WorldWideScience

Sample records for camp century medium power plant 2a

  1. Medium-size power plants. Economic options

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper the authors describe a method for economic evaluation of a nuclear power plant project such as advocated by the IAEA but modified through the introduction of various parameters that may affect the evaluation, i.e. the weighted evaluation rate, the annual increase in the cost of fuel, and the discount rate. The method is applied to barge-based medium-size reactors (125 MW(e)). The authors calculate the investment cost, together with the costs of administration, operation and maintenance; use is made of current assumptions regarding the price of fuel for the case of a reference nuclear plant and an oil-fired plant of the same power and in the same programme. In this way the authors derive the discounted cost of the nuclear programme and concurrent conventional programme on the basis of the following assumptions: a weighted inflation rate varying between 0 and 6% per year; an annual increase in real fuel prices ranging from 0 to 3%; and a real discount rate, equal to the real interest rate, varying between 4 and 7% per year and corresponding to nominal discount rates of up to 13.4%. The conclusion reached is that, given the real interest rates actually prevailing on the financial market, a weighted inflation rate foreseen by the majority of experts, and a rise in real fuel prices of the order of 1% per year, the medium-size nuclear power plant is more economical than a conventional plant of the same output. (author)

  2. Advanced nuclear power plants for the 21st century

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Graham, J. [BNFL, Inc. (United States)

    1996-10-01

    This paper examines, following four issues: capacity; the closure of the fuel cycle; deregulation; and the need to maintain the development of the advanced systems. Demand is a governing parameter: if one doesn`t need the power then there is no need to increase generating capacity. However, there is no question but that the population is growing. All predictions are that new generating capacity will be needed -- the questions are when and how? Until the various issues involved in deregulation are played through it is not clear what form markets will take for the longer term or how investment in large-capital-cost facilities will fit into the financial structure. Deregulation needs the time to throw light on these matters and to gain some experience in the various financial options. The lack of closure of the fuel cycle is both a cost and public perception issue. The US program, as a result of a cold-war paranoia against recycling the partially used fuel, is based upon the final disposal of useful supplies of energy. However, the program itself is plagued with poor management, delays, and uncertainties that are due, in no small measure, to half-uttered thoughts by all concerned, that this is the wrong policy. Current efforts to rethink the policy, and its implementing projects, are welcome. Finally, if it is important to keep design options for advanced nuclear power plants open for the future, then it necessary to maintain valid research and development programs for those designs. Current US policy is damaging to a number of the more advanced options. This paper discusses the candidate systems: LWR, ALMR, HTGR, and CANDU systems for the special contributions they may each provide in an ideal electrical generating industry of the mid-twenty-first century, and makes suggestions for the future. (J.P.N.)

  3. Demonstration of a 1 MWe biomass power plant at USMC Base Camp Lejeune. Report for July 1994-May 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cleland, J.; Purvis, C.R.

    1998-06-01

    The paper discusses a biomass energy conversion project being sponsored by EPA to demonstrate an enviromentally and economically sound electrical power option for government installations, industrial sites, rural cooperatives, small municipalities, and developing countries. Wood gasification combined with internal combustion engines was chosen because of (1) recent improvements in gas cleaning, (2) simple economical operation for units < 10 MW, and (3) the option of a clean cheap fuel for the many existing facilities generating expensive electricity from petroleum fuels with reciprocating engines. The plant incorporates a downdraft, moving-bed gasifier utilizing hogged waste wood from the Marine Corps Base at Camp Lejeune, NC. A moving-bed bulk wood dryer and both spark ignition and diesel engines are included. Unique process design features are described briefly, relative to the gasifier, wood drying, tar separation, and process control. A test plan for process optimization and demonstration of reliability, economics, and environmental impact is outlined.

  4. New designs of medium power WWER reactor plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The task of constructing NPPs as the objects of regional power industry is included into the Federal Target Program on nuclear power technologies of new generation for the period till 2020. Such NPPs are considered as perspective sources of energy for solution of the problems concerning provision of electric energy, household and industrial heat to the regions with limited capabilities of the power grid. OKB 'GIDROPRESS' present the conceptual study of RP design for the Unit of 600 MW (el.) power, taking into account their long-term experience in the field of development and operation of WWER reactor plants. Practical implementation of WWER-600 and WWER-300 RP designs seems to be feasible: practice in manufacturing the main equipment is available; cooperation of design, scientific organizations and manufacturers of equipment; is established; basic design solutions for equipment are of reference character

  5. Financial feasibility of small and medium nuclear power plants: A case study for Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Financing problems are a major constraint on more widespread use of nuclear power, in particular in developing countries. One problem is the sheer magnitude of the investment cost of large nuclear power plants. Small and medium power reactors would have lower absolute costs and would offer some additional advantages. Taking Egypt as an example, the paper addresses the issue to what extent the features of small and medium power reactors designs could improve the financial feasibility of nuclear power plants in developing countries. (author). 6 refs, 4 figs, 4 tabs

  6. Optimal Installation Capacity of Medium Hydro-Power Plants Considering Technical, Economic and Reliability Indices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hosseini, S. M. H.; Forouzbakhsh, Farshid; Fotuhi-Firuzabad, Mahmood

    2008-01-01

    One of the most important issues in planning the reservoir type of Medium Hydro-Power Plants (MHPP) is to determine the optimal installation capacity of the MHPP and estimate its optimal annual energy value. In this paper, a method is presented to calculate the annual energy. A computer program has...

  7. An approach to the investment analysis of small and medium hydro-power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hydro-power plants, as a part of infrastructure projects, play an important role in the economic-social development of countries. Since a large amount of investment is needed for construction of these power plants, which appeared to be an obstacle in these developments, however it is possible to finance these infrastructure plants by assigning these affairs to private sectors by using build operate transfer (BOT) method, which is quite well-known all around the world. This paper reviews the structure of BOT contracts and through an economic evaluation based on different percentage of investments of private sector in providing the expenses of small and medium hydro-power plants (S and M-HPP) (e.g. MHPP in 'Bookan, Iran' and SHPP in 'Nari, Iran'), demonstrates that by increasing the percentage the share of the private sector in the investment, the economic indices B/C and NPV improve substantially

  8. SVBR-100: new generation nuclear power plants for small and medium-sized power applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Small nuclear power plants can provide a better platform for decentralized energy systems providing better levels of accessibility, safety and environmental friendliness. Small modular reactors with lead-bismuth coolant (SVBR-100) which are being developed in Russia are considered to be the solution of choice for smaller and decentralized energy systems of the future. This paper discusses the current state and future opportunities of the SVBR-100 reactors and also describes the SVBR-100 key performance indicators. (author)

  9. Advanced plant maintenance and surveillance system for the nuclear power plants of the next century

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The traditional approach to nuclear power plant maintenance and surveillance employs a preventive maintenance philosophy that can result in excessive labor being expended and in unnecessary and potentially damaging testing being performed. Plant downtime may also be increased and availability reduced because of the large number of critical tasks that need to be accomplished during a maintenance outage. In addition, modern control equipment is increasingly computerized and software-driven, and thus is not readily accessible or understandable to an operator using conventional surveillance techniques. The proposed advanced approach uses a diagnostic system based on the advanced and still emerging technologies of neural networks and fuzzy expert systems. This system monitors operating conditions of control equipment in real time and also monitors past performance based on maintenance records and equipment specifications entered into a computerized database. Plant system availability can be enhanced and maintenance costs can be reduced by automatically adjusting surveillance periods and maintenance schedules to actual trends in equipment performance. Equipment in multiple redundant instrument channels may need calibration and testing at different times to maintain a system in an optimal state of readiness. Moreover, redundant systems generally use the same type of equipment in the separate channels. Manufacturing defects, wear-out effects, or changes in environmental conditions may result in common-cause failures over a short period of time, thus degrading the protection capability of the safety systems. Normal surveillance may not uncover many of these incipient equipment failures, but a neural-fuzzy expert system that continuously oversees the complex relationships of operating parameters among system equipment can rapidly discern deviations from normal behavior and make maintenance recommendations, including replace-or-repair decisions

  10. Determination of 93Zr in medium and low level radioactive wastes from Brazilian nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The majority of long-lived radionuclides produced in the nuclear power plants can be regarded as difficult-to-measure radionuclides (RDM), hence chemical separation is necessary before the nuclear measurement of them. The zirconium isotope 93Zr is a long-lived pure β-particle-emitting radionuclide produced from 235U fission and from neutron activation of the stable isotope 92Zr and thus occurring as one of the radionuclides found in nuclear reactors. Due to its long half-life, 93Zr is one of the radionuclides of interest for the performance of assessment studies of waste storage or disposal. Two different methodologies based on extractive resins and LSC and ICP-MS techniques that enables the 93Zr determination in medium (ILW) and low level (LLW) radioactive wastes samples from Brazilian nuclear power plants has been developed in our laboratory. Analyzing real samples 65% and 75% chemical yields for 93Zr recovery were achieved for ICP-MS and LSC techniques, respectively. The detection limits were 0.045 μg.L-1 for ICP-MS and 0.05 Bq.L-1 for LSC techniques. (author)

  11. An innovative ORC power plant layout for heat and power generation from medium- to low-temperature geothermal resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Explotation of medium temperature geothermal resource with ORC–CHP is investigated. • A new CHP configuration to provide higher temperature to thermal user is proposed. • Several organic fluids and wide range of heat demand are studied. • The system produces higher power (almost 55%) in comparison to typical layouts. • Optimal working fluids vary with the characteristics of the heat demand. - Abstract: Medium temperature (up to 170 °C), water dominated geothermal resources are the most widespread in the world. The binary geothermal-ORC power plants are the most suitable energy conversion systems for this kind of resource. Specifically, combined heat and power (CHP) systems have the potential to improve the efficiency in exploiting the geothermal resources by cascading the geothermal fluid heat carrier to successively lower temperature users, thus increasing first and second law efficiency of the entire power plant. However, geothermal CHPs usually extract heat from the geofluid either in parallel or in series to the ORC, and usually provide only low temperature heat, which is seldom suitable for industrial use. In this paper, a new CHP configuration, called Cross Parallel CHP, has been proposed and analyzed. It aims to provide higher temperature heat suitable for industrial use, allowing the exploitation of geothermal resources even in areas where district heating is not needed. The proposed CHP allows the reduction of the irreversibilities in the heat exchangers and the loss to the environment related to the re-injection of geofluid, thus producing higher electric power output while satisfying, at the same time, the heat demand of the thermal utility for a wide range of temperatures and mass flow rates (80–140 °C; 3–13 kg/s). Several organic fluids are investigated and the related optimizing working conditions are found by a built in procedure making use of genetic algorithms. The results show that the optimal working fluids and

  12. An approach to the investment analysis of small and medium hydro-power plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Forouzbakhsh, Farshid; Hosseini, S.M.H.; Vakilian, M.

    2007-01-01

    Hydro-power plants, as a part of infrastructure projects, play an important role in the economic-social development of countries. Sincea large amount of investment is needed for construction of these power plants, which appeared to be an obstacle in these developments,however it is possible...... to finance these infrastructure plants by assigning these affairs to private sectors by using build operate transfer(BOT) method, which is quite well-known all around the world. This paper reviews the structure of BOT contracts and through aneconomic evaluation based on different percentage of investments...... of private sector in providing the expenses of small and mediumhydro-power plants (S&M-HPP) (e.g. MHPP in ‘‘Bookan, Iran’’ and SHPP in ‘‘Nari, Iran’’), demonstrates that by increasing thepercentage the share of the private sector in the investment, the economic indices B/C and NPV improve substantially...

  13. Long-term Perspectives for Carbon Capture in Power Plants: Scenarios for the 21st Century

    OpenAIRE

    Riahi, K.; Barreto, L.; Rao, S.

    2004-01-01

    The report analyzes the role of fossil-fired power plants equipped with carbon capture systems in long-term scenarios of the global energy system representing technological change as an endogenous process. Within this framework the impacts of a technology policy is illustrated that requires over time an increasing fraction of fossil-fired power generation to incorporate carbon capture technologies. In particular, we examine the potential costs and the contribution that such a policy could off...

  14. Maintenance and improvement of thermal hydraulic system codes using results of OCDE experiments (PKL, Rosa, Atlas) and application to Spanish Nuclear power plants. Camp-Spain project; Mejora y mantenimiento de codigos termohidraulicos de sistema de base a resultados de los experimentos OECD (PKL, ROSA y ATLAS) y su aplicacion a plantas espanolas, proyecto Camp-Espana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanchez, M.; Perez, J.; Martorell, S.; Carlos, S.; Villanueva, J. F.; Sanchez, F.; Queral, C.; Rebollo, M. J.; Rivas-Lewicky, J.; Verdu, G.; Gallardo, S.; Miro, R.; Querol, A.; Munoz-Cobo, J. L.; Escriva, A.; Berna, C.; Reventos, F.; Freixa, J.; Martinez, V.

    2016-08-01

    CSN involvement in different international NEA experimental TH programmes has outlined the scope for a new period of CAMP-Espana activities, currently focused on the: -Analysis, simulation and investigation of specific safety aspects of PKL3/OECD and ATLAS/OECD experiments. -Analysis of applicability and/or extension of the results in these projects to the safety, operation or availability of the Spanish nuclear power plants. Both objective are carried out by simulating experiments and plant application with the last available versions of NRC TH codes (RELAP5 or TRACE). A CAMP in kind contribution (NUREG/IA) is aimed as final result of both types of analyses. Five different national research groups (from Technical Universities of Madrid, Valencia and Cataluna) ate carrying out the development of these activities. (Author)

  15. Implantation aspects of small and medium nuclear power plant in Latin America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The nuclear energy policy adopted by the Latin America is commented. The nuclear power plants in planning are presented. An analysis about the nuclear legislation, licensing and nuclear regulation, quality assurance and formation of human resources for Latin America is done. (E.G.)

  16. Case study on the feasibility of small and medium nuclear power plants in Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The IAEA agreed to co-operate with the Arab Republic of Egypt in performing a case study on the feasibility of small and medium power reactors (SMPRs) as a technical assistance project. The major objective of this study is to examine the feasibility of SMPRs to supply a portion of the future electrical energy requirements in the long term power programme of Egypt. The IAEA is grateful to all who provided information and assisted in the drafting and review of the report, in particular to the Advisory Group which performed the study in a co-operative effort. It is hoped that the report will meet the interests of policy makers, managers, engineers and economists in Member States, particularly in developing countries, and that it will provide a useful basis for specific studies to prepare decisions on SMPR projects. Refs, figs and tabs

  17. Solid Waste from Four-stroke Medium Speed Engine Power Plant Operation

    OpenAIRE

    Smart, Heidi

    2016-01-01

    This thesis is a study of the solid-state waste generated in power plants based on internal combustion engine (ICE) technology, supplied by the Wärtsilä Energy Solutions division. This thesis, which characterizes and quantifies the waste, was done to enhance the ability of supporting customers in issues related to social and environmental impact assessment, environmental permits, waste management planning, etc. The Performance Standards on Environmental and Social Sustainability and the E...

  18. Modelling and optimization of transient processes in line focusing power plants with single-phase heat transfer medium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noureldin, K.; González-Escalada, L. M.; Hirsch, T.; Nouri, B.; Pitz-Paal, R.

    2016-05-01

    A large number of commercial and research line focusing solar power plants are in operation and under development. Such plants include parabolic trough collectors (PTC) or linear Fresnel using thermal oil or molten salt as the heat transfer medium (HTM). However, the continuously varying and dynamic solar condition represent a big challenge for the plant control in order to optimize its power production and to keep the operation safe. A better understanding of the behaviour of such power plants under transient conditions will help reduce defocusing instances, improve field control, and hence, increase the energy yield and confidence in this new technology. Computational methods are very powerful and cost-effective tools to gain such understanding. However, most simulation models described in literature assume equal mass flow distributions among the parallel loops in the field or totally decouple the flow and thermal conditions. In this paper, a new numerical model to simulate a whole solar field with single-phase HTM is described. The proposed model consists of a hydraulic part and a thermal part that are coupled to account for the effect of the thermal condition of the field on the flow distribution among the parallel loops. The model is specifically designed for large line-focusing solar fields offering a high degree of flexibility in terms of layout, condition of the mirrors, and spatially resolved DNI data. Moreover, the model results have been compared to other simulation tools, as well as experimental and plant data, and the results show very good agreement. The model can provide more precise data to the control algorithms to improve the plant control. In addition, short-term and accurate spatially discretized DNI forecasts can be used as input to predict the field behaviour in-advance. In this paper, the hydraulic and thermal parts, as well as the coupling procedure, are described and some validation results and results of simulating an example field are

  19. Determination of {sup 93}Zr in medium and low level radioactive wastes from Brazilian nuclear power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Thiago C.; Oliveira, Arno H., E-mail: oliveiratco2010@gmail.com, E-mail: heeren@nuclear.ufmg.br [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (DEN/UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Departamento de Engenharia Nuclear; Kastner, Geraldo F.; Monteiro, Roberto Pellacani G., E-mail: rpgm@cdtn.br, E-mail: gfk@cdtn.br [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    2015-07-01

    The majority of long-lived radionuclides produced in the nuclear power plants can be regarded as difficult-to-measure radionuclides (RDM), hence chemical separation is necessary before the nuclear measurement of them. The zirconium isotope {sup 93}Zr is a long-lived pure β-particle-emitting radionuclide produced from {sup 235}U fission and from neutron activation of the stable isotope {sup 92}Zr and thus occurring as one of the radionuclides found in nuclear reactors. Due to its long half-life, {sup 93}Zr is one of the radionuclides of interest for the performance of assessment studies of waste storage or disposal. Two different methodologies based on extractive resins and LSC and ICP-MS techniques that enables the {sup 93}Zr determination in medium (ILW) and low level (LLW) radioactive wastes samples from Brazilian nuclear power plants has been developed in our laboratory. Analyzing real samples 65% and 75% chemical yields for {sup 93}Zr recovery were achieved for ICP-MS and LSC techniques, respectively. The detection limits were 0.045 μg.L{sup -1} for ICP-MS and 0.05 Bq.L{sup -1} for LSC techniques. (author)

  20. Carbon-14 production compared to oxygen isotope records from Camp Century, Greenland and Devon Island, Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carbon-14 production rate variations that are not explainable by geomagnetic changes are thought to be in antiphase with solar activity and as such should be in antiphase with paleotemperature records or proxy temperature histories such as those obtainable from oxygen isotope analyses of ice cores. Oxygen isotope records from Camp Century, Greeland and Devon Island Ice Cap are in phase with each other over thousands of years and in antiphase to the 14C production rate residuals. (Auth.)

  1. Switching power converters medium and high power

    CERN Document Server

    Neacsu, Dorin O

    2013-01-01

    An examination of all of the multidisciplinary aspects of medium- and high-power converter systems, including basic power electronics, digital control and hardware, sensors, analog preprocessing of signals, protection devices and fault management, and pulse-width-modulation (PWM) algorithms, Switching Power Converters: Medium and High Power, Second Edition discusses the actual use of industrial technology and its related subassemblies and components, covering facets of implementation otherwise overlooked by theoretical textbooks. The updated Second Edition contains many new figures, as well as

  2. Use of cost benefit analysis methodology in the meaning of motorization level from small and medium hydroelectric power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The technical and economic justifications that bringing the waterfall division reformulation between Lucas Nogueira Garcez Plant and Capivara Plant in Paranapanema River (Brazil) are described, including a comparative economic of Canoas (Alta), Canoas I and Canoas II passages, motorization study and energetic benefits. The reasons of the Bulbo turbines choice and dimensioning definition of the installed power by the new reference economic parameters are also presented. (C.G.C.). 5 refs, 11 tabs

  3. Solar thermal power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The solar thermal power plant technology, the opportunities it presents and the developments in the market are outlined. The focus is on the technology of parabolic trough power plants, a proven technology for solar power generation on a large scale. In a parabolic trough power plant, trough-shaped mirrors concentrate the solar irradiation onto a pipe in the focal line of the collector. The thermal energy thus generated is used for electricity generation in a steam turbine. Parabolic trough plants can be combined with thermal storage and fossil or biomass fired heat exchangers to generate electricity even when the sun is not shining. Solar Millennium AG in Erlangen has developed the first power plant of this kind in Europe. After two years of construction the plant started operation in Southern Spain in 2008. This one and its sister projects are important steps leading the way for the whole market. The paper also covers the technological challenges, the key components used and the research and development activities concerning this technology. Solar thermal power plants are ideal for covering peak and medium loads in power grids. In hybrid operation they can also cover base-load. The Solar Chimney power plant, another striking technology for the conversion of solar into electric energy, is described briefly. The paper concludes with a look at the future - the import of solar energy from the deserts of North Africa to central Europe. (author)

  4. 27 CFR 19.914 - Medium plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Medium plants. 19.914... OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS DISTILLED SPIRITS PLANTS Distilled Spirits For Fuel Use Permits § 19.914 Medium plants. Any person wishing to establish a medium plant shall make application for and obtain...

  5. Power converters for medium voltage networks

    CERN Document Server

    Islam, Md Rabiul; Zhu, Jianguo

    2014-01-01

    This book examines a number of topics, mainly in connection with advances in semiconductor devices and magnetic materials and developments in medium and large-scale renewable power plant technologies, grid integration techniques and new converter topologies, including advanced digital control systems for medium-voltage networks. The book's individual chapters provide an extensive compilation of fundamental theories and in-depth information on current research and development trends, while also exploring new approaches to overcoming some critical limitations of conventional grid integration te

  6. On the structurization of coal dust precipitations and their influence on aerodynamic resistance by granulated mediums in air filters at nuclear power plants

    CERN Document Server

    Neklyudov, I M; Fedorova, L I; Poltinin, P Ya

    2012-01-01

    The processes of structurization of dust precipitations in granulated filtering mediums, formed by the monolithic glass spherical granules with the diameters of 2mm and 3mm, are re-searched. The distinctions between the distributions of filtered coal dust masses in the air filters with cylindrical granules and the air filters with spherical granules, are found. The influences by the filtered dust masses on the air resistance of both the air filters with the cylindrical granules and the air filters with the spherical granules are described. The conclusions on a possibility of the use of various chemical adsorbents with different geometric forms and volumetric dimensions to improve the filtering properties of granulated filtering mediums in air filters at nuclear power plants are formulated.

  7. Nuclear Power in the 21st Century

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The International Atomic Energy Agency helps its Member States to use nuclear technology for a broad range of peaceful purposes, one of the most important of which is generating electricity. The accident at the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant in Japan in March 2011 caused anxiety about nuclear safety throughout the world and raised questions about the future of nuclear power. Two years on, it is clear that the use of nuclear power will continue to grow in the coming decades, although growth will be slower than was anticipated before the accident. Many countries with existing nuclear power programmes plan to expand them. Many new countries, both developed and developing, plan to introduce nuclear power. The factors contributing to this growing interest include increasing global demand for energy, as well as concerns about climate change, volatile fossil fuel prices, and security of energy supply. It will be difficult for the world to achieve the twin goals of ensuring sustainable energy supplies and curbing greenhouse gases without nuclear power. The IAEA helps countries that opt for nuclear power to use it safely and securely. Countries that have decided to phase out nuclear power will have to deal with issues such as plant decommissioning, remediation, and waste management for decades to come. The IAEA also assists in these areas. I am grateful to the Russian Federation for hosting the 2013 International Ministerial Conference on Nuclear Power in the 21st Century in St Petersburg in June. This timely conference provides a valuable opportunity to take stock of nuclear power in the wake of the Fukushima Daiichi accident. A high level of public confidence in the safety of nuclear power is essential for the future of the sector. Much valuable work has been done in the past two years to improve safety. But much remains to be done. It is vitally important that the momentum is maintained and that everything is done to ensure that nuclear power is as safe as humanly

  8. The new duty of care for nuclear power plant operators in Sec. 9a subpara. 2a AtG; Zur neuen Sorgepflicht der Kraftwerksbetreiber gem. paragraph 9a Abs. 2a AtG

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Posser, Herbert [Freshfields Bruckhaus Deringer LLP, Duesseldorf (Germany)

    2014-07-15

    The new stipulation in Sec. 9a subpara. 2a AtG - pursuant to which operators of nuclear power plants are no longer entitled to use the interim storage facility in Gorleben for radioactive waste stemming from the reprocessing plants in Sellafield and La Hague, but have to establish further capacities in their own facilities for spent nuclear fuels at the site of the power plants - is illegal under constitutional law. It imposes an unproportional burden on the plant operators as well as on GNS, and infringes property rights without pursuing a legitimate purpose. (orig.)

  9. Plant power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In a world confronted by global terrorism, turmoil in the Middle East, burgeoning nuclear threats and other crises, it is easy to lose sight of the long-range challenges. But we do so at our peril. One of the most daunting of them is meeting the world's need for food and energy in this century. At stake is not only preventing starvation and saving the environment, but also world peace and security. History tells us that states may go to war over access to resources, and that poverty and famine have often bred fanaticism and terrorism. Working to feed the world will minimize factors that contribute to global instability and the proliferation of weapons of mass destruction. With the world population expected to grow from 6 billion people today to 9 billion by mid-century, the demand for affordable food will increase well beyond current international production levels. People in rapidly developing nations will have the means greatly to improve their standard of living and caloric intake. Inevitably, that means eating more meat. This will raise demand for feed grain at the same time that the growing world population will need vastly more basic food to eat. Complicating a solution to this problem is a dynamic that must be better understood in the West: developing countries often use limited arable land to expand cities to house their growing populations. As good land disappears, people destroy timber resources and even rainforests as they try to create more arable land to feed themselves. The long-term environmental consequences could be disastrous for the entire globe. Bio-based fuels such as ethanol have clear potential to be sustainable, low cost and high performance, are compatible with both current and future transportation systems, and provide near-zero net greenhouse gas emissions. The impact of bio-ethanol on greenhouse gas emissions is particularly significant because the transportation sector relies almost exclusively on fossil fuels and accounts for one third

  10. Power generation alternatives for the XXI century

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    , that are everywhere are free, could be a limited source of energy free of CO2. Unfortunately these sources have several disadvantages that prevent them to be used efficiently for base load Power Generation. Another alternative, available right now, affordable and safe that proved to be reliable and economically competitive is Nuclear Power. In Argentina, thanks to Power generated by the Atucha and Embalse Nuclear Power Plants, we avoid contaminating the air with 70.000.000 tons of Carbon Dioxide. Although we cannot assert that Nuclear Power alone will solve the Greenhouse effect, what we can conclude is that without an increasing participation of it, the global warming effect will not have a positive solution in the next century

  11. Kansas Power Plants

    Data.gov (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — The Kansas Power Plants database depicts, as point features, the locations of the various types of power plant locations in Kansas. The locations of the power...

  12. Wind power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stiller, W.

    1980-01-01

    Wind power plants have practically faded into oblivion in Germany. These wind power plants are systems converting wind power into other usable energy forms, mainly into electric current. The irregularity of wind currents requires storage of the energy produced. The cost situation is calculated for a small wind power plant.

  13. Flexibility in 21st Century Power Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cochran, J.; Miller, M.; Zinaman, O.; Milligan, M.; Arent, D.; Palmintier, B.; O' Malley, M.; Mueller, S.; Lannoye, E.; Tuohy, A.; Kujala, B.; Sommer, M.; Holttinen, H.; Kiviluoma, J.; Soonee, S. K.

    2014-05-01

    Flexibility of operation--the ability of a power system to respond to change in demand and supply--is a characteristic of all power systems. Flexibility is especially prized in twenty-first century power systems, with higher levels of grid-connected variable renewable energy (primarily, wind and solar). This paper summarizes the analytic frameworks that have emerged to measure this characteristic and distills key principles of flexibility for policy makers.

  14. Small and medium power reactors 1987

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This TECDOC follows the publication of TECDOC-347 Small and Medium Power Reactors Project Initiation Study - Phase I published in 1985 and TECDOC-376 Small and Medium Power Reactors 1985 published in 1986. It is mainly intended for decision makers in Developing Member States interested in embarking on a nuclear power programme. It consists of two parts: 1) Guidelines for the Introduction of Small and Medium Power Reactors in Developing Countries. These Guidelines were established during the Advisory Group Meeting held in Vienna from 11 to 15 May 1987. Their purpose is to review key aspects relating to the introduction of Small and Medium Power Reactors in developing countries; 2) Up-dated Information on SMPR Concepts Contributed by Supplier Industries. According to the recommendations of the Second Technical Committee Meeting on SMPRs held in Vienna in March 1985, this part contains the up-dated information formerly published in Annex I of the above mentioned TECDOC-347. Figs

  15. Power Plant Cycling Costs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, N.; Besuner, P.; Lefton, S.; Agan, D.; Hilleman, D.

    2012-07-01

    This report provides a detailed review of the most up to date data available on power plant cycling costs. The primary objective of this report is to increase awareness of power plant cycling cost, the use of these costs in renewable integration studies and to stimulate debate between policymakers, system dispatchers, plant personnel and power utilities.

  16. Metal accumulating plants: Medium's role

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabier, J.; Prudent, P.; Szymanska, B.; Mevy, J.-P.

    2003-05-01

    To evaluate phytoremediation potentialities by metal accumulation in tolerant plants, trials are carried out using in vitro cultures. Organie compounds influence on metal accumulation is studied with metals supplemented media. The tested compounds on zinc and lead absorption by Brassica juncea, are chelating agents (EDTA, citric acid) and soluble organic fractions of compost. EDTA seems to enhance the transfer of lead in plant but it is the opposite in the case of zinc. Citric acid stimulates root absorption for both zinc and lead. For the aqueous extracts of compost, variable effects are obtained according to the origin of compost (green wastes and food wastes). In'all tested conditions of cultures, zinc is mainly exported towards shoot while lead is stored in root.

  17. Adenyl cyclases and cAMP in plant signaling - Past and present

    KAUST Repository

    Gehring, Christoph A

    2010-06-25

    In lower eukaryotes and animals 3\\'-5\\'-cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) and adenyl cyclases (ACs), enzymes that catalyse the formation of cAMP from ATP, have long been established as key components and second messengers in many signaling pathways. In contrast, in plants, both the presence and biological role of cAMP have been a matter of ongoing debate and some controversy. Here we shall focus firstly on the discovery of cellular cAMP in plants and evidence for a role of this second messenger in plant signal transduction. Secondly, we shall review current evidence of plant ACs, analyse aspects of their domain organisations and the biological roles of candidate molecules. In addition, we shall assess different approaches based on search motifs consisting of functionally assigned amino acids in the catalytic centre of annotated and/or experimentally tested nucleotide cyclases that can contribute to the identification of novel candidate molecules with AC activity such as F-box and TIR proteins. 2010 Gehring; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

  18. Powering Kuwait into the 21. century: Alternatives for power generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    well fitted to Kuwait's electricity consumption patterns. They can first contribute to peak demand and seasonal variations shaving. In the medium term, dedicated applications and distributed (such as Building Integrated Photovoltaic, solar cooling etc.) could also help to relieve the power system of residential and air conditioning load. Power price subsidies for consumers will block their development. The drafting of policies will actually be decisive to ensure the roll out and the sustainability of renewable power. The current 10% renewable target still remains to be defined. Finally, the building of an industry to diversify the economy appears more challenging. Nuclear power plants projects have been scrapped by the government for security reasons despite the competitiveness of this technology and the availability of liquid funds. The country hopes to import electricity from its neighbors, which will soon benefit from this technology. The creation of a regional electricity market could help to decrease costs, increase the security of power supply, and lead to an optimization of national power systems. However, the size of interconnections is too small and legislation about electricity trade still incomplete. Regional integration would require price reforms at some point, or at least a clear evaluation of costs. Multiple prices and costs, inside Kuwait and across the region, act as a significant bottleneck. Whatever the choices made, the sustainability of the system cannot be achieved without an underlying energy efficiency strategy. This strategy needs to focus on both the consumption and production side and rely on a clear cost-benefit analysis to serve the interest of the country

  19. Nuclear power engineering in the 21 century

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Analysis and main aspects of comprehending the role and structure of nuclear power (NP) in solution of crucial problems in power generation of the new century are presented briefly. The following problems are considered, in particular: requirements for future NP; optimal structure and major elements of future NP; solution of nuclear weapons nonproliferation problem; main tasks and anticipated results of the international project implemented for providing solutions to vital problems of NP, suggested by president of the RF; arrangement of collaboration in the framework of the international project

  20. Power plant chemical technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-12-01

    17 contributions covering topies of fossil fuel combustion, flue gas cleaning, power plant materials, corrosion, water/steam cycle chemistry, monitoring and control were presented at the annual meeting devoted to Power Plant Chemical Technology 1996 at Kolding (Denmark) 4-6 September 1996. (EG)

  1. Nuclear Power Plants. Revised.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyerly, Ray L.; Mitchell, Walter, III

    This publication is one of a series of information booklets for the general public published by the United States Atomic Energy Commission. Among the topics discussed are: Why Use Nuclear Power?; From Atoms to Electricity; Reactor Types; Typical Plant Design Features; The Cost of Nuclear Power; Plants in the United States; Developments in Foreign…

  2. Submerged Medium Voltage Cable Systems at Nuclear Power Plants. A Review of Research Efforts Relevant to Aging Mechanisms and Condition Monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, Jason [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Bernstein, Robert [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); White, II, Gregory Von [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Glover, Steven F. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Neely, Jason C. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Pena, Gary [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Williamson, Kenneth Martin [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Zutavern, Fred J. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Gelbard, Fred [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-03-01

    and industrial literature was performed to identify : 1) findings regarding the degradation mechanisms of submerged cabling and 2) condition monitoring methods that may prove useful in predict ing the remaining lifetime of submerged medium voltage p ower cables . The re search was conducted by a multi - disciplinary team , and s ources includ ed official NRC reports, n ational l aboratory reports , IEEE standards, conference and journal proceedings , magazine articles , PhD dissertations , and discussions with experts . The purpose of this work was to establish the current state - of - the - art in material degradation modeling and cable condition monitoring techniques and to identify research gaps . Subsequently, future areas of focus are recommended to address these research gaps and thus strengthen the efficacy of the NRC's developing cable condition monitoring program . Results of this literature review and details of the test ing recommendations are presented in this report . FOREWORD To ensure the safe, re liable, and cost - effective long - term operation of nuclear power plants, many systems, structures, and components must be continuously evaluated. The Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) has identified that cables in submerged environments are of concern, particularly as plants are seeking license renewal. To date, there is a lack of consensus on aging and degradation mechanisms even though the area of submerged cables has been extensively studied. Consequently, the ability to make lifetime predictions for submerged cable does not yet exist. The NRC has engaged Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) to lead a coordinated effort to help elucidate the aging and degradation of cables in submerged environments by collaborating with cable manufacturers, utilities, universities, and other government agencies. A team of SNL experts was assembled from the laboratories including electrical condition monitoring, mat erial science, polymer degradation, plasma physics

  3. The Kuroshio power plant

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Falin

    2013-01-01

    By outlining a new design or the Kuroshio power plant, new approaches to turbine design, anchorage system planning, deep sea marine engineering and power plant operations and maintenance are explored and suggested. The impact on the local environment, particularly in the face of natural disasters, is also considered to provide a well rounded introduction to plan and build a 30MW pilot power plant. Following a literature review, the six chapters of this book propose a conceptual design by focusing on the plant's core technologies and establish the separate analysis logics for turbine design and

  4. Submerged Medium Voltage Cable Systems at Nuclear Power Plants. A Review of Research Efforts Relevant to Aging Mechanisms and Condition Monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, Jason [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Bernstein, Robert [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); White, II, Gregory Von [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Glover, Steven F. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Neely, Jason C. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Pena, Gary [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Williamson, Kenneth Martin [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Zutavern, Fred J. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Gelbard, Fred [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-03-01

    and industrial literature was performed to identify : 1) findings regarding the degradation mechanisms of submerged cabling and 2) condition monitoring methods that may prove useful in predict ing the remaining lifetime of submerged medium voltage p ower cables . The re search was conducted by a multi - disciplinary team , and s ources includ ed official NRC reports, n ational l aboratory reports , IEEE standards, conference and journal proceedings , magazine articles , PhD dissertations , and discussions with experts . The purpose of this work was to establish the current state - of - the - art in material degradation modeling and cable condition monitoring techniques and to identify research gaps . Subsequently, future areas of focus are recommended to address these research gaps and thus strengthen the efficacy of the NRC's developing cable condition monitoring program . Results of this literature review and details of the test ing recommendations are presented in this report . FOREWORD To ensure the safe, re liable, and cost - effective long - term operation of nuclear power plants, many systems, structures, and components must be continuously evaluated. The Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) has identified that cables in submerged environments are of concern, particularly as plants are seeking license renewal. To date, there is a lack of consensus on aging and degradation mechanisms even though the area of submerged cables has been extensively studied. Consequently, the ability to make lifetime predictions for submerged cable does not yet exist. The NRC has engaged Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) to lead a coordinated effort to help elucidate the aging and degradation of cables in submerged environments by collaborating with cable manufacturers, utilities, universities, and other government agencies. A team of SNL experts was assembled from the laboratories including electrical condition monitoring, mat erial science, polymer degradation, plasma physics

  5. Final environmental statement related to the proposed manufacture of floating nuclear power plants by Offshore Power Systems: (Docket No. STN 50-437): Part 2, A generic environmental statement considering the siting and operation of floating nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The proposed action is the issuance of a manufacturing license to Offshore Power Systems for the startup and operation of a proposed manufacturing facility located at Blount Island, Jacksonville, Florida (Docket No. STN 50-437). No nuclear fuel will be handled or stored at the manufacturing site. The plants will be fueled after they have been towed to and moored within protected basins at specific locations designated by the purchaser and after an operating license has been issued by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission. Each nuclear generating plant, mounted on a floating platform, has a net capacity of 1150 MWe. This energy is provided by a pressurized water reactor steam supply system consisting of a Westinghouse four-loop 3425-MWt unit with an ice-condenser containment system. When one or more of these units is located within a single breakwater, the installation is designated an offshore power station. Volume 2 contains the siting criteria, regulations, effects of construction, effects of operation, and a safety analysis. 2 figs., 2 tabs

  6. Transforming Power Systems; 21st Century Power Partnership

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2015-05-20

    The 21st Century Power Partnership - a multilateral effort of the Clean Energy Ministerial - serves as a platform for public-private collaboration to advance integrated solutions for the large-scale deployment of renewable energy in combination with deep energy ef?ciency and smart grid solutions.

  7. Small and medium power reactors 1985

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report is intended for designers and planners concerned with Small and Medium Power Reactors. It provides a record of the presentations during the meetings held on this subject at the Agency's General Conference in September 1985. This information should be useful as it indicates the principal findings and main conclusions and recommendations resulting from these meetings. A separate abstract was prepared for each of the 10 presentations in this report

  8. Nuclear power plant construction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The legal aspects of nuclear power plant construction in Brazil, derived from governamental political guidelines, are presented. Their evolution, as a consequence of tecnology development is related. (A.L.S.L.)

  9. Advanced stellarator power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, R.L.

    1994-07-01

    The stellarator is a class of helical/toroidal magnetic fusion devices. Recent international progress in stellarator power plant conceptual design is reviewed and comparisons in the areas of physics, engineering, and economics are made with recent tokamak design studies.

  10. Power plants 2010. Lectures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The proceedings include the following lectures: Facing the challenges - new structures for electricity production. Renewable energies in Europe - chances and challenges. Nuclear outlook in the UK. Sustainable energy for Europe. Requirements of the market and the grid operator at the electricity production companies. Perspectives for the future energy production. Pumped storage plants - status and perspectives. Nuclear power/renewable energies -partners or opponents? New fossil fired power stations in Europe - status and perspectives. Nuclear energy: outlook for new build and lifetime extension in Europe. Biomass in the future European energy market - experiences for dong energy. Meeting the EU 20:20 renewable energy targets: the offshore challenges. DESERTEC: sustainable electricity for Europe, Middle East and North Africa. New power plants in Europe - a challenge for project and quality management. Consideration of safely in new build activities of power plants. Challenges to an integrated development in Maasvlakte, Netherlands. Power enhancement in EnBW power plants. Operational experiences of CCS pilot plants worldwide. Two years of operational experiences with Vattenfall's oxyfuel pilot plant. Pre-conditions for CCS. Storage technologies for a volatile generation. Overview: new generation of gas turbines.

  11. A Methodology to Revise the Need of Relocation and Evacuation Measures for Nuclear Power Plants (NPP) with Innovative Small and Medium Sized Reactors (SMRs). Annex I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Current regulations relevant for nuclear power plants (NPPs) and their siting require that adequate protective measures can and will be taken in the event of a radiological emergency. This requirement has been further interpreted in the USA as a requirement for emergency planning in an area with a 10 miles radius, i.e., extending far beyond the site boundary. This prescribed 10 miles radius is the same for all NPPs. Historically, it was selected very conservatively to envelop all nuclear power plant designs existing at the time. The rule was prepared, but it does not include provisions to account for the significant safety improvements in plant operation and design achieved since. The emergency planning requirement may pose a significant burden on plant owner (utility), both in the construction and in the operation phase. During construction, it may be needed to build otherwise unnecessary infrastructure (e.g., enhanced highways) to comply with the requirement. During operation, it is necessary to maintain an evacuation capability in a relatively wide area around the plant in which, for all practical purposes, any human development is frozen, this being a burden for small countries and/or areas with significant growth. Finally, the fact that the off-site zone around NPP is treated in a special way sends an incorrect message to public regarding the safety of NPPs and in the unlikely event of an accident it could even induce among residents of the affected areas the 'paralyzing fatalism' that is recognized to be the largest and longest-lasting public health problem created by the Chernobyl accident. The current advanced and safer reactor designs further reduce risk to public and should, therefore, offer a possibility to reduce or eliminate some of the emergency plan and evacuation requirements. This need was identified by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) International Project On Innovative Nuclear Reactor and Fuel Cycles (INPRO, User Requirement 'The

  12. Numerical method for determining the allowable medium temperature during transient operation of a thick-walled boiler element in power plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rząsa, Dariusz; Duda, Piotr

    2011-12-01

    Secure and cost-effective power generation has become very important nowdays. Care must be taken while designing and operating modern steam power plants. There are regulations such as German boiler regulations (Technische Regeln für Dampfkessel 301) or European Standards that guide the user how to operate the steam power plants. However, those regulations are based on the quasi-steady state assumption and one dimensional temperature distribution in the entire element. This simplifications may not guarantee that the heating and cooling operations are conducted in the most efficient way. Thus, it was important to find an improved method that can allow to establish optimum parameters for heating and cooling operations. The optimum parameters should guarantee that the maximum total stresses in the construction element are in the allowable limits and the entire process is conducted in the shortest time. This paper summarizes mathematical descriptions how to optimize shut down process of power block devices. The optimization formulation is based on the assumption that the maximum total stresses in the whole construction element should be kept within allowable limits during cooling operation. Additionally, the operation should be processed in the shortest time possible.

  13. Final environmental statement related to the proposed manufacture of floating nuclear power plants: (Docket No. STN 50-437): Part 2, A generic environmental statement considering the siting and operation of floating nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The proposed action is the issuance of a manufacturing license to Offshore Power Systems for the startup and operation of a proposed manufacturing facility located at Blount Island, Jacksonville, Florida (Docket No. STN 50-437). No nuclear fuel will be handled or stored at the manufacturing site. The plants will be fueled after they have been towed to and moored within protected basins at specific locations designated by the purchaser and after an operating license has been issued by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission. Each nuclear generating plant, mounted on a floating platform, has a net capacity of 1150 MWe. This energy is provided by a pressurized water reactor steam supply system consisting of a Westinghouse four-loop 3425-MWt unit with an ice-condenser containment system. When one or more of these units is located within a single breakwater, the installation is designated an offshore power station. 226 figs., 95 tabs

  14. A new method for determining allowable medium temperature during transient operation of thick-walled elements in a supercritical power plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duda, Piotr; Rząsa, Dariusz

    2010-09-01

    Construction elements of supercritical power plants are subjected to high working pressures and high temperatures while operating. Under these conditions high stresses in the construction are created. In order to operate safely, it is important to monitor stresses, especially during start-up and shut-down processes. The maximum stresses in the construction elements should not exceed the allowable stress limit. The goal is to find optimum operating parameters that can assure safe heating and cooling processes [1-5]. The optimum parameters should guarantee that the allowable stresses are not exceeded and the entire process is conducted in the shortest time. In this work new numerical method for determining optimum working parameters is presented. Based on these parameters heating operations were conducted. Stresses were monitored during the entire processes. The results obtained were compared with the German boiler regulations - Technische Regeln für Dampfkessel 301.

  15. ATMEA and medium power reactors. The ATMEA joint venture and the ATMEA1 medium power reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This Power Point presentation presents the ATMEA company (a joint venture of Areva and Mitsubishi), the main features of its medium power reactor (ATMEA1) and its building arrangement, indicates the general safety objectives. It outlines the features of its robust design which aim at protecting, cooling down and containing. It indicates the regulatory and safety frameworks, comments the review of the safety options by the ASN and the results of this assessment

  16. GEOTHERMAL POWER GENERATION PLANT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boyd, Tonya

    2013-12-01

    Oregon Institute of Technology (OIT) drilled a deep geothermal well on campus (to 5,300 feet deep) which produced 196oF resource as part of the 2008 OIT Congressionally Directed Project. OIT will construct a geothermal power plant (estimated at 1.75 MWe gross output). The plant would provide 50 to 75 percent of the electricity demand on campus. Technical support for construction and operations will be provided by OIT’s Geo-Heat Center. The power plant will be housed adjacent to the existing heat exchange building on the south east corner of campus near the existing geothermal production wells used for heating campus. Cooling water will be supplied from the nearby cold water wells to a cooling tower or air cooling may be used, depending upon the type of plant selected. Using the flow obtained from the deep well, not only can energy be generated from the power plant, but the “waste” water will also be used to supplement space heating on campus. A pipeline will be construction from the well to the heat exchanger building, and then a discharge line will be construction around the east and north side of campus for anticipated use of the “waste” water by facilities in an adjacent sustainable energy park. An injection well will need to be drilled to handle the flow, as the campus existing injection wells are limited in capacity.

  17. Geothermal Power Generation Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boyd, Tonya [Oregon Inst. of Technology, Klamath Falls, OR (United States). Geo-Heat Center

    2013-12-01

    Oregon Institute of Technology (OIT) drilled a deep geothermal well on campus (to 5,300 feet deep) which produced 196°F resource as part of the 2008 OIT Congressionally Directed Project. OIT will construct a geothermal power plant (estimated at 1.75 MWe gross output). The plant would provide 50 to 75 percent of the electricity demand on campus. Technical support for construction and operations will be provided by OIT’s Geo-Heat Center. The power plant will be housed adjacent to the existing heat exchange building on the south east corner of campus near the existing geothermal production wells used for heating campus. Cooling water will be supplied from the nearby cold water wells to a cooling tower or air cooling may be used, depending upon the type of plant selected. Using the flow obtained from the deep well, not only can energy be generated from the power plant, but the “waste” water will also be used to supplement space heating on campus. A pipeline will be construction from the well to the heat exchanger building, and then a discharge line will be construction around the east and north side of campus for anticipated use of the “waste” water by facilities in an adjacent sustainable energy park. An injection well will need to be drilled to handle the flow, as the campus existing injection wells are limited in capacity.

  18. Nuclear Power Plant Technician

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randall, George A.

    1975-01-01

    The author recognizes a body of basic knowledge in nuclear power plant technoogy that can be taught in school programs, and lists the various courses, aiming to fill the anticipated need for nuclear-trained manpower--persons holding an associate degree in engineering technology. (Author/BP)

  19. Power Efficiency of Steam Turbine Generator Switching into Thermal Circuit of Small and Medium Boiler Houses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. I. Yesman

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper is devoted to the solution of the problem concerning power saving on the basis of small power-and-heat-supply plants.Power efficiency of power turbine generator switching into thermal circuit of small and medium boiler houses is justified in the paper.

  20. Power Efficiency of Steam Turbine Generator Switching into Thermal Circuit of Small and Medium Boiler Houses

    OpenAIRE

    R. I. Yesman; I. P. Yarmolchik; I. V. Rymashevski; Moroz, G. V.

    2014-01-01

    The paper is devoted to the solution of the problem concerning power saving on the basis of small power-and-heat-supply plants.Power efficiency of power turbine generator switching into thermal circuit of small and medium boiler houses is justified in the paper.

  1. Power plant process computer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The concept of instrumentation and control in nuclear power plants incorporates the use of process computers for tasks which are on-line in respect to real-time requirements but not closed-loop in respect to closed-loop control. The general scope of tasks is: - alarm annunciation on CRT's - data logging - data recording for post trip reviews and plant behaviour analysis - nuclear data computation - graphic displays. Process computers are used additionally for dedicated tasks such as the aeroball measuring system, the turbine stress evaluator. Further applications are personal dose supervision and access monitoring. (orig.)

  2. Nuclear power in the 21st century

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: All plausible long term energy scenarios project significant growth of global energy, especially if the Millennium Declaration on poverty eradication and the Plan of Implementation agreed at the World Summit on Sustainable Development (WSSD) are to be met. Projected growth is the fastest in developing countries. While growth for affordable energy services is not subject to debate really - the question is rather by how much - this is not the case for energy supply. 21st century energy supply systems face several challenges and uncertainties including energy resource availability, technology change, environmental compliance, reliability and security, political and social acceptance. One of the uncertainties concerns the role of nuclear power in 21st century energy supplies. Paradoxically, its near term role appears less certain that its longer term role. In the short-run, i.e., until 2020, most studies project either a slight increase, a slight decrease or no change at all. Though regional differences exist in terms of growth and decline, the effectively balance each other. Longer-term energy demand and supply studies, however, paint a different future. Analyses developed by international working groups generally project a potentially significant increase in the use of nuclear power. There are several reasons for this. Foremost, longer-term studies are not subjected to short-term policy constraints. Next, they do factor anticipated technology change and innovation into the analysis. Then resource depletion effects become more visible and environmental constraints become more stringent. The starting point of this paper is the Special Report on Emissions Scenarios (SRES) of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Based on four of the SRES scenarios, one from each of the four SRES scenario families, this paper discusses the compatibility requirements of each for nuclear energy in terms of economics, environment, supply security, resources, waste

  3. Nuclear turbine power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose : To improve the heat cycle balance in a nuclear turbine power plant or the like equipped with a moisture separating and reheating device, by eliminating undesired overcooling of the drains in the pipes of a heat transmission pipe bundle. Constitution : A high pressure turbine is driven by main steams from a steam generator. The steams after driving the high pressure turbine are removed with moistures by way of a moisture separator and then re-heated. Extracted steams from the steam generator or the high pressure turbine are used as a heating source for the reheating. In the nuclear turbine power plant having such a constitution, a vessel for separating the drains and the steams resulted from the heat exchange is provided at the outlet of the reheating device and the steams in the vessel are introduced to the inlet of the moisture separator. (Aizawa, K.)

  4. Nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To suppress corrosion at the inner surfaces of equipments and pipeways in nuclear power plants. Constitution: An injection device comprising a chemical injection tank and a plunger type chemical injection pump for injecting hydrazine as an oxygen remover and ammonia as a pH controller is disposed to the downstream of a condensate desalter column for primary coolant circuits. Since dessolved oxygen in circuit water injected with these chemicals is substantially reduced to zero and pH is adjuted to about 10 - 11, occurrence of stress corrosion cracks in carbon steels and stainless steels as main constituent materials for the nuclear power plant and corrosion products are inhibited in high temperature water, and of corrosion products are inhibited from being introduced as they are through leakage to the reactor core, by which the operators' exposure does can be decreased significantly. (Sekiya, K.)

  5. Power plant design model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reports on the Power Plant Design Model (PPDM) which is an interactive FORTRAN/2020 program with over 15,000 lines of code that allows a user to create an engineering model of a grass roots solid fuel-fired facility capable of generating steam for electrical power generation and/or sale. Capital, operating, and maintenance cost estimates of the modeled plant are also generated. The model's technical output contains complete material and energy balances of all major streams, parasitic power calculations, boiler operating data and a major equipment list. The economic output consists of a capital cost estimate for the plant in a spreadsheet format detailing the material, labor and indirect costs associated with each piece of equipment. The model was intended for use as a marketing tool to replace engineering feasibility studies which are needed to determine the viability of a project. The model provides preliminary economics at a fraction of time and manpower effort normally associated with this task

  6. Initiative against nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This publication of the Initiative of Austrian Nuclear Power Plant Opponents contains articles on radiactive waste dispoasal in Austria and and discusses safety issues of the nuclear power plant 'Zwentendorf'. (kancsar)

  7. Obrigheim nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 1973 the 345 MW pressurized water nuclear power plant at Obrigheim operated on base load, generating approximately 2.63 TWh, approximately 2.5 TWh of which was supplied to the KWO members. The plant availability for the year was 89.9%. Of the 10.1% non-availability, 6.4% (23 d) was caused by refuelling, including inspection, overhaul and repair operations and routine tests carried out in September 1973. 3.3% was due to stoppages for repairs to a steam generator and the two main cooling pumps, while 0.4% resulted from failures in the electrical section of the plant. The plant was shut down seven times in all, including three scrams. The average core burnup at the end of the fourth cycle (1 September 1973) was 18900 MWd/tU, representing an average burnup of approximately 37500 MWd/tU for a fuel element used in all four cycles. The operating performance of the steam generators and the result of the steam generator inspection carried out during refuelling in 1973 suggest no progressive damage. The quantities of radioactive materials released to the environment in 1973 were well below the officially permitted levels. The availability of the plant from the beginning of pilot operation in 1969 to the end of 1973 was 83.7 %

  8. Obrigheim nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The gross output of the 345MWe pressurized water nuclear power station at Obrigheim, operation on base load, amounted to about 2.57TWh in 1974, the net power fed to the grid being about 2.44TWh. The core was used to its full capacity until 10 May 1974. Thereafter, the reactor was on stretch-out operation with steadily decreasing load until refuelled in August 1974. Plant availability in 1974 amounted to 92.1%. Of the 7.9% non-availability, 7.87% was attributable to the refuelling operation carried out from 16 August to 14 September and to the inspection, overhaul and repair work and the routine tests performed during this period. The plant was in good condition. Only two brief shutdowns occurred in 1974, the total outage time being 21/2 hours. From the beginning of trial operation in March 1969 to the end of 1974, the plant achieved an availability factor of 85.2%. The mean core burnup at the end of the fifth cycle was 19600 MWd/tonne U, with one fuel element that had been used for four cycles achieving a mean burnup of 39000 MWd/tonne U. The sipping test on the fuel elements revealed defective fuel-rods in a prototype plutonium fuel element, a high-efficiency uranium fuel element and a uranium fuel element. The quantities of radioactive substances released to the environment in 1974 were far below the officially permitted values. In july 1974, a reference preparation made up in the nuclear power station in October 1973 was discovered by outsiders on the Obrigheim municipality rubbish tip. The investigations revealed that this reference preparation had very probably been abstracted from the plant in October 1973 and arrived at the rubbish tip in a most irregular manner shortly before its discovery

  9. Nuclear Power Plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Analia Bonelli

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A description of the results for a Station Black-Out analysis for Atucha 2 Nuclear Power Plant is presented here. Calculations were performed with MELCOR 1.8.6 YV3165 Code. Atucha 2 is a pressurized heavy water reactor, cooled and moderated with heavy water, by two separate systems, presently under final construction in Argentina. The initiating event is loss of power, accompanied by the failure of four out of four diesel generators. All remaining plant safety systems are supposed to be available. It is assumed that during the Station Black-Out sequence the first pressurizer safety valve fails stuck open after 3 cycles of water release, respectively, 17 cycles in total. During the transient, the water in the fuel channels evaporates first while the moderator tank is still partially full. The moderator tank inventory acts as a temporary heat sink for the decay heat, which is evacuated through conduction and radiation heat transfer, delaying core degradation. This feature, together with the large volume of the steel filler pieces in the lower plenum and a high primary system volume to thermal power ratio, derives in a very slow transient in which RPV failure time is four to five times larger than that of other German PWRs.

  10. Garigliano nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During the period under review, the Garigliano power station produced 1,028,77 million kWh with a utilization factor of 73,41% and an availability factor of 85,64%. The disparity between the utilization and availability factors was mainly due to a shutdown of about one and half months owing to lack of staff at the plant. The reasons for nonavailability (14.36%) break down as follows: nuclear reasons 11,49%; conventional reasons 2,81%; other reasons 0,06%. During the period under review, no fuel replacements took place. The plant functioned throughout with a single reactor reticulation pump and resulting maximum available capacity of 150 MWe gross. After the month of August, the plant was operated at levels slightly below the maximum available capacity in order to lengthen the fuel cycle. The total number of outages during the period under review was 11. Since the plant was brought into commercial operation, it has produced 9.226 million kWh

  11. Current power plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nickell, J.H.

    1979-03-06

    A current power plant is described that includes a shaft mounted turbine wheel for employment in water current, a housing adjacent the impeller and to which the shaft extends, a ramp positioned on the upstream side of the impellar, and a frame on which the turbine wheel is mounted. The frame is mounted by rollers on a tract such that the impeller and frame may be rolled on the tracks inside the housing, whereafter doors are closed, and water around the turbine wheel may be pumped out to facilitate turbine repair.

  12. Demonstration tokamak power plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abdou, M.; Baker, C.; Brooks, J.; Ehst, D.; Mattas, R.; Smith, D.L.; DeFreece, D.; Morgan, G.D.; Trachsel, C.

    1983-01-01

    A conceptual design for a tokamak demonstration power plant (DEMO) was developed. A large part of the study focused on examining the key issues and identifying the R and D needs for: (1) current drive for steady-state operation, (2) impurity control and exhaust, (3) tritium breeding blanket, and (4) reactor configuration and maintenance. Impurity control and exhaust will not be covered in this paper but is discussed in another paper in these proceedings, entitled Key Issues of FED/INTOR Impurity Control System.

  13. Wind power plant system services

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Basit, Abdul; Altin, Müfit

    Traditionally, conventional power plants have the task to support the power system, by supplying power balancing services. These services are required by the power system operators in order to secure a safe and reliable operation of the power system. However, as in the future the wind power...... is going more and more to replace conventional power plants, the sources of conventional reserve available to the system will be reduced and fewer conventional plants will be available on-line to share the regulation burden. The reliable operation of highly wind power integrated power system might...... then beat risk unless the wind power plants (WPPs) are able to support and participate in power balancing services. The objective of this PhD project is to develop and analyse control strategies which can increase the WPPs capability to provide system services, such as active power balancing control...

  14. Power Plant- A Scientific Disaster

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dharmateja Bandlamudi, Sahithi Avirneni

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The present paper emphasisesthe society’s movement towards improvement of power sector as a pavement of luxury and on the benighted dark side of it. This produces the reasons for enchanting power plant as a scientific disaster. This paper gives the detailed list of effects caused by the power plants mainly on coal fired, nuclear and hydroelectric power plants, their adverse effects on environment and in turn human life.

  15. Tap Water Hydraulic Systems for Medium Power Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Conrad, Finn; Adelstorp, Anders

    1998-01-01

    Presentation of new range of developed tap water hydraulic componets and applications for medium power up to 4 kW and 50 bar.......Presentation of new range of developed tap water hydraulic componets and applications for medium power up to 4 kW and 50 bar....

  16. Power Plant Replacement Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reed, Gary

    2010-09-30

    This report represents the final report for the Eastern Illinois University power plant replacement study. It contains all related documentation from consideration of possible solutions to the final recommended option. Included are the economic justifications associated with the chosen solution along with application for environmental permitting for the selected project for construction. This final report will summarize the results of execution of an EPC (energy performance contract) investment grade audit (IGA) which lead to an energy services agreement (ESA). The project includes scope of work to design and install energy conservation measures which are guaranteed by the contractor to be self-funding over its twenty year contract duration. The cost recovery is derived from systems performance improvements leading to energy savings. The prime focus of this EPC effort is to provide a replacement solution for Eastern Illinois University's aging and failing circa 1925 central steam production plant. Twenty-three ECMs were considered viable whose net impact will provide sufficient savings to successfully support the overall project objectives.

  17. Power Plant Replacement Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reed, Gary

    2010-09-30

    This report represents the final report for the Eastern Illinois University power plant replacement study. It contains all related documentation from consideration of possible solutions to the final recommended option. Included are the economic justifications associated with the chosen solution along with application for environmental permitting for the selected project for construction. This final report will summarize the results of execution of an EPC (energy performance contract) investment grade audit (IGA) which lead to an energy services agreement (ESA). The project includes scope of work to design and install energy conservation measures which are guaranteed by the contractor to be self-funding over its twenty year contract duration. The cost recovery is derived from systems performance improvements leading to energy savings. The prime focus of this EPC effort is to provide a replacement solution for Eastern Illinois University’s aging and failing circa 1925 central steam production plant. Twenty-three ECMs were considered viable whose net impact will provide sufficient savings to successfully support the overall project objectives.

  18. Power plant removal costs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The financial, regulatory and political significance of the estimated high removal costs of nuclear power plants has generated considerable interest in recent years, and the political significance has resulted in the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) eliminating the use of conventional depreciation accounting for the decontamination portion of the removal (decommissioning). While nuclear plant licensees are not precluded from utilizing conventional depreciation accounting for the demolition of non-radioactive structures and site restoration, state and federal utility regulators have not been favorably inclined to requests for this distinction. The realization that steam-generating units will be more expensive to remove, relative to their original cost, predates the realization that nuclear units will be expensive. However, the nuclear issues have overshadowed this realization, but are unlikely to continue to do so. Numerous utilities have prepared cost estimates for steam generating units, and this presentation discusses the implications of a number of such estimates that are a matter of public record. The estimates cover nearly 400 gas, oil, coal and lignite generating units. The earliest estimate was made in 1978, and for analysis purposes the author has segregated them between gas and oil units, and coal and lignite units

  19. Na2O.B2O3-Al2O3-P2O5 system as a medium for vitrification of nuclear power plant wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laboratory experiments have shown that in the studied system 3Na2O.B2O3-Al2O3-P2O5 in the area of the delineated simplex triangle it is possible to obtain glasses which are very easily melted at temperatures of approximately 1100 degC. These glasses have only a slight tendency to crystallization and a high dilatability, especially in the region of transformation. Also studied was the hydrolytical and chemical resistance of different glass samples. The pilot plant experiment verified the possibility of the fixation of radioactive wastes in material based on sodium borophosphates. (J.B.)

  20. Everglades Plant Community Response to 20th Century Hydrologic Changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willard, D. A.; Bernhardt, C. E.; Holmes, C. W.; Weimer, L. M.

    2002-05-01

    Pollen records in sediment cores from sites in the historic Everglades allowed us to document the natural variability of the ecosystem over the past 2,000 years and contrast it to 20th century changes in wetland plant communities. The natural system included extensive water-lily sloughs, sawgrass ridges, and scattered tree islands extending from Lake Okeechobee southward through Shark River Slough. Between ~1000 AD and 1200 AD, weedy species such as Amaranthus (water hemp) became more abundant, indicating decreased annual rainfall, shorter hydroperiods, and shallower water depths during this time. After ~1200 AD, vegetation returned to its pre-1000 AD composition. During the 20th century, two phases of hydrologic alteration occurred. Completed by 1930, the first phase included construction of the Hoover Dike, canals linking Lake Okeechobee to the Atlantic Ocean, and the Tamiami Trail. Reconstructions of plant communities indicate that these changes shortened hydroperiods and lowered water depths throughout the Everglades. The extent of water-lily slough communities decreased, and tree islands became larger in Shark River Slough. The second phase resulted from construction of canals and levees in the 1950s, creating three Water Conservation Areas. The response of plant communities to these changes varied widely depending on location in the Everglades. In Loxahatchee NWR, weedy and short-hydroperiod plant species became more abundant in marshes, and species composition of tree islands changed. In Water Conservation Area 2A, cattail replaced sawgrass in marshes with high nutrient influx; the ridge and slough structure of the marshes was replaced by more homogeneous sawgrass marshes; sustained high water levels for more than a decade resulted in loss of tree islands that had existed for more than 1,000 years. In Everglades National Park, the extent of slough vegetation decreased further. Near Florida Bay, the rate of mangrove intrusion into fresh-water marshes

  1. Fusion power plant availability study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The consideration of fusion as an alternative energy source will need to demonstrate that Fusion Power Plant (FPP) design, operating and maintenance characteristics meet the electrical market requirements forecast for the second half of this century. Until now, fusion has been developed in the framework of research and development programmes following natural technological trends. To bring a greater sense of realism to commercial viability and to guarantee that technology-driven fusion development responds to the demands of the market, a conceptual study of future commercial FPPs has been performed with a Power Plant Availability (PPA) study aimed at identifying the aspects affecting the availability and generating costs of FPPs. EFET, who has also been involved in the study, can visualise it from two different points of view; that of the industry (ANSALDO, IBERTEF, SIEMENS, NNC) and that of the utilities (BELGATOM, FRAMATOME, FORTUM). The work carried out covered the following points: socio-economic forecasting; safety and licensing; operation and maintenance; waste and decommissioning; availability and reliability. The following are the most relevant findings, conclusions and recommendations for all these aspects: Demonstrate definitively that the physical principles of nuclear fusion have been validated by means of experiments; Establish a European Industrial Group to support the demonstration phases; Create the financial and contracting framework required to construct these installations. Secure the necessary budgets for the European Union's 5th and 6th Research Programmes. Look for supplementary long term financing sources; The existing Regulatory Bodies should combine to form a single Working Group with responsibility for fusion reactor safety and licensing activities, working on the harmonisation of the regulatory processes, developing FPP safety criteria and guidelines and reviewing industry standards; To be competitive, FPPs should have high availability

  2. Producing Electricity in Power Plant

    OpenAIRE

    Khabrana, Ahmed; Ageeli, Jaber

    2015-01-01

    Abstract This Bachelor thesis has been written at the Blekinge Institute of Technology. The thesis describes electricity production in Shoaiba Steam Power plant in Saudi Arabia. Shoaiba Power Plant is located 100 km South of Jeddah city in Saudi Arabia. Total power production ability reaches 4400 MW. Shoaiba Power Plant has two stages and is constructed with 11 units, each unit produces 400 MW at line voltage 24 kV and line current 16 kA. Main pieces of equipment and their function in the sta...

  3. AND THERMAL POWER PLANTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alduhov Oleg Aleksandrovich

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Investigation of the atmospheric dispersion as part of the process of selection of sites to accommodate nuclear and thermal power plants is performed to identify concentration fields of emissions and to assess the anthropogenic impact produced on the landscape components and human beings. Scattering properties of the atmospheric boundary layer are mainly determined by the turbulence intensity and the wind field. In its turn, the turbulence intensity is associated with the thermal stratification of the boundary layer. Therefore, research of the atmospheric dispersion is reduced to the study of temperature and wind patterns of the boundary layer. Statistical processing and analysis of the upper-air data involves the input of the data collected by upper-air stations. Until recently, the upper-air data covering the standard period between 1961 and 1970 were applied for these purposes, although these data cannot assure sufficient reliability of assessments in terms of the properties of the atmospheric dispersion. However, recent scientific and technological developments make it possible to substantially increase the data coverage by adding the upper-air data collected within the period between 1964 and 2010. The article has a brief overview of BL_PROGS, a specialized software package designated for the processing of the above data. The software package analyzes the principal properties of the atmospheric dispersion. The use of the proposed software package requires preliminary development of a database that has the information collected by an upper-air station. The software package is noteworthy for the absence of any substantial limitations imposed onto the amount of the input data that may go up in proportion to the amount of the upper-air data collected by upper-air stations.

  4. Simulating solar power plant variability :

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lave, Matthew Samuel; Ellis, Abraham; Stein, Joshua.

    2013-06-01

    It is important to be able to accurately simulate the variability of solar PV power plants for grid integration studies. We aim to inform integration studies of the ease of implementation and application-specific accuracy of current PV power plant output simulation methods. This report reviews methods for producing simulated high-resolution (sub-hour or even sub-minute) PV power plant output profiles for variability studies and describes their implementation. Two steps are involved in the simulations: estimation of average irradiance over the footprint of a PV plant and conversion of average irradiance to plant power output. Six models are described for simulating plant-average irradiance based on inputs of ground-measured irradiance, satellite-derived irradiance, or proxy plant measurements. The steps for converting plant-average irradiance to plant power output are detailed to understand the contributions to plant variability. A forthcoming report will quantify the accuracy of each method using application-specific validation metrics.

  5. Chemically Defined Medium and Caenorhabditis elegans: A Powerful Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szewczyk, N. J.; Kozak, E.; Conley, C. A.

    2003-01-01

    C. elegans has been established as a powerful genetic system. Growth in a chemically defined medium (C. elegans Maintenance Medium (CeMM)) now allows standardization and systematic manipulation of the nutrients that animals receive. Liquid cultivation allows automated culturing and experimentation and should be of me in large-scale growth and screening of animals. Here we present our initial results from developing culture systems with CeMM. We find that CeMM is versatile and culturing is simple. CeMM can be used in a solid or liquid state, it can be stored unused for at least a year, unattended actively growing cultures may be maintained longer than with standard techniques, and standard C. elegans protocols work well with animals grown in defined medium. We also find that there are caveats of using defined medium. Animals in defined medium grow more slowly than on standard medium, appear to display adaptation to the defined medium, and display altered growth rates as they change defined medium composition. As was suggested with the introduction of C. elegans as a potential genetic system, use of defined medium with C. elegans should prove a powerful tool.

  6. Maximization of organic acids production by Aspergillus niger in a bubble column bioreactor for V and Ni recovery enhancement from power plant residual ash in spent-medium bioleaching experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasoulnia, P; Mousavi, S M

    2016-09-01

    Spent-medium bioleaching of V and Ni from a power plant residual ash (PPR ash) was conducted using organic acids produced by Aspergillus niger. The production of organic acids in a bubble column bioreactor was optimized through selecting three most influencing factors. Under optimum condition of aeration rate of 762.5(ml/min), sucrose concentration of 101.9(g/l) and inoculum size of 40(ml/l), respectively 17,185, 4539, 1042 and 502(ppm) of oxalic, gluconic, citric and malic acids were produced. Leaching experiments were carried out using biogenic produced organic acids under leaching environment temperature of 60°C and rotary shaking speed of 135rpm, with various pulp densities of 1, 2, 3, 5, 7 and 9(%w/v). The results showed that biogenic produced organic acids leached V much more efficiently than Ni so that even at high pulp density of 9(%w/v), 83% of V was recovered while Ni recovery yield was 30%.

  7. Maximization of organic acids production by Aspergillus niger in a bubble column bioreactor for V and Ni recovery enhancement from power plant residual ash in spent-medium bioleaching experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasoulnia, P; Mousavi, S M

    2016-09-01

    Spent-medium bioleaching of V and Ni from a power plant residual ash (PPR ash) was conducted using organic acids produced by Aspergillus niger. The production of organic acids in a bubble column bioreactor was optimized through selecting three most influencing factors. Under optimum condition of aeration rate of 762.5(ml/min), sucrose concentration of 101.9(g/l) and inoculum size of 40(ml/l), respectively 17,185, 4539, 1042 and 502(ppm) of oxalic, gluconic, citric and malic acids were produced. Leaching experiments were carried out using biogenic produced organic acids under leaching environment temperature of 60°C and rotary shaking speed of 135rpm, with various pulp densities of 1, 2, 3, 5, 7 and 9(%w/v). The results showed that biogenic produced organic acids leached V much more efficiently than Ni so that even at high pulp density of 9(%w/v), 83% of V was recovered while Ni recovery yield was 30%. PMID:27295250

  8. Next Generation Geothermal Power Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brugman, John; Hattar, Mai; Nichols, Kenneth; Esaki, Yuri

    1995-09-01

    A number of current and prospective power plant concepts were investigated to evaluate their potential to serve as the basis of the next generation geothermal power plant (NGGPP). The NGGPP has been envisaged as a power plant that would be more cost competitive (than current geothermal power plants) with fossil fuel power plants, would efficiently use resources and mitigate the risk of reservoir under-performance, and minimize or eliminate emission of pollutants and consumption of surface and ground water. Power plant concepts were analyzed using resource characteristics at ten different geothermal sites located in the western United States. Concepts were developed into viable power plant processes, capital costs were estimated and levelized busbar costs determined. Thus, the study results should be considered as useful indicators of the commercial viability of the various power plants concepts that were investigated. Broadly, the different power plant concepts that were analyzed in this study fall into the following categories: commercial binary and flash plants, advanced binary plants, advanced flash plants, flash/binary hybrid plants, and fossil/geothed hybrid plants. Commercial binary plants were evaluated using commercial isobutane as a working fluid; both air-cooling and water-cooling were considered. Advanced binary concepts included cycles using synchronous turbine-generators, cycles with metastable expansion, and cycles utilizing mixtures as working fluids. Dual flash steam plants were used as the model for the commercial flash cycle. The following advanced flash concepts were examined: dual flash with rotary separator turbine, dual flash with steam reheater, dual flash with hot water turbine, and subatmospheric flash. Both dual flash and binary cycles were combined with other cycles to develop a number of hybrid cycles: dual flash binary bottoming cycle, dual flash backpressure turbine binary cycle, dual flash gas turbine cycle, and binary gas turbine

  9. Asbury power plant, Asbury, Missouri

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wicker, K.

    2005-08-01

    The Asbury power plant in rural southwest Missouri is off the beaten path in more ways than one. Three years ago, Empire District Electric Co., the plant's owner/operator, began mixing pieces of discarded tires into its coal fuel supply. Each ensuing year, without compromising local air quality, the plant has rid the area of millions of tires that otherwise would have ended up in a landfill. For demonstrating that a blight can be made right, Asbury is one of Power's 2005 top plants. 2 figs., 1 tab.

  10. Civilian Power from Space in the Early 21st Century

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hyde, R; Ishikawa, M; Wood, L

    2003-06-01

    If power beamed from space is to be become widely used on Earth in the first half of the 21St century, several thus-far-persistent impediments must be obviated, including threshold effects and problematic aspects of cost, availability, reliability, hazards and environmental impacts. We sketch a generally-applicable route to doing so, noting key enabling technologies and practical features. Likely-essential features of any successful strategy include vigorous, systematic leveraging of all intrinsic features of space-derived power, e.g., addressing marginal, high-value-added markets for electric power in space- and time-agile manners to conveniently provide power-upon-demand, and incrementally ''wedging'' into ever-larger markets with ever more cost-efficient generations and scales of technology. We suggest that no prudent strategic plan will rely upon large-scale, long-term public subsidies--fiscal, regulatory, etc.--with their attendant ''sovereign risks'' and interminable delays, and that plan-essential governmental support likely will be limited to early feasibility demonstrations, provision of threshold technologies and a rational, competition-neutral licensing environment. If salient realities are uniformly respected and accessible technologies are intelligently leveraged, electricity derived from space-sourced power-beams may come into significant civilian use during the latter part of the first quarter of this century, and may become widely used by the half-century point.

  11. Nuclear Power Plant Simulation Game.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Fran

    1979-01-01

    Presents a nuclear power plant simulation game which is designed to involve a class of 30 junior or senior high school students. Scientific, ecological, and social issues covered in the game are also presented. (HM)

  12. Mexico and the 21st Century Power Partnership (Fact Sheet)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2015-02-01

    The 21st Century Power Partnership's program in Mexico (21CPP Mexico) is one initiative of the Clean Energy Ministerial, carried out in cooperation with government and local stakeholders, drawing upon an international community of power system expertise. The overall goal of this program is to support Mexico's power system transformation by accelerating the transition to a reliable, financially robust, and low-carbon system. 21CPP Mexico activities focus on achieving positive outcomes for all participants, especially addressing critical questions and challenges facing policymakers, regulators, and system operators. In support of this goal, 21CPP Mexico taps into deep networks of expertise and professional connections.

  13. Power Systems of the Future: A 21st Century Power Partnership Thought Leadership Report (Fact Sheet)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2015-01-01

    Powerful trends in technology, policy environments, financing, and business models are driving change in power sectors globally. In light of these trends, the question is no longer whether power systems will be transformed, but rather how these transformations will occur. Power Systems of the Future, a thought leadership report from the 21st Century Power Partnership, explores these pathways explores actions that policymakers and regulators can take to encourage desired power system outcomes.

  14. PV power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-07-01

    Within the international seminar of the Ostbayerisches Technologie-Transfer-Institut e.V. (OTTI) at 11th June, 2012 in Munich (Federal Republic of Germany), the following lectures were held: (1) Technical due diligence (Dietmar Obst); (2) Certification / rating system for large PV plants (Robert Pfatischer); (3) O and M requirements (Lars Rulf); (4) IR photography for large scale systems (Bernhard Weinreich); (5) New market models for PV systems - direct marketing and sales of PV electricity (Martin Schneider); (6) Needs and benefits for plant certification for grid connection and operation (Christoph Luetke-Lengerich); (7) Lare volume module testing / Screening in the field and workshop (Semir Merzoug); (8) Dismantling costs of large scale PV plants (Siegfried Schimpf).

  15. The cAMP Signaling and MAP Kinase Pathways in Plant Pathogenic Fungi

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mehrabi, R.; Zhao, X.; Kim, Y.; Xu, J.R.

    2009-01-01

    The key components of the well conserved cyclic AMP signaling and MAP kinase pathways have been functionally characterized in the corn smut Ustilago maydis, rice blast fungus Magnaporthe grisea, and a few other fungal pathogens. In general, the cAMP signaling and the MAP kinase cascade homologous to

  16. Maintenance of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This Safety Guide provides detailed guidance on the provisions of the Code on the Safety in Nuclear Power Plants: Operation, IAEA Safety Series No. 50-C-O(Rev.1) on the maintenance of structures, systems and components. Like the Code, the Guide forms part of the IAEA's programme, referred to as the NUSS programme, for establishing Codes and Safety Guides relating to nuclear power plants. Effective maintenance is essential for safe operation of a nuclear power plant. It not only ensures that the level of reliability and effectiveness of all plant structures, systems and components having a bearing on safety remains in accordance with design assumptions and intent, but also that the safety status of the plant is not adversely affected after commencement of operation. Nuclear power plant maintenance requires special attention because of: Limitations set by requirements that a minimum number of components remain operable even when the plant is shut down in order to ensure that all necessary safety functions are guaranteed; Difficulty of access to some plant items even when the plant is shut down, due to radiation protection constraints; Potential radiological hazards to site personnel and the public. This Guide covers the organizational and procedural aspects of maintenance but does not give detailed technical advice on the maintenance of particular plant items. It gives guidance on preventive and remedial measures necessary to ensure that all structures, systems and components important to safety are capable of performing as intended. The Guide covers the organizational and administrative requirements for establishing and implementing preventive maintenance schedules, repairing defective plant items, selecting and training maintenance personnel, providing maintenance facilities and equipment, procuring stores and spare parts, reviewing, controlling and carrying out plant modifications, and generating, collecting and retaining maintenance records for establishing and

  17. Energy sources and power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Energy is obtained from various energy sources (coal, petroleum, natural gas, nuclear fuels, wind energy, solar energy, hydro power, biomass, geothermal energy). These differ in each case with respect to their availability, methods of their production and the required power plant technologies. As technologies of the future fuel cells and nuclear fusion are traded.

  18. Composition of hydroponic medium affects thorium uptake by tobacco plants

    OpenAIRE

    Soudek, P. (Petr); Kufner, D. (Daniel); Petrová, Š. (Šárka); Mihaljevič, M.; Vaněk, T. (Tomáš)

    2013-01-01

    The ability of thorium uptake as well as responses to heavy metal stress were tested in tobacco cultivar La Burley 21. Thorium was accumulated preferentially in the root system. The presence of citric, tartaric and oxalic acids in hydroponic medium increased thorium accumulation in all plant organs. On the other hand, the addition of diamines and polyamines, the important antioxidants in plants, resulted in decrease of thorium accumulation, especially in the root system. Negative correlation ...

  19. Small and medium power reactors: project initiation study, Phase 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In conformity with the Agency's promotional role in the peaceful uses of nuclear energy, IAEA has provided, over the past 20 years, assistance to Member States, particularly developing countries, in planning for the introduction of nuclear power plants in the Small and Medium range (SMPR). However these efforts did not produce any significant results in the market introduction of these reactors, due to various factors. In 1983 the Agency launched a new SMPR Project Initiation Study with the objective of surveying the available designs, examining the major factors influencing the decision-making processes in Developing Countries and thereby arriving at an estimate of the potential market. Two questionnaires were used to obtain information from possible suppliers and prospective buyers. The Nuclear Energy Agency of OECD assisted in making a study of the potential market in industrialized countries. The information gained during the study and discussed during a Technical Committee Meeting on SMPRs held in Vienna in March 1985, along with the contribution by OECD-NEA is embodied in the present report

  20. Directions for advanced use of nuclear power in century XXI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walter, C E

    1999-05-01

    Nuclear power can provide a significant contribution to electricity generation and meet other needs of the world and the US during the next century provided that certain directions are taken to achieve its public acceptance. These directions include formulation of projections of population, energy consumption, and energy resources over a responsible period of time. These projections will allow assessment of cumulative effects on the environment and on fixed resources. Use of fossil energy resources in a century of growing demand for energy must be considered in the context of long-term environmental damage and resource depletion. Although some question the validity of these consequences, they can be mitigated by use of advanced fast reactor technology. It must be demonstrated that nuclear power technology is safe, resistant to material diversion for weapon use, and economical. An unbiased examination of all the issues related to energy use, especially of electricity, is an essential direction to take.

  1. Modelling of the Nutrient Medium for Plants Cultivation in Spaceflight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nechitailo, Galina S.

    2016-07-01

    MODELLING OF THE NUTRIENT MEDIUM FOR PLANTS CULTIVATION IN SPACEFLIGHT Nechitajlo G.S.*, Rakhmetova A.A.**, Bogoslovskaja O.A.**, Ol'hovskay I.P.**, Glushchenko N.N.** *Emanuel Institute of Biochemical Physics of Russian Academy of Sciences (IBCP RAS) mail: spacemal@mail.ru **V.L. Talrose Institute for Energy Problems of Chemical Physics of Russian Academy of Science (INEPCP RAS) mail: nnglu@ mail.ru The valuable life and fruitful activity of cosmonauts and researchers in conditions of spaceflights and prolonged work at space stations are only possible with creating life area providing fresh air, natural food, comfortable psychological conditions, etc. The solution of that problem under space conditions seems impossible without use of high nano- and biotechnologies for plants growth. A priority should be given not only to choose species of growth plants in space, but also to improve conditions for their growth which includes optimal nourishing components for plants, preparation of nutrient mediums, illumination and temperature. We are deeply convinced that just manipulations with growing conditions for cultivated plants, but not genes changes, is a guarantee of success in the decision of this problem. For improving the method of plants growing on the artificial nutrient medium with balanced content of components, being necessary for growth and development of plants, we added essential metal elements: Fe, Zn, Cu - in an electroneutral state in the form of nanoparticles instead of sulfates or other easily dissolving salts. Nanoparticulated metals are known to have a number of advantages in comparison with salts: metals in an electroneutral form are characterized with the prolonged and multifunctional action, low toxicity per se and appearing to be much below the toxicity of the same metals in the ionic forms, accumulation as a reserve being used in biotic dozes, active distribution in bodies and organs of plants and stimulation of vital processes. A high reactivity

  2. Providing emergency supply of nuclear power plants

    OpenAIRE

    ROZMILER, Jiří

    2013-01-01

    Work "Providing emergency power nuclear power plant" describes how solving their own consumption nuclear power plant, as emergency power supply is designed and how it should be a solution of known states of emergency, having an immediate impact on the power consumption of their own nuclear power plants. The aim of this thesis is to propose options to strengthen its own emergency power consumption of nuclear power plants, one might say-more resistant to harsh extremes, which could lead to loss...

  3. Submarine nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To provide a ballast tank, and nuclear power facilities within the containment shell of a pressure resistance structure and a maintenance operator's entrance and a transmission cable cut-off device at the outer part of the containment shell, whereby after the construction, the shell is towed, and installed by self-submerging, and it can be refloated for repairs by its own strength. Constitution: Within a containment shell having a ballast tank and a pressure resisting structure, there are provided nuclear power facilities including a nuclear power generating chamber, a maintenance operator's living room and the like. Furthermore, a maintenance operator's entrance and exit device and a transmission cable cut-off device are provided within the shell, whereby when it is towed to a predetermined a area after the construction, it submerges by its own strength and when any repair inspection is necessary, it can float up by its own strength, and can be towed to a repair dock or the like. (Yoshihara, H.)

  4. Chemistry in power plants 2011

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Within the VGB Powertech conference from 25th to 27th October, 2011, in Munich (Federal Republic of Germany), the following lectures and poster contributions were presented: (1) The revised VGB standard for water-steam-cycle Chemistry; (2) Switchover from neutral operation to oxygen treatment at the power station Stuttgart-Muenster of EnBW Kraftwerke AG; (3) Steam contamination with degradation products of organic matters present in the feedwater of the Lanxess-Rubber cogeneration plant; (4) Laboratory scale on-line noble metal deposition experiments simulating BWR plant conditions; (5) Building a new demin installation for the power plant EPZ in Borssele; (6) Replacement of the cooling tower installations in the nuclear power plant Goesgen-Daenien AG; (7) Aging of IEX resins in demin plants - Cost optimisation by adaptation of regenerants; (8) The largest DOW trademark EDI System at a combined cycled plant in Europe; (9) Upgrading river Main water to boiler feed water - Experiences with ultrafiltration; (10) Experiences with treatment of the water-steam-cycle in the RDF power plant Nehlsen Stavenhagen with film-forming amines; (11) Comparative modelling of the bubbles thermal collapse and cavitations for estimation of bubbles collapse influence; (12) Overcoming the steam quality - issues from an HRSG for the production of process steam; (13) Legionella - new requirements for power plant operation; (14) How the right chemistry in the FGD helps to improve the removal in the waste water treatment plant; (15) High efficiency filtration in dry/semi-dry FGD plants; (16) Expanding the variety of renewable fuels in the biomass power plant Timelkam using the chemical input control; (17) Corrosion, operating experiences and process improvements to increase the availability and operating time of the biomass power plant Timelkam; (18) The influence of temperature on the measurement of the conductivity of highly diluted solutions; (19) A multiparameter instrumentation approach

  5. Financing solar thermal power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The commercialization of concentrating solar power technology took a major step forward in the mid 1980s and early 1990s with the development of the SEGS plants in California. Over the years they have proven that parabolic trough power technologies are the most cost-effective approach for commercial scale solar power generation in the sunbelt countries of the world. However, the question must be asked why no additional solar power plants have been built following the bankruptcy of the developer of the SEGS projects, LUZ International Limited. Although many believe the SEGS projects were a success as a result of parabolic trough technology they employ, in truth, the SEGS projects were developed simply because they represented an attractive opportunity for investors. Simply states, no additional projects have been developed because no one has been able to put together a similarly attractive financial package to potential investors. More than $1.2 billion in private capital was raised in debt and equity financing for the nine SEGS plants. Investors and bankers who make these investments are the real clients for solar power technologies. They are not interested in annual solar to electric efficiencies, but in risk, return on investments, and coverage ratios. This paper will take a look at solar power projects form the financier's perspective. The challenge in moving forward is to attract private investors, commercial lenders, and international development agencies and to find innovative solutions to the difficult issues that investment in the global power market poses for solar power technologies

  6. Financing Solar Thermal Power Plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The commercialization of concentrating solar power technology took a major step forward in the mid 1980s and early 1990s with the development of the SEGS plants in California. Over the years they have proven that parabolic trough power technologies are the most cost-effective approach for commercial scale solar power generation in the sunbelt countries of the world. However, the question must be asked why no additional solar power plants have been build following the bankruptcy of the developer of the SEGS projects, LUZ International Limited. Although many believe the SEGS projects were a success as a result of parabolic trough technology they employ, in truth, the SEGS projects were developed simply because they represented an attractive opportunity for investors. Simply stated, no additional projects have been developed because no one has been able to put together a similarly attractive financial package to potential investors. More than $1.2 billion in private capital was raised in debt and equity financing for the nine SEGS plants. Investors and bankers who make these investments are the real clients for solar power technologies. They are not interested in annual solar to electric efficiencies, but in risk, return on investments, and coverage ratios. This paper will take a look at solar power projects from the financier's perspective. The challenge in moving forward is to attract private investors, commercial lenders, and international development agencies and to find innovative solutions to the difficult issues that investment in the global power market poses for solar power technologies

  7. Thermal Power Plant Performance Analysis

    CERN Document Server

    2012-01-01

    The analysis of the reliability and availability of power plants is frequently based on simple indexes that do not take into account the criticality of some failures used for availability analysis. This criticality should be evaluated based on concepts of reliability which consider the effect of a component failure on the performance of the entire plant. System reliability analysis tools provide a root-cause analysis leading to the improvement of the plant maintenance plan.   Taking in view that the power plant performance can be evaluated not only based on  thermodynamic related indexes, such as heat-rate, Thermal Power Plant Performance Analysis focuses on the presentation of reliability-based tools used to define performance of complex systems and introduces the basic concepts of reliability, maintainability and risk analysis aiming at their application as tools for power plant performance improvement, including: ·         selection of critical equipment and components, ·         defini...

  8. Composition of hydroponic medium affects thorium uptake by tobacco plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soudek, Petr; Kufner, Daniel; Petrová, Sárka; Mihaljevič, Martin; Vaněk, Tomáš

    2013-08-01

    The ability of thorium uptake as well as responses to heavy metal stress were tested in tobacco cultivar La Burley 21. Thorium was accumulated preferentially in the root system. The presence of citric, tartaric and oxalic acids in hydroponic medium increased thorium accumulation in all plant organs. On the other hand, the addition of diamines and polyamines, the important antioxidants in plants, resulted in decrease of thorium accumulation, especially in the root system. Negative correlation was found between putrescine concentration and thorium accumulation. Nevertheless, the most important factor influencing the accumulation of thorium was the absence of phosphate ions in a hydroponic medium that caused more than 10-fold increase of thorium uptake in all plant parts. Accumulation and distribution of thorium was followed in six cultivars and 14 selected transformants. Cultivar La Barley 21 represented an average between the tested genotypes, having a very good distribution ratio between roots, stems and leaves.

  9. Power-Voltage Characteristics of Power System with the Medium Transmission Line

    OpenAIRE

    Prechanon Kumkratug

    2012-01-01

    Problem statement: Power-Voltage curve provides very important information for voltage stability analysis. The exact medium transmission line model consists of the resistance and the reactance. The resistance causes in the active line loss. It is not easy task to achieve the power-voltage curve characteristics of power system with the exact medium line model. Approach: This study applies the concept of the Newton-Raphson method to iteratively solve the nonlinear power flow equations. The Powe...

  10. Earthquake protection of nuclear power plant equipment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nawrotzki, Peter [GERB Vibration Control Systems, Berlin (Germany)

    2010-05-15

    Power plant machinery can be dynamically decoupled from the substructure by the effective use of helical steel springs and viscous dampers. Turbine foundations, boiler feed pumps and other machine foundations benefit from this type of elastic support systems to mitigate the transmission of operational vibration. The application of these devices may also be used to protect against earthquakes and other catastrophic events, i.e. airplane crash, of particular importance in nuclear facilities. This article illustrates basic principles of elastic support systems and applications on power plant buildings in medium and high seismic areas. Spring-damper combinations with special stiffness properties are used to reduce seismic acceleration levels of turbine components and other safety or non-safety related structures. For turbine buildings, the integration of the turbine substructure into the machine building can further reduce stress levels in all structural members. (orig.)

  11. Power Restoration in Medium Voltage Network Using Multiagent System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miroslav Kovac

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The article describes a novel approach to a power restoration in medium voltage power distribution network. It focuses primary at searching of a new network configuration enabling to minimalize the size of faulted area and to restore the power for the highest possible number of loads. It describes characteristic features of medium voltage power distribution network and discusses the implementation of the presented approach in existing networks. A software tool, developed by the authors, including physical simulation of model network and its autonomous control system is described. An example of fault situation in a virtual distribution network is presented. Afterwards, the solution of restoration problem by proposed multiagent system is simulated using the software tool described in the paper.

  12. Nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To prevent liquid wastes from being discharged out of the system by processing to recover them in the nuclear reactor and reusing them. Constitution: Discharge of liquid wastes to the surrounding atmosphere are completely eliminated by collecting floor drains, a part of processing water for the regeneration of liquid wastes, non-radioactive steam drains and laundry drains conventionally discharged so far out of the system, processing them in a concentrator, a desalter or the like into water of a high purity and extremely low radioactive concentration, storing the water in an exclusive storage tank and supplying it as a steam or supplementing water to each portion in the plant that requires water of such high purity and extremely low radioactivity. (Yoshihara, H.)

  13. RF-MEMS Switched Varactors for Medium Power Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Maury, F; Crunteanu, A; Conseil, F; Blondy, P

    2008-01-01

    In RF (Radio Frequency) domain, one of the limitations of using MEMS (Micro Electromechanical Systems) switching devices for medium power applications is RF power. Failure phenomena appear even for 500 mW. A design of MEMS switched capacitors with an enhanced topology is presented in this paper to prevent it. This kind of device and its promising performances will serve to fabricate a MEMS based phase shifter able to work under several watts.

  14. Analysis of the interconnection of small generating power plants to the rural networks of medium tension; Analisis de la interconexion de pequenas plantas de generacion a las redes rurales de media tension

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos Erape, Salomon

    2008-12-15

    This paper deals on a subject related to distributed generation, specifically deals with a real case of the interconnection request of 2 hydroelectric power stations with synchronous generators, property of an independent power producer, who intends to interconnect himself to the medium tension network, this interconnection has a particularity that does not make the analysis so simple, this characteristic is that it has a power generation capacity superior to the local load demand. The analysis focuses mainly in the regulation effects and losses, thus, calculations are also made of short circuit and revision of the interruptive capacities. Next, a brief description is made of the most relevant that is addressed in each chapter: Chapter 1. - It is an introduction to the subject, background of distributed generation, what the scope of the investigation is, methodology, definition of terms and abbreviations that are used in the document. Chapter 2 .- In this chapter an exposition of the problem is made, a description of the power system analysis background is also made and of distribution systems and the problems are exposed when the generator capacity has enough power to supply energy up to sub transmission levels. Chapter 3. - This chapter essentially deals with the acquisition of the information for the analysis, in it, the location of the base case is defined, description of the electrical infrastructure considered in the study, statistical information of the generation capacity of the power plants, information of the medium tension network that is exported from a distribution studies program to a high voltage flows program. It is also described how the minimum and maximum demand is made coincident, as well as the form in which the sequence components are obtained or calculated to be used in short circuit calculations. Chapter 4. - This chapter is the essential part of the thesis; diverse simulations are made of a case denominated Real Base Case in face of

  15. Ocean power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dembicki, E.

    1982-01-01

    In the fall of 1980 on the shores of the Hawaiian Islands, a floating laboratory of the United States was successfully introduced for testing a heat exchanger and pipes for collecting cold water of the OTES with power of 1 MW. The first American OTES N=10-40 MW should start operation in 1985. By the year 2000, ..sigma..N of the U.S. OTES should reach 10 GW. The Japanese OTES N=10-25 MW should start up in 1989. The experimental OTES N=100 KW has been in operation since October 1981 on the Nauru Island. An OTES of 2 MW is under construction. The concern Empain-Schneider is involved in planning the OTES of closed cycle in France, and the concern CGE is planning the OTES of open cycle.

  16. India and the 21st Century Power Partnership; 21st Century Power Partnership

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2015-05-13

    Indian leadership has been crucial in both the establishment of the foundational capabilities of the Power Partnership as well as the realization of opportunities for applied policy implementation. Understanding policy regimes that support and accelerate the transition to clean, smart, efficient, affordable, and reliable electricity will help inform decisions that enable innovative solutions, or even disruptive innovations. India has already demonstrated a wide variety of business model innovation in a wide range of industries. Its potential to do the same in the power sector is an enormous opportunity. Indian contributions to international knowledge about the legal, regulatory and business environment will be an integral component of the Power Partnership program.

  17. Temperature Effect to Solar Power Plant

    OpenAIRE

    Modestas Pikutis

    2015-01-01

    There are a lot of different efficiency photovoltaic cells, which are used in solar power plants. All of these different photovoltaic cells are affected by different environment conditions. Maximum power point tracking is the main way to increase solar power plant efficiency. Mostly systems of maximum power point tracking are slow or inaccurate, that means the system cannot stay in maximum power point in solar power plant. This is the main reason why mostly of solar power plants are working n...

  18. The challenge of introducing high-temperature reactor plants onto the international power plant market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Growth of world population increases energy demand until the year 2000 and afterwards. Electricity growth rates in industrialized nations are lower after the oil price escalation in 1973 and 1979, and in developing countries grid sizes are often too small for the operation of large LWR plants. This indicates a potential for small and medium-sized power reactors such as the HTR-100 and the HTR-500. These plants can compete with coal fired plants of comparable size. An HTR-500 is even competitive, considering the electricity generating cost of large LWR plants. The special advantages of HTR plants in the small and medium-capacity range are discussed. (orig.)

  19. Packing solutions for power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asbestos packings are being replaced in more and more countries with alternative products. This paper discusses modern packing solutions for valves and pumps in power plants. Die-moulded packing rings made of expanded graphite foil are described m detail, with recommendations for correct installation. Application examples for spring-loaded valves and cover lid seals are given. As an alternative for repair and service use, a braided expanded graphite packing reinforced with Inconel wire is described. Proposals for sealing various pump applications in power plants are also made. (Author)

  20. Plant power supply device in an atomic power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Object: To avoid tripping of a 6.9 kV class bus line and to decrease a large electric current momentarily flown into a start transformer, in despite of the fact that the bus line is not changed over resulted from actuation of a generator lock-out relay. Structure: An atomic power plant comprising a bus line for a two-system plant power supply and a start transformer receiving power from an exterior system, characterized by the provision of a breaker for effecting the change-over of only one system bus line simultaneously with the reactor scrum and a breaker for effecting the change-over of the other bus line before a generator is tripped as a result of actuation of a generator lock-out relay in a predetermined period of time after the reactor scrum, to thereby reduce the momentary large current to the start transformer. (Kamimura, M.)

  1. Loviisa nuclear power plant analyzer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The APROS Simulation Environment has been developed since 1986 by Imatran Voima Oy (IVO) and the Technical Research Centre of Finland (VTT). It provides tools, solution algorithms and process components for use in different simulation systems for design, analysis and training purposes. One of its main nuclear applications is the Loviisa Nuclear Power Plant Analyzer (LPA). The Loviisa Plant Analyzer includes all the important plant components both in the primary and in the secondary circuits. In addition, all the main control systems, the protection system and the high voltage electrical systems are included. (orig.)

  2. Solar thermionic power plant. II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abou-Elfotouh, F.; Almassary, M.; Fatmi, H.

    It has been shown that the geometric configuration of a central receiver solar electric power plant SEPP can be optimized for the high power density and concentration required for the operation of a thermionic converter. The working period of a TDC constructed on the top of a SEPP in Riyadh area is 5 to 6 hours per day in winter and 6 to 8 hours in summer. At the 25 percent conversion efficiency achieved by a laboratory test model, a reduction in the cost per unit power of 8-12 per cent is expected. The spectral behavior and work functions of the working surface of the thermionic electrodes were investigated

  3. World nuclear power plant capacity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report provides the background information for statistics and analysis developed by NUKEM in its monthly Market Report on the Nuclear Fuel Cycle. The assessments in this Special Report are based on the continuous review of individual nuclear power plant projects. This Special Report begins with tables summarizing a variety of nuclear power generating capacity statistics for 1990. It continues with a brief review of the year's major events regarding each country's nuclear power program. The standard NUKEM Market Report tables on nuclear plant capacity are given on pages 24 and 25. Owing to space limitations, the first year shown is 1988. Please refer to previous Special Reports for data covering earlier years. Detailed tables for each country list all existing plants as well as those expected by NUKEM to be in commercial operation by the end of 2005. An Appendix containing a list of abbreviations can be found starting on page 56. Only nuclear power plants intended for civilian use are included in this Special Report. Reactor lifetimes are assumed to be 35 years for all light water reactors and 30 years for all other reactor types, unless other data or definite decommissioning dates have been published by the operators. (orig./UA)

  4. Docommissioning of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The German utilities operating nuclear power plants have long concerned themselves with aspects of decommissioning and for this purpose an engineering company was given a contract to study the entire spectrum of decommissioning. The results of this study have been available in autumn 1980 and it is possible to discuss all the aspects of decommissioning on a new basis. Following these results no change in the design concept of LWR nuclear power plants in operation or under construction is necessary because the techniques, necessary for decommissioning, are fully available today. The technical feasibility of decommissioning for power plants of Biblis A and KRB type has been shown in detail. The calculations of the quantity of waste produced during removal of a nuclear power plant could be confirmed and it could be determined with high procedure. The radiation dose to the decommissioning personnel is in the range of the radiation protection regulations and is in the same range as the radiation dose to the personnel within a yearly inservice inspection. (AF)

  5. Geothermic Power Plants of high capacity - how far?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.H. Kozłowski

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Over the past two hundred years, the mankind has exploited more than 50 percent of all natural resources, including energy minerals. The twenty-first century will be, out of necessity the period of intensive development of energy based on renewable resources.Design/methodology/approach: The average geothermic gradient for the Earth`s crust (30°C/1km can give us 10-20 MWe as a result (electrical energy from one deep borehole heat exchanger. The value of electrical energy may be increased by introduction of a binary system with low-boiling medium into the energy system.Findings: Geothermic power plant of high capacity characterized by the fact that the steam superheater section, which is traditional in a conventional power plants, is replaced by the system of heat exchanger in the form of u-tubes with a single length ranging from 1000 meters to up to several thousand meters, initially placed in a metal casing with a transition to the rock layers of high temperature.Research limitations/implications: From the hot rock mass we can collect renewable resources of ,,dry” ascending energy from the paleo heat flow coming from the great nuclear furnace - the magma.Practical implications: The subject invention is the use of geothermic energy using a closed water cycle in heat exchangers, made of high-temperature creep resisting steam superheater steel tubes or titanium pipes. Thermal energy of water vapour, which is obtained in this way, is transformed into mechanical energy in the turbine, powering the generator.Originality/value: The role of a condenser can be fulfilled by a cascade system of thermal energy utilization( heat engineering, production of drinking water through desalination process, horticultural greenhouses, recreation, water pools, balneotherapy, heating sport fields, runways at airports and other transportation hubs.

  6. Development of a vinasse culture medium for plant tissue culture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vinasse is the main pollutant (effluent) obtained from the distillation of sugarcane in the production of fuel alcohol. However, this residue is rich in nutrients that are required by plants. We developed a new culture medium using vinasse for the In vitro propagation of an orchid. The vinasse was treated (decanted and filtered), and the nutrients were determined and quantified. Different formulations using vinasse were tested for an In vitro culture. The vinasse dilutions demonstrated a good buffering effect. The ideal vinasse dilution for media formulation was 2.5%. The best KC formulations with vinasse were KCV1 and KCV5. Compared to KC medium, these formulations demonstrated similar results for In vitro multiplication, with the exception of protocorm-like body number, which was inferior in the vinasse formulations. Conversely, for In vitro elongation and rooting, these vinasse media were superior to KC medium. KC medium promotes a low rooting rate (8%) compared to 68 and 100% obtained by KCV1 and KCV5, respectively. Moreover, plantlets cultured on KC medium become protocorm-like body clusters, which impeded the acclimatization of these explants. Plantlets elongated and rooted on KCV1 and KCV5 were successfully acclimatized with a 91% survival rate for both KC vinasse formulations. This study shows the great potential of this technology as a rational alternative to vinasse disposal and adds value to what is currently considered a waste product. (author)

  7. Financing Solar Thermal Power Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Price, H. W.; Kistner, R.

    1999-11-01

    The commercialization of concentrating solar power technology took a major step forward in the mid 1980s and early 1990s with the development of the SEGS plants in California. Over the years they have proven that parabolic trough power technologies are the most cost-effective approach for commercial scale solar power generation in the sunbelt countries of the world. However, the question must be asked why no additional solar power plants have been build following the bankruptcy of the developer of the SEGS projects, LUZ International Limited. Although many believe the SEGS projects were a success as a result of parabolic trough technology they employ, in truth, the SEGS projects were developed simply because they represented an attractive opportunity for investors. Simply stated, no additional projects have been developed because no one has been able to put together a similarly attractive financial package to potential investors. More than $1.2 billion in private capital was raised i n debt and equity financing for the nine SEGS plants. Investors and bankers who make these investments are the real clients for solar power technologies. They are not interested in annual solar to electric efficiencies, but in risk, return on investments, and coverage ratios. This paper will take a look at solar power projects from the financier's perspective. The challenge in moving forward is to attract private investors, commercial lenders, and international development agencies and to find innovative solutions to the difficult issues that investment in the global power market poses for solar power technologies.

  8. Concepts for Cost Reduction in CSP Power Plants

    OpenAIRE

    Pitz-Paal, Robert; Giuliano, Stefano; Wittmann, Michael

    2015-01-01

    In solar thermal power plants concentrating collectors are used to provide the high-temperature heat for the power plant. There are a number of different concepts available in which the heat transfer fluid is either directly used in the power plant cycle (e.g. water vapor), or alternatively a secondary cycle with a different fluid (e.g. thermal oil) is used to collect the solar energy. To date, especially parabolic trough systems that use synthetic thermal oil as heat transfer medium are the ...

  9. Intelligent distributed control for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This project was initiated in September 1989 as a three year project to develop and demonstrate Intelligent Distributed Control (IDC) for Nuclear Power Plants. There were two primary goals of this research project. The first goal was to combine diagnostics and control to achieve a highly automated power plant as described by M.A. Schultz. The second goal was to apply this research to develop a prototype demonstration on an actual power plant system, the EBR-2 steam plant. Described in this Final (Third Annual) Technical Progress Report is the accomplishment of the project's final milestone, an in-plant intelligent control experiment conducted on April 1, 1993. The development of the experiment included: simulation validation, experiment formulation and final programming, procedure development and approval, and experimental results. Other third year developments summarized in this report are: (1) a theoretical foundation for Reconfigurable Hybrid Supervisory Control, (2) a steam plant diagnostic system, (3) control console design tools and (4) other advanced and intelligent control

  10. Conversion of medium and low temperature heat to power

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Johann; Wendland, Martin; Lai, Ngoc Anh

    2013-04-01

    Presently most electricity is produced in power plants which use high temperature heat supplied by coal, oil, gas or nuclear fission and Clausius-Rankine cycles (CRC) with water as working fluid (WF). On the other hand, geo-, solar-, ocean-, and biogenic-heat have medium and low temperatures. At these temperatures, however, the use of other WF and/or other cycles can yield higher efficiencies than those of the water-CRC. For an assessment of the efficiency we model systems which include the heat transfer to and from the WF and the cycle. Optimization criterion is the exergy efficiency defined as the ratio of the net power output to the incoming exergy flow of the heat carrier. First, for a better understanding we discuss some thermodynamic properties of the WFs: 1) the critical point parameters, 2) the shape of the vapour- liquid coexistence curve in the temperature vs entropy (T,s)-diagram which may be either bell-shaped or overhanging [1,2], and 3) the shape of sub- and supercritical isobars for pure fluids and fluid mixtures. Second, we show that the problems of a CRC with water at lower temperatures are 1) the shape of the T,s-diagram and 2) the exergy loss during heat transfer to the WF. The first problem can be overcome by using an organic working fluid in the CRC which then is called organic Rankine cycle (ORC). The second problem is reduced by supercritical organic Rankine cycles (sORC) [1,2], trilateral cycles (TLC) and the more general power-flash cycles (PFC) [2], and organic flash cycles (OFC) [3]. Next, selected results for systems with the above mentioned cycles will be presented. The heat carrier inlet temperatures THC range from 120°C to 350°C.The pure working fluids are water, refrigerants, alkanes, aromates and siloxanes and have to be selected to match with THC. It is found that TLC with water have the highest efficiencies but show very large volume flows at lower temperatures. Moreover, expansion machines for TLC and PFC are still under

  11. Nuclear power plants and environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The question of nuclear power plants is analysed in details. The fundamental principles of reactors are described as well as the problems of safety involved with the reactor operation and the quantity and type of radioactive released to the environment. It shows that the amount of radioactive is very long. The reactor accidents has occurred, as three mile island, are also analysed. (M.I.A.)

  12. Nuclear Power Plant Control and Instrumentation in Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuclear reactors generate 15% of the world's supply electric power. The substantial growth in world energy demand is inevitably continuing throughout the next century. Nuclear power which has already paid more than enough for itself and its development, will provide increasing share of electricity production both in the developed and developing countries. For Pakistan with limited natural resources such as oil, gas, and fully tapped hydel power, nuclear power is the only viable option. However, things are not simple for developing countries which embark on nuclear power program. A technical infrastructure should be established as it has been shown by the experience of Control and Instrumentation of the Karachi Nuclear Power Plant. The national report describes the program of Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission in (NPP) Computers, Control and Instrumentation for design, construction, operation, and maintenance of nuclear power plants. (author)

  13. BOILER MATERIALS FOR ULTRASUPERCRITICAL COAL POWER PLANTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R. Viswanathan

    2002-04-15

    The principal objective of this project is to develop materials technology for use in ultrasupercritical (USC) plant boilers capable of operating with 760 C (1400 F), and up to 5500 psi with emphasis upon 35 MPa (5000 psi) steam. In the 21st century, the world faces the critical challenge of providing abundant, cheap electricity to meet the needs of a growing global population while at the same time preserving environmental values. Most studies of this issue conclude that a robust portfolio of generation technologies and fuels should be developed to assure that the United States will have adequate electricity supplies in a variety of possible future scenarios. The use of coal for electricity generation poses a unique set of challenges. On the one hand, coal is plentiful and available at low cost in much of the world, notably in the U.S., China, and India. Countries with large coal reserves will want to develop them to foster economic growth and energy security. On the other hand, traditional methods of coal combustion emit pollutants and CO{sub 2} at high levels relative to other generation options. Maintaining coal as a generation option in the 21st century will require methods for addressing these environmental issues. This project has established a government/industry consortium to undertake a five-year effort to evaluate and develop advanced materials that allow the use of advanced steam cycles in coal-based power plants. These advanced cycles, with steam temperatures up to 760 C, will increase the efficiency of coal-fired boilers from an average of 35% efficiency (current domestic fleet) to 47% (HHV). This efficiency increase will enable coal-fired power plants to generate electricity at competitive rates (irrespective of fuel costs) while reducing CO{sub 2} and other fuel-related emissions by as much as 29%. Success in achieving these objectives will support a number of broader goals. First, from a national prospective, the program will identify advanced

  14. BOILER MATERIALS FOR ULTRASUPERCRITICAL COAL POWER PLANTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R. Viswanathan; K. Coleman

    2003-01-20

    The principal objective of this project is to develop materials technology for use in ultrasupercritical (USC) plant boilers capable of operating with 760 C (1400 F), 35 MPa (5000 psi) steam. In the 21st century, the world faces the critical challenge of providing abundant, cheap electricity to meet the needs of a growing global population while at the same time preserving environmental values. Most studies of this issue conclude that a robust portfolio of generation technologies and fuels should be developed to assure that the United States will have adequate electricity supplies in a variety of possible future scenarios. The use of coal for electricity generation poses a unique set of challenges. On the one hand, coal is plentiful and available at low cost in much of the world, notably in the U.S., China, and India. Countries with large coal reserves will want to develop them to foster economic growth and energy security. On the other hand, traditional methods of coal combustion emit pollutants and CO{sub 2} at high levels relative to other generation options. Maintaining coal as a generation option in the 21st century will require methods for addressing these environmental issues. This project has established a government/industry consortium to undertake a five-year effort to evaluate and develop of advanced materials that allow the use of advanced steam cycles in coal-based power plants. These advanced cycles, with steam temperatures up to 760 C, will increase the efficiency of coal-fired boilers from an average of 35% efficiency (current domestic fleet) to 47% (HHV). This efficiency increase will enable coal-fired power plants to generate electricity at competitive rates (irrespective of fuel costs) while reducing CO{sub 2} and other fuel-related emissions by as much as 29%. Success in achieving these objectives will support a number of broader goals. First, from a national prospective, the program will identify advanced materials that will make it possible to

  15. BOILER MATERIALS FOR ULTRASUPERCRITICAL COAL POWER PLANTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R. Viswanathan; K. Coleman

    2002-10-15

    The principal objective of this project is to develop materials technology for use in ultrasupercritical (USC) plant boilers capable of operating with 760 C (1400 F), 35 MPa (5000 psi) steam. In the 21st century, the world faces the critical challenge of providing abundant, cheap electricity to meet the needs of a growing global population while at the same time preserving environmental values. Most studies of this issue conclude that a robust portfolio of generation technologies and fuels should be developed to assure that the United States will have adequate electricity supplies in a variety of possible future scenarios. The use of coal for electricity generation poses a unique set of challenges. On the one hand, coal is plentiful and available at low cost in much of the world, notably in the U.S., China, and India. Countries with large coal reserves will want to develop them to foster economic growth and energy security. On the other hand, traditional methods of coal combustion emit pollutants and CO{sub 2} at high levels relative to other generation options. Maintaining coal as a generation option in the 21st century will require methods for addressing these environmental issues. This project has established a government/industry consortium to undertake a five-year effort to evaluate and develop of advanced materials that allow the use of advanced steam cycles in coal-based power plants. These advanced cycles, with steam temperatures up to 760 C, will increase the efficiency of coal-fired boilers from an average of 35% efficiency (current domestic fleet) to 47% (HHV). This efficiency increase will enable coal-fired power plants to generate electricity at competitive rates (irrespective of fuel costs) while reducing CO{sub 2} and other fuel-related emissions by as much as 29%. Success in achieving these objectives will support a number of broader goals. First, from a national prospective, the program will identify advanced materials that will make it possible to

  16. Tidal Power Plant Energy Estimation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silva–Casarín R.

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper a methodology is presented which allows a quick and simple means of estimating the potential energy that can be obtained from a tidal power plant. The evaluation is made using a normalised nomograph, which is a function of the area of the tidal basin against the electricity installed capacity to thus obtain the potential energy for any location. The results describe two means of operation, one of "flow tide" and the other "flow–ebb tides", with two tidal basin systems operating: single and double reservoir systems. To obtain the normalised nomograph the numerical results for simulations of several tidal power plants under differing operational conditions over a period of one year. These conditions were established by varying the electricity installed capacity, the hydraulic conditions in "flow tide", "ebb tides" or both and with single or double reservoir systems and using sea level information taken every 15 minutes. To validate the model information from the tidal power plant at Rance, France, was used, which includes data concerning production, electricity installed capacity, turbine characteristics and tidal ranges. A very good correlation was found between the results of the numerical model and those reported in various technical reports.

  17. Elecnuc. Nuclear power plants in the world

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This 2003 version of Elecnuc contents information, data and charts on the nuclear power plants in the world and general information on the national perspectives concerning the electric power industry. The following topics are presented: 2002 highlights; characteristics of main reactor types and on order; map of the French nuclear power plants; the worldwide status of nuclear power plants on 2002/12/3; units distributed by countries; nuclear power plants connected to the Grid by reactor type groups; nuclear power plants under construction; capacity of the nuclear power plants on the grid; first electric generations supplied by a nuclear unit; electrical generation from nuclear plants by country at the end 2002; performance indicator of french PWR units; trends of the generation indicator worldwide from 1960 to 2002; 2002 cumulative Load Factor by owners; nuclear power plants connected to the grid by countries; status of license renewal applications in Usa; nuclear power plants under construction; Shutdown nuclear power plants; exported nuclear power plants by type; exported nuclear power plants by countries; nuclear power plants under construction or order; steam generator replacements; recycling of Plutonium in LWR; projects of MOX fuel use in reactors; electricity needs of Germany, Belgium, Spain, Finland, United Kingdom; electricity indicators of the five countries. (A.L.B.)

  18. Elecnuc. Nuclear power plants in the world

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This small booklet summarizes in tables all the numerical data relative to the nuclear power plants worldwide. These data come from the French CEA/DSE/SEE Elecnuc database. The following aspects are reviewed: 1997 highlights; main characteristics of the reactor types in operation, under construction or on order; map of the French nuclear power plants; worldwide status of nuclear power plants at the end of 1997; nuclear power plants in operation, under construction and on order; capacity of nuclear power plants in operation; net and gross capacity of nuclear power plants on the grid and in commercial operation; forecasts; first power generation of nuclear origin per country, achieved or expected; performance indicator of PWR units in France; worldwide trend of the power generation indicator; nuclear power plants in operation, under construction, on order, planned, cancelled, shutdown, and exported; planning of steam generators replacement; MOX fuel program for plutonium recycling. (J.S.)

  19. Advanced Coordinating Control System for Power Plant

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Peng; WEI Shuangying

    2006-01-01

    The coordinating control system is popular used in power plant. This paper describes the advanced coordinating control by control methods and optimal operation, introduces their principals and features by using the examples of power plant operation. It is wealthy for automation application in optimal power plant operation.

  20. Wind Power Plant Control - An Overview

    OpenAIRE

    Altin, Müfit; Teodorescu, Remus; Bak-Jensen, Birgitte; RODRIGUEZ, Pedro; Iov, Florin; Kjær, Philip C.

    2010-01-01

    Recent developments in wind turbine technology go towards installation of larger Wind Power Plants (WPPs). Therefore, power system operators have been challenged by the WPP penetration impacts in order to maintain reliabillity and stability of the power system. The revised grid codes have concentrated on the WPP connection point and as a result a WPP is considered as a single power plant. Nevertheless, compared to conventional power plants, WPPs have different inherent features such as conver...

  1. Design of stabilization system for medium wave infrared laser power

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Zhong-kui; Wang, Lin; Shi, Xue-shun; Xu, Jun

    2013-12-01

    The 3~5um Medium Wave Infrared(MWIR) laser has gained a lot of attention for its important application values in remote sensing, medical, military and many other fields. However, there are many technical difficulties to fabricate those kind lasers, and the performance of their output power stabilities remain to be improved. In a practical application, the MWIR's output power will be instability when the temperature changes and the current varies. So a system of reducing MWIR power fluctuation should be established. In this paper, a photoelectric system of stabilizing the output power of He-Ne laser is developed, which is designed based on the theory of feedback control. Some primary devices and technologies are presented and the functions of each module are described in detail. Among of those, an auxiliary visible light path is designed to aid to adjust WMIR optical system. A converging lens as spatial filter is employed to eliminate stray light well. Dewar temperature control equipment is also used to reduce circuit noise in IR detector. The power supply of AD conversion circuit is independently designed to avoid the crosstalk caused by the analog section and digital section. Then the system has the advantages of good controllability, stability and high precision after above designation. Finally, the measurement precision of the system is also analyzed and verified.

  2. Nuclear Power Plants and Sustainable Development on a Liberalized Market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Finding a way to generate electricity so as to satisfy the terms of sustainable development of the entire society is the only way which will secure safe energy future. If we talk about energy in the context of sustainable development, one of the most important element is environmental protection. Since CO2 emissions stemming from electricity generation have predominant impact on climate change, one of the options for reducing emissions is the use of fuels without carbon, such as e.g. nuclear fuel. The future of nuclear power plants was considered in view of: nuclear fuel supply; potential impact of fuel cycle on environment, power plant operation, decommissioning and secondary products from electricity generation; and the entire nuclear power plant economy. Nuclear power plants were also examined in the context of the Kyoto Protocol stipulating reduction of greenhouse gases emissions. Nuclear power plants can not reduce CO2 emissions in a short-term because they already operate with maximum output, but in a long-run they can play a significant role. This paper is aiming to analyse the role of nuclear power plants in long term environmental sustainability in electricity sector reform (liberalisation, deregulation, privatisation) in small or medium sized power supply systems. Nuclear power plants are associated with certain environmental aspects which will be taken into account. A comparison will be made through externalities with other energy resources, especially fossil fuels, which are prevailing energy resources, considering possible use of nuclear power plants in the countries with small and medium-size grids. It will be given an example of the role of NPP Krsko on air emissions reduction in Croatia. (author)

  3. Design of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The criteria of design and safety, applied internationally to systems and components of PWR type reactors, are described. The main criteria of the design analysed are: thermohydraulic optimization; optimized arrangement of buildings and components; low costs of energy generation; high level of standardization; application of specific safety criteria for nuclear power plants. The safety criteria aim to: assure the safe reactor shutdown; remove the residual heat and; avoid the release of radioactive elements for environment. Some exemples of safety criteria are given for Angra-2 and Angra-3 reactors. (M.C.K.)

  4. Tidal Power Plant Energy Estimation

    OpenAIRE

    Silva–Casarín R.; Hiriart–Le Bert G.; López–González J.

    2010-01-01

    In this paper a methodology is presented which allows a quick and simple means of estimating the potential energy that can be obtained from a tidal power plant. The evaluation is made using a normalised nomograph, which is a function of the area of the tidal basin against the electricity installed capacity to thus obtain the potential energy for any location. The results describe two means of operation, one of "flow tide" and the other "flow–ebb tides", with two tidal basin systems operating:...

  5. EDITORIAL: Safety aspects of fusion power plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolbasov, B. N.

    2007-07-01

    This special issue of Nuclear Fusion contains 13 informative papers that were initially presented at the 8th IAEA Technical Meeting on Fusion Power Plant Safety held in Vienna, Austria, 10-13 July 2006. Following recommendation from the International Fusion Research Council, the IAEA organizes Technical Meetings on Fusion Safety with the aim to bring together experts to discuss the ongoing work, share new ideas and outline general guidance and recommendations on different issues related to safety and environmental (S&E) aspects of fusion research and power facilities. Previous meetings in this series were held in Vienna, Austria (1980), Ispra, Italy (1983), Culham, UK (1986), Jackson Hole, USA (1989), Toronto, Canada (1993), Naka, Japan (1996) and Cannes, France (2000). The recognized progress in fusion research and technology over the last quarter of a century has boosted the awareness of the potential of fusion to be a practically inexhaustible and clean source of energy. The decision to construct the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) represents a landmark in the path to fusion power engineering. Ongoing activities to license ITER in France look for an adequate balance between technological and scientific deliverables and complying with safety requirements. Actually, this is the first instance of licensing a representative fusion machine, and it will very likely shape the way in which a more common basis for establishing safety standards and policies for licensing future fusion power plants will be developed. Now that ITER licensing activities are underway, it is becoming clear that the international fusion community should strengthen its efforts in the area of designing the next generations of fusion power plants—demonstrational and commercial. Therefore, the 8th IAEA Technical Meeting on Fusion Safety focused on the safety aspects of power facilities. Some ITER-related safety issues were reported and discussed owing to their potential

  6. Modelling of nuclear power plant decommissioning financing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bemš, J; Knápek, J; Králík, T; Hejhal, M; Kubančák, J; Vašíček, J

    2015-06-01

    Costs related to the decommissioning of nuclear power plants create a significant financial burden for nuclear power plant operators. This article discusses the various methodologies employed by selected European countries for financing of the liabilities related to the nuclear power plant decommissioning. The article also presents methodology of allocation of future decommissioning costs to the running costs of nuclear power plant in the form of fee imposed on each megawatt hour generated. The application of the methodology is presented in the form of a case study on a new nuclear power plant with installed capacity 1000 MW. PMID:25979740

  7. Government support for the export of nuclear power plants after Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Depending on the surge of a global evaluation for the nuclear power generation, our country strengthened government support for the export of nuclear power plants. However, under the influence of a Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident, the internal and external situation surrounding nuclear power has been changing. Should our country continue government support for the nuclear power plant export according to this? This report outlined the world trend around nuclear power before the Fukushima accident, surveyed merits and problems of the nuclear power plant export, and introduced what kind of export aid package the government took. And then, it showed the situation change after the Fukushima accident and the point at issue on thinking about the way of the government support. The Fukushima accident raised concern for the safety of the nuclear power plant and might have a big influence on the construction trend of the world nuclear power plant in the future. The criticism to conventional government support for the nuclear power plant export has risen, too. However, the role of government support for the nuclear power plant export was not the problem that should be discussed only by the side of safety and the economy. The nuclear power plant export carried an international contribution, reinforcement of the thickness of a technique and the talented person of the nuclear power industry, and a role such as the contribution to economic growth in medium-and-long term energy policy and nuclear energy policy until now. It may be said that we were asked how was placed nuclear power plant export again while these policies were reviewed after the Fukushima accident. (T. Tanaka)

  8. The atlas of large photovoltaic power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document reports all the photovoltaic power plants whose installed power is over 1 MWc and that are operating in France or in project. 446 power plants have been reviewed and their cumulated power reaches 2822 MWc. For each plant the following information is listed: the name of the municipality, the operator, the power capacity, the manufacturer of the photovoltaic panels and the type of technology used, the type of installation (on the ground, on the roof, on the facade, as sun protection,...), the yearly power output (kWh), and the date of commissioning. This review shows that 86% of these plants are ground-based. (A.C.)

  9. International conference: nuclear power for the 21 st century

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is widely recognised that global energy demand will rise substantially during this century. The increased industrialization and urbanization of developing countries will produce large increases in energy demand in regions that currently have very low per capita energy use. This increasing demand for energy will need to be met in order to improve living standards for at least half of the world population and to reduce the economic imbalances between countries and regions. At the same time the use of fossil fuel based energy is identified as a major cause of environmental damage. The release of greenhouse gases from burning of fossil fuel in power stations and for transport is seen as a contributor to global warming. It is widely recognised that continued exploitation of fossil fuels and release of carbon dioxide will need to be controlled. After a prolonged period of slow development of nuclear power, confined to some countries in the world, it is now being recognised that nuclear energy has a potentially significant role to play in meeting the energy needs of the planet without damaging the environment. Developments in technology make the economics of nuclear power more attractive, and they may become even more so as fossil fuel prices continue to rise.or a widespread use of nuclear power, however, there remain concerns on the safety, security, waste and proliferation aspects. The global application of safety standards and appropriate security measures are required to ensure acceptable levels of protection. Effective control measures are required to ensure that non-proliferation commitments are honored. Handling nuclear waste safely and securely is achievable, but continues to remain as a public concern. The broad strategic objectives of the Conference are the following: to review the role of nuclear power and to define the potential benefits (energy security, sustainability and improved environmental protection) that expanding nuclear power offers to meet the

  10. Sabotage at Nuclear Power Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Purvis, James W.

    1999-07-21

    Recently there has been a noted worldwide increase in violent actions including attempted sabotage at nuclear power plants. Several organizations, such as the International Atomic Energy Agency and the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission, have guidelines, recommendations, and formal threat- and risk-assessment processes for the protection of nuclear assets. Other examples are the former Defense Special Weapons Agency, which used a risk-assessment model to evaluate force-protection security requirements for terrorist incidents at DOD military bases. The US DOE uses a graded approach to protect its assets based on risk and vulnerability assessments. The Federal Aviation Administration and Federal Bureau of Investigation conduct joint threat and vulnerability assessments on high-risk US airports. Several private companies under contract to government agencies use formal risk-assessment models and methods to identify security requirements. The purpose of this paper is to survey these methods and present an overview of all potential types of sabotage at nuclear power plants. The paper discusses emerging threats and current methods of choice for sabotage--especially vehicle bombs and chemical attacks. Potential consequences of sabotage acts, including economic and political; not just those that may result in unacceptable radiological exposure to the public, are also discussed. Applicability of risk-assessment methods and mitigation techniques are also presented.

  11. Sabotage at Nuclear Power Plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recently there has been a noted worldwide increase in violent actions including attempted sabotage at nuclear power plants. Several organizations, such as the International Atomic Energy Agency and the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission, have guidelines, recommendations, and formal threat- and risk-assessment processes for the protection of nuclear assets. Other examples are the former Defense Special Weapons Agency, which used a risk-assessment model to evaluate force-protection security requirements for terrorist incidents at DOD military bases. The US DOE uses a graded approach to protect its assets based on risk and vulnerability assessments. The Federal Aviation Administration and Federal Bureau of Investigation conduct joint threat and vulnerability assessments on high-risk US airports. Several private companies under contract to government agencies use formal risk-assessment models and methods to identify security requirements. The purpose of this paper is to survey these methods and present an overview of all potential types of sabotage at nuclear power plants. The paper discusses emerging threats and current methods of choice for sabotage--especially vehicle bombs and chemical attacks. Potential consequences of sabotage acts, including economic and political; not just those that may result in unacceptable radiological exposure to the public, are also discussed. Applicability of risk-assessment methods and mitigation techniques are also presented

  12. Powering Kuwait into the 21. Century. Adopting a Sustainable Strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Over the last ten years, Kuwait's power consumption has doubled. This rising need for electricity has been mainly driven by the fast population growth rate, the increasing need for desalinated water, accounting for 93% of water consumption, and the economic development of the country. This electricity has been mostly generated from oil, which composes up to 73% of Kuwait power fuel mix. The amount of oil consumed in Kuwait's power sector, is therefore substantial, amounting to 8,67% of the country 2.5 million barrel per day oil production. To evaluate the share of oil production consumed in the power sector, two different scenarios are constructed up to 2020 and extended to 2035. Oil consumption by the power sector will evolve according to the power consumption, taken on a business as usual trend of 5.6% here, the fuel input to produce 1 KWh, based on the most efficient plant consumption rate today, and the share of oil in the power fuel mix. The no change scenario considers that the current fuel mix will remain relatively unchanged (70% oil and 30% gas by 2020); the new fuel mix scenario considers on the contrary a higher share of gas (60% by 2020). In both scenario the share of oil production burned into the power sector increases by 2035. Under the new fuel mix scenario, the share of oil production consumed by the power sector remains relatively constant until 2020. This scenario would have a lesser impact on Kuwait economy, however it is considered less probable than the no change scenario. Moreover these forecasts are based on very conservative assumptions; electricity consumption is indeed likely to grow much faster. This report bases power consumption growth on the observation of the last ten years, but the rate has increased faster since 2005. Moreover, the government economic development plan includes a large share of construction projects, which will likely lead to important energy consumption both for the construction phase and for the air conditioning

  13. Elecnuc. Nuclear power plants in the world

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This small booklet summarizes in tables all data relative to the nuclear power plants worldwide. These data come from the IAEA's PRIS and AREVA-CEA's GAIA databases. The following aspects are reviewed: 2007 highlights; Main characteristics of reactor types; Map of the French nuclear power plants on 2007/01/01; Worldwide status of nuclear power plants (12/31/2007); Units distributed by countries; Nuclear power plants connected to the Grid- by reactor type groups; Nuclear power plants under construction on 2007; Evolution of nuclear power plants capacities connected to the grid; First electric generations supplied by a nuclear unit in each country; Electrical generation from nuclear power plants by country at the end 2007; Performance indicator of French PWR units; Evolution of the generation indicators worldwide by type; Nuclear operator ranking according to their installed capacity; Units connected to the grid by countries at 12/31/2007; Status of licence renewal applications in USA; Nuclear power plants under construction at 12/31/2007; Shutdown reactors; Exported nuclear capacity in net MWe; Exported and national nuclear capacity connected to the grid; Exported nuclear power plants under construction; Exported and national nuclear capacity under construction; Nuclear power plants ordered at 12/31/2007; Long term shutdown units at 12/31/2007; COL (combined licences) applications in the USA; Recycling of Plutonium in reactors and experiences; Mox licence plants projects; Appendix - historical development; Meaning of the used acronyms; Glossary

  14. Efficiency of Modern Power Plants of Thermal Power Stations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. V. Yakovlev

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers efficiency and prospects in development of different types of fossil-fuel power plants – gas turbine, steam turbine and combined (gas and steam cycles.The paper provides information on plant selection, fuel consumption, specific output cost. It describes main advantages of various power plants.

  15. Stillwater Hybrid Geo-Solar Power Plant Optimization Analyses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wendt, Daniel S.; Mines, Gregory L.; Turchi, Craig S.; Zhu, Guangdong; Cohan, Sander; Angelini, Lorenzo; Bizzarri, Fabrizio; Consoli, Daniele; De Marzo, Alessio

    2015-09-02

    The Stillwater Power Plant is the first hybrid plant in the world able to bring together a medium-enthalpy geothermal unit with solar thermal and solar photovoltaic systems. Solar field and power plant models have been developed to predict the performance of the Stillwater geothermal / solar-thermal hybrid power plant. The models have been validated using operational data from the Stillwater plant. A preliminary effort to optimize performance of the Stillwater hybrid plant using optical characterization of the solar field has been completed. The Stillwater solar field optical characterization involved measurement of mirror reflectance, mirror slope error, and receiver position error. The measurements indicate that the solar field may generate 9% less energy than the design value if an appropriate tracking offset is not employed. A perfect tracking offset algorithm may be able to boost the solar field performance by about 15%. The validated Stillwater hybrid plant models were used to evaluate hybrid plant operating strategies including turbine IGV position optimization, ACC fan speed and turbine IGV position optimization, turbine inlet entropy control using optimization of multiple process variables, and mixed working fluid substitution. The hybrid plant models predict that each of these operating strategies could increase net power generation relative to the baseline Stillwater hybrid plant operations.

  16. Thermal power plant design and operation

    CERN Document Server

    Sarkar, Dipak

    2015-01-01

    Thermal Power Plant: Design and Operation deals with various aspects of a thermal power plant, providing a new dimension to the subject, with focus on operating practices and troubleshooting, as well as technology and design. Its author has a 40-long association with thermal power plants in design as well as field engineering, sharing his experience with professional engineers under various training capacities, such as training programs for graduate engineers and operating personnel. Thermal Power Plant presents practical content on coal-, gas-, oil-, peat- and biomass-fueled thermal power

  17. Infrared imaging of power plant components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teskey, Mike E.; Adamson, R. D.

    1995-05-01

    The application of infrared thermography (IR) to electric utility applications is discussed. A joint program with electric power research institute (EPRI) demonstrated the inspection of specific power plant components including boiler casing, condenser air-inleakage, and condenser tube leakage. Infrared thermography was successfully demonstrated as a predictive maintenance tool for power plant applications and real dollar savings by the utility.

  18. QA programs in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As an overview of quality assurance programs in nuclear power plants, the energy picture as it appears today is reviewed. Nuclear power plants and their operations are described and an attempt is made to place in proper perspective the alleged ''threats'' inherent in nuclear power. Finally, the quality assurance programs being used in the nuclear industry are described

  19. Economics of hybrid photovoltaic power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Breyer, Christian

    2012-08-16

    The global power supply stability is faced to several severe and fundamental threats, in particular steadily increasing power demand, diminishing and degrading fossil and nuclear energy resources, very harmful greenhouse gas emissions, significant energy injustice and a structurally misbalanced ecological footprint. Photovoltaic (PV) power systems are analysed in various aspects focusing on economic and technical considerations of supplemental and substitutional power supply to the constraint conventional power system. To infer the most relevant system approach for PV power plants several solar resources available for PV systems are compared. By combining the different solar resources and respective economics, two major PV systems are identified to be very competitive in almost all regions in the world. The experience curve concept is used as a key technique for the development of scenario assumptions on economic projections for the decade of the 2010s. Main drivers for cost reductions in PV systems are learning and production growth rate, thus several relevant aspects are discussed such as research and development investments, technical PV market potential, different PV technologies and the energetic sustainability of PV. Three major market segments for PV systems are identified: off-grid PV solutions, decentralised small scale on-grid PV systems (several kWp) and large scale PV power plants (tens of MWp). Mainly by application of 'grid-parity' and 'fuel-parity' concepts per country, local market and conventional power plant basis, the global economic market potential for all major PV system segments is derived. PV power plant hybridization potential of all relevant power technologies and the global power plant structure are analyzed regarding technical, economical and geographical feasibility. Key success criteria for hybrid PV power plants are discussed and comprehensively analysed for all adequate power plant technologies, i.e. oil, gas and

  20. Simulators predict power plant operation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peltier, R.

    2002-07-01

    Mix the complexity of a new construction or major retrofit project with today's 'do more with less', a pinch of 'personnel inexperience,' and a dash of 'unintended consequences', and you have got a recipe for insomnia. Advanced simulation tools, however, can help you wring out your design train your operators before the first wire is terminated and just may be get a good night's rest. The article describes several examples of uses of simulation tools. Esscor recently completed a simulation project for a major US utility exploring the potential for furnace/duct implosion that could result from adding higher volumetric flow induced-draft fans and selective catalytic reduction to a 650-MW coal-fired plant. CAF Electronics Inc. provided a full-scope simulator for Alstom's KA24-1 combined-cycle power plant in Paris, France. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) tools are being used by the Gas Technology Institute to simulate the performance of the next generation of pulverized coal combustors. 5 figs.

  1. Dynamic Frequency Response of Wind Power Plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Altin, Müfit

    capability of WPPs would be investigated. The objective of this project is to analyze and identify the power system requirements for the synchronizing power support and inertial response control of WPPs in high wind power penetration scenarios. The dynamic frequency response of WPPs is realized...... to maintain sustainable and reliable operation of the power system for these targets, transmission system operators (TSOs) have revised the grid code requirements. Also, the TSOs are planning the future development of the power system with various wind penetration scenarios to integrate more wind power...... according to their grid codes. In these scenarios particularly with high wind power penetration cases, conventional power plants (CPPs) such as old thermal power plants are planned to be replaced with wind power plants (WPPs). Consequently, the power system stability will be affected and the control...

  2. TOSHIBA CAE system for nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    TOSHIBA aims to secure safety, increase reliability and improve efficiency through the engineering for nuclear power plant using Computer Aided Engineering (CAE). TOSHIBA CAE system for nuclear power plant consists of numbers of sub-systems which had been integrated centering around the Nuclear Power Plant Engineering Data Base (PDBMS) and covers all stage of engineering for nuclear power plant from project management, design, manufacturing, construction to operating plant service and preventive maintenance as it were 'Plant Life-Cycle CAE System'. In recent years, TOSHIBA has been devoting to extend the system for integrated intelligent CAE system with state-of-the-art computer technologies such as computer graphics and artificial intelligence. This paper shows the outline of CAE system for nuclear power plant in TOSHIBA. (author)

  3. Applications of power from Temelin nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The proceedings contain 10 papers of which 9 fall under the INIS scope. They all concern the intentions and possibilities of using heat from nuclear power plants, especially from the Temelin power plant. Waste heat will be used for district heating of adjacent conurbations and for agricultural purposes. Various projects are presented using heat from nuclear power plants, such as greenhouse heating, soil heating, cultivation of algae and fish in warmed-up water. The existing experience is described with the use of heat from the Bohunice nuclear power plant. (M.D.). 15 figs., 6 tabs., 17 refs

  4. The role of small and medium-sized reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The second half of the twentieth century has seen nuclear power evolve from the research and development environment to an industry that supplies 17% of the world's electricity. The past decade, however, has seen stagnation in nuclear power plant construction in the Western industrialized world, slow nuclear power growth in Eastern Europe and expansion only in East Asia. But the turn of the century is potentially a turning-point for nuclear power because of: increasing world energy consumption, with nuclear power's contribution to reducing greenhouse gas emissions, nuclear fuel resources sustainability, and improvements in operation of current nuclear power plants; advanced reactor designs that will improve economics and availability, and further enhance safety; and continued strengthening of the nuclear power safeguards system. This paper looks at the role that small and medium-sized reactors can play in an increasingly competitive global energy market, particularly with regard to maintaining a sustainable mix of energy sources. (author)

  5. Test of job performance aids for power plants. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of EPRI Research Project 1396-1 was to evaluate the applicability and effectiveness of Job Performance Aids (JPAs) in nuclear power plant situations. For over twenty years, JPAs have been developed in military situations to meet the problems of confusing, incomplete, and inaccurate procedures on maintenance jobs. Kinton, Incorporated of Alexandria, Virginia applied the military experience with JPAs to nuclear power plant situations and identified potential benefits in terms of cost reductions and improved performance. Sample JPAs were developed for Control Room Operations, Maintenance, Plant Operations, Instrumentation and Control, Health Physics, and Quality Assurance tasks (procedures) in selected nuclear plants. JPAs were also developed for a prototype condenser tube leak detection system in the design stage, as well as for generic classes of circuit breaker equipment. Based on the results of the study, the use of JPAs is recommended for plant procedures of medium to high difficulty and for those tasks performed infrequently, even if fairly simple

  6. A CANDU-type small/medium power reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The assembly known as a CANDU power reactor consists of a number of standardized fuel channels or 'power modules'. Each of these channels produces about 5 thermal megawatts on average. Within practical limitations on fuel enrichment and ultimately on economics, the number of these channels is variable between about 50 and approximately 700. Small reactors suffer from inevitable disadvantages in terms of specific cost of design/construction as well as operating cost. Their natural 'niche' for application is in remote off-grid locations. At the same time this niche application imposes new and strict requirements for staff complement, power system reliability, and so on. The distinct advantage of small reactors arises if the market requires installation of several units in a coordinated installation program - a feature well suited to power requirements in Canada's far North. This paper examines several of the performance requirements and constraints for installation of these plants and presents means for designers to overcome the consequent negative feasibility factors.

  7. Methodology for Scaling Fusion Power Plant Availability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Normally in the U.S. fusion power plant conceptual design studies, the development of the plant availability and the plant capital and operating costs makes the implicit assumption that the plant is a 10th of a kind fusion power plant. This is in keeping with the DOE guidelines published in the 1970s, the PNL report1, 'Fusion Reactor Design Studies - Standard Accounts for Cost Estimates. This assumption specifically defines the level of the industry and technology maturity and eliminates the need to define the necessary research and development efforts and costs to construct a one of a kind or the first of a kind power plant. It also assumes all the 'teething' problems have been solved and the plant can operate in the manner intended. The plant availability analysis assumes all maintenance actions have been refined and optimized by the operation of the prior nine or so plants. The actions are defined to be as quick and efficient as possible. This study will present a methodology to enable estimation of the availability of the one of a kind (one OAK) plant or first of a kind (1st OAK) plant. To clarify, one of the OAK facilities might be the pilot plant or the demo plant that is prototypical of the next generation power plant, but it is not a full-scale fusion power plant with all fully validated 'mature' subsystems. The first OAK facility is truly the first commercial plant of a common design that represents the next generation plant design. However, its subsystems, maintenance equipment and procedures will continue to be refined to achieve the goals for the 10th OAK power plant.

  8. Nuclear power plant cable materials :

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Celina, Mathias Christopher; Gillen, Kenneth T; Lindgren, Eric Richard

    2013-05-01

    A selective literature review was conducted to assess whether currently available accelerated aging and original qualification data could be used to establish operational margins for the continued use of cable insulation and jacketing materials in nuclear power plant environments. The materials are subject to chemical and physical degradation under extended radiationthermal- oxidative conditions. Of particular interest were the circumstances under which existing aging data could be used to predict whether aged materials should pass loss of coolant accident (LOCA) performance requirements. Original LOCA qualification testing usually involved accelerated aging simulations of the 40-year expected ambient aging conditions followed by a LOCA simulation. The accelerated aging simulations were conducted under rapid accelerated aging conditions that did not account for many of the known limitations in accelerated polymer aging and therefore did not correctly simulate actual aging conditions. These highly accelerated aging conditions resulted in insulation materials with mostly inert aging processes as well as jacket materials where oxidative damage dropped quickly away from the air-exposed outside jacket surface. Therefore, for most LOCA performance predictions, testing appears to have relied upon heterogeneous aging behavior with oxidation often limited to the exterior of the cable cross-section a situation which is not comparable with the nearly homogenous oxidative aging that will occur over decades under low dose rate and low temperature plant conditions. The historical aging conditions are therefore insufficient to determine with reasonable confidence the remaining operational margins for these materials. This does not necessarily imply that the existing 40-year-old materials would fail if LOCA conditions occurred, but rather that unambiguous statements about the current aging state and anticipated LOCA performance cannot be provided based on

  9. Economy of small-scale power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The basic requirement for profitable generation of power and heat is sufficient and even heat load. The investment required by a plant based on cogeneration is always higher than that of a plant producing only heat, and hence the full time operation of the plant should be ensured since the beginning of the plant operational age. The second requirement for profitable operation of a small-scale power plant is the homogenous heat and power consumption profiles. Because the plants always cause remarkable capital costs and other fixed costs it is important to make an economic survey of the costs before the decision making in the preliminary planning phase. The presentation gives a review of the factors effecting on the economy of small-scale power plant, the distribution of the costs, and the methods used for investigation of the economy are reviewed

  10. Electron density power spectrum in the local interstellar medium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, J. W.; Rickett, B. J.; Spangler, S. R.

    1995-01-01

    Interstellar scintillation (ISS), fluctuations in the amplitude and phase of radio waves caused by scattering in the interstellar medium, is important as a diagnostic of interstellar plasma turbulence. ISS is also of interest because it is noise for other radio astronomical observations. The unifying concern is the power spectrum of the interstellar electron density. Here we use ISS observations through the nearby (less than or approximately =1 kpc) (ISM) to estimate the spectrum. From measurements of angular broadening of pulsars and extragalactic sources, decorrelation bandwidth of pulsars, refractive steering of features in pulsar dynamic spectra, dispersion measured fluctuations of pulsars, and refractive scintillation index measurements, we construct a composite structure function that is approximately power law over 2 x 10(exp 6) m less than scale less than 10(exp 13) m. The data are consistent with the structure function having a logarithmic slope versus baseline less than 2; thus there is a meaningful connection between scales in the radiowave fluctuation field and the scales in the electron density field causing the scattering. The data give an upper limit to the inner scale, l(sub o) less than or approximately 10(exp 8) m and are consistent with much smaller values. We construct a composite electron density spectrum that is approximately power law over at least the approximately = 5 decade wavenumber range 10(exp -13)/m less than wavenumber less than 10(exp -8)/m and that may extend to higher wavenumbers. The average spectral index of electron density over this wavenumber range is approximately = 3.7, very close to the value expected for a Kolmogorov process. The outer scale size, L(sub o), must be greater than or approximately = 10(exp 13) m (determined from dispersion measure fluctuations). When the ISS data are combined with measurements of differential Faraday rotation angle, and gradients in the average electron density, constraints can be put on the

  11. Fusion power plant for water desalination and reuse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borisov, A.A.; Desjatov, A.V.; Izvolsky, I.M.; Serikov, A.G.; Smirnov, V.P.; Smirnov, Yu.N.; Shatalov, G.E.; Sheludjakov, S.V.; Vasiliev, N.N. E-mail: vasiliev@nfi.kiae.ru; Velikhov, E.P

    2001-11-01

    Development of industry and agriculture demands a huge fresh water consumption. Exhaust of water sources together with pollution arises a difficult problem of population, industry, and agriculture water supply. Request for additional water supply in next 50 years is expected from industrial and agricultural sectors of many countries in the world. The presented study of fusion power plant for water desalination and reuse is aimed to widen a range of possible fusion industrial applications. Fusion offers a safe, long-term source of energy with abundant resources and major environmental advantages. Thus fusion can provide an attractive energy option to society in the next century. Fusion power tokamak reactor based on RF DEMO-S project [Proc. ISFNT-5 (2000) in press; Conceptual study of RF DEMO-S fusion reactor (2000)] was chosen as an energy source. A steady state operation mode is considered with thermal power of 4.0 GW. The reactor has to operate in steady-state plasma mode with high fraction of bootstrap current. Average plant availability of {approx}0.7 is required. A conventional type of water cooled blanket is the first choice, helium or lithium coolants are under consideration. Desalination plant includes two units: reverse osmosis and distillation. Heat to electricity conversion schemes is optimized fresh water production and satisfy internal plant electricity demand The plant freshwater capacity is {approx}6000000 m{sup 3} per day. Fusion power plant of this capacity can provide a region of a million populations with fresh water, heat and electricity.

  12. Nuclear Power Plant Lifetime Management Study (I)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong, Sung Yull; Jeong, Ill Seok; Jang, Chang Heui; Song, Taek Ho; Song, Woo Young [Korea Electric Power Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of); Jin, Tae Eun [Korea Power Engineering Company Consulting and Architecture Engineers, (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Woo Chul [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1996-12-31

    As the operation-year of nuclear power plant increases and finding sites for new nuclear power plant becomes harder, a comprehensive and systematic nuclear plant lifetime management(PLIM) program including life extension has to be established for stable and safe supply of electricity. A feasibility study was conducted to systematically evaluate technical, economic and regulatory aspect of plant lifetime managements and plant life extension for Kori-1 nuclear power plant. For technical evaluation of nuclear power plant, 13 major components were selected for lifetime evaluation by screening system. structure, and components(SSCs) of the plant. It was found that except reactor pressure vessel, which needs detailed integrity analysis, and low pressure turbine, which is scheduled to be replaced, 11 out of 13 major components have sufficient service life, for more than 40 years. Because domestic rules and regulations related to license renewal has not yet been written, review on the regulatory aspect of life extensions was conducted using US NRC rules and regulations. A cooperative effort with nuclear regulatory body is needed for early completion of license renewal rules and regulations. For economic evaluation of plant lifetime extension, a computer program was developed and used. It was found that 10 to 20 year of extension operation of Kori-1 nuclear power plant was proved. Based on the results, next phase of plant lifetime management program for detailed lifetime evaluation and presenting detailed implementation schedule for plant refurbishment for lifetime extension should be followed. (author). 74 refs., figs.

  13. Maintenance of nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maintenance action of nuclear power plant (NPP) was described. Maintenance of NPP aimed at assurance of required function of NPP's equipment so as to prevent release of radioactive materials into the environment as well as attainment of stable operation of NPP. Philosophy of NPP safety was based on defense-in-depth or multiple barriers requiring specified function for the equipment. Preventive maintenance was essential to NPP's equipment and the scope of maintenance was decided on priority with adequate method and frequency of inspection. Most inspection was conducted during periodic inspection at outage. Repair or improvement works were performed if needed. Periodic inspection period was very long and then capacity factor of NPP was low in Japan compared with foreign data although frequency of unscheduled shutdown was very low. Introduction of reability- centered maintenance was requested based on past experiences of overhaul inspection. Technical evaluation of aged NPP had been conducted on aging phenomena and promotion of advanced maintenance was more needed. (T. Tanaka)

  14. Citizens contra nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Is Wyhl the beginning of a new citizens' movement against official policies concerning atomic energy or is it the end of citizens' initiatives of latter years. Did democracy pass its test in Wyhl, or was the state's authority undermined. The danger of atomic energy was not the only concern of the citizens of the Rhine valley who demonstrated against the planned nuclear power plant, but also the quality of industrial and energy planning in which the democratic foundations have to be safeguarded. In the meantime, the doubts increase that this source of energy is of a not dangerous nature, and the myth of supposedly cheap atomic energy has been scattered. The dangers in connection with waste transport and storage were made public beyond the boundaries of the places in question, in particular as a result of the demonstrations. The publication documents the course of the demonstration and the site occupation from the beginning of Febuary 1975 onwards. The occupation still continued when the booklet was published despite the decision of the Administrative Court in Freiburg at the end of March (prohibition of commencement of building until the verdict on the principal suit against the overall project has been reached, the final decision to be made by the Higher Administrative Court in Mannheim). The author aims at describing the new quality of citizens' commitments in this booklet. (orig./LN)

  15. Ammonia in power plant emission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammerich, Mads; Henningsen, J. O.; Olafsson, Ari

    1990-08-01

    Ammonia monitoring is needed in most schemes for denitrification of power plant emission. In the PALAMON system we use a 500 MHz tunable, single mode, single line, CO2 laser as light source for a low pressure, high temperature, photoacoustic cell. With this cell we can resolve the sR(5,O) line of the ammonia spectrum, and suppress the interfering C02(9R30) absorption line down to a lppm NH3 detection limit. The validity of the measured ammonia concentrations is strongly dependent on details of the sampling system and on the reliability of the calibration routines. In particular calibration with certified mixtures of NH3:N2 has proved insufficient due to the multiple and long time constants caused by adsorption of ammonia to different materials in the system. Presence of water vapor in the gas greatly reduces these time constants. Therefore a number of methods for simple production of moist calibration gases from macroscopic amounts of NH3 are applied. The calibrations are translated to response from an easily managable absorber in order to allow automated recalibration of the photoacoustic response. Data from a field test of the system, and calibration data will be presented.

  16. The challenge of introducing HTR plants on to the international power plant market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The international power plant market today is characterized by high increase in energy consumption for developing countries with limitations of investment capital and low increase in energy consumption for industrialized countries with limitations of additional power plant capacities. As a consequence there is a low demand for large new power stations. This leads to a tendency for small and medium sized power plant units - meeting high environmental standards - for which the total investment volume is low and full load operation of a plant can be realized earlier due to the small block capacity. - For nuclear power plants the High-Temperature-Reactor (HTR)-line with spherical fuel elements and a core structure of graphite is specially suited for this small and medium sized nuclear reactor (SMSNR) capacity. The excellent safety characteristics, the high availability, the low radiation doses for the operation personnel and the environment of the HTR line has been demonstrated by 20 years of operation of the AVR-15 MWe experimental power plant in Juelich F.R.G. and since 1985 by operation of the THTR-300 MWe prototype plant at Hamm-Uentrop F.R.G. Up-dated concepts of the HTR-line are under design for electricity generation (HTR-500), for co-generation of power and heat (HTR-100) and for district heating purposes only (GHR-10). By implementing two HTR projects the Brown Boveri Group is in the position to realize the collected experiences from design, licensing, erection, commissioning and operation for the follow-on projects. This leads to practical and sound technical solutions convenient for existing manufacturing processes, well known materials, standardized components and usual manufacturing tolerances. Specific plant characteristics can be used for advantages in the competition. (author)

  17. A new MV bus transfer scheme for nuclear power plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang Choong-Koo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Fast bus transfer method is the most popular and residual voltage transfer method that is used as a backup in medium voltage buses in general. The use of the advanced technology like open circuit voltage prediction and digital signal processing algorithms can improve the reliability of fast transfer scheme. However, according to the survey results of the recent operation records in nuclear power plants, there were many instances where the fast transfer scheme has failed. To assure bus transfer in any conditions and circumstances, uninterruptible bus transfer scheme utilizing the state of the art medium voltage UPS is discussed and elaborated.

  18. Thermal power plant simulation and control

    CERN Document Server

    Flynn, Damian

    2013-01-01

    Contributors of world-class excellence are brought together in Thermal Power Plant Simulation and Control to illustrate how current areas of research can be applied to power plant operation, leading to enhanced unit performance, asset management andplant competitiveness through intelligent monitoring and control strategies.

  19. Lessons learned from existing biomass power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiltsee, G.

    2000-02-24

    This report includes summary information on 20 biomass power plants, which represent some of the leaders in the industry. In each category an effort is made to identify plants that illustrate particular points. The project experiences described capture some important lessons learned that lead in the direction of an improved biomass power industry.

  20. Nuclear power plants for protecting the atmosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Some figures are presented comparing date on the CO2 emission and oxygen consumption of nuclear, natural gas fired, advanced coal fired and oil fired power plants, for the same amounts of electricity generated. The data were deduced from the Paks Nuclear Power Plant, Hungary. (R.P.)

  1. Supercritical Water Reactor Cycle for Medium Power Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    BD Middleton; J Buongiorno

    2007-04-25

    Scoping studies for a power conversion system based on a direct-cycle supercritical water reactor have been conducted. The electric power range of interest is 5-30 MWe with a design point of 20 MWe. The overall design objective is to develop a system that has minimized physical size and performs satisfactorily over a broad range of operating conditions. The design constraints are as follows: Net cycle thermal efficiency {ge}20%; Steam turbine outlet quality {ge}90%; and Pumping power {le}2500 kW (at nominal conditions). Three basic cycle configurations were analyzed. Listed in order of increased plant complexity, they are: (1) Simple supercritical Rankine cycle; (2) All-supercritical Brayton cycle; and (3) Supercritical Rankine cycle with feedwater preheating. The sensitivity of these three configurations to various parameters, such as reactor exit temperature, reactor pressure, condenser pressure, etc., was assessed. The Thermoflex software package was used for this task. The results are as follows: (a) The simple supercritical Rankine cycle offers the greatest hardware simplification, but its high reactor temperature rise and reactor outlet temperature may pose serious problems from the viewpoint of thermal stresses, stability and materials in the core. (b) The all-supercritical Brayton cycle is not a contender, due to its poor thermal efficiency. (c) The supercritical Rankine cycle with feedwater preheating affords acceptable thermal efficiency with lower reactor temperature rise and outlet temperature. (d) The use of a moisture separator improves the performance of the supercritical Rankine cycle with feedwater preheating and allows for a further reduction of the reactor outlet temperature, thus it was selected for the next step. Preliminary engineering design of the supercritical Rankine cycle with feedwater preheating and moisture separation was performed. All major components including the turbine, feedwater heater, feedwater pump, condenser, condenser pump

  2. Harmonics in a Wind Power Plant: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Preciado, V.; Madrigal, M.; Muljadi, E.; Gevorgian, V.

    2015-04-02

    Wind power generation has been growing at a very fast pace for the past decade, and its influence and impact on the electric power grid is significant. As in a conventional power plant, a wind power plant (WPP) must ensure that the quality of the power being delivered to the grid is excellent. At the same time, the wind turbine should be able to operate immune to small disturbances coming from the grid. Harmonics are one of the more common power quality issues presented by large WPPs because of the high switching frequency of the power converters and the possible nonlinear behavior from electric machines (generator, transformer, reactors) within a power plant. This paper presents a summary of the most important issues related to harmonics in WPPs and discusses practical experiences with actual Type 1 and Type 3 wind turbines in two WPPs.

  3. Human factors in nuclear power plant operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report describes some of the human factors problems in nuclear power plants and the technology that can be employed to reduce those problems. Many of the changes to improve the human factors in existing plants are inexpensive, and the expected gain in human reliability is substantial. The human factors technology is well-established and there are practitioners in most countries that have nuclear power plants

  4. Human factors in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report describes some of the human factors problems in nuclear power plants and the technology that can be employed to reduce those problems. Many of the changes to improve the human factors in existing plants are inexpensive, and the expected gain in human reliability is substantial. The human factors technology is well-established and there are practitioners in most countries that have nuclear power plants. (orig.)

  5. Program increasing of nuclear power plant safeness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The results achieved within the project of national task 'Program increasing of nuclear power plant safeness' are presented in the document. The project was aimed to extend and deepen activities relating to safety increase of nuclear power units WWER-440 which play significant part in electricity production in the Slovak Republic. The application of advanced foreign calculating programs and calculation of radionuclide spreading in environment and techniques will influence the increase of extent, quality and international acceptance of safety analysis of nuclear power plant blocks WWER-440 and the risk valuation from operating nuclear power plants. Methodic resources for coping in emergency situation in nuclear energetics will be used for support in decision making in real time during radiation emergency on nuclear plant, region and state level. A long-term strategy in dealing with burnt fuel and radioactive substance formatting during nuclear power plant liquidation particularly with waste which is un acceptable in regional dump, has developed into a theoretical and practical preparation of solvable group for operating the converting centre Bohunice and in inactivating the nuclear power plant A-1. The diagnostic activities in nuclear power plants in the Slovak Republic have been elaborated into a project of norm documents in accordance with international norms for diagnostic systems. Presentation of new technologies and materials for repairs and reconstructions of components and nuclear power plant knots qualify increase in their reliability, safety and life. New objective methods and criterions for valuation and monitoring of the residual life and safety of fixed nuclear power plants. Results of problem solving linked with connecting the blocks of nuclear power plants to frequency regulation in electric network in the Slovak Republic are also presented in the document

  6. Fiction as a Medium of Social Communication in 19th Century France

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabina Pstrocki-Sehovic

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false EN-GB X-NONE AR-SA This article will present the extent to which literature could be viewed as means of social communication – i.e. informing and influencing society – in 19thcentury France, by analysing the appearance of three authors at different points:  the beginning, the middle and the end of the century. The first is the case of Balzac at the beginning of the 19th Century who becomes the most successful novelist of the century in France and who, in his prolific expression and rich vocabulary, portrays society from various angles in a huge opus of almost 100 works, 93 of them making his Comédie humaine. The second is the case of Gustave Flaubert whose famous novel Madame Bovary, which depicts a female character in a realist but also in a psychologically conscious manner, around the mid-19th century reaches French courts together with Les Fleurs du Mal by Charles Baudelaire and is exposed as being socially judged for its alleged immorality. The last is the political affair of Dreyfus and its defender Emile Zola, the father of naturalism. This case confirms the establishment of more intense relations between writer and politics and builds a solid way for a more conscious and everyday political engagement in the literary world from the end of the 19th century onwards. These three are the most important cases which illustrate how fiction functioned in relation to society, state and readership in 19th century France. /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin-top:0cm; mso-para-margin-right:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:10.0pt; mso-para-margin-left:0cm; line-height:115%; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso

  7. South Africa and the 21st Century Power Partnership (Fact Sheet). 21st Century Power Partnership; 21st Century Power Partnership

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2015-04-16

    Established in 2012, the 21CPP South Africa Programme is a global initiative that connects South African stakeholders with an international community of expertise. The overall goal of this program is to support South Africa’s power system transformation by accelerating the transition to a reliable, financially robust, and low-carbon power system. 21CPP activities focus on achieving positive outcomes for all participants, especially addressing critical questions and challenges facing system planners, regulators, and operators. In support of this goal, 21CPP taps into deep networks of expertise among leading industry practitioners.

  8. Plant life management and maintenance technologies for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuclear power generation occupying an important position for energy source in Japan and supplying about one third of total electric power usage is now required for further upgrading of its economics under regulation relaxation of electric power business. And, under execution retardation of its new planning plant, it becomes important to operate the already established plants for longer term and to secure their stability. Therefore, technical development in response to the plant life elongation is promoted under cooperation of the Ministry of Economics and Industries, electric power companies, literate, and plant manufacturers. Under such conditions, the Hitachi, Ltd. has progressed some technical developments on check inspection, repairs and maintenance for succession of the already established nuclear power plants for longer term under securing of their safety and reliability. And in future, by proposing the check inspection and maintenance program combined with these technologies, it is planned to exert promotion of maintenance program with minimum total cost from a viewpoint of its plant life. Here were described on technologies exerted in the Hitachi, Ltd. such as construction of plant maintenance program in response to plant life elongation agreeing with actual condition of each plant, yearly change mechanism grasping, life evaluation on instruments and materials necessary for maintenance, adequate check inspection, repairs and exchange, and so forth. (G.K.)

  9. Nuclear power plant after Fukushima incident: Lessons from Japan to Thailand for choosing power plant options

    OpenAIRE

    Tatcha Sudtasan; Komsan Suriya

    2012-01-01

    This study evaluates four power plant options in Thailand to suggest whether the country should adopt nuclear power plants. It includes a scenario that nuclear power plants are forced to be shut because of natural disaster like what happened at Fukushima Daiishi nuclear power plant in Japan. The results found that, in terms of net present value both in duration of 30 and 50 years, nuclear power plants is the best choice under certainty of no severe natural disaster that would interrupt the op...

  10. Economic evaluation of tokamak power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study reports the impact of plasma operating characteristics, engineering options, and technology on the capital cost trends of tokamak power plants. Tokamak power systems are compared to other advanced energy systems and found to be economically competitive. A three-phase strategy for demonstrating commercial feasibility of fusion power, based on a common-site multiple-unit concept, is presented

  11. Photovoltaic power plants: production calculation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cirillo, E.; Lazzarin, R.

    Rational sizing of a photovoltaic plant requires a good evaluation of the obtainable electric energy as a function of the many meteorological and plant parameters. A computing procedure is described in detail together with a fully developed numerical example. The procedure is based on monthly usability. It is reliable and it allows designers to take into account the influence of the main plant parameters within rather wide ranges.

  12. Biomass-fueled power plants in Finland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raiko, M. [IVO Power Engineering Ltd., Vantaa (Finland); Hulkkonen, S. [Imatran Voima Oy, Vantaa (Finland)

    1997-07-01

    Combined heat and power production (CHP) from biomass is a commercially viable alternative when district heat or process steam is needed in small towns or in a process industry. The high nominal investment cost of a small power plant that uses local biomass fuels is compensated by the revenues from the heat. The price of the district heat or the steam generated in the CHP-plant can be valued at the same price level as the heat from a mere steam boiler. Also, the price of heat produced by a small-generation-capacity plant is local and higher, whereas electricity has a more general market price. A typical small Finnish CHP-plant consists of a bubbling fluidized bed boiler and a simplified steam turbine cycle generating 4 to 10 MW of electricity and 10 to 30 MW of district heat or process steam. There are about 10 power plants of this type in commercial operation in Finland. As a whole, biomass, which is used in more than 200 plants, provides about 20% of the primary energy consumption in Finland. Roughly half of these produce only heat but the rest are combined heat and power plants. The majority of the plants is in pulp and paper industry applications. Imatran Voima Oy (IVO) is the biggest energy producer in Finland. IVO builds, owns and operates several biomass-fired power plants and carries out active R and D work to further develop the biomass-fueled small power plant. This paper discusses the experiences of the biomass-fueled power plants. (author)

  13. 78 FR 69367 - Golden Valley Electric Association: Healy Power Plant Unit #2 Restart

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-19

    ... Rural Utilities Service Golden Valley Electric Association: Healy Power Plant Unit 2 Restart AGENCY... facilitate a proposal from Golden Valley Electric Association, Inc. (GVEA) for the restart and commercial operation of Healy Unit 2, a power generation facility at the Healy Power Plant (Healy Plant) in...

  14. Plant biology research and training for the 21st century

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelly, K. [ed.

    1992-12-31

    The committee was assembled in response to a request from the National Science Foundation (NSF), the US Department of Agriculture (USDA), and the US Department of Energy (DoE). The leadership of these agencies asked the National Academy of Sciences through the National Research Council (NRC) to assess the status of plant-science research in the United States in light of the opportunities arising from advances inother areas of biology. NRC was asked to suggest ways of accelerating the application of these new biologic concepts and tools to research in plant science with the aim of enhancing the acquisition of new knowledge about plants. The charge to the committee was to examine the following: Organizations, departments, and institutions conducting plant biology research; human resources involved in plant biology research; graduate training programs in plant biology; federal, state, and private sources of support for plant-biology research; the role of industry in conducting and supporting plant-biology research; the international status of US plant-biology research; and the relationship of plant biology to leading-edge research in biology.

  15. Plant biology research and training for the 21st century

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelly, K. (ed.)

    1992-01-01

    The committee was assembled in response to a request from the National Science Foundation (NSF), the US Department of Agriculture (USDA), and the US Department of Energy (DoE). The leadership of these agencies asked the National Academy of Sciences through the National Research Council (NRC) to assess the status of plant-science research in the United States in light of the opportunities arising from advances inother areas of biology. NRC was asked to suggest ways of accelerating the application of these new biologic concepts and tools to research in plant science with the aim of enhancing the acquisition of new knowledge about plants. The charge to the committee was to examine the following: Organizations, departments, and institutions conducting plant biology research; human resources involved in plant biology research; graduate training programs in plant biology; federal, state, and private sources of support for plant-biology research; the role of industry in conducting and supporting plant-biology research; the international status of US plant-biology research; and the relationship of plant biology to leading-edge research in biology.

  16. Integration of renewable energies into the German power system and their influence on investments in new power plants. Integrated consideration of effects on power plant investment and operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    the integration of renewable energies. It can be further concluded that the share of flexible power plants is higher with the phase-out of nuclear power plants. With regard to the decommissioning dynamics, the phase-out can be considered as beneficial for the economic viability of fossil power plants. Furthermore, the phase-out does not, overall, lead to environmental disadvantages in the medium term, but may be beneficial in the long run since lock-in effects are avoided. Further research is required with regard to the consideration of future flexibility options and a new market design.

  17. Power plant technology 2014. Strategies, systems engineering and operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The book on power plant technology 2014 (strategies, systems engineering and operation) covers the following issues: Climate, politics and economy; wind power; fossil-fuel power plants, flexible power plants - plant operation, flexible power plants- materials, materials for energy technology, fuel feed and incineration, modeling of the water-vapor-circuit, corrosion, deposits and cleaning, vapor turbines, GUD power plants, fluidized bed combustion, energetic biomass use, combined heat and power generation and decentralized units, storage facilities, emissions - mitigation and measuring techniques.

  18. Public-Private Leadership Forum; 21st Century Power Partnership

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2015-05-14

    The PPLF convenes stakeholders from across the power sector, spanning electricity supply, delivery, and end-use, and plays a key role in guiding the strategic direction of the Power Partnership. In addition, PPLF members support the implementation of activities set out in the Power Partnership Program of Work. Taken together, the activities of the PPLF span the dynamic landscape of power challenges and opportunities, with a focus on business models, ?nancial tools, and regulatory frameworks.

  19. Sustainability in Large Power Plants

    OpenAIRE

    Faria, Roberto Censi; Kniess, Cláudia Terezinha; Maccari, Emerson Antonio

    2012-01-01

    No business activity today can be implemented without take into account the aspects of sustainability. The concept of sustainable development that was born of the years 1970 and 1980 and was enshrined in the concept of the three pillars of John Elkington - economic, social and environmental issues, the "triple bottom line" is a constraint for all types of enterprises, especially for large hydropower plants. Large hydropower plants have been for a while the great enemy of development, because ...

  20. Power plant construction. Plan, build, repair

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Modern thermal power plants can now convert up to 90 % of the energy input into electricity. This increase in efficiency has been made possible through technological progress, but also through improvements in power plant construction. Despite a distinct rise in the proportion of renewable energies in electricity supplies, traditional power stations are still responsible for guaranteeing a large share of our energy supplies. Air pollution control, noise control, protection of natural waters and soils plus careful use of resources are the key themes in the design, construction and maintenance of power plants. Publishing house Ernst and Sohn provides competent, up-to-date information for civil and structural engineers entrusted with such challenging engineering tasks. The special issue ''Power Plant Construction'' brings together the appropriate articles from the journals ''Bautechnik'', ''Stahlbau'', ''Beton- und Stahlbetonbau'' and ''Geomechanics and Tunnelling''. The themes in this compendium cover a wide range of topics, including analysis and design of power plant installations, power station refurbishment and maintenance, special structures such as cooling towers, chimneys and boiler house frames plus the engineering aspects of coal-fired, nuclear and hydroelectric power stations. Reports on current products and projects complement the technical papers. (orig.)

  1. EPA Facility Registry Service (FRS): Power Plants

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This GIS dataset contains data on power plants, based on the Energy Information Administration's EIA-860 dataset and supplemented with data from EPA's Facility...

  2. Industrial accidents in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 12 nuclear power plants in the Federal Republic of Germany with a total of 3678 employees, 25 notifiable company personnel accidents and 46 notifiable outside personnel accidents were reported for an 18-month period. (orig./HP)

  3. Environmental hazards from nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The article discusses the radiation exposure due to nuclear power stations in normal operation and after reactor incidents. Also mentioned is the radiation exposure to the emissions from fuel reprocessing plants and radioactive waste facilities. (RW/AK)

  4. Report concerning Zarnowiec nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Report of the Team of the President of the National Atomic Energy Agency regarding Zarnowiec nuclear power plant contains the analysis of situation in Poland in June 1990, the assessment of public opinion, as well as the description of ecological, technical and economical problems. The team's conclusions are given together with the general conclusion to stop the construction of Zarnowiec nuclear power plant. 5 appendixes, 6 enclosures, 1 documents list, 1 tab. (A.S.)

  5. Training of nuclear power plant operating personnel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Proceedings are presented containing 13 papers on the training of nuclear power plant personnel, especially personnel of WWER type plants. The questions are discussed such as care of personnel, the position of operators and maintenance workers, factors affecting their reliable work, the human factor in reliability and safety of big power facilities, the assurance of a standard system of operators' training with associated social and sociological aspects, the development of psychodiagnostic methodologies for testing and selecting workers for individual jobs. (B.S.)

  6. Quality assurance organization for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This Safety Guide provides requirements, recommendations and illustrative examples for structuring, staffing and documenting the organizations that perform activities affecting quality of a nuclear power plant. It also provides guidance on control of organization interfaces, and establishment of lines for direction, communication and co-ordination. The provisions of this Guide are applicable to all organizations participating in any of the constituent areas of activities affecting quality of a nuclear power plant, such as design, manufacture, construction, commissioning and operation

  7. Intelligent distributed control for nuclear power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klevans, E.H.; Edwards, R.M.; Ray, A.; Lee, K.Y.; Garcia, H.E.: Chavez, C.M.; Turso, J.A.; BenAbdennour, A.

    1991-01-01

    In September of 1989 work began on the DOE University Program grant DE-FG07-89ER12889. The grant provides support for a three year project to develop and demonstrate Intelligent Distributed Control (IDC) for Nuclear Power Plants. The body of this Second Annual Technical Progress report covers the period from September 1990 to September 1991. It summarizes the second year accomplishments while the appendices provide detailed information presented at conference meetings. These are two primary goals of this research. The first is to combine diagnostics and control to achieve a highly automated power plant as described by M.A. Schultz, a project consultant during the first year of the project. This philosophy, as presented in the first annual technical progress report, is to improve public perception of the safety of nuclear power plants by incorporating a high degree automation where greatly simplified operator control console minimizes the possibility of human error in power plant operations. A hierarchically distributed control system with automated responses to plant upset conditions is the focus of our research to achieve this goal. The second goal is to apply this research to develop a prototype demonstration on an actual power plant system, the EBR-II steam plant.

  8. Hybrid Cooling for Geothermal Power Plants: Final ARRA Project Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bharathan, D.

    2013-06-01

    Many binary-cycle geothermal plants use air as the heat rejection medium. Usually this is accomplished by using an air-cooled condenser (ACC) system to condense the vapor of the working fluid in the cycle. Many air-cooled plants suffer a loss of production capacity of up to 50% during times of high ambient temperatures. Use of limited amounts of water to supplement the performance of ACCs is investigated. Deluge cooling is found to be one of the least-cost options. Limiting the use of water in such an application to less than one thousand operating hours per year can boost plant output during critical high-demand periods while minimizing water use in binary-cycle geothermal power plants.

  9. Simulation model of a PWR power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A simulation model of a hypothetical PWR power plant is described. A large number of disturbances and failures in plant function can be simulated. The model is written as seven modules to the modular simulation system for continuous processes DYSIM and serves also as a user example of this system. The model runs in Fortran 77 on the IBM-PC-AT. (author)

  10. Parabolic Trough Organic Rankine Cycle Power Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Canada, S.; Cohen, G.; Cable, R.; Brosseau, D.; Price, H.

    2005-01-01

    Arizona Public Service (APS) is required to generate a portion of its electricity from solar resources in order to satisfy its obligation under the Arizona Environmental Portfolio Standard (EPS). In recent years, APS has installed and operates over 4.5 MWe of fixed, tracking, and concentrating photovoltaic systems to help meet the solar portion of this obligation and to develop an understanding of which solar technologies provide the best cost and performance to meet utility needs. During FY04, APS began construction of a 1-MWe parabolic trough concentrating solar power plant. This plant represents the first parabolic trough plant to begin construction since 1991. The plant will also be the first commercial deployment of the Solargenix parabolic trough collector technology developed under contract to the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL). The plant will use an organic Rankine cycle (ORC) power plant, provided by Ormat. The ORC power plant is much simpler than a conventional steam Rankine cycle power plant and allows unattended operation of the facility.

  11. OUT Success Stories: Solar Trough Power Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, J.

    2000-08-01

    The Solar Electric Generating System (SEGS) plants use parabolic-trough solar collectors to capture the sun's energy and convert it to heat. The SEGS plants range in capacity from 13.8 to 80 MW, and they were constructed to meet Southern California Edison Company's periods of peak power demand.

  12. Operations quality assurance for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This standard covers the quality assurance of all activities concerned with the operation and maintenance of plant equipment and systems in CANDU-based nuclear power plants during the operations phase, the period between the completion of commissioning and the start of decommissioning

  13. Operation of Finnish nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quarterly reports on the operation of Finnish nuclear power plants describe events and observations, relating to nuclear and radiation safety, which the Finnish Centre for Radiation and Nuclear Safety considers significant. Also other events of general interest are reported. The reports also include a summary of the radiation safety of plant personnel and the environment, as well as tabulated data on the plants' production and load factors

  14. Commissioning of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The basic objective of commissioning programs is to demonstrate that systems will operate as designed. This involves testing under conditions which simulate normal, upset and accident conditions. Experience with commissioning of plants supports the current commissioning practices and suggests improvements that should be made

  15. Maintenance of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This Guide covers the organizational and procedural aspects of maintenance but does not give detailed technical advice on the maintenance of particular plant items. It gives guidance on preventive and remedial measures necessary to ensure that all structures, systems and components important to safety are capable of performing as intended. The Guide covers the organizational and administrative requirements for establishing and implementing preventive maintenance schedules, repairing defective plant items, providing maintenance facilities and equipment, procuring stores and spare parts, selecting and training maintenance personnel, reviewing and controlling plant modifications arising from maintenance, and for generating, collecting and retaining maintenance records. Maintenance shall be subject to quality assurance in all aspects important to safety. Because quality assurance has been dealt with in detail in other Safety Guides, it is only included here in specific instances where emphasis is required. Maintenance is considered to include functional and performance testing of plant, surveillance and in-service inspection, where these are necessary either to support other maintenance activities or to ensure continuing capability of structures, systems and components important to safety to perform their intended functions

  16. Advanced nuclear power plants in Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Korea Hydro and Nuclear Power Co., Ltd (KHNP) is the largest power company among the six subsidiaries that separated from Korea Electric Power Corporation (KEPCO) in 2001, accounting for approximately 25% of electricity producing facilities, hydro and nuclear combined. KHNP operates 20 nuclear power plants in Kori, Yonggwang, Ulchin and Wolsong site and several hydroelectric power generation facilities, providing approximately 36% of the national power supply. As a major source of electricity generation in Korea, nuclear energy contributes greatly to the stability of national electricity supply and energy security. KHNP's commercial nuclear power plant operation, which started with Kori Unit 1 in 1978, has achieved an average capacity factor more than 90% since 2000 and a high record of 93.4% in 2008. Following the introduction of nuclear power plants in the 1970's, Korea accumulated its nuclear technology in the 1980's, developed OPR 1000(Optimized Power Reactor) and demonstrated advanced level of its nuclear technology capabilities in the 2000's by developing an advanced type reactor, APR 1400(Advanced Power Reactor) which is being constructed at Shin-Kori Unit 3 and 4 for the first time. By 2022, KHNP will construct additional 12 nuclear power plants in order to ensure a stable power supply according to the Government Plan of Long-Term Electricity supply and Demand. 4 units of OPR 1000 reactor model will be commissioned by 2013 and 8 units of APR 1400 are under construction and planned. At the end of 2022, the nuclear capacity will reach 33% share of total generation capacity in Korea and account for 48% of national power generation. (author)

  17. Ocean thermal gradient as a generator of electricity. OTEC power plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enrique, Luna-Gomez Victor; Angel, Alatorre-Mendieta Miguel

    2016-04-01

    The OTEC (Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion) is a power plant that uses the thermal gradient of the sea water between the surface and a depth of about 700 meters. It works by supplying the heat to a steam machine, for evaporation, with sea water from the surface and cold, to condense the steam, with deep sea water. The energy generated by the power plant OTEC can be transferred to the electric power grid, another use is to desalinate seawater. During the twentieth century in some countries experimental power plants to produce electricity or obtaining drinking water they were installed. On the Mexico's coast itself this thermal gradient, as it is located in tropical seas it occurs, so it has possibilities of installing OTEC power plant type. In this paper one type OTEC power plant operation is represented in most of its components.

  18. Estimation of environmental external costs between coal fired power plant and nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    First of all, this study evaluated the impacts on the health and the environment of air pollutants emitted from coal power plant and nuclear power pant, two major electric power generating options in Korea. Then, the environmental external costs of those two options were estimated by transforming the health and environment impact into monetary values. To do this, AIRPACTS and Impacts of Atmospheric Release model developed by IAEA were used. The environmental external cost of Samcheonpo coal power plant was estimated about 25 times as much as that of Younggwang nuclear power plant. This result implies that nuclear power plant is a clean technology compared with coal power plant. This study suggests that the external cost should be reflected in the electric system expansion plan in order to allocate energy resources efficiently and to reduce economic impact stemming from the environmental regulation emerged recently on a global level

  19. FACTS Devices for Large Wind Power Plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adamczyk, Andrzej Grzegorz; Teodorescu, Remus; Rodriguez, Pedro;

    2010-01-01

    Growing number of wind turbines is changing electricity generation profile all over the world. However, high wind energy penetration affects power system safety and stability. For this reason transmission system operators (TSO) impose more stringent connection requirements on the wind power plant...

  20. Questions and Answers About Nuclear Power Plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC.

    This pamphlet is designed to answer many of the questions that have arisen about nuclear power plants and the environment. It is organized into a question and answer format, with the questions taken from those most often asked by the public. Topics include regulation of nuclear power sources, potential dangers to people's health, whether nuclear…

  1. Informatization of Power Plant and Its Implementation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Zhenghai

    2006-01-01

    @@ This paper presents the working procedure of power generating enterprises and explains the framework of an e-power-plant and its information system, puts forward the guideline and the general goal of informatization construction while focusing on the construction goal in the applied system, the implementing strategy, the project management and organization.

  2. Harmonic Resonances in Wind Power Plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fernandez, Francisco Daniel Freijedo; Chaudhary, Sanjay; Teodorescu, Remus;

    2015-01-01

    This work reviews the state-of-the-art in the field of harmonic resonance problems in Wind Power Plants (WPPs). Firstly, a generic WPP is modeled according to the equivalent circuits of its passive and active components. Main focus is put on modeling active components, i.e. the ones based on power...

  3. Development of nuclear power plant technology in Russia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Up to its disintegration the Soviet Union was one of the leading nuclear powers in the world. This also applied to the peaceful uses of nuclear energy. The broad spectrum of developments in nuclear power plant technology is astounding. Three reactor lines were developed and built independently: the VVER pressurized water reactor line up to VVER-1000 (water-water power reactor); the graphite-moderated RBMK boiling water reactor line up to RBMK-1500 (high-power reactor with channels), and the sodium cooled fast breeder reactors up to BN-600. The associated scientific installations and the nuclear machine building industry were mainly concentrated in Russia and remained there as a core capability in nuclear power plant technology also after the end of the Soviet Union. The current lines of small, medium-sized and large reactors under development, designed for construction in Russia proper and for exports, are presented in the article. Alongside technical developments, Russia rearranged the economic capacities of her nuclear industry so as to be able to meet her objectives in building nuclear power plants in the country and abroad. The main parts of the nuclear industry are combined in the 'AtomEnergoProm' holding. (orig.)

  4. Natural Circulation Performance in Nuclear Power Plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present paper deals with a study of natural circulation in PWR systems, The study consists of two parts: in the first one, natural circulation in experimental facilities simulating PWR plants was analyzed. This made it possible to gather a broad data base which was assumed as a reference for the subsequent part of the research. Seven Nuclear Power Plants nodalizations and additional experimental data from ''non-PWR'' facilities have been considered in the second part of the paper. Conclusions are drawn about natural circulation capabilities derived for the seven Nuclear Power Plants nodalizations and from data base pertinent to three ''non-PWR'' facilities. (author)

  5. Cooling water requirements and nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Indian nuclear power programme is poised to scuttle the energy crisis of our time by proposing joint ventures for large power plants. Large fossil/nuclear power plants (NPPs) rely upon water for cooling and are therefore located near coastal areas. The amount of water a power station uses and consumes depends on the cooling technology used. Depending on the cooling technology utilized, per megawatt existing NPPs use and consume more water (by a factor of 1.25) than power stations using other fuel sources. In this context the distinction between 'use' and 'consume' of water is important. All power stations do consume some of the water they use; this is generally lost as evaporation. Cooling systems are basically of two types; Closed cycle and Once-through, of the two systems, the closed cycle uses about 2-3% of the water volumes used by the once-through system. Generally, water used for power plant cooling is chemically altered for purposes of extending the useful life of equipment and to ensure efficient operation. The used chemicals effluent will be added to the cooling water discharge. Thus water quality impacts on power plants vary significantly, from one electricity generating technology to another. In light of massive expansion of nuclear power programme there is a need to develop new ecofriendly cooling water technologies. Seawater cooling towers (SCT) could be a viable option for power plants. SCTs can be utilized with the proper selection of materials, coatings and can achieve long service life. Among the concerns raised about the development of a nuclear power industry, the amount of water consumed by nuclear power plants compared with other power stations is of relevance in light of the warming surface seawater temperatures. A 1000 MW power plant uses per day ∼800 ML/MW in once through cooling system; while SCT use 27 ML/MW. With the advent of new marine materials and concrete compositions SCT can be constructed for efficient operation. However, the

  6. Advanced coal-fired power plant technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klauke, F. [Babcock Borsig Power Energy GmbH (Germany)

    2001-07-01

    This paper presents the joint efforts of a large European group of manufacturers, utilities and institutes co-operating in a phased long-term project named 'Advanced 700{degree}C PF Power Plant'. Net efficiences of more than 50% will be reached through development of a super critical steam cycle operating at maximum steam temperatures in the range of 700{degree}C. The principal efforts are based on development of creep resistent nickel-based materials named super-alloys for the hottest areas of the water/steam cycle. The Advanced 700{degree}C PF Power Plant project will improve the competitiveness of coal-fired power generation. Furthermore, it will provide a major reduction of CO{sub 2} from coal-fired power plants in the range of 15% from the best PF power plants presently and up to 40% from older plants. The demonstration programme will leave the possibility of any plant output between 400 and 1000 MW. The project will run to the end of 2003. 8 figs.

  7. Safety Assessment - Swedish Nuclear Power Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kjellstroem, B. [Luleaa Univ. of Technology (Sweden)

    1996-12-31

    After the reactor accident at Three Mile Island, the Swedish nuclear power plants were equipped with filtered venting of the containment. Several types of accidents can be identified where the filtered venting has no effect on the radioactive release. The probability for such accidents is hopefully very small. It is not possible however to estimate the probability accurately. Experiences gained in the last years, which have been documented in official reports from the Nuclear Power Inspectorate indicate that the probability for core melt accidents in Swedish reactors can be significantly larger than estimated earlier. A probability up to one in a thousand operating years can not be excluded. There are so far no indications that aging of the plants has contributed to an increased accident risk. Maintaining the safety level with aging nuclear power plants can however be expected to be increasingly difficult. It is concluded that the 12 Swedish plants remain a major threat for severe radioactive pollution of the Swedish environment despite measures taken since 1980 to improve their safety. Closing of the nuclear power plants is the only possibility to eliminate this threat. It is recommended that until this is done, quantitative safety goals, same for all Swedish plants, shall be defined and strictly enforced. It is also recommended that utilities distributing misleading information about nuclear power risks shall have their operating license withdrawn. 37 refs.

  8. Safety Assessment - Swedish Nuclear Power Plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After the reactor accident at Three Mile Island, the Swedish nuclear power plants were equipped with filtered venting of the containment. Several types of accidents can be identified where the filtered venting has no effect on the radioactive release. The probability for such accidents is hopefully very small. It is not possible however to estimate the probability accurately. Experiences gained in the last years, which have been documented in official reports from the Nuclear Power Inspectorate indicate that the probability for core melt accidents in Swedish reactors can be significantly larger than estimated earlier. A probability up to one in a thousand operating years can not be excluded. There are so far no indications that aging of the plants has contributed to an increased accident risk. Maintaining the safety level with aging nuclear power plants can however be expected to be increasingly difficult. It is concluded that the 12 Swedish plants remain a major threat for severe radioactive pollution of the Swedish environment despite measures taken since 1980 to improve their safety. Closing of the nuclear power plants is the only possibility to eliminate this threat. It is recommended that until this is done, quantitative safety goals, same for all Swedish plants, shall be defined and strictly enforced. It is also recommended that utilities distributing misleading information about nuclear power risks shall have their operating license withdrawn. 37 refs

  9. Market integration of Virtual Power Plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Mette Kirschmeyer; Hansen, Lars Henrik; Bendtsen, Jan Dimon;

    2013-01-01

    We consider a direct control Virtual Power Plant, which is given the task of maximizing the profit of a portfolio of flexible consumers by trading flexibility in Energy Markets. Spot price optimization has been quite intensively researched in Smart Grid literature lately. In this work, however, we...... develop a three stage market model, which includes Day-Ahead (Spot), Intra-Day and Regulating Power Markets. This allows us to test the hypothesis that the Virtual Power Plant can generate additional profit by trading across several markets. We find that even though profits do increase as more markets are...

  10. Th-100 Nuclear Power Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steenkampskraal Thorium Limited (STL) is a private company which is designing, marketing, licensing and commercializing a 100MWt thorium fueled pebble bed reactor. The concept plant design has been completed and work on the basic design has started. First site to determine the fuel cycle employed. Strong emphasis is placed on modular construction to reduce costs. STL hopes to start the licensing process within the next 6-8 months

  11. Perspectives on Magnetized Target Fusion Power Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, R. L.

    2007-06-01

    One approach to Magnetized Target Fusion (MTF) builds upon the ongoing experimental effort (FRX-L) to generate a Field Reversed Configuration (FRC) target plasma suitable for translation and cylindrical-liner (i.e., converging flux conserver) implosion. Numerical modeling is underway to elucidate key performance drivers for possible future power-plant extrapolations. The fusion gain, Q (ratio of DT fusion yield to the sum of initial liner kinetic energy plus plasma formation energy), sets the power-plant duty cycle for a nominal design electric power [ e.g. 1,000 MWe(net)]. A pulsed MTF power plant of this type derives from the historic Fast Liner Reactor (FLR) concept and shares attributes with the recent Inertial Fusion Energy (IFE) Z-pinch and laser-driven pellet HYLIFE-II conceptual designs.

  12. Integration of torrefaction with steam power plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zakri, B.; Saari, J.; Sermyagina, E.; Vakkilainen, E.

    2013-09-01

    Torrefaction is one of the pretreatment technologies to enhance the fuel characteristics of biomass. The efficient and continuous operation of a torrefaction reactor, in the commercial scale, demands a secure biomass supply, in addition to adequate source of heat. Biorefinery plants or biomass-fuelled steam power plants have the potential to integrate with the torrefaction reactor to exchange heat and mass, using available infrastructure and energy sources. The technical feasibility of this integration is examined in this study. A new model for the torrefaction process is introduced and verified by the available experimental data. The torrefaction model is then integrated in different steam power plants to simulate possible mass and energy exchange between the reactor and the plants. The performance of the integrated plant is investigated for different configurations and the results are compared. (orig.)

  13. Does Brazil need new nuclear power plants?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carvalho, Joaquim F. de [Graduate Program on Energy, University of Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)], E-mail: jfdc35@uol.com.br; Sauer, Ildo L. [Graduate Program on Energy, University of Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Institute of Electrotechnics and Energy, University of Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)], E-mail: illsauer@iee.usp.br

    2009-04-15

    In October 2008, the Brazilian Government announced plans to invest US$212 billion in the construction of nuclear power plants, totaling a joint capacity of 60,000 MW. Apart from this program, officials had already announced the completion of the construction of the nuclear plant Angra III; the construction of large-scale hydroelectric plans in the Amazon and the implantation of natural gas, biomass and coal thermoelectric plants in other regions throughout the country. Each of these projects has its proponents and its opponents, who bring forth concerns and create heated debates in the specialized forums. In this article, some of these concerns are explained, especially under the perspective of the comparative analysis of costs involved. Under such merit figures, the nuclear option, when compared to hydro plants, combined with conventional thermal and biomass-fueled plants, and even wind, to expand Brazilian power-generation capacity, does not appear as a priority.

  14. Does Brazil need new nuclear power plants?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Carvalho, Joaquim F. [Graduate Program on Energy, University of Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Sauer, Ildo L. [Graduate Program on Energy, University of Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)]|[Institute of Electrotechnics and Energy, University of Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2009-04-15

    In October 2008, the Brazilian Government announced plans to invest US$212 billion in the construction of nuclear power plants, totaling a joint capacity of 60,000 MW. Apart from this program, officials had already announced the completion of the construction of the nuclear plant Angra III; the construction of large-scale hydroelectric plans in the Amazon and the implantation of natural gas, biomass and coal thermoelectric plants in other regions throughout the country. Each of these projects has its proponents and its opponents, who bring forth concerns and create heated debates in the specialized forums. In this article, some of these concerns are explained, especially under the perspective of the comparative analysis of costs involved. Under such merit figures, the nuclear option, when compared to hydro plants, combined with conventional thermal and biomass-fueled plants, and even wind, to expand Brazilian power-generation capacity, does not appear as a priority. (author)

  15. Monitoring Biological Activity at Geothermal Power Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peter Pryfogle

    2005-09-01

    The economic impact of microbial growth in geothermal power plants has been estimated to be as high as $500,000 annually for a 100 MWe plant. Many methods are available to monitor biological activity at these facilities; however, very few plants have any on-line monitoring program in place. Metal coupon, selective culturing (MPN), total organic carbon (TOC), adenosine triphosphate (ATP), respirometry, phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA), and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) characterizations have been conducted using water samples collected from geothermal plants located in California and Utah. In addition, the on-line performance of a commercial electrochemical monitor, the BIoGEORGE?, has been evaluated during extended deployments at geothermal facilities. This report provides a review of these techniques, presents data on their application from laboratory and field studies, and discusses their value in characterizing and monitoring biological activities at geothermal power plants.

  16. Decentralised electrical distribution network in power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A centralised network is a dominating network solution in today's power plants. In this study a centralised and a decentralised network were designed in order to compare them economically and technically. The emphasis of this study was on economical aspects, but also the most important technical aspects were included. The decentralised network requires less space and less cabling since there is no switchgear building and distribution transformers are placed close to the consumption in the field of a power plant. MV-motors and distribution transformers build up a ring. Less cabling and an absent switchgear building cause considerable savings. Component costs of both of the networks were estimated by using data from fulfilled power plant projects and turned out to be smaller for the decentralised network. Simulations for the decentralised network were done in order to find a way to carry out earth fault protection and location. It was found out that in high resistance earthed system the fault distance can be estimated by a relatively simple method. The decentralised network uses a field bus, which offers many new features to the automation system of a power plant. Diversified information can be collected from the protection devices in order to schedule only the needed maintenance duties at the right time. Through the field bus it is also possible to control remotely a power plant. The decentralised network is built up from ready-to-install modules. These modules are tested by the module manufacturer decreasing the need for field testing dramatically. The work contribution needed in the electrification and the management of a power plant project reduces also due the modules. During the lifetime of a power plant, maintenance is easier and more economical. (orig.)

  17. Fusion Breeding for Sustainable, Mid Century, Carbon Free Power

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manheimer, Wallace

    2015-11-01

    If ITER achieves Q ~10, it is still very far from useful fusion. The fusion power, and the driver power will allow only a small amount of power to be delivered, NIF to achhieve ignition, at this point it has many more obstacles to overcome than magnetic fusion. One way out of this dilemma is to use an ITER size tokamak, or a NIF size laser, as a fuel breeder for searate nuclear reactors. Hence ITER and NIF become ends in themselves, instead of steps to who knows what DEMO decades later. Such a tokamak can easily live within the consrtaints of conservative design rules. This has led the author to propose ``The Energy Park'' a sustainable, carbon free, economical, and environmently viable power source without prolifertion risk. It is one fusion breeder fuels 5 conventional nuclear reactors, and one fast neutron reactor burns the actinide wastes.

  18. Design of an Energy Monitoring System for a Medium-Scale Plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erdal Irmak

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available In this study, energy monitoring system of a medium scale industrial plant is achieved through a computer interface both in real time and retrospective using recent data. In order to measure the energy, a measurement card is designed to convert the voltage and current signals in suitable levels for a programmable logic controller (PLC. Current and voltage signals received from the measurement card are sensed by the analogue channels of the PLC. A zero-crossing detector is also designed to measure the power factor of the system. Time difference between the signals which are obtained from the zero-crossing detector is measured by using FM 350-01 counter module. All data received are transferred into a database located at the host computer by the PLC using RS485/RS232 communication protocol. Data obtained from the system can be monitored momentarily through an interface that is designed in C# programming language. Furthermore, retrospective energy analysis of the system is made possible by saving the data obtained continuously. Thus, active, reactive and apparent power values can be observed for a specific time interval. By using the retrospective energy analysis system, time periods in which the energy is more consumed can be determined. Thanks to this feature, work load of the plant can be programmed to specific times when the energy is cheaper in order to reduce the energy costs.

  19. 21st century energy solutions. Coal and Power Systems FY2001 program briefing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The continued strength of American's economy depends on the availability of affordable energy, which has long been provided by the Nations rich supplies of fossil fuels. Forecasts indicate that fossil fuels will continue to meet much of the demand for economical electricity and transportation fuels for decades to come. It is projected that natural gas, oil, and coal will supply nearly 90% of US energy in 2020, with coal fueling around 50% of the electricity. It is essential to develop ways to achieve the objectives for a cleaner environment while using these low-cost, high-value fuels. A national commitment to improved technologies-for use in the US and abroad-is the solution. The Coal and Power Systems program is responding to this commitment by offering energy solutions to advance the clean, efficient, and affordable use of the Nations abundant fossil fuel resources. These solutions include: (1) Vision 21-A multi-product, pollution-free energy plant-producing electricity, fuels, and/or industry heat-could extract 80% or more of the energy value of coal and 85% or more of the energy value of natural gas; (2) Central Power Systems-Breakthrough turbines and revolutionary new gasification technologies that burn less coal and gas to obtain energy, while reducing emissions; (3) Distributed Generation-Fuel cell technology providing highly efficient, clean modular power; (4) Fuels-The coproduction of coal-derived transportation fuels and power from gasification-based technology; (5) Carbon Sequestration-Capturing greenhouse gases from the exhaust gases of combustion or other sources, or from the atmosphere itself, and storing them for centuries or recycling them into useful products; and (6) Advanced Research-Going beyond conventional thinking in the areas of computational science, biotechnology, and advanced materials

  20. A solar thermal electric power plant for small communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holl, R. J.

    1979-01-01

    A solar power plant has been designed with a rating of 1000-kW electric and a 0.4 annual capacity factor. It was configured as a prototype for plants in the 1000 to 10,000-kWe size range for application to small communities or industrial users either grid-connected or isolated from a utility grid. A small central receiver was selected for solar energy collection after being compared with alternative distributed collectors. Further trade studies resulted in the selection of Hitec (heat transfer salt composed of 53 percent KNO3, 40 percent NaNO2, 7 percent NaNO3) as both the receiver coolant and the sensible heat thermal stroage medium and the steam Rankine cycle for power conversion. The plant is configured with road-transportable units to accommodate remote sites and minimize site assembly requirements. Results of the analyses indicate that busbar energy costs are competitive with diesel-electric plants in certain situations, e.g., off-grid, remote regions with high insolation. Sensitivity of energy costs to plant power rating and system capacity factor are given.

  1. Direct FuelCell/Turbine Power Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hossein Ghezel-Ayagh

    2008-09-30

    This report summarizes the progress made in development of Direct FuelCell/Turbine (DFC/T{reg_sign}) power plants for generation of clean power at very high efficiencies. The DFC/T system employs an indirectly heated Turbine Generator to supplement fuel cell generated power. The concept extends the high efficiency of the fuel cell by utilizing the fuel cell's byproduct heat in a Brayton cycle. Features of the DFC/T system include: electrical efficiencies of up to 75% on natural gas, minimal emissions, reduced carbon dioxide release to the environment, simplicity in design, direct reforming internal to the fuel cell, and potential cost competitiveness with existing combined cycle power plants. Proof-of-concept tests using a sub-MW-class DFC/T power plant at FuelCell Energy's (FCE) Danbury facility were conducted to validate the feasibility of the concept and to measure its potential for electric power production. A 400 kW-class power plant test facility was designed and retrofitted to conduct the tests. The initial series of tests involved integration of a full-size (250 kW) Direct FuelCell stack with a 30 kW Capstone microturbine. The operational aspects of the hybrid system in relation to the integration of the microturbine with the fuel cell, process flow and thermal balances, and control strategies for power cycling of the system, were investigated. A subsequent series of tests included operation of the sub-MW Direct FuelCell/Turbine power plant with a Capstone C60 microturbine. The C60 microturbine extended the range of operation of the hybrid power plant to higher current densities (higher power) than achieved in initial tests using the 30kW microturbine. The proof-of-concept test results confirmed the stability and controllability of operating a fullsize (250 kW) fuel cell stack in combination with a microturbine. Thermal management of the system was confirmed and power plant operation, using the microturbine as the only source of fresh air supply

  2. The Oil-Fired MHD Power Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It has been shown in an earlier paper what thermal efficiencies can be hoped for from a combined MHD-steam power station for different fuels, seeding, magnetic field strength, etc. However, a large pilot-plant is required to prove the intrinsic reliability of the MHD-power station, and also its probable competitiveness with a conventional power station. In this paper a possible pilot plant, a heavy-fuel-oil-fired MHD-steam power station is described. Residual fuel oil has been steadily increasing in significance in European power station practice over the past few decades. The MHD pilot plant must be as simple as possible in concept, so that the question of its reliability can be answered. The two essential unknowns are the designs of the MHD duct and the large superconducting magnets. Both preheating of the air above about 800°C and oxygen enrichment should be dispensed with for the time being. The combustion chamber should be constructed according to well-proved principles. It is proposed as well-that the seeding problem should be simply handled. In the example discussed, it seems possible that the specific plant costs of the whole power station will be kept to the level prevailing for steam power stations of the same output, while the thermal efficiency, after taking into account all the losses which can at the moment be assessed, is still 15% higher than that of the regular power station. If only the proposed pilot plant is considered, then the enormous development costs for the high temperature preheater and other costly items can be postponed until a later date, when the further development of the open cycle MHD-power station can be fully justified. (author)

  3. Nuclear power plant security assessment technical manual.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Connor, Sharon L.; Whitehead, Donnie Wayne; Potter, Claude S., III

    2007-09-01

    This report (Nuclear Power Plant Security Assessment Technical Manual) is a revision to NUREG/CR-1345 (Nuclear Power Plant Design Concepts for Sabotage Protection) that was published in January 1981. It provides conceptual and specific technical guidance for U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission nuclear power plant design certification and combined operating license applicants as they: (1) develop the layout of a facility (i.e., how buildings are arranged on the site property and how they are arranged internally) to enhance protection against sabotage and facilitate the use of physical security features; (2) design the physical protection system to be used at the facility; and (3) analyze the effectiveness of the PPS against the design basis threat. It should be used as a technical manual in conjunction with the 'Nuclear Power Plant Security Assessment Format and Content Guide'. The opportunity to optimize physical protection in the design of a nuclear power plant is obtained when an applicant utilizes both documents when performing a security assessment. This document provides a set of best practices that incorporates knowledge gained from more than 30 years of physical protection system design and evaluation activities at Sandia National Laboratories and insights derived from U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission technical staff into a manual that describes a development and analysis process of physical protection systems suitable for future nuclear power plants. In addition, selected security system technologies that may be used in a physical protection system are discussed. The scope of this document is limited to the identification of a set of best practices associated with the design and evaluation of physical security at future nuclear power plants in general. As such, it does not provide specific recommendations for the design and evaluation of physical security for any specific reactor design. These best practices should be applicable to the design and

  4. Water processing in power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Surface water can be treated to a high degree of efficiency by means of new compact processes. The quantity of chemicals to be dosed can easily be adjusted to the raw water composition by intentional energy supply via agitators. In-line coagulations is a new filtration process for reducing organic substances as well as colloids present in surface water. The content of organic substances can be monitored by measuring the plugging index. Advanced ion-exchanger processes (fluidised-bed, compound fluidised-bed and continuously operating ion exchanger plants) allow the required quantity of chemicals as well as the plant's own water consumption to be reduced, thus minimising the adverse effect on the environment. The reverse-osmosis process is becoming more and more significant due to the low adverse effect on the environment and the given possibilities of automation. As not only ionogenic substances but also organic matter are removed by reverse osmosis, this process is particularly suited for treating surface water to be used as boiler feed water. The process of vacuum degassing has become significant for the cold removal of oxygen. (orig.)

  5. 76 FR 1469 - Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant, LLC; Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant, Unit Nos. 1 and 2...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-10

    ... COMMISSION Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant, LLC; Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant, Unit Nos. 1 and 2... Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant, LLC, the licensee, for operation of the Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant... for light-water nuclear power reactors,'' which requires that the calculated emergency core...

  6. Nuclear Security for Floating Nuclear Power Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skiba, James M. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Scherer, Carolynn P. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-10-13

    Recently there has been a lot of interest in small modular reactors. A specific type of these small modular reactors (SMR,) are marine based power plants called floating nuclear power plants (FNPP). These FNPPs are typically built by countries with extensive knowledge of nuclear energy, such as Russia, France, China and the US. These FNPPs are built in one country and then sent to countries in need of power and/or seawater desalination. Fifteen countries have expressed interest in acquiring such power stations. Some designs for such power stations are briefly summarized. Several different avenues for cooperation in FNPP technology are proposed, including IAEA nuclear security (i.e. safeguards), multilateral or bilateral agreements, and working with Russian design that incorporates nuclear safeguards for IAEA inspections in non-nuclear weapons states

  7. Power plant perspectives for sugarcane mills

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biomass, integral to life, is one of the main energy sources that modern technologies could widely develop, overcoming inefficient and pollutant uses. The sugarcane bagasse is one of the more abundant biomass. Moreover, the fluctuating sugar and energy prices force the sugarcane companies to implement improved power plants. Thanks to a multiyear collaboration between University of Rome and University of Piura and Chiclayo, this paper investigates, starting from the real data of an old sugarcane plant, the energy efficiency of the plant. Furthermore, it explores possible improvements as higher temperature and pressure Rankine cycles and innovative configurations based on gasifier plus hot gas conditioning and gas turbine or molten carbonate fuel cells. Even if the process of sugar extraction from sugarcane and the relative Rankine cycles power plants are well documented in literature, this paper shows that innovative power plant configurations can increase the bagasse-based cogeneration potential. Sugarcane companies can become electricity producers, having convenience in the use of sugarcane leaves and trash (when it is feasible). The worldwide implementation of advanced power plants, answering to a market competition, will improve significantly the renewable electricity produced, reducing CO2 emissions, and increasing economic and social benefits.

  8. A BWR power plant simulator for Barsebaeck

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A computer simulator of a Barsebaeck power plant unit has been developed in cooperation between Sydkraft AB, Lund Institute of Technology, and Risoe National Laboratory. The simulator is of the kind often referred to as a compact simulator, because it involves only a computer with display screens and other input/output devices plus the software needed for calculation and presentation of the plant state as a function of time, and no sort of model of the control room as in large reactor simulators for operator training. The purpose of training courses with the compact simulator is to give students a better understanding of the behaviour of the power plant under transient conditions by displaying variables, e.g. pressures, temperatures, reactivity, nuclear power, as functions of time, thereby showing the interactions between different parts of the plant during the transient and the influence of a number of possible operator actions. The present paper describes the Barsebaeck compact simulator with the emphasis on the software developed at Risoe National Laboratory. The Risoe work comprises the programming of the dynamic plant model, in the form of a number of Fortran subroutines containing the physical description of the power plant. (author)

  9. The assessment of the environmental external costs of power plants for both coal-fired plant and nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Efforts were made to assess the environmental external costs of power plants for both Samchonpo coal-fired plant and Younggwang nuclear power plant by using the computer program developed by the IAEA. In the case that the emission control devices such as precipitator for particulates reduction, wet scrubber for SO2, and low-NOx burner for NOx were installed in the coal-fired power plant, total environmental external cost was estimated as 33.97Won/kWh, much higher than 0.76Won/kWh of Younggwang nuclear power plant. And this study also assessed and compared the environmental external costs when Younggwang nuclear power plant was replaced by the coal-fired power plant at the same site and with the same capacity. According to the result, total environmental external cost of coal-fired power plant, with the emisison control devices installed, was estimated as 792 million US$ and it was about 50 times higher than 15 million US$ of Younggwang nuclear power plant. Although the result of this study had some limits due to using the simplified model, it was still true that nuclear power was much more environmentally friendly power source than coal-fired power

  10. Technical efficiency of thermoelectric power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barros, Carlos Pestana [Instituto de Economia e Gestao, Technical University of Lisbon, Rua Miguel Lupi, 20, 1249-078 Lisbon (Portugal); Peypoch, Nicolas [GEREM, LAMPS, IAE, Universite de Perpignan Via Domitia, 52 avenue Paul Alduy, F-66860 Perpignan (France)

    2008-11-15

    This paper analyses the technical efficiency of Portuguese thermoelectric power generating plants with a two-stage procedure. In the first stage, the plants' relative technical efficiency is estimated with DEA (data envelopment analysis) to establish which plants perform most efficiently. These plants could serve as peers to help improve performance of the least efficient plants. The paper ranks these plants according to their relative efficiency for the period 1996-2004. In a second stage, the Simar and Wilson [Simar, L., Wilson, P.W., 2007. Estimation and inference in two-stage, semi-parametric models of production processes. Journal of Econometrics 136, 1-34] bootstrapped procedure is adopted to estimate the efficiency drivers. Economic implications arising from the study are considered. (author)

  11. Development of Power System for Medium Energy Accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The main goal of the studies are to develop a power supply system used for 100MeV proton accelerator and to operate 20MeV accelerator which has been installed in KAERI site. The 100MeV proton accelerator uses RF cavity to accelerate beams and need RF amplifier, klystron. To operate the klystron, a high power pulse power supply is required and the power supply system should have high quality because the reliability of the power supply has critical impact on the overall reliability of accelerator system. Therefore, high power pulse power system and related technology development are inevitable for 100MeV accelerator system development. 20MeV accelerator system has been developed and installed in KAERI site, which will be used as an injector for 100MeV accelerator and supply 20MeV beam to users. A study on the 20MeV accelerator characteristics should be performed to operate the machine efficiently. In addition, this machine can be used as a test bench for developing the 100MeV accelerator components. Therefore, not only the hardware so called 'high voltage power supply', but the related technology of the high quality high voltage power system and man power can be obtained from the results of this studies. The test results of the 20MeV accelerator can be utilized as a basis for efficient operation of 100MeV accelerator and these are the ultimate objective and necessities of the study

  12. Efficiency improvement of thermal coal power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hourfar, D. [VEBA Kraftwerke Ruhr Ag, Gelsenkirchen (Germany)

    1996-12-31

    The discussion concerning an increase of the natural greenhouse effect by anthropogenic changes in the composition of the atmosphere has increased over the past years. The greenhouse effect has become an issue of worldwide debate. Carbon dioxide is the most serious emission of the greenhouse gases. Fossil-fired power plants have in the recent past been responsible for almost 30 % of the total CO{sub 2} emissions in Germany. Against this background the paper will describe the present development of CO{sub 2} emissions from power stations and present actual and future opportunities for CO{sub 2} reduction. The significance attached to hard coal as one of today`s prime sources of energy with the largest reserves worldwide, and, consequently, its importance for use in power generation, is certain to increase in the years to come. The further development of conventional power plant technology, therefore, is vital, and must be carried out on the basis of proven operational experience. The main incentive behind the development work completed so far has been, and continues to be, the achievement of cost reductions and environmental benefits in the generation of electricity by increasing plant efficiency, and this means that, in both the short and the long term, power plants with improved conventional technology will be used for environmentally acceptable coal-fired power generation.

  13. Dukovany nuclear power plant safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Presentation covers recommended safety issues for the Dukovany NPP which have been solved with satisfactory conclusions. Safety issues concerned include: radiation safety; nuclear safety; security; emergency preparedness; health protection at work; fire protection; environmental protection; chemical safety; technical safety. Quality assurance programs at all stages on NPP life time is described. Report includes description of NPP staff training provision, training simulator, emergency operating procedures, emergency preparedness, Year 2000 problem, inspections and life time management. Description of Dukovany Plant Safety Analysis Projects including integrity of the equipment, modernisation, equipment innovation and safety upgrading program show that this approach corresponds to the actual practice applied in EU countries, and fulfilment of current IAEA requirements for safety enhancement of the WWER 440/213 units in the course of MORAWA Equipment Upgrading program

  14. Slovak power stations, Nuclear Power Plants Mochovce (Annual report 1997)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A brief account of activities carried out by the Nuclear power plants Mochovce in 1997 is presented. These activities are reported under the headings: (1) Director's foreword; (2) Power plant management; (3) Highlights of 1997; (4) Capital construction; (5) Nuclear safety; (6) Radiation safety; (7) Work safety and health protection at work; (9) Fire protection; (10) Units upgrading - safety measures; (11) Maintenance; (12) Operation; (13) Environmental impacts of operations; (14) List of balances; (15) Human sources; (16) International co-operation; (17) Public relations

  15. Ground acceleration in a nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A methodology that adopts the recommendations of international organizations for determining the ground acceleration at a nuclear power plant is outlined. Systematic presented here emphasizes the type of geological, geophysical and geotechnical studies in different areas of influence, culminating in assessments of Design Basis earthquake and the earthquake Operating Base. The methodology indicates that in regional areas where the site of the nuclear power plant is located, failures are identified in geological structures, and seismic histories of the region are documented. In the area of detail geophysical tools to generate effects to determine subsurface propagation velocities and spectra of the induced seismic waves are used. The mechanical analysis of drill cores allows estimating the efforts that generate and earthquake postulate. Studies show that the magnitude of the Fukushima earthquake, did not affect the integrity of nuclear power plants due to the rocky settlement found. (Author)

  16. POSSPOW: Possible Power of Offshore Wind Power Plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Giebel, Gregor; Göçmen, Tuhfe; Sørensen, Poul Ejnar;

    2013-01-01

    , using the ambient flow as input and wake flow as output. Conclusion The poster presents a new Danish project on the possible power from a down-regulated wind farm. Project partners are DTU, Vestas, Siemens, Vattenfall and DONG. We aim at a verified and internationally accepted way to determine......Introduction In recent years, the very large offshore wind farms were designed as wind power plants, including possibilities to contribute to the stability of the grid by offering grid services (also called ancillary services). One of those services is reserve power, which is achieved by down......-regulating the wind farm from its maximum possible power. The power can be ramped up quite quickly, but the influence of wakes makes it difficult to assess the exact amount of down-regulation available to sell. Currently, Transmission System Operators (TSOs) have no real way to determine exactly the possible power...

  17. Costs of Decommissioning Nuclear Power Plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    While refurbishments for the long-term operation of nuclear power plants and for the lifetime extension of such plants have been widely pursued in recent years, the number of plants to be decommissioned is nonetheless expected to increase in future, particularly in the United States and Europe. It is thus important to understand the costs of decommissioning so as to develop coherent and cost-effective strategies, realistic cost estimates based on decommissioning plans from the outset of operations and mechanisms to ensure that future decommissioning expenses can be adequately covered. This study presents the results of an NEA review of the costs of decommissioning nuclear power plants and of overall funding practices adopted across NEA member countries. The study is based on the results of this NEA questionnaire, on actual decommissioning costs or estimates, and on plans for the establishment and management of decommissioning funds. Case studies are included to provide insight into decommissioning practices in a number of countries. (authors)

  18. Development of concentrated solar power and conventional power plant hybrids

    OpenAIRE

    Suojanen, Suvi

    2016-01-01

    CSP hybrids are one of the possible technical solutions in order to increase the share of renewable energy and decrease greenhouse gas emission levels as well as fuel consump-tion. The main objectives of the thesis are to research state-of-the-art technologies in concentrated solar power (CSP) and conventional power plants, to comprehensively study the possible integration options and to develop one CSP hybrid configuration by using Advanced Process Simulator (Apros), which is a dynamic model...

  19. Power plant conceptual studies in Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The European Power Plant Conceptual Study (PPCS) has been a study of conceptual designs for commercial fusion power plants. It focussed on five power plant models, named PPCS A, B, AB, C and D, which are illustrative of a wider spectrum of possibilities. They are all based on the tokamak concept and they have approximately the same net electrical power output, 1500 MWe. These span a range from relatively near-term, based on limited technology and plasma physics extrapolations, to an advanced conception. All five PPCS plant models differ substantially from the models that formed the basis of earlier European studies. They also differ from one another, which lead to differences in economic performance and in the details of safety and environmental impacts. The main emphasis of the study was on system integration. Systems analyses were used to produce self-consistent plant parameter sets with approximately optimal economic characteristics for all models. In the PPCS models, the favourable, inherent, features of fusion have been exploited to provide substantial safety and environmental advantages. The broad features of the safety and environmental conclusions of previous studies have been confirmed and demonstrated with increased confidence. Two key innovative developments made within the PPCS study are worthy of a special note. One is the development of a scheme for the scheduled replacement of the internal components which shows the potential for an overall plant availability in excess of 75%. The other is a conceptual design for a helium-cooled divertor, which permits the toleration of heat loads of at least 10 MW/m2. The PPCS study has highlighted the need for specific design and R and D activities, in addition to those already underway within the European long term R and D programme, as well as the need to clarify the concept of DEMO, the device that will bridge the gap between ITER and the first-of-a-kind fusion power plant. (author)

  20. MANUFACTURING AND CONTINUOUS IMPROVEMENT PERFORMANCE LEVEL IN PLANTS OF MEXICO; A COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS AMONG LARGE AND MEDIUM SIZE PLANTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Monge

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available A random and statistically significant sample of 40 medium (12 and large (28 manufacturing plants of Apodaca, Mexico were surveyed using a structured and validated questionnaire to investigate the level of implementation of lean manufacturing, sustainable manufacturing, continuous improvement and operational efficiency and environmental responsibility in them, it is important to mention it was found that performance in the mentioned philosophies, on the two categories of plants is low, however large plants show a better performance than medium plants. In both cases, it is worrying that in the highly industrialized municipality of Apodaca,  Mexico are not decisively adopting the philosophies mentioned, as this compromises in a global world, in the medium and long term the viability of the plants, particularly the medium size plants. Finally this article shows the results of the answers to the items of questionnaire for the plants managers, and this can be useful to the management of the plants to identify and to define specific improvement actions towards priority areas.

  1. OPTIMIZING THE PERFORMANCE OF THERMAL POWER PLANTS

    OpenAIRE

    Sushila Mishra; Ganesh Chembedu

    2016-01-01

    Failure of boiler tubes has been a familiar phenomenon in power plants resulting in unscheduled plant shut down; in consequence, there are heavy losses in industrial production. The failure of boiler tubes appears in the form of bending, bulging, cracking, wearing or rupture, causing leakage of the tubes. The failure can be caused by one or more modes such as overheating, stress corrosion cracking (SCC), hydrogen embrittlement, creep, flame impingement, sulfide attack, weld attack, ash erosio...

  2. Nuclear power plant outage optimisation strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Competitive environment for electricity generation has significant implications for nuclear power plant operations, including among others the need of efficient use of resources, effective management of plant activities such as on-line maintenance and outages. Nuclear power plant outage management is a key factor for good, safe and economic nuclear power plant performance which involves many aspects: plant policy, co-ordination of available resources, nuclear safety, regulatory and technical requirements and, all activities and work hazards, before and during the outage. This technical publication aims to communicate these practices in a way they can be used by operators and utilities in the Member States of the IAEA. It intends to give guidance to outage managers, operating staff and to the local industry on planning aspects, as well as examples and strategies experienced from current plants in operation on the optimization of outage period. This report discusses the plant outage strategy and how this strategy is actually implemented. The main areas identified as most important for outage optimization by the utilities and government organizations participating in this report are: organization and management; outage planning and preparation, outage execution, safety outage review, and counter measures to avoid extension of outages and to easier the work in forced outages. This report was based on discussions and findings by the authors of the annexes and the participants of an Advisory Group Meeting on Determinant Causes for Reducing Outage Duration held in June 1999 in Vienna. The report presents the consensus of these experts regarding best common or individual good practices that can be used at nuclear power plants with the aim to optimize

  3. Strategies in tower solar power plant optimization

    OpenAIRE

    Ramos, A.; Ramos, F.

    2012-01-01

    A method for optimizing a central receiver solar thermal electric power plant is studied. We parametrize the plant design as a function of eleven design variables and reduce the problem of finding optimal designs to the numerical problem of finding the minimum of a function of several variables. This minimization problem is attacked with different algorithms both local and global in nature. We find that all algorithms find the same minimum of the objective function. The performance of each of...

  4. Experience in operation of nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Following a brief description of the structure, financing and generating plant of Sydkraft, the Barsebaeck plant is briefly described. The construction schedule and personnel are outlinrd as are the investment and operating costs, which are compared with the utility's oil-fired generating costs. The causes of outages are briefly presented and discussed. The wastes from generating the same amount of power as Barsebaeck in 1977 using oil fuel are compared with the radioactive waste for that year. (JIW)

  5. Seismic instrumentation for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A seismic instrumentation system used in Nuclear Power Plants to monitor the design parameters of systems, structures and components, needed to provide safety to those plants, against the action of earth quarks is described. The instrumentation is based on the nuclear standards and other components used, as well as their general localization is indicated. The operation of the instrumentation system as a whole and the handling of the recovered data are dealt with accordingly. The accelerometer is described in detail. (Author)

  6. The EU power plant conceptual study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An integrated Power Plant Conceptual Study (PPCS) was launched in 1988 in the frame of the European Fusion Programme. The objective of the PPCS is to demonstrate: the credibility of fusion power plant design(s); the claims for the safety and environmental advantages and for the economic viability of fusion power. In addition results of the PPCS Programme will help to define the R and D Programme. The strategy of the PPCS is to study a limited number of Plant Models that span the expected range of possibilities. These range from an advanced version of International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) through to the presently foreseen ultimately achievable values of the plasma physics and technology parameters, together with a range of blanket and high heat flux technologies. The primary focus of detailed studies, and the first work to be undertaken, is on two Plant Models that emphasise limited extrapolation, since credibility within the philosophy of a possible fast-track development of fusion power is a major aim of the study. The remainder of this paper discusses the physics studies and the preliminary technology studies that have formed the launching pad for the detailed studies of Plant Models within the PPCS. The discussion concentrates on the 'limited extrapolation' Models that are being studied first, with brief reference to the Models that are further from ITER

  7. Ground assessment methods for nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is needless to say that nuclear power plant must be constructed on the most stable and safe ground. Reliable assessment method is required for the purpose. The Ground Integrity Sub-committee of the Committee of Civil Engineering of Nuclear Power Plant started five working groups, the purpose of which is to systematize the assessment procedures including geological survey, ground examination and construction design. The works of working groups are to establishing assessment method of activities of faults, standardizing the rock classification method, standardizing assessment and indication method of ground properties, standardizing test methods and establishing the application standard for design and construction. Flow diagrams for the procedures of geological survey, for the investigation on fault activities and ground properties of area where nuclear reactor and important outdoor equipments are scheduled to construct, were established. And further, flow diagrams for applying investigated results to design and construction of plant, and for determining procedure of liquidification nature of ground etc. were also established. These systematized and standardized methods of investigation are expected to yield reliable data for assessment of construction site of nuclear power plant and lead to the safety of construction and operation in the future. In addition, the execution of these systematized and detailed preliminary investigation for determining the construction site of nuclear power plant will make much contribution for obtaining nation-wide understanding and faith for the project. (Ishimitsu, A.)

  8. Nuclear power plant siting: Hydrogeologic aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This Safety Guide gives guidelines and methods for determining the ground water concentration of radionuclides that could result from postulated releases from nuclear power plants. The Guide gives recommendations on the data to be collected and the investigations to be performed at various stages of nuclear power plant siting in relation to the various aspects of the movement of accidentally released radioactive material through the ground water, the selection of an appropriate mathematical or physical model for the hydrodynamic dispersion even two-phase distribution of the radioactive material and an appropriate monitoring programme

  9. Virtual environments for nuclear power plant design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the design and operation of nuclear power plants, the visualization process inherent in virtual environments (VE) allows for abstract design concepts to be made concrete and simulated without using a physical mock-up. This helps reduce the time and effort required to design and understand the system, thus providing the design team with a less complicated arrangement. Also, the outcome of human interactions with the components and system can be minimized through various testing of scenarios in real-time without the threat of injury to the user or damage to the equipment. If implemented, this will lead to a minimal total design and construction effort for nuclear power plants (NPP)

  10. Induction of plant somatic embryogenesis in liquid medium.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kreuger, M.

    1996-01-01

    The large scale propagation of plants via somatic embryogenesis, has so far been difficult to achieve. In this thesis research is described leading to embryogenic cell lines that can be maintained for a long period, without loss of genetic stability. It is also described how embryogenic potential of

  11. Investment scenarios for Chinese power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An analysis is provided of returns for investment in power plants in China and India. Three sample investment scenarios are compared to illustrate the relative merits of each financing arrangement. The best returns would seem to be offered by a mix of debt and equity financing. The potential problem of gradual currency depreciation can be overcome by early cash payments. Foreign investment in China's power generation industry would be more readily forthcoming if easier access to debt finance were available. (UK)

  12. Alpha-nuclides in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The behaviour of alpha-nuclides in nuclear power plants is subject of the investigations presented. The source of alpha-nuclides is a contamination with fissile material (so called tramp uranium or tramp fuel) which deposits on fuel rod surfaces and leads to the build-up of transuranium nuclides. The determination of a defect situation with fuel release as well as the quantification of the fissile material contamination background is given for BWR and PWR plants. The quantification of the fuel release and the tramp uranium background can be calculated with different, measurable nuclides in BWR and PWR plants. (orig.)

  13. The earthquake security of the Paks Nuclear Power Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The seismic safety of Paks Nuclear Power Plant is analyzed. Assessment of earthquake risk has been done at the site of the plant, and seismic resistance of the nuclear power plant is analyzed together. (TRA)

  14. Strategies in tower solar power plant optimization

    CERN Document Server

    Ramos, A

    2012-01-01

    A method for optimizing a central receiver solar thermal electric power plant is studied. We parametrize the plant design as a function of eleven design variables and reduce the problem of finding optimal designs to the numerical problem of finding the minimum of a function of several variables. This minimization problem is attacked with different algorithms both local and global in nature. We find that all algorithms find the same minimum of the objective function. The performance of each of the algorithms and the resulting designs are studied for two typical cases. We describe a method to evaluate the impact of design variables in the plant performance. This method will tell us what variables are key to the optimal plant design and which ones are less important. This information can be used to further improve the plant design and to accelerate the optimization procedure.

  15. De-regulated electric power markets and operating nuclear power plants: the case of British energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    One issue addressed in almost all electric power restructuring/de-regulation plans in both the United States (US) and the United Kingdom (UK) was the recovery of operating nuclear power plant's spent fuel disposal costs and the expenditures to decommission the units when they are retired. Prior to restructuring, in theory at least, in both countries, electricity consumers were paying for the back end costs from operating nuclear power plants. Moreover, in virtually all cases in the US, states included special provisions to insure that consumers would continue to do so after power markets were de-regulated. When power markets in the UK were initially restructured/de-regulated and nuclear power privatized, the shareholders of British Energy (BE) were initially responsible for these costs. However, after electricity prices fell and BE collapsed, the British government shifted many of the costs to future taxpayers, as much as a century forward. If this was not done, the book value of BE's equity would have been about -3.5 billion pounds. That is, BE's liabilities would have been about -3.5 billion pounds greater than their assets. It is difficult to see how BE could remain viable under such circumstances

  16. Nuclear power in the 21st century: Challenges and possibilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horvath, Akos; Rachlew, Elisabeth

    2016-01-01

    The current situation and possible future developments for nuclear power--including fission and fusion processes--is presented. The fission nuclear power continues to be an essential part of the low-carbon electricity generation in the world for decades to come. There are breakthrough possibilities in the development of new generation nuclear reactors where the life-time of the nuclear waste can be reduced to some hundreds of years instead of the present time-scales of hundred thousand of years. Research on the fourth generation reactors is needed for the realisation of this development. For the fast nuclear reactors, a substantial research and development effort is required in many fields--from material sciences to safety demonstration--to attain the envisaged goals. Fusion provides a long-term vision for an efficient energy production. The fusion option for a nuclear reactor for efficient production of electricity has been set out in a focussed European programme including the international project of ITER after which a fusion electricity DEMO reactor is envisaged.

  17. Safer design for a nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During the regulatory process for the issuing of the construction permit and the operating licence of the first Austrian nuclear power plant, more than 1200 injunctions have been issued for increasing its safety standard. In principle they belong to three groups: quality assurance and quality control; the improvement of the design; and probabilistic issues. Examples of all these three groups are given. When discussions with the parties in the regulatory process on the issuing of the operating licence were going on, work at the nuclear power plant was suddenly terminated following the negative outcome of a referendum. The main content of the discussions was that the nuclear inspectors keep permanent control over the plant and have a permanent record of occurrences there, that participation of the regulatory body is included in all issues which might influence the safety standard of the plant, and that the regulatory body may issue new injunctions on the operation of the plant if new standards arise from backfitting ensuing from lessons learned, from the treatment of generic issues, from new rules and regulations and from reactor safety research. Special attention is given to the process of mothballing the plant as was necessary after the referendum. The work on the plant was terminated in an orderly way; a final report was issued which stated what still would have to be done at the plant in order to go into operation. The mothballing began by demounting some systems, emptying others and shutting down a third group. Some ventilation systems are in operation. These activities are also recorded in reports; these, together with a final report of the status reached, could be the basis for revitalization work. Finally it is shown how Austria, with its limited means in terms of funds and personnel, is dealing with the problems of keeping the safety standard of the plant as high as at the plants in other countries with more funds and personnel available. (author)

  18. Institutional approach to power plant safety culture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The thesis of this paper is that the requirements for safety culture in nuclear power plants can be failing to recognize contradictions in the various pressures on the organization that have to be balanced in an optimal manner. Nuclear power plants are influenced by pressures from both external and internal sources, that can be viewed as comprising the two main institutionalizing influences on the organization. Most of the effort on safety culture definition and implementation has addressed the utility and the power plant, producing definitions of good practices and of hindrances to good utility safety culture. These often lack formal representation of the demands of the organization and of its environment that are related to institutional processes rather than to productivity. This paper adopts an institutional approach to organizations as a way of clarifying the nature of the interfaces between the power plant and its external agencies, and their respective safety culture requirements. The plant must respond to its own internal organizational demands that are both technical, related to efficiency and productivity, and institutionalizing in terms of organizational processes. External agencies create environmental demands that are primatily institutionalizing in nature, such as the legitimate requirements of society as represented by the regulatory body ; standards of practice desctibed by professional groups; or obligation to conform to international commitments. These inputs mu st be cognizant of all of the parameters of the plant's functioning if they are not to risk detracting from plant efficiency, and so safety. This is a measure of the safety culture of these external agencies. The utility's safety culture is dependent on its abi1ity to balance external demands , internal processes and technical imperatives. (author)

  19. Recent advances in nuclear power plant simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The field of industrial simulation has experienced very significant progress in recent years, and power plant simulation in particular has been an extremely active area. Improvements may be recorded in practically all simulator subsystems. In Europe, the construction of new full- or optimized-scope nuclear power plant simulators during the middle 1990's has been remarkable intense. In fact, it is possible to identify a distinct simulator generation, which constitutes a new de facto simulation standard. Thomson Training and Simulation has taken part in these developments by designing, building, and validation several of these new simulators for Dutch, German and French nuclear power plants. Their characteristics are discussed in this paper. The following main trends may be identified: Process modeling is clearly evolving towards obtaining engineering-grade performance, even under the added constraints of real-time operation and a very wide range of operating conditions to be covered; Massive use of modern graphic user interfaces (GUI) ensures an unprecedented flexibility and user-friendliness for the Instructor Station; The massive use of GUIs also allows the development of Trainee Stations (TS), which significantly enhance the in-depth training value of the simulators; The development of powerful Software Development Environments (SDE) enables the simulator maintenance teams to keep abreast of modifications carried out in the reference plants; Finally, simulator maintenance and its compliance with simulator fidelity requirements are greatly enhanced by integrated Configuration Management Systems (CMS). In conclusion, the power plant simulation field has attained a strong level of maturity, which benefits its approximately forty years of service to the power generation industry. (author)

  20. Risks of potential accidents of nuclear power plants in Europe

    OpenAIRE

    Slaper H; Eggink GJ; Blaauboer RO

    1993-01-01

    Over 200 nuclear power plants for commercial electricity production are presently operational in Europe. The 1986 accident with the nuclear power plant in Chernobyl has shown that severe accidents with a nuclear power plant can lead to a large scale contamination of Europe. This report is focussed on an integrated assessment of probabilistic cancer mortality risks due to possible accidental releases from the European nuclear power plants. For each of the European nuclear power plants the prob...

  1. Safety assessment of emergency power systems for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This publication is intended to assist the safety assessor within a regulatory body, or one working as a consultant, in assessing the safety of a given design of the emergency power systems (EPS) for a nuclear power plant. The present publication refers closely to the NUSS Safety Guide 50-SG-D7 (Rev. 1), Emergency Power Systems at Nuclear Power Plants. It covers therefore exactly the same technical subject as that Safety Guide. In view of its objective, however, it attempts to help in the evaluation of possible technical solutions which are intended to fulfill the safety requirements. Section 2 clarifies the scope further by giving an outline of the assessment steps in the licensing process. After a general outline of the assessment process in relation to the licensing of a nuclear power plant, the publication is divided into two parts. First, all safety issues are presented in the form of questions that have to be answered in order for the assessor to be confident of a safe design. The second part presents the same topics in tabulated form, listing the required documentation which the assessor has to consult and those international and national technical standards pertinent to the topics. An extensive reference list provides information on standards. 1 tab

  2. Electrochemical Power Plant for Terrestrial Flight Platforms Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — An electrochemical power plant is proposed by MicroCell Technologies to provide power to terrestrial flight platforms. Our power plant is based upon a proton...

  3. 75 FR 66802 - Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant, LLC; Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant, Unit Nos. 1 and 2...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-29

    ... COMMISSION Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant, LLC; Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant, Unit Nos. 1 and 2... Regulatory Commission (the Commission) has granted the request of Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant, LLC... Operating License Nos. DPR-53 and DPR-69 for the Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant, Unit Nos. 1 and...

  4. 76 FR 39908 - Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant, LLC; Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant, Unit Nos. 1 and 2...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-07

    ... COMMISSION Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant, LLC; Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant, Unit Nos. 1 and 2.... DPR-53 and DPR-69, for the Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant, Unit Nos. 1 and 2 (CCNPP), respectively... (ISFSI), currently held by Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant, LLC as owner and licensed...

  5. 77 FR 47121 - Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant, LLC; Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant, Units 1 and 2...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-07

    ... COMMISSION Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant, LLC; Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant, Units 1 and 2; Exemption 1.0 Background Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant, LLC (the licensee) is the holder of Renewed..., ``Fatigue Management for Nuclear Power Plant Personnel,'' endorses the Nuclear Energy Institute (NEI)...

  6. Elk and plants thrive near power lines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lustre, L.

    1997-11-01

    Butterflies and elk gather in clearings near power line right-of-ways and on the edges of such clearings, where the wild flowers and plants that have widely disappeared as a result of intensive farming and subsurface drainage of fields have found a good habitat. Ornamental coniferous trees, various herbs and assorted berries do well and can be harvested near power lines from woodland clearings once thought unfit for cultivation. IVS, the nationwide network company, takes part in many projects aiming both to increase productive utilization of land areas under power lines and to promote biodiversity

  7. The Daya Bay nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Daya Bay plant is nearing completion for the Guangdong Nuclear Power Joint Venture Company (GNPJVC), formed by the Chinese Government (75%) in conjunction with China Light Power, the Hong Kong utility (25%). 70% of generated power from two French-design 900 MWe class PWRs will be supplied to Hong Kong (the reference units: France's Gravelines-5 and -6). The Advanced Fuel Assembly designed by Framatome is used. The turbines are British-built (GEC) and designed differently from those installed in French units. 1 fig

  8. Reliability improvement method for BWR power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The construction of the nuclear power generating facilities in Japan was commenced by the import of technological know-how from the United States, but in ten years since then, they reached the stage of improvement and standardization by the effort for the domestic production and the accumulated technological ability. But the unscheduled stop of operation was not able to avoid centering around the initially imported plants, and it cannot be said that the sufficient rate of operation was attained. In Japan, plant manufacturers deliver the whole installations including nuclear reactors in the lump, and carry out the planning, design, manufacture, construction, periodic inspection and maintenance, accordingly the feedback of the operational results can be made quickly, differing from the U.S. system. As the result, No. 1 plant of the Shimane Nuclear Power Station, Chugoku Electric Power Co., Inc., which was constructed by the domestic technology, has attained about 72% of the average rate of operation in six years, and showed the high reliability of the domestically produced plants. The measures for improving system reliability in system planning and the reliability of machinery and equipments, the method of evaluating the reliability of systems, machines and equipments, the quality of nuclear power generating facilities and the quality assurance, and the management of maintenance in Hitachi Ltd. are explained. (Kako, I.)

  9. Decontamination techniques for BWR power generation plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present report describes various techniques used for decontamination in BWR power generation plants. Objectives and requirements for decontamination in BWR power plants are first discussed focusing on reduction in dose, prevention of spread of contamination, cleaning of work environments, exposure of equipment parts for inspection, re-use of decontaminated resources, and standards for decontamination. Then, the report outlines major physical, chemical and electrochemical decontamination techniques generally used in BWR power generation plants. The physical techniques include suction of deposits in tanks, jet cleaning, particle blast cleaning, ultrasonic cleaning, coating with special paints, and flushing cleaning. The chemical decontamination techniques include the use of organic acids etc. for dissolution of oxidized surface layers and treatment of secondary wastes such as liquids released from primary decontamination processes. Other techniques are used for removal of penetrated contaminants, and soft and hard cladding in and on equipment and piping that are in direct contact with radioactive materials used in nuclear power generation plants. (N.K.)

  10. Utility-Scale Solar Photovoltaic Power Plants

    OpenAIRE

    International Finance Corporation

    2015-01-01

    With an installed capacity greater than 137 gigawatts (GWs) worldwide and annual additions of about 40 GWs in recent years, solar photovoltaic (PV) technology has become an increasingly important energy supply option. A substantial decline in the cost of solar PV power plants (80 percent reduction since 2008) has improved solar PV’s competitiveness, reducing the needs for subsidies and ena...

  11. Geothermal Cogeneration: Iceland's Nesjavellir Power Plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosen, Edward M.

    2008-01-01

    Energy use in Iceland (population 283,000) is higher per capita than in any other country in the world. Some 53.2% of the energy is geothermal, which supplies electricity as well as heated water to swimming pools, fish farms, snow melting, greenhouses, and space heating. The Nesjavellir Power Plant is a major geothermal facility, supplying both…

  12. Environmental effects of thermal power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reviewing critically the present literature, the effects of thermal power plants on the environment are studied. At first, the loads of the different power plant types are compiled. With regard to the effects of emission reduction proceedings the pollutant emissions are quantified. The second chapter shows the effects on the ecological factors, which could be caused by the most important emission components of thermal power plants. Where it is possible, relations between immissions respectively depositions and their effects on climate, man, flora, fauna and materials will be given. This shows that many effects depend strongly on the local landscape, climate and use of natural resources. Therefore, it appears efficient to ascertain different load limits. The last chapter gives a suggestion for an ecological compatibility test (ECT) of thermal power plants. In modular form the ECT deals with the emission fields, waste heat, pollution burden of air and water, noise, loss of area and aesthetical aspects. Limits depending on local conditions and use of area will be discussed. (orig.)

  13. A Market-Based Virtual Power Plant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    You, Shi; Træholt, Chresten; Poulsen, Bjarne

    2009-01-01

    The fast growing penetration of Distributed Energy Resources (DER) and the continuing trend towards a more liberalized electricity market requires more efficient energy management strategies to handle both emerging technical and economic issues. In this paper, a market-based Virtual Power Plant...

  14. Thermal and nuclear power plant design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Research on heat transfer processes makes use of the concept of exergy or usable energy. The design of thermal power plants, which produce energy, make use of this fundamental entity, that conditions the final balance of work production. The different types of thermal power plant of the steam and gas type, together with nuclear power plants are reviewed. Heat losses, equal to more than half of the heat input, are the consequence of irreversible transformations of the energy of the fuel employed. It is important to implement resuperheating, so as to reduce the energy loss at high temperature. This is also enhanced by the use of a high steam pressure. The major parameters inherent in the design of the firebox associated with the gas turbine, are identified. The use of combined gas/steam cycles, allowing low exergy losses, has been spreading in recent years. The different systems used for nuclear power plants, for which the heat transfer aspect is crucial are examined. Future developments will depend on the high temperature behaviour of materials, because of the vital importance of thermal fatigue

  15. Effort on Nuclear Power Plants safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prospects of nuclear power plant on designing, building and operation covering natural safety, technical safety, and emergency safety are discussed. Several problems and their solutions and nuclear energy operation in developing countries especially control and permission are also discussed. (author tr.)

  16. Fire protection in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Safety Guide gives design and some operational guidance for protection from fire and fire-related explosions in nuclear power plants (NPP). It confines itself to fire protection of items important to safety, leaving the aspects of fire protection not related to safety in NPP to be decided upon the basis of the national practices and regulations

  17. Programmed system for nuclear power plant protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The progress in the field of microprocessors and large scale integration circuits, have incited to introduce this new technologies into nuclear power plant protection system. The hardware and software design principles are briefly listed; then, a quad-redundant protection system for 1300 MWe PWR, developed in France is described

  18. Radiation protection in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The organization of workers' protection in a nuclear power plant is stated. Considering the nature and magnitude of potential risks and protection procedures, an inventory of occupational safety is made, taking account of accident statistics. It shows the credit to nuclear energy can be granted as to occupational safety

  19. Market Integration of Virtual Power Plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Mette Kirschmeyer

    . It does however significantly sharpen the discussion of the flexibility concept and provides a categorization of flexible systems. This Thesis also investigates what value can be created from the different types of flexibility by assuming that the Virtual Power Plant will generate profit by trading...

  20. Geodesy problems in nuclear power plant construction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The special geodetic problems encountered during the construction of the Paks nuclear power plants are treated. The main building with its hermetically connected components including the reactor, the steam generators, the circulation pumps etc. impose special requirements on the control net of datum points. The geodesy tasks solved during the construction of the main building are presented in details. (R.P.)

  1. Safety analysis of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A study about the safety analysis of nuclear power plant, giving emphasis to how and why to do is presented. The utilization of the safety analysis aiming to perform the licensing requirements is discussed, and an example of the Angra 2 and 3 safety analysis is shown. Some presented tendency of the safety analysis are presented and examples are shown.(E.G.)

  2. Report on Hawaii Geothermal Power Plant Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1983-06-01

    The report describes the design, construction, and operation of the Hawaii Geothermal Generator Project. This power plant, located in the Puna District on the island of Hawaii, produces three megawatts of electricity from the steam phase of a geothermal well. (ACR)

  3. Three run-of-river power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1992-12-31

    Three `run-of-river` hydroelectric power plants in the Montreal area in the province of Quebec were described visually and in sound. A run-of-river generating station is one that has no reservoir behind the generating facilities. Instead of a reservoir, the generating station draws its power from the strong flow of the whole river as it passes through the turbines. The first generating station described was the Beauharnois power plant completed in 1963 which became the most powerful generating station in Canada at that time. Today, it ranks fourth after the La Grande complex. In winter, it supplies electricity primarily to the Quebec power system, but between April and November, 90 per cent of its power is destined for export. The Carillon power station on the Ottawa River, the second to be discussed in this videotape presentation, was completed in 1964 with a total generating capacity of 654 MW. Today, it is the tenth largest of its kind in Quebec. The Rivieres des Prairies generating station, the third and last one described was completed in 1930; today it has a generating capacity of 45 MW. Some of the efforts made by Hydro-Quebec to protect and enhance the natural environment were shown in action, including regular removal and recycling of debris at the gateways to the generating stations, construction of fish spawning ladders, and the control of zebra mussels.

  4. Direct FuelCell/Turbine Power Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hossein Ghezel-Ayagh

    2008-09-30

    This report summarizes the progress made in development of Direct FuelCell/Turbine (DFC/T{reg_sign}) power plants for generation of clean power at very high efficiencies. The DFC/T system employs an indirectly heated Turbine Generator to supplement fuel cell generated power. The concept extends the high efficiency of the fuel cell by utilizing the fuel cell's byproduct heat in a Brayton cycle. Features of the DFC/T system include: electrical efficiencies of up to 75% on natural gas, minimal emissions, reduced carbon dioxide release to the environment, simplicity in design, direct reforming internal to the fuel cell, and potential cost competitiveness with existing combined cycle power plants. Proof-of-concept tests using a sub-MW-class DFC/T power plant at FuelCell Energy's (FCE) Danbury facility were conducted to validate the feasibility of the concept and to measure its potential for electric power production. A 400 kW-class power plant test facility was designed and retrofitted to conduct the tests. The initial series of tests involved integration of a full-size (250 kW) Direct FuelCell stack with a 30 kW Capstone microturbine. The operational aspects of the hybrid system in relation to the integration of the microturbine with the fuel cell, process flow and thermal balances, and control strategies for power cycling of the system, were investigated. A subsequent series of tests included operation of the sub-MW Direct FuelCell/Turbine power plant with a Capstone C60 microturbine. The C60 microturbine extended the range of operation of the hybrid power plant to higher current densities (higher power) than achieved in initial tests using the 30kW microturbine. The proof-of-concept test results confirmed the stability and controllability of operating a fullsize (250 kW) fuel cell stack in combination with a microturbine. Thermal management of the system was confirmed and power plant operation, using the microturbine as the only source of fresh air supply

  5. Fusion power plant studies in Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The European fusion programme is reactor oriented and it is aimed at the successive demonstration of the scientific, the technological and the economic feasibility of fusion power. For a reactor-oriented fusion development programme, it is essential to have a clear idea of the ultimate goal of the programme, namely a series of models of fusion power plants, in order to define the correct strategy and to assess the pertinence of the on-going activities. The European Power Plant Conceptual Study (PPCS) has been a study of conceptual designs for commercial fusion power plants. It focused on five power plant models, named PPCS A, B, AB, C and D, which are illustrative of a wider spectrum of possibilities. They are all based on the tokamak concept and they have approximately the same net electrical power output, 1500 MWe. These span a range from relatively near-term, based on limited technology and plasma physics extrapolations, to an advanced conception. All five PPCS plant models differ substantially from the models that formed the basis of earlier European studies. They also differ from one another, which lead to differences in economic performance and in the details of safety and environmental impacts. The main emphasis of the PPCS was on system integration. Systems analyses were used to produce self-consistent plant parameter sets with approximately optimal economic characteristics for all models. In the PPCS models, the favourable, inherent, features of fusion have been exploited to provide substantial safety and environmental advantages. The broad features of the safety and environmental conclusions of previous studies have been confirmed and demonstrated with increased confidence. The PPCS study highlighted the need for specific design and R and D activities, in addition to those already underway within the European long term R and D programme, as well as the need to clarify the concept of DEMO, the device that will bridge the gap between ITER and the first

  6. Training of nuclear power plant operating personnel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A collection is presented containing 11 papers submitted at a conference on the selection and education of specialists for operation and maintenance of nuclear power plants. The conference was attended by specialists from universities and colleges, research institutes and production plants. It debated the methods and aims of both general and specialized theoretical and practical personnel education, the proposals for teaching centre equipment, the use of simulators, computers and other aids in the teaching process; training on school reactors was included. A proposal was put forward of the system of education, the teaching process itself, the content of the basic theoretical subjects, and the method of testing pupils' knowledge. The importance was stressed of establishing a national coordination centre to safeguard the syllabus, methodology, teaching aids, and also the training proper. The system of personnel education in the Paks nuclear power plant, Hungary, is presented as an example. (M.S.)

  7. Commissioning procedures for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This Safety Guide was prepared as part of the Agency's programme, referred to as the NUSS programme, for establishing Codes of Practice and Safety Guides relating to nuclear power plants. It deals with the commissioning of all types of land-based stationary thermal neutron power plants. Its purpose is to give guidance on the good practices currently adopted, the implementation of which will enable commissioning to proceed safely. It will also enable the necessary assurances to be provided that the plant has been constructed and can operate in accordance with the design intent. The Guide covers commissioning programme requirements, organization and management, test and review procedures, and the interfaces with construction and with operating activities. It also covers the control of changes and the documentation required during commissioning

  8. Architecture for a High-to-Medium-Voltage Power Converter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vorpenian, Vatche

    2008-01-01

    A power converter now undergoing development is required to operate at a DC input potential ranging between 5.5 and 10 kV and a DC output potential of 400 V at a current up to 25 A. This power converter is also required to be sufficiently compact and reliable to fit and operate within the confines of a high-pressure case to be lowered to several miles (approx.5 km) below the surface of the ocean. The architecture chosen to satisfy these requirements calls for a series/ parallel arrangement of 48 high-frequency, pulse-width-modulation (PWM), transformer-isolation DC-to-DC power converter blocks. The input sides of the converter blocks would be connected in series so that the input potential would be divided among them, each of them being exposed to an input potential of no more than 10 kV/48 . 210 V. The series connection of inputs would also enforce a requirement that all the converter blocks operate at the same input current. The outputs of the converter blocks would be connected in a matrix comprising 6 parallel legs, each leg being a cascade of eight outputs wired in series (see figure). All the converter blocks would be identical within the tolerances of the values of their components. A single voltage feedback loop would regulate the output potential. All the converter blocks would be driven by the same PWM waveform generated by this feedback loop. The power transformer of each converter block would have a unity turns ratio and would be capable of withstanding as much as 10 kVDC between its primary and secondary windings. (Although, in general, the turns ratio could be different from unity, the simplest construction for minimizing leakage and maximizing breakdown voltage is attained at a turns ratio of unity.)

  9. Market potential of small and medium power reactors in Syria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Analysis of the Syrian energy demand and forecasting was briefly introduced. The need to install an average of 500 MW annually the year 2003 was established. Moreover, short introduction of the main energy resources in the country was made. A primitive criteria for the selection of SMPR was emphasized. An emphasis for the process of introducing the first nuclear power in the country was also recognized. (author)

  10. Managing the first nuclear power plant project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Energy is essential for national development. Nearly every aspect of development - from reducing poverty and raising living standards to improving health care, industrial and agricultural productivity - requires reliable access to modern energy resources. States may have different reasons for considering starting a nuclear power project to achieve their national energy needs, such as: lack of available indigenous energy resources, the desire to reduce dependence upon imported energy, the need to increase the diversity of energy resources and/or mitigation of carbon emission increases. The start of a nuclear power plant project involves several complex and interrelated activities with long duration. Experience shows that the time between the initial policy decision by a State to consider nuclear power up to the start of operation of its first nuclear power plant is about 10 to 15 years and that before specific project management can proceed, several key infrastructure issues have to be in place. The proper management of the wide scope of activities to be planned and implemented during this period represents a major challenge for the involved governmental, utility, regulatory, supplier and other supportive organizations. The main focus is to ensure that the project is implemented successfully from a commercial point of view while remaining in accordance with the appropriate engineering and quality requirements, safety standards and security guides. This publication is aimed at providing guidance on the practical management of a first nuclear power project in a country. There are many other issues, related to ensuring that the infrastructure in the country has been prepared adequately to ensure that the project will be able to be completed, that are only briefly addressed in this publication. The construction of the first nuclear power plant is a major undertaking for any country developing a nuclear power programme. Worldwide experience gained in the last 50 years

  11. Safety culture in nuclear power plants. Proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As a consequence of the INSAG-4 report on 'safety culture', published by the IAEA in 1991, the Federal Commission for the Safety of Nuclear Power Plants (KSA) decided to hold a one-day seminar as a first step in this field. The KSA is an advisory body of the Federal Government and the Federal Department of Transport and Energy (EVED). It comments on applications for licenses, observes the operation of nuclear power plants, assists with the preparation of regulations, monitors the progress of research in the field of nuclear safety, and makes proposals for research tasks. The objective of this seminar was to familiarise the participants with the principles of 'safety culture', with the experiences made in Switzerland and abroad with existing concepts, as well as to eliminate existing prejudices. The main points dealt with at this seminar were: - safety culture from the point of view of operators, - safety culture from the point of view of the authorities, - safety culture: collaboration between power plants, the authorities and research organisations, - trends and developments in the field of safety culture. Invitations to attend this seminar were extended to the management boards of companies operating Swiss nuclear power plants, and to representatives of the Swiss authorities responsible for the safety of nuclear power plants. All these organisations were represented by a large number of executive and specialist staff. We would like to express our sincerest thanks to the Head of the Federal Department of Transport and Energy for his kind patronage of this seminar. (author) figs., tabs., refs

  12. Construction and operation of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    How does a nuclear power plant work. Which reactor types are in use. What safety measures are being taken. These questions and the like are frequently asked by those interested in nuclear power generation. The respective answers are to be found in the report ''Construction and Operation of Nuclear Power Plants''. Nuclear-physical fundamentals and the basic safety measures are explained, and four reactor types that are most common in the Federal Republic of Germany are described: PWR-, BWR-, HTR-type and faster breeder reactors. For each reactor type, the principle of operation, steam generator system, auxiliary and service buildings as well as the respective safety devices are indicated, and visualized by means of numerous illustrations. The report is meant to be instrumental to the purpose of getting objectiveness into the public discussion on the peaceful use of nuclear energy. (orig.)

  13. Artificial intelligence in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The IAEA Specialists' Meeting on Artificial Intelligence in Nuclear Power Plants was arranged in Helsink/Vantaa, Finland, on October 10-12, 1989, under auspices of the International Working Group of Nuclear Power Plant Control and Instrumentation of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA/IWG NPPCI). Technical Research Centre of Finland together with Imatran Voima Oy and Teollisuuden Voima Oy answered for the practical arrangements of the meeting. 105 participants from 17 countries and 2 international organizations took part in the meeting and 58 papers were submitted for presentation. These papers gave a comprehensive picture of the recent status and further trends in applying the rapidly developing techniques of artificial intelligence and expert systems to improve the quality and safety in designing and using of nuclear power worldwide

  14. Recent Advances in Ocean Nuclear Power Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kang-Heon Lee

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, recent advances in Ocean Nuclear Power Plants (ONPPs are reviewed, including their general arrangement, design parameters, and safety features. The development of ONPP concepts have continued due to initiatives taking place in France, Russia, South Korea, and the United States. Russia’s first floating nuclear power stations utilizing the PWR technology (KLT-40S and the spar-type offshore floating nuclear power plant designed by a research group in United States are considered herein. The APR1400 and SMART mounted Gravity Based Structure (GBS-type ONPPs proposed by a research group in South Korea are also considered. In addition, a submerged-type ONPP designed by DCNS of France is taken into account. Last, issues and challenges related to ONPPs are discussed and summarized.

  15. Medium-range planning economics of future electrical power generation options

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In their continuous planning for load growth, electricity utilities search for the most economic generation schemes. But this will be subject to a number of constrains, such as the type of generation schemes,.B(ut this will be subject to a number of constrains, such as the type of fuel available and compliance with national environmental standards. In this paper, medium range planning economics of using alternative fuels options for electrical power generation systems in Jordan is discussed. Imported natural gas, heavy fuel oil, coal and local oil shale are compared. A net present value model was used to compare electricity generation cost for different types of thermal power plants. Sensitivity analysis was performed to determine the influence of the most important variable, such as unit capital and fuel prices, discount and inflation rates. It was found that imported natural gas, as a future primary fuel, to supply new combined cycle and/or upgraded existing gas turbine stations, in Jordan represents the best option during the study period.(Author)

  16. Culture, Power, and the University in the Twenty-First Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Powerful nations have influential systems of higher education. The article explores the possible pattern of geopolitics in the twenty-first century, and the competing prospects of America and its rivals in higher education and research. Pressures on both the American and non-American worlds are evaluated, along with relative economic strengths,…

  17. Model-Based Power Plant Master Control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boman, Katarina; Thomas, Jean; Funkquist, Jonas

    2010-08-15

    The main goal of the project has been to evaluate the potential of a coordinated master control for a solid fuel power plant in terms of tracking capability, stability and robustness. The control strategy has been model-based predictive control (MPC) and the plant used in the case study has been the Vattenfall power plant Idbaecken in Nykoeping. A dynamic plant model based on nonlinear physical models was used to imitate the true plant in MATLAB/SIMULINK simulations. The basis for this model was already developed in previous Vattenfall internal projects, along with a simulation model of the existing control implementation with traditional PID controllers. The existing PID control is used as a reference performance, and it has been thoroughly studied and tuned in these previous Vattenfall internal projects. A turbine model was developed with characteristics based on the results of steady-state simulations of the plant using the software EBSILON. Using the derived model as a representative for the actual process, an MPC control strategy was developed using linearization and gain-scheduling. The control signal constraints (rate of change) and constraints on outputs were implemented to comply with plant constraints. After tuning the MPC control parameters, a number of simulation scenarios were performed to compare the MPC strategy with the existing PID control structure. The simulation scenarios also included cases highlighting the robustness properties of the MPC strategy. From the study, the main conclusions are: - The proposed Master MPC controller shows excellent set-point tracking performance even though the plant has strong interactions and non-linearity, and the controls and their rate of change are bounded. - The proposed Master MPC controller is robust, stable in the presence of disturbances and parameter variations. Even though the current study only considered a very small number of the possible disturbances and modelling errors, the considered cases are

  18. Reviewing computer capabilities in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The OSART programme of the IAEA has become an effective vehicle for promoting international co-operation for the enhancement of plant operational safety. In order to maintain consistency in the OSART reviews, OSART Guidelines have been developed which are intended to ensure that the reviewing process is comprehensive. Computer technology is an area in which rapid development is taking place and new applications may be computerized to further enhance safety and the effectiveness of the plant. Supplementary guidance and reference material is needed to help attain comprehensiveness and consistency in OSART reviews. This document is devoted to the utilization of on-site and off-site computers in such a way that the safe operation of the plant is supported. In addition to the main text, there are several annexes illustrating adequate practices as found at various operating nuclear power plants. Refs, figs and tabs

  19. Configuration management in nuclear power plants

    CERN Document Server

    2003-01-01

    Configuration management (CM) is the process of identifying and documenting the characteristics of a facility's structures, systems and components of a facility, and of ensuring that changes to these characteristics are properly developed, assessed, approved, issued, implemented, verified, recorded and incorporated into the facility documentation. The need for a CM system is a result of the long term operation of any nuclear power plant. The main challenges are caused particularly by ageing plant technology, plant modifications, the application of new safety and operational requirements, and in general by human factors arising from migration of plant personnel and possible human failures. The IAEA Incident Reporting System (IRS) shows that on average 25% of recorded events could be caused by configuration errors or deficiencies. CM processes correctly applied ensure that the construction, operation, maintenance and testing of a physical facility are in accordance with design requirements as expressed in the d...

  20. Nuclear power plant transients: where are we

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document is in part a postconference review and summary of the American Nuclear Society sponsored Anticipated and Abnormal Plant Transients in Light Water Reactors Conference held in Jackson, Wyoming, September 26-29, 1983, and in part a reflection upon the issues of plant transients and their impact on the viability of nuclear power. This document discusses state-of-the-art knowledge, deficiencies, and future directions in the plant transients area as seen through this conference. It describes briefly what was reported in this conference, emphasizes areas where it is felt there is confidence in the nuclear industry, and also discusses where the experts did not have a consensus. Areas covered in the document include major issues in operational transients, transient management, transient events experience base, the status of the analytical tools and their capabilities, probabilistic risk assessment applications in operational transients, and human factors impact on plant transients management

  1. SWOT of nuclear power plant sustainable development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    SWOT Analysis is a Useful tool that can he applied to most projects or business ventures. In this article we are going to examine major strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats of nuclear power plants in view of sustainable development. Nuclear power plants have already attained widespread recognition for its benefits in fossil pollution abatement, near-zero green house gas emission, price stability and security of energy supply. The impressive new development is that these virtues are now a cost -free bonus, because, in long run, nuclear energy has become an inexpensive way to generate electricity. Nuclear energy's pre-eminence economically and environmentally has two implications for government policy. First, governments should ensure that nuclear licensing and safety oversight arc not only rigorous but also efficient in facilitating timely development of advanced power plants. Second, governments should be bold incentivizing the transformation to clean energy economics, recognizing that such short-term stimulus will, in the case of nuclear plants, simply accelerate desirable changes that now have their own long-term momentum. The increased competitiveness of nuclear power plant is the result of cost reductions in all aspects of nuclear economics: Construction, financing, operations, waste management and decommissioning. Among the cost-lowering factors are the evolution to standardized reactor designs, shorter construction periods, new financing techniques, more efficient generation technologies, higher rates of reactor utilization, and longer plant lifetimes. U.S World Nuclear Association report shows that total electricity costs for power plant construction and operation were calculated at two interest rates. At 10%, midrange generating costs per kilowatt-hour are nuclear at 4 cents, coal at 4.7 cents and natural gas at 5.1 cent. At a 5% interest rate, mid-range costs per KWh fall to nuclear at 2.6 cents, coal at 3.7 cents and natural gas at 4.3 cents

  2. Nuclear technology in the 21st century. A Supplement to the series of Nuclear power in the 21st century

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The major adversary of the development of nuclear power production is public concern brought about the fear of radioactivity and contamination. It is called the nuclear fobia. Other uncertainties of power production is the trap of greenhouse effect causing global warming. The solution to the controversial problems might be sought through the game theory. The results of some modelling using game theory processes imply that the most dangerous scenario for the humanity in long term might be the results of greenhouse effect. This means that nuclear technology presents less danger, and its safety could be increased so that the probability of nuclear accident approaches zero. A new generation of nuclear power plants will be constructed. (R.P.)

  3. 1000kW on-site PAFC power plant development and demonstration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Satomi, Tomohide; Koike, Shunichi [Phosphoric Acid Fuel Cell Technology Research Association (PAFC-TRA), Osaka (Japan); Ishikawa, Ryou [New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization (NEDO), Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-12-31

    Phosphoric Acid Fuel Cell Technology Research Association (PAFC-TRA) and New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization (NEDO) have been conducting a joint project on development of a 5000kW urban energy center type PAFC power plant (pressurized) and a 1000kW on-site PAFC power plant (non-pressurized). The objective of the technical development of 1000kW on-site PAFC power plant is to realize a medium size power plant with an overall efficiency of over 70% and an electrical efficiency of over 36%, that could be installed in a large building as a cogeneration system. The components and system integration development work and the plant design were performed in 1991 and 1992. Manufacturing of the plant and installation at the test site were completed in 1994. PAC test was carried out in 1994, and generation test was started in January 1995. Demonstration test is scheduled for 1995 and 1996.

  4. Safety aspects of nuclear power plant ageing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The nuclear community is facing new challenges as commercial nuclear power plants (NPPs) of the first generation get older. At present, some of the plants are approaching or have even exceeded the end of their nominal design life. Experience with fossil fired power plants and in other industries shows that reliability of NPP components, and consequently general plant safety and reliability, may decline in the middle and later years of plant life. Thus, the task of maintaining operational safety and reliability during the entire plant life and especially, in its later years, is of growing importance. Recognizing the potential impact of ageing on plant safety, the IAEA convened a Working Group in 1985 to draft a report to stimulate relevant activities in the Member States. This report provided the basis for the preparation of the present document, which included a review in 1986 by a Technical Committee and the incorporation of relevant results presented at the 1987 IAEA Symposium on the Safety Aspects of the Ageing and Maintenance of NPPs and in available literature. The purpose of the present document is to increase awareness and understanding of the potential impact of ageing on plant safety; of ageing processes; and of the approach and actions needed to manage the ageing of NPP components effectively. Despite the continuing growth in knowledge on the subject during the preparation of this report it nevertheless contains much that will be of interest to a wide technical and managerial audience. Furthermore, more specific technical publications on the evaluation and management of NPP ageing and service life are being developed under the Agency's programme, which is based on the recommendations of its 1988 Advisory Group on NPP ageing. Refs, figs and tabs

  5. Specific issues for seismic performance of power plant equipment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nawrotzki, Peter [GERB Vibration Control Systems, Berlin (Germany)

    2010-01-15

    Power plant machinery can be dynamically decoupled from the substructure by the effective use of helical steel springs and viscous dampers. Turbine foundations, coal mills, boiler feed pumps and other machine foundations benefit from this type of elastic support systems to mitigate the transmission of operational vibration. The application of these devices may also be used to protect against earthquakes and other catastrophic events, i.e. airplane crash, of particular importance in nuclear facilities. This article illustrates basic principles of elastic support systems and applications on power plant equipment and buildings in medium and high seismic areas. Spring damper combinations with special stiffness properties are used to reduce seismic acceleration levels of turbine components and other safety or non-safety related structures. For turbine buildings, the integration of the turbine sub-structure into the machine building can further reduce stress levels in all structural members. The application of this seismic protection strategy for a spent fuel storage tank in a high seismic area is also discussed. Safety in nuclear facilities is of particular importance and recent seismic events and the resulting damage in these facilities again brings up the discussion. One of the latest events is the 2007 Chuetsu earthquake in Japan. The resulting damage in the Kashiwazaki Kariwa Nuclear Power Plant can be found in several reports, e.g. in Yamashita. (orig.)

  6. BOILER MATERIALS FOR ULTRASUPERCRITICAL COAL POWER PLANTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R. Viswanathan; K. Coleman; R.W. Swindeman; J. Sarver; J. Blough; W. Mohn; M. Borden; S. Goodstine; I. Perrin

    2003-10-20

    The principal objective of this project is to develop materials technology for use in ultrasupercritical (USC) plant boilers capable of operating with 760 C (1400 F), 35 MPa (5000 psi) steam. This project has established a government/industry consortium to undertake a five-year effort to evaluate and develop of advanced materials that allow the use of advanced steam cycles in coal-based power plants. These advanced cycles, with steam temperatures up to 760 C, will increase the efficiency of coal-fired boilers from an average of 35% efficiency (current domestic fleet) to 47% (HHV). This efficiency increase will enable coal-fired power plants to generate electricity at competitive rates (irrespective of fuel costs) while reducing CO{sub 2} and other fuel-related emissions by as much as 29%. Success in achieving these objectives will support a number of broader goals. First, from a national prospective, the program will identify advanced materials that will make it possible to maintain a cost-competitive, environmentally acceptable coal-based electric generation option. High sulfur coals will specifically benefit in this respect by having these advanced materials evaluated in high-sulfur coal firing conditions and from the significant reductions in waste generation inherent in the increased operational efficiency. Second, from a national prospective, the results of this program will enable domestic boiler manufacturers to successfully compete in world markets for building high-efficiency coal-fired power plants.

  7. ORC-mall scale power plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jokinen, T. [Helsinki Univ. of Technology, Otaniemi (Finland). Lab. of Electromechanics

    1998-12-31

    In the conversion of low temperature heat into electricity, the greatest efficiency is obtained by using a Rankine cycle. The Organic Rankine cycle (ORC) is a Rankine cycle where an organic fluid is used instead of water as the working fluid. In the conventional ORC-solution, an axial turbine drives a standard generator through a high-speed gearbox. The system includes a separate feed pump, vacuum pump, lubrication system and requires several saft seals. The seals of the turbine have a limited working life in particular due to the high speed required. Thus, the entire present conventional ORC-plant is rather complicated and requires maintenance. To avoid these problems, a project was initiated at the Lappeenranta University of Technology to develop a high-speed, process fluid lubricated turbogenerator-feed pump as the prime mover of the ORC. The project has been continued in co-operation with the Helsinki University of Technology under the NEMO 2 program, the main goal being to build a demonstration power plant and to commercialise the project. The goals of the project were: (1) to model the ORC process, turbogenerator, and inverter, (2) to simulate the power plant in different normal and abnormal states, (3) to assess the advantages and disadvantages of various control systems, (4) to study network disturbances such as voltage and current harmonics and to research ways of reducing these disturbances, (5) to optimise heat exchanging surfaces and process parameters, and (6) to participate in the design of the demonstration power plant

  8. Safety in nuclear power plants in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deolalikar R

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Safety in nuclear power plants (NPPs in India is a very important topic and it is necessary to dissipate correct information to all the readers and the public at large. In this article, I have briefly described how the safety in our NPPs is maintained. Safety is accorded overriding priority in all the activities. NPPs in India are not only safe but are also well regulated, have proper radiological protection of workers and the public, regular surveillance, dosimetry, approved standard operating and maintenance procedures, a well-defined waste management methodology, proper well documented and periodically rehearsed emergency preparedness and disaster management plans. The NPPs have occupational health policies covering periodic medical examinations, dosimetry and bioassay and are backed-up by fully equipped Personnel Decontamination Centers manned by doctors qualified in Occupational and Industrial Health. All the operating plants are ISO 14001 and IS 18001 certified plants. The Nuclear Power Corporation of India Limited today has 17 operating plants and five plants under construction, and our scientists and engineers are fully geared to take up many more in order to meet the national requirements.

  9. Operational monitoring in German nuclear power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seibold, A. [Technischer Ueberwachungs-Verein Suedwest e.V., Filderstadt (Germany); Bartonicek, J. [GKN Neckarwestheim, Im Steinbruch, Neckarwestheim, D-74382 (Germany); Kockelmann, H. [Staatliche Materialpruefungsanstalt (MPA), University of Stuttgart, Stuttgart (Germany)

    1995-10-01

    The Atomic Energy Act requires that measures made feasible by state of the art technology be adopted to avoid damage that could be caused as the result of the construction and operation of a nuclear plant. This stipulation constitutes the basis for deriving requirements for planning, design, construction, operation and decommissioning. Ensuring the function and integrity of those components and systems that are relevant to plant safety is of major significance with regard to operation of a nuclear power plant. The basis for ensuring these features is laid in planning, design and construction. Important as these foundations may be, it is absolutely essential to monitor the quality originally planned and achieved in an object as undeniably complex as a nuclear power plant. The RSK-Leitlinien fuer Druckwasserreaktoren (Reactor Safety Commission Guidelines for Pressurized Water Reactors) incorporate fundamental requirements for design, mechanical design, materials, manufacturing, testing and examination, and operation. Meeting these requirements makes it possible to exclude a catastrophic rupture of the components in the reactor cooling system pressure boundary (primary system), as has been demonstrated in detailed research and development work. The term basic safety was defined for this concept. Basic safety coupled with multiple redundancy suffices to exclude the possibility of large ruptures (rupture preclusion). The principle of plant monitoring and documentation (operational monitoring) implements redundancy in a significant manner within this concept. The monitoring techniques used in Germany have reached an advanced state of development and are still being optimized. Thus, operational monitoring is a major contributory factor in the safety and high availability of nuclear power plants. It also provides a means of expanding our knowledge of life time expectation. (orig.).

  10. Climate change impacts on the power generation potential of a European mid-century wind farms scenario

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobin, Isabelle; Jerez, Sonia; Vautard, Robert; Thais, Françoise; van Meijgaard, Erik; Prein, Andreas; Déqué, Michel; Kotlarski, Sven; Fox Maule, Cathrine; Nikulin, Grigory; Noël, Thomas; Teichmann, Claas

    2016-03-01

    Wind energy resource is subject to changes in climate. To investigate the impacts of climate change on future European wind power generation potential, we analyze a multi-model ensemble of the most recent EURO-CORDEX regional climate simulations at the 12 km grid resolution. We developed a mid-century wind power plant scenario to focus the impact assessment on relevant locations for future wind power industry. We found that, under two greenhouse gas concentration scenarios, changes in the annual energy yield of the future European wind farms fleet as a whole will remain within ±5% across the 21st century. At country to local scales, wind farm yields will undergo changes up to 15% in magnitude, according to the large majority of models, but smaller than 5% in magnitude for most regions and models. The southern fleets such as the Iberian and Italian fleets are likely to be the most affected. With regard to variability, changes are essentially small or poorly significant from subdaily to interannual time scales.

  11. Climate change impacts on the power generation potential of a European mid-century wind farms scenario

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wind energy resource is subject to changes in climate. To investigate the impacts of climate change on future European wind power generation potential, we analyze a multi-model ensemble of the most recent EURO-CORDEX regional climate simulations at the 12 km grid resolution. We developed a mid-century wind power plant scenario to focus the impact assessment on relevant locations for future wind power industry. We found that, under two greenhouse gas concentration scenarios, changes in the annual energy yield of the future European wind farms fleet as a whole will remain within ±5% across the 21st century. At country to local scales, wind farm yields will undergo changes up to 15% in magnitude, according to the large majority of models, but smaller than 5% in magnitude for most regions and models. The southern fleets such as the Iberian and Italian fleets are likely to be the most affected. With regard to variability, changes are essentially small or poorly significant from subdaily to interannual time scales. (letter)

  12. The solar power tower Jülich – a solar thermal power plant for test and demonstration of air receiver

    OpenAIRE

    Hennecke, Klaus; Schwarzbözl, Peter; Hoffschmidt, Bernhard; Göttsche, Joachim; Koll, Gerrit; Beuter, Matthias; Hartz, Thomas

    2007-01-01

    The paper explains the fundamentals of the open volumetric receiver technology and shows the history of its development. It gives technical information about the system definition and the engineering of the Solar Power Tower Jülich. The open volumetric receiver technology allows the use of air as heat transfer medium at high temperatures in solar thermal power tower plants. It combines porous ceramic or metallic absorber structures with a strictly modular receiver design. Highly concentrat...

  13. Coal Moisture Estimation in Power Plant Mills

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Palle; Bendtsen, Jan Dimon; Pedersen, Tom S.;

    2009-01-01

    Knowledge of moisture content in raw coal feed to a power plant coal mill is of importance for efficient operation of the mill. The moisture is commonly measured approximately once a day using offline chemical analysis methods; however, it would be advantageous for the dynamic operation of the...... plant if an on-line estimate were available. In this paper we such propose an on-line estimator (an extended Kalman filter) that uses only existing measurements. The scheme is tested on actual coal mill data collected during a one-month operating period, and it is found that the daily measured moisture...

  14. Maximisation of Combined Cycle Power Plant Efficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janusz Kotowicz

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents concepts for increasing the efficiency of a modern combined cycle power plant. Improvement of gas turbine performance indicators as well as recovering heat from the air cooling the gas turbine’s flow system enable reaching gross electrical efficiencies of around 65%. Analyses for a wide range of compressor pressure ratios were performed. Operating characteristics were developed for the analysed combined cycle plant, for different types of open air cooling arrangements of the gas turbine’s expander: convective, transpiration and film.

  15. Integrated CAE system for nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The design and engineering of nuclear power plant covers various technical fields. The information created in many fields is exchanged and utilized in many places at the same time. As CAE systems are applied to several plants, large and diverse information has been accumulated on the data base management system. Discrepancies in information and complicated data handling has come to light at routine work on large scale CAE systems. In view of the above, TOSHIBA has integrated CAE system to utilize information more efficiently. This paper describes that TOSHIBA has been improving user interface in an integrated environment and building intelligent applications specialized for nuclear engineering. (author)

  16. Seismic instrumentation for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A seismic instrumentation system used in Nuclear Power Plants to monitor the design parameters of systems, structures and components, needed to provide safety to those Plants, against the action of earthquakes is described. The instrumentation described is based on the nuclear standards in force. The minimum amount of sensors and other components used, as well as their general localization, is indicated. The operation of the instrumentation system as a whole and the handling of the recovered data are dealt with accordingly. The various devices used are not covered in detail, except for the accelerometer, which is the seismic instrumentation basic component. (Author)

  17. Management of delayed nuclear power plant projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    According to the available information at the IAEA PRIS (Power Reactor Information System) at the end of 1998 there were more than 40 nuclear power plant projects with delays of five or more years with respect to the originally scheduled commercial operation. The degree of conformance with original construction schedules showed large variations due to several issues, including financial, economic and public opinion factors. Taking into account the number of projects with several years delay in their original schedules, it was considered useful to identify the subject areas where exchange of experience among Member States would be mutually beneficial in identification of problems and development of guidance for successful management of the completion of these delayed projects. A joint programme of the IAEA Departments of Nuclear Energy (Nuclear Power Engineering Section) and Technical Co-operation (Europe Section, with additional support from the Latin America and West Asia Sections) was set up during the period 1997-1998. The specific aim of the programme was to provide assistance in the management of delayed nuclear power plants regarding measures to maintain readiness for resuming the project implementation schedule when the conditions permit. The integration of IAEA interdepartmental resources enabled the participation of 53 experts from 14 Member States resulting in a wider exchange of experience and dissemination of guidance. Under the framework of the joint programme, senior managers directly responsible for delayed nuclear power plant projects identified several issues or problem areas that needed to be addressed and guidance on management be provided. A work plan for the development of several working documents, addressing the different issues, was established. Subsequently these documents were merged into a single one to produce the present publication. This publication provides information and practical examples on necessary management actions to preserve

  18. The electrical system of nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In these system, electrical power system is supplied from two-offsite transmission system respective main transformer and house service transformer; and reserve transformer. The electrical load in these system consist of safety electrical system and non-safety electrical system, The safety electrical and non safety electrical systems consist of four 6,9 kV AC medium voltage bus and 480 V AC low voltage bus system. The DC power system consist of four safety 125 V DC power system and the two non-safety 125 DC power systems. The equipment in these electrical system is main turbine-generator; GTG safety; GTG alternate; uninterrupted power supply (UPS) and battery system. To protect electrical equipment and building to direct stroke and non direct stroke disturbances is installed netral grounding system and lightning protection and protection the personnel to touch-voltage is installed equipment grounding system and station grounding. The lightning arrester system is connected to station station grounding system. (author)

  19. Environmental impacts of nonfusion power systems. [Data on environmental effects of all power sources that may be competitive with fusion reactor power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brouns, R.J.

    1976-09-01

    Data were collected on the environmental effects of power sources that may be competitive with future fusion reactor power plants. Data are included on nuclear power plants using HTGR, LMBR, GCFR, LMFBR, and molten salt reactors; fossil-fuel electric power plants; geothermal power plants; solar energy power plants, including satellite-based solar systems; wind energy power plants; ocean thermal gradient power plants; tidal energy power plants; and power plants using hydrogen and other synthetic fuels as energy sources.

  20. Heat sink design considerations in medium power electronic applications with long power cycles

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(SzGeCERN)744611; Papastergiou, Konstantinos; Thiringer, Torbjörn; Bongiorno, Massimo

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this work is to investigate the impact of the heat sink thickness and material, as well as, of the convection coefficient of the water cooling system on the power-electronics module thermal stressing. The heat extraction capability of different thicknesses is tested. It is concluded that the thickest heat sink results in marginally lower temperature variation at the junction level compared to the second thickest one. In the thickest heat sink case, the linear dependence of the thermal resistance on the thickness counteracts the benefit of the increased thermal capacitance. The increase in the cooling medium flow rate, which corresponds to an increase in the convection coefficient between the heat sink bottom surface and the water, can be avoided by increasing the thickness of the heat sink. In this way, the energy consumption of the cooling system is reduced. The increase in the flow rate drastically reduces the thermal stressing in the thinnest heat sink case. The increase of the heat sink thickne...

  1. Comparative analysis of cooling systems for energy equipment of combined heat and power plants and nuclear power plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reutov, B. F.; Lazarev, M. V.; Ermakova, S. V.; Zisman, S. L.; Kaplanovich, L. S.; Svetushkov, V. V.

    2016-07-01

    In the 20th century, the thermal power engineering in this country was oriented toward oncethrough cooling systems. More than 50% of the CHPP and NPP capacities with once-through cooling systems put into operation before the 1990s were large-scale water consumers but with minimum irretrievable water consumption. In 1995, the Water Code of the Russian Federation was adopted in which restrictions on application of once-through cooling systems for newly designed combined heat and power plants (CHPPs) were introduced for the first time. A ban on application of once-through systems was imposed by the current Water Code of the Russian Federation (Federal law no. 74-FZ, Art. 60 Cl. 4) not only for new CHPPs but also for those to be modified. Clause 4 of Article 60 of the Water Code of the Russian Federation contravenes law no. 7-FZ "On Protection of the Environment" that has priority significance, since the water environment is only part of the natural environment and those articles of the Water Code of the Russian Federation that are related directly to electric power engineering, viz., Articles 46 and 62. In recent decades, the search for means to increase revenue charges and the economic pressure on the thermal power industry caused introduction by law of charges for use of water by cooling systems irrespective of the latter's impact on the water quality of the source, the environment, the economic efficiency of the power production, and the living conditions of the people. The long-range annual increase in the water use charges forces the power generating companies to switch transfer once-through service water supply installations to recirculating water supply systems and once-through-recirculating systems with multiple reuse of warm water, which drastically reduces the technical, economic, and ecological characteristic of the power plant operation and also results in increasing power rates for the population. This work comprehensively substantiates the demands of

  2. International conference on opportunities and challenges for water cooled reactors in the 21. century. PowerPoint presentations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Water Cooled Reactors have been the keystone of the nuclear industry in the 20th Century. As we move into the 21st Century and face new challenges such as the threat of climate change or the large growth in world energy demand, nuclear energy has been singled out as one of the sources that could substantially and sustainably contribute to power the world. As the nuclear community worldwide looks into the future with the development of advanced and innovative reactor designs and fuel cycles, it becomes important to explore the role Water Cooled Reactors (WCRs) will play in this future. To support the future role of WCRs, substantial design and development programmes are underway in a number of Member States to incorporate additional technology improvements into advanced nuclear power plants (NPPs) designs. One of the key features of advanced nuclear reactor designs is their improved safety due to a reduction in the probability and consequences of accidents and to an increase in the operator time allowed to better assess and properly react to abnormal events. A systematic approach and the experience of many years of successful operation have allowed designers to focus their design efforts and develop safer, more efficient and more reliable designs, and to optimize plant availability and cost through improved maintenance programs and simpler operation and inspection practices. Because many of these advanced WCR designs will be built in countries with no previous nuclear experience, it is also important to establish a forum to facilitate the exchange of information on the infrastructure and technical issues associated with the sustainable deployment of advanced nuclear reactors and its application for the optimization of maintenance of operating nuclear power plants. This international conference seeks to be all-inclusive, bringing together the policy, economic and technical decision-makers and the stakeholders in the nuclear industry such as operators, suppliers

  3. Planning for decommissioning power plants in Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Komatsu, Junji (Research Association for Nuclear Facility Decommissioning, Tokaimura, Ibaraki (Japan))

    1993-02-01

    The first decommissioning of a commercial nuclear power plant in Japan is not expected before the early 2000s, but the technology and regulations needed are being developed now. Valuable technical experience is being gained from three current projects. These are the decommissioning of the Japan Reprocessing Test Facility, the Japan Power Demonstration Reactor and the nuclear ship Mutsu. Improving and commercialising the technology are seen as essential for the future to reduce occupational radiation exposure, the amount of waste and costs. International cooperation and information exchange are of increasing importance for developing technology and regulations. (U.K.).

  4. Improved repowering techniques for power plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Houbak, Niels; Andersen, Simon E.; Petersen, Stiig Bo;

    1998-01-01

    Repowering of existing coal-fired power plants is often accomplished by adding gas turbines. In this paper we assume that the gas turbine exhaust is used for feed water preheating.Typical gas turbine exhaust temperatures are in the range 450-600C whereas typical boiler inlet temperatures are 250......-300C. The big difference in temperature between exhaust and water prevents an efficient exchange of heat. One way to lower the exhaust temperature is to expand the gas to sub atmospheric pressure. The result is a 50% increase in possible installed gas turbine power....

  5. Capacity Value of Concentrating Solar Power Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Madaeni, S. H.; Sioshansi, R.; Denholm, P.

    2011-06-01

    This study estimates the capacity value of a concentrating solar power (CSP) plant at a variety of locations within the western United States. This is done by optimizing the operation of the CSP plant and by using the effective load carrying capability (ELCC) metric, which is a standard reliability-based capacity value estimation technique. Although the ELCC metric is the most accurate estimation technique, we show that a simpler capacity-factor-based approximation method can closely estimate the ELCC value. Without storage, the capacity value of CSP plants varies widely depending on the year and solar multiple. The average capacity value of plants evaluated ranged from 45%?90% with a solar multiple range of 1.0-1.5. When introducing thermal energy storage (TES), the capacity value of the CSP plant is more difficult to estimate since one must account for energy in storage. We apply a capacity-factor-based technique under two different market settings: an energy-only market and an energy and capacity market. Our results show that adding TES to a CSP plant can increase its capacity value significantly at all of the locations. Adding a single hour of TES significantly increases the capacity value above the no-TES case, and with four hours of storage or more, the average capacity value at all locations exceeds 90%.

  6. Supervisory monitoring system in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monitoring of a power plant is one of the essential tasks during operation and the computer-based implementations are nowadays seemingly quite mature. However, presently these are still not satisfactory enough to meet the high standards to the licensing requirements and they are mostly not truly integrated to the plant's design-based monitoring system. This is basically due to the robustness problem as the majority of the methods are not robust enough for the monitoring of the safety parameter set in a plant or intelligent supervision. Therefore, a supervisory monitoring system (SMS) in a plant is necessary to supervise the monitoring tasks: determining the objectives to be obtained and finding the means to support them. SMS deals with the changing plant status and the coordination of the information flow among the monitoring subunits. By means of these robustness and consistency in monitoring is achieved. The paper will give the guidelines of knowledge and data management techniques in a framework of robust comprehensive and coordinated monitoring which is presented as supervisory monitoring. Such a high level monitoring serves for consistent and immediate actions in fault situations while this particularly has vital importance in preventing imminent severe accidents next to the issues of recognition of the monitoring procedures for licensing and enhanced plant safety. (author). 8 refs, 5 figs

  7. Power loss and electromagnetic energy density in a dispersive metamaterial medium

    OpenAIRE

    Luan, Pi-Gang

    2009-01-01

    The power loss and electromagnetic energy density of a metamaterial consisting of arrays of wires and split-ring resonators (SRRs) are investigated. We show that a field energy density formula can be derived consistently from both the electrodynamic (ED) approach and the equivalent circuit (EC) approach. The derivations are based on the knowledge of the dynamical equations of the electric and magnetic dipoles in the medium and the correct form of the power loss. We discuss the role of power l...

  8. Simulators for training nuclear power plant personnel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simulator training and retraining of operations personnel is essential for their acquiring the necessary knowledge, skills and qualification for operating a nuclear power plant, and for effective feedback of experience including human based operating errors. Simulator training is the most effective way by far of training operations personnel in co-operation and communication in a team, which also involves instilling attitudes and approaches for achieving excellence and individual responsibility and alertness. This technical document provides guidance to Member States on the procurement, setting up and utilization of a simulator training centre; it will also be useful for organizations with previous experience in the use of simulators for training. The document is the result of a series of advisory and consultants meetings held in the framework of the International Working Group on Nuclear Power Plant Control and Instrumentation in 1989-1992. 17 refs, 2 tabs

  9. Constitutional determinants of nuclear power plant upgrading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Around half a year ago the European stress test for nuclear power plants, a precautionary measure initiated by the European Council in March 2011 in response to the Fukushima disaster, revealed that while German nuclear power plants show a high degree of robustness compared with those in other European countries, they nevertheless required upgrading in one or the other respect (earthquake warning systems, protection against crashing civil passenger airplanes). The present article investigates whether this upgrading requirement can justify an injunction to carry out structural retrofitting measures or whether obligations to this end can be excluded on grounds of reasonability in view of the recent decision taken by the German parliament to phase out nuclear energy.

  10. Quality assurance auditing for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This Safety Guide provides requirements and recommendations for establishing and implementing a system of internal and external audits during the design, manufacture, construction, commissioning and operation of nuclear power plants. It provides for the planning, performance, reporting and follow-up of the quality assurance audit activity. It defines in general terms the responsibilities of the auditing and audited organizations. The Guide also covers auditing in the context of supplier evaluation; it does not include inspection for the sole purpose of process control or product acceptance. Like the Code, the present Guide was prepared as part of the IAEA's programme, referred to as the NUSS programme, for establishing Codes of Practice and Safety Guides relating to land-based stationary thermal neutron power plants

  11. The Dukovany nuclear power plant in 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 1992, the Dukovany nuclear power plant generated 12,250,230 MWh and supplied 11,475,241 MWh of electricity to the grid, which was 100.8% with respect to the plan of supplies. The profit was 177.5 million CZK (Czechoslovak crowns). The power plant had 2475 people on staff. Major repairs were made on all the 4 units. Inspectors of the State Surveillance over Nuclear Safety recorded 115 failures, 4 of which were evaluated as level 1 on the INES scale, the other were level 0. Data on gaseous and liquid effluents are given in tables. No health physics limit was surpassed in 1992. (M.D.). 10 figs., 3 tabs

  12. Decommissioning of the Loviisa power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In accordance with the provisions laid in the decision of the Ministry for Trade and Industry Imatran Voima Oy has revised the decommissioning plan for the Loviisa power plant, and submitted it to the authorities for review in December 1993. The plan outlines the technical measures needed to dismantle the radioactive parts of the Loviisa power plant, explains how the resulting waste will be packed and disposed of, and estimates how many people will be needed for the decommissioning waste will be. A general timetable and a cost estimate have also been drawn up on the basis of a detailed working plan. In this report the plan has been revised for cost estimate, activity inventory of the decommissioning waste and radiation dose caused by dismantling work. (orig.). (11 refs., 10 figs., 8 tabs.)

  13. The design of solar tower power plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gretz, J.

    The conversion of solar energy into electricity in solar thermal tower power plants is examined. Mirrors attached to mobile, sun-following heliostats concentrate solar rays into the opening of a receiver mounted on a tower. In the receiver, the radiant energy is absorbed by a system of pipes filled with a flowing material which is heated and drives a turbogenerator directly or via a heat exchanger. It is shown that the optics involved in this concept preclude the optimization of the pipe material, since the local distribution of rays in the heater of tower power plants varies diurnally and annually. This requires each pipe section to be designed for maximum stress, even though that stress occurs only at brief intervals during the day.

  14. Non-conventional Power Plants in Aviation

    OpenAIRE

    Voronovs, V; Šestakovs, V

    2014-01-01

    Power plants on the basis of heat engines except for reciprocating internal combustion engines and jet propulsion engines are classified by the authors of the paper as non- conventional ones. The article also presents the results of research carried out in this field by scientists of the Institute of Aeronautics of Riga Technical University. The article describes the two patents. The first patent to be considered was received for a rotary-piston engine, the second one – for the Stirling engin...

  15. Nuclear power plant safety in Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Code of Practice for the Safe Operation of Nuclear Power Plants states that: 'In discharging its responsibility for public health and safety, the government should ensure that the operational safety of a nuclear reactor is subject to surveillance by a regulatory body independent of the operating organization'. In Brazil this task is being carried out by the Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear in accordance with the best international practice. (orig./RW)

  16. Special aspects of nuclear power plant construction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The very strict safety and quality requirements as well as the necessity of strengthened schedule and investment control make good project management even more important to the construction of nuclear power plant than conventional projects. For developing countries, to increase the extent of local participation becomes an essential way to reduce the construction costs and improve the nuclear competitiveness. Modular construction approach and design for construct ability are discussed as viable means to further reduce construction time and costs

  17. Advanced Power Plant Development and Analyses Methodologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    G.S. Samuelsen; A.D. Rao

    2006-02-06

    Under the sponsorship of the U.S. Department of Energy/National Energy Technology Laboratory, a multi-disciplinary team led by the Advanced Power and Energy Program of the University of California at Irvine is defining the system engineering issues associated with the integration of key components and subsystems into advanced power plant systems with goals of achieving high efficiency and minimized environmental impact while using fossil fuels. These power plant concepts include ''Zero Emission'' power plants and the ''FutureGen'' H{sub 2} co-production facilities. The study is broken down into three phases. Phase 1 of this study consisted of utilizing advanced technologies that are expected to be available in the ''Vision 21'' time frame such as mega scale fuel cell based hybrids. Phase 2 includes current state-of-the-art technologies and those expected to be deployed in the nearer term such as advanced gas turbines and high temperature membranes for separating gas species and advanced gasifier concepts. Phase 3 includes identification of gas turbine based cycles and engine configurations suitable to coal-based gasification applications and the conceptualization of the balance of plant technology, heat integration, and the bottoming cycle for analysis in a future study. Also included in Phase 3 is the task of acquiring/providing turbo-machinery in order to gather turbo-charger performance data that may be used to verify simulation models as well as establishing system design constraints. The results of these various investigations will serve as a guide for the U. S. Department of Energy in identifying the research areas and technologies that warrant further support.

  18. Advanced Power Plant Development and Analysis Methodologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    A.D. Rao; G.S. Samuelsen; F.L. Robson; B. Washom; S.G. Berenyi

    2006-06-30

    Under the sponsorship of the U.S. Department of Energy/National Energy Technology Laboratory, a multi-disciplinary team led by the Advanced Power and Energy Program of the University of California at Irvine is defining the system engineering issues associated with the integration of key components and subsystems into advanced power plant systems with goals of achieving high efficiency and minimized environmental impact while using fossil fuels. These power plant concepts include 'Zero Emission' power plants and the 'FutureGen' H2 co-production facilities. The study is broken down into three phases. Phase 1 of this study consisted of utilizing advanced technologies that are expected to be available in the 'Vision 21' time frame such as mega scale fuel cell based hybrids. Phase 2 includes current state-of-the-art technologies and those expected to be deployed in the nearer term such as advanced gas turbines and high temperature membranes for separating gas species and advanced gasifier concepts. Phase 3 includes identification of gas turbine based cycles and engine configurations suitable to coal-based gasification applications and the conceptualization of the balance of plant technology, heat integration, and the bottoming cycle for analysis in a future study. Also included in Phase 3 is the task of acquiring/providing turbo-machinery in order to gather turbo-charger performance data that may be used to verify simulation models as well as establishing system design constraints. The results of these various investigations will serve as a guide for the U. S. Department of Energy in identifying the research areas and technologies that warrant further support.

  19. Thermodynamics in nuclear power plant systems

    CERN Document Server

    Zohuri, Bahman

    2015-01-01

    This book covers the fundamentals of thermodynamics required to understand electrical power generation systems, honing in on the application of these principles to nuclear reactor powersystems. It includes all the necessary information regarding the fundamental laws to gain a complete understanding and apply them specifically to the challenges of operating nuclear plants. Beginning with definitions of thermodynamic variables such as temperature, pressure and specific volume, the book then explains the laws in detail, focusing on pivotal concepts such as enthalpy and entropy, irreversibilit

  20. System Studies of Fuel Cell Power Plants

    OpenAIRE

    Kivisaari, Timo

    2001-01-01

    This thesis concerns system studies of power plants wheredifferent types of fuel cells accomplish most of the energyconversion. Ever since William Grove observed the fuel cell effect inthe late 1830s fuel cells have been the subject or more or lessintense research and development. Especially in the USA theseactivities intensified during the second part of the 1950s,resulting in the development of the fuel cells used in theApollo-program. Swedish fuel cell activities started in themid-1960s, w...

  1. Nuclear power plant construction activity, 1986

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cost estimates, chronological data on construction progress, and the physical characteristics of nuclear units in commercial operation and units in the construction pipeline as of December 31, 1986, are presented. This report, which is updated annually, was prepared to provide an overview of the nuclear power plant construction industry. The report contains information on the status of nuclear generating units, average construction costs and lead-times, and construction milestones for individual reactors

  2. "It's not Just Camp!": Understanding the Meaning of Children's Cancer Camps for Children and Families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laing, Catherine M; Moules, Nancy J

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this philosophical hermeneutic inquiry was to understand the meaning of children's cancer camps for the child with cancer and the family. Six childhood cancer families and 5 cancer camp counselors were interviewed, in order to bring understanding to this topic. Findings from this research revealed that camp means different things for different families, and that much is at play in the cancer camp experience: the healing and developmental power of play, finding acceptance and fit, grief as something to live with versus "get over," storytelling as a means of reshaping and understanding traumatic experiences, and the solidarity of the community as one that creates intense, healing bonds. Children's cancer camps, we conclude, should be considered a necessity, versus a luxury, and could even be thought of as a psychosocial intervention for some children and families. Barriers such as structure of funding and access to resources are present and likely due to the separateness of camps from hospital programs. PMID:25643975

  3. Fatigue monitoring in Nuclear Power Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ware, A.G.; Shah, V.N. [Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    1995-04-01

    This paper summarizes fatigue monitoring methods and surveys their application in the nuclear power industry. The paper is based on a review of the technical literature. Two main reasons for fatigue monitoring are more frequent occurrence of some transients than that assumed in the fatigue design analysis and the discovery of stressors that were not included in the fatigue design analysis but may cause significant fatigue damage at some locations. One fatigue monitoring method involves use of plant operating data and procedures to update the fatigue usage. Another method involves monitoring of plant operating parameters using existing, or if needed, supplementary plant instrumentation for online computation of fatigue usage. Use of fatigue monitoring has better defined the operational transients. Most operational transients have been found less severe and fewer in numbers than anticipated in the design fatigue analysis. Use of fatigue monitoring has assisted in quantifying newly discovered stressors and has helped in detecting the presence of thermal stratification of unsuspected locations.

  4. Wireless Technology Application to Nuclear Power Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jeong Kweon; Jeong, See Chae; Jeong, Ki Hoon; Oh, Do Young; Kim, Jae Hack [KOPEC, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-10-15

    Wireless technologies are getting widely used in various industrial processes for equipment condition monitoring, process measurement and other applications. In case of Nuclear Power Plant (NPP), it is required to review applicability of the wireless technologies for maintaining plant reliability, preventing equipment failure, and reducing operation and maintenance costs. Remote sensors, mobile technology and two-way radio communication may satisfy these needs. The application of the state of the art wireless technologies in NPPs has been restricted because of the vulnerability for the Electromagnetic Interference and Radio Frequency Interference (EMI/RFI) and cyber security. It is expected that the wireless technologies can be applied to the nuclear industry after resolving these issues which most of the developers and vendors are aware of. This paper presents an overview and information on general wireless deployment in nuclear facilities for future application. It also introduces typical wireless plant monitoring system application in the existing NPPs.

  5. Nuclear power plant safety and reliability assurance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The philosophy of nuclear power plant safety is that design should follow established and conservative engineering practices, there should be safety margins in all modes of plant operations, special systems should be provided for response to accidents, and safety systems should have redundant components. This philosophy provides ''defense in depth.'' In recent years, with the accumulation of operating experience and the unexpected complexity of the present generation of light water reactors, the defense in depth philosophy has been supplemented by risk and reliability assessments. Reliability assurance programs based on these probabilistic engineering assessments provide a means of integrating design review, maintenance, testing, replacement of parts, failure reporting, and corrective action, so that the protection of the plant and the public can be systematically ensured

  6. Construct ability Improvement for Nuclear Power Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Dae Soo; Lee, Jong Rim; Kim, Jong Ku [Korea Electric Power Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-12-31

    The purpose of this study was to identify methods for improving the construct ability of nuclear power plants. This study reviewed several references of current construction practices of domestic and overseas nuclear plants in order to identify potential methods for improving construct ability. The identified methods for improving construct ability were then evaluated based on the applicability to domestic nuclear plant construction. The selected methods are expected to reduce the construction period, improve the quality of construction, cost, safety, and productivity. Selection of which methods should be implemented will require further evaluation of construction modifications, design changes, contract revisions. Among construction methods studied, platform construction methods can be applied through construction sequence modification without significant design changes, and Over the Top construction method of the NSSS, automatic welding of RCL pipes, CLP modularization, etc., are considered to be applied after design modification and adjustment of material lead time. (author). 49 refs., figs., tabs.

  7. Power plant productivity improvement in New York

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1981-03-01

    The New York Public Service Commission (PSC), under contract with the US Department of Energy (DOE), began a joint program in September 1978 to improve the productivity of coal and nuclear electric generating units in New York State. The project had dual objectives: to ensure that the utilities in New York State have or develop a systematic permanent, cost-effective productivity improvement program based on sound engineering and economic considerations, and to develop a model program for Power Plant Productivity Improvement, which, through DOE, can also be utilized by other regulatory commissions in the country. To accomplish these objectives, the program was organized into the following sequence of activities: compilation and analysis of power plant performance data; evaluation and comparison of utility responses to outage/derating events; power plant productivity improvement project cost-benefit analysis; and evaluation of regulatory procedures and policies for improving productivity. The program that developed for improving the productivity of coal units is substantially different than for nuclear units. Each program is presented, and recommendations are made for activities of both the utilities and regulatory agencies which will promote improved productivity.

  8. Decontamination of operational nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to reduce the radiation fields around nuclear power plants, and, consequently, to limit the radiation exposure of and dose commitments to the operating and maintenance personnel, the contamination build-up should be kept to a minimum. The most fruitful approach, from the point of view of economics and efficiency, is to tackle the problems of contamination and decontamination in the design and construction phases of the reactor. To do this, knowledge gained from the operation of existing power reactors should be used to make improvements in new designs. New structural materials with low corrosion rates or whose constituents are not activated by neutrons should also be used. For older reactors, in most cases it is already too late to incorporate design changes without extensive and expensive modifications. For these plants, decontamination remains the most efficient way to reduce radiation fields. The aim of this report is to deal with the different decontamination methods that may be applied to nuclear power plant circuits and equipment during operation. The factors that have to be considered in determining the type and the extent of the methods used are the engineering and the planning of the decontamination operation and the treatment of the resulting waste generated during the process are also discussed

  9. Environmental monitoring around nuclear power plant sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The environmental monitoring around nuclear power plant sites is presented. The basic policy that no part of the ecosystem should be subjected to excessive (above natural) radiation exposure is realized by predictive methodology of environmental and dosimetric models. The validation of these models is achieved through environmental monitoring around nuclear power plant sites right from the pre-operational period through operational phase. The 'potential contaminated media' are monitored in pre-operational phase. The measurements carried out in the environmental matrices for assessment of the impact on the population demonstrate that the objectives of the Department of Atomic Energy are fully realized. These activities are carried out at each nuclear power plant site by establishing an Environmental Survey Laboratory, which operates under the administrative and technical control of the Health Physics Division of BARC. This arrangement ensures independence from the operating organisation and better public acceptance of data generated. The results of environmental monitoring indicate that the radiation dose received by members of the public is well below the regulatory limits. (author)

  10. Safety goals for nuclear power plant operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report presents and discusses the Nuclear Regulatory Commission's, Policy Statement on Safety Goals for the Operation of Nuclear Power Plants. The safety goals have been formulated in terms of qualitative goals and quantitative design objectives. The qualitative goals state that the risk to any individual member of the public from nuclear power plant operation should not be a significant contributor to that individual's risk of accidental death or injury and that the societal risks should be comparable to or less than those of viable competing technologies. The quantitative design objectives state that the average risks to individual and the societal risks of nuclear power plant operation should not exceed 0.1% of certain other risks to which members of the US population are exposed. A subsidiary quantitative design objective is established for the frequency of large-scale core melt. The significance of the goals and objectives, their bases and rationale, and the plan to evaluate the goals are provided. In addition, public comments on the 1982 proposed policy statement and responses to a series of questions that accompanied the 1982 statement are summarized

  11. Regional economic impacts of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study of economic and social impacts of nuclear power facilities compares a nuclear energy center (NEC) consisting of three surrogate sites in Ocean County, New Jersey with nuclear facilities dispersed in the Pennsylvania - New Jersey - Maryland area. The NEC studied in this report is assumed to contain 20 reactors of 1200 MW(e) each, for a total NEC capacity of 24,000 MW(e). Following the Introductory chapter, Chapter II discusses briefly the methodological basis for estimating impacts. This part of the analysis only considers impacts of wages and salaries and not purchase of construction materials within the region. Chapters III and IV, respectively, set forth the scenarios of an NEC at each of three sites in Ocean County, N.J. and of a pattern of dispersed nuclear power plants of total equivalent generating capacity. In each case, the economic impacts (employment and income) are calculated, emphasizing the regional effects. In Chapter V these impacts are compared and some more general conclusions are reported. A more detailed analysis of the consequences of the construction of a nuclear power plant is given in Chapter VI. An interindustry (input-output) study, which uses rather finely disaggregated data to estimate the impacts of a prototype plant that might be constructed either as a component of the dispersed scenario or as part of an NEC, is given. Some concluding remarks are given in Chapter VII, and policy questions are emphasized

  12. The challenge of financing nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To date, more then 500 nuclear power reactors have been successfully financed and built. Experience in recent nuclear projects confirms that nuclear power will not cease to be a viable option due to a worldwide financing constraint. For financing nuclear plants there are special considerations: large investment; long lead and construction times; complex technology; regulatory risk and political risk. The principal preconditions to financing are a national policy supporting nuclear power; creditworthiness; economic competitiveness; project feasibility; assurance of adequate revenues; acceptability of risks; and no open-ended liabilities. Generally, nuclear power plants are financed conventionally through multi-sources, where a package covers the entire cost. The first source, the investor/owner/operator responsible for building and operating the plant, should cover a sizable portion of the overall investment. In addition, bond issues, domestic bank credits etc. and, in case of State-owned or controlled enterprises, donations and credits from public entities or the governmental budget, should complete the financing. A financially sound utility should be able to meet this challenge. For importing technology, bids are invited. Export credits should form the basis of foreign financing, because these have favorable terms and conditions. Suppliers from several countries may join in a consortium subdividing the scope of supply and involve several Export Credit Agencies (ECAs). There are also innovative financing approaches that could be applied to nuclear projects. Evolutionary Reactors with smaller overall investment, shorter construction times, reliance on proven technology, together with predictable regulatory regimes and reliable long-term national policies favorable to nuclear power, should make it easier to meet the future challenges of financing. (author)

  13. Radiation protection during operation of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This Guide describes a Radiation Protection Programme for nuclear power plants. It includes: (1) An outline of the basic principles as well as practical aspects of the programme; (2) A description of the responsibilities of the operating organization to establish an effective programme based upon these principles; (3) A description of the administrative and technical measures to establish and implement the programme. This Guide also deals with the operational aspects to be considered by the operating organization in reviewing design in order to facilitate implementation of the Radiation Protection Programme. This Guide covers the requirements for a Radiation Protection Programme for all operational states of the nuclear power plant. It also includes guidelines for handling planned special exposures and for coping with unplanned exposures and contamination of personnel, areas, and equipment. Additional information concerning emergency situations involving releases of radioactive materials is given in Safety Guides 50-SG-O6, ''Preparedness of the Operating Organization (Licensee) for Emergencies at Nuclear Power Plants'', and 50-SG-G6, ''Preparedness of Public Authorities for Emergencies at Nuclear Power Plants''. This Guide covers the principles of dose limitation to site personnel and to the public, but it does not include detailed instructions on the techniques used for the actual measurement and evaluation of the exposures. This Guide does not include detailed instructions on environmental surveys, but it does mention principal steps in environmental monitoring which may be required for confirmation of the acceptability of radioactive discharges

  14. Requirements on future energy supply. Analysis on the demand of future power plant capacity and strategy for a sustainable power utilization in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This strategy paper was drawn up with a view to maximum ecological compatibility of pwer plant modernization and sustainable power generation and use. The first part of the paper analyzes the power plants to be decommissioned on a medium-term basis and - against the background of several different scenarios for future power demand - an estimate of power plant capacities required by 2020. The second part describes the goals and concrete requirements of sustainable energy use. In the final part, the available instruments are presented, and those instruments are recommended that will be best suited for making power demand and supply efficient, sustainable and environment-friend.y

  15. VAr reserve concept applied to a wind power plant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martinez, Jorge; Kjær, Philip C.; Rodriguez, Pedro;

    2011-01-01

    to wind power plants. This paper proposes two different VAr reserve control strategies for a wind power plant. The amount of dynamic VAr available most of the operation time, makes the wind power plant (WPP) a good candidate to include a VAr reserve management system. Two different ways of implementing...... a VAr management system are proposed and analyzed. Such a reactive power reserve may be provided by the wind power plant since the amount of reactive power installed for most active power working points exceeds the demand required by the grid operator. Basically, this overrated reactive power capacity...... is a consequence of sizing wind turbine facilities for maximum active power level. The reactive power losses, due to active power transportation inside the plant (normally two transformers), and P-Q wind turbine characteristics define the P-Q reserve chart. By utilizing the intrinsic overrated reactive power...

  16. Energy expenditure involved in building and operating nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the public discussion about the economic benefits of nuclear power it was argued recently that more energy was required to build and operate nuclear power plants than would be generated by those plants. Three authors, one of them working at a nuclear research center (KFA Juelich), one with a utility (RWE), and one with a reactor manufacturer (KWU), have studied this question. It is seen that the energy expenditure is roughly the same for a coal fired power plant and a nuclear power plant and that all the energy needed to build a nuclear power plant can be 'recovered' in one month of full power operation. (orig.)

  17. Osiris and SOMBRERO inertial confinement fusion power plant designs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conceptual designs and assessments have been completed for two inertial fusion energy (IFE) electric power plants. The detailed designs and results of the assessment studies are presented in this report. Osiris is a heavy-ion-beam (HIB) driven power plant and SOMBRERO is a Krypton-Fluoride (KrF) laser-driven power plant. Both plants are sized for a net electric power of 1000 MWe

  18. Nuclear power plant reliability database management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the framework of the development of a probabilistic safety project on site (notion of living PSA), Saint Laurent des Eaux NPP implements a specific EDF reliability database. The main goals of this project at Saint Laurent des Eaux are: to expand risk analysis and to constitute an effective local basis of thinking about operating safety by requiring the participation of all departments of a power plant: analysis of all potential operating transients, unavailability consequences... that means to go further than a simple culture of applying operating rules; to involve nuclear power plant operators in experience feedback and its analysis, especially by following up behaviour of components and of safety functions; to allow plant safety managers to outline their decisions facing safety authorities for notwithstanding, preventive maintenance programme, operating incident evaluation. To hit these goals requires feedback data, tools, techniques and development of skills. The first step is to obtain specific reliability data on the site. Raw data come from plant maintenance management system which processes all maintenance activities and keeps in memory all the records of component failures and maintenance activities. Plant specific reliability data are estimated with a Bayesian model which combines these validated raw data with corporate generic data. This approach allow to provide reliability data for main components modelled in PSA, to check the consistency of the maintenance program (RCM), to verify hypothesis made at the design about component reliability. A number of studies, related to components reliability as well as decision making process of specific incident risk evaluation have been carried out. This paper provides also an overview of the process management set up on site from raw database to specific reliability database in compliance with established corporate objectives. (authors). 4 figs

  19. Radiation emergency preparedness in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of planning for radiation emergency response is to ensure adequate preparedness for protection of the plant personnel and members of the public from significant radiation exposures in the unlikely event of an accident. With a number of safety features in the reactor design and sound operating procedures, the probability of a major accident resulting in the releases of large quantities of radioactivity is extremely small. However, as an abundant cautious approach a comprehensive radiation emergency response preparedness is in place in all the nuclear power plants (NPPs). Radiation Emergency in NPPs is broadly categorized into three types; plant emergency, site emergency and off-site emergency. During off site emergency conditions, based on levels of radiation in the environment, Civil Authorities may impose several counter measures such as sheltering, administering prophylaxis (stable iodine for thyroid blocking) and evacuation of people from the affected area. Environmental Survey Laboratory (ESL) carries out environmental survey extensively in the affected sector identified by the meteorological survey laboratory. To handle emergency situations, Emergency Control Centre with all communication facility and Emergency Equipment Centre having radiation measuring instruments and protective equipment are functional at all NPPs. AERB stipulates certain periodicity for conducting the exercises on plant, site and off site emergency. These exercises are conducted and deficiencies corrected for strengthening the emergency preparedness system. In the case of off site emergency exercise, observers are invited from AERB and Crisis Management Group of Department of Atomic Energy (DAE). The emergency exercises conducted by Nuclear Power Plant Sites have been very satisfactory. (author)

  20. Disciplinary power and the role of the subject at a nineteenth-century Danish asylum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hamre, Bjørn

    2010-01-01

    This article reports on the ways in which psychiatric practice and power were constituted in a Danish asylum at the beginning of the nineteenth century. The point of departure will be a complaint by a former patient questioning the practice at the asylum in 1829. In an analysis of this narrative ....... A key issue is whether the critique is not itself a part of the self-legitimation of disciplinary power.......This article reports on the ways in which psychiatric practice and power were constituted in a Danish asylum at the beginning of the nineteenth century. The point of departure will be a complaint by a former patient questioning the practice at the asylum in 1829. In an analysis of this narrative...... the study draws upon Foucauldian concepts like disciplinary power, confession, pastoral power and subjectivation. I will argue that the critique of the patient provides us with an example of the way that disciplinary power works in the case of an informal indictment of the methods and practice at an asylum...

  1. 76 FR 66089 - Access Authorization Program for Nuclear Power Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-25

    ... COMMISSION Access Authorization Program for Nuclear Power Plants AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission... revision to Regulatory Guide 5.66, ``Access Authorization Program for Nuclear Power Plants.'' This guide... Authorization Requirements for Nuclear Power Plants,'' and 10 CFR part 26, ``Fitness for Duty Programs.'' The...

  2. 78 FR 55118 - Seismic Instrumentation for Nuclear Power Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-09

    ... COMMISSION Seismic Instrumentation for Nuclear Power Plants AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission. ACTION..., ``Standard Review Plan for the Review of Safety Analysis Reports for Nuclear Power Plants: LWR Edition... Safety Analysis Reports for Nuclear Power Plants: LWR Edition'' (SRP, from the current Revision 2 to...

  3. Risks of potential accidents of nuclear power plants in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slaper H; Eggink GJ; Blaauboer RO

    1993-01-01

    Over 200 nuclear power plants for commercial electricity production are presently operational in Europe. The 1986 accident with the nuclear power plant in Chernobyl has shown that severe accidents with a nuclear power plant can lead to a large scale contamination of Europe. This report is focussed

  4. Risks of potential accidents of nuclear power plants in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slaper H; Eggink GJ; Blaauboer RO

    1993-01-01

    Over 200 nuclear power plants for commercial electricity production are presently operational in Europe. The 1986 accident with the nuclear power plant in Chernobyl has shown that severe accidents with a nuclear power plant can lead to a large scale contamination of Europe. This report is focussed o

  5. Analysis of nuclear power plant construction costs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of this report is to present the results of a statistical analysis of nuclear power plant construction costs and lead-times (where lead-time is defined as the duration of the construction period), using a sample of units that entered construction during the 1966-1977 period. For more than a decade, analysts have been attempting to understand the reasons for the divergence between predicted and actual construction costs and lead-times. More importantly, it is rapidly being recognized that the future of the nuclear power industry rests precariously on an improvement in the cost and lead-time situation. Thus, it is important to study the historical information on completed plants, not only to understand what has occurred to also to improve the ability to evaluate the economics of future plants. This requires an examination of the factors that have affected both the realized costs and lead-times and the expectations about these factors that have been formed during the construction process. 5 figs., 22 tabs

  6. Nuclear Power Plant Control and Instrumentation 1989

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The meeting of the International Working Group on Nuclear Power Plant Control and Instrumentation (IWG-NPPCI) was organized in order to summarize operating experience of nuclear power plant control systems, gain a general overview of activities in development of modern control systems and receive recommendations on the further directions and particular measures within the Agency's programme. The meeting was held at the IAEA Headquarters in Vienna and was attended by 21 national delegates and observers from 18 countries. The present volume contains: (1) report on the meeting of the IWG-NPPCI, Vienna, 8-10 May 1989, (2) report of the scientific secretary on the major activities of IAEA during 1987-89 in the NPPCI area, (3) terms of reference International Working Group on NPPCI and (4) reports of the national representatives to the International Working Group on NPPCI. The paper and discussions with practical experience and described actual problems encountered. Emphasis was placed on the technical, industrial and economical aspects of the introduction of modern control systems and on the improvement of plant availability and safety. A separate abstract was prepared for each of the 19 papers presented by members of the International Working Group. Refs, figs and tabs

  7. Wind Power Plant Voltage Stability Evaluation: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muljadi, E.; Zhang, Y. C.

    2014-09-01

    Voltage stability refers to the ability of a power system to maintain steady voltages at all buses in the system after being subjected to a disturbance from a given initial operating condition. Voltage stability depends on a power system's ability to maintain and/or restore equilibrium between load demand and supply. Instability that may result occurs in the form of a progressive fall or rise of voltages of some buses. Possible outcomes of voltage instability are the loss of load in an area or tripped transmission lines and other elements by their protective systems, which may lead to cascading outages. The loss of synchronism of some generators may result from these outages or from operating conditions that violate a synchronous generator's field current limit, or in the case of variable speed wind turbine generator, the current limits of power switches. This paper investigates the impact of wind power plants on power system voltage stability by using synchrophasor measurements.

  8. Goethermal power plant with Kalina cycle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Renz, M.; Filipovic, A. [M+W Zander Facility Engineering GmbH, Stuttgart (Germany). Marketing-Communications

    2005-04-01

    Several factors are creating an increased market for small power plant technology. These include the need for distributed/decentralised power systems, the need to generate more electricity by non-combustion renewable processes, the need for sustainable power for economic growth in developing countries and the deregulation and privatization of the electrical generation sector. Basically there are 2 alternate principles to improve the efficiency of the Rankine steam cycle for low temperature applications: Replacing water by a one-component fluid with lower boiling points, e.g. different organic substances like n-pentane, isobutene, perfluoropen-tane. (Organic Rankine Cycle, ORC). Replacing water by a binary working fluid like ammonia-water as proposed by Kalina. Kalina and ORC power cycles are primarily used for lower temperature heat sources, such as goethermal or waste-heat recovery. The primary advantage of this technology is the operation at low temperature which is given at renewable heat sources and waste heat. Further the power cycles are simple and generally can be operated remotely, without licensed operators, allowing for increased use of self-diagnostics. M+W Zander is working closely with partners to establish an alternative technology for geothermal applications. (orig.)

  9. Availability statistics for thermal power plants 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Denmark, Finland and Sweden have adopted almost the same methods of recording and calculation of availability data. For a number of years comparable availability and outage data for thermal power have been summarized and published in one report. The purpose of the report is to produce basic information on existing kinds of thermal power in the countries concerned. With this information as a basis additional and more detailed information can be exchanged in direct contacts between bodies in the above mentioned countries according to forms established for that purpose. The report includes fossil steam power, nuclear power and gas turbines. The information is presented in separate diagrams for each country, but for plants burning fossil fuel also in a joint NORDEL statistics with data grouped according to type of fuel used. The grouping of units into classes of capacity has been made in accordance with the classification adopted by UNIPEDE/WEC. Values based on energy have been adopted as basic availability data. The same applies to the preference made in the definitions outlined by UNIPEDE and UNIPEDE/WEC. Some data based on time have been included to make possible comparisons with certain international values and for further illustration of the performance. For values given in the report, the definitions in the NORDEL document ''Concepts of Availability for Thermal Power'', September 1977, have been applied. (au)

  10. Availability statistics for thermal power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Denmark, Finland and Sweden have adopted almost the same methods of recording and calculation of availability data. For a number of years comparable availability and outage data for thermal power have been summarized and published in one report. The purpose of the report now presented for 1989 containing general statistical data is to produce basic information on existing kinds of thermal power in the countries concerned. With this information as a basis additional and more detailed information can be exchanged in direct contacts between bodies in the above mentioned countries according to forms established for that purpose. The report includes fossil steam power, nuclear power and gas turbines. The information is presented in separate diagrams for each country, but for plants burning fossil fuel also in a joint NORDEL statistics with data grouped according to type of fuel used. The grouping of units into classes of capacity has been made in accordance with the classification adopted by UNIPEDE/WEC. Values based on energy have been adopted as basic availability data. The same applies to the preference made in the definitions outlined by UNIPEDE and UNIPEDE/WEC. Some data based on time have been included to make possible comparisons with certain international values and for further illustration of the performance. For values given in the report, the definitions in the NORDEL document ''Concepts of Availability for Thermal Power, September 1977'', have been applied. (author)

  11. Availability statistics for thermal power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Denmark, Finland and Sweden have adopted almost the same methods of recording and calculation of availability data. For a number of years comparable availability and outage data for thermal power have been summarized and published in one report. The purpose of the report now presented for 1991 containing general statistical data is to produce basic information on existing kinds of thermal power in the countries concerned. With this information as a basis additional and more detailed information can be exchanged in direct contacts between bodies in the above mentioned countries according to forms established for that purpose. The report includes fossil steam power, nuclear power and gas turbines. The information is presented in separate diagrams for each country, but for plants burning fossil fuel also in a joint NORDEL statistics with data grouped according to type of fuel used. The grouping af units into classes of capacity has been made in accordance with the classification adopted by UNIPEDE/WEC. Values based on energy have been adopted as basic availability data. The same applies to the preference made in the definitions outlined by UNIPEDE and UNIPEDE/WEC. Some data based on time have been included to make possible comparisons with certain international values and for further illustration of the performance. For values given in the report, the definitions in the NORDEL document ''Concepts of Availability for Thermal Power'', September 1977, have been applied. (au)

  12. Availability statistics for thermal power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Denmark, Finland and Sweden have adopted almost the same methods of recording and calculation of availability data. For a number of years comparable availability and outage data for thermal power have been summarized and published in one report. The purpose of the report now presented for 1988 containing general statistical data is to produce basic information on existing kinds of thermal power in the countries concerned. With this information as a basis additional and more detailed information can be exchanged in direct contacts between bodies in the above mentioned countries according to forms established for that purpose. The report includes fossil steam power, nuclear power and gas turbines. The information is presented in separate diagrams for each country, but for plants burning fossil fuel also in a joint NORDEL statistics with data grouped according to type of fuel used. The grouping of units into classes of capacity has been made in accordance with the classification adopted by UNIPEDE/WEC. Values based on energy have been adopted as basic availability data. The same applies to the preference made in the definitions outlined by UNIPEDE and UNIPEDE/WEC. Some data based on time have been included to make possible comparisons with certain international values and for further illustration of the performance. For values given in the report, the definitions in the NORDEL document ''Concepts of Availability for Thermal Power, September 1977'', have been applied. (author)

  13. China’s Nuclear Power Plants in Operation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Qinshan Plant Phase I Located in Haiyan,Zhejiang Province,Qinshan Nuclear Power Plant Phase I is t he first 300-megawatt pressurized water reactor (PWR) nuclear power plant independently designed,constructed,operated and managed by China.The plant came into commercial operation in April 1994.

  14. Water treatment plants assessment at Talkha power plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Sebaie, Olfat D; Abd El-Kerim, Ghazy E; Ramadan, Mohamed H; Abd El-Atey, Magda M; Taha, Sahr Ahmed

    2002-01-01

    Talkha power plant is the only power plant located in El-Mansoura. It generates electricity using two different methods by steam turbine and gas turbine. Both plants drew water from River Nile (208 m3 /h). The Nile raw water passes through different treatment processes to be suitable for drinking and operational uses. At Talkha power plant, there are two purification plants used for drinking water supply (100 m3/h) and for water demineralization supply (108 m3/h). This study aimed at studying the efficiency of the water purification plants. For drinking water purification plant, the annual River Nile water characterized by slightly alkaline pH (7.4-8), high annual mean values of turbidity (10.06 NTU), Standard Plate Count (SPC) (313.3 CFU/1 ml), total coliform (2717/100 ml), fecal coliform (0-2400/100 ml), and total algae (3 x 10(4) org/I). The dominant group of algae all over the study period was green algae. The blue green algae was abundant in Summer and Autumn seasons. The pH range, and the annual mean values of turbidity, TDS, total hardness, sulfates, chlorides, nitrates, nitrites, fluoride, and residual chlorine for purified water were in compliance with Egyptian drinking water standards. All the SPC recorded values with an annual mean value of 10.13 CFU/1 ml indicated that chlorine dose and contact time were not enough to kill the bacteria. However, they were in compliance with Egyptian decree (should not exceed 50 CFU/1 ml). Although the removal efficiency of the plant for total coliform and blue green algae was high (98.5% and 99.2%, respectively), the limits of the obtained results with an annual mean values of 40/100 ml and 15.6 org/l were not in compliance with the Egyptian decree (should be free from total coliform, fecal coliform and blue green algae). For water demineralization treatment plant, the raw water was characterized by slightly alkaline pH. The annual mean values of conductivity, turbidity, and TDS were 354.6 microS/cm, 10.84 NTU, and 214

  15. Pilot plant straw biomass power plant; Demonstrationsanlage Strohkraftwerk Gronau

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vodegel, Stefan [Claustahler Umwelttechnik-Institut GmbH (CUTEC), Clausthal-Zellerfeld (Germany); Lach, Friedrich-Wilhelm [Ueberlandwerk Leinetal GmbH, Gronau (Leine) (Germany)

    2008-07-01

    Drastically increasing prices for oil and gas promote the change to renewable energies. Biomass has the advantage of the storability. However, it has the disadvantage of a small stocking density. This suggests decentralized power plants. Also the proven technology of water vapour cycles with use of turbine is questioned. In the rural district Hildesheim there are efforts of thermal utilisation straw from wheat cropping. For this, a feasibility study of the Claustahler Umwelttechnik-Technik GmbH (Clausthal Zellerfeld, Federal Republic of Germany) presents technical and economic possibilities exemplary for the industrial area West in Gronau (Federal Republic of Germany). Technical and economic chances and risks are pointed out.

  16. Lesbian camp: An unearthing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Elly-Jean

    2016-01-01

    Camp-a sensibility, a style, and a form of artistic self-expression-is an elusive concept said to be in the eye of the beholder. To refute Susan Sontag's ( 1966 ) claims that camp is apolitical and not especially homosexual, a number of recent scholarly works have been geared toward revealing camp's fundamental gayness. With the odd footnote aside, lesbian camp has been collapsed into the category of gay male camp, if not eclipsed entirely. Despite the negligible efforts made to legitimize lesbian camp, there are numerous salient cultural examples one might draw on to illustrate, typify, and substantiate a lesbian camp sensibility. I lay the ground work for this scholarly exercise by outlining various definitions and critiques of camp, and by discussing its history and application to queer theory. Then, to unveil lesbian camp, three non-mutually exclusive categories are discussed: classic, erotic, and radical. By gathering various strands of inquiry, and various textual examples (e.g., photography, artistic performances, and literary tropes), this article attempts to reach a more inclusive and nuanced understanding of lesbian camp. PMID:26701773

  17. Maintenance technologies on nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As nuclear power plants in Japan are proud of their operation results with high reliability at a viewpoint of the world, one of main factors supporting on this high reliability is 'maintenance'. On the other hand, U.S.A. has not carried out thorough preventive maintenance like Japan but systematically progressed adequacy of maintenance at a center of condition based maintenance (CBM) under its success. In Japan, reduction of periodical inspection time and introduction of the CBM are begun to wrestle with adequacy of maintenance. Here was introduced on efforts on maintenance, inspection and technical development carried out at the nuclear power plants, and also on actions on 'maintenance' in Japan. Here were described on present state of maintenance and inspection in the nuclear power stations, efforts to reduce periodical inspection time, efforts on countermeasure for high aging, conditions on technical development of maintenance and inspection, working results on renewal engineering of large scale apparatuses, and efforts on upgrading of technology on maintenance and inspection. (G.K.)

  18. Southpoint power plant final environmental impact statement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document is the Final Environmental Impact Statement (FEIS) for a proposed lease of acreage on the Fort Mojave Indian Reservation in Mohave County, Arizona for development of a natural gas fired 500 megawatt combined cycle power plant. The Bureau of Indian Affairs (BIA) serves as the federal lead agency and the Fort Mojave Indian Tribe (FMIT) and the Western Area Power Administration (WAPA) are cooperating agencies for the EIS process. The purpose of this document is to provide information to the public and to interested public agencies regarding the environmental consequences of the approval of a long-term lease for the construction and operation of the proposed Southpoint power plant. The FEIS, prepared by Hallock/Gross, Inc. under the direction of the BIA and in cooperation with the FMIT and WAPA, addresses the comparative analysis of alternatives and evaluates the environmental consequences of such alternatives on various resources and addresses public comments. A number of technical reports were used in the preparation of the Draft EIS and FEIS and are available for review as Appendices to this document under separate cover that can be reviewed at the BIA offices which are listed

  19. Progress and prospects for phosphoric acid fuel cell power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonville, L.J.; Scheffler, G.W.; Smith, M.J. [International Fuel Cells Corp., South Windsor, CT (United States)

    1996-12-31

    International Fuel Cells (IFC) has developed the fuel cell power plant as a new, on-site power generation source. IFC`s commercial fuel cell product is the 200-kW PC25{trademark} power plant. To date over 100 PC25 units have been manufactured. Fleet operating time is in excess of one million hours. Individual units of the initial power plant model, the PC25 A, have operated for more than 30,000 hours. The first model {open_quotes}C{close_quotes} power plant has over 10,000 hours of operation. The manufacturing, application and operation of this power plant fleet has established a firm base for design and technology development in terms of a clear understanding of the requirements for power plant reliability and durability. This fleet provides the benchmark against which power plant improvements must be measured.

  20. General digitalized system on nuclear power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akagi, Katsumi; Kadohara, Hozumi; Taniguchi, Manabu [Mitsubishi Electric Corp., Tokyo (Japan)

    2000-08-01

    Hitherto, instrumentation control system in a PWR nuclear power plant has stepwisely adopted digital technology such as application of digital instrumentation control device to ordinary use (primary/secondary system control device, and so on), application of CRT display system to monitoring function, and so forth, to realize load reduction of an operator due to expansion of operation automation range, upgrading of reliability and maintenance due to self-diagnosis function, reduction of mass in cables due to multiple transfer, and upgrading of visual recognition due to information integration. In next term PWR plant instrumentation control system, under consideration of application practice of conventional digital technology, application of general digitalisation system to adopt digitalisation of overall instrumentation control system containing safety protection system, and central instrumentation system (new type of instrumentation system) and to intend to further upgrade economics, maintenance, operability/monitoring under security of reliability/safety is planned. And, together with embodiment of construction program of the next-term plant, verification at the general digitalisation proto-system aiming at establishment of basic technology on the system is carried out. Then, here was described on abstract of the general digitalisation system and characteristics of a digital type safety protection apparatus to be adopted in the next-term plant. (G.K.)

  1. General digitalized system on nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hitherto, instrumentation control system in a PWR nuclear power plant has stepwisely adopted digital technology such as application of digital instrumentation control device to ordinary use (primary/secondary system control device, and so on), application of CRT display system to monitoring function, and so forth, to realize load reduction of an operator due to expansion of operation automation range, upgrading of reliability and maintenance due to self-diagnosis function, reduction of mass in cables due to multiple transfer, and upgrading of visual recognition due to information integration. In next term PWR plant instrumentation control system, under consideration of application practice of conventional digital technology, application of general digitalisation system to adopt digitalisation of overall instrumentation control system containing safety protection system, and central instrumentation system (new type of instrumentation system) and to intend to further upgrade economics, maintenance, operability/monitoring under security of reliability/safety is planned. And, together with embodiment of construction program of the next-term plant, verification at the general digitalisation proto-system aiming at establishment of basic technology on the system is carried out. Then, here was described on abstract of the general digitalisation system and characteristics of a digital type safety protection apparatus to be adopted in the next-term plant. (G.K.)

  2. Nuclear medium effects in $F_{2A}^{EM}(x,Q^2)$ and $F_{2A}^{Weak}(x,Q^2)$ structure functions

    CERN Document Server

    Haider, H; Athar, M Sajjad; Singh, S K; Simo, I Ruiz

    2016-01-01

    Recent phenomenological analysis of experimental data on DIS processes induced by charged leptons and neutrinos/antineutrinos beams on nuclear targets by CTEQ collaboration has confirmed the observation of CCFR and NuTeV collaborations, that weak structure function $F_{2A}^{Weak} (x,Q^2)$ is different from electromagnetic structure function $F_{2A}^{EM} (x,Q^2)$ in a nucleus like iron, specially in the region of low $x$ and $Q^2$. In view of this observation we have made a study of nuclear medium effects on $F_{2A}^{Weak} (x,Q^2)$ and $F_{2A}^{EM} (x,Q^2)$ for a wide range of $x$ and $Q^2$ using a microscopic nuclear model. We have considered Fermi motion, binding energy, nucleon correlations, mesonic contributions from pion and rho mesons and shadowing effects to incorporate nuclear medium effects. The calculations are performed in a local density approximation using a relativistic nucleon spectral function which includes nucleon correlations. The numerical results in the case of iron nucleus are compared wi...

  3. High-power LEDs for plant cultivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamulaitis, Gintautas; Duchovskis, Pavelas; Bliznikas, Zenius; Breive, Kestutis; Ulinskaite, Raimonda; Brazaityte, Ausra; Novickovas, Algirdas; Zukauskas, Arturas; Shur, Michael S.

    2004-10-01

    We report on high-power solid-state lighting facility for cultivation of greenhouse vegetables and on the results of the study of control of photosynthetic activity and growth morphology of radish and lettuce imposed by variation of the spectral composition of illumination. Experimental lighting modules (useful area of 0.22 m2) were designed based on 4 types of high-power light-emitting diodes (LEDs) with emission peaked in red at the wavelengths of 660 nm and 640 nm (predominantly absorbed by chlorophyll a and b for photosynthesis, respectively), in blue at 455 nm (phototropic function), and in far-red at 735 nm (important for photomorphology). Morphological characteristics, chlorophyll and phytohormone concentrations in radish and lettuce grown in phytotron chambers under lighting with different spectral composition of the LED-based illuminator and under illumination by high pressure sodium lamps with an equivalent photosynthetic photon flux density were compared. A well-balanced solid-state lighting was found to enhance production of green mass and to ensure healthy morphogenesis of plants compared to those grown using conventional lighting. We observed that the plant morphology and concentrations of morphologically active phytohormones is strongly affected by the spectral composition of light in the red region. Commercial application of the LED-based illumination for large-scale plant cultivation is discussed. This technology is favorable from the point of view of energy consumption, controllable growth, and food safety but is hindered by high cost of the LEDs. Large scale manufacturing of high-power red AlInGaP-based LEDs emitting at 650 nm and a further decrease of the photon price for the LEDs emitting in the vicinity of the absorption peak of chlorophylls have to be achieved to promote horticulture applications.

  4. Pile foundation of nuclear power plant structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The subject of pile foundation used for nuclear power plant structures, considering the experience gained by the designers of the Angra Nuclear Power Plant, Units 2 and 3 in Brazil is dealt with. The general concept of the pile foundations, including types and execution of the piles, is described briefly. Then the two basic models, i.e. the static model and the dynamic one, used in the design are shown, and the pertinent design assumptions as related to the Angra project are mentioned. The criteria which established the loading capacity of the piles are discussed and the geological conditions of the Angra site are also explained briefly, justifying the reasons why pile foundations are necessary in this project. After that, the design procedures and particularly the tools - i.e. the computer programs - are described. It is noted that the relatively simple but always time consuming job of loading determination calculations can be computerized too, as it was done on this project through the computer program SEASA. The interesting aspects of soil/structure interaction, applicable to static models, are covered in detail, showing the theoretical base wich was used in the program PILMAT. Then the advantage resulting from computerizing of the job of pile reinforcement design are mentioned, describing briefly the jobs done by the two special programs PILDES and PILTAB. The point is stressed that the effort computerizing the structural design of this project was not so much due to the required accuracy of the calculations, but mainly due to the need to save on the design time, as to allow to perform the design task within the relatively tight time schedule. A conclusion can be drawn that design of pile foundations for nuclear power plant structures is a more complex task than the design of bearing type of foundation for the same structures, but that the task can be always made easier when the design process can be computerized. (Author)

  5. Earthquakes in Czechoslovakia and safety of nuclear power plants. Determining the degree of seismic hazards of nuclear power plants in Czechoslovakia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A brief description is presented of seismic charts and of seismic activity on the territory of the CSSR. Project designs of nuclear power plants in the CSSR consider the probability of the occurrence of an earthquake on the average once in 10,000 years which considering the fact that observations have only been made for several centuries is obviously a highly unreliable value. Guarantees of safety must therefore be provided by earthquake-proof structures based on the levels of safe shutdown earthquake and operating basis earthquake now being used in all countries with a developing nuclear power industry. (Z.M.)

  6. Exergoeconomic analysis of a nuclear power plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, Roman Miguel

    Exergoeconomic analysis of a nuclear power plant is a focus of this dissertation. Specifically, the performance of the Palo Verde Nuclear Power Plant in Arizona is examined. The analysis combines thermodynamic second law exergy analysis with economics in order to assign costs to the loss and destruction of exergy. This work was done entirely with an interacting spreadsheets notebook. The procedures are to first determine conventional energy flow, where the thermodynamic stream state points are calculated automatically. Exergy flow is then evaluated along with destruction and losses. The capital cost and fixed investment rate used for the economics do not apply specifically to the Palo Verde Plant. Exergy costing is done next involving the solution of about 90 equations by matrix inversion. Finally, the analysis assigns cost to the exergy destruction and losses in each component. In this work, the cost of electricity (exergy), including capital cost, leaving the generator came to 38,400 /hr. The major exergy destruction occurs in the reactor where fission energy transfer is limited by the maxiμm permissible clad temperature. Exergy destruction costs were: reactor--18,207 hr, the low pressure turbine-2,000 /hr, the condenser--1,700 hr, the steam generator-1,200 $/hr. The inclusion of capital cost and O&M are important in new system design assessments. When investigating operational performance, however, these are sunk costs; only fuel cost needs to be considered. The application of a case study is included based on a real modification instituted at Palo Verde to reduce corrosion steam generator problems; the pressure in the steam generator was reduced from 1072 to 980 psi. Exergy destruction costs increased in the low pressure turbine and in the steam generator, but decreased in the reactor vessel and the condenser. The dissertation demonstrates the procedures and tools required for exergoeconomic analysis whether in the evaluation of a new nuclear reactor system

  7. Psychological empowerment in French nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since the eighties, nuclear safety has been discussed in organizational studies and constitutes nowadays a specific stream with several standpoints. Regarding the reliability of nuclear plants, the nuclear safety literature has emphasized on the crucial role of individuals and human factors. Especially, some researchers have noticed rule breaking behavior and the impact of individual self-confidence on the behavior; but without deepening their analyses. As high self-esteem and confidence, i.e. psychological empowerment, naturally lead to innovation and rule breaking, the behavior can be analyzed, in such a regulated industry, as opposite to safety. Thus, this article aims at explaining the roots and discernable features of the observed psychological empowerment. Methods include an in-depth qualitative study in 4 nuclear power plants owned by Electricite de France (EDF), the French national nuclear power operator. Focused on the leading team of the plant, the set of data is composed of 35 interviews, 6 weeks of non-participant observation and internal documents. The content analysis has revealed two main pillars of psychological empowerment. On the first hand, the strong professional identity developed at the opening of the plants is based on initiative and risk-taking. In some ways, this professional identify fostered by commitment to a demanding job and the team, influences behavior more than do professional rules. On the second hand, the management discourse is perceived as ambiguous towards the strict application of the rules and tacitly legitimizes rule breaking behavior. This article details and exemplifies these phenomena and discusses the implications. (author)

  8. Cycle improvement for nuclear steam power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A pressure-increasig ejector element is disposed in an extraction line intermediate to a high pressure turbine element and a feedwater heater. The ejector utilizes high pressure fluid from a reheater drain as the motive fluid to increase the pressure at which the extraction steam is introduced into the feedwater heater. The increase in pressure of the extraction steam entering the feedwater heater due to the steam passage through the ejector increases the heat exchange capability of the extraction steam thus increasing the overall steam power plant efficiency

  9. Nuclear power plants. Safe and efficient decommissioning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huger, Helmut [TUEV SUED Energietechnik GmbH, Filderstadt (Germany). Div. of Radiation Protection, Waste Management and Decommissioning; Woodcock, Richard [TUEV SUED Nuclear Technologies, Warrington, Cheshire (United Kingdom). Environment and Radioactive Waste Management

    2016-02-15

    The process of dismantling a nuclear power plant consists of several phases that involve significant challenges along the way for authorities, operators, and suppliers. It is necessary to ensure safety at all times and to achieve certainty in respect of key project parameters, especially time and cost. Therefore, careful planning as well as detailed knowledge of local standards and regulations, best available techniques and practical implementation strategies are crucial. Independent expertise and knowledge service can be utilised for demanding projects worldwide. This guarantees safety for people and the environment in every phase of decommissioning. The article gives an overview on different decommissioning options and their challenges.

  10. Knowledge management in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This article aims to show the importance of knowledge management from different perspectives. In this first part part of the article, the overall approach that performs CNAT of knowledge management is described. In the second part, a specific aspect of knowledge management in ANAV, tacit knowledge transfer is showed. finally, the third part discusses the strategies and actions that are followed in CNCO for knowledge management. All this aims to show an overview of knowledge management held in the Spanish Nuclear Power Plants. (Author)

  11. Dynamic analysis of Leningrad nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Within the scope of this study a preliminary dynamic analysis for the detonation explosion and earthquake load cases was carried out for the Leningrad Nuclear Power Plant. A soil model was added to the three-dimensional shell model which was taken over from IVO (Finland). During this Research Program the model was translated into the STARDYNE program and was investigated by means of time history modal analysis. Since the status quo of the documentation available at that time had to be completed through useful technical assumptions this report only considers exemplary selected results

  12. Environmental charges levied on power plants

    OpenAIRE

    Michal Ptak

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the article is to analyze the financial burden on energy sector in Poland resulting from charges on the use of the environment. The estimation of the amount of charges paid by the power plants is based on data on emissions of basic pollutants from this sector. The starting point for the analysis is the brief evaluation of the impact of Polish energy sector on the environment. The impact is quite significant due the fact that electricity generation is mainly based on solid fuels, su...

  13. Organizational processes and nuclear power plant safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper describes the effects organizational factors have on the risk associated with the operation of nuclear power plants. The described research project addresses three methods for identifying the organizational factors that impact safety. The first method consists of an elaborate theory-based protocol dealing with decision making procedures, interdepartmental coordination of activities, and communications. The second, known as goals/means/measures protocol, deals with identifying safey related goals. The third method is known as behaviorally anchored rating scale development. The paper discusses the importance of the convergence of these three methods to identify organizational factors essential to reactor safety

  14. Modeling of advanced fossil fuel power plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zabihian, Farshid

    The first part of this thesis deals with greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from fossil fuel-fired power stations. The GHG emission estimation from fossil fuel power generation industry signifies that emissions from this industry can be significantly reduced by fuel switching and adaption of advanced power generation technologies. In the second part of the thesis, steady-state models of some of the advanced fossil fuel power generation technologies are presented. The impacts of various parameters on the solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) overpotentials and outputs are investigated. The detail analyses of operation of the hybrid SOFC-gas turbine (GT) cycle when fuelled with methane and syngas demonstrate that the efficiencies of the cycles with and without anode exhaust recirculation are close, but the specific power of the former is much higher. The parametric analysis of the performance of the hybrid SOFC-GT cycle indicates that increasing the system operating pressure and SOFC operating temperature and fuel utilization factor improves cycle efficiency, but the effects of the increasing SOFC current density and turbine inlet temperature are not favourable. The analysis of the operation of the system when fuelled with a wide range of fuel types demonstrates that the hybrid SOFC-GT cycle efficiency can be between 59% and 75%, depending on the inlet fuel type. Then, the system performance is investigated when methane as a reference fuel is replaced with various species that can be found in the fuel, i.e., H2, CO2, CO, and N 2. The results point out that influence of various species can be significant and different for each case. The experimental and numerical analyses of a biodiesel fuelled micro gas turbine indicate that fuel switching from petrodiesel to biodiesel can influence operational parameters of the system. The modeling results of gas turbine-based power plants signify that relatively simple models can predict plant performance with acceptable accuracy. The unique

  15. Surveillance dosimetry of operating power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The main focus of the research efforts presently underway is the LWR power reactor surveillance program in which metallurgical test specimens of the reactor PV and dosimetry sensors are placed in three or more surveillance capsules at or near the reactor PV inner wall. They are then irradiated in a temperature and neutron flux-spectrum environment as similar as possible to the PV itself for periods of about 1.5 to 15 effective full-power years (EFPY), with removal of the last capsule at a fluence corresponding to the 30- to 40-year plant end-of-life (EOL) fluence. Because the neutron flux level at the surveillance position is greater than at the vessel, the test is accelerated wit respect to the vessel exposure, allowing early assessment of EOL conditions

  16. Modular stellarator reactor: a fusion power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A comparative analysis of the modular stellarator and the torsatron concepts is made based upon a steady-state ignited, DT-fueled, reactor embodiment of each concept for use as a central electric-power station. Parametric tradeoff calculations lead to the selection of four design points for an approx. 4-GWt plant based upon Alcator transport scaling in l = 2 systems of moderate aspect ratio. The four design points represent high-aspect ratio. The four design points represent high-(0.08) and low-(0.04) beta versions of the modular stellarator and torsatron concepts. The physics basis of each design point is described together with supporting engineering and economic analyses. The primary intent of this study is the elucidation of key physics and engineering tradeoffs, constraints, and uncertainties with respect to the ultimate power reactor embodiment

  17. Modular stellarator reactor: a fusion power plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, R.L.; Bathke, C.G.; Krakowski, R.A.; Heck, F.M.; Green, L.; Karbowski, J.S.; Murphy, J.H.; Tupper, R.B.; DeLuca, R.A.; Moazed, A.

    1983-07-01

    A comparative analysis of the modular stellarator and the torsatron concepts is made based upon a steady-state ignited, DT-fueled, reactor embodiment of each concept for use as a central electric-power station. Parametric tradeoff calculations lead to the selection of four design points for an approx. 4-GWt plant based upon Alcator transport scaling in l = 2 systems of moderate aspect ratio. The four design points represent high-aspect ratio. The four design points represent high-(0.08) and low-(0.04) beta versions of the modular stellarator and torsatron concepts. The physics basis of each design point is described together with supporting engineering and economic analyses. The primary intent of this study is the elucidation of key physics and engineering tradeoffs, constraints, and uncertainties with respect to the ultimate power reactor embodiment.

  18. Status Report on Power System Transformation: A 21st Century Power Partnership Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, Mackay [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Martinot, Eric [Beijing Inst. of Technology (China); Cox, Sadie [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Speer, Bethany [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Zinaman, Owen [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Booth, Sam [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Zissler, Romain [Japan Renewable Energy Foundation (Japan); Cochran, Jaquelin [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Soonee, S. K. [Power System Operation Corporation, Ltd (India); Audinet, Pierre [World Bank Energy Sector Management Assistance Program, Washington, DC (United States); Munuera, Luis [International Energy Agency, Paris (France); Arent, Doug [Joint Inst. for Strategic Energy Analysis, Washington, DC (United States)

    2015-05-27

    This report has three primary goals: (1) to articulate the concept of power system transformation; (2) to explore the current global landscape of ‘innovations’ that constitute power system transformation and provide evidence of how these innovations are emerging; and (3) to suggest an analytical framework for assessing the status of power system transformation on an on-going basis.

  19. Hydrogen sulfide inhibits A2A adenosine receptor agonist induced β-amyloid production in SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells via a cAMP dependent pathway.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhushan Vijay Nagpure

    Full Text Available Alzheimer's disease (AD is the leading cause of senile dementia in today's society. Its debilitating symptoms are manifested by disturbances in many important brain functions, which are influenced by adenosine. Hence, adenosinergic system is considered as a potential therapeutic target in AD treatment. In the present study, we found that sodium hydrosulfide (NaHS, an H2S donor, 100 µM attenuated HENECA (a selective A2A receptor agonist, 10-200 nM induced β-amyloid (1-42 (Aβ42 production in SH-SY5Y cells. NaHS also interfered with HENECA-stimulated production and post-translational modification of amyloid precursor protein (APP by inhibiting its maturation. Measurement of the C-terminal APP fragments generated from its enzymatic cleavage by β-site amyloid precursor protein cleaving enzyme 1 (BACE1 showed that NaHS did not have any significant effect on β-secretase activity. However, the direct measurements of HENECA-elevated γ-secretase activity and mRNA expressions of presenilins suggested that the suppression of Aβ42 production in NaHS pretreated cells was mediated by inhibiting γ-secretase. NaHS induced reductions were accompanied by similar decreases in intracellular cAMP levels and phosphorylation of cAMP responsive element binding protein (CREB. NaHS significantly reduced the elevated cAMP and Aβ42 production caused by forskolin (an adenylyl cyclase, AC agonist alone or forskolin in combination with IBMX (a phosphodiesterase inhibitor, but had no effect on those caused by IBMX alone. Moreover, pretreatment with NaHS significantly attenuated HENECA-elevated AC activity and mRNA expressions of various AC isoforms. These data suggest that NaHS may preferentially suppress AC activity when it was stimulated. In conclusion, H2S attenuated HENECA induced Aβ42 production in SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells through inhibiting γ-secretase via a cAMP dependent pathway.

  20. Alarm-Processing in Nuclear Power Plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Information overload due to the activation of a great number of alarms in a short time is a common problem for the operator in the control room of a industrial plant, mainly in complex process like the nuclear power plants.The problem is the conventional conception of the alarm system, that defines each alarm like a separated and independent entity of the global situation of the plant.A direct consequence is the generation of multiple alarms during a significative disturbance in the process, being most of them redundant and irrelevant to the actual process state wich involves an extra load to the operator, who wastes time in acting selecting the important alarms of the group that appears or lead to a an erroneous action.The present work first describes the techniques developed in the last years to attack the avalanche of alarms problem.Later we present our approach to alarm-processing: an expert system as alarm-filter.Our objective is collect in the system the state of the art in the development of advanced alarm systems, offering an improvement of the information flow to the operators through the suppression of nonsignificant alarms and a structured visualization of the process state.Such support is important during a disturbance for the identification of plant state, diagnosis, consequence prediction and corrective actions.The system is arranged in three stages: alarm-generation, alarm-filter and alarm-presentation.The alarm-generation uses conventional techniques or receives them from an external system.The alarm-filter uses suppression techniques based on: irrelevance analysis with the operation mode and the state of components, causal reasoning and static importance analysis.The alarm presentation is made through a structured way using a priority scheme with three level.The knowledge representation of each alarm is based on frames and a graph of alarms for global knowledge, where the connections between nodes represent causal and irrelevance relations

  1. Availability statistics for thermal power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Denmark, Finland and Sweden have adopted almost the same methods of recording and calculation of availability data. For a number of years comparable availability and outage data for thermal power have been summarized and published in one report. The purpose of the report now presented for 1990 containing general statistical data is to produce basic information on existing kinds of thermal power in the countries concerned. With this information as a basis additional and more detailed information can be exchanged in direct contacts between bodies in the above mentioned countries according to forms established for that purpose. The report includes fossil steam power, nuclear power and gas turbines. The information is presented in separate diagrams for each country, but for plants burning fossil fuel also in a joint NORDEL statistics with data grouped according to type of fuel used. The grouping of units into classes of capacity has been made in accordance with the classification adopted by UNIPEDE/WEC. Values based on energy have been adopted as basic availability data. The same applied to the preference made in the definitions outlined by UNIPEDE and UNIPEDE/WEC. Some data based on time have been included to make possible comparisons with certain international values and for futher illustration of the performance. (au)

  2. Power Systems of the Future: A 21st Century Power Partnership Thought Leadership Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zinaman, O.; Miller, M.; Adil, A.; Arent, D.; Cochran, J.; Vora, R.; Aggarwal, S.; Bipath, M.; Linvill, C.; David, A.; Kauffman, R.; Futch, M.; Villanueva Arcos, E.; Valenzuela, J. M.; Martinot, E.; Bazilian, M.; Pillai, R. K.

    2015-02-01

    This report summarizes key forces driving transformation in the power sector around the world, presents a framework for evaluating decisions regarding extent and pace of change, and defines pathways for transformation. Powerful trends in technology, policy environments, financing, and business models are driving change in power sectors globally. In light of these trends, the question is no longer whether power systems will be transformed, but rather how these transformations will occur. Three approaches to policy and technology decision-making can guide these transformations: adaptive, reconstructive, and evolutionary. Within these approaches, we explore the five pathways that have emerged as viable models for power system transformation.

  3. CO2 capture processes in power plants - Le captage du CO2 dans les centrales thermiques

    CERN Document Server

    Bouallou, Chakib

    2010-01-01

    This review is devoted to assess and compare various processes aiming at recover CO2 from power plants fed with natural gas (NGCC) and pulverized coal (PC). These processes are post combustion CO2 capture using chemical solvents, natural gas reforming for pre-combustion capture and oxy-fuel combustion with cryogenic recovery of CO2. These processes were evaluated to give some clues for choosing the best option for each type of power plant. The comparison of these various concepts suggests that, in the short and medium term, chemical absorption is the most interesting process for NGCC power plants. For CP power plants, oxy-combustion can be a very interesting option, as well as post-combustion capture by chemical solvents.

  4. Power plant instrumentation and control handbook a guide to thermal power plants

    CERN Document Server

    Basu, Swapan

    2014-01-01

    The book discusses instrumentation and control in modern fossil fuel power plants, with an emphasis on selecting the most appropriate systems subject to constraints engineers have for their projects. It provides all the plant process and design details, including specification sheets and standards currently followed in the plant. Among the unique features of the book are the inclusion of control loop strategies and BMS/FSSS step by step logic, coverage of analytical instruments and technologies for pollution and energy savings, and coverage of the trends toward filed bus systems and integratio

  5. Stimulation of StAR expression by cAMP is controlled by inhibition of highly inducible SIK1 via CRTC2, a co-activator of CREB.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jinwoo; Tong, Tiegang; Takemori, Hiroshi; Jefcoate, Colin

    2015-06-15

    In mouse steroidogenic cells the activation of cholesterol metabolism is mediated by steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR). Here, we visualized a coordinated regulation of StAR transcription, splicing and post-transcriptional processing, which are synchronized by salt inducible kinase (SIK1) and CREB-regulated transcription coactivator (CRTC2). To detect primary RNA (pRNA), spliced primary RNA (Sp-RNA) and mRNA in single cells, we generated probe sets by using fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). These methods allowed us to address the nature of StAR gene expression and to visualize protein-nucleic acid interactions through direct detection. We show that SIK1 represses StAR expression in Y1 adrenal and MA10 testis cells through inhibition of processing mediated by CRTC2. Digital image analysis matches qPCR analyses of the total cell culture. Evidence is presented for spatially separate accumulation of StAR pRNA and Sp-RNA at the gene loci in the nucleus. These findings establish that cAMP, SIK and CRTC mediate StAR expression through activation of individual StAR gene loci.

  6. From the first nuclear power plant to fourth-generation nuclear power installations [on the 60th anniversary of the World's First nuclear power plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rachkov, V. I.; Kalyakin, S. G.; Kukharchuk, O. F.; Orlov, Yu. I.; Sorokin, A. P.

    2014-05-01

    Successful commissioning in the 1954 of the World's First nuclear power plant constructed at the Institute for Physics and Power Engineering (IPPE) in Obninsk signaled a turn from military programs to peaceful utilization of atomic energy. Up to the decommissioning of this plant, the AM reactor served as one of the main reactor bases on which neutron-physical investigations and investigations in solid state physics were carried out, fuel rods and electricity generating channels were tested, and isotope products were bred. The plant served as a center for training Soviet and foreign specialists on nuclear power plants, the personnel of the Lenin nuclear-powered icebreaker, and others. The IPPE development history is linked with the names of I.V. Kurchatov, A.I. Leipunskii, D.I. Blokhintsev, A.P. Aleksandrov, and E.P. Slavskii. More than 120 projects of various nuclear power installations were developed under the scientific leadership of the IPPE for submarine, terrestrial, and space applications, including two water-cooled power units at the Beloyarsk NPP in Ural, the Bilibino nuclear cogeneration station in Chukotka, crawler-mounted transportable TES-3 power station, the BN-350 reactor in Kazakhstan, and the BN-600 power unit at the Beloyarsk NPP. Owing to efforts taken on implementing the program for developing fast-neutron reactors, Russia occupied leading positions around the world in this field. All this time, IPPE specialists worked on elaborating the principles of energy supertechnologies of the 21st century. New large experimental installations have been put in operation, including the nuclear-laser setup B, the EGP-15 accelerator, the large physical setup BFS, the high-pressure setup SVD-2; scientific, engineering, and technological schools have been established in the field of high- and intermediate-energy nuclear physics, electrostatic accelerators of multicharge ions, plasma processes in thermionic converters and nuclear-pumped lasers, physics of compact

  7. HOW ECOLOGICAL ENGINEERING HELPED TO CONTINUE BUILDING AND UPGRADE OF THE OPOLE POWER PLANT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Siuta

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Principles of ecological engineering were applied for upgrading the Opole Power Plant under construction, complete with modern installation to protect the environment. The modernized project was a subject of „Integrated environmental impact assessment of the Opole Power Plant” developed by the Institute of Environmental Protection in 1981. The main issues covered by the impact assessment were presented and discussed at the national scientific conference attended, among others, by the representatives of local community from Opole. The conference was organized by the Polish Society of Ecological Engineering on June 5 and 6, 1992. The main aim of the conference was to identify and deliver as broad as possible analysis of environmental conditions for designing, building and operating coal fired power plants. A secondary goal, though of main concern for the Opole agglomeration, was to evaluate many-sided environmental risks resulting from the construction and operation of the Power Plant. The feasibility of continuing the construction of a power generating facility that meets the requirements of the 21st century was demonstrated by the fact that the Opole Power Plant S.A. was awarded the ISO 14001 - Environmental Management System certificate by the British Standards Institution. Advanced construction of the two consecutive blocks of a combined power of 1800 MW in the Opole Power Plant substantiates the validity and effectiveness of the conference organized in 1992.

  8. Recreation Summer Camps 2016

    Data.gov (United States)

    Montgomery County of Maryland — List of all Camps (Register here:https://apm.activecommunities.com/montgomerycounty/Home) to include Aquatics, Basketball, Soccer, Special Interest, General Sports,...

  9. Registration Summer Camp 2016

    CERN Multimedia

    2016-01-01

    Reminder: registration for the CERN Staff Association Summer Camp is now open for children from 4 to 6 years old.   More information on the website: http://nurseryschool.web.cern.ch/. The summer camp is open to all children. The proposed cost is 480.-CHF/week, lunch included. The camp will be open weeks 27, 28, 29 and 30, from 8:30 a.m. to 5:30 p.m. For further questions, you are welcome to contact us by email at Summer.Camp@cern.ch. CERN Staff Association

  10. Harmonics in Offshore Wind Power Plants Employing Power Electronic Devices in the Transmission System

    OpenAIRE

    Glasdam, Jakob Bærholm

    2015-01-01

    IntroductionThe trend in power generation is to partly replace conventional power plants with renewable energy sources. Offshore wind power has been selected to take up a significant proportion of the renewable energy production. The grid codes have been updated to accommodate the rising share of wind power. The onshore as well as offshore wind power plants (OWPPs) therefore have to meet the same stringent requirement as the conventional power plants. This can be accommodated by employment of...

  11. Human factors in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report describes the results of a study on the functions of operating and maintenance personnel in nuclear power plants. Since an effective power plant design must take into systematic account the possibilities and limitations of the human element, the basic aim of the study was to identify what the human operators are required to do and how they achieve it. Information was acquired by direct observation and by interviews as well as by evaluation of written documents (e.g. incident reports, procedures manuals, work regulations) and of working conditions (e.g. equipment and workplace design). A literature search and evaluation carried out within the scope of this study has been published as a separate document. The main part of the report is devoted to discussions and conclusions on selected areas of potential improvements. The topics include control room design, factors of the physical environment including radiation, problems of maintainability, design of written documents, problems in communicating information, design and control of tasks, placement and training. A separate section deals with problems of recording human errors. (orig.)

  12. Reviewing industrial safety in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document contains guidance and reference materials for Operational Safety Review Team (OSART) experts, in addition to the OSART Guidelines (TECDOC-449), for use in the review of industrial safety activities at nuclear power plants. It sets out objectives for an excellent industrial safety programme, and suggests investigations which should be made in evaluating industrial safety programmes. The attributes of an excellent industrial safety programme are listed as examples for comparison. Practical hints for reviewing industrial safety are discussed, so that the necessary information can be obtained effectively through a review of documents and records, discussions with counterparts, and field observations. There are several annexes. These deal with major features of industrial safety programmes such as safety committees, reporting and investigation systems and first aid and medical facilities. They include some examples which are considered commendable. The document should be taken into account not only when reviewing management, organization and administration but also in the review of related areas, such as maintenance and operations, so that all aspects of industrial safety in an operating nuclear power plant are covered

  13. Impact the nuclear power plant on electrical grid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Due to the limited fossil fuel energy resources and the almost fully utilized hydro energy, Egypt has been considering for sometime the various options for satisfying the increasing demand for electricity, including nuclear energy. This thesis emphasizes decisions concerning the impact of nuclear power plant on Egyptian Electrical Grid.This work presents the dynamic modeling and simulation of load flow and transient stability analysis to evaluate the Egyptian Electrical grid. The complex power system is modeled and simulated using Power System Simulator for Engineer (PSS/E). The building blocks of the dynamic model of a power system are presented. A detail of modeling for Egyptian Electrical power network is discussed. It presents an introduction of the load forecasting, and proposal on Egyptian Electrical grid in year 2018. This work presents definitions of nuclear power plant (NPP) and the most widespread power plant reactor types. A detailed representation, analysis, mathematical model, simulation of nuclear power plant and simulation results is also given.This thesis explains the characteristics of the electric grid, its relationship with the NPP, the interaction of electrical grid and nuclear power plant, and the reasons why a reliable grid is so important to the NPP.This thesis proposes a new design of power plant reactor controller for the nuclear power plant. A detailed representation, analysis, mathematical model, simulation of nuclear power plant control and simulation for different disturbance of nuclear power plant on the Egyptian Electrical Grid results is also presented.

  14. Economic performance indicators for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    From a global perspective, it is clear that there is no single group of key economic and financial measures that are applicable and useful for all countries and regions. The extent to which deregulation and privatization is occurring varies considerably throughout the world, with some countries continuing to foster regulated monopolies or government subsidies for power generation, while in others retail and wholesale electricity is sold in truly open market, competitive situations. Consequently, the requirement for key measures of financial and economic success for the nuclear power industry will continue to be diverse from one region or country to another. This report has been prepared for the benefit of nuclear plant managers and operators. Its primary purpose is to identify and define a number of economic performance measures for use at nuclear power plants operating in deregulated, competitive electricity markets. In addressing the value of economic measures, the report presents and discusses a general definition and classifications of nuclear economic indicators within the context of regulation, competition and the economic requirements for constructing, operating and decommissioning nuclear plants. Categories of economic measures, traditionally used in competitive enterprises, that have potential application in the operation of nuclear plants are also presented. A number of industry observations are discussed and presented as critical factors leading to a series of improvement strategies for the continued development and implementation of economic indicators, beyond those provided in this report, as well as for other related IAEA activities on the implementation and further development of the Nuclear Economic Performance Information System. On the basis of the collective opinions and judgements of the representatives of the participating countries, the report provides a 'preliminary' set of nuclear economic performance indicators, presented in standard Excel

  15. Peculiar Features of Nuclear Power and Steam and Gas Plant of Thermal Power Station

    OpenAIRE

    I. A. Bokoun

    2014-01-01

    The paper reveals peculiar features concerning of power generation at a nuclear power station and a steam and gas plant of a thermal power station. According to technical and economical indices a nuclear power station is at a disadvantage in relation to a steam and gas plant of a thermal power station.

  16. Hydraulic Power Plant Machine Dynamic Diagnosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hans Günther Poll

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available A method how to perform an entire structural and hydraulic diagnosis of prototype Francis power machines is presented and discussed in this report. Machine diagnosis of Francis units consists on a proper evaluation of acquired mechanical, thermal and hydraulic data obtained in different operating conditions of several rotary and non rotary machine components. Many different physical quantities of a Francis machine such as pressure, strains, vibration related data, water flow, air flow, position of regulating devices and displacements are measured in a synchronized way so that a relation of cause an effect can be developed for each operating condition and help one to understand all phenomena that are involved with such kind of machine. This amount of data needs to be adequately post processed in order to allow correct interpretation of the machine dynamics and finally these data must be compared with the expected calculated data not only to fine tuning the calculation methods but also to accomplish fully understanding of the influence of the water passages on such machines. The way how the power plant owner has to operate its Francis machines, many times also determined by a central dispatcher, has a high influence on the fatigue life time of the machine components. The diagnostic method presented in this report helps one to understand the importance of adequate operation to allow a low maintenance cost for the entire power plant. The method how to acquire these quantities is discussed in details together with the importance of correct sensor balancing, calibration and adequate correlation with the physical quantities. Typical results of the dynamic machine behavior, with adequate interpretation, obtained in recent measurement campaigns of some important hydraulic turbines were presented. The paper highlights the investigation focus of the hydraulic machine behavior and how to tailor the measurement strategy to accomplish all goals. Finally some

  17. Development of materials for nuclear power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haenninen, H. (Aalto Univ. School of Science and Technology, Eng. Materials, Espoo (Finland))

    2010-05-15

    Concerns to material failures of nuclear power plant components have been changing during the years. Corrosion related failures of stainless steel components have been the major concern, especially pipe cracking due to weld sensitization has caused outages and repairs in BWRs. IGSCC of locally cold-worked stainless steel components without sensitization is an emerging problem in aging plants. The major issue concerning failures of stainless steel components has also been environment-assisted cracking (IGSCC and IASCC) of reactor core internal components, where handling of highly active stainless steel materials in repairs is causing also a major concern. In PWRs the long-time concern has been the steam generator tube corrosion damage both on the primary and secondary side as well as the irradiation embrittlement of the reactor pressure vessel steel and its weldments. The new big issue is the Ni-alloy weld metal cracking in reactor pressure vessel safe-end welds and in reactor head and bottom penetrations. Many of these failure modes are time-dependent and, are expected to become more prevalent when the plants are aging. (orig.)

  18. Nuclear power plant Severe Accident Research Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Severe Accident Research Plan (SARP) will provide technical information necessary to support regulatory decisions in the severe accident area for existing or planned nuclear power plants, and covers research for the time period of January 1982 through January 1986. SARP will develop generic bases to determine how safe the plants are and where and how their level of safety ought to be improved. The analysis to address these issues will be performed using improved probabilistic risk assessment methodology, as benchmarked to more exact data and analysis. There are thirteen program elements in the plan and the work is phased in two parts, with the first phase being completed in early 1984, at which time an assessment will be made whether or not any major changes will be recommended to the Commission for operating plants to handle severe accidents. Additionally at this time, all of the thirteen program elements in Chapter 5 will be reviewed and assessed in terms of how much additional work is necessary and where major impacts in probabilistic risk assessment might be achieved. Confirmatory research will be carried out in phase II to provide additional assurance on the appropriateness of phase I decisions. Most of this work will be concluded by early 1986

  19. New nuclear power plants for Ontario

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Towards the end of this year the Ontario government will select the technology for its future nuclear power plants. To clarify the differences between the contending reactors I have put together the following quick overview. Ontario's requirement is for a stand-alone two-unit nuclear power plant to provide around 2,000 to 3,500 MWe of baseload generating capacity at a site to he specified with an option for one or two additional units. It is likely that the first units will be located at either the Darlington site near Bowmanville or the Bruce site near Kincardine. However the output from the Bruce site is presently transmission constrained. All nuclear-electric generation in Ontario comes from Atomic Energy of Canada Limited's (AECL) CANDU reactors at Pickering, Darlington and Bruce. The contenders are, AECL's 1085 MWe (net) ACR-1000 (Advanced CANDU Reactor), Westinghouse Electric Company's 1117 MWe (net) AP1000 (Advanced Passive), AREVA NP's 1600 MWe (net) U.S. EPR (United States Evolutionary Pressurized Reactor) and the 1550 MWe (net) GE Hitachi Nuclear Energy's ESBWR (Economic and Simplified Boiling Water Reactor). Westinghouse has Toshiba as a majority shareholder, AREVA has the government of France as a majority shareholder and GE-Hitachi has GE as the major shareholder. AECL is a federal crown corporation and is part of Team CANDU consisting of Babcock and Wilcox Canada, GE-Hitachi Nuclear Energy Canada Inc., Hitachi Canada Limited and SNC-Lavalin Nuclear Inc. Generally the engineering split in Team CANDU would be, AECL, Mississauga, Ontario, responsible for the design of the nuclear steam plant including reactor and safety systems; Babcock and Wilcox Canada, Cambridge, Ontario, responsible for supply of the steam generators and other pressure retaining components; GE-Hitachi Nuclear Energy Canada Inc., Peterborough, Ontario for the fuel handling equipment; Hitachi Canada Limited, Mississauga, for the balance of plant steam to electricity conversion

  20. Nuclear power plants in the world - 2010 edition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This small booklet summarizes in tables all data relative to the nuclear power plants worldwide. These data come from the IAEA's PRIS and AREVA-CEA's GAIA databases. The following aspects are reviewed: 2009 highlights, Main characteristics of reactor types, Map of the French nuclear power plants on 2010/01/01, Worldwide status of nuclear power plants (12/31/2009), Units distributed by countries, Nuclear power plants connected to the Grid- by reactor type groups, Nuclear power plants under construction on 2009, Evolution of nuclear power plants capacities connected to the grid, First electric generations supplied by a nuclear unit in each country, Electrical generation from nuclear power plants by country at the end 2009, Performance indicator of french PWR units, Evolution of the generation indicators worldwide by type, Nuclear operator ranking according to their installed capacity, Units connected to the grid by countries at 12/31/2009, Status of licence renewal applications in USA, Nuclear power plants under construction at 12/31/2009, Shutdown reactors, Exported nuclear capacity in net MWe, Exported and national nuclear capacity connected to the grid, Exported nuclear power plants under construction, Exported and national nuclear capacity under construction, Nuclear power plants ordered at 12/31/2009, Long term shutdown units at 12/31/2009, COL applications in the USA, Recycling of Plutonium in reactors and experiences, Mox licence plants projects, Appendix - historical development, Meaning of the used acronyms, Glossary

  1. ELECNUC Nuclear power plants in the world - 2013 edition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This small booklet summarizes in a series of tables the figures relative to the nuclear power plants worldwide. Data come from the IAEA's PRIS database and from specific I-tese studies. The following aspects are reviewed: 2012 highlights; Main characteristics of reactor types; Map of the French nuclear power plants on 2012/01/01; Worldwide status of nuclear power plants (12/31/2012); Units distributed by countries; Nuclear power plants connected to the Grid- by reactor type groups; Nuclear power plants under construction on 2012; Evolution of nuclear power plants capacities connected to the grid; First electric generations supplied by a nuclear unit in each country; Electrical generation from nuclear power plants by country at the end 2012; Performance indicator of french PWR units; Evolution of the generation indicators worldwide by type; Nuclear operator ranking according to their installed capacity; Units connected to the grid by countries at 12/31/2012; Status of licence renewal applications in USA; Nuclear power plants under construction at 12/31/2012; Shutdown reactors; Exported nuclear capacity in net MWe; Exported and national nuclear capacity connected to the grid; Exported nuclear power plants under construction; Exported and national nuclear capacity under construction; Nuclear power plants ordered at 12/31/2012; Long term shutdown units at 12/31/2012; COL (Combined Licence) applications in the USA; Recycling of Plutonium in reactors and experiences; Mox licence plants projects; Appendix - historical development; Meaning of the used acronyms; Glossary

  2. Operating experience with nuclear power plants 2015. Pt. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The VGB Technical Committee ''Nuclear Plant Operation'' has been exchanging operating experience about nuclear power plants for more than 30 years. Plant operators from several European countries are participating in the exchange. A report is given on the operating results achieved in 2015, events important to plant safety, special and relevant repair, and retrofit measures from Germany. The second part of this report will focus on nuclear power plant in Belgium, Finland, the Netherlands, Switzerland, and Spain.

  3. Operating experience with nuclear power plants 2015. Pt. 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    2016-07-01

    The VGB Technical Committee ''Nuclear Plant Operation'' has been exchanging operating experience about nuclear power plants for more than 30 years. Plant operators from several European countries are participating in the exchange. A report is given on the operating results achieved in 2015, events important to plant safety, special and relevant repair, and retrofit measures from Germany. The second part of this report will focus on nuclear power plant in Belgium, Finland, the Netherlands, Switzerland, and Spain.

  4. Strategies for competitive nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This technical publication on competitive strategies for nuclear power plants (NPPs) is part of an ongoing project on management of NPP operations in a competitive environment. The overall objective of this project is to assist the management of operating organizations and NPPs in identifying and implementing appropriate measures to remain competitive in a rapidly changing business environment. Other documents that have been written on this topic have focused on how the environment in which NPPs operate is changing. This report instead focuses on strategies and techniques that operating organization and NPP managers can use to succeed in this environment. Of particular note is ongoing OECD/NEA work to describe the environment for nuclear power in competitive electricity markets. The main objective of the OECD/NEA study is to review the impacts of increasing market competition on the nuclear power sectors in OECD Member countries. The OECD/NEA study is identifying various nuclear aspects which have to be considered in relation to the regulatory reform of the electricity sector in OECD Member States. The OECD/NEA work was co-ordinated with the development of this IAEA report; staff members from the two organizations participated in the development and review of the associated documents. Thus, the strategies and techniques identified in this report are consistent with the impacts of increasing market competition identified in the OECD/NEA study

  5. Electromagnetic Compatibility in Nuclear Power Plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) has long been a key element of qualification for mission critical instrumentation and control (I ampersand C) systems used by the U.S. military. The potential for disruption of safety-related I ampersand C systems by electromagnetic interference (EMI), radio-frequency interference (RFI), or power surges is also an issue of concern for the nuclear industry. Experimental investigations of the potential vulnerability of advanced safety systems to EMI/RFI, coupled with studies of reported events at nuclear power plants (NPPs) that are attributed to EMI/RFI, confirm the safety significance of EMC for both analog and digital technology. As a result, Oak Ridge National Laboratory has been engaged in the development of the technical basis for guidance that addresses EMC for safety-related I ampersand C systems in NPPs. This research has involved the identification of engineering practices to minimize the potential impact of EMI/RFI and power surges and an evaluation of the ambient electromagnetic environment at NPPs to tailor those practices for use by the nuclear industry. Recommendations for EMC guidance have been derived from these research findings and are summarized in this paper

  6. Effect of power plant emissions on plant community structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, J.; Agrawal, M.; Narayan, D. (Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi (India))

    1994-06-01

    A field study was conducted around two coal-fired thermal power plants (TPP) to analyse the impact of their emission on the structure of herbaceous communities in a dry tropical area. Phytosociological studies reflected that Cassia tora, Cynodon dactylon and Dichanthium annulatum dominate at heavily polluted sites. Alsycarpus monilifer, Convolvulus pluricaulis, and Desmodium triflorum are uniformly distributed, whereas Paspalidium flavidum, Phyllanthus simplex, and Rungia repens are dominant at less polluted sites. On the basis of Importance Value Index, the species were classified as sensitive, intermediate and resistant to TPP emissions. Shannon-Wiener Index of species diversity, species richness and evenness were inversely related to the pollution load in the area. Significant negative correlation between ambient SO[sub 2] concentration and species diversity suggested selective elimination of sensitive species from the heavily polluted sites.

  7. Selecting safety standards for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Today, many thousands of documents are available describing the requirements, guidelines, and industrial standards which can be used as bases for a nuclear power plant programme. Many of these documents relate to nuclear safety which is currently the focus of world-wide attention. The multitude of documents available on the subject, and their varying status and emphasis, make the processes of selection and implementation very important. Because nuclear power plants are technically intricate and advanced, particularly in relation to the technological status of many developing countries, these processes are also complicated. These matters were the subject of a seminar held at the Agency's headquarters in Vienna last December. The IAEA Nuclear Safety Standards (NUSS) programme was outlined and explained at the Seminar. The five areas of the NUSS programme for nuclear power plants cover, governmental organization, siting, design; operation; quality assurance. In each area the Agency has issued Codes of Practice and is developing Safety Guides. These provide regulatory agencies with a framework for safety. The Seminar recognized that the NUSS programme should enable developing countries to identify priorities in their work, particularly the implementation of safety standards. The ISO activities in the nuclear field are carried out in the framework of its Technical Committee 85 (ISO/TC85). The work is distributed in sub-committees. Seminar on selection and implementation of safety standards for nuclear power plants, jointly organized by the IAEA and the International Organization for Standardization (ISO), and held in Vienna from 15 to 18 December 1980 concerned with: terminology, definitions, units and symbols (SC-1), radiation protection (SC-2), power reactor technology (SC-3), nuclear fuel technology (SC-5). There was general agreement that the ISO standards are complementary to the NUSS codes and guides. ISO has had close relations with the IAEA for several years

  8. Fukushima nuclear power plant accident was preventable

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanoglu, Utku; Synolakis, Costas

    2015-04-01

    On 11 March 2011, the fourth largest earthquake in recorded history triggered a large tsunami, which will probably be remembered from the dramatic live pictures in a country, which is possibly the most tsunami-prepared in the world. The earthquake and tsunami caused a major nuclear power plant (NPP) accident at the Fukushima Dai-ichi, owned by Tokyo Electric Power Company (TEPCO). The accident was likely more severe than the 1979 Three Mile Island and less severe than the Chernobyl 1986 accidents. Yet, after the 26 December 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami had hit the Madras Atomic Power Station there had been renewed interest in the resilience of NPPs to tsunamis. The 11 March 2011 tsunami hit the Onagawa, Fukushima Dai-ichi, Fukushima Dai-ni, and Tokai Dai-ni NPPs, all located approximately in a 230km stretch along the east coast of Honshu. The Onagawa NPP was the closest to the source and was hit by an approximately height of 13m tsunami, of the same height as the one that hit the Fukushima Dai-ichi. Even though the Onagawa site also subsided by 1m, the tsunami did not reach to the main critical facilities. As the International Atomic Energy Agency put it, the Onagawa NPP survived the event "remarkably undamaged." At Fukushima Dai-ichi, the three reactors in operation were shut down due to strong ground shaking. The earthquake damaged all offsite electric transmission facilities. Emergency diesel generators (EDGs) provided back up power and started cooling down the reactors. However, the tsunami flooded the facilities damaging 12 of its 13 EDGs and caused a blackout. Among the consequences were hydrogen explosions that released radioactive material in the environment. It is unfortunately clear that TEPCO and Japan's principal regulator Nuclear and Industrial Safety Agency (NISA) had failed in providing a professional hazard analysis for the plant, even though their last assessment had taken place only months before the accident. The main reasons are the following. One

  9. The alternative strategies of the development of the nuclear power industry in the 21st century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goverdovskii, A. A.; Kalyakin, S. G.; Rachkov, V. I.

    2014-05-01

    This paper emphasizes the urgency of scientific-and-technical and sociopolitical problems of the modern nuclear power industry without solving of which the transition from local nuclear power systems now in operation to a large-scale nuclear power industry would be impossible. The existing concepts of the longterm strategy of the development of the nuclear power industry have been analyzed. On the basis of the scenarios having been developed it was shown that the most promising alternative is the orientation towards the closed nuclear fuel cycle with fast neutron reactors (hereinafter referred to as fast reactors) that would meet the requirements on the acceptable safety. It was concluded that the main provisions of "The Strategy of the Development of the Nuclear Power Industry of Russia for the First Half of the 21st Century" approved by the Government of the Russian Federation in the year 2000 remain the same at present as well, although they require to be elaborated with due regard for new realities in the market for fossil fuels, the state of both the Russian and the world economy, as well as tightening of requirements related to safe operation of nuclear power stations (NPSs) (for example, after the severe accident at the Fukushima nuclear power station, Japan) and nonproliferation of nuclear weapons.

  10. [Some peculiar features of liquid supply to the root medium of plants growing in microgravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podol'skii, I. G.; Sychev, V. N.; Levinskikh, M. A.; Strugov, O. M.; Bingham, G. E.; Salisbury, F. B. (Principal Investigator)

    1998-01-01

    Sixteen point probes monitored moisture level in the root medium of the wheat plants grown in greenhouse SVET on the MIR/NASA space science program. The article outlines types of water migration in the absence of gravity. Hydrophysical characteristics of perspective root media have been explored. Results of the water supply monitoring and control in the course of experiment are reported. The authors put forward porous root media to facilitate water migration and aeration.

  11. Waste heat exploitation in processing plants using existing power installations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper reviews a new procedure patent for the exploitation of low-temperature waste heat in processing plants that consist of steam power installations for the generation of electric energy. The procedure is based on the energy exchange among different processing units, divided into processing stages, so that the input of waste heat at one point substitutes for the consumption of the primary energy medium steam at another point. This enables the utilisation of higher parameter energy accumulated from the, still operationally capable, steam, for the additional expansion on the existing steam turbine within a steam installation. Should this procedure secure a larger quantity of usable steam compared to the quantities processed by the existing steam turbine, then it could be utilised on a new, smaller turbine, which would be built into the other side of the generator, so that it made a unique operational group with the existing one. This would enable the generation of additional electric energy by means of utilising waste heat. Both above mentioned variants can be seen on the process diagram, Figure 1, which is an essential part of this report, while only the first one will be presented in detail for a particular location with a potential energy rationalisation expressed through heat power of around 11 MWt. The main characteristic of this innovation is that its implementation involves minimum investments, as little new equipment would be used with the existing power installations. (author)

  12. Elecnuc - Nuclear power plants in the world - 2009 edition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This small booklet summarizes in tables all data relative to the nuclear power plants worldwide. These data come from the IAEA's PRIS and AREVA-CEA's GAIA databases. The following aspects are reviewed: 2008 highlights, Main characteristics of reactor types, Map of the French nuclear power plants on 2008/01/01, Worldwide status of nuclear power plants (12/31/2008), Units distributed by countries, Nuclear power plants connected to the Grid- by reactor type groups, Nuclear power plants under construction on 2008, Evolution of nuclear power plants capacities connected to the grid, First electric generations supplied by a nuclear unit in each country, Electrical generation from nuclear powe plants by country at the end 2008, Performance indicator of french PWR units, Evolution of the generation indicators worldwide by type, Nuclear operator ranking according to their installed capacity, Units connected to the grid by countries at 12/31/2008, Status of licence renewal applications in USA, Nuclear power plants under construction at 12/31/2008, Shutdown reactors, Exported nuclear capacity in net MWe, Exported and national nuclear capacity connected to the grid, Exported nuclear power plants under construction, Exported and national nuclear capacity under construction, Nuclear power plants ordered at 12/31/2008, Long term shutdown units at 12/31/2008, COL applications in the USA, Recycling of Plutonium in reactors and experiences, Mox licence plants projects, Appendix - historical development, Meaning of the used acronyms, Glossary

  13. Operating results 2015. Nuclear power plants. Pt. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A report is given on the opening results achieved in 2015, events important to plant safety, special and relevant repair, and retrofit measures from nuclear power plants in Germany. Reports about nuclear power plants in Belgium, Finland, the Netherlands, Switzerland, and Spain will be published in further issue.

  14. Operating results 2015. Nuclear power plants. Pt. 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    2016-05-15

    A report is given on the opening results achieved in 2015, events important to plant safety, special and relevant repair, and retrofit measures from nuclear power plants in Germany. Reports about nuclear power plants in Belgium, Finland, the Netherlands, Switzerland, and Spain will be published in further issue.

  15. MOBIL CONTAINER UNIT FOR SEWAGE SLUDGE UTILIZATION FROM SMALL AND MEDIUM WASTWATER TREATMENT PLANTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanisław Ledakowicz

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The most wastewater treatment plants in Poland are small and medium plants of flow capacity below 1000 m3/d. These plants are not able to build sludge incineration plants and the transportation costs to the nearest plants increase the total costs of wastewater treatment. Polish company Metal Expert together with the French company ETIA and Lodz University of Technology proposed mobile unit for integrated drying and pyrolysis of sewage sludge in a pilot bench scale with capacity of 100 kg/h of dewatered sludge. The pilot plant was mounted in a typical mobile container which could provide service to small and medium wastewater treatment plants offering thermal processing of sewage sludge. This unit consists of KENKI contact dryer and „Spirajoule”® pyrolyser supplied with electricity utilizing the Joule effect, and a boiler, wherein the pyrolysis gases and volatile products are burned producing steam sent to the contact dryer. The bio-char produced during sludge pyrolysis could be utilized for agriculture purposes. During preliminary experiments and short-term exploitation of the unit at Elbląg Wastewater Treatment Plant the obtained results allowed us to make a mass and energy balance depended on the process conditions in the pyrolysis temperature range of 400÷800 °C. Based on the obtained results a calculator was created in the Excel , which enables assessment of pyrolysis products content and making mass and energy balances depended on process parameters such as initial moisture of sludge, pyrolysis temperature and installation output.

  16. Armatures in thermal power plants; Armaturen in Waermekraftwerken

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiesner, Thomas; Moenning, Wolfgang (eds.)

    2011-07-01

    The book includes contributions on the following issues: (1) Fundamentals: Stop valves - minimal power loss due to full transmission. Safety valves - reliable overpressure protection. Indispensible feature of thermal power plant safety systems: the turbine bypass station. Condensate drain - safe discharge of harmful condensate. Safety armatures for gas consumption facilities. Electric actuators - automation of almost all armatures in power plants. (2) Case studies: Drainage armatures for power plant use. Steam cooling and saturation in thermal power plants - established techniques and solutions. Isolation flap for cooling water systems. Regulatory requirements and their practical implementation.

  17. Camp's "Disneyland" Effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renville, Gary

    1999-01-01

    Describes the positive mental, physical, and social growth impacts that the camping experience had on the author, and urges camp program evaluation to plan and implement such changes. Sidebar lists steps of effective evaluation: program goals and objectives, goals of evaluation, implementation of evaluation, data analysis, and findings and…

  18. VisionCamp

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lassen, Astrid Heidemann; Løwe Nielsen, Suna

    2009-01-01

    . Baseret på forløbet VisionCamp 2008, der satte eksplicit fokus på at kombinere fagfeltet "supply chain management" og kreativitet, illustrerer artiklen camp-metodens relevans og peger på centrale del-elementer i entreprenante kompetencer (kreative kompetencer, teknisk/faglige kompetencer og relationelle...

  19. Hydroelectric power plants. 2. enl. ed. Wasserkraftanlagen; Klein- und Kleinstkraftwerke

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palffy, S.O.; Brada, K.; Hartenstein, R.; Mueller, U.; Nowotny, G.; Partzsch, P.; Roemer, K.H.; Schlimgen, W.; Tratz, D.; Walcher, H.

    1994-01-01

    Small-scale power plants in the range below 500 kW make an important contribution to power generation. The book contains practical information on hydroelectric power plants, criteria for turbine selection, electric equipment, and the Ossberger turbine. Problems concerning taxation and energy and water legislation are gone into. Also discussed are economic criteria during acquisition, new construction, and modernisation for the purpose of electric power generation and grid power supply. (DG). 174 figs.

  20. Thermal Behavior of a Medium-Frequency Ferrite-Core Power Transformer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balci, Selami; Sefa, Ibrahim; Altin, Necmi

    2016-08-01

    In this study, design and thermal analysis of a medium-frequency transformer with ferrite N87 core have been carried out using finite-element analysis software. A thermal model of the medium-frequency transformer is generated and analyzed with different cooling methods. In addition, it is proposed to attach additional heat sinks at the top and bottom of the transformer core. Effects of these additional heat sinks on cooling performance and sizing of the transformer are investigated. Furthermore, the cooling capacity of the proposed material is investigated, depending on the air flow velocity for the forced-air cooling method. Thus, more realistic behavior of the ferrite N87 material is obtained for a medium-frequency transformer with 35 kVA rated power and 10 kHz operating frequency. Moreover, electromagnetic and thermal analyses are carried out through linked simulations. The heat distribution in the core including saturation effect is also investigated in detail.

  1. Localization of nuclear power plant technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    -effective localization of nuclear power in Asia. Nuclear power is more capital intensive than most other power generation options. This results in the electricity cost to the end user being more influenced by the initial cost than fuel, and other operations and maintenance expenses. Because developing nations typically have lower wages, it's a natural conclusion to maximize local capabilities to drive the capital cost as low as possible. To facilitate localization, new approaches to expediting the formation of a credible nuclear technology infrastructure in these emerging commercial nuclear power nations is discussed. This paper will examine localization of nuclear technology as one of the most promising methods to make nuclear power more affordable to the emerging markets in Asia. Localization will allow for the utilization of lower cost, local labor in the design, manufacture and construction of new nuclear power plants. ABB's practical localization philosophy is discussed with reference to previous experience and future expectations. (author)

  2. Detecting Cyber Attacks On Nuclear Power Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rrushi, Julian; Campbell, Roy

    This paper proposes an unconventional anomaly detection approach that provides digital instrumentation and control (I&C) systems in a nuclear power plant (NPP) with the capability to probabilistically discern between legitimate protocol frames and attack frames. The stochastic activity network (SAN) formalism is used to model the fusion of protocol activity in each digital I&C system and the operation of physical components of an NPP. SAN models are employed to analyze links between protocol frames as streams of bytes, their semantics in terms of NPP operations, control data as stored in the memory of I&C systems, the operations of I&C systems on NPP components, and NPP processes. Reward rates and impulse rewards are defined in the SAN models based on the activity-marking reward structure to estimate NPP operation profiles. These profiles are then used to probabilistically estimate the legitimacy of the semantics and payloads of protocol frames received by I&C systems.

  3. Risk perception among nuclear power plant employees

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiation protection training and general employee training within the nuclear industry are designed to reduce workers' concerns about radiation and to develop skills that will protect against unwarranted exposures. Inaccurate perceptions about radiation by workers can cause a lack of adequate concern or exaggerated fears, which in turn can result in unnecessary radiation exposure to the worker or co-workers. The purpose of the study is threefold: (a) to identify health and safety concerns among nuclear power plant employees, (b) to discover variables that influence the perception of risk among employees, and (c) to ascertain if attitudes of the family, community, and the media affect workers' perception of risk. Workers identified five areas of concern: shift work, radiation, industrial safety, stress, and sabotage

  4. Industrial psychology aspects of power plant operators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper gives a survey of the development of the negotiationes that have taken place from the beginning 1976 between representatives of BMI and VDWE to examine whether psychological qualification examinations for the shift personal of nuclear power plants will be appropriate. As a result it is shown that first- and reexaminations shall be carried out according principle 25, the psychological part of this examination should, however, be renounced to a still pending standardisation and testing. The more detailed examination of the sense organs, proposed on this occasion, will be defined by the representatives of VDEW by a new proposal. The routine psychological judgement along with a documentation of the superiors is, however, not considered suitable. (orig./HP)

  5. Materials qualification for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The supply of materials to be used in the fabrication of components submitted to pressure destined to Atucha II nuclear power plant must fulfill the quality assurance requirements in accordance with the international standards. With the aim of promoting the national participation in CNA II, ENACE had the need to adapt these requirements to the national industry conditions and to the availability of official entities' qualification and inspection. As a uniform and normalized assessment for the qualification of materials did not exist in the country, ENACE had to develop a materials suppliers qualification system. This paper presents a suppliers qualification procedure, its application limits and the alternative procedures for the acceptance of individual stock and for the stock materials purchase. (Author)

  6. Severe accidents in Nuclear Power Plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For the assessment of the safety of nuclear power plants it is of great importance the analyses of severe accidents since they allow to estimate the possible failure models of the containment, and also permit knowing the magnitude and composition of the radioactive material that would be released to the environment in case of an accident upon population and the environment. This paper presents in general terms the basic principles for conducting the analysis of severe accidents, the fundamental sources in the generation of radionuclides and aerosols, the transportation and deposition processes, and also makes reference to de main codes used in the modulation of severe accidents. The final part of the paper contents information on how severe accidents are dialed with the regulatory point view in different countries

  7. Optical study of solar tower power plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eddhibi, F.; Ben Amara, M.; Balghouthi, M.; Guizani, A.

    2015-04-01

    The central receiver technology for electricity generation consists of concentrating solar radiation coming from the solar tracker field into a central receiver surface located on the top of the tower. The heliostat field is constituted of a big number of reflective mirrors; each heliostat tracks the sun individually and reflects the sunlight to a focal point. Therefore, the heliostat should be positioned with high precision in order to minimize optical losses. In the current work, a mathematical model for the analysis of the optical efficiency of solar tower field power plant is proposed. The impact of the different factors which influence the optical efficiency is analyzed. These parameters are mainly, the shading and blocking losses, the cosine effect, the atmospheric attenuation and the spillage losses. A new method for the calculation of blocking and shadowing efficiency is introduced and validated by open literature.

  8. Hydrogen embrittlement in power plant steels

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R K Dayal; N Parvathavarthini

    2003-06-01

    In power plants, several major components such as steam generator tubes, boilers, steam/water pipe lines, water box of condensers and the other auxiliary components like bolts, nuts, screws fasteners and supporting assemblies are commonly fabricated from plain carbon steels, as well as low and high alloy steels. These components often fail catastrophically due to hydrogen embrittlement. A brief overview of our current understanding of the phenomenon of such hydrogen damage in steels is presented in this paper. Case histories of failures of steel components due to hydrogen embrittlement, which are reported in literature, are briefly discussed. A phenomenological assessment of overall process of hydrogen embrittlement and classification of the various damage modes are summarized. Influence of several physical and metallurgical variables on the susceptibility of steels to hydrogen embrittlement, mechanisms of hydrogen embrittlement and current approaches to combat this problem are also presented.

  9. Regulatory control of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this book is to support IAEA training courses and workshops in the field of regulatory control of nuclear power plants as well as to support the regulatory bodies of Member States in their own training activities. The target group is the professional staff members of nuclear safety regulatory bodies supervising nuclear power plants and having duties and responsibilities in the following regulatory fields: regulatory framework; regulatory organization; regulatory guidance; licensing and licensing documents; assessment of safety; and regulatory inspection and enforcement. Important topics such as regulatory competence and quality of regulatory work as well as emergency preparedness and public communication are also covered. The book also presents the key issues of nuclear safety such as 'defence-in-depth' and safety culture and explains how these should be taken into account in regulatory work, e.g. during safety assessment and regulatory inspection. The book also reflects how nuclear safety has been developed during the years on the basis of operating experience feedback and results of safety research by giving topical examples. The examples cover development of operating procedures and accident management to cope with complicated incidents and severe accidents to stress the importance of regulatory role in nuclear safety research. The main target group is new staff members of regulatory bodies, but the book also offers good examples for more experienced inspectors to be used as comparison and discussion basis in internal workshops organized by the regulatory bodies for refreshing and continuing training. The book was originally compiled on the basis of presentations provided during the two regulatory control training courses in 1997 and 1998. The textbook was reviewed at the beginning of the years 2000 and 2002 by IAEA staff members and consistency with the latest revisions of safety standards have been ensured. The textbook was completed in the

  10. Corrosion protection system for nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A cathodic corrosion protection system for a nuclear power plant which employs an ion tank adjacent the main fresh water feed pipe leading to the steam generator to treat water from the main feed pipe and then return the treated water to the main feed pipe to form a corrosion protecting alkaline layer on surfaces of the main feed pipe and the secondary side of the steam generator. The ion tank receives measured amounts of hydrazine to render the water therein substantially conductive and contains ionizable metal anodes which release free metal ions as electric current flows between the anodes and a cathode connection on an ion tank outlet pipe near the main feed water pipe

  11. The role of nuclear power plant designers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    When design of a nuclear power plant begins its designers, owners, and regulators make a safety judgement based on their knowledge and collective experience. As time goes on safety criteria change, methods improve, new scientific understanding is gained, and the cost of safety increases in relation to the benefits gained. In spite of that, the fundamental safety of CANDU remains and will continue high. However, the designer's job has become more difficult. The process of designing a product to satisfy a customer using a perceived view of that benefits society is no longer simple. Is the customer the utility or an amalgam of government departments and various factions of the public? How is the designer to make judgements on social acceptability when society speaks with so many voices and so little leadership

  12. 75 FR 16520 - James A. Fitzpatrick Nuclear Power Plant; Exemption

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... COMMISSION James A. Fitzpatrick Nuclear Power Plant; Exemption 1.0 Background Entergy Nuclear Operations, Inc... the James A. FitzPatrick Nuclear Power Plant (JAFNPP). The license provides, among other things, that... physical protection of licensed activities in nuclear power reactors against radiological...

  13. Emotional consequences of nuclear power plant disasters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bromet, Evelyn J

    2014-02-01

    The emotional consequences of nuclear power plant disasters include depression, anxiety, post-traumatic stress disorder, and medically unexplained somatic symptoms. These effects are often long term and associated with fears about developing cancer. Research on disasters involving radiation, particularly evidence from Chernobyl, indicates that mothers of young children and cleanup workers are the highest risk groups. The emotional consequences occur independently of the actual exposure received. In contrast, studies of children raised in the shadows of the Three Mile Island (TMI) and Chernobyl accidents suggest that although their self-rated health is less satisfactory than that of their peers, their emotional, academic, and psychosocial development is comparable. The importance of the psychological impact is underscored by its chronicity and by several studies showing that poor mental health is associated with physical health conditions, early mortality, disability, and overuse of medical services. Given the established increase in mental health problems following TMI and Chernobyl, it is likely that the same pattern will occur in residents and evacuees affected by the Fukushima meltdowns. Preliminary data from Fukushima indeed suggest that workers and mothers of young children are at risk of depression, anxiety, psychosomatic, and post-traumatic symptoms both as a direct result of their fears about radiation exposure and an indirect result of societal stigma. Thus, it is important that non-mental health providers learn to recognize and manage psychological symptoms and that medical programs be designed to reduce stigma and alleviate psychological suffering by integrating psychiatric and medical treatment within the walls of their clinics.Introduction of Emotional Consequences of Nuclear Power Plant Disasters (Video 2:15, http://links.lww.com/HP/A34).

  14. One solution of main controller in thermal power plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radmilović Nebojša

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes functionality between pressure regulation of steam boiler and electrical power regulation of turbine-generator system at thermal power plants. Importans of this control is essentially in coordinate work mode when these complex and non-linear systems have to work as one integrated entity with tendency to produce electrical power at optimal and stable way. Steam generator - boiler is system with long transport delay and here is recommendation for improving pressure regulation. This regulation realized at thermal power plant nominal power 308MW and given working results in real time. Index Terms - boiler control, combustion control, thermal power plants, PID controller.

  15. Nuclear Power Plant Fire Protection Research Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The goal is to develop test data and analytical capabilities to support the evaluation of: (1) the contribution of fires to the risk from nuclear power plants; (2) the effects of fires on control room equipment and operations; and (3) the effects of actuation of fire suppression systems on safety equipment. A range of fire sources will be characterized with respect to their energy and mass evolution, including smoke, corrosion products, and electrically conductive products of combustion. An analytical method for determining the environment resulting from fire will be developed. This method will account for the source characteristics, the suppression action following detection of the fire, and certain parameters specific to the plant enclosure in which the fire originates, such as the geometry of the enclosure and the ventilation rate. The developing local environment in the vicinity of safety-related equipment will be expressed in terms of temperatures, temperature rise rates, heat fluxes, and moisture and certain species content. The response of certain safe shutdown equipment and components to the environmental conditions will be studied. The objective will be to determine the limits of environmental conditions that a component may be exposed to without impairment of its ability to function

  16. Comprehensive signal validation for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Signal validation is the detection, isolation and characterization of faulty signals. A signal validation technique utilizing a process hypercube comparison (PHC) was originated during the research and other methods were extended. The hypercube is merely a multi-dimensional joint histogram of the process conditions. The hypercube is created off-line during a learning phase. In the event that a newly observed plant state does not match with those in the learned hypercube, the PHC algorithm performs signal validation by progressively hypothesizing that one or more signals is in error. This assumption is then either substantiated or denied. In the case where many signals are found to be in error, a conclusion that the process conditions are abnormal is reached. A comprehensive signal validation software system has been developed for application to nuclear power plants. This system combines some previously established fault detection methodologies as well as some newly developed ones. The techniques have been implemented in a modular architecture which allows the addition or removal of signal validation modules as deemed necessary. Intra-module confidence factors describing the validity of a given signal are derived using fuzzy membership functions. A final evaluation of signal status is made by the System Executive (SE) based on results from each signal validation module. In order to make reliable decisions in this parallel system a positive decision maker (PDM) was developed

  17. Information presentation in power plant control rooms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of this study is to support operators' work especially in the control rooms of power plant. The exemplified process is a pressurized water (nuclear) reactor (PWR). The man-process interface is an information system that covers information refining, information presentation, information system handling, and process control. THe emphasis in this study is on the organization and presentation of information and on the alert function that is part of the information system. Another goal is to design the alert function so as to radically reduce the number of alarms during plant shutdown, e.g. during the refuelling or maintenance period and during a disturbance. Further, the experimental validation of CFMS (Critical Function Monitoring System), developed by Combustion Engineering, Inc. in the U.S.A. is described briefly. The validation was made at the Loviisa training simulator in the autumn of 1982. CFMS is a safety-related functional alarm system. The functional decomposition of information has turned out to be successful and it is helpful in designing displays. Preliminary criteria for designing displays, the structure of the information presentation system and the illustration of main interactions are presented. General practical ideas on designing the alert function seem very promising. Preliminary results of the CFMS validation are presented. Further, some ideas are presented on how to carry out the analysis and how to make such validations in the future. A new idea for the evaluation of core safety is presented, based on control theory concepts

  18. Modelling and simulation of thermal power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eborn, J.

    1998-02-01

    Mathematical modelling and simulation are important tools when dealing with engineering systems that today are becoming increasingly more complex. Integrated production and recycling of materials are trends that give rise to heterogenous systems, which are difficult to handle within one area of expertise. Model libraries are an excellent way to package engineering knowledge of systems and units to be reused by those who are not experts in modelling. Many commercial packages provide good model libraries, but they are usually domain-specific and closed. Heterogenous, multi-domain systems requires open model libraries written in general purpose modelling languages. This thesis describes a model database for thermal power plants written in the object-oriented modelling language OMOLA. The models are based on first principles. Subunits describe volumes with pressure and enthalpy dynamics and flows of heat or different media. The subunits are used to build basic units such as pumps, valves and heat exchangers which can be used to build system models. Several applications are described; a heat recovery steam generator, equipment for juice blending, steam generation in a sulphuric acid plant and a condensing steam plate heat exchanger. Model libraries for industrial use must be validated against measured data. The thesis describes how parameter estimation methods can be used for model validation. Results from a case-study on parameter optimization of a non-linear drum boiler model show how the technique can be used 32 refs, 21 figs

  19. Alpha nuclides in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In a joint research project of VGB and AREVA NP GmbH the behavior of alpha nuclides in nuclear power plants has been investigated since 2005. The main source of alpha nuclides is core contamination with fissile material (so called tramp uranium or tramp fuel) which deposits on fuel rod surfaces and leads to the build-up of transuranium nuclides. Such alpha-nuclides are of special interest for health physics due to their high biological effectiveness. Having very high dose factors they lead to high dose weighting in case of incorporation. At NPC 2008 first results of the joint research project were presented concerning tramp fuel and its impact to alpha nuclides. The present publication will cover the ongoing results of this research project. A special focus is taken to deduce recommendations which allow plant operation personal to recognize situations in advance which can lead to enhanced appearance of alpha nuclides. Depending on the fuel conditions in the core and the activity level of fission products of the reactor coolant a better prediction of the alpha situation at the following outage and maintenance can be deduced. (author)

  20. Training diagnostic skills for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Operators of large-scale industrial process plants such as nuclear power stations and chemical plants are faced with a critical and complex task when confronted with disturbances in normal operation caused by technical failures or mainte- nances errors. Great care must be taken to prepare and support the operators during such situations. Procedural systems are provided, trained on full-scale highfidelity simulators is often a prerequisite and decision-support systems are starting to be incorporated, especially in modern control rooms. During recent years, it has become increasingly clear from ''real-life'' studies in complex production and transport industries that professional highly skilled troubleshooters can develop effective general purpose search strategies for locating and dealing with faults and, most importantly, with new and not previously experienced faults. This research has indicated that means for training of these general diagnostic abilities can be developed. In addition, other work has dealt with the problem of observing and analyzing operator behaviour in coping with disturbances. The NKA/LIT-4 project has continued these efforts in studying methods for training diagnostic skills as well as for observing and testing operator behaviour on training simulators. (author)

  1. Methodology for Assessment of Inertial Response from Wind Power Plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Altin, Müfit; Teodorescu, Remus; Bak-Jensen, Birgitte;

    2012-01-01

    High wind power penetration levels result in additional requirements from wind power in order to improve frequency stability. Replacement of conventional power plants with wind power plants reduces the power system inertia due to the wind turbine technology. Consequently, the rate of change...... of frequency and the maximum frequency deviation increase after a disturbance such as generation loss, load increase, etc. Having no inherent inertial response, wind power plants need additional control concepts in order to provide an additional active power following a disturbance. Several control concepts...... have been implemented in the literature, but the assessment of these control concepts with respect to power system requirements has not been specified. In this paper, a methodology to assess the inertial response from wind power plants is proposed. Accordingly, the proposed methodology is applied...

  2. US power plant sites at risk of future sea-level rise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bierkandt, R.; Auffhammer, M.; Levermann, A.

    2015-12-01

    Unmitigated greenhouse gas emissions may increase global mean sea-level by about 1 meter during this century. Such elevation of the mean sea-level enhances the risk of flooding of coastal areas. We compute the power capacity that is currently out-of-reach of a 100-year coastal flooding but will be exposed to such a flood by the end of the century for different US states, if no adaptation measures are taken. The additional exposed capacity varies strongly among states. For Delaware it is 80% of the mean generated power load. For New York this number is 63% and for Florida 43%. The capacity that needs additional protection compared to today increases by more than 250% for Texas, 90% for Florida and 70% for New York. Current development in power plant building points towards a reduced future exposure to sea-level rise: proposed and planned power plants are less exposed than those which are currently operating. However, power plants that have been retired or canceled were less exposed than those operating at present. If sea-level rise is properly accounted for in future planning, an adaptation to sea-level rise may be costly but possible.

  3. US power plant sites at risk of future sea-level rise

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Unmitigated greenhouse gas emissions may increase global mean sea-level by about 1 meter during this century. Such elevation of the mean sea-level enhances the risk of flooding of coastal areas. We compute the power capacity that is currently out-of-reach of a 100-year coastal flooding but will be exposed to such a flood by the end of the century for different US states, if no adaptation measures are taken. The additional exposed capacity varies strongly among states. For Delaware it is 80% of the mean generated power load. For New York this number is 63% and for Florida 43%. The capacity that needs additional protection compared to today increases by more than 250% for Texas, 90% for Florida and 70% for New York. Current development in power plant building points towards a reduced future exposure to sea-level rise: proposed and planned power plants are less exposed than those which are currently operating. However, power plants that have been retired or canceled were less exposed than those operating at present. If sea-level rise is properly accounted for in future planning, an adaptation to sea-level rise may be costly but possible. (letter)

  4. 75 FR 80547 - Carolina Power & Light Company, Shearon Harris Nuclear Power Plant, Unit No. 1; Exemption

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-22

    ... COMMISSION Carolina Power & Light Company, Shearon Harris Nuclear Power Plant, Unit No. 1; Exemption 1.0... License No. NPF-63, which authorizes operation of the Shearon Harris Nuclear Power Plant (HNP), Unit 1... nuclear power reactors against radiological sabotage,'' published as a final rule in the Federal...

  5. 75 FR 9958 - Carolina Power & Light Company, Shearon Harris Nuclear Power Plant, Unit 1; Exemption

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-04

    ... COMMISSION Carolina Power & Light Company, Shearon Harris Nuclear Power Plant, Unit 1; Exemption 1.0... of the Shearon Harris Nuclear Power Plant, Unit 1 (HNP). The license provides, among other things... for physical protection of licensed activities in nuclear power reactors against radiological...

  6. An adaptive digital controller for satellite medium power DC/DC converter

    OpenAIRE

    Skup, Konrad R.; Grudziński, Paweł; Orleański, Orleański

    2011-01-01

    In this paper the work concerning an adaptive digital controller for satellite medium power DC/DC converters is presented. The adaptive techniques and methods developed in Space Research Centre allows an implemented in VHDL controller to modify its parameters according to detected changes in operating conditions. Inductor entering from discontinuous to continuous current mode and vice versa or moving sampling instants due to changes in duty time are good examples of varying operation...

  7. Comprehensive evaluation of cost effectiveness of solar electric power plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibragimov, D. Y.; Filatov, A. I.

    1984-02-01

    The cost effectiveness of constructing a solar heating and electric power plant is evaluated on the basis of a compatibility analysis of its combination with a thermal electric power plant and a boiler-type heating plant, taking into account comprehensively economic factors as well as power requirements. Two variants of such a combination are considered and compared, assuming equal heating power and equal electric power respectively. Equations are set up for each variant covering fixed and variable costs of generating electric power and generating heat, as basis for comparing the two variants and optimizing them with respect to normalized annual total cost. Nomograms plotted for convenient numerical calculation of maximum economically worthwhile capital investment in a solar heating and electric power plant, depending on changes in various operating parameters, reveal that, as the time for constructing such a plant becomes longer, this maximum worthwhile investment in it increases for variant 1 and decreases for variant 2.

  8. Knowledge management for the decommissioning of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes background, objectives and select conceptual components of knowledge management for the decommissioning of nuclear power plants. The concept focuses on the transfer of personal practice experience within and between nuclear power plants. The conceptual insights embrace aspects of knowledge content, structure, KM processes, organization, cooperation, culture, persuasion, leadership, technology, infrastructure, business impact and resilience. Key challenges are discussed, and related advice is provided for KM practitioners with similar endeavours in the field of nuclear power plant decommissioning. (author)

  9. Geothermal depth power plant; Geothermie Tiefenkraftwerk trademark (GTKW)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haemmerle, Hubert [Ehoch 10 Projektentwicklungs GmbH, Wien (Austria); Pilgerstorfer, Thomas; Schubert, Wulf [Technische Univ. Graz (Austria). Inst. fuer Felsmechanik und Tunnelbau; Radoncic, Nedim

    2012-11-01

    The authors of the contribution under consideration report on a new concept for the utilization of geothermal energy. This concept provides itself due to the size of the usable reservoir, its performance in the area of conventional caloric power plants and its pronounced availability as a base load substitution for nuclear power plants as well as conventional gas and coal-fired power plants. A basic feasibility study was concluded. In addition to basic research, a variety of development work is required.

  10. Human resource management in the nuclear power plant

    OpenAIRE

    BAZGIEROVÁ, Barbora

    2016-01-01

    This Bachelor thesis investigates particularities in human resource management in the nuclear power plant. The goal of this work is to describe basic models of human resource management and their use in practise including models of human resource management that are used in the monitored nuclear power plant. This work contains options how to manage people, recruitment and education or remuneration of employees. The paper deals with human resource management in the specific nuclear power plant...

  11. Environmental impacts of fossil-fuel and nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Large power plants burning fossil fuels generate emissions with a high content of sulphur dioxide and a content of noxious aerosols and radioisotopes whose radioactivity exceeds the limits set for nuclear power plants. The main problem of nuclear power plants is to secure radiation safety namely in case of an accident even though the probability of such an event is very small. The most complicated problems are related to the treatment of spent fuel, its transport, processing and storage. (B.H.)

  12. Advanced Power Ultra-Uprates of Existing Plants (APPU) Final Scientific/Technical Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rubiolo, Pablo R. [Westinghouse Electric Company LLC, Pittsburgh, PA (United States). Science and Technology Dept.; Conway, Lawarence E. [Westinghouse Electric Company LLC, Pittsburgh, PA (United States). Science and Technology Dept.; Oriani, Luca [Westinghouse Electric Company LLC, Pittsburgh, PA (United States). Science and Technology Dept.; Lahoda, Edward J. [Westinghouse Electric Company LLC, Pittsburgh, PA (United States). Science and Technology Dept.; DeSilva, Greg [Westinghouse Electric Company LLC, Pittsburgh, PA (United States). Science and Technology Dept.; Hu, Min H. [Westinghouse Electric Company LLC, Pittsburgh, PA (United States). Nuclear Services Division; Hartz, Josh [Westinghouse Electric Company LLC, Pittsburgh, PA (United States). Nuclear Services Division; Bachrach, Uriel [Westinghouse Electric Company LLC, Pittsburgh, PA (United States). Nuclear Services Division; Smith, Larry [Westinghouse Electric Company LLC, Pittsburgh, PA (United States). Nuclear Services Division; Dudek, Daniel F. [Westinghouse Electric Company LLC, Pittsburgh, PA (United States). Nuclear Services Division; Toman, Gary J. [Electric Power Research Inst. (EPRI), Palo Alto, CA (United States); Feng, Dandong [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States); Hejzlar, Pavel [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States); Kazimi, Mujid S. [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States)

    2006-03-31

    This project assessed the feasibility of a Power Ultra-Uprate on an existing nuclear plant. The study determined the technical and design limitations of the current components, both inside and outside the containment. Based on the identified plant bottlenecks, the design changes for major pieces of equipment required to meet the Power Ultra-Uprate throughput were determined. Costs for modified pieces of equipment and for change-out and disposal of the replaced equipment were evaluated. These costs were then used to develop capital, fuel and operating and maintenance cost estimates for the Power Ultra-Uprate plant. The cost evaluation indicates that the largest cost components are the replacement of power (during the outage required for the uprate) and the new fuel loading. Based on these results, the study concluded that, for a standard 4-loop plant, the proposed Power Ultra-Uprate is technically feasible. However, the power uprate is likely to be more expensive than the cost (per Kw electric installed) of a new plant when large capacity uprates are considered (>25%). Nevertheless, the concept of the Power Ultra-Uprate may be an attractive option for specific nuclear power plants where a large margin exists in the steam and power conversion system or where medium power increases (~600 MWe) are needed. The results of the study suggest that development efforts on fuel technologies for current nuclear power plants should be oriented towards improving the fuel performance (fretting-wear, corrosion, uranium load, manufacturing, safety) required to achieve higher burnup rather focusing on potential increases in the fuel thermal output.

  13. Advanced Power Ultra-Uprates of Existing Plants (APPU) Final Scientific/Technical Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This project assessed the feasibility of a Power Ultra-Uprate on an existing nuclear plant. The study determined the technical and design limitations of the current components, both inside and outside the containment. Based on the identified plant bottlenecks, the design changes for major pieces of equipment required to meet the Power Ultra-Uprate throughput were determined. Costs for modified pieces of equipment and for change-out and disposal of the replaced equipment were evaluated. These costs were then used to develop capital, fuel and operating and maintenance cost estimates for the Power Ultra-Uprate plant. The cost evaluation indicates that the largest cost components are the replacement of power (during the outage required for the uprate) and the new fuel loading. Based on these results, the study concluded that, for a ''standard'' 4-loop plant, the proposed Power Ultra-Uprate is technically feasible. However, the power uprate is likely to be more expensive than the cost (per Kw electric installed) of a new plant when large capacity uprates are considered (>25%). Nevertheless, the concept of the Power Ultra-Uprate may be an attractive option for specific nuclear power plants where a large margin exists in the steam and power conversion system or where medium power increases (∼600 MWe) are needed. The results of the study suggest that development efforts on fuel technologies for current nuclear power plants should be oriented towards improving the fuel performance (fretting-wear, corrosion, uranium load, manufacturing, safety) required to achieve higher burnup rather focusing on potential increases in the fuel thermal output

  14. Steam-Electric Power-Plant-Cooling Handbook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sonnichsen, J.C.; Carlson, H.A.; Charles, P.D.; Jacobson, L.D.; Tadlock, L.A.

    1982-02-01

    The Steam-Electric Power Plant Cooling Handbook provides summary data on steam-electric power plant capacity, generation and number of plants for each cooling means, by Electric Regions, Water Resource Regions and National Electric Reliability Council Areas. Water consumption by once-through cooling, cooling ponds and wet evaporative towers is discussed and a methodology for computation of water consumption is provided for a typical steam-electric plant which uses a wet evaporative tower or cooling pond for cooling.

  15. Power electronics solution to dust emissions from thermal power plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vukosavić Slobodan

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Thermal power stations emit significant amounts of fly ash and ultra fine particles into the atmosphere. Electrostatic precipitators (ESP or electro filters remove flying ashes and fine particles from the flue gas before passing the gas into the chimney. Maximum allowable value of dust is 50 mg/m3 and it requires that the efficiency of the ESPs better than 99 %, which calls for an increase of active surface of the electrodes, hence increasing the filter volume and the weight of steel used for the filter. In previous decades, electrostatic precipitators in thermal power plants were fed by thyristor controlled, single phase fed devices having a high degree of reliability, but with a relatively low collection efficiency, hence requiring large effective surface of the collection plates and a large weight of steel construction in order to achieve the prescribed emission limits. Collection efficiency and energy efficiency of the electrostatic precipitator can be increased by applying high frequency high voltage power supply (HF HV. Electrical engineering faculty of the University of Belgrade (ETF has developed technology and HF HV equipment for the ESP power supply. This solution was subjected to extensive experimental investigation at TE Morava from 2008 to 2010. High frequency power supply is proven to reduce emission two times in controlled conditions while increasing energy efficiency of the precipitator, compared to the conventional thyristor controlled 50Hz supply. Two high frequency high voltage unit AR70/1000 with parameters 70 kV and 1000 mA are installed at TE Morava and thoroughly testes. It was found that the HF HV power supply of the ESP at TE Morava increases collection efficiency so that emission of fine particles and flying ashes are halved, brought down to only 50 % of the emissions encountered with conventional 50 Hz thyristor driven power supplies. On the basis of this study, conclusion is drawn that the equipment comprising HF HV

  16. Modeling spatial competition for light in plant populations with the porous medium equation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beyer, Robert; Etard, Octave; Cournède, Paul-Henry; Laurent-Gengoux, Pascal

    2015-02-01

    We consider a plant's local leaf area index as a spatially continuous variable, subject to particular reaction-diffusion dynamics of allocation, senescence and spatial propagation. The latter notably incorporates the plant's tendency to form new leaves in bright rather than shaded locations. Applying a generalized Beer-Lambert law allows to link existing foliage to production dynamics. The approach allows for inter-individual variability and competition for light while maintaining robustness-a key weakness of comparable existing models. The analysis of the single plant case leads to a significant simplification of the system's key equation when transforming it into the well studied porous medium equation. Confronting the theoretical model to experimental data of sugar beet populations, differing in configuration density, demonstrates its accuracy.

  17. [alpha]2A-Adrenoceptor Stimulation Improves Prefrontal Cortical Regulation of Behavior through Inhibition of cAMP Signaling in Aging Animals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verduzco, Luis; van Dyck, Christopher H.; Arnsten, Amy F. T.; Ramos, Brian P.; Stark, David

    2006-01-01

    The working-memory functions of the prefrontal cortex (PFC) are improved by stimulation of postsynaptic, [alpha]2A-adrenoceptors, especially in aged animals with PFC cognitive deficits. Thus, the [alpha]2A-adrenoceptor agonist, guanfacine, greatly improves working-memory performance in monkeys and rats following systemic administration or…

  18. Heat power plants in the Federal Republic of Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The construction of conventional power plants in the past years has been almost exclusively dominated by plants for the heat market. The technology of fluidised bed combustion has been successfully introduced due to its small space requirement, low toxic emissions and relatively low plant costs. Due to pollution legislation it is difficult for new, small heat power plants to produce district heat at competitive prices. At present district heat can only be economically generated by condensation power plants with heat decoupling. The authors elaborate on this technology. (orig.)

  19. Next generation geothermal power plants. Draft final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brugman, John; Hattar, John; Nichols, Kenneth; Esaki, Yuri

    1994-12-01

    The goal of this project is to develop concepts for the next generation geothermal power plant(s) (NGGPP). This plant, compared to existing plants, will generate power for a lower levelized cost and will be more competitive with fossil fuel fired power plants. The NGGPP will utilize geothermal resources efficiently and will be equipped with contingencies to mitigate the risk of reservoir performance. The NGGPP design will attempt to minimize emission of pollutants and consumption of surface water and/or geothermal fluids for cooling service.

  20. Nuclear power and renewable energy : Environmental partnership for the new century

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Growing world population and urbanization, together with people's aspirations for improved life, will put great demands on energy production in the new century. Deployment of new, energy-intensive technologies will further increase the pressure. Environmental issues associated with energy production and use are at the same time affecting society's preferences for different types of energy. In recent decades, concerns have grown about air and water emissions from fossil fuels. In particular, concerns about emissions of greenhouse gases, such as carbon dioxide, have the potential to fundamentally change the energy system as we know it today, The 1992 Unite Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCC), which has been ratified by the vast majority of counties in the world, calls for stabilization of the concentration of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. To stabilize the concentration of these gases would require global emissions of greenhouse gases to fall to less than half the level of global emissions in 1990 and to stay there forever. Non-carbon-emitting energy sources such as nuclear power and renewable energy provide one key piece in the challenge to substantially reduce greenhouse gas emissions while maintaining population and economic growth. This paper presents the role nuclear power can play in the new century as a partner to renewable energy sources within the context of global environmental issues. (author)