WorldWideScience

Sample records for camp century medium power plant 2a

  1. Advanced nuclear power plants for the 21st century

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Graham, J. [BNFL, Inc. (United States)

    1996-10-01

    This paper examines, following four issues: capacity; the closure of the fuel cycle; deregulation; and the need to maintain the development of the advanced systems. Demand is a governing parameter: if one doesn`t need the power then there is no need to increase generating capacity. However, there is no question but that the population is growing. All predictions are that new generating capacity will be needed -- the questions are when and how? Until the various issues involved in deregulation are played through it is not clear what form markets will take for the longer term or how investment in large-capital-cost facilities will fit into the financial structure. Deregulation needs the time to throw light on these matters and to gain some experience in the various financial options. The lack of closure of the fuel cycle is both a cost and public perception issue. The US program, as a result of a cold-war paranoia against recycling the partially used fuel, is based upon the final disposal of useful supplies of energy. However, the program itself is plagued with poor management, delays, and uncertainties that are due, in no small measure, to half-uttered thoughts by all concerned, that this is the wrong policy. Current efforts to rethink the policy, and its implementing projects, are welcome. Finally, if it is important to keep design options for advanced nuclear power plants open for the future, then it necessary to maintain valid research and development programs for those designs. Current US policy is damaging to a number of the more advanced options. This paper discusses the candidate systems: LWR, ALMR, HTGR, and CANDU systems for the special contributions they may each provide in an ideal electrical generating industry of the mid-twenty-first century, and makes suggestions for the future. (J.P.N.)

  2. THE IMPORTANCE OF INTEGRATING SYNCHRONOUS COMPENSATOR STATCOM IN WIND POWER PLANT CONNECTED INTO THE MEDIUM VOLTAGE GRID

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BERINDE I.

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Integration of wind power plant in medium voltage grid is comply with the same regulations as conventional plants. To realize in the point of common coupling grid, reactive power levels as close to zero is necessary to use reactive power compensators and ensuring the compensation. Static compensators STATCOM shunt satisfy this requirement very well, by absorption / injection of reactive power from / to grid based on the voltage amplitude the point of common coupling at grid. The article presents the behavior of wind power plant, which is connected to the compensator STATCOM, on medium voltage fault and the importance using it in the wind power plant.

  3. Optimal Installation Capacity of Medium Hydro-Power Plants Considering Technical, Economic and Reliability Indices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hosseini, S. M. H.; Forouzbakhsh, Farshid; Fotuhi-Firuzabad, Mahmood

    2008-01-01

    One of the most important issues in planning the reservoir type of Medium Hydro-Power Plants (MHPP) is to determine the optimal installation capacity of the MHPP and estimate its optimal annual energy value. In this paper, a method is presented to calculate the annual energy. A computer program has...... been developed to analyse energy calculation and estimation of the most important economic indices of an MHPP using the sensitivity analysis method. Another program, developed by Matlab software, calculates the reliability indices for a number of units of an MHPP with a specified load duration curve...... using the Monte Carlo method. Ultimately, com- paring the technical, economic and reliability indices will determine the optimal installation capacity of an MHPP. By applying the above-mentioned algorithm to an existing MHPP named "Bookan( located in the west-north of Iran); the optimal capacity of 30...

  4. An approach to the investment analysis of small and medium hydro-power plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Forouzbakhsh, Farshid; Hosseini, S.M.H.; Vakilian, M.

    2007-01-01

    Hydro-power plants, as a part of infrastructure projects, play an important role in the economic-social development of countries. Sincea large amount of investment is needed for construction of these power plants, which appeared to be an obstacle in these developments,however it is possible...... to finance these infrastructure plants by assigning these affairs to private sectors by using build operate transfer(BOT) method, which is quite well-known all around the world. This paper reviews the structure of BOT contracts and through aneconomic evaluation based on different percentage of investments...... of private sector in providing the expenses of small and mediumhydro-power plants (S&M-HPP) (e.g. MHPP in ‘‘Bookan, Iran’’ and SHPP in ‘‘Nari, Iran’’), demonstrates that by increasing thepercentage the share of the private sector in the investment, the economic indices B/C and NPV improve substantially...

  5. Maintenance and improvement of thermal hydraulic system codes using results of OCDE experiments (PKL, Rosa, Atlas) and application to Spanish Nuclear power plants. Camp-Spain project; Mejora y mantenimiento de codigos termohidraulicos de sistema de base a resultados de los experimentos OECD (PKL, ROSA y ATLAS) y su aplicacion a plantas espanolas, proyecto Camp-Espana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanchez, M.; Perez, J.; Martorell, S.; Carlos, S.; Villanueva, J. F.; Sanchez, F.; Queral, C.; Rebollo, M. J.; Rivas-Lewicky, J.; Verdu, G.; Gallardo, S.; Miro, R.; Querol, A.; Munoz-Cobo, J. L.; Escriva, A.; Berna, C.; Reventos, F.; Freixa, J.; Martinez, V.

    2016-08-01

    CSN involvement in different international NEA experimental TH programmes has outlined the scope for a new period of CAMP-Espana activities, currently focused on the: -Analysis, simulation and investigation of specific safety aspects of PKL3/OECD and ATLAS/OECD experiments. -Analysis of applicability and/or extension of the results in these projects to the safety, operation or availability of the Spanish nuclear power plants. Both objective are carried out by simulating experiments and plant application with the last available versions of NRC TH codes (RELAP5 or TRACE). A CAMP in kind contribution (NUREG/IA) is aimed as final result of both types of analyses. Five different national research groups (from Technical Universities of Madrid, Valencia and Cataluna) ate carrying out the development of these activities. (Author)

  6. Modelling and optimization of transient processes in line focusing power plants with single-phase heat transfer medium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noureldin, K.; González-Escalada, L. M.; Hirsch, T.; Nouri, B.; Pitz-Paal, R.

    2016-05-01

    A large number of commercial and research line focusing solar power plants are in operation and under development. Such plants include parabolic trough collectors (PTC) or linear Fresnel using thermal oil or molten salt as the heat transfer medium (HTM). However, the continuously varying and dynamic solar condition represent a big challenge for the plant control in order to optimize its power production and to keep the operation safe. A better understanding of the behaviour of such power plants under transient conditions will help reduce defocusing instances, improve field control, and hence, increase the energy yield and confidence in this new technology. Computational methods are very powerful and cost-effective tools to gain such understanding. However, most simulation models described in literature assume equal mass flow distributions among the parallel loops in the field or totally decouple the flow and thermal conditions. In this paper, a new numerical model to simulate a whole solar field with single-phase HTM is described. The proposed model consists of a hydraulic part and a thermal part that are coupled to account for the effect of the thermal condition of the field on the flow distribution among the parallel loops. The model is specifically designed for large line-focusing solar fields offering a high degree of flexibility in terms of layout, condition of the mirrors, and spatially resolved DNI data. Moreover, the model results have been compared to other simulation tools, as well as experimental and plant data, and the results show very good agreement. The model can provide more precise data to the control algorithms to improve the plant control. In addition, short-term and accurate spatially discretized DNI forecasts can be used as input to predict the field behaviour in-advance. In this paper, the hydraulic and thermal parts, as well as the coupling procedure, are described and some validation results and results of simulating an example field are

  7. Analytical Investigation and Control System Set-up of Medium Scale PV Plants for Power Flow Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosario Miceli

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available In the field of photovoltaic (PV plants and energy conversion from renewable sources, a large part of the technical literature is more devoted to practical aspects (new solar cells, electrically driven PV panels, safety, reduction of parasitic currents, etc. than to theoretical investigations. Despite this tendency, this paper presents a mathematical analysis of a medium scale photovoltaic power generation system connected to the distribution network and of its control system. In such a system, the conversion stage is unique due to the absence of a boost chopper. The conducted analysis leads to the interesting conclusion that the inverter used in the plant presents two degrees of freedom, easy to exploit in a control system in which the inverter simultaneously realizes the interconnection to the grid and the MPPT control. The structure of the control system is then presented, discussed and validated by means of numerical simulations.

  8. Transaction Costs in Constructing Small and Medium Hydro Power Plants in Albania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florian Miti

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Identifying the transaction costs helps knowing which are the real costs of starting a new business, finding bottlenecks, can serve to reduce inefficiencies and encourage more effective reforms. In  this article we analyze the impact of transaction costs in interactions between firms and public authority, when firms participate in the bidding procedure for constructing new hydropower plants until the stage of producing electricity. In the first years, after granting the concession right, firms face many difficulties due to a complex normative regulation, contractual conditions and  bureaucracy. Although in the majority of the cases, winning firms are provided by the public authority with the  concessionary permit within the legal deadlines, they fail to start producing electricity within the declared  timetable. Even though direct transaction costs computed by measuring the actual costs that firms or individuals face during these procedures may be relatively low, fairly 1-2 % of the total cost of investment, opportunity costs considering the potential loss in the revenues due to delays in producing and selling electricity, in some cases,  can be equal to the total cost of constructing the implant. Keywords: transaction costs, concessions, hydro power constructing, regulation.

  9. Determination of {sup 93}Zr in medium and low level radioactive wastes from Brazilian nuclear power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Thiago C.; Oliveira, Arno H., E-mail: oliveiratco2010@gmail.com, E-mail: heeren@nuclear.ufmg.br [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (DEN/UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Departamento de Engenharia Nuclear; Kastner, Geraldo F.; Monteiro, Roberto Pellacani G., E-mail: rpgm@cdtn.br, E-mail: gfk@cdtn.br [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    2015-07-01

    The majority of long-lived radionuclides produced in the nuclear power plants can be regarded as difficult-to-measure radionuclides (RDM), hence chemical separation is necessary before the nuclear measurement of them. The zirconium isotope {sup 93}Zr is a long-lived pure β-particle-emitting radionuclide produced from {sup 235}U fission and from neutron activation of the stable isotope {sup 92}Zr and thus occurring as one of the radionuclides found in nuclear reactors. Due to its long half-life, {sup 93}Zr is one of the radionuclides of interest for the performance of assessment studies of waste storage or disposal. Two different methodologies based on extractive resins and LSC and ICP-MS techniques that enables the {sup 93}Zr determination in medium (ILW) and low level (LLW) radioactive wastes samples from Brazilian nuclear power plants has been developed in our laboratory. Analyzing real samples 65% and 75% chemical yields for {sup 93}Zr recovery were achieved for ICP-MS and LSC techniques, respectively. The detection limits were 0.045 μg.L{sup -1} for ICP-MS and 0.05 Bq.L{sup -1} for LSC techniques. (author)

  10. Switching power converters medium and high power

    CERN Document Server

    Neacsu, Dorin O

    2013-01-01

    An examination of all of the multidisciplinary aspects of medium- and high-power converter systems, including basic power electronics, digital control and hardware, sensors, analog preprocessing of signals, protection devices and fault management, and pulse-width-modulation (PWM) algorithms, Switching Power Converters: Medium and High Power, Second Edition discusses the actual use of industrial technology and its related subassemblies and components, covering facets of implementation otherwise overlooked by theoretical textbooks. The updated Second Edition contains many new figures, as well as

  11. Power converters for medium voltage networks

    CERN Document Server

    Islam, Md Rabiul; Zhu, Jianguo

    2014-01-01

    This book examines a number of topics, mainly in connection with advances in semiconductor devices and magnetic materials and developments in medium and large-scale renewable power plant technologies, grid integration techniques and new converter topologies, including advanced digital control systems for medium-voltage networks. The book's individual chapters provide an extensive compilation of fundamental theories and in-depth information on current research and development trends, while also exploring new approaches to overcoming some critical limitations of conventional grid integration te

  12. 27 CFR 19.914 - Medium plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Medium plants. 19.914... OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS DISTILLED SPIRITS PLANTS Distilled Spirits For Fuel Use Permits § 19.914 Medium plants. Any person wishing to establish a medium plant shall make application for and obtain...

  13. Kansas Power Plants

    Data.gov (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — The Kansas Power Plants database depicts, as point features, the locations of the various types of power plant locations in Kansas. The locations of the power plants...

  14. A solar power plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Avakyan, Yu.V.; Dabagyan, T.N.; Gagiyan, L.A.; Kharapetyan, G.S.; Vartanyan, A.V.

    1984-01-01

    This invention is designed for solar energy collectors in the form of heat pipes. A solar power plant is proposed that contains a solar concentrator in the form of at least one heat pipe with evaporation and condensation sections, the first of which is constructed to absorb solar emission and the second located in a heat exchanger equipped with inlet and outlet pipes. In order to simplify the design, the solar power plant is equipped with an additional heat exchanger connected through a connector to the inlet and outlet pipes, while the evaporation section holds an additional section in the lower half, within the auxiliary heat exchanger. During operation as a solar energy collector, the evaporation region absorbs the solar energy and converts it to heat, which is then carried by the heat transfer medium to the heating tube.

  15. The new duty of care for nuclear power plant operators in Sec. 9a subpara. 2a AtG; Zur neuen Sorgepflicht der Kraftwerksbetreiber gem. paragraph 9a Abs. 2a AtG

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Posser, Herbert [Freshfields Bruckhaus Deringer LLP, Duesseldorf (Germany)

    2014-07-15

    The new stipulation in Sec. 9a subpara. 2a AtG - pursuant to which operators of nuclear power plants are no longer entitled to use the interim storage facility in Gorleben for radioactive waste stemming from the reprocessing plants in Sellafield and La Hague, but have to establish further capacities in their own facilities for spent nuclear fuels at the site of the power plants - is illegal under constitutional law. It imposes an unproportional burden on the plant operators as well as on GNS, and infringes property rights without pursuing a legitimate purpose. (orig.)

  16. Power Plant Cycling Costs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, N.; Besuner, P.; Lefton, S.; Agan, D.; Hilleman, D.

    2012-07-01

    This report provides a detailed review of the most up to date data available on power plant cycling costs. The primary objective of this report is to increase awareness of power plant cycling cost, the use of these costs in renewable integration studies and to stimulate debate between policymakers, system dispatchers, plant personnel and power utilities.

  17. Flexibility in 21st Century Power Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cochran, J.; Miller, M.; Zinaman, O.; Milligan, M.; Arent, D.; Palmintier, B.; O' Malley, M.; Mueller, S.; Lannoye, E.; Tuohy, A.; Kujala, B.; Sommer, M.; Holttinen, H.; Kiviluoma, J.; Soonee, S. K.

    2014-05-01

    Flexibility of operation--the ability of a power system to respond to change in demand and supply--is a characteristic of all power systems. Flexibility is especially prized in twenty-first century power systems, with higher levels of grid-connected variable renewable energy (primarily, wind and solar). This paper summarizes the analytic frameworks that have emerged to measure this characteristic and distills key principles of flexibility for policy makers.

  18. Metal accumulating plants: Medium's role

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabier, J.; Prudent, P.; Szymanska, B.; Mevy, J.-P.

    2003-05-01

    To evaluate phytoremediation potentialities by metal accumulation in tolerant plants, trials are carried out using in vitro cultures. Organie compounds influence on metal accumulation is studied with metals supplemented media. The tested compounds on zinc and lead absorption by Brassica juncea, are chelating agents (EDTA, citric acid) and soluble organic fractions of compost. EDTA seems to enhance the transfer of lead in plant but it is the opposite in the case of zinc. Citric acid stimulates root absorption for both zinc and lead. For the aqueous extracts of compost, variable effects are obtained according to the origin of compost (green wastes and food wastes). In'all tested conditions of cultures, zinc is mainly exported towards shoot while lead is stored in root.

  19. Nuclear Power Plants. Revised.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyerly, Ray L.; Mitchell, Walter, III

    This publication is one of a series of information booklets for the general public published by the United States Atomic Energy Commission. Among the topics discussed are: Why Use Nuclear Power?; From Atoms to Electricity; Reactor Types; Typical Plant Design Features; The Cost of Nuclear Power; Plants in the United States; Developments in Foreign…

  20. Power plant chemical technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-12-01

    17 contributions covering topies of fossil fuel combustion, flue gas cleaning, power plant materials, corrosion, water/steam cycle chemistry, monitoring and control were presented at the annual meeting devoted to Power Plant Chemical Technology 1996 at Kolding (Denmark) 4-6 September 1996. (EG)

  1. Antidiabetic sulfonylureas and cAMP cooperatively activate Epac2A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Toshimasa; Shibasaki, Tadao; Takahashi, Harumi; Sugawara, Kenji; Ono, Aika; Inoue, Naoko; Furuya, Toshio; Seino, Susumu

    2013-10-22

    Sulfonylureas are widely used drugs for treating insulin deficiency in patients with type 2 diabetes. Sulfonylureas bind to the regulatory subunit of the pancreatic β cell potassium channel that controls insulin secretion. Sulfonylureas also bind to and activate Epac2A, a member of the Epac family of cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP)-binding proteins that promote insulin secretion through activation of the Ras-like guanosine triphosphatase Rap1. Using molecular docking simulation, we identified amino acid residues in one of two cyclic nucleotide-binding domains, cNBD-A, in Epac2A predicted to mediate the interaction with sulfonylureas. We confirmed the importance of the identified residues by site-directed mutagenesis and analysis of the response of the mutants to sulfonylureas using two assays: changes in fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) of an Epac2A-FRET biosensor and direct sulfonylurea-binding experiments. These residues were also required for the sulfonylurea-dependent Rap1 activation by Epac2A. Binding of sulfonylureas to Epac2A depended on the concentration of cAMP and the structures of the drugs. Sulfonylureas and cAMP cooperatively activated Epac2A through binding to cNBD-A and cNBD-B, respectively. Our data suggest that sulfonylureas stabilize Epac2A in its open, active state and provide insight for the development of drugs that target Epac2A.

  2. The Kuroshio power plant

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Falin

    2013-01-01

    By outlining a new design or the Kuroshio power plant, new approaches to turbine design, anchorage system planning, deep sea marine engineering and power plant operations and maintenance are explored and suggested. The impact on the local environment, particularly in the face of natural disasters, is also considered to provide a well rounded introduction to plan and build a 30MW pilot power plant. Following a literature review, the six chapters of this book propose a conceptual design by focusing on the plant's core technologies and establish the separate analysis logics for turbine design and

  3. Nuclear power plant maintainability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seminara, J L; Parsons, S O

    1982-09-01

    In the mid-1970s a general awareness of human factors engineering deficiencies associated with power plant control rooms took shape and the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) awarded the Lockheed Corporation a contract to review the human factors aspects of five representative operational control rooms and their associated simulators. This investigation revealed a host of major and minor deficiencies that assumed unforeseen dimensions in the post- Three Mile Island accident period. In the course of examining operational problems (Seminara et al, 1976) and subsequently the methods for overcoming such problems (Seminara et al, 1979, 1980) indications surfaced that power plants were far from ideal in meeting the needs of maintenance personnel. Accordingly, EPRI sponsored an investigation of the human factors aspects of power plant maintainability (Seminara, 1981). This paper provides an overview of the maintainability problems and issues encountered in the course of reviewing five nuclear power plants.

  4. Advanced stellarator power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, R.L.

    1994-07-01

    The stellarator is a class of helical/toroidal magnetic fusion devices. Recent international progress in stellarator power plant conceptual design is reviewed and comparisons in the areas of physics, engineering, and economics are made with recent tokamak design studies.

  5. Submerged Medium Voltage Cable Systems at Nuclear Power Plants. A Review of Research Efforts Relevant to Aging Mechanisms and Condition Monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, Jason [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Bernstein, Robert [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); White, II, Gregory Von [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Glover, Steven F. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Neely, Jason C. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Pena, Gary [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Williamson, Kenneth Martin [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Zutavern, Fred J. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Gelbard, Fred [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-03-01

    and industrial literature was performed to identify : 1) findings regarding the degradation mechanisms of submerged cabling and 2) condition monitoring methods that may prove useful in predict ing the remaining lifetime of submerged medium voltage p ower cables . The re search was conducted by a multi - disciplinary team , and s ources includ ed official NRC reports, n ational l aboratory reports , IEEE standards, conference and journal proceedings , magazine articles , PhD dissertations , and discussions with experts . The purpose of this work was to establish the current state - of - the - art in material degradation modeling and cable condition monitoring techniques and to identify research gaps . Subsequently, future areas of focus are recommended to address these research gaps and thus strengthen the efficacy of the NRC's developing cable condition monitoring program . Results of this literature review and details of the test ing recommendations are presented in this report . FOREWORD To ensure the safe, re liable, and cost - effective long - term operation of nuclear power plants, many systems, structures, and components must be continuously evaluated. The Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) has identified that cables in submerged environments are of concern, particularly as plants are seeking license renewal. To date, there is a lack of consensus on aging and degradation mechanisms even though the area of submerged cables has been extensively studied. Consequently, the ability to make lifetime predictions for submerged cable does not yet exist. The NRC has engaged Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) to lead a coordinated effort to help elucidate the aging and degradation of cables in submerged environments by collaborating with cable manufacturers, utilities, universities, and other government agencies. A team of SNL experts was assembled from the laboratories including electrical condition monitoring, mat erial science, polymer degradation, plasma physics

  6. Submerged Medium Voltage Cable Systems at Nuclear Power Plants. A Review of Research Efforts Relevant to Aging Mechanisms and Condition Monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, Jason [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Bernstein, Robert [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); White, II, Gregory Von [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Glover, Steven F. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Neely, Jason C. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Pena, Gary [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Williamson, Kenneth Martin [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Zutavern, Fred J. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Gelbard, Fred [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-03-01

    and industrial literature was performed to identify : 1) findings regarding the degradation mechanisms of submerged cabling and 2) condition monitoring methods that may prove useful in predict ing the remaining lifetime of submerged medium voltage p ower cables . The re search was conducted by a multi - disciplinary team , and s ources includ ed official NRC reports, n ational l aboratory reports , IEEE standards, conference and journal proceedings , magazine articles , PhD dissertations , and discussions with experts . The purpose of this work was to establish the current state - of - the - art in material degradation modeling and cable condition monitoring techniques and to identify research gaps . Subsequently, future areas of focus are recommended to address these research gaps and thus strengthen the efficacy of the NRC's developing cable condition monitoring program . Results of this literature review and details of the test ing recommendations are presented in this report . FOREWORD To ensure the safe, re liable, and cost - effective long - term operation of nuclear power plants, many systems, structures, and components must be continuously evaluated. The Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) has identified that cables in submerged environments are of concern, particularly as plants are seeking license renewal. To date, there is a lack of consensus on aging and degradation mechanisms even though the area of submerged cables has been extensively studied. Consequently, the ability to make lifetime predictions for submerged cable does not yet exist. The NRC has engaged Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) to lead a coordinated effort to help elucidate the aging and degradation of cables in submerged environments by collaborating with cable manufacturers, utilities, universities, and other government agencies. A team of SNL experts was assembled from the laboratories including electrical condition monitoring, mat erial science, polymer degradation, plasma physics

  7. Power plant siting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winter, J.V.; Conner, D.A.

    1978-01-01

    Just to keep up with expected demand, the US will need over 500 new power generation units by 1985. Where these power plants will be located is the subject of heated debate among utility officials, government leaders, conservationists, concerned citizens and a multitude of special interest groups. This book offers a balanced review of all of the salient factors that must be taken into consideration in selecting power plant locations. To deal with this enormously complex subject, the authors (1) offer a general overview of the history and reasoning behind present legislation on the state and national levels; (2) describe the many different agencies that have jurisdiction in power plant location, from local water authorities and city councils to state conservation boards and the Nuclear Regulatory Commission; and (3) include a state-by-state breakdown of siting laws, regulations and present licensing procedures. Architects, engineers, contractors, and others involved in plant construction and site evaluation will learn of the trade-offs that must be made in balancing the engineering, economic, and environmental impacts of plant location. The book covers such areas as availability of water supplies for generation or cooling; geology, typography, and demography of the proposed site; and even the selection of the fuel best suited for the area. Finally, the authors examine the numerous environmental aspects of power plant siting.

  8. Nuclear Power Plants (Rev.)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lyerly, Ray L.; Mitchell III, Walter [Southern Nuclear Engineering, Inc.

    1973-01-01

    Projected energy requirements for the future suggest that we must employ atomic energy to generate electric power or face depletion of our fossil-fuel resources—coal, oil, and gas. In short, both conservation and economic considerations will require us to use nuclear energy to generate the electricity that supports our civilization. Until we reach the time when nuclear power plants are as common as fossil-fueled or hydroelectric plants, many people will wonder how the nuclear plants work, how much they cost, where they are located, and what kinds of reactors they use. The purpose of this booklet is to answer these questions. In doing so, it will consider only central station plants, which are those that provide electric power for established utility systems.

  9. Transforming Power Systems; 21st Century Power Partnership

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2015-05-20

    The 21st Century Power Partnership - a multilateral effort of the Clean Energy Ministerial - serves as a platform for public-private collaboration to advance integrated solutions for the large-scale deployment of renewable energy in combination with deep energy ef?ciency and smart grid solutions.

  10. Adenyl cyclases and cAMP in plant signaling - Past and present

    KAUST Repository

    Gehring, Christoph A.

    2010-06-25

    In lower eukaryotes and animals 3\\'-5\\'-cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) and adenyl cyclases (ACs), enzymes that catalyse the formation of cAMP from ATP, have long been established as key components and second messengers in many signaling pathways. In contrast, in plants, both the presence and biological role of cAMP have been a matter of ongoing debate and some controversy. Here we shall focus firstly on the discovery of cellular cAMP in plants and evidence for a role of this second messenger in plant signal transduction. Secondly, we shall review current evidence of plant ACs, analyse aspects of their domain organisations and the biological roles of candidate molecules. In addition, we shall assess different approaches based on search motifs consisting of functionally assigned amino acids in the catalytic centre of annotated and/or experimentally tested nucleotide cyclases that can contribute to the identification of novel candidate molecules with AC activity such as F-box and TIR proteins. 2010 Gehring; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

  11. Numerical method for determining the allowable medium temperature during transient operation of a thick-walled boiler element in power plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rząsa, Dariusz; Duda, Piotr

    2011-12-01

    Secure and cost-effective power generation has become very important nowdays. Care must be taken while designing and operating modern steam power plants. There are regulations such as German boiler regulations (Technische Regeln für Dampfkessel 301) or European Standards that guide the user how to operate the steam power plants. However, those regulations are based on the quasi-steady state assumption and one dimensional temperature distribution in the entire element. This simplifications may not guarantee that the heating and cooling operations are conducted in the most efficient way. Thus, it was important to find an improved method that can allow to establish optimum parameters for heating and cooling operations. The optimum parameters should guarantee that the maximum total stresses in the construction element are in the allowable limits and the entire process is conducted in the shortest time. This paper summarizes mathematical descriptions how to optimize shut down process of power block devices. The optimization formulation is based on the assumption that the maximum total stresses in the whole construction element should be kept within allowable limits during cooling operation. Additionally, the operation should be processed in the shortest time possible.

  12. GEOTHERMAL POWER GENERATION PLANT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boyd, Tonya

    2013-12-01

    Oregon Institute of Technology (OIT) drilled a deep geothermal well on campus (to 5,300 feet deep) which produced 196oF resource as part of the 2008 OIT Congressionally Directed Project. OIT will construct a geothermal power plant (estimated at 1.75 MWe gross output). The plant would provide 50 to 75 percent of the electricity demand on campus. Technical support for construction and operations will be provided by OIT’s Geo-Heat Center. The power plant will be housed adjacent to the existing heat exchange building on the south east corner of campus near the existing geothermal production wells used for heating campus. Cooling water will be supplied from the nearby cold water wells to a cooling tower or air cooling may be used, depending upon the type of plant selected. Using the flow obtained from the deep well, not only can energy be generated from the power plant, but the “waste” water will also be used to supplement space heating on campus. A pipeline will be construction from the well to the heat exchanger building, and then a discharge line will be construction around the east and north side of campus for anticipated use of the “waste” water by facilities in an adjacent sustainable energy park. An injection well will need to be drilled to handle the flow, as the campus existing injection wells are limited in capacity.

  13. Geothermal Power Generation Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boyd, Tonya [Oregon Inst. of Technology, Klamath Falls, OR (United States). Geo-Heat Center

    2013-12-01

    Oregon Institute of Technology (OIT) drilled a deep geothermal well on campus (to 5,300 feet deep) which produced 196°F resource as part of the 2008 OIT Congressionally Directed Project. OIT will construct a geothermal power plant (estimated at 1.75 MWe gross output). The plant would provide 50 to 75 percent of the electricity demand on campus. Technical support for construction and operations will be provided by OIT’s Geo-Heat Center. The power plant will be housed adjacent to the existing heat exchange building on the south east corner of campus near the existing geothermal production wells used for heating campus. Cooling water will be supplied from the nearby cold water wells to a cooling tower or air cooling may be used, depending upon the type of plant selected. Using the flow obtained from the deep well, not only can energy be generated from the power plant, but the “waste” water will also be used to supplement space heating on campus. A pipeline will be construction from the well to the heat exchanger building, and then a discharge line will be construction around the east and north side of campus for anticipated use of the “waste” water by facilities in an adjacent sustainable energy park. An injection well will need to be drilled to handle the flow, as the campus existing injection wells are limited in capacity.

  14. Nuclear Power Plant Technician

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randall, George A.

    1975-01-01

    The author recognizes a body of basic knowledge in nuclear power plant technoogy that can be taught in school programs, and lists the various courses, aiming to fill the anticipated need for nuclear-trained manpower--persons holding an associate degree in engineering technology. (Author/BP)

  15. Development of large and medium size biogas plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kejun Yang; Datong Zhang [Chengdu Biogas Research Inst. (China)

    2000-07-01

    Anaerobic wastewater treatment has expanded from a few (scraped sludge, animal manure, distillery wastewater and the wastewater from slaughter houses) to more than 200 kinds of wastewaters from several industries such as pharmacy, food, and chemicals. According to incomplete statistics, up to now more than 2,000 large and medium-scale biogas plants have been constructed. They provide biogas to 54,000 households as daily fuel. About 300 biogas power stations have been installed. (orig.)

  16. Topologies for large scale photovoltaic power plants

    OpenAIRE

    Cabrera Tobar, Ana; Bullich Massagué, Eduard; Aragüés Peñalba, Mònica; Gomis Bellmunt, Oriol

    2016-01-01

    © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. The concern of increasing renewable energy penetration into the grid together with the reduction of prices of photovoltaic solar panels during the last decade have enabled the development of large scale solar power plants connected to the medium and high voltage grid. Photovoltaic generation components, the internal layout and the ac collection grid are being investigated for ensuring the best design, operation and control of these power plants. This ...

  17. Power Efficiency of Steam Turbine Generator Switching into Thermal Circuit of Small and Medium Boiler Houses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. I. Yesman

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper is devoted to the solution of the problem concerning power saving on the basis of small power-and-heat-supply plants.Power efficiency of power turbine generator switching into thermal circuit of small and medium boiler houses is justified in the paper.

  18. Nuclear Power Plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Analia Bonelli

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A description of the results for a Station Black-Out analysis for Atucha 2 Nuclear Power Plant is presented here. Calculations were performed with MELCOR 1.8.6 YV3165 Code. Atucha 2 is a pressurized heavy water reactor, cooled and moderated with heavy water, by two separate systems, presently under final construction in Argentina. The initiating event is loss of power, accompanied by the failure of four out of four diesel generators. All remaining plant safety systems are supposed to be available. It is assumed that during the Station Black-Out sequence the first pressurizer safety valve fails stuck open after 3 cycles of water release, respectively, 17 cycles in total. During the transient, the water in the fuel channels evaporates first while the moderator tank is still partially full. The moderator tank inventory acts as a temporary heat sink for the decay heat, which is evacuated through conduction and radiation heat transfer, delaying core degradation. This feature, together with the large volume of the steel filler pieces in the lower plenum and a high primary system volume to thermal power ratio, derives in a very slow transient in which RPV failure time is four to five times larger than that of other German PWRs.

  19. Current power plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nickell, J.H.

    1979-03-06

    A current power plant is described that includes a shaft mounted turbine wheel for employment in water current, a housing adjacent the impeller and to which the shaft extends, a ramp positioned on the upstream side of the impellar, and a frame on which the turbine wheel is mounted. The frame is mounted by rollers on a tract such that the impeller and frame may be rolled on the tracks inside the housing, whereafter doors are closed, and water around the turbine wheel may be pumped out to facilitate turbine repair.

  20. Wind power plant system services

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Basit, Abdul; Altin, Müfit

    Traditionally, conventional power plants have the task to support the power system, by supplying power balancing services. These services are required by the power system operators in order to secure a safe and reliable operation of the power system. However, as in the future the wind power...... is going more and more to replace conventional power plants, the sources of conventional reserve available to the system will be reduced and fewer conventional plants will be available on-line to share the regulation burden. The reliable operation of highly wind power integrated power system might......, in a modern power system with large scale integration wind power. This study presents the investigation of the real-time balance control in a modern Danish power system, where WPPs can actively contribute to active power balance control. New solutions for the automatic generation control (AGC) dealing...

  1. Adaptation of thermal power plants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bogmans, Christian W.J.; Dijkema, Gerard P.J.; Vliet, van Michelle T.H.

    2017-01-01

    When does climate change information lead to adaptation? We analyze thermal power plant adaptation by means of investing in water-saving (cooling) technology to prevent a decrease in plant efficiency and load reduction. A comprehensive power plant investment model, forced with downscaled climate

  2. Power Plant Replacement Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reed, Gary

    2010-09-30

    This report represents the final report for the Eastern Illinois University power plant replacement study. It contains all related documentation from consideration of possible solutions to the final recommended option. Included are the economic justifications associated with the chosen solution along with application for environmental permitting for the selected project for construction. This final report will summarize the results of execution of an EPC (energy performance contract) investment grade audit (IGA) which lead to an energy services agreement (ESA). The project includes scope of work to design and install energy conservation measures which are guaranteed by the contractor to be self‐funding over its twenty year contract duration. The cost recovery is derived from systems performance improvements leading to energy savings. The prime focus of this EPC effort is to provide a replacement solution for Eastern Illinois University’s aging and failing circa 1925 central steam production plant. Twenty‐three ECMs were considered viable whose net impact will provide sufficient savings to successfully support the overall project objectives.

  3. Power Plant Replacement Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reed, Gary

    2010-09-30

    This report represents the final report for the Eastern Illinois University power plant replacement study. It contains all related documentation from consideration of possible solutions to the final recommended option. Included are the economic justifications associated with the chosen solution along with application for environmental permitting for the selected project for construction. This final report will summarize the results of execution of an EPC (energy performance contract) investment grade audit (IGA) which lead to an energy services agreement (ESA). The project includes scope of work to design and install energy conservation measures which are guaranteed by the contractor to be self-funding over its twenty year contract duration. The cost recovery is derived from systems performance improvements leading to energy savings. The prime focus of this EPC effort is to provide a replacement solution for Eastern Illinois University's aging and failing circa 1925 central steam production plant. Twenty-three ECMs were considered viable whose net impact will provide sufficient savings to successfully support the overall project objectives.

  4. Power Plant Replacement Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reed, Gary

    2010-09-30

    This report represents the final report for the Eastern Illinois University power plant replacement study. It contains all related documentation from consideration of possible solutions to the final recommended option. Included are the economic justifications associated with the chosen solution along with application for environmental permitting for the selected project for construction. This final report will summarize the results of execution of an EPC (energy performance contract) investment grade audit (IGA) which lead to an energy services agreement (ESA). The project includes scope of work to design and install energy conservation measures which are guaranteed by the contractor to be self-funding over its twenty year contract duration. The cost recovery is derived from systems performance improvements leading to energy savings. The prime focus of this EPC effort is to provide a replacement solution for Eastern Illinois University’s aging and failing circa 1925 central steam production plant. Twenty-three ECMs were considered viable whose net impact will provide sufficient savings to successfully support the overall project objectives.

  5. Trends of Nuclear Power Plant support engineering in the Early 21st century; Tendencias de la ingenieria de apoyo a las centrales nucleares a principios del siglo XXI centrales nucleares a principios del siglo XXI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cerezo, L. M.

    2001-07-01

    The rapid shift towards deregulation in the Electricity Industry in the 21st Century is placing a dramatic new emphasis on mid-term returns on generation investments. The economic pressures on capital-intensive generation systems such as hydraulic, coal and in particular nuclear are escalating significantly. In the old regulated system, the only concern was with marginal production costs, not total costs, as the return on the investment was ensured. Marginal production costs of Nuclear Power Plants are very low, which makes these plants ideal for base operation, but when the costs of recovering the investment are included, the total nuclear Kwh costs are relatively high. In addition, this industry is characterized by some specific economic risks resulting from the following: the risk of accidents, which, though not very probable, have a significant impact on the whole industry; the risk of prolonged, unscheduled outages involving prohibitively high costs, given the ratio of fixed/variable costs, the risk that outages are extended for refueling; and regulatory risks, which have major economic repercussions. (Author)

  6. Tap Water Hydraulic Systems for Medium Power Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Conrad, Finn; Adelstorp, Anders

    1998-01-01

    Presentation of new range of developed tap water hydraulic componets and applications for medium power up to 4 kW and 50 bar.......Presentation of new range of developed tap water hydraulic componets and applications for medium power up to 4 kW and 50 bar....

  7. AND THERMAL POWER PLANTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alduhov Oleg Aleksandrovich

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Investigation of the atmospheric dispersion as part of the process of selection of sites to accommodate nuclear and thermal power plants is performed to identify concentration fields of emissions and to assess the anthropogenic impact produced on the landscape components and human beings. Scattering properties of the atmospheric boundary layer are mainly determined by the turbulence intensity and the wind field. In its turn, the turbulence intensity is associated with the thermal stratification of the boundary layer. Therefore, research of the atmospheric dispersion is reduced to the study of temperature and wind patterns of the boundary layer. Statistical processing and analysis of the upper-air data involves the input of the data collected by upper-air stations. Until recently, the upper-air data covering the standard period between 1961 and 1970 were applied for these purposes, although these data cannot assure sufficient reliability of assessments in terms of the properties of the atmospheric dispersion. However, recent scientific and technological developments make it possible to substantially increase the data coverage by adding the upper-air data collected within the period between 1964 and 2010. The article has a brief overview of BL_PROGS, a specialized software package designated for the processing of the above data. The software package analyzes the principal properties of the atmospheric dispersion. The use of the proposed software package requires preliminary development of a database that has the information collected by an upper-air station. The software package is noteworthy for the absence of any substantial limitations imposed onto the amount of the input data that may go up in proportion to the amount of the upper-air data collected by upper-air stations.

  8. Simulating solar power plant variability :

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lave, Matthew Samuel; Ellis, Abraham; Stein, Joshua.

    2013-06-01

    It is important to be able to accurately simulate the variability of solar PV power plants for grid integration studies. We aim to inform integration studies of the ease of implementation and application-specific accuracy of current PV power plant output simulation methods. This report reviews methods for producing simulated high-resolution (sub-hour or even sub-minute) PV power plant output profiles for variability studies and describes their implementation. Two steps are involved in the simulations: estimation of average irradiance over the footprint of a PV plant and conversion of average irradiance to plant power output. Six models are described for simulating plant-average irradiance based on inputs of ground-measured irradiance, satellite-derived irradiance, or proxy plant measurements. The steps for converting plant-average irradiance to plant power output are detailed to understand the contributions to plant variability. A forthcoming report will quantify the accuracy of each method using application-specific validation metrics.

  9. In-plant evaluation of dense medium process performances

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R.Q. Honaker; A. Patwardhan [University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY (United States). Department of Mining Engineering

    2006-07-15

    The separation density and process efficiency values achieved by dense medium processes are a function of the particle size fractions being treated, hydrodynamics of the separator, and medium rheology. An in-plant evaluation of the dense medium processes being used in an operating preparation plant was conducted in an effort to develop relationships between the actual separation density and the medium density and to quantify the separation efficiency values. The results were found to correlate well with current fundamental and operating principles governing the processes, which are reviewed and discussed.

  10. Asbury power plant, Asbury, Missouri

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wicker, K.

    2005-08-01

    The Asbury power plant in rural southwest Missouri is off the beaten path in more ways than one. Three years ago, Empire District Electric Co., the plant's owner/operator, began mixing pieces of discarded tires into its coal fuel supply. Each ensuing year, without compromising local air quality, the plant has rid the area of millions of tires that otherwise would have ended up in a landfill. For demonstrating that a blight can be made right, Asbury is one of Power's 2005 top plants. 2 figs., 1 tab.

  11. Power Plant Water Intake Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeitoun, Ibrahim H.; And Others

    1980-01-01

    In order to adequately assess the impact of power plant cooling water intake on an aquatic ecosystem, total ecosystem effects must be considered, rather than merely numbers of impinged or entrained organisms. (Author/RE)

  12. Nuclear Power Plant Simulation Game.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Fran

    1979-01-01

    Presents a nuclear power plant simulation game which is designed to involve a class of 30 junior or senior high school students. Scientific, ecological, and social issues covered in the game are also presented. (HM)

  13. Valuing modular nuclear power plants in finite time decision horizon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jain, S.; Roelofs, F; Oosterlee, C.W.

    2013-01-01

    Small and medium sized reactors, SMRs, (according to IAEA, ‘small’ refers to reactors with power less than 300 MWe, and ‘medium’ with power less than 700 MWe) are considered as an attractive option for investment in nuclear power plants. SMRs may benefit from flexibility of investment, reduced upfro

  14. Power and Influence: Global Dynamics in the 21st Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-01

    publications/WorkingPapers/WP165.pdf>. Nuńez, Joseph R. A 21st Century Security Architecture for the Americas: Multilateral Cooperation, Liberal Peace...2005) Sheth, Jagdish N. and Rajendra S. Sisodia. Tectonic Shift: The Geoeconomic Realignment of Globalizing Markets. Thousand Oaks: Response, 2006...Joseph R. A 21st Century Security Architecture for the Americas: Multilateral Cooperation, Liberal Peace, and Soft Power. Carlisle Barracks: U.S

  15. PV power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-07-01

    Within the international seminar of the Ostbayerisches Technologie-Transfer-Institut e.V. (OTTI) at 11th June, 2012 in Munich (Federal Republic of Germany), the following lectures were held: (1) Technical due diligence (Dietmar Obst); (2) Certification / rating system for large PV plants (Robert Pfatischer); (3) O and M requirements (Lars Rulf); (4) IR photography for large scale systems (Bernhard Weinreich); (5) New market models for PV systems - direct marketing and sales of PV electricity (Martin Schneider); (6) Needs and benefits for plant certification for grid connection and operation (Christoph Luetke-Lengerich); (7) Lare volume module testing / Screening in the field and workshop (Semir Merzoug); (8) Dismantling costs of large scale PV plants (Siegfried Schimpf).

  16. 76 FR 77963 - Oglethorpe Power Corporation; Proposed Biomass Power Plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-15

    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Rural Utilities Service Oglethorpe Power Corporation; Proposed Biomass Power Plant... (Oglethorpe) for the construction of a 100 megawatt (MW) biomass plant and related facilities (Proposal)...

  17. Operate a Nuclear Power Plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frimpter, Bonnie J.; And Others

    1983-01-01

    Describes classroom use of a computer program originally published in Creative Computing magazine. "The Nuclear Power Plant" (runs on Apple II with 48K memory) simulates the operating of a nuclear generating station, requiring students to make decisions as they assume the task of managing the plant. (JN)

  18. Everglades Plant Community Response to 20th Century Hydrologic Changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willard, D. A.; Bernhardt, C. E.; Holmes, C. W.; Weimer, L. M.

    2002-05-01

    Pollen records in sediment cores from sites in the historic Everglades allowed us to document the natural variability of the ecosystem over the past 2,000 years and contrast it to 20th century changes in wetland plant communities. The natural system included extensive water-lily sloughs, sawgrass ridges, and scattered tree islands extending from Lake Okeechobee southward through Shark River Slough. Between ~1000 AD and 1200 AD, weedy species such as Amaranthus (water hemp) became more abundant, indicating decreased annual rainfall, shorter hydroperiods, and shallower water depths during this time. After ~1200 AD, vegetation returned to its pre-1000 AD composition. During the 20th century, two phases of hydrologic alteration occurred. Completed by 1930, the first phase included construction of the Hoover Dike, canals linking Lake Okeechobee to the Atlantic Ocean, and the Tamiami Trail. Reconstructions of plant communities indicate that these changes shortened hydroperiods and lowered water depths throughout the Everglades. The extent of water-lily slough communities decreased, and tree islands became larger in Shark River Slough. The second phase resulted from construction of canals and levees in the 1950s, creating three Water Conservation Areas. The response of plant communities to these changes varied widely depending on location in the Everglades. In Loxahatchee NWR, weedy and short-hydroperiod plant species became more abundant in marshes, and species composition of tree islands changed. In Water Conservation Area 2A, cattail replaced sawgrass in marshes with high nutrient influx; the ridge and slough structure of the marshes was replaced by more homogeneous sawgrass marshes; sustained high water levels for more than a decade resulted in loss of tree islands that had existed for more than 1,000 years. In Everglades National Park, the extent of slough vegetation decreased further. Near Florida Bay, the rate of mangrove intrusion into fresh-water marshes

  19. Flexibility in 21st Century Power Systems (Fact Sheet)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2014-10-01

    Flexibility of operation--the ability of a power system to respond to change in demand and supply--is a characteristic of all power systems. Flexibility is especially prized in twenty-first century power systems, with higher levels of grid-connected variable renewable energy (primarily, wind and solar). Sources of flexibility exist--and can be enhanced--across all of the physical and institutional elements of the power system, including system operations and markets, demand side resources and storage; generation; and transmission networks. Accessing flexibility requires significant planning to optimize investments and ensure that both short- and long-time power system requirements are met.

  20. Maximization of organic acids production by Aspergillus niger in a bubble column bioreactor for V and Ni recovery enhancement from power plant residual ash in spent-medium bioleaching experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasoulnia, P; Mousavi, S M

    2016-09-01

    Spent-medium bioleaching of V and Ni from a power plant residual ash (PPR ash) was conducted using organic acids produced by Aspergillus niger. The production of organic acids in a bubble column bioreactor was optimized through selecting three most influencing factors. Under optimum condition of aeration rate of 762.5(ml/min), sucrose concentration of 101.9(g/l) and inoculum size of 40(ml/l), respectively 17,185, 4539, 1042 and 502(ppm) of oxalic, gluconic, citric and malic acids were produced. Leaching experiments were carried out using biogenic produced organic acids under leaching environment temperature of 60°C and rotary shaking speed of 135rpm, with various pulp densities of 1, 2, 3, 5, 7 and 9(%w/v). The results showed that biogenic produced organic acids leached V much more efficiently than Ni so that even at high pulp density of 9(%w/v), 83% of V was recovered while Ni recovery yield was 30%.

  1. Hybrid power plants; Thermische Hybridkraftwerke

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tuschy, I. [ALSTOM Power Support, Mannheim (Germany). Bereiche Forschung und Entwicklung/Ingenieurdienstleistungen; Franke, U. [Fachhochschule Flensburg (Germany). Thermodynamik

    2002-07-01

    New German laws concerning the use of biomass and other renewable energy sources have improved the conditions for power generation with renewable energies. A promising alternative to common small-scale (combined-heat-and-) power plants could be found in so-called hybrid power plants which use renewable energies and fossil fuels in combination. A thermodynamic process analysis shows how to determine the renewable energies' portion of a hybrid power plant's total output. [German] Mit den veraenderten gesetzlichen Rahmenbedingungen erhoeht sich die Motivation, regenerative Energiequellen zur Stromerzeugung zu nutzen. Neben dem exklusiven Einsatz in kleineren (Heiz-) Kraftwerken bietet sich die gemeinsame Nutzung mit fossilen Energietraegern in sogenannten Hybridkraftwerken an. Hier stellt sich die Frage, wie der Anteil der regenerativen Energien an der Gesamt-Stromproduktion des Hybridkraftwerkes zu ermitteln ist. Eine thermodynamische Prozessanalyse kann darueber Aufschluss geben.

  2. A Century of Sex Determination in Flowering Plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harkess, Alex; Leebens-Mack, Jim

    2017-01-01

    Plants have evolved a diverse array of strategies for sexual reproduction, particularly through the modification of male and female organs at distinct points in development. The immense variation in sexual systems across the land plants provides a unique opportunity to study the genetic, epigenetic, phylogenetic, and ecological underpinnings of sex determination. Here, we reflect on more than a century of research into flowering plant sex determination, placing a particular focus on the foundational genetic and cytogenetic observations, experiments, and hypotheses. Building on the seminal work on the genetics of plant sex, modern comparative genomic analyses now allow us to address longstanding questions about sex determination and the origins of sex chromosomes.

  3. Thermal Power Plant Performance Analysis

    CERN Document Server

    2012-01-01

    The analysis of the reliability and availability of power plants is frequently based on simple indexes that do not take into account the criticality of some failures used for availability analysis. This criticality should be evaluated based on concepts of reliability which consider the effect of a component failure on the performance of the entire plant. System reliability analysis tools provide a root-cause analysis leading to the improvement of the plant maintenance plan.   Taking in view that the power plant performance can be evaluated not only based on  thermodynamic related indexes, such as heat-rate, Thermal Power Plant Performance Analysis focuses on the presentation of reliability-based tools used to define performance of complex systems and introduces the basic concepts of reliability, maintainability and risk analysis aiming at their application as tools for power plant performance improvement, including: ·         selection of critical equipment and components, ·         defini...

  4. Chemically Defined Medium and Caenorhabditis elegans: A Powerful Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szewczyk, N. J.; Kozak, E.; Conley, C. A.

    2003-01-01

    C. elegans has been established as a powerful genetic system. Growth in a chemically defined medium (C. elegans Maintenance Medium (CeMM)) now allows standardization and systematic manipulation of the nutrients that animals receive. Liquid cultivation allows automated culturing and experimentation and should be of me in large-scale growth and screening of animals. Here we present our initial results from developing culture systems with CeMM. We find that CeMM is versatile and culturing is simple. CeMM can be used in a solid or liquid state, it can be stored unused for at least a year, unattended actively growing cultures may be maintained longer than with standard techniques, and standard C. elegans protocols work well with animals grown in defined medium. We also find that there are caveats of using defined medium. Animals in defined medium grow more slowly than on standard medium, appear to display adaptation to the defined medium, and display altered growth rates as they change defined medium composition. As was suggested with the introduction of C. elegans as a potential genetic system, use of defined medium with C. elegans should prove a powerful tool.

  5. Performance Analysis of Supercritical Binary Geothermal Power Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmet Dagdas

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available It is possible to generate electricity by utilizing medium-temperature geothermal sources in various closed cycles. These geothermal power plants are very important and valuable as they utilize the sources which have low exergy. In recent years, medium-temperature sources that are around 150°C are used widely for electricity generation. In this study, performance of a supercritical binary power plant, that uses such a geothermal source, is analyzed to find the optimum turbine inlet pressure that maximizes power generation. In this power plant different working fluids are analyzed to find the appropriate fluid that maximizes power generation and efficiency. The observed working fluids are R134a, isobutane, R404a, n-Butane, and R152a. The performance of the plant is calculated with these fluids separately and it is found that the best fluid for performance is R152a for pure fluid and R404a for mixture fluid.

  6. State power plant productivity programs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-02-01

    The findings of a working group formed to review the status of efforts by utilities and utility regulators to increase the availability and reliability of generating units are presented. Representatives from nine state regulatory agencies, NRRI, and DOE, participated on the Working Group. The Federal government has been working cooperatively with utilities, utility organizations, and with regulators to encourage and facilitate improvements in power plant productivity. Cooperative projects undertaken with regulatory and energy commissions in California, Illinois, New York, Ohio, Texas, North Carolina and Mighigan are described. Following initiation of these cooperative projects, DOE funded a survey to determine which states were explicitly addressing power plant productivity through the regulatory process. The Working Group was formed following completion of this survey. The Working Group emphasized the need for those power plant productivity improvements which are cost effective. The cost effectiveness of proposed availability improvement projects should be determined within the context of opportunities for operating and capital improvements available to an entire utility. The Working Group also identified the need for: allowing for plant designs that have a higher construction cost, but are also more reliable; allowing for recovery and reducing recovery lags for productivity-related capital expenditures; identifying and reducing disincentives in the regulatory process; ascertaining that utilities have sufficient money available to undertake timely maintenance; and support of EPRI and NERC to develop a relevant and accurate national data base. The DOE views these as extremely important aspects of any regulatory program to improve power plant productivity.

  7. Power Systems of the Future: A 21st Century Power Partnership Thought Leadership Report (Fact Sheet)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2015-01-01

    Powerful trends in technology, policy environments, financing, and business models are driving change in power sectors globally. In light of these trends, the question is no longer whether power systems will be transformed, but rather how these transformations will occur. Power Systems of the Future, a thought leadership report from the 21st Century Power Partnership, explores these pathways explores actions that policymakers and regulators can take to encourage desired power system outcomes.

  8. Concept and controllability of virtual power plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Setiawan, E.A.

    2007-07-01

    In the end of 20th century the conception of electrical power supply is morphing gradually from centralized into decentralized system, indicated by increasing the installation of distributed generation on the main grid. With emerging of advanced communication and information technology, the aggregation control of several DG units can be developed as virtual power plant in order to provide added-value to the electric power system. This thesis presents definitions and types of Virtual Power Plants (VPP), then developing control through numerical simulation. The thesis proposes three DG controls namely Basic Autocontrol System (BAS), Smart Autocontrol System (SAS) and Tracking Efficiency Autocontrol System (TEAS). The BAS controls the DG output power with the objective to cover the local load demand. The drawback of this system is that the coordination among DG units is not established yet. In contrast to the BAS, the SAS has a control coordination centre which is responsible of controlling a certain number of DG units. The SAS controls and coordinates the operation of the dedicated DG units in order to minimize power exchange with the superior grid. However the efficiency issue is not considered at two previous control systems, therefore the TEAS was developed. Principally this system is similar to the SAS in terms of information exchange but additionally optimizes the operation efficiency of DG units. This is accomplished by tracking the systems' most efficient operation point. All control systems have been implemented into a simulation environment. The simulation results show that all developed control systems are capable to minimize the power exchange with the superior grid. The systems are able to follow changing load conditions. Furthermore the simulation results prove the ability of TEAS to optimize the system efficiency. Finally the contribution of VPP to voltage regulation is investigated with several scenarios. The influence of both, active and reactive

  9. Civilian Power from Space in the Early 21st Century

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hyde, R; Ishikawa, M; Wood, L

    2003-06-01

    If power beamed from space is to be become widely used on Earth in the first half of the 21St century, several thus-far-persistent impediments must be obviated, including threshold effects and problematic aspects of cost, availability, reliability, hazards and environmental impacts. We sketch a generally-applicable route to doing so, noting key enabling technologies and practical features. Likely-essential features of any successful strategy include vigorous, systematic leveraging of all intrinsic features of space-derived power, e.g., addressing marginal, high-value-added markets for electric power in space- and time-agile manners to conveniently provide power-upon-demand, and incrementally ''wedging'' into ever-larger markets with ever more cost-efficient generations and scales of technology. We suggest that no prudent strategic plan will rely upon large-scale, long-term public subsidies--fiscal, regulatory, etc.--with their attendant ''sovereign risks'' and interminable delays, and that plan-essential governmental support likely will be limited to early feasibility demonstrations, provision of threshold technologies and a rational, competition-neutral licensing environment. If salient realities are uniformly respected and accessible technologies are intelligently leveraged, electricity derived from space-sourced power-beams may come into significant civilian use during the latter part of the first quarter of this century, and may become widely used by the half-century point.

  10. Mexico and the 21st Century Power Partnership (Fact Sheet)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2015-02-01

    The 21st Century Power Partnership's program in Mexico (21CPP Mexico) is one initiative of the Clean Energy Ministerial, carried out in cooperation with government and local stakeholders, drawing upon an international community of power system expertise. The overall goal of this program is to support Mexico's power system transformation by accelerating the transition to a reliable, financially robust, and low-carbon system. 21CPP Mexico activities focus on achieving positive outcomes for all participants, especially addressing critical questions and challenges facing policymakers, regulators, and system operators. In support of this goal, 21CPP Mexico taps into deep networks of expertise and professional connections.

  11. Proceedings of a Topical Meeting On Small Scale Geothermal Power Plants and Geothermal Power Plant Projects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1986-02-12

    These proceedings describe the workshop of the Topical Meeting on Small Scale Geothermal Power Plants and Geothermal Power Plant Projects. The projects covered include binary power plants, rotary separator, screw expander power plants, modular wellhead power plants, inflow turbines, and the EPRI hybrid power system. Active projects versus geothermal power projects were described. In addition, a simple approach to estimating effects of fluid deliverability on geothermal power cost is described starting on page 119. (DJE-2005)

  12. Analysis of the interconnection of small generating power plants to the rural networks of medium tension; Analisis de la interconexion de pequenas plantas de generacion a las redes rurales de media tension

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos Erape, Salomon

    2008-12-15

    This paper deals on a subject related to distributed generation, specifically deals with a real case of the interconnection request of 2 hydroelectric power stations with synchronous generators, property of an independent power producer, who intends to interconnect himself to the medium tension network, this interconnection has a particularity that does not make the analysis so simple, this characteristic is that it has a power generation capacity superior to the local load demand. The analysis focuses mainly in the regulation effects and losses, thus, calculations are also made of short circuit and revision of the interruptive capacities. Next, a brief description is made of the most relevant that is addressed in each chapter: Chapter 1. - It is an introduction to the subject, background of distributed generation, what the scope of the investigation is, methodology, definition of terms and abbreviations that are used in the document. Chapter 2 .- In this chapter an exposition of the problem is made, a description of the power system analysis background is also made and of distribution systems and the problems are exposed when the generator capacity has enough power to supply energy up to sub transmission levels. Chapter 3. - This chapter essentially deals with the acquisition of the information for the analysis, in it, the location of the base case is defined, description of the electrical infrastructure considered in the study, statistical information of the generation capacity of the power plants, information of the medium tension network that is exported from a distribution studies program to a high voltage flows program. It is also described how the minimum and maximum demand is made coincident, as well as the form in which the sequence components are obtained or calculated to be used in short circuit calculations. Chapter 4. - This chapter is the essential part of the thesis; diverse simulations are made of a case denominated Real Base Case in face of

  13. Power Restoration in Medium Voltage Network Using Multiagent System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miroslav Kovac

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The article describes a novel approach to a power restoration in medium voltage power distribution network. It focuses primary at searching of a new network configuration enabling to minimalize the size of faulted area and to restore the power for the highest possible number of loads. It describes characteristic features of medium voltage power distribution network and discusses the implementation of the presented approach in existing networks. A software tool, developed by the authors, including physical simulation of model network and its autonomous control system is described. An example of fault situation in a virtual distribution network is presented. Afterwards, the solution of restoration problem by proposed multiagent system is simulated using the software tool described in the paper.

  14. Directions for advanced use of nuclear power in century XXI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walter, C E

    1999-05-01

    Nuclear power can provide a significant contribution to electricity generation and meet other needs of the world and the US during the next century provided that certain directions are taken to achieve its public acceptance. These directions include formulation of projections of population, energy consumption, and energy resources over a responsible period of time. These projections will allow assessment of cumulative effects on the environment and on fixed resources. Use of fossil energy resources in a century of growing demand for energy must be considered in the context of long-term environmental damage and resource depletion. Although some question the validity of these consequences, they can be mitigated by use of advanced fast reactor technology. It must be demonstrated that nuclear power technology is safe, resistant to material diversion for weapon use, and economical. An unbiased examination of all the issues related to energy use, especially of electricity, is an essential direction to take.

  15. Modelling of the Nutrient Medium for Plants Cultivation in Spaceflight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nechitailo, Galina S.

    2016-07-01

    MODELLING OF THE NUTRIENT MEDIUM FOR PLANTS CULTIVATION IN SPACEFLIGHT Nechitajlo G.S.*, Rakhmetova A.A.**, Bogoslovskaja O.A.**, Ol'hovskay I.P.**, Glushchenko N.N.** *Emanuel Institute of Biochemical Physics of Russian Academy of Sciences (IBCP RAS) mail: spacemal@mail.ru **V.L. Talrose Institute for Energy Problems of Chemical Physics of Russian Academy of Science (INEPCP RAS) mail: nnglu@ mail.ru The valuable life and fruitful activity of cosmonauts and researchers in conditions of spaceflights and prolonged work at space stations are only possible with creating life area providing fresh air, natural food, comfortable psychological conditions, etc. The solution of that problem under space conditions seems impossible without use of high nano- and biotechnologies for plants growth. A priority should be given not only to choose species of growth plants in space, but also to improve conditions for their growth which includes optimal nourishing components for plants, preparation of nutrient mediums, illumination and temperature. We are deeply convinced that just manipulations with growing conditions for cultivated plants, but not genes changes, is a guarantee of success in the decision of this problem. For improving the method of plants growing on the artificial nutrient medium with balanced content of components, being necessary for growth and development of plants, we added essential metal elements: Fe, Zn, Cu - in an electroneutral state in the form of nanoparticles instead of sulfates or other easily dissolving salts. Nanoparticulated metals are known to have a number of advantages in comparison with salts: metals in an electroneutral form are characterized with the prolonged and multifunctional action, low toxicity per se and appearing to be much below the toxicity of the same metals in the ionic forms, accumulation as a reserve being used in biotic dozes, active distribution in bodies and organs of plants and stimulation of vital processes. A high reactivity

  16. RF-MEMS Switched Varactors for Medium Power Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Maury, F; Crunteanu, A; Conseil, F; Blondy, P

    2008-01-01

    In RF (Radio Frequency) domain, one of the limitations of using MEMS (Micro Electromechanical Systems) switching devices for medium power applications is RF power. Failure phenomena appear even for 500 mW. A design of MEMS switched capacitors with an enhanced topology is presented in this paper to prevent it. This kind of device and its promising performances will serve to fabricate a MEMS based phase shifter able to work under several watts.

  17. When all else fails: 21st century Amateur Radio as an emergency communications medium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nollet, Kenneth E; Ohto, Hitoshi

    2013-12-01

    Twenty-first century demand for radio spectrum continues to increase with the explosive growth of wireless devices, but authorities reserve slices of the spectrum for licensed Amateur Radio operators, recognizing their value to the public, particularly with respect to providing emergency communications. Blood banking and transfusion medicine are among the specialties that should also recognize the value of Amateur Radio as an emergency communications medium, because blood collection, testing, processing, storage, and transfusion are life-saving activities that in modern times can be separated by considerable distance.

  18. Decentralized Adaptive Overcurrent Protection for Medium Voltage Maritime Power Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ciontea, Catalin-Iosif; Bak, Claus Leth; Blaabjerg, Frede;

    2016-01-01

    control unit. The new adaptive protection method is based on communication between the overcurrent relays and the equipment that could affect the protection system, such as circuit breakers and generators. Using PSCAD, the proposed method is implemented in a test medium voltage maritime power system...

  19. 76 FR 20624 - Oglethorpe Power Corporation: Proposed Biomass Power Plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-13

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Rural Utilities Service Oglethorpe Power Corporation: Proposed Biomass Power Plant AGENCY: Rural... Corporation (Oglethorpe) for the construction of a 100 megawatt (MW) biomass plant and related...

  20. Composition of hydroponic medium affects thorium uptake by tobacco plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soudek, Petr; Kufner, Daniel; Petrová, Sárka; Mihaljevič, Martin; Vaněk, Tomáš

    2013-08-01

    The ability of thorium uptake as well as responses to heavy metal stress were tested in tobacco cultivar La Burley 21. Thorium was accumulated preferentially in the root system. The presence of citric, tartaric and oxalic acids in hydroponic medium increased thorium accumulation in all plant organs. On the other hand, the addition of diamines and polyamines, the important antioxidants in plants, resulted in decrease of thorium accumulation, especially in the root system. Negative correlation was found between putrescine concentration and thorium accumulation. Nevertheless, the most important factor influencing the accumulation of thorium was the absence of phosphate ions in a hydroponic medium that caused more than 10-fold increase of thorium uptake in all plant parts. Accumulation and distribution of thorium was followed in six cultivars and 14 selected transformants. Cultivar La Barley 21 represented an average between the tested genotypes, having a very good distribution ratio between roots, stems and leaves.

  1. Hydrogen sulfide-mediated stimulation of mitochondrial electron transport involves inhibition of the mitochondrial phosphodiesterase 2A, elevation of cAMP and activation of protein kinase A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Módis, Katalin; Panopoulos, Panagiotis; Coletta, Ciro; Papapetropoulos, Andreas; Szabo, Csaba

    2013-11-01

    Although hydrogen sulfide (H₂S) is generally known as a mitochondrial poison, recent studies show that lower concentrations of H₂S play a physiological role in the stimulation of mitochondrial electron transport and cellular bioenergetics. This effect involves electron donation at Complex II. Other lines of recent studies demonstrated that one of the biological actions of H₂S involves inhibition of cAMP and cGMP phosphodiesterases (PDEs). Given the emerging functional role of the mitochondrial isoform of cAMP PDE (PDE2A) in the regulation of mitochondrial function the current study investigated whether cAMP-dependent mechanisms participate in the stimulatory effect of NaHS on mitochondrial function. In isolated rat liver mitochondria, partial digestion studies localized PDE2A into the mitochondrial matrix. NaHS exerted a concentration-dependent inhibitory effect on recombinant PDE2A enzyme in vitro. Moreover, NaHS induced an elevation of cAMP levels when added to isolated mitochondria and stimulated the mitochondrial electron transport. The latter effect was inhibited by Rp-cAMP, an inhibitor of the cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA). The current findings suggest that the direct electron donating effect of NaHS is amplified by an intramitochondrial cAMP system, which may involve the inhibition of PDE2A and subsequent, cAMP-mediated stimulation of PKA.

  2. BOILER MATERIALS FOR ULTRASUPERCRITICAL COAL POWER PLANTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R. Viswanathan; K. Coleman

    2002-10-15

    The principal objective of this project is to develop materials technology for use in ultrasupercritical (USC) plant boilers capable of operating with 760 C (1400 F), 35 MPa (5000 psi) steam. In the 21st century, the world faces the critical challenge of providing abundant, cheap electricity to meet the needs of a growing global population while at the same time preserving environmental values. Most studies of this issue conclude that a robust portfolio of generation technologies and fuels should be developed to assure that the United States will have adequate electricity supplies in a variety of possible future scenarios. The use of coal for electricity generation poses a unique set of challenges. On the one hand, coal is plentiful and available at low cost in much of the world, notably in the U.S., China, and India. Countries with large coal reserves will want to develop them to foster economic growth and energy security. On the other hand, traditional methods of coal combustion emit pollutants and CO{sub 2} at high levels relative to other generation options. Maintaining coal as a generation option in the 21st century will require methods for addressing these environmental issues. This project has established a government/industry consortium to undertake a five-year effort to evaluate and develop of advanced materials that allow the use of advanced steam cycles in coal-based power plants. These advanced cycles, with steam temperatures up to 760 C, will increase the efficiency of coal-fired boilers from an average of 35% efficiency (current domestic fleet) to 47% (HHV). This efficiency increase will enable coal-fired power plants to generate electricity at competitive rates (irrespective of fuel costs) while reducing CO{sub 2} and other fuel-related emissions by as much as 29%. Success in achieving these objectives will support a number of broader goals. First, from a national prospective, the program will identify advanced materials that will make it possible to

  3. BOILER MATERIALS FOR ULTRASUPERCRITICAL COAL POWER PLANTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R. Viswanathan; K. Coleman

    2003-01-20

    The principal objective of this project is to develop materials technology for use in ultrasupercritical (USC) plant boilers capable of operating with 760 C (1400 F), 35 MPa (5000 psi) steam. In the 21st century, the world faces the critical challenge of providing abundant, cheap electricity to meet the needs of a growing global population while at the same time preserving environmental values. Most studies of this issue conclude that a robust portfolio of generation technologies and fuels should be developed to assure that the United States will have adequate electricity supplies in a variety of possible future scenarios. The use of coal for electricity generation poses a unique set of challenges. On the one hand, coal is plentiful and available at low cost in much of the world, notably in the U.S., China, and India. Countries with large coal reserves will want to develop them to foster economic growth and energy security. On the other hand, traditional methods of coal combustion emit pollutants and CO{sub 2} at high levels relative to other generation options. Maintaining coal as a generation option in the 21st century will require methods for addressing these environmental issues. This project has established a government/industry consortium to undertake a five-year effort to evaluate and develop of advanced materials that allow the use of advanced steam cycles in coal-based power plants. These advanced cycles, with steam temperatures up to 760 C, will increase the efficiency of coal-fired boilers from an average of 35% efficiency (current domestic fleet) to 47% (HHV). This efficiency increase will enable coal-fired power plants to generate electricity at competitive rates (irrespective of fuel costs) while reducing CO{sub 2} and other fuel-related emissions by as much as 29%. Success in achieving these objectives will support a number of broader goals. First, from a national prospective, the program will identify advanced materials that will make it possible to

  4. BOILER MATERIALS FOR ULTRASUPERCRITICAL COAL POWER PLANTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R. Viswanathan

    2002-04-15

    The principal objective of this project is to develop materials technology for use in ultrasupercritical (USC) plant boilers capable of operating with 760 C (1400 F), and up to 5500 psi with emphasis upon 35 MPa (5000 psi) steam. In the 21st century, the world faces the critical challenge of providing abundant, cheap electricity to meet the needs of a growing global population while at the same time preserving environmental values. Most studies of this issue conclude that a robust portfolio of generation technologies and fuels should be developed to assure that the United States will have adequate electricity supplies in a variety of possible future scenarios. The use of coal for electricity generation poses a unique set of challenges. On the one hand, coal is plentiful and available at low cost in much of the world, notably in the U.S., China, and India. Countries with large coal reserves will want to develop them to foster economic growth and energy security. On the other hand, traditional methods of coal combustion emit pollutants and CO{sub 2} at high levels relative to other generation options. Maintaining coal as a generation option in the 21st century will require methods for addressing these environmental issues. This project has established a government/industry consortium to undertake a five-year effort to evaluate and develop advanced materials that allow the use of advanced steam cycles in coal-based power plants. These advanced cycles, with steam temperatures up to 760 C, will increase the efficiency of coal-fired boilers from an average of 35% efficiency (current domestic fleet) to 47% (HHV). This efficiency increase will enable coal-fired power plants to generate electricity at competitive rates (irrespective of fuel costs) while reducing CO{sub 2} and other fuel-related emissions by as much as 29%. Success in achieving these objectives will support a number of broader goals. First, from a national prospective, the program will identify advanced

  5. India and the 21st Century Power Partnership; 21st Century Power Partnership

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2015-05-13

    Indian leadership has been crucial in both the establishment of the foundational capabilities of the Power Partnership as well as the realization of opportunities for applied policy implementation. Understanding policy regimes that support and accelerate the transition to clean, smart, efficient, affordable, and reliable electricity will help inform decisions that enable innovative solutions, or even disruptive innovations. India has already demonstrated a wide variety of business model innovation in a wide range of industries. Its potential to do the same in the power sector is an enormous opportunity. Indian contributions to international knowledge about the legal, regulatory and business environment will be an integral component of the Power Partnership program.

  6. Advanced Coordinating Control System for Power Plant

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Peng; WEI Shuangying

    2006-01-01

    The coordinating control system is popular used in power plant. This paper describes the advanced coordinating control by control methods and optimal operation, introduces their principals and features by using the examples of power plant operation. It is wealthy for automation application in optimal power plant operation.

  7. Modelling of nuclear power plant decommissioning financing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bemš, J; Knápek, J; Králík, T; Hejhal, M; Kubančák, J; Vašíček, J

    2015-06-01

    Costs related to the decommissioning of nuclear power plants create a significant financial burden for nuclear power plant operators. This article discusses the various methodologies employed by selected European countries for financing of the liabilities related to the nuclear power plant decommissioning. The article also presents methodology of allocation of future decommissioning costs to the running costs of nuclear power plant in the form of fee imposed on each megawatt hour generated. The application of the methodology is presented in the form of a case study on a new nuclear power plant with installed capacity 1000 MW.

  8. EDITORIAL: Safety aspects of fusion power plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolbasov, B. N.

    2007-07-01

    This special issue of Nuclear Fusion contains 13 informative papers that were initially presented at the 8th IAEA Technical Meeting on Fusion Power Plant Safety held in Vienna, Austria, 10-13 July 2006. Following recommendation from the International Fusion Research Council, the IAEA organizes Technical Meetings on Fusion Safety with the aim to bring together experts to discuss the ongoing work, share new ideas and outline general guidance and recommendations on different issues related to safety and environmental (S&E) aspects of fusion research and power facilities. Previous meetings in this series were held in Vienna, Austria (1980), Ispra, Italy (1983), Culham, UK (1986), Jackson Hole, USA (1989), Toronto, Canada (1993), Naka, Japan (1996) and Cannes, France (2000). The recognized progress in fusion research and technology over the last quarter of a century has boosted the awareness of the potential of fusion to be a practically inexhaustible and clean source of energy. The decision to construct the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) represents a landmark in the path to fusion power engineering. Ongoing activities to license ITER in France look for an adequate balance between technological and scientific deliverables and complying with safety requirements. Actually, this is the first instance of licensing a representative fusion machine, and it will very likely shape the way in which a more common basis for establishing safety standards and policies for licensing future fusion power plants will be developed. Now that ITER licensing activities are underway, it is becoming clear that the international fusion community should strengthen its efforts in the area of designing the next generations of fusion power plants—demonstrational and commercial. Therefore, the 8th IAEA Technical Meeting on Fusion Safety focused on the safety aspects of power facilities. Some ITER-related safety issues were reported and discussed owing to their potential

  9. Plant collectors in Ecuador: Camp, Prieto, Giler and Jørgensen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balslev, Henrik; Joyal, Elaine

    1980-01-01

    The itinerary of W. H. Camp and his assistants in Ecuador has been reconstructed from fieldbooks deposited in the archives of the library at The New York Botanical Garden. The visited localities are listed according to collection numbers, an alphabetical list of the localities with geographical c...

  10. The cAMP Signaling and MAP Kinase Pathways in Plant Pathogenic Fungi

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mehrabi, R.; Zhao, X.; Kim, Y.; Xu, J.R.

    2009-01-01

    The key components of the well conserved cyclic AMP signaling and MAP kinase pathways have been functionally characterized in the corn smut Ustilago maydis, rice blast fungus Magnaporthe grisea, and a few other fungal pathogens. In general, the cAMP signaling and the MAP kinase cascade homologous to

  11. Sabotage at Nuclear Power Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Purvis, James W.

    1999-07-21

    Recently there has been a noted worldwide increase in violent actions including attempted sabotage at nuclear power plants. Several organizations, such as the International Atomic Energy Agency and the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission, have guidelines, recommendations, and formal threat- and risk-assessment processes for the protection of nuclear assets. Other examples are the former Defense Special Weapons Agency, which used a risk-assessment model to evaluate force-protection security requirements for terrorist incidents at DOD military bases. The US DOE uses a graded approach to protect its assets based on risk and vulnerability assessments. The Federal Aviation Administration and Federal Bureau of Investigation conduct joint threat and vulnerability assessments on high-risk US airports. Several private companies under contract to government agencies use formal risk-assessment models and methods to identify security requirements. The purpose of this paper is to survey these methods and present an overview of all potential types of sabotage at nuclear power plants. The paper discusses emerging threats and current methods of choice for sabotage--especially vehicle bombs and chemical attacks. Potential consequences of sabotage acts, including economic and political; not just those that may result in unacceptable radiological exposure to the public, are also discussed. Applicability of risk-assessment methods and mitigation techniques are also presented.

  12. 78 FR 26747 - Oglethorpe Power Corporation: Proposed Biomass Power Plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-08

    ... Rural Utilities Service Oglethorpe Power Corporation: Proposed Biomass Power Plant AGENCY: Rural... construction of a 100 megawatt (MW) biomass plant and related facilities (Proposal) in Warren County, Georgia... the 100 megawatt (MW) biomass plant and related facilities (Proposal) in Warren County,...

  13. Efficiency of Modern Power Plants of Thermal Power Stations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. V. Yakovlev

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers efficiency and prospects in development of different types of fossil-fuel power plants – gas turbine, steam turbine and combined (gas and steam cycles.The paper provides information on plant selection, fuel consumption, specific output cost. It describes main advantages of various power plants.

  14. Hybrid wind-power-distillation plant

    OpenAIRE

    Ninić Neven; Klarin Branko; Tolj Ivan

    2012-01-01

    This paper reports and elaborates on the idea of a solar distiller and an offshore wind power plant operating together. The subject under discussion is a single-stage solar distillation plant with vaporization, using adiabatic expansion in the gravitational field inside a wind power plant supporting column. This scheme divides investment costs for electric power and distillate production. In the region of the Adriatic Sea, all electric power produced could be “converted” to hydrogen usi...

  15. African power in the 21st century and beyond

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saavedra-Rivano Neantro

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper examines the concept of international power in connection with demographic trends as forecast by the United Nations. It focuses its attention on the situation of Africa, a region projected to become the second largest in terms of population by the turn of the century. The argument to be developed is that the large number of new entrants to labor markets of African countries will likely be deprived of the labor skills necessary to allow them earn a livelihood. The “demographic dividend” will thus be denied and the consequences will be felt not only in Africa but in the world at large, most acutely in Europe. To prevent the rise of this “disruptive” power in Africa the paper offers some novel ideas on how to redesign Official Development Assistance (ODA so as to promote human capital investment.

  16. Thermal power plant design and operation

    CERN Document Server

    Sarkar, Dipak

    2015-01-01

    Thermal Power Plant: Design and Operation deals with various aspects of a thermal power plant, providing a new dimension to the subject, with focus on operating practices and troubleshooting, as well as technology and design. Its author has a 40-long association with thermal power plants in design as well as field engineering, sharing his experience with professional engineers under various training capacities, such as training programs for graduate engineers and operating personnel. Thermal Power Plant presents practical content on coal-, gas-, oil-, peat- and biomass-fueled thermal power

  17. Stillwater Hybrid Geo-Solar Power Plant Optimization Analyses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wendt, Daniel S.; Mines, Gregory L.; Turchi, Craig S.; Zhu, Guangdong; Cohan, Sander; Angelini, Lorenzo; Bizzarri, Fabrizio; Consoli, Daniele; De Marzo, Alessio

    2015-09-02

    The Stillwater Power Plant is the first hybrid plant in the world able to bring together a medium-enthalpy geothermal unit with solar thermal and solar photovoltaic systems. Solar field and power plant models have been developed to predict the performance of the Stillwater geothermal / solar-thermal hybrid power plant. The models have been validated using operational data from the Stillwater plant. A preliminary effort to optimize performance of the Stillwater hybrid plant using optical characterization of the solar field has been completed. The Stillwater solar field optical characterization involved measurement of mirror reflectance, mirror slope error, and receiver position error. The measurements indicate that the solar field may generate 9% less energy than the design value if an appropriate tracking offset is not employed. A perfect tracking offset algorithm may be able to boost the solar field performance by about 15%. The validated Stillwater hybrid plant models were used to evaluate hybrid plant operating strategies including turbine IGV position optimization, ACC fan speed and turbine IGV position optimization, turbine inlet entropy control using optimization of multiple process variables, and mixed working fluid substitution. The hybrid plant models predict that each of these operating strategies could increase net power generation relative to the baseline Stillwater hybrid plant operations.

  18. Economics of hybrid photovoltaic power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Breyer, Christian

    2012-08-16

    The global power supply stability is faced to several severe and fundamental threats, in particular steadily increasing power demand, diminishing and degrading fossil and nuclear energy resources, very harmful greenhouse gas emissions, significant energy injustice and a structurally misbalanced ecological footprint. Photovoltaic (PV) power systems are analysed in various aspects focusing on economic and technical considerations of supplemental and substitutional power supply to the constraint conventional power system. To infer the most relevant system approach for PV power plants several solar resources available for PV systems are compared. By combining the different solar resources and respective economics, two major PV systems are identified to be very competitive in almost all regions in the world. The experience curve concept is used as a key technique for the development of scenario assumptions on economic projections for the decade of the 2010s. Main drivers for cost reductions in PV systems are learning and production growth rate, thus several relevant aspects are discussed such as research and development investments, technical PV market potential, different PV technologies and the energetic sustainability of PV. Three major market segments for PV systems are identified: off-grid PV solutions, decentralised small scale on-grid PV systems (several kWp) and large scale PV power plants (tens of MWp). Mainly by application of 'grid-parity' and 'fuel-parity' concepts per country, local market and conventional power plant basis, the global economic market potential for all major PV system segments is derived. PV power plant hybridization potential of all relevant power technologies and the global power plant structure are analyzed regarding technical, economical and geographical feasibility. Key success criteria for hybrid PV power plants are discussed and comprehensively analysed for all adequate power plant technologies, i.e. oil, gas and

  19. Simulators predict power plant operation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peltier, R.

    2002-07-01

    Mix the complexity of a new construction or major retrofit project with today's 'do more with less', a pinch of 'personnel inexperience,' and a dash of 'unintended consequences', and you have got a recipe for insomnia. Advanced simulation tools, however, can help you wring out your design train your operators before the first wire is terminated and just may be get a good night's rest. The article describes several examples of uses of simulation tools. Esscor recently completed a simulation project for a major US utility exploring the potential for furnace/duct implosion that could result from adding higher volumetric flow induced-draft fans and selective catalytic reduction to a 650-MW coal-fired plant. CAF Electronics Inc. provided a full-scope simulator for Alstom's KA24-1 combined-cycle power plant in Paris, France. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) tools are being used by the Gas Technology Institute to simulate the performance of the next generation of pulverized coal combustors. 5 figs.

  20. Vision of Nuclear Power Options for XXI Century

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adamov, E.; Muraviev, E.; Orlov, V.

    2007-07-01

    This work once again brings to attention the fundamental ideas of the long-term nuclear power development on the basis of the new generation of Fast neutron Reactors, naturally safe, economically attractive and employing the proliferation-resistant and low-waste fuel cycle. The Universal System Model (USM-1), new analytical research tool recently developed in N.A. Dollezhal Research and Design Institute of Power Engineering (Moscow, Russia) has been used to evaluate several scenarios (including traditional ones) of the World nuclear power development for electricity production within the XXI century. For scenarios comparison 3 criteria were used: the levelized cost of electricity, the fuel supply security (in terms of natural uranium total consumption and prospects for further fuel balance), and the potential hazard of radioactive wastes. The clear advantage of scenario with the most complete realization of the new Fast Reactors technology potential is revealed. The authors strongly believe that the prospects of this new technology worldwide implementation deserve the due attention of responsible governments and international organizations. 2 Tables, 13 Figures, 10 References. (auth)

  1. Nuclear power plant cable materials :

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Celina, Mathias Christopher; Gillen, Kenneth T; Lindgren, Eric Richard

    2013-05-01

    A selective literature review was conducted to assess whether currently available accelerated aging and original qualification data could be used to establish operational margins for the continued use of cable insulation and jacketing materials in nuclear power plant environments. The materials are subject to chemical and physical degradation under extended radiationthermal- oxidative conditions. Of particular interest were the circumstances under which existing aging data could be used to predict whether aged materials should pass loss of coolant accident (LOCA) performance requirements. Original LOCA qualification testing usually involved accelerated aging simulations of the 40-year expected ambient aging conditions followed by a LOCA simulation. The accelerated aging simulations were conducted under rapid accelerated aging conditions that did not account for many of the known limitations in accelerated polymer aging and therefore did not correctly simulate actual aging conditions. These highly accelerated aging conditions resulted in insulation materials with mostly inert aging processes as well as jacket materials where oxidative damage dropped quickly away from the air-exposed outside jacket surface. Therefore, for most LOCA performance predictions, testing appears to have relied upon heterogeneous aging behavior with oxidation often limited to the exterior of the cable cross-section a situation which is not comparable with the nearly homogenous oxidative aging that will occur over decades under low dose rate and low temperature plant conditions. The historical aging conditions are therefore insufficient to determine with reasonable confidence the remaining operational margins for these materials. This does not necessarily imply that the existing 40-year-old materials would fail if LOCA conditions occurred, but rather that unambiguous statements about the current aging state and anticipated LOCA performance cannot be provided based on

  2. TS Power Plant, Eureka County, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peltier, R. [DTE Energy Services (United States)

    2008-10-15

    Not all coal-fired power plants are constructed by investor-owned utilities or independent power producers selling to wholesale markets. When Newmont Mining Corp. recognised that local power supplies were inadequate and too expensive to meet long-term electricity needs for its major gold- and copper-mining operations in northern Nevada, it built its own generation. What is more, Newmont's privately owned 200-MW net coal-fired plant features power plant technologies that will surely become industry standards. Newmont's investment in power and technology is also golden: the capital cost will be paid back in about eight years. 4 figs.

  3. Dieldrin uptake and translocation in plants growing in hydroponic medium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murano, Hirotatsu; Otani, Takashi; Seike, Nobuyasu; Sakai, Mizuki

    2010-01-01

    It has been known that the Cucurbitaceae family takes up a large amount of persistent organic pollutants from soils and that the translocation of those compounds in cucurbits is higher than those in non-cucurbits. To understand the persistent organic pollutant uptake mechanisms of plant species, we compared the dieldrin absorption and transportation potentials of several plants in hydroponic medium. Sorghum (Sorghum vulgare Moench), sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.), soybean (Glycine max), komatsuna (Brassica rapa var. peruviridis), white-flowered gourd (Lagenaria siceraria var. hispida), cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.), and zucchini (Cucurbita pepo L.) were grown in a dieldrin-added hydroponic medium for 10 d, and then the amount of dieldrin in their shoots and roots was measured. All of the roots contained dieldrin, whereas only the cucurbits (white-flowered gourd, cucumber, and zucchini) contained considerable amounts of dieldrin in their shoots. The dieldrin uptake to the roots depended on the concentration of the n-hexane soluble components in the roots, regardless of whether the dieldrin in the roots was translocated to shoots or not. The dieldrin uptake from the solution to the roots was thought to be due to a passive response, such as adsorption on the roots. The translocation of dieldrin from the roots to the shoots was probably through the xylems. The amounts of dieldrin in the shoots per transpiration rates were higher for cucurbits than for non-cucurbits. It seems likely that cucurbits have uptake mechanisms for hydrophobic organic chemicals.

  4. Application of Distribution Power Electronic Transformer for Medium Voltage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prashant Kumar

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In   this   paper   a   distribution   power electronic transformer (DPET for feeding critical loads is presented. The PE based transformer is a multi-port converter that can connect to medium voltage levels on the primary side. Bidirectional power flow is provided to the each module. The presented structure consists of three stages: an input stage, an isolation stage, and an output stage.  The input current is sinusoidal, and it converts the high AC input voltage to low DC voltages. The isolated DC/DC converters are then connected to the DC links and provide galvanic isolation between the HV and LV sides. Finally, a three-phase inverter generates the AC output with the desired amplitude and frequency. The proposed DPET is extremely modular and can be extended for different voltage and power levels. It performs typical functions and has advantages such as power factor correction, elimination of voltage sag and swell, and reduction of voltage flicker in load side. Also in comparison to conventional transformers, it has lower weight, lower volume and eliminates necessity for toxic dielectric coolants the DPET performance is verified in MATLAB simulation.

  5. Nuclear Power Plant Module, NPP-1: Nuclear Power Cost Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitelaw, Robert L.

    The purpose of the Nuclear Power Plant Modules, NPP-1, is to determine the total cost of electricity from a nuclear power plant in terms of all the components contributing to cost. The plan of analysis is in five parts: (1) general formulation of the cost equation; (2) capital cost and fixed charges thereon; (3) operational cost for labor,…

  6. Cogeneration in the sugarcane industry - medium plants; A cogeracao no setor sucroalcooleiro - usinas de medio porte

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pellegrini, Maria Cristina [Companhia Energetica de Sao Paulo (CESP), SP (Brazil)]. E-mail: epg@cesp.com.br; Ramos, Dorel Soares [Sao Paulo Univ., SP (Brazil). Escola Politecnica]. E-mail: dorelram@pea.usp.br

    2000-07-01

    This work aims at to analyze the re powering of medium sized sugar and alcohol plants located in the Southeast area of Sao Paulo State. Through a study case considering a standard unit that processes ten thousand tons of sugarcane per day, simulations were made using a mathematical model denominated Modelo de Despacho Hidrotermico, which supports the decision process for the expansion of electric energy offers. As a result of these simulations, it was possible to get the standard dispatch profile for such cogeneration plants, expressed by a medium capacity factor of 89%, demonstrating, therefore, the significant participation that these units can have in the energy context. Furthermore, a brief discussion about the energy price and capital return time is introduced, emphasizing the attractiveness of this kind of enterprise. (author)

  7. Nuclear Power Plant Lifetime Management Study (I)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong, Sung Yull; Jeong, Ill Seok; Jang, Chang Heui; Song, Taek Ho; Song, Woo Young [Korea Electric Power Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of); Jin, Tae Eun [Korea Power Engineering Company Consulting and Architecture Engineers, (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Woo Chul [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1996-12-31

    As the operation-year of nuclear power plant increases and finding sites for new nuclear power plant becomes harder, a comprehensive and systematic nuclear plant lifetime management(PLIM) program including life extension has to be established for stable and safe supply of electricity. A feasibility study was conducted to systematically evaluate technical, economic and regulatory aspect of plant lifetime managements and plant life extension for Kori-1 nuclear power plant. For technical evaluation of nuclear power plant, 13 major components were selected for lifetime evaluation by screening system. structure, and components(SSCs) of the plant. It was found that except reactor pressure vessel, which needs detailed integrity analysis, and low pressure turbine, which is scheduled to be replaced, 11 out of 13 major components have sufficient service life, for more than 40 years. Because domestic rules and regulations related to license renewal has not yet been written, review on the regulatory aspect of life extensions was conducted using US NRC rules and regulations. A cooperative effort with nuclear regulatory body is needed for early completion of license renewal rules and regulations. For economic evaluation of plant lifetime extension, a computer program was developed and used. It was found that 10 to 20 year of extension operation of Kori-1 nuclear power plant was proved. Based on the results, next phase of plant lifetime management program for detailed lifetime evaluation and presenting detailed implementation schedule for plant refurbishment for lifetime extension should be followed. (author). 74 refs., figs.

  8. Ammonia in power plant emission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammerich, Mads; Henningsen, J. O.; Olafsson, Ari

    1990-08-01

    Ammonia monitoring is needed in most schemes for denitrification of power plant emission. In the PALAMON system we use a 500 MHz tunable, single mode, single line, CO2 laser as light source for a low pressure, high temperature, photoacoustic cell. With this cell we can resolve the sR(5,O) line of the ammonia spectrum, and suppress the interfering C02(9R30) absorption line down to a lppm NH3 detection limit. The validity of the measured ammonia concentrations is strongly dependent on details of the sampling system and on the reliability of the calibration routines. In particular calibration with certified mixtures of NH3:N2 has proved insufficient due to the multiple and long time constants caused by adsorption of ammonia to different materials in the system. Presence of water vapor in the gas greatly reduces these time constants. Therefore a number of methods for simple production of moist calibration gases from macroscopic amounts of NH3 are applied. The calibrations are translated to response from an easily managable absorber in order to allow automated recalibration of the photoacoustic response. Data from a field test of the system, and calibration data will be presented.

  9. Fusion power plant for water desalination and reuse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borisov, A.A.; Desjatov, A.V.; Izvolsky, I.M.; Serikov, A.G.; Smirnov, V.P.; Smirnov, Yu.N.; Shatalov, G.E.; Sheludjakov, S.V.; Vasiliev, N.N. E-mail: vasiliev@nfi.kiae.ru; Velikhov, E.P

    2001-11-01

    Development of industry and agriculture demands a huge fresh water consumption. Exhaust of water sources together with pollution arises a difficult problem of population, industry, and agriculture water supply. Request for additional water supply in next 50 years is expected from industrial and agricultural sectors of many countries in the world. The presented study of fusion power plant for water desalination and reuse is aimed to widen a range of possible fusion industrial applications. Fusion offers a safe, long-term source of energy with abundant resources and major environmental advantages. Thus fusion can provide an attractive energy option to society in the next century. Fusion power tokamak reactor based on RF DEMO-S project [Proc. ISFNT-5 (2000) in press; Conceptual study of RF DEMO-S fusion reactor (2000)] was chosen as an energy source. A steady state operation mode is considered with thermal power of 4.0 GW. The reactor has to operate in steady-state plasma mode with high fraction of bootstrap current. Average plant availability of {approx}0.7 is required. A conventional type of water cooled blanket is the first choice, helium or lithium coolants are under consideration. Desalination plant includes two units: reverse osmosis and distillation. Heat to electricity conversion schemes is optimized fresh water production and satisfy internal plant electricity demand The plant freshwater capacity is {approx}6000000 m{sup 3} per day. Fusion power plant of this capacity can provide a region of a million populations with fresh water, heat and electricity.

  10. Lessons learned from existing biomass power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiltsee, G.

    2000-02-24

    This report includes summary information on 20 biomass power plants, which represent some of the leaders in the industry. In each category an effort is made to identify plants that illustrate particular points. The project experiences described capture some important lessons learned that lead in the direction of an improved biomass power industry.

  11. Harmonics in a Wind Power Plant: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Preciado, V.; Madrigal, M.; Muljadi, E.; Gevorgian, V.

    2015-04-02

    Wind power generation has been growing at a very fast pace for the past decade, and its influence and impact on the electric power grid is significant. As in a conventional power plant, a wind power plant (WPP) must ensure that the quality of the power being delivered to the grid is excellent. At the same time, the wind turbine should be able to operate immune to small disturbances coming from the grid. Harmonics are one of the more common power quality issues presented by large WPPs because of the high switching frequency of the power converters and the possible nonlinear behavior from electric machines (generator, transformer, reactors) within a power plant. This paper presents a summary of the most important issues related to harmonics in WPPs and discusses practical experiences with actual Type 1 and Type 3 wind turbines in two WPPs.

  12. Dynamic Frequency Response of Wind Power Plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Altin, Müfit

    Electricity generation from wind energy has rapidly increased for the last five years worldwide. In many countries, wind energy targets have been set in the range of 20% to 50% of all electricity generation due to the concerns of CO2 emissions, fossil fuel costs, and energy efficiency. In order...... to maintain sustainable and reliable operation of the power system for these targets, transmission system operators (TSOs) have revised the grid code requirements. Also, the TSOs are planning the future development of the power system with various wind penetration scenarios to integrate more wind power...... according to their grid codes. In these scenarios particularly with high wind power penetration cases, conventional power plants (CPPs) such as old thermal power plants are planned to be replaced with wind power plants (WPPs). Consequently, the power system stability will be affected and the control...

  13. Research of the Power Plant Operational Modes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koismynina Nina M.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this article the algorithm of the power plant operational modes research is offered. According to this algorithm the program for the modes analysis and connection power transformers choice is developed. The program can be used as educational means for studying of the power plant electric part, at the same time basic data are provided. Also the program can be used for the analysis of the working power plants modes. Checks of the entered data completeness and a choice correctness of the operational modes are provided in the program; in all cases of a deviation from the correct decisions to the user the relevant information is given.

  14. Hybrid wind-power-distillation plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ninić Neven

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports and elaborates on the idea of a solar distiller and an offshore wind power plant operating together. The subject under discussion is a single-stage solar distillation plant with vaporization, using adiabatic expansion in the gravitational field inside a wind power plant supporting column. This scheme divides investment costs for electric power and distillate production. In the region of the Adriatic Sea, all electric power produced could be “converted” to hydrogen using less than 10% of the distillate produced.

  15. DIRECT FUEL/CELL/TURBINE POWER PLANT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hossein Ghezel-Ayagh

    2004-05-01

    This report includes the progress in development of Direct FuelCell/Turbine{reg_sign} (DFC/T{reg_sign}) power plants for generation of clean power at very high efficiencies. The DFC/T power system is based on an indirectly heated gas turbine to supplement fuel cell generated power. The DFC/T power generation concept extends the high efficiency of the fuel cell by utilizing the fuel cell's byproduct heat in a Brayton cycle. Features of the DFC/T system include: electrical efficiencies of up to 75% on natural gas, 60% on coal gas, minimal emissions, simplicity in design, direct reforming internal to the fuel cell, reduced carbon dioxide release to the environment, and potential cost competitiveness with existing combined cycle power plants. FCE successfully completed testing of the pre-alpha DFC/T hybrid power plant. This power plant was constructed by integration of a 250kW fuel cell stack and a microturbine. The tests of the cascaded fuel cell concept for achieving high fuel utilizations were completed. The tests demonstrated that the concept results in higher power plant efficiency. Also, the preliminary design of a 40 MW power plant including the key equipment layout and the site plan was completed.

  16. Uranium contamination due to nuclear power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin Sanchez, A.; Vera Tome, F.; Diaz Bejarano, J.; Garcia Aparicio, A. (Univ. de Extremadura, Badajoz (Spain). Dept. de Fisica)

    1992-01-01

    Measurements of uranium isotopes and their daughters in the natural series were performed in the cooling reservoirs and their neighborhood of two nuclear power plants, [alpha] and [gamma] spectrometry of samples were used to measure the natural and artificial radionuclides. The nuclear power plants are in the southwest of Spain and one of them has been in operation since 1982, the other plant is in the construction phase. We compare the results obtained for the two sites. (orig.).

  17. Reliability of emergency ac power systems at nuclear power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Battle, R E; Campbell, D J

    1983-07-01

    Reliability of emergency onsite ac power systems at nuclear power plants has been questioned within the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) because of the number of diesel generator failures reported by nuclear plant licensees and the reactor core damage that could result from diesel failure during an emergency. This report contains the results of a reliability analysis of the onsite ac power system, and it uses the results of a separate analysis of offsite power systems to calculate the expected frequency of station blackout. Included is a design and operating experience review. Eighteen plants representative of typical onsite ac power systems and ten generic designs were selected to be modeled by fault trees. Operating experience data were collected from the NRC files and from nuclear plant licensee responses to a questionnaire sent out for this project.

  18. A new MV bus transfer scheme for nuclear power plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang Choong-Koo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Fast bus transfer method is the most popular and residual voltage transfer method that is used as a backup in medium voltage buses in general. The use of the advanced technology like open circuit voltage prediction and digital signal processing algorithms can improve the reliability of fast transfer scheme. However, according to the survey results of the recent operation records in nuclear power plants, there were many instances where the fast transfer scheme has failed. To assure bus transfer in any conditions and circumstances, uninterruptible bus transfer scheme utilizing the state of the art medium voltage UPS is discussed and elaborated.

  19. Photovoltaic power plants: production calculation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cirillo, E.; Lazzarin, R.

    Rational sizing of a photovoltaic plant requires a good evaluation of the obtainable electric energy as a function of the many meteorological and plant parameters. A computing procedure is described in detail together with a fully developed numerical example. The procedure is based on monthly usability. It is reliable and it allows designers to take into account the influence of the main plant parameters within rather wide ranges.

  20. Tecnatom support to new nuclear power plant projects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manrique, A. B. [TECNATOM, S. A., Av. Montes de Oca 1, 28709 San Sebastian de los Reyes, Madrid (Spain)], e-mail: amanrique@tecnatom.es

    2009-10-15

    Tecnatom is a Spanish engineering company with more than 50 years of experience working for the nuclear industry all over the world. It has worked in over 30 countries in activities related to the operation and maintenance of nuclear power plants. Along this half century of history. Tecnatom has been providing its services to nuclear utilities, regulators, NPP vendors, NPP owners / operators and nuclear fuel manufacturers not only in Spain but also abroad. It started to work in the design of new nuclear power plants in the early 90 s and since then has continued collaborating with different suppliers in the design and licensing of new reactors especially in the areas of plant systems design, man-machine interface design, main control room simulators building, training, qualification of equipment and PSI/ISI engineering services. Some challenges to the reactivation of nuclear power plants construction are common worldwide, including: regulatory processes, workforce availability, construction project management, etc. Being some keys to success the following: apply qualified resources, enough resources for early planning, project leadership, organization and integration, establish a strong integrated management team. The goal of this paper is to inform regarding the capabilities of Tecnatom in the construction of new power plants. (Author)

  1. Supercritical power plant 600 MW with cryogenic oxygen plant and CCS installation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotowicz, Janusz; Dryjańska, Aleksandra

    2013-09-01

    This article describes a thermodynamic analysis of an oxy type power plant. The analyzed power plant consists of: 1) steam turbine for supercritical steam parameters of 600 °C/29 MPa with a capacity of 600 MW; 2) circulating fluidized bed boiler, in which brown coal with high moisture content (42.5%) is burned in the atmosphere enriched in oxygen; 3) air separation unit (ASU); 4) CO2 capture installation, where flue gases obtained in the combustion process are compressed to the pressure of 150 MPa. The circulated fluidized bed (CFB) boiler is integrated with a fuel dryer and a cryogenic air separation unit. Waste nitrogen from ASU is heated in the boiler, and then is used as a coal drying medium. In this study, the thermal efficiency of the boiler, steam cycle thermal efficiency and power demand were determined. These quantities made possible to determine the net efficiency of the test power plant.

  2. Medium Powered Sound Broadcasting Station ZS-82 (“The Decorator” as a Weapon of Propagandists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksey A. Romanchuk

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This article considers tactical and technical characteristics of a Russian army’s propaganda weapon – the medium powered sound broadcasting station ZS-82 (“The Decorator” on a base of open sources. The sources used for the compilation of this article were various open source data, such as official news websites, forums, educational and scientific literature. Despite some thematic diversity, this topic is presented quite limitedly in the open access. We used general scientific methods, analysis and synthesis methods, concretization and generalization in solving research problems. The use of these techniques allowed us to create a complete picture of combat use of this technology in local conflicts at the end of XX – beginning of XXI centuries. In conclusion, it is indicated that the Russian army arsenal possesses an effective means of advocacy – the medium powered ZS-82 “The Decorator”. Despite its limited combat use, practice showed that this equipment can be used for conducting negotiations (agitation, as well for performing disinformation activities.

  3. Direct flash steam geothermal power plant assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alt, T. E.

    1982-01-01

    The objective was to analyze the capacity and availability factors of an operating direct flash geothermal power plant. System and component specifications, operating procedures, maintenance history, malfunctions, and outage rate are discussed. The plant studied was the 75 MW(e) geothermal power plant at Cerro Prieto, Mexico, for the years 1973 to 1979. To describe and assess the plant, the project staff reviewed documents, visited the plant, and met with staff of the operating utility. The high reliability and availability of the plant was documented and actions responsible for the good performance were identified and reported. The results are useful as guidance to US utilities considering use of hot water geothermal resources for power generation through a direct flash conversion cycle.

  4. 21st Century Small Unit Leaders: Developing the Ultimate Smart Power Weapon

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-17

    establishing awareness levels and how individuals process and respond to stimuli. Referred to as Cooper’s Color Codes, the color code allows...when they should heighten their awareness. (See Figure 937 below) Figure 9: Cooper’s Color Codes... tomato packing plant in Marine Corps Base Camp Pendleton, California. Incorporating over 10 years of research, the IIT was built by the Office of

  5. 76 FR 1469 - Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant, LLC; Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant, Unit Nos. 1 and 2...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-10

    ... COMMISSION Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant, LLC; Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant, Unit Nos. 1 and 2... Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant, LLC, the licensee, for operation of the Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant..., Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant (NUREG-1437, Supplement 1), dated......

  6. Current fusion power plant design concepts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gore, B.F.; Murphy, E.S.

    1976-09-01

    Nine current U.S. designs for fusion power plants are described in this document. Summary tabulations include a tenth concept, for which the design document was unavailable during preparation of the descriptions. The information contained in the descriptions was used to define an envelope of fusion power plant characteristics which formed the basis for definition of reference first commercial fusion power plant design. A brief prose summary of primary plant features introduces each of the descriptions contained in the body of this document. In addition, summary tables are presented. These tables summarize in side-by-side fashion, plant parameters, processes, combinations of materials used, requirements for construction materials, requirements for replacement materials during operation, and production of wastes.

  7. EPA Facility Registry Service (FRS): Power Plants

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This GIS dataset contains data on power plants, based on the Energy Information Administration's EIA-860 dataset and supplemented with data from EPA's Facility...

  8. Supercritical Water Reactor Cycle for Medium Power Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    BD Middleton; J Buongiorno

    2007-04-25

    Scoping studies for a power conversion system based on a direct-cycle supercritical water reactor have been conducted. The electric power range of interest is 5-30 MWe with a design point of 20 MWe. The overall design objective is to develop a system that has minimized physical size and performs satisfactorily over a broad range of operating conditions. The design constraints are as follows: Net cycle thermal efficiency {ge}20%; Steam turbine outlet quality {ge}90%; and Pumping power {le}2500 kW (at nominal conditions). Three basic cycle configurations were analyzed. Listed in order of increased plant complexity, they are: (1) Simple supercritical Rankine cycle; (2) All-supercritical Brayton cycle; and (3) Supercritical Rankine cycle with feedwater preheating. The sensitivity of these three configurations to various parameters, such as reactor exit temperature, reactor pressure, condenser pressure, etc., was assessed. The Thermoflex software package was used for this task. The results are as follows: (a) The simple supercritical Rankine cycle offers the greatest hardware simplification, but its high reactor temperature rise and reactor outlet temperature may pose serious problems from the viewpoint of thermal stresses, stability and materials in the core. (b) The all-supercritical Brayton cycle is not a contender, due to its poor thermal efficiency. (c) The supercritical Rankine cycle with feedwater preheating affords acceptable thermal efficiency with lower reactor temperature rise and outlet temperature. (d) The use of a moisture separator improves the performance of the supercritical Rankine cycle with feedwater preheating and allows for a further reduction of the reactor outlet temperature, thus it was selected for the next step. Preliminary engineering design of the supercritical Rankine cycle with feedwater preheating and moisture separation was performed. All major components including the turbine, feedwater heater, feedwater pump, condenser, condenser pump

  9. Efficiencies of Power Plants Using Hydrothermal Oxidation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirosaka, Kazuma; Yuvamitra, Korakot; Ishikawa, Akira; Hasegawa, Tatsuya

    Wet biomass is hard to handle as a fuel for power plants because it contains high moisture and its drying process needs more energy input than it produces. Hydrothermal oxidation could be one of the promising technologies to overcome this problem because this process does not need drying process at all. We focus on recovery of thermal energy produced by hydrothermal oxidation of wet biomass. Two kinds of power plant are investigated, a direct type and an indirect type. In the direct type power plant, reactant is oxidized in a reactor and directly flowed into a turbine. In the indirect type power plant, reactant is oxidized in a reactor and the reaction heat is conveyed to the main water, which is flowed into a turbine. The amount of electric power and the energy conversion efficiency are calculated by using ethanol, glucose and peat solutions as reactants. In both type of power plant, one steam turbine is employed for generating electricity with the maximum turbine inlet temperature of 650 °C. As ethanol concentration increased, the amount of electric power and the energy conversion efficiency become higher. The maximum efficiency for the direct type power plant using ethanol solution is about 26.4 % for 17.6 wt% at the reactor pressure of 10 MPa. The efficiency of the indirect type power plant is much lower than that of the direct type, but by pressurizing main water up to 4 MPa, the efficiency becomes higher up to 20.9 %. For glucose solution, the maximum efficiency for the direct type is about 25.5 % for 34.5 wt% at the reactor pressure of 5 MPa. The maximum efficiency of the indirect type at the main water pressure of 4 MPa is about 21.1 % for 40.7 wt%. For peat solution, only the indirect type is investigated. The maximum efficiency at the main water pressure of 4 MPa is about 20.8 % for 36.8 wt%.

  10. Market Integration of Virtual Power Plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Mette Kirschmeyer

    Global efforts to reduce emissions of carbon dioxide drives the introduction of renewable power production technologies into the existing power system. The real-time balance between production and consumption must, however, still be maintained at all times. Unfortunately, this is becoming...... increasingly challenging due to the intrinsic variability of production technologies such as photovoltaics and wind turbines. In a Smart Grid system the balancing task will therefore be handled by mobilizing flexibility on the consumption side. This Thesis assumes that the Smart Grid should be commercially...... based rather than funded by subsidies. Consequently the Smart Grid provides a business opportunity for so-called Virtual Power Plants. A Virtual Power Plant is an independent commercial operator, which provides Smart Grid capabilities to flexible consumers. This means that the Virtual Power Plant...

  11. OUT Success Stories: Solar Trough Power Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, J.

    2000-08-01

    The Solar Electric Generating System (SEGS) plants use parabolic-trough solar collectors to capture the sun's energy and convert it to heat. The SEGS plants range in capacity from 13.8 to 80 MW, and they were constructed to meet Southern California Edison Company's periods of peak power demand.

  12. Informatization of Power Plant and Its Implementation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Zhenghai

    2006-01-01

    @@ This paper presents the working procedure of power generating enterprises and explains the framework of an e-power-plant and its information system, puts forward the guideline and the general goal of informatization construction while focusing on the construction goal in the applied system, the implementing strategy, the project management and organization.

  13. Questions and Answers About Nuclear Power Plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC.

    This pamphlet is designed to answer many of the questions that have arisen about nuclear power plants and the environment. It is organized into a question and answer format, with the questions taken from those most often asked by the public. Topics include regulation of nuclear power sources, potential dangers to people's health, whether nuclear…

  14. Hybrid Cooling for Geothermal Power Plants: Final ARRA Project Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bharathan, D.

    2013-06-01

    Many binary-cycle geothermal plants use air as the heat rejection medium. Usually this is accomplished by using an air-cooled condenser (ACC) system to condense the vapor of the working fluid in the cycle. Many air-cooled plants suffer a loss of production capacity of up to 50% during times of high ambient temperatures. Use of limited amounts of water to supplement the performance of ACCs is investigated. Deluge cooling is found to be one of the least-cost options. Limiting the use of water in such an application to less than one thousand operating hours per year can boost plant output during critical high-demand periods while minimizing water use in binary-cycle geothermal power plants.

  15. Advanced coal-fired power plant technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klauke, F. [Babcock Borsig Power Energy GmbH (Germany)

    2001-07-01

    This paper presents the joint efforts of a large European group of manufacturers, utilities and institutes co-operating in a phased long-term project named 'Advanced 700{degree}C PF Power Plant'. Net efficiences of more than 50% will be reached through development of a super critical steam cycle operating at maximum steam temperatures in the range of 700{degree}C. The principal efforts are based on development of creep resistent nickel-based materials named super-alloys for the hottest areas of the water/steam cycle. The Advanced 700{degree}C PF Power Plant project will improve the competitiveness of coal-fired power generation. Furthermore, it will provide a major reduction of CO{sub 2} from coal-fired power plants in the range of 15% from the best PF power plants presently and up to 40% from older plants. The demonstration programme will leave the possibility of any plant output between 400 and 1000 MW. The project will run to the end of 2003. 8 figs.

  16. Perspectives on Magnetized Target Fusion Power Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, R. L.

    2007-06-01

    One approach to Magnetized Target Fusion (MTF) builds upon the ongoing experimental effort (FRX-L) to generate a Field Reversed Configuration (FRC) target plasma suitable for translation and cylindrical-liner (i.e., converging flux conserver) implosion. Numerical modeling is underway to elucidate key performance drivers for possible future power-plant extrapolations. The fusion gain, Q (ratio of DT fusion yield to the sum of initial liner kinetic energy plus plasma formation energy), sets the power-plant duty cycle for a nominal design electric power [ e.g. 1,000 MWe(net)]. A pulsed MTF power plant of this type derives from the historic Fast Liner Reactor (FLR) concept and shares attributes with the recent Inertial Fusion Energy (IFE) Z-pinch and laser-driven pellet HYLIFE-II conceptual designs.

  17. Ocean thermal gradient as a generator of electricity. OTEC power plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enrique, Luna-Gomez Victor; Angel, Alatorre-Mendieta Miguel

    2016-04-01

    The OTEC (Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion) is a power plant that uses the thermal gradient of the sea water between the surface and a depth of about 700 meters. It works by supplying the heat to a steam machine, for evaporation, with sea water from the surface and cold, to condense the steam, with deep sea water. The energy generated by the power plant OTEC can be transferred to the electric power grid, another use is to desalinate seawater. During the twentieth century in some countries experimental power plants to produce electricity or obtaining drinking water they were installed. On the Mexico's coast itself this thermal gradient, as it is located in tropical seas it occurs, so it has possibilities of installing OTEC power plant type. In this paper one type OTEC power plant operation is represented in most of its components.

  18. Monitoring Biological Activity at Geothermal Power Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peter Pryfogle

    2005-09-01

    The economic impact of microbial growth in geothermal power plants has been estimated to be as high as $500,000 annually for a 100 MWe plant. Many methods are available to monitor biological activity at these facilities; however, very few plants have any on-line monitoring program in place. Metal coupon, selective culturing (MPN), total organic carbon (TOC), adenosine triphosphate (ATP), respirometry, phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA), and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) characterizations have been conducted using water samples collected from geothermal plants located in California and Utah. In addition, the on-line performance of a commercial electrochemical monitor, the BIoGEORGE?, has been evaluated during extended deployments at geothermal facilities. This report provides a review of these techniques, presents data on their application from laboratory and field studies, and discusses their value in characterizing and monitoring biological activities at geothermal power plants.

  19. Integration of torrefaction with steam power plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zakri, B.; Saari, J.; Sermyagina, E.; Vakkilainen, E.

    2013-09-01

    Torrefaction is one of the pretreatment technologies to enhance the fuel characteristics of biomass. The efficient and continuous operation of a torrefaction reactor, in the commercial scale, demands a secure biomass supply, in addition to adequate source of heat. Biorefinery plants or biomass-fuelled steam power plants have the potential to integrate with the torrefaction reactor to exchange heat and mass, using available infrastructure and energy sources. The technical feasibility of this integration is examined in this study. A new model for the torrefaction process is introduced and verified by the available experimental data. The torrefaction model is then integrated in different steam power plants to simulate possible mass and energy exchange between the reactor and the plants. The performance of the integrated plant is investigated for different configurations and the results are compared. (orig.)

  20. Direct FuelCell/Turbine Power Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hossein Ghezel-Ayagh

    2008-09-30

    This report summarizes the progress made in development of Direct FuelCell/Turbine (DFC/T{reg_sign}) power plants for generation of clean power at very high efficiencies. The DFC/T system employs an indirectly heated Turbine Generator to supplement fuel cell generated power. The concept extends the high efficiency of the fuel cell by utilizing the fuel cell's byproduct heat in a Brayton cycle. Features of the DFC/T system include: electrical efficiencies of up to 75% on natural gas, minimal emissions, reduced carbon dioxide release to the environment, simplicity in design, direct reforming internal to the fuel cell, and potential cost competitiveness with existing combined cycle power plants. Proof-of-concept tests using a sub-MW-class DFC/T power plant at FuelCell Energy's (FCE) Danbury facility were conducted to validate the feasibility of the concept and to measure its potential for electric power production. A 400 kW-class power plant test facility was designed and retrofitted to conduct the tests. The initial series of tests involved integration of a full-size (250 kW) Direct FuelCell stack with a 30 kW Capstone microturbine. The operational aspects of the hybrid system in relation to the integration of the microturbine with the fuel cell, process flow and thermal balances, and control strategies for power cycling of the system, were investigated. A subsequent series of tests included operation of the sub-MW Direct FuelCell/Turbine power plant with a Capstone C60 microturbine. The C60 microturbine extended the range of operation of the hybrid power plant to higher current densities (higher power) than achieved in initial tests using the 30kW microturbine. The proof-of-concept test results confirmed the stability and controllability of operating a fullsize (250 kW) fuel cell stack in combination with a microturbine. Thermal management of the system was confirmed and power plant operation, using the microturbine as the only source of fresh air supply

  1. South Africa and the 21st Century Power Partnership (Fact Sheet). 21st Century Power Partnership; 21st Century Power Partnership

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2015-04-16

    Established in 2012, the 21CPP South Africa Programme is a global initiative that connects South African stakeholders with an international community of expertise. The overall goal of this program is to support South Africa’s power system transformation by accelerating the transition to a reliable, financially robust, and low-carbon power system. 21CPP activities focus on achieving positive outcomes for all participants, especially addressing critical questions and challenges facing system planners, regulators, and operators. In support of this goal, 21CPP taps into deep networks of expertise among leading industry practitioners.

  2. Nuclear power plant security assessment technical manual.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Connor, Sharon L.; Whitehead, Donnie Wayne; Potter, Claude S., III

    2007-09-01

    This report (Nuclear Power Plant Security Assessment Technical Manual) is a revision to NUREG/CR-1345 (Nuclear Power Plant Design Concepts for Sabotage Protection) that was published in January 1981. It provides conceptual and specific technical guidance for U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission nuclear power plant design certification and combined operating license applicants as they: (1) develop the layout of a facility (i.e., how buildings are arranged on the site property and how they are arranged internally) to enhance protection against sabotage and facilitate the use of physical security features; (2) design the physical protection system to be used at the facility; and (3) analyze the effectiveness of the PPS against the design basis threat. It should be used as a technical manual in conjunction with the 'Nuclear Power Plant Security Assessment Format and Content Guide'. The opportunity to optimize physical protection in the design of a nuclear power plant is obtained when an applicant utilizes both documents when performing a security assessment. This document provides a set of best practices that incorporates knowledge gained from more than 30 years of physical protection system design and evaluation activities at Sandia National Laboratories and insights derived from U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission technical staff into a manual that describes a development and analysis process of physical protection systems suitable for future nuclear power plants. In addition, selected security system technologies that may be used in a physical protection system are discussed. The scope of this document is limited to the identification of a set of best practices associated with the design and evaluation of physical security at future nuclear power plants in general. As such, it does not provide specific recommendations for the design and evaluation of physical security for any specific reactor design. These best practices should be applicable to the design and

  3. Information, Power, and Grand Strategy: In Athena’s Camp - Section 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-01-01

    foreign financial support.20 On this last point, one sees, even in the writings of Adam Smith , a sensitivity to the need for nuanced approaches. For...Mead Earle, “ Adam Smith , Alexander Hamilton, Friedrich List: The Economic Foundations of Military Power,” in Peter Paret, ed., Makers of Modern

  4. Nuclear Security for Floating Nuclear Power Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skiba, James M. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Scherer, Carolynn P. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-10-13

    Recently there has been a lot of interest in small modular reactors. A specific type of these small modular reactors (SMR,) are marine based power plants called floating nuclear power plants (FNPP). These FNPPs are typically built by countries with extensive knowledge of nuclear energy, such as Russia, France, China and the US. These FNPPs are built in one country and then sent to countries in need of power and/or seawater desalination. Fifteen countries have expressed interest in acquiring such power stations. Some designs for such power stations are briefly summarized. Several different avenues for cooperation in FNPP technology are proposed, including IAEA nuclear security (i.e. safeguards), multilateral or bilateral agreements, and working with Russian design that incorporates nuclear safeguards for IAEA inspections in non-nuclear weapons states

  5. Technical efficiency of thermoelectric power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barros, Carlos Pestana [Instituto de Economia e Gestao, Technical University of Lisbon, Rua Miguel Lupi, 20, 1249-078 Lisbon (Portugal); Peypoch, Nicolas [GEREM, LAMPS, IAE, Universite de Perpignan Via Domitia, 52 avenue Paul Alduy, F-66860 Perpignan (France)

    2008-11-15

    This paper analyses the technical efficiency of Portuguese thermoelectric power generating plants with a two-stage procedure. In the first stage, the plants' relative technical efficiency is estimated with DEA (data envelopment analysis) to establish which plants perform most efficiently. These plants could serve as peers to help improve performance of the least efficient plants. The paper ranks these plants according to their relative efficiency for the period 1996-2004. In a second stage, the Simar and Wilson [Simar, L., Wilson, P.W., 2007. Estimation and inference in two-stage, semi-parametric models of production processes. Journal of Econometrics 136, 1-34] bootstrapped procedure is adopted to estimate the efficiency drivers. Economic implications arising from the study are considered. (author)

  6. Efficiency improvement of thermal coal power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hourfar, D. [VEBA Kraftwerke Ruhr Ag, Gelsenkirchen (Germany)

    1996-12-31

    The discussion concerning an increase of the natural greenhouse effect by anthropogenic changes in the composition of the atmosphere has increased over the past years. The greenhouse effect has become an issue of worldwide debate. Carbon dioxide is the most serious emission of the greenhouse gases. Fossil-fired power plants have in the recent past been responsible for almost 30 % of the total CO{sub 2} emissions in Germany. Against this background the paper will describe the present development of CO{sub 2} emissions from power stations and present actual and future opportunities for CO{sub 2} reduction. The significance attached to hard coal as one of today`s prime sources of energy with the largest reserves worldwide, and, consequently, its importance for use in power generation, is certain to increase in the years to come. The further development of conventional power plant technology, therefore, is vital, and must be carried out on the basis of proven operational experience. The main incentive behind the development work completed so far has been, and continues to be, the achievement of cost reductions and environmental benefits in the generation of electricity by increasing plant efficiency, and this means that, in both the short and the long term, power plants with improved conventional technology will be used for environmentally acceptable coal-fired power generation.

  7. POSSPOW: Possible Power of Offshore Wind Power Plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Giebel, Gregor; Göçmen, Tuhfe; Sørensen, Poul Ejnar

    2013-01-01

    Introduction In recent years, the very large offshore wind farms were designed as wind power plants, including possibilities to contribute to the stability of the grid by offering grid services (also called ancillary services). One of those services is reserve power, which is achieved by down......-regulating the wind farm from its maximum possible power. The power can be ramped up quite quickly, but the influence of wakes makes it difficult to assess the exact amount of down-regulation available to sell. Currently, Transmission System Operators (TSOs) have no real way to determine exactly the possible power...... will be verified on some of the large offshore wind farms owned by Vattenfall, and possibly in a DONG Energy wind farm too. Dedicated experiments to the wind flow in large offshore wind farms are planned. Main body of abstract Modern wind turbines have a SCADA signal called possible power. In normal operation...

  8. Improving the safety of LWR power plants. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-04-01

    This report documents the results of the Study to identify current, potential research issues and efforts for improving the safety of Light Water Reactor (LWR) power plants. This final report describes the work accomplished, the results obtained, the problem areas, and the recommended solutions. Specifically, for each of the issues identified in this report for improving the safety of LWR power plants, a description is provided in detail of the safety significance, the current status (including information sources, status of technical knowledge, problem solution and current activities), and the suggestions for further research and development. Further, the issues are ranked for action into high, medium, and low priority with respect to primarily (a) improved safety (e.g. potential reduction in public risk and occupational exposure), and secondly (b) reduction in safety-related costs (improving or maintaining level of safety with simpler systems or in a more cost-effective manner).

  9. Automation of hydroelectric power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grasser, H.S. (Consolidated Papers, Inc., Wisconsin Rapids, WI (US))

    1990-03-01

    This paper describes how the author's company has been automating its hydroelectric generating plants. The early automations were achieved with a relay-type supervisory control system, relay logic, dc tachometer, and a pneumatic gate-position controller. While this system allowed the units to be started and stopped from a remote location, they were operated at an output that was preset by the pneumatic control at the generating site. The supervisory control system at the site provided such information as unit status, generator breaker status, and a binary coded decimal (BCD) value of the pond level. The generating units are started by energizing an on-site relay that sets the pneumatic gate controller to a preset value above the synchronous speed of the hydroelectric generator. The pneumatic controller then opens the water-wheel wicket gates to the preset startup position. As the hydroelectric generator starts to turn, the machine-mounted dc tachometer produces a voltage. At a dc voltage equivalent to synchronous speed, the generator main breaker closes, and a contact from the main breaker starts a field-delay timer. Within a few seconds, the field breaker closes. Once the cycle is complete, a relay changes the pneumatic setpoint to a preset operating point of about 8/10 wicket gate opening.

  10. Strategies in tower solar power plant optimization

    OpenAIRE

    RAMOS, A.; RAMOS, F.

    2012-01-01

    A method for optimizing a central receiver solar thermal electric power plant is studied. We parametrize the plant design as a function of eleven design variables and reduce the problem of finding optimal designs to the numerical problem of finding the minimum of a function of several variables. This minimization problem is attacked with different algorithms both local and global in nature. We find that all algorithms find the same minimum of the objective function. The performance of each of...

  11. Virtual environments for nuclear power plant design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown-VanHoozer, S.A.; Singleterry, R.C. Jr.; King, R.W. [and others

    1996-03-01

    In the design and operation of nuclear power plants, the visualization process inherent in virtual environments (VE) allows for abstract design concepts to be made concrete and simulated without using a physical mock-up. This helps reduce the time and effort required to design and understand the system, thus providing the design team with a less complicated arrangement. Also, the outcome of human interactions with the components and system can be minimized through various testing of scenarios in real-time without the threat of injury to the user or damage to the equipment. If implemented, this will lead to a minimal total design and construction effort for nuclear power plants (NPP).

  12. Materials availability for fusion power plant construction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hartley, J.N.; Erickson, L.E.; Engel, R.L.; Foley, T.J.

    1976-09-01

    A preliminary assessment was made of the estimated total U.S. material usage with and without fusion power plants as well as the U.S. and foreign reserves and resources, and U.S. production capacity. The potential environmental impacts of fusion power plant material procurement were also reviewed including land alteration and resultant chemical releases. To provide a general measure for the impact of material procurement for fusion reactors, land requirements were estimated for mining and disposing of waste from mining.

  13. Public-Private Leadership Forum; 21st Century Power Partnership

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2015-05-14

    The PPLF convenes stakeholders from across the power sector, spanning electricity supply, delivery, and end-use, and plays a key role in guiding the strategic direction of the Power Partnership. In addition, PPLF members support the implementation of activities set out in the Power Partnership Program of Work. Taken together, the activities of the PPLF span the dynamic landscape of power challenges and opportunities, with a focus on business models, ?nancial tools, and regulatory frameworks.

  14. Advanced coal-fired power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hebel, G.; Weirich, P.H.

    1988-02-01

    Reconstruction of coal-fired power plants under the aspects of higher economic efficiency and lower emissions has become more interesting as the petroleum and natural gas reserves have become shorter. A number of advanced concepts have been presented in the last few years and tested in experimental facilities, pilot plants and demonstration plants. If construction is envisaged within the next five years, better steam processes and coal gas turbines should be employed. Supercharged steam generators, which will bring about further improvements, will be available by the mid-Nineties.

  15. Guinea_WADC00321_ADBG_Guinea_Power_Plants

    Data.gov (United States)

    United Nations Cartographic Section — Data for power plants with total installed generating capacity > 10 mw from the Platts World Electric Power Plants Database (WEPP 2006). Plants were georeferenced...

  16. Strategies in tower solar power plant optimization

    CERN Document Server

    Ramos, A

    2012-01-01

    A method for optimizing a central receiver solar thermal electric power plant is studied. We parametrize the plant design as a function of eleven design variables and reduce the problem of finding optimal designs to the numerical problem of finding the minimum of a function of several variables. This minimization problem is attacked with different algorithms both local and global in nature. We find that all algorithms find the same minimum of the objective function. The performance of each of the algorithms and the resulting designs are studied for two typical cases. We describe a method to evaluate the impact of design variables in the plant performance. This method will tell us what variables are key to the optimal plant design and which ones are less important. This information can be used to further improve the plant design and to accelerate the optimization procedure.

  17. Strategies in tower solar power plant optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, A.; Ramos, F.

    2012-09-01

    A method for optimizing a central receiver solar thermal electric power plant is studied. We parametrize the plant design as a function of eleven design variables and reduce the problem of finding optimal designs to the numerical problem of finding the minimum of a function of several variables. This minimization problem is attacked with different algorithms both local and global in nature. We find that all algorithms find the same minimum of the objective function. The performance of each of the algorithms and the resulting designs are studied for two typical cases. We describe a method to evaluate the impact of design variables in the plant performance. This method will tell us what variables are key to the optimal plant design and which ones are less important. This information can be used to further improve the plant design and to accelerate the optimization procedure.

  18. Plant biology research and training for the 21st century

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelly, K. (ed.)

    1992-01-01

    The committee was assembled in response to a request from the National Science Foundation (NSF), the US Department of Agriculture (USDA), and the US Department of Energy (DoE). The leadership of these agencies asked the National Academy of Sciences through the National Research Council (NRC) to assess the status of plant-science research in the United States in light of the opportunities arising from advances inother areas of biology. NRC was asked to suggest ways of accelerating the application of these new biologic concepts and tools to research in plant science with the aim of enhancing the acquisition of new knowledge about plants. The charge to the committee was to examine the following: Organizations, departments, and institutions conducting plant biology research; human resources involved in plant biology research; graduate training programs in plant biology; federal, state, and private sources of support for plant-biology research; the role of industry in conducting and supporting plant-biology research; the international status of US plant-biology research; and the relationship of plant biology to leading-edge research in biology.

  19. Plant biology research and training for the 21st century

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelly, K. [ed.

    1992-12-31

    The committee was assembled in response to a request from the National Science Foundation (NSF), the US Department of Agriculture (USDA), and the US Department of Energy (DoE). The leadership of these agencies asked the National Academy of Sciences through the National Research Council (NRC) to assess the status of plant-science research in the United States in light of the opportunities arising from advances inother areas of biology. NRC was asked to suggest ways of accelerating the application of these new biologic concepts and tools to research in plant science with the aim of enhancing the acquisition of new knowledge about plants. The charge to the committee was to examine the following: Organizations, departments, and institutions conducting plant biology research; human resources involved in plant biology research; graduate training programs in plant biology; federal, state, and private sources of support for plant-biology research; the role of industry in conducting and supporting plant-biology research; the international status of US plant-biology research; and the relationship of plant biology to leading-edge research in biology.

  20. Integrated diagnostic technique for nuclear power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gofuku, Akio [Graduate School of Natural Science and Technology, Okayama University, Okayama (Japan)

    2014-12-15

    It is very important to detect and identify small anomalies and component failures for the safe operation of complex and large-scale artifacts such as nuclear power plants. Each diagnostic technique has its own advantages and limitations. These facts inspire us not only to enhance the capability of diagnostic techniques but also to integrate the results of diagnostic subsystems in order to obtain more accurate diagnostic results. The article describes the outline of four diagnostic techniques developed for the condition monitoring of the fast breeder reactor 'Monju'. The techniques are (1) estimation technique of important state variables based on a physical model of the component, (2) a state identification technique by non-linear discrimination function applying SVM (Support Vector Machine), (3) a diagnostic technique applying WT (Wavelet Transformation) to detect changes in the characteristics of measurement signals, and (4) a state identification technique effectively using past cases. In addition, a hybrid diagnostic system in which a final diagnostic result is given by integrating the results from subsystems is introduced, where two sets of values called confidence values and trust values are used. A technique to determine the trust value is investigated under the condition that the confidence value is determined by each subsystem.

  1. [Hemophilia camps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juárez-Sierra, Julieta; Del Pilar Torres-Arreola, Laura; Marín-Palomares, Teresa; Dueñas-González, María Teresa; Monteros-Rincón, Martha Patricia; Osorio-Guzmán, Maricela

    2013-01-01

    We reported the experience of hemophilia camps which was accomplished with patients from hospitals of the Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social. The aim was to prepare the families and patients regarding the disease treatment, in order to promote the self sufficiency and to know the impact of the program on the course of the disease. Surveys were applied about treatment items and personal opinions were collected. The results of the national hemophilia camp were: group of 56 patients, average 14 years, 2 % women, 51 % severe hemophilia and 43 % had hemophilic brothers. Benefits: patients increased their knowledge about earlier bleeding identification and the self-infusion method; they became aware on their responsibility in self care, timely treatment and duties at home. Hemophilia camps with patients are an option for attitude change before disease complications. Social network creation and the increase in self-sufficiency are other benefits.

  2. Fiction as a Medium of Social Communication in 19th Century France

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabina Pstrocki-Sehovic

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false EN-GB X-NONE AR-SA This article will present the extent to which literature could be viewed as means of social communication – i.e. informing and influencing society – in 19thcentury France, by analysing the appearance of three authors at different points:  the beginning, the middle and the end of the century. The first is the case of Balzac at the beginning of the 19th Century who becomes the most successful novelist of the century in France and who, in his prolific expression and rich vocabulary, portrays society from various angles in a huge opus of almost 100 works, 93 of them making his Comédie humaine. The second is the case of Gustave Flaubert whose famous novel Madame Bovary, which depicts a female character in a realist but also in a psychologically conscious manner, around the mid-19th century reaches French courts together with Les Fleurs du Mal by Charles Baudelaire and is exposed as being socially judged for its alleged immorality. The last is the political affair of Dreyfus and its defender Emile Zola, the father of naturalism. This case confirms the establishment of more intense relations between writer and politics and builds a solid way for a more conscious and everyday political engagement in the literary world from the end of the 19th century onwards. These three are the most important cases which illustrate how fiction functioned in relation to society, state and readership in 19th century France. /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin-top:0cm; mso-para-margin-right:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:10.0pt; mso-para-margin-left:0cm; line-height:115%; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso

  3. Electrochemical Power Plant for Terrestrial Flight Platforms Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — An electrochemical power plant is proposed by MicroCell Technologies to provide power to terrestrial flight platforms. Our power plant is based upon a proton...

  4. 77 FR 47121 - Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant, LLC; Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant, Units 1 and 2...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-07

    ... COMMISSION Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant, LLC; Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant, Units 1 and 2; Exemption 1.0 Background Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant, LLC (the licensee) is the holder of Renewed..., ``Fatigue Management for Nuclear Power Plant Personnel,'' endorses the Nuclear Energy......

  5. 75 FR 66802 - Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant, LLC; Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant, Unit Nos. 1 and 2...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-29

    ... COMMISSION Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant, LLC; Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant, Unit Nos. 1 and 2... Regulatory Commission (the Commission) has granted the request of Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant, LLC... Operating License Nos. DPR-53 and DPR-69 for the Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant, Unit......

  6. 76 FR 39908 - Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant, LLC; Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant, Unit Nos. 1 and 2...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-07

    ... COMMISSION Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant, LLC; Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant, Unit Nos. 1 and 2.... DPR-53 and DPR-69, for the Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant, Unit Nos. 1 and 2 (CCNPP), respectively... (ISFSI), currently held by Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant, LLC as owner and licensed......

  7. Turbomachinery for small solar power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bammert, K.; Heikal, H.; Mobarak, A.

    1981-01-01

    Conversion of solar energy into mechanical or electrical energy in small solar power plants (10 bis 500 kW) requires new design criteria, especially with regard to turbomachinery. The cycles suitable for solar power production are affected by many variables such as kinds of working fluid, range of power and maximum cycle temperature determined by the type of collector. Also, the size of the plant will influence the selection of the various components of the plant, especially that of the turbomachinery. A study of a suitable thermodynamic cycle and working fluid is done for different ranges of power and temperature. The working fluids considered are steam, toluene, and refrigerant 113 for the Rankine cycle systems and air for gas turbine systems. For Rankine cycles, turbine selection is a problem in the small power range. This is mainly due to the fact, that for high efficiency the enthalpy drop should be as high as possible, and the mass flow rate of the working fluid through the turbine becomes very small. This, in turn, requires high rotational speed, multistaging and partial admission, especially if water is the working fluid. Toluene offers better design criteria for the turbine in the same temperature and power range (50-200 kW). For the very small range (10 kW) refrigerant 113 or similar should be used, otherwise severe design problems with the turbine will occur. In this power range, photovoltaics may also be considered. For high concentration systems with Brayton cycles (800-1000/sup 0/C) only open-cycle gas turbine plants should be used.

  8. Elk and plants thrive near power lines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lustre, L.

    1997-11-01

    Butterflies and elk gather in clearings near power line right-of-ways and on the edges of such clearings, where the wild flowers and plants that have widely disappeared as a result of intensive farming and subsurface drainage of fields have found a good habitat. Ornamental coniferous trees, various herbs and assorted berries do well and can be harvested near power lines from woodland clearings once thought unfit for cultivation. IVS, the nationwide network company, takes part in many projects aiming both to increase productive utilization of land areas under power lines and to promote biodiversity

  9. Geothermal Cogeneration: Iceland's Nesjavellir Power Plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosen, Edward M.

    2008-01-01

    Energy use in Iceland (population 283,000) is higher per capita than in any other country in the world. Some 53.2% of the energy is geothermal, which supplies electricity as well as heated water to swimming pools, fish farms, snow melting, greenhouses, and space heating. The Nesjavellir Power Plant is a major geothermal facility, supplying both…

  10. Report on Hawaii Geothermal Power Plant Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1983-06-01

    The report describes the design, construction, and operation of the Hawaii Geothermal Generator Project. This power plant, located in the Puna District on the island of Hawaii, produces three megawatts of electricity from the steam phase of a geothermal well. (ACR)

  11. A Market-Based Virtual Power Plant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    You, Shi; Træholt, Chresten; Poulsen, Bjarne

    2009-01-01

    The fast growing penetration of Distributed Energy Resources (DER) and the continuing trend towards a more liberalized electricity market requires more efficient energy management strategies to handle both emerging technical and economic issues. In this paper, a market-based Virtual Power Plant...

  12. Design and evaluation of ship's power plants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijer, G.J.; Nienhuis, U.; Vugt, J. van; Folkersma, W.

    1999-01-01

    The cruise industry is host to major changes in the way the skip's power plants are configured. Diesel-electric propulsion has replaced most diesel-mechanic systems for larger ships. Podded propulsion is making serious headway and gas turbines are currently under order. In future, fuel cells, perman

  13. Direct FuelCell/Turbine Power Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hossein Ghezel-Ayagh

    2008-09-30

    This report summarizes the progress made in development of Direct FuelCell/Turbine (DFC/T{reg_sign}) power plants for generation of clean power at very high efficiencies. The DFC/T system employs an indirectly heated Turbine Generator to supplement fuel cell generated power. The concept extends the high efficiency of the fuel cell by utilizing the fuel cell's byproduct heat in a Brayton cycle. Features of the DFC/T system include: electrical efficiencies of up to 75% on natural gas, minimal emissions, reduced carbon dioxide release to the environment, simplicity in design, direct reforming internal to the fuel cell, and potential cost competitiveness with existing combined cycle power plants. Proof-of-concept tests using a sub-MW-class DFC/T power plant at FuelCell Energy's (FCE) Danbury facility were conducted to validate the feasibility of the concept and to measure its potential for electric power production. A 400 kW-class power plant test facility was designed and retrofitted to conduct the tests. The initial series of tests involved integration of a full-size (250 kW) Direct FuelCell stack with a 30 kW Capstone microturbine. The operational aspects of the hybrid system in relation to the integration of the microturbine with the fuel cell, process flow and thermal balances, and control strategies for power cycling of the system, were investigated. A subsequent series of tests included operation of the sub-MW Direct FuelCell/Turbine power plant with a Capstone C60 microturbine. The C60 microturbine extended the range of operation of the hybrid power plant to higher current densities (higher power) than achieved in initial tests using the 30kW microturbine. The proof-of-concept test results confirmed the stability and controllability of operating a fullsize (250 kW) fuel cell stack in combination with a microturbine. Thermal management of the system was confirmed and power plant operation, using the microturbine as the only source of fresh air supply

  14. Heber geothermal demonstration power plant. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-06-01

    The binary power plant is to be a 45 MW net electrical facility deriving energy from the low salinity (14,000 ppM), moderate temperature (360/sup 0/F, 182/sup 0/C) Heber reservoir in Southern California. The optimized baseline design established for the power plant is described, and the design and optimization work that formed the basis for the baseline design is documented. The work accomplished during Phase II, Preliminary Design is also recorded, and a base provided from which detailed plant design could be continued. Related project activities in the areas of licensing, environmental, cost, and schedule are also described. The approach used to establish the Phase II optimized baseline design was to (1) review the EPRI Phase I conceptual design and feasibility studies; (2) identify current design criteria and state-of-the-art technology; and (3) develop a preliminary design optimized to the Heber site based on utiliity standards.

  15. Recent Advances in Ocean Nuclear Power Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kang-Heon Lee

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, recent advances in Ocean Nuclear Power Plants (ONPPs are reviewed, including their general arrangement, design parameters, and safety features. The development of ONPP concepts have continued due to initiatives taking place in France, Russia, South Korea, and the United States. Russia’s first floating nuclear power stations utilizing the PWR technology (KLT-40S and the spar-type offshore floating nuclear power plant designed by a research group in United States are considered herein. The APR1400 and SMART mounted Gravity Based Structure (GBS-type ONPPs proposed by a research group in South Korea are also considered. In addition, a submerged-type ONPP designed by DCNS of France is taken into account. Last, issues and challenges related to ONPPs are discussed and summarized.

  16. Model-Based Power Plant Master Control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boman, Katarina; Thomas, Jean; Funkquist, Jonas

    2010-08-15

    The main goal of the project has been to evaluate the potential of a coordinated master control for a solid fuel power plant in terms of tracking capability, stability and robustness. The control strategy has been model-based predictive control (MPC) and the plant used in the case study has been the Vattenfall power plant Idbaecken in Nykoeping. A dynamic plant model based on nonlinear physical models was used to imitate the true plant in MATLAB/SIMULINK simulations. The basis for this model was already developed in previous Vattenfall internal projects, along with a simulation model of the existing control implementation with traditional PID controllers. The existing PID control is used as a reference performance, and it has been thoroughly studied and tuned in these previous Vattenfall internal projects. A turbine model was developed with characteristics based on the results of steady-state simulations of the plant using the software EBSILON. Using the derived model as a representative for the actual process, an MPC control strategy was developed using linearization and gain-scheduling. The control signal constraints (rate of change) and constraints on outputs were implemented to comply with plant constraints. After tuning the MPC control parameters, a number of simulation scenarios were performed to compare the MPC strategy with the existing PID control structure. The simulation scenarios also included cases highlighting the robustness properties of the MPC strategy. From the study, the main conclusions are: - The proposed Master MPC controller shows excellent set-point tracking performance even though the plant has strong interactions and non-linearity, and the controls and their rate of change are bounded. - The proposed Master MPC controller is robust, stable in the presence of disturbances and parameter variations. Even though the current study only considered a very small number of the possible disturbances and modelling errors, the considered cases are

  17. Configuration management in nuclear power plants

    CERN Document Server

    2003-01-01

    Configuration management (CM) is the process of identifying and documenting the characteristics of a facility's structures, systems and components of a facility, and of ensuring that changes to these characteristics are properly developed, assessed, approved, issued, implemented, verified, recorded and incorporated into the facility documentation. The need for a CM system is a result of the long term operation of any nuclear power plant. The main challenges are caused particularly by ageing plant technology, plant modifications, the application of new safety and operational requirements, and in general by human factors arising from migration of plant personnel and possible human failures. The IAEA Incident Reporting System (IRS) shows that on average 25% of recorded events could be caused by configuration errors or deficiencies. CM processes correctly applied ensure that the construction, operation, maintenance and testing of a physical facility are in accordance with design requirements as expressed in the d...

  18. Design of an Energy Monitoring System for a Medium-Scale Plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erdal Irmak

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available In this study, energy monitoring system of a medium scale industrial plant is achieved through a computer interface both in real time and retrospective using recent data. In order to measure the energy, a measurement card is designed to convert the voltage and current signals in suitable levels for a programmable logic controller (PLC. Current and voltage signals received from the measurement card are sensed by the analogue channels of the PLC. A zero-crossing detector is also designed to measure the power factor of the system. Time difference between the signals which are obtained from the zero-crossing detector is measured by using FM 350-01 counter module. All data received are transferred into a database located at the host computer by the PLC using RS485/RS232 communication protocol. Data obtained from the system can be monitored momentarily through an interface that is designed in C# programming language. Furthermore, retrospective energy analysis of the system is made possible by saving the data obtained continuously. Thus, active, reactive and apparent power values can be observed for a specific time interval. By using the retrospective energy analysis system, time periods in which the energy is more consumed can be determined. Thanks to this feature, work load of the plant can be programmed to specific times when the energy is cheaper in order to reduce the energy costs.

  19. A new integrated power plant with a small scale turbine for the organic Rankine cycle

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    Combined heat and power (CHP or cogeneration) describes the simultaneous generation of electrical power and heat. CHP has been well established for medium and high power ranges (> 100 kW el. power). The Kompakte Dampf Turbine (KDT, meaning compact steam turbine) addresses the low-end of power generation (~2 kW el. power). The KDT is a highly integrated power plant of small dimensions able to use various heat sources. Its simple design promises a low-cost CHP for residential homes.

  20. BOILER MATERIALS FOR ULTRASUPERCRITICAL COAL POWER PLANTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R. Viswanathan; K. Coleman; R.W. Swindeman; J. Sarver; J. Blough; W. Mohn; M. Borden; S. Goodstine; I. Perrin

    2003-10-20

    The principal objective of this project is to develop materials technology for use in ultrasupercritical (USC) plant boilers capable of operating with 760 C (1400 F), 35 MPa (5000 psi) steam. This project has established a government/industry consortium to undertake a five-year effort to evaluate and develop of advanced materials that allow the use of advanced steam cycles in coal-based power plants. These advanced cycles, with steam temperatures up to 760 C, will increase the efficiency of coal-fired boilers from an average of 35% efficiency (current domestic fleet) to 47% (HHV). This efficiency increase will enable coal-fired power plants to generate electricity at competitive rates (irrespective of fuel costs) while reducing CO{sub 2} and other fuel-related emissions by as much as 29%. Success in achieving these objectives will support a number of broader goals. First, from a national prospective, the program will identify advanced materials that will make it possible to maintain a cost-competitive, environmentally acceptable coal-based electric generation option. High sulfur coals will specifically benefit in this respect by having these advanced materials evaluated in high-sulfur coal firing conditions and from the significant reductions in waste generation inherent in the increased operational efficiency. Second, from a national prospective, the results of this program will enable domestic boiler manufacturers to successfully compete in world markets for building high-efficiency coal-fired power plants.

  1. ORC-mall scale power plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jokinen, T. [Helsinki Univ. of Technology, Otaniemi (Finland). Lab. of Electromechanics

    1998-12-31

    In the conversion of low temperature heat into electricity, the greatest efficiency is obtained by using a Rankine cycle. The Organic Rankine cycle (ORC) is a Rankine cycle where an organic fluid is used instead of water as the working fluid. In the conventional ORC-solution, an axial turbine drives a standard generator through a high-speed gearbox. The system includes a separate feed pump, vacuum pump, lubrication system and requires several saft seals. The seals of the turbine have a limited working life in particular due to the high speed required. Thus, the entire present conventional ORC-plant is rather complicated and requires maintenance. To avoid these problems, a project was initiated at the Lappeenranta University of Technology to develop a high-speed, process fluid lubricated turbogenerator-feed pump as the prime mover of the ORC. The project has been continued in co-operation with the Helsinki University of Technology under the NEMO 2 program, the main goal being to build a demonstration power plant and to commercialise the project. The goals of the project were: (1) to model the ORC process, turbogenerator, and inverter, (2) to simulate the power plant in different normal and abnormal states, (3) to assess the advantages and disadvantages of various control systems, (4) to study network disturbances such as voltage and current harmonics and to research ways of reducing these disturbances, (5) to optimise heat exchanging surfaces and process parameters, and (6) to participate in the design of the demonstration power plant

  2. Fusion Breeding for Sustainable, Mid Century, Carbon Free Power

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manheimer, Wallace

    2015-11-01

    If ITER achieves Q ~10, it is still very far from useful fusion. The fusion power, and the driver power will allow only a small amount of power to be delivered, NIF to achhieve ignition, at this point it has many more obstacles to overcome than magnetic fusion. One way out of this dilemma is to use an ITER size tokamak, or a NIF size laser, as a fuel breeder for searate nuclear reactors. Hence ITER and NIF become ends in themselves, instead of steps to who knows what DEMO decades later. Such a tokamak can easily live within the consrtaints of conservative design rules. This has led the author to propose ``The Energy Park'' a sustainable, carbon free, economical, and environmently viable power source without prolifertion risk. It is one fusion breeder fuels 5 conventional nuclear reactors, and one fast neutron reactor burns the actinide wastes.

  3. Nuclear power plant operation and training

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanae, Katsushige [Tokyo Electric Power Co., Inc. (Japan); Mitsumori, Kojiro

    1997-07-01

    In this report, the system for operation of a nuclear power plant and the qualities required for its operators were summarized. In Kashiwazaki-Kariwa Atomic Power Plant of the Tokyo Electric Power Co., Inc. operation is continuously made by 6 groups containing each 10 workers on three shifts. A group including the person in charge participates in the operation through cooperation of the control center and the respective spots. The group leaders are chosen from those approved as a person responsible to its operation. The conditions for the person responsible were as follows: to receive simulator training for senior operator, to have more than 7 years experience of operating a nuclear power plant, to pass a practical examination on the ordinary operation and the emergency one, to receive a training course to master the knowledge and techniques for operating an atomic reactor and to success the oral examination on practical knowledge required to perform the duty. Further, the simulators for ABWR training produced by Toshiba Corp. and Hitachi Ltd. were introduced as an example. And the practical training procedures to manipulate the simulator were presented. (M.N.)

  4. Market integration of Virtual Power Plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Mette Kirschmeyer; Hansen, Lars Henrik; Bendtsen, Jan Dimon;

    2013-01-01

    We consider a direct control Virtual Power Plant, which is given the task of maximizing the profit of a portfolio of flexible consumers by trading flexibility in Energy Markets. Spot price optimization has been quite intensively researched in Smart Grid literature lately. In this work, however, w...... are penetrated, the size of the profit is strongly dependent on the type of flexibility considered. We also find that penetrating several markets makes profits surprisingly robust to spot price prediction errors.......We consider a direct control Virtual Power Plant, which is given the task of maximizing the profit of a portfolio of flexible consumers by trading flexibility in Energy Markets. Spot price optimization has been quite intensively researched in Smart Grid literature lately. In this work, however, we...... develop a three stage market model, which includes Day-Ahead (Spot), Intra-Day and Regulating Power Markets. This allows us to test the hypothesis that the Virtual Power Plant can generate additional profit by trading across several markets. We find that even though profits do increase as more markets...

  5. Safety in nuclear power plants in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deolalikar R

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Safety in nuclear power plants (NPPs in India is a very important topic and it is necessary to dissipate correct information to all the readers and the public at large. In this article, I have briefly described how the safety in our NPPs is maintained. Safety is accorded overriding priority in all the activities. NPPs in India are not only safe but are also well regulated, have proper radiological protection of workers and the public, regular surveillance, dosimetry, approved standard operating and maintenance procedures, a well-defined waste management methodology, proper well documented and periodically rehearsed emergency preparedness and disaster management plans. The NPPs have occupational health policies covering periodic medical examinations, dosimetry and bioassay and are backed-up by fully equipped Personnel Decontamination Centers manned by doctors qualified in Occupational and Industrial Health. All the operating plants are ISO 14001 and IS 18001 certified plants. The Nuclear Power Corporation of India Limited today has 17 operating plants and five plants under construction, and our scientists and engineers are fully geared to take up many more in order to meet the national requirements.

  6. Safety in nuclear power plants in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deolalikar, R

    2008-12-01

    Safety in nuclear power plants (NPPs) in India is a very important topic and it is necessary to dissipate correct information to all the readers and the public at large. In this article, I have briefly described how the safety in our NPPs is maintained. Safety is accorded overriding priority in all the activities. NPPs in India are not only safe but are also well regulated, have proper radiological protection of workers and the public, regular surveillance, dosimetry, approved standard operating and maintenance procedures, a well-defined waste management methodology, proper well documented and periodically rehearsed emergency preparedness and disaster management plans. The NPPs have occupational health policies covering periodic medical examinations, dosimetry and bioassay and are backed-up by fully equipped Personnel Decontamination Centers manned by doctors qualified in Occupational and Industrial Health. All the operating plants are ISO 14001 and IS 18001 certified plants. The Nuclear Power Corporation of India Limited today has 17 operating plants and five plants under construction, and our scientists and engineers are fully geared to take up many more in order to meet the national requirements.

  7. Operational monitoring in German nuclear power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seibold, A. [Technischer Ueberwachungs-Verein Suedwest e.V., Filderstadt (Germany); Bartonicek, J. [GKN Neckarwestheim, Im Steinbruch, Neckarwestheim, D-74382 (Germany); Kockelmann, H. [Staatliche Materialpruefungsanstalt (MPA), University of Stuttgart, Stuttgart (Germany)

    1995-10-01

    The Atomic Energy Act requires that measures made feasible by state of the art technology be adopted to avoid damage that could be caused as the result of the construction and operation of a nuclear plant. This stipulation constitutes the basis for deriving requirements for planning, design, construction, operation and decommissioning. Ensuring the function and integrity of those components and systems that are relevant to plant safety is of major significance with regard to operation of a nuclear power plant. The basis for ensuring these features is laid in planning, design and construction. Important as these foundations may be, it is absolutely essential to monitor the quality originally planned and achieved in an object as undeniably complex as a nuclear power plant. The RSK-Leitlinien fuer Druckwasserreaktoren (Reactor Safety Commission Guidelines for Pressurized Water Reactors) incorporate fundamental requirements for design, mechanical design, materials, manufacturing, testing and examination, and operation. Meeting these requirements makes it possible to exclude a catastrophic rupture of the components in the reactor cooling system pressure boundary (primary system), as has been demonstrated in detailed research and development work. The term basic safety was defined for this concept. Basic safety coupled with multiple redundancy suffices to exclude the possibility of large ruptures (rupture preclusion). The principle of plant monitoring and documentation (operational monitoring) implements redundancy in a significant manner within this concept. The monitoring techniques used in Germany have reached an advanced state of development and are still being optimized. Thus, operational monitoring is a major contributory factor in the safety and high availability of nuclear power plants. It also provides a means of expanding our knowledge of life time expectation. (orig.).

  8. Maximisation of Combined Cycle Power Plant Efficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janusz Kotowicz

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents concepts for increasing the efficiency of a modern combined cycle power plant. Improvement of gas turbine performance indicators as well as recovering heat from the air cooling the gas turbine’s flow system enable reaching gross electrical efficiencies of around 65%. Analyses for a wide range of compressor pressure ratios were performed. Operating characteristics were developed for the analysed combined cycle plant, for different types of open air cooling arrangements of the gas turbine’s expander: convective, transpiration and film.

  9. DCS emulator development for nuclear power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakashima, Y. [Hitachi Canada Ltd., Power and Industry Div., Mississauga, Ontario (Canada); Ishii, K.; Chiba, D. [Hitachi Ltd., Information and Control Systems Div., Ibaraki-ken (Japan)

    2009-07-01

    Continual training of operators is one of the principal means by which Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) operational efficiency can be improved. Since this training cannot take place in the actual NPP, NPP simulator applications must be used instead. While digitalization scope of Instrumentation and Control (I and C) systems has been expanded to the entire plant by using Distributed Control System (DCS) implementation, Hitachi has implemented DCS emulator on a general purpose Personal Computer (PC) and applied it to simulator applications. This paper reviews such DCS emulator development for NPP by Hitachi. (author)

  10. Coal Moisture Estimation in Power Plant Mills

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Palle; Bendtsen, Jan Dimon; Pedersen, Tom S.;

    2009-01-01

    Knowledge of moisture content in raw coal feed to a power plant coal mill is of importance for efficient operation of the mill. The moisture is commonly measured approximately once a day using offline chemical analysis methods; however, it would be advantageous for the dynamic operation...... of the plant if an on-line estimate were available. In this paper we such propose an on-line estimator (an extended Kalman filter) that uses only existing measurements. The scheme is tested on actual coal mill data collected during a one-month operating period, and it is found that the daily measured moisture...

  11. 1000kW on-site PAFC power plant development and demonstration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Satomi, Tomohide; Koike, Shunichi [Phosphoric Acid Fuel Cell Technology Research Association (PAFC-TRA), Osaka (Japan); Ishikawa, Ryou [New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization (NEDO), Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-12-31

    Phosphoric Acid Fuel Cell Technology Research Association (PAFC-TRA) and New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization (NEDO) have been conducting a joint project on development of a 5000kW urban energy center type PAFC power plant (pressurized) and a 1000kW on-site PAFC power plant (non-pressurized). The objective of the technical development of 1000kW on-site PAFC power plant is to realize a medium size power plant with an overall efficiency of over 70% and an electrical efficiency of over 36%, that could be installed in a large building as a cogeneration system. The components and system integration development work and the plant design were performed in 1991 and 1992. Manufacturing of the plant and installation at the test site were completed in 1994. PAC test was carried out in 1994, and generation test was started in January 1995. Demonstration test is scheduled for 1995 and 1996.

  12. Improved repowering techniques for power plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Houbak, Niels; Andersen, Simon E.; Petersen, Stiig Bo;

    1998-01-01

    Repowering of existing coal-fired power plants is often accomplished by adding gas turbines. In this paper we assume that the gas turbine exhaust is used for feed water preheating.Typical gas turbine exhaust temperatures are in the range 450-600C whereas typical boiler inlet temperatures are 250......-300C. The big difference in temperature between exhaust and water prevents an efficient exchange of heat. One way to lower the exhaust temperature is to expand the gas to sub atmospheric pressure. The result is a 50% increase in possible installed gas turbine power....

  13. FACTS Devices for Large Wind Power Plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adamczyk, Andrzej Grzegorz; Teodorescu, Remus; Rodriguez, Pedro;

    2010-01-01

    Growing number of wind turbines is changing electricity generation profile all over the world. However, high wind energy penetration affects power system safety and stability. For this reason transmission system operators (TSO) impose more stringent connection requirements on the wind power plant...... (WPP) owners. On the other hand flexible AC transmission systems (FACTS) devices offer enhancement of grid stability and can facilitate grid code compliance for WPP. In this paper state-of-the-art in FACTS for large WPPs with AC connection is given. FACTS devices (excluding HVDC) with their properties...... are described. Academic and industrial research in FACTS applicability for WPPs is summarized....

  14. MANUFACTURING AND CONTINUOUS IMPROVEMENT PERFORMANCE LEVEL IN PLANTS OF MEXICO; A COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS AMONG LARGE AND MEDIUM SIZE PLANTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Monge

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available A random and statistically significant sample of 40 medium (12 and large (28 manufacturing plants of Apodaca, Mexico were surveyed using a structured and validated questionnaire to investigate the level of implementation of lean manufacturing, sustainable manufacturing, continuous improvement and operational efficiency and environmental responsibility in them, it is important to mention it was found that performance in the mentioned philosophies, on the two categories of plants is low, however large plants show a better performance than medium plants. In both cases, it is worrying that in the highly industrialized municipality of Apodaca,  Mexico are not decisively adopting the philosophies mentioned, as this compromises in a global world, in the medium and long term the viability of the plants, particularly the medium size plants. Finally this article shows the results of the answers to the items of questionnaire for the plants managers, and this can be useful to the management of the plants to identify and to define specific improvement actions towards priority areas.

  15. Mosquitoes: A Viable 21st-Century Soft Power Tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    doctors and nurses to conduct clinics and give medical educa- tion and training programs in patient care and surgical management. The U.S. Naval...program might take, five common dilemmas inherent to soft power medical programs will need ongoing and thoughtful consideration. Military per- sonnel

  16. Thermodynamics in nuclear power plant systems

    CERN Document Server

    Zohuri, Bahman

    2015-01-01

    This book covers the fundamentals of thermodynamics required to understand electrical power generation systems, honing in on the application of these principles to nuclear reactor powersystems. It includes all the necessary information regarding the fundamental laws to gain a complete understanding and apply them specifically to the challenges of operating nuclear plants. Beginning with definitions of thermodynamic variables such as temperature, pressure and specific volume, the book then explains the laws in detail, focusing on pivotal concepts such as enthalpy and entropy, irreversibilit

  17. Safety in nuclear power plants in India

    OpenAIRE

    Deolalikar R

    2008-01-01

    Safety in nuclear power plants (NPPs) in India is a very important topic and it is necessary to dissipate correct information to all the readers and the public at large. In this article, I have briefly described how the safety in our NPPs is maintained. Safety is accorded overriding priority in all the activities. NPPs in India are not only safe but are also well regulated, have proper radiological protection of workers and the public, regular surveillance, dosimetry, approved standard operat...

  18. Virtual power plants with electric vehicles

    OpenAIRE

    Grau, Iñaki; Papadopoulos, Panagiotis; Skarvelis-Kazakos, Spyros; Cipcigan, Liana M.; Jenkins, Nick

    2010-01-01

    The benefits of integrating aggregated Electric Vehicles (EV) within the Virtual Power Plant (VPP) concept, are addressed. Two types of EV aggregators are identified: i) Electric Vehicle Residential Aggregator (EVRA), which is responsible for the management of dispersed and clustered EVs in a residential area and ii) Electric Vehicle Commercial Aggregator (EVCA), which is responsible for the management of EVs clustered in a single car park. A case study of a workplace EVCA is presented, provi...

  19. Alloy Design for a Fusion Power Plant

    OpenAIRE

    Kemp, Richard

    2006-01-01

    Fusion power is generated when hot deuterium and tritium nuclei react, producing alpha particles and 14 MeV neutrons. These neutrons escape the reaction plasma and are absorbed by the surrounding material structure of the plant, transferring the heat of the reaction to an external cooling circuit. In such high-energy neutron irradiation environments, extensive atomic displacement damage and transmutation production of helium affect the mechanical properties of materials. Among these effect...

  20. Advanced Power Plant Development and Analysis Methodologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    A.D. Rao; G.S. Samuelsen; F.L. Robson; B. Washom; S.G. Berenyi

    2006-06-30

    Under the sponsorship of the U.S. Department of Energy/National Energy Technology Laboratory, a multi-disciplinary team led by the Advanced Power and Energy Program of the University of California at Irvine is defining the system engineering issues associated with the integration of key components and subsystems into advanced power plant systems with goals of achieving high efficiency and minimized environmental impact while using fossil fuels. These power plant concepts include 'Zero Emission' power plants and the 'FutureGen' H2 co-production facilities. The study is broken down into three phases. Phase 1 of this study consisted of utilizing advanced technologies that are expected to be available in the 'Vision 21' time frame such as mega scale fuel cell based hybrids. Phase 2 includes current state-of-the-art technologies and those expected to be deployed in the nearer term such as advanced gas turbines and high temperature membranes for separating gas species and advanced gasifier concepts. Phase 3 includes identification of gas turbine based cycles and engine configurations suitable to coal-based gasification applications and the conceptualization of the balance of plant technology, heat integration, and the bottoming cycle for analysis in a future study. Also included in Phase 3 is the task of acquiring/providing turbo-machinery in order to gather turbo-charger performance data that may be used to verify simulation models as well as establishing system design constraints. The results of these various investigations will serve as a guide for the U. S. Department of Energy in identifying the research areas and technologies that warrant further support.

  1. Advanced Power Plant Development and Analyses Methodologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    G.S. Samuelsen; A.D. Rao

    2006-02-06

    Under the sponsorship of the U.S. Department of Energy/National Energy Technology Laboratory, a multi-disciplinary team led by the Advanced Power and Energy Program of the University of California at Irvine is defining the system engineering issues associated with the integration of key components and subsystems into advanced power plant systems with goals of achieving high efficiency and minimized environmental impact while using fossil fuels. These power plant concepts include ''Zero Emission'' power plants and the ''FutureGen'' H{sub 2} co-production facilities. The study is broken down into three phases. Phase 1 of this study consisted of utilizing advanced technologies that are expected to be available in the ''Vision 21'' time frame such as mega scale fuel cell based hybrids. Phase 2 includes current state-of-the-art technologies and those expected to be deployed in the nearer term such as advanced gas turbines and high temperature membranes for separating gas species and advanced gasifier concepts. Phase 3 includes identification of gas turbine based cycles and engine configurations suitable to coal-based gasification applications and the conceptualization of the balance of plant technology, heat integration, and the bottoming cycle for analysis in a future study. Also included in Phase 3 is the task of acquiring/providing turbo-machinery in order to gather turbo-charger performance data that may be used to verify simulation models as well as establishing system design constraints. The results of these various investigations will serve as a guide for the U. S. Department of Energy in identifying the research areas and technologies that warrant further support.

  2. Comparative analysis of cooling systems for energy equipment of combined heat and power plants and nuclear power plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reutov, B. F.; Lazarev, M. V.; Ermakova, S. V.; Zisman, S. L.; Kaplanovich, L. S.; Svetushkov, V. V.

    2016-07-01

    In the 20th century, the thermal power engineering in this country was oriented toward oncethrough cooling systems. More than 50% of the CHPP and NPP capacities with once-through cooling systems put into operation before the 1990s were large-scale water consumers but with minimum irretrievable water consumption. In 1995, the Water Code of the Russian Federation was adopted in which restrictions on application of once-through cooling systems for newly designed combined heat and power plants (CHPPs) were introduced for the first time. A ban on application of once-through systems was imposed by the current Water Code of the Russian Federation (Federal law no. 74-FZ, Art. 60 Cl. 4) not only for new CHPPs but also for those to be modified. Clause 4 of Article 60 of the Water Code of the Russian Federation contravenes law no. 7-FZ "On Protection of the Environment" that has priority significance, since the water environment is only part of the natural environment and those articles of the Water Code of the Russian Federation that are related directly to electric power engineering, viz., Articles 46 and 62. In recent decades, the search for means to increase revenue charges and the economic pressure on the thermal power industry caused introduction by law of charges for use of water by cooling systems irrespective of the latter's impact on the water quality of the source, the environment, the economic efficiency of the power production, and the living conditions of the people. The long-range annual increase in the water use charges forces the power generating companies to switch transfer once-through service water supply installations to recirculating water supply systems and once-through-recirculating systems with multiple reuse of warm water, which drastically reduces the technical, economic, and ecological characteristic of the power plant operation and also results in increasing power rates for the population. This work comprehensively substantiates the demands of

  3. Fatigue monitoring in Nuclear Power Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ware, A.G.; Shah, V.N. [Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    1995-04-01

    This paper summarizes fatigue monitoring methods and surveys their application in the nuclear power industry. The paper is based on a review of the technical literature. Two main reasons for fatigue monitoring are more frequent occurrence of some transients than that assumed in the fatigue design analysis and the discovery of stressors that were not included in the fatigue design analysis but may cause significant fatigue damage at some locations. One fatigue monitoring method involves use of plant operating data and procedures to update the fatigue usage. Another method involves monitoring of plant operating parameters using existing, or if needed, supplementary plant instrumentation for online computation of fatigue usage. Use of fatigue monitoring has better defined the operational transients. Most operational transients have been found less severe and fewer in numbers than anticipated in the design fatigue analysis. Use of fatigue monitoring has assisted in quantifying newly discovered stressors and has helped in detecting the presence of thermal stratification of unsuspected locations.

  4. Construct ability Improvement for Nuclear Power Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Dae Soo; Lee, Jong Rim; Kim, Jong Ku [Korea Electric Power Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-12-31

    The purpose of this study was to identify methods for improving the construct ability of nuclear power plants. This study reviewed several references of current construction practices of domestic and overseas nuclear plants in order to identify potential methods for improving construct ability. The identified methods for improving construct ability were then evaluated based on the applicability to domestic nuclear plant construction. The selected methods are expected to reduce the construction period, improve the quality of construction, cost, safety, and productivity. Selection of which methods should be implemented will require further evaluation of construction modifications, design changes, contract revisions. Among construction methods studied, platform construction methods can be applied through construction sequence modification without significant design changes, and Over the Top construction method of the NSSS, automatic welding of RCL pipes, CLP modularization, etc., are considered to be applied after design modification and adjustment of material lead time. (author). 49 refs., figs., tabs.

  5. New technologies for 21st century plant science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehrhardt, David W; Frommer, Wolf B

    2012-02-01

    Plants are one of the most fascinating and important groups of organisms living on Earth. They serve as the conduit of energy into the biosphere, provide food, and shape our environment. If we want to make headway in understanding how these essential organisms function and build the foundation for a more sustainable future, then we need to apply the most advanced technologies available to the study of plant life. In 2009, a committee of the National Academy highlighted the "understanding of plant growth" as one of the big challenges for society and part of a new era which they termed "new biology." The aim of this article is to identify how new technologies can and will transform plant science to address the challenges of new biology. We assess where we stand today regarding current technologies, with an emphasis on molecular and imaging technologies, and we try to address questions about where we may go in the future and whether we can get an idea of what is at and beyond the horizon.

  6. Methodology for Assessment of Inertial Response from Wind Power Plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Altin, Müfit; Teodorescu, Remus; Bak-Jensen, Birgitte;

    2012-01-01

    High wind power penetration levels result in additional requirements from wind power in order to improve frequency stability. Replacement of conventional power plants with wind power plants reduces the power system inertia due to the wind turbine technology. Consequently, the rate of change...

  7. Whither Space Power? Forging a Strategy for the New Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-09-01

    to achieve our goal? What should those objectives be? The ever-growing field of literature on space power is full of excellent works that either...information. The spy- thriller nature of the entire NRO program, while rapidly push­ ing technology frontiers, stifled most other space initiatives by...here or elsewhere. 25 May 2007. CNN News Report, Montgomery, Alabama: Police here reported today that anti-Islamic literature and numerous other

  8. Induction of plant somatic embryogenesis in liquid medium.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kreuger, M.

    1996-01-01

    The large scale propagation of plants via somatic embryogenesis, has so far been difficult to achieve. In this thesis research is described leading to embryogenic cell lines that can be maintained for a long period, without loss of genetic stability. It is also described how embryogenic potential of

  9. Climate mitigation’s impact on global and regional electric power sector water use in the 21st Century

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dooley, James J.; Kyle, G. Page; Davies, Evan

    2013-08-05

    Over the course of this coming century, global electricity use is expected to grow at least five fold and if stringent greenhouse gas emissions controls are in place the growth could be more than seven fold from current levels. Given that the electric power sector represents the second largest anthropogenic use of water and given growing concerns about the nature and extent of future water scarcity driven by population growth and a changing climate, significant concern has been expressed about the electricity sector’s use of water going forward. In this paper, the authors demonstrate that an often overlooked but absolutely critical issue that needs to be taken into account in discussions about the sustainability of the electric sector’s water use going forward is the tremendous turn over in electricity capital stock that will occur over the course of this century; i.e., in the scenarios examined here more than 80% of global electricity production in the year 2050 is from facilities that have not yet been built. The authors show that because of the large scale changes in the global electricity system, the water withdrawal intensity of electricity production is likely to drop precipitously with the result being relatively constant water withdrawals over the course of the century even in the face of the large growth in electricity usage. The ability to cost effectively reduce the water intensity of power plants with carbon dioxide capture and storage systems in particular is key to constraining overall global water use.

  10. Architecture for a High-to-Medium-Voltage Power Converter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vorpenian, Vatche

    2008-01-01

    A power converter now undergoing development is required to operate at a DC input potential ranging between 5.5 and 10 kV and a DC output potential of 400 V at a current up to 25 A. This power converter is also required to be sufficiently compact and reliable to fit and operate within the confines of a high-pressure case to be lowered to several miles (approx.5 km) below the surface of the ocean. The architecture chosen to satisfy these requirements calls for a series/ parallel arrangement of 48 high-frequency, pulse-width-modulation (PWM), transformer-isolation DC-to-DC power converter blocks. The input sides of the converter blocks would be connected in series so that the input potential would be divided among them, each of them being exposed to an input potential of no more than 10 kV/48 . 210 V. The series connection of inputs would also enforce a requirement that all the converter blocks operate at the same input current. The outputs of the converter blocks would be connected in a matrix comprising 6 parallel legs, each leg being a cascade of eight outputs wired in series (see figure). All the converter blocks would be identical within the tolerances of the values of their components. A single voltage feedback loop would regulate the output potential. All the converter blocks would be driven by the same PWM waveform generated by this feedback loop. The power transformer of each converter block would have a unity turns ratio and would be capable of withstanding as much as 10 kVDC between its primary and secondary windings. (Although, in general, the turns ratio could be different from unity, the simplest construction for minimizing leakage and maximizing breakdown voltage is attained at a turns ratio of unity.)

  11. Nuclear power in the 21st century: Challenges and possibilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horvath, Akos; Rachlew, Elisabeth

    2016-01-01

    The current situation and possible future developments for nuclear power--including fission and fusion processes--is presented. The fission nuclear power continues to be an essential part of the low-carbon electricity generation in the world for decades to come. There are breakthrough possibilities in the development of new generation nuclear reactors where the life-time of the nuclear waste can be reduced to some hundreds of years instead of the present time-scales of hundred thousand of years. Research on the fourth generation reactors is needed for the realisation of this development. For the fast nuclear reactors, a substantial research and development effort is required in many fields--from material sciences to safety demonstration--to attain the envisaged goals. Fusion provides a long-term vision for an efficient energy production. The fusion option for a nuclear reactor for efficient production of electricity has been set out in a focussed European programme including the international project of ITER after which a fusion electricity DEMO reactor is envisaged.

  12. Risks of potential accidents of nuclear power plants in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slaper H; Eggink GJ; Blaauboer RO

    1993-01-01

    Over 200 nuclear power plants for commercial electricity production are presently operational in Europe. The 1986 accident with the nuclear power plant in Chernobyl has shown that severe accidents with a nuclear power plant can lead to a large scale contamination of Europe. This report is focussed

  13. Risks of potential accidents of nuclear power plants in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slaper H; Eggink GJ; Blaauboer RO

    1993-01-01

    Over 200 nuclear power plants for commercial electricity production are presently operational in Europe. The 1986 accident with the nuclear power plant in Chernobyl has shown that severe accidents with a nuclear power plant can lead to a large scale contamination of Europe. This report is focussed o

  14. 76 FR 66089 - Access Authorization Program for Nuclear Power Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-25

    ... COMMISSION Access Authorization Program for Nuclear Power Plants AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission... revision to Regulatory Guide 5.66, ``Access Authorization Program for Nuclear Power Plants.'' This guide... Authorization Requirements for Nuclear Power Plants,'' and 10 CFR part 26, ``Fitness for Duty Programs.'' The......

  15. Goethermal power plant with Kalina cycle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Renz, M.; Filipovic, A. [M+W Zander Facility Engineering GmbH, Stuttgart (Germany). Marketing-Communications

    2005-04-01

    Several factors are creating an increased market for small power plant technology. These include the need for distributed/decentralised power systems, the need to generate more electricity by non-combustion renewable processes, the need for sustainable power for economic growth in developing countries and the deregulation and privatization of the electrical generation sector. Basically there are 2 alternate principles to improve the efficiency of the Rankine steam cycle for low temperature applications: Replacing water by a one-component fluid with lower boiling points, e.g. different organic substances like n-pentane, isobutene, perfluoropen-tane. (Organic Rankine Cycle, ORC). Replacing water by a binary working fluid like ammonia-water as proposed by Kalina. Kalina and ORC power cycles are primarily used for lower temperature heat sources, such as goethermal or waste-heat recovery. The primary advantage of this technology is the operation at low temperature which is given at renewable heat sources and waste heat. Further the power cycles are simple and generally can be operated remotely, without licensed operators, allowing for increased use of self-diagnostics. M+W Zander is working closely with partners to establish an alternative technology for geothermal applications. (orig.)

  16. Wind Power Plant Voltage Stability Evaluation: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muljadi, E.; Zhang, Y. C.

    2014-09-01

    Voltage stability refers to the ability of a power system to maintain steady voltages at all buses in the system after being subjected to a disturbance from a given initial operating condition. Voltage stability depends on a power system's ability to maintain and/or restore equilibrium between load demand and supply. Instability that may result occurs in the form of a progressive fall or rise of voltages of some buses. Possible outcomes of voltage instability are the loss of load in an area or tripped transmission lines and other elements by their protective systems, which may lead to cascading outages. The loss of synchronism of some generators may result from these outages or from operating conditions that violate a synchronous generator's field current limit, or in the case of variable speed wind turbine generator, the current limits of power switches. This paper investigates the impact of wind power plants on power system voltage stability by using synchrophasor measurements.

  17. China’s Nuclear Power Plants in Operation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Qinshan Plant Phase I Located in Haiyan,Zhejiang Province,Qinshan Nuclear Power Plant Phase I is t he first 300-megawatt pressurized water reactor (PWR) nuclear power plant independently designed,constructed,operated and managed by China.The plant came into commercial operation in April 1994.

  18. Osmo-power - Theory and performance of an osmo-power pilot plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jellinek, H. H. G.; Masuda, H.

    A theoretical and experimental study of the production of useful energy by the natural process of osmosis is presented. Using the results of the study a conceptual design of an osmotic pilot plant is performed. The power produced by a 1.6 MW/sq km plant has a competitive cost with that produced by both fossil power plants and nuclear power plants.

  19. Water treatment plants assessment at Talkha power plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Sebaie, Olfat D; Abd El-Kerim, Ghazy E; Ramadan, Mohamed H; Abd El-Atey, Magda M; Taha, Sahr Ahmed

    2002-01-01

    Talkha power plant is the only power plant located in El-Mansoura. It generates electricity using two different methods by steam turbine and gas turbine. Both plants drew water from River Nile (208 m3 /h). The Nile raw water passes through different treatment processes to be suitable for drinking and operational uses. At Talkha power plant, there are two purification plants used for drinking water supply (100 m3/h) and for water demineralization supply (108 m3/h). This study aimed at studying the efficiency of the water purification plants. For drinking water purification plant, the annual River Nile water characterized by slightly alkaline pH (7.4-8), high annual mean values of turbidity (10.06 NTU), Standard Plate Count (SPC) (313.3 CFU/1 ml), total coliform (2717/100 ml), fecal coliform (0-2400/100 ml), and total algae (3 x 10(4) org/I). The dominant group of algae all over the study period was green algae. The blue green algae was abundant in Summer and Autumn seasons. The pH range, and the annual mean values of turbidity, TDS, total hardness, sulfates, chlorides, nitrates, nitrites, fluoride, and residual chlorine for purified water were in compliance with Egyptian drinking water standards. All the SPC recorded values with an annual mean value of 10.13 CFU/1 ml indicated that chlorine dose and contact time were not enough to kill the bacteria. However, they were in compliance with Egyptian decree (should not exceed 50 CFU/1 ml). Although the removal efficiency of the plant for total coliform and blue green algae was high (98.5% and 99.2%, respectively), the limits of the obtained results with an annual mean values of 40/100 ml and 15.6 org/l were not in compliance with the Egyptian decree (should be free from total coliform, fecal coliform and blue green algae). For water demineralization treatment plant, the raw water was characterized by slightly alkaline pH. The annual mean values of conductivity, turbidity, and TDS were 354.6 microS/cm, 10.84 NTU, and 214

  20. Pilot plant straw biomass power plant; Demonstrationsanlage Strohkraftwerk Gronau

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vodegel, Stefan [Claustahler Umwelttechnik-Institut GmbH (CUTEC), Clausthal-Zellerfeld (Germany); Lach, Friedrich-Wilhelm [Ueberlandwerk Leinetal GmbH, Gronau (Leine) (Germany)

    2008-07-01

    Drastically increasing prices for oil and gas promote the change to renewable energies. Biomass has the advantage of the storability. However, it has the disadvantage of a small stocking density. This suggests decentralized power plants. Also the proven technology of water vapour cycles with use of turbine is questioned. In the rural district Hildesheim there are efforts of thermal utilisation straw from wheat cropping. For this, a feasibility study of the Claustahler Umwelttechnik-Technik GmbH (Clausthal Zellerfeld, Federal Republic of Germany) presents technical and economic possibilities exemplary for the industrial area West in Gronau (Federal Republic of Germany). Technical and economic chances and risks are pointed out.

  1. Progress and prospects for phosphoric acid fuel cell power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonville, L.J.; Scheffler, G.W.; Smith, M.J. [International Fuel Cells Corp., South Windsor, CT (United States)

    1996-12-31

    International Fuel Cells (IFC) has developed the fuel cell power plant as a new, on-site power generation source. IFC`s commercial fuel cell product is the 200-kW PC25{trademark} power plant. To date over 100 PC25 units have been manufactured. Fleet operating time is in excess of one million hours. Individual units of the initial power plant model, the PC25 A, have operated for more than 30,000 hours. The first model {open_quotes}C{close_quotes} power plant has over 10,000 hours of operation. The manufacturing, application and operation of this power plant fleet has established a firm base for design and technology development in terms of a clear understanding of the requirements for power plant reliability and durability. This fleet provides the benchmark against which power plant improvements must be measured.

  2. General digitalized system on nuclear power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akagi, Katsumi; Kadohara, Hozumi; Taniguchi, Manabu [Mitsubishi Electric Corp., Tokyo (Japan)

    2000-08-01

    Hitherto, instrumentation control system in a PWR nuclear power plant has stepwisely adopted digital technology such as application of digital instrumentation control device to ordinary use (primary/secondary system control device, and so on), application of CRT display system to monitoring function, and so forth, to realize load reduction of an operator due to expansion of operation automation range, upgrading of reliability and maintenance due to self-diagnosis function, reduction of mass in cables due to multiple transfer, and upgrading of visual recognition due to information integration. In next term PWR plant instrumentation control system, under consideration of application practice of conventional digital technology, application of general digitalisation system to adopt digitalisation of overall instrumentation control system containing safety protection system, and central instrumentation system (new type of instrumentation system) and to intend to further upgrade economics, maintenance, operability/monitoring under security of reliability/safety is planned. And, together with embodiment of construction program of the next-term plant, verification at the general digitalisation proto-system aiming at establishment of basic technology on the system is carried out. Then, here was described on abstract of the general digitalisation system and characteristics of a digital type safety protection apparatus to be adopted in the next-term plant. (G.K.)

  3. 75 FR 80547 - Carolina Power & Light Company, Shearon Harris Nuclear Power Plant, Unit No. 1; Exemption

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-22

    ... COMMISSION Carolina Power & Light Company, Shearon Harris Nuclear Power Plant, Unit No. 1; Exemption 1.0... License No. NPF-63, which authorizes operation of the Shearon Harris Nuclear Power Plant (HNP), Unit 1... request to generically extend the rule's compliance date for all operating nuclear power plants, but...

  4. 75 FR 77919 - Carolina Power & Light Company Shearon Harris Nuclear Power Plant, Unit 1; Environmental...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-14

    ... COMMISSION Carolina Power & Light Company Shearon Harris Nuclear Power Plant, Unit 1; Environmental... Progress Energy Carolinas, Inc., for operation of the Shearon Harris Nuclear Power Plant (HNP), Unit 1...: Regarding Shearon Harris Nuclear Power Plant, Unit 1--Final Report (NUREG-1437, Supplement 33).''...

  5. 75 FR 9958 - Carolina Power & Light Company, Shearon Harris Nuclear Power Plant, Unit 1; Exemption

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-04

    ... COMMISSION Carolina Power & Light Company, Shearon Harris Nuclear Power Plant, Unit 1; Exemption 1.0... of the Shearon Harris Nuclear Power Plant, Unit 1 (HNP). The license provides, among other things... operating nuclear power plants, but noted that the Commission's regulations provide mechanisms...

  6. High-power LEDs for plant cultivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamulaitis, Gintautas; Duchovskis, Pavelas; Bliznikas, Zenius; Breive, Kestutis; Ulinskaite, Raimonda; Brazaityte, Ausra; Novickovas, Algirdas; Zukauskas, Arturas; Shur, Michael S.

    2004-10-01

    We report on high-power solid-state lighting facility for cultivation of greenhouse vegetables and on the results of the study of control of photosynthetic activity and growth morphology of radish and lettuce imposed by variation of the spectral composition of illumination. Experimental lighting modules (useful area of 0.22 m2) were designed based on 4 types of high-power light-emitting diodes (LEDs) with emission peaked in red at the wavelengths of 660 nm and 640 nm (predominantly absorbed by chlorophyll a and b for photosynthesis, respectively), in blue at 455 nm (phototropic function), and in far-red at 735 nm (important for photomorphology). Morphological characteristics, chlorophyll and phytohormone concentrations in radish and lettuce grown in phytotron chambers under lighting with different spectral composition of the LED-based illuminator and under illumination by high pressure sodium lamps with an equivalent photosynthetic photon flux density were compared. A well-balanced solid-state lighting was found to enhance production of green mass and to ensure healthy morphogenesis of plants compared to those grown using conventional lighting. We observed that the plant morphology and concentrations of morphologically active phytohormones is strongly affected by the spectral composition of light in the red region. Commercial application of the LED-based illumination for large-scale plant cultivation is discussed. This technology is favorable from the point of view of energy consumption, controllable growth, and food safety but is hindered by high cost of the LEDs. Large scale manufacturing of high-power red AlInGaP-based LEDs emitting at 650 nm and a further decrease of the photon price for the LEDs emitting in the vicinity of the absorption peak of chlorophylls have to be achieved to promote horticulture applications.

  7. Heat sink design considerations in medium power electronic applications with long power cycles

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(SzGeCERN)744611; Papastergiou, Konstantinos; Thiringer, Torbjörn; Bongiorno, Massimo

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this work is to investigate the impact of the heat sink thickness and material, as well as, of the convection coefficient of the water cooling system on the power-electronics module thermal stressing. The heat extraction capability of different thicknesses is tested. It is concluded that the thickest heat sink results in marginally lower temperature variation at the junction level compared to the second thickest one. In the thickest heat sink case, the linear dependence of the thermal resistance on the thickness counteracts the benefit of the increased thermal capacitance. The increase in the cooling medium flow rate, which corresponds to an increase in the convection coefficient between the heat sink bottom surface and the water, can be avoided by increasing the thickness of the heat sink. In this way, the energy consumption of the cooling system is reduced. The increase in the flow rate drastically reduces the thermal stressing in the thinnest heat sink case. The increase of the heat sink thickne...

  8. Exergoeconomic analysis of a nuclear power plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, Roman Miguel

    Exergoeconomic analysis of a nuclear power plant is a focus of this dissertation. Specifically, the performance of the Palo Verde Nuclear Power Plant in Arizona is examined. The analysis combines thermodynamic second law exergy analysis with economics in order to assign costs to the loss and destruction of exergy. This work was done entirely with an interacting spreadsheets notebook. The procedures are to first determine conventional energy flow, where the thermodynamic stream state points are calculated automatically. Exergy flow is then evaluated along with destruction and losses. The capital cost and fixed investment rate used for the economics do not apply specifically to the Palo Verde Plant. Exergy costing is done next involving the solution of about 90 equations by matrix inversion. Finally, the analysis assigns cost to the exergy destruction and losses in each component. In this work, the cost of electricity (exergy), including capital cost, leaving the generator came to 38,400 /hr. The major exergy destruction occurs in the reactor where fission energy transfer is limited by the maxiμm permissible clad temperature. Exergy destruction costs were: reactor--18,207 hr, the low pressure turbine-2,000 /hr, the condenser--1,700 hr, the steam generator-1,200 $/hr. The inclusion of capital cost and O&M are important in new system design assessments. When investigating operational performance, however, these are sunk costs; only fuel cost needs to be considered. The application of a case study is included based on a real modification instituted at Palo Verde to reduce corrosion steam generator problems; the pressure in the steam generator was reduced from 1072 to 980 psi. Exergy destruction costs increased in the low pressure turbine and in the steam generator, but decreased in the reactor vessel and the condenser. The dissertation demonstrates the procedures and tools required for exergoeconomic analysis whether in the evaluation of a new nuclear reactor system

  9. Nuclear power plants for mobile applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, J. L.

    1972-01-01

    Mobile nuclear powerplants for applications other than large ships and submarines will require compact, lightweight reactors with especially stringent impact-safety design. The technical and economic feasibility that the broadening role of civilian nuclear power, in general, (land-based nuclear electric generating plants and nuclear ships) can extend to lightweight, safe mobile nuclear powerplants are examined. The paper discusses technical experience, identifies potential sources of technology for advanced concepts, cites the results of economic studies of mobile nuclear powerplants, and surveys future technical capabilities needed by examining the current use and projected needs for vehicles, machines, and habitats that could effectively use mobile nuclear reactor powerplants.

  10. 76 FR 4391 - Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant, LLC, Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant, Unit Nos. 1 and 2...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-25

    ... COMMISSION Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant, LLC, Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant, Unit Nos. 1 and 2; Exemption 1.0 Background Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant, LLC, the licensee, is the holder of Facility Operating License Nos. DPR-53 and DPR-69 which authorizes operation of the Calvert Cliffs Nuclear...

  11. Modular stellarator reactor: a fusion power plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, R.L.; Bathke, C.G.; Krakowski, R.A.; Heck, F.M.; Green, L.; Karbowski, J.S.; Murphy, J.H.; Tupper, R.B.; DeLuca, R.A.; Moazed, A.

    1983-07-01

    A comparative analysis of the modular stellarator and the torsatron concepts is made based upon a steady-state ignited, DT-fueled, reactor embodiment of each concept for use as a central electric-power station. Parametric tradeoff calculations lead to the selection of four design points for an approx. 4-GWt plant based upon Alcator transport scaling in l = 2 systems of moderate aspect ratio. The four design points represent high-aspect ratio. The four design points represent high-(0.08) and low-(0.04) beta versions of the modular stellarator and torsatron concepts. The physics basis of each design point is described together with supporting engineering and economic analyses. The primary intent of this study is the elucidation of key physics and engineering tradeoffs, constraints, and uncertainties with respect to the ultimate power reactor embodiment.

  12. Climate change impacts on the power generation potential of a European mid-century wind farms scenario

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobin, Isabelle; Jerez, Sonia; Vautard, Robert; Thais, Françoise; van Meijgaard, Erik; Prein, Andreas; Déqué, Michel; Kotlarski, Sven; Fox Maule, Cathrine; Nikulin, Grigory; Noël, Thomas; Teichmann, Claas

    2016-03-01

    Wind energy resource is subject to changes in climate. To investigate the impacts of climate change on future European wind power generation potential, we analyze a multi-model ensemble of the most recent EURO-CORDEX regional climate simulations at the 12 km grid resolution. We developed a mid-century wind power plant scenario to focus the impact assessment on relevant locations for future wind power industry. We found that, under two greenhouse gas concentration scenarios, changes in the annual energy yield of the future European wind farms fleet as a whole will remain within ±5% across the 21st century. At country to local scales, wind farm yields will undergo changes up to 15% in magnitude, according to the large majority of models, but smaller than 5% in magnitude for most regions and models. The southern fleets such as the Iberian and Italian fleets are likely to be the most affected. With regard to variability, changes are essentially small or poorly significant from subdaily to interannual time scales.

  13. Power plant instrumentation and control handbook a guide to thermal power plants

    CERN Document Server

    Basu, Swapan

    2014-01-01

    The book discusses instrumentation and control in modern fossil fuel power plants, with an emphasis on selecting the most appropriate systems subject to constraints engineers have for their projects. It provides all the plant process and design details, including specification sheets and standards currently followed in the plant. Among the unique features of the book are the inclusion of control loop strategies and BMS/FSSS step by step logic, coverage of analytical instruments and technologies for pollution and energy savings, and coverage of the trends toward filed bus systems and integratio

  14. Vermicompost derived from different feedstocks as a plant growth medium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warman, P R; Anglopez, M J

    2010-06-01

    This study determined feedstock effects on earthworm populations and the quality of resulting vermicomposts produced from different types of feedstocks using different vermicomposting durations. Feedstock combinations (Kitchen Paper Waste (KPW), Kitchen Yard Waste (KYW), Cattle Manure Yard Waste (CMY)), three durations of vermicomposting (45, 68 or 90 days), and two seed germination methods (with two concentrations of vermicompost) for radish, marigold and upland cress, served as the independent variables. The worms (Eisenia fetida) doubled their weight by day 68 in KPW and CMY vermicomposts and day 90 KPW vermicompost produced the greatest weight of worms. The direct seed germination method (seeding into soil or vermicompost-soil mixtures) indicated that KPW and KYW feedstocks decreased germination compared to the control, even in mature vermicompost. Seed germination was greater in the water extract method; however, most of the vermicompost extracts suppressed germination of the three seed species compared to the water controls. Vermicomposts from all three feedstocks increased leaf area and biomass compared to the control, especially in the 10% vermicompost:soil mix. Thus, seed germination and leaf area or plant biomass for these three species are contrasting vermicompost quality indicators.

  15. From the first nuclear power plant to fourth-generation nuclear power installations [on the 60th anniversary of the World's First nuclear power plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rachkov, V. I.; Kalyakin, S. G.; Kukharchuk, O. F.; Orlov, Yu. I.; Sorokin, A. P.

    2014-05-01

    Successful commissioning in the 1954 of the World's First nuclear power plant constructed at the Institute for Physics and Power Engineering (IPPE) in Obninsk signaled a turn from military programs to peaceful utilization of atomic energy. Up to the decommissioning of this plant, the AM reactor served as one of the main reactor bases on which neutron-physical investigations and investigations in solid state physics were carried out, fuel rods and electricity generating channels were tested, and isotope products were bred. The plant served as a center for training Soviet and foreign specialists on nuclear power plants, the personnel of the Lenin nuclear-powered icebreaker, and others. The IPPE development history is linked with the names of I.V. Kurchatov, A.I. Leipunskii, D.I. Blokhintsev, A.P. Aleksandrov, and E.P. Slavskii. More than 120 projects of various nuclear power installations were developed under the scientific leadership of the IPPE for submarine, terrestrial, and space applications, including two water-cooled power units at the Beloyarsk NPP in Ural, the Bilibino nuclear cogeneration station in Chukotka, crawler-mounted transportable TES-3 power station, the BN-350 reactor in Kazakhstan, and the BN-600 power unit at the Beloyarsk NPP. Owing to efforts taken on implementing the program for developing fast-neutron reactors, Russia occupied leading positions around the world in this field. All this time, IPPE specialists worked on elaborating the principles of energy supertechnologies of the 21st century. New large experimental installations have been put in operation, including the nuclear-laser setup B, the EGP-15 accelerator, the large physical setup BFS, the high-pressure setup SVD-2; scientific, engineering, and technological schools have been established in the field of high- and intermediate-energy nuclear physics, electrostatic accelerators of multicharge ions, plasma processes in thermionic converters and nuclear-pumped lasers, physics of compact

  16. Hydraulic Power Plant Machine Dynamic Diagnosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hans Günther Poll

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available A method how to perform an entire structural and hydraulic diagnosis of prototype Francis power machines is presented and discussed in this report. Machine diagnosis of Francis units consists on a proper evaluation of acquired mechanical, thermal and hydraulic data obtained in different operating conditions of several rotary and non rotary machine components. Many different physical quantities of a Francis machine such as pressure, strains, vibration related data, water flow, air flow, position of regulating devices and displacements are measured in a synchronized way so that a relation of cause an effect can be developed for each operating condition and help one to understand all phenomena that are involved with such kind of machine. This amount of data needs to be adequately post processed in order to allow correct interpretation of the machine dynamics and finally these data must be compared with the expected calculated data not only to fine tuning the calculation methods but also to accomplish fully understanding of the influence of the water passages on such machines. The way how the power plant owner has to operate its Francis machines, many times also determined by a central dispatcher, has a high influence on the fatigue life time of the machine components. The diagnostic method presented in this report helps one to understand the importance of adequate operation to allow a low maintenance cost for the entire power plant. The method how to acquire these quantities is discussed in details together with the importance of correct sensor balancing, calibration and adequate correlation with the physical quantities. Typical results of the dynamic machine behavior, with adequate interpretation, obtained in recent measurement campaigns of some important hydraulic turbines were presented. The paper highlights the investigation focus of the hydraulic machine behavior and how to tailor the measurement strategy to accomplish all goals. Finally some

  17. Power Ramp Limitation capabilities of Large PV Power Plants with Active Power Reserves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bogdan, Craciun; Kerekes, Tamas; Sera, Dezso

    2017-01-01

    Power Ramp Limitation (PRL) is likely to become a requirement for large scale photovoltaic power plants (LPVPPs) in order to allow the increase of PV penetration levels. Especially in islands with reduced inertia capability, this problem is more stringent: high power ramp can be caused by either...... fast irradiance changes or other participant generators for example wind power, or loads. In order to compensate for the power mismatch, LPVPPs must use Active Power Reserve (APR), by either curtailment or auxiliary storage. The paper proposes a PRL control structure for dynamic APR sizing...... area of LPVPPs acts as filter against fast irradiance changes, the study reveals also the required plant size for which auxiliary storage is no longer needed in order to comply with PRL requirements – an important economical aspect....

  18. Simulations on shifting medium and its application in wireless power transfer system to enhance magnetic coupling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wenwen; Zhang, Yingyi; Yao, Chen; Tang, Houjun

    2016-05-01

    Shifting medium is a kind of an anisotropic but homogeneous metamaterial designed by transformation optics. An object or free space enclosed by the shifting medium could be moved to a certain distance away from the original position. In this paper, we propose a cone-shaped shifting medium shell to move an internal coil to the given position. In this way, the two coils in a wireless power transfer system could be equivalently moved closer; thus, their magnetic coupling is enhanced. The theoretical models and numerical simulations are presented and analyzed to validate the effects of the shifting medium shell. Both ohmic loss and magnetic loss are also considered for practical concerns. Finally, we discuss the simplification of such a shifting medium to facilitate its fabrication.

  19. CO2 capture processes in power plants - Le captage du CO2 dans les centrales thermiques

    CERN Document Server

    Bouallou, Chakib

    2010-01-01

    This review is devoted to assess and compare various processes aiming at recover CO2 from power plants fed with natural gas (NGCC) and pulverized coal (PC). These processes are post combustion CO2 capture using chemical solvents, natural gas reforming for pre-combustion capture and oxy-fuel combustion with cryogenic recovery of CO2. These processes were evaluated to give some clues for choosing the best option for each type of power plant. The comparison of these various concepts suggests that, in the short and medium term, chemical absorption is the most interesting process for NGCC power plants. For CP power plants, oxy-combustion can be a very interesting option, as well as post-combustion capture by chemical solvents.

  20. HOW ECOLOGICAL ENGINEERING HELPED TO CONTINUE BUILDING AND UPGRADE OF THE OPOLE POWER PLANT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Siuta

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Principles of ecological engineering were applied for upgrading the Opole Power Plant under construction, complete with modern installation to protect the environment. The modernized project was a subject of „Integrated environmental impact assessment of the Opole Power Plant” developed by the Institute of Environmental Protection in 1981. The main issues covered by the impact assessment were presented and discussed at the national scientific conference attended, among others, by the representatives of local community from Opole. The conference was organized by the Polish Society of Ecological Engineering on June 5 and 6, 1992. The main aim of the conference was to identify and deliver as broad as possible analysis of environmental conditions for designing, building and operating coal fired power plants. A secondary goal, though of main concern for the Opole agglomeration, was to evaluate many-sided environmental risks resulting from the construction and operation of the Power Plant. The feasibility of continuing the construction of a power generating facility that meets the requirements of the 21st century was demonstrated by the fact that the Opole Power Plant S.A. was awarded the ISO 14001 - Environmental Management System certificate by the British Standards Institution. Advanced construction of the two consecutive blocks of a combined power of 1800 MW in the Opole Power Plant substantiates the validity and effectiveness of the conference organized in 1992.

  1. Operating experience with nuclear power plants 2015. Pt. 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    2016-07-01

    The VGB Technical Committee ''Nuclear Plant Operation'' has been exchanging operating experience about nuclear power plants for more than 30 years. Plant operators from several European countries are participating in the exchange. A report is given on the operating results achieved in 2015, events important to plant safety, special and relevant repair, and retrofit measures from Germany. The second part of this report will focus on nuclear power plant in Belgium, Finland, the Netherlands, Switzerland, and Spain.

  2. Fukushima nuclear power plant accident was preventable

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanoglu, Utku; Synolakis, Costas

    2015-04-01

    On 11 March 2011, the fourth largest earthquake in recorded history triggered a large tsunami, which will probably be remembered from the dramatic live pictures in a country, which is possibly the most tsunami-prepared in the world. The earthquake and tsunami caused a major nuclear power plant (NPP) accident at the Fukushima Dai-ichi, owned by Tokyo Electric Power Company (TEPCO). The accident was likely more severe than the 1979 Three Mile Island and less severe than the Chernobyl 1986 accidents. Yet, after the 26 December 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami had hit the Madras Atomic Power Station there had been renewed interest in the resilience of NPPs to tsunamis. The 11 March 2011 tsunami hit the Onagawa, Fukushima Dai-ichi, Fukushima Dai-ni, and Tokai Dai-ni NPPs, all located approximately in a 230km stretch along the east coast of Honshu. The Onagawa NPP was the closest to the source and was hit by an approximately height of 13m tsunami, of the same height as the one that hit the Fukushima Dai-ichi. Even though the Onagawa site also subsided by 1m, the tsunami did not reach to the main critical facilities. As the International Atomic Energy Agency put it, the Onagawa NPP survived the event "remarkably undamaged." At Fukushima Dai-ichi, the three reactors in operation were shut down due to strong ground shaking. The earthquake damaged all offsite electric transmission facilities. Emergency diesel generators (EDGs) provided back up power and started cooling down the reactors. However, the tsunami flooded the facilities damaging 12 of its 13 EDGs and caused a blackout. Among the consequences were hydrogen explosions that released radioactive material in the environment. It is unfortunately clear that TEPCO and Japan's principal regulator Nuclear and Industrial Safety Agency (NISA) had failed in providing a professional hazard analysis for the plant, even though their last assessment had taken place only months before the accident. The main reasons are the following. One

  3. Operating results 2015. Nuclear power plants. Pt. 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    2016-05-15

    A report is given on the opening results achieved in 2015, events important to plant safety, special and relevant repair, and retrofit measures from nuclear power plants in Germany. Reports about nuclear power plants in Belgium, Finland, the Netherlands, Switzerland, and Spain will be published in further issue.

  4. Armatures in thermal power plants; Armaturen in Waermekraftwerken

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiesner, Thomas; Moenning, Wolfgang (eds.)

    2011-07-01

    The book includes contributions on the following issues: (1) Fundamentals: Stop valves - minimal power loss due to full transmission. Safety valves - reliable overpressure protection. Indispensible feature of thermal power plant safety systems: the turbine bypass station. Condensate drain - safe discharge of harmful condensate. Safety armatures for gas consumption facilities. Electric actuators - automation of almost all armatures in power plants. (2) Case studies: Drainage armatures for power plant use. Steam cooling and saturation in thermal power plants - established techniques and solutions. Isolation flap for cooling water systems. Regulatory requirements and their practical implementation.

  5. Affective imagery and acceptance of replacing nuclear power plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Carmen; Visschers, Vivianne; Siegrist, Michael

    2012-03-01

    This study examined the relationship between the content of spontaneous associations with nuclear power plants and the acceptance of using new-generation nuclear power plants to replace old ones. The study also considered gender as a variable. A representative sample of the German- and French-speaking population of Switzerland (N= 1,221) was used. Log-linear models revealed significant two-way interactions between the association content and acceptance, association content and gender, and gender and acceptance. Correspondence analysis revealed that participants who were opposed to nuclear power plants mainly associated nuclear power plants with risk, negative feelings, accidents, radioactivity, waste disposal, military use, and negative consequences for health and environment; whereas participants favoring nuclear power plants mainly associated them with energy, appearance descriptions of nuclear power plants, and necessity. Thus, individuals opposing nuclear power plants had both more concrete and more diverse associations with them than people who were in favor of nuclear power plants. In addition, participants who were undecided often mentioned similar associations to those participants who were in favor. Males more often expressed associations with energy, waste disposal, and negative health effects. Females more often made associations with appearance descriptions, negative feelings, and negative environmental effects. The results further suggest that acceptance of replacing nuclear power plants was higher in the German-speaking part of the country, where all of the Swiss nuclear power plants are physically located. Practical implications for risk communication are discussed.

  6. 75 FR 3942 - Carolina Power & Light Company Shearon Harris Nuclear Power Plant, Unit 1 Environmental...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-25

    ... COMMISSION Carolina Power & Light Company Shearon Harris Nuclear Power Plant, Unit 1 Environmental Assessment...), for operation of the Shearon Harris Nuclear Power Plant, Unit 1 (HNP), located in New Hill, North... Environmental Impact Statement for License Renewal of Nuclear Plants: Regarding Shearon Harris Nuclear......

  7. Using Service Oriented Architecture in a Generic Virtual Power Plant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Peter Bach; Poulsen, Bjarne; Træholt, Chresten;

    2009-01-01

    interesting properties that can influence the future shape of power markets. The concept holds many promises including cheaper power to the consumer, a more flexible and responsive power production and the support of a more environment-friendly development. In order to realize a software solution supporting...... the Generic Virtual Power Plant, an array of different software design principles, patterns and architectures must be applied. Especially Service Oriented Architecture (SOA) can aid in implementing the Generic Virtual Power Plant....

  8. Power port contrast medium flushing and trapping: impact of temperature, an in vitro experimental study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guiffant G

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Gérard Guiffant,1 Jean Jacques Durussel,1 Patrice Flaud,1 Laurent Royon,1 Pierre Yves Marcy,2 Jacques Merckx1,31University Paris Diderot, Paris, France; 2Radiodiagnosis and Interventional Radiology Department, Caen, France; 3University Teaching Hospital Necker-Enfants Malades, Paris, FrancePurpose: The use of totally implantable venous access devices (TIVADs certified as "high pressure resistant" or "power port" has begun to spread worldwide as a safe procedure for power contrast injection. Owing to the thermo-rheological properties of the contrast media, the primary aim of this work is to present an in vitro experimental impact study concerning the impact of the temperature level on flushing efficiency after contrast medium injection. Moreover, we report experimental data that confirms the role of needle bevel orientation. The secondary aim is to answer the following questions: Is there significant device contrast medium trapping after contrast medium injection? Is saline flushing efficient? And, finally, is it safe to inject contrast medium through an indwelled port catheter?Results: The experimental results show that in addition to hydrodynamics, temperature is a key parameter for the efficiency of device flushing after contrast medium injection. It appears that this is the case when the cavity is incompletely rinsed after three calibrated flushing volumes of 10 mL saline solution, even by using the Huber needle bevel opposite to the port exit. This leads to a potentially important trapped volume of contrast medium in the port, and consequently to the possibility of subsequent salt precipitates and long term trisubstituted benzene nuclei delivery that might impair the solute properties, which may be further injected via the power port later on.Conclusion: We thus suggest, in TIVADS patients, the use of a temporary supplementary intravenous line rather than the port to perform contrast medium injections in daily radiology routine practice

  9. Optical study of solar tower power plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eddhibi, F.; Ben Amara, M.; Balghouthi, M.; Guizani, A.

    2015-04-01

    The central receiver technology for electricity generation consists of concentrating solar radiation coming from the solar tracker field into a central receiver surface located on the top of the tower. The heliostat field is constituted of a big number of reflective mirrors; each heliostat tracks the sun individually and reflects the sunlight to a focal point. Therefore, the heliostat should be positioned with high precision in order to minimize optical losses. In the current work, a mathematical model for the analysis of the optical efficiency of solar tower field power plant is proposed. The impact of the different factors which influence the optical efficiency is analyzed. These parameters are mainly, the shading and blocking losses, the cosine effect, the atmospheric attenuation and the spillage losses. A new method for the calculation of blocking and shadowing efficiency is introduced and validated by open literature.

  10. Hydrogen embrittlement in power plant steels

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R K Dayal; N Parvathavarthini

    2003-06-01

    In power plants, several major components such as steam generator tubes, boilers, steam/water pipe lines, water box of condensers and the other auxiliary components like bolts, nuts, screws fasteners and supporting assemblies are commonly fabricated from plain carbon steels, as well as low and high alloy steels. These components often fail catastrophically due to hydrogen embrittlement. A brief overview of our current understanding of the phenomenon of such hydrogen damage in steels is presented in this paper. Case histories of failures of steel components due to hydrogen embrittlement, which are reported in literature, are briefly discussed. A phenomenological assessment of overall process of hydrogen embrittlement and classification of the various damage modes are summarized. Influence of several physical and metallurgical variables on the susceptibility of steels to hydrogen embrittlement, mechanisms of hydrogen embrittlement and current approaches to combat this problem are also presented.

  11. Detecting Cyber Attacks On Nuclear Power Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rrushi, Julian; Campbell, Roy

    This paper proposes an unconventional anomaly detection approach that provides digital instrumentation and control (I&C) systems in a nuclear power plant (NPP) with the capability to probabilistically discern between legitimate protocol frames and attack frames. The stochastic activity network (SAN) formalism is used to model the fusion of protocol activity in each digital I&C system and the operation of physical components of an NPP. SAN models are employed to analyze links between protocol frames as streams of bytes, their semantics in terms of NPP operations, control data as stored in the memory of I&C systems, the operations of I&C systems on NPP components, and NPP processes. Reward rates and impulse rewards are defined in the SAN models based on the activity-marking reward structure to estimate NPP operation profiles. These profiles are then used to probabilistically estimate the legitimacy of the semantics and payloads of protocol frames received by I&C systems.

  12. Seismic analysis of nuclear power plant structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Go, J. C.

    1973-01-01

    Primary structures for nuclear power plants are designed to resist expected earthquakes of the site. Two intensities are referred to as Operating Basis Earthquake and Design Basis Earthquake. These structures are required to accommodate these seismic loadings without loss of their functional integrity. Thus, no plastic yield is allowed. The application of NASTRAN in analyzing some of these seismic induced structural dynamic problems is described. NASTRAN, with some modifications, can be used to analyze most structures that are subjected to seismic loads. A brief review of the formulation of seismic-induced structural dynamics is also presented. Two typical structural problems were selected to illustrate the application of the various methods of seismic structural analysis by the NASTRAN system.

  13. Heuristic Optimization for the Discrete Virtual Power Plant Dispatch Problem

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Mette Kirschmeyer; Hansen, Lars Henrik; Bendtsen, Jan Dimon

    2014-01-01

    We consider a Virtual Power Plant, which is given the task of dispatching a fluctuating power supply to a portfolio of flexible consumers. The flexible consumers are modeled as discrete batch processes, and the associated optimization problem is denoted the Discrete Virtual Power Plant Dispatch P...

  14. Autonomous Control of Nuclear Power Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Basher, H.

    2003-10-20

    A nuclear reactor is a complex system that requires highly sophisticated controllers to ensure that desired performance and safety can be achieved and maintained during its operations. Higher-demanding operational requirements such as reliability, lower environmental impacts, and improved performance under adverse conditions in nuclear power plants, coupled with the complexity and uncertainty of the models, necessitate the use of an increased level of autonomy in the control methods. In the opinion of many researchers, the tasks involved during nuclear reactor design and operation (e.g., design optimization, transient diagnosis, and core reload optimization) involve important human cognition and decisions that may be more easily achieved with intelligent methods such as expert systems, fuzzy logic, neural networks, and genetic algorithms. Many experts in the field of control systems share the idea that a higher degree of autonomy in control of complex systems such as nuclear plants is more easily achievable through the integration of conventional control systems and the intelligent components. Researchers have investigated the feasibility of the integration of fuzzy logic, neural networks, genetic algorithms, and expert systems with the conventional control methods to achieve higher degrees of autonomy in different aspects of reactor operations such as reactor startup, shutdown in emergency situations, fault detection and diagnosis, nuclear reactor alarm processing and diagnosis, and reactor load-following operations, to name a few. With the advancement of new technologies and computing power, it is feasible to automate most of the nuclear reactor control and operation, which will result in increased safety and economical benefits. This study surveys current status, practices, and recent advances made towards developing autonomous control systems for nuclear reactors.

  15. Emotional consequences of nuclear power plant disasters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bromet, Evelyn J

    2014-02-01

    The emotional consequences of nuclear power plant disasters include depression, anxiety, post-traumatic stress disorder, and medically unexplained somatic symptoms. These effects are often long term and associated with fears about developing cancer. Research on disasters involving radiation, particularly evidence from Chernobyl, indicates that mothers of young children and cleanup workers are the highest risk groups. The emotional consequences occur independently of the actual exposure received. In contrast, studies of children raised in the shadows of the Three Mile Island (TMI) and Chernobyl accidents suggest that although their self-rated health is less satisfactory than that of their peers, their emotional, academic, and psychosocial development is comparable. The importance of the psychological impact is underscored by its chronicity and by several studies showing that poor mental health is associated with physical health conditions, early mortality, disability, and overuse of medical services. Given the established increase in mental health problems following TMI and Chernobyl, it is likely that the same pattern will occur in residents and evacuees affected by the Fukushima meltdowns. Preliminary data from Fukushima indeed suggest that workers and mothers of young children are at risk of depression, anxiety, psychosomatic, and post-traumatic symptoms both as a direct result of their fears about radiation exposure and an indirect result of societal stigma. Thus, it is important that non-mental health providers learn to recognize and manage psychological symptoms and that medical programs be designed to reduce stigma and alleviate psychological suffering by integrating psychiatric and medical treatment within the walls of their clinics.Introduction of Emotional Consequences of Nuclear Power Plant Disasters (Video 2:15, http://links.lww.com/HP/A34).

  16. Power plant performance - resurrection of the AGR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kovan, Dick

    1994-04-01

    When the rest of the electricity supply industry was privatized in 1990, Nuclear Electric became responsible for the running of nuclear plants in England and Wales. These included five AGR stations, the output and revenue from which have increased dramatically. The absence of a fully representative prototype reactor led to deficiencies in the design and problems in the construction and commissioning of the AGR stations, particularly the first, Dungeness B. Subsequent plant and design improvements have led to the achievement of good performance, however, and Nuclear Electric's better understanding of AGR safety has been translated into higher output because it has been possible to run nearer to the limits on power ratings, temperatures and pressures. Increased efficiency in refuelling and greater productivity of boilers, gas circulators and turbines, together with improved servicing and maintenance procedures have all contributed to a reduction in reactor downtime. These and other actions which have been employed by Nuclear Electric to turn round the fortunes of the AGR stations are discussed. (UK).

  17. Modelling and simulation of thermal power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eborn, J.

    1998-02-01

    Mathematical modelling and simulation are important tools when dealing with engineering systems that today are becoming increasingly more complex. Integrated production and recycling of materials are trends that give rise to heterogenous systems, which are difficult to handle within one area of expertise. Model libraries are an excellent way to package engineering knowledge of systems and units to be reused by those who are not experts in modelling. Many commercial packages provide good model libraries, but they are usually domain-specific and closed. Heterogenous, multi-domain systems requires open model libraries written in general purpose modelling languages. This thesis describes a model database for thermal power plants written in the object-oriented modelling language OMOLA. The models are based on first principles. Subunits describe volumes with pressure and enthalpy dynamics and flows of heat or different media. The subunits are used to build basic units such as pumps, valves and heat exchangers which can be used to build system models. Several applications are described; a heat recovery steam generator, equipment for juice blending, steam generation in a sulphuric acid plant and a condensing steam plate heat exchanger. Model libraries for industrial use must be validated against measured data. The thesis describes how parameter estimation methods can be used for model validation. Results from a case-study on parameter optimization of a non-linear drum boiler model show how the technique can be used 32 refs, 21 figs

  18. Power system stabilising features from wind power plants augmented with energy storage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tarnowski, Germán C.; Kjær, Philip C; Lærke, Rasmus

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes a wind power plant augmented with energy storage, configured to provide ancillary services (primary reserve, inertial response, power oscillation damping) for enhancement of power system stability. Energy storage can complement wind power plants thus reducing the need for any...

  19. Development of an Equivalent Wind Plant Power-Curve: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wan, Y. H.; Ela, E.; Orwig, K.

    2010-06-01

    Development of an equivalent wind plant power-curve becomes highly desirable and useful in predicting plant output for a given wind forecast. Such a development is described and summarized in this paper.

  20. Analysis and optimisation of the Zecomix high efficiency zero emission hydrogen and power plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Antonio Calabro; Paolo Deiana; Paolo Fiorini; Stefano Stendardo; Giuseppe Girardi [ENEA - Italian Agency for New Technologies, Rome (Italy). Energy and Environment

    2005-07-01

    The paper reports the analysis and the optimization of a high efficiency and zero emissions hydrogen and power production plant. The work is part of a larger project named Zecomix, lead by ENEA, studying an integrated process which produces both hydrogen and electricity from coal. A thermodynamic model of the plant has been realized by adopting a commercial software, ChemCAD. The key element of the proposed plant is the integration of the gasification island characterized by coal hydrogasification, simultaneous steam reforming and carbon dioxide sequestration, with the power island. Crucial characteristics involve the regeneration of the CO{sub 2}-acceptor sorbent, that takes place by a calcination process. The needed heat can be supplied directly, by burning additional coal or a part of the produced syngas in the calciner reactor, or indirectly by mean of an high temperature heat exchanger situated downstream the hydrogen combustor. An advanced steam cycle has been considered for power generation consisting of an internal combustion steam cycle characterized by the presence of innovative components such as the medium pressure steam compressor and medium-pressure high-temperature expander. Possible steps for the optimization of the whole plant have been studied. The solution proposed aims also to identify the most feasible plant configuration, adopting, where possible, current technology solution. The plant could reach an energy conversion efficiency close to 54%, competitive with innovative power cycle proposed in other studies. 6 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  1. Power electronics solution to dust emissions from thermal power plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vukosavić Slobodan

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Thermal power stations emit significant amounts of fly ash and ultra fine particles into the atmosphere. Electrostatic precipitators (ESP or electro filters remove flying ashes and fine particles from the flue gas before passing the gas into the chimney. Maximum allowable value of dust is 50 mg/m3 and it requires that the efficiency of the ESPs better than 99 %, which calls for an increase of active surface of the electrodes, hence increasing the filter volume and the weight of steel used for the filter. In previous decades, electrostatic precipitators in thermal power plants were fed by thyristor controlled, single phase fed devices having a high degree of reliability, but with a relatively low collection efficiency, hence requiring large effective surface of the collection plates and a large weight of steel construction in order to achieve the prescribed emission limits. Collection efficiency and energy efficiency of the electrostatic precipitator can be increased by applying high frequency high voltage power supply (HF HV. Electrical engineering faculty of the University of Belgrade (ETF has developed technology and HF HV equipment for the ESP power supply. This solution was subjected to extensive experimental investigation at TE Morava from 2008 to 2010. High frequency power supply is proven to reduce emission two times in controlled conditions while increasing energy efficiency of the precipitator, compared to the conventional thyristor controlled 50Hz supply. Two high frequency high voltage unit AR70/1000 with parameters 70 kV and 1000 mA are installed at TE Morava and thoroughly testes. It was found that the HF HV power supply of the ESP at TE Morava increases collection efficiency so that emission of fine particles and flying ashes are halved, brought down to only 50 % of the emissions encountered with conventional 50 Hz thyristor driven power supplies. On the basis of this study, conclusion is drawn that the equipment comprising HF HV

  2. Status Report on Power System Transformation: A 21st Century Power Partnership Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, Mackay [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Martinot, Eric [Beijing Inst. of Technology (China); Cox, Sadie [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Speer, Bethany [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Zinaman, Owen [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Booth, Sam [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Zissler, Romain [Japan Renewable Energy Foundation (Japan); Cochran, Jaquelin [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Soonee, S. K. [Power System Operation Corporation, Ltd (India); Audinet, Pierre [World Bank Energy Sector Management Assistance Program, Washington, DC (United States); Munuera, Luis [International Energy Agency, Paris (France); Arent, Doug [Joint Inst. for Strategic Energy Analysis, Washington, DC (United States)

    2015-05-27

    This report has three primary goals: (1) to articulate the concept of power system transformation; (2) to explore the current global landscape of ‘innovations’ that constitute power system transformation and provide evidence of how these innovations are emerging; and (3) to suggest an analytical framework for assessing the status of power system transformation on an on-going basis.

  3. Geothermal depth power plant; Geothermie Tiefenkraftwerk trademark (GTKW)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haemmerle, Hubert [Ehoch 10 Projektentwicklungs GmbH, Wien (Austria); Pilgerstorfer, Thomas; Schubert, Wulf [Technische Univ. Graz (Austria). Inst. fuer Felsmechanik und Tunnelbau; Radoncic, Nedim

    2012-11-01

    The authors of the contribution under consideration report on a new concept for the utilization of geothermal energy. This concept provides itself due to the size of the usable reservoir, its performance in the area of conventional caloric power plants and its pronounced availability as a base load substitution for nuclear power plants as well as conventional gas and coal-fired power plants. A basic feasibility study was concluded. In addition to basic research, a variety of development work is required.

  4. Steam-Electric Power-Plant-Cooling Handbook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sonnichsen, J.C.; Carlson, H.A.; Charles, P.D.; Jacobson, L.D.; Tadlock, L.A.

    1982-02-01

    The Steam-Electric Power Plant Cooling Handbook provides summary data on steam-electric power plant capacity, generation and number of plants for each cooling means, by Electric Regions, Water Resource Regions and National Electric Reliability Council Areas. Water consumption by once-through cooling, cooling ponds and wet evaporative towers is discussed and a methodology for computation of water consumption is provided for a typical steam-electric plant which uses a wet evaporative tower or cooling pond for cooling.

  5. Power Systems of the Future: A 21st Century Power Partnership Thought Leadership Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zinaman, O.; Miller, M.; Adil, A.; Arent, D.; Cochran, J.; Vora, R.; Aggarwal, S.; Bipath, M.; Linvill, C.; David, A.; Kauffman, R.; Futch, M.; Villanueva Arcos, E.; Valenzuela, J. M.; Martinot, E.; Bazilian, M.; Pillai, R. K.

    2015-02-01

    This report summarizes key forces driving transformation in the power sector around the world, presents a framework for evaluating decisions regarding extent and pace of change, and defines pathways for transformation. Powerful trends in technology, policy environments, financing, and business models are driving change in power sectors globally. In light of these trends, the question is no longer whether power systems will be transformed, but rather how these transformations will occur. Three approaches to policy and technology decision-making can guide these transformations: adaptive, reconstructive, and evolutionary. Within these approaches, we explore the five pathways that have emerged as viable models for power system transformation.

  6. Next generation geothermal power plants. Draft final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brugman, John; Hattar, John; Nichols, Kenneth; Esaki, Yuri

    1994-12-01

    The goal of this project is to develop concepts for the next generation geothermal power plant(s) (NGGPP). This plant, compared to existing plants, will generate power for a lower levelized cost and will be more competitive with fossil fuel fired power plants. The NGGPP will utilize geothermal resources efficiently and will be equipped with contingencies to mitigate the risk of reservoir performance. The NGGPP design will attempt to minimize emission of pollutants and consumption of surface water and/or geothermal fluids for cooling service.

  7. Intelligent Energy Management System for Virtual Power Plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Braun, Philipp

    power plants (VPPs). In this work, VPPs refer to wind power plants (WPPs) connected to an electrical battery energy storage system (BESS) which is in close proximity to the WPP, and both plants are able to participate in the Danish power market (ancillary service markets and day-ahead market). BESSs......Wind power is the fastest growing renewable energy source with the highest share of power production in the Danish power system. Increasing wind power production also causes new challenges for the power system. One possibility to enable higher shares of wind power in the system is to build virtual...... demonstrated to be suitable storage technologies that have been integrated in power systems worldwide in recent years. Such storage systems are underlying a fast development track and have improved over the past decades considerably. This makes an increase in the number of VPPs more likely in future. Potential...

  8. Hot windbox repowering of coal-fired thermal power plants

    OpenAIRE

    YILMAZOĞLU, Mustafa Zeki; DURMAZ, Ali

    2014-01-01

    The repowering of thermal power plants could be the fastest way to respond to the energy demand while decreasing the CO2 emissions per kilowatt hour of energy generated. Hot windbox repowering of a thermal power plant was investigated in this study using Thermoflex simulations. The Soma A thermal power plant began operation in 1957 and was in service until 2010. In the current situation, the installed capacity of the power plant is 44 MWel, with 2 units. The boiler was designed to oper...

  9. Optimized post-combustion capture technology for power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peter Moser; Sandra Schmidt; Georg Sieder; Hugo Garcia; Ilaria Ciattaglia; Dieter Mihailowitsch; Torsten Stoffregen [RWE Power AG, New Technologies, Essen (Germany)

    2009-07-01

    The construction and operation of the post-combustion capture pilot plant at RWE Power's lignite-fired power plant at Niederaussem is the first corner stone in a joint development programme of RWE Power, BASF and Linde that started in 2007. The pilot plant will be commissioned in mid-2009. The skid-mounted pilot plant - engineering, procurement and construction by procurement and construction by Linde - comprises all significant components of a large post-combustion capture plant but on a smaller scale. In the 18-month pilot plant testing programme optimized new solvents for the capture process will be evaluated. These solvents were selected by BASF in a multi-step procedure, starting with a pre-selection, followed by lab-screening, and finalized by mini plant runs. The pilot plant will validate the performance of some capture process optimization measures that are implemented to increase the overall efficiency and reduce the costs of a commercial capture plant. The results of the pilot plant testing will be directly used to optimize the capture process configuration for a base case power plant, a 1,100 MW lignite-fired power plant with lignite pre-drying technology. The development of the commercial capture plant needs an accurate analysis of all process steps to achieve a cost efficient plant design. Apart from energy efficiency, cost-effective equipment and the optimization of plant interfaces and plant configuration are also key factors to reach the ambitious goals of this project. Based on the results of the pilot plant tests and the full-scale design study, a demonstration plant concept will be developed to prove all innovative optimization measures and to avoid the risks involved in direct up-scaling from the pilot plant to the commercial plant scale without an intermediate step. 8 figs.

  10. US power plant sites at risk of future sea-level rise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bierkandt, R.; Auffhammer, M.; Levermann, A.

    2015-12-01

    Unmitigated greenhouse gas emissions may increase global mean sea-level by about 1 meter during this century. Such elevation of the mean sea-level enhances the risk of flooding of coastal areas. We compute the power capacity that is currently out-of-reach of a 100-year coastal flooding but will be exposed to such a flood by the end of the century for different US states, if no adaptation measures are taken. The additional exposed capacity varies strongly among states. For Delaware it is 80% of the mean generated power load. For New York this number is 63% and for Florida 43%. The capacity that needs additional protection compared to today increases by more than 250% for Texas, 90% for Florida and 70% for New York. Current development in power plant building points towards a reduced future exposure to sea-level rise: proposed and planned power plants are less exposed than those which are currently operating. However, power plants that have been retired or canceled were less exposed than those operating at present. If sea-level rise is properly accounted for in future planning, an adaptation to sea-level rise may be costly but possible.

  11. Solid Waste from the Operation and Decommissioning of Power Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, Marilyn Ann [Georgia Inst. of Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States); D' Arcy, Daniel [Georgia Inst. of Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States); Lapsa, Melissa Voss [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Sharma, Isha [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Li, Yufei [Georgia Inst. of Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States)

    2017-01-05

    This baseline report examines the solid waste generated by the U.S. electric power industry, including both waste streams resulting from electricity generation and wastes resulting from the decommissioning of power plants

  12. Advanced Power Ultra-Uprates of Existing Plants (APPU) Final Scientific/Technical Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rubiolo, Pablo R. [Westinghouse Electric Company LLC, Pittsburgh, PA (United States). Science and Technology Dept.; Conway, Lawarence E. [Westinghouse Electric Company LLC, Pittsburgh, PA (United States). Science and Technology Dept.; Oriani, Luca [Westinghouse Electric Company LLC, Pittsburgh, PA (United States). Science and Technology Dept.; Lahoda, Edward J. [Westinghouse Electric Company LLC, Pittsburgh, PA (United States). Science and Technology Dept.; DeSilva, Greg [Westinghouse Electric Company LLC, Pittsburgh, PA (United States). Science and Technology Dept.; Hu, Min H. [Westinghouse Electric Company LLC, Pittsburgh, PA (United States). Nuclear Services Division; Hartz, Josh [Westinghouse Electric Company LLC, Pittsburgh, PA (United States). Nuclear Services Division; Bachrach, Uriel [Westinghouse Electric Company LLC, Pittsburgh, PA (United States). Nuclear Services Division; Smith, Larry [Westinghouse Electric Company LLC, Pittsburgh, PA (United States). Nuclear Services Division; Dudek, Daniel F. [Westinghouse Electric Company LLC, Pittsburgh, PA (United States). Nuclear Services Division; Toman, Gary J. [Electric Power Research Inst. (EPRI), Palo Alto, CA (United States); Feng, Dandong [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States); Hejzlar, Pavel [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States); Kazimi, Mujid S. [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States)

    2006-03-31

    This project assessed the feasibility of a Power Ultra-Uprate on an existing nuclear plant. The study determined the technical and design limitations of the current components, both inside and outside the containment. Based on the identified plant bottlenecks, the design changes for major pieces of equipment required to meet the Power Ultra-Uprate throughput were determined. Costs for modified pieces of equipment and for change-out and disposal of the replaced equipment were evaluated. These costs were then used to develop capital, fuel and operating and maintenance cost estimates for the Power Ultra-Uprate plant. The cost evaluation indicates that the largest cost components are the replacement of power (during the outage required for the uprate) and the new fuel loading. Based on these results, the study concluded that, for a standard 4-loop plant, the proposed Power Ultra-Uprate is technically feasible. However, the power uprate is likely to be more expensive than the cost (per Kw electric installed) of a new plant when large capacity uprates are considered (>25%). Nevertheless, the concept of the Power Ultra-Uprate may be an attractive option for specific nuclear power plants where a large margin exists in the steam and power conversion system or where medium power increases (~600 MWe) are needed. The results of the study suggest that development efforts on fuel technologies for current nuclear power plants should be oriented towards improving the fuel performance (fretting-wear, corrosion, uranium load, manufacturing, safety) required to achieve higher burnup rather focusing on potential increases in the fuel thermal output.

  13. Inspection of Nuclear Power Plant Containment Structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Graves, H.L.; Naus, D.J.; Norris, W.E.

    1998-12-01

    Safety-related nuclear power plant (NPP) structures are designed to withstand loadings from a number of low-probability external and interval events, such as earthquakes, tornadoes, and loss-of-coolant accidents. Loadings incurred during normal plant operation therefore generally are not significant enough to cause appreciable degradation. However, these structures are susceptible to aging by various processes depending on the operating environment and service conditions. The effects of these processes may accumulate within these structures over time to cause failure under design conditions, or lead to costly repair. In the late 1980s and early 1990s several occurrences of degradation of NPP structures were discovered at various facilities (e.g., corrosion of pressure boundary components, freeze- thaw damage of concrete, and larger than anticipated loss of prestressing force). Despite these degradation occurrences and a trend for an increasing rate of occurrence, in-service inspection of the safety-related structures continued to be performed in a somewhat cursory manner. Starting in 1991, the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (USNRC) published the first of several new requirements to help ensure that adequate in-service inspection of these structures is performed. Current regulatory in-service inspection requirements are reviewed and a summary of degradation experience presented. Nondestructive examination techniques commonly used to inspect the NPP steel and concrete structures to identify and quantify the amount of damage present are reviewed. Finally, areas where nondestructive evaluation techniques require development (i.e., inaccessible portions of the containment pressure boundary, and thick heavily reinforced concrete sections are discussed.

  14. VAr reserve concept applied to a wind power plant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martinez, Jorge; Kjær, Philip C.; Rodriguez, Pedro

    2011-01-01

    is a consequence of sizing wind turbine facilities for maximum active power level. The reactive power losses, due to active power transportation inside the plant (normally two transformers), and P-Q wind turbine characteristics define the P-Q reserve chart. By utilizing the intrinsic overrated reactive power...

  15. Influence of medium parameters on power limiting characteristic in stimulated Brillouin scattering process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Huaping Gong; Zhiwei Lü; Dianyang Lin; Songjiang Liu

    2007-01-01

    By adopting noise initiation model of stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS), the influence of phonon lifetime and gain coefficient of medium on power limiting characteristic is numerically investigated. Through using actual parameters of three media, CCl4, acetone, and CS2, the waveforms of transmitted pulses are simulated. The result shows that different media have little effect on the front peak of waveform,while have an obvious effect on the height of power limiting platform. When the medium which has short phonon lifetime and small gain coefficient is used, the height of power limiting platform is comparatively high. In experiment, by focusing 1064-nm, 8-ns, 18-mJ pulses into these three media, the waveforms of transmitted pulses are obtained. The experimental results are in good agreement with conclusions of theoretical simulations.

  16. Steam generators, industrial power plants, and cogeneration plants. Lectures; Dampferzeuger, Industrie- und Heizkraftwerke 2010. Vortraege

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-07-01

    The proceedings of the meeting on steam generators, industrial power plants, and cogeneration plants include the following lectures: Assignments and scopes of the VGB working group ''industry and thermal power plants, BHKW''. Combustion power and process control - application of feed grate firing in industrial technology - experiences and perspectives. A new possibility of biomass co-combustion. Biomass co-combustion in Vattenfall Waerme AG. Biomass plant with optimized control. The new energy supply concept for the paper plant in Plattling. Efficient steam boiler facilities for industry and thermal power plants - case studies. Adaptation of flue gas purification for co-combustion with experiences of prototype plants. Modern risk and insurance management for power plants. Reliability oriented maintenance. Surrogate fuel IHKW Gersthofen - planning, construction and preliminary operational experiences. Assignments and scopes of the VGB working group ''steam generators''. New developments in process safety management of E.ON UK coal-fired power plants. Station-supply reduction by power drive reconstruction to frequency control - modern injection technology at high plant parameters. Self-optimizing control of fuel/air regulation. CO{sub 2} reduction by automatic power plant modeling. Virtual reality as QA tool in 3D planning. Thermodynamic studies in power plants using VDI 2048. Heating surface cleaning with explosion generators - an alternative to soot blowers. results of laboratory study on urgent material questions.

  17. Power plant asset market evaluations: Forecasting the costs of power production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lefton, S.A.; Grunsrud, G.P. [Aptech Engineering Services, Inc., Sunnyvale, CA (United States)

    1998-12-31

    This presentation discusses the process of evaluating and valuing power plants for sale. It describes a method to forecast the future costs at a power plant using a portion of the past fixed costs, variable energy costs, and most importantly the variable cycling-related wear-and-tear costs. The presentation then discusses how to best determine market share, expected revenues, and then to forecast plant future costs based on future expected unit cycling operations. The presentation concludes with a section on recommendations to power plant buyers or sellers on how to manage the power plant asset and how to increase its market value. (orig.) 4 refs.

  18. Development of hydrothermal power generation plant. Development of binary cycle power generation plant (development of 10 MW-class plant); 1995 nendo nessui riyo hatsuden plant nado kaihatsu binary cycle hatsuden plant no kaihatsu. 10MW kyu plant no kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-12-01

    A 10 MW-class binary cycle power generation plant has been developed using a down hole pump (DHP) which exchanges the hydrothermal energy with secondary medium in the heat exchanger. For constructing the plant at Kuju-machi, Oita Prefecture, site preparation works, foundation of cooling tower, reconstruction of roads, and survey on environmental influences were conducted. To investigate installation and removal methods of DHP, a geothermal water pump-up system, current status of the binary cycle power generating system in the USA was surveyed. In this survey, a trailer mounting handling machine was inspected. Based on the survey results, a simple assembled, easy-installation type handling equipment was designed. In addition, the replacement work for motor connector joint of DHP and the strength of coil end were improved. Construction and method allowing reuse of the motor cable were considered by improving the cable and cable end portion. The air tight soundness of incoloy corrugate sheath was confirmed. Finally, a reproduction system for waste oil of DHP bearing oil was investigated. 106 figs., 52 tabs.

  19. Seismic hazard mitigation for nuclear power plant

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Frieder Seible

    2013-01-01

    The seismic safety of nuclear power plant(NPP) has always been a major consideration in the site selection,design,operation,and more recently recertification of existing installations.In addition to the actual NPP and all their operational and safety related support systems,the storage of spent fuel in temporary or permanent storage facilities also poses a seismic risk.This seismic risk is typically assessed with state-of-the-art modeling and analytical tools that capture everything from the ground rupture or source of the earthquake to the site specific ground shaking,taking geotechnical parameters and soil-foundation-structure-interaction (SFSI) into account to the non-linear structural response of the reactor core,the containment structure,the core cooling system and the emergency cooling system(s),to support systems,piping systems and non-structural components,and finally the performance of spent fuel storage in the probabilistically determined operational basis earthquake (OBE) or the safe shutdown earthquake (SSE) scenario.The best and most meaningful validation and verification of these advanced analytical tools is in the form of full or very large scale experimental testing,designed and conducted in direct support of model and analysis tool calibration.This paper outlines the principles under which such calibration testing should be conducted and illustrates with examples the kind of testing and parameter evaluation required.

  20. Intramolecular stable isotope distributions detect plant metabolic responses on century time scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schleucher, Jürgen; Ehlers, Ina; Augusti, Angela; Betson, Tatiana

    2014-05-01

    Plants respond to environmental changes on a vast range of time scales, and plant gas exchanges constitute important feedback mechanisms in the global C cycle. Responses on time scales of decades to centuries are most important for climate models, for prediction of crop productivity, and for adaptation to climate change. Unfortunately, responses on these timescale are least understood. We argue that the knowledge gap on intermediate time scales is due to a lack of adequate methods that can bridge between short-term manipulative experiments (e.g. FACE) and paleo research. Manipulative experiments in plant ecophysiology give information on metabolism on time scales up to years. However, this information cannot be linked to results from retrospective studies in paleo research, because little metabolic information can be derived from paleo archives. Stable isotopes are prominent tools in plant ecophysiology, biogeochemistry and in paleo research, but in all applications to date, isotope ratios of whole molecules are measured. However, it is well established that stable isotope abundance varies among intramolecular groups of biochemical metabolites, that is each so-called "isotopomer" has a distinct abundance. This intramolecular variation carries information on metabolic regulation, which can even be traced to individual enzymes (Schleucher et al., Plant, Cell Environ 1999). Here, we apply intramolecular isotope distributions to study the metabolic response of plants to increasing atmospheric [CO2] during the past century. Greenhouse experiments show that the deuterium abundance among the two positions in the C6H2 group of photosynthetic glucose depends on [CO2] during growth. This is observed for all plants using C3 photosynthesis, and reflects the metabolic flux ratio between photorespiration and photosynthesis. Photorespiration is a major C flux that limits assimilation in C3 plants, which encompass the overwhelming fraction of terrestrial photosynthesis and the

  1. Vibrations of wind power plants; Schwingungen von Windenergieanlagen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-07-01

    Within the meeting of the department vibration engineering of the Association of German Engineers (Duesseldorf, Federal Republic of Germany) between 3rd and 4th February, 2010 in Hanover (Federal Republic of Germany) the following lectures are presented: (1) Reduction of forced strengths generated by wagging and snaking of the rotor in the power strain of wind power plants (F. Mitsch); (2) Reduction of vibrations at wind power plants by means of active additional systems (S. Katz, S. Pankoke, N. Loix); (3) Reduction of vibrations by means of balancing and alignment (E. Becker, M. Kenzler); (4) Active absorber for reducing tonal emissions of vibration at wind power plants (R. Neugebauer, M. Linke, H. Kunze, M. Ulrich); (5) Control structures for damping torsion vibrations and peak loads in the power strain of wind power converters (C. Sourkounis); (6) Possibilities of a non-contact investigation of vibrations at wind power plants (R. Behrendt, E. Reimers, H. Wiegers); (7) Influences on the loadability of CMS statements (R. Wirth); (8) Recording modal structural properties with sensor grids and methods of operational modal analysis (A. Friedmann, D. Mayer, M. Koch, M. Kauba, T. Melz); (9) Early failure detection of damages of roller bearings in wind power gear units with variable speed (B. Hacke, G. Poll); (10) Condition monitoring in wind power plants - structure monitoring and life time monitoring of wind power plants (SCMS and LCMS) (H. Lange); (11) Development of a model-based structural health monitoring system for condition monitoring of rotor blades (C. Ebert, H. Friedmann, F.O. Henkel, B. Frankenstein, L. Schubert); (12) Efficient remote monitoring at wind power plants by means of an external diagnosis centre (G. Ceglarek); (13) Accurate turbine modelling at component and assembly level for durability and acoustic analysis (D. v. Werner, W. Hendricx); (14) Possibilities of the investigation of the dynamic behaviour of power strains in wind power plants by

  2. Castrum Persiceta. Power and territory in a border area, 6th-9th century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor Santos Salazar

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Starting from the suggestions coming from recent historical studies on the concept of border, we mean to analyse the border area between the regnum Langobardorum and the Byzantine Exarchate in Italy. The subject of the research is the group of castra in the Emilia region along the territories of the regnum mentioned in the sources in the 8th century, and mainly the castrum Persiceta. The analysis shows how the frontier were an uncertain bordering ambit, an area of political separation, and tries offering an interpretation that, through the analysis of long term processes, points out the specificity of castra as framework units for the population and media between local powers and central political structures in the period from the 5th to the 9th century.

  3. Baca geothermal demonstration project. Power plant detail design document

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-02-01

    This Baca Geothermal Demonstration Power Plant document presents the design criteria and detail design for power plant equipment and systems, as well as discussing the rationale used to arrive at the design. Where applicable, results of in-house evaluations of alternatives are presented.

  4. Life management of fossil power plants - facing the challenge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bronte, J.M. [Iberdrola, S.A. (Spain). Thermal Generation Technical Services

    1994-12-31

    Examines the use of life extension in Iberdrola`s fossil fuel power plants. Life extension allows the safe, reliable and efficient use of older units, deferring the need for the construction of new power plants. Describes the methodology used to assess the work required. 12 refs., 14 figs.

  5. Modeling the Buoyancy System of a Wave Energy Power Plant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Tom S.; Nielsen, Kirsten M.

    2009-01-01

    A nonlinear dynamic model of the buoyancy system in a wave energy power plant is presented. The plant ("Wave Dragon") is a floating device using the potential energy in overtopping waves to produce power. A water reservoir is placed on top of the WD, and hydro turbines lead the water to the sea...

  6. Short-Term and Medium-Term Reliability Evaluation for Power Systems With High Penetration of Wind Power

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ding, Yi; Singh, Chanan; Goel, Lalit;

    2014-01-01

    The expanding share of the fluctuating and less predictable wind power generation can introduce complexities in power system reliability evaluation and management. This entails a need for the system operator to assess the system status more accurately for securing real-time balancing. The existing...... a useful tool for the system operator to evaluate the reliability and arrange reserve for maintaining secure system operation in the short- as well as medium-terms....... an approximation of the time-varying behavior of power systems with high penetration of wind power. This paper proposes a time-varying reliability assessment technique. Time-varying reliability models for wind farms, conventional generating units, and rapid start-up generating units are developed and represented...

  7. 77 FR 13156 - Carolina Power & Light Company; Shearon Harris Nuclear Power Plant, Unit 1; Exemption

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-05

    ... COMMISSION Carolina Power & Light Company; Shearon Harris Nuclear Power Plant, Unit 1; Exemption 1.0... Harris Nuclear Power Plant (HNP), Unit 1. The license provides, among other things, that the facility is...) 50.46, ``Acceptance criteria for emergency core cooling systems for light- water nuclear...

  8. MCFC power plant with CO{sub 2} separation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kinoshita, Noboru [Ishikawajima-Harima Heavy Industries Co., Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-12-31

    Fuel cell power plant has been developed for many years with expectation of high system efficiency. In the meantime the gas turbine combined cycle has shown its considerable progress in improving system efficiency. Fuel cell power plant will no longer be attractive unless it exceeds the gas turbine combined cycle at least in the system efficiency. It is said CO{sub 2} separation could improve the efficiency of fuel cell power plant. IHI has developed the CO{sub 2} separator for fuel cell power plant. This study describes that the CO{sub 2} separator can increase the efficiency of the molten carbonate fuel cell (MCFC) power plant by 5% and the expected efficiency reaches 63 % in HHV basis.

  9. HIGH EFFICIENCY FOSSIL POWER PLANT (HEFPP) CONCEPTUALIZATION PROGRAM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J.L. Justice

    1999-03-25

    This study confirms the feasibility of a natural gas fueled, 20 MW M-C Power integrated pressurized molten carbonate fuel cell combined in a topping cycle with a gas turbine generator plant. The high efficiency fossil power plant (HEFPP) concept has a 70% efficiency on a LHV basis. The study confirms the HEFPP has a cost advantage on a cost of electricity basis over the gas turbine based combined cycle plants in the 20 MW size range. The study also identifies the areas of further development required for the fuel cell, gas turbine generator, cathode blower, inverter, and power module vessel. The HEFPP concept offers an environmentally friendly power plant with minuscule emission levels when compared with the combined cycle power plant.

  10. The alternative strategies of the development of the nuclear power industry in the 21st century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goverdovskii, A. A.; Kalyakin, S. G.; Rachkov, V. I.

    2014-05-01

    This paper emphasizes the urgency of scientific-and-technical and sociopolitical problems of the modern nuclear power industry without solving of which the transition from local nuclear power systems now in operation to a large-scale nuclear power industry would be impossible. The existing concepts of the longterm strategy of the development of the nuclear power industry have been analyzed. On the basis of the scenarios having been developed it was shown that the most promising alternative is the orientation towards the closed nuclear fuel cycle with fast neutron reactors (hereinafter referred to as fast reactors) that would meet the requirements on the acceptable safety. It was concluded that the main provisions of "The Strategy of the Development of the Nuclear Power Industry of Russia for the First Half of the 21st Century" approved by the Government of the Russian Federation in the year 2000 remain the same at present as well, although they require to be elaborated with due regard for new realities in the market for fossil fuels, the state of both the Russian and the world economy, as well as tightening of requirements related to safe operation of nuclear power stations (NPSs) (for example, after the severe accident at the Fukushima nuclear power station, Japan) and nonproliferation of nuclear weapons.

  11. Moldova Power Sources Development including Nuclear Power Plant possible participation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Comendant

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available For the new power market conditions Moldova power sources development options up to 2030 are evaluated, attempting to propose the best solutions in this respect and the ways they be realized.

  12. MOBIL CONTAINER UNIT FOR SEWAGE SLUDGE UTILIZATION FROM SMALL AND MEDIUM WASTWATER TREATMENT PLANTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanisław Ledakowicz

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The most wastewater treatment plants in Poland are small and medium plants of flow capacity below 1000 m3/d. These plants are not able to build sludge incineration plants and the transportation costs to the nearest plants increase the total costs of wastewater treatment. Polish company Metal Expert together with the French company ETIA and Lodz University of Technology proposed mobile unit for integrated drying and pyrolysis of sewage sludge in a pilot bench scale with capacity of 100 kg/h of dewatered sludge. The pilot plant was mounted in a typical mobile container which could provide service to small and medium wastewater treatment plants offering thermal processing of sewage sludge. This unit consists of KENKI contact dryer and „Spirajoule”® pyrolyser supplied with electricity utilizing the Joule effect, and a boiler, wherein the pyrolysis gases and volatile products are burned producing steam sent to the contact dryer. The bio-char produced during sludge pyrolysis could be utilized for agriculture purposes. During preliminary experiments and short-term exploitation of the unit at Elbląg Wastewater Treatment Plant the obtained results allowed us to make a mass and energy balance depended on the process conditions in the pyrolysis temperature range of 400÷800 °C. Based on the obtained results a calculator was created in the Excel , which enables assessment of pyrolysis products content and making mass and energy balances depended on process parameters such as initial moisture of sludge, pyrolysis temperature and installation output.

  13. Dynamic simulation of a direct carbonate fuel cell power plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ernest, J.B. [Fluor Daniel, Inc., Irvine, CA (United States); Ghezel-Ayagh, H.; Kush, A.K. [Fuel Cell Engineering, Danbury, CT (United States)

    1996-12-31

    Fuel Cell Engineering Corporation (FCE) is commercializing a 2.85 MW Direct carbonate Fuel Cell (DFC) power plant. The commercialization sequence has already progressed through construction and operation of the first commercial-scale DFC power plant on a U.S. electric utility, the 2 MW Santa Clara Demonstration Project (SCDP), and the completion of the early phases of a Commercial Plant design. A 400 kW fuel cell stack Test Facility is being built at Energy Research Corporation (ERC), FCE`s parent company, which will be capable of testing commercial-sized fuel cell stacks in an integrated plant configuration. Fluor Daniel, Inc. provided engineering, procurement, and construction services for SCDP and has jointly developed the Commercial Plant design with FCE, focusing on the balance-of-plant (BOP) equipment outside of the fuel cell modules. This paper provides a brief orientation to the dynamic simulation of a fuel cell power plant and the benefits offered.

  14. Site selection for new nuclear power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rizzo, Paul C.; Dubinsky, Melissa; Tastan, Erdem Onur, E-mail: paul.rizzo@rizzoassoc.com, E-mail: melissa.dubinsky@rizzoassoc.com, E-mail: onur.tastan@rizzoassoc.com [RIZZO Associates Inc., Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Miano, Sandra C., E-mail: scm27@psu.edu [Eletrobras Termonuclear S.A. (ELETRONUCLEAR), RJ (Brazil); Pennsylvania State University, Department of Mechanical and Nuclear Engineering, State College, PA (United States)

    2015-07-01

    The current methodology for selecting the most advantageous site(s) for nuclear power plant (NPP) development is based on the latest evolution of protocols originally established in the 1990's by the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) and others for programs in the USA, and more recently by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), among others. The methodology includes protocols that account for lessons learned from both the Gen III projects and the catastrophic event at Fukushima, Japan. In general, the approach requires consideration of Exclusionary or 'fatal flaw' Criteria first, based on safety as well as significant impact to the environment or human health. Sites must meet all of these Exclusionary Criteria to be considered for NPP development. Next, the remaining sites are evaluated for Avoidance Criteria that affect primarily ease of construction and operations, which allow a ranking of sites best suited for NPP development. Finally, Suitability Criteria are applied to the potential sites to better differentiate between closely ranked sites. Generally, final selection of a Preferred and an Alternate Site will require balancing of factors, expert judgment, and client input, as sites being compared will differ in their scores associated with different Avoidance Criteria and Suitability Criteria. RIZZO Associates (RIZZO) offers in this paper a modification to this methodology for selecting the site for NPP development, which accords to the categories of Exclusionary, Avoidance and Suitability Criteria strict definitions which can be considered as Absolute Factors, Critical Factors, and Economic Factors for a more focused approach to site selection. Absolute Factors include all of the safety-related Exclusionary Criteria. Critical Factors are those that are difficult to overcome unless extraordinary mitigation measures are implemented; they have a significant impact on the ability of the project to be successful and may cause the

  15. [Some peculiar features of liquid supply to the root medium of plants growing in microgravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podol'skii, I. G.; Sychev, V. N.; Levinskikh, M. A.; Strugov, O. M.; Bingham, G. E.; Salisbury, F. B. (Principal Investigator)

    1998-01-01

    Sixteen point probes monitored moisture level in the root medium of the wheat plants grown in greenhouse SVET on the MIR/NASA space science program. The article outlines types of water migration in the absence of gravity. Hydrophysical characteristics of perspective root media have been explored. Results of the water supply monitoring and control in the course of experiment are reported. The authors put forward porous root media to facilitate water migration and aeration.

  16. 可门电厂2A汽动给水泵振动故障的分析和处理%Analysis and Treatment of Vibration Fault in 2A Turbine-driven Feed Water Pump from Kemen Power Plant

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周金顺

    2011-01-01

    可门电厂2A汽动给水泵在运行过程中发生了周期性突振的故障.通过对给水泵振动的测试和分析,得出可门电厂2号机2A汽动给水泵振动大的原因.并针对该振动,提出了有效的解决方法.%A cyclical abrupt vibration fault occurred during 2A turbine-driven feed water pump from kemen power plant running.Based on the feed water pump vibration testing and analysis,this paper come to the reason of turbine-driven feed water pump vibration.And for the vibration, we made effective solution.

  17. Facing technological challenges of Solar Updraft Power Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lupi, F.; Borri, C.; Harte, R.; Krätzig, W. B.; Niemann, H.-J.

    2015-01-01

    The Solar Updraft Power Plant technology addresses a very challenging idea of combining two kinds of renewable energy: wind and solar. The working principle is simple: a Solar Updraft Power Plant (SUPP) consists of a collector area to heat the air due to the wide-banded ultra-violet solar radiation, the high-rise solar tower to updraft the heated air to the atmosphere, and in between the power conversion unit, where a system of coupled turbines and generators transforms the stream of heated air into electric power. A good efficiency of the power plant can only be reached with extra-large dimensions of the tower and/or the collector area. The paper presents an up-to-date review of the SUPP technology, focusing on the multi-physics modeling of the power plant, on the structural behavior of the tower and, last but not least, on the modeling of the stochastic wind loading process.

  18. Hydromania: Summer Science Camp Curriculum.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moura, Joan

    1995-07-01

    In 1992, Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) and the US Department of Energy (DOE) began a collaborative pilot project with the Portland Parks and Recreation Community Schools Program and others to provide summer science camps to children in Grades 4--6. Camps run two weeks in duration between late June and mid-August. Sessions are five days per week, from 9 a.m. to 3 p.m. In addition to hands-on science and math curriculum, at least three field trips are incorporated into the educational learning experience. The purpose of the BPA/DOE summer camps is to make available opportunities for fun, motivating experiences in science to students who otherwise would have difficulty accessing them. This includes inner city, minority, rural and low income students. Public law 101-510, which Congress passed in 1990, authorizes DOE facilities to establish collaborative inner-city and rural partnership programs in science and math. A primary goal of the BPA summer hands on science camps is to bring affordable science camp experiences to students where they live. It uses everyday materials to engage students` minds and to give them a sense that they have succeeded through a fun hands-on learning environment.

  19. Butinge Wind Power Plant - Pre-engineering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mollestad, Knut A.

    1997-03-01

    A preliminary study has been done for a wind farm at Butinge in Lithuania consisting of six 600 kW wind turbines. The location of the wind farm is planned near the border with Latvia and near the coast of the Baltic Sea. The preliminary study has through a relatively detailed technical examination of the project, primarily aimed at gathering basic data for budget estimation and cost calculations. Other relevant aspects of the project are also considered. These include an examination of the basis for the project, an analysis of wind conditions, consideration of the various environmental conditions, discussion about the form of organisation and division of responsibility, as well as an examination of the operational and maintenance framework. Based on wind measurements taken at IFE (Institute for Energy Technology), the annual mean wind is estimated to be 7.3 m/s at 45 m height (equivalent to the hub height for the proposed wind turbines). A production calculation has also been done, which shows that the total energy production of the entire wind farm is expected to 9.47 GWh per year. This is equivalent to a use time of 2630 hours respective to a load factor of 30%. The total cost is estimated at 30.2 mill NOK, and the energy price (including operational costs) delivered from the ''power plant wall'', based on this figure and the production estimate, is calculated at 0,32 NOK/kWh. This is based on a lifetime of 20 years for the facility and a 6.5% required rate of return. In addition, there is outlined a possible financial solution based on various price-scenarios and support arrangements. With an equity capital of 8% and 28% external support, the project meets the current energy price in Lithuania (3,4 US cents/kWh). Without support the sales price of the produced energy is increased by approx. 50%. (author)

  20. Accurate Medium-Term Wind Power Forecasting in a Censored Classification Framework

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl, Christian M.; Croonenbroeck, Carsten

    2014-01-01

    We provide a wind power forecasting methodology that exploits many of the actual data's statistical features, in particular both-sided censoring. While other tools ignore many of the important “stylized facts” or provide forecasts for short-term horizons only, our approach focuses on medium......-term forecasts, which are especially necessary for practitioners in the forward electricity markets of many power trading places; for example, NASDAQ OMX Commodities (formerly Nord Pool OMX Commodities) in northern Europe. We show that our model produces turbine-specific forecasts that are significantly more...

  1. The European Legislation Applicable to Medium-Range Inductive Wireless Power Transmission Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frédéric Broydé

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Medium-range inductive wireless power transmission systems allow a sufficient power transfer without requiring close proximity between a primary coil and a secondary coil. We briefly investigate the range of a typical system and its radiated emission, from the perspectives of electromagnetic compatibility (EMC and human exposure requirements. We then discuss the applicable legislation in the European Union, the main question being the applicability of the R&TTE or radio equipment directives. Our conclusion is that this applicability depends on multiple parameters, among which is the presence of a self-tuning capability or of a transmitter control based on telemetry.

  2. Introducing Model Predictive Control for Improving Power Plant Portfolio Performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Edlund, Kristian Skjoldborg; Bendtsen, Jan Dimon; Børresen, Simon

    2008-01-01

    This paper introduces a model predictive control (MPC) approach for construction of a controller for balancing the power generation against consumption in a power system. The objective of the controller is to coordinate a portfolio consisting of multiple power plant units in the effort to perform...

  3. Possible Power Estimation of Down-Regulated Offshore Wind Power Plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gögmen, Tuhfe

    The penetration of offshore wind power is continuously increasing in the Northern European grids. To assure safety in the operation of the power system, wind power plants are required to provide ancillary services, including reserve power attained through down-regulating the wind farm from its...... power plant. The developed procedure, the PossPOW algorithm, can also be used in the wind farm control as it yields a real-time wind farm power curve. The modern wind turbines have a possible power signal at the turbine level and the current state of the art is to aggregate those signals to achieve...

  4. Operation experience of Suralaya coal-fired power plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saragi, M. [PT Indonesia Power (Indonesia). Suralaya Generation Business Unit

    2004-07-01

    Coal utilization for generating electricity at Suralaya coal-fired power plant has been increased from time to time. It has been driven by the growth of electricity demand from industry as well as consumption from the household sector. Generally, boilers for power plant were designed to burn the locally available coals with a limited specification range. Suralaya coal-fired power plant was built based on coal specifications from Bukit Asam (Sumatera Island), which categorized as sub-bituminous coal rank. Nowadays, supply of coal for Suralaya coal-fired power plant not only comes from Bukit Asam coal mine but also from Kalimantan coal mines. The utilization of coal from the other mines has brought other consequences on operating and equipment of the plant. It needs some effort to deal with the effect from different specifications of coal from the originated design of coal. 4 tabs.

  5. Method for assigning sites to projected generic nuclear power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holter, G.M.; Purcell, W.L.; Shutz, M.E.; Young, J.R.

    1986-07-01

    Pacific Northwest Laboratory developed a method for forecasting potential locations and startup sequences of nuclear power plants that will be required in the future but have not yet been specifically identified by electric utilities. Use of the method results in numerical ratings for potential nuclear power plant sites located in each of the 10 federal energy regions. The rating for each potential site is obtained from numerical factors assigned to each of 5 primary siting characteristics: (1) cooling water availability, (2) site land area, (3) power transmission land area, (4) proximity to metropolitan areas, and (5) utility plans for the site. The sequence of plant startups in each federal energy region is obtained by use of the numerical ratings and the forecasts of generic nuclear power plant startups obtained from the EIA Middle Case electricity forecast. Sites are assigned to generic plants in chronological order according to startup date.

  6. Construction, Maintenance and Demolition of Nuclear Power Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smet, Camiel de [Hilti Corporation, P.O. Box 333, FL-9494 Schaan (Liechtenstein)

    2008-07-01

    Hilti is your reliable partner in nuclear power plant construction, maintenance and demolition worldwide. Professional advice and innovative solutions for virtually every phase of construction and supply technologically leading products and systems to increase your productivity and help to create and maintain safe and lasting plants is offered. The solutions for nuclear power plants construction, maintenance and demolition have been employed with great success in many different countries on a wide variety of projects due in no small way to their worldwide availability. An unbroken, international exchange of experience upholds a permanent innovation process. This assures our customers that they always receive products on the very latest technological standard. This paper is not intended to cover all topics related to nuclear power plants. The idea is more to give a kind of an overview. The paper covers briefly the following topics: safety (corrosion and fire), fastenings, measuring and finally decommissioning of nuclear power plants. (author)

  7. Pig manure vermicompost as a component of a horticultural bedding plant medium: effects on physicochemical properties and plant growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atiyeh, R M; Edwards, C A; Subler, S; Metzger, J D

    2001-05-01

    This experiment was designed to characterize the physical, chemical and microbial properties of a standard commercial horticultural, greenhouse container, bedding plant medium (Metro-Mix 360), that had been substituted with a range of increasing concentrations (0%, 5%, 10%, 25%, 50% and 100% by volume) of pig manure vermicompost and to relate these properties to plant growth responses. The growth trials used tomatoes (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.), grown in the substituted media for 31 days under glasshouse conditions, with seedling growth recorded in 20 pots for each treatment. Half of the tomato seedlings (10 pots per treatment) were watered daily with liquid inorganic fertilizer while the other half received water only. The percentage total porosity, percentage air space, pH and ammonium concentrations of the container medium all decreased significantly, after substitution of Metro-Mix 360 with equivalent amounts of pig manure vermicompost; whereas bulk density, container capacity, electrical conductivity, overall microbial activity and nitrate concentrations, all increased with increasing substitutions of vermicompost. The growth of tomato seedlings in the potting mixtures containing 100% pig manure vermicompost was reduced, possibly as a result of high soluble salt concentrations in the vermicompost and poorer porosity and aeration. The growth of tomato seedlings was greatest after substitution of Metro-Mix 360 with between 25% and 50% pig manure vermicompost, with more growth occurring in combinations of pig manure vermicompost treated regularly with a liquid fertilizer solution than in those with no fertilizer applied. Some of the growth enhancement in these mixtures seemed to be related to the combined effects of improved porosity, aeration and water retention in the medium and the high nitrate content of the substrate, which produced an increased uptake of nitrogen by the plant tissues, resulting in increased plant growth. When the tomato seedlings were

  8. Nuclear medium effects in $F_{2A}^{EM}(x,Q^2)$ and $F_{2A}^{Weak}(x,Q^2)$ structure functions

    CERN Document Server

    Haider, H; Athar, M Sajjad; Singh, S K; Simo, I Ruiz

    2016-01-01

    Recent phenomenological analysis of experimental data on DIS processes induced by charged leptons and neutrinos/antineutrinos beams on nuclear targets by CTEQ collaboration has confirmed the observation of CCFR and NuTeV collaborations, that weak structure function $F_{2A}^{Weak} (x,Q^2)$ is different from electromagnetic structure function $F_{2A}^{EM} (x,Q^2)$ in a nucleus like iron, specially in the region of low $x$ and $Q^2$. In view of this observation we have made a study of nuclear medium effects on $F_{2A}^{Weak} (x,Q^2)$ and $F_{2A}^{EM} (x,Q^2)$ for a wide range of $x$ and $Q^2$ using a microscopic nuclear model. We have considered Fermi motion, binding energy, nucleon correlations, mesonic contributions from pion and rho mesons and shadowing effects to incorporate nuclear medium effects. The calculations are performed in a local density approximation using a relativistic nucleon spectral function which includes nucleon correlations. The numerical results in the case of iron nucleus are compared wi...

  9. Preventive maintenance instrumentation results in Spanish nuclear power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Curiel, M. [Logistica y Acondicionamientos Industriales SAU, Sorolla Center, local 10, Av. de las Cortes Valencianas No. 58, 46015 Valencia (Spain); Palomo, M. J.; Verdu, G. [ISIRYM, Universidad Politecnica de Valencia, Camino de Vera s/n, Valencia (Spain); Arnaldos, A., E-mail: m.curiel@lainsa.co [TITANIA Servicios Tecnologicos SL, Sorolla Center, local 10, Av. de las Cortes Valencianas No. 58, 46015 Valencia (Spain)

    2010-10-15

    This paper is a recompilation of the most significance results in relation to the researching in preventive and predictive maintenance in critical nuclear instrumentation for power plant operation, which it is being developed by Logistica y Acondicionamientos Industriales and the Isirym Institute of the Polytechnic University of Valencia. Instrumentation verification and test, it is a priority of the power plants control and instrumentation department's technicians. These procedures are necessary information for the daily power plant work. It is performed according to different procedures and in different moments of the fuel cycle depending on the instrumentation critical state and the monitoring process. Normally, this study is developed taking into account the instantaneous values of the instrumentation measures and, after their conversion to physical magnitude, they are analyzed according to the power plant operation point. Moreover, redundant sensors measurements are taken into consideration to the equipment and/or power plant monitoring. This work goes forward and it is in advanced to the instrument analysis as it is, independently of the operation point, using specific signal analysis techniques for preventive and predictive maintenance, with the object to obtain not only information about possible malfunctions, but the degradation scale presented in the instrument or in the system measured. We present seven real case studies of Spanish nuclear power plants each of them shall give a significant contribution to problem resolution and power plant performance. (Author)

  10. On the form of the power equation for modeling solar chimney power plant systems

    CERN Document Server

    Fathi, Nima; Vorobieff, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Recently several mathematical models of a solar chimney power plant were derived, studied for a variety of boundary conditions, and compared against CFD calculations. The importance of these analyses is about the accuracy of the derived pressure drop and output power equation for solar chimney power plant systems (SCPPS). We examine the assumptions underlying the derivation and present reasons to believe that some of the derived equations, specifically the power equation in this model, may require a correction to be applicable in more realistic conditions. The analytical resutls are compared against the available experimental data from the Manzanares power plant.

  11. Preconstruction of the Honey Lake Hybrid Power Plant: Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1988-04-30

    The work undertaken under this Contract is the prosecution of the preconstruction activities, including preliminary engineering design, well field development, completion of environmental review and prosecution of permits, and the economic and financial analysis of the facility. The proposed power plant is located in northeastern California in Lassen County, approximately 25 miles east of the town of Susanville. The power plant will use a combination of wood residue and geothermal fluids for power generation. The plant, when fully constructed, will generate a combined net output of approximately 33 megawatts which will be sold to Pacific Gas and Electric Company (PGandE) under existing long-term power sales contracts. Transfer of electricity to the PGandE grid will require construction of a 22-mile transmission line from the power plant to Susanville. 11 refs., 12 figs., 4 tabs.

  12. First Aspect of Conventional Power System Assessment for High Wind Power Plants Penetration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Merzic

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Most power systems in underdeveloped and developing countries are based on conventional power plants, mainly "slow-response" thermal power plants and a certain number of hydro power plants; characterized by inflexible generating portfolios and traditionally designed to meet own electricity needs. Taking into account operational capabilities of conventional power systems, their development planning will face problems with integration of notable amounts of installed capacities in wind power plants (WPP. This is what highlights the purpose of this work and in that sense, here, possible variations of simulated output power from WPP in the 10 minute and hourly time interval, which need to be balanced, are investigated, presented and discussed. Comparative calculations for the amount of installed power in WPP that can be integrated into a certain power system, according to available secondary balancing power amounts, in case of concentrated and dispersed future WPP are given. The stated has been done using a part of the power system of Bosnia and Herzegovina. In the considered example, by planned geographically distributed WPP construction, even up to cca. 74% more in installed power of WPP can be integrated into the power system than in case of geographically concentrated WPP construction, for the same available amount of (secondary balancing power. These calculations have shown a significant benefit of planned, geographically distributed WPP construction, as an important recommendation for the development planning of conventional power systems, with limited balancing options. Keywords: balancing reserves,  geographical dispersion, output power  variations

  13. Dynamic Reactive Power Control in Offshore HVDC Connected Wind Power Plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sakamuri, Jayachandra N.; Cutululis, Nicolaos Antonio; Rather, Zakir Hussain;

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a coordinated reactive power control for a HVDC connected cluster of offshore wind power plants (WPPs). The reactive power reference for the WPP cluster is estimated by an optimization algorithm aiming at minimum active power losses in the offshore AC Grid. For each optimal...

  14. Modeling spatial competition for light in plant populations with the porous medium equation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beyer, Robert; Etard, Octave; Cournède, Paul-Henry; Laurent-Gengoux, Pascal

    2015-02-01

    We consider a plant's local leaf area index as a spatially continuous variable, subject to particular reaction-diffusion dynamics of allocation, senescence and spatial propagation. The latter notably incorporates the plant's tendency to form new leaves in bright rather than shaded locations. Applying a generalized Beer-Lambert law allows to link existing foliage to production dynamics. The approach allows for inter-individual variability and competition for light while maintaining robustness-a key weakness of comparable existing models. The analysis of the single plant case leads to a significant simplification of the system's key equation when transforming it into the well studied porous medium equation. Confronting the theoretical model to experimental data of sugar beet populations, differing in configuration density, demonstrates its accuracy.

  15. Genetic selection and liquid medium conditions improve the yield of androgenetic plants from diploid potatoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uhrig, H

    1985-12-01

    Solatium tuberosum L. diploid strains with superior androgenetic capacity have been selected for from androgenetic progenies of unselected diploid material. The paper also demonstrates that the use of a liquid medium for culturing potato anthers, instead of the conventional solid agar plates, improves the yield of androgenetic embryoids. The new method, associated with two successive cycles of selection for superior androgenetic response, allows the induction and regeneration of microspore derived plants on a large scale. The best genotype (clone 21 in this paper) regenerates androgenetic plants with a frequency around 30 per each anther plated. Over 80% of the regenerated plants are diploid. It is suggested that the androgenetic embryoids mainly originate from unreduced microspores by a mechanism which maintains a heterozygous or a partly heterozygous genetic situation.

  16. Generation solar case study : solar summer camp

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-07-01

    This document presented a case study of the use of solar power at camp Tanamakoon in Ontario's Algonquin Park. It discussed camp facilities which include solar powered composting toilets and solar heated showers. Composting, recycling, and use of environmentally friendly products were also discussed. The camp also has a grid interactive solar electric system and a solar water heating system. The solar electric system provides backup power to critical loads such as safety lights and an emergency fridge and is also connected to the existing grid electricity system. Any excess energy from the solar system can be used by other kitchen appliances or, any other load anywhere in the camp. The main user of the solar heated water is a large automatic dishwasher which has as a built-in boost heater for those days when the solar heated water is insufficiently hot to sanitize dishes. It was concluded that while camp utility bills have been reduced by this investment in renewable energy technology, the primary objectives of the project were the protection of Tanamakoon's pristine Algonquin environment and the attraction and retention of clients for the camp by enhancing the camping experience. fig.

  17. FORESIGHT - ECOSUSTAINABLE DETERMINANTS OF STRATEGIC MODERNIZATION OF HYDROELECTRIC POWER PLANTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Dovgan

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available In the paper the foresight methodology as an ecosustainable determinants of strategic modernization of hydroelectric power plants in the conditions of the external challenges and threats is revealed. The strategic concepts of modernization and a mechanism of strategic modernization of hydroelectric power plants on the principles of public-private partnerships is allocated. Recommendations on the implementation of the results of the strategic foresight to the modernization of hydroelectric power plants in the interaction of public and private agents are formulated.

  18. Multilevel flow modeling of Monju Nuclear Power Plant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lind, Morten; Yoshikawa, Hidekazu; Jørgensen, Sten Bay

    2011-01-01

    Multilevel Flow Modeling is a method for modeling complex processes on multiple levels of means-end and part-whole abstraction. The modeling method has been applied on a wide range of processes including power plants, chemical engineering plants and power systems. The modeling method is supported...... functions and structure. The paper will describe how MFM can be used to represent the goals and functions of the Japanese Monju Nuclear Power Plant. A detailed explanation will be given of the model describing the relations between levels of goal, function and structural. Furthermore, it will be explained...

  19. 75 FR 61779 - R.E. Ginna Nuclear Power Plant, LLC; R.E. Ginna Nuclear Power Plant Environmental Assessment and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-06

    ... COMMISSION R.E. Ginna Nuclear Power Plant, LLC; R.E. Ginna Nuclear Power Plant Environmental Assessment and... Operating License No. DPR-18, issued to R.E. Ginna Nuclear Power Plant, LLC (the licensee), for operation of the R.E. Ginna Nuclear Power Plant (Ginna), located in Ontario, New York. In accordance with 10 CFR...

  20. Power plant technology 2014. Strategies, systems engineering and operation; Kraftwerkstechnik 2014. Strategien, Anlagentechnik und Betrieb

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beckmann, Michael; Hurtado, Antonio

    2014-07-01

    The book on power plant technology 2014 (strategies, systems engineering and operation) covers the following issues: Climate, politics and economy; wind power; fossil-fuel power plants, flexible power plants - plant operation, flexible power plants- materials, materials for energy technology, fuel feed and incineration, modeling of the water-vapor-circuit, corrosion, deposits and cleaning, vapor turbines, GUD power plants, fluidized bed combustion, energetic biomass use, combined heat and power generation and decentralized units, storage facilities, emissions - mitigation and measuring techniques.

  1. Power Oscillation Damping from VSC-HVDC Connected Offshore Wind Power Plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zeni, Lorenzo; Eriksson, Robert; Goumalatsos, Spyridon

    2016-01-01

    The implementation of power oscillation damping service on offshore wind power plants connected to onshore grids by voltage-source-converter-based high voltage direct current transmission is discussed. Novel design guidelines for damping controllers on voltage-source converters and wind power plant...... regarding real wind power plants are discussed: 1) robustness against control/communication delays; 2) limitations due to mechanical resonances in wind turbine generators; 3) actual capability of wind power plants to provide damping without curtailing production; and 4) power-ramp rate limiters....... controllers are derived, using phasor diagrams and a test network model and are then verified on a generic power system model. The effect of voltage regulators is analyzed, which is important for selecting the most robust damping strategy. Furthermore, other often disregarded practical implementation aspects...

  2. Carbon dioxide recovery from gas-fired power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martins, Ricardo Salgado; Barbosa, Joao Roberto [Centro Tecnico Aeroespacial, Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil). Inst. Tecnologico de Aeronautica. Dept. de Energia]. E-mails: martinsr@epenergy.com; barbosa@mec.ita.br; Prado, Eduardo Lanari [Rice Univ., Houston, TX (United States). Jones Graduate School of Business]. E-mail: pradoe@epenergy.com; Vieira, Adriana de Moura [Instituto Brasileiro de Mercado de Capitais (IBMEC), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Dept. de Financas]. E-mail: vieiraa@epenergy.com

    2000-07-01

    Since 1996 the Brazilian electric sector has undergone a major restructuring. The aim of such change is to reduce the State's participation in the sector, and to induce the growth of private investments. In particular, this event created several opportunities for thermal power plant projects, leading to competition at the generation level. In this scenario of increased competition, the power plant efficiency becomes a key element for determining the feasibility and profitability of the project. Moreover, the utilization of the plant's own effluents as feedstock or as a source of additional revenue will impact positively in its economics. As an example, long term additional revenues could be created by the sale of CO{sub 2} extracted from the combustion products of thermal power plants. The production of CO{sub 2} also contributes to mitigate the environmental impacts of the power plant project by significantly reducing its airborne emissions. This paper shows how a gas-fired power plant can extract and utilize CO{sub 2} to generate additional revenue, contributing to a more competitive power plant. (author)

  3. PROPAGATION OF Portulaca oleracea L. IN LIQUID MEDIUM: IMPLICATIONS OF PLANT GROWTH REGULATORS IN CULTURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahipal S. Shekhawat

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Portulaca oleracea L. is a medicinal plant, growing in warm and moist regions of north hemisphere of the world. A protocol for in vitro propagation using nodal shoot segments as explants has been outlined. The percent shoot response with shoot induction rate, 6.4 ± 0.7 shoots per explant, was achieved when cultured on agar-gelled Murashige and Skoog (MS medium containing 2.0 mg/L of BAP (6-benzylaminopurine. The cultures were amplified by passages on MS medium with 1.0 mg/L each BAP and kinetin (Kn. The best shoot amplification (37.5±0.9 shoots per vessel was achieved by subculturing of in vitro regenerated shoot clumps on liquid MS medium. Shoots regenerated in vitro by both the processes were rooted on ½ strength of MS medium + 2.0 mg/L of indole-3 butyric acid (IBA. Ninety six percent of the shoots rooted in vitro. The in vitro rooted plantlets were hardened under different regimes of temperature and humidity in the greenhouse. The hardened plantlets were transferred to mixture of soil and manure in polybags.

  4. Proteome Changes in Penicillium expansum Grown in a Medium Derived from Host Plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Xiaoshuang; Li, Huan; Liu, Fei; Zhang, Ye; Zhang, Qi; Wang, Yun; Li, Peiwu

    2017-03-28

    Penicillium expansum causes blue mold rot, a prevalent postharvest disease of pome fruit, and is also the main producer of the patulin. However, knowledge on the molecular mechanisms involved in this pathogen-host interaction remains largely unknown. In this work, a two-dimensional gel electrophoresis-based proteomic approach was applied to probe changes in P. expansum 3.3703 cultivated in apple juice medium, which was used to mimic the in planta condition. The results showed that the pH value and reducing sugar content in the apple juice medium decreased whereas the patulin content increased with the growing of P. expansum. A total of 28 protein spots that were up-regulated in P. expansum when grown in apple juice medium were identified. Functional categorization revealed that the identified proteins were mainly related to carbohydrate metabolism, secondary metabolism, protein biosynthesis or degradation, and redox homeostasis. Remarkably, several induced proteins, including glucose dehydrogenase, galactose oxidase, and FAD-binding monooxygenase, which might be responsible for the observed medium acidification and patulin production, were also detected. Overall, the experimental results provide a comprehensive interpretation of the physiological and proteomic responses of P. expansum to the host plant environment, and future functional characterization of the identified proteins will deepen our understanding of fungi-host interactions.

  5. Water recovery using waste heat from coal fired power plants.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Webb, Stephen W.; Morrow, Charles W.; Altman, Susan Jeanne; Dwyer, Brian P.

    2011-01-01

    The potential to treat non-traditional water sources using power plant waste heat in conjunction with membrane distillation is assessed. Researchers and power plant designers continue to search for ways to use that waste heat from Rankine cycle power plants to recover water thereby reducing water net water consumption. Unfortunately, waste heat from a power plant is of poor quality. Membrane distillation (MD) systems may be a technology that can use the low temperature waste heat (<100 F) to treat water. By their nature, they operate at low temperature and usually low pressure. This study investigates the use of MD to recover water from typical power plants. It looks at recovery from three heat producing locations (boiler blow down, steam diverted from bleed streams, and the cooling water system) within a power plant, providing process sketches, heat and material balances and equipment sizing for recovery schemes using MD for each of these locations. It also provides insight into life cycle cost tradeoffs between power production and incremental capital costs.

  6. Meteorological measurements at nuclear power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-12-31

    On-site meteorological measurements are necessary for evaluating atmospheric dispersion of gaseous effluents. Radiation doses in a plant`s vicinity due to these effluents are calculated from the results of dispersion evaluations. The guide addresses the requirements for on-site meteorological measurement systems. Guide YVL 7.3 addresses atmospheric dispersion evaluations and calculation methods, Guide YVL 7.2 radiation dose calculations and Guide YVL 7.8 environmental data reporting. (5 refs.).

  7. Wind Power Plants Fundamentals, Design, Construction and Operation

    CERN Document Server

    Twele, Jochen

    2012-01-01

    Wind power plants teaches the physical foundations of usage of Wind Power. It includes the areas like Construction of Wind Power Plants, Design, Development of Production Series, Control, and discusses the dynamic forces acting on the systems as well as the power conversion and its connection to the distribution system. The book is written for graduate students, practitioners and inquisitive readers of any kind. It is based on lectures held at several universities. Its German version it already is the standard text book for courses on Wind Energy Engineering but serves also as reference for practising engineers.

  8. Cogeneration power plant concepts using advanced gas turbines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huettenhofer, K.; Lezuo, A. [Siemens Power Generation, Erlangen (Germany)

    2001-07-01

    Cogeneration of heat and power (CHP) is undeniably the environmentally most favourable way of making efficient use of energy in the power generation industry. Cogeneration is also particularly appreciated by political decision makers because of its high yield from primary energy sources, and thus its contribution to the protection of the environment and the conservation of resources. Advanced gas turbines, along with an intelligent power plant design consisting of pre-engineered, modular power plant items, will help cogeneration to play an important role in future energy markets also from an economic point of view. (orig.)

  9. Evaluation of MerCAP for Power Plant Mercury Control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carl Richardson

    2008-09-30

    dryer operation on MerCAP{trademark} performance. At Site 2, a pilot-scale array was installed in a horizontal reactor chamber designed to treat approximately 2800 acfm of flue gas obtained from downstream of the plant's flue gas desulfurization (FGD) system. The initial MerCAP{trademark} array was installed at Plant Yates in January 2004, operating continuously for several weeks before a catastrophic system failure resulting from a failed flue gas fan. A second MerCAP{trademark} array was installed in July 2006 and operated for one month before being shut down for a reasons pertaining to system performance and host site scheduling. A longer-term continuous-operation test was then conducted during the summer and fall of 2007. Tests were conducted to evaluate the impacts of flue gas flow rate, sorbent space velocity, and sorbent rinsing frequency on mercury removal performance. Detailed characterization of treated sorbent plates was carried out in an attempt to understand the nature of reactions leading to excessive corrosion of the substrate surfaces.

  10. The Impacts of Total System Design Factors on Human Performance in Power Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Azadeh

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study is to evaluate the impact of total system design factors (TSD on human performance in a power plant. The TSD factors are defined as design factors, which have an impact on the overall performance of the power plants in the context of total human engineering or macroergonomy. The systems being studied are the control rooms and maintenance departments of a 2000 MW thermal power plant? To achieve the above objective the TSD factors were addressed and assessed through a detailed questionnaire. The relationships between TSD factors and human performance were then examined through non-parametric correlation analysis (Kramer’s Phi and Kruskal-Wallis test of means. The selected TSD factors are related to procedures, work assessment, teamwork, self-organization, information exchange and communication. The results of this study show that the TSD factors such as organizational and safety procedures, teamwork, self-organization, job design and information exchange influence human performance in the power plant. The findings also suggest that the selected TSD factors correlate to human performance and must be considered, designed and tested concurrently with the engineering factors at the design phase of the system development cycle. Consequently, total system’s faults and organizational errors are reduced to an acceptable level and human performance is significantly increased. This is a challenging task for designers of power plants but is required if we are facing unforeseen and complex issues of such systems in twenty-first century. The methodology discussed here may be easily extended to all types of power plants.

  11. Manatee use of power plant effluents in Brevard County, Florida

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shane, S.H.

    The relationship between manatees and power plants was investigated at 2 power plants on the Indian River in Brevard County, Florida from January 1978-February 1980. Manatee presence in the power plant effluent zones was correlated with cold air and water temperatures. When air temperatures were below 16 C most manatees in the country were found in the effluent zones. Manatees in the effluent zones move with the wind-blown warm water plume, demonstrating a sensitivity to small changes in water temperature. Some individuals were frequently resighted at 1 plant, while others moved between the 2 plants. Because industrial warm water sources are less reliable than natural warm water refuges, it is recommended that no new artificial warm water effluents be constructed north of the species' traditional winter range. 16 references, 3 figures, 1 table.

  12. Structures and construction of nuclear power plants on lunar surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimizu, Katsunori; Kobatake, Masuhiko; Ogawa, Sachio; Kanamori, Hiroshi; Okada, Yasuhiko; Mano, Hideyuki; Takagi, Kenji

    1991-07-01

    The best structure and construction techniques of nuclear power plants in the severe environments on the lunar surface are studied. Facility construction types (functional conditions such as stable structure, shield thickness, maintainability, safety distances, and service life), construction conditions (such as construction methods, construction equipment, number of personnel, time required for construction, external power supply, and required transportation) and construction feasibility (construction method, reactor transportation between the moon and the earth, ground excavation for installation, loading and unloading, transportation, and installation, filling up the ground, electric power supply of plant S (300 kW class) and plant L (3000 kW class)) are outlined. Items to pay attention to in construction are (1) automation and robotization of construction; (2) cost reduction by multi functional robots; and (3) methods of supplying power to robots. A precast concrete block manufacturing plant is also outlined.

  13. The application of NERVA technology to Martian power plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farbman, G. H.; Pierce, B. L.

    1991-09-01

    A Martian Nuclear Power Plant is described, based on the nuclear technologies developed and demonstrated in the NERVA nuclear propulsion program. The reactor is in a closed-cycle system, employing an inert gas coolant, while the power-turbine generator system is an open-cycle gas turbine which uses the Martian atmosphere as a working fluid. The two systems are connected by a double-walled heat exchanger which transfers energy from the reactor to the power turbine system. The plant is rated at 3 MWe and is capable of three years of power operation, at a capacity factor of 90 percent, before the fuel is depleted. The plant is arranged in modules, which are fully constructed on earth and then interconnected on the surface of Mars. A preliminary estimate of the module contents and masses leads to a total plant specific mass of 25.3 kg/kWe.

  14. US EPA Region 9 Coal-Fired Power Plants

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Approximate locations of active coal-fired power plants located in US EPA's Region 9. Emission counts from the 2005 National Emissions Inventory (NEI) are included...

  15. U.S. Nuclear Power Reactor Plant Status

    Data.gov (United States)

    Nuclear Regulatory Commission — Demographic data on U.S. commercial nuclear power reactors, including: plant name/unit number, docket number, location, licensee, reactor/containment type, nuclear...

  16. Voltage Control in Wind Power Plants with Doubly Fed Generators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garcia, Jorge Martinez

    In this work, the process of designing a wind power plant composed of; doubly fed induction generators, a static compensator unit, mechanically switched capacitors and on-load tap changer, for voltage control is shown. The selected control structure is based on a decentralized system, since...... supplied by the doubly fed induction generator wind turbines is overcome by installing a reactive power compensator, i.e. a static compensator unit, which is coordinated with the plant control by a specific dispatcher. This dispatcher is set according to the result of the wind power plant load flow....... To release the operation of the converters during steady-state disturbances, mechanically switched capacitors are installed in the wind power plant, which due to their characteristics, they are appropriate for permanent disturbances compensation. The mechanically switched capacitors are controlled to allow...

  17. [Emergy evaluation of power plant eco-industrial park].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lingmei; Zhang, Jintun

    2004-06-01

    In this paper, new emergy indices for the material circulation utilization and energy cascade utilization were presented to evaluate the emergy of power plant eco-industrial park. The common contribution of the members in power plant eco-industrial park should be accounted for emergy yield ratio (PEYR) and emergy investment ratio (PEIR), namely, PEYR = sigma(i = 1)6 (Fi + Ri + Ni)/sigma(i = 1)6 Fi and PEIR = sigma(i = 1)6 Fi/sigma(i = 1)6 (Ni + Ri). Saved renewable and nonrenewable resources and purchased resources and decreased environmental load should be accounted for environmental loading ratio (PELR) and index of sustainability (PESI), namely, PELR = sigma(i = 1)6 Fi/F' and PESI = PEYR/PELR. Case analysis on the Shuozhou power plant eco-industrial park showed that new emergy indices were practical in evaluating the power plant eco-industrial park.

  18. Applying Functional Modeling for Accident Management of Nuclear Power Plant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lind, Morten; Zhang, Xinxin

    2014-01-01

    The paper investigate applications of functional modeling for accident management in complex industrial plant with special reference to nuclear power production. Main applications for information sharing among decision makers and decision support are identified. An overview of Multilevel Flow...

  19. Fukushima Nuclear Power Plant Accident and Nuclear Physicists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Otsuka Takaharu

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available I give an overview on the Fukushima Nuclear Power Plant Accident and a report on voluntary activities of Japanese nuclear physicists in this terrible event, including their major outcome.

  20. Possible genetic damage in the Czech nuclear power plant workers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sram, Radim J. [Laboratory of Genetic Ecotoxicology, Health Institute of Central Bohemia and Institute of Experimental Medicine AS CR, Videnska 1083, 142 20 Praha 4 (Czech Republic)]. E-mail: sram@biomed.cas.cz; Roessner, Pavel [Laboratory of Genetic Ecotoxicology, Health Institute of Central Bohemia and Institute of Experimental Medicine AS CR, Videnska 1083, 142 20 Praha 4 (Czech Republic); Rubes, Jiri [Veterinary Research Institute, Hudcova 70, 621 32 Brno (Czech Republic); Beskid, Olena [Laboratory of Genetic Ecotoxicology, Health Institute of Central Bohemia and Institute of Experimental Medicine AS CR, Videnska 1083, 142 20 Praha 4 (Czech Republic); Dusek, Zdik [Laboratory of Genetic Ecotoxicology, Health Institute of Central Bohemia and Institute of Experimental Medicine AS CR, Videnska 1083, 142 20 Praha 4 (Czech Republic); Chvatalova, Irena [Laboratory of Genetic Ecotoxicology, Health Institute of Central Bohemia and Institute of Experimental Medicine AS CR, Videnska 1083, 142 20 Praha 4 (Czech Republic); Schmuczerova, Jana [Laboratory of Genetic Ecotoxicology, Health Institute of Central Bohemia and Institute of Experimental Medicine AS CR, Videnska 1083, 142 20 Praha 4 (Czech Republic); Milcova, Alena [Laboratory of Genetic Ecotoxicology, Health Institute of Central Bohemia and Institute of Experimental Medicine AS CR, Videnska 1083, 142 20 Praha 4 (Czech Republic); Solansky, Ivo [Laboratory of Genetic Ecotoxicology, Health Institute of Central Bohemia and Institute of Experimental Medicine AS CR, Videnska 1083, 142 20 Praha 4 (Czech Republic); Bavorova, Hana [National Institute of Public Health, Srobarova 48, 100 42 Praha 10 (Czech Republic); Ocadlikova, Dana [National Institute of Public Health, Srobarova 48, 100 42 Praha 10 (Czech Republic); Kopecna, Olga [Veterinary Research Institute, Hudcova 70, 621 32 Brno (Czech Republic); Musilova, Petra [Veterinary Research Institute, Hudcova 70, 621 32 Brno (Czech Republic)

    2006-01-29

    The aim of our study was to identify occupational risk of irradiation exposure in the Czech nuclear power plant workers. We analyzed levels of chromosomal aberrations, a well-known biomarker of early biological effects and a predictor of cancer risk. We applied the conventional method of cytogenetic analysis and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH, whole chromosome painting for chromosomes 1 and 4, combined with a pancentromeric probe) to three groups: 123 subjects in the Temelin nuclear power plant (2 years in use), 114 subjects in the Dukovany nuclear power plant (20 years in use), and 53 matched controls from Ceske Budejovice. Nuclear power plant workers were divided into two groups: subjects with admittance into the monitored zone, and others. Following factors were also analyzed: GSTM1, GSTT1, GSTP1, XPD, XRCC1, hOGG1, p53, MTHFR, and MS gene polymorphisms, levels of vitamins A, C, E, and folate in plasma, and level of cotinine in urine. Long-term exposure to ionizing radiation in the monitored zone was 0.47 {+-} 1.50 mSv (miliSievert) in the Temelin nuclear power plant and 5.74 {+-} 9.57 mSv in the Dukovany nuclear power plant. Using the conventional cytogenetic analysis, we observed 1.90 {+-} 0.95 and 1.82 {+-} 1.19% AB.C. (percent of aberrant cells) in the Temelin nuclear power plant, and 2.39 {+-} 1.01 and 2.33 {+-} 1.04% AB.C. in the Dukovany nuclear power plant, for monitored zone workers and others, respectively. In the control group, we found 2.25 {+-} 0.82% AB.C. Genomic frequency of translocations F {sub G}/100 measured by FISH was 1.89 {+-} 1.40 and 2.01 {+-} 1.68 in the Temelin nuclear power plant, and 2.48 {+-} 1.93 and 2.14 {+-} 1.62 in the Dukovany nuclear power plant for monitored zone workers and others, respectively. In the control group, F {sub G}/100 was 1.83 {+-} 1.19. Following factors were identified as potential confounders by the conventional cytogenetic analysis: XPD-6, by the FISH: age, GSTP1 and p53Bst genotypes, long-term use

  1. Fuel Cell Power Plants Renewable and Waste Fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-13

    Fuel Cell Power Plants Renewable and Waste Fuels DOE-DOD Workshop Washington, DC. January 13, 2011 reliable, efficient, ultra-clean Report...2011 2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-00-2011 to 00-00-2011 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Fuel Cell Power Plants Renewable and Waste Fuels 5a. CONTRACT...Approved for public release; distribution unlimited 13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES presented at the DOE-DOD Waste-to-Energy using Fuel Cells Workshop held

  2. Nuclear Power Plant Maintenance Optimization with Heuristic Algorithm

    OpenAIRE

    Andrija Volkanovski; Leon Cizelj

    2014-01-01

    The test and maintenance activities are conducted in the nuclear power plants in order to prevent or limit failures resulting from the ageing or deterioration. The components and systems are partially or fully unavailable during the maintenance activities. This is especially important for the safety systems and corresponding equipment because they are important contributors to the overall nuclear power plant safety. A novel method for optimization of the maintenance activities in the nuclear ...

  3. Modeling of air pollution from the power plant ash dumps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aleksic, Nenad M.; Balać, Nedeljko

    A simple model of air pollution from power plant ash dumps is presented, with emission rates calculated from the Bagnold formula and transport simulated by the ATDL type model. Moisture effects are accounted for by assumption that there is no pollution on rain days. Annual mean daily sedimentation rates, calculated for the area around the 'Nikola Tesla' power plants near Belgrade for 1987, show reasonably good agreement with observations.

  4. Effective Parameters on Performance of Multipressure Combined Cycle Power Plants

    OpenAIRE

    Thamir K. Ibrahim; Rahman, M M

    2014-01-01

    A parametric analysis is performed for numerous configurations of a combined cycle gas turbine (CCGT) power plant, including single-pressure, double-pressure, triple-pressure, triple-pressure with reheat, and supplementary triple-pressure with reheat. The compression ratio of the gas turbine and the steam pressure of the steam turbine are taken as design parameters. The thermodynamic model was developed based on an existing MARAFIQ CCGT power plant and performance model code developed using t...

  5. Nuclear power plants. Site choice; Usinas nucleoeletricas. Escolha de local

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Atala, Drausio Lima

    2009-07-01

    This book establishes the standards for selection and development of criteria for evaluation of new nuclear sites in Brazil. The places where the new nuclear power plants will be installed must be adequate for construction and operation of the power plants will be submitted to Brazilian environmental and nuclear legislation of the Union, states and the local governments, besides to accomplish the world good practices of this activity.

  6. Technology qualification for IGCC power plant with CO2 Capture

    OpenAIRE

    Baig, Yasir

    2011-01-01

    Summary:This thesis presents the technology qualification plan for the integrated gasification combined cycle power plant (IGCC) with carbon dioxide capture based on DNV recommendations. Objectives of the thesis work were development of a qualification plan, heat balance, material balance and performance characteristics for IGCC with CO2 capture. GT PRO software by thermoflow was used for the development of heat balance, material balance and performance characteristics of power plant.IGCC wit...

  7. Inertial fusion power plant concept of operations and maintenance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knutson, Brad; Dunne, Mike; Kasper, Jack; Sheehan, Timothy; Lang, Dwight; Anklam, Tom; Roberts, Valerie; Mau, Derek

    2015-02-01

    Parsons and LLNL scientists and engineers performed design and engineering work for power plant pre-conceptual designs based on the anticipated laser fusion demonstrations at the National Ignition Facility (NIF). Work included identifying concepts of operations and maintenance (O&M) and associated requirements relevant to fusion power plant systems analysis. A laser fusion power plant would incorporate a large process and power conversion facility with a laser system and fusion engine serving as the heat source, based in part on some of the systems and technologies advanced at NIF. Process operations would be similar in scope to those used in chemical, oil refinery, and nuclear waste processing facilities, while power conversion operations would be similar to those used in commercial thermal power plants. While some aspects of the tritium fuel cycle can be based on existing technologies, many aspects of a laser fusion power plant presents several important and unique O&M requirements that demand new solutions. For example, onsite recovery of tritium; unique remote material handling systems for use in areas with high radiation, radioactive materials, or high temperatures; a five-year fusion engine target chamber replacement cycle with other annual and multi-year cycles anticipated for major maintenance of other systems, structures, and components (SSC); and unique SSC for fusion target waste recycling streams. This paper describes fusion power plant O&M concepts and requirements, how O&M requirements could be met in design, and how basic organizational and planning issues can be addressed for a safe, reliable, economic, and feasible fusion power plant.

  8. Inertial Fusion Power Plant Concept of Operations and Maintenance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anklam, T. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Knutson, B. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Dunne, A. M. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Kasper, J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Sheehan, T. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Lang, D. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Roberts, V. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Mau, D. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2015-01-15

    Parsons and LLNL scientists and engineers performed design and engineering work for power plant pre-conceptual designs based on the anticipated laser fusion demonstrations at the National Ignition Facility (NIF). Work included identifying concepts of operations and maintenance (O&M) and associated requirements relevant to fusion power plant systems analysis. A laser fusion power plant would incorporate a large process and power conversion facility with a laser system and fusion engine serving as the heat source, based in part on some of the systems and technologies advanced at NIF. Process operations would be similar in scope to those used in chemical, oil refinery, and nuclear waste processing facilities, while power conversion operations would be similar to those used in commercial thermal power plants. While some aspects of the tritium fuel cycle can be based on existing technologies, many aspects of a laser fusion power plant presents several important and unique O&M requirements that demand new solutions. For example, onsite recovery of tritium; unique remote material handling systems for use in areas with high radiation, radioactive materials, or high temperatures; a five-year fusion engine target chamber replacement cycle with other annual and multi-year cycles anticipated for major maintenance of other systems, structures, and components (SSC); and unique SSC for fusion target waste recycling streams. This paper describes fusion power plant O&M concepts and requirements, how O&M requirements could be met in design, and how basic organizational and planning issues can be addressed for a safe, reliable, economic, and feasible fusion power plant.

  9. Design and power management of an offshore medium voltage DC microgrid realized through high voltage power electronics technologies and control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grainger, Brandon Michael

    The growth in the electric power industry's portfolio of Direct Current (DC) based generation and loads have captured the attention of many leading research institutions. Opportunities for using DC based systems have been explored in electric ship design and have been a proven, reliable solution for transmitting bulk power onshore and offshore. To integrate many of the renewable resources into our existing AC grid, a number of power conversions through power electronics are required to condition the equipment for direct connection. Within the power conversion stages, there is always a requirement to convert to or from DC. The AC microgrid is a conceptual solution proposed for integrating various types of renewable generation resources. The fundamental microgrid requirements include the capability of operating in islanding mode and/or grid connected modes. The technical challenges associated with microgrids include (1) operation modes and transitions that comply with IEEE1547 without extensive custom engineering and (2) control architecture and communication. The Medium Voltage DC (MVDC) architecture, explored by the University of Pittsburgh, can be visualized as a special type of DC microgrid. This dissertation is multi-faceted, focused on many design aspects of an offshore DC microgrid. The focal points of the discussion are focused on optimized high power, high frequency magnetic material performance in electric machines, transformers, and DC/DC power converters---all components found within offshore, power system architectures. A new controller design based upon model reference control is proposed and shown to stabilize the electric motor drives (modeled as constant power loads), which serve as the largest power consuming entities in the microgrid. The design and simulation of a state-of-the-art multilevel converter for High Voltage DC (HVDC) is discussed and a component sensitivity analysis on fault current peaks is explored. A power management routine is

  10. Nuclear Power Plant Maintenance Optimization with Heuristic Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrija Volkanovski

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The test and maintenance activities are conducted in the nuclear power plants in order to prevent or limit failures resulting from the ageing or deterioration. The components and systems are partially or fully unavailable during the maintenance activities. This is especially important for the safety systems and corresponding equipment because they are important contributors to the overall nuclear power plant safety. A novel method for optimization of the maintenance activities in the nuclear power plant considering the plant safety is developed and presented. The objective function of the optimization is the mean value of the selected risk measure. The risk measure is assessed from the minimal cut sets identified in the Probabilistic Safety Assessment. The optimal solution of the objective function is estimated with genetic algorithm. The proposed method is applied on probabilistic safety analysis model of the selected safety system of the reference nuclear power plant. Obtained results show that optimization of maintenance decreases the risk and thus improves the plant safety. The implications of the consideration of different constraints on the obtained results are investigated and presented. The future prospects for the optimization of the maintenance activities in the nuclear power plants with the presented method are discussed.

  11. 76 FR 55137 - Monitoring the Effectiveness of Maintenance at Nuclear Power Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-06

    ... COMMISSION Monitoring the Effectiveness of Maintenance at Nuclear Power Plants AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory..., ``Monitoring the Effectiveness of Maintenance at Nuclear Power Plants.'' This guide endorses Revision 4A to... Effectiveness of Maintenance at Nuclear Power Plants,'' which provides methods that......

  12. 77 FR 30030 - Monitoring the Effectiveness of Maintenance at Nuclear Power Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-21

    ... COMMISSION Monitoring the Effectiveness of Maintenance at Nuclear Power Plants AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory... Maintenance at Nuclear Power Plants.'' This guide endorses Revision 4A to Nuclear Management and Resources... Effectiveness of Maintenance at Nuclear Power Plants,'' Part 50, ``Domestic......

  13. Harmonic Resonances in Wind Power Plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fernandez, Francisco Daniel Freijedo; Chaudhary, Sanjay; Teodorescu, Remus

    2015-01-01

    converters. Subsequently, pros and cons of frequency and time domain analysis methods are outlined. The next sections are devoted to mitigation methods implemented in the power electronics converters. From the wind turbine perspective, different techniques to enhance the robustness of the controller...... are analyzed. Subsequently, the suitability for active damping of harmonics using STATCOM devices is assessed, with focus both on control techniques and power converter technologies....

  14. Model Predictive Control of Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle Power Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    B. Wayne Bequette; Priyadarshi Mahapatra

    2010-08-31

    The primary project objectives were to understand how the process design of an integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) power plant affects the dynamic operability and controllability of the process. Steady-state and dynamic simulation models were developed to predict the process behavior during typical transients that occur in plant operation. Advanced control strategies were developed to improve the ability of the process to follow changes in the power load demand, and to improve performance during transitions between power levels. Another objective of the proposed work was to educate graduate and undergraduate students in the application of process systems and control to coal technology. Educational materials were developed for use in engineering courses to further broaden this exposure to many students. ASPENTECH software was used to perform steady-state and dynamic simulations of an IGCC power plant. Linear systems analysis techniques were used to assess the steady-state and dynamic operability of the power plant under various plant operating conditions. Model predictive control (MPC) strategies were developed to improve the dynamic operation of the power plants. MATLAB and SIMULINK software were used for systems analysis and control system design, and the SIMULINK functionality in ASPEN DYNAMICS was used to test the control strategies on the simulated process. Project funds were used to support a Ph.D. student to receive education and training in coal technology and the application of modeling and simulation techniques.

  15. Growing the Space Station's electrical power plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundberg, Gale R.

    For over a decade NASA LeRC has been defining, demonstrating, and evaluating power electronic components and multi-kilowatt, multiply redundant, electrical power systems as part of OAST charter. Whether one considers aircraft (commercial transport/military), Space Station Freedom, growth station, launch vehicles, or the new Human Exploration Initiative, the conclusions remain the same: high frequency AC power distribution and control is superior to all other approaches for achieving a fast, smart, safe, versatile, and growable electrical power system that will meet a wide range of mission options. To meet the cost and operability goals of future aerospace missions that require significantly higher electrical power and longer durations, we must learn to integrate multiple technologies in ways that enhance overall system synergisms. The way NASA is doing business in space electric power is challenged and some approaches for evolving large space vehicles and platforms in well constructed steps to provide safe, ground testable, growable, smart systems that provide simple, replicative logic structures, which enable hardware and software verification, validation, and implementation are proposed. Viewgraphs are included.

  16. STARFIRE: a commercial tokamak fusion power plant study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-09-01

    This volume contains chapters on each of the following topics: (1) radioactivity, (2) heat transport and energy conversion, (3) tritium systems, (4) electrical storage and power supplies, (5) support structure, (6) cryogenics, (7) instrumentation and control, (8) maintenance and operation, (9) balance of plant design, (10) safety and environmental analysis, (11) economic analysis, and (12) plant construction.

  17. Power Plant Optimization: Oh What a Tune-Up!

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rubner, J.

    2010-01-01

    It takes around a decade to plan and build a power plant. As a result, within a few years of commissioning, most plants no longer meet the latest technological standards. But in many cases, replacement of key parts and adjustments to a plant’s control system can help it to meet evolving requirements

  18. Layout of China’s Nuclear Power Plants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Plants in operation Qinshan Nuclear Power Plant-total installed capacity of 2.956 gigawatts The first stage started construction in March 1985, was incorporated into grids in December 1991 and began business operation in April 1994. It has an installed capacity of 300

  19. Bituminous coal fired USC power plants for the European market

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klebes, J.; Tigges, K.-D.; Klauke, F.; Busekrus, K. [Hitachi Power Europe GmbH (Germany)

    2007-07-01

    The presentation, in slide/viewgraph form, is in sections entitled: Introduction; Steam generator design features; Optimization of plant efficiency; Steam turbine design features (USC material design principles; rotating and stationary blades; last stage blade (LP 48 inch)); and Future developments. The presentation includes a chart of recent highly efficient coal-fired power plants in Japan, China and Germany.

  20. Evaluation of creep damage in power plant applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Auerkari, P.; Salonen, J. [VTT Manufacturing Technology, Espoo (Finland)] McNiven, U. [IVO Generation Services Ltd., Naantali (Finland)] Roennberg, J. [Imatran Voima Oy, Vantaa (Finland)] Borggreen, K. [FORCE Institute, Broendby (Germany)

    1997-12-31

    Metallographic inspection of creep cavitation damage provides routine support for maintenance scheduling of high temperature components in power plants. The available European inspection experience has been reviewed, particularly considering the performance of thick-section steam systems outside the boiler. Applications are highlighted with examples from plant. (orig.) 8 refs.

  1. Phytomonitoring of air pollution around a thermal power plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agrawal, M.; Agrawal, S. B.

    This study was undertaken in order to assess the impact of air pollutants on vegetation around Obra thermal power plant (1550 M W capacity) in the Mirzapur district of Uttar Pradesh. For this purpose, Mangifera indica, Citrus medico and Bouganvillaea spectabilis plants, most common at all sites, were selected as test plants. Five study sites were selected northeast (prevailing wind) of the thermal power plant. A control site was also selected at a distance of 30 km north of Obra. Responses of plants to pollutants in terms of presence of foliar injury symptoms and changes in chlorophyll, ascorbic acid and S content were measured. These changes were correlated with ambient SO 2 and suspended particulate matter (SPM) concentrations and the amount of dust settled on leaf surfaces. The SO 2 and SPM concentrations were quite high in the immediate vicinity of the power plant. There also exists a direct relationship between the concentration of SPM in air and amount of dust deposited on leaf surfaces. Maximum dust deposition was observed on M. indica plants. The levels of foliar injury, chlorophyll and ascorbic acid were found to decrease and that of S increase in plants around the power plant in comparison to those growing at a control site. The magnitude of such changes was maximum in M. indica and minimum in C. medica. A species specific direct relationship between the increase in the amount of S and decrease in chlorophyll content was observed. The study suggests that differential sensitivity of plants to SO 2 may be used in evaluating the air pollution impact around emission sources and M. indica plants can be used as an indicator plant for quantifying biological changes.

  2. Phytomonitoring of air pollution around a thermal power plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agrawal, M.; Agrawal, S.B.

    1989-01-01

    This study was undertaken in order to assess the impact of air pollutants on vegetation around Obra thermal power plant (1550 MW capacity) in the Mirzapur district of Uttar Pradesh. For this purpose, Mangifera indica, Citrus medica and Bouganvillaea spectabilis plants, most common at all sites, were selected as test plants. Five study sites were selected northeast (prevailing wind) of the thermal power plant. A control site was also selected at a distance of 30 km north of Obra. Responses of plant to pollutants in terms of presence of foliar injury symptoms and changes in chlorophyll, ascorbic acid and S content were measured. These changes were correlated with ambient SO/sub 2/ and suspended particulate matter (SPM) concentrations and the amount of dust settled on leaf surfaces. The SO/sub 2/ and SPM concentrations were quite high in the immediate vicinity of the power plant. There also exists a direct relationship between the concentration of SPM in air and amount of dust deposited on leaf surfaces. Maximum dust deposition was observed on M. indica plants. The levels of foliar injury, chlorophyll and ascorbic acid were found to decrease and that of S increase in plants around the power plant in comparison to those growing at a control site. The magnitude of such changes was maximum in M. indica and minimum in C. medica. A species specific direct relationship between the increase in the amount of S and decrease in chlorophyll content was observed. The study suggests that differential sensitivity of plants to SO/sub 2/ may be used in evaluating the air pollution impact around emission sources and M. indica plants can be used as an indicator plant for quantifying biological changes. 28 refs., 3 figs., 5 tabs.

  3. Active power filter for medium voltage networks with predictive current control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verne, Santiago A.; Valla, Maria I. [Laboratorio de Electronica Industrial, Control e Instrumentacion (LEICI), Facultad de Ingenieria, Universidad Nacional de La Plata and CONICET, La Plata (Argentina)

    2010-12-15

    A transformer less Shunt Active Power Filter (SAPF) for medium voltage distribution networks based on Multilevel Diode Clamped Inverter is presented in this paper. Converter current control is based on a Model Predictive strategy, which gives very fast current response. Also, the algorithm includes voltage balancing capability which is essential for proper converter operation. The presented current control algorithm is naturally applicable to converters with an arbitrary number of levels with reduced computational effort by virtue of the incorporation of switching restrictions which are necessary for reliable converter operation. The performance of the proposed algorithm is evaluated by means of computer simulations. (author)

  4. Lesbian camp: An unearthing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Elly-Jean

    2016-01-01

    Camp-a sensibility, a style, and a form of artistic self-expression-is an elusive concept said to be in the eye of the beholder. To refute Susan Sontag's ( 1966 ) claims that camp is apolitical and not especially homosexual, a number of recent scholarly works have been geared toward revealing camp's fundamental gayness. With the odd footnote aside, lesbian camp has been collapsed into the category of gay male camp, if not eclipsed entirely. Despite the negligible efforts made to legitimize lesbian camp, there are numerous salient cultural examples one might draw on to illustrate, typify, and substantiate a lesbian camp sensibility. I lay the ground work for this scholarly exercise by outlining various definitions and critiques of camp, and by discussing its history and application to queer theory. Then, to unveil lesbian camp, three non-mutually exclusive categories are discussed: classic, erotic, and radical. By gathering various strands of inquiry, and various textual examples (e.g., photography, artistic performances, and literary tropes), this article attempts to reach a more inclusive and nuanced understanding of lesbian camp.

  5. Monte Carlo based water/medium stopping-power ratios for various ICRP and ICRU tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Varea, José M; Carrasco, Pablo; Panettieri, Vanessa; Brualla, Lorenzo

    2007-11-07

    Water/medium stopping-power ratios, s(w,m), have been calculated for several ICRP and ICRU tissues, namely adipose tissue, brain, cortical bone, liver, lung (deflated and inflated) and spongiosa. The considered clinical beams were 6 and 18 MV x-rays and the field size was 10 x 10 cm(2). Fluence distributions were scored at a depth of 10 cm using the Monte Carlo code PENELOPE. The collision stopping powers for the studied tissues were evaluated employing the formalism of ICRU Report 37 (1984 Stopping Powers for Electrons and Positrons (Bethesda, MD: ICRU)). The Bragg-Gray values of s(w,m) calculated with these ingredients range from about 0.98 (adipose tissue) to nearly 1.14 (cortical bone), displaying a rather small variation with beam quality. Excellent agreement, to within 0.1%, is found with stopping-power ratios reported by Siebers et al (2000a Phys. Med. Biol. 45 983-95) for cortical bone, inflated lung and spongiosa. In the case of cortical bone, s(w,m) changes approximately 2% when either ICRP or ICRU compositions are adopted, whereas the stopping-power ratios of lung, brain and adipose tissue are less sensitive to the selected composition. The mass density of lung also influences the calculated values of s(w,m), reducing them by around 1% (6 MV) and 2% (18 MV) when going from deflated to inflated lung.

  6. Mexico and the 21st Century Power Partnership: Paving the Way to a Greener, Smarter, More Flexible Grid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2016-05-01

    The 21st Century Power Partnership's program in Mexico (21CPP Mexico) is one initiative of the Clean Energy Ministerial carried out in cooperation with government and local stakeholders, drawing upon an international community of power system expertise.The overall goal of this program is to support Mexico's power system transformation by accelerating the transition to a reliable, financially robust, and low-carbon system.

  7. Wind Power Plant Prediction by Using Neural Networks: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Z.; Gao, W.; Wan, Y. H.; Muljadi, E.

    2012-08-01

    This paper introduces a method of short-term wind power prediction for a wind power plant by training neural networks based on historical data of wind speed and wind direction. The model proposed is shown to achieve a high accuracy with respect to the measured data.

  8. China's First Orimulsion-Fueled Power Plant Constructed in Zhanjiang

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xing Jianxiao

    2003-01-01

    @@ A ceremony commencement of Orimulsion-fueled electric power generation project was held in Zhanjiang City,Guangdong Province, on November 26. Vice Governor of Guangdong Province You Ningfeng, Vice President of PetroChina and other officials from the related departments attended the foundation-laying ceremony for the power plant.

  9. Reactive power control with CHP plants - A demonstration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nyeng, Preben; Østergaard, Jacob; Andersen, Claus A.;

    2010-01-01

    power rating of 7.3 MW on two synchronous generators. A closed-loop control is implemented, that remote controls the CHP plant to achieve a certain reactive power flow in a near-by substation. The solution communicates with the grid operator’s existing SCADA system to obtain measurements from...

  10. Moving with climbing plants from Charles Darwin's time into the 21st century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isnard, Sandrine; Silk, Wendy K

    2009-07-01

    We provide an overview of research on climbing plants from Charles Darwin to the present day. Following Darwin's interests, this review will focus on functional perspectives including attachment mechanisms and stem structure and function. We draw attention to a number of unsolved problems inviting future research. These include the mechanism for establishment of the twining habit, a quantitative description following the development of a tissue element through space and time, the chemistry of sticky exudates, the microstructure of xylem and the capacity for water storage, the vulnerability to embolism, and the mechanism for embolism repair. In conclusion we cite evidence that, in response to increasing CO(2) concentration, anthropic perturbation and/ or increasing forest fragmentation, lianas are increasing relative to tree species. In the 21st century, we are returning to the multiscale, multidisciplinary approach taken by Darwin to understand natural history.

  11. Hydrogen sulfide inhibits A2A adenosine receptor agonist induced β-amyloid production in SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells via a cAMP dependent pathway.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhushan Vijay Nagpure

    Full Text Available Alzheimer's disease (AD is the leading cause of senile dementia in today's society. Its debilitating symptoms are manifested by disturbances in many important brain functions, which are influenced by adenosine. Hence, adenosinergic system is considered as a potential therapeutic target in AD treatment. In the present study, we found that sodium hydrosulfide (NaHS, an H2S donor, 100 µM attenuated HENECA (a selective A2A receptor agonist, 10-200 nM induced β-amyloid (1-42 (Aβ42 production in SH-SY5Y cells. NaHS also interfered with HENECA-stimulated production and post-translational modification of amyloid precursor protein (APP by inhibiting its maturation. Measurement of the C-terminal APP fragments generated from its enzymatic cleavage by β-site amyloid precursor protein cleaving enzyme 1 (BACE1 showed that NaHS did not have any significant effect on β-secretase activity. However, the direct measurements of HENECA-elevated γ-secretase activity and mRNA expressions of presenilins suggested that the suppression of Aβ42 production in NaHS pretreated cells was mediated by inhibiting γ-secretase. NaHS induced reductions were accompanied by similar decreases in intracellular cAMP levels and phosphorylation of cAMP responsive element binding protein (CREB. NaHS significantly reduced the elevated cAMP and Aβ42 production caused by forskolin (an adenylyl cyclase, AC agonist alone or forskolin in combination with IBMX (a phosphodiesterase inhibitor, but had no effect on those caused by IBMX alone. Moreover, pretreatment with NaHS significantly attenuated HENECA-elevated AC activity and mRNA expressions of various AC isoforms. These data suggest that NaHS may preferentially suppress AC activity when it was stimulated. In conclusion, H2S attenuated HENECA induced Aβ42 production in SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells through inhibiting γ-secretase via a cAMP dependent pathway.

  12. 78 FR 42556 - Maine Yankee Atomic Power Company; Maine Yankee Atomic Power Plant Issuance of Environmental...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-16

    ... COMMISSION Maine Yankee Atomic Power Company; Maine Yankee Atomic Power Plant Issuance of Environmental..., 2011, with various implementation dates for each of the rule changes. Maine Yankee Atomic Power Company... ADAMS, which provides text and image files of NRC's public documents. If you do not have access to...

  13. Use of expert systems in nuclear power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uhrig, R.E.

    1989-01-01

    The application of technologies, particularly expert systems, to the control room activities in a nuclear power plant has the potential to reduce operator error and increase plant safety, reliability, and efficiency. Furthermore, there are a large number of nonoperating activities (testing, routine maintenance, outage planning, equipment diagnostics, and fuel management) in which expert systems can increase the efficiency and effectiveness of overall plant and corporate operations. This document presents a number of potential applications of expert systems in the nuclear power field. 36 refs., 2 tabs.

  14. State regulation and power plant productivity: background and recommendations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-09-01

    This report was prepared by representatives of several state regulatory agencies. It is a guide to some of the activities currently under way in state agencies to promote increased availability of electrical generating power plants. Standard measures of plant performance are defined and the nature of data bases that report such measures is discussed. It includes reviews of current state, federal, and industry programs to enhance power plant productivity and provides detailed outlines of programs in effect in California, Illinois, Michigan, New York, North Carolina, Ohio, and Texas. A number of actions are presented that could be adopted by state regulatory agencies, depending on local conditions. They include: develop a commission position or policy statement to encourage productivity improvements by utilities; coordinate state efforts with ongoing industry and government programs to improve the acquisition of power plant performance data and the maintenance of quality information systems; acquire the capability to perform independent analyses of power plant productivity; direct the establishment of productivity improvement programs, including explicit performance objectives for both existing and planned power plants, and a performance program; establish a program of incentives to motivate productivity improvement activities; and participate in ongoing efforts at all levels and initiate new actions to promote productivity improvements.

  15. Operating experience from Swedish nuclear power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-06-01

    During 1997 the PWRs in Ringhals performed extremely well (capability factors 85-90%), the unit Ringhals 2 reached the best capability factor since commercial operation started in 1976. The BWRs made an average 76% capability, which is somewhat less than in 1996. The slightly reduced capability derives from ongoing modernization projects at several units. At the youngest plants, Forsmark 3 and Oskarshamn 3, capability and utilization were very high. Events and data for 1997 are given for each reactor, together with operational statistics for the years 1990-1997. A number of safety-related events are reported, which occurred st the Swedish plants during 1997. These events are classified as level 1 or higher on the international nuclear event scale (INES).

  16. Development of nuclear power plant real-time engineering simulator

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIN Meng; YANG Yan-Hua; ZHANG Rong-Hua; HU Rui

    2005-01-01

    A nuclear power plant real-time engineering simulator was developed based on general-purpose thermal-hydraulic system simulation code RELAP5. It main1y consists of three parts: improved thermal-hydraulic system simulation code RELAP5, control and protection system and human-machine interface. A normal transient of CHASHMA nuclear power plant turbine step load change from 100% to 90% of full power, was simulated by the engineering simulator as an application example. This paper presents structure and main features of the engineering simulator, and application results are shown and discussed.

  17. Model-free adaptive control of advanced power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheng, George Shu-Xing; Mulkey, Steven L.; Wang, Qiang

    2015-08-18

    A novel 3-Input-3-Output (3.times.3) Model-Free Adaptive (MFA) controller with a set of artificial neural networks as part of the controller is introduced. A 3.times.3 MFA control system using the inventive 3.times.3 MFA controller is described to control key process variables including Power, Steam Throttle Pressure, and Steam Temperature of boiler-turbine-generator (BTG) units in conventional and advanced power plants. Those advanced power plants may comprise Once-Through Supercritical (OTSC) Boilers, Circulating Fluidized-Bed (CFB) Boilers, and Once-Through Supercritical Circulating Fluidized-Bed (OTSC CFB) Boilers.

  18. The power plant among Three Gorges; Kraftstasjonen blant Tre kloefter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stensvold, Tore

    2003-07-01

    In 2009 the Three Gorges power station on the Yangtze River in China will be completed, with 26 turbines that together will produce 84.60 TWh/year. In this article a Norwegian expert describes his experience from a tourist visit, approaching the plant onboard a cruise ship. In addition to giving the main technical data he comments on peoples' resistance against being transferred, on scepticism and fear of a dam break, on the shortcomings of the power grid and on the not very extensive Norwegian contribution to the world's largest power plant.

  19. Changes in plant medium composition after a spaceflight experiment: Potassium levels are of special interest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, Howard G.; Krikorian, A. D.

    2008-09-01

    We present results on the analysis of 100 mL medium samples extracted from sterilized foam (Smithers-Oasis, Kent OH) used to support the growth of a representative dicotyledon ( Haplopappus gracilis) and a representative monocotyledon ( Hemerocallis cv Autumn Blaze) in NASA's Plant Growth Unit (PGU) during a 5-day Space Shuttle flight and ground experiments. At recovery, the media remaining within replicate ( n = 5) foam blocks (for both the spaceflight and ground experiments) were extracted under vacuum, filtered and subjected to elemental analyses. A unique aspect of this experiment was that all plants were either aseptically-generated tissue culture propagated plantlets or aseptic seedling clones. The design of the PGU facilitated the maintenance of asepsis throughout the mission (confirmed by post-flight microbial sampling) and thus any possible impact of microorganisms on medium composition was eliminated. Concentration levels of some elements remained the same, while some decreased and others increased. There was a significant two-fold difference between the final concentrations of potassium when the Earth-based and microgravity experiments were contrasted.

  20. INDITEP: The first pre-commercial DSG solar power plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zarza, Eduardo; Rojas, M' a Esther; Gonzalez, Lourdes [Plataforma Solar de Almeria, CIEMAT, Apartado P.O. Box 22, 04200 Tabernas, Almeria (Spain); Caballero, Jose M' a [INITEC Energia, Principe de Vergara 120, 28002 Madrid (Spain); Rueda, Fernando [Iberdrola Ingenieria consultoria, Avda. de Burgos, 8B, Edif. Genesis, 28036 Madrid (Spain)

    2006-10-15

    This paper presents the conceptual design of the first solar power plant using Direct Steam Generation (DSG) in a parabolic-trough solar field. Experience and know-how in the DSG process acquired during the DISS project were applied in designing the solar field of this plant. The 5-MWe plant is composed of a DSG parabolic-trough solar field connected to a superheated steam Rankine power cycle. The solar field produces 410{sup o}C/70-bar superheated steam. Detail engineering of this plant is currently underway within the framework of the INDITEP project, which is promoted by a German-Spanish consortium with the financial support of the European Commission (Contract No. ENK5-CT-2001-00540). The main design objective is to assure high operational flexibility and reliability. This is the reason why a robust superheated steam turbine has been selected, though the efficiency of its power block is modest. (author)

  1. Condenser Optimization in Steam Power Plant

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sukru Bekdemir; Recep Ozturk; Zehra Yumurtac

    2003-01-01

    In this paper the effects of the condenser design parameters (such as turbine inlet condition, turbine power and condenser pressure) on heat transfer area, cooling water flow-rate, condenser cost and specific energy generation cost are studied for surface type condenser.The results are given in the text and also shown as diagrams.

  2. Evaluation of Hybrid Power Plants using Biomass, Photovoltaics and Steam Electrolysis for Hydrogen and Power Generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrakopoulou, F.; Sanz, J.

    2014-12-01

    Steam electrolysis is a promising process of large-scale centralized hydrogen production, while it is also considered an excellent option for the efficient use of renewable solar and geothermal energy resources. This work studies the operation of an intermediate temperature steam electrolyzer (ITSE) and its incorporation into hybrid power plants that include biomass combustion and photovoltaic panels (PV). The plants generate both electricity and hydrogen. The reference -biomass- power plant and four variations of a hybrid biomass-PV incorporating the reference biomass plant and the ITSE are simulated and evaluated using exergetic analysis. The variations of the hybrid power plants are associated with (1) the air recirculation from the electrolyzer to the biomass power plant, (2) the elimination of the sweep gas of the electrolyzer, (3) the replacement of two electric heaters with gas/gas heat exchangers, and (4) the replacement two heat exchangers of the reference electrolyzer unit with one heat exchanger that uses steam from the biomass power plant. In all cases, 60% of the electricity required in the electrolyzer is covered by the biomass plant and 40% by the photovoltaic panels. When comparing the hybrid plants with the reference biomass power plant that has identical operation and structure as that incorporated in the hybrid plants, we observe an efficiency decrease that varies depending on the scenario. The efficiency decrease stems mainly from the low effectiveness of the photovoltaic panels (14.4%). When comparing the hybrid scenarios, we see that the elimination of the sweep gas decreases the power consumption due to the elimination of the compressor used to cover the pressure losses of the filter, the heat exchangers and the electrolyzer. Nevertheless, if the sweep gas is used to preheat the air entering the boiler of the biomass power plant, the efficiency of the plant increases. When replacing the electric heaters with gas-gas heat exchangers, the

  3. Psychological empowerment in French nuclear power plants

    OpenAIRE

    Fillol, Charlotte

    2011-01-01

    Since the eighties, nuclear safety has been discussed in organizational studies and constitutes nowadays a specific stream with several standpoints. Regarding the reliability of nuclear plants, the nuclear safety literature has emphasized on the crucial role of individuals and human factors. Especially, some researchers have noticed rule breaking behavior and the impact of individual self-confidence on thebehavior; but without deepening their analyses. As high self-esteem and confidence, i.e....

  4. Existing large steam power plant upgraded for hydrogen production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galanti, L.; Franzoni, A.; Traverso, A.; Massardo, A.F. [University of Genoa, Genoa (Italy)

    2011-05-15

    This paper presents and discusses the results of a complete thermoeconomic analysis of an integrated power plant for co-production of electricity and hydrogen via pyrolysis and gasification processes fed by various coals and mixture of coal and biomass, applied to an existing large steam power plant (ENEL Brindisi power plant - 660 MWe). Two different technologies for the syngas production section are considered: pyrolysis process and direct pressurized gasification. Moreover, the proximity of a hydrogen production and purification plants to an existing steam power plant favors the inter-exchange of energy streams, mainly in the form of hot water and steam, which reduces the costs of auxiliary equipment. The high quality of the hydrogen would guarantee its usability for distributed generation and for public transport. The results were obtained using WTEMP thermoeconomic software, developed by the Thermochemical Power Group of the University of Genoa, and this project has been carried out within the framework of the FISR National project 'Integrated systems for hydrogen production and utilization in distributed power generation'.

  5. Layouts of trigeneration plants for centralized power supply

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klimenko, A. V.; Agababov, V. S.; Il'ina, I. P.; Rozhnatovskii, V. D.; Burmakina, A. V.

    2016-06-01

    One of the possible and, under certain conditions, sufficiently effective methods for reducing consumption of fuel and energy resources is the development of plants for combined generation of different kinds of energy. In the power industry of Russia, the facilities have become widespread in which the cogeneration technology, i.e., simultaneous generation of electric energy and heat, is implemented. Such facilities can use different plants, viz., gas- and steam-turbine plants and gas-reciprocating units. Cogeneration power supply can be further developed by simultaneously supplying the users not only with electricity and heat but also with cold. Such a technology is referred to as trigeneration. To produce electricity and heat, trigeneration plants can use the same facilities that are used in cogeneration, namely, gas-turbine plants, steam-turbine plants, and gas-reciprocating units. Cold can be produced in trigeneration plants using thermotransformers of various kinds, such as vaporcompression thermotransformers, air thermotransformers, and absorption thermotransformers, that operate as chilling machines. The thermotransformers can also be used in the trigeneration plants to generate heat. The main advantage of trigeneration plants based on gas-turbine plants or gas-reciprocating units over cogeneration plants is the increased thermodynamic power supply efficiency owing to utilization of the waste-gas heat not only in winter but also in summer. In the steam-turbine-based trigeneration plants equipped with absorption thermotransformers, the enhancement of the thermodynamic power supply efficiency is determined by the increase in the heat extraction load during the nonheating season. The article presents calculated results that demonstrate higher thermodynamic efficiency of a gas-turbine-based plant with an absorption thermotransformer that operates in the trigeneration mode compared with a cogeneration gas-turbine plant. The structural arrangements of trigeneration

  6. The first in Poland demonstrative ORC power plant of low power output

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nowak, Wladyslaw; Borsukiewicz-Gozdur, Aleksandra; Stachel, Aleksander A. [West Pomeranian Univ. of Technology, Szczecin (Poland); Klonowicz, Wojciech; Hanausek, Pawel [Turboservice Sp. z o.o., Lodz (Poland); Klonowicz, Piotr; Magiera, Radomir [Lodz Univ. of Technology (Poland)

    2010-07-01

    A description of the power plant working according to the organic Clausius-Rankine cycle (ORC) and developed at the Department of Heat Engineering (KTC), West Pomeranian University of Technology in Szczecin, is presented. The ORC power plant is powered by the low temperature heat of hot water with the temperature of up to 100 C. The hot water heat is here converted into mechanical energy that is generated by a turbine and used to drive a centrifugal air compressor. The ORC turbine is supplied with dry, saturated vapour of the R227ea working fluid of low boiling point. The working fluid vapour is generated in a combined preheater-evaporator heat exchanger. The results of calculations and experimental measurements are presented and supplemented with conclusions derived from the ORC power plant operation. Perspective modernization of the ORC power plant scheme is also outlined. (orig.)

  7. Building tomorrow's nuclear power plants with 4{sup +}D VR technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Il S.; Yoon, Sang H.; Shim, Kyu W.; Yu, Yong H.; Suh, Kune Y. [PhiloSOPhIA, Inc., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2002-04-15

    There continues to be an increasing demand of electricity around the globe to fuel the industrial growth and to promote the human welfare. The economic activities have brought about richness in our material and cultural lives, in which process the electric power has been at the heart of the versatile energy sources. In order to timely and competitively respond to rapidly changing energy environment in the twenty-first century there is a growing need to build the advanced nuclear power plants in the unlimited workspace of virtual reality (VR) prior to commissioning. One can then realistically evaluate their construction time and cost per varying methods and options available from the leading-edge technology. In particular a great deal of efforts have yet to be made for time- and cost-dependent plant simulation and dynamically coupled database construction in the VR space. The operator training and personnel education may also benefit from the VR technology. The present work is being proposed in the three-dimensional space and time plus cost coordinates, i. e. four plus dimensional (4{sup +}D) coordinates. The 4{sup +}D VR application will enable the nuclear industry to narrow the technological gap from the other leading industries that have long since been employing the VR engineering. The 4{sup +}D technology will help nurture public understanding of the special discipline of nuclear power plants. The technology will also facilitate public access to the knowledge on the nuclear science and engineering which has so far been monopolized by the academia, national laboratories and the heavy industry. The 4{sup +}D virtual design and construction will open up the new horizon for revitalization of the nuclear industry over the globe in the foreseeable future. Considering the long construction and operation time for the nuclear power plants, the preliminary VR simulation capability for the plants will supply the vital information not only for the actual design and

  8. Stimulation of StAR expression by cAMP is controlled by inhibition of highly inducible SIK1 via CRTC2, a co-activator of CREB.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jinwoo; Tong, Tiegang; Takemori, Hiroshi; Jefcoate, Colin

    2015-06-15

    In mouse steroidogenic cells the activation of cholesterol metabolism is mediated by steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR). Here, we visualized a coordinated regulation of StAR transcription, splicing and post-transcriptional processing, which are synchronized by salt inducible kinase (SIK1) and CREB-regulated transcription coactivator (CRTC2). To detect primary RNA (pRNA), spliced primary RNA (Sp-RNA) and mRNA in single cells, we generated probe sets by using fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). These methods allowed us to address the nature of StAR gene expression and to visualize protein-nucleic acid interactions through direct detection. We show that SIK1 represses StAR expression in Y1 adrenal and MA10 testis cells through inhibition of processing mediated by CRTC2. Digital image analysis matches qPCR analyses of the total cell culture. Evidence is presented for spatially separate accumulation of StAR pRNA and Sp-RNA at the gene loci in the nucleus. These findings establish that cAMP, SIK and CRTC mediate StAR expression through activation of individual StAR gene loci.

  9. Bubbling fluidized bed boiler for Vanaja power plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sormunen, R.; Haermae, P.; Vessonen, K.; Ketomaeki, A. [ed.

    1998-07-01

    At the Vanaja Power Plant, on the outskirts of Haemeenlinna, there have been changes which reflect the central goals in IVO`s product development work. At Vanaja, efficiency is combined with environmental friendliness. In the early 1980s, the plant was modernized to produce district heat in addition to electricity. At that time, along with the new gas turbine at the plant, the main fuel, coal, while remaining the fuel for the old boilers, was replaced by natural gas. This year a new type of bubbling fluidized bed boiler enabling continuous use of peat and trial use of biofuels along with coal was introduced at the plant. In addition to the Nordic countries, this kind of technology is required in central eastern Europe, where modernization of ageing power plants is being planned to achieve the best possible solutions in respect of production and the environment. IVO develops a new repair technique for underwater sites

  10. Preventive maintenance instrumentation results in Spanish nuclear power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palomo Anaya, M. Jose; Verdu Martin, Gumersindo, E-mail: mpalomo@iqn.upv.es, E-mail: gverdu@iqn.upv.es [ISIRYM Universidad Politecnica de Valencia, Valencia (Spain); Arnaldos Gonzalvez, Adoracion, E-mail: a.arnaldos@titaniast.com [TITANIA Servicios Tecnologicos SL, Valencia (Spain); Nieva, Marcelino Curiel, E-mail: m.curiel@lainsa.com [Logistica y Acondicionamientos Industriales SAU (LAINSA), Valencia (Spain)

    2011-07-01

    This paper is a recompilation of the most significant results in relation to the researching in Preventive and Predictive Maintenance in critical nuclear instrumentation for power plant operation, which it is being developed by Logistica y Acondicionamientos Industriales and The Isirym Institute of the Polytechnic University of Valencia. Instrumentation verification and test, it is a priority of the Power Plants Control and Instrumentation Department technicians. These procedures are necessary information for the daily power plant work. It is performed according to different procedures and in different moments of the fuel cycle depending on the instrumentation critical state and the monitoring process. Normally, this study is developed taking into account the instantaneous values of the instrumentation measures and, after their conversion to physical magnitude, they are analyzed according to the power plant operation point. Moreover, redundant sensors measurements are taken into consideration to the equipment and/or power plant monitoring. This work goes forward and it is in advanced to the instrument analysis as it is, independently of the operation point, using specific signal analysis techniques for preventive and predictive maintenance, with the aim to obtain not only information about possible malfunctions, but the degradation scale presented in the instrument or in the system measured. We present seven real case studies of Spanish Nuclear Power Plants each of them shall give a significant contribution to problem resolution and power plant performance: Fluctuations in sensor lines (case 1), Air presence in feed water lines (case 2), Root valve partially closed (case 3), Sensor malfunctions (case 4), Electrical source malfunctions (case 5), RTD malfunctions (case 6) and LPRM malfunctions (case 7). (author)

  11. Gas core reactor power plants designed for low proliferation potential

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lowry, L.L. (comp.)

    1977-09-01

    The feasibility of gas core nuclear power plants to provide adequate power while maintaining a low inventory and low divertability of fissile material is studied. Four concepts were examined. Two used a mixture of UF/sub 6/ and helium in the reactor cavities, and two used a uranium-argon plasma, held away from the walls by vortex buffer confinement. Power levels varied from 200 to 2500 MWth. Power plant subsystems were sized to determine their fissile material inventories. All reactors ran, with a breeding ratio of unity, on /sup 233/U born from thorium. Fission product removal was continuous. Newly born /sup 233/U was removed continuously from the breeding blanket and returned to the reactor cavities. The 2500-MWth power plant contained a total of 191 kg of /sup 233/U. Less than 4 kg could be diverted before the reactor shut down. The plasma reactor power plants had smaller inventories. In general, inventories were about a factor of 10 less than those in current U.S. power reactors.

  12. Investigation of valve failure problems in LWR power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1980-04-01

    An analysis of component failures from information in the computerized Nuclear Safety Information Center (NSIC) data bank shows that for both PWR and BWR plants the component category most responsible for approximately 19.3% of light water reactor (LWR) power plant shutdowns. This investigation by Burns and Roe, Inc. shows that the greatest cause of shutdowns in LWRs due to valve failures is leakage from valve stem packing. Both BWR plants and PWR plants have stem leakage problems (BWRs, 21% and PWRs, 34%).

  13. Analysis of engineering cycles power, refrigerating and gas liquefaction plant

    CERN Document Server

    Haywood, R W

    1991-01-01

    Extensively revised, updated and expanded, the fourth edition of this popular text provides a rigorous analytical treatment of modern energy conversion plant. Notable for both its theoretical and practical treatment of conventional and nuclear power plant, and its studies of refrigerating and gas-liquefaction plant. This fourth edition now includes material on topics of increasing concern in the fields of energy 'saving' and reduction of environmental pollution. This increased coverage deals specifically with the following areas: CHP (cogeneration) plant, studies of both gas and coal burning p

  14. Simulation of a Narrowband Power Line Communications System over Medium Voltage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolaos Chiotellis

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Narrowband Power Line Communications (NB-PLCs are investigated as an alternative option for transferring low rate smart grid (SG data via Medium Voltage (MV power lines. In this framework, two variants of orthogonal frequency division multiplexing are examined, namely Filtered-OFDM (F-OFDM and Wavelet-OFDM (W-OFDM, in an attempt to determine which of them is capable of transmitting low rate SG data to greater distances over non-branched MV power lines. The reach of NB-PLC signals via MV power lines is estimated, taking into account the transfer function of the relevant PLC channels and noise mechanisms as well as the specific features of the two modulation options under consideration. Simulations show that NB-PLC transmission constitutes a technically feasible and economically affordable option for exchanging low rate data with remote SG nodes dispersed over the MV grid. Moreover, simulations show that F-OFDM allows low rate data transmission to considerably greater distances compared to W-OFDM.

  15. Electric power plant emissions and public health

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Connor, A.B.; Roy, C. [Faculty of Maine Dartmouth Family Medical Residency, Fairfield, ME (United States)

    2008-02-15

    The generation of electric power is one important source of pollutants such as mercury, sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides, and fine particulate matter that can affect the respiratory, cardiovascular, and central nervous systems and cause pregnancy complications. But protecting people from environmental health hazards has become increasingly complex. Air pollutants are often invisible and travel many miles virtually undetected. Nurses can play a critical role in preventive strategies, as well as in the national debate on energy production and dependence on fossil fuels.

  16. Recreation Summer Camps 2016

    Data.gov (United States)

    Montgomery County of Maryland — List of all Camps (Register here:https://apm.activecommunities.com/montgomerycounty/Home) to include Aquatics, Basketball, Soccer, Special Interest, General Sports,...

  17. Registration Summer Camp 2016

    CERN Multimedia

    2016-01-01

    Reminder: registration for the CERN Staff Association Summer Camp is now open for children from 4 to 6 years old.   More information on the website: http://nurseryschool.web.cern.ch/. The summer camp is open to all children. The proposed cost is 480.-CHF/week, lunch included. The camp will be open weeks 27, 28, 29 and 30, from 8:30 a.m. to 5:30 p.m. For further questions, you are welcome to contact us by email at Summer.Camp@cern.ch. CERN Staff Association

  18. [Risk communication in construction of new nuclear power plant].

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Gui-Zhen; Lü, Yong-Long

    2013-03-01

    Accompanied by construction of new nuclear power plants in the coming decades in China, risk management has become increasingly politicized and contentious. Nuclear risk communication is a critical component in helping individuals prepare for, respond to, and recover from nuclear power emergencies. It was discussed that awareness of trust and public attitudes are important determinants in nuclear power risk communication and management. However, there is limited knowledge about how to best communicate with at-risk populations around nuclear power plant in China. To bridge this gap, this study presented the attitudinal data from a field survey in under-building Haiyang nuclear power plant, Shandong Province to measure public support for and opposition to the local construction of nuclear power plant. The paper discussed the structure of the communication process from a descriptive point of view, recognizing the importance of trust and understanding the information openness. The results showed that decision-making on nuclear power was dominated by a closed "iron nuclear triangle" of national governmental agencies, state-owned nuclear enterprises and scientific experts. Public participation and public access to information on nuclear constructions and assessments have been marginal and media was a key information source. As information on nuclear power and related risks is very restricted in China, Chinese citizens (51%) tend to choose the government as the most trustworthy source. More respondents took the negative attitudes toward nuclear power plant construction around home. It drew on studies about risk communication to develop some guidelines for successful risk communication. The conclusions have vast implications for how we approach risk management in the future. The findings should be of interest to state and local emergency managers, community-based organizations, public health researchers, and policy makers.

  19. Benefits of MS 6001B gas turbine in cogeneration: The UEM power plant case

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Remy, P.M. [Usine d`Electricite de Metz (France); Boissenin, Y.M.; Moliere, M.M. [European Gas Turbines, Belfort (France)

    1996-04-01

    Long before the neologism ``Cogeneration`` was coined (around 1978), UEM`s Chambiere Power Plant -- which dates back to the turn of the century -- was already supplying the city of Metz with combined heat and power. In 1992, Chambiere experienced a major turning point in its history with the installation of a new unit based on one MS 6001B ``Heavy Duty`` gas turbine. This model, rated 38 MWe-ISO and burning natural gas or fuel oil, has become the core of a new cogeneration unit exhibiting outstanding performance: efficiency higher than 80 percent (LHV) providing a 20 percent energy saving in comparison to a conventional plant; low pollutant emissions (NO{sub x}, CO, HC) and low contribution to the greenhouse effect (CO{sub 2}). The gas turbine has been equipped with two steam injection devices, for DeNO{sub x} and power augmentation, respectively, resulting in a very flexible system. After describing the power plant and giving its main achievements in the fields of energy and emissions, the paper briefly presents several improvements intended to protect both the turbine and the environment.

  20. Integrating wind and solar power into the energy systems of the 21st century

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flavin, C. [Worldwatch Inst., Washington, DC (United States)

    1995-12-31

    Although they have been pursued by scientists and entrepreneurs for two decades, solar and wind energy have not yet claimed the large share of the world energy market that proponents hoped they would. Yet the past two years brought a series of developments that suggest the time has come for solar and wind energy to compete directly with fossil fuels. Wind and solar power generators are likely to contribute significant power to the electricity systems of scores of countries within the next decade, with generating costs as low as 4-5 cents per kilowatt-hour. This will require adjustment in the operation of power transmission and distribution systems to accommodate intermittent resources, as well as new time-specific pricing of electricity. The transition to more open, competitive power systems, with liberal access by independent producers, is likely to speed introduction of the new technologies. Altogether, the energy that strikes the earth`s atmosphere in the form of sunlight each year, and the winds that flow from it, represent the equivalent of nearly 1,000 trillion barrels of oil-sufficient to fuel the global economy thousands of times over. By relying on a new generation of efficient, high-tech, and mass produced energy conversion devices such as advanced wind turbines and photovoltaics, the world can rapidly reduce its dependence on oil and coal in the twenty-first century. In the more distant future, solar and wind energy have the potential not only to supply much of the world`s electricity but to displace the direct use of oil and natural gas. Solar and wind energy can be used to split water via electrolysis, producing hydrogen gas that can be substituted for liquid and gaseous fuels. (46 refs.)

  1. Chemistry in power plants 2011; Chemie im Kraftwerk 2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-07-01

    Within the VGB Powertech conference from 25th to 27th October, 2011, in Munich (Federal Republic of Germany), the following lectures and poster contributions were presented: (1) The revised VGB standard for water-steam-cycle Chemistry; (2) Switchover from neutral operation to oxygen treatment at the power station Stuttgart-Muenster of EnBW Kraftwerke AG; (3) Steam contamination with degradation products of organic matters present in the feedwater of the Lanxess-Rubber cogeneration plant; (4) Laboratory scale on-line noble metal deposition experiments simulating BWR plant conditions; (5) Building a new demin installation for the power plant EPZ in Borssele; (6) Replacement of the cooling tower installations in the nuclear power plant Goesgen-Daenien AG; (7) Aging of IEX resins in demin plants - Cost optimisation by adaptation of regenerants; (8) The largest DOW trademark EDI System at a combined cycled plant in Europe; (9) Upgrading river Main water to boiler feed water - Experiences with ultrafiltration; (10) Experiences with treatment of the water-steam-cycle in the RDF power plant Nehlsen Stavenhagen with film-forming amines; (11) Comparative modelling of the bubbles thermal collapse and cavitations for estimation of bubbles collapse influence; (12) Overcoming the steam quality - issues from an HRSG for the production of process steam; (13) Legionella - new requirements for power plant operation; (14) How the right chemistry in the FGD helps to improve the removal in the waste water treatment plant; (15) High efficiency filtration in dry/semi-dry FGD plants; (16) Expanding the variety of renewable fuels in the biomass power plant Timelkam using the chemical input control; (17) Corrosion, operating experiences and process improvements to increase the availability and operating time of the biomass power plant Timelkam; (18) The influence of temperature on the measurement of the conductivity of highly diluted solutions; (19) A multiparameter instrumentation approach

  2. BOILER MATERIALS FOR ULTRASUPERCRITICAL COAL POWER PLANTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R. Viswanathan; K. Coleman; J. Shingledecker; J. Sarver; G. Stanko; M. Borden; W. Mohn; S. Goodstine; I. Perrin

    2005-01-31

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the Ohio Coal Development Office (OCDO) have recently initiated a project aimed at identifying, evaluating, and qualifying the materials needed for the construction of the critical components of coal-fired boilers capable of operating at much higher efficiencies than current generation of supercritical plants. This increased efficiency is expected to be achieved principally through the use of ultrasupercritical steam conditions (USC). The project goal initially was to assess/develop materials technology that will enable achieving turbine throttle steam conditions of 760 C (1400 F)/35 MPa (5000 psi), although this goal for the main steam temperature had to be revised down to 732 C (1350 F), based on a preliminary assessment of material capabilities. The project is intended to build further upon the alloy development and evaluation programs that have been carried out in Europe and Japan. Those programs have identified ferritic steels capable of meeting the strength requirements of USC plants up to approximately 620 C (1150 F) and nickel-based alloys suitable up to 700 C (1300 F). In this project, the maximum temperature capabilities of these and other available high-temperature alloys are being assessed to provide a basis for materials selection and application under a range of conditions prevailing in the boiler. This report provides a quarterly status report for the period of July 1 to September 30, 2004.

  3. BOILER MATERIALS FOR ULTRASUPERCRITICAL COAL POWER PLANTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R. Viswanathan; K. Coleman; J. Shingledecker; J. Sarver; G. Stanko; M. Borden; W. Mohn; S. Goodstine; I. Perrin

    2005-10-27

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the Ohio Coal Development Office (OCDO) have recently initiated a project aimed at identifying, evaluating, and qualifying the materials needed for the construction of the critical components of coal-fired boilers capable of operating at much higher efficiencies than current generation of supercritical plants. This increased efficiency is expected to be achieved principally through the use of ultrasupercritical steam conditions (USC). A limiting factor in this can be the materials of construction. The project goal is to assess/develop materials technology that will enable achieving turbine throttle steam conditions of 760 C (1400 F)/35 MPa (5000 psi). This goal seems achievable based on a preliminary assessment of material capabilities. The project is further intended to build further upon the alloy development and evaluation programs that have been carried out in Europe and Japan. Those programs have identified ferritic steels capable of meeting the strength requirements of USC plants up to approximately 620 C (1150 F) and nickel-based alloys suitable up to 700 C (1300 F). In this project, the maximum temperature capabilities of these and other available high-temperature alloys are being assessed to provide a basis for materials selection and application under a range of conditions prevailing in the boiler. This report provides a quarterly status report for the period of July 1 to September 30, 2005.

  4. BOILER MATERIALS FOR ULTRASUPERCRITICAL COAL POWER PLANTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R. Viswanathan; K. Coleman; J. Shingledecker; J. Sarver; G. Stanko; M. Borden; W. Mohn; S. Goodstine; I. Perrin

    2005-08-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the Ohio Coal Development Office (OCDO) have recently initiated a project aimed at identifying, evaluating, and qualifying the materials needed for the construction of the critical components of coal-fired boilers capable of operating at much higher efficiencies than current generation of supercritical plants. This increased efficiency is expected to be achieved principally through the use of ultrasupercritical steam conditions (USC). A limiting factor in this can be the materials of construction. The project goal is to assess/develop materials technology that will enable achieving turbine throttle steam conditions of 760 C (1400 F)/35 MPa (5000 psi). This goal seems achievable based on a preliminary assessment of material capabilities. The project is further intended to build further upon the alloy development and evaluation programs that have been carried out in Europe and Japan. Those programs have identified ferritic steels capable of meeting the strength requirements of USC plants up to approximately 620 C (1150 F) and nickel-based alloys suitable up to 700 C (1300 F). In this project, the maximum temperature capabilities of these and other available high-temperature alloys are being assessed to provide a basis for materials selection and application under a range of conditions prevailing in the boiler. This report provides a quarterly status report for the period of April 1 to June 30, 2005.

  5. Boiler Materials for Ultrasupercritical Coal Power Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R. Viswanathan; K. Coleman; J. Shingledecker; J. Sarver; G. Stanko; M. Borden; W. Mohn; S. Goodstine; I. Perrin

    2006-07-17

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the Ohio Coal Development Office (OCDO) have recently initiated a project aimed at identifying, evaluating, and qualifying the materials needed for the construction of the critical components of coal-fired boilers capable of operating at much higher efficiencies than current generation of supercritical plants. This increased efficiency is expected to be achieved principally through the use of ultrasupercritical steam conditions (USC). A limiting factor in this can be the materials of construction. The project goal is to assess/develop materials technology that will enable achieving turbine throttle steam conditions of 760 C (1400 F)/35 MPa (5000 psi). This goal seems achievable based on a preliminary assessment of material capabilities. The project is further intended to build further upon the alloy development and evaluation programs that have been carried out in Europe and Japan. Those programs have identified ferritic steels capable of meeting the strength requirements of USC plants up to approximately 620 C (1150 F) and nickel-based alloys suitable up to 700 C (1300 F). In this project, the maximum temperature capabilities of these and other available high-temperature alloys are being assessed to provide a basis for materials selection and application under a range of conditions prevailing in the boiler. This report provides a quarterly status report for the period of April 1 to June 30, 2006.

  6. Boiler Materials for Ultrasupercritical Coal Power Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R. Viswanathan; K. Coleman; J. Shingledecker; J. Sarver; G. Stanko; M. Borden; W. Mohn; S. Goodstine; I. Perrin

    2006-04-20

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the Ohio Coal Development Office (OCDO) have recently initiated a project aimed at identifying, evaluating, and qualifying the materials needed for the construction of the critical components of coal-fired boilers capable of operating at much higher efficiencies than current generation of supercritical plants. This increased efficiency is expected to be achieved principally through the use of ultrasupercritical steam conditions (USC). A limiting factor in this can be the materials of construction. The project goal is to assess/develop materials technology that will enable achieving turbine throttle steam conditions of 760 C (1400 F)/35 MPa (5000 psi). This goal seems achievable based on a preliminary assessment of material capabilities. The project is further intended to build further upon the alloy development and evaluation programs that have been carried out in Europe and Japan. Those programs have identified ferritic steels capable of meeting the strength requirements of USC plants up to approximately 620 C (1150 F) and nickel-based alloys suitable up to 700 C (1300 F). In this project, the maximum temperature capabilities of these and other available high-temperature alloys are being assessed to provide a basis for materials selection and application under a range of conditions prevailing in the boiler. This report provides a quarterly status report for the period of January 1 to March 31, 2006.

  7. Boiler Materials for Ultrasupercritical Coal Power Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R. Viswanathan; K. Coleman; J. Shingledecker; J. Sarver; G. Stanko; M. Borden; W. Mohn; S. Goodstine; I. Perrin

    2006-01-31

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the Ohio Coal Development Office (OCDO) have recently initiated a project aimed at identifying, evaluating, and qualifying the materials needed for the construction of the critical components of coal-fired boilers capable of operating at much higher efficiencies than current generation of supercritical plants. This increased efficiency is expected to be achieved principally through the use of ultrasupercritical steam conditions (USC). A limiting factor in this can be the materials of construction. The project goal is to assess/develop materials technology that will enable achieving turbine throttle steam conditions of 760 C (1400 F)/35 MPa (5000 psi). This goal seems achievable based on a preliminary assessment of material capabilities. The project is further intended to build further upon the alloy development and evaluation programs that have been carried out in Europe and Japan. Those programs have identified ferritic steels capable of meeting the strength requirements of USC plants up to approximately 620 C (1150 F) and nickel-based alloys suitable up to 700 C (1300 F). In this project, the maximum temperature capabilities of these and other available high-temperature alloys are being assessed to provide a basis for materials selection and application under a range of conditions prevailing in the boiler. This report provides a quarterly status report for the period of October 1 to December 30, 2005.

  8. Unit-sizing of hydro power plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maruzewski, P.; Rogeaux, C.; Laurier, P.

    2012-11-01

    In developing countries with great and unexploited renewable energy potential, Governments can exploit local resources for electricity supply, substantial energy savings and sustainable socio-economic development of these own countries. The decision-making process regarding the choice of renewable energy sources for energy supply in these countries is multidimensional, made up of a number of aspects at different levels such as economic, technical, environmental, and social. Therefore, reaching clear and unambiguous solutions may be very difficult. It is from this difficulty that the need arises to develop a tool for the design of hydro energy sources for electricity. The work involved in seeking a compromise solution requires an adequate technical assessment based on multiple criteria methods. One of the criteria is the assessment of the appropriate size of the hydropower plant. This paper presents the state-of-art of preliminary sizing of hydropower plant for the given renewable energy potential. The main step consists of carefully selecting and sizing the innovative hydraulic units based upon the suitability of the flow and head range. Since the flow and head data have now been confirmed, the potential annual energy generation can be properly assessed.

  9. Boiler Materials For Ultrasupercritical Coal Power Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R. Viswanathan; K. Coleman; J. Shingledecker; J. Sarver; G. Stanko; M. Borden; W. Mohn; S. Goodstine; I. Perrin

    2006-09-30

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the Ohio Coal Development Office (OCDO) have recently initiated a project aimed at identifying, evaluating, and qualifying the materials needed for the construction of the critical components of coal-fired boilers capable of operating at much higher efficiencies than current generation of supercritical plants. This increased efficiency is expected to be achieved principally through the use of ultrasupercritical steam conditions (USC). A limiting factor in this can be the materials of construction. The project goal is to assess/develop materials technology that will enable achieving turbine throttle steam conditions of 760 C (1400 F)/35 MPa (5000 psi). This goal seems achievable based on a preliminary assessment of material capabilities. The project is further intended to build further upon the alloy development and evaluation programs that have been carried out in Europe and Japan. Those programs have identified ferritic steels capable of meeting the strength requirements of USC plants up to approximately 620 C (1150 F) and nickel-based alloys suitable up to 700 C (1300 F). In this project, the maximum temperature capabilities of these and other available high-temperature alloys are being assessed to provide a basis for materials selection and application under a range of conditions prevailing in the boiler. This report provides a quarterly status report for the period of July 1 to September 30, 2006.

  10. BOILER MATERIALS FOR ULTRASUPERCRITICAL COAL POWER PLANTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R. Viswanathan; K. Coleman; J. Shingledecker; J. Sarver; G. Stanko; W. Mohn; M. Borden; S. Goodstine; I. Perrin

    2004-07-30

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the Ohio Coal Development Office (OCDO) have recently initiated a project aimed at identifying, evaluating, and qualifying the materials needed for the construction of the critical components of coal-fired boilers capable of operating at much higher efficiencies than current generation of supercritical plants. This increased efficiency is expected to be achieved principally through the use of ultrasupercritical steam conditions (USC). The project goal initially was to assess/develop materials technology that will enable achieving turbine throttle steam conditions of 760 C (1400 F)/35 MPa (5000 psi), although this goal for the main steam temperature had to be revised down to 732 C (1350 F), based on a preliminary assessment of material capabilities. The project is intended to build further upon the alloy development and evaluation programs that have been carried out in Europe and Japan. Those programs have identified ferritic steels capable of meeting the strength requirements of USC plants up to approximately 620 C (1150 F) and nickel-based alloys suitable up to 700 C (1300 F). In this project, the maximum temperature capabilities of these and other available high-temperature alloys are being assessed to provide a basis for materials selection and application under a range of conditions prevailing in the boiler. This report provides a quarterly status report for the period of April to June 30, 2004.

  11. BOILER MATERIALS FOR ULTRASUPERCRITICAL COAL POWER PLANTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R. Viswanathan; K. Coleman; J. Shingledecker; J. Sarver; G. Stanko; W. Mohn; M. Borden; S. Goodstine; I. Perrin

    2004-04-23

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the Ohio Coal Development Office (OCDO) have recently initiated a project aimed at identifying, evaluating, and qualifying the materials needed for the construction of the critical components of coal-fired boilers capable of operating at much higher efficiencies than current generation of supercritical plants. This increased efficiency is expected to be achieved principally through the use of ultrasupercritical steam conditions (USC). The project goal initially was to assess/develop materials technology that will enable achieving turbine throttle steam conditions of 760 C (1400 F)/35 MPa (5000 psi), although this goal for the main steam temperature had to be revised down to 732 C (1350 F), based on a preliminary assessment of material capabilities. The project is intended to build further upon the alloy development and evaluation programs that have been carried out in Europe and Japan. Those programs have identified ferritic steels capable of meeting the strength requirements of USC plants up to approximately 620 C (1150 F) and nickel-based alloys suitable up to 700 C (1300 F). In this project, the maximum temperature capabilities of these and other available high-temperature alloys are being assessed to provide a basis for materials selection and application under a range of conditions prevailing in the boiler. This report provides a quarterly status report for the period of October 1 to December 30, 2003.

  12. Detector Powering in the 21st Century Why stay stuck with the Good old 20th Century methods?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhawan, Satish; Sumner, Richard

    Future Collider Physics Detectors are envisioned with large granularity but we have a power delivery problem unless we fill a large fraction of the detector volume with copper conductors. LHC detector electronics is powered by transporting direct current over distances of 30 to 150 meters. This is how Thomas Alva Edison powered his light bulb. For example, CMS ECAL uses 50 kiloamps at 2.5 volts, supplied over a cable set with a transmission efficiency of only 30%. The transmission loss becomes waste heat in the detector that has to be removed. We have been exploring methods to transmit the DC power at higher voltage (low current), reducing to the final low voltage (high current) using DC-DC converters. These converters must operate in high magnetic fields and high radiation levels. This requires rad hard components and non-magnetic (air core) inductors.

  13. Simulating an ocean wave power plant with Homer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jones S. Silva, Alexandre Beluco, Luiz Emílio B. de Almeida

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, renewable resources have become an important alternative to increase the capacity of power generation. Among the resources available, the energy in the oceans have attracted more interest and experiencing a period of strong development. Wave energy is the one that is currently closest to reach a stage of technical and economic maturity. In this process, computational tools to facilitate evaluation of the feasibility of power systems including ocean wave power plants are critical. This paper presents the use of software Homer, version Legacy, for evaluation of technical and economic feasibility of hybrid energy systems including contribution of wave energy. Homer is a software designed for the optimization of micro power systems that has a very broad spectrum of applications. A case study in southern Brazil is presented, studying the inclusion of an ocean wave power plant in a wind biodiesel hybrid system and showing the functionality of Homer for this purpose.

  14. Business Intelligence Solutions for Wind Power Plants Operation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simona-Vasilica OPREA

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The European Union energy strategies imply significant changes in the power systems. These should contribute to sustainable development and protection of the environment by enabling the EU to achieve its targets set in the third package of legislative proposals for electricity and gas markets. Renewable energy sources (RES in Romania have been encouraged since 2007 and this lead to a large volume of projects. It took several years to have the first MW installed in wind power plants (WPP. Nowadays, the installed wind power in Romania is about 2642 MW, most of them (about 85% being concentrated in the south-eastern part of the country. Based on recorded data during four years in Romania, a couple of analyses have been performed. They contribute to a better integration of wind energy into power systems. This paper will describe how business intelligence solutions are applied on data regarding wind power plants operation and main conclusions that could be drawn.

  15. How to Avoid Severe Incidents at Pumped Storage Power Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasuda, Masashi; Watanabe, Satoshi

    2016-11-01

    Pumped storage is now increasing its importance as the most powerful and reliable tool for stabilizing the electrical network, especially under the increase of intermittent power sources like wind-power and solar-power. However, pumped storage power plants have generally more machinery troubles than the conventional hydropower plants and sometimes they encountered unexpected severe incidents having long-term outage and a considerable restoration cost. The present paper provides some study results about general tendencies of machinery troubles in pumped storage, some examples of severe incidents mainly about the electro-mechanical troubles but also about the flood and fire, and possible scenarios which may lead into a severe result. Finally, it provides lessons learned and some recommendations to avoid severe incidents based on experiences.

  16. Structural Materials and Fuels for Space Power Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowman, Cheryl; Busby, Jeremy; Porter, Douglas

    2008-01-01

    A fission reactor combined with Stirling convertor power generation is one promising candidate in on-going Fission Surface Power (FSP) studies for future lunar and Martian bases. There are many challenges for designing and qualifying space-rated nuclear power plants. In order to have an affordable and sustainable program, NASA and DOE designers want to build upon the extensive foundation in nuclear fuels and structural materials. This talk will outline the current Fission Surface Power program and outline baseline design options for a lunar power plant with an emphasis on materials challenges. NASA first organized an Affordable Fission Surface Power System Study Team to establish a reference design that could be scrutinized for technical and fiscal feasibility. Previous papers and presentations have discussed this study process in detail. Considerations for the reference design included that no significant nuclear technology, fuels, or material development were required for near term use. The desire was to build upon terrestrial-derived reactor technology including conventional fuels and materials. Here we will present an overview of the reference design, Figure 1, and examine the materials choices. The system definition included analysis and recommendations for power level and life, plant configuration, shielding approach, reactor type, and power conversion type. It is important to note that this is just one concept undergoing refinement. The design team, however, understands that materials selection and improvement must be an integral part of the system development.

  17. Introduction: contexts and concepts of adaptability and plasticity in 20th-century plant science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baranski, Marci; Peirson, B R Erick

    2015-04-01

    Nowhere is the problem of understanding the complex linkages between organisms and their environments more apparent than in the science of plants. Today, efforts by scientists to predict and manage the biological consequences of shifting global and regional climates depend on understanding how organisms respond morphologically, physiologically, and behaviorally to changes in their environments. Investigating organismal "adaptability" (or "plasticity") is rarely straightforward, prompting controversy and discourse among and between ecologists and agricultural scientists. Concepts like agro-climatic adaptation, phenotypic plasticity, and genotype-environment interaction (GxE) are key to those debates, and their complex histories have imbued them with assumptions and meanings that are consequential but often opaque. This special section explores the diverse ways in which organismal adaptability has been conceptualized and investigated in the second half of the 20th century, and the multifarious political, economic, environmental, and intellectual contexts in which those conceptions have emerged and evolved. The papers in this section bring together perspectives from the histories of agriculture, population ecology, evolutionary theory, and plant physiology, cutting across Asian, North American, and British contexts. As a whole, this section highlights not only the diversity of meanings of "adaptability" and "plasticity," but also the complex linkages between those meanings, the scientific practices and technologies in which they are embedded, and the ends toward which those practices and technologies are employed.

  18. Agriculture in the xxi century: transgenic plants role in agricultural sector´s technological development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Artunduaga Salas

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The new advances in biotechnology, especially in the completion of the Arabidopsis thaliana, genome sequence has profound implications for human health as well as plant biology and agriculture. It will permit us to know the action of all the genes involved in the key growing and development processes of plants. Modification of the structure of genes will allow the regulation of the expression of some characteristics such as the size of the leaves or the dynamics of the roots and fruits growth. In this way, the commercialization of the products of the new biotechnologies will influence in this century´s nations, agricultural production, productivity and food supply. The challenges and opportunities for the countries of Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC are enormous, due to the rich base of their flora, fauna and microorganisms resources, which are essential to the pharmaceutical and feeding industries. The international Community recognizes the benefits of Biotechnology, but it also advocate more inquiry into the impacts of advanced agricultural biotechnologies on the environment, food system, structure of agriculture, rural communities, and population health.The countries of LAC should continue the development and improvement of the regulatory framework for preventing or minimizing the possible risks of the use and management of the transgenic organisms in their territory, and therefore, be able to make use of their potential benefits, ensuring the protection of public health and the environment.

  19. Topping gas turbines improve steam power plant efficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lezuo, A. (Siemens AG, Erlangen (Germany, F.R.). KWU Group)

    An interesting option for improving the efficiency and output of an existing conventional steam power plant is to convert it into a combined steam-and-gas cycle power plant by adding a topping gas turbine. The investment involved is relatively low, the payback period is short, and the low specific fuel consumption makes it possible to save on overall running costs. At the same time, the amount of residue for disposal and also pollutant emissions are drastically reduced. This article describes the configuration of a fully-fired combined-cycle power plant and discusses thermodynamic design and efficiency, operational aspects, emissions and residues and investment and economic viability. Both coal-fired and gas or oil-fired steam power plants can be converted by adding a topping cycle and the investment cost is about 20% of the cost of a new plant with the same output rating as the plant to be converted. Conversion reduces pollutant emission and residues produced (SO{sub 2}, NO{sub x}, CO{sub 2}, dust, ash, gypsum, waste heat). 4 figs.

  20. Quantitative assessment of aquatic impacts of power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McKenzie, D.H.; Arnold, E.M.; Skalski, J.R.; Fickeisen, D.H.; Baker, K.S.

    1979-08-01

    Progress is reported in a continuing study of the design and analysis of aquatic environmental monitoring programs for assessing the impacts of nuclear power plants. Analysis of data from Calvert Cliffs, Pilgrim, and San Onofre nuclear power plants confirmed the generic applicability of the control-treatment pairing design suggested by McKenzie et al. (1977). Substantial progress was made on the simulation model evaluation task. A process notebook was compiled in which each model equation was translated into a standardized notation. Individual model testing and evaluating was started. The Aquatic Generalized Environmental Impact Simulator (AGEIS) was developed and will be tested using data from Lake Keowee, South Carolina. Further work is required to test the various models and perfect AGEIS for impact analyses at actual power plant sites. Efforts on the hydrologic modeling task resulted in a compendium of models commonly applied to nuclear power plants and the application of two well-received hydrodynamic models to data from the Surry Nuclear Power Plant in Virginia. Conclusions from the study of these models indicate that slight inaccuracies of boundary data have little influence on mass conservation and accurate bathymetry data are necessary for conservation of mass through the model calculations. The hydrologic modeling task provides valuable reference information for model users and monitoring program designers.

  1. Insights into the Societal Risk of Nuclear Power Plant Accidents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denning, Richard; Mubayi, Vinod

    2017-01-01

    The elements of societal risk from a nuclear power plant accident are clearly illustrated by the Fukushima accident: land contamination, long-term relocation of large numbers of people, loss of productive farm area, loss of industrial production, and significant loss of electric capacity. NUREG-1150 and other studies have provided compelling evidence that the individual health risk of nuclear power plant accidents is effectively negligible relative to other comparable risks, even for people living in close proximity to a plant. The objective of this study is to compare the societal risk of nuclear power plant accidents to that of other events to which the public is exposed. We have characterized the monetized societal risk in the United States from major societally disruptive events, such as hurricanes, in the form of a complementary cumulative distribution function. These risks are compared with nuclear power plant risks, based on NUREG-1150 analyses and new MACCS code calculations to account for differences in source terms determined in the more recent SOARCA study. A candidate quantitative societal objective is discussed for potential adoption by the NRC. The results are also interpreted with regard to the acceptability of nuclear power as a major source of future energy supply.

  2. Possible optimal configurations for the ZECOMIX high efficiency zero emission hydrogen and power plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calabro, A.; Deiana, P.; Florini, P.; Girardi, G.; Stendardo, S. [ENEA, Rome (Italy). Italian Agency for New Technology Energy & Environment

    2008-06-15

    Coal use for electricity generation will continue growing in importance. In the present work the optimization of a high efficiency and zero emissions coal-fired plant, which produces both hydrogen and electricity, has been developed. The majority of this paper concerns an integration of gasification unit, which is characterized by coal hydrogasification and carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) separation, with a power island, where a high-hydrogen content syngas is burnt with pure oxygen stream. Another issue is the high temperature CO{sub 2} desorption. Because of the elevated temperature heat supply, the regeneration process affects the overall performance of ZECOMIX plant. An advanced steam cycle characterized by a medium pressure steam compressor and expander has been considered for power generation. A preliminary study of different components leads to analyze possible routes for optimization of the whole plant. The plant equipped with a CO{sub 2} capture unit could reach efficiency close to 50%. The simulations of a thermodynamic model were carried out using the software ChemCAD. This study is a part of a larger research project, named ZECOMIX, led by ENEA (Italian Research Agency for New technologies, Energy and Environment), other partners being ANSALDO and different Italian Universities. It is aimed at analyzing an integrated hydrogen and power production plant.

  3. Design and construction of nuclear power plants

    CERN Document Server

    Schnell, Jürgen; Meiswinkel, Rüdiger; Bergmeister, Konrad; Fingerloos, Frank; Wörner, Johann-Dietrich

    2013-01-01

    Despite all the efforts being put into expanding renewable energy sources, large-scale power stations will be essential as part of a reliable energy supply strategy for a longer period. Given that they are low on CO2 emissions, many countries are moving into or expanding nuclear energy to cover their baseload supply.Building structures required for nuclear installations whose protective function means they are classified as safety-related, have to meet particular construction requirements more stringent than those involved in conventional construction. This book gives a comprehensive overv

  4. Smart — STATCOM control strategy implementation in wind power plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sintamarean, Nicolae Christian; Cantarellas, Antoni Mir; Miranda, H.;

    2012-01-01

    converters is increasing. This paper deals with an advanced control strategy design of a three-level converter performing STATCOM and Active Filter functionalities. The proposed system is called Smart-STATCOM since it has the capability of self-controlling reactive power and harmonic voltages at the same......High penetration of wind energy into the grid may introduce stability and power quality problems due to the fluctuating nature of the wind and the increasing complexity of the power system. By implementing advanced functionalities in power converters, it is possible to improve the performance...... of the wind farm and also to provide grid support, as it is required by the grid codes. One of the main compliance difficulties that can be found in such power plants are related to reactive power compensation and to keep the harmonics content between the allowed limits, even if the power of the WPP...

  5. Hydro power plants on the Middle Sava River section

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kryzanowski, A; Horvat, A; Brilly, M [University of Ljubljana, Faculty of Civil and Geodetic Engineering, Chair of Hydrology and Hydraulic Engineering, Hajdrihova 28, Ljubljana (Slovenia)], E-mail: andrej.kryzanowski@geateh.si

    2008-11-01

    Construction of a chain of hydro power plants is planned on the Sava River from Medvode to the Slovenian-Croatian border which will, apart from the chain of HPPs on the Drava River, represent the linchpin of renewable energy production within the Slovenian power system. The mentioned chain of HPPs will also be one of the country's main renewable energy sources that can still be developed for power generation. Three hydro power plants, Moste, Mavccice and Medvode, are already operating on the Upper Sava River section. Construction of the chain is underway in the lower part of the stream where Vrhovo and Bosstanj HPPs are already in operation; HPP Blanca is under construction and the site planning procedures are taking place for Krsko, Brezice and Mokrice HPPs. The planned HPPs on the Middle Sava River section between Medvode and Zidani most will connect the HPPs on the Upper and Lower Sava River into a closed chain which will operate on the principle of run-of-river type power plants with daily storage. Completion of all stages will enable optimal development of available hydro potential. Apart from the energy effects, also other beneficial effects of hydro power plant construction in the region can be expected: flood protection; better water supply; waste water treatment; development of transport and energy networks as well as positive economic and social effects.

  6. Possible Future SOFC - ST Based Power Plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rokni, Masoud; Scappin, Fabio

    2009-01-01

    Hybrid systems consisting Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC) on the top of a Steam Turbine (ST) are investigated. The plants are fired by natural gas. A desulfurization reactor removes the sulfur content in the NG while a pre-reformer break down the heavier hydrocarbons. The pre-treated fuel enters...... then into the anode side of the SOFC. The gases from the SOFC stacks enter into a burner to burn the rest of the fuel. The off-gases now enter into a heat recovery steam generator to produce steam for a Rankine cycle. Different system setups are considered. Cyclic efficiencies up to 67% are achieved which...... is considerably more than the conventional combined cycles (CC). Both ASR (Adiabatic Steam Reformer) and CPO (Catalytic Partial Oxidation) fuel reformer reactors are considered in this study....

  7. Thermodynamic Analysis of Combined Cycle Power Plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.K.Tiwari,

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Air Bottoming Cycle (ABC can replace the heat recovery steam generator and the steam turbine of the conventionalcombined cycle plant. The exhaust energy of the topping gas turbine of existing combine cycle is sent to gas-air heat exchange, which heats the air in the secondary gas turbine cycle. In 1980’s the ABC was proposed as an alternative for the conventional steam bottoming cycle. In spite of the cost of reducing hardware installations it could achieve a thermal efficiency of 80%. The complete thermodynamic analysis of the system has been performed by using specially designed programme, enabling the variation of main independent variables. The result shows the gain in net work output as well as efficiency of combined cycle is 35% to 68%.

  8. Nuclear power plant safety related pump issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Colaccino, J.

    1996-12-01

    This paper summarizes of a number of pump issues raised since the Third NRC/ASME Symposium on Valve and Pump Testing in 1994. General issues discussed include revision of NRC Inspection Procedure 73756, issuance of NRC Information Notice 95-08 on ultrasonic flow meter uncertainties, relief requests for tests that are determined by the licensee to be impractical, and items in the ASME OM-1995 Code, Subsection ISTB, for pumps. The paper also discusses current pump vibration issues encountered in relief requests and plant inspections - which include smooth running pumps, absolute vibration limits, and vertical centrifugal pump vibration measurement requirements. Two pump scope issues involving boiling water reactor waterlog and reactor core isolation cooling pumps are also discussed. Where appropriate, NRC guidance is discussed.

  9. Intelligent Component Monitoring for Nuclear Power Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lefteri Tsoukalas

    2010-07-30

    Reliability and economy are two major concerns for a nuclear power generation system. Next generation nuclear power reactors are being developed to be more reliable and economic. An effective and efficient surveillance system can generously contribute toward this goal. Recent progress in computer systems and computational tools has made it necessary and possible to upgrade current surveillance/monitoring strategy for better performance. For example, intelligent computing techniques can be applied to develop algorithm that help people better understand the information collected from sensors and thus reduce human error to a new low level. Incidents incurred from human error in nuclear industry are not rare and have been proven costly. The goal of this project is to develop and test an intelligent prognostics methodology for predicting aging effects impacting long-term performance of nuclear components and systems. The approach is particularly suitable for predicting the performance of nuclear reactor systems which have low failure probabilities (e.g., less than 10-6 year-). Such components and systems are often perceived as peripheral to the reactor and are left somewhat unattended. That is, even when inspected, if they are not perceived to be causing some immediate problem, they may not be paid due attention. Attention to such systems normally involves long term monitoring and possibly reasoning with multiple features and evidence, requirements that are not best suited for humans.

  10. Joint Operation of Several Types of Power Plants to Increasing Net Profit in Deregulated Power Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Sajedi

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available This study proposes joint operation of power plant and electric energy storage plant in order to maximizing overall profit in a restructured electricity market. The goal is investigating the coupling efficiency on profit increment considering various intensities of power plant’s fuel constraint. In order to reach this goal, the amount of overall profits of fuel-constrained power plant, battery plant and their coupling are first calculated in a specific time interval. Then, the coupling efficiency is determined using incremental profit rate. Having an appropriate strategy to calculate this parameter is essential. Hence, a comprehensive approach to selfschedule of individual and coupled plants is developed. This comprehensive self-scheduling approach is therefore formulated and solved as a Mixed Integer Non-linear Programming (MINLP problem. Numerical results for a case study are discussed.

  11. Reducing Power Penalty Related to PostCombustion CO2 Capture in Coal Power Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramona Mihaela Negoi

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Considering the important role of coal in energy security and in the same time the growing need to reduce CO2 emissions, amine-based post-combustion CO2 capture is considered as one of the most proper technologies to be implemented in coal fired power plants as well in natural gas fired plants, refinery gas, cement plants etc.. The main challenge for CO2 post-combustion is reducing the energy demand of the process, especially for solvent regeneration. In this paper, the energy reduction potential when waste heat of flue gases is integrated in the CO2 capture configuration scheme is discussed. The results are compared with a conventional coal power plant configuration when low-steam pressure is extracted from the water-steam cycle of the power plant.

  12. Wind Turbine and Wind Power Plant Modelling Aspects for Power System Stability Studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Altin, Müfit; Hansen, Anca Daniela; Göksu, Ömer;

    2014-01-01

    turbine model which is developed for the short-term voltage stability studies can be inaccurate and sufficient for the frequency stability studies. Accordingly, a complete and detailed wind power plant model for every kind of study is not feasible in terms of the computational time and also...... is not reasonable regarding the focus of the study. Therefore the power system operators should be aware of the modelling aspects of the wind power considering the related stability study and implement the required model in the appropriate power system toolbox. In this paper, the modelling aspects of wind turbines...... and wind power plants are reviewed for power system stability studies. Important remarks of the models are presented by means of simulations to emphasize the impact of these modelling details on the power system....

  13. Preparedness organisations at Nordic nuclear power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Droeivoldsmo, A.; Porsmyr, J.; Nystad, E. (Institute for Energy Technology (IFE), Halden (Norway))

    2011-08-15

    The report presents an overview of Emergency Preparedness Organisations (EPO) in Sweden, Finland and Norway and presentations of insights from a study of the staff positions' work instructions in the command centre in an emergency situation. The results indicate potential for improvement in several areas. A number of the improvements are related to introduction of new technology and they should be seen in connection with ensuring safe and reliable communication lines and power supply. Analysis of the data identified four main categories where further studies could contribute to improvement: 1) Communication and exchange of information. 2) Tools and technology. 3) Staffing and organisation. 4) Procedures. The usefulness of the Man Technology and Organisation method in analysing the emergency management decision-making process within the authorities was considered as an interesting issue for continuation of the project. The interface between utility and authorities was pointed out as an important area for continuation. (Author)

  14. Bio-oil fueled diesel power plant; Biooeljyllae toimiva dieselvoimala

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vuorinen, A. [Modigen Oy, Helsinki (Finland)

    1995-12-31

    The project mission is to develop a diesel power plant which is capable of using liquid bio-oils as the main fuel of the power plant. The applicable bio-oils are rape seed oils and pyrolysis oils. The project was started in 1994 by installing a 1.5 MW Vasa 4L32 engine in VTT Energy laboratory in Otaniemi. During 1995 the first tests with the rape seed oils were made. The tests show that the rape seed oil can be used in Vasa 32 engines without difficulties. In the second phase of the project during 1996 and 1997 pyrolysis oil made of wood will be tested. Finally a diesel power plant concept with integrated pyrolysis oil, electricity and heat production will be developed

  15. Bio-oil fuelled diesel power plant; Biooeljyllae toimiva dieselvoimala

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vuorinen, A. [Modigen Oy, Helsinki (Finland)

    1997-12-01

    The project mission is to develop a diesel power plant which is capable of using liquid bio-oils as the main fuel of the power plant. The applicable bio-oils are rape seed oils and pyrolysis oils. The project was started in 1994 by installing a 1.5 MW Vasa 4L32 engine in VTT Energy laboratory in Otaniemi. During 1995 the first tests with the rape seed oils were made. The tests show that the rape seed oil can be used in Vasa 32 engines without difficulties. In the second phase of the project during 1996 pyrolysis oil made of wood was tested. Finally a diesel power plant concept with integrated pyrolysis oil, electricity and heat production will be developed

  16. Comparison of Power Plants Efficiency among 73 Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tser-Yieth Chen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Effective and efficient production of electricity is promised to be one of the critical factors to utilize energy for sustainable development. We employ data envelopment analysis (DEA, including undesirable CO2 emissions outputs, to evaluate power plants resource utilization efficiency within 73 countries in order to incorporate the global warming effect. We find that Asia enjoys the highest technical efficiency and European countries suffer from the lowest technical efficiency among Europe, Asia, and America continents. Besides, we compare models with and without CO2 emissions and find that they have significant differences among technical and pure technical efficiencies. We also set up three hypotheses to examine gross national product (GNP, urbanization, and electricity import level factors that potentially influence power plants efficiency by Tobit regression analysis. Results show that GNP and urbanization have significant effects on power plants efficiency except electricity import level.

  17. Appliance of software engineering in development of nuclear power plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baek, Y. W.; Kim, H. C.; Yun, C. [Chungnam National Univ., Taejon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, B. R. [KINS, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1999-10-01

    Application of computer technology in nuclear power plant is also a necessary transformation as in other industry fields. But until now, application of software technology was not wide-spread because of its potential effect to safety in nuclear field. It is an urgent theme to develop evaluation guide and regulation techniques to guarantee safety, reliability and quality assurance. To meet these changes, techniques for development and operation should be enhanced to ensure the quality of software systems. In this study, we show the difference between waterfall model and software life-cycle needed in development of nuclear power plant and propose the consistent framework needed in development of instrumentation and control system of nuclear power plant.

  18. Gasification CFD Modeling for Advanced Power Plant Simulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zitney, S.E.; Guenther, C.P.

    2005-09-01

    In this paper we have described recent progress on developing CFD models for two commercial-scale gasifiers, including a two-stage, coal slurry-fed, oxygen-blown, pressurized, entrained-flow gasifier and a scaled-up design of the PSDF transport gasifier. Also highlighted was NETL’s Advanced Process Engineering Co-Simulator for coupling high-fidelity equipment models with process simulation for the design, analysis, and optimization of advanced power plants. Using APECS, we have coupled the entrained-flow gasifier CFD model into a coal-fired, gasification-based FutureGen power and hydrogen production plant. The results for the FutureGen co-simulation illustrate how the APECS technology can help engineers better understand and optimize gasifier fluid dynamics and related phenomena that impact overall power plant performance.

  19. Study on evaluation system for Chinese nuclear power plants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Song-bai; CHENG Jian-xiu

    2006-01-01

    This paper analyzes the meaning, structure, function and assessment methods of a nuclear power plant evaluation system, and the similarities and differences among various assessment methods. Based on this research an integrated and detailed suggestion is proposed on how to establish and improve internal and external evaluation systems for Chinese NPPs. It includes: to prepare and implement the nuclear power plant operational management program, to build an integrated performance indicator system, to improve the present audit system and conduct the comprehensive evaluation system, to set up and implement the integrated corrective action system, to position precisely the status of operation assessment of nuclear power plants, to conduct the assessment activities on constructing NPP, to initiate the specific assessment in some important areas, to establish industry performance indicator system, to improve the assessment methods, to share the assessment results, to select,cultivate and certify the reviewers, and to enhance international communication and cooperation.

  20. A low power medium access control protocol for wireless medical sensor networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamprinos, I; Prentza, A; Sakka, E; Koutsouris, D

    2004-01-01

    The concept of a wireless integrated network of sensors, already applied in several sectors of our everyday life, such as security, transportation and environment monitoring, can as well provide an advanced monitor and control resource for healthcare services. By networking medical sensors wirelessly, attaching them in patient's body, we create the appropriate infrastructure for continuous and real-time monitoring of patient without discomforting him. This infrastructure can improve healthcare by providing the means for flexible acquisition of vital signs, while at the same time it provides more convenience to the patient. Given the type of wireless network, traditional medium access control (MAC) protocols cannot take advantage of the application specific requirements and information characteristics occurring in medical sensor networks, such as the demand for low power consumption and the rather limited and asymmetric data traffic. In this paper, we present the architecture of a low power MAC protocol, designated to support wireless networks of medical sensors. This protocol aims to improve energy efficiency by exploiting the inherent application features and requirements. It is oriented towards the avoidance of main energy wastage sources, such as idle listening, collision and power outspending.

  1. Solar power plant performance evaluation: simulation and experimental validation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natsheh, E. M.; Albarbar, A.

    2012-05-01

    In this work the performance of solar power plant is evaluated based on a developed model comprise photovoltaic array, battery storage, controller and converters. The model is implemented using MATLAB/SIMULINK software package. Perturb and observe (P&O) algorithm is used for maximizing the generated power based on maximum power point tracker (MPPT) implementation. The outcome of the developed model are validated and supported by a case study carried out using operational 28.8kW grid-connected solar power plant located in central Manchester. Measurements were taken over 21 month's period; using hourly average irradiance and cell temperature. It was found that system degradation could be clearly monitored by determining the residual (the difference) between the output power predicted by the model and the actual measured power parameters. It was found that the residual exceeded the healthy threshold, 1.7kW, due to heavy snow in Manchester last winter. More important, the developed performance evaluation technique could be adopted to detect any other reasons that may degrade the performance of the P V panels such as shading and dirt. Repeatability and reliability of the developed system performance were validated during this period. Good agreement was achieved between the theoretical simulation and the real time measurement taken the online grid connected solar power plant.

  2. Process simulation of a zero carbon emission power plant using CO2 as storage medium of renewable energy%以CO2作为可再生能源储存介质的零碳排放电厂过程模拟

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    盖少磊; 赵欢; 耿秀振; 辛斌斌

    2016-01-01

    Liquid fuel converted from CO2 and H2 O using renewable energy was utilized in zero carbon e-mission power plants,forming a closed cycle of“renewable energy( unstable energy supply)+CO2 +H2 Oliquid fuelselectricity( stable energy supply )+CO2 +H2 O”. Three main routes were considered for the conversion of CO2 and H2 O∶CO+H2 ,CO2 +H2 and CO2 +H2 O,in which CO and H2 come from the elec-trolysis of CO2 and H2 O,and electrolytic liquid product was methanol. To investigate these three conversion routes and the zero carbon emission power plant,Aspen Plus software was used to build proper models and conduct the thermodynamic analysis. The results show that when the conversion of CO2 is higher than 42%, the best route of methanol synthesis is the electrocatalytic conversion of CO2 and H2 O;while when CO2 con-version is lower than 42%,the optimal route is the hydrogenation of CO2 and CO. The simulation result also confirms that CO2 emission for the zero carbon emission power plant only decreases to 62. 5 kg/MW,which is just 7. 29% of that for the super critical coal-fired power plant.%利用可再生能源将CO2和H2 O转化为液体燃料可应用于零碳排放电厂,形成“可再生能源+CO2+H2 O液体燃料电力+CO2+H2 O”的循环利用模式。CO2和H2 O的转化主要有3条路径:CO+H2、CO2+H2以及CO2+H2 O,其中CO和H2来自CO2和H2 O的电解,液体产物为甲醇。为研究3条转化路径以及零碳排放电厂,利用Aspen Plus进行建模并做热力学分析。结果表明若CO2的转化率高于42%时,电催化转化CO2和H2 O为合成甲醇的最佳路径;若CO2的转化率低于42%时,则CO2和 CO的催化加氢同为最优路径。零碳排放电厂 CO2的排放降低到62.5 kg/MW,仅占超临界燃煤机组排放量的7.29%。

  3. Large Combined Heat and Power Plants for Sustainable Energy System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Rasmus Søgaard; Mathiesen, Brian Vad

    An energy supply based on 100% renewable energy in Denmark is the official goal for the Danish energy policy towards 2050. A smart energy system should be developed to integrate as much supply from fluctuating renewable sources and to utilise the scarce biomass resources as efficiently as possible....... CHP (combined heat and power) plants in Denmark will change their role from base load production to balancing the fluctuation in renewable energy supply, such as wind power and at the same time they have to change to renewable energy sources. Some solutions are already being planned by utilities...... in Denmark; conversion of pulverised fuel plants from coal to wood pellets and a circulating fluidised bed (CFB) plant for wood chips. From scientific research projects another solution is suggested as the most feasible; the combined cycle gas turbine (CCGT) plant. In this study a four scenarios...

  4. High Rhine power plant Rheinfelden and hydroelectric power in Germany; Hochrheinkraftwerk Rheinfelden und Wasserkraft in Deutschland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mazurkiewicz, Jacek [EnBW Energie Baden-Wuerttemberg AG, Karlsruhe (Germany)

    2011-10-15

    In Germany, electric energy had been generated from water power since 1880; in the beginning, it was a dominating factor along with energy generation from coal, but it lost its importance as from 1950 when crude oil, natural gas and nuclear power became dominant. Since 1991, however, many small hydroelectric power plants have again been put into operation, or have been newly built, as a consequence of the government aids granted. In the Hochrhein (High Rhine) region, the German-Swiss power plant Rheinfelden was reconstructed, and other major hydroelectric power plants are being modernized. Technically, a much greater potential could be used, but this is currently not practicable for economical and ecological reasons. (orig.)

  5. A Fuzzy Control System of Turbine Rotate Speed and Power for a Power Plant Simulator

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    史小平; 王子才

    2002-01-01

    In this paper, a fuzzy control system of turbine rotate speed and power for a power plant simulator is designed. Rotate speed and power control is a rather important technique in a thermal power plant, because the rotate speed of the turbine rotor and the power of the generator must be enhanced gradually in order to prevent the relative expansion of the cylinder from increasing abruptly. The two parameters of a turbine used to be controlled manually or manual-automatically. To improve the control quality and the automation level, a fuzzy control method is developed for apower plant simulator to fit the DCS (Distributed Control System). The results of practical debugging on the simulator are shown in the paper to demonstrate the correctness and effectiveness of the presented fuzzy control law.

  6. Annual Energy Production (AEP) optimization for tidal power plants based on Evolutionary Algorithms - Swansea Bay Tidal Power Plant AEP optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kontoleontos, E.; Weissenberger, S.

    2016-11-01

    In order to be able to predict the maximum Annual Energy Production (AEP) for tidal power plants, an advanced AEP optimization procedure is required for solving the optimization problem which consists of a high number of design variables and constraints. This efficient AEP optimization procedure requires an advanced optimization tool (EASY software) and an AEP calculation tool that can simulate all different operating modes of the units (bidirectional turbine, pump and sluicing mode). The EASY optimization software is a metamodel-assisted Evolutionary Algorithm (MAEA) that can be used in both single- and multi-objective optimization problems. The AEP calculation tool, developed by ANDRITZ HYDRO, in combination with EASY is used to maximize the tidal annual energy produced by optimizing the plant operation throughout the year. For the Swansea Bay Tidal Power Plant project, the AEP optimization along with the hydraulic design optimization and the model testing was used to evaluate all different hydraulic and operating concepts and define the optimal concept that led to a significant increase of the AEP value. This new concept of a triple regulated “bi-directional bulb pump turbine” for Swansea Bay Tidal Power Plant (16 units, nominal power above 320 MW) along with its AEP optimization scheme will be presented in detail in the paper. Furthermore, the use of an online AEP optimization during operation of the power plant, that will provide the optimal operating points to the control system, will be also presented.

  7. Feasibility Study of Hydrogen Production at Existing Nuclear Power Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stephen Schey

    2009-07-01

    include a process model and a N2H2 economic assessment model (both developed by the Idaho National Laboratory). Both models are described in this report. The N2H2 model closely tracked and provided similar results as the H2A model and was instrumental in assessing the effects of plant availability on price when operated in the shoulder mode for electrical pricing. Differences between the H2A and N2H2 model are included in this report.

  8. Integrated Solar-Thermal Power Plants: TPP Bitola Case Study

    OpenAIRE

    Cingoski, Vlatko; Gelev, Saso; Stefanov, Goce; Sarac, Vasilija

    2016-01-01

    The potentials for usage of the solar energy as a renewable energy source, whether by its conversion only into heat, indirect conversion into electricity using a prior generated thermal energy, or direct conversion of solar energy into electric energy using the photoelectric effect, are enormous. This paper presents a study for the development of an integrated solar-thermal power plant (ISTPP) for repowering the existing goal-fired TPP Bitola. In the proposed plant, firstly sol...

  9. Optimum sizing of steam turbines for concentrated solar power plants

    OpenAIRE

    Andreas Poullikkas, Constantinos Rouvas, Ioannis Hadjipaschalis, George Kourtis

    2012-01-01

    In this work, a selection of the optimum steam turbine type and size for integration in concentrated solar power (CSP) plants is carried out. In particular, the optimum steam turbine input and output interfaces for a range of CSP plant capacity sizes are identified. Also, efficiency and electricity unit cost curves for various steam turbine capacities are estimated by using a combination of the Steam Pro software module of the Thermoflow Suite 18 package and the IPP v2.1 optimization software...

  10. Energy conversion/power plant cost-cutting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nichols, K.

    1996-12-31

    This presentation by Kenneth Nichols, Barber-Nichols, Inc., is about cost-cutting in the energy conversion phase and power plant phase of geothermal energy production. Mr. Nichols discusses several ways in which improvements could be made, including: use of more efficient compressors and other equipment as they become available, anticipating reservoir resource decline and planning for it, running smaller binary systems independent of human operators, and designing plants so that they are relatively maintenance-free.

  11. Scrum Code Camps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pries-Heje, Jan; Pries-Heje, Lene; Dahlgaard, Bente

    2013-01-01

    is required. In this paper we present the design of such a new approach, the Scrum Code Camp, which can be used to assess agile team capability in a transparent and consistent way. A design science research approach is used to analyze properties of two instances of the Scrum Code Camp where seven agile teams...

  12. Orienteering in Camping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, Elston F.

    One of the recent developments in camping is "orienteering", a program using a map and compass. Orienteering can be dovetailed into an overall camping program and used to "point up" the entire program, or it can be confined to a single simple game. The arrangement depends on the situation. The minimum age of the participants should be about 9 or…

  13. Camp's "Disneyland" Effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renville, Gary

    1999-01-01

    Describes the positive mental, physical, and social growth impacts that the camping experience had on the author, and urges camp program evaluation to plan and implement such changes. Sidebar lists steps of effective evaluation: program goals and objectives, goals of evaluation, implementation of evaluation, data analysis, and findings and…

  14. Friends' Discovery Camp

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seymour, Seth

    2008-01-01

    This article features Friends' Discovery Camp, a program that allows children with and without autism spectrum disorder to learn and play together. In Friends' Discovery Camp, campers take part in sensory-rich experiences, ranging from hands-on activities and performing arts to science experiments and stories teaching social skills. Now in its 7th…

  15. Public controversies reveal wood-fired electric power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frankena, F.

    1989-04-01

    This article reviews four critical controversies surrounding proposals to develop wood-fired power plants (WFPP)-two in Michigan and two in California. Three were defeated and one was built, and all were enveloped in controversy. Increased environmental awareness and the social movement it inspired redefined technology as a social problem. The author discusses the Hersey, Michigan proposal for a wood burning power plant and how the public defeated the plan through the local government. He states that if WFPP are to ever be successful, it must be proven that they are environmentally acceptable.

  16. High efficiency USC power plant - present status and future potential

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blum, R. [Faelleskemikerne I/S Fynsvaerket (Denmark); Hald, J. [Elsam/Elkraft/TU Denmark (Denmark)

    1998-12-31

    Increasing demand for energy production with low impact on the environment and minimised fuel consumption can be met with high efficient coal fired power plants with advanced steam parameters. An important key to this improvement is the development of high temperature materials with optimised mechanical strength. Based on the results of more than ten years of development a coal fired power plant with an efficiency above 50 % can now be realised. Future developments focus on materials which enable an efficiency of 52-55 %. (orig.) 25 refs.

  17. Nuclear power plant alarm systems: Problems and issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Hara, J.M.; Brown, W.S.

    1991-01-01

    Despite the incorporation of advanced technology into nuclear power plant alarm systems, human factors problems remain. This paper identifies to be addressed in order to allow advanced technology to be used effectively in the design of nuclear power plant alarm systems. The operator's use and processing of alarm system information will be considered. Based upon a review of alarm system research, issues related to general system design, alarm processing, display and control are discussed. It is concluded that the design of effective alarm systems depends on an understanding of the information processing capabilities and limitations of the operator. 39 refs.

  18. Geothermal power plants principles, applications, case studies and environmental impact

    CERN Document Server

    DiPippo, Ronald

    2008-01-01

    Ron DiPippo, Professor Emeritus at the University of Massachusetts Dartmouth, is a world-regarded geothermal expert. This single resource covers all aspects of the utilization of geothermal energy for power generation from fundamental scientific and engineering principles. The thermodynamic basis for the design of geothermal power plants is at the heart of the book and readers are clearly guided on the process of designing and analysing the key types of geothermal energy conversion systems. Its practical emphasis is enhanced by the use of case studies from real plants that increase the reader'

  19. Cable fire risk of a nuclear power plant; Ydinvoimalaitoksen kaapelipaloriski

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aulamo, H.

    1998-02-01

    The aim of the study is to carry out a comprehensive review of cable fire risk issues of nuclear power plants (NPP) taking into account latest fire and risk assessment research results. A special emphasis is put on considering the fire risk analysis of cable rooms in the framework of TVO Olkiluoto NPP probabilistic safety assessment. The assumptions made in the analysis are assessed. The literature study section considers significant fire events at nuclear power plants, the most severe of which have nearly led to a reactor core damage (Browns Ferry, Greifswald, Armenia, Belojarsk, Narora). Cable fire research results are also examined. 62 refs.

  20. Assessment of CCGT power plants - Comparison between new and repowering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giger, Francois; Lehougre, Jean-Francois [EDF/DPIT, Staint Denis (France)

    2013-04-01

    Since 2007, EDF has repowered the Martigues conventional oil-fired power plant and erected two 460 MWe combined cycle units with natural gas firing. The first unit went on line in 2012, the second is to be connected to the grid in 2013. A completely new 440 MWe combined cycle power plant was built at the Blenod site which went into operation in the autumn of 2011. Both projects were realised by EDF-in-house engineering teams. Post-building analysis confirmed the economic benefit anticipated at basic design stage of the repowering approach compared to a green field construction.

  1. A systems assessment of the five Starlite tokamak power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bathke, C.G.

    1996-07-01

    The ARIES team has assessed the power-plant attractiveness of the following five tokamak physics regimes: (1) steady state, first stability regime; (2) pulsed, first stability regime; (3) steady state, second stability regime; (4) steady state, reversed shear; and (5) steady state, low aspect ratio. Cost-based systems analysis of these five tokamak physics regimes suggests that an electric power plant based upon a reversed-shear tokamak is significantly more economical than one based on any of the other four physics regimes. Details of this comparative systems analysis are described herein.

  2. Naegleria fowleri in cooling waters of power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cerva, L.; Kasprzak, W.; Mazur, T.

    1982-01-01

    Six strains of nonvirulent and three strains of virulent variants of Naegleria fowleri amoebae were isolated from the examined cooling water samples from 9 power plants. The virulent variants were obtained solely from effluents discharged from power plants with a closed-circuit cooling N. fowleri was not detected outside the reach of the thermal pollution. A disinfection of out-flowing cooling water seems to be an unnecessary investment in our climate. Warm discharge water should under no conditions be used directly for sports and recreational purposes.

  3. A methodology for evaluating ``new`` technologies in nuclear power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Korsah, K.; Clark, R.L.; Holcomb, D.E.

    1994-06-01

    As obsolescence and spare parts issues drive nuclear power plants to upgrade with new technology (such as optical fiber communication systems), the ability of the new technology to withstand stressors present where it is installed needs to be determined. In particular, new standards may be required to address qualification criteria and their application to the nuclear power plants of tomorrow. This paper discusses the failure modes and age-related degradation mechanisms of fiber optic communication systems, and suggests a methodology for identifying when accelerated aging should be performed during qualification testing.

  4. Design data and safety features of commerical nuclear power plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heddleson, F.A.

    1976-06-01

    Design data, safety features, and site characteristics are summarized for 34 nuclear power units in 17 power stations in the United States. Six pages of data are presented for each plant, consisting of thermal-hydraulic and nuclear factors, containment features, emergency-core-cooling systems, site features, circulating water system data, and miscellaneous factors. An aerial perspective is also presented for each plant. This volume covers Light Water Reactors (LWRs) with dockets 50-508 through 50-549, four HTGRs--50-171, 50-267, 50-450/451, 50-463/464, the Atlantic Floating Station 50-477/478, and the Clinch River Breeder 50-537.

  5. Reliability methods in nuclear power plant ageing management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simola, K. [VTT Automation, Espoo (Finland). Industrial Automation

    1999-07-01

    The aim of nuclear power plant ageing management is to maintain an adequate safety level throughout the lifetime of the plant. In ageing studies, the reliability of components, systems and structures is evaluated taking into account the possible time-dependent degradation. The phases of ageing analyses are generally the identification of critical components, identification and evaluation of ageing effects, and development of mitigation methods. This thesis focuses on the use of reliability methods and analyses of plant- specific operating experience in nuclear power plant ageing studies. The presented applications and method development have been related to nuclear power plants, but many of the approaches can also be applied outside the nuclear industry. The thesis consists of a summary and seven publications. The summary provides an overview of ageing management and discusses the role of reliability methods in ageing analyses. In the publications, practical applications and method development are described in more detail. The application areas at component and system level are motor-operated valves and protection automation systems, for which experience-based ageing analyses have been demonstrated. Furthermore, Bayesian ageing models for repairable components have been developed, and the management of ageing by improving maintenance practices is discussed. Recommendations for improvement of plant information management in order to facilitate ageing analyses are also given. The evaluation and mitigation of ageing effects on structural components is addressed by promoting the use of probabilistic modelling of crack growth, and developing models for evaluation of the reliability of inspection results. (orig.)

  6. Dealing with uncertainties in fusion power plant conceptual development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemp, R.; Lux, H.; Kovari, M.; Morris, J.; Wenninger, R.; Zohm, H.; Biel, W.; Federici, G.

    2017-04-01

    Although the ultimate goal of most current fusion research is to build an economically attractive power plant, the present status of physics and technology does not provide the performance necessary to achieve this goal. Therefore, in order to model how such plants may operate and what their output might be, extrapolations must be made from existing experimental data and technology. However, the expected performance of a plant built to the operating point specifications can only ever be a ‘best guess’. Extrapolations far beyond the current operating regimes are necessarily uncertain, and some important interactions, for example the coupling of conducted power from the scape-off layer to the divertor surface, lack reliable predictive models. This means both that the demands on plant systems at the target operating point can vary significantly from the nominal value, and that the overall plant performance may potentially fall short of design targets. In this contribution we discuss tools and techniques that have been developed to assess the robustness of the operating points for the EU-DEMO tokamak-based demonstration power plant, and the consequences for its design. The aim is to make explicit the design choices and areas where improved modelling and DEMO-relevant experiments will have the greatest impact on confidence in a successful DEMO design.

  7. The Conceptual Design of a Tidal Power Plant in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia-Shiuan Tsai

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Located on the northwestern of Taiwan, the Matsu archipelago is near mainland China and comprises four islands: Nangan, Beigan, Juguang, and Dongyin. The population of Matsu totals 11,196 and is chiefly concentrated on Nangan and Beigan. From 1971 to 2000, Matsu built five oil-fired power plants with a total installed capacity of 47 MW. However, the emissions and noise generated by the oil-fired power plant has caused damage to Matsu’s environment, and the cost of fuel is high due to the long-distance shipping from Taiwan. Developing renewable energy in Matsu has therefore been a fervent topic for the Taiwan government, and tidal power is considered to be of the highest priority due to Matsu’s large tidal range (4.29 m in average and its semidiurnal tide. Moreover, the islands of Nangan and Beigan are composed of granite and have natural harbors, rendering them ideal places for coastal engineering of tidal power plants. This paper begins with a renewable energy reserves assessment in Matsu to determine the amount of tidal energy. Next, a tidal turbine type of the lowest cost is chosen, and then its dynamic characteristic, performance, and related design are analyzed. Finally, the coastal engineering condition was investigated, and a conceptual design for tidal power plant is proposed.

  8. Planning of a Quadgeneration power plant for Jammerbugt energy system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rudra, Souman; Hoffmann, Jessica; Rosendahl, Lasse

    2011-01-01

    Quadgeneration is the simultaneous production of power, heat and cooling and different fuels from flexible feedstocks such as biomass, waste, refinery residue etc. In order to accommodate more renewable energy into the energy system, it is extremely necessary to develop new flexible power plants...... heating energy technology into a Quadgeneration energy system at Jammerbugt municipality in the north of Denmark in a creative and innovative manner that can reduce CO2 emission and fuel limitations, whilst not compromising security of delivering heat and power to the local resident. So, it is essential...... of some equipments in the Quadgeneration power plant. This paper presents two models for the investment planning of a Quadgeneration energy system in Jammerbugt municipality, and uses these models for different case studies addressing the system for production of heat, cooling, liquid fuels...

  9. Changes of flowering phenology and flower size in rosaceous plants from a biodiversity hotspot in the past century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Qin; Jia, Dong-Rui; Tian, Bin; Yang, Yong-Ping; Duan, Yuan-Wen

    2016-06-17

    Responses of plant traits to climate changes are complex, which could be mirrored by the investigations of herbarium specimens. By examining specimens of Rosa and Cotoneaster species collected since 1920s in Hengduan Mountains, we analyzed the changes of flowering phenology and flower size in the past century when climate changes were considered to be intensified. We found that flowering phenology of Rosa showed no significant change, but flowering phenology of Cotoneaster was delayed in recent years. Flower size of Rosa species showed a marginally significant decrease over the past century. The results suggested that responses of flowering time to global changes and pollinator mediated selection on floral traits might be more complex than what were expected. Our results indicated that future researches based on investigations of herbarium specimens should be carried out on multiple plant species with different flower structures and life histories to better understand the effects of climate changes on plant traits.

  10. Direct steam generation (DSG) solar thermal power plant in Thailand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sukchai, Sukruedee; Chramsa-ard, Wisut; Sonsaree, Sorawit; Boonsu, Rungrudee [Naresuan Univ., Phitsanulok (Thailand). School of Renewable Energy Technology; Krueger, Joachim; Pandian, Yuvaraj [Solarlite GmbH, Duckwitz (Germany)

    2012-07-01

    In 2010, the total electricity consumption in Thailand was 149,301 GWh, increased by 10.5% compared with that in the previous year. The economic sector accounting for the highest share of national electricity consumption was the industrial sector, holding a share of 46%; while the household and commercial sectors accounted for a share of 22% and 15% respectively. The electricity is generated from natural gas, coal, oil, hydro, import and other of 72%, 18%, 0.4%, 3%, 4%, and 2% respectively. In the past, the Electricity Generating Authority of Thailand (EGAT) was the sole power producer. Later, the government had formulated a policy promoting the private sector role in the power generation sector in order to encourage competition in the generation business. Currently, it is resulting in a growing number of Very Small Power Producers (VSPP), using renewable energy as main fuel, supplying power to the grid. In this presentation, general background and situation of solar thermal power plant (DSG) in Thailand will be presented. The resource potential which presented by solar map for the central, north and northeast parts of the country is quite clear sky that receive the highest direct normal irradiation of 1,350 - 1,400 kWh/m{sup 2}-year stand for 43% of the total areas of the country. Together with the high direct normal irradiation is received during summer from January to April about 14-17 MJ/m{sup 2}-day. The first of solar thermal power plant in Thailand is presented. Solar energy development that is one of renewable energy promotion program in the nation master plan has been reviewed and discussed to indicate the recommendation. Barriers as educational, technical and financial to promote solar thermal power plant is also presented. From the investigation, this presentation proposes some idea to be the guideline for policy setting, overcome the solar thermal power plant barrier in Thailand. (orig.)

  11. FGD Franchising Pilot Project of Thermal Power Plants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    According to the national policy on enhancing environmental protection,the five major power generation companies are required to carry out flue gas desulphurization(FGD) franchising pilot project in thermal power plants.This paper introduces the development of this pilot project,including the foundation,purpose,objects,demands and procedures.It also discusses some main problems encountered during implementation,involving the understanding,legislation,financing,taxation,pricing and management of franchise.At...

  12. Aging management guideline for commercial nuclear power plants - heat exchangers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Booker, S.; Lehnert, D.; Daavettila, N.; Palop, E.

    1994-06-01

    This Aging Management Guideline (AMG) describes recommended methods for effective detection and mitigation of age-related degradation mechanisms in commercial nuclear power plant heat exchangers important to license renewal. The intent of this AMG is to assist plant maintenance and operations personnel in maximizing the safe, useful life of these components. It also supports the documentation of effective aging management programs required under the License Renewal Rule 10 CFR 54. This AMG is presented in a manner that allows personnel responsible for performance analysis and maintenance to compare their plant-specific aging mechanisms (expected or already experienced) and aging management program activities to the more generic results and recommendations presented herein.

  13. High-speed simulation of transients in nuclear power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wulff, W.; Cheng, H.S.; Lekach, S.V.; Mallen, A.N.

    1984-01-01

    A combination of advanced modeling techniques and modern, special-purpose peripheral minicomputer technology is presented which affords realistic predictions of plant transient and severe off-normal events in LWR power plants through on-line simulations at a speed ten times greater than actual process speeds. Results are shown for a BWR plant simulation. Results are shown to demonstrate computing capacity, accuracy, and speed. Simulation speeds have been achieved which are 110 times larger than those of a CDC-7600 mainframe computer or ten times greater than real-time speed.

  14. CONCEPT-5 user's manual. [Power plant costs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hudson, C.R. II

    1979-01-01

    The CONCEPT computer code package was developed to provide conceptual capital cost estimates for nuclear-fueled and fossil-fired power plants. Cost estimates can be made as a function of plant type, size, location, and date of initial operation. The output includes a detailed breakdown of the estimate into direct and indirect costs similar to the accounting system described in document NUS--531. Cost models are currently provided in CONCEPT 5 for single- and multiunit pressurized-water reactors, boiling-water reactors, and cost-fired plants with and without flue gas desulfurization equipment.

  15. Medium Optimization for the Production of Lipidless Biomass By Cunninghamella sp. 2A1 Using Response Surface Methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siti Aminah, S.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available A statistical design approach has been used to optimize the production of biomass by Cunninghamella sp. 2A1, evaluated based on lipidless biomass. A 2^3 full factorial central composite design (CCD was chosen to study the combined effects of three factors; ammonium tartrate, peptone and glucose concentrations. The p-value for each factor was <0.05 suggesting that these factors have significant effects on the production of lipidless biomass. The production is represented by a linear model with p-value <0.0001. The optimized medium consisting of 3.86g/L ammonium tartrate, 55.84g/L glucose and 7.73g/L peptone predicted a lipidless biomass of 16.83g/L. Results from four replications based on the optimized medium produced an average of 18.48g/L lipidless biomass, which is in close agreement with the predicted value. The coefficient for glucose was the highest indicating it to be the most significant factor affecting lipidless biomass production.

  16. External costs of material recycling strategies for fusion power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hallberg, B. E-mail: bengt.hallberg@studsvik.se; Aquilonius, K.; Lechon, Y.; Cabal, H.; Saez, R.M.; Schneider, T.; Lepicard, S.; Ward, D.; Hamacher, T.; Korhonen, R

    2003-09-01

    This paper is based on studies performed within the framework of the project Socio-Economic Research on Fusion (SERF3). Several fusion power plant designs (SEAFP Models 1-6) were compared focusing on part of the plant's life cycle: environmental impact of recycling the materials. Recycling was considered for materials replaced during normal operation, as well as materials from decommissioning of the plant. Environmental impact was assessed and expressed as external cost normalised with the total electrical energy output during plant operation. The methodology used for this study has been developed by the Commission of the European Union within the frame of the ExternE project. External costs for recycling, normalised with the energy production during plant operation, are very low compared with those for other energy sources. Results indicate that a high degree of recycling is preferable, at least when considering external costs, because external costs of manufacturing of new materials and disposal costs are higher.

  17. Water vulnerabilities for existing coal-fired power plants.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elcock, D.; Kuiper, J.; Environmental Science Division

    2010-08-19

    This report was funded by the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) Existing Plants Research Program, which has an energy-water research effort that focuses on water use at power plants. This study complements the Existing Plants Research Program's overall research effort by evaluating water issues that could impact power plants. Water consumption by all users in the United States over the 2005-2030 time period is projected to increase by about 7% (from about 108 billion gallons per day [bgd] to about 115 bgd) (Elcock 2010). By contrast, water consumption by coal-fired power plants over this period is projected to increase by about 21% (from about 2.4 to about 2.9 bgd) (NETL 2009b). The high projected demand for water by power plants, which is expected to increase even further as carbon-capture equipment is installed, combined with decreasing freshwater supplies in many areas, suggests that certain coal-fired plants may be particularly vulnerable to potential water demand-supply conflicts. If not addressed, these conflicts could limit power generation and lead to power disruptions or increased consumer costs. The identification of existing coal-fired plants that are vulnerable to water demand and supply concerns, along with an analysis of information about their cooling systems and related characteristics, provides information to help focus future research and development (R&D) efforts to help ensure that coal-fired generation demands are met in a cost-effective manner that supports sustainable water use. This study identified coal-fired power plants that are considered vulnerable to water demand and supply issues by using a geographical information system (GIS) that facilitated the analysis of plant-specific data for more than 500 plants in the NETL's Coal Power Plant Database (CPPDB) (NETL 2007a) simultaneously with 18 indicators of water demand and supply. Two types of demand indicators were

  18. Accelerating 21st Century Economic Growth by Implementation of the Lunar Solar Power System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Criswell, D. R.

    2002-01-01

    associated with better human health and longer life. This increases the economic value of human capital in developing nations (7). The power can be abundant and clean. This reduces the environmental cost of commercial power and greatly reduces the economic uncertainties associated with using the power. The net new power enables creation of a greater range of goods from common materials and the recycling of products without depletion of other terrestrial resources (8). Rectennas can enable dual use of land and reduce the total land area devoted to the production and delivery of commercial power. All these factors work together to accelerate net new economic growth on Earth. 1. World Energy Council (2000) Energy for Tomorrow's World - Acting Now!, 175pp., Atalink Projects Ltd, London. 2. Criswell, D. R. (2001) Characteristics of commercial power systems to support a prosperous global economy, IAF-01- R.1.03, 7PP., Toulouse, France. 3. Criswell, David R. (2001) Lunar Solar Power System: Industrial Research, Development, and Demonstration, Session 1.2.2: Hydroelectricity, Nuclear Energy and New Renewables, 18th World Energy Congress. [http://www.wec.co.uk] 4. Criswell, David R. (2002) Energy Prosperity within the 21st Century and Beyond: Options and the Unique Roles of the Sun and the Moon. Chapter 9: Innovative Solutions To CO2 Stabilization, R. Watts (editor), Cambridge Un. Press 5. National Research Council (2001) Laying the Foundation for Space Solar Power: An assessment of NASA's Space Solar Power Investment Strategy, 80pp., National Academy Press. 6. Strong, Marice (2001) Where on Earth are We Going?, (See p. 351-352), 419pp., Random House (forward by Kofi Annan) 7. Criswell, D. R. (2000) Human wealth and evolving requirements on large-scale commercial power systems, IAF-00- R.1.03, 6pp., (Rio de Janeiro). 8. Criswell, D. R. (1994) Net growth in the two-planet economy, IAA-94-IAA.8.1.704, 10pp.

  19. Power up your plant - An introduction to integrated process and power automation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vasel, Jeffrey

    2010-09-15

    This paper discusses how a single integrated system can increase energy efficiency, improve plant uptime, and lower life cycle costs. Integrated Process and Power Automation is a new system integration architecture and power strategy that addresses the needs of the process and power generation industries. The architecture is based on Industrial Ethernet standards such as IEC 61850 and Profinet as well as Fieldbus technologies. The energy efficiency gains from integration are discussed in a power generation use case. A power management system success story from a major oil and gas company, Petrobras, is also discussed.

  20. Performance Analysis of a Shell Tube Condenser for a Model Organic Rankine Cycle for Use in Geothermal Power Plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haile Araya Nigusse

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The global energy demand increases with the economic growth and population rise. Most electrical power is currently generated by conventional methods from fossil fuels. Despite the high energy demand, the conventional energy resources such as fossil fuels have been declining. In addition to this harmful combustion byproducts are resulting global warming. However, the increase of environmental concerns and energy crisis can be minimized by sustainable utilization of the low to medium temperature heat resources. The Organic Rankine Cycle power plant is a very effective option for utilization of low grade heat sources for power generation. Heat exchangers are the main components of the Organic Rankine Cycle power plant which receives heat energy from the heat source to evaporate and condense the low boiling temperature organic working fluid which in turn drives the turbine to generate power. This paper presents a simplified approach to the design, fabrication and performance assessment of a shell tube heat exchanger designed for condenser in a model Organic Rankine Cycle geothermal power plant. The design involved sizing of heat exchanger (condenser using the LMTD method based on an expected heat transfer rate. The heat exchanger of the model power plant was tested in which hot water simulated geothermal brine. The results of the experiment indicated that the heat exchanger is thermally suitable for the condenser of the model power plant.

  1. Determination of Main Noise Sources in a Thermal Power plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Jahangiri

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The Power plants are as the major industries that have a large number of workers, providing they health is important. Exposure to occupational noise is the pervasive physical agent in industries like power plants and may impact health and for safety status for people. Determination of the sources of noise in workplaces is important step in noise control plans. This study aimed to assess noise pollution and determine the main sources of noise in a power plant for. .Material and Method: This descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted on the ground floor of the turbine unit of a thermal power plant. Measurements was done based on the ISO-9612 and ISO-11200 standard using by the calibrated sound level meter model TES-1389 on “A” frequency weighting and “Slow” mode for time response. Surfer V.10 software was used for interpolation and noise maps producing. Based on grid method measuring for indicating of noise propagation, we set buffer of danger areas to determine main sources of noise. Also, we used the minimized grid method for measuring and study of noise denotation in vertical surface in each main sources. .Result: The results showed that the measured indoor sound pressure level in all areas where at the risk category of the units. The highest average sound pressure level was belonged to the unit 2, with 93.1 dB(A. We find the feed water pumps were the main sources in all of the studied units. Among the four main components of the main sources, the highest noise levels associated with the main pump and the gearbox section with about 100 9B(L and dominant frequency of 2000 Hz. .Conclusion: Considering that feed water pumps had major sources in indoor power plant noise pollution, engineering noise control such as providing enclosures is necessary to reduce noise pollution to safe levels in the studied plant it is necessary.

  2. Small-Scale Combined Heat and Power Plants Using Biofuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salomon-Popa, Marianne [Royal Inst. of Tech., Stockholm (Sweden). Dept. of Energy Technology

    2002-11-01

    In this time period where energy supply and climate change are of special concern, biomass-based fuels have attracted much interest due to their plentiful supply and favorable environmental characteristics (if properly managed). The effective capture and continued sustainability of this renewable resource requires a new generation of biomass power plants with high fuel energy conversion. At the same time, deregulation of the electricity market offers new opportunities for small-scale power plants in a decentralized scheme. These two important factors have opened up possibilities for small-scale combined heat and power (CHP) plants based on biofuels. The objective of this pre-study is to assess the possibilities and technical limitations for increased efficiency and energy utilization of biofuels in small size plants (approximately 10 MWe or lower). Various energy conversion technologies are considered and proven concepts for large-scale fossil fuel plants are an especially important area. An analysis has been made to identify the problems, technical limitations and different possibilities as recognized in the literature. Beyond published results, a qualitative survey was conducted to gain first-hand, current knowledge from experts in the field. At best, the survey results together with the results of personal interviews and a workshop on the role of small-scale plants in distributed generation will serve a guideline for future project directions and ideas. Conventional and novel technologies are included in the survey such as Stirling engines, combustion engines, gas turbines, steam turbines, steam motors, fuel cells and other novel technologies/cycles for biofuels. State-of-the-art heat and power plants will be identified to clarify of the advantages and disadvantages as well as possible obstacles for their implementation.

  3. Water vulnerabilities for existing coal-fired power plants.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elcock, D.; Kuiper, J.; Environmental Science Division

    2010-08-19

    This report was funded by the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) Existing Plants Research Program, which has an energy-water research effort that focuses on water use at power plants. This study complements the Existing Plants Research Program's overall research effort by evaluating water issues that could impact power plants. Water consumption by all users in the United States over the 2005-2030 time period is projected to increase by about 7% (from about 108 billion gallons per day [bgd] to about 115 bgd) (Elcock 2010). By contrast, water consumption by coal-fired power plants over this period is projected to increase by about 21% (from about 2.4 to about 2.9 bgd) (NETL 2009b). The high projected demand for water by power plants, which is expected to increase even further as carbon-capture equipment is installed, combined with decreasing freshwater supplies in many areas, suggests that certain coal-fired plants may be particularly vulnerable to potential water demand-supply conflicts. If not addressed, these conflicts could limit power generation and lead to power disruptions or increased consumer costs. The identification of existing coal-fired plants that are vulnerable to water demand and supply concerns, along with an analysis of information about their cooling systems and related characteristics, provides information to help focus future research and development (R&D) efforts to help ensure that coal-fired generation demands are met in a cost-effective manner that supports sustainable water use. This study identified coal-fired power plants that are considered vulnerable to water demand and supply issues by using a geographical information system (GIS) that facilitated the analysis of plant-specific data for more than 500 plants in the NETL's Coal Power Plant Database (CPPDB) (NETL 2007a) simultaneously with 18 indicators of water demand and supply. Two types of demand indicators were

  4. Production of destruxins from Metarhizium spp. fungi in artificial medium and in endophytically colonized cowpea plants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia S Golo

    Full Text Available Destruxins (DTXs are cyclic depsipeptides produced by many Metarhizium isolates that have long been assumed to contribute to virulence of these entomopathogenic fungi. We evaluated the virulence of 20 Metarhizium isolates against insect larvae and measured the concentration of DTXs A, B, and E produced by these same isolates in submerged (shaken cultures. Eight of the isolates (ARSEF 324, 724, 760, 1448, 1882, 1883, 3479, and 3918 did not produce DTXs A, B, or E during the five days of submerged culture. DTXs were first detected in culture medium at 2-3 days in submerged culture. Galleria mellonella and Tenebrio molitor showed considerable variation in their susceptibility to the Metarhizium isolates. The concentration of DTXs produced in vitro did not correlate with percent or speed of insect kill. We established endophytic associations of M. robertsii and M. acridum isolates in Vigna unguiculata (cowpeas and Cucumis sativus (cucumber plants. DTXs were detected in cowpeas colonized by M. robertsii ARSEF 2575 12 days after fungal inoculation, but DTXs were not detected in cucumber. This is the first instance of DTXs detected in plants endophytically colonized by M. robertsii. This finding has implications for new approaches to fungus-based biological control of pest arthropods.

  5. Generation of secondary pollutants in a power plant plume: A model study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hov, Oystein; Isaksen, Ivar S. A.

    A plume model is developed where chemistry and meteorology of the boundary layer interact with a power plant plume which is given a spatial resolution in the cross wind direction. Ozone bulges are formed after 2 1/2-3 h or more, with excess ozone 10-20 % above ambient levels in fair weather during summer for a plume comparable to the St. Louis Labadie power plant plume. The chemical activity peaks first on the plume fringes, later close to the central axis. Hydroxyl exceeds 13 × 10 6 molecules cm -3 within the plume after a few hours and the corresponding SO 2 to sulphate conversion rate ranges between 1 and 5%h -1. Nitric acid formation exceeds sulphuric acid formation during developed stages of the plume. Ambient emissions of nitrogen oxides and hydrocarbons representative for heavily populated areas tend to reduce the relative size of the ozone bulge compared to cases with lower emissions, and medium size power plants give rise to more excess ozone than larger plants. The ozone bulge disappears when the solar radiation is substantially reduced. The fate of the HSO x radicals and its involvement in odd hydrogen regeneration is essential in the understanding of the plume chemistry.

  6. Thermoeconomic Analysis of Hybrid Power Plant Concepts for Geothermal Combined Heat and Power Generation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florian Heberle

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available We present a thermo-economic analysis for a low-temperature Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC in a combined heat and power generation (CHP case. For the hybrid power plant, thermal energy input is provided by a geothermal resource coupled with the exhaust gases of a biogas engine. A comparison to alternative geothermal CHP concepts is performed by considering variable parameters like ORC working fluid, supply temperature of the heating network or geothermal water temperature. Second law efficiency as well as economic parameters show that hybrid power plants are more efficient compared to conventional CHP concepts or separate use of the energy sources.

  7. Construction of two 1000-MW units launched in Laizhou Power Plant

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    On March 10, the f irst construction phase of Huadian International Laizhou Power Plant with two 1 000-MW class generating units was formally started. This power plant is a key power source project of Shandong Province

  8. Estimation of small-scale hydroelectric power plant costs; Estimacao de custos de PCH

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Afonso Henriques Moreira [MS Consultoria Ltda, Itajuba, MG (Brazil); Universidade Federal de Itajuba (UNIFEI), MG (Brazil); Silva, Benedito Claudio da [IX Consultoria e Representacoes Ltda, Itajuba, MG (Brazil); Universidade Federal de Itajuba (UNIFEI), MG (Brazil); Magalhaes, Ricardo Nogueira [IX Consultoria e Representacoes Ltda, Itajuba, MG (Brazil)

    2010-07-01

    Changes in Brazilian energy scenario through last years such as increase of demand and search for clean and economically feasible renewable energy sources, has stimulated investors to small hydro power plants (SHP) sector. Such characteristics together with several economic incentives, legal and regulatory mechanisms also, have helped and stimulated building of new plants of this kind and have attracted a great number of investors to this sector. Study of costs analysis and feasibility of investments is a study which has been used since long time in SHP business market as several preliminary studies previous to civil project have significant costs which lead us to count with a feasibility analysis from the very beginning of studies, exactly what is suggested in the present methodology. Such feasibility analysis, in the common patterns where basic unit costs of each input remain outstanding, would be very complex due to great difficulty in obtaining information at initial phase of project. In this direction this study brings a contribution for investors as well as for designers of small hydro power plants since it outlines a link between physical and energetic characteristics of small hydro power plant in its total cost. Such link is based in available physical characteristics in initial phase of the project, making possible a previous comparison between arrangements of a central or even the comparison of return of investment between different plants. The resulting benefit being the possibility of choosing centrals with greater economic feasibility disregarding bad undertakings or arrangements with more expressive cost. Final result gives a better delay in return of investment, helps in power, arrangements more optimized and in saving time as well, reducing costs of undertakings. Due to large number of SHP arrangements, we chose for this study the most common in Brazil, plant of medium and large fall, shunting line balance chimney and low pressure conduit. (author)

  9. Advances in processing technologies for titanium heat exchanger tubes of fossil and nuclear power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Likhareva, T.P.; Tchizhik, A.A.; Chavchanidze, N.N. [Polzanov Central Boiler and Turbine Institute, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation)

    1998-12-31

    The advances in processing technologies for titanium heat exchangers with rolled and welded tubes of fossil and nuclear power plants in Russia are presented. The special methodology of investigations with constant small strain rate have been used to study the effects of mixed corrosion and creep processes in condensers cooled by sea or synthetic sea waters. The results of corrosion creep tests and K1scc calculations are given. The Russian science activities concerning condensers manufactured from titanium show the possibilities for designing structures with very high level service reliability in different corrosion aggressive mediums with high total salt, Cl-ion and oxygen contents. (orig.)

  10. The Prospect of Neutron Scattering In the 21st Century: A Powerful Tool for Materials Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Kartini

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Over the last 60 years research reactors (RRs have played an important role in technological and socio-economical development of mankind, such as radioisotope production for medicine, industry, research and education. Neutron scattering has been widely used for research and development in materials science. The prospect of neutron scattering as a powerful tool for materials research is increasing in the 21st century. This can be seen from the investment of several new neutron sources all over the world such as the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS in USA, the Japan Proton Accelerator Complex (JPARC in Japan, the new OPAL Reactor in Australia, and some upgrading to the existing sources at ISIS, Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, UK; Institute of Laue Langevin (ILL in Grenoble, France and Berlin Reactor, Germany. Developing countries with moderate flux research reactor have also been involved in this technique, such as India, Malaysia and Indonesia. The Siwabessy Multipurpose Reactor in Serpong, Indonesia that also produces thermal neutron has contributed to the research and development in the Asia Pacific Region. However, the international joint research among those countries plays an important role on optimizing the results.

  11. Optimal operation of cascaded hydroelectric power plants in the power market

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡兴国; 马平; 林士颖

    2004-01-01

    An improved network flow algorithm, which includes the minimum cost network flow and the same period network flow, is proposed to solve the optimization of cascaded hydroelectric power plants in a competitive electricity market. The typical network flow is used to find the feasible flow and add the discharge water to different cascaded hydroelectric power plants at the same step. The same period network flow is used to find the optimal flow and add the power output at a different step. This new algorithm retains the advantages of the typical network flow, such as simplicity and ease of realization. The result of the case analysis indicates that the new algorithm can achieve high calculation precision and can be used to calculate the optimal operation of cascaded hydroelectric power plants.

  12. In Vitro Growth and Rooting of Mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana L. on Medium with Different Concentrations of Plant Growth Regulator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FAUZIYAH HARAHAP

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Propagation of mangosteen is challenging for many reasons, including limited seed set, slow rate of seedling growth, and difficulty with root formations. The objective of this research was to find the best combination of medium and plant growth regulator for in vitro growth and rooting of mangosteeen seed. Various types of explant (a whole seed; seed divided into 2, 3, and 4 cross sections; seed divided into 2, 3, and 4 longitudinal sections were treated with five concentrations of benzyl amino purine (BAP; 0, 2.5, 5, 7.5, 10 mg/L for shoot induction in ½ Nitrogen (N Murashige and Skoog (MS medium. The shoots were rooted on MS and woody plant medium (WPM media with several combinations of indole butyric acid (IBA and naphtalene acetic acid (NAA. Treatments for root induction were applied as follows: (i low dose, given during induction of rooting, (ii soaking the base of the shoots in medium treated with a high dose of auxin for 5 days, and then growing the shoots in MS ½ N with 1 mg/L NAA + 1 mg/L BAP medium. Our result show that BAP positively affected mangosteen bud growth. The best medium for mangosteen shoot regeneration was found to be MS ½ N + 5 mg/L BAP. This medium induced the highest number of shoots from the seed explant cut into four cross sections. We found the best medium to induce in vitro rooting of mangosteen shoot was MS ½ N + 3 mg/L indole butiric acid (IBA + 4 mg/L NAA medium. Some treatment negatively affected growth. Soaking the mangosteen shoot base in a medium with an overly high dose of auxin seemed to disrupt and inhibit growth of the mangosteen shoot.

  13. US nuclear power plant operating cost and experience summaries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kohn, W.E.; Reid, R.L.; White, V.S.

    1998-02-01

    NUREG/CR-6577, U.S. Nuclear Power Plant Operating Cost and Experience Summaries, has been prepared to provide historical operating cost and experience information on U.S. commercial nuclear power plants. Cost incurred after initial construction are characterized as annual production costs, representing fuel and plant operating and maintenance expenses, and capital expenditures related to facility additions/modifications which are included in the plant capital asset base. As discussed in the report, annual data for these two cost categories were obtained from publicly available reports and must be accepted as having different degrees of accuracy and completeness. Treatment of inconclusive and incomplete data is discussed. As an aid to understanding the fluctuations in the cost histories, operating summaries for each nuclear unit are provided. The intent of these summaries is to identify important operating events; refueling, major maintenance, and other significant outages; operating milestones; and significant licensing or enforcement actions. Information used in the summaries is condensed from annual operating reports submitted by the licensees, plant histories contained in Nuclear Power Experience, trade press articles, and the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) web site (www.nrc.gov).

  14. Radon measurements in the Catalagzi Thermal Power Plant, Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aytekin, H; Bayata, S; Baldik, R; Celebi, N

    2008-01-01

    The Catalağzi Thermal Power Plant (CTPP) (41(0)30'48.4('')N and 0.31(0)53'41.5('')E) is located at nearly 13 km North-east of Zonguldak city, which is located at the West Black Sea coast in Turkey. The middling products with high ash content of bituminous coals are used in this plant. Seasonal radon concentration measurements have been carried out by using CR-39 plastic track detectors in and around the CTPP. The annual average radon concentration has been found to vary from a minimum of 39.8 +/- 28.9 Bq m(-3) in the ash area to a maximum of approximately 75.0 +/- 15.7 Bq m(-3) in the service building of the power plant. The annual average radon concentration in the dwellings of the thermal power plant colony of the plant is 71.0 +/- 33.4 Bq m(-3). The effective dose has been found to vary from 0.38 to 0.71 mSv y(-1) with a mean value of 0.56 mSv y(-1), which is lower than the effective dose values 3-10 mSv given as the range of action levels recommended by International Commission on Radiological Protection: Protection against radon-222 at home and at work, ICRP Publication 65 (1993).

  15. Radon measurements in the Catalagzi Thermal Power Plant, Turkey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aytekin, H.; Bayata, S.; Baldik, R.; Celebi, N. [Zonguldak Karaelmas University, Zonguldak (Turkey). Dept. of Physics

    2008-01-15

    The Catalagzi Thermal Power Plant (CTPP) is located at nearly 13 km North-east of Zonguldak city, which is located at the West Black Sea coast in Turkey. The middling products with high ash content of bituminous coals are used in this plant. Seasonal radon concentration measurements have been carried out by using CR-39 plastic track detectors in and around the CTPP. The annual average radon concentration has been found to vary from a minimum of 39.8 {+-} 28.9 Bq m{sup -3}) in the ash area to a maximum of about to 75.0 {+-} 15.7 Bq m{sup -3} in the service building of the power plant. The annual average radon concentration in the dwellings of the thermal power plant colony of the plant is 71.0 {+-} 33.4 Bq m{sup -3}. The effective dose has been found to vary from 0.38 to 0.71 mSv y{sup -1} with a mean value of 0.56 mSv y{sup -1}, which is lower than the effective dose values 3-10 mSv given as the range of action levels recommended by International Commission on Radiological Protection: Protection against radon-222 at home and at work, ICRP Publication 65 (1993).

  16. Maintenance of process instrumentation in nuclear power plants

    CERN Document Server

    Hashemian, H M

    2006-01-01

    Compiles 30 years of practical knowledge gained by the author and his staff in testing the I and C systems of nuclear power plants around the world. This book focuses on process temperature and pressure sensors and the verification of these sensors' calibration and response time.

  17. Power Plants, Steam and Gas Turbines WebQuest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulloa, Carlos; Rey, Guillermo D.; Sánchez, Ángel; Cancela, Ángeles

    2012-01-01

    A WebQuest is an Internet-based and inquiry-oriented learning activity. The aim of this work is to outline the creation of a WebQuest entitled "Power Generation Plants: Steam and Gas Turbines." This is one of the topics covered in the course "Thermodynamics and Heat Transfer," which is offered in the second year of Mechanical…

  18. Delays in nuclear power plant construction. Volume II. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mason, G.E.; Larew, R.E.; Borcherding, J.D.; Okes, S.R. Jr.; Rad, P.F.

    1977-12-14

    The report identifies barriers to shortening nuclear power plant construction schedules and recommends research efforts which should minimize or eliminate the identified barriers. The identified barriers include (1) Design and Construction Interfacing Problems; (2) Problems Relating to the Selection and Use of Permanent Materials and Construction Methods; (3) Construction Coordination and Communication Problems; and (4) Problems Associated with Manpower Availability and Productivity.

  19. Discussion on: "Profit maximization of a power plant"

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boomsma, Trine Krogh; Fleten, Stein-Erik

    2012-01-01

    objection applies to this figure. It should be noted that DONG Energy operates at Nord Pool, where such plans are piece-wise constant hour by hour. However, given both smaller and larger power ripples lasting for only minutes, the figure most likely shows the actual production of the plant. This indicates...

  20. 76 FR 75771 - Emergency Planning Guidance for Nuclear Power Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-05

    ... Commission. ACTION: Issuance of NUREG documents and interim staff guidance. SUMMARY: The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) is issuing Supplement 3, ``Guidance for Protective Action Strategies,'' to NUREG... Guidance Emergency Planning for Nuclear Power Plants;'' and NUREG/CR-7002, ``Criteria for Development...