bilal H; Binukrishnan, Sukumaran; Gosney, John R; Pullan, D Mark

    2016-02-01

    Differential diagnoses for cardiac left ventricular apical masses presenting following acute myocardial infarction include thrombi and cardiac tumours. We present two such cases and the multidisciplinary assessment that is required to assist with diagnosis. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Association for Cardio-Thoracic Surgery. All rights reserved.

  11. The Physics of Quidditch Summer Camp: An Interdisciplinary Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammer, Donna; Uher, Tim

    The University of Maryland Physics Department has developed an innovative summer camp program that takes an interdisciplinary approach to engaging and teaching physics. The Physics of Quidditch Camp uniquely sits at the intersection of physics, sports, and literature, utilizing the real-life sport of quidditch adapted from the Harry Potter novels to stimulate critical thinking about real laws of physics and leaps of imagination, while actively engaging students in learning the sport and discussing the literature. Throughout the camp, middle school participants become immersed in fun physics experiments and exciting physical activities, which aim to build and enhance skills in problem-solving, analytical thinking, and teamwork. This camp has pioneered new ways of teaching physics to pre-college students, successfully engaged middle school students in learning physics, and grown a large demand for such activities.

  12. Running Boot Camp

    CERN Document Server

    Toporek, Chuck

    2008-01-01

    When Steve Jobs jumped on stage at Macworld San Francisco 2006 and announced the new Intel-based Macs, the question wasn't if, but when someone would figure out a hack to get Windows XP running on these new "Mactels." Enter Boot Camp, a new system utility that helps you partition and install Windows XP on your Intel Mac. Boot Camp does all the heavy lifting for you. You won't need to open the Terminal and hack on system files or wave a chicken bone over your iMac to get XP running. This free program makes it easy for anyone to turn their Mac into a dual-boot Windows/OS X machine. Running Bo

  13. Relationship between Adaptation of the Folic Acid and the cAMP Mediated cGMP Response in Dictyostelium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haastert, Peter J.M. van

    1983-01-01

    Chemotactic stimulation of post-vegetative Dictyostelium cells with folic acid or aggregative cells with cAMP results in a fast transient cGMP response which peaks at 10 s; basal levels are recovered in about 30-40 s. Stimulation with folic acid or cAMP rapidly desensitizes the cells for equal or

  14. Tauroursodeoxycholic acid inserts the apical conjugate export pump, Mrp2, into canalicular membranes and stimulates organic anion secretion by protein kinase C-dependent mechanisms in cholestatic rat liver

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beuers, U.; Bilzer, M.; Chittattu, A.; Kullak-Ublick, G. A.; Keppler, D.; Paumgartner, G.; Dombrowski, F.

    2001-01-01

    Ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) exerts anticholestatic effects by undefined mechanisms. Previous work suggested that UDCA stimulates biliary exocytosis via Ca(++)- and protein kinase C (PKC)-dependent mechanisms. Therefore, the effect of taurine-conjugated UDCA (TUDCA) was studied in the experimental

  15. Registration Day-Camp 2016

    CERN Multimedia

    Nursery School

    2016-01-01

    Reminder Registration for the CERN Staff Association Day-camp are open for children from 4 to 6 years old More information on the website: http://nurseryschool.web.cern.ch/. The day-camp is open to all children. An inscription per week is proposed, cost 480.-CHF/week, lunch included The camp will be open weeks 27, 28, 29 and 30, from 8:30 am to 5:30 pm. For further questions, thanks you for contacting us by email at Summer.Camp@cern.ch.

  16. No ordinary boot camp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tichy, N M

    2001-04-01

    Many companies now run boot camps--comprehensive orientation programs designed to help new hires hit the ground running. They're intense and intimidating, and new employees emerge from them with strong bonds to other recruits and to the organization. But at Trilogy, organizational consultant Noel Tichy discovered one program that's a breed apart. In this article, Tichy gives us a detailed tour of Trilogy's boot camp, Trilogy University, to demonstrate why it's so different--and so effective. Like the best boot camps, it serves as an immersion in both the technical skills new recruits will need for their jobs and Trilogy's corporate culture, which emphasizes risk-taking, teamwork, humility, and a strong customer focus. But this is a new-employee orientation session that's so fundamental to the company as a whole that it's presided over by the CEO and top corporate executives for fully six months of the year. Why? In two three-month sessions, these top executives hone their own strategic thinking about the company as they decide what to teach the new recruits each session. They also find the company's next generation of new products as they judge the innovative ideas the recruits are tasked with developing--making the program Trilogy's main R&D engine. And they pull the company's rising technical stars into mentoring roles for the new recruits, helping to build the next generation of top leadership. After spending months on-site studying Trilogy University, Tichy came away highly impressed by the power of the virtuous teaching cycle the program has set in motion. Leaders of the organization are learning from recruits at the same time that the recruits are learning from the leaders. It's a model, he argues, that other companies would do well to emulate.

  17. Summer Camp, July 2016

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2016-01-01

    During the month of July, the Staff Association’s Children’s Day-Care Centre and School EVEE held a summer camp for 4- to 6-year-olds. 24 children altogether joined in on the adventures. On the summer camp, the children got to “travel” to a different continent of the world every week. Day after day, they would pass through make-believe Customs upon arrival and get their passports stamped by a “customs officer”. For the first week, we went on a trip to Africa. In the spirit of the theme, the children got to do plenty of crafts and coloring, make their own little bindles and play various games. They even had the chance to visit the Museum of Ethnography in Geneva (MEG), learn to play the balafon and make musical instruments with Sterrenlab. For the second week, we set off to discover the Americas, exploring both the South and the North. Alongside different workshops (singing, dancing, storytelling, crafts), the children could enjoy several special ac...

  18. Tolerance of brightness and contrast adjustments on chronic apical abscess and apical granuloma interpretation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purnamasari, L.; Iskandar, H. H. B.; Makes, B. N.

    2017-08-01

    In digitized radiography techniques, adjusting the image enhancement can improve the subjective image quality by optimizing the brightness and contrast for diagnostic needs. To determine the value range of image enhancement (brightness and contrast) on chronic apical abscess and apical granuloma interpretation. 30 periapical radiographs that diagnosed chronic apical abscess and 30 that diagnosed apical granuloma were adjusted by changing brightness and contrast values. The value range of brightness and contrast adjustment that can be tolerated in radiographic interpretations of chronic apical abscess and apical granuloma spans from -10 to +10. Brightness and contrast adjustments on digital radiographs do not affect the radiographic interpretation of chronic apical abscess and apical granuloma if conducted within the value range.

  19. The apical complex provides a regulated gateway for secretion of invasion factors in Toxoplasma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas J Katris

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The apical complex is the definitive cell structure of phylum Apicomplexa, and is the focus of the events of host cell penetration and the establishment of intracellular parasitism. Despite the importance of this structure, its molecular composition is relatively poorly known and few studies have experimentally tested its functions. We have characterized a novel Toxoplasma gondii protein, RNG2, that is located at the apical polar ring--the common structural element of apical complexes. During cell division, RNG2 is first recruited to centrosomes immediately after their duplication, confirming that assembly of the new apical complex commences as one of the earliest events of cell replication. RNG2 subsequently forms a ring, with the carboxy- and amino-termini anchored to the apical polar ring and mobile conoid, respectively, linking these two structures. Super-resolution microscopy resolves these two termini, and reveals that RNG2 orientation flips during invasion when the conoid is extruded. Inducible knockdown of RNG2 strongly inhibits host cell invasion. Consistent with this, secretion of micronemes is prevented in the absence of RNG2. This block, however, can be fully or partially overcome by exogenous stimulation of calcium or cGMP signaling pathways, respectively, implicating the apical complex directly in these signaling events. RNG2 demonstrates for the first time a role for the apical complex in controlling secretion of invasion factors in this important group of parasites.

  20. Ineffective and prolonged apical contraction is associated with chest pain and ischaemia in apical hypertrophic cardiomyopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephenson, Edward; Monney, Pierre; Pugliese, Francesca; Malcolmson, James; Petersen, Steffen E; Knight, Charles; Mills, Peter; Wragg, Andrew; O'Mahony, Constantinos; Sekhri, Neha; Mohiddin, Saidi A

    2018-01-15

    To investigate the hypothesis that persistence of apical contraction into diastole is linked to reduced myocardial perfusion and chest pain. Apical hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) is defined by left ventricular (LV) hypertrophy predominantly of the apex. Hyperdynamic contractility resulting in obliteration of the apical cavity is often present. Apical HCM can lead to drug-refractory chest pain. We retrospectively studied 126 subjects; 76 with apical HCM and 50 controls (31 with asymmetrical septal hypertrophy (ASH) and 19 with non-cardiac chest pain and culprit free angiograms and structurally normal hearts). Perfusion cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (CMR) scans were assessed for myocardial perfusion reserve index (MPRi), late gadolinium enhancement (LGE), LV volumes (muscle and cavity) and regional contractile persistence (apex, mid and basal LV). In apical HCM, apical MPRi was lower than in normal and ASH controls (p<0.05). In apical HCM, duration of contractile persistence was associated with lower MPRi (p<0.01) and chest pain (p<0.05). In multivariate regression, contractile persistence was independently associated with chest pain (p<0.01) and reduced MPRi (p<0.001). In apical HCM, regional contractile persistence is associated with impaired myocardial perfusion and chest pain. As apical myocardium makes limited contributions to stroke volume, apical contractility is also largely ineffective. Interventions to reduce apical contraction and/or muscle mass are potential therapies for improving symptoms without reducing cardiac output. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Slave Labor Camps of the Third Reich.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, Adolf

    1983-01-01

    Describes the ground rules used by Nazi architects in choosing the sites for slave labor camps. While some, like Auschwitz, became extermination camps, others also produced armaments. One camp, Theresienstadt, became a "model" camp to show to reporters and Red Cross representatives. (CS)

  2. YMCA ROCKET RAMPAGE! SUMMER CAMP

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Anonymous

    2014-01-01

    ... & Controls, sponsored the Rocket Rampagel summer camp at the YMCA in Eklton MD. On day 1, campers took Rockets 101, constructing balloon rockets and straw rockets, followed by racket manufacturing, where campers made rocket "propellant" on day 2...

  3. Registration Day-Camp 2016

    CERN Document Server

    Nursery School

    2016-01-01

    Registration for the CERN SA Day-camp are open for children from 4 to 6 years old From March 14 to 25 for children already enrolled in CERN SA EVE and School From April 4 to 15 for the children of CERN members of the personnel (MP) From April 18 for other children More information on the website: http://nurseryschool.web.cern.ch/. The day-camp is open to all children. An inscription per week is proposed, cost 480.-CHF/week, lunch included The camp will be open weeks 27, 28, 29 and 30, from 8:30 am to 5:30 pm. For further questions, thanks you for contacting us by email at Summer.Camp@cern.ch.

  4. Uncoupling apical constriction from tissue invagination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, SeYeon; Kim, Sangjoon; Andrew, Deborah J

    2017-03-06

    Apical constriction is a widely utilized cell shape change linked to folding, bending and invagination of polarized epithelia. It remains unclear how apical constriction is regulated spatiotemporally during tissue invagination and how this cellular process contributes to tube formation in different developmental contexts. Using Drosophila salivary gland (SG) invagination as a model, we show that regulation of folded gastrulation expression by the Fork head transcription factor is required for apicomedial accumulation of Rho kinase and non-muscle myosin II, which coordinate apical constriction. We demonstrate that neither loss of spatially coordinated apical constriction nor its complete blockage prevent internalization and tube formation, although such manipulations affect the geometry of invagination. When apical constriction is disrupted, compressing force generated by a tissue-level myosin cable contributes to SG invagination. We demonstrate that fully elongated polarized SGs can form outside the embryo, suggesting that tube formation and elongation are intrinsic properties of the SG.

  5. Base Camp Architecture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Warebi Gabriel Brisibe

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Longitudinal or time line studies of change in the architecture of a particular culture are common, but an area still open to further research is change across space or place. In particular, there is need for studies on architectural change of cultures stemming from the same ethnic source split between their homeland and other Diasporas. This change may range from minor deviations to drastic shifts away from an architectural norm and the accumulation of these shifts within a time frame constitutes variations. This article focuses on identifying variations in the architecture of the Ijo fishing group that migrates along the coastline of West Africa. It examines the causes of cross-cultural variation between base camp dwellings of Ijo migrant fishermen in the Bakassi Peninsula in Cameroon and Bayelsa State in Nigeria. The study draws on the idea of the inevitability of cultural and social change over time as proposed in the theories of cultural dynamism and evolution. It tests aspects of cultural transmission theory using the principal coordinates analysis to ascertain the possible causes of variation. From the findings, this research argues that migration has enhanced the forces of cultural dynamism, which have resulted in significant variations in the architecture of this fishing group.

  6. Molt-inhibiting hormone stimulates vitellogenesis at advanced ovarian developmental stages in the female blue crab, Callinectes sapidus 2: novel specific binding sites in hepatopancreas and cAMP as a second messenger

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zmora, Nilli; Sagi, Amir; Zohar, Yonathan; Chung, J Sook

    2009-01-01

    The finding that molt-inhibiting hormone (MIH) regulates vitellogenesis in the hepatopancreas of mature Callinectes sapidus females, raised the need for the characterization of its mode of action. Using classical radioligand binding assays, we located specific, saturable, and non-cooperative binding sites for MIH in the Y-organs of juveniles (J-YO) and in the hepatopancreas of vitellogenic adult females. MIH binding to the hepatopancreas membranes had an affinity 77 times lower than that of juvenile YO membranes (KD values: 3.22 × 10-8 and 4.19 × 10-10 M/mg protein, respectively). The number of maximum binding sites (BMAX) was approximately two times higher in the hepatopancreas than in the YO (BMAX values: 9.24 × 10-9 and 4.8 × 10-9 M/mg protein, respectively). Furthermore, MIH binding site number in the hepatopancreas was dependent on ovarian stage and was twice as high at stage 3 than at stages 2 and 1. SDS-PAGE separation of [125I] MIH or [125I] crustacean hyperglycemic hormone (CHH) crosslinked to the specific binding sites in the membranes of the J-YO and hepatopancreas suggests a molecular weight of ~51 kDa for a MIH receptor in both tissues and a molecular weight of ~61 kDa for a CHH receptor in the hepatopancreas. The use of an in vitro incubation of hepatopancreas fragments suggests that MIH probably utilizes cAMP as a second messenger in this tissue, as cAMP levels increased in response to MIH. Additionally, 8-Bromo-cAMP mimicked the effects of MIH on vitellogenin (VtG) mRNA and heterogeneous nuclear (hn) VtG RNA levels. The results imply that the functions of MIH in the regulation of molt and vitellogenesis are mediated through tissue specific receptors with different kinetics and signal transduction. MIH ability to regulate vitellogenesis is associated with the appearance of MIH specific membrane binding sites in the hepatopancreas upon pubertal/final molt. PMID:19583849

  7. Camp for Youth With Type 1 Diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fegan-Bohm, Kelly; Weissberg-Benchell, Jill; DeSalvo, Daniel; Gunn, Sheila; Hilliard, Marisa

    2016-08-01

    Camps for youth with type 1 diabetes (T1D) have grown in size and scope since they first emerged in the 1920s. Anecdotal evidence suggests that attending camp with other youth with T1D is beneficial, largely attributed to sharing fun, active experiences and removing the isolation of living with diabetes. However, few studies have evaluated the psychosocial and medical impacts of T1D camp attendance during and after camp sessions. In addition, T1D camps have been a setting for numerous studies on a variety of T1D-related research questions not related to camp itself, such as testing novel diabetes management technologies in an active, non-laboratory setting. This paper reviews the evidence of psychosocial and medical outcomes associated with T1D camp attendance across the globe, provides an overview of other research conducted at camp, and offers recommendations for future research conducted at T1D camp.

  8. Residential summer camp intervention improves camp food environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Noia, Jennifer; Orr, Lynne; Byrd-Bredbenner, Carol

    2014-07-01

    To evaluate the effects on fruit and vegetable (FV) intake of a camp-based intervention to improve the food environment. The intervention was evaluated in a variant of the recurrent institutional cycle design in a sample of 311 youth aged 7 to 13 years. FV intake and targeted environmental variables were assessed among youth who received the intervention relative to those who attended the camp before the program was implemented. Improvements occurred in the frequency and variety of FVs served, counselor informational and instrumental support for FV consumption, and in older youth who received nutrition education lessons, perceived peer attitudes towards eating FVs and FV intake. Improving the camp food environment can improve FV intake among youth in this setting.

  9. Regulation of ion transport via apical purinergic receptors in intact rabbit airway epithelium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Asser Nyander; Klausen, Thomas Levin; Pedersen, Peter Steen

    2005-01-01

    We investigated purinergic receptors involved in ion transport regulation in the intact rabbit nasal airway epithelium. Stimulation of apical membrane P2Y receptors with ATP or UTP (200 microM) induced transient increases in short-circuit current (Isc) of 13 and 6% followed by sustained inhibitions...

  10. Management of diabetes at summer camps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciambra, Roberta; Locatelli, Chiara; Suprani, Tosca; Pocecco, Mauro

    2005-01-01

    We report our experience in the organization of diabetic children summer-camps since 1973. Guidelines for organization have been recently reported by the SIEDP (Società Italiana di Endocrinologia e Diabetologia Pediatrica). Our attention is focused on diabetes management at camp, organization and planning, medical staff composition and staff training, treatment of diabetes-related emergencies, written camp management plan, diabetes education and psychological issues at camp, prevention of possible risks, assessment of effectiveness of education in summer camps and research at camp.

  11. Apical ballooning syndrome: a case report

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Apical ballooning syndrome mimics acute coronary syndromes and it is characterized by reversible left ventricular apical ballooning in the absence of angiographically significant coronary artery stenosis. Case presentation This is a case of a 40-year-old Caucasian male without any health related problems that was submitted to an urgent coronary angiography because of acute chest pain and marked precordial T-wave inversions suggestive of acute myocardial ischemia. Coronary angiography showed no significant stenosis of the coronary arteries. Left ventriculography showed systolic apical ballooning with mild basal hypercontraction. Conclusion Physicians should be aware of the presentation of apical ballooning syndrome, and the chest pain after following acute stress should not be readily attributed to anxiety. PMID:23270409

  12. Evidence for cAMP as a mediator of gonadotropin secretion from male pituitaries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bourne, G.A.; Baldwin, D.M.

    1987-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to use sodium flufenamate, a compound that inhibits gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH)-stimulated adenosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphate (cAMP) production in the pituitary, to evaluate the potential role of cAMP as a mediator of GnRH-stimulated gonadotropin secretion from male pituitaries. Quartered male pituitaries were perifused at 37/sup 0/C and sequential effluent fractions collected every 10 min. Infusions of GnRH resulted in a twofold increase in luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) secretion. Cycloheximide, 5 ..mu..M, completely inhibited the GnRH-stimulated LH and FSH secretion. Infusions of 0.1 mM flufenamate had similar effects on gonadotropin secretion as cycloheximide, whereas the administration of 5 mM dibutyryl cAMP in combination with GnRH and flufenamate restored the secretory responses of both hormones. The flufenamate-inhibited GnRH stimulated LH and FSH release, which was restored by DBcAMP and appeared to be protein synthesis dependent and specific for cAMP.These results suggest an indirect role for cAMP as a mediator of gonadotropin secretion from male pituitaries. However, in contrast to female pituitaries, the secretion of these hormones form male pituitaries is completely dependent on cAMP and de novo protein synthesis.

  13. Seafloor Science and Remotely Operated Vehicle (SSROV) Day Camp: A Week-Long, Hands-On STEM Summer Camp

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheat, C. G.; Fournier, T.; Monahan, K.; Paul, C.

    2015-12-01

    RETINA (Robotic Exploration Technologies IN Astrobiology) has developed a program geared towards stimulating our youth with innovative and relevant hands-on learning modules under a STEM umbrella. Given the breadth of potential science and engineering topics that excite children, the RETINA Program focuses on interactive participation in the design and development of simple robotic and sensor systems, providing a range of challenges to engage students through project-based learning (PBL). Thus, young students experience scientific discovery through the use and understanding of technology. This groundwork serves as the foundation for SSROV Camp, a week-long, summer day camp for 6th-8th grade students. The camp is centered on the sensors and platforms that guide seafloor exploration and discovery and builds upon the notion that transformative discoveries in the deep sea result from either sampling new environments or making new measurements with sensors adapted to this extreme environment. These technical and scientific needs are folded into the curriculum. Each of the first four days of the camp includes four team-based, hands-on technical challenges, communication among peer groups, and competition. The fifth day includes additional activities, culminating in camper-led presentations to describe a planned mission based on a given geologic setting. Presentations include hypotheses, operational requirements and expected data products. SSROV Camp was initiated last summer for three sessions, two in Monterey, CA and one in Oxford, MS. Campers from both regions grasped key elements of the program, based on written responses to questions before and after the camp. On average, 32% of the pre-test questions were answered correctly compared with 80% of the post-test questions. Additional confirmation of gains in campers' knowledge, skills, and critical thinking on environmental issues and engineering problems were apparent during the "jeopardy" competition, nightly homework

  14. From Refugee Camp to Resilient City: Zaatari Refugee Camp, Jordan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nada Maani

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available This project is about how architecture can transform a refugee camp into a child friendly city designed around existing social networks. The vision is to respond to the refugee crisis with long-term resilient solutions rather than reactionary ones. 

  15. Music in Concentration Camps 1933-1945

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Fackler, Guido

    2007-01-01

    The author addresses the topic of musical activities in the German concentration camps from 1933 to 1945, focusing on those camps that the Nazi regime started to erect just a few weeks after Hitler's assumption of power...

  16. Extension Sustainability Camp: Design, Implementation, and Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brain, Roslynn; Upton, Sally; Tingey, Brett

    2015-01-01

    Sustainability Camps provide an opportunity for Extension educators to be in the forefront of sustainability outreach and to meet the growing demand for sustainability education. This article shares development, implementation, and evaluation of an Extension Sustainability Camp for youth, grades 4-6. Camp impact was measured via daily pre-and…

  17. Growth potential of the family camping market

    Science.gov (United States)

    W.F. LaPage; W.F. LaPage

    1973-01-01

    A study of the camping market's short-term growth potential, based upon interviews with the heads of 2,003 representative American households. The study estimates the size of the potential camping market and divides it into three segments: those families with a high, medium and low propensity to become campers. The developed camping market is also divided into an...

  18. CAMP/PKA-mediated regulation of erythropoiesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boer, AK; Drayer, AL; Vellenga, E

    The role of cyclic AMP (cAMP) as second messenger in erythropoiesis has been suggested in the early 1980s. However, careful analysis showed that cAMP is not generated in direct response to the main erythropoiesis-controlling cytokines such as erythropoietin (Epo). As a result, cAMP disappeared from

  19. A Look at Humane Education Summer Camps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finch, Patty

    1984-01-01

    Reviews comments of humane education summer camp directors (N=6) who answered the following questions: What is a humane education? Who attends? What do the campers do? Who offers these camps? Why? What are the special challenges of running a camp? What do the campers get out of the experience? (BC)

  20. The NAO goes to camp

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wigdor, N.; Fraaije, A.; Solms, L.; Greeff, J. de; Janssen, J.; Blanson Henkemans, O.A.

    2014-01-01

    ALIZ-E is a Europe-wide project focusing on long-term child-robot interaction, specifically as a means of educating diabetic children on their condition. This video showcases a recent field study at "SugarKidsClub", a camp devoted to helping 7-12 year-olds handle type-1 diabetes. A wide range of CRI

  1. Sleep At Camp: A Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pravda, Myra

    1997-01-01

    Among 40 camp directors surveyed, the majority believed that campers get enough sleep, but that staff members and directors do not get enough sleep. Addresses how sleep deprivation can affect job performance and offers strategies for helping staff understand the importance of sleep to keep them alert and functioning in their job. Includes…

  2. Lyme Disease Comes to Camp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Michael

    1989-01-01

    Describes one summer camp's plan for dealing with Lyme disease. Describes the disease and the deer tick. Recommends avoiding tick exposure through clothing, frequent examination, showers, and avoiding high grass and brushy areas, and using chemical insect repellents and chemicals to kill ticks in deer mouse nests. (DHP)

  3. Surgical camps: the Ugandan experience

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    of Surgeons of Uganda (ASOU) organised a pilot project in which surgical teams travelled to three hospitals in the Lira and Apac districts of Norhern. Uganda. The objectives of this project or 'Surgical Camp' were the following: 1 to offer free specialised surgical services in three hospitals which had no specialists or regular.

  4. Apical dominance and apical control in multiple flushing of temperate woody species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    M. Cline; C. Harrington

    2007-01-01

    In young plants of many woody species, the first flush of growth in the spring may be followed by one or more flushes of the terminal shoot if growing conditions are favorable. The occurrence of these additional flushes may significantly affect crown form and structure. Apical dominance (AD) and apical control (AC) are thought to be important control mechanisms in this...

  5. Is smoking a predictor of apical periodontitis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Fabiola-Regina; Taner, Babür; Weiger, Roland; Walter, Clemens

    2013-11-01

    To evaluate the association between cigarette smoking and the frequency of apical periodontitis in female and male patients seeking treatment at the University of Basel (KREBS Project). This cohort study included full-mouth periapical radiographs of 161 subjects, including 66 current smokers, 28 former smokers and 67 [corrected] individuals who had never smoked. The periapical region of all teeth was radiographically evaluated using the Periapical Index (PAI) score. Generalised linear mixed-effects models using the logit link were performed. The frequency of apical periodontitis differed based on gender and smoking status. Current male cigarette smokers with periodontitis of 7.9 % and 7.5 %, [corrceted] respectively, compared to 4.1 % [corrected] in individuals who had never smoked. The corresponding data for female smokers were 5.8 % and 7.4 % [corrected] in smokers with smoked. The factors "prevalent coronal restoration" (p periodontitis. After adjustment for quality of root canal filling cigarette smoking was not associated with apical periodontitis in current female and male smokers with 0.05). Smoking status did not predict apical periodontitis in females and males in this sample group. With respect to quality of root canal filling, tobacco use may not be a significant predictor for apical periodontitis.

  6. Microbiology and Treatment of Acute Apical Abscesses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rôças, Isabela N.

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY Acute apical abscess is the most common form of dental abscess and is caused by infection of the root canal of the tooth. It is usually localized intraorally, but in some cases the apical abscess may spread and result in severe complications or even mortality. The reasons why dental root canal infections can become symptomatic and evolve to severe spreading and sometimes life-threatening abscesses remain elusive. Studies using culture and advanced molecular microbiology methods for microbial identification in apical abscesses have demonstrated a multispecies community conspicuously dominated by anaerobic bacteria. Species/phylotypes commonly found in these infections belong to the genera Fusobacterium, Parvimonas, Prevotella, Porphyromonas, Dialister, Streptococcus, and Treponema. Advances in DNA sequencing technologies and computational biology have substantially enhanced the knowledge of the microbiota associated with acute apical abscesses and shed some light on the etiopathogeny of this disease. Species richness and abundance and the resulting network of interactions among community members may affect the collective pathogenicity and contribute to the development of acute infections. Disease modifiers, including transient or permanent host-related factors, may also influence the development and severity of acute abscesses. This review focuses on the current evidence about the etiology and treatment of acute apical abscesses and how the process is influenced by host-related factors and proposes future directions in research, diagnosis, and therapeutic approaches to deal with this disease. PMID:23554416

  7. Apical domain polarization localizes actin-myosin activity to drive ratchet-like apical constriction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, Frank M; Tworoger, Michael; Martin, Adam C

    2013-08-01

    Apical constriction promotes epithelia folding, which changes tissue architecture. During Drosophila gastrulation, mesoderm cells exhibit repeated contractile pulses that are stabilized such that cells apically constrict like a ratchet. The transcription factor Twist is required to stabilize cell shape. However, it is unknown how Twist spatially coordinates downstream signals to prevent cell relaxation. We find that during constriction, Rho-associated kinase (Rok) is polarized to the middle of the apical domain (medioapical cortex), separate from adherens junctions. Rok recruits or stabilizes medioapical myosin II (Myo-II), which contracts dynamic medioapical actin cables. The formin Diaphanous mediates apical actin assembly to suppress medioapical E-cadherin localization and form stable connections between the medioapical contractile network and adherens junctions. Twist is not required for apical Rok recruitment, but instead polarizes Rok medioapically. Therefore, Twist establishes radial cell polarity of Rok/Myo-II and E-cadherin and promotes medioapical actin assembly in mesoderm cells to stabilize cell shape fluctuations.

  8. Transformative Leadership: The Camp Counselor Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie Femrite

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A study, utilizing focus groups, was conducted with teens serving as camp counselors at the North Central 4-H camp in Missouri.  High school students, 14-18 years old, served as camp counselors during a four-day residential camp the summer of 2014. Each counselor was a current 4-H member and had served as a 4-H camp counselor in Missouri for at least one year, some serving as many as five years. Comparing two training models, evidence was found that intentional training sessions are crucial for the empowerment that leads to transformation.

  9. Suicide in the Soviet Gulag camps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krysinska, Karolina; Lester, David

    2008-01-01

    About 18 million Soviet citizens passed through the Gulag system of labor and concentration camps between 1929 and 1953. Based upon literary evidence from camp survivors and published documents, the authors present reports of attempted suicide and completed suicide, along with a discussion of whether suicide in Gulag camps was a frequent or rare behavior. Similar to reports from the Nazi concentration camps during WWII the existence of Muselmänner or dokhodyagi, the dying prisoners emaciated by hunger, sometimes considered as suicides, has been identified among the Gulag inmates. Also, the incidence and methods of self-mutilation among the camp inmates are discussed.

  10. An Unusual Left Ventricular Apical Mass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavallero, Erika; Curzi, Mirko; Cioccarelli, Sara Anna; Papalia, Giulio; Ornaghi, Diego; Bragato, Renato Maria

    2014-01-01

    Left ventricular apical masses constitute a rare finding. Imaging properties together with the clinical history of the patient usually allow an etiologic definition. We report a challenging case of an ambiguous left ventricular apical mass of uncertain nature till histological examination. Points of interest were singular clinical history and echocardiographic findings, although not conclusive in hypothesis generating. Furthermore to the best of our knowledge, this is one of the rare attempt to excise a deep left ventricular mass with a mini-invasive surgical approach. PMID:28465915

  11. Revitalization of open apex teeth with apical periodontitis using a collagen-hydroxyapatite scaffold.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nevins, Alan J; Cymerman, Jerome J

    2015-06-01

    An enhanced revision of the revitalization endodontic technique for immature teeth with apical periodontitis has been described. It includes the addition of collagen-hydroxyapatite scaffold to the currently practiced revascularization technique. Four cases treated in series are presented in this report, 1 case involving 2 teeth. Periapical diagnoses of immature teeth included "asymptomatic apical periodontitis," "symptomatic apical periodontitis," and "acute apical abscess." Additionally, 1 fully developed tooth that had undergone root canal treatment that failed had a periapical diagnosis of acute apical abscess. An established revascularization protocol was used for all teeth. In addition to stimulating blood clots, all teeth were filled with collagen-hydroxyapatite scaffolds. Periapical radiolucencies healed in all teeth, and diffuse radiopacity developed within the coronal portions of canal spaces. Root development with root lengthening occurred in the immature nonvital maxillary premolar that had not undergone prior treatment. The technique of adding a collagen-hydroxyapatite scaffold to the existing revitalization protocol has been described in which substantial hard tissue repair has occurred. This may leave teeth more fully developed and less likely to fracture. Copyright © 2015 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Relationship between the Apical Preparation Diameter and the Apical Seal: An In Vitro Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaoutar Laslami

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. The aim of the study is to define the relationship between the apical preparation diameter and the apical sealing ability to highlight the importance of the preservation of the diameter and the original position of the apical foramen. Materials and Methods. 50 extracted maxillary incisors were randomly allocated into three groups of 15 teeth each (n = 15 according to the apical preparation size: Group 1: finishing file F1 corresponding to size 20 reached the working length (ProTaper Universal system Dentsply®; Group 2: prepared up to size 30 corresponding to finishing file F30; Group 3: prepared up to size 50 corresponding to finishing file F5. Five teeth were assigned to positive and negative control groups. After the filling of the root canals, the teeth were isolated and immersed in a dye solution, then cut longitudinally, photographed, and the dye penetration were calculated using a computer software. Results. Comparison of the three different apical preparation sizes showed no statistically significant differences regarding the apical microleakage. Conclusion. The most important value of the dye penetration was observed in the group with the largest apical diameter.

  13. Apical constriction is driven by a pulsatile apical myosin network in delaminating Drosophila neuroblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Yanru; Xue, Guosheng; Shaobo, Yang; Mingxi, Deng; Zhou, Xiaowei; Yu, Weichuan; Ishibashi, Toyotaka; Zhang, Lei; Yan, Yan

    2017-06-15

    Cell delamination is a conserved morphogenetic process important for the generation of cell diversity and maintenance of tissue homeostasis. Here, we used Drosophila embryonic neuroblasts as a model to study the apical constriction process during cell delamination. We observe dynamic myosin signals both around the cell adherens junctions and underneath the cell apical surface in the neuroectoderm. On the cell apical cortex, the nonjunctional myosin forms flows and pulses, which are termed medial myosin pulses. Quantitative differences in medial myosin pulse intensity and frequency are crucial to distinguish delaminating neuroblasts from their neighbors. Inhibition of medial myosin pulses blocks delamination. The fate of a neuroblast is set apart from that of its neighbors by Notch signaling-mediated lateral inhibition. When we inhibit Notch signaling activity in the embryo, we observe that small clusters of cells undergo apical constriction and display an abnormal apical myosin pattern. Together, these results demonstrate that a contractile actomyosin network across the apical cell surface is organized to drive apical constriction in delaminating neuroblasts. © 2017. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  14. cAMP signalling regulates synchronised growth of symbiotic Epichloë fungi with the host grass Lolium perenne

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine Rosalie Voisey

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The seed-transmitted fungal symbiont, Epichloë festucae, colonizes grasses by infecting host tissues as they form on the shoot apical meristem (SAM of the seedling. How this fungus accommodates the complexities of plant development to successfully colonize the leaves and inflorescences is unclear. Since adenosine 3′, 5′-cyclic monophosphate (cAMP-dependent signaling is often essential for host colonization by fungal pathogens, we disrupted the cAMP cascade by insertional mutagenesis of the E. festucae adenylate cyclase gene (acyA. Consistent with deletions of this gene in other fungi, acyA mutants had a slow radial growth rate in culture, and hyphae were convoluted and hyper-branched suggesting that fungal apical dominance had been disrupted. Nitro blue tetrazolium (NBT staining of hyphae showed that cAMP disruption mutants were impaired in their ability to synthesize superoxide, indicating that cAMP signaling regulates accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS. Despite significant defects in hyphal growth and ROS production, E. festucae ΔacyA mutants were infectious and capable of forming symbiotic associations with grasses. Plants infected with E. festucae ΔacyA were marginally less robust than the wild-type (WT, however hyphae were hyper-branched, and leaf tissues heavily colonized, indicating that the tight regulation of hyphal growth normally observed in maturing leaves requires functional cAMP signaling.

  15. Summer Camp July 2017 - Registration

    CERN Multimedia

    EVE et École

    2017-01-01

    The CERN Staff Association’s Summer Camp will be open for children from 4 to 6 years old during four weeks, from 3 to 28 July. Registration is offered on a weekly basis for 450 CHF, lunch included. This year, the various activities will revolve around the theme of the Four Elements. Registration opened on 20 March 2017 for children currently attending the EVE and School of the Association. It will be open from 3 April for children of CERN Members of Personnel, and starting from 24 April for all other children. The general conditions are available on the website of the EVE and School of CERN Staff Association: http://nurseryschool.web.cern.ch. For further questions, please contact us by email at Summer.Camp@cern.ch.

  16. Evidence for cAMP as a mediator of gonadotropin secretion from female pituitaries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bourne, G.A.; Baldwin, D.M.

    1987-09-01

    Sodium flufenamate, which inhibited gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH)-stimulated increases in adenosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphate (cAMP), was used to evaluate the potential role of cAMP as a mediator of GnRH-stimulated gonadotropin secretion. Quartered pituitaries from diestrous II female rats were perifused at 37/sup 0/C, and sequential effluent fractions were collected every 10 min. Administration of GnRH resulted in a characteristic biphasic response for both luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), whereas 5 ..mu..M cycloheximide inhibited the secondary augmented responses (phase II) of both hormones. Infusions of 0.1 mM flufenamate inhibited GnRH-stimulated gonadotropin secretion in a manner similar to that of cycloheximide, whereas the administration of 5 mM dibutyryl cAMP in combination with GnRH and flufenamate resulted in the restoration of LH and FSH secretion. The dibutyryl cAMP-restored response appeared to be protein synthesis dependent and specific for cAMP. These results suggest that although the cyclic nucleotide is not involved in the acute release of LH and FSH, it does appear to play a pivotal but indirect role in phase II release of the hormones, by effects involving the stimulation of de novo protein synthesis.

  17. Pathogenesis of Apical Periodontitis: a Literature Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Indre Graunaite

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: This review article discusses the host response in apical periodontitis with the main focus on cytokines, produced under this pathological condition and contributing to the degradation of periradicular tissues. The pace of research in this field has greatly accelerated in the last decade. Here we provide an analysis of studies published in this area during this period.Material and methods: Literature was selected through a search of PubMed electronic database. The keywords used for search were pathogenesis of apical periodontitis cytokines, periapical granuloma cytokines, inflammatory infiltrate apical periodontitis. The search was restricted to English language articles, published from 1999 to December 2010. Additionally, a manual search in the cytokine production, cytokine functions and periapical tissue destruction in the journals and books was performed.Results: In total, 97 literature sources were obtained and reviewed. The topics covered in this article include cellular composition of an inflammatory infiltrate in the periapical lesions, mechanisms of the formation of the innate and specific immune response. Studies which investigated cytokine secretion and functions were identified and cellular and molecular interactions in the course of apical periodontitis described.Conclusions: The abundance and interactions of various inflammatory and anti-inflammatory molecules can influence and alter the state and progression of the disease. Therefore, periapical inflammatory response offers a model, suited for the study of many facets of pathogenesis, biocompatibility of different materials to periapical tissues and development of novel treatment methods, based on the regulation of cytokines expression.

  18. A Radial Actin Network in Apical Constriction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Zhiyi; Großhans, Jörg

    2016-11-07

    Contractile actomyosin networks are central to cell shape change, rearrangements, and migration during animal tissue morphogenesis. In this issue of Developmental Cell, Coravos and Martin (2016) report that the actin network is radially polarized in apically constricting cells, suggesting a constriction model similar to the contraction mechanism in muscle sarcomeres. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. The resection angle in apical surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    von Arx, Thomas; Janner, Simone F M; Jensen, Simon S

    2016-01-01

    study, cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) scans were taken before and 1 year after apical surgery to measure the angle of the resection plane relative to the longitudinal axis of the root. Further, the surgical depth (distance from the buccal cortex to the most lingual/palatal point of the resection...

  20. Determination of Trace Level of cAMP in Locusta Migratoria Manilensis Meyen by HPLC with Fluorescence Derivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Canping Pan

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available A sensitive and rapid method was developed for the determination of cAMP inLocusta migratoria manilensis Meyen by high-performance liquid chromatography withfluorescence detection. The cAMP was derivatized using chloroacetaldehyde and TBASbuffer/methanol was used as the mobile phase. A detection quantification of 40 fmol/mlcould be achieved when using fluorescence detection. An HPLC-MS method using DMHAas an ion-pair agent to analyze cAMP was also demonstrated. We studied the effect ofdopamine and other stimulants on cAMP levels from isolated locust central nervoussystems. The new method is well suited for the analysis of cAMP in small biologicalsamples.

  1. Apical versus Non-Apical Lead: Is ICD Lead Position Important for Successful Defibrillation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amit, Guy; Wang, Jia; Connolly, Stuart J; Glikson, Michael; Hohnloser, Stephan; Wright, David J; Brachmann, Johannes; Defaye, Pascal; Neuzner, Joerg; Mabo, Philippe; Vanerven, Liselot; Vinolas, Xavier; O'Hara, Gilles; Kautzner, Josef; Appl, Ursula; Gadler, Fredrik; Stein, Kenneth; Konstantino, Yuval; Healey, Jeff S

    2016-05-01

    We aim to compare the acute and long-term success of defibrillation between non-apical and apical ICD lead position. The position of the ventricular lead was recorded by the implanting physician for 2,475 of 2,500 subjects in the Shockless IMPLant Evaluation (SIMPLE) trial, and subjects were grouped accordingly as non-apical or apical. The success of intra-operative defibrillation testing and of subsequent clinical shocks were compared. Propensity scoring was used to adjust for the impact of differences in baseline variables between these groups. There were 541 leads that were implanted at a non-apical position (21.9%). Patients implanted with a non-apical lead had a higher rate of secondary prevention indication. Non-apical location resulted in a lower mean R-wave amplitude (14.0 vs. 15.2, P defibrillation was similar between propensity score matched groups (89%). Over a mean follow-up of 3 years, there were no significant differences in the yearly rates of appropriate shock (5.5% vs. 5.4%, P = 0.98), failed appropriate first shock (0.9% vs. 1.0%, P = 0.66), or the composite of failed shock or arrhythmic death (2.8% vs. 2.3% P = 0.35) according to lead location. We did not detect any reduction in the ICD efficacy at the time of implant or during follow-up in patients receiving a non-apical RV lead. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. The Camp Setting for Promoting Youth Physical Activity: Systematic Observations of Summer Day Camps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole Zarrett

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The risk for youth obesity is higher during the summer than any other time of year. Summer day camps can be ideal settings for preventing obesity through reducing youth summer sedentary behaviors. However, little-to-no research has examined the role of camps for promoting youth physical activity (PA and other healthy behaviors. This study begins to address the gap in research by conducting systematic observations of 4 summer day camps (2 highly- resourced and 2 low-resourced to determine: 1 the degree to which camps engage youth in moderate-to-vigorous PA, and; 2 to what extent camps provide important physical and social-motivational features for promoting PA. Results indicate camps provide opportunities for youth to meet national recommendations of daily MVPA. However, there were differences in PA and motivational features by level of camp resources. This study helps inform practice and policy through identifying strengths and needs of camps for promoting PA.

  3. A modern approach to surgical endodontics: ultrasonic apical preparation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kellert, M; Solomon, C; Chalfin, H

    1994-01-01

    Ultrasonic devices are capable of generating better apical preparations than rotary instruments with less sacrifice of root structure. Regardless of the technique used, good lighting and magnification are necessary to insure an adequate apical preparation.

  4. Establishing Apical Patency: To be or not to be?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammadi, Zahed; Jafarzadeh, Hamid; Shalavi, Sousan; Kinoshita, Jun-Ichiro

    2017-04-01

    The apical portion of the root canal is very complex and challenging during endodontic treatment. Root canal preparation and obturation to the apical constriction may provide the best prognosis. Incomplete debridement, foramen transportation, and inadequate seal in the apical portion are considered to be responsible for treatment failure. The technique "apical patency" is considered as a way for maintaining the apical part the free of the debris by recapitulation, using a small K-file through the area of the apical foramen. This term was firstly proposed by Buchanan. In this technique, the smallest diameter file is set 1 mm longer than working length and recapitulated after each instrument to prevent packing of debris in the apical part. Apical patency has been found to be effective in achieving an apical seal with gutta-percha. Teeth prepared with a step back method and with maintained apical patency may show less leakage when obturated with cold lateral condensation technique. Data regarding the effect of apical patency on the healing of periapical tissue are very scarce, and it has been shown that the patency file has detrimental effect on the healing of periapical tissues in animal studies. However, using patency file in endodontic treatment is controversial and further studies are needed. The purpose of this article is to review the effect of using a patency file on the extrusion of root canal contents, the apical seal, postoperative pain, and healing of periapical tissues. Furthermore, the effect of establishing patency on reaching irrigation solutions to the apical portion of the canal and prognosis of root canal treatment are discussed. Keywords: Apical patency, Apical seal, Apical transportation, Postoperative pain, Prognosis.

  5. Establishing Apical Patency and its Effect on Endodontic Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-01

    relative to establishment of apical patency. Key Words Endodontics, root canal, dentistry , patency, patency filing, establishing patency, apical...Souza V, et al. Influence of apical patency and filling material on healing process of dogs ’ teeth with vital pulp after root canal therapy. Braz

  6. Regeneration of okra ( Abelmoschus esculentus L.) via apical shoot ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The present study was undertaken to evaluate the most suitable concentration of growth regulators for regeneration of okra (Abelmoschus esculentus L. Monech) via apical shoot culture system. The study of apical shoot culture system was found effective for regeneration of apical shoots. The okra (A. esculentus L. Monech) ...

  7. Research summer camp in photonics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buyanovskaya, Elizaveta; Melnik, Maksim; Egorov, Vladimir; Gleim, Artur; Lukishova, Svetlana; Kozlov, Sergei; Zhang, Xi-Cheng

    2017-08-01

    ITMO University and the University of Rochester became close partners several years ago. One of the first outcomes of this mutually beneficial partnership was the creation of International Institute of Photonics and Optical Information Technologies led by Prof. Sergei Kozlov and Prof. Xi-Cheng Zhang. Universities have created a double Masters-degree program in optics in 2014, and several ITMO students have been awarded degrees from Rochester. At the same time ITMO University organizes Summer Research camp in Photonics for University of Rochester students. Students spent two weeks in the Northern Capital of Russia learning about the emerging practical applications of femtosecond optics, terahertz biomedicine and quantum information technologies.

  8. Type III apical transportation of root canal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiv P Mantri

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Procedural accidents leading to complications such as canal transportation have been ascribed to inapt cleaning and shaping concepts. Canal transportation is an undesirable deviation from the natural canal path. Herewith a case of apical transportation of root canal resulting in endodontic retreatment failure and its management is presented. A healthy 21-year-old young male presented discomfort and swelling associated with painful endodontically retreated maxillary incisor. Radiograph revealed periradicular radiolucency involving underfilled 11 and overfilled 12. Insufficiently obturated 11 exhibited apical transportation of canal. This type III transportation was treated by periradicular surgery and repair using white mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA. Comfortable asymptomatic patient presented uneventful healing at third and fourth month recall visits. A decrease in the size of radiolucency in radiograph supported the clinical finding. In the present case, MTA is useful in repairing the transportation defect. The result of these procedures is predictable and successful.

  9. Evaluation of three instrumentation techniques at the precision of apical stop and apical sealing of obturation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Özgür Genç

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to investigate the ability of two NiTi rotary apical preparation techniques used with an electronic apex locator-integrated endodontic motor and a manual technique to create an apical stop at a predetermined level (0.5 mm short of the apical foramen in teeth with disrupted apical constriction, and to evaluate microleakage following obturation in such prepared teeth. MATERIAL AND METHODS: 85 intact human mandibular permanent incisors with single root canal were accessed and the apical constriction was disrupted using a #25 K-file. The teeth were embedded in alginate and instrumented to #40 using rotary Lightspeed or S-Apex techniques or stainless-steel K-files. Distance between the apical foramen and the created apical stop was measured to an accuracy of 0.01 mm. In another set of instrumented teeth, root canals were obturated using gutta-percha and sealer, and leakage was tested at 1 week and 3 months using a fluid filtration device. RESULTS: All techniques performed slightly short of the predetermined level. Closest preparation to the predetermined level was with the manual technique and the farthest was with S-Apex. A significant difference was found between the performances of these two techniques (p<0.05. Lightspeed ranked in between. Leakage was similar for all techniques at either period. However, all groups leaked significantly more at 3 months compared to 1 week (p<0.05. CONCLUSIONS: Despite statistically significant differences found among the techniques, deviations from the predetermined level were small and clinically acceptable for all techniques. Leakage following obturation was comparable in all groups.

  10. Evaluation of three instrumentation techniques at the precision of apical stop and apical sealing of obturation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genç, Özgür; Alaçam, Tayfun; Kayaoglu, Guven

    2011-08-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the ability of two NiTi rotary apical preparation techniques used with an electronic apex locator-integrated endodontic motor and a manual technique to create an apical stop at a predetermined level (0.5 mm short of the apical foramen) in teeth with disrupted apical constriction, and to evaluate microleakage following obturation in such prepared teeth. 85 intact human mandibular permanent incisors with single root canal were accessed and the apical constriction was disrupted using a #25 K-file. The teeth were embedded in alginate and instrumented to #40 using rotary Lightspeed or S-Apex techniques or stainless-steel K-files. Distance between the apical foramen and the created apical stop was measured to an accuracy of 0.01 mm. In another set of instrumented teeth, root canals were obturated using gutta-percha and sealer, and leakage was tested at 1 week and 3 months using a fluid filtration device. All techniques performed slightly short of the predetermined level. Closest preparation to the predetermined level was with the manual technique and the farthest was with S-Apex. A significant difference was found between the performances of these two techniques (p<0.05). Lightspeed ranked in between. Leakage was similar for all techniques at either period. However, all groups leaked significantly more at 3 months compared to 1 week (p<0.05). Despite statistically significant differences found among the techniques, deviations from the predetermined level were small and clinically acceptable for all techniques. Leakage following obturation was comparable in all groups.

  11. Apical hypertrophic cardiomyopathy: clinical and metabolic studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertrand, M E; Tilmant, P Y; Lablanche, J M; Thieuleux, F A

    1983-11-01

    Among the hypertrophic non-obstructive cardiomyopathies, a particular group of patients with concentric apical hypertrophy can be described. We studied seven patients (five men and two women) who underwent heart catheterization because they had giant negative T waves in the precordial leads. M-mode and two-dimensional echocardiograms revealed no obstruction within the outflow tract of the ventricle. Coronary angiography was normal in all cases. None of these patients demonstrated any significant peak systolic pressure gradient in the outflow tract. A characteristic spade-like configuration (concentric apical hypertrophy) was observed in the right anterior oblique ventriculogram at end diastole. The apical thickness reached 17.2 +/- 0.85 mm and was significantly greater than mid-anterior wall thickness (9.8 +/- 2.14 mm). In five cases, atrial pacing with coronary arterial and venous lactate sampling revealed abnormalities in myocardial metabolism. With a mean follow up of 43 months, three patients remain asymptomatic and one had heart failure. ECG abnormalities were unchanged and echocardiograms showed an increase of the septal and posterior wall thickness, suggesting a transformation in concentric diffuse hypertrophic cardiomyopathy.

  12. Losartan decreases vasopressin-mediated cAMP accumulation in the thick ascending limb of the loop of Henle in rats with congestive heart failure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Torp, M; Brønd, L; Hadrup, N

    2007-01-01

    receptor type-1 (AT(1)) blockade with losartan. AIM: In this study, we investigated whether CHF rats displayed changes in AVP stimulated cAMP formation in the TAL and examined the role of AT(1) receptor blockade on this system. METHOD: CHF was induced by ligation of the left anterior descending coronary...... artery (LAD). SHAM-operated rats were used as controls. Half of the rats were treated with losartan (10 mg kg day(-1) i.p.). RESULTS: CHF rats were characterized by increased left ventricular end diastolic pressure. Measurement of cAMP in isolated outer medullary TAL showed that both basal and AVP (10......(-6) m) stimulated cAMP levels were significantly increased in CHF rats (25.52 +/- 4.49 pmol cAMP microg(-1) protein, P Losartan significantly reduced the basal level of cAMP in CHF rats (CHF: 12.56 +/- 1.93 fmol...

  13. Teenagers and Risk-Taking at Camp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woods, Ann

    2002-01-01

    Teen risk-taking is normal, healthy developmental behavior. Teens act out their fantasies--good and bad--at camp because it is a safe place away from parents. Signs of unhealthy risk-taking, camp staff responses, and how the September 11 tragedy might affect risk-taking are discussed. Sidebars describe tips for understanding adolescent behavior…

  14. Measuring Mindfulness in Summer Camp Staff

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillard, Ann; Roark, Mark F.; Nyaga, Lewis Ramsey Kanyiba; Bialeschki, M. Deborah

    2011-01-01

    Examining mindfulness in a non-clinical and non-therapeutic setting such as a summer camp is an area of growing interest. Our study tested three mindfulness scales with staff in a summer camp setting, and we conducted preliminary reliability and validity analyses for any modifications needed in the scales. Results indicated two major findings: (a)…

  15. Sustainable Design Principles for Refugee Camps

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rooij, de L.L.; Wascher, D.M.; Paulissen, M.P.C.P.

    2016-01-01

    This report’s main focus is on the phenomenon of refugee camps as one of the most visible and spatially explicit results of refuge and migration movements at the global scale. Given the steadily growing numbers of people on the move and staying in temporary homes and settlements, refugee camps must

  16. Summer Camp of Mathematical Modeling in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Xiaoxi; Xie, Jinxing

    2013-01-01

    The Summer Camp of Mathematical Modeling in China is a recently created experience designed to further Chinese students' academic pursuits in mathematical modeling. Students are given more than three months to research on a mathematical modeling project. Researchers and teams with outstanding projects are invited to the Summer Camp to present…

  17. Dealing with World Issues in Camp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kujawa, Charles

    1986-01-01

    Discusses dealing with global issues in the camp setting in a way that broadens young people's world views. Topics include the educational advantages of the camp setting, desired outcomes for campers, guidelines for staff, and program ideas for dealing with issues such as environmental awareness, racism, and economic justice. (JHZ)

  18. Suicides in the Nazi Concentration Camps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryn, Zdzislaw

    1986-01-01

    On the basis of psychiatric interviews with 69 former prisoners of the Auschwitz-Birkenau concentration camp, this paper describes the circumstances, motives, and ways of committing suicide in the camp. The interviews made it clear that thousands of prisoners perished by suicide. The number of committed suicides was larger than that of attempted…

  19. Opening of a summer camp at CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    Nursery School

    2015-01-01

    The Staff Association has the pleasure to announce the opening of a summer camp in l’EVE et Ecole de l’AP du CERN. With a capacity of 40 children, aged 4 to 6 years, it will be open from July 6 to 30. Registration Summer camp 2015 Registration for the CERN SA Summer camp for children aged 4 to 6 is open 16 to 30 April 2015 More information on the website: http://nurseryschool.web.cern.ch/ The Summer camp is open to all children of CERN Staff. An inscription per week is proposed, cost 480.-CHF/week, lunch included. The camp will be open weeks 28, 29, 30 and 31, from 8:30 am to 5:30 pm.

  20. Systemic antibiotics for symptomatic apical periodontitis and acute apical abscess in adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cope, Anwen; Francis, Nick; Wood, Fiona; Mann, Mala K; Chestnutt, Ivor G

    2014-06-26

    Dental pain can have a considerable detrimental effect on an individual's quality of life. Symptomatic apical periodontitis and acute apical abscess are common causes of dental pain and arise from an inflamed or necrotic dental pulp, or infection of the pulpless root canal system. Clinical guidelines recommend that the first-line treatment for teeth with symptomatic apical periodontitis or an acute apical abscess should be removal of the source of inflammation or infection by local, operative measures, and that systemic antibiotics are currently only recommended for situations where there is evidence of spreading infection (cellulitis, lymph node involvement, diffuse swelling) or systemic involvement (fever, malaise). Despite this, there is evidence that dentists continue to prescribe antibiotics for these conditions. There is concern that this could contribute to the development of antibiotic-resistant bacterial colonies both within the individual and within the community as a whole. To evaluate the effects of systemic antibiotics provided with or without surgical intervention (such as extraction, incision and drainage of a swelling or endodontic treatment), with or without analgesics, for symptomatic apical periodontitis or acute apical abscess in adults. We searched the following electronic databases: Cochrane Oral Health Group's Trials Register (to 1 October 2013); Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (The Cochrane Library 2013, Issue 9); MEDLINE via OVID (1946 to 1 October 2013); EMBASE via OVID (1980 to 1 October 2013) and CINAHL via EBSCO (1980 to 1 October 2013). We searched the World Health Organization (WHO) International Trials Registry Platform and the US National Institutes of Health Trials Registry (ClinicalTrials.gov) on 1 October 2013 to identify ongoing trials. We searched for grey literature using OpenGrey (to 1 October 2013) and ZETOC Conference Proceedings (1993 to 1 October 2013). We placed no restrictions on the language or date of

  1. Examining Youth Camping Outcomes Across Multiple States: the National 4-H Camping Research Consortium (NCRC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barry Garst

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The impact of residential camp participation is needed for camps focused on a variety of outcomes including education, summer fun, prevention, and youth development. One system, the Cooperative Extension Service, conducts 4-H residential camps in most states nationwide every year. These camps, though offering educational enhancement and fun activities, are focused on youth development, incorporating a framework called the essential elements of positive youth development. The National 4-H Camping Research Consortium (NCRC, a group of Extension specialists and county-level educators, designed and piloted assessment tools for 4-H camps that can be used at any camp that focuses on youth development. The camp context questionnaire measures three essential elements of youth development: relationship with a caring adult, self-determination and mastery, and safe and inclusive environments. The life skill questionnaire measures three life skills: accepting self and others, accomplishing goals, and taking responsibility. Logic models and evaluation guidelines help camp directors plan camps that work for youth.

  2. cAMP signaling in subcellular compartments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lefkimmiatis, Konstantinos; Zaccolo, Manuela

    2014-09-01

    In the complex microcosm of a cell, information security and its faithful transmission are critical for maintaining internal stability. To achieve a coordinated response of all its parts to any stimulus the cell must protect the information received from potentially confounding signals. Physical segregation of the information transmission chain ensures that only the entities able to perform the encoded task have access to the relevant information. The cAMP intracellular signaling pathway is an important system for signal transmission responsible for the ancestral 'flight or fight' response and involved in the control of critical functions including frequency and strength of heart contraction, energy metabolism and gene transcription. It is becoming increasingly apparent that the cAMP signaling pathway uses compartmentalization as a strategy for coordinating the large number of key cellular functions under its control. Spatial confinement allows the formation of cAMP signaling "hot spots" at discrete subcellular domains in response to specific stimuli, bringing the information in proximity to the relevant effectors and their recipients, thus achieving specificity of action. In this report we discuss how the different constituents of the cAMP pathway are targeted and participate in the formation of cAMP compartmentalized signaling events. We illustrate a few examples of localized cAMP signaling, with a particular focus on the nucleus, the sarcoplasmic reticulum and the mitochondria. Finally, we discuss the therapeutic potential of interventions designed to perturb specific cAMP cascades locally. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Multimodality imaging in apical hypertrophic cardiomyopathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parisi, Rosario; Mirabella, Francesca; Secco, Gioel Gabrio; Fattori, Rossella

    2014-01-01

    Apical hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (AHCM) is a relatively rare morphologic variant of HCM in which the hypertrophy of myocardium is localized to the left ventricular apex. Symptoms of AHCM might vary from none to others mimic coronary artery disease including acute coronary syndrome, thus resulting in inappropriate hospitalization. Transthoracic echocardiography is the first-line imaging technique for the diagnosis of hypertrophic cardiomyopathies. However, when the hypertrophy of the myocardium is localized in the ventricular apex might results in missed diagnosis. Aim of this paper is to review the different imaging techniques used for the diagnosis of AHCM and their role in the detection and comprehension of this uncommon disease. PMID:25276293

  4. Management of apical pelvic organ prolapse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alas, Alexandriah N; Anger, Jennifer T

    2015-05-01

    Pelvic organ prolapse is a prevalent condition, with up to 12 % of women requiring surgery in their lifetime. This manuscript reviews the treatment options for apical prolapse, specifically. Both conservative and surgical management options are acceptable and should be based on patient preferences. Pessaries are the most commonly used conservative management options. Guided pelvic floor muscle training is more beneficial than self-taught Kegel exercises, though may not be effective for high stage or apical prolapse. Surgical treatment options include abdominal and vaginal approaches, the latter of which can be performed open, laparoscopically, and robotically. A systematic review has demonstrated that sacrocolpopexy has better long-term success for treatment of apical prolapse than vaginal techniques, but vaginal surgery can be considered an acceptable alternative. Recent data has demonstrated equal efficacy between uterosacral ligament suspension and sacrospinous ligament suspension at 1 year. To date, two randomized controlled trials have demonstrated equal efficacy between robotic and laparoscopic sacrocolpopexy. Though abdominal approaches may have increased long-term durability, when counseling their patients, surgeons should consider longer operating times and increased pain and cost with these procedures compared to vaginal surgery. • Pelvic floor physical therapy (PFPT) with a physical therapist is the best approach to conservative management of apical prolapse [10]. • Pessaries should be managed with regular follow-up care to minimize complications [14•]. • Minimally invasive sacrocolpopexy appears as effective as the gold standard abdominal sacrocolpopexy (ASC) [42•]. • Robotic assisted sacrocolpopexy (RASC) and laparoscopic assisted sacrocolpopexy (LASC) are equally effective and should be utilized by pelvic floor surgeons based on their skill level and expertise in laparoscopy [44, 45•]. • Uterosacral ligament suspension (USLS) and

  5. Body and Gender in Nazi Concentration Camps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bożena Karwowska

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The article Body and Gender in Nazi Concentration Camps is an attempt to discuss difficult issues of human sexuality and sexually marked behaviors in the context of the concentration camps, and their descriptions in the memoirs of the survivors. Using notions and concepts of the so called "black American feminism" the author (referring extensively to books by Stanisław Grzesiuk and Zofia Romanowiczowa shows how in the concentration camp the human body became the only space of a relative privacy of the prisoner. At the same time the body becomes a territory on which all - both biological and socially constructed - human fates cross.

  6. Unevenness of the apical constriction in human maxillary central incisors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, David G; Roberts, Steven; Joyce, Anthony P; Collins, D Edward; McPherson, James C

    2008-02-01

    This study examined the incisoapical extent of the apical constriction in 45 human maxillary central incisors. The null hypothesis was that the apical constriction is a flat ring. Our working hypothesis was that the constriction is actually uneven or "skewed" as it traces a path around the circumference of the canal. Teeth were split and imaged with 25x magnification, and the most apical and coronal limits of the apical constriction were identified and measured. Analysis of the data indicates that a majority (>70%) of maxillary central incisors exhibit an unevenness or "skew" of the apical constriction of greater than 100 microm in the incisoapical dimension, with a maximum measured skew of 385 microm. On the basis of the results of this study, a statistically significant (P apical constriction around its circumference was confirmed in maxillary central incisors.

  7. Design and Development Issues for Educational Robotics Training Camps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ucgul, Memet; Cagiltay, Kursat

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study is to explore critical design issues for educational robotics training camps and to describe how these factors should be implemented in the development of such camps. For this purpose, two robotics training camps were organized for elementary school students. The first camp had 30 children attendees, and the second had 22. As…

  8. Summer Camps: A Fun Way to Reinforce Math Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tichenor, Mercedes; Plavchan, Joan

    2010-01-01

    Faculty members from a university teacher education department partnered with a local school district to develop a summer camp program for children at-risk. This four week summer camp for elementary students provides reading and math intervention to rising first graders. This article discusses the math aspects of the camp, including camp lessons,…

  9. Institutionalized Adolescents' Perceptions of a Summer Camp Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herr, David E.

    1977-01-01

    Describes the use of the facilities of Camp Easter Seal, Virginia, for institutionalized adolescents from different hospitals in Virginia. Also includes the attitudes of the patients toward their camping experience, their camp counselors, and what they learned from their camping experience. (Author/RK)

  10. The Camp Setting for Promoting Youth Physical Activity: Systematic Observations of Summer Day Camps

    OpenAIRE

    Nicole Zarrett; Brittany Skiles; Carl Sorensen

    2012-01-01

    The risk for youth obesity is higher during the summer than any other time of year. Summer day camps can be ideal settings for preventing obesity through reducing youth summer sedentary behaviors. However, little-to-no research has examined the role of camps for promoting youth physical activity (PA) and other healthy behaviors. This study begins to address the gap in research by conducting systematic observations of 4 summer day camps (2 highly- resourced and 2 low-resourced) to determine: 1...

  11. Apical constriction and epithelial invagination are regulated by BMP activity

    OpenAIRE

    Jidigam, Vijay K.; Raghuraman C. Srinivasan; Cedric Patthey; Lena Gunhaga

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Epithelial invagination is a morphological process in which flat cell sheets transform into three-dimensional structures through bending of the tissue. It is accompanied by apical constriction, in which the apical cell surface is reduced in relation to the basal cell surface. Although much is known about the intra-cellular molecular machinery driving apical constriction and epithelial invagination, information of how extra-cellular signals affect these processes remains insufficient....

  12. Treatment of Necrotic Teeth by Apical Revascularization: Meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Ling; Zhong, Juan; Gong, Qimei; Kim, Sahng G; Zeichner, Samuel J; Xiang, Lusai; Ye, Ling; Zhou, Xuedong; Zheng, Jinxuan; Liu, Yongxing; Guan, Chenyu; Cheng, Bin; Ling, Junqi; Mao, Jeremy J

    2017-10-24

    Each year ~5.4 million children and adolescents in the United States suffer from dental infections, leading to pulp necrosis, arrested tooth-root development and tooth loss. Apical revascularization, adopted by the American Dental Association for its perceived ability to enable postoperative tooth-root growth, is being accepted worldwide. The objective of the present study is to perform a meta-analysis on apical revascularization. Literature search yielded 22 studies following PRISMA with pre-defined inclusion and exclusion criteria. Intraclass correlation coefficient was calculated to account for inter-examiner variation. Following apical revascularization with 6- to 66-month recalls, root apices remained open in 13.9% cases (types I), whereas apical calcification bridge formed in 47.2% (type II) and apical closure (type III) in 38.9% cases. Tooth-root lengths lacked significant postoperative gain among all subjects (p = 0.3472) or in subgroups. Root-dentin area showed significant increases in type III, but not in types I or II cases. Root apices narrowed significantly in types II and III, but not in type I patients. Thus, apical revascularization facilitates tooth-root development but lacks consistency in promoting root lengthening, widening or apical closure. Post-operative tooth-root development in immature permanent teeth represents a generalized challenge to regenerate diseased pediatric tissues that must grow to avoid organ defects.

  13. 2012 USGS Lidar: Brooks Camp (AK)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) had a requirement for high resolution Lidar needed for mapping the Brooks Camp region of Katmai National Park in Alaska....

  14. Food Safety While Hiking, Camping and Boating

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Standard Forms FSIS United States Department of Agriculture Food Safety and Inspection Service About FSIS District Offices ... Web Content Viewer (JSR 286) Actions ${title} Loading... Food Safety While Hiking, Camping & Boating Outdoor activities are ...

  15. 33 CFR 334.910 - Pacific Ocean, Camp Pendleton Boat Basin, U.S. Marine Corps Base, Camp Pendleton, Calif...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Boat Basin, U.S. Marine Corps Base, Camp Pendleton, Calif.; restricted area. 334.910 Section 334.910... AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.910 Pacific Ocean, Camp Pendleton Boat Basin, U.S. Marine Corps Base, Camp Pendleton, Calif.; restricted area. (a) The area. All of the waters of Camp Pendleton Boat...

  16. Pioneer camps in post-Yugoslav context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jankov Sonja

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper is revalorisation and architectural analysis of pioneer cities/camps in Zagreb and Belgrade and of the children's camp Mitrovac at Tara. It is divided into an introductory analysis of the context within which pioneer camps were built and four study cases written from contemporary perspective. Artek, one of the best known pioneer camps in world, protected by UNESCO, is analysed in the paper as a paradigm for wider contextualisation of pioneer camps in former Yugoslavia. Chapter Pioneer City in Belgrade and Mitrovac at Tara emphasizes these complexes as important architectural heritage, were Mitrovac at Tara is one of the best preserved and active resorts for children. High Modernism of Vitić's Pioneer City Today summarises the process of protecting this heritage form 1951 in 2015. The paper proposes that these Yugoslav pioneer camps can be used in contemporary art production and graduate education, by opening to resident artists and students who come to Serbia via Erasmus + exchange programme.

  17. Different roles of GNAS and cAMP signaling during early and late stages of osteogenic differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, S; Kaplan, F S; Shore, E M

    2012-09-01

    Progressive osseous heteroplasia (POH) and fibrous dysplasia (FD) are genetic diseases of bone formation at opposite ends of the osteogenic spectrum: imperfect osteogenesis of the skeleton occurs in FD, while heterotopic ossification in skin, subcutaneous fat, and skeletal muscle forms in POH. POH is caused by heterozygous inactivating germline mutations in GNAS, which encodes G-protein subunits regulating the cAMP pathway, while FD is caused by GNAS somatic activating mutations. We used pluripotent mouse ES cells to examine the effects of Gnas dysregulation on osteoblast differentiation. At the earliest stages of osteogenesis, Gnas transcripts Gsα, XLαs and 1A are expressed at low levels and cAMP levels are also low. Inhibition of cAMP signaling (as in POH) by 2',5'-dideoxyadenosine enhanced osteoblast differentiation while conversely, increased cAMP signaling (as in FD), induced by forskolin, inhibited osteoblast differentiation. Notably, increased cAMP was inhibitory for osteogenesis only at early stages after osteogenic induction. Expression of osteogenic and adipogenic markers showed that increased cAMP enhanced adipogenesis and impaired osteoblast differentiation even in the presence of osteogenic factors, supporting cAMP as a critical regulator of osteoblast and adipocyte lineage commitment. Furthermore, increased cAMP signaling decreased BMP pathway signaling, indicating that G protein-cAMP pathway activation (as in FD) inhibits osteoblast differentiation, at least in part by blocking the BMP-Smad pathway, and suggesting that GNAS inactivation as occurs in POH enhances osteoblast differentiation, at least in part by stimulating BMP signaling. These data support that differences in cAMP levels during early stages of cell differentiation regulate cell fate decisions. Supporting information available online at http:/www.thieme-connect.de/ejournals/toc/hmr. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  18. Apical Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy in Association with PulmonaryArtery Hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Peighambari

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Apical Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy is an uncommon condition constituting 1% -2% of the cases with Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy (HCM diagnosis. We interestingly report two patients with apical hypertrophic cardiomyopathy in association with significant pulmonary artery hypertension without any other underlying reason for pulmonary hypertension. The patients were assessed by echocardiography, cardiac catheterization and pulmonary function parameters study.

  19. Apical Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy in Association with Pulmonary Artery Hypertension

    OpenAIRE

    Peighambari, Mehdi; Parsaei, Mozghan; Sadeghpour, Anita; Alizadehasl, Azin

    2012-01-01

    Apical Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy is an uncommon condition constituting 1% -2% of the cases with Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy (HCM) diagnosis. We interestingly report two patients with apical hypertrophic cardiomyopathy in association with significant pulmonary artery hypertension without any other underlying reason for pulmonary hypertension. The patients were assessed by echocardiography, cardiac catheterization and pulmonary function parameters study.

  20. Diagnosis of apical hypertrophic cardiomyopathy: T-wave inversion and relative but not absolute apical left ventricular hypertrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flett, Andrew S; Maestrini, Viviana; Milliken, Don; Fontana, Mariana; Treibel, Thomas A; Harb, Rami; Sado, Daniel M; Quarta, Giovanni; Herrey, Anna; Sneddon, James; Elliott, Perry; McKenna, William; Moon, James C

    2015-03-15

    Diagnosis of apical HCM utilizes conventional wall thickness criteria. The normal left ventricular wall thins towards the apex such that normal values are lower in the apical versus the basal segments. The impact of this on the diagnosis of apical hypertrophic cardiomyopathy has not been evaluated. We performed a retrospective review of 2662 consecutive CMR referrals, of which 75 patients were identified in whom there was abnormal T-wave inversion on ECG and a clinical suspicion of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. These were retrospectively analyzed for imaging features consistent with cardiomyopathy, specifically: relative apical hypertrophy, left atrial dilatation, scar, apical cavity obliteration or apical aneurysm. For comparison, the same evaluation was performed in 60 healthy volunteers and 50 hypertensive patients. Of the 75 patients, 48 met conventional HCM diagnostic criteria and went on to act as another comparator group. Twenty-seven did not meet criteria for HCM and of these 5 had no relative apical hypertrophy and were not analyzed further. The remaining 22 patients had relative apical thickening with an apical:basal wall thickness ratio >1 and a higher prevalence of features consistent with a cardiomyopathy than in the control groups with 54% having 2 or more of the 4 features. No individual in the healthy volunteer group had more than one feature and no hypertension patient had more than 2. A cohort of individuals exist with T wave inversion, relative apical hypertrophy and additional imaging features of HCM suggesting an apical HCM phenotype not captured by existing diagnostic criteria. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Carbon monoxide poisoning during camping in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Youn-Jung; Sohn, Chang Hwan; Oh, Bum Jin; Lim, Kyoung Soo; Kim, Won Young

    2016-12-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the epidemiology and characteristics of unintentional carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning during camping in Korea. We performed a retrospective observational study on patients with unintentional camping-related CO poisoning who were admitted to the emergency department (ED) from 1 January 2010 to 31 December 2014. News reports about incidents of camping-related CO poisoning were collected using news search engines. A total of 72 patients (29 patients involved in 12 incidents, who were admitted to our ED, and 43 victims involved in 17 incidents reported in the media) were identified. Accidental camping-related CO poisoning occurred most frequently in May, late spring in Korea. Gas stove use and the burning of charcoal for tent heating were responsible for camping-related CO exposure. Seventeen victims (39.5%) were found dead when an ambulance arrived at the scene, in the cases reported in the media. In contrast, all the victims at our hospital were alive on hospital discharge. Twelve of the 17 incidents (70.6%) reported in the media were accidental fatalities. The majority of our patients (83.4%) were not aware of the potential danger of charcoal as a source of CO. Accidental camping-related CO poisoning occurred because of an ongoing lack of awareness about the potential danger of charcoal grills and stoves, and this caused prehospital mortality. Such accidents could be prevented by increasing the awareness of the potential danger of using charcoal grills and stoves during camping, as well as by establishing appropriate safety regulations.

  2. Summer camps for children and adolescents with kidney disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klee, K; Greenleaf, K; Watkins, S

    1997-02-01

    Summer camps, sports camps, and residential camps are readily available to children and adolescents across the country. However, children and adolescents with end stage renal disease (ESRD) may not be able to participate in summer camp experiences because of specialized medical needs (e.g., dialysis or immunosuppressive medications) and concerns about abilities to keep up with camp activities. With enhancements in pediatric nephrology care in the past 10 years, patients can be expected to attend school full time and participate in peer activities. In addition, attendance at summer camps becomes a possibility for these children, particularly camps aimed at children with ESRD. Twenty pediatric nephrology centers in North America were surveyed about their participation in summer camp programs. This article reviews these and attempts to elucidate the values of summer camp programs for pediatric ESRD patients.

  3. Ladders to Leadership: What Camp Counselor Positions Do for Youth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darcy Tessman

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The 4-H youth development organization understands and has recognized residential camping as one of the major modes of program delivery. Primary benefactors of the residential camping program are those youth who serve as camp counselors. Not only are they recipients of the educational program, but also supervise and teach younger campers (Garst & Johnson, 2005; McNeely, 2004. As a result of their experience, camp counselors learn about and develop leadership and life skills (Thomas, 1996; Purcell, 1996. The residential camping experience allows youth to serve as volunteers through their role as camp counselors. In addition to the benefits earned from their volunteer role, residential camping provides youth camp counselors the opportunity to gain leadership skills (Arnold, 2003 as well as add to the camp structure, planning, and implementation (Hines & Riley, 2005.

  4. Bacterial community profiling of cryogenically ground samples from the apical and coronal root segments of teeth with apical periodontitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, Flávio R F; Siqueira, José F; Carmo, Flávia L; Santos, Adriana L; Peixoto, Raquel S; Rôças, Isabela N; Rosado, Alexandre S

    2009-04-01

    Bacteria located at the apical part of infected root canals are arguably directly involved in the pathogenesis of apical periodontitis. This study was conducted to profile and further compare the bacterial communities established at the apical and middle/coronal segments of infected root canals. Extracted teeth with attached apical periodontitis lesions were sectioned so as to obtain two root fragments representing the apical third and the coronal two thirds. Root fragments were subjected to a cryogenic grinding approach. DNA was extracted from root powder samples and used as a template for bacterial community profiling using a 16S ribosomal RNA gene-based seminested polymerase chain reaction/denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis approach. The mean number of bands in apical samples from teeth with primary infections was 28, ranging from 18 to 48, whereas in the middle/coronal samples, it was also 28, ranging from 19 to 36. Findings showed that the profile of bacterial community colonizing the apical third of infected root canals is as diverse as that occurring at the middle/coronal thirds. A high variability was observed for both interindividual (samples from the same region but from different patients) and intraindividual (samples from different regions of the same tooth) comparisons. The methodology used to prepare and analyze samples was highly effective in disclosing a previously unanticipated broad diversity of endodontic bacterial communities, especially at the apical part of infected root canals.

  5. Efficacy of Biodentine as an Apical Plug in Nonvital Permanent Teeth with Open Apices: An In Vitro Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Bani

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the apical microleakage of Biodentine and MTA orthograde apical plugs and to compare the effect of thickness of these biomaterials on their sealing ability. A total of eighty maxillary anterior teeth were used. The apices were removed by cutting with a diamond disc (Jota, Germany 2 mm from the apical root end in an attempt to standardize the working length of all specimens to 15 ± 1 mm. Both materials were placed in 1–4 mm thickness as apical plugs root canal. Root canal leakage was evaluated by the fluid filtration technique. One-way ANOVA was used in order to determine normality of dispersal distribution of parameters; thereafter, results were analyzed by Kolmogorov-Smirnov test. Overall, between microleakage values of MTA and Biodentine regardless of apical plug thickness, no difference was observed. In terms of plug thickness, a statistically significant difference was observed between the subgroups of MTA and Biodentine (p<0.05. The apical sealing ability of Biodentine was comparable to MTA at any apical plug thickness.

  6. Regulation of aldosterone production from zona glomerulosa cells by ANG II and cAMP: evidence for PKA-independent activation of CaMK by cAMP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gambaryan, Stepan; Butt, Elke; Tas, Piet; Smolenski, Albert; Allolio, Bruno; Walter, Ulrich

    2006-03-01

    Aldosterone production in zona glomerulosa (ZG) cells of adrenal glands is regulated by various extracellular stimuli (K(+), ANG II, ACTH) that all converge on two major intracellular signaling pathways: an increase in cAMP production and calcium (Ca(2+)) mobilization. However, molecular events downstream of the increase in intracellular cAMP and Ca(2+) content are controversial and far from being completely resolved. Here, we found that Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent protein kinases (CaMKs) play a predominant role in the regulation of aldosterone production stimulated by ANG II, ACTH, and cAMP. The specific CaMK inhibitor KN93 strongly reduced ANG II-, ACTH-, and cAMP-stimulated aldosterone production. In in vitro kinase assays and intact cells, we could show that cAMP-induced activation of CaMK, using the adenylate cyclase activator forskolin or the cAMP-analog Sp-5,6-DCI-cBIMPS (cBIMPS), was not mediated by PKA. Activation of the recently identified cAMP target protein Epac (exchange protein directly activated by cAMP) by 8-pCPT-2'-O-Me-cAMP had no effect on CaMK activity and aldosterone production. Furthermore, we provide evidence that cAMP effects in ZG cells do not involve Ca(2+) or MAPK signaling. Our results suggest that ZG cells, in addition to PKA and Epac/Rap proteins, contain other as yet unidentified cAMP mediator(s) involved in regulating CaMK activity and aldosterone secretion.

  7. [Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy with ventricular septal hypertrophy localized to the apical region of the left ventricle (apical ASH)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koga, Y; Takahashi, H; Ifuku, M; Itaya, M; Adachi, K; Toshima, H

    1984-08-01

    Clinical and morphologic features are described in a subgroup of 22 patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, who showed ventricular septal hypertrophy localized to the apical region (apical asymmetric septal hypertrophy: apical ASH). All patients had ventricular septal thickness of 17 mm or less with an average of 13 +/- 3 mm in the M-mode echocardiograms. In contrast, the two-dimensional echocardiograms demonstrated septal hypertrophy localized to the apical region, with an average septal thickness of 20 +/- 3 mm at the mitral valve and papillary muscle levels. On the left ventriculogram, 82% of patients with apical ASH showed inward concavity of the right-inferior wall of the left ventricle, indicating hypertrophy of the ventricular septum. However, no patient showed spade-like appearance of the left ventricle and only two showed giant T wave inversion exceeding 10 mm. Echocardiographic examination performed in eight affected relatives revealed typical asymmetric septal hypertrophy (ASH) in four relatives, one of them showing a resting pressure gradient of 30 mmHg in the left ventricle. The remaining four relatives showed similar apical ASH. When compared with patients of typical ASH, patients with apical ASH demonstrated significantly greater cardiac size, left ventricular end-diastolic pressure, left atrial and left ventricular diameters and significantly lower percent fractional shortening. Atrial fibrillation, B bump of the mitral echogram and heart failure were more frequent in this subgroup of patients. Thus, apical ASH appeared to be a part of the morphologic spectrum of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy with ASH and to be a separate disease entity from apical hypertrophy previously described in Japan. Severely impaired diastolic performances associated with mild to moderately depressed systolic function of the left ventricle were the characteristic clinical features of the subgroup of patients with apical ASH.

  8. Apical and basal regulation of the permeability of the retinal pigment epithelium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Shaomin; Rahner, Christoph; Rizzolo, Lawrence J

    2003-02-01

    The functional characteristics of tight junctions in the outer blood-retinal barrier change during embryonic development and in the presence of disease. A culture model of developing retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) was used to examine the regulation of the tight junctions. RPE from chick embryos was cultured on filters that separated the apical and basal medium compartments. Cultures were maintained in various combinations of serum-free medium, serum-free medium that was conditioned by neural retinas, or serum-free medium that was supplemented with bovine pituitary extract, serum, or various hormones. Function was monitored by the transepithelial electrical resistance (TER) or the permeation of small organic tracers. Structure was monitored by immunofluorescence and freeze-fracture electron microscopy. Functional analysis indicated differences in permeability among RPE of different embryonic age and culture conditions. In serum-free medium, the tight junctions were leaky or failed to form. Barrier properties increased if pituitary extract was added to the basal medium chamber or retina-conditioned medium was added to the apical chamber. Retina-conditioned medium was more effective at organizing tight junctional strands into a continuous network, but bovine pituitary extract appeared to modulate the permeability of that network. In combination, they synergistically elevated the TER to physiological levels. Although the thyroid hormone T3 had no effect, serum in the apical medium chamber inhibited the ability of RPE cells to respond to retina-conditioned medium. Diffusible factors secreted by the neural retina acted synergistically with basolateral stimulation to regulate the structure and function of RPE tight junctions. Serum on the apical side of the RPE monolayer inhibited the ability of retinal factors to upregulate the tight junction barrier.

  9. A specialized program for children with developmental disabilities within a "typical" overnight summer camp: Camp Ramah's Tikvah Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blas, Howard I

    2007-10-01

    The Tikvah Program is an overnight camping program at Camp Ramah in New England that serves campers with a range of developmental disabilities. The program has evolved over its 37-year history and includes a camping program, vocational training program, and inclusion program. Select graduates are hired by the camp for summer employment. The Tikvah Program offers a model for serving campers with special needs within a larger "typical" summer camp. Although serving the needs of such campers offers unique challenges, the presence of such a program in a regular summer camp offers tremendous opportunities and benefits for campers with special needs and more typically developing campers.

  10. A biomechanical hypothesis for the pathophysiology of apical lung disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casha, Aaron R; Manché, Alexander; Camilleri, Liberato; Gatt, Ruben; Dudek, Krzysztof; Pace-Bardon, Michael; Gauci, Marilyn; Grima, Joseph N

    2016-07-01

    A hypothesis is presented suggesting that the pathogenesis of apical lung disease is due to progression of subclinical congenital apical bullae in people with low Body Mass Index (BMI), a combination present in 15% of the population, due to high pleural stress levels present in the antero-posteriorly flattened chests of these individuals. The hypothesis was tested for validity in two apical lung pathologies with widespread epidemiological literature, namely tuberculosis (TB) and primary spontaneous pneumothorax (PSP), assessing whether the hypothesis could identify high-risk populations, explain exceptional cases like apical lower lobe disease and confirm predictions. The biomechanical hypothesis can explain the high-risk factors of apical location, age, gender and low-BMI build, as well as the occurrence of disease in the apex of the lower lobe, in both TB and PSP patients. A predicted common pathogenesis for apical lung disease was confirmed by the higher-than-expected incidence of concomitant TB and PSP. Pleural stress levels depend on chest wall shape, but are highest in the apex of young males with low BMI, leading to growth of congenital bullae that can eventually limit clearance inhaled material, superinfect or burst. This hypothesis suggests that low-dose computerized tomography may be used to screen for TB eradication. This paper is the first to propose a biomechanical mechanism for all apical lung disease pathophysiology. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Bony change of apical lesion healing process using fractal analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Ji Min; Park, Hyok; Jeong, Ho Gul; Kim, Kee Deog; Park, Chang Seo [Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2005-06-15

    To investigate the change of bone healing process after endodontic treatment of the tooth with an apical lesion by fractal analysis. Radiographic images of 35 teeth from 33 patients taken on first diagnosis, 6 months, and 1 year after endodontic treatment were selected. Radiographic images were taken by JUPITER computerized Dental X-ray System. Fractal dimensions were calculated three times at each area by Scion Image PC program. Rectangular region of interest (30 x 30) were selected at apical lesion and normal apex of each image. The fractal dimension at apical lesion of first diagnosis (L{sub 0}) is 0.940 {+-} 0.361 and that of normal area (N{sub 0}) is 1.186 {+-} 0.727 (p<0.05). Fractal dimension at apical lesion of 6 months after endodontic treatment (L{sub 1}) is 1.076 {+-} 0.069 and that of normal area (N{sub 1}) is 1.192 {+-} 0.055 (p<0.05). Fractal dimension at apical lesion of 1 year after endodontic treatment (L{sub 2}) is 1.163 {+-} 0.074 and that of normal area (N{sub 2}) is 1.225 {+-} 0.079 (p<0.05). After endodontic treatment, the fractal dimensions at each apical lesions depending on time showed statistically significant difference. And there are statistically significant different between normal area and apical lesion on first diagnosis, 6 months after, 1 year after. But the differences were grow smaller as time flows. The evaluation of the prognosis after the endodontic treatment of the apical lesion was estimated by bone regeneration in apical region. Fractal analysis was attempted to overcome the limit of subjective reading, and as a result the change of the bone during the healing process was able to be detected objectively and quantitatively.

  12. Winter camp for pre-school children

    OpenAIRE

    Golc, Mateja

    2017-01-01

    This thesis details the importance of physical activity for a healthy development of pre-school children in all areas of their development. The focus is placed mainly on outdoor physical activity, in all seasons of the year and in all types of weather. Also highlighted is the importance of outdoor physical activity, stretching over several days, in the form of a winter camp for pre-school children. Pre-school teachers, who take over the organisation of a winter camp, face a challenging task, ...

  13. Flaubert et Du Camp : quelques remarques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michel Brix

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The Flaubert scholars accuse Maxime Du Camp of several instances of dishonesty and don’t pay attention to what Du Camp has said or written. This regrettable situation deprives the readers of numerous pieces of information which are likely to shed light on the stakes but also on the contradictions of the flaubertian poetics. This article takes a look at a few revealing cases and especially looks into the similitaries between a passage of the Du Camp’s book Le Nil (1854 and the episode where Marie Arnoux makes her appearance, in L’Éducation sentimentale (1869.

  14. Teens Learn Leadership At Virginia Tech Summer Camps

    OpenAIRE

    Ho, Sookhan

    2003-01-01

    Summer camps are in full swing around the country. At Virginia Tech, rising 10th graders from all over the state are learning leadership skills at a series of unusual summer camps sponsored by the Virginia Police Chiefs Foundation.

  15. CPSC Warns of Carbon Monoxide Poisoning with Camping Equipment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Warns of Carbon Monoxide Poisoning Hazard with Camping Equipment The U.S. Consumer Product Safety Commission (CPSC) warns ... about the carbon monoxide (CO) hazard with camping equipment. CO can kill you! From 2002–2006, CPSC ...

  16. Mineral trioxide aggregate apical plugs in teeth with open apical foramina: a retrospective analysis of treatment outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mente, Johannes; Hage, Nathalie; Pfefferle, Thorsten; Koch, Martin Jean; Dreyhaupt, Jens; Staehle, Hans Joerg; Friedman, Shimon

    2009-10-01

    Teeth with open apical foramina present a challenge during root canal treatment, and little is known about the clinical outcome of treatment in such teeth. This retrospective study assessed healing of teeth with open apices managed by the placement of mineral trioxide aggregate apical plugs. Seventy-two patients with 78 teeth with apical resorption or excessive apical enlargement, treated between 2000 and 2006, were contacted for follow-up examination 12 to 68 months after treatment (median 30.9 months). Treatments were provided by supervised undergraduate students (27%), general dentists (32%), or dentists who had focused on endodontics (41%). The outcome based on clinical and radiographic criteria was assessed by calibrated examiners and dichotomized as "healed" or "disease." Of 56 teeth examined (72% recall), 84% were healed. Teeth without or with preoperative periapical radiolucency had a healed rate of 100% and 78%, respectively. None of the variables analyzed had a significant effect on the outcome. The results supported the management of open apical foramina with mineral trioxide aggregate apical plugs.

  17. Efficacy of Biodentine as an Apical Plug in Nonvital Permanent Teeth with Open Apices: An In Vitro Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bani, Mehmet; Sungurtekin-Ekçi, Elif; Odabaş, Mesut Enes

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the apical microleakage of Biodentine and MTA orthograde apical plugs and to compare the effect of thickness of these biomaterials on their sealing ability. A total of eighty maxillary anterior teeth were used. The apices were removed by cutting with a diamond disc (Jota, Germany) 2 mm from the apical root end in an attempt to standardize the working length of all specimens to 15 ± 1 mm. Both materials were placed in 1-4 mm thickness as apical plugs root canal. Root canal leakage was evaluated by the fluid filtration technique. One-way ANOVA was used in order to determine normality of dispersal distribution of parameters; thereafter, results were analyzed by Kolmogorov-Smirnov test. Overall, between microleakage values of MTA and Biodentine regardless of apical plug thickness, no difference was observed. In terms of plug thickness, a statistically significant difference was observed between the subgroups of MTA and Biodentine (p Biodentine was comparable to MTA at any apical plug thickness.

  18. Medical Record Keeping in the Summer Camp Setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaufman, Laura; Holland, Jaycelyn; Weinberg, Stuart; Rosenbloom, S Trent

    2016-12-14

    Approximately one fifth of school-aged children spend a significant portion of their year at residential summer camp, and a growing number have chronic medical conditions. Camp health records are essential for safe, efficient care and for transitions between camp and home providers, yet little research exists regarding these systems. To survey residential summer camps for children to determine how camps create, store, and use camper health records. To raise awareness in the informatics community of the issues experienced by health providers working in a special pediatric care setting. We designed a web-based electronic survey concerning medical recordkeeping and healthcare practices at summer camps. 953 camps accredited by the American Camp Association received the survey. Responses were consolidated and evaluated for trends and conclusions. Of 953 camps contacted, 298 (31%) responded to the survey. Among respondents, 49.3% stated that there was no computer available at the health center, and 14.8% of camps stated that there was not any computer available to health staff at all. 41.1% of camps stated that internet access was not available. The most common complaints concerning recordkeeping practices were time burden, adequate completion, and consistency. Summer camps in the United States make efforts to appropriately document healthcare given to campers, but inconsistency and inefficiency may be barriers to staff productivity, staff satisfaction, and quality of care. Survey responses suggest that the current methods used by camps to document healthcare cause limitations in consistency, efficiency, and communications between providers, camp staff, and parents. As of 2012, survey respondents articulated need for a standard software to document summer camp healthcare practices that accounts for camp-specific needs. Improvement may be achieved if documentation software offers the networking capability, simplicity, pediatrics-specific features, and avoidance of

  19. Medical Record Keeping in the Summer Camp Setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holland, Jaycelyn; Weinberg, Stuart; Rosenbloom, S. Trent

    2016-01-01

    Summary Background Approximately one fifth of school-aged children spend a significant portion of their year at residential summer camp, and a growing number have chronic medical conditions. Camp health records are essential for safe, efficient care and for transitions between camp and home providers, yet little research exists regarding these systems. Objective To survey residential summer camps for children to determine how camps create, store, and use camper health records. To raise awareness in the informatics community of the issues experienced by health providers working in a special pediatric care setting. Methods We designed a web-based electronic survey concerning medical recordkeeping and healthcare practices at summer camps. 953 camps accredited by the American Camp Association received the survey. Responses were consolidated and evaluated for trends and conclusions. Results Of 953 camps contacted, 298 (31%) responded to the survey. Among respondents, 49.3% stated that there was no computer available at the health center, and 14.8% of camps stated that there was not any computer available to health staff at all. 41.1% of camps stated that internet access was not available. The most common complaints concerning recordkeeping practices were time burden, adequate completion, and consistency. Conclusions Summer camps in the United States make efforts to appropriately document health-care given to campers, but inconsistency and inefficiency may be barriers to staff productivity, staff satisfaction, and quality of care. Survey responses suggest that the current methods used by camps to document healthcare cause limitations in consistency, efficiency, and communications between providers, camp staff, and parents. As of 2012, survey respondents articulated need for a standard software to document summer camp healthcare practices that accounts for camp-specific needs. Improvement may be achieved if documentation software offers the networking capability

  20. Personalized citizen assistance for social participation (APIC): A promising intervention for increasing mobility, accomplishment of social activities and frequency of leisure activities in older adults having disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levasseur, Mélanie; Lefebvre, Hélène; Levert, Marie-Josée; Lacasse-Bédard, Joanie; Desrosiers, Johanne; Therriault, Pierre-Yves; Tourigny, André; Couturier, Yves; Carbonneau, Hélène

    2016-01-01

    Social participation, a determinant of health in older adults, requires innovative interventions. The personalised citizen assistance for social participation (APIC) involves weekly three-hour personalised stimulation sessions targeting significant social and leisure activities difficult to accomplish. Recently adapted for older adults, the APIC's impact on this population is unknown. This study explored the impact of APIC on older adults with disabilities. A mixed-method design including a pre-experimental component was used with 16 participants (11 women) aged 66-91 (79.4±8.7) with disabilities, living at home. They completed functional autonomy, social participation, leisure and quality of life questionnaires, and semi-structured interviews. APIC increased older adults' functional autonomy (p=0.02), accomplishment (pleisure practice (pleisure activities, and difficulties in their social environment diminished (p=0.03). Their attitude toward leisure (p=0.04) as well as their health (pactivities. It also increased their psychological and physical well-being, feeling of control, connectedness, self-esteem and motivation to accomplish activities. Finally, APIC can compensate for an unavailable and crumbling social network. APIC is a promising intervention that leads to new opportunities for older adults to increase community integration and enhance the social component of their lives. It can also optimise how the needs of older adults are met, including utilisation of personal and environmental resources. Crown Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Camp Health Aide Manual = Manual para trabajadores de salud.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, June Grube; And Others

    This bilingual manual serves as a textbook for migrant Camp Health Aides. Camp Health Aides are members of migrant labor camps enlisted to provide information about health and social services to migrant workers and their families. The manual is divided into 12 tabbed sections representing lessons. Teaching notes printed on contrasting paper…

  2. Summer Camp and Positive Youth Development: Program with Romanian Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feenstra, Jennifer S.

    2015-01-01

    A variety of activities are used in camps to help promote positive youth development, improving social skills and self-esteem in campers. I expanded on previous camp research in this study to address the influence camps have on trust, belief in the honesty of others, empowerment, and care for others in youth in Eastern Europe. Since 1999, New…

  3. Summer camps for diabetic children: an experience in Antalya, Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semiz, S; Bilgin, U O; Bundak, R; Bircan, I

    2000-01-01

    To evaluate the effectiveness of diabetic summer camps with objective parameters, we examined the data relative to summer camps organized by our department in Antalya in the last two years. The duration of the camps was 10 days. Twenty-eight diabetic children with an average age of 13.6 +/- 2.9 years (range 8-20) participated in the first camp, fourteen of whom participated in both camps. The medical personnel consisted of three pediatric endocrinologists, one psychologist, two diabetes nurses and two dietitians. Despite a mean 10% reduction in insulin dosage and 10% increment in daily calorie intake at the beginning of the camp, hypoglycemia was common (mean, 2.4 hypoglycemic episodes per subject). Ketoacidosis was not encountered in any of the subjects during and after camps. An increment in weight in children whose weights, with respect to heights, were under the ideal weight and a decrement in weight of overweight children were observed at the end of the first camp. A significant improvement in knowledge and self-management of the disease was noted at the end of the camps. Improvement in nutrition and diabetic knowledge level of the children who participated in these consecutive camps was more obvious in the second compared with that in the first camp. No significant change in HbA1c level was observed at follow-up. In conclusion, summer camps are an invaluable way for diabetic children to gain skills in managing their disease.

  4. 7 CFR 502.6 - Hunting, fishing, camping, horseback riding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Hunting, fishing, camping, horseback riding. 502.6..., MARYLAND § 502.6 Hunting, fishing, camping, horseback riding. The use of BARC grounds for any form of hunting, fishing, camping, or horseback riding is prohibited. Further, the use of these grounds for...

  5. Nutritional Status of Children in Displacement Camps in Sierra Leone

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this study, stunting, under nutrition, and wasting were measured among 454 children under the age of 10 years in four internally displaced persons (IDP) camps. Stunting was found to be the most common nutritional abnormality in all four IDP camps with the highest prevalence rate (29.3%) in the Trade Center Camp and ...

  6. Engaging in the Community: Zoo Camp Goes to School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martell, Emma

    2017-01-01

    Museum camps are a popular option over school vacation, but they are not always accessible to families who lack transportation and live far from the institution. This article presents an alternative format for camp: running a museum camp from within a neighborhood public school. Collaboration with school staff and community members is a key to…

  7. Three-Dimensional Learning at Camp Mind's Eye.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryant, Rita

    1987-01-01

    Camp Mind's Eye is a one-week residential summer program for intellectually and creatively gifted children provided by Camp Tyler (Texas), one of the oldest outdoor education facilities. The camp program stresses right brain thinking, a flexible curriculum, and autonomous instructors. (DB)

  8. Chemotactic antagonists of cAMP inhibit Dictyostelium phospholipase C

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bominaar, Anthony A.; Haastert, Peter J.M. van

    In Dictyostelium discoideum extracellular cAMP induces chemotaxis via a transmembrane signal transduction cascade consisting of surface cAMP receptors, G-proteins and effector enzymes including adenylyl cyclase, guanylyl cyclase and phospholipase C. Previously it was demonstrated that some cAMP

  9. Multiple Idiopathic Apical Root Resorption: a Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Khojastepour

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this case report was to present a case of multiple idiopathic apical root resorption which is a rare condition in a 17-year-old adult male. External root resorption of the permanent teeth is a multifactorial process. Well-recognized causes of apical rootresorption in permanent teeth include orthodontic therapy, trauma, periapical or periodontal inflammation, tumors, cysts, occlusal stress, impacted teeth, systemic conditions, endocrine imbalances and dietary habits. When none of these causes are present, it is termed idiopathic root resorption which may be either cervical or apical.Multiple idiopathic apical root resorption is a rare condition which is usually detected as an incidental radiographic finding. However, it may cause pain and mobility in severe cases.

  10. Sexual Harassment at Camp: Reducing Liability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oakleaf, Linda; Grube, Angela Johnson

    2003-01-01

    Employers are responsible for sexual harassment perpetrated by a supervisor. Camps may be responsible for sexual harassment between campers. Steps to reduce liability include providing multiple channels for reporting sexual harassment; having written policies prohibiting sexual harassment and procedures for reporting it; posting these policies and…

  11. Healthy Campers: The Physical Benefits of Camp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McSwegin, Patricia; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Discusses the importance of planning, implementing, and evaluating camp physical activity programs. Appropriate physical activity programing should consider frequency, intensity, time, and type of activity. Also important are following the principles critical to physical training: specificity, overload, and progression. Two examples of physical…

  12. British scorched earth and concentration camp policies.

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nick

    THE BRITISH SCORCHED EARTH AND. CONCENTRATION CAMP POLICIES IN THE. POTCHEFSTROOM REGION, 1899–1902. 1. Prof GN van den Bergh. Research Associate, North-West University. Abstract. The continued military resistance of the Republics after the occupation of. Bloemfontein and Pretoria and ...

  13. Camp Minden Fact Sheet April 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Two groups of PRPs which include GD/ATK and Hercules Inc. signed Administrative Orders on Consent with the EPA that will remove and dispose approximately 3.7 million pounds of explosive material at the Explo Systems, Inc Camp Minden, Louisiana site.

  14. E. Coli: Preventing Outbreaks at Camp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKinney, Mary D.

    1996-01-01

    One strain of E. coli is not usually found in foods, but has been related to consumption of undercooked ground beef. Symptoms are stomach cramps and diarrhea, and 2-7% of infections lead to hemolytic uremic syndrome, which is life threatening. Camps can prevent outbreaks by avoiding uncooked meat on overnight campouts and requiring appropriate…

  15. Phenotypic overlap in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy: apical hypertrophy, midventricular obstruction, and apical aneurysm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minami, Yuichiro; Haruki, Shintaro; Hagiwara, Nobuhisa

    2014-12-01

    Within the diverse phenotypic spectrum of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM), subgroups of patients with apical hypertrophy (APH), midventricular obstruction (MVO), and apical aneurysm (APA) have emerged. While previous studies have suggested the existence of considerable overlap between APH, MVO, and APA, there are still many unanswered questions. Therefore, we attempted to clarify the relationship of the above three phenotypes of HCM with respect to prevalence, overlap, and outcomes. Among the 544 study HCM patients (mean follow-up period: 11.6±7.4 years), 170 with APH (31.3%), 51 with MVO (9.4%), and 24 with APA (4.4%) were examined. There was phenotypic overlap between APH and MVO in 17 patients, APH and APA in 14 patients, and MVO and APA in 14 patients. Furthermore, a combination of APH, MVO, and APA was observed in eight patients. Detailed analysis of the relationship between overlapping phenotypes and the prognosis showed that APA patients without a history of APH had an extremely poor outcome (probability of the combined endpoint of sudden death and potentially lethal arrhythmic events ≥50%). Conversely, APH patients without MVO had a strikingly good outcome (probability of the combined endpoint <5%). Other patients had an intermediate outcome (probability of the combined endpoint 10-40%). Our results suggest that overlap between these three forms of HCM is substantial, and that detailed classification of the overlapping phenotypes is clinically meaningful. Copyright © 2014 Japanese College of Cardiology. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Mechanical perturbation-induced ethylene releases apical dominance in Pharbitis nil by restricting shoot growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, T. K.; Cline, M. G.

    1985-01-01

    Mechanical perturbation (MP, rubbing) or internodes of Pharbitis nil shoots initiates release of lateral buds (LB) from apical dominance within 48 h. Evidence is presented which suggests that MP promotion of LB outgrowth is mediated by ethylene-induced restriction of main shoot growth. Ethylene production in the internodes is stimulated by MP within 2 h. Effects of MP are mimicked by treatments with 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) and are negated by the inhibitors of ethylene production or action, aminoethoxy vinylglycine (AVG) and AgNO3. The fact that effects of MP, ACC, and ethylene inhibitors are observed to occur on main shoot growth at least 24 h before they are observed to occur on LB growth suggests a possible cause and effect relationship. MP also causes an increase in internode diameter. MP stimulation of ethylene production appears to be mediated by ACC synthase. The results of this study and our previous studies suggest that apical dominance may be released by any mechanism which induces ethylene restriction of main shoot growth.

  17. Pulsed actin-myosin network contractions drive apical constriction

    OpenAIRE

    Martin, Adam C.; Kaschube, Matthias; Eric F Wieschaus

    2008-01-01

    Apical constriction facilitates epithelial sheet bending and invagination during morphogenesis1, 2. Apical constriction is conventionally thought to be driven by the continuous purse-string-like contraction of a circumferential actin and Non-Muscle Myosin-II (myosin) belt underlying adherens junctions3–7. However, it is unclear whether other force-generating mechanisms can drive this process. Here, we use real-time imaging and quantitative image analysis of Drosophila gastrulation to show tha...

  18. Effect of cytokinins on shoot apical meristem in Nicotiana tabacum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uzelac Branka

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Cytokinins are involved in plant cell proliferation leading to plant growth and morphogenesis. The size, activity and maintenance of the shoot apical meristem (SAM are defined by a balanced rate of mitotic cell divisions and functional cell differentiation that are controlled by cytokinins. In order to investigate the effect of exogenous cytokinin on SAM, morpho-anatomical changes in the shoot apices of tobacco treated with benzyladenine (BA were compared to those of untreated control plants.

  19. Treatment of Necrotic Teeth by Apical Revascularization: Meta-analysis

    OpenAIRE

    He, Ling; Zhong, Juan; Gong, Qimei; Kim, Sahng G.; Zeichner, Samuel J.; Xiang, Lusai; Ye, Ling; Zhou, Xuedong; Zheng, Jinxuan; Liu, Yongxing; Guan, Chenyu; Cheng, Bin; Ling, Junqi; Mao, Jeremy J.

    2017-01-01

    Each year ~5.4 million children and adolescents in the United States suffer from dental infections, leading to pulp necrosis, arrested tooth-root development and tooth loss. Apical revascularization, adopted by the American Dental Association for its perceived ability to enable postoperative tooth-root growth, is being accepted worldwide. The objective of the present study is to perform a meta-analysis on apical revascularization. Literature search yielded 22 studies following PRISMA with pre...

  20. Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy with mid-ventricular obstruction and apical aneurysm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.D. Oryshchyn

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available A case report of apical left ventricular aneurysm in patient with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy with mid-ventricular obstruction (diagnosis and surgical treatment is presented. We revealed apical aneurysm and mid-ventricular obstruction during echocardiography and specified anatomical characteristics of aneurysm during computer tomography. There was no evidence of obstructive coronary artery disease during coronary angiography. Taking into consideration multiple cerebral infarcts, aneurysm resection and left ventricular plastics was performed. Electronic microscopy of myocardium confirmed the diagnosis of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy.

  1. GEF-H1 functions in apical constriction and cell intercalations and is essential for vertebrate neural tube closure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itoh, Keiji; Ossipova, Olga; Sokol, Sergei Y

    2014-06-01

    Rho family GTPases regulate many morphogenetic processes during vertebrate development including neural tube closure. Here we report a function for GEF-H1/Lfc/ArhGEF2, a RhoA-specific guanine nucleotide exchange factor that functions in neurulation in Xenopus embryos. Morpholino-mediated depletion of GEF-H1 resulted in severe neural tube defects, which were rescued by GEF-H1 RNA. Lineage tracing of GEF-H1 morphants at different developmental stages revealed abnormal cell intercalation and apical constriction, suggesting that GEF-H1 regulates these cell behaviors. Molecular marker analysis documented defects in myosin II light chain (MLC) phosphorylation, Rab11 and F-actin accumulation in GEF-H1-depleted cells. In gain-of-function studies, overexpressed GEF-H1 induced Rho-associated kinase-dependent ectopic apical constriction - marked by apical accumulation of phosphorylated MLC, γ-tubulin and F-actin in superficial ectoderm - and stimulated apical protrusive activity of deep ectoderm cells. Taken together, our observations newly identify functions of GEF-H1 in morphogenetic movements that lead to neural tube closure. © 2014. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  2. PDE4-Mediated cAMP Signalling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bracy A. Fertig

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available cAMP is the archetypal and ubiquitous second messenger utilised for the fine control of many cardiovascular cell signalling systems. The ability of cAMP to elicit cell surface receptor-specific responses relies on its compartmentalisation by cAMP hydrolysing enzymes known as phosphodiesterases. One family of these enzymes, PDE4, is particularly important in the cardiovascular system, where it has been extensively studied and shown to orchestrate complex, localised signalling that underpins many crucial functions of the heart. In the cardiac myocyte, cAMP activates PKA, which phosphorylates a small subset of mostly sarcoplasmic substrate proteins that drive β-adrenergic enhancement of cardiac function. The phosphorylation of these substrates, many of which are involved in cardiac excitation-contraction coupling, has been shown to be tightly regulated by highly localised pools of individual PDE4 isoforms. The spatial and temporal regulation of cardiac signalling is made possible by the formation of macromolecular “signalosomes”, which often include a cAMP effector, such as PKA, its substrate, PDE4 and an anchoring protein such as an AKAP. Studies described in the present review highlight the importance of this relationship for individual cardiac PKA substrates and we provide an overview of how this signalling paradigm is coordinated to promote efficient adrenergic enhancement of cardiac function. The role of PDE4 also extends to the vascular endothelium, where it regulates vascular permeability and barrier function. In this distinct location, PDE4 interacts with adherens junctions to regulate their stability. These highly specific, non-redundant roles for PDE4 isoforms have far reaching therapeutic potential. PDE inhibitors in the clinic have been plagued with problems due to the active site-directed nature of the compounds which concomitantly attenuate PDE activity in all highly localised “signalosomes”.

  3. Apical constriction and epithelial invagination are regulated by BMP activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijay K. Jidigam

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Epithelial invagination is a morphological process in which flat cell sheets transform into three-dimensional structures through bending of the tissue. It is accompanied by apical constriction, in which the apical cell surface is reduced in relation to the basal cell surface. Although much is known about the intra-cellular molecular machinery driving apical constriction and epithelial invagination, information of how extra-cellular signals affect these processes remains insufficient. In this study we have established several in vivo assays of placodal invagination to explore whether the external signal BMP regulates processes connected to epithelial invagination. By inhibiting BMP activity in prospective cranial placodes, we provide evidence that BMP signals are required for RhoA and F-actin rearrangements, apical constriction, cell elongation and epithelial invagination. The failure of placode invagination after BMP inhibition appears to be a direct consequence of disrupted apical accumulation of RhoA and F-actin, rather than changes in cell death or proliferation. In addition, our results show that epithelial invagination and acquisition of placode-specific identities are two distinct and separable developmental processes. In summary, our results provide evidence that BMP signals promote epithelial invagination by acting upstream of the intracellular molecular machinery that drives apical constriction and cell elongation.

  4. Apical constriction and epithelial invagination are regulated by BMP activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jidigam, Vijay K; Srinivasan, Raghuraman C; Patthey, Cedric; Gunhaga, Lena

    2015-11-30

    Epithelial invagination is a morphological process in which flat cell sheets transform into three-dimensional structures through bending of the tissue. It is accompanied by apical constriction, in which the apical cell surface is reduced in relation to the basal cell surface. Although much is known about the intra-cellular molecular machinery driving apical constriction and epithelial invagination, information of how extra-cellular signals affect these processes remains insufficient. In this study we have established several in vivo assays of placodal invagination to explore whether the external signal BMP regulates processes connected to epithelial invagination. By inhibiting BMP activity in prospective cranial placodes, we provide evidence that BMP signals are required for RhoA and F-actin rearrangements, apical constriction, cell elongation and epithelial invagination. The failure of placode invagination after BMP inhibition appears to be a direct consequence of disrupted apical accumulation of RhoA and F-actin, rather than changes in cell death or proliferation. In addition, our results show that epithelial invagination and acquisition of placode-specific identities are two distinct and separable developmental processes. In summary, our results provide evidence that BMP signals promote epithelial invagination by acting upstream of the intracellular molecular machinery that drives apical constriction and cell elongation. © 2015. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  5. Apical Negative Pressure irrigation presents tissue compatibility in immature teeth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Maschietto Pucinelli

    Full Text Available Abstract Aim: To compare the apical negative pressure irrigation (ANP with conventional irrigation in the teeth of immature dogs with apical periodontitis. Methods: Fifty-two immature pre-molar root canals were randomly assigned into 4 groups: ANP (n=15; conventional irrigation (n=17; healthy teeth (control (n = 10; and teeth with untreated apical periodontitis (control (n=10. After induction of apical periodontitis, teeth were instrumented using EndoVac® (apical negative pressure irrigation or conventional irrigation. The animals were euthanized after 90 days. The sections were stained by HE and analyzed under conventional and fluorescence microscopy. TRAP histoenzymology was also performed. Statistical analyses were performed with the significance level set at 5%. Results: There was difference in the histopathological parameters between ANP and conventional groups (p0.05. However, a lower number of osteoclasts was observed in the ANP group (p<0.05. Conclusion: The EndoVac® irrigation system presented better biological results and more advanced repair process in immature teeth with apical periodontitis than the conventional irrigation system, confirming the hypothesis.

  6. Assessment of apical root resorption using digital subtraction radiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heo, Min Suk; Lee, Sam Sun; Lee, Kyung Hee; Choi, Hang Moon; Choi, Soon Chul; Park, Tae Won [Seoul National Univ. College of Dentistry, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2001-03-15

    This study was performed to compare the diagnostic ability of conventional intraoral radiographs with that of digital subtraction image and to assess the quantifying ability of digital subtraction image for simulated apical root resorption. Convectional intraoral radiographs and digital images of ten sound maxillary central incisors and those with simulated apical root resorption were taken with varying horizontal and vertical angulations of the x-ray beam. The diagnostic accuracy to detect the lesion was evaluated on conventional intraoral radiographs and digital subtraction images by ROC analysis. The amount of simulated apical root resorption was also estimated on the reconstruction images by Emago and compared with actual amount of tooth loss using paired t-test. The diagnostic accuracy of conventional intraoral radiographs to detect the apical root resorption was low (ROC area = 0.6446), and the sensitivity and the specificity of digital subtraction images were 100%, respectively. The calculated amounts of apical root resorption showed no statistically significant difference with the actual amounts of the lesion (p>0.05). Digital subtraction radiography is powerful tool to detect the small apical root resorption, and quantitative analysis of small amounts of the lesion can be evaluated by digital subtraction radiography.

  7. Body Art Comes to Camp: Tattooing and Piercing Are Becoming Mainstream; Does Your Camp Have a Policy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameron, Sandy

    2000-01-01

    Tattooing and body piercing are becoming mainstream, especially among the college population that comprises camp staff. Campers often idolize their counselors and want to be like them. Piercings may present a safety hazard. Camps should develop a policy and communicate it to prospective counselors and campers as early as possible. Several camps'…

  8. The antimicrobial effect of apical box versus apical cone preparation using iodine potassium iodide as root canal dressing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Markvart, Merete; Dahlén, Gunnar; Reit, Claes-Erik

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Purpose. The purpose was to study the reduction of intra-canal microflora in premolars with apical periodontitis instrumented with either apical box or apical cone preparation and to provide measurements of intervention effects to allow proper power calculation in future clinical trials......OCl (12 ml). Lastly, the canals were filled with 17% EDTA (2 × 30 s) and 5% iodine potassium iodide (IKI) for 10 min. The canals were sampled for micro-organisms on four occasions: before instrumentation, after instrumentation, after application of IKI dressing and at the beginning of the second...... in 88% of the teeth. Growth was classified as none in 35% of the teeth after instrumentation and in 50% after the application of IKI. Irrespective of the time of sampling, no significant difference in microbial growth reduction was observed between the two types of apical preparation. Based on the 1...

  9. Summer camps for children with burn injuries: a literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maslow, Gary R; Lobato, Debra

    2010-01-01

    The first summer camps for children with burn injuries started over 25 years ago, and as of 2008, there were 60 camps worldwide. This review examines the literature on summer pediatric burn camps. The authors describe common characteristics of burn camp structure, activities, and staffing and then examine the scientific evidence regarding the effect of burn camp programs on campers and camp staff volunteers. A search of Pubmed and Psychinfo databases from 1970 to 2008 for articles related to pediatric burn summer camps identified 17 articles, of which 13 fit the inclusion criteria. Existing literature consists primarily of qualitative studies, suggesting that burn camp can decrease camper isolation, improve self-esteem, and promote coping and social skills. Studies examining volunteer staff at burn camp have consistently found that there are both personal and professional benefits. Quantitative studies of self-esteem have yielded equivocal results. No studies have examined safety or the effect of burn camp on medical or rehabilitation outcomes. For the past 25 years, pediatric summer camps for children with burn injuries have played an important rehabilitation role and provided a strong community that benefits both campers and staff. Future research using more rigorous research methods and examining a broader range of outcomes (eg, safety and medical/rehabilitation outcomes) is recommended.

  10. Five-year longitudinal assessment of the prognosis of apical microsurgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    von Arx, Thomas; Jensen, Simon S; Hänni, Stefan

    2012-01-01

    Apical surgery is an important treatment option for teeth with post-treatment apical periodontitis. Knowledge of the long-term prognosis is necessary when weighing apical surgery against alternative treatments. This study assessed the 5-year outcome of apical surgery and its predictors in a cohor...

  11. Communication Boot Camp: Discover the Speaker in You!

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zuraidah Binti Ali

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Learning can take place almost anywhere, and this is especially true for our undergraduates who wish to become public speakers. Besides university course and public speaking workshops on campus grounds, undergraduates are now looking for a different learning environment – communication boot camps!! This study presents a compilation of learners’ experience, fun-filled activities, insightful feedback and memorable boot camp moments as captured in camp photos and feedback surveys. It involves a total of thirty seven undergraduates who enrolled in a Communication Boot Camp at Janda Baik, Pahang. Results show that Communication Boot Camp is a successful strategy to groom public speakers with a positive correlation between camp success and camp objectives, particularly in reducing shyness, motivating participants to become public speakers and discovering their talent and skills. In short, the study adds to the promise of zest and delight in public speaking.

  12. Components of Camp Experiences for Positive Youth Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karla A. Henderson

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Youth development specialists advocate that well designed, implemented, and staffed youth centered programs result in positive outcomes for young people. Youth organizations have provided opportunities for young people to participate in camping experiences for over a century. The purpose of this paper is to describe what program components were related to camp environments and positive youth development. We describe these program components related to positive youth development based on a large scale national study of ACA (American Camp Association accredited camps that included independent, religiously affiliated, government, and not-for-profit organizations. Based on the responses given by camp directors, contact and leadership from trained staff and the supportive relationships they provided were essential elements of camp. Other aspects leading to positive youth development in camps were program mission and structure along with elements of accountability, assessment of outcomes, and opportunities for skill building.

  13. Children's cancer camps: a way to understand grief differently.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laing, Catherine M; Moules, Nancy J

    2015-01-01

    A philosophical hermeneutic study was conducted as part of the first author's doctoral research to understand the meaning of children's cancer camps for the child with cancer and the family. Twenty family members from six families were interviewed in order to bring understanding to this topic. This article will detail the finding related to the experience of grief that often accompanies a cancer diagnosis, and how camp seems to allow children and families to understand their grief differently. The interesting thing about this particular cancer camp is that families of children who have died continue to attend the camp yearly, and there are events to memorialize the many children known to all the campers who no longer attend camp. This is not a grief camp but a cancer camp where grief is allowed presence as it necessarily has to in the world of childhood cancer.

  14. Suicide in Nazi concentration camps, 1933-9.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goeschel, Christian

    2010-01-01

    Too often histories of the concentration camps tend to be ignorant of the wider political context of nazi repression and control. This article tries to overcome this problem. Combining legal, social and political history, it contributes to a more thorough understanding of the changing relationship between the camps as places of extra-legal terror and the judiciary, between nazi terror and the law. It argues that the conflict between the judiciary and the SS was not a conflict between "good" and "evil," as existing accounts claim. Rather, it was a power struggle for jurisdiction over the camps. Concentration camp authorities covered up the murders of prisoners as suicides to prevent judicial investigations. This article also looks at actual suicides in the pre-war camps, to highlight individual inmates' reactions to life within the camps. The article concludes that the history of the concentration camps needs to be firmly integrated into the history of nazi terror and the Third Reich.

  15. Pandemic influenza a in residential summer camps--Maine, 2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Sara; Averhoff, Francisco; Kiel, John; Blaisdell, Laura; Haber, Michael; Sites, Anne; Copeland, Daphne

    2012-06-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the preparedness for and response of Maine summer camps to the 2009 pandemic influenza H1N1 (pH1N1). We conducted a retrospective web-based survey of the Maine Youth Camping Foundation members at the end of the 2009 camping season. The outcome measures were responses to the pandemic including educational efforts, isolation practices and antiviral usages as well as percentage of influenza-like illness (ILI) and laboratory-confirmed influenza outbreaks among Maine residential summer camps. Of 107 residential camps queried, 91 (85%) responded. Although 43 (47%) of 91 camps reported cases of ILI, and 19 (21%) had outbreaks (ie, 3 or more confirmed cases of pH1N1), no respondents reported closing camps or canceling sessions. Most camps reported that they communicated with campers' families about pH1N1 and implemented control measures, including educating campers and staff about symptoms, isolating ill campers and staff, encouraging increased hand washing and hygiene practices and increasing the availability of hand sanitizers. Of the 43 camps with cases of ILI or laboratory-confirmed pH1N1, 25 (58%) used antiviral medication for treatment, and 18 (42%) used antiviral medications for prophylaxis; antiviral practices varied among camps. Summer camps in Maine were in general well prepared for pH1N1. Most camps followed public health guidance and implemented preventive measures. Many camps experienced ILI and outbreaks during the season, but did not report major disruptions. Camps should review their preparedness and disease control plans annually and public health authorities should keep guidance and recommendations simple and consistent.

  16. A link of Ca2+ to cAMP oscillations in Dictyostelium: the calmodulin antagonist W-7 potentiates cAMP relay and transiently inhibits the acidic Ca2+-store

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malchow Dieter

    2004-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background During early differentiation of Dictyostelium the attractant cAMP is released periodically to induce aggregation of the cells. Here we pursue the question whether pulsatile cAMP signaling is coupled to a basic Ca2+-oscillation. Results We found that the calmodulin antagonist W-7 transiently enhanced cAMP spikes. We show that W-7 acts on an acidic Ca2+-store: it abolished ATP-dependent vesicular acidification, inhibited V-type H+ATPase activity more potently than the weaker antagonist W-5 and caused vesicular Ca2+-leakage. Concanamycin A, an inhibitor of the V-type H+-pump, blocked the Ca2+-leakage elicited by W-7 as well as cAMP-oscillations in the presence of W-7. Concanamycin A caused an increase of the cytosolic Ca2+-concentration whereas W-7 did not. In case of the latter, Ca2+ was secreted by the cells. In accord with our hypothesis that the link from Ca2+ to cAMP synthesis is mediated by a Ca2+-dependent phospholipase C we found that W-7 was not active in the phospholipase C knockout mutant. Conclusion We conclude that the potentiation of cAMP relay by W-7 is due to a transient inhibition of the acidic Ca2+-store. The inhibition of the proton pump by W-7 causes a leakage of Ca2+ that indirectly stimulates adenylyl cyclase activity via phospholipase C.

  17. Ser-261 phospho-regulation is involved in pS256 and pS269-mediated aquaporin-2 apical translocation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yui, Naofumi; Ando, Fumiaki; Sasaki, Sei; Uchida, Shinichi

    2017-08-26

    Vasopressin catalyzes aquaporin-2 phosphorylation at several serine sites in the C-terminal region. Compared with Ser-256 and Ser-269 phosphorylation, the role of Ser-261 phospho-regulation on vasopressin-regulated AQP2 apical translocation is largely unknown. In addition, recent discovery of transcytotic apical delivery of AQP2 made the concept of its intracellular trafficking even more complicated. In this study, we evaluated how intact phospho-AQP2 signals fit with the transcytosis trafficking model in Madin-Darby canine kidney cells. PS256 and pS269 signals were intracellularly detectable in wild-type AQP2 at the beginning of forskolin stimulation (1 min). These phospho-signals were detectable in basolateral membranes even after 10 min of stimulation. AQP2 stably inserted in the apical membrane increased pS269 and decreased pS261 signals. In an NDI-causing mutant P262L-AQP2, in which Ser-261 phospho-regulation is impaired, the pS256 and pS269 signals were detectable in the basolateral membranes with increased pS261 signals after forskolin stimulation. These results suggest that Ser-261 phospho-regulation is involved in pS256- and pS269-mediated AQP2 apical translocation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Yoga camp in Ayurvedgrams of Chhattisgarh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raghavendra Madhu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The clinical and empirical health benefits of yoga and pranayam have been reiterated through research. Yoga is being adopted as a system to alleviate the burden of noncommunicable diseases (NCDs across the globe. The Directorate of AYUSH, Government of Chhattisgarh (DoA, GoCG conducts annual 5-day-yoga camp across 146 Ayurvedgrams in the State. The present article brings out the AYUSH initiatives the State is taking toward active ageing. A total of 71,096 people participated in the 5-day-yoga camp across the State. A mean participation of 5079 people over 5 days was reported across districts. Such statewide practices need to be promoted and appraised.

  19. Increases in cAMP, MAPK activity, and CREB phosphorylation during REM sleep: implications for REM sleep and memory consolidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Jie; Phan, Trongha X; Yang, Yimei; Garelick, Michael G; Storm, Daniel R

    2013-04-10

    The cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP), mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), and cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB) transcriptional pathway is required for consolidation of hippocampus-dependent memory. In mice, this pathway undergoes a circadian oscillation required for memory persistence that reaches a peak during the daytime. Because mice exhibit polyphasic sleep patterns during the day, this suggested the interesting possibility that cAMP, MAPK activity, and CREB phosphorylation may be elevated during sleep. Here, we report that cAMP, phospho-p44/42 MAPK, and phospho-CREB are higher in rapid eye movement (REM) sleep compared with awake mice but are not elevated in non-REM sleep. This peak of activity during REM sleep does not occur in mice lacking calmodulin-stimulated adenylyl cyclases, a mouse strain that learns but cannot consolidate hippocampus-dependent memory. We conclude that a preferential increase in cAMP, MAPK activity, and CREB phosphorylation during REM sleep may contribute to hippocampus-dependent memory consolidation.

  20. Primary health care in Somalian refugee camps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, B

    1982-01-01

    The convergence of thousands in Somalia's refugee camps has created an emergency in health care provision. To tackle this problem, the Ministry of Health, in conjunction with UNICEF, recruited a small group of Somali professionals to draw up a plan for the training of community health workers to serve in the camps. A 2nd objective was to make an assessment of the nutritional status of the refugees, and provision of maternal and child health care. At the end of a 2 week workshop a plan was drawn up which emphasized the teaching of preventive medicine, particularly in the control of communicable diseases. It was decided that students in the postbasic training program in administration and teaching in the health service would serve as teachers. Teaching was kept basic and simple, mostly concentrating on topics related to hygiene and food preparation, for example. During program implementation inspection visits were carried out at intervals by a health educator and tutor from the nursing school. At the same time further briefing was given to as many concerned people in the camps as possible. Preliminary feedback suggested that the program was proceeding successfully. After 3 months an evaluation was carried out by teachers in the program. The evaluation showed a great deal to have been accomplished in spite of the disinterest of some parts of the population. The success was attributed to the involvement of Somalis in the camp communities. As of September 1981, the pace of the programs has increased, with the inclusion of health services from expatriate sources within Ministry of Health guidelines.

  1. S'Cool LAB Summer CAMP 2017

    CERN Document Server

    Woithe, Julia

    2017-01-01

    The S’Cool LAB Summer CAMP is an opportunity for high-school students (aged 16-19) from all around the world to spend 2 weeks exploring the fascinating world of particle physics. The 24 selected participants spend their summer at S’Cool LAB, CERN’s hands-on particle physics learning laboratory, for an epic programme of lectures and tutorials, team research projects, visits of CERN’s research installations, and social activities.

  2. Injury patterns at US and Canadian overnight summer camps: first year of the Healthy Camp study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldlust, E; Walton, E; Stanley, R; Yard, E; Garst, B; Comstock, R D; Erceg, L E; Cunningham, R

    2009-12-01

    To describe injury patterns at overnight summer camps in 2006, and identify risk factors for more significant injury. Surveillance data obtained from Healthy Camp Study from 2006 were analyzed from 71 overnight camps, representing 437,541 camper-days and 206,031 staff-days. Injuries were reported in 218 campers and 81 staff. 51.8% of injured campers were male versus 34.6% of staff. Among campers, 60.1% were evaluated off-site; 2.3% required hospital admission. 43.9% of injuries required >24 h activity restriction (deemed "significant injury"). Among campers, significant injury was associated with camp sessions > or =14 days (RR 1.48); among staff, with male sex (RR 1.85) and camper-to-staff ratio (RR 0.67). There were no associations with age, time of day, setting, or level of supervision. Significant injuries are uncommon at overnight summer camps. Rates appear similar to those in comparable activities. Targeted interventions may further reduce injury risk.

  3. Mealtimes at residential summer camps: What are camp staff doing to promote campers' healthy eating behaviors?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ventura, Alison K; Anzman-Frasca, Stephanie; Garst, Barry A

    2014-01-01

    To explore camp staff's reports of their interactions with campers during mealtimes at residential summer camps. Thirty-minute semistructured, face-to-face interviews with staff. Two residential summer camps in northeastern Pennsylvania. Fifty-two adult (>18 years of age) staff. Staff's perceived responsibilities, problems encountered, and feeding practices used during camp mealtimes. Qualitative interviews were analyzed using a hybrid analysis approach that combined deductive directed content analysis with inductive thematic analysis to identify themes and subthemes. The majority of staff indicated their responsibility during mealtimes was to ensure that campers eat. Common problems mentioned were campers' tendencies toward picky eating and overeating. Staff reported a number of strategies to deal with common mealtime problems including reasoning, modeling, limits or rules, punishment/contingencies, and responding to campers' needs/preferences. Most staff expressed concern about promoting campers' healthy eating behaviors. Although staff discussed several mealtime strategies that can be interpreted as adaptive in authoritative contexts, they need more guidance related to what they should and should not do during mealtimes. Avenues for future research to inform the promotion of healthier mealtime behaviors in camps are discussed. Copyright © 2014 Society for Nutrition Education and Behavior. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Coronal and apical sealing ability of a new endodontic cement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zafar, Morvarid; Iravani, Maryam; Eghbal, Mohammad Jafar; Asgary, Saeed

    2009-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: This in vitro study aims to evaluate the coronal and apical sealing ability of gutta-percha (GP) root filling used with either mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA), new endodontic cement (NEC) or AH26 as filler/sealers. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Forty eight single-rooted extracted teeth were selected, decoronated and then instrumented. Samples were randomly divided into three experimental (n=12) and two control groups (n=6). In group 1, root canals were filled using lateral condensation technique (L); while single cone technique (S) was used for groups 2 and 3. AH26, MTA and NEC were the root canal sealer/fillers in groups 1, 2 and 3, respectively. Samples were immersed in 1% methylene-blue dye and then independently centrifuged apically and coronally. The roots were split longitudinally and linear extent of dye penetration was measured with a stereomicroscope from apical and coronal directions. Data were analyzed using One-way ANOVA and T-test. RESULTS: No statistical differences in mean apical dye penetration between groups LGP/AH26, SGP/MTA and SGP/NEC were found; SGP/NEC group showed significantly less coronal dye penetration (P<0.001). CONCLUSION: Considering the limitations of this in vitro study, it was concluded that the simple single cone technique with NEC can provide favorable coronal and apical seal. PMID:23864871

  5. Apical Revascularization after Delayed Tooth Replantation: An Unusual Case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marília Pacífico Lucisano

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to present the clinical and radiological outcome of the treatment involving a delayed tooth replantation after an avulsed immature permanent incisor, with a follow-up of 1 year and 6 months. An 8-year-old boy was referred after dental trauma that occurred on the previous day. The permanent maxillary right central incisor (tooth 11 had been avulsed. The tooth was hand-held during endodontic therapy and an intracanal medication application with calcium hydroxide-based paste was performed. An apical plug with mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA was introduced into the apical portion of the canal. When the avulsed tooth was replanted with digital pressure, a blood clot had formed within the socket, which moved the MTA apical plug about 2 mm inside of the root canal. These procedures developed apical revascularization, which promoted a successful endodontic outcome, evidenced by apical closure, slight increase in root length, and absence of signs of external root resorption, during a follow-up of 1 year and 6 months.

  6. The effect of disruption of apical constriction on periapical extrusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tinaz, Ali Cemal; Alacam, Tayfun; Uzun, Ozgur; Maden, Murat; Kayaoglu, Guven

    2005-07-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the amount of apical extrusion during manual instrumentation and engine-driven rotary instrumentation in teeth with disrupted apical constriction. Fifty-two teeth were divided into two groups comprising 26 teeth each. Teeth in each group were further divided into two sub-groups, the apices of which were enlarged approximately to a diameter of 0.2 mm and 0.4 mm. One group was instrumented using standardized technique with K-files and the other with ProFile .04 Taper Series 29, while irrigating with sodium hypochlorite. Glass vial model was modified for collection of extruded debris and irrigant as well as to integrate an electronic apex locator to the experimental assemble. The statistical analysis using Student's t test revealed no significant difference between instrumentation with K-files and ProFile .04 taper files (p > 0.05). There was a tendency with both techniques to extrude apically more material as the diameter of the apical patency increased.

  7. [Mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) a success story in apical surgery].

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Arx, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    The objective of apical surgery is to retain teeth with persistent apical pathosis following orthograde root canal treatment if endodontic non-surgical revision is difficult or associated with risks, or is even declined by the patient. Since the most frequent cause of recurrent apical disease is bacterial reinfection from the (remaining) root canal system, the bacteria-tight root-end filling is the most important step in apical surgery. In the early 1990s, mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) was developed at the Loma Linda University in California/USA. Preclinical studies clearly showed that MTA has a high sealing capability, a good material stability and an excellent biocompatbility. Multiple experimental studies in animals highlighted the mild tissue reactions observed adjacent to this material. Furthermore, histological analysis of the periapical regions demonstrated a frequent deposition of new cementum not only onto the resection plane (cut dentinal surface), but also directly onto MTA. For these reasons, MTA is considered a bioactive material. In 1997 MTA was cleared for clinical use in patients. Multiple prospective clinical and randomized studies have documented high and constant success rates of MTA-treated teeth in apical surgery. A recently published longitudinal study showed that MTA-treated teeth remained stable over five years; hence the high healed rates documented after one year are maintained during long-term observation.

  8. Apical Revascularization after Delayed Tooth Replantation: An Unusual Case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucisano, Marília Pacífico; Nelson-Filho, Paulo; Silva, Lea Assed Bezerra; Silva, Raquel Assed Bezerra; de Carvalho, Fabricio Kitazono; de Queiroz, Alexandra Mussolino

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to present the clinical and radiological outcome of the treatment involving a delayed tooth replantation after an avulsed immature permanent incisor, with a follow-up of 1 year and 6 months. An 8-year-old boy was referred after dental trauma that occurred on the previous day. The permanent maxillary right central incisor (tooth 11) had been avulsed. The tooth was hand-held during endodontic therapy and an intracanal medication application with calcium hydroxide-based paste was performed. An apical plug with mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) was introduced into the apical portion of the canal. When the avulsed tooth was replanted with digital pressure, a blood clot had formed within the socket, which moved the MTA apical plug about 2 mm inside of the root canal. These procedures developed apical revascularization, which promoted a successful endodontic outcome, evidenced by apical closure, slight increase in root length, and absence of signs of external root resorption, during a follow-up of 1 year and 6 months.

  9. Apical Revascularization after Delayed Tooth Replantation: An Unusual Case

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson-Filho, Paulo; Silva, Lea Assed Bezerra; Silva, Raquel Assed Bezerra; de Carvalho, Fabricio Kitazono; de Queiroz, Alexandra Mussolino

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to present the clinical and radiological outcome of the treatment involving a delayed tooth replantation after an avulsed immature permanent incisor, with a follow-up of 1 year and 6 months. An 8-year-old boy was referred after dental trauma that occurred on the previous day. The permanent maxillary right central incisor (tooth 11) had been avulsed. The tooth was hand-held during endodontic therapy and an intracanal medication application with calcium hydroxide-based paste was performed. An apical plug with mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) was introduced into the apical portion of the canal. When the avulsed tooth was replanted with digital pressure, a blood clot had formed within the socket, which moved the MTA apical plug about 2 mm inside of the root canal. These procedures developed apical revascularization, which promoted a successful endodontic outcome, evidenced by apical closure, slight increase in root length, and absence of signs of external root resorption, during a follow-up of 1 year and 6 months. PMID:27882250

  10. [Treatment strategy and outcomes of invading apical lung cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toyooka, Shinichi; Sou, J; Sugimoto, R; Yamane, M; Oto, T; Yoshimasu, T; Okamura, Y; Sano, Y; Date, H; Miyoshi, S

    2010-01-01

    Invading apical lung cancers are generally the non-small-cell lung cancers (NSCLCs) which involve the apex of the chest wall. These tumors should be classified into 2 types based on the main location of tumor because of the difference of involved surrounding structures ; (1) the superior sulcus tumor origi nally termed Pancoast tumor which involves posterior region of the apex and (2) the anterior apical tumor which involves anterior region of the apex. Previously, these NSCLCs were considered to be inoperable showing a dismal prognosis. With the development of combined modality therapies for locally advanced NSCLCs, the prognosis of invading apical NSCLCs has been improved, especially since intro duction of the neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy. Surgical resection for invading apical NSCLCs is 1 of challenging procedures for thoracic surgeons. The point is the anatomical complication of the small apex surrounding vital structures. Several approaches have been developed such as the posterior Paul-son's approach or anterior Masaoka's approach. In particular, the approach from anterior chest has been modified or devised to achieve safe and complete resection of tumors invading anterior structures like subclavian vessels. In this article, we reviewed our 13 cases of invading apical NSCLCs, especially from the view point of surgical approach. Thoracic surgeons should understand the properties of each approach and master them for complete resection avoiding serious complications.

  11. Down-regulation of protein kinase C by parathyroid hormone and mezerein differentially modulates cAMP production and phosphate transport in opossum kidney cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, J A

    1997-08-01

    We examined the effects of prolonged exposure to parathyroid hormone (PTH) and the protein kinase C (PKC) activator mezerein (MEZ) on cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) production, PKC activity, and Na(+)-dependent phosphate (Na/Pi) transport in an opossum kidney cell line (OK/E). A 5 minute exposure to PTH stimulated, while a 6 h incubation reduced, cAMP production, Na/Pi transport was maximally inhibited under desensitizing conditions and was not affected by reintroduction of the hormone. MEZ pretreatment (6 h) enhanced PTH-, cholera toxin (CTX)-, and forskolin (FSK)-stimulated cAMP production, suggesting enhanced Gs alpha coupling and increased adenylyl cyclase activity. However, PKA- and PKC-dependent regulation of Na/Pi were blocked in MEZ-treated cells. The PTH-induced decrease in cAMP production was associated with a reduction in membrane-associated PKC activity while MEZ-induced increases in cAMP production were accompanied by decreases in membrane and cytosolic PKC activity. Enhanced cAMP production was not accompanied by significant changes in PTH/PTH related peptide (PTHrP) receptor affinity or number, nor was the loss of Na/Pi transport regulation associated with changes in PKA activity. The results indicate that down-regulation of PKC by PTH or MEZ differentially modulates cAMP production and regulation of Na/Pi transport. The distinct effects of PTH and MEZ on PKC activity suggest that agonist-specific activation and/or down-regulation of PKC isozyme(s) may be involved in the observed changes in cAMP production and Na/Pi transport.

  12. Summer Camp of the CERN Staff Association

    CERN Document Server

    Staff Association

    2017-01-01

    A Journey to Discover the Four Elements Over the past few years, the Children’s Day-Care Centre and School (EVEE) of the CERN Staff Association has transformed into a summer camp for the four weeks of July. Every year, this summer camp welcomes up to 40 children from 4 to 6 years old. The camp offers a rich and varied program. This year, the theme was the four elements of life, and the children set out on a journey to discover a different element every week: WATER was the theme of the first week. What is water? What purpose does it serve? Where can we find it? With these questions and many others in mind, the children set out on a cruise, sailing across Lake Geneva to visit the Lake Geneva Museum in Nyon. All through the week, the children were able to discover the different properties of water by carrying out various scientific experiments. For instance, getting soaked can certainly help observe a simple property of water: it’s wet! Giggles guaranteed. The children made fancy hats and e...

  13. Modulatory effects of cAMP and PKC activation on gap junctional intercellular communication among thymic epithelial cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neves-dos-Santos Sandra

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We investigated the effects of the signaling molecules, cyclic AMP (cAMP and protein-kinase C (PKC, on gap junctional intercellular communication (GJIC between thymic epithelial cells (TEC. Results Treatment with 8-Br-cAMP, a cAMP analog; or forskolin, which stimulates cAMP production, resulted in an increase in dye transfer between adjacent TEC, inducing a three-fold enhancement in the mean fluorescence of coupled cells, ascertained by flow cytometry after calcein transfer. These treatments also increased Cx43 mRNA expression, and stimulated Cx43 protein accumulation in regions of intercellular contacts. VIP, adenosine, and epinephrine which may also signal through cyclic nucleotides were tested. The first two molecules did not mimic the effects of 8-Br-cAMP, however epinephrine was able to increase GJIC suggesting that this molecule functions as an endogenous inter-TEC GJIC modulators. Stimulation of PKC by phorbol-myristate-acetate inhibited inter-TEC GJIC. Importantly, both the enhancing and the decreasing effects, respectively induced by cAMP and PKC, were observed in both mouse and human TEC preparations. Lastly, experiments using mouse thymocyte/TEC heterocellular co-cultures suggested that the presence of thymocytes does not affect the degree of inter-TEC GJIC. Conclusions Overall, our data indicate that cAMP and PKC intracellular pathways are involved in the homeostatic control of the gap junction-mediated communication in the thymic epithelium, exerting respectively a positive and negative role upon cell coupling. This control is phylogenetically conserved in the thymus, since it was seen in both mouse and human TEC preparations. Lastly, our work provides new clues for a better understanding of how the thymic epithelial network can work as a physiological syncytium.

  14. The cemento-dentino-canal junction, the apical foramen, and the apical constriction: evaluation by optical microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponce, Elías Harrán; Vilar Fernández, José Antonio

    2003-03-01

    The cemento-dentino-canal junction, the apical constriction, and the apical foramen are the principal reference points used to determine the apical limit for instrumentation and root canal filling. For a better understanding of these structures, the objective of this study was to evaluate histologically the localization of the cemento-dentino-canal junction and the diameters of the apical foramen and root canal at the cemento-dentino-canal junction. Eighteen anterior maxillary teeth (canines, central, and lateral incisors) were used, from which 269 histological sections were obtained and evaluated by optical microscopy. The results indicated that the longest extension of the cementum into the root canal was observed in the canines, this value decreasing in the lateral incisors, and even more so in the central incisors. The widest diameter of the apical foramen corresponded to the lateral incisors, followed by the canines and the central incisors. The diameter of the root canal at the cemento-dentino-canal junction was greatest in the canines and lowest in the central and lateral incisors. Great variability was observed in the measurements of the extension of the cementum into the root canal. AQ: 1.

  15. [Pulp revascularization of immature anterior teeth with apical periodontitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuong, Xiao-Yi; Yang, Yi-Ping; Chen, Wen-Xia; Zhang, Ying-Juan; Wen, Chun-Mei

    2010-12-01

    To compare the therapeutic efficacy both apexification and revascularization in the immature anterior teeth of animal model with apical periodontitis, and observe the histological situation of revascularization in the root canal. Six immature anterior teeth of one animal model (dog) aged approximately 4.5 months was selected. Afterwards, periapical periodontitis pattern were established, the samples were randomly divided into the experimental group (revascularization, 3 teeth) and the control group (apexification, 3 teeth). To compare the development of root and the healing of periapical inflammation, the involved teeth were respectively radiographed 1, 4, 8 weeks after surgery. The animals were sacrificed after 8 weeks, and the closure of apical foramen and the content of root canal were observed by hematine-eosine (HE) staining. The postoperative radiography after 1 week and 4 weeks, the apical foramen size and the periapical radiolucency of the samples was shown no perceptual change. After 8 weeks, the experimental group periapical radiolucency area was obviously more narrowing, and had a apical closure tendency whereas the thickness of the root canal walls had imperceptible changed. While the control group periapical radiolucency change varied. The granulation tissue could be seen within the lumen of the experimental group, which contained a large number of irregular calcification, the calcification was obvious in the apical and adjacent the root canal wall. A small quantity of hard tissue was deposited in the apical of the control group. Revascularization may increase the recovery of immature anterior teeth with chronic periapical inflammation, the vital regenerative tissue within root canal is the granulation tissue contained calcification.

  16. Histologic Sequelae of Apical Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy: Dystrophic Calcification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahryar G Saba

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available We present cardiac computed tomography (CT findings demonstrating apical hypertrophic cardiomyopathy with dystrophic calcification of the left ventricular apex. The absence of significant epicardial coronary artery disease demonstrated by coronary CT angiography suggests that increased wall tension and decreased microvascular perfusion over time account for the dyskinetic apical myocardium, rather than myocardial infarction secondary to atherosclerotic plaque rupture. These observations support CT as the imaging modality of choice to visualize the deposition of calcium in injured myocardial tissue, a recognized occurrence in chronically infarcted myocardium.

  17. Revascularization and periapical repair after endodontic treatment using apical negative pressure irrigation versus conventional irrigation plus triantibiotic intracanal dressing in dogs' teeth with apical periodontitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Lea Assed Bezerra; Nelson-Filho, Paulo; da Silva, Raquel Assed Bezerra; Flores, Daniel Silva Herzog; Heilborn, Carlos; Johnson, James D; Cohenca, Nestor

    2010-05-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate in vivo the revascularization and the apical and periapical repair after endodontic treatment using 2 techniques for root canal disinfection (apical negative pressure irrigation versus apical positive pressure irrigation plus triantibiotic intracanal dressing) in immature dogs' teeth with apical periodontitis. Two test groups of canals with experimentally induced apical periodontitis were evaluated according to the disinfection technique: Group 1, apical negative pressure irrigation (EndoVac system), and Group 2, apical positive pressure irrigation (conventional irrigation) plus triantibiotic intracanal dressing. In Group 3 (positive control), periapical lesions were induced, but no endodontic treatment was done. Group 4 (negative control) was composed of sound teeth. The animals were killed after 90 days and the maxillas and mandibles were subjected to histological processing. The sections were stained with hematoxylin and eosin and Mallory Trichrome and examined under light microscopy. A description of the apical and periapical features was done and scores were attributed to the following histopathological parameters: newly formed mineralized apical tissue, periapical inflammatory infiltrate, apical periodontal ligament thickness, dentin resorption, and bone tissue resorption. Intergroup comparisons were done by the Kruskal-Wallis and Dunn's tests (alpha = 0.05). Although statistically significant difference was found only for the inflammatory infiltrate (P teeth with apical periodontitis, suggesting that the use of intracanal antibiotics might not be necessary. Copyright (c) 2010 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. IN VIVO ANALYSIS OF SOME KEY CHARACTERISTICS OF THE APICAL ZONE IN TEETH WITH CHRONIC APICAL PERIODONTITIS.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Gusiyska

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The pathogenesis of internal and external resorptive processes in the dental tissues and those of the periapical zone is not fully understood, but the main purpose, either in teeth with internal resorption or in teeth with periapical lesions, is decontamination of the endodontic space and subsequent three-dimensional obturation in order to isolate periapical and oral tissues and prevent reinfection. Purpose: The aim of this article is to analyze in vivo some key characteristics of the apical zone in teeth with chronic apical periodontitis. Material and Methods: To facilitate the clinical protocol after the radiographic analysis and assessment of patency, the working lengths of 153 root canals (n = 153 in 106 teeth were determined. The clinical widths of the apical narrowing were measured by using the last instrument (ISO 0.02 tapered file, which can move freely through the apical narrowing after electrometric determination of the working length (Raypex 5 /VDW, Germany/. Results and Discussion: Determination of working width and working length is important for realizing the first stage of decontamination – maximum instrumentation of the endodontic space and choice of a clinical protocol. The classification of root canals in a particular group according to the relative patency or lysed apical opening is important for the selection of obturation technique, which is essential for reducing the microleakage in the zone. Conclusion: Since the target of this work were teeth with CAP, in the majority of the cases with clinical findings of root canals with preexisting filling, radicular pins, obliteration, separated canal instruments, perforations at different levels, via falsa or thresholds, the access to the apical zone was not subjected to a closely observed instrumental clinical protocol. In the treatment of each case, however, the clinical principles of modern endodontic treatment were closely observed.

  19. Camp Sports Injuries: Analysis of Causes, Modes and Frequencies

    OpenAIRE

    Panagiota Papageorgiou; George Mavrommatis; George Costa

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was the description of sports injuries sustained by campers at summer camps, aged 7-15 years. A sample of 8 camps from the Greek camp population participated in this sport injury surveillance study. Doctors and camp directors completed reports detailing the number of sports injuries events sustained and provided specific information about each event. During the period of the study, 337 sport injury reports were completed. A total of 237 (70.3%) boys and 100 (29.7%) g...

  20. Adventure Code Camp: Library Mobile Design in the Backcountry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Ward

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This article presents a case study exploring the use of a student Coding Camp as a bottom-up mobile design process to generate library mobile apps. A code camp sources student programmer talent and ideas for designing software services and features.  This case study reviews process, outcomes, and next steps in mobile web app coding camps. It concludes by offering implications for services design beyond the local camp presented in this study. By understanding how patrons expect to integrate library services and resources into their use of mobile devices, librarians can better design the user experience for this environment.

  1. An Inaugural Girl Scout Destinations Astronomy Camp

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebofsky, Larry A.; McCarthy, Donald W.; Wright, Joe; Wright, Rita; Mace, Mikayla; Floyd, Charmayne

    2017-10-01

    The University of Arizona (UA) conducted its first teenage Girl Scout Destinations Astronomy Camp. This program was preceded by 24 Leadership Workshops for Adult Girl Scout Leaders, initially supported by EPO funding from NIRCam for JWST. For five days in late June, 24 girls (ages 13-17 years) attended from 16 states. The Camp was led by UA astronomers and long-term educators. Representing Girl Scouts of the USA (GSUSA) were a husband/wife amateur astronomer team who are SOFIA Airborne Astronomy and NASA Solar System Ambassadors. Other leaders included a Stanford undergraduate engineering student who is a lifelong Girl Scout and Gold Award recipient and a recent UA Master’s degree science journalist. The Camp is a residential, hands-on “immersion” adventure in scientific exploration using telescopes in southern Arizona’s Catalina Mountains near Tucson. Under uniquely dark skies girls become real astronomers, operating telescopes (small and large) and associated technologies, interacting with scientists, obtaining images and quantitative data, investigating their own questions, and most importantly having fun actually doing science and building observing equipment. Girls achieve a basic understanding of celestial objects, how and why they move, and their historical significance, leading to an authentic understanding of science, research, and engineering. Girls can lead these activities back home in their own troops and councils, encouraging others to consider STEM field careers. These programs are supported by a 5-year NASA Collaborative Agreement, Reaching for the Stars: NASA Science for Girl Scouts (www.seti.org/GirlScoutStars), through the SETI Institute in collaboration with the UA, GSUSA, Girl Scouts of Northern California, the Astronomical Society of the Pacific, and Aries Scientific, Inc. The Girl Scout Destinations Astronomy Camp aligns with the GSUSA Journey: It’s Your Planet-Love It! and introduces the girls to some of the activities being

  2. Contingency Base Camp Solid Waste Generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-01

    0.8% Grass clippings 39 0.107 18 0.049 0.7% Glass 40 0.110 18 0.049 0.7% Textiles 25 0.068 11 0.068 0.4% Medical waste 13 0.036...waste and 80 pounds of liquid waste per day.” 2. Paragraph 3-21 ( Composting ): “A base camp population of 2,500 can pro- duce approximately 5,500...cubic meters, or 1,500 tons, of compostable sol- id waste (SW) (including sewage sludge) per year. 3. Paragraph 3-63 (Develop Preliminary Waste

  3. Organisation for the relief of concentration camps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engel, H O

    2003-12-01

    To review the essential principles involved in rescue missions for natural and man-made disasters. A description of the relief of a concentration camp in 1945 as an example of the logistics required in any major disaster or rescue. The arrival of trained Army rescue teams on the first day and dealing systematically with priorities in salvage, treatment and nursing saved many lives, even of desperately ill patients. A centralised administration and organisation of supplies is the first priority. Suitable intravenous and very light nutrients, and the prevention and combating of infections are more urgent than the provision of shelter and clothing.

  4. [Nonsurgical retreatment in a case of a radiolucent apical lesion].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vicente Gómez, A; Rodríguez Ponce, A

    1989-01-01

    We present a case of failure that was helpful solved without surgical endodontic treatment. We don't achieve clinical success besides endodontic treatment was twice remade. Finally we decided to put a temporary filling with calcium hydroxide and wait until apical radiolucency disappear and complete our treatment with gutta-percha, sealer and lateral condensation.

  5. Evaluation of the amount of apically extruded debris during ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2015-04-06

    Apr 6, 2015 ... Objective: To evaluate the amount of apically extruded debris during retreatment (with or without solvent) of root canals filled by two obturation techniques. Materials and Methods: Forty‑eight root canals were prepared using ProTaper Universal F3 and filled with Gutta‑percha and AH 26 sealer using single ...

  6. Actin and Apical Constriction: Some (Re)-Assembly Required.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spracklen, Andrew J; Peifer, Mark

    2015-12-21

    Linkage of the actomyosin cytoskeleton to cell-cell junctions drives cell shape change in development and homeostasis. In this issue of Developmental Cell, Jodoin et al. (2015) provide new insights into the underlying mechanisms, revealing that factors driving actin filament disassembly and thus dynamics also play key roles in apical constriction. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Validity of longitudinal sections for determining the apical constriction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schell, S; Judenhofer, M S; Mannheim, J G; Hülber-J, M; Löst, C; Pichler, B J; ElAyouti, A

    2017-07-01

    To validate the use of longitudinal sections against cross sections using micro-CT for disclosing the topography and location of the apical constriction. Seventy extracted human teeth with 117 completely developed roots were micro-CT scanned and reconstructed at a voxel size of 27 μm. The 3DSlicer program was used to navigate the longitudinal sections parallel to the long axis of the canal and also to rotate and tilt the views. Each root canal was evaluated in both mesio-distal and bucco-lingual planes. Constriction topographies were identified as described in the literature. In each canal, the number of different topographies detected was recorded. Further, serial cross-sectional analysis of the apical portion of the canal was performed. Reconstructed plots of canal areas were assessed to locate the constriction and determine its form. A descriptive analysis of both longitudinal and cross section methods was conducted. In each canal, the frequency of constriction forms was calculated in the mesio-distal or bucco-lingual aspects and the 99% confidence interval was computed. When both aspects of the longitudinal sections were pooled, all root canals had two or more topographies and consequently different locations of the apical constriction. In contrast, cross-sectional analysis constantly yielded one constriction form per canal. Compared to cross-sectional analysis, longitudinal sections of the root canal conveyed inconsistent results regarding the topography and the location of the apical constriction. © 2016 International Endodontic Journal. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Apical constriction: a cell shape change that can drive morphogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawyer, Jacob M; Harrell, Jessica R; Shemer, Gidi; Sullivan-Brown, Jessica; Roh-Johnson, Minna; Goldstein, Bob

    2010-05-01

    Biologists have long recognized that dramatic bending of a cell sheet may be driven by even modest shrinking of the apical sides of cells. Cell shape changes and tissue movements like these are at the core of many of the morphogenetic movements that shape animal form during development, driving processes such as gastrulation, tube formation, and neurulation. The mechanisms of such cell shape changes must integrate developmental patterning information in order to spatially and temporally control force production-issues that touch on fundamental aspects of both cell and developmental biology and on birth defects research. How does developmental patterning regulate force-producing mechanisms, and what roles do such mechanisms play in development? Work on apical constriction from multiple systems including Drosophila, Caenorhabditis elegans, sea urchin, Xenopus, chick, and mouse has begun to illuminate these issues. Here, we review this effort to explore the diversity of mechanisms of apical constriction, the diversity of roles that apical constriction plays in development, and the common themes that emerge from comparing systems. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Apical extrusion of debris using reciprocating files and rotary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    healing.[1‑4]. It is well‑documented that all preparation techniques are associated with the extrusion of infected debris into the periapical tissues in spite of preparations maintained short of the apical ... Turkey) for 2 h to clean the periodontal tissue remnants on the root ... with a periodontal curette, and the teeth were stored in.

  10. Assessment of apical periodontitis by MRI. A feasibility study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geibel, M.A. [Ulm Univ. (Germany). Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery; Schreiber, E.S.; Bracher, A.K.; Rasche, V. [Ulm Univ. (Germany). Internal Medicine II; Hell, E.; Ulrici, J. [Sirona Dental Systems GmbH, Bensheim (Germany). Dental Imaging; Sailer, L.K. [DOC Praxisklinik im Wiley, Neu-Ulm (Germany). MKG; Ozpeynirci, Y. [Ulm Univ. (Germany). Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology

    2015-04-15

    The purpose of this clinical feasibility study was to evaluate the applicability of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for the assessment of apical periodontitis in direct comparison with cone beam CT (CBCT). 19 consecutive patients (average age 43 ± 13 years) with 34 lesions in total (13 molars, 14 premolars and 7 front teeth) were enrolled in this feasibility study. Periapical lesions were defined as periapical radiolucencies (CBCT) or structural changes in the spongy bone signal (MRI), which were connected with the apical part of a root and with at least twice the width of the periodontal ligament space. The location and dimension of the lesions were compared between MRI and CBCT. While mainly mineralized tissue components such as teeth and bone were visible with CBCT, complimentary information of the soft tissue components was assessable with MRI. The MRI images provided sufficient diagnostic detail for the assessment of the main structures of interest. Heterogeneous contrast was observed within the lesion, with often a clear enhancement close to the apical foramen and the periodontal gap. No difference for lesion visibility was observed between MRI and CBCT. The lesion dimensions corresponded well, but were slightly but significantly overestimated with MRI. A heterogeneous lesion appearance was observed in several patients. Four patients presented with a well circumscribed hyperintense signal in the vicinity of the apical foramen. The MRI capability of soft tissue characterization may facilitate detailed analysis of periapical lesions. This clinical study confirms the applicability of multi-contrast MRI for the identification of periapical lesions.

  11. Protein modeling of apical membrane antigen-1(AMA-1) of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Apical membrane Antigen-1(AMA-1), an asexual blood stage antigen of Plasmodium cynomolgi, is an important candidate for testing as a component of malarial vaccine. The degree of conservation of. AMA-1 sequences implies a conserved function for this molecule across different species of Plasmodium. Since the AMA-1 ...

  12. Shoot apical meristem arrest in brassica and tomato

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jonge, de J.

    2013-01-01

    A pool of cells known as stem cells located in the center of the shoot apical meristem (SAM) are responsible to maintain meristematic activity throughout a plants life in order to produce organs. The maintenance of these stem cells is tightly controlled by a complex genetic and hormonal network. Any

  13. Apical extrusion of debris using reciprocating files and rotary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: To compare the preparation time and amount of apically extruded debris after the preparation of root canals in extracted human teeth using the reciprocating files and rotary nickel.titanium systems. Procedure: Sixty extracted human mandibular premolars were used. The root canals were instrumented using ...

  14. Dental Pulp Revascularization of Necrotic Permanent Teeth with Immature Apices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Ashiry, Eman A; Farsi, Najat M; Abuzeid, Sawsan T; El Ashiry, Mohamed M; Bahammam, Hammam A

    The treatment of immature necrotic teeth with apical periodontitis presents challenges in endodontic and pediatric dentistry. Revascularization is a recent treatment for such cases as an alternative to conventional apexification. The purpose is to examine the effect of a pulpal revascularization procedure on immature necrotic teeth with apical periodontitis. Twenty patients were enrolled for pulp revascularization procedure by root canal disinfection using a triple antibiotic mixture for 1-2 weeks, followed by creating a blood clot, sealing the root canal orifice using white mineral trioxide aggregate and a coronal seal of composite resin. Patients were recalled periodically for up to 24 months. During follow-up, all patients were asymptomatic. Three cases of chronic apical periodontitis showed clinical disappearance of the sinus tract 2 weeks after treatment. Radiography revealed progressive periapical radiolucency resolution within the first 12 months. Within 12-24 months, the treated teeth showed progressive increases in dentinal wall thickness, root length and continued root development. Clinical and radiographic evidence showed successful revascularization treatments of immature necrotic permanent teeth with apical periodontitis. More studies are necessary to understand the underlying mechanisms and to perform histopathology of the pulp space contents after revascularization procedures.

  15. In vitro comparison of apical microleakage following canal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The specimens were placed in India ink for 48 h and then divided into two halves. The amount of dye penetration was observed under a stereomicroscope at ×16 magnification and 0.1 mm accuracy. In this study, there was apical leakage in the two experimental groups but the amount of microleakage was not significant.

  16. Physiological and performance responses to a training camp in the heat in professional Australian football players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Racinais, Sebastien; Buchheit, Martin; Bilsborough, Johann; Bourdon, Pitre C; Cordy, Justin; Coutts, Aaron J

    2014-07-01

    To examine the physiological and performance responses to a heat-acclimatization camp in highly trained professional team-sport athletes. Eighteen male Australian Rules Football players trained for 2 wk in hot ambient conditions (31-33°C, humidity 34-50%). Players performed a laboratory-based heat-response test (24-min walk + 24 min seated; 44°C), a YoYo Intermittent Recovery Level 2 Test (YoYoIR2; indoor, temperate environment, 23°C) and standardized training drills (STD; outdoor, hot environment, 32°C) at the beginning and end of the camp. The heat-response test showed partial heat acclimatization (eg, a decrease in skin temperature, heart rate, and sweat sodium concentration, P test (r = -.52, 90%CI [-.77; -.12]). There was no clear correlation between the performance improvements in temperate and hot ambient conditions (r < .26). Running performance in both hot and temperate environments was improved after a football training camp in hot ambient conditions that stimulated heat acclimatization. However, physiological and performance responses were highly individual, and the absence of correlations between physical-performance improvements in hot and temperate environments suggests that their physiological basis might differ.

  17. Novel mechanisms and signaling pathways of esophageal ulcer healing: the role of prostaglandin EP2 receptors, cAMP, and pCREB.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahluwalia, Amrita; Baatar, Dolgor; Jones, Michael K; Tarnawski, Andrzej S

    2014-09-15

    Clinical studies indicate that prostaglandins of E class (PGEs) may promote healing of tissue injury e.g., gastroduodenal and dermal ulcers. However, the precise roles of PGEs, their E-prostanoid (EP) receptors, signaling pathways including cAMP and cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB), and their relation to VEGF and angiogenesis in the tissue injury healing process remain unknown, forming the rationale for this study. Using an esophageal ulcer model in rats, we demonstrated that esophageal mucosa expresses predominantly EP2 receptors and that esophageal ulceration triggers an increase in expression of the EP2 receptor, activation of CREB (the downstream target of the cAMP signaling), and enhanced VEGF gene expression. Treatment of rats with misoprostol, a PGE1 analog capable of activating EP receptors, enhanced phosphorylation of CREB, stimulated VEGF expression and angiogenesis, and accelerated esophageal ulcer healing. In cultured human esophageal epithelial (HET-1A) cells, misoprostol increased intracellular cAMP levels (by 163-fold), induced phosphorylation of CREB, and stimulated VEGF expression. A cAMP analog (Sp-cAMP) mimicked, whereas an inhibitor of cAMP-dependent protein kinase A (Rp-cAMP) blocked, these effects of misoprostol. These results indicate that the EP2/cAMP/protein kinase A pathway mediates the stimulatory effect of PGEs on angiogenesis essential for tissue injury healing via the induction of CREB activity and VEGF expression.

  18. Pax6-dependent Shroom3 expression regulates apical constriction during lens placode invagination

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Timothy F. Plageman, Jr; Mei-I Chung; Ming Lou; April N. Smith; Jeffrey D. Hildebrand; John B. Wallingford; Richard A. Lang

    2010-01-01

    .... We show that the apical constriction of lens epithelial cells that accompanies invagination of the lens placode is dependent on Shroom3, a molecule previously associated with apical constriction...

  19. Apical Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy: The Ace-of-Spades as the Disease Card

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Diaconu, Camelia C; Dumitru, Nicoleta; Fruntelata, Ana G; Lacau, Smarandita; Bartos, Daniela

    2015-01-01

    .... Echocardiographic examination showed that apical wall thickness of the left ventricle (LV) was 19 mm. Coronary angiography was normal, but left ventriculography revealed a spade-like shaped LV cavity, typical for apical cardiac hypertrophy...

  20. Camping under Western Stars: Joan Crawford in "Johnny Guitar."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Pamela

    1995-01-01

    Examines the dissonant and "camp" effect inherent in describing "Johnny Guitar" as a Joan Crawford western. Argues that the film's camp effect depends on its crossing of a female star vehicle with the western, a stereotypically masculine genre. Summarizes Crawford's childhood and rise to fame. Concludes by exploring the lesbian…

  1. EduCamp Colombia: Social Networked Learning for Teacher Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonseca, Diego Ernesto Leal

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes a learning experience called EduCamp, which was launched by the Ministry of Education of Colombia in 2007, based on emerging concepts such as e-Learning 2.0, connectivism, and personal learning environments. An EduCamp proposes an unstructured collective learning experience, which intends to make palpable the possibilities of…

  2. Camp GLOW (Girls Leading Our World): Handbook for Volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peace Corps, Washington, DC. Information Collection and Exchange Div.

    Camp GLOW (Girls Leading Our World) began in Romania in 1995 as a weeklong leadership camp with the purpose of encouraging young women to become active citizens by building their self-esteem and confidence, increasing their self-awareness, and developing their skills in goal-setting, assertiveness, and career and life planning. Since that first…

  3. Architecture of Stalin’s Prison Camps in Yakutia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolai Kradin

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Based on archive and field studies, the article considers architecture of prison camp facilities built on the territory of Yakutia during Stalin’s terror. With the help of field studies, measurements and photofixation we have revealed compositional, planning and design features of bridges and prison camp facilities and analyzed their location.

  4. Inclusion Coordinators at Jewish Summer Camps: Roles and Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shefter, Laura; Uhrman, Abigail L.; Tobin, Lisa; Kress, Jeffrey S.

    2017-01-01

    As appreciation of the impact of Jewish camping has grown, so have efforts to increase the number of campers able to participate in these settings. Inclusion of campers with disabilities, though not a new phenomenon, has likewise expanded. As more services are provided to campers with disabilities, more camps are hiring an Inclusion Coordinator to…

  5. Teaching Ugandan Traditional Dances and Drumming in Summer Camps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mabingo, Alfdaniels

    2017-01-01

    Dances and drum rhythms from African traditions have been integrated into summer camp activities in the United States as a response to the ever-globalized environments in which these camps are located and the diversity of the campers and teachers that they attract. This reflective article draws on critical reflections, observations and experiences…

  6. Specialized Summer Camps: Provide Benefits for Children and Families Alike

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neff, John M.

    2009-01-01

    The arrival of summer signals a season of endless days of swimming, fishing, summer camps, and other outdoor activities. For children with chronic or terminal illnesses, it can be difficult to participate in many of these activities as well as challenging for parents to find summer camps that not only engage their children, but also offer the…

  7. Socialization of Adolescents: Cultural Practices in Children's Summer Camp

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demakova, Irina D.; Valeeva, Roza A.; Shipova, Alina V.

    2016-01-01

    The article describes the relevant aspects of the adolescents' cultural practices in children's summer camp, taking into account their specific characteristics. The summer camp is considered as an educational formation and holistic socio-pedagogical body, designed to create conditions for the development of the person. The criteria for inclusion…

  8. Residential Grief Camps: An Initial Phenomenological Study of Staff Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Tiffany B.; Kimball, Thomas G.

    2012-01-01

    Research has focused primarily on the impact of death on family functioning and the stages and tasks of grief, though little attention has been given to grief camps or the experiences of those who work there. This study explored the experiences of staff at a four-day overnight children's grief camp. Eight participants reported their experience of…

  9. Students Become Scientists at Science Skills Boot Camp | Poster

    Science.gov (United States)

    At the 2016 Science Skills Boot Camp (SSBC), a one-day training program designed for NIH summer interns with little or no prior research experience, students gathered to learn about basic research and laboratory skills. The boot camp provided a unique opportunity for interns to expand their knowledge of simple bench techniques, scientific papers, and ways to communicate their research.

  10. Crisis Management: How to Handle a Salmonella Outbreak at Camp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, William A.; Popkin, Rodger

    1992-01-01

    Details events of six days during Salmonella outbreak at camp in North Carolina. Explains how camp handled 280 sick campers and staff, well campers, news media, and parents. Based on an epidemiologic survey of food eaten, it was suspected that the culprit of the outbreak was a meat item. Offers suggestions for crisis management in the camp…

  11. 36 CFR 1002.10 - Camping and food storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Camping and food storage... USE AND RECREATION § 1002.10 Camping and food storage. (a) The Board may require permits, designate... result in the suspension or revocation of the permit. (d) Food storage. The Board may designate all or a...

  12. 36 CFR 2.10 - Camping and food storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Camping and food storage. 2... RESOURCE PROTECTION, PUBLIC USE AND RECREATION § 2.10 Camping and food storage. (a) The superintendent may... revocation of the permit. (d) Food storage. The superintendent may designate all or a portion of a park area...

  13. Short Communication: Vegetation response to wagon wheel camp ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Wagon wheel camp layouts have been favoured, in some quarters, for rotational grazing due to the economy and convenience of having the camps radially arranged around central facilities. A possible disadvantage of such layouts is the tendency for over-grazing near the hub and under-grazing at the extremities.

  14. Tactics, Techniques, and Procedures (TTP) for Migrant Camp Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-04-15

    include soap, towel, shower shoes, sheet, blanket, a wash bucket, toothbrush and toothpaste, comb/brush, razor, feminine hygiene products, and a...the camp. This may mean leasing of a hotel , other building, or open land for use as a camp. Also, consultation with the Army Corps of Engineers may

  15. Volunteer Surgical Camp at Gombe Hospital in Uganda | Alimoglu ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: The Islamic University Habib Medical School in Uganda (IUIU), in collaboration with Doctors Worldwide (DWW) from Turkey, organized a surgical camp in April 2014. In this camp, different types of hernia repair, among other general surgical procedures were conducted. The target population was the ...

  16. Outdoor adventure camps for people with mental illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotton, Sue; Butselaar, Felicity

    2013-08-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate a novel outdoor adventure camping program for individuals with mental illness. The program was developed by YMCA Victoria in partnership with Sport and Recreation Victoria, and mental health service agencies. Orygen Youth Health Research Centre conducted the program evaluation. One hundred and eight individuals from mental health services across Victoria participated in 12 camps. Five camps targeted young people between the ages of 18 and 25 years. Seven camps were run for adults 26 years and older. Participants were assessed at baseline, end of camp, and four weeks following the camp in terms of self-esteem, mastery, and social connectedness. Quality of life was assessed at baseline and four weeks post-camp. Participants demonstrated significant improvements in mastery, self-esteem and social connectedness from baseline to end of the camp; however, these improvements were not sustained by the four-week follow-up. We have demonstrated that utilizing the expertise of mental health services and a community recreation provider can benefit individuals experiencing mental illness. More research is required with respect to how to sustain these benefits over the longer term.

  17. Camp Verde Adult Reading Program. Final Performance Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maynard, David A.

    This document begins with a four-page performance report describing how the Camp Verde Adult Reading Program site was relocated to the Community Center Complex, and the Town Council contracted directly with the Friends of the Camp Verde Library to provide for the requirements of the program. The U.S. Department of Education grant allowed the…

  18. Making STEM Fun: How to Organize a STEM Camp

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Kimberly E. Bryant; Hardin, Stacey E.

    2013-01-01

    The work from the University of Central Florida's STEM summer camp (sponsored by Workforce Central Florida) is shared. The camps targeted low-SES schools with a high percentage of students on free and reduced lunch as well as high percentages of students with. Students were given preassessments and postassessments to gauge their knowledge of and…

  19. Release of apical dominance in potato tuber is accompanied by programmed cell death in the apical bud meristem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teper-Bamnolker, Paula; Buskila, Yossi; Lopesco, Yael; Ben-Dor, Shifra; Saad, Inbal; Holdengreber, Vered; Belausov, Eduard; Zemach, Hanita; Ori, Naomi; Lers, Amnon; Eshel, Dani

    2012-04-01

    Potato (Solanum tuberosum) tuber, a swollen underground stem, is used as a model system for the study of dormancy release and sprouting. Natural dormancy release, at room temperature, is initiated by tuber apical bud meristem (TAB-meristem) sprouting characterized by apical dominance (AD). Dormancy is shortened by treatments such as bromoethane (BE), which mimics the phenotype of dormancy release in cold storage by inducing early sprouting of several buds simultaneously. We studied the mechanisms governing TAB-meristem dominance release. TAB-meristem decapitation resulted in the development of increasing numbers of axillary buds with time in storage, suggesting the need for autonomous dormancy release of each bud prior to control by the apical bud. Hallmarks of programmed cell death (PCD) were identified in the TAB-meristems during normal growth, and these were more extensive when AD was lost following either extended cold storage or BE treatment. Hallmarks included DNA fragmentation, induced gene expression of vacuolar processing enzyme1 (VPE1), and elevated VPE activity. VPE1 protein was semipurified from BE-treated apical buds, and its endogenous activity was fully inhibited by a cysteinyl aspartate-specific protease-1-specific inhibitor N-Acetyl-Tyr-Val-Ala-Asp-CHO (Ac-YVAD-CHO). Transmission electron microscopy further revealed PCD-related structural alterations in the TAB-meristem of BE-treated tubers: a knob-like body in the vacuole, development of cytoplasmic vesicles, and budding-like nuclear segmentations. Treatment of tubers with BE and then VPE inhibitor induced faster growth and recovered AD in detached and nondetached apical buds, respectively. We hypothesize that PCD occurrence is associated with the weakening of tuber AD, allowing early sprouting of mature lateral buds.

  20. Pseudohyphal growth is induced in Saccharomyces cerevisiae by a combination of stress and cAMP signalling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaragoza, O; Gancedo, J M

    2000-08-01

    In Saccharomyces cerevisiae pseudohyphae formation may be triggered by nitrogen deprivation and is stimulated by cAMP. It was observed that even in a medium with an adequate nitrogen supply, cAMP can induce pseudohyphal growth when S. cerevisiae uses ethanol as carbon source. This led us to investigate the effects of the carbon source and of a variety of stresses on yeast morphology. Pseudohyphae formation and invasive growth were observed in a rich medium (YP) with poor carbon sources such as lactate or ethanol. External cAMP was required for the morphogenetic transition in one genetic background, but was dispensable in strain sigma 1278b which has been shown to have an overactive Ras2/cAMP pathway. Pseudohyphal growth and invasiveness also took place in YPD plates when the yeast was subjected to different stresses: a mild heat-stress (37 degrees C), an osmotic stress (1 m NACl), or addition of compounds which affect the lipid bilayer organization of the cell membrane (aliphatic alcohols at 2%) or alter the glucan structure of the cell wall (Congo red). We conclude that pseudohyphal growth is a physiological response not only to starvation but also to a stressful environment; it appears to require the coordinate action of a MAP kinase cascade and a cAMP-dependent pathway.

  1. Through-flow of water in leaves of a submerged plant is influenced by the apical opening

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Ole; Jørgensen, Lise Bolt; Sand-Jensen, Kaj

    1997-01-01

    Submerged plant, apical opening, hydathode, Sparganium, hydraulic architecture, leaf specific conductivity......Submerged plant, apical opening, hydathode, Sparganium, hydraulic architecture, leaf specific conductivity...

  2. Camp Counseling and the Development and Transfer of Workforce Skills: The Perspective of Ohio 4-H Camp Counselor Alumni

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janel K. Digby

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Recent research shows that camp counselors, including those in 4-H, benefit from the experience by developing important life skills. However, because research regarding the perception of workforce skill development in this context has yielded inconsistent findings, the present study used focus groups to examine 4-H camp counselor alumni perceptions about the skills gained and transfer of these skills to other settings. Overall, 4-H camp counselor alumni thought their experience was fun and enjoyable, yet challenging. They believed they developed important life and workforce skills. Not only did alumni learn these skills, but the skills transferred beyond the camp setting. Leadership was noted as the skill most frequently applied to other contexts. Alumni believed that their counseling experiences had both indirect and direct impacts on their career choice. This study suggests many practical applications for those who work with camp programs.

  3. Rocket experiments and payloads for Super CAMP. [Cold Arctic Mesopause Project (CAMP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopp, E.; Goldberg, R. A.

    1987-01-01

    The super Cold Arctic Mesopause Project (CAMP) follow-up project in the summer of 1990 is outlined. In situ measurements of appropriate height resolution are needed in the summer mesosphere at high latitudes to investigate structures and formation processes of polar mesospheric clouds. The rocket measurements from the high latitude site Thule AB in Greenland (76.6 N) are decisive for the understanding of the cold Arctic mesopause. Similar rocket measurements from the European ranges Andenes and Esrange (68 to 69 N) are needed to investigate the latitudinal variability of the parameters relevant for the formation, transport, and loss of mesospheric ice particles. An important aspect of Super CAMP is the study of the heterogeneous chemistry, the loss of electrons on aggregates, and the build-up of horizontal and vertical electric fields in the presence of charged ice particles. Instruments, measurements, and purpose are listed.

  4. New saliva secretion model based on the expression of Na+-K+ pump and K+ channels in the apical membrane of parotid acinar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almássy, János; Siguenza, Elias; Skaliczki, Marianna; Matesz, Klara; Sneyd, James; Yule, David I; Nánási, Péter P

    2018-01-17

    The plasma membrane of parotid acinar cells is functionally divided into apical and basolateral regions. According to the current model, fluid secretion is driven by transepithelial ion gradient, which facilitates water movement by osmosis into the acinar lumen from the interstitium. The osmotic gradient is created by the apical Cl- efflux and the subsequent paracellular Na+ transport. In this model, the Na+-K+ pump is located exclusively in the basolateral membrane and has essential role in salivary secretion, since the driving force for Cl- transport via basolateral Na+-K+-2Cl- cotransport is generated by the Na+-K+ pump. In addition, the continuous electrochemical gradient for Cl- flow during acinar cell stimulation is maintained by the basolateral K+ efflux. However, using a combination of single-cell electrophysiology and Ca2+-imaging, we demonstrate that photolysis of Ca2+ close to the apical membrane of parotid acinar cells triggered significant K+ current, indicating that a substantial amount of K+ is secreted into the lumen during stimulation. Nevertheless, the K+ content of the primary saliva is relatively low, suggesting that K+ might be reabsorbed through the apical membrane. Therefore, we investigated the localization of Na+-K+ pumps in acinar cells. We show that the pumps appear evenly distributed throughout the whole plasma membrane, including the apical pole of the cell. Based on these results, a new mathematical model of salivary fluid secretion is presented, where the pump reabsorbs K+ from and secretes Na+ to the lumen, which can partially supplement the paracellular Na+ pathway.

  5. Actin turnover-mediated gravity response in maize root apices: gravitropism of decapped roots implicates gravisensing outside of the root cap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mancuso, Stefano; Barlow, Peter W; Volkmann, Dieter; Baluska, Frantisek

    2006-03-01

    The dynamic actin cytoskeleton has been proposed to be linked to gravity sensing in plants but the mechanistic understanding of these processes remains unknown. We have performed detailed pharmacological analyses of the role of the dynamic actin cytoskeleton in gravibending of maize (Zea mays) root apices. Depolymerization of actin filaments with two drugs having different mode of their actions, cytochalasin D and latrunculin B, stimulated root gravibending. By contrast, drug-induced stimulation of actin polymerization and inhibition of actin turnover, using two different agents phalloidin and jasplakinolide, compromised the root gravibending. Importantly, all these actin drugs inhibited root growth to similar extents suggesting that high actin turnover is essential for the gravity-related growth responses rather than for the general growth process. Both latrunculin B and cytochalasin D treatments inhibited root growth but restored gravibending of the decapped root apices, indicating that there is a strong potential for effective actin-mediated gravity sensing outside the cap. This elusive gravity sensing outside the root cap is dependent not only on the high rate of actin turnover but also on weakening of myosin activities, as general inhibition of myosin ATPases induced stimulation of gravibending of the decapped root apices. Collectively, these data provide evidence for the actin turnover-mediated gravity sensing outside the root cap.

  6. Modelling apical constriction in epithelia using elastic shell theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Gareth Wyn; Chapman, S Jonathan

    2010-06-01

    Apical constriction is one of the fundamental mechanisms by which embryonic tissue is deformed, giving rise to the shape and form of the fully-developed organism. The mechanism involves a contraction of fibres embedded in the apical side of epithelial tissues, leading to an invagination or folding of the cell sheet. In this article the phenomenon is modelled mechanically by describing the epithelial sheet as an elastic shell, which contains a surface representing the continuous mesh formed from the embedded fibres. Allowing this mesh to contract, an enhanced shell theory is developed in which the stiffness and bending tensors of the shell are modified to include the fibres' stiffness, and in which the active effects of the contraction appear as body forces in the shell equilibrium equations. Numerical examples are presented at the end, including the bending of a plate and a cylindrical shell (modelling neurulation) and the invagination of a spherical shell (modelling simple gastrulation).

  7. Transient apical dyskinesia with a pacemaker: Electrocardiographic features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Núñez-Gil, Iván J; Feltes, Gisela I; Mejía-Rentería, Hernán D; Biagioni, Corina; De Agustín, J Alberto; Vivas, David; Fernández-Ortiz, Antonio

    2015-04-01

    Transient apical dyskinesia syndromes present features similar to acute coronary syndromes, but with normal coronary arteries and rapid complete resolution of wall motion alterations. We report the case of a 73-year-old woman who was admitted to hospital because of typical chest pain at rest after her brother's death. She had had a pacemaker implanted in 2001. Troponin levels were elevated and apical hypokinesia was shown by ventriculography and echocardiography, with normal coronary arteries. Evolving ECG alterations were observed in spite of the continued pacing rhythm. All these alterations were fully resolved after discharge. This case shows that, even in the presence of a pacemaker, evolving ECG alterations can be observed in Takotsubo syndrome. Copyright © 2014 Sociedade Portuguesa de Cardiologia. Published by Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  8. Blunt apical dissection during anatomic radical retropubic prostatectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yacoub Saif

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Meticulous apical dissection during a radical prostatectomy is imperative to achieve desirable pathologic and quality of life outcomes. Findings We describe a novel technique using careful blunt dissection to better delineate the apex of the prostate, providing a simple means to potentially lessen positive surgical margins at the apex and promote better continence and erectile function in men undergoing an anatomic radical prostatectomy. Median operative time and blood loss were 190 minutes and 675 mL, respectively. Only 10 percent of the patients with positive surgical margins were found to have apical positive surgical margins. Ninety-three percent of patients reported no urinary leakage. Conclusion We believe our technique of isolating the DVC with blunt dissection and then ligating and transecting the DVC to be feasible approach that requires larger studies to truly confirm its utility.

  9. Apical versus Basal Neurogenesis Directs Cortical Interneuron Subclass Fate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy J. Petros

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Fate determination in the mammalian telencephalon, with its diversity of neuronal subtypes and relevance to neuropsychiatric disease, remains a critical area of study in neuroscience. Most studies investigating this topic focus on the diversity of neural progenitors within spatial and temporal domains along the lateral ventricles. Often overlooked is whether the location of neurogenesis within a fate-restricted domain is associated with, or instructive for, distinct neuronal fates. Here, we use in vivo fate mapping and the manipulation of neurogenic location to demonstrate that apical versus basal neurogenesis influences the fate determination of major subgroups of cortical interneurons derived from the subcortical telencephalon. Somatostatin-expressing interneurons arise mainly from apical divisions along the ventricular surface, whereas parvalbumin-expressing interneurons originate predominantly from basal divisions in the subventricular zone. As manipulations that shift neurogenic location alter interneuron subclass fate, these results add an additional dimension to the spatial-temporal determinants of neuronal fate determination.

  10. Apical Constriction: A Cell Shape Change that Can Drive Morphogenesis

    OpenAIRE

    Sawyer, Jacob M.; Harrell, Jessica R.; Shemer, Gidi; Sullivan-Brown, Jessica; Roh-Johnson, Minna; Goldstein, Bob

    2009-01-01

    Biologists have long recognized that dramatic bending of a cell sheet may be driven by even modest shrinking of the apical sides of cells. Cell shape changes and tissue movements like these are at the core of many of the morphogenetic movements that shape animal form during development, driving processes such as gastrulation, tube formation and neurulation. The mechanisms of such cell shape changes must integrate developmental patterning information in order to spatially and temporally contro...

  11. Apical Periodontitis - Is It Accountable for Cardiovascular Diseases?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garg, Paridhi; Chaman, Chandrakar

    2016-08-01

    The aim of this review was to assess the relationship between apical periodontitis and cardiovascular diseases and the predictive factors regarding this association. Cross sectional and observational studies have been included, which are mostly retrospective. A comprehensive search was performed in the Systematic Electronic Databases, PUBMED and MEDLINE from 1919 till September 2014. Articles were also hand searched. From 86 studies identified, all were read and 58 articles which were relevant were included in the text. Some articles were excluded because they were pertaining to periodontology and other systemic disorders. Some were solely animal studies and were thus excluded. Our results suggest an independent association between cardiovascular diseases and apical periodontitis. A causal relationship could not be established since weak parameters of risk have been assessed in the studies, population taken is difficult to compare and other confounding factors have not been ruled out. Only a more focused and better instituted scientific research can determine this association. Establishing a cause and effect relationship between apical periodontitis and cardiovascular diseases can affect the course of treatment of cardiovascular diseases. It is not only of interest from the scientific point of view but also from public health perspective.

  12. Summer camps for diabetic children: an experience in Campania, Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misuraca, A; Di Gennaro, M; Lioniello, M; Duval, M; Aloi, G

    1996-04-01

    To evaluate the effectiveness of summer camps with objective parameters, the authors examined data relative to nine summer camps organized by the Young Diabetics Association in Campania, Italy. The mean duration of camps was 10 days (range, 8-15) and a total of 256 diabetic children with an average age of 10 (range 8-16) participated in them. The medical personnel consisted of three pediatric endocrinologists, one psychologist, two male nurses and two parents who were directors of the Association. A significant improvement in knowledge and self-management of the disease was noted at the end of the camps. A beneficial effect on mean HbA1c level was also observed in the diabetic children who attended the monthly meetings and follow-up checks with their parents after the camp. On the other hand, a worsening of these values was noted in diabetic children who did not participate in them. No increased incidence of hypoglycaemia or ketoacidosis was found during or after camps, in contrast with previous studies. From a psychological viewpoint, the results suggest that summer camps have an important bearing on achieving acceptance of the disease. Sharing personal experiences with actively involved parents who participated in self-management training together with their children, has favourably influenced the results of this experience in Campania.

  13. Food Allergy Trends and Epinephrine Autoinjector Presence in Summer Camps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schellpfeffer, Natalie R; Leo, Harvey L; Ambrose, Michael; Hashikawa, Andrew N

    Pediatric campers with food allergies are at greater risk for exposure and anaphylaxis. A diagnosis of asthma increases risk for anaphylaxis. Epidemiological investigations of food-allergic children at high risk for allergic reactions requiring intervention in camp settings are lacking. The objectives of this study were to estimate the prevalence of food allergies among otherwise healthy campers in summer camps throughout the United States and Canada, and to assess asthma comorbidity and determine rates of epinephrine autoinjector prescriptions present in this population. We partnered with CampDoc.com, a web-based camp electronic health record system. Deidentified data were abstracted from 170 camps representing 122,424 campers. Only food allergies with a parental report of symptoms requiring intervention or with a camp prescription for an epinephrine autoinjector were included, whereas gluten, lactose intolerance, and food dyes were excluded. Asthma status and epinephrine presence on the camp medication list were assessed. Overall, 2.5% of campers (n = 3055) had documented food allergies. Of these campers, 22% had multiple food allergies. Median age was 11 years; 52% were female. Nuts (81%), seafood (17.4%), egg (8.5%), fruit (8.1%), and seeds (7.2%) were the top 5 food allergies reported. Of food-allergic campers, 44.3% had concurrent asthma and 34.7% of those campers were taking multiple asthma medications. Less than half (39.7%) of food-allergic children brought an epinephrine autoinjector to the camp. Life-saving epinephrine is not necessarily available for food-allergic children in camp settings. A substantial proportion of food-allergic campers are at higher risk for anaphylaxis based on concurrent asthma status. Copyright © 2016 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Calcium hydroxide induced apical barrier in fractured nonvital immature permanent incisors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vellore K

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Management of trauma to an immature permanent incisor is a challenge, especially when the pulp is necrotic. The aim of this study is to discuss the management of fractured maxillary right and left central incisors with immature root apex. Radiographic evaluation revealed that the tooth 11 had convergent apical walls, whereas tooth 21 had parallel apical walls; both the incisors were treated with pure calcium hydroxide paste to induce apical development. Follow-up clinical and radiographic examinations confirmed apical barrier at 3 months. Radiograph of tooth 11 with convergent roots showed continued apical development, whereas tooth 21 showed apical bridging, following which root canal was completed in both the teeth. Therefore, in view of the simplicity of this method, we believe that calcium hydroxide can be reemphasized as one of the treatment alternatives for fractured nonvital immature permanent incisors to induce apical barrier.

  15. Summer Camp for Children And Adolescents with Chronic Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, Alicia

    2015-01-01

    Children with chronic conditions experience physical, social, emotional, and developmental challenges that include physical differences, negative body image, social isolation, decreased emotional functioning, and developmental concerns. Summer camps are a way to help these children overcome their difficulties. They provide an enjoyable experience, encourage goal achievement, give children a sense of community and friendship, improve children's self-concept, increase children's disease knowledge and management, and contribute to campers' positive development. Nurses can encourage families to use these camps as a therapeutic intervention and help families evaluate individual camps to find a good fit for their child.

  16. Imaging alterations of cardiomyocyte cAMP microdomains in disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander eFroese

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available 3’,5’-cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP is an important second messenger which regulates heart function by acting in distinct subcellular microdomains. Recent years have provided deeper mechanistic insights into compartmentalized cAMP signaling and its link to cardiac disease. In this mini review, we summarize newest developments in this field achieved by cutting-edge biochemical and biophysical techniques. We further compile the data from different studies into a bigger picture of so far uncovered alterations in cardiomyocyte cAMP microdomains which occur in compensated cardiac hypertrophy and chronic heart failure. Finally, future research directions and translational perspectives are briefly discussed.

  17. Lipoic acid attenuates inflammation via cAMP and protein kinase A signaling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonemany Salinthone

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abnormal regulation of the inflammatory response is an important component of diseases such as diabetes, Alzheimer's disease and multiple sclerosis (MS. Lipoic acid (LA has been shown to have antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties and is being pursued as a therapy for these diseases. We first reported that LA stimulates cAMP production via activation of G-protein coupled receptors and adenylyl cyclases. LA also suppressed NK cell activation and cytotoxicity. In this study we present evidence supporting the hypothesis that the anti-inflammatory properties of LA are mediated by the cAMP/PKA signaling cascade. Additionally, we show that LA oral administration elevates cAMP levels in MS subjects.We determined the effects of LA on IL-6, IL-17 and IL-10 secretion using ELISAs. Treatment with 50 µg/ml and 100 µg/ml LA significantly reduced IL-6 levels by 19 and 34%, respectively, in T cell enriched PBMCs. IL-17 levels were also reduced by 35 and 50%, respectively. Though not significant, LA appeared to have a biphasic effect on IL-10 production. Thymidine incorporation studies showed LA inhibited T cell proliferation by 90%. T-cell activation was reduced by 50% as measured by IL-2 secretion. Western blot analysis showed that LA treatment increased phosphorylation of Lck, a downstream effector of protein kinase A. Pretreatment with a peptide inhibitor of PKA, PKI, blocked LA inhibition of IL-2 and IFN gamma production, indicating that PKA mediates these responses. Oral administration of 1200 mg LA to MS subjects resulted in increased cAMP levels in PBMCs four hours after ingestion. Average cAMP levels in 20 subjects were 43% higher than baseline.Oral administration of LA in vivo resulted in significant increases in cAMP concentration. The anti-inflammatory effects of LA are mediated in part by the cAMP/PKA signaling cascade. These novel findings enhance our understanding of the mechanisms of action of LA.

  18. Modulation of phenotype and function of human CD4+CD25+ T regulatory lymphocytes mediated by cAMP elevating agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonella Riccomi

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available We have shown that Cholera Toxin (CT and other cyclic AMP (cAMP elevating agents induce up-regulation of the inhibitory molecule CTLA-4 in human resting CD4+ T lymphocytes, which following the treatment acquired suppressive functions. In this study, we evaluated the effect of cAMP elevating agents on human CD4+CD25+ T cells, which include the T regulatory (Treg cells that play a pivotal role in the maintenance of immunological tolerance. We found that cAMP elevating agents induce up-regulation of CTLA-4 in CD4+CD25- and further enhance its expression in CD4+CD25+ T cells. We observed an increase of two isoforms of mRNA coding for the membrane and the soluble CTLA-4 molecules, suggesting that the regulation of CTLA-4 expression by cAMP is at the transcriptional level. In addition, we found that the increase of cAMP in CD4+CD25+ T cells converts the CD4+CD25+Foxp3- T cells in CD4+CD25+Foxp3+ T cells, whereas the increase of cAMP in CD4+CD25- T cells did not up-regulate Foxp3 in the absence of activation stimuli. To investigate the function of these cells, we performed an in vitro suppression assay by culturing CD4+CD25+ T cells untreated or pre-treated with CT with anti-CD3 mAbs-stimulated autologous PBMC. We found that CT enhances the inhibitory function of CD4+CD25+ T cells, CD4+ and CD8+ T cell proliferation and IFNγ production are strongly inhibited by CD4+CD25+ T cells pre-treated with cAMP elevating agents. Furthermore, we found that CD4+CD25+ T lymphocytes pre-treated with cAMP elevating agents induce the up-regulation of CD80 and CD86 co-stimulatory molecules on immature dendritic cells (DCs in the absence of antigenic stimulation, however without leading to full DC maturation. These data show that the increase of intracellular cAMP modulates the phenotype and function of human CD4+CD25+ T cells.

  19. Clinical laboratory evaluation of a reverse CAMP test for presumptive identification of Clostridium perfringens.

    OpenAIRE

    Buchanan, A G

    1982-01-01

    Ninety-six percent of Clostridium perfringens isolates from clinical specimens were reverse CAMP test positive, whereas several other Clostridium species tested were reverse CAMP test negative. C. perfringens was detected by direct inoculation of clinical specimens to reverse CAMP plates, and the reverse CAMP procedure provided reliable presumptive identification of this organism.

  20. A second look at the heavy half of the camping market

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilbur R. LaPage; Dale P. Ragain; Dale P. Ragain

    1971-01-01

    A 1968 survey of campers revealed that one-half of the campers did more than three-fourths of all the reported camping. Campers in this heavy half of the camping market were found to differ significantly from light-half campers in their camping motivations, past experience, and investments in camping equipment (LdPage 1969). However, the 1968 survey identified heavy-...

  1. Aging has the opposite effect on cAMP and cGMP circadian variations in rat Leydig cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baburski, Aleksandar Z; Sokanovic, Srdjan J; Andric, Silvana A; Kostic, Tatjana S

    2017-05-01

    The Leydig cell physiology displays a circadian rhythm driven by a complex interaction of the reproductive axis hormones and circadian system. The final output of this regulatory process is circadian pattern of steroidogenic genes expression and testosterone production. Aging gradually decreases robustness of rhythmic testosterone secretion without change in pattern of LH secretion. Here, we analyzed effect of aging on circadian variation of cAMP and cGMP signaling in Leydig cells. Results showed opposite effect of aging on cAMP and cGMP daily variation. Reduced amplitude of cAMP circadian oscillation was probably associated with changed expression of genes involved in cAMP production (increased circadian pattern of Adcy7, Adcy9, Adcy10 and decreased Adcy3); cAMP degradation (increased Pde4a, decreased Pde8b, canceled rhythm of Pde4d, completely reversed circadian pattern of Pde7b and Pde8a); and circadian expression of protein kinase A subunits (Prkac/PRKAC and Prkar2a). Aging stimulates expression of genes responsible for cGMP production (Nos2, Gucy1a3 and Gucy1b3/GUCYB3) and degradation (Pde5a, Pde6a and Pde6h) but the overall net effect is elevation of cGMP circadian oscillations in Leydig cells. In addition, the expression of cGMP-dependent kinase, Prkg1/PRKG1 is up-regulated. It seems that aging potentiate cGMP- and reduce cAMP-signaling in Leydig cells. Since both signaling pathways affect testosterone production and clockwork in the cells, further insights into these signaling pathways will help to unravel disorders linked to the circadian timing system, aging and reproduction.

  2. Cardiac cAMP: production, hydrolysis, modulation and detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cédric eBOULARAN

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Cyclic adenosine 3’,5’-monophosphate (cAMP modulates a broad range of biological processes including the regulation of cardiac myocyte contractile function where it constitutes the main second messenger for β-adrenergic receptors’ signaling to fulfill positive chronotropic, inotropic and lusitropic effects. A growing number of studies pinpoint the role of spatial organization of the cAMP signaling as an essential mechanism to regulate cAMP outcomes in cardiac physiology. Here, we will briefly discuss the complexity of cAMP synthesis and degradation in the cardiac context, describe the way to detect it and review the main pharmacological arsenal to modulate its availability.

  3. STRATEGI CAMP DALAM NOVEL HIDING MY CANDY KARYA LADY CHABLIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sri Saraswati

    2016-07-01

    Penerapan strategi Camp tersebut ditujukan sebagai upaya untuk meraih kebertahanan transgender. Selanjutnya, kebertahanan transgender dapat dicerminkan melalui visibilitas sosial, terbentuknya wacana normalitas alternatif dan pemberdayaan transgender

  4. Psychiatric Morbidity in a Leprosy Camp in Northern Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    . Most of the previous studies have focused on leprosy patients in clinical settings while studies on isolated people with leprosy remain scanty. Aims : To determine the prevalence of psychiatric morbidity in a leprosy camp and its associated ...

  5. Supporting Transgender and Gender Nonconforming Youth at Summer Camp

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ann Gillard; Erin E Buzuvis; M Deborah Bialeschki

    2014-01-01

    .... Given that transgender and gender nonconforming youth tend to experience profound difficulties during the school year, camp can be a potential setting for positive youth development for these youth...

  6. Nationalsozialistische Konzentrations- und Vernichtungslager National Socialist Concentration and Extermination Camps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Max Plassmann

    2000-11-01

    Full Text Available Das Buch stellt Organisationsformen, Zuständigkeiten und Politik hinter dem nationalsozialistischen Konzentrationslagersystem dar.This book presents organization, competences and policies underlying the system of National Socialist concentration camps.

  7. The NO/cGMP pathway inhibits transient cAMP signals through the activation of PDE2 in striatal neurons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina ePolito

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The NO-cGMP signaling plays an important role in the regulation of striatal function although the mechanisms of action of cGMP specifically in medium spiny neurons (MSNs remain unclear. Using genetically encoded fluorescent biosensors, including a novel Epac-based sensor (EPAC-SH150 with increased sensitivity for cAMP, we analyze the cGMP response to NO and whether it affected cAMP/PKA signaling in MSNs. The Cygnet2 sensor for cGMP reported large responses to NO donors in both striatonigral and striatopallidal MSNs, and this cGMP signal was controlled partially by PDE2. At the level of cAMP brief forskolin stimulations produced transient cAMP signals which differed between D1 and D2 medium spiny neurons. NO inhibited these cAMP transients through cGMP-dependent PDE2 activation, an effect that was translated and magnified downstream of cAMP, at the level of PKA. PDE2 thus appears as a critical effector of NO which modulates the post-synaptic response of MSNs to dopaminergic transmission.

  8. Thinking Big for 25 Years: Astronomy Camp Research Projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hooper, Eric Jon; McCarthy, D. W.; Benecchi, S. D.; Henry, T. J.; Kirkpatrick, J. D.; Kulesa, C.; Oey, M. S.; Regester, J.; Schlingman, W. M.; Camp Staff, Astronomy

    2013-01-01

    Astronomy Camp is a deep immersion educational adventure for teenagers and adults in southern Arizona that is entering its 25th year of existence. The Camp Director (McCarthy) is the winner of the 2012 AAS Education Prize. A general overview of the program is given in an accompanying contribution (McCarthy et al.). In this presentation we describe some of the research projects conducted by Astronomy Camp participants over the years. Many of the Camps contain a strong project-oriented emphasis, which reaches its pinnacle in the Advanced Camps for teenagers. High school students from around the world participate in a microcosm of the full arc of astronomy research. They plan their own projects before the start of Camp, and the staff provide a series of "key projects." Early in the Camp the students submit observing proposals to utilize time on telescopes. (The block of observing time is secured in advance by the staff.) The participants collect, reduce and analyze astronomical data with the help of staff, and they present the results to their peers on the last night of Camp, all in a span of eight days. The Camps provide research grade telescopes and instruments, in addition to amateur telescopes. Some of the Camps occur on Kitt Peak, where we use an ensemble of telescopes: the 2.3-meter (University of Arizona) with a spectrograph; the WIYN 0.9-meter; the McMath-Pierce Solar Telescope; and the 12-meter millimeter wave telescope. Additionally the Camp has one night on the 10-meter Submillimeter Telescope on Mt. Graham. Campers use these resources to study stars, galaxies, AGN, transiting planets, molecular clouds, etc. Some of the camper-initiated projects have led to very high level performances in prestigious international competitions, such as the Intel International Science and Engineering Fair. The key projects often contribute to published astronomical research (e.g., Benecchi et al. 2010, Icarus, 207, 978). Many former Campers have received Ph.D. degrees in

  9. EduCamp Colombia: Social Networked Learning for Teacher Training

    OpenAIRE

    Diego Ernesto Leal Fonseca

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes a learning experience called EduCamp, which was launched by the Ministry of Education of Colombia in 2007, based on emerging concepts such as e-Learning 2.0, connectivism, and personal learning environments. An EduCamp proposes an unstructured collective learning experience, which intends to make palpable the possibilities of social software tools in learning and interaction processes while demonstrating face-to-face organizational forms that reflect social networked lear...

  10. Science and technology camp for girls. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-12-31

    This document reports on the success of Pacific University`s camp held during the summers of 1992 and 1993; ultimate goal of this summer day camp was to increase the number of women in technical and scientific fields. Some experimentation was done with the age groups (7th and 8th grade girls). The curriculum was biology, chemistry, physics, and mathematics/computer science. Laboratory work and field trips were emphasized, along with socialization.

  11. Camp Upshur, Marine Corps Base Quantico, VA Architectural Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-08-01

    mon occurrence during and post World War II construction. The building type was a quick fix to the growing needs of the Marine Corps. In 1950, the...of Skinner Street East of Mitchell Street South of Bonnyman Street West of Bailey Street at Camp Upshur, which is located in the northwest corner...of Skinner Street, east of Mitchell Street, south of Bonnyman Street, and west of Bailey Ave- nue at Camp Upshur, Marine Corps Base Quantico, Virginia

  12. Ventricular apical vents and postoperative focal contraction abnormalities in patients undergoing coronary artery bypass surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, R A; Kong, Y; Pritchett, E L; Warren, S G; Oldham, H N; Wagner, G S

    1977-03-01

    Ventriculograms made 9-15 months after surgery in 48 patients with normal preoperative apical contraction were reviewed to determine the influence of apical venting on apical wall motion in patients undergoing coronary bypass surgery. After interpretation of postoperative apical wall motion, the patients were subdivided into two groups. One group consisted of 34 patients who were vented by inserting a catheter through the apex of the left ventricle and the second group included 14 patients in whom no transventricular vent was made. The two groups were similar clinically and hemodynamically before surgery, and the surgical procedures were similar with the exception of vent site. Following surgery, incidences of graft patency and antegrade flow to the apex were also similar. Nineteen (56%) patients in the apically vented group had apical dyskinesia or akinesia observed on the postoperative ventriculogram while none of the patients who were not apically vented had these findings. None of the patients with apical dyskinesia or akinesia had congestive heart failure following surgery. The postoperative ventriculograms of 12 patients with mitral stenosis who underwent valvulotomy by inserting a Tubbs dilator through the apex were also analyzed. Only one patient (8.5%) had apical dyskinesia or akinesia. Since the patients with mitral stenosis probably did not have significant coronary artery disease, it is possible that the combination of the apical vent and ischemic heart disease was responsible for the focal contraction abnormalities observed.

  13. Apical clearance rigid contact lenses induce corneal steepening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swarbrick, Helen A; Hiew, Ross; Kee, Ai Vy; Peterson, Sophia; Tahhan, Nina

    2004-06-01

    Anecdotal reports suggest that steeply fitted rigid contact lenses can induce corneal steepening and myopic shifts in refraction. This study investigated changes in corneal topography, corneal thickness, and refraction after short-term wear of apical clearance lenses. : Ten young adults participated in the study in which apical clearance lenses (Conoid, Hydron Pty. Ltd., Frenchs Forest, NSW, Australia), fitted approximately 0.3 mm steeper than the flattest keratometric reading, were worn for 4 h. A polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) lens was worn in one eye, and a Boston XO lens (Bausch & Lomb, Rochester, NY) was worn in the other. Lenses were nonfenestrated in the first trial, and a single midperipheral fenestration was incorporated for a second trial. Corneal topography was monitored using the EyeSys topographic analysis system (EyeSys Vision, Inc., Houston, TX); central corneal thickness was quantified using ultrasonic pachometry; and refraction and anterior ocular response were also monitored. Significant central corneal edema (8.2 +/- 2.2%) was demonstrated in the PMMA lens-wearing eye only. Fenestration did not reduce the edema response. We found significant corneal steepening over a 5- to 6-mm central zone, which was more pronounced in the PMMA lens-wearing eye and was modified by lens fenestration. The curvature changes altered central corneal shape from prolate (Q = -0.06 +/- 0.10) to oblate (Q = -0.26 +/- 0.31). A slight myopic shift in refraction (-0.38 +/- 0.60 D) was found with the PMMA lenses only. : Apical clearance lenses induce corneal steepening after short-term wear. Although corneal molding is implicated as the primary factor driving the shape change, corneal edema and postlens tear film pressures can modify this response.

  14. Bacterial communities associated with apical periodontitis and dental implant failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Dingsdag

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Previously, we demonstrated that bacteria reside in apparently healed alveolar bone, using culture and Sanger sequencing techniques. Bacteria in apparently healed alveolar bone may have a role in peri-implantitis and dental implant failure. Objective: To compare bacterial communities associated with apical periodontitis, those colonising a failed implant and alveolar bone with reference biofilm samples from healthy teeth. Methods and results: The study consisted of 196 samples collected from 40 patients undergoing routine dental implant insertion or rehabilitation. The bacterial 16S ribosomal DNA sequences were amplified. Samples yielding sufficient polymerase chain reaction product for further molecular analyses were subjected to terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP; 31 samples and next generation DNA sequencing (454 GS FLX Titanium; 8 samples. T-RFLP analysis revealed that the bacterial communities in diseased tissues were more similar to each other (p<0.049 than those from the healthy reference samples. Next generation sequencing detected 13 bacterial phyla and 373 putative bacterial species, revealing an increased abundance of Gram-negative [Prevotella, Fusobacterium (p<0.004, Treponema, Veillonellaceae, TG5 (Synergistetes] bacteria and a decreased abundance of Gram-positive [(Actinomyces, Corynebacterium (p<0.008] bacteria in the diseased tissue samples (n=5 relative to reference supragingival healthy samples (n=3. Conclusion: Increased abundances of Prevotella, Fusobacterium and TG5 (Synergistetes were associated with apical periodontitis and a failed implant. A larger sample set is needed to confirm these trends and to better define the processes of bacterial pathogenesis in implant failure and apical periodontitis. The application of combined culture-based, microscopic and molecular technique-based approaches is suggested for future studies.

  15. Bacterial communities associated with apical periodontitis and dental implant failure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dingsdag, Simon; Nelson, Stephen; Coleman, Nicholas V.

    2016-01-01

    Background Previously, we demonstrated that bacteria reside in apparently healed alveolar bone, using culture and Sanger sequencing techniques. Bacteria in apparently healed alveolar bone may have a role in peri-implantitis and dental implant failure. Objective To compare bacterial communities associated with apical periodontitis, those colonising a failed implant and alveolar bone with reference biofilm samples from healthy teeth. Methods and results The study consisted of 196 samples collected from 40 patients undergoing routine dental implant insertion or rehabilitation. The bacterial 16S ribosomal DNA sequences were amplified. Samples yielding sufficient polymerase chain reaction product for further molecular analyses were subjected to terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP; 31 samples) and next generation DNA sequencing (454 GS FLX Titanium; 8 samples). T-RFLP analysis revealed that the bacterial communities in diseased tissues were more similar to each other (p<0.049) than those from the healthy reference samples. Next generation sequencing detected 13 bacterial phyla and 373 putative bacterial species, revealing an increased abundance of Gram-negative [Prevotella, Fusobacterium (p<0.004), Treponema, Veillonellaceae, TG5 (Synergistetes)] bacteria and a decreased abundance of Gram-positive [(Actinomyces, Corynebacterium (p<0.008)] bacteria in the diseased tissue samples (n=5) relative to reference supragingival healthy samples (n=3). Conclusion Increased abundances of Prevotella, Fusobacterium and TG5 (Synergistetes) were associated with apical periodontitis and a failed implant. A larger sample set is needed to confirm these trends and to better define the processes of bacterial pathogenesis in implant failure and apical periodontitis. The application of combined culture-based, microscopic and molecular technique-based approaches is suggested for future studies. PMID:27834171

  16. Sibilant production in Hebrew-speaking adults: Apical versus laminal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Icht, Michal; Ben-David, Boaz M

    2017-07-20

    The Hebrew IPA charts describe the sibilants /s, z/ as 'alveolar fricatives', where the place of articulation on the palate is the alveolar ridge. The point of constriction on the tongue is not defined - apical (tip) or laminal (blade). Usually, speech and language pathologists (SLPs) use the apical placement in Hebrew articulation therapy. Some researchers and SLPs suggested that acceptable /s, z/ could be also produced with the laminal placement (i.e. the tip of the tongue approximating the lower incisors). The present study focused at the clinical level, attempting to determine the prevalence of these alternative points of constriction on the tongue for /s/ and /z/ in three different samples of Hebrew-speaking young adults (total n = 242), with typical articulation. Around 60% of the participants reported using the laminal position, regardless of several speaker-related variables (e.g. tongue-thrust swallowing, gender). Laminal production was more common in /s/ (than /z/), coda (than onset) position of the sibilant, mono- (than di-) syllabic words, and with non-alveolar (than alveolar) adjacent consonants. Experiment 3 revealed no acoustical differences between apical and laminal productions of /s/ and of /z/. From a clinical perspective, we wish to raise the awareness of SLPs to the prevalence of the two placements when treating Hebrew speakers, noting that tongue placements were highly correlated across sibilants. Finally, we recommend adopting a client-centred practice, where tongue placement is matched to the client. We further recommend selecting targets for intervention based on our findings, and separating between different prosodic positions in treatment.

  17. Apical Na+ permeability of frog skin during serosal Cl- replacement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leibowich, S; DeLong, J; Civan, M M

    1988-05-01

    Gluconate substitution for serosal Cl- reduces the transepithelial short-circuit current (Isc) and depolarizes short-circuited frog skins. These effects could result either from inhibition of basolateral K+ conductance, or from two actions to inhibit both apical Na+ permeability (PapNa) and basolateral pump activity. We have addressed this question by studying whole-and split-thickness frog skins. Intracellular Na+ concentration (CcNa) and PapNa have been monitored by measuring the current-voltage relationship for apical Na+ entry. This analysis was conducted by applying trains of voltage pulses, with pulse durations of 16 to 32 msec. Estimates of PapNa and CcNa were not detectably dependent on pulse duration over the range 16 to 80 msec. Serosal Cl- replacement uniformly depolarized short-circuited tissues. The depolarization was associated with inhibition of Isc across each split skin, but only occasionally across the whole-thickness preparations. This difference may reflect the better ionic exchange between the bulk medium and the extracellular fluid in contact with the basolateral membranes, following removal of the underlying dermis in the split-skin preparations. PapNa was either unchanged or increased, and CcNa either unchanged or reduced after the anionic replacement. These data are incompatible with the concept that serosal Cl- replacement inhibits PapNa and Na,K-pump activity. Gluconate substitution likely reduces cell volume, triggering inhibition of the basolateral K+ channels, consistent with the data and conclusions of S.A. Lewis, A.G. Butt, M.J. Bowler, J.P. Leader and A.D.C. Macknight (J. Membrane Biol. 83:119-137, 1985) for toad bladder. The resulting depolarization reduces the electrical force favoring apical Na+ entry. The volume-conductance coupling serves to conserve volume by reducing K+ solute loss. Its molecular basis remains to be identified.

  18. Involvement of auxin and CKs in boron deficiency induced changes in apical dominance of pea plants (Pisum sativum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Guoying; Römheld, Volker; Li, Chunjian; Bangerth, Fritz

    2006-04-01

    It has previously been shown that boron (B) deficiency inhibits growth of the plant apex, which consequently results in a relatively weak apical dominance, and a subsequent sprouting of lateral buds. Auxin and cytokinins (CKs) are the two most important phytohormones involved in the regulation of apical dominance. In this study, the possible involvement of these two hormones in B-deficiency-induced changes in apical dominance was investigated by applying B or the synthetic CK CPPU to the shoot apex of pea plants grown in nutrient solution without B supply. Export of IAA out of the shoot apex, as well as the level of IAA, Z/ZR and isopentenyl-adenine/isopentenyl-adenosine (i-Ade/i-Ado) in the shoot apex were assayed. In addition, polar IAA transport capacity was measured in two internodes of different ages using 3H-IAA. In B-deficient plants, both the level of auxin and CKs were reduced, and the export of auxin from the shoot apex was considerably decreased relative to plants well supplied with B. Application of B to the shoot apex restored the endogenous Z/ZR and IAA level to control levels and increased the export of IAA from the shoot apex, as well as the 3H-IAA transport capacity in the newly developed internodes. Further, B application to the shoot apex inhibited lateral bud growth and stimulated lateral root formation, presumably by stimulated polar IAA transport. Applying CPPU to the shoot apex, a treatment that stimulates IAA export under adequate B supply, considerably reduced the endogenous Z/ZR concentration in the shoot apex, but had no stimulatory effect on IAA concentration and transport in B-deficient plants. A similar situation appeared to exist in lateral buds of B-deficient plants as, in contrast to plants well supplied with B, application of CKs to these plants did not stimulate lateral bud growth. In contrast to the changes of Z/ZR levels in the shoot apex, which occurred after application of B or CPPU, the levels of i-Ade/i-Ado stayed more or

  19. Camp Sherman, Ohio: History of a World War I Training Camp

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-01

    t.t.’T !tC.AL.t: O r MILl:, " · t CO ... TRUCTION OIVI.ION WA R OEJOT. WASH INGTON. D. C CAMP jHE12.MAN , OHIO KEY ~1AP OF PROPERTY .10e No 6...the rear of the bunker. It was an all-day assignment and at noon a cook’s truck arrived with some unsavory victuals with cold coffee slopped over...land for training purposes, but the OHARNG took full control of the land in 1971. 114 The rifle range was likely used for troop training in

  20. Targeted antiviral prophylaxis with oseltamivir in a summer camp setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimberlin, David W; Escude, Janell; Gantner, Janel; Ott, Jeanne; Dronet, Melissa; Stewart, Timothy A; Jester, Penelope; Redden, David T; Chapman, Whitney; Hammond, Rob

    2010-04-01

    To describe the effectiveness of containment of novel influenza A(H1N1) infection at a summer camp. Targeted use of oseltamivir phosphate by individuals in close contact with influenza-confirmed cases. Boys' camp in Alabama in July 2009. A total of 171 campers, 48 camp counselors, and 27 camp staff. Campers with confirmed influenza received oseltamivir and were immediately isolated and sent home. All boys and counselors in the infected child's adjoining cabins received prophylactic oseltamivir for 10 days, including 8 campers at higher risk for influenza infection (eg, those with asthma, seizure disorder, or diabetes). Alcohol-based hand sanitizer was provided at each of the daily activities, in the boys' cabins, and in the dining hall, and counselors were educated by the medical staff on the spread of influenza and its prevention through good hand hygiene. All cabins, bathrooms, and community sports equipment were sprayed or wiped down with disinfectant each day. Main Outcome Measure Virologic confirmation of influenza. Three of the 171 campers tested positive for influenza A during the course of the 2-week fourth session, for an attack rate of 1.8%. The probability of observing 3 or fewer infected campers if the attack rate was 12% is less than 1 in 10,000,000 (P camp session. In conjunction with comprehensive hand sanitization and surface decontamination, a targeted approach to antiviral prophylaxis contained the spread of influenza in a summer camp setting.

  1. Core Concepts: Orthopedic Intern Curriculum Boot Camp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seeley, Mark A; Kazarian, Erick; King, Brandon; Biermann, Janet S; Carpenter, James E; Caird, Michelle S; Irwin, Todd A

    2016-01-01

    Orthopedic surgical interns must gain a broad array of clinical skills in a short time. However, recent changes in health care have limited resident-patient exposures. With the reported success of simulation training in the surgical literature, the American Board of Orthopaedic Surgery (ABOS) and Residency Review Committee for Orthopaedic Surgery have required that surgical simulation training be a component of the intern curricula in orthopedic surgical residencies. This study examined the short-term effectiveness of an orthopedic "intern boot camp" covering 7 of 17 simulation training concept modules published by the ABOS. Eight orthopedic post-graduate year 1 (PGY-1) residents (study group) completed a structured 3-month curriculum and were compared with 7 post-graduate year 2 (PGY-2) residents (comparison group) who had just completed their orthopedic surgical internship. Seven core skills were assessed using both task-specific and global rating scales. The PGY-1 residents demonstrated a statistically significant improvement in all 7 modules with respect to their task-specific pre-test scores: sterile technique (P=.001), wound closure (Porthopedic internship elevated a variety of clinical skills to levels exhibited by PGY-2 residents. Copyright 2016, SLACK Incorporated.

  2. Locus of the apices of projectile trajectories under constant drag

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Saldaña, H.

    2017-11-01

    Using the hodograph method, we present an analytical solution for projectile coplanar motion under constant drag, parametrised by the velocity angle. We find the locus formed by the apices of the projectile trajectories, and discuss its implementation for the motion of a particle on an inclined plane in presence of Coulomb friction. The range and time of flight are obtained numerically, and we find that the optimal launching angle is smaller than in the drag-free case. This is a good example of a problem with constant dissipation of energy that includes curvature; it is appropriate for intermediate courses of mechanics.

  3. Functionalized collagen scaffold implantation and cAMP administration collectively facilitate spinal cord regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xing; Han, Jin; Zhao, Yannan; Ding, Wenyong; Wei, Jianshu; Li, Jiayin; Han, Sufang; Shang, Xianping; Wang, Bin; Chen, Bing; Xiao, Zhifeng; Dai, Jianwu

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated that several mechanisms, including numerous inhibitory molecules, weak neurotrophic stimulation and deficient intrinsic regenerative responses, collectively contribute to the failure of mature spinal cord axon regeneration. Thus, combinatorial therapies targeting multiple mechanisms have attracted much attention. In the present study, a porous collagen scaffold was used to support neuronal attachment and bridge axonal regeneration. The scaffold was specifically functionalized using neutralizing proteins (CBD-EphA4LBD, CBD-PlexinB1LBD and NEP1-40) and collagen-binding neurotrophic factors (CBD-BDNF and CBD-NT3) to simultaneously antagonize myelin inhibitory molecules (ephrinB3, Sema4D and Nogo) and exert neurotrophic protection and stimulation. Cerebellar granular neurons cultured on the functionalized collagen scaffold promoted neurite outgrowth in the presence of myelin. Furthermore, a full combinatorial treatment comprising functionalized scaffold implantation and cAMP administration was developed to evaluate the synergistic repair ability in a rat T10 complete removal spinal cord injury model. The results showed that full combinatorial therapy exhibited the greatest advantage in reducing the volume of cavitation, facilitating axonal regeneration, and promoting neuronal generation. The newborn neurons generated in the lesion area could form the neuronal relay and enhance the locomotion recovery after severe spinal cord injury. A porous collagen scaffold was specifically functionalized with neutralizing proteins and neurotrophic factors to antagonize the myelin inhibitory molecules and exert neurotrophic protection and stimulation for spinal cord regeneration. Cerebellar granular neurons seeded on the functionalized collagen scaffold showed enhanced neurite outgrowth ability in vitro. The functionalized scaffold implantation combined with cAMP administration exhibited synergistic repair ability for rat T10 complete spinal cord

  4. Regulation of the MAP kinase cascade in PC12 cells: B-Raf activates MEK-1 (MAP kinase or ERK kinase) and is inhibited by cAMP

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peraldi, P; Frödin, M; Barnier, J V

    1995-01-01

    abolished with B-Raf from PC12 cells treated with CPT-cAMP. Hence, these data indicate that the PKA-mediated phosphorylation of B-Raf hampers its interaction with p21ras, which is responsible for the PKA-mediated decrease in B-Raf activity. Finally, our work suggests that in PC12 cells, cAMP stimulates MAP......In PC12 cells, cAMP stimulates the MAP kinase pathway by an unknown mechanism. Firstly, we examined the role of calcium ion mobilization and of protein kinase C in cAMP-stimulated MAP kinase activation. We show that cAMP stimulates p44mapk independently of these events. Secondly, we studied......AMP inhibits B-Raf autokinase activity as well as its ability to phosphorylate and activate MEK-1. This inhibition is likely to be due to a direct effect since we found that PKA phosphorylates B-Raf in vitro. Further, we show that B-Raf binds to p21ras, but more important, this binding to p21ras is virtually...

  5. Histopathological, Microbiological, and Radiographic Analysis of Antimicrobial Photodynamic Therapy for the Treatment of Teeth with Apical Periodontitis: A Study in Rats' Molars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trindade, Alessandra Cesar; de Figueiredo, José Antônio Poli; de Oliveira, Sílvia Dias; Barth Junior, Valdir Cristóvão; Gallo, Stephanie Wagner; Follmann, Carina; Wolle, Carlos Frederico Brilhante; Steier, Liviu; Morgental, Renata Dornelles; Weber, João Batista Blessmann

    2017-07-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate in vivo, by histological and radiographic analysis, the response of apical tissues of rats' teeth with experimentally induced apical periodontitis, after one- and two-session endodontic treatment with and without photodynamic therapy (PDT). A microbiological analysis was also performed to verify bacterial reduction after each treatment. Studies carried out in recent years highlighted the antibacterial potential of PDT when associated with conventional endodontic therapy in vitro. Although the antimicrobial effect of PDT is well-established, tissue response to PDT in teeth with apical periodontitis lacks studies. Thirty-two rats' root canals were assigned to four groups: one session/PDT-[chemomechanical preparation (CMP)+root canal filling (RCF)]; two sessions/PDT- [CMP+calcium hydroxide (CH) for 14 days+RCF]; one session/PDT+ [CMP+PDT+RCF], and two sessions/PDT+ [CMP+PDT+CH for 14 days+RCF]. For microbiological evaluation, samples were collected before and after proposed treatments. For radiographic and histological analysis, the animals were euthanized after 28 days and the mandibles surgically removed. PDT associated with conventional endodontic therapy was able to promote significant bacterial reduction in root canals with induced apical periodontitis, but this reduction was not significantly different to conventional endodontic therapy alone. Although radiographic evaluation showed no significant differences, histological analysis showed lower scores for neutrophils/eosinophils in PDT-treated groups and macrophages/giant cells in CH groups. The use of low-level laser as light source did not promote major improvement on radiographic and histological repair, but since the number of inflammatory cells slightly decreased, it may optimize repair by modulating inflammatory process. PDT may be indicated as an adjunct to conventional endodontic therapy for teeth with apical periodontitis, in association with an interappointment

  6. Does apical membrane GLUT2 have a role in intestinal glucose uptake? [v1; ref status: indexed, http://f1000r.es/4w6

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard J Naftalin

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available It has been proposed that the non-saturable component of intestinal glucose absorption, apparent following prolonged exposure to high intraluminal glucose concentrations, is mediated via the low affinity glucose and fructose transporter, GLUT2, upregulated within the small intestinal apical border. The evidence that the non-saturable transport component is mediated via an apical membrane sugar transporter is that it is inhibited by phloretin, after exposure to phloridzin. Since the other apical membrane sugar transporter, GLUT5, is insensitive to inhibition by either cytochalasin B, or phloretin, GLUT2 was deduced to be the low affinity sugar transport route. As in its uninhibited state, polarized intestinal glucose absorption depends both on coupled entry of glucose and sodium across the brush border membrane and on the enterocyte cytosolic glucose concentration exceeding that in both luminal and submucosal interstitial fluids, upregulation of GLUT2 within the intestinal brush border will usually stimulate downhill glucose reflux to the intestinal lumen from the enterocytes; thereby reducing, rather than enhancing net glucose absorption across the luminal surface. These states are simulated with a computer model generating solutions to the differential equations for glucose, Na and water flows between luminal, cell, interstitial and capillary compartments. The model demonstrates that uphill glucose transport via SGLT1 into enterocytes, when short-circuited by any passive glucose carrier in the apical membrane, such as GLUT2, will reduce transcellular glucose absorption and thereby lead to increased paracellular flow. The model also illustrates that apical GLUT2 may usefully act as an osmoregulator to prevent excessive enterocyte volume change with altered luminal glucose concentrations.

  7. The Psychological Impact of First Burn Camp in Nicaragua.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tropez-Arceneaux, Lisa L; Castillo Alaniz, Arlen Tatiana; Lucia Icaza, Ivette; Alejandra Murillo, Evelyn

    Asociacion Pro-Ninos Quemados de Nicaragua (APROQUEN) is a comprehensive burn center that provides a holistic and integrated approach to treating burns. APROQUEN has set the standards internationally with acute treatment for burns, intensive care, reconstructive surgeries, nutritional care, rehabilitation, occupational therapy, and psychological treatment. APROQUEN is excelling within Central and South America with life-saving techniques and quality of care. It is imperative that burn centers in Central America recognize that the treatment of a child with a burn injury surpasses physical care to include psychological treatment for the complete well-being of the child. It is necessary to provide the tools necessary to reintegrate the child back into their environment. APROQUEN developed and implemented the first burn camp in Latin America, "Confio en Mi" (I trust myself). The camp theme focused on self-esteem. The camp program included theory (educational) and practice (applied) components where the campers through "classroom type" activities had the opportunity to reflect and share with other campers and camp staff on self-esteem, depression, and anxiety. Participants were children who survived major burns (N = 33; 58% women; ages 12-25; 61% <18) and were shown to have difficulty socializing. Comprehensive interviews were conducted to ensure fit for camp. Forty-two percent of the campers had not slept away from home since the burn injury. Mean TBSA = 20% and mean age at time of burn injury was 13. The majority of campers (46%) endured flame burn injuries, with 24% having scald injuries. Mean years postburn = 4.8 + 3.2. Most campers (40%) were enrolled in secondary school, 30% in elementary school, and 21% in college. Standardized measures (CDI-2 Parent Form and Child Form, Rosenberg Scale, APROQUEN Burn Camp Measure Parent and Child Form, Beck Anxiety Inventory, and Beck Depression Inventory) were given to all campers prior to attending camp. The same measures

  8. Camp Golden Treasures: a multidisciplinary weight-loss and a healthy lifestyle camp for adolescent girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratt, Keeley J; Lamson, Angela L; Collier, David N; Harris, Nancy; Ballard, Sharon; Saporito, Maria; Sarvey, Sharon; Gross, Kevin; Crawford, Yancey S

    2009-03-01

    Camp Golden Treasures, (CGT) the first non-profit weight loss camp for overweight adolescent girls in the nation, was held for six weeks from June 24 to August 3, 2007 at the East Carolina University campus in Greenville, NC. The primary goal was to support campers to lose weight, raise self esteem, and to learn the tools necessary to lead a healthy lifestyle while reducing risks for developing chronic disease or mitigating the effects of existing obesity-related conditions (sleep apnea, insulin resistance, hypertension, lower extremity dysfunction, etc.). While at CGT, campers learned about the importance of physical activity and proper nutrition through workshops, discussion groups and hands-on activities. Additionally campers were taught the necessary tools and strategies needed to make concrete, positive lifestyle changes so they can achieve a healthy weight. Due to the nature of a chronic disease such as obesity, multidisciplinary collaborators including physical therapy, nutrition, health education, management, family therapy, risk management, fundraising, public relations, medical, nursing, and physician coverage were involved in designing, planning, and implementing CGT.

  9. The role of gravity in apical dominance: effects of clinostating on shoot inversion-induced ethylene production, shoot elongation and lateral bud growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, T. K.; Cline, M. G.

    1987-01-01

    Shoot inversion-induced release of apical dominance in Pharbitis nil is inhibited by rotating the plant at 0.42 revolutions per minute in a vertical plane perpendicular to the axis of rotation of a horizontal clinostat. Clinostating prevented lateral bud outgrowth, apparently by negating the restriction of the shoot elongation via reduction of ethylene production in the inverted shoot. Radial stem expansion was also decreased. Data from experiments with intact tissue and isolated segments indicated that shoot-inversion stimulates ethylene production by increasing the activity of 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid synthase. The results support the hypothesis that shoot inversion-induced release of apical dominance in Pharbitis nil is due to gravity stress and is mediated by ethylene-induced retardation of the elongation of the inverted shoot.

  10. Left ventricular apical akinetic aneurysmatic area associated with permanent right ventricular apical pacing for advanced atrioventricular block: clinical characteristics and long-term outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yiu, Kai-Hang; Siu, Chung-Wah; Zhang, Xue-Hua; Wang, Mei; Lee, Kathy L F; Lau, Chu-Pak; Tse, Hung-Fat

    2011-04-01

    Right ventricular apical (RVA) pacing can induce left ventricular (LV) dyssynchrony and dysfunction. In this article, we describe the prevalence, clinical characteristics, and outcome in a subset of patients with unrecognized LV apical akinetic aneurysmatic area associated with permanent RVA pacing as potential causes of heart failure (HF) and/or ventricular tachyarrhythmias (VT). We retrospectively studied 220 patients with permanent RVA pacing and no pre-existing structural heart disease in our follow-up clinic for high-degree atrioventricular block. Patients who presented with new-onset HF, chest pain, or VT following RVA pacing were evaluated by echocardiogram and cardiac catheterization. RVA pacing-induced LV apical akinetic aneurysmatic area was diagnosed in the absence of significant coronary artery disease by left ventriculogram. After a mean 8.8 ± 6.3 years, eight patients (3.6%) had LV apical akinetic aneurysmatic area. Of those with LV apical akinetic aneurysmatic area, four patients presented with or died of VT. There was no evidence of LV apical akinetic aneurysmatic area on echocardiogram or left ventriculogram in the remaining 212 patients. The four patients with LV apical akinetic aneurysmatic area and HF underwent cardiac resynchronization therapy: in all cases LV ejection fraction improved (from 33 ± 6 to 47 ± 10%, P = 0.03), and LV apical akinetic aneurysmatic area resolved in two. Permanent RVA pacing for high-degree atrioventricular block is associated with LV apical akinetic aneurysmatic area. This condition was associated with a high incidence of VT and cardiovascular complication, but was possibly reversible with cardiac resynchronization therapy.

  11. Mineralocorticoids decrease the activity of the apical small-conductance K channel in the cortical collecting duct.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Yuan; Babilonia, Elisa; Sterling, Hyacinth; Jin, Yan; Wang, Wen-Hui

    2005-11-01

    We used the patch-clamp technique to examine the effect of DOCA treatment (2 mg/kg) on the apical small-conductance K (SK) channels, epithelial Na channels (ENaC), and the basolateral 18-pS K channels in the cortical collecting duct (CCD). Treatment of rats with DOCA for 6 days significantly decreased the plasma K from 3.8 to 3.1 meq and reduced the activity of the SK channel, defined as NP(o), from 1.3 in the CCD of control rats to 0.6. In contrast, DOCA treatment significantly increased ENaC activity from 0.01 to 0.53 and the basolateral 18-pS K channel activity from 0.67 to 1.63. Moreover, Western blot analysis revealed that DOCA treatment significantly increased the expression of the nonreceptor type of protein tyrosine kinase (PTK), cSrc, and the tyrosine phosphorylation of ROMK in the renal cortex and outer medulla. The possibility that decreases in apical SK channel activity induced by DOCA treatment were the result of stimulation of PTK activity was further supported by experiments in which inhibition of PTK with herbimycin A significantly increased NP(o) from 0.6 to 2.1 in the CCD from rats receiving DOCA. Also, when rats were fed a high-K (10%) diet, DOCA treatment did not increase the expression of c-Src and decrease the activity of the SK channel in the CCD. We conclude that DOCA treatment decreased the apical SK channel activity in rats on a normal-K diet and that an increase in PTK expression may be responsible for decreased channel activity in the CCD from DOCA-treated rats.

  12. Role of clinical tutors in volunteering work camps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alloni, Rossana; D'Elia, Annunziata; Navajas, Francisca; De Gara, Laura

    2014-04-01

    The Università Campus Bio-Medico (Italy) promotes a summer volunteering work camp (Workcamp Perù) as a social activity for medical and non-medical students. Some junior doctors participate as 'clinical tutors', together with tutors from other professions; all clinical tutors have some teaching experience in our teaching hospital. The campsite is located in the South of Peru in the Cañete Valley, an area characterised by extreme poverty and a severe lack of infrastructure. During the five Workcamp Perù trips that have been organised so far, health science students have carried out many activities for disease prevention and health education, and bio-medical engineering students have organised sessions on the safety of electrical installations, for accident prevention. We observed that in this setting tutorial activity is fundamental, because it not only offers students an opportunity to learn but also encourages them to react in a more personal and reflective manner to various stressful situations, which often occur in the work camp. The professional competence of the tutor plays an important role before the work camp, in defining the learning objectives for the students and involving them in training sessions held prior to the work camp. Also, during the camp, tutors work with students and also direct the daily briefing and debriefing sessions that are the most important learning activity. For medical tutors involved in the work camp the volunteering experience is a challenge for developing their specific professional and teaching skills, but it also provides an enriching experience in both professional and personal terms. We consider these work camps to be a useful experience in the training of our clinical tutors. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Children's Moderate to Vigorous Physical Activity Attending Summer Day Camps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brazendale, Keith; Beets, Michael W; Weaver, R Glenn; Chandler, Jessica L; Randel, Allison B; Turner-McGrievy, Gabrielle M; Moore, Justin B; Huberty, Jennifer L; Ward, Dianne S

    2017-07-01

    National physical activity standards call for all children to accumulate 60 minutes/day of moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA). The contribution of summer day camps toward meeting this benchmark is largely unknown. The purpose of this study was to provide estimates of children's MVPA during summer day camps. Children (n=1,061, 78% enrollment; mean age, 7.8 years; 46% female; 65% African American; 48% normal weight) from 20 summer day camps wore ActiGraph GT3x+ accelerometers on the wrist during camp hours for up to 4 non-consecutive days over the summer of 2015 (July). Accumulated MVPA at the 25th, 50th, and 75th percentile of the distribution was estimated using random-effects quantile regression. All models were estimated separately for boys and girls and controlled for wear time. Minutes of MVPA were dichotomized to ≥60 minutes/day of MVPA or summer day camps, boys (n=569) and girls (n=492) accumulated a median of 96 and 82 minutes/day of MVPA, respectively. The percentage of children meeting 60 minutes/day of MVPA was 80% (range, 41%-94%) for boys and 73% (range, 30%-97%) for girls. Summer day camps are a setting where a large portion of boys and girls meet daily physical activity guidelines. Public health practitioners should focus efforts on making summer day camps accessible for children in the U.S. Copyright © 2017 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Emergency Medicine Residency Boot Camp Curriculum: A Pilot Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ataya, Ramsey

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Establishing a boot camp curriculum is pertinent for emergency medicine (EM residents in order to develop proficiency in a large scope of procedures and leadership skills.  In this article, we describe our program’s EM boot camp curriculum as well as measure the confidence levels of resident physicians through a pre- and post-boot camp survey. Methods: We designed a one-month boot camp curriculum with the intention of improving the confidence, procedural performance, leadership, communication and resource management of EM interns. Our curriculum consisted of 12 hours of initial training and culminated in a two-day boot camp. The initial day consisted of clinical skill training and the second day included code drill scenarios followed by interprofessional debriefing.   Results: Twelve EM interns entered residency with an overall confidence score of 3.2 (1-5 scale across all surveyed skills. Interns reported the highest pre-survey confidence scores in suturing (4.3 and genitourinary exams (3.9. The lowest pre-survey confidence score was in thoracostomy (2.4. Following the capstone experience, overall confidence scores increased to 4.0. Confidence increased the most in defibrillation and thoracostomy. Additionally, all interns reported post-survey confidence scores of at least 3.0 in all skills, representing an internal anchor of “moderately confident/need guidance at times to perform procedure.” Conclusion: At the completion of the boot camp curriculum, EM interns had improvement in self-reported confidence across all surveyed skills and procedures. The described EM boot camp curriculum was effective, feasible and provided a foundation to our trainees during their first month of residency. [West J Emerg Med. 2015;16(2:356–361.

  15. Rho signaling pathway and apical constriction in the early lens placode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borges, Ricardo Moraes; Lamers, Marcelo Lazzaron; Forti, Fabio Luis; Santos, Marinilce Fagundes Dos; Yan, Chao Yun Irene

    2011-05-01

    Epithelial invagination in many model systems is driven by apical cell constriction, mediated by actin and myosin II contraction regulated by GTPase activity. Here we investigate apical constriction during chick lens placode invagination. Inhibition of actin polymerization and myosin II activity by cytochalasin D or blebbistatin prevents lens invagination. To further verify if lens placode invaginate through apical constriction, we analyzed the role of Rho-ROCK pathway. Rho GTPases expression at the apical portion of the lens placode occurs with the same dynamics as that of the cytoskeleton. Overexpression of the pan-Rho inhibitor C3 exotoxin abolished invagination and had a strong effect on apical myosin II enrichment and a mild effect on apical actin localization. In contrast, pharmacological inhibition of ROCK activity interfered significantly with apical enrichment of both actin and myosin. These results suggest that apical constriction in lens invagination involves ROCK but apical concentration of actin and myosin are regulated through different pathways upstream of ROCK. genesis 49:368-379, 2011. 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  16. MRCK-1 drives apical constriction in C. elegans by linking developmental patterning to force generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marston, Daniel J.; Higgins, Christopher D.; Peters, Kimberly A.; Cupp, Timothy D.; Dickinson, Daniel J.; Pani, Ariel M.; Moore, Regan P.; Cox, Amanda H.; Kiehart, Daniel P.; Goldstein, Bob

    2016-01-01

    Summary Apical constriction is a change in cell shape that drives key morphogenetic events including gastrulation and neural tube formation. Apical force-producing actomyosin networks drive apical constriction by contracting while connected to cell-cell junctions. The mechanisms by which developmental patterning regulates these actomyosin networks and associated junctions with spatial precision are not fully understood. Here, we identify a myosin light chain kinase MRCK-1 as a key regulator of C. elegans gastrulation that integrates spatial and developmental patterning information. We show that MRCK-1 is required for activation of contractile actomyosin dynamics and elevated cortical tension in the apical cell cortex of endodermal precursor cells. MRCK-1 is apically localized by active Cdc42 at the external, cell-cell contact-free surfaces of apically constricting cells, downstream of cell fate determination mechanisms. We establish that the junctional components α-catenin, β-catenin, and cadherin become highly enriched at the apical junctions of apically-constricting cells, and that MRCK-1 and myosin activity are required in vivo for this enrichment. Taken together, our results define mechanisms that position a myosin activator to a specific cell surface where it both locally increases cortical tension and locally enriches junctional components to facilitate apical constriction. These results reveal crucial links that can tie spatial information to local force generation to drive morphogenesis. PMID:27451898

  17. The PAR complex regulates pulsed actomyosin contractions during amnioserosa apical constriction in Drosophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    David, Daryl J V; Tishkina, Alisa; Harris, Tony J C

    2010-05-01

    Apical constriction is a major mechanism underlying tissue internalization during development. This cell constriction typically requires actomyosin contractility. Thus, understanding apical constriction requires characterization of the mechanics and regulation of actomyosin assemblies. We have analyzed the relationship between myosin and the polarity regulators Par-6, aPKC and Bazooka (Par-3) (the PAR complex) during amnioserosa apical constriction at Drosophila dorsal closure. The PAR complex and myosin accumulate at the apical surface domain of amnioserosa cells at dorsal closure, the PAR complex forming a patch of puncta and myosin forming an associated network. Genetic interactions indicate that the PAR complex supports myosin activity during dorsal closure, as well as during other steps of embryogenesis. We find that actomyosin contractility in amnioserosa cells is based on the repeated assembly and disassembly of apical actomyosin networks, with each assembly event driving constriction of the apical domain. As the networks assemble they translocate across the apical patch of PAR proteins, which persist at the apical domain. Through loss- and gain-of-function studies, we find that different PAR complex components regulate distinct phases of the actomyosin assembly/disassembly cycle: Bazooka promotes the duration of actomyosin pulses and Par-6/aPKC promotes the lull time between pulses. These results identify the mechanics of actomyosin contractility that drive amnioserosa apical constriction and how specific steps of the contractile mechanism are regulated by the PAR complex.

  18. Students' Perceptions of the Long-Term Impact of Attending a "CSI Science Camp"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanowitz, Karen L.

    2016-12-01

    A science summer camp is a popular type of informal science experience for youth. While there is no one model of a science camp, these experiences typically allow for more focused and in-depth exploration of different science domains and are usually hands-on and participatory. The goal of this research was to examine the impact of a short science camp program approximately 1 year after students attended the camp. Overall, the results revealed that attending a 2-day forensic science camp had a positive and continuing influence on the participants. Students' science self-efficacy increased immediately after attending the camp and remained higher than pre-camp levels approximately 1 year later. Students were able to articulate why they believed the camp had a long-term impact on their lives. Furthermore, participants attributed a higher level of engaging in additional informal STEM-related activities during the academic year as a result of attending the camp.

  19. A multisite evaluation of summer camps for children with cancer and their siblings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yelena P; McPhail, Jessica; Mooney, Ryan; Martiniuk, Alexandra; Amylon, Michael D

    2016-01-01

    Summer camps for pediatric cancer patients and their families are ubiquitous. However, there is relatively little research, particularly studies including more than one camp, documenting outcomes associated with children's participation in summer camp. The current cross-sectional study used a standardized measure to examine the role of demographic, illness, and camp factors in predicting children's oncology camp-related outcomes. In total, 2,114 children at 19 camps participated. Campers were asked to complete the pediatric camp outcome measure, which assesses camp-specific self-esteem, emotional, physical, and social functioning. Campers reported high levels of emotional, physical, social, and self-esteem functioning. There were differences in functioning based on demographic and illness characteristics, including gender, whether campers/siblings were on or off active cancer treatment, age, and number of prior years attending camp. Results indicated that summer camps can be beneficial for pediatric oncology patients and their siblings, regardless of demographic factors (e.g., gender, treatment status) and camp factors (e.g., whether camp sessions included patients only, siblings only, or both). Future work could advance the oncology summer camp literature by examining other outcomes linked to summer camp attendance, using longitudinal designs, and including comparison groups.

  20. A multisite evaluation of summer camps for children with cancer and their siblings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yelena P.; McPhail, Jessica; Mooney, Ryan; Martiniuk, Alexandra; Amylon, Michael D.

    2017-01-01

    Summer camps for pediatric cancer patients and their families are ubiquitous. However, there is relatively little research, particularly studies including more than one camp, documenting outcomes associated with children’s participation in summer camp. The current cross-sectional study used a standardized measure to examine the role of demographic, illness, and camp factors in predicting children’s oncology camp-related outcomes. In total, 2,114 children at 19 camps participated. Campers were asked to complete the pediatric camp outcome measure, which assesses camp-specific self-esteem, emotional, physical, and social functioning. Campers reported high levels of emotional, physical, social, and self-esteem functioning. There were differences in functioning based on demographic and illness characteristics, including gender, whether campers/siblings were on or off active cancer treatment, age, and number of prior years attending camp. Results indicated that summer camps can be beneficial for pediatric oncology patients and their siblings, regardless of demographic factors (e.g., gender, treatment status) and camp factors (e.g., whether camp sessions included patients only, siblings only, or both). Future work could advance the oncology summer camp literature by examining other outcomes linked to summer camp attendance, using longitudinal designs, and including comparison groups. PMID:27491385

  1. Evaluating the Effectiveness of the General Surgery Intern Boot Camp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoolfield, Clint S; Samra, Navdeep; Kim, Roger H; Shi, Runhua; Zhang, Wayne W; Tan, Tze-Woei

    2016-03-01

    The aim of our study is to evaluate the effectiveness of newly implemented general surgery intern boot camp. A 2-day didactic and skills-based intern boot camp was implemented before the start of clinical duties. Participants who did not attend all boot camp activities and had prior postgraduate training were excluded. A survey utilizing a 5-point Likert scale scoring system was used to assess the participants' confidence to perform intern-level tasks before and after the boot camp. Subgroup analyses were performed comparing changes in confidence among graduates from home institution versus others and general surgery versus other subspecialties. In the analysis, 21 participants over two years were included. Among them, 7 were graduates from home institution (4 general surgery, 3 subspecialty) and 14 were from other institutions (6 general surgery and 8 subspecialty). There were significant increases in overall confidence levels (pre = 2.79 vs post = 3.43, P surgery (2.78 vs 3.46, P = 0.001) and other specialties (2.74 vs 3.34, P surgery intern boot camp before the start of official rotation is effective in improving confidence level in performing level-appropriate tasks of the incoming new interns.

  2. The Popeye Domain Containing Genes and cAMP Signaling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Brand

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available 3'-5'-cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP is a second messenger, which plays an important role in the heart. It is generated in response to activation of G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs. Initially, it was thought that protein kinase A (PKA exclusively mediates cAMP-induced cellular responses such as an increase in cardiac contractility, relaxation, and heart rate. With the identification of the exchange factor directly activated by cAMP (EPAC and hyperpolarizing cyclic nucleotide-gated (HCN channels as cAMP effector proteins it became clear that a protein network is involved in cAMP signaling. The Popeye domain containing (Popdc genes encode yet another family of cAMP-binding proteins, which are prominently expressed in the heart. Loss-of-function mutations in mice are associated with cardiac arrhythmia and impaired skeletal muscle regeneration. Interestingly, the cardiac phenotype, which is present in both, Popdc1 and Popdc2 null mutants, is characterized by a stress-induced sinus bradycardia, suggesting that Popdc proteins participate in cAMP signaling in the sinuatrial node. The identification of the two-pore channel TREK-1 and Caveolin 3 as Popdc-interacting proteins represents a first step into understanding the mechanisms of heart rate modulation triggered by Popdc proteins.

  3. Transient left ventricular apical ballooning and exercise induced hypertension during treadmill exercise testing: is there a common hypersympathetic mechanism?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oh Jae K

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective To describe two cases of Takotsubo like myocardial contractile pattern during exercise stress test secondary to hypertensive response. Background Treadmill exercise testing is known to cause sympathetic stimulation, leading to increased levels of catecholamine, resulting in alteration in vascular tone. Hypertensive response during exercise testing can cause abnormal consequences, resulting in false positive results. Cases We present the cases of two patients experiencing apical and basal akinesis during exercise stress echocardiography, in whom normal wall motion response was observed on subsequent pharmacologic stress testing. The first patient developed transient left ventricular (LV apical akinesis during exercise stress echocardiography. Due to high suspicion that this abnormality might be secondary to hypertensive response, pharmacologic stress testing was performed after three days, which was completely normal and showed no such wall motion abnormality. Qualitative assessment of myocardial perfusion using contrast was also performed, which showed good myocardial blood flow, indicating low probability for significant obstructive coronary artery disease. The second patient developed LV basal akinesis as a result of hypertensive response during exercise testing. Coronary angiogram was not performed in either patient due to low suspicion for coronary artery disease, and subsequently negative stress studies. Results Transient stress induced cardiomyopathy can develop secondary to hypertensive response during exercise stress testing. Conclusion These cases provide supporting evidence to the hyper-sympathetic theory of left ventricular ballooning syndrome.

  4. Apical root-end filling with tricalcium silicate-based cement in a patient with diabetes mellitus: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biočanin Vladimir

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The material used for root-end filling has to be biocompatible with adjacent periapical tissue and to stimulate its regenerative processes. Tricalcium silicate cement (TSC, as a new dental material, shows good sealing properties with dentin, high compression strengths and better marginal adaptation than commonly used root-end filling materials. Although optimal postoperative healing of periapical tissues is mainly influenced by characteristics of end-root material used, it could sometimes be affected by the influence of systemic diseases, such as diabetes mellitus (DM. Case report. We presented apical healing of the upper central incisor, retrofilled with TSC, in a diabetic patient (type 2 DM with peripheral neuropathy. Standard root-end resection of upper central incisor was accompanied by retropreparation using ultrasonic retrotips to the depth of 3 mm and retrofilling with TSC. Post-operatively, the surgical wound healed uneventfully. However, the patient reported undefined dull pain in the operated area that could possibly be attributed to undiagnosed intraoral diabetic peripheral neuropathy, what was evaluated clinically. Conclusion. Although TSC presents a suitable material for apical root-end filling in the treatment of chronic periradicular lesions a possible presence of systemic diseases, like type 2 DM, has to be considered in the treatment outcome estimation.

  5. Direct Light-up of cAMP Derivatives in Living Cells by Click Reactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Xu

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available 8-Azidoadenosine 3′,5′-cyclic monophosphate (8-azido cAMP was directly detected in living cells, by applying Cu-free azide-alkyne cycloaddition to probe cAMP derivatives by fluorescence light-up. Fluorescence emission was generated by two non-fluorescent molecules, 8-azido cAMP as a model target and difluorinated cyclooctyne (DIFO reagent as a probe. The azide-alkyne cycloaddition reaction between 8-azido cAMP and DIFO induces fluorescence in 8-azido cAMP. The fluorescence emission serves as a way to probe 8-azido cAMP in cells.

  6. Influence of Different Apical Preparations on Root Canal Cleanliness in Human Molars: a SEM Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gianluca Plotino

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To compare the influence of type and dimensions of the apical preparation on the cleanliness of the apical area in molars. Material and Methods: A total of 120 root canals (MB and DB root canals from 30 maxillary molars and mesial root canals from 30 mandibular molars were instrumented with Mtwo NiTi rotary instruments to a size 25/0.06 taper and were equally divided into three different experimental groups depending on the subsequently apical root canal preparation: Group 1: no further apical preparation, Group 2: apical preparation with Mtwo files to a size 40/0.04 taper, Group 3: apical preparation with Mtwo Apical Files. All root canals were observed through scanning electron microscopy (SEM. Presence of superficial debris and smear layer was evaluated using a score system. Data were statistically analysed using the Kruskal-Wallis and Bonferroni tests with a level of significance set at P 0.05, while at the apical level, there was a significant difference for both residual debris and presence of smear layer between Group 1 and both Group 2 (P = 0.003 and P = 0.014 and 3 (P = 0.012 and P = 0.021, while no difference was present between Group 2 and Group 3 (P = 0.871 and P = 0.923. Conclusions: Cleanliness of the apical third in terms of debris and smear layer was statistically better when an apical preparation was performed to a size 40/0.04 taper or with the use of the Mtwo Apical Files.

  7. Cell-Autonomous Ca2+ Flashes Elicit Pulsed Contractions of an Apical Actin Network to Drive Apical Constriction during Neural Tube Closure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neophytos Christodoulou

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Neurulation is a critical period in all vertebrates and results in the formation of the neural tube, which gives rise to the CNS. Apical constriction is one of the fundamental morphogenetic movements that drives neural tube closure. Using live imaging, we show that apical constriction during the neurulation is a stepwise process driven by cell-autonomous and asynchronous contraction pulses followed by stabilization steps. Our data suggest that contraction events are triggered by cell-autonomous Ca2+ flashes and are driven by a transient contractile apical pool of actin. In addition, we provide evidence that the cell autonomy and asynchrony of contraction are required for the correct spatial distribution of constriction and, as a result, are critical for tissue morphogenesis. Finally, we identify Calpain2 as a regulator of apical constriction and show that it is required for the stabilization step, but is dispensable during contraction.

  8. Cell-Autonomous Ca(2+) Flashes Elicit Pulsed Contractions of an Apical Actin Network to Drive Apical Constriction during Neural Tube Closure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christodoulou, Neophytos; Skourides, Paris A

    2015-12-15

    Neurulation is a critical period in all vertebrates and results in the formation of the neural tube, which gives rise to the CNS. Apical constriction is one of the fundamental morphogenetic movements that drives neural tube closure. Using live imaging, we show that apical constriction during the neurulation is a stepwise process driven by cell-autonomous and asynchronous contraction pulses followed by stabilization steps. Our data suggest that contraction events are triggered by cell-autonomous Ca(2+) flashes and are driven by a transient contractile apical pool of actin. In addition, we provide evidence that the cell autonomy and asynchrony of contraction are required for the correct spatial distribution of constriction and, as a result, are critical for tissue morphogenesis. Finally, we identify Calpain2 as a regulator of apical constriction and show that it is required for the stabilization step, but is dispensable during contraction. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. growth stimulant

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effects of timing and duration of supplementation of LIVFIT VET ® (growth stimulant) as substitute for fish meal on the growth performance, haematology and clinical enzymes concentration of growing pigs.

  10. Effects of the vasopressin agonist terlipressin on plasma cAMP and ENaC excretion in the urine in patients with cirrhosis and water retention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krag, Aleksander; Pedersen, Erling Bjerregaard; Møller, Søren

    2011-01-01

    Terlipressin is a vasopressin analogue used for its potent V1a effects in cirrhotic patients. Recent data suggest that terlipressin has affinity to renal V2 receptors and modulates Aquaporin 2 (AQP2) expression and free water clearance. Stimulation of renal V2 receptors may also affect sodium tra...... transport via the Epithelial Sodium Channel (ENaC). Furthermore, endothelial V2 receptors may indirectly affect proximal sodium handling by increasing plasma cAMP....

  11. Congenital left ventricular apical aneurysm presenting as ventricular tachycardia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amado, José; Marques, Nuno; Candeias, Rui; Gago, Paula; de Jesus, Ilídio

    2016-10-01

    The authors present the case of a 34-year-old male patient seen in our department due to palpitations. On the electrocardiogram monomorphic ventricular tachycardia (VT) was documented, treated successfully with amiodarone. The subsequent study revealed a normal echocardiogram and an apical aneurysm of the left ventricle on magnetic resonance imaging, confirmed by computed tomography coronary angiography that also excluded coronary disease. He underwent an electrophysiological study to determine the origin of the VT and to perform catheter ablation using electroanatomical mapping. VT was induced and radiofrequency applications were performed in the left ventricular aneurysm area. VT was no longer inducible, with acute success. Despite this it was decided to implant a subcutaneous implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD). Eight months after the ablation the patient was admitted again due to VT, treated by the ICD. Copyright © 2016 Sociedade Portuguesa de Cardiologia. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  12. Endocytosis is required for efficient apical constriction during Xenopus gastrulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jen-Yi; Harland, Richard M

    2010-02-09

    Coordinated apical constriction (AC) in epithelial sheets drives tissue invagination [1, 2] and is required for diverse morphogenetic movements such as gastrulation [3], neurulation [4, 5], and organogenesis [6]. We showed previously that actomyosin contractility drives AC in Xenopus laevis bottle cells [7]; however, it remained unclear whether it does so in concert with other processes. Here we report that endocytosis-driven membrane remodeling is required for efficient AC. We found endosomes exclusively in bottle cells in the early gastrula. Disrupting endocytosis with dominant-negative dynamin or rab5 perturbed AC, with a significant decrease in constriction rate late in the process, suggesting that endocytosis operates downstream of actomyosin contractility to remove excess membrane. Additionally, disrupting endocytosis during neurulation inhibits AC in hingepoint cells, resulting in neural tube closure defects. Thus, membrane remodeling during AC could be a general mechanism to achieve efficient invagination in embryos.

  13. Optogenetic inhibition of apical constriction during Drosophila embryonic development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guglielmi, G; De Renzis, S

    2017-01-01

    Morphogenesis of multicellular organisms is driven by changes in cell behavior, which happen at precise locations and defined developmental stages. Therefore, the studying of morphogenetic events would greatly benefit from tools that allow the perturbation of cell activity with spatial and temporal precision. We recently developed an optogenetic approach to modulate cell contractility with cellular precision and on fast (seconds) timescales during Drosophila embryogenesis. We present here a protocol to handle genetically engineered photosensitive Drosophila embryos and achieve light-mediated inhibition of apical constriction during tissue invagination. The possibility to modulate the levels of optogenetic activation at different laser powers makes this method suited also for studying how mechanical stresses are sensed and interpreted in vivo. Given the conserved function of cell contractility during animal development, the application of this method to other morphogenetic processes will facilitate our understanding of tissue mechanics and cell-cell interaction during morphogenesis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Serious arrhythmias in patients with apical hypertrophic cardiomyopathy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okishige, Kaoru; Sasano, Tetsuo; Yano, Kei; Azegami, Kouji; Suzuki, Kou; Itoh, Kuniyasu [Yokohama Red Cross Hospital (Japan)

    2001-05-01

    We report cases of serious arrhythmias associated with apical hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (AHCM). Thirty-one patients were referred to our institute to undergo further assessment of their AHCM from 1988 to 1999. Three patients with nonsustained ventricular tachycardia demonstrated an {sup 123}I-MIBG regional reduction in the tracer uptake. In two patients with ventricular fibrillation (VF), the findings from {sup 123}I-MIBG imaging revealed regional sympathetic denervation in the inferior and lateral regions. Electrophysiologic study demonstrated reproducible induction of VF in aborted sudden death and presyncopal patients, resulting in the need for an implantable defibrillator device and amiodarone in each patient. Patients with refractory atrial fibrillation with a rapid ventricular response suffered from serious congestive heart failure. A prudent assessment and strategy in patients with this disease would be indispensable in avoiding a disastrous outcome. (author)

  15. Geometry of shoot apical dome and distribution of growth rates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerzy Nakielski

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The distribution of the relative elementary rate of growth (RERG in apical domes of various shapes and patterns of displacement lines can be analytically examined. The geometry of these domes may be described by parabolas of n-th order, the variant of the distribution of linear growth rate should be established along any displacement line (e.g. along the axis and then the RERG can be studied as the function depending on the position coordinates and the parameter n. Such investigations of several aplical domes of various shapes have been performed. The results confirm the occurrence of the minimum of relative, elementary growth rate (in volume in the subapical region of the dome independently of the type of geometry (n parabola order.

  16. Propranolol Targets Hemangioma Stem Cells via cAMP and Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase Regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munabi, Naikhoba C O; England, Ryan W; Edwards, Andrew K; Kitajewski, Alison A; Tan, Qian Kun; Weinstein, Andrew; Kung, Justin E; Wilcox, Maya; Kitajewski, Jan K; Shawber, Carrie J; Wu, June K

    2016-01-01

    Infantile hemangiomas (IHs) are the most common vascular tumor and arise from a hemangioma stem cell (HemSC). Propranolol has proved efficacious for problematic IHs. Propranolol is a nonselective β-adrenergic receptor (βAR) antagonist that can lower cAMP levels and activate the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway downstream of βARs. We found that HemSCs express β1AR and β2AR in proliferating IHs and determined the role of these βARs and the downstream pathways in mediating propranolol's effects. In isolated HemSCs, propranolol suppressed cAMP levels and activated extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK)1/2 in a dose-dependent fashion. Propranolol, used at doses of Propranolol at ≥10(-5) M reduced cAMP levels and activated ERK1/2, and this correlated with HemSC apoptosis and cytotoxicity at ≥10(-4) M. Stimulation with a βAR agonist, isoprenaline, promoted HemSC proliferation and rescued the antiproliferative effects of propranolol, suggesting that propranolol inhibits βAR signaling in HemSCs. Treatment with a cAMP analog or a MAPK inhibitor partially rescued the HemSC cell viability suppressed by propranolol. A selective β2AR antagonist mirrored propranolol's effects on HemSCs in a dose-dependent fashion, and a selective β1AR antagonist had no effect, supporting a role for β2AR signaling in IH pathobiology. In a mouse model of IH, propranolol reduced the vessel caliber and blood flow assessed by ultrasound Doppler and increased activation of ERK1/2 in IH cells. We have thus demonstrated that propranolol acts on HemSCs in IH to suppress proliferation and promote apoptosis in a dose-dependent fashion via β2AR perturbation, resulting in reduced cAMP and MAPK activation. The present study investigated the action of propranolol in infantile hemangiomas (IHs). IHs are the most common vascular tumor in children and have been proposed to arise from a hemangioma stem cell (HemSC). Propranolol, a nonselective β-adrenergic receptor (

  17. Cell-Autonomous Ca2+ Flashes Elicit Pulsed Contractions of an Apical Actin Network to Drive Apical Constriction during Neural Tube Closure

    OpenAIRE

    Christodoulou, Neophytos; Skourides, Paris A.

    2015-01-01

    Neurulation is a critical period in all vertebrates and results in the formation of the neural tube, which gives rise to the CNS. Apical constriction is one of the fundamental morphogenetic movements that drives neural tube closure. Using live imaging, we show that apical constriction during the neurulation is a stepwise process driven by cell-autonomous and asynchronous contraction pulses followed by stabilization steps. Our data suggest that contraction events are triggered by cell-autonomo...

  18. Revascularization of immature permanent teeth with apical periodontitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno-Hidalgo, M C; Caleza-Jimenez, C; Mendoza-Mendoza, A; Iglesias-Linares, A

    2014-04-01

    The aim of this minireview was to identify and review the scientific evidence regarding regenerative endodontic protocols claiming to revascularize permanent immature teeth with apical periodontitis. The literature was identified using the PubMed/MEDLINE, Scopus, Scirus, EMBASE and Cochrane databases up to February 2013. Studies were selected independently by two different researchers (kappa index: 0.88), based on established inclusion/exclusion criteria. The methodological quality of the reviewed papers was classified as high, medium or low (HQ, MQ, LQ). The search strategy identified 285 titles. Nine studies, both human and animal based, were selected after application of the criteria (LQ:5; MQ:4). In most of these studies (seven of nine), the revascularization protocol included a triple antibiotic combination as canal disinfectant for a period of 1-4 weeks after blood clot formation (LQ:5; MQ:4), although there is no clear consensus about the treatment protocol. Two studies reported tooth discoloration after the revascularization process (LQ:2), and only three (LQ:1; MQ:2) reported a success rate of 54.9% in dogs and 73.6% and 80% in humans, respectively. Revascularization of immature permanent teeth with apical periodontitis is possible and preferable to apexification. Nevertheless, there is a widespread lack of randomized clinical trials and blinded measures. In addition, the small sample sizes that are common in these studies as well as the generally low quality of the analysed publications require the results to be viewed with caution. There is a high risk of bias, with a low quality of available information, for developing clinical guidelines for regenerative endodontic protocols; rigorous randomized clinical trials are therefore needed. © 2013 International Endodontic Journal. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Cytokinins in shoot apices of Brassica napus plants during vernalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarkowská, Danuše; Filek, Maria; Biesaga-Kościelniak, Jolanta; Marcińska, Izabela; Macháčková, Ivana; Krekule, Jan; Strnad, Miroslav

    2012-05-01

    The putative role of cytokinins in processes leading to reproductive development of plants was investigated by analysing the shoot apical parts of a winter cultivar of oilseed rape (Brassica napus L. var. oleifera, cv. Górczański). The endogenous cytokinin levels were measured by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS) in the shoot apices of vegetative plants (grown at 20/17°C with a 16/8h day/night regime) and vernalized plants (56 days at 5/2°C with a 16/8h photoperiod) at different times during floral transition. During vernalization, the content of all isoprenoid cytokinins increased significantly, coinciding well with the onset of the early stages of reproductive development. Cytokinin levels reached their maxima when most of the plants became irreversibly reproductive (after 42 days of cold treatment). cis-Zeatin riboside (unequivocally identified by quadrupole-time-of-flight MS) accounted for ca. 87-89% of the total isoprenoid cytokinin content in control and vernalized plants, whilst N(6)-isopentenyladenosine ( approximately 6% in control and approximately 8% in vernalized plants) and cis-zeatin (approxiamtely 2% in control and approximately 1% in vernalized plants) were the next most abundant cytokinins. In the post-vernalization period, endogenous cytokinin levels decreased, but remained significantly higher in the reproductive plants than in the vegetative controls. These results suggest that cytokinins, especially those of the cis-zeatin type, are involved in vernalization-induced reproductive development of B. napus. © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Camp as a Teaching Method in Health Education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ringby, Betina

    Background Camp as a learning activity was introduced in entrepreneurship teaching. Students were engaged to get experiences on how to cope with uncertainty, complexity and to take action in collaboration with external partners. Relevance Society calls for creative and innovative health professio......Background Camp as a learning activity was introduced in entrepreneurship teaching. Students were engaged to get experiences on how to cope with uncertainty, complexity and to take action in collaboration with external partners. Relevance Society calls for creative and innovative health...... and concentration. Responsibility of own and others' learning process in combination with a professional focus seemed to ensure and maintain students’ motivation. Furthermore, CAMP was experienced as a self-governing and dialogue-based way of learning. Conclusions The result comprises important issues of interest...

  1. GIS IN EDUCATION: ESRI SUMMER CAMP FOR SECONDARY SCHOOLS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maxime Rwaka

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Since 2007, Esri is supporting GIS education in Secondary Schools. From 2009 until today, 2000 pupils have learned GIS but they do not have time and means to link what they learn at school to the reality on the ground. It is therefore difficult for them to plan for a career in the GIS field. It is in that perspective that Esri has organized Summer Camps each year since 2008 with the objective of connecting pupils with GIS professionals by doing a real GIS project and achieve results that are beneficial for both students and professionals from partner institutions. The Summer Camp last for one week, during which pupils collect geographic and attribute data with GPS and questionnaires, prepare, edit, analyse and visualize collected data using GIS. They finally learn how to present and publish the result. This presentation will give an overview of topics, results and benefit of Summer Camps carried out for the last 6 years.

  2. Investigation of Sylvatic Typhus at a Wilderness Camp

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2009-06-30

    In this podcast, Dr. Greg Dasch discusses an outbreak of four cases of sylvatic typhus that occurred at a wilderness camp in Pennsylvania. Sylvatic typhus is very rare in the United States, with only 41 cases since it was discovered in the United States in 1975. Lab work at CDC and the discovery that all four camp counselors who became ill had slept in the same bunk at the camp between 2004 and 2006 ultimately led to confirmation that flying squirrels living in the wall of the cabin were to blame for the illnesses.  Created: 6/30/2009 by Emerging Infectious Diseases.   Date Released: 6/30/2009.

  3. Camp jump start: effects of a residential summer weight-loss camp for older children and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huelsing, Jean; Kanafani, Nadim; Mao, Jingnan; White, Neil H

    2010-04-01

    Residential weight-loss camps offer an opportunity for overweight and obese children to lose weight in a medically safe, supervised, supportive environment. The purpose of this report is to describe short-term outcomes in 76 children participating in a 4- or 8-week residential weight-loss camp for children and adolescents. The camp program enrolled obese 10- to 18-year-old adolescents. The program consisted of structured and nonstructured physical activities and group educational sessions covering nutrition, physical fitness, and self-esteem. A diet plan of 3 balanced meals and 2 snacks per day was prepared under the supervision of a registered dietitian. Participants had height, weight, and blood pressure measured and performed a 1-mile run at maximum effort on an outdoor track. For all campers, statistically significant (P camps are highly effective in improving measures of health and fitness among overweight and obese children and adolescents. Additional study is needed on the long-term effects of such camps in terms of weight maintenance, behavior change, and metabolic and health outcomes.

  4. Advances in Pediatric Cardiology Boot Camp: Boot Camp Training Promotes Fellowship Readiness and Enables Retention of Knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceresnak, Scott R; Axelrod, David M; Sacks, Loren D; Motonaga, Kara S; Johnson, Emily R; Krawczeski, Catherine D

    2017-03-01

    We previously demonstrated that a pediatric cardiology boot camp can improve knowledge acquisition and decrease anxiety for trainees. We sought to determine if boot camp participants entered fellowship with a knowledge advantage over fellows who did not attend and if there was moderate-term retention of that knowledge. A 2-day training program was provided for incoming pediatric cardiology fellows from eight fellowship programs in April 2016. Hands-on, immersive experiences and simulations were provided in all major areas of pediatric cardiology. Knowledge-based examinations were completed by each participant prior to boot camp (PRE), immediately post-training (POST), and prior to the start of fellowship in June 2016 (F/U). A control group of fellows who did not attend boot camp also completed an examination prior to fellowship (CTRL). Comparisons of scores were made for individual participants and between participants and controls. A total of 16 participants and 16 control subjects were included. Baseline exam scores were similar between participants and controls (PRE 47 ± 11% vs. CTRL 52 ± 10%; p = 0.22). Participants' knowledge improved with boot camp training (PRE 47 ± 11% vs. POST 70 ± 8%; p cardiology knowledge after the training program and had excellent moderate-term retention of that knowledge. Participants began fellowship with a larger fund of knowledge than those fellows who did not attend.

  5. The role of concentration camps in the policies of the independent state of Croatia (NDH) in 1941

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Koljanin Milan

    2015-01-01

    .... After the outbreak of a mass Serb uprising and the dissolution of the Gospić camp, a new and much larger system of camps centred at Jasenovac operated as an extermination and concentration camp from the end of August...

  6. Nectin-2 and N-cadherin interact through extracellular domains and induce apical accumulation of F-actin in apical constriction of Xenopus neural tube morphogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morita, Hitoshi; Nandadasa, Sumeda; Yamamoto, Takamasa S; Terasaka-Iioka, Chie; Wylie, Christopher; Ueno, Naoto

    2010-04-01

    Neural tube formation is one of the most dynamic morphogenetic processes of vertebrate development. However, the molecules regulating its initiation are mostly unknown. Here, we demonstrated that nectin-2, an immunoglobulin-like cell adhesion molecule, is involved in the neurulation of Xenopus embryos in cooperation with N-cadherin. First, we found that, at the beginning of neurulation, nectin-2 was strongly expressed in the superficial cells of neuroepithelium. The knockdown of nectin-2 impaired neural fold formation by attenuating F-actin accumulation and apical constriction, a cell-shape change that is required for neural tube folding. Conversely, the overexpression of nectin-2 in non-neural ectoderm induced ectopic apical constrictions with accumulated F-actin. However, experiments with domain-deleted nectin-2 revealed that the intracellular afadin-binding motif, which links nectin-2 and F-actin, was not required for the generation of the ectopic apical constriction. Furthermore, we found that nectin-2 physically interacts with N-cadherin through extracellular domains, and they cooperatively enhanced apical constriction by driving the accumulation of F-actin at the apical cell surface. Interestingly, the accumulation of N-cadherin at the apical surface of neuroepithelium was dependent on the presence of nectin-2, but that of nectin-2 was not affected by depletion of N-cadherin. We propose a novel mechanism of neural tube morphogenesis regulated by the two types of cell adhesion molecules.

  7. Nectin-2 and N-cadherin interact through extracellular domains and induce apical accumulation of F-actin in apical constriction of Xenopus neural tube morphogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morita, Hitoshi; Nandadasa, Sumeda; Yamamoto, Takamasa S.; Terasaka-Iioka, Chie; Wylie, Christopher; Ueno, Naoto

    2010-01-01

    Neural tube formation is one of the most dynamic morphogenetic processes of vertebrate development. However, the molecules regulating its initiation are mostly unknown. Here, we demonstrated that nectin-2, an immunoglobulin-like cell adhesion molecule, is involved in the neurulation of Xenopus embryos in cooperation with N-cadherin. First, we found that, at the beginning of neurulation, nectin-2 was strongly expressed in the superficial cells of neuroepithelium. The knockdown of nectin-2 impaired neural fold formation by attenuating F-actin accumulation and apical constriction, a cell-shape change that is required for neural tube folding. Conversely, the overexpression of nectin-2 in non-neural ectoderm induced ectopic apical constrictions with accumulated F-actin. However, experiments with domain-deleted nectin-2 revealed that the intracellular afadin-binding motif, which links nectin-2 and F-actin, was not required for the generation of the ectopic apical constriction. Furthermore, we found that nectin-2 physically interacts with N-cadherin through extracellular domains, and they cooperatively enhanced apical constriction by driving the accumulation of F-actin at the apical cell surface. Interestingly, the accumulation of N-cadherin at the apical surface of neuroepithelium was dependent on the presence of nectin-2, but that of nectin-2 was not affected by depletion of N-cadherin. We propose a novel mechanism of neural tube morphogenesis regulated by the two types of cell adhesion molecules. PMID:20332149

  8. Differential regulation of cardiac excitation–contraction coupling by cAMP phosphodiesterase subtypes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mika, Delphine; Bobin, Pierre; Pomérance, Martine; Lechêne, Patrick; Westenbroek, Ruth E.; Catterall, William A.; Vandecasteele, Grégoire; Leroy, Jérôme; Fischmeister, Rodolphe

    2013-01-01

    Aims Multiple phosphodiesterases (PDEs) hydrolyze cAMP in cardiomyocytes, but the functional significance of this diversity is not well understood. Our goal here was to characterize the involvement of three different PDEs (PDE2–4) in cardiac excitation–contraction coupling (ECC). Methods and results Sarcomere shortening and Ca2+ transients were recorded simultaneously in adult rat ventricular myocytes and ECC protein phosphorylation by PKA was determined by western blot analysis. Under basal conditions, selective inhibition of PDE2 or PDE3 induced a small but significant increase in Ca2+ transients, sarcomere shortening, and troponin I phosphorylation, whereas PDE4 inhibition had no effect. PDE3 inhibition, but not PDE2 or PDE4, increased phospholamban phosphorylation. Inhibition of either PDE2, 3, or 4 increased phosphorylation of the myosin-binding protein C, but neither had an effect on L-type Ca2+ channel or ryanodine receptor phosphorylation. Dual inhibition of PDE2 and PDE3 or PDE2 and PDE4 further increased ECC compared with individual PDE inhibition, but the most potent combination was obtained when inhibiting simultaneously PDE3 and PDE4. This combination also induced a synergistic induction of ECC protein phosphorylation. Submaximal β-adrenergic receptor stimulation increased ECC, and this effect was potentiated by individual PDE inhibition with the rank order of potency PDE4 = PDE3 > PDE2. Identical results were obtained on ECC protein phosphorylation. Conclusion Our results demonstrate that PDE2, PDE3, and PDE4 differentially regulate ECC in adult cardiomyocytes. PDE2 and PDE3 play a more prominent role than PDE4 in regulating basal cardiac contraction and Ca2+ transients. However, PDE4 becomes determinant when cAMP levels are elevated, for instance, upon β-adrenergic stimulation or PDE3 inhibition. PMID:23933582

  9. Differential regulation of cardiac excitation-contraction coupling by cAMP phosphodiesterase subtypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mika, Delphine; Bobin, Pierre; Pomérance, Martine; Lechêne, Patrick; Westenbroek, Ruth E; Catterall, William A; Vandecasteele, Grégoire; Leroy, Jérôme; Fischmeister, Rodolphe

    2013-11-01

    Multiple phosphodiesterases (PDEs) hydrolyze cAMP in cardiomyocytes, but the functional significance of this diversity is not well understood. Our goal here was to characterize the involvement of three different PDEs (PDE2-4) in cardiac excitation-contraction coupling (ECC). Sarcomere shortening and Ca(2+) transients were recorded simultaneously in adult rat ventricular myocytes and ECC protein phosphorylation by PKA was determined by western blot analysis. Under basal conditions, selective inhibition of PDE2 or PDE3 induced a small but significant increase in Ca(2+) transients, sarcomere shortening, and troponin I phosphorylation, whereas PDE4 inhibition had no effect. PDE3 inhibition, but not PDE2 or PDE4, increased phospholamban phosphorylation. Inhibition of either PDE2, 3, or 4 increased phosphorylation of the myosin-binding protein C, but neither had an effect on L-type Ca(2+) channel or ryanodine receptor phosphorylation. Dual inhibition of PDE2 and PDE3 or PDE2 and PDE4 further increased ECC compared with individual PDE inhibition, but the most potent combination was obtained when inhibiting simultaneously PDE3 and PDE4. This combination also induced a synergistic induction of ECC protein phosphorylation. Submaximal β-adrenergic receptor stimulation increased ECC, and this effect was potentiated by individual PDE inhibition with the rank order of potency PDE4 = PDE3 > PDE2. Identical results were obtained on ECC protein phosphorylation. Our results demonstrate that PDE2, PDE3, and PDE4 differentially regulate ECC in adult cardiomyocytes. PDE2 and PDE3 play a more prominent role than PDE4 in regulating basal cardiac contraction and Ca(2+) transients. However, PDE4 becomes determinant when cAMP levels are elevated, for instance, upon β-adrenergic stimulation or PDE3 inhibition.

  10. Healthcare needs of displaced women: Osire refugee camp, Namibia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinehas, Lusia N; van Wyk, Neltjie C; Leech, Ronell

    2016-03-01

    The aim of this study was to explore and describe the experiences of healthcare needs of displaced women in the Osire refugee camp in Namibia. Namibia is a country where displaced people from other African countries seek refuge as a result of their own country's political instability. All displaced people are hosted in the Osire camp, which is a highly protected area. There are more women than men in the camp and their health is often compromised. In this descriptive phenomenological study, the natural dimension of the experiences of the participants of their healthcare needs were explored through in-depth interviews and reflected upon through transcendental processes to formulate the phenomenological dimension thereof. The essence of displaced women's healthcare needs was "the need for the restoration of hope and human dignity". Their needs refer to measures to enhance their autonomy and freedom; skills training; certainty about their future; security with aid distribution; protection against stigmatization due to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection; protection against abuse; and participation in reproductive health care. When displaced women are admitted in a camp they lose their freedom to make decisions about everyday functioning and future. They thus develop feelings of insecurity and vulnerability. The participants referred to several factors that were detrimental for their well-being. The essence of their needs was "the need for the restoration of hope and human dignity" that could only be achieved when their needs are addressed. As nurses are in close contact with displaced women in refugee camps they should negotiate opportunities for the women to discuss their concerns with the camp officials. Policies should make provision for the involvement of displaced people in all aspects that relate to their everyday and future living arrangements. © 2016 International Council of Nurses.

  11. Modulation of apical constriction by Wnt signaling is required for lung epithelial shape transition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fumoto, Katsumi; Takigawa-Imamura, Hisako; Sumiyama, Kenta; Kaneiwa, Tomoyuki; Kikuchi, Akira

    2017-01-01

    In lung development, the apically constricted columnar epithelium forms numerous buds during the pseudoglandular stage. Subsequently, these epithelial cells change shape into the flat or cuboidal pneumocytes that form the air sacs during the canalicular and saccular (canalicular-saccular) stages, yet the impact of cell shape on tissue morphogenesis remains unclear. Here, we show that the expression of Wnt components is decreased in the canalicular-saccular stages, and that genetically constitutive activation of Wnt signaling impairs air sac formation by inducing apical constriction in the epithelium as seen in the pseudoglandular stage. Organ culture models also demonstrate that Wnt signaling induces apical constriction through apical actomyosin cytoskeletal organization. Mathematical modeling reveals that apical constriction induces bud formation and that loss of apical constriction is required for the formation of an air sac-like structure. We identify MAP/microtubule affinity-regulating kinase 1 (Mark1) as a downstream molecule of Wnt signaling and show that it is required for apical cytoskeletal organization and bud formation. These results suggest that Wnt signaling is required for bud formation by inducing apical constriction during the pseudoglandular stage, whereas loss of Wnt signaling is necessary for air sac formation in the canalicular-saccular stages. © 2017. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  12. Lulu regulates Shroom-induced apical constriction during neural tube closure.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chih-Wen Chu

    Full Text Available Apical constriction is an essential cell behavior during neural tube closure, but its underlying mechanisms are not fully understood. Lulu, or EPB4.1l5, is a FERM domain protein that has been implicated in apical constriction and actomyosin contractility in mouse embryos and cultured cells. Interference with the function of Lulu in Xenopus embryos by a specific antisense morpholino oligonucleotide or a carboxy-terminal fragment of Lulu impaired apical constriction during neural plate hinge formation. This effect was likely due to lack of actomyosin contractility in superficial neuroectodermal cells. By contrast, overexpression of Lulu RNA in embryonic ectoderm cells triggered ectopic apico-basal elongation and apical constriction, accompanied by the apical recruitment of F-actin. Depletion of endogenous Lulu disrupted the localization and activity of Shroom3, a PDZ-containing actin-binding protein that has also been implicated in apical constriction. Furthermore, Lulu and Shroom3 RNAs cooperated in triggering ectopic apical constriction in embryonic ectoderm. Our findings reveal that Lulu is essential for Shroom3-dependent apical constriction during vertebrate neural tube closure.

  13. Lulu regulates Shroom-induced apical constriction during neural tube closure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Chih-Wen; Gerstenzang, Emma; Ossipova, Olga; Sokol, Sergei Y

    2013-01-01

    Apical constriction is an essential cell behavior during neural tube closure, but its underlying mechanisms are not fully understood. Lulu, or EPB4.1l5, is a FERM domain protein that has been implicated in apical constriction and actomyosin contractility in mouse embryos and cultured cells. Interference with the function of Lulu in Xenopus embryos by a specific antisense morpholino oligonucleotide or a carboxy-terminal fragment of Lulu impaired apical constriction during neural plate hinge formation. This effect was likely due to lack of actomyosin contractility in superficial neuroectodermal cells. By contrast, overexpression of Lulu RNA in embryonic ectoderm cells triggered ectopic apico-basal elongation and apical constriction, accompanied by the apical recruitment of F-actin. Depletion of endogenous Lulu disrupted the localization and activity of Shroom3, a PDZ-containing actin-binding protein that has also been implicated in apical constriction. Furthermore, Lulu and Shroom3 RNAs cooperated in triggering ectopic apical constriction in embryonic ectoderm. Our findings reveal that Lulu is essential for Shroom3-dependent apical constriction during vertebrate neural tube closure.

  14. Nonsurgical root canal therapy of large cyst-like inflammatory periapical lesions and inflammatory apical cysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Louis M; Ricucci, Domenico; Lin, Jarshen; Rosenberg, Paul A

    2009-05-01

    It is a general belief that large cyst-like periapical lesions and apical true cysts caused by root canal infection are less likely to heal after nonsurgical root canal therapy. Nevertheless, there is no direct evidence to support this assumption. A large cyst-like periapical lesion or an apical true cyst is formed within an area of apical periodontitis and cannot form by itself. Therefore, both large cyst-like periapical lesions and apical true cysts are of inflammatory and not of neoplastic origin. Apical periodontitis lesions, regardless of whether they are granulomas, abscesses, or cysts, fail to heal after nonsurgical root canal therapy for the same reason, intraradicular and/or extraradicular infection. If the microbial etiology of large cyst-like periapical lesions and inflammatory apical true cysts in the root canal is removed by nonsurgical root canal therapy, the lesions might regress by the mechanism of apoptosis in a manner similar to the resolution of inflammatory apical pocket cysts. To achieve satisfactory periapical wound healing, surgical removal of an apical true cyst must include elimination of root canal infection.

  15. An unusual ST-segment elevation: apical hypertrophic cardiomyopathy shows the ace up its sleeve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Santis, Francesco; Pergolini, Amedeo; Zampi, Giordano; Pero, Gaetano; Pino, Paolo Giuseppe; Minardi, Giovanni

    2013-01-01

    Apical hypertrophic cardiomyopathy is part of the broad clinical and morphologic spectrum of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. We report a patient with electrocardiographic abnormalities in whom acute coronary syndrome was excluded and apical hypertrophic cardiomyopathy was demonstrated by careful differential diagnosis. Copyright © 2012 Sociedade Portuguesa de Cardiologia. Published by Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  16. Haemostatic effect and tissue reactions of methods and agents used for haemorrhage control in apical surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Simon Storgaard; Yazdi, P M; Hjørting-Hansen, Erik

    2010-01-01

    To compare the haemostatic effect and tissue reactions of different agents and methods used for haemorrhage control in apical surgery.......To compare the haemostatic effect and tissue reactions of different agents and methods used for haemorrhage control in apical surgery....

  17. Differentiation-dependent rearrangements of actin filaments and microtubules hinder apical endocytosis in urothelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tratnjek, Larisa; Romih, Rok; Kreft, Mateja Erdani

    2017-08-01

    During differentiation, superficial urothelial cells (UCs) of the urinary bladder form the apical surface, which is almost entirely covered by urothelial plaques containing densely packed uroplakin particles. These urothelial plaques are the main structural components of the blood-urine permeability barrier in the urinary bladder. We have shown previously that endocytosis from the apical plasma membrane decreases during urothelial cell differentiation. Here, we investigated the role of actin filament and microtubule rearrangements in apical endocytosis of differentiating UCs cells using hyperplastic and normoplastic porcine urothelial models. Partially differentiated normal porcine UCs contained actin filaments in the subapical cytoplasm, while microtubules had a net-like appearance. In highly differentiated UCs, actin filaments mostly disappeared from the subapical cytoplasm and microtubules remained as a thin layer close to the apical plasma membrane. Inhibition of actin filament formation with cytochalasin-D in partially differentiated UCs caused a decrease in apical endocytosis. Depolymerisation of microtubules with nocodazole did not prevent endocytosis of the endocytotic marker WGA into the subapical cytoplasm; however, it abolished WGA transport to endolysosomal compartments in the central cytoplasm. Cytochalasin-D or nocodazole treatment did not significantly change apical endocytosis in highly differentiated UCs. In conclusion, we showed that the physiological differentiation-dependent or chemically induced redistribution and reorganization of actin filaments and microtubules impair apical endocytosis in UCs. Importantly, reduced apical endocytosis due to cytoskeletal rearrangements in highly differentiated UCs, together with the formation of rigid urothelial plaques, reinforces the barrier function of the urothelium.

  18. Ultrastructure of the ascus apical apparatus in Leotia lubrica and some Geoglossaceae (Leotiales, Ascomycotina)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verkley, Gerard J.M.

    1994-01-01

    The ultrastructure of the apical apparatus and lateral ascus wall is compared in Leotia lubrica and five species currently placed in the Geoglossaceae. The lateral ascus wall consists of two layers, of which the inner one increases in thickness in the apical apparatus. Considerable differences in

  19. The articulatory and acoustical characteristics of the ``apical vowels'' in Beijing Mandarin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Wai-Sum

    2005-09-01

    The study investigates the articulatory and acoustical characteristics of the two so-called ``apical vowels'' in Beijing Mandarin, which have been referred to as ``apical anterior vowel'' and ``apical posterior vowel'' by the linguists in China. The ``apical posterior vowel'' has also been described as a retroflex. The results of an EMA (electromagnetic articulograph) analysis show that both vowels are apical, with the tip of tongue approaching the alveolar region for the ``anterior vowel'' and the postalveolar region for the ``posterior vowel.'' The ``posterior vowel'' is pharyngealized, as the body of tongue in particular the posterodorsal portion is pulled backward toward the pharynx. Acoustical data obtained using the CSL4400 speech analysis software show that the two ``apical vowels'' have similar F1 value. The F2 value is slightly larger for the ``posterior vowel'' than ``anterior vowel.'' Thus, the correlation between a larger F2 and the advanced tongue position is not applicable to these ``apical vowels.'' The main difference between the two ``apical vowels'' is in F3, where the value is much smaller for the ``posterior vowel'' than ``anterior vowel.'' It is assumed that the smaller F3 value for the ``posterior vowel'' is due to pharyngealization.

  20. Apical bud toughness tests and tree sway movements to examine crown abrasion: preliminary results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyler Brannon; Wayne Clatterbuck

    2012-01-01

    Apical bud toughness differences were examined for several species to determine if crown abrasion affects shoot growth of determinate and indeterminate species during stand development. Determinate buds will set and harden after initial shoot elongation in the spring, while the indeterminate shoots form leaves from the apical meristem continuously based on the...

  1. Micro‐CT analyses of apical enlargement and molar root canal complexity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Markvart, M.; Darvann, Tron Andre; Larsen, P.

    2012-01-01

    Markvart M, Darvann TA, Larsen P, Dalstra M, Kreiborg S, Bjørndal L. Micro‐CT analyses of apical enlargement and molar root canal complexity. International Endodontic Journal, 45, 273–281, 2012. Aim To compare the effectiveness of two rotary hybrid instrumentation techniques with focus on apical...

  2. Changes of Root Length and Root-to-Crown Ratio after Apical Surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    von Arx, Thomas; Jensen, Simon S; Bornstein, Michael M

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Apical surgery is an important treatment option for teeth with post-treatment periodontitis. Although apical surgery involves root-end resection, no morphometric data are yet available about root-end resection and its impact on the root-to-crown ratio (RCR). The present study assess...

  3. Prognostic factors in apical surgery with root-end filling: a meta-analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    von Arx, Thomas; Peñarrocha, Miguel; Jensen, Storgård

    2010-01-01

    Apical surgery has seen continuous development with regard to equipment and surgical technique. However, there is still a shortage of evidence-based information regarding healing determinants. The objective of this meta-analysis was to review clinical articles on apical surgery with root-end fill...

  4. Aminopeptidase N is directly sorted to the apical domain in MDCK cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wessels, H P; Hansen, Gert Helge; Fuhrer, C

    1990-01-01

    In different epithelial cell types, integral membrane proteins appear to follow different sorting pathways to the apical surface. In hepatocytes, several apical proteins were shown to be transported there indirectly via the basolateral membrane, whereas in MDCK cells a direct sorting pathway from...

  5. Physiological and Molecular Effects of the Cyclic Nucleotides cAMP and cGMP on Arabidopsis thaliana

    KAUST Repository

    Herrera, Natalia M.

    2012-12-01

    The cyclic nucleotide monophosphates (CNs), cAMP and cGMP, are second messengers that participate in the regulation of development, metabolism and adaptive responses. In plants, CNs are associated with the control of pathogen responses, pollen tube orientation, abiotic stress response, membrane transport regulation, stomatal movement and light perception. In this study, we hypothesize that cAMP and cGMP promote changes in the transcription level of genes related to photosynthesis, high light and membrane transport in Arabidopsis thaliana leaves and, that these changes at the molecular level can have functional biological consequences. For this reason we tested if CNs modulate the photosynthetic rate, responses to high light and root ion transport. Real time quantitative PCR was used to assess transcription levels of selected genes and infrared gas analyzers coupled to fluorescence sensors were used to measure the photosynthetic parameters. We present evidence that both cAMP and cGMP modulate foliar mRNA levels early after stimulation. The two CNs trigger different responses indicating that the signals have specificity. A comparison of proteomic and transcriptional changes suggest that both transcriptional and post-transcriptional mechanisms are modulated by CNs. cGMP up-regulates the mRNA levels of components of the photosynthesis and carbon metabolism. However, neither cAMP nor cGMP trigger differences in the rate of carbon assimilation, maximum efficiency of the photosystem II (PSII), or PSII operating efficiency. It was also demonstrated that CN regulate the expression of its own targets, the cyclic nucleotide gated channels - CNGC. Further studies are needed to identify the components of the signaling transduction pathway that mediate cellular changes and their respective regulatory and/or signaling roles.

  6. Preserving the Non-Instrumentality of Summer Camp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumann, Steven L

    2015-10-01

    After a brief consideration of the types of camps, this introduction questions what is the most beneficial aspect of a two week summer day camp for children living in disadvantaged circumstances or struggling in school? Is it a formal educational program or professional-lead therapeutic activities or the provision of an opportunity for children to play with peers in a relaxed, scenic and supportive place? The introduction suggests that being with peers living with similar circumstances or challenges while being in a scenic place with supportive staff and having the opportunity to play may provide such children with a greater good. © The Author(s) 2015.

  7. EduCamp Colombia: Social Networked Learning for Teacher Training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Ernesto Leal Fonseca

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes a learning experience called EduCamp, which was launched by the Ministry of Education of Colombia in 2007, based on emerging concepts such as e-Learning 2.0, connectivism, and personal learning environments. An EduCamp proposes an unstructured collective learning experience, which intends to make palpable the possibilities of social software tools in learning and interaction processes while demonstrating face-to-face organizational forms that reflect social networked learning ideas. The experience opens new perspectives for the design of technology training workshops and for the development of lifelong learning experiences.

  8. Science Skills Boot Camp Gets Interns Ready for Research | Poster

    Science.gov (United States)

    By Ashley DeVine, Staff Writer Summer interns learned how to read a scientific paper, present a poster, maintain a laboratory notebook, and much more, at the Science Skills Boot Camp in June. “It was a great experience, and it was a great opportunity to meet some of the other interns also working on the campus,” said Alyssa Klein, a Werner H. Kirsten student intern in the Cellular Immunology Group, Laboratory of Molecular Immunoregulation. “The boot camp covered many topics essential to being a good scientist and science researcher.”

  9. The Operation of Franco’s concentration camps in Catalonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aram Monfort I Coll

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available For Franco’s army, concentration camps represented a tool for the socio-political classification of prisoners of war. In Catalonia, this process began in the spring of 1938, with the stabilization of Franco’s Catalan front. An analysis of the operation of Catalonia’s concentration camps leads to an explanation of how the ‘Nuevo Estado’ adapted an extrajudicial system that had been developed in the context of the Civil War to meet its needs to maintain the separation of different sectors of Spanish society at the end of the war and the beginning of the postwar period.

  10. Laparoscopic pectopexy: initial experience of single center with a new technique for apical prolapse surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmet Kale

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: To share our first experience with laparoscopic pectopexy, a new technique for apical prolapse surgery, and to evaluate the feasibility of this technique. Materials and Methods: Seven patients with apical prolapse underwent surgery with laparoscopic pectopexy. The lateral parts of the iliopectineal ligament were used for a bilateral mesh fixation of the descended structures. The medical records of the patients were reviewed, and the short-term clinical outcomes were analyzed. Results: The laparoscopic pectopexy procedures were successfully performed, without intraoperative and postoperative complications. De novo apical prolapse, de novo urgency, de novo constipation, stress urinary incontinence, anterior and lateral defect cystoceles, and rectoceles did not occur in any of the patients during a 6-month follow-up period. Conclusion: Although laparoscopic sacrocolpopexy has shown excellent anatomical and functional long-term results, laparoscopic pectopexy offers a feasible, safe, and comfortable alternative for apical prolapse surgery. Pectopexy may increase a surgeon's technical perspective for apical prolapse surgery.

  11. Endodontic management of open apex using Biodentine as a novel apical matrix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khetarpal, Ambica; Chaudhary, Sarika; Talwar, Sangeeta; Verma, Mahesh

    2014-01-01

    Endodontic management of open apex using Biodentine as an apical matrix. Summary : An immature tooth with pulpal necrosis and periapical pathology imposes a great difficulty to the endodontist. Endodontic treatment options for such teeth consist of conventional apexification procedure with and without apical barriers. Biodentine™ is new calcium silicate based cement that exhibits physical and chemical properties similar to those described for certain Portland cement derivatives. This article demonstrates the use of the newer material, Biodentine as an apical matrix barrier in root end apexification procedure. This case reports present apexification and successful healing with the use of Biodentine as an apical barrier matrix. Conclusion : Apexification in one step using an apical plug of Biodentine can be considered a predictable treatment and may be an alternative to mineral trioxide aggregate apexification.

  12. [In vitro evaluation of correlation between the size of apical foramen and the accuracy of root ZX].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Lei; Su, Qin; Huang, Yun-xia

    2008-02-01

    The study was designed to investigate the relationship between the accuracy of Root ZX and the size of apical foramen, when the apical constrictions were intact or not. Methods Lengths were taken when the needle reached the '0.5' mark and 'APEX' mark on the Root ZX. The electronic apex locator (EAL)-measured canal working length (L2) and EAL-measured canal length (L1) were then compared with the actual canal working length (L') and actual canal length (L). Besides, the areas of apical foramens CS) were measured when the apical constriction were intact or not. Then the measurement deviations and the areas of apical foramens were analyzed by linear correlation and linear regression using the software SPSS 12.0. Statistical significance was considered at P apical foramen and the accuracy of Root ZX if the apical constriction was intact (P > 0.05). However, the accuracy of Root ZX and the size of apical foramen had significant negative correlation when the apical constriction was destroyed (P apical foramen was 0.135 mm2 if the tolerant error was set at 0.5 mm according to the statistic control. The size of apical foramen has little effect on the accuracy of Root ZX if the apical constriction is intact. However the measurements of Root ZX should be used carefully when the apical constriction was destroyed.

  13. Effect of master apical file size and taper on irrigation and cleaning of the apical third of curved canals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nahid Mohammadzadeh Akhlaghi

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Canal preparation generates a substantial amount of debris and smear layer (SL. The size and taper of the Master Apical File (MAF affects on penetration of irrigants and subsequently canal cleaning efficacy. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of MAF size and taper on penetration of irrigants to the apical third of curved mesiobuccal (MB canals of mandibular first molars.Eighty-nine human mandibular first molars were divided into one control group (n=5 without rotary instrumentation and 6 experimental groups (n=14 each that were prepared with the following RaCe rotary files as MAF: 25.04 (group1, 25.06 (group 2, 30.04 (group 3, 30.06 (group 4, 35.04 (group 5 and 35.06 (group 6. All the experimental groups were rinsed with 2 ml of 17 % EDTA followed by 2 ml of 5.25% NaOCl. Debridement of the MB canals was evaluated using scanning electron microscope (SEM. The data were statistically analyzed using Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney U tests (P<0.05.Group 6 (MAF=35.06 showed 100% acceptable debridement. This rate was 92.9% for MAF=35.04. In group 4 (MAF=30.06 smear layer (SL was removed in the three-forth of the samples and debris was removed in 92.9% of them. Acceptable debridement was not achieved in most samples of groups 1 and 2 (25.04 and 25.06, respectively and the mentioned two groups had statistically significant difference in this respect with the other groups (P<0.05.Based on this study, 30.06 may be considered as the minimum MAF size for acceptable debridement.

  14. Science Possibilities Enabled by the Mars Base Camp Human Exploration Architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cichan, T.; Murrow, D. W.; Jolly, S. D.; Bierhaus, E. B.; Clark, B.

    2017-02-01

    The Mars Base Camp architecture study reveals scientific possibilities enabled by a crewed orbital base camp, and that collaborative human and robotic missions should be part of the vision for Mars exploration by 2050.

  15. Measuring the Influences of Youth Participation in Ohio 4-H Camps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Greg Homan

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Findings from a multi-component 4-H camp marketing and enrollment study of Ohio 4-H camps are highlighted. Significant influencers on the camp enrollment decision (parents, other adults, peers, siblings, and the respective camper are evaluated as well as the effectiveness of various marketing techniques. The data found in this study indicates that the decision to enroll in camp is most influenced by the respective 4-H camper; however parents are also a strong factor in the choice to participate in 4-H camps. Alumni parents report significantly higher influence in the camp enrollment decision than those parents who are not alumni of 4-H. Personal methods of promoting camps were rated the most effective in reaching potential camp audiences.

  16. Assessment of Root Morphology and Apices of First and Second Maxillary Molars in Tehran Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mandana Naseri

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Objective: This study aimed to assess the possible variations in root canal anatomy and topography of the apices of first and second maxillary molars. Materials and methods: A total of 67 first and second maxillary permanent molars were collected. Access cavity was prepared and 2% methylene blue was injected. The teeth were demineralized by 5% nitric acid and cleared with methyl salicylate. Specimens were evaluated under stereomicroscopy and analyzed using the sample t-test. Results: Based on Vertucci’s classification, the mesiobuccal root of maxillary first molars was type I in 87.5% and type IV in 12.5% of the cases. The mesiobuccal root of second maxillary molars was type I in 60%, type II in 8.6%, type IV in 25.7% and type V in 5.7% of cases. In maxillary first and second molars, the distobuccal and palatal roots were type I in 100% of the cases. The distance of the apical constriction from the apical foramen was 0.21±0.09 mm, the distance from the apical constriction tothe anatomic apex was 0.44±0.19 mm and the distance of the apical foramen from the anatomic apex was 0.15±0.15 mm. The mean percentage of delta prevalence was 3.2% in both teeth. Conclusion: The mean distance of the apical foramen and apical constriction from the anatomic apex was less than 0.6 and 1.2 mm, respectively. In maxillary first and second molars, the mean distance of the apical constriction from the apical foramen and anatomic apex was 0.21 and 0.44, respectively and the mean distance of the apical foramen from the anatomic apex was 0.15 mm

  17. Effects of apical meristem mining on plant fitness, architecture, and flowering phenology in Cirsium altissimum (Asteraceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adhikari, Subodh; Russell, F Leland

    2014-12-01

    • Interactions that limit lifetime seed production have the potential to limit plant population sizes and drive adaptation through natural selection. Effects of insect herbivory to apical meristems (apical meristem mining) on lifetime seed production rarely have been quantified experimentally. We studied Cirsium altissimum (tall thistle), whose meristems are mined by Platyptilia carduidactyla (artichoke plume moth), to determine how apical damage affects plant maternal fitness and evaluate both direct and indirect mechanisms underlying these effects.• In restored prairie, apical mining was manipulated on tall thistles by applying insecticide, water, or no spray to apical meristems. We quantified effects on lifetime seed production, plant architecture, and flowering phenology. Seed germinability and seedling mass were evaluated in a greenhouse.• Apical meristem miners decreased lifetime seed production of C. altissimum, but not seed quality. Higher mortality rates of damaged plants contributed to reduced seed production. Apical damage reduced plant height and increased the proportion of blooming flower heads in axial positions on branches. Apical damage delayed flowering and shortened flowering duration.• Apical meristem mining reduced plant maternal fitness. The shift in the identity of blooming flower heads from terminal to axial positions contributed to this reduction because axial heads are less fecund. Shorter, meristem-mined plants may have been more susceptible to competition, and this susceptibility may explain their higher mortality rates. The kinds of changes in architecture and phenology that resulted from apical damage to C. altissimum have been shown to affect floral visitation in other plant species. © 2014 Botanical Society of America, Inc.

  18. Suicide in Inmates in Nazis and Soviet Concentration Camps: Historical Overview and Critique

    OpenAIRE

    López-Muñoz, Francisco; Cuerda-Galindo, Esther

    2016-01-01

    Living conditions in concentration camps were harsh and often inhumane, leading many prisoners to commit suicide. We have reviewed this topic in Nazi concentration camps (KL), Soviet special camps, and gulags, providing some preliminary data for our research. Data show that the incidence of suicide in Nazi KL could be up to 30 times higher than the general population and was also much higher than in Soviet special camps (maybe due to more favorable conditions for prisoners and the abolishment...

  19. The suicide rate in the concentration camps was extraordinarily high: a comment on Bronisch and Lester.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lester, David

    2004-01-01

    Previous reports, based on limited reports from inmates who survived the Nazi concentration camps, have claimed that suicide was rare in the concentration camps. Using slightly more detailed, but nonetheless still limited, data from survivors of the camps, it is estimated that the suicide rates in the camp were most likely 25,000 per 100,000 per year or higher and, therefore, enormous!

  20. Transcription factor CREB3L1 mediates cAMP and glucocorticoid regulation of arginine vasopressin gene transcription in the rat hypothalamus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenwood, Mingkwan; Greenwood, Michael P; Mecawi, Andre S; Loh, Su Yi; Rodrigues, José Antunes; Paton, Julian F R; Murphy, David

    2015-10-26

    Arginine vasopressin (AVP), a neuropeptide hormone that functions in the regulation of water homeostasis by controlling water re-absorption at kidneys, is synthesised in supraoptic nucleus and paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus. An increase in plasma osmolality stimulates secretion of AVP to blood circulation and induces AVP synthesis in these nuclei. Although studies on mechanism of AVP transcriptional regulation in hypothalamus proposed that cAMP and glucocorticoids positively and negatively regulate Avp expression, respectively, the molecular mechanisms have remained elusive. Recently, we identified CREB3L1 (cAMP-responsive element binding protein 3 like 1) as a putative transcription factor of Avp transcription in the rat hypothalamus. However the mechanism of how CREB3L1 is regulated in response of hyperosmotic stress in the neurons of hypothalamus has never been reported. This study aims to investigate effect of previously reported regulators (cAMP and glucocorticoid) of Avp transcription on transcription factor CREB3L1 in order to establish a molecular explanation for cAMP and glucocorticoids effect on AVP expression. The effect of cAMP and glucocorticoid treatment on Creb3l1 was investigated in both AtT20 cells and hypothalamic organotypic cultures. The expression of Creb3l1 was increased in both mRNA and protein level by treatment with forskolin, which raises intracellular cAMP levels. Activation of cAMP by forskolin also increased Avp promoter activity in AtT20 cells and this effect was blunted by shRNA mediated silencing of Creb3l1. The forskolin induced increase in Creb3l1 expression was diminished by combined treatment with dexamethasone, and, in vivo, intraperitoneal dexamethasone injection blunted the increase in Creb3l1 and Avp expression induced by hyperosmotic stress. Here we shows that cAMP and glucocorticoid positively and negatively regulate Creb3l1 expression in the rat hypothalamus, respectively, and regulation of cAMP on AVP

  1. Pro-oxidant status and matrix metalloproteinases in apical lesions and gingival crevicular fluid as potential biomarkers for asymptomatic apical periodontitis and endodontic treatment response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dezerega Andrea

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Oxidative stress and matrix metalloproteinases -9 and -2 are involved in periodontal breakdown, whereas gingival crevicular fluid has been reported to reflect apical status. The aim of this study was to characterize oxidant balance and activity levels of MMP -2 and -9 in apical lesions and healthy periodontal ligament; and second, to determine whether potential changes in oxidant balance were reflected in gingival crevicular fluid from asymptomatic apical periodontitis (AAP-affected teeth at baseline and after endodontic treatment. Methods Patients with clinical diagnosis of AAP and healthy volunteers having indication of tooth extraction were recruited. Apical lesions and healthy periodontal ligaments, respectively, were homogenized or processed to obtain histological tissue sections. Matrix metalloproteinase -9 and -2 levels and/or activity were analyzed by Immunowestern blot, zymography and consecutive densitometric analysis, and their tissue localization was confirmed by immunohistochemistry. A second group of patients with AAP and indication of endodontic treatment was recruited. Gingival crevicular fluid was extracted from AAP-affected teeth at baseline, after endodontic treatment and healthy contralateral teeth. Total oxidant and antioxidant status were determined in homogenized tissue and GCF samples. Statistical analysis was performed using STATA v10 software with unpaired t test, Mann-Whitney test and Spearman's correlation. Results Activity of MMP-2 and MMP-9 along with oxidant status were higher in apical lesions (p Conclusions Apical lesions display an oxidant imbalance along with increased activity of matrix metalloproteinase-2 and -9 and might contribute to AAP progression. Oxidant imbalance can also be reflected in GCF from AAP-affected teeth and was restored to normal levels after conservative endodontic treatment. These mediators might be useful as potential biomarkers for chair-side complementary diagnostic

  2. Culture Camp, Ethnic Identity, and Adoption Socialization for Korean Adoptees: A Pretest and Posttest Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baden, Amanda L.

    2015-01-01

    This study explores the impact of racial-ethnic socialization on adopted South Korean children and adolescents who attended a sleepaway Korean culture camp for one week. This camp provided racial-ethnic socialization experiences via exposure to camp counselors, staff, and teachers who were Korean Americans, Korean nationals, and Korean adult…

  3. Hack City Summer: Computer Camps Can Bring a Vacation of Keyboard Delights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shell, Ellen Ruppel

    1983-01-01

    Activities at a summer computer camp (Camp Atari held at East Stroudsburg State College PA) are described. The curriculum, using logic, systematic analysis, and other fundamental programing skills, teaches students to interact effectively and creatively with computers. Sources for finding a computer camp are included. (JN)

  4. [Experience gained in organizing outpatient care in summer camps for children and adolescents].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grebniak, N P; Churilina, A K; Churilina, A A

    2000-01-01

    Relative risk of gastrointestinal diseases, tonsillitis, and injuries is notably increased at summer camps for children; epidemic hazards are high there too. Central outpatient clinic for these camps, functioning on the base of processual and structural standards and the final result standard, plays an important role in improving the quality of medical care rendered at summer camps.

  5. The Accidental City: Urbanisation in an East-African refugee camp

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, B.J.

    2009-01-01

    Refugee camps are regarded as temporary settlements,organised according to the functionality of humanitarian operations. According to this political view, refugees are passive recipients of aid and the dynamics of life in the camps remain hidden. Instead, refugee camps can be seen as emerging urban

  6. Impact of Attending Jump Start Literacy Camp on Reading Achievement among Third and Fourth Grade Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padgett, Carrie B.

    2010-01-01

    The Jump Start Literacy Camp was developed as a means to combat summer learning loss. The camp utilized high-energy activities to target phonemic awareness, phonics, vocabulary, fluency, and comprehension. This study examined the effects of the Jump Start Literacy Camp on reading achievement for rising third and fourth grade students in an urban…

  7. The accidental city : violence, economy and humanitarianism in Kakuma refugee camp Kenya

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, B.J.

    2011-01-01

    In this research I examine social ordering processes in Kakuma refugee camp in Kenya. I view the camp as an accidental city, by which I challenge the image of the camp as a temporary and artificial waiting space or a protracted refugee crisis per se. The reference to the city is both

  8. 76 FR 64 - Safety and Health Requirements Related to Camp Cars

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-03

    ... each camp car be kept as clean as is practicable given the type of work performed by the occupants of... Camp Cars AGENCY: Federal Railroad Administration (FRA), Department of Transportation (DOT). ACTION... is proposing to create regulations prescribing minimum safety and health requirements for camp cars...

  9. A Multidisciplinary Science Summer Camp for Students with Emphasis on Environmental and Analytical Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarz, Gunnar; Frenzel, Wolfgang; Richter, Wolfgang M.; Ta¨uscher, Lothar; Kubsch, Georg

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents the course of events of a five-day summer camp on environmental chemistry with high emphasis on chemical analysis. The annual camp was optional and open for students of all disciplines and levels. The duration of the summer camp was five and a half days in the Feldberg Lake District in northeast Germany (federal state of…

  10. The Impact of Learning Styles on Learning Outcomes at FFA Camp: What Campers Retain over Time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Nicholas R.; Terry, Robert, Jr.; Kelsey, Kathleen D.

    2013-01-01

    Twenty-four states host FFA summer camps to support adolescent maturation along with indoctrination into the culture and values of the FFA. Camps typically include a variety of activities designed to engage members in social activities and non-formal academic content. More than 1500 campers attend the Oklahoma FFA Alumni Leadership Camp annually…

  11. Reflections on Refugee Students' Major Perceptions of Education in Kakuma Refugee Camp, Kenya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mareng, Chuei D.

    2010-01-01

    This reflective study explores refugee students' perceptions of the educational approach used in Kakuma Refugee Camp in Kenya. The study focuses on my personal reflections as a teacher and a student in this camp, and as a refugee. My goal of writing this narrative is to reflect fully on the refugee students' life in a camp and then contribute to…

  12. Antagonists of chemoattractants reveal separate receptors for cAMP, folic acid and pterin in Dictyostelium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haastert, Peter J.M. van; Wit, René J.W. de; Konijn, Theo M.

    1982-01-01

    Adenosine 3’,5’-monophosphate (cAMP), folic acid and pterin are chemoattractants in the cellular slime molds. The cAMP analog, 3’-amino-cAMP, inhibits a chemotactic reaction to cAMP at a concentration at which the analog is chemotactically inactive. The antagonistic effect of 3’-amino-cAMP on the

  13. Phun Physics 4 Phemales: Physics Camp for High School Girls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Chuhee; Gu, Jiyeong; Henriquez, Laura

    2014-03-01

    The department of Physics and Astronomy with the department of Science Education at California State University, Long Beach hosted summer program of ``Phun Physics 4 Phemales (PP4P)'' during summer 2012 and summer 2013 with the support from APS public outreach program. PP4P summer camp was hosted along with a two-week summer science camp, Young Scientists Camp, which has been institutionalized for the last 14 years since 1999. More than 2,500 3rd -8th grade students and 250 teachers have participated in the program. PP4P program provided the tools and support that female high school students need to pursue careers in physics and/or science, technology, engineering and math (STEM) field. This girls-only camp created connections among the girls and built confidence. In addition PP4P program introduced students to key principles in physics by a hands-on lab environment and demonstrated the real-world social impact of physics. In summer 2012, high school girls worked on physics experimental project on electronics and in summer 2013 they worked on the mechanics. I would share our experience in this program and the impact on the female high school students. This work was supported by 2012 Public Outreach and Informing the Public Grants from American Physical Society.

  14. Academic Boot Camp for the Writing of Psychology Research Reports

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skues, Jason L.; Wise, Lisa

    2014-01-01

    Herein, we describe the implementation of, and responses to, a structured writing workshop in the form of an academic boot camp. Participants were 42 undergraduate psychology students from a medium-sized Australian university who were completing their major assignment for the semester. A majority of the students expressed satisfaction with the…

  15. Summer Science Camp for Middle School Students: A Turkish Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sezen Vekli, Gulsah

    2013-01-01

    The present study aims to identify the effectiveness of summer science camp experience on middle school students' content knowledge and interest towards biology. For this purpose, two instruments including reflective journal and pre-post questionnaire were developed by four researchers who are expert in science education. Besides, the instruction…

  16. Using psychological science to improve summer camp staff training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schafer, Ethan D

    2007-10-01

    Preseason staff training is an exciting and stressful time for all camping professionals. By using principles of developmental psychology, learning theory, and self-monitoring, however, we can maximize the usefulness of training sessions. This article also discusses educating staff about children's mental health issues and managing challenging situations with adolescents.

  17. Educating for a Culture of Peace in Refugee Camps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tillman, Diane G.

    2001-01-01

    Describes the "Living Values Activities for Refugees and Children Affected by War" program and its use in two refugee camps in Thailand. Details how the program provides children an opportunity to relate their experiences in an accepting environment and offers some tools for dealing with emotional pain, while helping them develop…

  18. Camp stability predicts patterns of hunter-gatherer cooperation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Daniel; Dyble, Mark; Thompson, James; Major, Katie; Page, Abigail E; Chaudhary, Nikhil; Salali, Gul Deniz; Vinicius, Lucio; Migliano, Andrea Bamberg; Mace, Ruth

    2016-07-01

    Humans regularly cooperate with non-kin, which has been theorized to require reciprocity between repeatedly interacting and trusting individuals. However, the role of repeated interactions has not previously been demonstrated in explaining real-world patterns of hunter-gatherer cooperation. Here we explore cooperation among the Agta, a population of Filipino hunter-gatherers, using data from both actual resource transfers and two experimental games across multiple camps. Patterns of cooperation vary greatly between camps and depend on socio-ecological context. Stable camps (with fewer changes in membership over time) were associated with greater reciprocal sharing, indicating that an increased likelihood of future interactions facilitates reciprocity. This is the first study reporting an association between reciprocal cooperation and hunter-gatherer band stability. Under conditions of low camp stability individuals still acquire resources from others, but do so via demand sharing (taking from others), rather than based on reciprocal considerations. Hunter-gatherer cooperation may either be characterized as reciprocity or demand sharing depending on socio-ecological conditions.

  19. Summer Camp for Girls Sparks Interest in Welding and Electronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peckham, Susanne

    2010-01-01

    Even in the face of a recession, great careers are currently available in many technical fields, and throughout the nation efforts are under way to grow the workforce in those jobs through greater diversity. In this article, the author describes a weeklong, free summer camp offered by Calhoun Community College, Decatur, Alabama, which gets high…

  20. First urology simulation boot camp in the United Kingdom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.S. Biyani

    2017-09-01

    Conclusion: This first UK Urology Simulation Boot Camp has demonstrated feasibility and effectiveness in enhancing trainee’s experience. Given these positive feedbacks there is a good reason to expect that future courses will improve the overall skills of a new urology trainee.

  1. Can an Immersion in Wellness Camp Influence Youth Health Behaviors?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mabary-Olsen, Elizabeth A.; Litchfield, Ruth E.; Foster, Randal; Lanningham-Foster, Lorraine; Campbell, Christina

    2015-01-01

    Summer 4-H camps present an untapped opportunity for advancement of mission mandates. The project reported here immersed campers in healthy living experiential learning. The goal was to improve self-efficacy and health behaviors related to nutrition and physical activity. Data was collected from enrolled campers through multiple survey tools. A…

  2. Post‑Operative Complications and Visual Outcome in Eye Camp ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2015 Nigerian Journal of Ophthalmology | Published by Wolters Kluwer - Medknow. 16. Post‑Operative Complications and Visual. Outcome in Eye Camp Patients Undergoing. Sutureless Cataract Surgery at a Base Hospital in Vijayapura District, South India. Sushma Hosamani, Vallabha K1, Vijaykumar Warad2.

  3. Criticality for Global Citizenship in Korean English Immersion Camps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, So-Yeon

    2015-01-01

    Given a heavy social, ideological pressure for parents to pursue better English education for their children in the globalized world, short-term English immersion camp programs have emerged as an educational option in South Korea, promoted as environments for intercultural communication between native English-speaking teachers and local Korean…

  4. Post traumatic stress disorder among Mau Mau concentration camp ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: A decade before Kenya's independence in 1963 thousands of 'Mau Mau' fighters were arrested and incarcerated in concentration camps where many underwent torture and inhuman treatment. No studies have been done to establish the presence of post traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and other psychiatric ...

  5. Group-Integrated Reality Therapy in a Wilderness Camp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clagett, Arthur F.

    1992-01-01

    Abridges Glasser's (1975) theory of United States as identity society to explicate causative characteristics of "identity achievers" versus "failures" in U.S. society. Discusses Reality Therapy and therapeutic treatment programs developed by Hope Center Wilderness Camp. Presents evidence to suggest that group-integrated reality…

  6. Camp as a Teaching Method in Health Education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ringby, Betina

    methodology and theories/methods put INTO action. The camp method encourages a student-participatory and an inter-professionally approach required to think out-of-the-box. Teachers were offered the possibility to be mentor/coach for students. ‘Effectuation’, the ‘PUSH model’ and the ‘Entrepreneurial...

  7. 14 CFR 91.1427 - CAMP: Manual requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... to the Administrator, that is retrievable in the English language. ... (CONTINUED) AIR TRAFFIC AND GENERAL OPERATING RULES GENERAL OPERATING AND FLIGHT RULES Fractional Ownership... program aircraft under a CAMP must put in the operating manual the chart or description of the program...

  8. English Camp: A Language Immersion Program in Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rugasken, Kris; Harris, Jacqueline A.

    2009-01-01

    A summer English camp language immersion program, which began in 2003, provided instruction by native English speakers to Thai college students via collaboration between Prince of Songkla University in Thailand and Ball State University in Indiana, USA. During this program, Thai students were exposed to English formally through classroom…

  9. Outdoor education camp and group cohesion: an investigation in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study seeks to investigate the effect of outdoor education camp toward group cohesion among second year undergraduate teacher trainees from selected Teacher Education Institutes of Malaysia. A pre-test and post-test approach with non-equivalent control group was utilised among 350 second year undergraduate ...

  10. Expert Review of Pedagogical Activities at Therapeutic Recreation Camps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiselev, N. N.; Kiseleva, E. V.

    2015-01-01

    An analysis of pedagogical expert reviews at children's therapeutic recreation camps in Novosibirsk Region shows that it is necessary to implement an expert review system that plays a supporting and developmental role. Such a system should allow teams of teachers to submit their work to expert review and to move forward by reflecting on their…

  11. Trainer Guide: Food Service Managerial. Camp Administration Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farley, Elizabeth, Ed.

    Designed for a food service managerial workshop, the trainer's guide is organized into four separate units: personnel management, menu planning, food purchasing, and food service operations. Performance objectives to be met on completion of the workshop include: improving personnel operations for a camp's food service; demonstrating knowledge of…

  12. Optimal Experience among Campers in a Resident Camp Setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bialeschki, M. Deborah; Henderson, Karla A.

    The purpose of this study was to assess optimal experience, also known as "flow" and "quality of experience" in a private, coeducational resident camp program for children. Flow refers to those times in work and leisure when people report feelings of enjoyment, concentration, and deep involvement. Flow theory predicts that an…

  13. Camping Burner-Based Flame Emission Spectrometer for Classroom Demonstrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ne´el, Bastien; Crespo, Gasto´n A.; Perret, Didier; Cherubini, Thomas; Bakker, Eric

    2014-01-01

    A flame emission spectrometer was built in-house for the purpose of introducing this analytical technique to students at the high school level. The aqueous sample is sprayed through a homemade nebulizer into the air inlet of a consumer-grade propane camping burner. The resulting flame is analyzed by a commercial array spectrometer for the visible…

  14. Snakes Have Feelings, Too: Elements of a Camp Snake Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Robert Ross

    2001-01-01

    A camp snake program can help campers overcome their fear of snakes, and people cannot truly enjoy nature when they carry a phobia about any one part of it. It can also help overcome prejudice by teaching truth and respect, instilling compassion, and helping campers develop empathy. Advice on catching, handling, identifying, keeping, and feeding…

  15. International Physics Summer Camp for High School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pope, Damian T.; Korsunsky, B.

    2006-12-01

    Each year for the past three years, Perimeter Institute for Theoretical Physics in Waterloo, Ontario, Canada, has staged an annual physics summer camp for high school students worldwide. Known as the International Summer School for Young Physicists (ISSYP), it attracts students from all corners of the globe and this year had attendees from 15 countries and 5 continents. The camp is aimed at motivated students around the age of 16 and is a two-week immersion into the exciting world of cutting-edge physics today. It covers topics such as dark matter, superstring theory and quantum computers, and exposes attendees to some of the very latest research results. It includes lectures, tutorials, laboratory visits and small-group projects and, in addition to teaching new material, strives to give students a deeper appreciation of the true nature of science. Throughout, attendees have a great deal of interaction with the institute's scientists. This presentation will give an overview of the camp including the material taught within it, its impact on students and the goals of the program. More information about the camp can be found at: http://www.youngphysicists.ca

  16. The role of a basolateral transporter in rosuvastatin transport and its interplay with apical breast cancer resistance protein in polarized cell monolayer systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jibin; Wang, Ying; Zhang, Wei; Huang, Yuehua; Hein, Kristin; Hidalgo, Ismael J

    2012-11-01

    Membrane transporters can play a clinically important role in drug absorption and disposition; Caco-2 and Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells are the most widely used in vitro models for studying the functions of these transporters and associated drug interactions. Transport studies using these cell models are mostly focused on apical transporters, whereas basolateral drug transport processes are largely ignored. However, for some hydrophilic drugs, a basolateral uptake transporter may be required for drugs to enter cells before they can interact with apical efflux transporters. The objective of this study was to evaluate potential differences in drug transport across Caco-2 and MDCK basolateral membrane that could cause discrepancy in the identification of efflux transporter substrates and to elucidate the underlying factors that may cause such differences, using rosuvastatin as a model substrate. Bidirectional transport results in Caco-2 and breast cancer resistance protein-MDCK cells demonstrated the necessity of an uptake transporter at the basolateral membrane for rosuvastatin. Kinetic study revealed saturable and nonsaturable processes for rosuvastatin uptake across the Caco-2 basolateral membrane, with the saturable process encompassing >75% of overall rosuvastatin basolateral uptake at concentrations below the K(m) (4.2 μM). Furthermore, rosuvastatin basolateral transport exhibited cis-inhibition and trans-stimulation phenomena, indicating a facilitated diffusion mechanism. This basolateral transporter appeared to be a prerequisite for rosuvastatin and perhaps for other hydrophilic substrates to interact with apical efflux transporters. Deficit of such a basolateral transporter in certain cell models may lead to false-negative results when screening drug interactions with apical efflux transporters.

  17. Synergism between cAMP and PPARγ Signalling in the Initiation of UCP1 Gene Expression in HIB1B Brown Adipocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Y. Chen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Expression of the brown adipocyte-specific gene, uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1, is increased by both PPARγ stimulation and cAMP activation through their ability to stimulate the expression of the PPAR coactivator PGC1α. In HIB1B brown preadipocytes, combination of the PPARγ agonist, rosiglitazone, and the cAMP stimulator forskolin synergistically increased UCP1 mRNA expression, but PGC1α expression was only increased additively by the two drugs. The PPARγ antagonist, GW9662, and the PKA inhibitor, H89, both inhibited UCP1 expression stimulated by rosiglitazone and forskolin but PGC1α expression was not altered to the same extent. Reporter studies demonstrated that combined rosiglitazone and forskolin synergistically activated transcription from a full length 3.1 kbp UCP1 luciferase promoter construct, but the response was only additive and much reduced when a minimal 260 bp proximal UCP1 promoter was examined. Rosiglitazone and forskolin in combination were able to synergistically stimulate promoters comprising of tandem repeats of either PPREs or CREs. We conclude that rosiglitazone and forskolin act together to synergistically activate the UCP1 promoter directly rather than by increasing PGC1α expression and by a mechanism involving cross-talk between the signalling systems regulating the CRE and PPRE on the promoters.

  18. How Come the Best Job I Ever Had Was When I Worked at a Summer Camp?: Understanding Retention Among Camp Counselors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jay Whitacre

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available When attempting to discover a manner in which to maintain employment during the summer, many individuals have realized the job of camp counselor. What begins as a seasonal position may transform into a lifelong commitment to both person and place. For years, individuals have come to appreciate and understand the experiences that occur when approaching particular places. Data, for this study, was collected via in-depth interviews from twenty-four camp counselors from three separate, but similar camps. Phenomenological analysis on the qualitative data was performed to explore the staff retention amongst counselors. This study links sense of place as a salient component of employee retention among camp counselors. By developing a strong sense of community amongst staff, camp administrators may be promoting a deeper, more long-term, commitment among the staff and towards the camp.

  19. Shroom induces apical constriction and is required for hingepoint formation during neural tube closure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haigo, Saori L; Hildebrand, Jeffrey D; Harland, Richard M; Wallingford, John B

    2003-12-16

    The morphogenetic events of early vertebrate development generally involve the combined actions of several populations of cells, each engaged in a distinct behavior. Neural tube closure, for instance, involves apicobasal cell heightening, apical constriction at hingepoints, convergent extension of the midline, and pushing by the epidermis. Although a large number of genes are known to be required for neural tube closure, in only a very few cases has the affected cell behavior been identified. For example, neural tube closure requires the actin binding protein Shroom, but the cellular basis of Shroom function and how it influences neural tube closure remain to be elucidated. We show here that expression of Shroom is sufficient to organize apical constriction in transcriptionally quiescent, naive epithelial cells but not in non-polarized cells. Shroom-induced apical constriction was associated with enrichment of apically localized actin filaments and required the small GTPase Rap1 but not Rho. Endogenous Xenopus shroom was found to be expressed in cells engaged in apical constriction. Consistent with a role for Shroom in organizing apical constriction, disrupting Shroom function resulted in a specific failure of hingepoint formation, defective neuroepithelial sheet-bending, and failure of neural tube closure. These data demonstrate that Shroom is an essential regulator of apical constriction during neurulation. The finding that a single protein can initiate this process in epithelial cells establishes that bending of epithelial sheets may be patterned during development by the regulation of expression of single genes.

  20. Apical constriction initiates new bud formation during monopodial branching of the embryonic chicken lung.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hye Young; Varner, Victor D; Nelson, Celeste M

    2013-08-01

    Branching morphogenesis sculpts the airway epithelium of the lung into a tree-like structure to conduct air and promote gas exchange after birth. In the avian lung, a series of buds emerges from the dorsal surface of the primary bronchus via monopodial branching to form the conducting airways; anatomically, these buds are similar to those formed by domain branching in the mammalian lung. Here, we show that monopodial branching is initiated by apical constriction of the airway epithelium, and not by differential cell proliferation, using computational modeling and quantitative imaging of embryonic chicken lung explants. Both filamentous actin and phosphorylated myosin light chain were enriched at the apical surface of the airway epithelium during monopodial branching. Consistently, inhibiting actomyosin contractility prevented apical constriction and blocked branch initiation. Although cell proliferation was enhanced along the dorsal and ventral aspects of the primary bronchus, especially before branch formation, inhibiting proliferation had no effect on the initiation of branches. To test whether the physical forces from apical constriction alone are sufficient to drive the formation of new buds, we constructed a nonlinear, three-dimensional finite element model of the airway epithelium and used it to simulate apical constriction and proliferation in the primary bronchus. Our results suggest that, consistent with the experimental results, apical constriction is sufficient to drive the early stages of monopodial branching whereas cell proliferation is dispensable. We propose that initial folding of the airway epithelium is driven primarily by apical constriction during monopodial branching of the avian lung.

  1. Actomyosin contractility and microtubules drive apical constriction in Xenopus bottle cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jen-Yi; Harland, Richard M

    2007-11-01

    Cell shape changes are critical for morphogenetic events such as gastrulation, neurulation, and organogenesis. However, the cell biology driving cell shape changes is poorly understood, especially in vertebrates. The beginning of Xenopus laevis gastrulation is marked by the apical constriction of bottle cells in the dorsal marginal zone, which bends the tissue and creates a crevice at the blastopore lip. We found that bottle cells contribute significantly to gastrulation, as their shape change can generate the force required for initial blastopore formation. As actin and myosin are often implicated in contraction, we examined their localization and function in bottle cells. F-actin and activated myosin accumulate apically in bottle cells, and actin and myosin inhibitors either prevent or severely perturb bottle cell formation, showing that actomyosin contractility is required for apical constriction. Microtubules were localized in apicobasally directed arrays in bottle cells, emanating from the apical surface. Surprisingly, apical constriction was inhibited in the presence of nocodazole but not taxol, suggesting that intact, but not dynamic, microtubules are required for apical constriction. Our results indicate that actomyosin contractility is required for bottle cell morphogenesis and further suggest a novel and unpredicted role for microtubules during apical constriction.

  2. Loss of Gα12/13 exacerbates apical area dependence of actomyosin contractility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Shicong; Mason, Frank M; Martin, Adam C

    2016-11-07

    During development, coordinated cell shape changes alter tissue shape. In the Drosophila ventral furrow and other epithelia, apical constriction of hundreds of epithelial cells folds the tissue. Genes in the Gα12/13 pathway coordinate collective apical constriction, but the mechanism of coordination is poorly understood. Coupling live-cell imaging with a computational approach to identify contractile events, we discovered that differences in constriction behavior are biased by initial cell shape. Disrupting Gα12/13 exacerbates this relationship. Larger apical area is associated with delayed initiation of contractile pulses, lower apical E-cadherin and F-actin levels, and aberrantly mobile Rho-kinase structures. Our results suggest that loss of Gα12/13 disrupts apical actin cortex organization and pulse initiation in a size-dependent manner. We propose that Gα12/13 robustly organizes the apical cortex despite variation in apical area to ensure the timely initiation of contractile pulses in a tissue with heterogeneity in starting cell shape. © 2016 Xie et al. This article is distributed by The American Society for Cell Biology under license from the author(s). Two months after publication it is available to the public under an Attribution–Noncommercial–Share Alike 3.0 Unported Creative Commons License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0).

  3. A comparison of Sealing Ability of Four Sealer Cements in Apically Perforated Root Canals

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    Main K Iqbal

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the apical seal obtained with four root canal sealers in conjunction with lateral condensation technique in apically perforated root canals. A total of 38 single rooted teeth stored in saline were utilized. The teeth were instrumented to their anatomical apices to a size #45 MAF using the step-back technique. An apical stop was developed 1 mm short of the working length with the help of a size #50 K-file. Based upon the mesio-distal and bucco-lingual widths of the apical foramen the teeth were stratified and randomly divided into four groups of 9 teeth each. Each of the four groups was obturated with either Sealapex, Ketac-Endo, AH26, or Tubli-Seal in conjunction with lateral condensation technique. The remaining two roots were used as controls: positive with gutta-percha and no sealer and negative with the apex sealed with nail varnish. The root apices were immersed in 1% methylene blue for 7 days and then sectioned longitudinally. Dye penetration was measured using a travelling microscope. The best seal was obtained using Sealapex cement, which differed significantly from Ketac-Endo, AH26, and Tubli-Seal. There was significant difference between the latter. It is recommended that Sealapex should be the sealer cement of choice, in conjunction with lateral condensation technique, when obturating apically perforated root canals.

  4. In vitro comparison of three materials as apical sealants of equine premolar and molar teeth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steenkamp, G; Olivier-Carstens, A; van Heerden, W F P; Crossley, D A; Boy, S C

    2005-03-01

    Surgical endodontic therapy is a conservative dental technique used in horses with some degree of clinical success. Failure of this procedure can partially be explained by inadequate sealing of the root apices with resultant microleakage in the periapical area. To assess and compare in vitro sealing ability of 3 different dental restorative materials used as apical sealants during equine surgical endodontics. Thirty extracted equine cheek teeth were divided randomly into 3 groups and subjected to apicoectomy and apical sealing using 3 materials: reinforced zinc oxide-eugenol cement; intermediate restorative material (IRM); a resin-modified glass ionomer; and amalgam. After apical sealing, the teeth were submerged in a solution of Procion Brilliant Cresyl Blue stain for a period of 7 days. The teeth were then washed, embedded in resin, sectioned and assessed microscopically for dye leakage around the apical restorations. Although the materials proved effective as apical sealants, some dye leakage was encountered in all 3 groups with no statistical difference (P = 0.114). IRM, a resin-modified glass ionomer and amalgam all showed comparative features as apical sealants when used in vitro in equine teeth. IRM is currently regarded as the superior material in clinical situations due to its ease of handling and lesser sensitivity to environmental moisture during placement compared to the other 2 materials.

  5. The fast-recycling receptor Megalin defines the apical recycling pathway of epithelial cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez Bay, Andres E.; Schreiner, Ryan; Benedicto, Ignacio; Paz Marzolo, Maria; Banfelder, Jason; Weinstein, Alan M.; Rodriguez-Boulan, Enrique J.

    2016-01-01

    The basolateral recycling and transcytotic pathways of epithelial cells were previously defined using markers such as transferrin (TfR) and polymeric IgA (pIgR) receptors. In contrast, our knowledge of the apical recycling pathway remains fragmentary. Here we utilize quantitative live-imaging and mathematical modelling to outline the recycling pathway of Megalin (LRP-2), an apical receptor with key developmental and renal functions, in MDCK cells. We show that, like TfR, Megalin is a long-lived and fast-recycling receptor. Megalin enters polarized MDCK cells through segregated apical sorting endosomes and subsequently intersects the TfR and pIgR pathways at a perinuclear Rab11-negative compartment termed common recycling endosomes (CRE). Whereas TfR recycles to the basolateral membrane from CRE, Megalin, like pIgR, traffics to subapical Rab11-positive apical recycling endosomes (ARE) and reaches the apical membrane in a microtubule- and Rab11-dependent manner. Hence, Megalin defines the apical recycling pathway of epithelia, with CRE as its apical sorting station. PMID:27180806

  6. Effectiveness of previous mumps vaccination during a summer camp outbreak.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaffzin, Joshua K; Pollock, Lynn; Schulte, Cynthia; Henry, Kyle; Dayan, Gustavo; Blog, Debra; Smith, Perry

    2007-10-01

    Mumps is a vaccine-preventable disease that may cause outbreaks. In July 2005, an outbreak of mumps occurred during a children's summer camp in upstate New York. An investigation was initiated to describe the cases and evaluate vaccine effectiveness. A retrospective cohort study was conducted among 541 children from the United States and abroad who attended a 1- or 2-month overnight summer camp. Patients with mumps were interviewed; serologic analysis was conducted for 6 case patients. Vaccine effectiveness was calculated by retrospective review of immunization records for 507 attendees who were eligible for vaccination and had verified immunization history. Thirty-one camp attendees were identified as having mumps (attack rate: 5.7%); 5 (83%) of 6 patients tested had positivity for mumps immunoglobulin M. Of the 507 participants (including 29 patients) with available immunization history, 440 (including 16 [87%] patients) were 2-dose recipients of mumps vaccine (attack rate: 3.6%); 46 participants (including 4 [9%] patients) were 1-dose recipients (attack rate: 8.7%); and 21 (including 9 [4%] patients) were unvaccinated (attack rate: 42.9%). Vaccine effectiveness was 92% for 2 doses and 80% for 1 dose. Outbreaks of mumps in settings such as summer camps can occur despite high vaccination rates. Vaccine effectiveness for 2 mumps vaccinations was greater than vaccine effectiveness for 1 mumps vaccination. Therefore, recommendation of 2 mumps vaccinations for summer camp participants continues to be appropriate. Control of mumps disease relies on broad vaccination coupled with correct clinical diagnosis and strict control measures.

  7. Brain Stimulation Therapies

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Magnetic Seizure Therapy Deep Brain Stimulation Additional Resources Brain Stimulation Therapies Overview Brain stimulation therapies can play ... for a shorter recovery time than ECT Deep Brain Stimulation Deep brain stimulation (DBS) was first developed ...

  8. Modelling apical columnar epithelium mechanics from circumferential contractile fibres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyd, A R B; Moore, S; Sader, J E; Lee, P V S

    2017-10-01

    Simple columnar epithelia are formed by individual epithelial cells connecting together to form single cell high sheets. They are a main component of many important body tissues and are heavily involved in both normal and cancerous cell activities. Prior experimental observations have identified a series of contractile fibres around the circumference of a cross section located in the upper (apical) region of each cell. While other potential mechanisms have been identified in both the experimental and theoretical literature, these circumferential fibres are considered to be the most likely mechanism controlling movement of this cross section. Here, we investigated the impact of circumferential contractile fibres on movement of the cross section by creating an alternate model where movement is driven from circumferential contractile fibres, without any other potential mechanisms. In this model, we utilised a circumferential contractile fibre representation based on investigations into the movement of contractile fibres as an individual system, treated circumferential fibres as a series of units, and matched our model simulation to experimental geometries. By testing against laser ablation datasets sourced from existing literature, we found that circumferential fibres can reproduce the majority of cross-sectional movements. We also investigated model predictions related to various aspects of cross-sectional movement, providing insights into epithelium mechanics and demonstrating the usefulness of our modelling approach.

  9. Malignant Arrhythmia in Apical Ballooning Syndrome: Risk Factors and Outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel J. Asirvatham

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: We sought to determine the frequency and outcomes with symptomatic arrhythmia in patients with apical ballooning syndrome (ABS. Methods: A retrospective review of the Mayo Clinic Angiography database was conducted to identify patients who met the Mayo criteria for ABS. Patients with documented arrhythmias formed the study group, and 31 randomly selected patients with ABS but without arrhythmia formed the control group.Results: Out of 105 patients identified with ABS, 6 (5.7% women aged 69 +/- 9 years experienced significant arrhythmia (ventricular fibrillation, asystole, 2 patients died, and 1 required permanent pacemaker implantation. When compared with controls, the study group showed no significant difference with respect to ECG characteristics (QT, QRS duration or axis except for R-R interval variability (see comments below (30.6±6 vs 14.5±17 p = 0.0004, QTc, and P-R interval. Patients without arrhythmia were more likely to be on beta-blocker therapy than the study population (33% vs 80.6% p = 0.02. Conclusion: Life-threatening arrhythmia is uncommon (5.7% with ABS despite marked, structural abnormalities. When arrhythmias do occur, the outcome is poor. Prominent variability in R-R intervals appears to be predictive of significant arrhythmias in ABS. The role of beta-blocker therapy in preventing arrhythmia with ABS requires further investigation.

  10. Embryology meets molecular biology: Deciphering the apical ectodermal ridge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verheyden, Jamie M; Sun, Xin

    2017-09-15

    More than sixty years ago, while studying feather tracks on the shoulder of the chick embryo, Dr. John Saunders used Nile Blue dye to stain the tissue. There, he noticed a darkly stained line of cells that neatly rims the tip of the growing limb bud. Rather than ignoring this observation, he followed it up by removing this tissue and found that it led to a striking truncation of the limb skeletons. This landmark experiment marks the serendipitous discovery of the apical ectodermal ridge (AER), the quintessential embryonic structure that drives the outgrowth of the limb. Dr. Saunders continued to lead the limb field for the next fifty years, not just through his own work, but also by inspiring the next generation of researchers through his infectious love of science. Together, he and those who followed ushered in the discovery of fibroblast growth factor (FGF) as the AER molecule. The seamless marriage of embryology and molecular biology that led to the decoding of the AER serves as a shining example of how discoveries are made for the rest of the developmental biology field. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Poda apical para uniformizar a colheita de flores de ?tango?

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    Francine Lorena Cuquel

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho testou a poda apical das hastes de tango 4 e 6 semanas após a roçada, para homogeneizar a colheita que, comercialmente, necessita ser feita por um período de aproximadamente 5 dias numa mesma área. Foram avaliados altura média das plantas no primeiro dia de colheita, número médio de hastes colhidas/planta e a média do peso de matéria seca colhida/haste. Só foi verificada diferença significativa para altura média das plantas no primeiro dia de colheita, não se conseguindo reduzir o número de colheitas necessárias por planta. Existem indicações de que há necessidade de reduzir a variabilidade genética da população para homogeneizar a colheita de inflorescências de tango.

  12. 5-Lipoxygenase Knockout Aggravated Apical Periodontitis in a Murine Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Y; Sun, H; Yang, B; Liu, X; Wang, J

    2017-11-01

    5-Lipoxygenase (5-LO) plays a vital role in the host innate immune response, including bacteria-induced inflammation. Apical periodontitis (AP) is due to immune disorders caused by imbalances between bacterial invasion and subsequent host defense response. In this work, we investigated the role of 5-lipoxygenase in AP by using 5- lo knockout mice (5- lo-/- mice). Results showed that 5- lo-/- mice had greater periapical bone loss and more osteoclasts positive for tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase staining than did wild-type mice, as determined by micro-computed tomography and histologic staining. The inflammation- and osteoclastogenesis-related factors IL-1β, TNF-α, RANK, and RANKL were also significantly elevated in 5- lo-/- mice, whereas osteoprotegerin was reduced. Furthermore, peritoneal macrophages from 5- lo-/- mice revealed an obviously impaired ability to phagocytose the AP pathogenic bacteria Fusobacterium nucleatum. In vivo experiments confirmed that 5- lo knockout led to decreased macrophage recruitment and increased F. nucleatum infection around the periapical area due to decreased leukotriene B4 and LXA4 production. All these results showed that 5- lo knockout impaired the host innate immune system to promote the release of bone resorption-related factors. Therefore, 5- lo deficiency aggravated AP in an experimental murine AP model.

  13. Pathological studies of cheek teeth apical infections in the horse: 5. Aetiopathological findings in 57 apically infected maxillary cheek teeth and histological and ultrastructural findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dacre, Ian; Kempson, S; Dixon, P M

    2008-12-01

    Examination of 57 apically infected maxillary cheek teeth (CT) showed one or more viable pulps and minimal apical calcified tissue changes present in recently infected CT. With chronic infections, pulps were necrotic or absent, pulp horns were filled with food if occlusal pulpar exposure was present, and gross caries of dentine was occasionally present. With chronic infections, the apical changes varied from gross destructive changes in some teeth, to extensive proliferative calcified apical changes in others. Infundibular caries was believed to cause apical infection in just 16% of infected (maxillary) CT, anachoretic infection in 51%, periodontal spread in 12%, fractures and fissures in 9%, dysplasia in 5% and miscellaneous or undiagnosed causes in 7%. Histology showed viable pulp and absence of circumpulpar dentinal changes in some recently infected CT, but chronically infected teeth had loss of predentine and progressive destruction of the circumpulpar secondary, and even primary dentine, with bacteria identified within the dentinal tubules surrounding infected pulps. Tertiary dentine deposition was rarely detected. Scanning and transmission electron microscopy confirmed these histological findings and showed extensive destructive changes, especially to the dentinal architecture surrounding the pulp chambers of some infected teeth.

  14. Bone strains around apically free versus grafted implants in the posterior maxilla of human cadavers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cehreli, Murat Cavit; Akkocaoglu, Murat; Comert, Ayhan; Tekdemir, Ibrahim; Akca, Kivanc

    2007-04-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the bone strains of apically free versus grafted implants in the posterior maxilla. The experiments were undertaken in four edentulous maxillary posterior regions of fresh human cadavers, having a minimum bone height of 8 mm. In each bone fragment, two Ø 4.1 mm x 12 mm Straumann implants were placed, and insertion torque values (ITV) and implant stability quotients (ISQ) of the implants were quantified to determine implant anchorage. Two splinted crowns were fabricated for each experimental model. Strain gauges were bonded on the buccal and sinus floor cortical bones around apically free and grafted implants. Microstrains were recorded by a data acquisition system and corresponding software at a sample rate of 10 KHz under central and buccally oriented lateral-axial static loads of 100 and 150 N in separate cases. The data were compared by independent T test at a significance level set at PBone tissue strains on the buccal cortical areas adjacent to apically free implants were higher than those of apically grafted implants (Pbone around apically free and grafted implants (PBone strains around anterior implants were higher than those of posterior implants. Microstrains in the sinus floor cortical bone in apically grafted models were slightly higher than apically free models. Bone tissue strains on the buccal cortical areas adjacent to apicallyfree implants are higher than those of apically grafted implants. Sinus lifting, resulting in an enhanced apical support, slightly increases strains at the sinus floor region, but leads to a decrease in bone strains around the collar of supporting implants.

  15. Neuroelectric Tuning of Cortical Oscillations by Apical Dendrites in Loop Circuits

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    David LaBerge

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Bundles of relatively long apical dendrites dominate the neurons that make up the thickness of the cerebral cortex. It is proposed that a major function of the apical dendrite is to produce sustained oscillations at a specific frequency that can serve as a common timing unit for the processing of information in circuits connected to that apical dendrite. Many layer 5 and 6 pyramidal neurons are connected to thalamic neurons in loop circuits. A model of the apical dendrites of these pyramidal neurons has been used to simulate the electric activity of the apical dendrite. The results of that simulation demonstrated that subthreshold electric pulses in these apical dendrites can be tuned to specific frequencies and also can be fine-tuned to narrow bandwidths of less than one Hertz (1 Hz. Synchronous pulse outputs from the circuit loops containing apical dendrites can tune subthreshold membrane oscillations of neurons they contact. When the pulse outputs are finely tuned, they function as a local “clock,” which enables the contacted neurons to synchronously communicate with each other. Thus, a shared tuning frequency can select neurons for membership in a circuit. Unlike layer 6 apical dendrites, layer 5 apical dendrites can produce burst firing in many of their neurons, which increases the amplitude of signals in the neurons they contact. This difference in amplitude of signals serves as basis of selecting a sub-circuit for specialized processing (e.g., sustained attention within the typically larger layer 6-based circuit. After examining the sustaining of oscillations in loop circuits and the processing of spikes in network circuits, we propose that cortical functioning can be globally viewed as two systems: a loop system and a network system. The loop system oscillations influence the network system’s timing and amplitude of pulse signals, both of which can select circuits that are momentarily dominant in cortical activity.

  16. Using Science Camps to Develop Understandings about Scientific Inquiry--Taiwanese Students in a U.S. Summer Science Camp

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antink-Meyer, Allison; Bartos, Stephen; Lederman, Judith S.; Lederman, Norman G.

    2016-01-01

    Recent years have witnessed a dramatic rise in the number of middle and high school students from Asian countries participating in U.S.-based summer experiences (Perlez & Gao, 2013). Although summer science camps have been shown to improve students' attitudes and interests related to science and science learning (Bhattacharyya, Mead &…

  17. Assessment of Apical Extrusion during Root Canal Irrigation with the Novel GentleWave System in a Simulated Apical Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charara, Karine; Friedman, Shimon; Sherman, Adria; Kishen, Anil; Malkhassian, Gevik; Khakpour, Mehrzad; Basrani, Bettina

    2016-01-01

    This study assessed apical extrusion during treatment with GentleWave (GW; Sonendo Inc, Laguna Hills, CA), a conventional open-ended 30-G needle (CN), or Endovac (EV; SybronEndo, Orange, CA) in root canals enlarged to different dimensions with and without apical constriction. Sixteen mandibular molars were mounted in an in vitro apparatus. Roots were immersed in a pressure-regulated chamber containing distilled water with pressure kept at 5.88 ± 0.15 mm Hg to simulate periapical back pressure. Mesiobuccal (curved ≤30°) and distal (straight) canals were instrumented to the working length (WL) as follows: minimal instrumentation (MI, #15/.04), traditional instrumentation (#35/.06), or overinstrumentation (OI, #35/.06, to the WL + 1 mm). Canals were tested 5 times each with distilled water using GW, CN (at WL-3 mm), or EV and the mass (g) of extruded water recorded. Extrusion frequency and mean extruded mass were compared for each canal, irrigation group, and canal instrumentation mode (Wilcoxon t test, P < .05). No extrusion occurred with GW and EV, whereas the frequency of extrusion with CN was 33%. Mean extruded water mass using CN ranged in mesial canals from 0.000 ± 0.000 g (OI) to 0.047 ± 0.098 g (MI) and in distal canals from 0.123 ± 0.191 g (MI) to 0.505 ± 0.490 g (OI). With traditional instrumentation and OI instrumentation, extruded mass in distal canals was significantly higher than in mesial canals (P < .002) and distal canals with MI (P < .020). Within this study's limitations, root canal treatment with GW and irrigation with EV was not associated with extrusion. Extruded irrigation mass using the open-ended 30-G needle depended on the canal type and enlargement. These results have to be interpreted with caution, and further investigations are warranted to evaluate the possibility of extrusion using GW in different tooth types and clinical situations. Copyright © 2016 American Association of Endodontists. Published by

  18. Pilot Study Evaluating Physical Activity and Fatigue in Adolescent Oncology Patients and Survivors During Summer Camp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Withycombe, Janice S; Baek, Min Joo; Jordan, Dorothy H; Thomas, Nimmy J; Hale, Sally

    2017-11-03

    Summer camps for adolescent cancer patients and survivors are popular. Little is known about the impact of camp attendance on physical activity (PA) and fatigue. This pilot study was conducted in 24 adolescents, 13-17 years of age, to measure objective PA (steps/day) along with self-reported PA and fatigue during camp. Findings demonstrate adolescents are willing to complete a PA research study during camp. On average, campers demonstrated 18,198 steps/day. Self-reported PA significantly increased with no significant change in self-reported fatigue. Summer camps offer a unique setting, in which to encourage and explore PA in adolescent oncology patients and survivors.

  19. Policy options to stimulate social innovation initiatives addressing food waste prevention and reduction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vittuari, Matteo; Gaiani, Silvia; Politano, Alessandro; Timmermans, A.J.M.; Bos-Brouwers, H.E.J.

    2016-01-01

    The report builds on the knowledge created by the FUSIONS position paper “Stimulating social innovation through policy measures” that uses as key inputs the range of existing social innovation initiatives catalogued by FUSIONS WP4 in the inventory and draws on the outcomes of the WP3 Social Camp

  20. Musik in Konzentrationslagern The Role of Music in Concentration Camps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriele Knapp

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available Die Holocaust-Forschung hat sich jahrzehntelang vorwiegend mit den Verbrechen in den Konzentrationslagern beschäftigt, während Fragen nach dem „Alltag“ der Häftlinge und ihren Strategien des Überlebens nebensächlich erschienen. Untersuchungen zum (ÜberLeben im KZ können aber gerade die Brutalität des Systems deutlich machen. So war Musik ein integraler Bestandteil des Lageralltags und diente keineswegs nur der Erbauung der Häftlinge, sondern bedeutete für sie häufig eine zusätzliche Tortur, wie Forschungsarbeiten für die Zeit von 1939 bis 1945 bereits belegt haben. Inwieweit dies für die frühen Lager von 1933 bis 1936 zutraf, untersucht Guido Fackler in seiner Studie. Darüber hinaus versucht er, musikalische Kontinuitätslinien von den frühen Lagern bis in die späte Phase (1937–1945 zu zeichnen. Eine Gesamtdarstellung zu KZ-Musik von 1933 bis 1945 konnte dem Autor indes nicht gelingen, wenn er auch einzelne Zusammenhänge zwischen musikalischen Phänomenen in unterschiedlichen Lagern aufzeigt. Facklers Buch lässt sich eher als Quellensammlung für Musik in unterschiedlichsten Konzentrationslagern verstehen und gebrauchen – wenn auch fast ausschließlich begrenzt auf Männerlager.In the past decades, Holocaust studies have focused on researching the annihilating structures of concentration camps, while the study of the inmates’ everyday lives and their strategies for survival was not included in this field of work. However, studying aspects of daily life and survival in the concentration camps can serve to truly bring out the brutality of the Holocaust. Music, for example, was an integral part of everyday life in the camps and did not solely serve to entertain the inmates, but also represented an additional form of torture for them, as previous studies for the time period between 1939 and 1945 have documented. Fackler’s study investigates the extent to which this was the case in the early concentration camps between

  1. [Medicine in the concentration camps of the Third Reich].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shasha, Shaul M

    2005-04-01

    Between 1942 and 1944 millions of prisoners were subjected to forced labor in concentration camps throughout the Third Reich, all the while being the victims of a systematic and "scientific" extermination policy. Though the policy was directed mainly against Jews, it was implemented against other "inferior races" as well. The prisoners, stripped of all rights, experienced constant humiliation, uncertain survival and terror. The harsh living condition, characterized by crowding, absent sanitation and poor personal hygiene led to considerable morbidity, mainly due to injuries, infectious diseases and famine, and to high mortality rates. Medical care in the camps was the responsibility of the S.S. Each camp had a chief S.S. physician accompanied by a number of assistants and orderlies. There was also a parallel system of "prisoner-physicians." There was a chief prisoner-physician in every camp, and each block was assigned a "block doctor" who was responsible for sanitation, the removal of corpses, setting up the sick- call and authorizing sick leave. Work teams were accompanied by "mobile doctors" (Streckenpfleger), who dispensed first aid for work injuries. Prisoner-physicians were also charged with disinfecting the blocks and maintaining hygienic conditions in the camp. Every camp had one or more blocks, called "Reviers", that were used for treatment and hospitalization. In the larger camps a number of blocks were designated to function as a sort of hospital (Krankenbau). At times one camp out of a group of camps would be set aside as quarantine, primarily for patients with infectious diseases. Officially, the "Revier" was the responsibility of an S.S. physicians', assisted by a chief prisoner-physician, his assistants and, at times, nurses. But in actuality the Reviers were managed by prisoners (Capos) who did not have medical training but were authorized to make decisions in medical matters such as operations and, on occasion, even performed them. The Reviers

  2. Benefits of attending a summer camp for children with inflammatory bowel disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salazar, Guadalupe; Heyman, Melvin B

    2014-07-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate knowledge of pediatric patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and perceptions of Camp Gut Busters, an IBD summer camp. The present ethnographic study uses traditional anthropological methods to investigate participants' knowledge and perceptions of Camp Gut Busters. Data were gathered using in-depth qualitative interviews, participant observation during 4 Camp Gut Busters summer sessions, and attendance records for the summer camp. Participants either attended Camp Gut Busters (campers) or did not attend (noncampers). Campers' knowledge and perceptions were based on their actual experience at Camp Gut Busters, whereas those of noncampers were based on their expectations of camp. Participant responses reference their illness experience with IBD, their struggles of learning to live with a chronic condition, and the benefits of attending a disease-specific camp. Campers addressed notions of identity, the isolation associated with having a potentially stigmatizing chronic condition, therapeutic routines, and awareness of IBD. Noncampers focused on discomfort with IBD and their identity as an individual and child with the disease. Pediatric patients with IBD who attended a disease-specific summer camp benefited from the experience. Exposure to peers with similar therapeutic routines and to the range of IBD helped campers build an empathetic social network and introduced a new perspective on their disease. Attending a disease-specific camp helps pediatric patients with IBD in psychosocial adjustment and acquisition of knowledge about their disease. Ultimately, it helps them learn to live with their chronic condition.

  3. Streptococcus pyogenes CAMP factor attenuates phagocytic activity of RAW 264.7 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurosawa, Mie; Oda, Masataka; Domon, Hisanori; Saitoh, Issei; Hayasaki, Haruaki; Terao, Yutaka

    2016-02-01

    Streptococcus pyogenes produces molecules that inhibit the function of human immune system, thus allowing the pathogen to grow and spread in tissues. It is known that S. pyogenes CAMP factor increases erythrocytosis induced by Staphylococcus aureus β-hemolysin. However, the effects of CAMP factor for immune cells are unclear. In this study, we investigated the effects of CAMP factor to macrophages. Western blotting analysis demonstrated that all examined strains expressed CAMP factor protein. In the presence of calcium or magnesium ion, CAMP factor was significantly released in the supernatant. In addition, both culture supernatant from S. pyogenes strain SSI-9 and recombinant CAMP factor dose-dependently induced vacuolation in RAW 264.7 cells, but the culture supernatant from Δcfa isogenic mutant strain did not. CAMP factor formed oligomers in RAW 264.7 cells in a time-dependent manner. CAMP factor suppressed cell proliferation via G2 phase cell cycle arrest without inducing cell death. Furthermore, CAMP factor reduced the uptake of S. pyogenes and phagocytic activity indicator by RAW 264.7 cells. These results suggest that CAMP factor works as a macrophage dysfunction factor. Therefore, we conclude that CAMP factor allows S. pyogenes to escape the host immune system, and contribute to the spread of streptococcal infection. Copyright © 2015 Institut Pasteur. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  4. Fgfr-Ras-MAPK signaling is required for apical constriction via apical positioning of Rho-associated kinase during mechanosensory organ formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harding, Molly J; Nechiporuk, Alex V

    2012-09-01

    Many morphogenetic movements during development require the formation of transient intermediates called rosettes. Within rosettes, cells are polarized with apical ends constricted towards the rosette center and nuclei basally displaced. Whereas the polarity and cytoskeletal machinery establishing these structures has been extensively studied, the extracellular cues and intracellular signaling cascades that promote their formation are not well understood. We examined how extracellular Fibroblast growth factor (Fgf) signals regulate rosette formation in the zebrafish posterior lateral line primordium (pLLp), a group of ∼100 cells that migrates along the trunk during embryonic development to form the lateral line mechanosensory system. During migration, the pLLp deposits rosettes from the trailing edge, while cells are polarized and incorporated into nascent rosettes in the leading region. Fgf signaling was previously shown to be crucial for rosette formation in the pLLp. We demonstrate that activation of Fgf receptor (Fgfr) induces intracellular Ras-MAPK, which is required for apical constriction and rosette formation in the pLLp. Inhibiting Fgfr-Ras-MAPK leads to loss of apically localized Rho-associated kinase (Rock) 2a, which results in failed actomyosin cytoskeleton activation. Using mosaic analyses, we show that a cell-autonomous Ras-MAPK signal is required for apical constriction and Rock2a localization. We propose a model whereby activated Fgfr signals through Ras-MAPK to induce apical localization of Rock2a in a cell-autonomous manner, activating the actomyosin network to promote apical constriction and rosette formation in the pLLp. This mechanism presents a novel cellular strategy for driving cell shape changes.

  5. Root lengthening with apical closure in two maxillary immature permanent central incisors after placement of mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) as an apical plug.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masmoudi, F; Bourmeche, I; Sebai, A; Baccouche, Z; Maatouk, F

    2018-01-15

    Necrosis of permanent immature teeth is a common reason for consultation in paediatric dentistry. Apexification is a therapeutic procedure aiming to create an apical calcified barrier in open apex teeth. Two cases are presented in which apexification were completed on immature permanent traumatised incisors using a mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) plug. At 2 and 5 years showed apical closure and radicular elongation beyond the MTA plug. Unexpectedly, a regeneration of mineral tissues beyond the MTA plug occurred which is an uncommon outcome.

  6. Frecuencia de periodontitis apical en tratamientos endodónticos de pregrado Frequency of apical periodontitis in endodontic treatment in undergraduate

    OpenAIRE

    León, P; MJ Ilabaca; M Alcota; FE González

    2011-01-01

    La periodontitis apical es una enfermedad de los tejidos periapicales de etiología bacteriana. Su tratamiento requiere erradicar los microorganismos del conducto radicular y obturarlo para lograr la reparación posterior. El objetivo de éste trabajo fue determinar la frecuencia de periodontitis apical en la población que asiste a la clínica de Endodoncia de la Facultad de Odontología de la Universidad de Chile y su relación con diferentes variables: diagnóstico específico, edad, sexo, agudas v...

  7. Assessing Disaster Preparedness Among Select Children's Summer Camps in the United States and Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Megan; Sielaff, Alan; Bradin, Stuart; Walker, Kevin; Ambrose, Michael; Hashikawa, Andrew

    2017-08-01

    Children's summer camps are at risk for multiple pediatric casualties during a disaster. The degree to which summer camps have instituted disaster preparedness is unknown. We assessed disaster preparedness among selected camps nationally for a range of disasters. We partnered with a national, web-based electronic health records system to send camp leadership of 315 camp organizations a 14-question online survey of disaster preparedness. One response from each camp was selected in the following order of importance: owner, director, physician, nurse, medical technician, office staff, and other. The results were analyzed using descriptive statistics. A total of 181 camps responses were received, 169 of which were complete. Camp types were overnight (60%), day (21%), special/medical needs (14%), and other (5%). Survey respondents were directors (52%), nurses (14%), office staff (10%), physicians (5%), owners (5%), emergency medical technicians (2%), and other (12%). Almost 18% of camps were located >20 mi from a major medical center, and 36% were >5 mi from police/fire departments. Many camps were missing emergency supplies: car/booster seats for evacuation (68%), shelter (35%), vehicles for evacuation (26%), quarantine isolation areas (21%), or emergency supplies of extra water (20%) or food (17%). Plans were unavailable for the following: power outages (23%); lockdowns (15%); illness outbreaks (15%); tornadoes (11%); evacuation for fire, flood, or chemical spill (9%); and other severe weather (8%). Many camps did not have online emergency plans (53%), plans for children with special/medical needs (38%), methods to rapidly communicate information to parents (25%), or methods to identify children for evacuation/reunification with parents (40%). Respondents reported that staff participation in disaster drills varied for weather (58%), evacuations (46%), and lockdowns (36%). The majority (75%) of respondents had not collaborated with medical organizations for planning. A

  8. Residential summer camp: a new venue for nutrition education and physical activity promotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ventura, Alison K; Garst, Barry A

    2013-05-24

    Millions of children attend residential summer camps each year. However, few studies have examined the potential of camps for obesity prevention efforts. Research in the domain of positive youth development has shown that camp programs as short as one week have both short- and long-term positive effects on self-esteem, self-efficacy and other youth outcomes. The objective of the present study was to highlight the potential of resident camps as promising venues for the promotion of healthy eating and physical activity behaviors in the children who attend. Data for this study came from the American Camp Association 2007 Emerging Issues Survey. This survey assessed camp professionals' perspectives on a diverse array of issues, including the healthy eating and physical activity of children. Data analysis focused on responses from 247 camp professionals whose camps offered resident camp programs. Descriptive and Chi-square statistics were calculated. Ninety-two percent of camp professionals reported that the healthy eating and physical activity of campers was an "important" or "very important" issue for camps. The majority of camps reported offering vegetarian options, healthy snacks and salad bars, and allergen-free options. Additionally, 86% of camp professionals indicated that they had implemented one or more strategies to address concerns related to the unhealthy eating behaviors of children, with top strategies including increasing the availability of fruits and vegetables, increasing the availability of healthy drink options, and improving the nutritional quality of menus. Fewer camp professionals (50%) indicated they had implemented strategies to increase children's physical activity levels, but many professionals indicated that their camp programs were inherently active and additional strategies to promote physical activity were not necessary. Associations were found between camp affiliation and food options available to campers. The majority of camp

  9. Prostaglandin E2 Inhibits Histamine-Evoked Ca2+ Release in Human Aortic Smooth Muscle Cells through Hyperactive cAMP Signaling Junctions and Protein Kinase A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Emily J A; Pantazaka, Evangelia; Shelley, Kathryn L; Taylor, Colin W

    2017-11-01

    In human aortic smooth muscle cells, prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) stimulates adenylyl cyclase (AC) and attenuates the increase in intracellular free Ca2+ concentration evoked by activation of histamine H1 receptors. The mechanisms are not resolved. We show that cAMP mediates inhibition of histamine-evoked Ca2+ signals by PGE2 Exchange proteins activated by cAMP were not required, but the effects were attenuated by inhibition of cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA). PGE2 had no effect on the Ca2+ signals evoked by protease-activated receptors, heterologously expressed muscarinic M3 receptors, or by direct activation of inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP3) receptors by photolysis of caged IP3 The rate of Ca2+ removal from the cytosol was unaffected by PGE2, but PGE2 attenuated histamine-evoked IP3 accumulation. Substantial inhibition of AC had no effect on the concentration-dependent inhibition of Ca2+ signals by PGE2 or butaprost (to activate EP2 receptors selectively), but it modestly attenuated responses to EP4 receptors, activation of which generated less cAMP than EP2 receptors. We conclude that inhibition of histamine-evoked Ca2+ signals by PGE2 occurs through "hyperactive signaling junctions," wherein cAMP is locally delivered to PKA at supersaturating concentrations to cause uncoupling of H1 receptors from phospholipase C. This sequence allows digital signaling from PGE2 receptors, through cAMP and PKA, to histamine-evoked Ca2+ signals. Copyright © 2017 by The Author(s).

  10. [Pulp revascularization of immature teeth with apical periodontitis: a clinical study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yuan; Peng, Chu-fang; Qin, Man

    2013-02-01

    To evaluate the clinical effect of pulp revascularization procedure for immature teeth with apical periodontitis. Nine immature permanent teeth diagnosed with chronic or acute apical periodontitis were recruited. According to a standard pulp revascularization procedure, the canal was disinfected with copious irrigation and a combination of three antibiotics, followed by a blood clot created in the canal. Patients were recalled periodically after the treatment. Clinical and radiographic evidence of healing was evaluated. Eighteen to 24 months after treatment, 6 teeth showed complete resolution of the radiolucency and closure of the apex and thickening of the dentinal walls. One tooth showed healing of periodontal lesion, but the root mature was not observed. Two teeth had recurrent apical periodontitis and no evidence of healing. Apexification was performed later. Pulp revascularization could be an effective treatment for immature permanent teeth with apical periodontitis, and root elongation and narrowing canal space were observed in appropriate cases. If the treatment failed, traditional apexification could be started instead.

  11. Apical constriction: themes and variations on a cellular mechanism driving morphogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Adam C; Goldstein, Bob

    2014-05-01

    Apical constriction is a cell shape change that promotes tissue remodeling in a variety of homeostatic and developmental contexts, including gastrulation in many organisms and neural tube formation in vertebrates. In recent years, progress has been made towards understanding how the distinct cell biological processes that together drive apical constriction are coordinated. These processes include the contraction of actin-myosin networks, which generates force, and the attachment of actin networks to cell-cell junctions, which allows forces to be transmitted between cells. Different cell types regulate contractility and adhesion in unique ways, resulting in apical constriction with varying dynamics and subcellular organizations, as well as a variety of resulting tissue shape changes. Understanding both the common themes and the variations in apical constriction mechanisms promises to provide insight into the mechanics that underlie tissue morphogenesis.

  12. Apical constriction: themes and variations on a cellular mechanism driving morphogenesis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Martin, Adam C; Goldstein, Bob

    2014-01-01

    Apical constriction is a cell shape change that promotes tissue remodeling in a variety of homeostatic and developmental contexts, including gastrulation in many organisms and neural tube formation in vertebrates...

  13. Mineral trioxide aggregate-induced apical closure in nonvital immature permanent maxillary incisor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meenu Bhola

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Treatment of nonvital immature permanent teeth with calcium hydroxide is associated with few difficulties such as weakened tooth root, root canal reinfection, and long treatment time. Mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA apical plug method is an alternative treatment method for open apices and has gained popularity in the recent times. This case report describes the management of a late-referral case of periapically involved, traumatized immature permanent incisor by endodontic treatment and the use of MTA apical plug. After preparing the access cavity, the working length was determined. The root canals were irrigated with 3% sodium hypochlorite and disinfected with metapex for 2 weeks. MTA was then placed in the apical 3 mm of the root canal. The remaining part of the root canal was filled with thermoplastic gutta-percha, and the coronal restoration was finished with composite resin. After 1-year follow-up, radiograph showed successful healing of periradicular radiolucency.

  14. Risk analysis of failure of root canal treatment for teeth with inaccessible apical constriction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negishi, Jun; Kawanami, Masamitsu; Ogami, Eriko

    2005-05-01

    The risk of failure of root canal therapy was assessed in teeth with inaccessible apical constriction and factors influencing treatment outcome in these teeth were analyzed. From the same 57 patients, one tooth with inaccessible apical constriction (n=57) and one tooth with adequate accessibility (n=57) were included in this retrospective investigation. Cox regression analysis was used to analyze factors that may have influenced the outcome one or more years after obturation. These factors included inaccessibility, systemic disease, canal curvature, preoperative periradicular lesion, widening of periodontal ligament space, patient gender and age, size of master apical file, preoperative pulp vitality, years of operator experience and obturation length. Inaccessible apical constriction was a significant factor related to outcome (odds ratio, 5.301). Preoperative presence of periradicular lesion significantly influenced the outcome in cases with inaccessibility (odds ratio, 4.448). Inaccessibility increases the risk of root canal therapy failure particularly in teeth with preoperative periradicular lesion.

  15. The flagellar contribution to the apical complex: a new tool for the eukaryotic Swiss Army knife?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portman, Neil; Slapeta, Jan

    2014-02-01

    Apicomplexa are an ancient group of single-celled pathogens of humans and animals that include the etiological agents of such devastating plagues as malaria, toxoplasmosis, and coccidiosis. The defining feature of the Apicomplexa is the apical complex, the invasion machinery used to gain access to host cells. Evidence gathered from apicomplexans and their closest relatives argues that the apical complex is an extreme example of flagellum adaptability. The value of non-apicomplexan models, such as Chromera velia, is considered in an effort to understand the modern apical complex. The origin of the apical complex is unknown, but recent evidence points to a remarkable contribution from the flagellum to its evolution. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Endodontic management of open apex using Biodentine as a novel apical matrix

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ambica Khetarpal; Sarika Chaudhary; Sangeeta Talwar; Mahesh Verma

    2014-01-01

      Aim: Endodontic management of open apex using Biodentine as an apical matrix. Summary : An immature tooth with pulpal necrosis and periapical pathology imposes a great difficulty to the endodontist...

  17. Diagnosis and planning in apical surgery: use of cone-beam tomography

    OpenAIRE

    Regina Karla de Pontes Lima; Norberto Batista de Faria Júnior; Juliane Maria Guerreiro Tanomaru; Mário Tanomaru Filho

    2010-01-01

    Introduction and objective: The ability to tridimensionally evaluate pathological and anatomical areas, in apical surgery planning, presents a number of advantages. Cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) was developed for dental applications. This paper aims to present a literature review on CBCT, highlighting its advantages over both conventional computed tomography (CT) and radiography. Moreover, its clinical applications in apical surgery are discussed. Literature review and conclusion: Unli...

  18. A survey on periapical radiography efficacy in detection apical root resorption (a histological study)

    OpenAIRE

    Goodarzipoor D.; Shahrabi Farahani Sh; Vahedi Gashniani H.

    2004-01-01

    Statement of Problem: One of the dental lesions which is mainly diagnosed by periapical radiography is apical root resorption Diagnosis of the presence and extension of this lesion can put some effects on its treatment plan and prognosis. Purpose: The aim of the present study was to evaluate the efficacy of periapical radiography on apical root resorption diagnosis. Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, sixty extracted teeth were examined radiographic and histological regarding t...

  19. Prevalence of Enterococcus faecalis in saliva and filled root canals of teeth associated with apical periodontitis

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Qian-Qian; Zhang, Cheng-Fei; Chu, Chun-Hung; Zhu, Xiao-Fei

    2012-01-01

    To investigate the prevalence of Enterococcus faecalis in saliva and filled root canals of patients requiring endodontic retreatment for apical periodontitis. Patients with apical periodontitis who were referred for endodontic retreatment were examined. The type and quality of the restoration, symptoms, quality of obturation were recorded. During retreatment, an oral rinse sample and root canal sample were cultured using brain-heart infusion agar and bile esculinazide agar to select for E. fa...

  20. USAGE OF PASTE FOR TEMPORARY PLACEMENT IN THE TREATMENT OF CHRONIC APICAL PERIODONTITIS

    OpenAIRE

    A.V. BORYSENKO; S.I. Palamarciuk

    2012-01-01

    Summary: The aim of the present investigation was usage of medicamental paste with antibacterial and regeneration action for temporary placement in the treatment of chronic apical periodontitis. Materials and method: The medicamental paste for temporary placement of root canals consists of a mixture of metronidazole, Enterosgel (Silm) and Alflutop (Biotehnos S.A., Romania). Thë paste was used for the treatment of 30 teeth with chronic apical periodontitis. Final obt...

  1. Sentan: A Novel Specific Component of the Apical Structure of Vertebrate Motile Cilia

    OpenAIRE

    Kubo, Akiharu; Yuba-Kubo, Akiko; Tsukita, Sachiko; Tsukita, Shoichiro; Amagai, Masayuki

    2008-01-01

    Human respiratory and oviductal cilia have specific apical structures characterized by a narrowed distal portion and a ciliary crown. These structures are conserved among vertebrates that have air respiration systems; however, the molecular components of these structures have not been defined, and their functions are unknown. To identify the molecular component(s) of the cilia apical structure, we screened EST libraries to identify gene(s) that are exclusively expressed in ciliated tissues, a...

  2. Vangl2 cooperates with Rab11 and Myosin V to regulate apical constriction during vertebrate gastrulation

    OpenAIRE

    Ossipova, Olga; Chuykin, Ilya; Chu, Chih-Wen; Sokol, Sergei Y.

    2015-01-01

    Core planar cell polarity (PCP) proteins are well known to regulate polarity in Drosophila and vertebrate epithelia; however, their functions in vertebrate morphogenesis remain poorly understood. In this study, we describe a role for PCP signaling in the process of apical constriction during Xenopus gastrulation. The core PCP protein Vangl2 is detected at the apical surfaces of cells at the blastopore lip, and it functions during blastopore formation and closure. Further experiments show that...

  3. Evaluation of the apical infiltration after root canal disruption and obturation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Eduardo Gomes-Filho

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate two root canal filling techniques used in teeth that had their apical foramen disrupted and compare the apical infiltration with an ideal clinical situation. Twenty-seven freshly extracted single-rooted teeth were selected and radiographed to confirm the existence of a single and straight root canal. The crowns were removed at a mean distance of 11 mm from the apex. The teeth had the root canals instrumented and were randomly assigned to 3 groups (n=9: ND group - root canals were filled using the lateral compaction technique and no disruption was performed; DRF group - the apical constriction was disrupted by advancing a #40 K-file 1 mm beyond the original working length, the canals were reinstrumented to create an apical ledge at 1 mm from the apical foramen and were obturated with a master gutta-percha cone with same size as the last file used for reinstrumentation; DF group - the teeth had the apical constriction disrupted and the canals were obturated with a master gutta-percha cone that fit at 1 mm from the apex. The teeth were submitted to dye leakage test with Rhodamine B for 7 days, using vaccum on the initial 5 min. The teeth were sectioned longitudinally and the leakage was measured in a linear fashion from apex to crown. There was no statistically significant difference (p>0.05 between the groups that had the apical foramen disrupted (DF, DRF, but significant difference was found between the disrupted groups and the non-disrupted one (p<0.01. In conclusion, none of the evaluated techniques was able to prevent apical infiltration, so working length so the working length determination has to be established and maintained carefully.

  4. Macrophage polarization differs between apical granulomas, radicular cysts, and dentigerous cysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Manuel; Schlittenbauer, Tilo; Moebius, Patrick; Büttner-Herold, Maike; Ries, Jutta; Preidl, Raimund; Geppert, Carol-Immanuel; Neukam, Friedrich W; Wehrhan, Falk

    2018-01-01

    Apical periodontitis can appear clinically as apical granulomas or radicular cysts. There is evidence that immunologic factors are involved in the pathogenesis of both pathologies. In contrast to radicular cysts, the dentigerous cysts have a developmental origin. Macrophage polarization (M1 vs M2) is a main regulator of tissue homeostasis and differentiation. There are no studies comparing macrophage polarization in apical granulomas, radicular cysts, and dentigerous cysts. Forty-one apical granulomas, 23 radicular cysts, and 23 dentigerous cysts were analyzed in this study. A tissue microarray (TMA) of the 87 consecutive specimens was created, and CD68-, CD11c-, CD163-, and MRC1-positive macrophages were detected by immunohistochemical methods. TMAs were digitized, and the expression of macrophage markers was quantitatively assessed. Radicular cysts are characterized by M1 polarization of macrophages while apical granulomas show a significantly higher degree of M2 polarization. Dentigerous cysts have a significantly lower M1 polarization than both analyzed periapical lesions (apical granulomas and radicular cysts) and accordingly, a significantly higher M2 polarization than radicular cysts. Macrophage cell density in dentigerous cysts is significantly lower than in the periapical lesions. The development of apical periodontitis towards apical granulomas or radicular cysts might be directed by macrophage polarization. Radicular cyst formation is associated with an increased M1 polarization of infiltrating macrophages. In contrast to radicular cysts, dentigerous cysts are characterized by a low macrophage infiltration and a high degree of M2 polarization, possibly reflecting their developmental rather than inflammatory origin. As M1 polarization of macrophages is triggered by bacterial antigens, these results underline the need for sufficient bacterial clearance during endodontic treatment to prevent a possible M1 macrophage-derived stimulus for radicular cyst

  5. Apical pressure created during irrigation with the GentleWave™ system compared to conventional syringe irrigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haapasalo, Markus; Shen, Ya; Wang, Zhejun; Park, Ellen; Curtis, Allison; Patel, Payal; Vandrangi, Prashanthi

    2016-09-01

    The purpose of this study is to compare pressures at the apical foramen created by conventional syringe irrigation and the GentleWave™ System, which releases high-velocity degassed irrigants to the pulp chamber and uses broad-spectrum sound energy for cleaning. The apical pressure generated during irrigation was measured for palatal and distobuccal root canals of four extracted maxillary molars after no instrumentation, minimal instrumentation to a size #15/.04, instrumentation to a size #40/.04 taper, and after perforating the apical foramen to size #40. The root canals opened into an air-tight custom fixture coupled to a piezoresistive pressure transducer. Apical pressures were measured for the GentleWave™ System and syringe-needle irrigation at different irrigant flow rates, with the needle tip at 1 and 3 mm from the apical foramen using 30-gauge (G) open-ended or side-vented safety tip needles. The GentleWave™ System generated negative apical pressures (P irrigation); the mean pressures were between -13.07 and -17.19 mmHg. The 30 G needles could not reach the 1 and 3 mm from the working length in uninstrumented and 1 mm in minimally instrumented canals. The mean positive pressures between 6.46 and 110.34 mmHg were measured with needle irrigation depending on the flow rate, needle insertion depth, and size of the root canal. The GentleWave™ System creates negative pressure at the apical foramen during root canal cleaning irrespective of the size of canal instrumentation. Positive apical pressures were measured for syringe irrigation. Negative pressure during irrigation contributes to improved safety as compared to high-positive pressure.

  6. Cleaning efficacy of an apical negative-pressure irrigation system at different exposure times.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heilborn, Carlos; Reynolds, Kai; Johnson, James D; Cohenca, Nestor

    2010-10-01

    Recent studies have shown that the apical negative-pressure irrigation system EndoVac (Discus Dental) produces better disinfection and cleanliness at the apical third of root canals than current irrigation methods using positive pressure. The aim of this histologic study was to compare the EndoVac system at two different exposure times to the traditional positive-pressure irrigation technique for root canal cleaning efficacy and to measure the volume of irrigation at the apical third. Fifty extracted human incisors, canines, and premolars (with one canal) were used. All teeth were stored in sterile saline and then randomly assigned to one of three experimental groups of 15 each. All teeth were cleaned and shaped at working length using Profile Series 29 (Dentsply Tulsa) to a size 6 (ISO size 36) or larger depending on the first instrument to bind at the apical third. After working length was reached with the master apical file, apical irrigation was accomplished with 6% sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) over a predetermined time for each group as follows: group 1, EndoVac for 210 seconds; group 2, EndoVac for 150 seconds; group 3, traditional positive-pressure irrigation for 210 seconds. The amount of debris left in the canals was quantified at 1 and 3 mm from working length. No statistical differences were found at 3 mm from working length. At 1 mm from working length, an overall test of association was significant when comparing across the three groups (P = .03). The apical negative-pressure irrigation system EndoVac has the potential to achieve significantly better root canal cleaning at the apical third of root canals and in less exposure time than required with traditional positive-pressure irrigation.

  7. Distribution and function of HCN channels in the apical dendritic tuft of neocortical pyramidal neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harnett, Mark T; Magee, Jeffrey C; Williams, Stephen R

    2015-01-21

    The apical tuft is the most remote area of the dendritic tree of neocortical pyramidal neurons. Despite its distal location, the apical dendritic tuft of layer 5 pyramidal neurons receives substantial excitatory synaptic drive and actively processes corticocortical input during behavior. The properties of the voltage-activated ion channels that regulate synaptic integration in tuft dendrites have, however, not been thoroughly investigated. Here, we use electrophysiological and optical approaches to examine the subcellular distribution and function of hyperpolarization-activated cyclic nucleotide-gated nonselective cation (HCN) channels in rat layer 5B pyramidal neurons. Outside-out patch recordings demonstrated that the amplitude and properties of ensemble HCN channel activity were uniform in patches excised from distal apical dendritic trunk and tuft sites. Simultaneous apical dendritic tuft and trunk whole-cell current-clamp recordings revealed that the pharmacological blockade of HCN channels decreased voltage compartmentalization and enhanced the generation and spread of apical dendritic tuft and trunk regenerative activity. Furthermore, multisite two-photon glutamate uncaging demonstrated that HCN channels control the amplitude and duration of synaptically evoked regenerative activity in the distal apical dendritic tuft. In contrast, at proximal apical dendritic trunk and somatic recording sites, the blockade of HCN channels decreased excitability. Dynamic-clamp experiments revealed that these compartment-specific actions of HCN channels were heavily influenced by the local and distributed impact of the high density of HCN channels in the distal apical dendritic arbor. The properties and subcellular distribution pattern of HCN channels are therefore tuned to regulate the interaction between integration compartments in layer 5B pyramidal neurons. Copyright © 2015 the authors 0270-6474/15/351024-14$15.00/0.

  8. Frecuencia de periodontitis apical en tratamientos endodónticos de pregrado Frequency of apical periodontitis in endodontic treatment in undergraduate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P León

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available La periodontitis apical es una enfermedad de los tejidos periapicales de etiología bacteriana. Su tratamiento requiere erradicar los microorganismos del conducto radicular y obturarlo para lograr la reparación posterior. El objetivo de éste trabajo fue determinar la frecuencia de periodontitis apical en la población que asiste a la clínica de Endodoncia de la Facultad de Odontología de la Universidad de Chile y su relación con diferentes variables: diagnóstico específico, edad, sexo, agudas vs. crónicas, éxito/fracaso del tratamiento y rehabilitación post-tratamiento. Se recolectó información de 292 dientes de pacientes tratados en dicha clínica, analizándose la información de aquellos con dientes diagnosticados con algún tipo de periodontitis apical clasificándolo según la nueva nomenclatura de la asociación de endodoncia americana. La frecuencia de periodontitis apical fue de un 36.7% (92 pacientes, de los cuales un 77.8% presentaron patologías de tipo crónicas. Un 75% de los pacientes pertenecieron al sexo femenino y la 5ta década representó un 34.8% de los pacientes. El 100% de los pacientes que acudieron a control presentó éxito en sus tratamientos según variables clínico-radiográficas, mientras que la restauración más frecuente post-tratamiento fue la resina compuesta (52.4%. Dado el pequeño número de pacientes que concurrieron a la citación de control para determinar el éxito del tratamiento, esta variable debe ser considerada como preliminar. Nuestros resultados mostraron que la condición mas frecuente fue la periodontitis apical de tipo crónica, afectando más a mujeres y a la 5ta década.Apical periodontitis is a microbially induced inflammatory disease of the periapical tissues. Its treatment requires eliminating microorganism from root canal and sealing it properly to induce further tissue repair. The aim of this study was to determine the frequency of apical periodontitis and its distribution by

  9. Apical control of xylem formation in the pine stem. I. Auxin effects and distribution of assimilates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomasz J. Wodzicki

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of IAA upon cambial activity, xylem differentiation and translocation of assimilates from the lateral shoot was investigated in spring and late summer in decapitated and ring-barked young trees of Pinus silvestris in the forest stand. Decapitation interrupted cambial xylem production in the uppermost part of the main stem of decapitated trees in spring and late summer, regardless of whether lateral branches below were growing, dormant or disbudded, and the contact through phloem with the roots was maintained or severed. Auxin supplied to the decapitated stems caused an increasing stimulation of cambial xylem production in spring. It also stimulated cambial activity in August but was ineffective in September. Apical control of cambial xylem production was strongly dependent upon the continuity of phloem and/or cambial tissues of the decapitated main-stem-section with lower parts of the plant. Decapitation of the stem strongly reduced the daily rate of cell wall deposition in the cambial xylem derivatives which on the day the experiment started constituted the zones of radial enlargement and maturation. This reduction limited progressively secondary wall deposition in consecutive maturing tracheids even though the cells differentiated longer. Irrespective of the season, auxin prevented the effect of decapitation in cells which were already differentiating when the experiment started as well as extension of the maturation phase. The effect of auxin was somewhat reduced when the lateral branches were additionally decapitated in early summer. In early summer auxin caused a significant increase of the daily rate of cell wall deposition in cells of the cambial zone or the newly produced ones, thus resulting in formation of progressively thicker secondary walls. Late in summer assimilates were transported mostly to the lower part of the stem. Decapitation changed the intact tree pattern of assimilate distribution, increasing the transport in

  10. From camp to kitsch: A queer eye on console fandom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rob Gallagher

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Offering a queer perspective on video game fandom, this article considers the factors that fostered a subculture of Western devotees of Japanese video games in the 1990s. Focused on readers of the English publication Sega Saturn Magazine, it shows how, for these players, Japanese games became the basis of a collective identity founded on precisely the kinds of perverse over-attachment, projective identification and hermeneutic ingenuity that Eve Kosofsky Sedgwick identifies with camp. Citing this subculture as an example of how fans transform the texts they put to use, the article also addresses its implications for our understanding of fandom today, at a time when the proliferation of quantitative analysis techniques is transforming the production and consumption of games. Such techniques, I argue, threaten to compromise the contingency and ambiguity on which camp thrives, instead fostering the kinds of cynical calculation Sedgwick associates with kitsch.

  11. Yoga cAMP in ayurvedgrams of chhattisgarh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madhu, Raghavendra; Jain, Nilesh

    2012-04-01

    The clinical and empirical health benefits of yoga and pranayam have been reiterated through research. Yoga is being adopted as a system to alleviate the burden of noncommunicable diseases (NCDs) across the globe. The Directorate of AYUSH, Government of Chhattisgarh (DoA, GoCG) conducts annual 5-day-yoga camp across 146 Ayurvedgrams in the State. The present article brings out the AYUSH initiatives the State is taking toward active ageing. A total of 71,096 people participated in the 5-day-yoga camp across the State. A mean participation of 5079 people over 5 days was reported across districts. Such statewide practices need to be promoted and appraised.

  12. A survey on periapical radiography efficacy in detection apical root resorption (a histological study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goodarzipoor D.

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available Statement of Problem: One of the dental lesions which is mainly diagnosed by periapical radiography is apical root resorption Diagnosis of the presence and extension of this lesion can put some effects on its treatment plan and prognosis. Purpose: The aim of the present study was to evaluate the efficacy of periapical radiography on apical root resorption diagnosis. Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, sixty extracted teeth were examined radiographic and histological regarding the presence and extension of apical root resorption. It should be noted that periapical radiographs were taken before extraction of all mentioned teeth. The results were analyzed by Fisher’s exact test. Results: The results of this study showed significant differences between radiological and histological examinations (P=0.0003. Significant correlation between these two observations was seen only in 53.33% of cases comprising 23% of teeth with root resouption. Non-correlation was found in 46% of samples. Moreover, there was no significant difference in the prevalence of apical root resorption between maxillary and mandibular teeth (P=0.233. Sensitivity of periapical radiographs in apical root resorption diagnosis was determined 57.3%. Conclusion: According to the findings of the present study, it seems that periapical radiography technique does not possess desirable efficacy in diagnosis of apical root resorption and its limitation should be considered by clinicians.

  13. Basolateral rather than apical primary cilia on neuroepithelial cells committed to delamination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilsch-Bräuninger, Michaela; Peters, Jula; Paridaen, Judith T M L; Huttner, Wieland B

    2012-01-01

    Delamination of neural progenitors from the apical adherens junction belt of the neuroepithelium is a hallmark of cerebral cortex development and evolution. Specific cell biological processes preceding this delamination are largely unknown. Here, we identify a novel, pre-delamination state of neuroepithelial cells in mouse embryonic neocortex. Specifically, in a subpopulation of neuroepithelial cells that, like all others, exhibit apical-basal polarity and apical adherens junctions, the re-establishing of the primary cilium after mitosis occurs at the basolateral rather than the apical plasma membrane. Neuroepithelial cells carrying basolateral primary cilia appear at the onset of cortical neurogenesis, increase in abundance with its progression, selectively express the basal (intermediate) progenitor marker Tbr2, and eventually delaminate from the apical adherens junction belt to become basal progenitors, translocating their nucleus from the ventricular to the subventricular zone. Overexpression of insulinoma-associated 1, a transcription factor known to promote the generation of basal progenitors, increases the proportion of basolateral cilia. Basolateral cilia in cells delaminating from the apical adherens junction belt are preferentially found near spot-like adherens junctions, suggesting that the latter provide positional cues to basolateral ciliogenesis. We conclude that re-establishing a basolateral primary cilium constitutes the first known cell biological feature preceding neural progenitor delamination.

  14. Modified flap design for symmetric reconstruction of the apical triangle of the upper lip.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson-Jahangir, Hillary; Stevenson, Mary; Ratner, Désirée

    2012-06-01

    The apical triangle is the superior portion of the cutaneous upper lip lying between the medial cheek and alar margin. Defects involving this subunit are often repaired without taking into consideration the aesthetic implications of its potential loss or reduction. We present a simple option for repair of apical triangle defects to address this concern. We collected a series of 69 patients with apical triangle defects treated from 2002 to 2008 with Mohs micrographic surgery. Their defects were reconstructed using various flaps (advancement, rotation, island pedicle, or M-plasty). A subset of 27 patients was identified who had undergone a standard cheek advancement flap or a modified flap. The modified design introduces an incision extending from the alar crease onto the nasal sill along the cutaneous upper lip, creating a second sliding flap to assist in recreating the apical triangle. A modified flap design introduced the ability to transfer adjacent tissue of the cutaneous upper lip to reconstruct the apical triangle subunit. This flap modification is a simple and efficient method of repairing peri-alar defects that restores the apical subunit, preserving facial symmetry. © 2012 by the American Society for Dermatologic Surgery, Inc. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Willin and Par3 cooperatively regulate epithelial apical constriction through aPKC-mediated ROCK phosphorylation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishiuchi, Takashi; Takeichi, Masatoshi

    2011-06-19

    Apical-domain constriction is important for regulating epithelial morphogenesis. Epithelial cells are connected by apical junctional complexes (AJCs) that are lined with circumferential actomyosin cables. The contractility of these cables is regulated by Rho-associated kinases (ROCKs). Here, we report that Willin (a FERM-domain protein) and Par3 (a polarity-regulating protein) cooperatively regulate ROCK-dependent apical constriction. We found that Willin recruits aPKC and Par6 to the AJCs, independently of Par3. Simultaneous depletion of Willin and Par3 completely removed aPKC and Par6 from the AJCs and induced apical constriction. Induced constriction was through upregulation of the level of AJC-associated ROCKs, which was due to loss of aPKC. Our results indicate that aPKC phosphorylates ROCK and suppresses its junctional localization, thereby allowing cells to retain normally shaped apical domains. Thus, we have uncovered a Willin/Par3-aPKC-ROCK pathway that controls epithelial apical morphology.

  16. Vangl2 cooperates with Rab11 and Myosin V to regulate apical constriction during vertebrate gastrulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ossipova, Olga; Chuykin, Ilya; Chu, Chih-Wen; Sokol, Sergei Y

    2015-01-01

    Core planar cell polarity (PCP) proteins are well known to regulate polarity in Drosophila and vertebrate epithelia; however, their functions in vertebrate morphogenesis remain poorly understood. In this study, we describe a role for PCP signaling in the process of apical constriction during Xenopus gastrulation. The core PCP protein Vangl2 is detected at the apical surfaces of cells at the blastopore lip, and it functions during blastopore formation and closure. Further experiments show that Vangl2, as well as Daam1 and Rho-associated kinase (Rock), regulate apical constriction of bottle cells at the blastopore and ectopic constriction of ectoderm cells triggered by the actin-binding protein Shroom3. At the blastopore lip, Vangl2 is required for the apical accumulation of the recycling endosome marker Rab11. We also show that Rab11 and the associated motor protein Myosin V play essential roles in both endogenous and ectopic apical constriction, and might be involved in Vangl2 trafficking to the cell surface. Overexpression of Rab11 RNA was sufficient to partly restore normal blastopore formation in Vangl2-deficient embryos. These observations suggest that Vangl2 affects Rab11 to regulate apical constriction during blastopore formation. © 2015. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  17. Pulsed contractions of an actin-myosin network drive apical constriction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Adam C; Kaschube, Matthias; Wieschaus, Eric F

    2009-01-22

    Apical constriction facilitates epithelial sheet bending and invagination during morphogenesis. Apical constriction is conventionally thought to be driven by the continuous purse-string-like contraction of a circumferential actin and non-muscle myosin-II (myosin) belt underlying adherens junctions. However, it is unclear whether other force-generating mechanisms can drive this process. Here we show, with the use of real-time imaging and quantitative image analysis of Drosophila gastrulation, that the apical constriction of ventral furrow cells is pulsed. Repeated constrictions, which are asynchronous between neighbouring cells, are interrupted by pauses in which the constricted state of the cell apex is maintained. In contrast to the purse-string model, constriction pulses are powered by actin-myosin network contractions that occur at the medial apical cortex and pull discrete adherens junction sites inwards. The transcription factors Twist and Snail differentially regulate pulsed constriction. Expression of snail initiates actin-myosin network contractions, whereas expression of twist stabilizes the constricted state of the cell apex. Our results suggest a new model for apical constriction in which a cortical actin-myosin cytoskeleton functions as a developmentally controlled subcellular ratchet to reduce apical area incrementally.

  18. Apical Leakage of Epiphany Root Canal Sealer Combined with Different Master Cones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kocak, Mustafa Murat; Er, Ozgur; Saglam, Baran Can; Yaman, Sis

    2008-01-01

    Objectives The aim of this study was to assess the apical sealing ability of different core materials used with EpiphanyTM sealer and to evaluate the effect of Resilon/EpiphanyTM system on creating an apical mono-block seal. Methods Fifty-five extracted human teeth were used. Forty-five were selected and randomly divided into three groups and ten teeth were used as positive and negative control groups. In Group 1, roots were obturated using Resilon™ and Epiphany™, In Group 2, roots were obturated using tapered single-cone gutta-percha and Epiphany™ and in Group 3, roots were obturated using Thermafil obturators and Epiphany™ sealer. The apical leakage was measured using the dye penetration methodology. The teeth were cleared, and the linear extent of dye penetration was measured with a stereomicroscope. Data were analyzed by the one-way ANOVA and Tukey HSD tests. Results The teeth filled with Thermafil obturators and Epiphany™ sealer displayed the most apical leakage. The least apical leakage was shown with Resilon™ and Epiphany™. Groups 1 and 2 had significantly leaked less than Group 3. Conclusions Based on the data of this study, although Resilon and Epiphany sealer showed the least apical leakage, statistical analysis showed no difference between gutta-percha and Epiphany™. PMID:19212517

  19. Transporters involved in apical and basolateral uptake of ceftibuten into Caco-2 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menon, Rajeev M; Barr, William H

    2002-11-01

    Ceftibuten uptake from the apical and basolateral side of Caco-2 cells grown on transwells was studied. Uptake into the cells showed concentration dependent saturation. The apical transporter(s) showed a higher capacity and lower affinity for ceftibuten than the basolateral transporter(s). Uptake was inhibited in the presence of higher pH and in the presence of 2,4-dinitro phenol (DNP). A proton gradient had a greater effect on the apical than on the basolateral transporter. Glycyl proline, a dipeptide transport system (PEPT1) substrate, inhibited ceftibuten uptake into Caco-2 cells. Benzoic acid, a monocarboxylic acid (MCT) transporter substrate also exhibited a strong inhibition of ceftibuten uptake, but acetic acid had no effect. Adipic acid inhibited apical uptake of ceftibuten but had no effect on the basolateral uptake. None of the inhibitors had a significant effect on ceftibuten uptake in absence of a pH gradient. Addition of inhibitors in presence of DNP led to a greater decrease in ceftibuten uptake, when compared to the effect of DNP alone, indicating a facilitated diffusion process. These results indicate that ceftibuten uptake in Caco-2 cells involve multiple transport pathways. Apical uptake is mediated by an energy dependent carrier-mediated process and an energy independent facilitated diffusion process. The apical transport system is different from the basolateral transporter. Copyright 2002 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  20. [Apical left ventricular involvement in chronic Chagas' cardiopathy: clinical and ventriculographic aspects].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albanesi Filho, F M; Gomes Filho, J B

    1989-03-01

    The present study comprises 62 patients with Chronic Chagas' Heart Disease. In addition to clinical examination, serologic, roentgenologic, hemodynamic, electrocardiographic, left cineventriculographic and cinecoronariographic studies were performed, with subsequent evaluation apical left ventricule. Thirty two patients were women and 30 were men, varying between 21 and 64 years of age, all with positive serological tests, all with cardiovascular symptoms, 26 with myocardial failure (11 with left ventricular failure and 15 with congestive heart failure), heart size was normal on X-ray in 37 patients with cardiomegaly in 25 (slight in 10; moderate in 8 and accentuate in 7). The electrocardiogram revealed in 41 instance of conduction defects. The left ventriculogram showed an apical lesion in 52 patients (83.87%) with: localized hypokicinetic in 4 (6.45%), diffuse hypokicinetic in 6 (9.68%) and, apical lesion in 48 (77.42%). The shaped apical lesion as a nipple in 17 (27.42%), as finger in 17 (27.42%), and half-moon in 14 (22.18%). The apical lesion was observed in 20 of 26 patients with myocardial failure (76.92%). In 9 patients was associated with others aneurysms. In 3 patients apical thrombus was detected.

  1. Assessment of DoD Wounded Warrior Matters -- Camp Lejeune

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-30

    appointments at both Camp Lejeune and the DVA . He said that although he didn’t know what the Medical Evaluation Board counselor did, the battalion command...Composite Health Care System CONUS Continental United States CTP Comprehensive Transition Plan DES Disability Evaluation System DVA ...Summary of Prior Coverage During the last 6 years, there has been a multitude of prior coverage on DOD and Department of Veterans Affairs ( DVA ) health

  2. Smart and Green Energy (SAGE) for Base Camps Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Engels, Matthias; Boyd, Paul A.; Koehler, Theresa M.; Goel, Supriya; Sisk, Daniel R.; Hatley, Darrel D.; Mendon, Vrushali V.; Hail, John C.

    2014-02-11

    The U.S. Army Logistics Innovation Agency’s (LIA’s) Smart and Green Energy (SAGE) for Base Camps project was to investigate how base camps’ fuel consumption can be reduced by 30% to 60% using commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) technologies for power generation, renewables, and energy efficient building systems. Field tests and calibrated energy models successfully demonstrated that the fuel reductions are achievable.

  3. CORRECTIVE SURGERY IN CONGENITAL TALIPES EQUINOVARUS DEFORMITY: A CAMP APPROACH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antony R.

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The study was intended to assess the results of soft tissue release and bony corrective surgery in patients of moderate to severe deformed rigid club foot (CTEV and neglected clubfoot (CTEV at free disabled surgical camps at Chhattisgarh state . MATERIAL AND METHODS : In our study 50 patients were included with 70% male and 30% female with 4 - 16 years of age grou p and 70% unilateral and 30% bilateral foot involvement. Patients were admitted and operated in different free disabled surgical camps at Chhattisgarh state over the period of 36 months (1 may 2004 to 30 th April 2007. Improvement in functional ability and locomotion of all operated patients were assessed by physical and clinical examination. RESULTS : All patients who were operated in our study showed significant improvement in functional ability and locomotion after surgery. All patients were maintaining f unctional ability at follow up duration of 12 months (1 year. 75% patients were walking normally, 10% cases were walking with internal rotation of leg and 5% cases were walking with midtarsal varus foot with AFO with medial bar support. CONCLUSION : Our st udy showed and established that excellent results can be obtained in congenital talipes equinovarus (CTEV patients by soft tissue release with bony corrective surgery. The team work of devoted surgeons, paramedical and rehabilitation staff in whole durati on of camps to achieve the goal. With an aim to help more number of CTEV cases by surgery, our team has started doing surgeries in small institutions, and organize charity camps to help poor patients and mankind even in small clinics

  4. Camp Pendleton Saves 91% in Parking Lot Lighting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2016-01-01

    Case study describes how Camp Pendleton Marine Corps Base replaced high-pressure sodium (HPS) fixtures in one parking lot with high-efficiency induction fixtures for 91% savings in energy use and $5,700 in cost savings annually. This parking lot is estimated to have a simple payback of 2.9 years. Sitewide up-grades yielded annual savings of 1 million kWh.

  5. Tidal Marsh Vegetation of China Camp, San Pablo Bay, California

    OpenAIRE

    Baye, Peter R.

    2012-01-01

    China Camp (Marin County, California) preserves extensive relict stands of salt marsh vegetation developed on a prehistoric salt marsh platform with a complex sinuous tidal creek network. The low salt marsh along tidal creeks supports extensive native stands of Pacific cordgrass (Spartina foliosa). The outer salt marsh accreted following hydraulic gold mining sedimentation. It consists of a wave-scarped pickleweed-dominated (Sarcocornia pacifica) high salt marsh terrace with a broad fringing ...

  6. Building Energy Audit Report for Camp Smith, HI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chvala, William D.; De La Rosa, Marcus I.; Brown, Daryl R.; Dixon, Douglas R.

    2010-09-30

    A detailed energy assessment was performed by a team of engineers from Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) under contract to the Department of Energy/Federal Energy Management program (FEMP). The effort used the Facility Energy Decision System (FEDS) model to determine how energy is consumed at Camp Smith, identify the most cost-effective energy retrofit measures, and calculate the potential energy and cost savings. This report documents the results of that assessment.

  7. The Promotion of HAMK Winter and Summer Camps: Case China

    OpenAIRE

    Lin, Yulu

    2017-01-01

    The main purpose of this thesis is to promote HAMK winter and summer camps in China and maintain its competitive advantages by figuring out more effective marketing activities to attract students. The theories used to support and give references to this thesis were based on the research and studies from Philip Kotler, Kevin Keller and Armstrong. Some marketing related books such as Principles of Marketing or Marketing Management proved to be professional sources and explanations for conce...

  8. S'Cool LAB Summer CAMP 2017 at CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    2017-01-01

    The S’Cool LAB Summer CAMP is an opportunity for high-school students (aged 16-19) from all around the world to spend 2 weeks exploring the fascinating world of particle physics. The 24 selected participants spend their summer at S’Cool LAB, CERN’s hands-on particle physics learning laboratory, for an epic programme of lectures and tutorials, team research projects, visits of CERN’s research installations, and social activities.

  9. A Pediatric Cardiology Fellowship Boot Camp improves trainee confidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allan, Catherine K; Tannous, Paul; DeWitt, Elizabeth; Farias, Michael; Mansfield, Laura; Ronai, Christina; Schidlow, David; Sanders, Stephen P; Lock, James E; Newburger, Jane W; Brown, David W

    2016-12-01

    Introduction New paediatric cardiology trainees are required to rapidly assimilate knowledge and gain clinical skills to which they have limited or no exposure during residency. The Pediatric Cardiology Fellowship Boot Camp (PCBC) at Boston Children's Hospital was designed to provide incoming fellows with an intensive exposure to congenital cardiac pathology and a broad overview of major areas of paediatric cardiology practice. The PCBC curriculum was designed by core faculty in cardiac pathology, echocardiography, electrophysiology, interventional cardiology, exercise physiology, and cardiac intensive care. Individual faculty contributed learning objectives, which were refined by fellowship directors and used to build a programme of didactics, hands-on/simulation-based activities, and self-guided learning opportunities. A total of 16 incoming fellows participated in the 4-week boot camp, with no concurrent clinical responsibilities, over 2 years. On the basis of pre- and post-PCBC surveys, 80% of trainees strongly agreed that they felt more prepared for clinical responsibilities, and a similar percentage felt that PCBC should be offered to future incoming fellows. Fellows showed significant increase in their confidence in all specific knowledge and skills related to the learning objectives. Fellows rated hands-on learning experiences and simulation-based exercises most highly. We describe a novel 4-week-long boot camp designed to expose incoming paediatric cardiology fellows to the broad spectrum of knowledge and skills required for the practice of paediatric cardiology. The experience increased trainee confidence and sense of preparedness to begin fellowship-related responsibilities. Given that highly interactive activities were rated most highly, boot camps in paediatric cardiology should strongly emphasise these elements.

  10. From camp to kitsch: A queer eye on console fandom

    OpenAIRE

    Rob Gallagher

    2014-01-01

    Offering a queer perspective on video game fandom, this article considers the factors that fostered a subculture of Western devotees of Japanese video games in the 1990s. Focused on readers of the English publication Sega Saturn Magazine, it shows how, for these players, Japanese games became the basis of a collective identity founded on precisely the kinds of perverse over-attachment, projective identification and hermeneutic ingenuity that Eve Kosofsky Sedgwick identifies with camp. Citing ...

  11. Planning and Executing the Neurosurgery Boot Camp: The Bolivia Experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ament, Jared D; Kim, Timothy; Gold-Markel, Judah; Germano, Isabelle M; Dempsey, Robert; Weaver, John P; DiPatri, Arthur J; Andrews, Russell J; Sanchez, Mary; Hinojosa, Juan; Moser, Richard P; Glick, Roberta

    2017-08-01

    The neurosurgical boot camp has been fully incorporated into U.S. postgraduate education. This is the first implementation of the neurosurgical boot in a developing country. To advance neurosurgical education, we developed a similar boot camp program, in collaboration with Bolivian neurosurgeons, to determine its feasibility and effectiveness in an international setting. In a collective effort, the Bolivian Society for Neurosurgery, Foundation for International Education in Neurological Surgery, Solidarity Bridge, and University of Massachusetts organized and executed the first South American neurosurgical boot camp in Bolivia in 2015. Both U.S. and Bolivian faculty led didactic lectures followed by a practicum day using mannequins and simulators. South American residents and faculty were surveyed after the course to determine levels of enthusiasm and their perceived improvement in fund of knowledge and course effectiveness. Twenty-four neurosurgery residents from 5 South American countries participated. Average survey scores ranged between 4.2 and 4.9 out of 5. Five Bolivian neurosurgeons completed the survey with average scores of 4.5-5. This event allowed for Bolivian leaders in the field to unify around education, resulting in the formation of an institute to continue similar initiatives. Total cost was estimated at $40 000 USD; however, significant faculty, industry, and donor support helped offset this amount. The first South American neurosurgical boot camp had significant value and was well received in Bolivia. This humanitarian model provides a sustainable solution to education needs and should be expanded to other regions as a means for standardizing the core competencies in neurosurgery. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Time-resolved in silico modeling of fine-tuned cAMP signaling in platelets: feedback loops, titrated phosphorylations and pharmacological modulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dandekar Thomas

    2011-10-01

    . Downstream cyclic nucleotide signaling events target different phosphorylation sites for cAMP- and cGMP-dependent protein kinases (PKA, PKG in the vasodilator-stimulated phosphoprotein (VASP. VASP phosphorylation as well as cAMP levels resulting from different drug strengths and combined stimulants were quantitatively modeled. These predictions were again experimentally validated. High sensitivity of the signaling pathway at low concentrations is involved in a fine-tuned balance as well as stable activation of this inhibitory cyclic nucleotide pathway. Conclusions On the basis of experimental data, literature mining and database screening we established a dynamic in silico model of cyclic nucleotide signaling and probed its signaling sensitivity. Thoroughly validated, it successfully predicts drug combination effects on platelet function, including synergism, antagonism and regulatory loops.

  13. The Effect of a Disability Camp Program on Attitudes towards the Inclusion of Children with Disabilities in a Summer Sport and Leisure Activity Camp

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papaioannou, Christina; Evaggelinou, Christina

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine the impact of a specific Disability Camp Program (DCP) in the attitudes of children without disabilities toward the inclusion of children with disabilities in a summer sport and leisure activity camp. Three hundred eighty-seven campers without disabilities participated in the study and were divided into…

  14. Developing Social Skills of Summer Campers with Autism Spectrum Disorder: A Case Study of Camps on TRACKS Implementation in an Inclusive Day-Camp Setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maich, Kimberly; Hall, Carmen L.; van Rhijn, Tricia Marie; Quinlan, Laurie

    2015-01-01

    This research provides preliminary results of an exploratory case study conducted of the Camps on TRACKS program in an inclusive, municipal day-camp program in southwestern Ontario, Canada. Positive changes are demonstrated in the social skills of nine day campers with an autism spectrum disorder (ASD) who participated in the program. In this…

  15. The progressive nature of concentration camp syndrome in former prisoners of Nazi concentration camps--Not just history, but the important issue of contemporary medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jabłoński, Robert; Rosińczuk, Joanna; Leszek, Jerzy; Uchmanowicz, Izabella; Panaszek, Bernard

    2016-04-01

    Constant stress, slave labor, tortures, and starvation all affected the health of concentration camp prisoners, contributing to multimorbidities, increased mortality and accelerated development of chronic illnesses, what we have shown in an earlier publication. The interrelated somatic and psychological symptoms gave rise to concentration camp syndrome (KZ-syndrome), which has many features of PTSD, occurring frequently nowadays. The paper attempts at assessing the influence of concentration camp conditions on functional disorders in each system of the human body, occurring in KZ-syndrome, and at demonstrating the progressive nature of the syndrome. A retrospective assessment of the former prisoners' health after 5 and 30 years following their leaving camps was performed based on medical records and surveys. The materials included 250 former prisoners who underwent medical examination in 1950, i.e. 5 years after leaving the camp, of whom 120 former prisoners survived and were examined and surveyed in 1975, i.e. 30 years after leaving the camp. KZ-syndrome was shown to occur in 58.8% of former prisoners 5 years after leaving the camp, and in 77.5% after 30 years (p concentration camps, in the form of KZ-syndrome, were observed in most former prisoners. Over time, the number of morbidities and the intensity of symptoms increased, which indicates that the syndrome has a chronic and progressive nature. KZ-syndrome is a multi-organ disorder, with numerous chronic comorbidities exacerbating the progression. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Exchange Protein Directly Activated by cAMP (epac) : A Multidomain cAMP Mediator in the Regulation of Diverse Biological Functions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schmidt, Martina; Dekker, Frank J.; Maarsingh, Harm

    Since the discovery nearly 60 years ago, cAMP is envisioned as one of the most universal and versatile second messengers. The tremendous feature of cAMP to tightly control highly diverse physiologic processes, including calcium homeostasis, metabolism, secretion, muscle contraction, cell fate, and

  17. Eye diseases and blindness in Adjumani refugee settlement camps, Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawuma, M

    2000-11-01

    To determine the prevalence and causes of the blindness and ocular morbidity amongst Sudanese refugees; to prioritise and provide eye care services to the refugees and; to device administrative strategies and logistics of prevention and control of blinding diseases among the refugees. A mobile outreach clinic study for six weeks. Adjumani settlement camps for Sudanese refugees in Uganda. Seven hundred patients in eighteen settlement camps. Medical treatment and surgical correction offered. Cataract, trachoma and xerophthalmia are the major causes of blindness. One hundred and forty six patients (21%) were bilaterally blind, and 77 patients (11%) were unilaterally blind. The three leading causes of blindness are cataract (42%), xerophthalmia (28%) and trachoma (21%). Glaucoma and other non-specified causes were responsible for the remaining blindness (9%). The crude prevalence of blindness among the 700 patients was 20. This is an extremely high prevalence, nearly ten times higher than for Ugandans living in Uganda. In refugee settlement camps setting, residents may have a much higher prevalence of eye diseases and blindness than non-refugees.

  18. Outbreak of chickenpox in a refugee camp of northern Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camélique Olivier

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Although chickenpox is a generally mild, self-limited illness of children, it can cause fatal disease in adults. Accumulating reports from tropical countries showed a high prevalence of seronegativity among the adults, implying that varicella diseases could become a heavy burden in tropical countries. However, in the situation of humanitarian emergencies in tropical areas, chickenpox has largely been ignored as a serious communicable disease, due to lack of data regarding varicella mortality and hospital admissions in such a context. This is the first report describing an outbreak of chickenpox in a refugee camp of tropical region. In 2008, we experienced a varicella outbreak in ethnic Lao Hmong refugee camp in Phetchabun Province, northern Thailand. The attack rate was 4.0% (309/7,815 and this caused 3 hospitalizations including one who developed severe varicella pneumonia with respiratory failure. All hospitalizations were exclusively seen in adults, and the proportion of patients ≥15 years old was 13.6% (42/309. Because less exposure to varicella-zoster virus due to low population density has previously been suggested to be one of the reasons behind higher prevalence of susceptible adults in tropics, the influx of displaced people from rural areas to a densely populated asylum might result in many severe adult cases once a varicella outbreak occurs. Control interventions such as vaccination should be considered even in refugee camp, if the confluence of the risk factors present in this situation.

  19. Effectiveness of mammography boot camp for radiology residents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Keum Won; Kim, Young Joong; Seo, Jae Young [Dept. of Radiology, Konyang University Hospital, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); and others

    2017-01-15

    To evaluate an educational effect of the mammography boot camp (MBC) for radiology residents and analyze affecting factors. Between December 2014 and February 2015, radiology residents in 16 institutions performed the MBC program. We compared the educational effect (score difference between pre- and post-camp test) using 25 case series and analyzed the affecting factors including institution, grades of residents, training periods, presence of sub-specialized breast staff, breast density, and types of cases. The mean scores of 92 residents were 52.80 ± 18.10 and 72.50 ± 12.91 in the pre- and post-camp test, respectively (p = 0.001). There was no significant difference of educational effect according to institution (19.70 ± 16.31), grade, or training period. Although the educational effect of non-trainees was superior to that of trainees (28.10 ± 17.55 vs. 15.90 ± 14.22; p = 0.001), the scores of trainees were higher than those of non-trainees. The diagnostic accuracy showed more improvement in a fatty breast and cases with microcalcifications than compared with others. The MBC showed an effective educational result for radiology residents when interpretating a mammography. It was helpful even for non-trainees. The institution, grades training period, and presence of sub-specialized breast staff did not affect the educational effect.

  20. Expression of orphan G-protein coupled receptor GPR174 in CHO cells induced morphological changes and proliferation delay via increasing intracellular cAMP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sugita, Kazuya; Yamamura, Chiaki; Tabata, Ken-ichi [Laboratory of Pharmacoinformatics, Graduate School of Ritsumeikan University, Kusatsu, Shiga 525-8577 (Japan); Fujita, Norihisa, E-mail: nori@ph.ritsumei.ac.jp [Laboratory of Pharmacoinformatics, Graduate School of Ritsumeikan University, Kusatsu, Shiga 525-8577 (Japan); School of Pharmacy, Ristumeikan University, Kusatsu, Shiga 525-8577 (Japan)

    2013-01-04

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Expression of GPR174 in CHO cells induces morphological changes and proliferation delay. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer These are due to increase in intracellular cAMP concentration. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Lysophosphatidylserine was identified to stimulate GPR174 leading to activate ACase. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The potencies of fatty acid moiety on LysoPS were oleoyl Greater-Than-Or-Slanted-Equal-To stearoyl > palmitoyl. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We propose that GPR174 is a lysophosphatidylserine receptor. -- Abstract: We established cell lines that stably express orphan GPCR GPR174 using CHO cells, and studied physiological and pharmacological features of the receptor. GPR174-expressing cells showed cell-cell adhesion with localization of actin filaments to cell membrane, and revealed significant delay of cell proliferation. Since the morphological changes of GPR174-cells were very similar to mock CHO cells treated with cholera toxin, we measured the concentration of intracellular cAMP. The results showed the concentration was significantly elevated in GPR174-cells. By measuring intracellular cAMP concentration in GPR174-cells, we screened lipids and nucleotides to identify ligands for GPR174. We found that lysophosphatidylserine (LysoPS) stimulated increase in intracellular cAMP in a dose-dependent manner. Moreover, phosphorylation of Erk was elevated by LysoPS in GPR174 cells. These LysoPS responses were inhibited by NF449, an inhibitor of G{alpha}{sub s} protein. These results suggested that GPR174 was a putative LysoPS receptor conjugating with G{alpha}{sub s}, and its expression induced morphological changes in CHO cells by constitutively activating adenylyl cycles accompanied with cell conjunctions and delay of proliferation.