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Sample records for camp analog induce

  1. Dibutyryl c-AMP as an inducer of sporidia formation: Biochemical ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Biosciences; Volume 29; Issue 1. Dibutyryl c-AMP as an inducer of sporidia formation: Biochemical and antigenic changes during morphological differentiation of Karnal bunt (Tilletia indica) pathogen in axenic culture. Anil Kumar Kaushlendra Tripathi Manish Rana Shalini Purwar G K Garg.

  2. Uniform cAMP stimulation of Dictyostelium cells induces localized patches of signal transduction and pseudopodia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Postma, M.; Roelofs, J.; Goedhart, J.; Gadella, T.W.J.; Visser, A.J.W.G.; Haastert, van P.J.M.

    2003-01-01

    The chemoattractant cAMP induces the translocation of cytosolic PHCrac-GFP to the plasma membrane. PHCrac-GFP is a green fluorescent protein fused to a PH domain that presumably binds to phosphatydylinositol polyphosphates in the membrane. We determined the relative concentration of PHCrac-GFP in

  3. Plasma levels of cAMP, cGMP and CGRP in sildenafil-induced headache

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kruuse, Christina Rostrup; Frandsen, E; Schifter, S

    2004-01-01

    whether the pain-inducing effects of sildenafil would be reflected in plasma levels of important signalling molecules in migraine: cGMP, cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) and calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP). Ten healthy subjects (four women, six men) and 12 patients (12 women) suffering from......Sildenafil, a selective inhibitor of the cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) degrading phosphodiestrase 5 (PDE5), induced migraine without aura in 10 of 12 migraine patients and in healthy subjects it induced significantly more headache than placebo. The aim of the present study was to determine...... migraine without aura were included in two separate double-blind, placebo-controlled, cross-over studies in which placebo or sildenafil 100 mg was administered orally. Plasma levels of CGRP, cAMP and cGMP were determined in blood from the antecubital vein. Despite the ability of sildenafil to induce...

  4. Divergent cAMP signaling differentially regulates serotonin-induced spinal motor plasticity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fields, D P; Mitchell, G S

    2017-02-01

    Spinal metabotropic serotonin receptors encode transient experiences into long-lasting changes in motor behavior (i.e. motor plasticity). While interactions between serotonin receptor subtypes are known to regulate plasticity, the significance of molecular divergence in downstream G protein coupled receptor signaling is not well understood. Here we tested the hypothesis that distinct cAMP dependent signaling pathways differentially regulate serotonin-induced phrenic motor facilitation (pMF); a well-studied model of spinal motor plasticity. Specifically, we studied the capacity of cAMP-dependent protein kinase A (PKA) and exchange protein activated by cAMP (EPAC) to regulate 5-HT2A receptor-induced pMF within adult male rats. Although spinal PKA, EPAC and 5-HT2A each elicit pMF when activated alone, concurrent PKA and 5-HT2A activation interact via mutual inhibition thereby blocking pMF expression. Conversely, concurrent EPAC and 5-HT2A activation enhance pMF expression reflecting additive contributions from both mechanisms. Thus, we demonstrate that distinct downstream cAMP signaling pathways enable differential regulation of 5-HT2A-induced pMF. Conditional activation of independent signaling mechanisms may explain experience amendable changes in plasticity expression (i.e. metaplasticity), an emerging concept thought to enable flexible motor control within the adult central nervous system. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  5. Theophylline and cAMP inhibit lysophosphatidic acid-induced hyperresponsiveness of bovine tracheal smooth muscle cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakai, Jiro; Oike, Masahiro; Hirakawa, Masakazu; Ito, Yushi

    2003-01-01

    We have established an in vitro model of airway hyperresponsiveness, using a bovine tracheal smooth muscle cell (BTSMC)-embedded collagen gel lattice. When the gel was pretreated with lysophosphatidic acid (LPA), which activates the small G protein RhoA, ATP- and high K+ solution-induced gel contraction was significantly augmented. This was not due to the modulation of Ca2+ mobilizing properties, since ATP- and high K+-induced Ca2+ transients were not significantly different between control and LPA-treated BTSMC. Y-27632, an inhibitor of Rho-kinase, suppressed the LPA-induced augmentation of gel contraction, whereas it did not inhibit the contraction of control gels. Theophylline (> 1 μm) reversed the LPA-induced augmentation of gel contraction, whereas it inhibited control gel contraction only with a very high concentration (100 μm). We confirmed that theophylline increased the intracellular concentration of cAMP ([cAMP]i) in BTSMC. Elevation of [cAMP]i with dibutyryl cAMP or forskolin also reversed the LPA-induced augmentation of gel contraction. Furthermore, theophylline, as well as dibutyryl cAMP and forskolin, suppressed the LPA-induced membrane translocation of RhoA, indicating that they prevented airway hyperresponsiveness by inhibiting RhoA. We conclude from these results that theophylline inhibits LPA-induced, RhoA/Rho-kinase-mediated hyperresponsiveness of tracheal smooth muscle cells due to the accumulation of cAMP. PMID:12679373

  6. Physical Analog Modeling of Martian Dike-Induced Deformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyrick, D. Y.; Watson-Morris, M. J.; Morris, A. P.

    2012-03-01

    Analog models of dike injection were performed to determine style and magnitude of structural deformation associated with the dike. Primary deformation style is contraction rather than extension, indicating that martian dikes may not create grabens.

  7. Pseudohyphal growth is induced in Saccharomyces cerevisiae by a combination of stress and cAMP signalling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaragoza, O; Gancedo, J M

    2000-08-01

    In Saccharomyces cerevisiae pseudohyphae formation may be triggered by nitrogen deprivation and is stimulated by cAMP. It was observed that even in a medium with an adequate nitrogen supply, cAMP can induce pseudohyphal growth when S. cerevisiae uses ethanol as carbon source. This led us to investigate the effects of the carbon source and of a variety of stresses on yeast morphology. Pseudohyphae formation and invasive growth were observed in a rich medium (YP) with poor carbon sources such as lactate or ethanol. External cAMP was required for the morphogenetic transition in one genetic background, but was dispensable in strain sigma 1278b which has been shown to have an overactive Ras2/cAMP pathway. Pseudohyphal growth and invasiveness also took place in YPD plates when the yeast was subjected to different stresses: a mild heat-stress (37 degrees C), an osmotic stress (1 m NACl), or addition of compounds which affect the lipid bilayer organization of the cell membrane (aliphatic alcohols at 2%) or alter the glucan structure of the cell wall (Congo red). We conclude that pseudohyphal growth is a physiological response not only to starvation but also to a stressful environment; it appears to require the coordinate action of a MAP kinase cascade and a cAMP-dependent pathway.

  8. Inhibition of Delta-induced Notch signaling using fucose analogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Michael; Kumar, Vivek; Nordstrøm, Lars Ulrik; Feng, Lei; Takeuchi, Hideyuki; Hao, Huilin; Luca, Vincent C; Garcia, K Christopher; Stanley, Pamela; Wu, Peng; Haltiwanger, Robert S

    2018-01-01

    Notch is a cell-surface receptor that controls cell-fate decisions and is regulated by O-glycans attached to epidermal growth factor-like (EGF) repeats in its extracellular domain. Protein O-fucosyltransferase 1 (Pofut1) modifies EGF repeats with O-fucose and is essential for Notch signaling. Constitutive activation of Notch signaling has been associated with a variety of human malignancies. Therefore, tools that inhibit Notch activity are being developed as cancer therapeutics. To this end, we screened L-fucose analogs for their effects on Notch signaling. Two analogs, 6-alkynyl and 6-alkenyl fucose, were substrates of Pofut1 and were incorporated directly into Notch EGF repeats in cells. Both analogs were potent inhibitors of binding to and activation of Notch1 by Notch ligands Dll1 and Dll4, but not by Jag1. Mutagenesis and modeling studies suggest that incorporation of the analogs into EGF8 of Notch1 markedly reduces the ability of Delta ligands to bind and activate Notch1.

  9. Feasibility of a Day-Camp Model of Modified Constraint-Induced Movement Therapy with and without Botulinum Toxin A Injection for Children with Hemiplegia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eliasson, Ann-Christin; Shaw, Karin; Ponten, Eva; Boyd, Roslyn; Krumlinde-Sundholm, Lena

    2009-01-01

    The objective of the study was to investigate the feasibility of modified constraint-induced (CI) therapy provided in a 2-week day-camp model with and without intramuscular botulinum toxin type A (BoNT-A) injections for children with congenital cerebral palsy. Sixteen children with congenital hemiplegia, Manual Ability Classification System (MACS)…

  10. Piperine, a component of black pepper, decreases eugenol-induced cAMP and calcium levels in non-chemosensory 3T3-L1 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Yeo Cho; Kim, Sung-Hee; Kim, Min Jung; Yang, Hye Jeong; Rhyu, Mee-Ra; Park, Jae-Ho

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of an ethanol extract of black pepper and its constituent, piperine, on odorant-induced signal transduction in non-chemosensory cells. An ethanol extract of black pepper decreased eugenol-induced cAMP and calcium levels in preadipocyte 3T3-L1 cells with no toxicity. Phosphorylation of CREB (cAMP response element-binding protein) was down-regulated by the black pepper extract. The concentration (133.8 mg/g) and retention time (5.5 min) of piperine in the ethanol extract were quantified using UPLC-MS/MS. Pretreatment with piperine decreased eugenol-induced cAMP and calcium levels in 3T3-L1 cells. Piperine also decreased the phosphorylation of CREB, which is up-regulated by eugenol. These results suggest that piperine inhibits the eugenol-induced signal transduction pathway through modulation of cAMP and calcium levels and phosphorylation of CREB in non-chemosensory cells.

  11. Calcium and cAMP signaling induced by gamma-hydroxybutyrate receptor(s) stimulation in NCB-20 neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coune, P; Taleb, O; Mensah-Nyagan, A G; Maitre, M; Kemmel, V

    2010-04-28

    The NCB-20 neurohybridoma cells differentiated with dibutyryl-cyclic-AMP represent an interesting model to study several components of the gamma-hydroxybutyrate (GHB) system in brain. In particular, an active Na(+)-dependent uptake and a depolarization-evoked release of GHB is expressed by these cells, together with high affinity specific binding sites for this substance. However, only little is known about cellular mechanisms following GHB receptor(s) stimulation in these neurons. Electrophysiological data indicate that GHB can differently affect Ca(2+) currents. L-type calcium channels were typically inhibited by GHB when NCB-20 cells were depolarized. In contrast, when NCB-20 cells were at resting potential, GHB induced a specific Ca(2+) entry through T-type calcium channels. In this study, we investigated the effect induced on cytosolic free Ca(2+) level and cAMP production by GHB receptor(s) stimulated with micromolar concentrations of GHB or structural analogues of GHB. Ca(2+) movements studied by cellular imaging were dose-dependently increased but disappeared for GHB concentrations >25 microM. In addition, nanomolar doses of GHB inhibited forskolin-stimulated adenylate cyclase. This effect was also rapidly desensitized at higher GHB concentrations. Acting as an antagonist, NCS-382 decreased GHB receptor(s) mediated cAMP and calcium signals. The agonist NCS-356 mimicked GHB effects which were not affected by the GABA(B) receptor antagonist CGP-55-845. Our results reveal the occurrence of Ca(2+)-dependent adenylate cyclase inhibition in NCB-20 neurons after GHB receptor(s) stimulation by GHB concentrations NCB-20 neurons of GHB receptors belonging to GPCR family that may recruit various G protein subtypes. Copyright 2010 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Astaxanthin analogs, adonixanthin and lycopene, activate Nrf2 to prevent light-induced photoreceptor degeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, Yuki; Shimazawa, Masamitsu; Nagano, Ryota; Kuse, Yoshiki; Takahashi, Kei; Tsuruma, Kazuhiro; Hayashi, Masahiro; Ishibashi, Takashi; Maoka, Takashi; Hara, Hideaki

    2017-07-01

    Carotenoids, in particular astaxanthin, possess potent antioxidant capabilities. Astaxanthin also induces NF-E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2), which plays a major regulatory role in the antioxidative response. However, little is known whether the carotenoid, by-products of astaxanthin, activate Nrf2. Toward this end, we screened eight astaxanthin analogs for Nrf2 activation in murine photoreceptor cell line, 661 W, by quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). In addition, we monitored cell death in 661 W cells pretreated with astaxanthin analogs or only pretreated for 6 h with astaxanthin analogs and then exposed to light. Furthermore, we quantified the reactive oxygen species (ROS) production. Cell death was quantified after light exposure by nuclear staining. Nrf2-controlled genes Ho-1, Nqo-1, and Gclm by qRT-PCR and Nrf2 in the nucleus were upregulated in 661 W cells exposed astaxanthin, adonixanthin, echinenone, and lycopene. Moreover, astaxanthin, adonixanthin, echinenone, β-carotene, adonirubin, and lycopene, but not canthaxanthin, suppressed ROS production and protected cells against light-induced damage. Moreover, pretreatment with adonixanthin or lycopene only before light exposure protected against light-induced cell damage and Nrf2 silencing canceled these effects. These findings indicate that the more potent astaxanthin analogs, adonixanthin and lycopene, protect against light-induced cell damage through not only an anti-oxidative response but also through Nrf2 activation. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Transcriptional Regulation Induced by cAMP Elevation in Mouse Schwann Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Schmid

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In peripheral nerves, Schwann cell development is regulated by a variety of signals. Some of the aspects of Schwann cell differentiation can be reproduced in vitro in response to forskolin, an adenylyl cyclase activator elevating intracellular cAMP levels. Herein, the effect of forskolin treatment was investigated by a comprehensive genome-wide expression study on primary mouse Schwann cell cultures. Additional to myelin-related genes, many so far unconsidered genes were ascertained to be modulated by forskolin. One of the strongest differentially regulated gene transcripts was the transcription factor Olig1 (oligodendrocyte transcription factor 1, whose mRNA expression levels were reduced in treated Schwann cells. Olig1 protein was localized in myelinating and nonmyelinating Schwann cells within the sciatic nerve as well as in primary Schwann cells, proposing it as a novel transcription factor of the Schwann cell lineage. Data analysis further revealed that a number of differentially expressed genes in forskolin-treated Schwann cells were associated with the ECM (extracellular matrix, underlining its importance during Schwann cell differentiation in vitro. Comparison of samples derived from postnatal sciatic nerves and from both treated and untreated Schwann cell cultures showed considerable differences in gene expression between in vivo and in vitro, allowing us to separate Schwann cell autonomous from tissue-related changes. The whole data set of the cell culture microarray study is provided to offer an interactive search tool for genes of interest.

  14. Blunting of exercise-induced salivary testosterone in elite-level triathletes with a 10-day training camp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hough, John; Robertson, Caroline; Gleeson, Michael

    2015-10-01

    This study examined the influence of 10 days of intensified training on salivary cortisol and testosterone responses to 30-min, high-intensity cycling (55/80) in a group of male elite triathletes. Seven elite male triathletes (age 19 ± 1 y, VO2max 67.6 ± 4.5 mL · kg-1 · min-1) completed the study. Swim distances increased by 45%. Running and cycling training hours increased by 25% and 229%, respectively. REST-Q questionnaires assessed mood status before, during, and after the training period. Unstimulated saliva samples were collected before, after, and 30 min after a continuous, high-intensity exercise test. Salivary cortisol and testosterone concentrations were assessed. Compared with pretraining, blunted exercise-induced salivary testosterone responses to the posttraining 55/80 were found (P = .004). The absolute response of salivary testosterone concentrations to the 55/80 decreased pretraining to posttraining from 114% to 85%. No changes were found in exercise-induced salivary cortisol concentration responses to the 55/80. REST-Q scores indicated no changes in the participants' psychological stress-recovery levels over the training camp. The blunted exercise-induced salivary testosterone is likely due to decreased testicular testosterone production and/or secretion, possibly attributable to hypothalamic dysfunction or reduced testicular blood flow. REST-Q scores suggest that the triathletes coped well with training-load elevations, which could account for the finding of no change in the exercise-induced salivary cortisol concentration. Overall, these findings suggest that the 55/80 can detect altered exercise-induced salivary testosterone concentrations in an elite athletic population due to increased training stress. However, this alteration occurs independently of a perceived elevation of training stress.

  15. Antagonists of chemoattractants reveal separate receptors for cAMP, folic acid and pterin in Dictyostelium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haastert, Peter J.M. van; Wit, René J.W. de; Konijn, Theo M.

    1982-01-01

    Adenosine 3’,5’-monophosphate (cAMP), folic acid and pterin are chemoattractants in the cellular slime molds. The cAMP analog, 3’-amino-cAMP, inhibits a chemotactic reaction to cAMP at a concentration at which the analog is chemotactically inactive. The antagonistic effect of 3’-amino-cAMP on the

  16. Polyamine analog TBP inhibits proliferation of human K562 chronic myelogenous leukemia cells by induced apoptosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qing; Wang, Yan-Lin; Wang, Kai; Yang, Jian-Lin; Cao, Chun-Yu

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of the novel polyamine analog tetrabutyl propanediamine (TBP) on the growth of K562 chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML) cells and the underlying mechanism of these effects. MTT was used for the analysis of cell proliferation and flow cytometry was performed to analyze cell cycle distribution. DNA fragmentation analysis and Annexin V/propidium iodide double staining were used to identify apoptotic cells. The activity of the key enzymes in polyamine catabolism was detected using chemiluminescence. TBP can induce apoptosis and significantly inhibit K562 cell proliferation in a time- and dose-dependent manner. TBP treatment significantly induced the enzyme activity of spermine oxidase and acetylpolyamine oxidase in K562 cells, and also enhanced the inhibitory effect of the antitumor drug doxorubicin on K562 cell proliferation. As a novel polyamine analog, TBP significantly inhibited proliferation and induced apoptosis in K562 cells by upregulating the activity of the key enzymes in the polyamine catabolic pathways. TBP also increased the sensitivity of the K562 cells to the antitumor drug doxorubicin. These data indicate an important potential value of TBP for clinical therapy of human CML.

  17. Flow-induced noise simulation using detached eddy simulation and the finite element acoustic analogy method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai Liu

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Signals in long-distance pipes are complex due to flow-induced noise generated in special structure, and the computation of these noise sources is difficult and time-consuming. To address this problem, a hybrid method based on computational fluid dynamics and Lighthill’s acoustic analogy theory is proposed to simulate flow-induced noise, with the results showing that the method is sufficient for noise predictions. The proposed method computes the turbulent flow field using detached eddy simulation and then calculates turbulence-generated sound using the finite element acoustic analogy method, which solves acoustic sources as volume sources. The velocity field obtained in the detached eddy simulation computation provides the sound source through interpolation between the computational fluid dynamics and acoustic meshes. The hybrid method is validated and assessed by comparing data from the cavity in pipe and large eddy simulation results. The peak value of flow-induced noise calculated at the monitor point is in good agreement with experimental data available in the literature.

  18. Effects of intrathecal amylin on formalin-induced nociception and on cAMP accumulation in the rat embryonic spinal cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khoshdel, Zahra; Takhshid, Mohammad Ali; Owji, Ali Akbar

    2016-06-01

    Amylin (AMY) is a member of calcitonin family of peptides. In this study, the effects of intrathecal (i.t) injection of AMY on the inflammatory pain and on the cAMP accumulation in the rat spinal cells were investigated. By using AMY receptor antagonists, we also studied the pharmacology of AMY receptors in the spinal cells. Formalin model of inflammatory pain was induced by intraplantar injection of formalin. AMY (0.06250-2500pmol/rat) was administrated i.t 15min before the injection of formalin. Antagonists were injected i.t 10min before the injection of AMY and/or morphine. AMY reduced formalin-induced pain in a dose dependent mode. This effect was inhibited by the potent AMY antagonist, AC187 but not CGRP8-37. rAMY8-37, most commonly reported as a weak AMY antagonist, showed to be equally or more potent than AC187 in antagonizing the above effects. The opioid antagonist, naloxone, had no significant effects on AMY antinociceptive effects. Primary dissociated cell culture was used to investigate the effect of AMY on cAMP production and to characterize AMY receptors in the spinal cells. AMY moderately increases cAMP accumulation in the spinal cells with an EC50 value of 74.62nM. This effect was not affected by CGRP8-37 but was inhibited by AC187 and rAMY8-37 with pA2 values of 7.94 and 7.87 respectively. In conclusion, effects of AMY in reducing formalin induced pain and on the cAMP accumulation by spinal cells are mediated through undefined receptors. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Analog of electromagnetically induced transparency at terahertz frequency based on a bilayer-double-H-metamaterial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yue’e.; Li, Zhi; Hu, Fangrong

    2018-01-01

    We designed a bilayer-double-H-metamaterials (BDHM) composed of two layers of metal and two layers of dielectric to analog a spectral response of electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) at terahertz frequency. By changing the incident angle, the BDHM exhibits an EIT-like spectral response. The tunable spectral performances and modulation mechanism of the transparent peak are theoretically investigated using full-wave electromagnetic simulation software. The physical mechanism of the EIT-like effect is based on the constructive and destructive interference between the induced electrical dipoles. Our work provides a new way to realize the EIT-like effect only by changing the incident angles of the metamaterials. The potential applications include tunable filters, sensors, attenuators, switches, and so on.

  20. Plasmonic Analog of Electromagnetically Induced Absorption Leads to Giant Thin Film Faraday Rotation of 14°

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    Dominik Floess

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available We demonstrate the realization of a new hybrid magnetoplasmonic thin film structure that resembles the classical optical analog of electromagnetically induced absorption. In transmission geometry our gold nanostructure embedded in an EuS film induces giant Faraday rotation of over 14° for a thickness of less than 200 nm and a magnetic field of 5 T at T=20  K. By varying the magnetic field from -5 to +5  T, a rotation tuning range of over 25° is realized. As we are only a factor of 3 away from the Faraday isolation requirement, our concept could lead to highly integrated, nonreciprocal photonic devices for light modulation, optical isolation, and optical magnetic field sensing.

  1. Expression of orphan G-protein coupled receptor GPR174 in CHO cells induced morphological changes and proliferation delay via increasing intracellular cAMP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sugita, Kazuya; Yamamura, Chiaki; Tabata, Ken-ichi [Laboratory of Pharmacoinformatics, Graduate School of Ritsumeikan University, Kusatsu, Shiga 525-8577 (Japan); Fujita, Norihisa, E-mail: nori@ph.ritsumei.ac.jp [Laboratory of Pharmacoinformatics, Graduate School of Ritsumeikan University, Kusatsu, Shiga 525-8577 (Japan); School of Pharmacy, Ristumeikan University, Kusatsu, Shiga 525-8577 (Japan)

    2013-01-04

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Expression of GPR174 in CHO cells induces morphological changes and proliferation delay. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer These are due to increase in intracellular cAMP concentration. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Lysophosphatidylserine was identified to stimulate GPR174 leading to activate ACase. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The potencies of fatty acid moiety on LysoPS were oleoyl Greater-Than-Or-Slanted-Equal-To stearoyl > palmitoyl. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We propose that GPR174 is a lysophosphatidylserine receptor. -- Abstract: We established cell lines that stably express orphan GPCR GPR174 using CHO cells, and studied physiological and pharmacological features of the receptor. GPR174-expressing cells showed cell-cell adhesion with localization of actin filaments to cell membrane, and revealed significant delay of cell proliferation. Since the morphological changes of GPR174-cells were very similar to mock CHO cells treated with cholera toxin, we measured the concentration of intracellular cAMP. The results showed the concentration was significantly elevated in GPR174-cells. By measuring intracellular cAMP concentration in GPR174-cells, we screened lipids and nucleotides to identify ligands for GPR174. We found that lysophosphatidylserine (LysoPS) stimulated increase in intracellular cAMP in a dose-dependent manner. Moreover, phosphorylation of Erk was elevated by LysoPS in GPR174 cells. These LysoPS responses were inhibited by NF449, an inhibitor of G{alpha}{sub s} protein. These results suggested that GPR174 was a putative LysoPS receptor conjugating with G{alpha}{sub s}, and its expression induced morphological changes in CHO cells by constitutively activating adenylyl cycles accompanied with cell conjunctions and delay of proliferation.

  2. Sulforaphane induces phase II detoxication enzymes in mouse skin and prevents mutagenesis induced by a mustard gas analog

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abel, E.L. [Department of Molecular Carcinogenesis, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Science Park, Smithville, TX 78957 (United States); Boulware, S. [Division of Pharmacy and Toxicology, College of Pharmacy, The University of Texas at Austin, Dell Pediatric Research Institute, 1400 Barbara Jordan Blvd., Austin, TX 78723 (United States); Fields, T.; McIvor, E.; Powell, K.L. [Department of Molecular Carcinogenesis, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Science Park, Smithville, TX 78957 (United States); DiGiovanni, J.; Vasquez, K.M. [Division of Pharmacy and Toxicology, College of Pharmacy, The University of Texas at Austin, Dell Pediatric Research Institute, 1400 Barbara Jordan Blvd., Austin, TX 78723 (United States); MacLeod, M.C., E-mail: mcmacleod@mdanderson.org [Department of Molecular Carcinogenesis, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Science Park, Smithville, TX 78957 (United States)

    2013-02-01

    Mustard gas, used in chemical warfare since 1917, is a mutagenic and carcinogenic agent that produces severe dermal lesions for which there are no effective therapeutics; it is currently seen as a potential terrorist threat to civilian populations. Sulforaphane, found in cruciferous vegetables, is known to induce enzymes that detoxify compounds such as the sulfur mustards that react through electrophilic intermediates. Here, we observe that a single topical treatment with sulforaphane induces mouse epidermal levels of the regulatory subunit of glutamate-cysteine ligase, the rate-limiting enzyme in glutathione biosynthesis, and also increases epidermal levels of reduced glutathione. Furthermore, a glutathione S-transferase, GSTA4, is also induced in mouse skin by sulforaphane. In an in vivo model in which mice are given a single mutagenic application of the sulfur mustard analog 2-(chloroethyl) ethyl sulfide (CEES), we now show that therapeutic treatment with sulforaphane abolishes the CEES-induced increase in mutation frequency in the skin, measured four days after exposure. Sulforaphane, a natural product currently in clinical trials, shows promise as an effective therapeutic against mustard gas. -- Highlights: ► Sulforaphane induces increased levels of glutathione in mouse skin. ► Sulforaphane induces increased levels of GSTA4 in mouse skin. ► Sulforaphane, applied after CEES-treatment, completely abolishes CEES-mutagenesis. ► The therapeutic effect may suggest a long biological half-life for CEES in vivo.

  3. The scent of wolves: pyrazine analogs induce avoidance and vigilance behaviors in prey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osada, Kazumi; Miyazono, Sadaharu; Kashiwayanagi, Makoto

    2015-01-01

    The common gray wolf (Canis lupus) is an apex predator located at the top of the food chain in the Northern Hemisphere. It preys on rodents, rabbits, ungulates, and many other kinds of mammal. However, the behavioral evidence for, and the chemical basis of, the fear-inducing impact of wolf urine on prey are unclear. Recently, the pyrazine analogs 2, 6-dimethylpyrazine, 2, 3, 5-trimethylpyrazine and 3-ethyl-2, 5-dimethyl pyrazine were identified as kairomones in the urine of wolves. When mice were confronted with a mixture of purified pyrazine analogs, vigilance behaviors, including freezing and excitation of neurons at the accessory olfactory bulb, were markedly increased. Additionally, the odor of the pyrazine cocktail effectively suppressed the approach of deer to a feeding area, and for those close to the feeding area elicited fear-related behaviors such as the "tail-flag," "flight," and "jump" actions. In this review, we discuss the transfer of chemical information from wolf to prey through the novel kairomones identified in wolf urine and also compare the characteristics of wolf kairomones with other predator-produced kairomones that affect rodents.

  4. The scent of wolves: pyrazine analogs induce avoidance and vigilance behaviors in prey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazumi eOsada

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The common grey wolf (Canis lupus is an apex predator located at the top of the food chain in the Northern Hemisphere. It preys on rodents, rabbits, ungulates, and many other kinds of mammal. However, the behavioral evidence for, and the chemical basis of, the fear-inducing impact of wolf urine on prey are unclear. Recently, the pyrazine analogs 2, 6-dimethylpyrazine, 2, 3, 5-trimethylpyrazine and 3-ethyl-2, 5-dimethyl pyrazine were identified as kairomones in the urine of wolves. When mice were confronted with a mixture of purified pyrazine analogs, vigilance behaviors, including freezing and excitation of neurons at the accessory olfactory bulb, were markedly increased. Additionally, the odor of the pyrazine cocktail effectively suppressed the approach of deer to a feeding area, and for those close to the feeding area elicited fear-related behaviors such as the tail-flag, flight, and jump actions. In this review, we discuss the transfer of chemical information from wolf to prey through the novel kairomones identified in wolf urine and also compare the characteristics of wolf kairomones with other predator-produced kairomones that affect rodents.

  5. Requirement of cAMP signaling for Schwann cell differentiation restricts the onset of myelination.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ketty Bacallao

    Full Text Available Isolated Schwann cells (SCs respond to cAMP elevation by adopting a differentiated post-mitotic state that exhibits high levels of Krox-20, a transcriptional enhancer of myelination, and mature SC markers such as the myelin lipid galactocerebroside (O1. To address how cAMP controls myelination, we performed a series of cell culture experiments which compared the differentiating responses of isolated and axon-related SCs to cAMP analogs and ascorbate, a known inducer of axon ensheathment, basal lamina formation and myelination. In axon-related SCs, cAMP induced the expression of Krox-20 and O1 without a concomitant increase in the expression of myelin basic protein (MBP and without promoting axon ensheathment, collagen synthesis or basal lamina assembly. When cAMP was provided together with ascorbate, a dramatic enhancement of MBP expression occurred, indicating that cAMP primes SCs to form myelin only under conditions supportive of basal lamina formation. Experiments using a combination of cell permeable cAMP analogs and type-selective adenylyl cyclase (AC agonists and antagonists revealed that selective transmembrane AC (tmAC activation with forskolin was not sufficient for full SC differentiation and that the attainment of an O1 positive state also relied on the activity of the soluble AC (sAC, a bicarbonate sensor that is insensitive to forskolin and GPCR activation. Pharmacological and immunological evidence indicated that SCs expressed sAC and that sAC activity was required for morphological differentiation and the expression of myelin markers such as O1 and protein zero. To conclude, our data indicates that cAMP did not directly drive myelination but rather the transition into an O1 positive state, which is perhaps the most critical cAMP-dependent rate limiting step for the onset of myelination. The temporally restricted role of cAMP in inducing differentiation independently of basal lamina formation provides a clear example of the

  6. MyD88 and TRIF mediate the cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP induced corticotropin releasing hormone (CRH expression in JEG3 choriocarcinoma cell line

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kocak Hande

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Classically protein kinase A (PKA and transcription factor activator protein 1 (AP-1 mediate the cyclic AMP (cAMP induced-corticotrophin releasing hormone (CRH expression in the placenta. However enteric Gram (- bacterial cell wall component lipopolysaccharide (LPS may also induce-CRH expression via Toll like receptor (TLR4 and its adaptor molecule Myd88. Here we investigated the role of MyD88, TRIF and IRAK2 on cAMP-induced CRH promoter activation in JEG3 cells in the absence of LPS/TLR4 stimulation. Methods JEG3 cells were transfected with CRH-luciferase and Beta-galactosidase expression vectors and either empty or dominant-negative (DN-MyD88, DN-TRIF or DN-IRAK2 vectors using Fugene6 (Roche. cAMP-induced CRH promoter activation was examined by using a luminometer and luciferase assay. Calorimetric Beta-galactosidase assays were performed to correct for transfection efficiency. Luciferase expression vectors of cAMP-downstream molecules, CRE and AP-1, were used to further examine the signaling cascades. Results cAMP stimulation induced AP-1 and CRE promoter expression and led to dose-dependent CRH promoter activation in JEG3 cells. Inhibition of MyD88 signaling blocked cAMP-induced CRE and CRH promoter activation. Inhibition of TRIF signaling blocked cAMP-induced CRH but not CRE expression, while inhibition of IRAK2 did not have an effect on cAMP-induced CRH expression. Conclusion MyD88 and TRIF exert direct regulatory effect on cAMP-induced CRH promoter activation in JEG3 cells in the absence of infection. MyD88 most likely interacts with molecules upstream of IRAK2 to regulate cAMP-induced CRH expression.

  7. Consulting to summer camps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ditter, Bob

    2007-10-01

    There has been an increased need for consultation to summer camps from the allied health/mental health fields because camps are available to children with medical and psychological illnesses. Factors in camp programs that are necessary for effective consultation and the various roles a consultant may serve within the camp community are discussed in this article.

  8. Victory Junction Gang Camp

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shell, Ryan

    2007-01-01

    This article describes the Victory Junction Gang Camp, a not-for-profit, NASCAR-themed camp for children with chronic medical conditions that serves 24 different disease groups. The mission of the camp is to give children life-changing camping experiences that are exciting, fun, and empowering in a safe and medically sound environment. While doing…

  9. Observation of Fano resonance and classical analog of electromagnetically induced transparency in toroidal metamaterials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Song; Yang, Helin [College of Physical Science and Technology, Central China Normal University, Wuhan (China); Cong, Lonqing; Singh, Ranjan [Division of Physics and Applied Physics, School of Physical and Mathematical Sciences, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore (Singapore); Centre for Disruptive Photonic Technologies, School of Physical and Mathematical Sciences, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore (Singapore); Gao, Fei [Division of Physics and Applied Physics, School of Physical and Mathematical Sciences, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore (Singapore)

    2016-05-15

    Toroidal multipoles have recently been explored in various scientific communities, ranging from atomic and molecular physics, electrodynamics, and solid-state physics to biology. Here we experimentally and numerically demonstrate a three-dimensional toroidal metamaterial where two different toroidal dipoles along orthogonal directions have been observed. The chosen toroidal metamaterial also simultaneously supports Fano resonance and the classical analog of electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) phenomena in the transmission spectra that originate from the electric-toroidal dipole and electric-magnetic dipole destructive interference. The intriguing properties of the toroidal resonances may open up avenues for applications in toroidal moments generator, sensing and slow-light devices. (copyright 2016 by WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  10. MADP, a salidroside analog, protects hippocampal neurons from glutamate induced apoptosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xian, Hua; Zhao, Jing; Zheng, Yuan; Wang, Meihong; Huang, Jun; Wu, Bingxin; Sun, Cheng; Yang, Yumin

    2014-05-08

    To investigate the anti-apoptotic effect of MADP, an analog of salidroside, against glutamate induced apoptosis in the cultured rat hippocampal neurons. Cytotoxicity was determined by the MTT method and lactate dehydrogenase release to the medium. Cell apoptosis was evaluated by Hoechst 33342 staining, TUNEL assay and flow cytometric analysis. Western blotting was applied for detecting protein levels of cellular signaling molecules. Our results showed that glutamate exposure significantly induces cell apoptosis, whereas the pretreatment of salidroside or MADP remarkably improves cell viability. Most importantly, the anti-apoptotic effect of MADP against glutamate insult is superior to salidroside. To explore the involved mechanisms, we measured some pro-apoptotic and anti-apoptotic protein levels, and several cell survival signaling pathways were analyzed as well. No visible alterations in Bcl-2 and Bax protein levels were observed by MADP or salidroside. Akt and JNK phosphorylation was robustly stimulated by MADP in the glutamate-treated neurons. Salidroside treatment results in a slight activation in Akt, while no significant alteration in JNK activity was observed. MADP exhibits higher capacity to attenuate glutamate induced cell apoptosis in the cultured rat hippocampal neurons, suggesting that MADP might be a better candidate than salidroside for developing novel drugs treating neuron loss associated disorders. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Impact of novel palmitoylated prolactin-releasing peptide analogs on metabolic changes in mice with diet-induced obesity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veronika Pražienková

    Full Text Available Analogs of anorexigenic neuropeptides, such as prolactin-releasing peptide (PrRP, have a potential as new anti-obesity drugs. In our previous study, palmitic acid attached to the N-terminus of PrRP enabled its central anorexigenic effects after peripheral administration. In this study, two linkers, γ-glutamic acid at Lys11 and a short, modified polyethylene glycol at the N-terminal Ser and/or Lys11, were applied for the palmitoylation of PrRP31 to improve its bioavailability. These analogs had a high affinity and activation ability to the PrRP receptor GPR10 and the neuropeptide FF2 receptor, as well as short-term anorexigenic effect similar to PrRP palmitoylated at the N-terminus. Two-week treatment with analogs that were palmitoylated through linkers to Lys11 (analogs 1 and 2, but not with analog modified both at the N-terminus and Lys11 (analog 3 decreased body and liver weights, insulin, leptin, triglyceride, cholesterol and free fatty acid plasma levels in a mouse model of diet-induced obesity. Moreover, the expression of uncoupling protein-1 was increased in brown fat suggesting an increase in energy expenditure. In addition, treatment with analogs 1 and 2 but not analog 3 significantly decreased urinary concentrations of 1-methylnicotinamide and its oxidation products N-methyl-2-pyridone-5-carboxamide and N-methyl-4-pyridone-3-carboxamide, as shown by NMR-based metabolomics. This observation confirmed the previously reported increase in nicotinamide derivatives in obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus and the effectiveness of analogs 1 and 2 in the treatment of these disorders.

  12. Chemotactic antagonists of cAMP inhibit Dictyostelium phospholipase C

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bominaar, Anthony A.; Haastert, Peter J.M. van

    In Dictyostelium discoideum extracellular cAMP induces chemotaxis via a transmembrane signal transduction cascade consisting of surface cAMP receptors, G-proteins and effector enzymes including adenylyl cyclase, guanylyl cyclase and phospholipase C. Previously it was demonstrated that some cAMP

  13. A metabolically-stabilized phosphonate analog of lysophosphatidic acid attenuates collagen-induced arthritis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioanna Nikitopoulou

    Full Text Available Rheumatoid arthritis (RA is a destructive arthropathy with systemic manifestations, characterized by chronic synovial inflammation. Under the influence of the pro-inflammatory milieu synovial fibroblasts (SFs, the main effector cells in disease pathogenesis become activated and hyperplastic while releasing a number of signals that include pro-inflammatory factors and tissue remodeling enzymes. Activated RA SFs in mouse or human arthritic joints express significant quantities of autotaxin (ATX, a lysophospholipase D responsible for the majority of lysophosphatidic acid (LPA production in the serum and inflamed sites. Conditional genetic ablation of ATX from SFs resulted in attenuation of disease symptoms in animal models, an effect attributed to diminished LPA signaling in the synovium, shown to activate SF effector functions. Here we show that administration of 1-bromo-3(S-hydroxy-4-(palmitoyloxybutyl-phosphonate (BrP-LPA, a metabolically stabilized analog of LPA and a dual function inhibitor of ATX and pan-antagonist of LPA receptors, attenuates collagen induced arthritis (CIA development, thus validating the ATX/LPA axis as a novel therapeutic target in RA.

  14. A Metabolically-Stabilized Phosphonate Analog of Lysophosphatidic Acid Attenuates Collagen-Induced Arthritis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sevastou, Ioanna; Sirioti, Ivi; Samiotaki, Martina; Madan, Damian; Prestwich, Glenn D.; Aidinis, Vassilis

    2013-01-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a destructive arthropathy with systemic manifestations, characterized by chronic synovial inflammation. Under the influence of the pro-inflammatory milieu synovial fibroblasts (SFs), the main effector cells in disease pathogenesis become activated and hyperplastic while releasing a number of signals that include pro-inflammatory factors and tissue remodeling enzymes. Activated RA SFs in mouse or human arthritic joints express significant quantities of autotaxin (ATX), a lysophospholipase D responsible for the majority of lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) production in the serum and inflamed sites. Conditional genetic ablation of ATX from SFs resulted in attenuation of disease symptoms in animal models, an effect attributed to diminished LPA signaling in the synovium, shown to activate SF effector functions. Here we show that administration of 1-bromo-3(S)-hydroxy-4-(palmitoyloxy)butyl-phosphonate (BrP-LPA), a metabolically stabilized analog of LPA and a dual function inhibitor of ATX and pan-antagonist of LPA receptors, attenuates collagen induced arthritis (CIA) development, thus validating the ATX/LPA axis as a novel therapeutic target in RA. PMID:23923032

  15. Analogy of transistor function with modulating photonic band gap in electromagnetically induced grating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhiguo; Ullah, Zakir; Gao, Mengqin; Zhang, Dan; Zhang, Yiqi; Gao, Hong; Zhang, Yanpeng

    2015-09-09

    Optical transistor is a device used to amplify and switch optical signals. Many researchers focus on replacing current computer components with optical equivalents, resulting in an optical digital computer system processing binary data. Electronic transistor is the fundamental building block of modern electronic devices. To replace electronic components with optical ones, an equivalent optical transistor is required. Here we compare the behavior of an optical transistor with the reflection from a photonic band gap structure in an electromagnetically induced transparency medium. A control signal is used to modulate the photonic band gap structure. Power variation of the control signal is used to provide an analogy between the reflection behavior caused by modulating the photonic band gap structure and the shifting of Q-point (Operation point) as well as amplification function of optical transistor. By means of the control signal, the switching function of optical transistor has also been realized. Such experimental schemes could have potential applications in making optical diode and optical transistor used in quantum information processing.

  16. Signal transduction events in lung injury induced by 2-chloroethyl ethyl sulfide, a mustard analog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatterjee, Diptendu; Mukherjee, Shyamali; Smith, Milton G; Das, Salil K

    2003-01-01

    Sulfur mustard has been used as a vesicant chemical warfare agent. To understand the mechanism by which mustard gas exposure causes respiratory damage, we have used 2-chloroethyl ethyl sulfide (CEES) as a mustard analog. Our initial studies have shown that guinea pigs exposed to CEES intratracheally accumulate high levels of TNF-alpha. Accumulation of TNF-alpha leads to activation of both acid and neutral sphingomyelinases, resulting in high accumulation of ceramides, a second messenger involved in cell apoptosis. In addition, NF-kappa B was activated for a short period (1-2 h after exposure) as determined by mobility shift assay. Supershift assays indicated that both p50 and p65 of NF-kappa B were activated due to CEES exposure. However, NF-kappa B rapidly disappeared after 2 h. It is possible that the initial activation of NF-kappa B was an adaptive response to protect the cells from damage since NF-kappa B is known to inhibit TNF-alpha/ceramide-induced cell apoptosis. Since NF-kappa B disappeared after 2 h, the cells continued being damaged owing to accumulation of ceramides and activation of several caspases, leading to apoptosis. Copyright 2003 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biochem Mol Toxicol 17:114-121, 2003; Published online in Wiley InterScience (www.interscience.wiley.com). DOI 10.1002/jbt.10068

  17. The curcumin analog DM-1 induces apoptotic cell death in melanoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faião-Flores, Fernanda; Suarez, José Agustín Quincoces; Maria-Engler, Silvya Stuchi; Soto-Cerrato, Vanessa; Pérez-Tomás, Ricardo; Maria, Durvanei Augusto

    2013-04-01

    The main difficulty in the successful treatment of metastatic melanoma is that this type of cancer is known to be resistant to chemotherapy. Chemotherapy remains the treatment of choice, and dacarbazine (DTIC) is the best standard treatment. The DM-1 compound is a curcumin analog that possesses several curcumin characteristics, such as antiproliferative, antitumor, and antimetastatic properties. The objective of this study was to evaluate the signaling pathways involved in melanoma cell death after treatment with DM-1 compared to the standard agent for melanoma treatment, DTIC. Cell death was evaluated by flow cytometry for annexin V and iodide propide, cleaved caspase 8, and TNF-R1 expression. Hoechst 33342 staining was evaluated by fluorescent microscopy; lipid peroxidation and cell viability (MTT) were evaluated by colorimetric assays. The antiproliferative effects of the drugs were evaluated by flow cytometry for cyclin D1 and Ki67 expression. Mice bearing B16F10 melanoma were treated with DTIC, DM-1, or both therapies. DM-1 induced significant apoptosis as indicated by the presence of cleaved caspase 8 and an increase in TNF-R1 expression in melanoma cells. Furthermore, DM-1 had antiproliferative effects in this the same cell line. DTIC caused cell death primarily by necrosis, and a smaller melanoma cell population underwent apoptosis. DTIC induced oxidative stress and several physiological changes in normal melanocytes, whereas DM-1 did not significantly affect the normal cells. DM-1 antitumor therapy in vivo showed tumor burden decrease with DM-1 monotherapy or in combination with DTIC, besides survival rate increase. Altogether, these data confirm DM-1 as a chemotherapeutic agent with effective tumor control properties and a lower incidence of side effects in normal cells compared to DTIC.

  18. Camp and Human Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, Karla A.

    1995-01-01

    Addresses the potential of camp to promote self-esteem and nurture a sense of community. Summarizes articles in this journal issue that focus on individual and group behavior including homesickness, how camps can promote positive attitudes toward disabled campers, and a camp program that provides respite care for families of children with AIDS.…

  19. High glucose-induced barrier impairment of human retinal pigment epithelium is ameliorated by treatment with Goji berry extracts through modulation of cAMP levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavan, Barbara; Capuzzo, Antonio; Forlani, Giuseppe

    2014-03-01

    Human retinal pigment epithelium cells were used to investigate the mechanisms underlying blood-retinal barrier disruption under conditions of chronic hyperglycemia. The treatment with 25 mM glucose caused a rapid drop in the transepithelial electrical resistance (TEER), which was reversed by the addition of either a methanolic extract from Goji (Lycium barbarum L.) berries or its main component, taurine. Intracellular cAMP levels increased concurrently with the high glucose-induced TEER decrease, and were correlated to an increased activity of the cytosolic isoform of the enzyme adenylyl cyclase. The treatment with plant extract or taurine restored control levels. Data are discussed in view of a possible prevention approach for diabetic retinopathy. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Achiral Mannich-Base Curcumin Analogs Induce Unfolded Protein Response and Mitochondrial Membrane Depolarization in PANC-1 Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gábor J. Szebeni

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Achiral Mannich-type curcumin analogs have been synthetized and assayed for their cytotoxic activity. The anti-proliferative and cytotoxic activity of curcuminoids has been tested on human non-small-cell lung carcinoma (A549, hepatocellular carcinoma (HepG2 and pancreatic cancer cell line (PANC-1. Based on the highest anti-proliferative activity nine drug candidates were further tested and proved to cause phosphatidylserine exposure as an early sign of apoptosis. Curcumin analogs with the highest apoptotic activity were selected for mechanistic studies in the most sensitive PANC-1 cells. Cytotoxic activity was accompanied by cytostatic effect since curcumin and analogs treatment led to G0/G1 cell cycle arrest. Moreover, cytotoxic effect could be also detected via the accumulation of curcuminoids in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER and the up-regulation of ER stress-related unfolded protein response (UPR genes: HSPA5, ATF4, XBP1, and DDIT3. The activated UPR induced mitochondrial membrane depolarization, caspase-3 activation and subsequent DNA breakdown in PANC-1 cells. Achiral curcumin analogs, C509, C521 and C524 possessed superior, 40-times more potent cytotoxic activity compared to natural dihydroxy-dimetoxycurcumin in PANC-1 cells.

  1. Novel mechanisms and signaling pathways of esophageal ulcer healing: the role of prostaglandin EP2 receptors, cAMP, and pCREB.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahluwalia, Amrita; Baatar, Dolgor; Jones, Michael K; Tarnawski, Andrzej S

    2014-09-15

    Clinical studies indicate that prostaglandins of E class (PGEs) may promote healing of tissue injury e.g., gastroduodenal and dermal ulcers. However, the precise roles of PGEs, their E-prostanoid (EP) receptors, signaling pathways including cAMP and cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB), and their relation to VEGF and angiogenesis in the tissue injury healing process remain unknown, forming the rationale for this study. Using an esophageal ulcer model in rats, we demonstrated that esophageal mucosa expresses predominantly EP2 receptors and that esophageal ulceration triggers an increase in expression of the EP2 receptor, activation of CREB (the downstream target of the cAMP signaling), and enhanced VEGF gene expression. Treatment of rats with misoprostol, a PGE1 analog capable of activating EP receptors, enhanced phosphorylation of CREB, stimulated VEGF expression and angiogenesis, and accelerated esophageal ulcer healing. In cultured human esophageal epithelial (HET-1A) cells, misoprostol increased intracellular cAMP levels (by 163-fold), induced phosphorylation of CREB, and stimulated VEGF expression. A cAMP analog (Sp-cAMP) mimicked, whereas an inhibitor of cAMP-dependent protein kinase A (Rp-cAMP) blocked, these effects of misoprostol. These results indicate that the EP2/cAMP/protein kinase A pathway mediates the stimulatory effect of PGEs on angiogenesis essential for tissue injury healing via the induction of CREB activity and VEGF expression.

  2. Recreation Summer Camps

    Data.gov (United States)

    Montgomery County of Maryland — List of all Camps (Register here:https://apm.activecommunities.com/montgomerycounty/Home) to include Aquatics, Basketball, Soccer, Special Interest, General Sports,...

  3. Registration Summer Camp 2016

    CERN Multimedia

    2016-01-01

    Reminder: registration for the CERN Staff Association Summer Camp is now open for children from 4 to 6 years old.   More information on the website: http://nurseryschool.web.cern.ch/. The summer camp is open to all children. The proposed cost is 480.-CHF/week, lunch included. The camp will be open weeks 27, 28, 29 and 30, from 8:30 a.m. to 5:30 p.m. For further questions, you are welcome to contact us by email at Summer.Camp@cern.ch. CERN Staff Association

  4. Linear alpha-human atrial natriuretic peptide analogs display receptor binding activity and inhibit alpha-hANP-induced cGMP accumulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitajima, Y; Minamitake, Y; Furuya, M; Takehisa, M; Katayama, T; Tanaka, S

    1989-11-15

    We have synthesized a series of [Cys(R)7,23]alpha-hANP analogs, in which the two Cys residues were modified with various alkyl groups(R); i.e., R=Acm, Pe, Qe, Cam, Me, Ae, Bzl, Cm, Ocam and sulfo. The Acm-, Cam-, and Me-analogs exhibited binding activity as potent as alpha-hANP in rat vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC). Binding activity of the analogs decreased progressively as the bulkiness of the R group increased. None of the analogs caused accumulation of cGMP in VSMC and vasorelaxant activity in rat aorta. Acm-, Cam- and Me-analogs substantially antagonized alpha-hANP-induced cGMP accumulation, but did not antagonize vasorelaxation induced by alpha-hANP in vitro.

  5. Relaxant and anti-inflammatory effect of two thalidomide analogs as PDE-4 inhibitors in pregnant rat uterus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz-Pérez, Víctor Manuel; Ponce-Monter, Héctor; Ortiz, Mario I.

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the relaxant and anti-inflammatory effects of two thalidomide analogs as phosphodiesterase-4 (PDE-4) inhibitors in pregnant rat uterus. Uteri from Wistar female rats were isolated at 19 day of pregnancy. Uterine samples were used in functional studies to evaluate the inhibitory effects of the thalidomide analogs, methyl 3-(4-nitrophthalimido)-3-(3,4-dimethoxyphenyl)-propanoate (4NO2PDPMe) and methyl 3-(4-aminophthalimido)-3-(3,4-dimethoxyphenyl)-propanoate (4APDPMe), on prostaglandin-F2α (PGF2α)-induced phasic, K+-induced tonic, and Ca2+-induced contractions. Accumulation of cAMP was quantified in uterine homogenates by ELISA. Anti-inflammatory effect was assessed by using ELISA for determination of the pro-inflammatory cytokines tumor necrosis factor-α (TNFα) and interleukin (IL)-1β, and anti-inflammatory IL-10, from uterine explants stimulated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Nifedipine, forskolin and rolipram were used as positive controls where required. Both thalidomide analogs induced a significant inhibition of the uterine contractions induced by the pharmaco- and electro-mechanic stimuli. Nifedipine and forskolin were more potent than the analogs to inhibit the uterine contractility, but these were more potent than rolipram, and 4APDPMe was equieffective to nifedipine. Thalidomide analogs increased uterine cAMP-levels in a concentration-dependent manner. The LPS-induced TNFα and IL-1β uterine secretion was diminished in a concentration-dependent fashion by both analogs, whereas IL-10 secretion was increased significantly. The thalidomide analogs induced utero-relaxant and anti-inflammatory effects, which were associated with the increased cAMP levels as PDE-4 inhibitors in the pregnant rat uterus. Such properties place these thalidomide analogs as potentially safe and effective tocolytic agents in a field that urgently needs improved pharmacological treatments, as in cases of preterm labor. PMID:28706457

  6. Curcumin and synthetic analogs induce reactive oxygen species and decreases specificity protein (Sp transcription factors by targeting microRNAs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gandhy Shruti U

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Curcumin inhibits growth of several cancer cell lines, and studies in this laboratory in bladder and pancreatic cancer cells show that curcumin downregulates specificity protein (Sp transcription factors Sp1, Sp3 and Sp4 and pro-oncogenic Sp-regulated genes. In this study, we investigated the anticancer activity of curcumin and several synthetic cyclohexanone and piperidine analogs in colon cancer cells. Methods The effects of curcumin and synthetic analogs on colon cancer cell proliferation and apoptosis were determined using standardized assays. The changes in Sp proteins and Sp-regulated gene products were analysed by western blots, and real time PCR was used to determine microRNA-27a (miR-27a, miR-20a, miR-17-5p and ZBTB10 and ZBTB4 mRNA expression. Results The IC50 (half-maximal values for growth inhibition (24 hr of colon cancer cells by curcumin and synthetic cyclohexanone and piperidine analogs of curcumin varied from 10 μM for curcumin to 0.7 μM for the most active synthetic piperidine analog RL197, which was used along with curcumin as model agents in this study. Curcumin and RL197 inhibited RKO and SW480 colon cancer cell growth and induced apoptosis, and this was accompanied by downregulation of specificity protein (Sp transcription factors Sp1, Sp3 and Sp4 and Sp-regulated genes including the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR, hepatocyte growth factor receptor (c-MET, survivin, bcl-2, cyclin D1 and NFκB (p65 and p50. Curcumin and RL197 also induced reactive oxygen species (ROS, and cotreatment with the antioxidant glutathione significantly attenuated curcumin- and RL197-induced growth inhibition and downregulation of Sp1, Sp3, Sp4 and Sp-regulated genes. The mechanism of curcumin-/RL197-induced repression of Sp transcription factors was ROS-dependent and due to induction of the Sp repressors ZBTB10 and ZBTB4 and downregulation of microRNAs (miR-27a, miR-20a and miR-17-5p that regulate these repressors

  7. Regulation of aldosterone production from zona glomerulosa cells by ANG II and cAMP: evidence for PKA-independent activation of CaMK by cAMP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gambaryan, Stepan; Butt, Elke; Tas, Piet; Smolenski, Albert; Allolio, Bruno; Walter, Ulrich

    2006-03-01

    Aldosterone production in zona glomerulosa (ZG) cells of adrenal glands is regulated by various extracellular stimuli (K(+), ANG II, ACTH) that all converge on two major intracellular signaling pathways: an increase in cAMP production and calcium (Ca(2+)) mobilization. However, molecular events downstream of the increase in intracellular cAMP and Ca(2+) content are controversial and far from being completely resolved. Here, we found that Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent protein kinases (CaMKs) play a predominant role in the regulation of aldosterone production stimulated by ANG II, ACTH, and cAMP. The specific CaMK inhibitor KN93 strongly reduced ANG II-, ACTH-, and cAMP-stimulated aldosterone production. In in vitro kinase assays and intact cells, we could show that cAMP-induced activation of CaMK, using the adenylate cyclase activator forskolin or the cAMP-analog Sp-5,6-DCI-cBIMPS (cBIMPS), was not mediated by PKA. Activation of the recently identified cAMP target protein Epac (exchange protein directly activated by cAMP) by 8-pCPT-2'-O-Me-cAMP had no effect on CaMK activity and aldosterone production. Furthermore, we provide evidence that cAMP effects in ZG cells do not involve Ca(2+) or MAPK signaling. Our results suggest that ZG cells, in addition to PKA and Epac/Rap proteins, contain other as yet unidentified cAMP mediator(s) involved in regulating CaMK activity and aldosterone secretion.

  8. Scrum Code Camps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pries-Heje, Jan; Pries-Heje, Lene; Dahlgaard, Bente

    2013-01-01

    is required. In this paper we present the design of such a new approach, the Scrum Code Camp, which can be used to assess agile team capability in a transparent and consistent way. A design science research approach is used to analyze properties of two instances of the Scrum Code Camp where seven agile teams...

  9. Friends' Discovery Camp

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seymour, Seth

    2008-01-01

    This article features Friends' Discovery Camp, a program that allows children with and without autism spectrum disorder to learn and play together. In Friends' Discovery Camp, campers take part in sensory-rich experiences, ranging from hands-on activities and performing arts to science experiments and stories teaching social skills. Now in its 7th…

  10. The activation of G protein-coupled estrogen receptor induces relaxation via cAMP as well as potentiates contraction via EGFR transactivation in porcine coronary arteries.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuan Yu

    -fold over control conditions. Lastly, the role of ERK1/2 was determined by applying the MEK inhibitor, PD98059, in isometric tension studies and detecting phospho-ERK1/2 in immunoblotting. PD98059 potentiated G-1-induced relaxation response, but blocked G-1-enhanced ET-1-induced contraction. By western blot, G-1 treatment decreased phospho-ERK1/2, however, in the presence of the adenylyl cyclase inhibitor, SQ22536, G-1 significantly increased ERK1/2 phosphorylation in PCASMC. These data demonstrate that activation of GPER induces relaxation via cAMP as well as contraction via a mechanism involving transactivation of EGFR and the phosphorylation of ERK1/2 in porcine coronary arteries.

  11. Polyunsaturated fatty acids synergize with lipid droplet binding thalidomide analogs to induce oxidative stress in cancer cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madácsi Ramóna

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cytoplasmic lipid-droplets are common inclusions of eukaryotic cells. Lipid-droplet binding thalidomide analogs (2,6-dialkylphenyl-4/5-amino-substituted-5,6,7-trifluorophthalimides with potent anticancer activities were synthesized. Results Cytotoxicity was detected in different cell lines including melanoma, leukemia, hepatocellular carcinoma, glioblastoma at micromolar concentrations. The synthesized analogs are non-toxic to adult animals up to 1 g/kg but are teratogenic to zebrafish embryos at micromolar concentrations with defects in the developing muscle. Treatment of tumor cells resulted in calcium release from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER, induction of reactive oxygen species (ROS, ER stress and cell death. Antioxidants could partially, while an intracellular calcium chelator almost completely diminish ROS production. Exogenous docosahexaenoic acid or eicosapentaenoic acid induced calcium release and ROS generation, and synergized with the analogs in vitro, while oleic acid had no such an effect. Gene expression analysis confirmed the induction of ER stress-mediated apoptosis pathway components, such as GADD153, ATF3, Luman/CREB3 and the ER-associated degradation-related HERPUD1 genes. Tumor suppressors, P53, LATS2 and ING3 were also up-regulated in various cell lines after drug treatment. Amino-phthalimides down-regulated the expression of CCL2, which is implicated in tumor metastasis and angiogenesis. Conclusions Because of the anticancer, anti-angiogenic action and the wide range of applicability of the immunomodulatory drugs, including thalidomide analogs, lipid droplet-binding members of this family could represent a new class of agents by affecting ER-membrane integrity and perturbations of ER homeostasis.

  12. Low doses of cholera toxin and its mediator cAMP induce CTLA-2 secretion by dendritic cells to enhance regulatory T cell conversion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cinthia Silva-Vilches

    Full Text Available Immature or semi-mature dendritic cells (DCs represent tolerogenic maturation stages that can convert naive T cells into Foxp3+ induced regulatory T cells (iTreg. Here we found that murine bone marrow-derived DCs (BM-DCs treated with cholera toxin (CT matured by up-regulating MHC-II and costimulatory molecules using either high or low doses of CT (CThi, CTlo or with cAMP, a known mediator CT signals. However, all three conditions also induced mRNA of both isoforms of the tolerogenic molecule cytotoxic T lymphocyte antigen 2 (CTLA-2α and CTLA-2β. Only DCs matured under CThi conditions secreted IL-1β, IL-6 and IL-23 leading to the instruction of Th17 cell polarization. In contrast, CTlo- or cAMP-DCs resembled semi-mature DCs and enhanced TGF-β-dependent Foxp3+ iTreg conversion. iTreg conversion could be reduced using siRNA blocking of CTLA-2 and reversely, addition of recombinant CTLA-2α increased iTreg conversion in vitro. Injection of CTlo- or cAMP-DCs exerted MOG peptide-specific protective effects in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE by inducing Foxp3+ Tregs and reducing Th17 responses. Together, we identified CTLA-2 production by DCs as a novel tolerogenic mediator of TGF-β-mediated iTreg induction in vitro and in vivo. The CT-induced and cAMP-mediated up-regulation of CTLA-2 also may point to a novel immune evasion mechanism of Vibrio cholerae.

  13. The E92K Melanocortin 1 Receptor Mutant Induces cAMP Production and Arrestin Recruitment but Not ERK Activity Indicating Biased Constitutive Signaling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benned-Jensen, Tau; Mokrosinski, Jacek; Rosenkilde, Mette M.

    2011-01-01

    Background The melanocortin 1 receptor (MC1R) constitutes a key regulator of melanism. Consequently, many naturally-occurring MC1R mutations are associated with a change in color. An example is the Glu-to-Lys substitution found at position II:20/2.60 in the top of transmembrane helix II which has been identified in melanic mice and several other species. This mutation induces a pronounced increase in MC1R constitutive activity suggesting a link between constitutive activity and melanism which is corroborated by the attenuation of α-melanocyte stimulating hormone (αMSH) induced activation. However, the mechanism by which the mutation induces constitutive activity is currently not known. Methodology/Principal Findings Here we characterize the constitutive activity, cell surface expression and internalization of the mouse mutant, Mc1r E92K. As previously reported, only positively charged residues at position II:20/2.60 induced an increase in constitutive activity as measured by cAMP accumulation and CREB activation. Furthermore, the mutation induced a constitutive recruitment of β-arrestin. This phenomenon is only observed in MC1R, however, as the equivalent mutations in MC2-5R had no effect on receptor signaling. Interestingly, the mutation did not induce constitutive ERK1/2 phosphorylation or increase the internalization rate indicating the constitutive activity to be biased. Finally, to identify regions of importance for the increased constitutive activity of Mc1r E92K, we employed a chimeric approach and identified G102 and L110 in the extracellular loop 1 to be selectively important for the constitutive activity as this, but not αMSH-mediated activation, was abolished upon Ala substitution. Conclusions/Significance It is concluded that the E92K mutation induces an active conformation distinct from that induced by αMSH and that the extracellular loop 1 is involved in maintaining this conformational state. In turn, the results suggest that in MC1R, which lacks

  14. Silibinin attenuates sulfur mustard analog-induced skin injury by targeting multiple pathways connecting oxidative stress and inflammation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neera Tewari-Singh

    Full Text Available Chemical warfare agent sulfur mustard (HD inflicts delayed blistering and incapacitating skin injuries. To identify effective countermeasures against HD-induced skin injuries, efficacy studies were carried out employing HD analog 2-chloroethyl ethyl sulfide (CEES-induced injury biomarkers in skin cells and SKH-1 hairless mouse skin. The data demonstrate strong therapeutic efficacy of silibinin, a natural flavanone, in attenuating CEES-induced skin injury and oxidative stress. In skin cells, silibinin (10 µM treatment 30 min after 0.35/0.5 mM CEES exposure caused a significant (p90%, and activation of transcription factors NF-κB and AP-1 (complete reversal. Similarly, silibinin treatment was also effective in attenuating CEES-induced oxidative stress measured by 4-hydroxynonenal and 5,5-dimethyl-2-(8-octanoic acid-1-pyrolline N-oxide protein adduct formation, and 8-oxo-2-deoxyguanosine levels. Since our previous studies implicated oxidative stress, in part, in CEES-induced toxic responses, the reversal of CEES-induced oxidative stress and other toxic effects by silibinin in this study indicate its pleiotropic therapeutic efficacy. Together, these findings support further optimization of silibinin in HD skin toxicity model to develop a novel effective therapy for skin injuries by vesicants.

  15. Silibinin attenuates sulfur mustard analog-induced skin injury by targeting multiple pathways connecting oxidative stress and inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tewari-Singh, Neera; Jain, Anil K; Inturi, Swetha; Agarwal, Chapla; White, Carl W; Agarwal, Rajesh

    2012-01-01

    Chemical warfare agent sulfur mustard (HD) inflicts delayed blistering and incapacitating skin injuries. To identify effective countermeasures against HD-induced skin injuries, efficacy studies were carried out employing HD analog 2-chloroethyl ethyl sulfide (CEES)-induced injury biomarkers in skin cells and SKH-1 hairless mouse skin. The data demonstrate strong therapeutic efficacy of silibinin, a natural flavanone, in attenuating CEES-induced skin injury and oxidative stress. In skin cells, silibinin (10 µM) treatment 30 min after 0.35/0.5 mM CEES exposure caused a significant (p90%), and activation of transcription factors NF-κB and AP-1 (complete reversal). Similarly, silibinin treatment was also effective in attenuating CEES-induced oxidative stress measured by 4-hydroxynonenal and 5,5-dimethyl-2-(8-octanoic acid)-1-pyrolline N-oxide protein adduct formation, and 8-oxo-2-deoxyguanosine levels. Since our previous studies implicated oxidative stress, in part, in CEES-induced toxic responses, the reversal of CEES-induced oxidative stress and other toxic effects by silibinin in this study indicate its pleiotropic therapeutic efficacy. Together, these findings support further optimization of silibinin in HD skin toxicity model to develop a novel effective therapy for skin injuries by vesicants.

  16. Summer camp nurtures student

    OpenAIRE

    Earl Anderson

    2017-01-01

    Summer camp is a coordinated program for youths or teenagers driven in the midst of the late spring months in a couple of countries. Adolescents and young people who go to summer camp are known as campers. It is each parent's stress: What is the perfect way for your adolescent to contribute his or her free vitality in the midst of summer and school breaks? Research Paper Help. To a couple, it is a period for youths to play and have an incredible time. By joining the late spring camp, yout...

  17. Experimental Smoke and Electromagnetic Analog Study of Induced Flow Field About a Model Rotor in Steady Flight Within Ground Effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Robin B.

    1960-01-01

    Hovering and steady low-speed forward-flight tests were run on a 4-foot-diameter rotor at a ground height of 1 rotor radius. The two blades had a 2 to 1 taper ratio and were mounted in a see-saw hub. The solidity ratio was 0.05. Measurements were made of the rotor rpm, collective pitch, and forward-flight velocity. Smoke was introduced into the tip vortex and the resulting vortex pattern was photographed from two positions. Using the data obtained from these photographs, wire models of the tip vortex configurations were constructed and the distribution of the normal component of induced velocity at the blade feathering axis that is associated with these tip vortex configurations was experimentally determined at 450 increments in azimuth position from this electromagnetic analog. Three steady-state conditions were analyzed. The first was hovering flight; the second, a flight velocity just under the wake "tuck under" speed; and the third, a flight velocity just above this speed. These corresponded to advance ratios of 0, 0.022, and 0.030 (or ratios of forward velocity to calculated hovering induced velocity of approximately 0, 0.48, and 0.65), respectively, for the model test rotor. Cross sections of the wake at 450 intervals in azimuth angle as determined from the path of the tip vortex are presented graphically for all three cases. The nondimensional normal component of the induced velocity that is associated with the tip vortex as determined by an electromagnetic analog at 450 increments in azimuth position and at the blade feathering axis is presented graphically. It is shown that the mean value of this component of the induced velocity is appreciably less after tuck-under than before. It is concluded that this method yields results of engineering accuracy and is a very useful means of studying vortex fields.

  18. Stimulation of StAR expression by cAMP is controlled by inhibition of highly inducible SIK1 via CRTC2, a co-activator of CREB.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jinwoo; Tong, Tiegang; Takemori, Hiroshi; Jefcoate, Colin

    2015-06-15

    In mouse steroidogenic cells the activation of cholesterol metabolism is mediated by steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR). Here, we visualized a coordinated regulation of StAR transcription, splicing and post-transcriptional processing, which are synchronized by salt inducible kinase (SIK1) and CREB-regulated transcription coactivator (CRTC2). To detect primary RNA (pRNA), spliced primary RNA (Sp-RNA) and mRNA in single cells, we generated probe sets by using fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). These methods allowed us to address the nature of StAR gene expression and to visualize protein-nucleic acid interactions through direct detection. We show that SIK1 represses StAR expression in Y1 adrenal and MA10 testis cells through inhibition of processing mediated by CRTC2. Digital image analysis matches qPCR analyses of the total cell culture. Evidence is presented for spatially separate accumulation of StAR pRNA and Sp-RNA at the gene loci in the nucleus. These findings establish that cAMP, SIK and CRTC mediate StAR expression through activation of individual StAR gene loci. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. A novel synthetic analog of militarin, MA-1 induces mitochondrial dependent apoptosis by ROS generation in human lung cancer cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, Deok Hyo; Lim, Mi-Hee [Department of Biochemistry, Kangwon National University, Chuncheon 200-701 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Yu Ran [Department of Physiology, School of Medicine, Chungnam National University, Daejeon 301-747 (Korea, Republic of); Sung, Gi-Ho [Mushroom Research Division, National Institute of Horticultural and Herbal Science, Rural Development Administration, Suwon 404-707 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Tae-Ho [R and D Center, Dong-A Pharmaceutical Co, Ltd, Yongin 446-905 (Korea, Republic of); Jeon, Byeong Hwa [Department of Physiology, School of Medicine, Chungnam National University, Daejeon 301-747 (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Jae Youl [Department of Genetic Engineering, Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon 440-746 (Korea, Republic of); Song, Won O. [Department of Food Science and Human Nutrition, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States); Park, Haeil [College of Pharmacy, Kangwon National University, Chuncheon 200-701 (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Sunga, E-mail: sachoi@cnu.ac.kr [Department of Physiology, School of Medicine, Chungnam National University, Daejeon 301-747 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Tae Woong, E-mail: tawkim@kangwon.ac.kr [Department of Biochemistry, Kangwon National University, Chuncheon 200-701 (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-12-15

    A synthetic Militarin analog-1[(2R,3R,4R,5R)-1,6-bis(4-(2,4,4-trimethylpentan-2-yl)phenoxy) hexane-2,3,4,5-tetraol] is a novel derivative of constituents from Cordyceps militaris, which has been used to treat a variety of chronic diseases including inflammation, diabetes, hyperglycemia and cancers. Here, we report for the first time the synthesis of Militarin analog-1 (MA-1) and the apoptotic mechanism of MA-1 against human lung cancer cell lines. Treatment with MA-1 significantly inhibited the viability of 3 human lung cancer cell lines. The inhibition of viability and growth in MA-1-treated A549 cells with an IC{sub 50} of 5 μM were mediated through apoptosis induction, as demonstrated by an increase in DNA fragmentation, sub-G{sub 0}/G{sub 1}-DNA fraction, nuclear condensation, and phosphatidylserine exposure. The apoptotic cell death caused mitochondrial membrane permeabilization through regulation of expression of the Bcl-2 family proteins, leading to cytochrome c release in a time-dependent manner. Subsequently, the final stage of apoptosis, activation of caspase-9/-3 and cleavage of poly (ADP ribose) polymerase, was induced. Furthermore, A549 lung cancer cells were more responsive to MA-1 than a bronchial epithelial cell line (BEAS-2B), involving the rapid generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) activation. The pharmacological inhibition of ROS generation and JNK/p38 MAPK exhibited attenuated DNA fragmentation in MA-1-induced apoptosis. Oral administration of MA-1 also retarded growth of A549 orthotopic xenografts. In conclusion, the present study indicates that the new synthetic derivative MA-1 triggers mitochondrial apoptosis through ROS generation and regulation of MAPKs and may be a potent therapeutic agent against human lung cancer. - Highlights: • We report a novel synthesized derivative, militarin analog-1 (MA-1). • MA-1-induced cancer cell death was triggered by

  20. Hitler's Death Camps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wieser, Paul

    1995-01-01

    Presents a high school lesson on Hitler's death camps and the widespread policy of brutality and oppression against European Jews. Includes student objectives, instructional procedures, and a chart listing the value of used clothing taken from the Jews. (CFR)

  1. Angiopoietin-like protein 4 is an exercise-induced hepatokine in humans, regulated by glucagon and cAMP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bodil Ingerslev

    2017-10-01

    Conclusions: The data suggest that exercise-induced ANGPTL4 is secreted from the liver and driven by a glucagon-cAMP-PKA pathway in humans. These findings link the liver, insulin/glucagon, and lipid metabolism together, which could implicate a role of ANGPTL4 in metabolic diseases.

  2. β2-Agonist induced cAMP is decreased in asthmatic airway smooth muscle due to increased PDE4D

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Trian, Thomas; Burgess, Janette K; Niimi, Kyoko; Moir, Lyn M; Ge, Qi; Berger, Patrick; Liggett, Stephen B; Black, Judith L; Oliver, Brian G

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Asthma is associated with airway narrowing in response to bronchoconstricting stimuli and increased airway smooth muscle (ASM) mass. In addition, some studies have suggested impaired β-agonist induced ASM relaxation in asthmatics, but the mechanism is not known. OBJECTIVE:

  3. CDC Disease Detective Camp

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2010-08-02

    The CDC Disease Detective Camp gives rising high school juniors and seniors exposure to key aspects of the CDC, including basic epidemiology, infectious and chronic disease tracking, public health law, and outbreak investigations. The camp also helps students explore careers in public health.  Created: 8/2/2010 by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).   Date Released: 8/2/2010.

  4. Angiopoietin-like protein 4 is an exercise-induced hepatokine in humans, regulated by glucagon and cAMP

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ingerslev, Bodil; Hansen, Jakob S; Hoffmann, Christoph

    2017-01-01

    . METHODS: We investigated the origin of exercise-induced ANGPTL4 in humans by measuring the arterial-to-venous difference over the leg and the hepato-splanchnic bed during an acute bout of exercise. Furthermore, the impact of the glucagon-to-insulin ratio on plasma ANGPTL4 was studied in healthy...... individuals. The regulation of ANGPTL4 was investigated in both hepatic and muscle cells. RESULTS: The hepato-splanchnic bed, but not the leg, contributed to exercise-induced plasma ANGPTL4. Further studies using hormone infusions revealed that the glucagon-to-insulin ratio is an important regulator of plasma......RNA levels in hepatic cells, which was prevented by inhibition of PKA. In humans, muscle ANGPTL4 mRNA increased during fasting, with only a marginal further induction by exercise. In human muscle cells, no inhibitory effect of AMPK activation could be demonstrated on ANGPTL4 expression. CONCLUSIONS: The data...

  5. Sulfur mustard analog induces oxidative stress and activates signaling cascades in the skin of SKH-1 hairless mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pal, Arttatrana; Tewari-Singh, Neera; Gu, Mallikarjuna; Agarwal, Chapla; Huang, Jie; Day, Brian J; White, Carl W; Agarwal, Rajesh

    2009-12-01

    A monofunctional analog of the chemical warfare agent sulfur mustard (HD), 2-chloroethyl ethyl sulfide (CEES), induces tissue damage similar to HD. Herein we studied the molecular mechanisms associated with CEES-induced skin inflammation and toxicity in SKH-1 hairless mice. Topical CEES exposure caused an increase in oxidative stress as observed by enhanced 4-hydroxynonenal and 5,5-dimethyl-2-(8-octanoic acid)-1-pyrroline N-oxide protein adduct formation and an increase in protein oxidation. The CEES-induced increase in the formation of 8-oxo-2-deoxyguanosine indicated DNA oxidation. CEES exposure instigated an increase in the phosphorylation of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs; ERK1/2, JNK, and p38). After CEES exposure, a significant increase in the phosphorylation of Akt at Ser473 and Thr308 was observed as well as upregulation of its upstream effector, PDK1, in mouse skin tissue. Subsequently, CEES exposure caused activation of AP-1 family proteins and the NF-kappaB pathway, including phosphorylation and degradation of IkappaBalpha in addition to phosphorylation of the NF-kappaB essential modulator. Collectively, our results indicate that CEES induces oxidative stress and the activation of the transcription factors AP-1 and NF-kappaB via upstream signaling pathways including MAPKs and Akt in SKH-1 hairless mouse skin. These novel molecular targets could be supportive in the development of prophylactic and therapeutic interventions against HD-related skin injury.

  6. Novel Pactamycin Analogs Induce p53 Dependent Cell-Cycle Arrest at S-Phase in Human Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma (HNSCC) Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guha, Gunjan; Liang, Xiaobo; Kulesz-Martin, Molly F.; Mahmud, Taifo; Indra, Arup Kumar; Ganguli-Indra, Gitali

    2015-01-01

    Pactamycin, although putatively touted as a potent antitumor agent, has never been used as an anticancer drug due to its high cytotoxicity. In this study, we characterized the effects of two novel biosynthetically engineered analogs of pactamycin, de-6MSA-7-demethyl-7-deoxypactamycin (TM-025) and 7-demethyl-7-deoxypactamycin (TM-026), in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) cell lines SCC25 and SCC104. Both TM-025 and TM-026 exert growth inhibitory effects on HNSCC cells by inhibiting cell proliferation. Interestingly, unlike their parent compound pactamycin, the analogs do not inhibit synthesis of nascent protein in a cell-based assay. Furthermore, they do not induce apoptosis or autophagy in a dose- or a time-dependent manner, but induce mild senescence in the tested cell lines. Cell cycle analysis demonstrated that both analogs significantly induce cell cycle arrest of the HNSCC cells at S-phase resulting in reduced accumulation of G2/M-phase cells. The pactamycin analogs induce expression of cell cycle regulatory proteins including master regulator p53, its downstream target p21Cip1/WAF1, p27kip21, p19, cyclin E, total and phospho Cdc2 (Tyr15) and Cdc25C. Besides, the analogs mildly reduce cyclin D1 expression without affecting expression of cyclin B, Cdk2 and Cdk4. Specific inhibition of p53 by pifithrin-α reduces the percentage of cells accumulated in S-phase, suggesting contribution of p53 to S-phase increase. Altogether, our results demonstrate that Pactamycin analogs TM-025 and TM-026 induce senescence and inhibit proliferation of HNSCC cells via accumulation in S-phase through possible contribution of p53. The two PCT analogs can be widely used as research tools for cell cycle inhibition studies in proliferating cancer cells with specific mechanisms of action. PMID:25938491

  7. Pyriproxyfen, a juvenoid hormone analog, does not induce male production in parthenogenetic lineages of Eucypris virens (Crustacea: Ostracoda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesc MEZQUITA

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Analogs of juvenoid hormones are increasingly recommended for controlling insect pests in agriculture. One of these analogs, pyriproxyfen, was found to be very potent in inducing male production in Daphnia under laboratory conditions, even after acute exposure. Other studies also demonstrated a major role of juvenoid hormones for the sex determination in arthropods that have sex chromosomes. We exposed parthenogenetic lineages of the freshwater ostracod Eucypris virens to a wide range of pyriproxyfen concentrations, and compared mortality and fecundity between treated and control animals. Animals exposed to the highest concentrations of pyriproxyfen (3-30 nM experienced a higher mortality than control animals, but no treatment effects were found on the production rates of eggs and hatchlings. Also, hatchlings that emerged from eggs deposited by treated individuals did not suffer from an increased mortality rate. No males were found among the 91 hatchlings that could be grown to adulthood. These results suggest that previous observations of a reduced population growth of ostracods in treated field crops might not be due to an alteration of the sex ratio, but rather to an increased mortality of the exposed females.

  8. Direct Light-up of cAMP Derivatives in Living Cells by Click Reactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Xu

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available 8-Azidoadenosine 3′,5′-cyclic monophosphate (8-azido cAMP was directly detected in living cells, by applying Cu-free azide-alkyne cycloaddition to probe cAMP derivatives by fluorescence light-up. Fluorescence emission was generated by two non-fluorescent molecules, 8-azido cAMP as a model target and difluorinated cyclooctyne (DIFO reagent as a probe. The azide-alkyne cycloaddition reaction between 8-azido cAMP and DIFO induces fluorescence in 8-azido cAMP. The fluorescence emission serves as a way to probe 8-azido cAMP in cells.

  9. Limonin, a Component of Dictamni Radicis Cortex, Inhibits Eugenol-Induced Calcium and cAMP Levels and PKA/CREB Signaling Pathway in Non-Neuronal 3T3-L1 Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yeo Cho Yoon

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Limonin, one of the major components in dictamni radicis cortex (DRC, has been shown to play various biological roles in cancer, inflammation, and obesity in many different cell types and tissues. Recently, the odorant-induced signal transduction pathway (OST has gained attention not only because of its function in the perception of smell but also because of its numerous physiological functions in non-neuronal cells. However, little is known about the effects of limonin and DRC on the OST pathway in non-neuronal cells. We investigated odorant-stimulated increases in Ca2+ and cAMP, major second messengers in the OST pathway, in non-neuronal 3T3-L1 cells pretreated with limonin and ethanol extracts of DRC. Limonin and the extracts significantly decreased eugenol-induced Ca2+ and cAMP levels and upregulated phosphorylation of CREB and PKA. Our results demonstrated that limonin and DRC extract inhibit the OST pathway in non-neuronal cells by modulating Ca2+ and cAMP levels and phosphorylation of CREB.

  10. Curcumin Analog DK1 Induces Apoptosis in Human Osteosarcoma Cells In Vitro through Mitochondria-Dependent Signaling Pathway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Nazirul Mubin Aziz

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Osteosarcoma is one of the primary malignant bone tumors that confer low survival rates for patients even with intensive regime treatments. Therefore, discovery of novel anti-osteosarcoma drugs derived from natural products that are not harmful to the normal cells remains crucial. Curcumin is one of the natural substances that have been extensively studied due to its anti-cancer properties and is pharmacologically safe considering its ubiquitous consumption for centuries. However, curcumin suffers from a poor circulating bioavailability, which has led to the development of a chemically synthesized curcuminoid analog, namely (Z-3-hydroxy-1-(2-hydroxyphenyl-3-phenylprop-2-en-1-one (DK1. In this study, the cytotoxic effects of the curcumin analog DK1 was investigated in both U-2OS and MG-63 osteosarcoma cell lines using 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT assay and cell death was microscopically examined via acridine orange/propidium iodide (AO/PI double staining. Flow cytometer analysis including Annexin V/Fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC, cell cycle analysis and JC-1 were adapted to determine the mode of cell death. Subsequently in order to determine the mechanism of cell death, quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR and proteome profiling was carried out to measure the expression of several apoptotic-related genes and proteins. Results indicated that DK1 induced U-2 OS and MG-63 morphological changes and substantially reduced cell numbers through induction of apoptosis. Several apoptotic genes and proteins were steadily expressed after treatment with DK1; including caspase 3, caspase 9, and BAX, which indicated that apoptosis occurred through a mitochondria-dependent signaling pathway. In conclusion, DK1 could be considered as a potential candidate for an anti-osteosarcoma drug in the near future, contingent upon its ability to induce apoptosis in osteosarcoma cell lines.

  11. A novel synthetic analog of Militarin, MA-1 induces mitochondrial dependent apoptosis by ROS generation in human lung cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Deok Hyo; Lim, Mi-Hee; Lee, Yu Ran; Sung, Gi-Ho; Lee, Tae-Ho; Jeon, Byeong Hwa; Cho, Jae Youl; Song, Won O; Park, Haeil; Choi, Sunga; Kim, Tae Woong

    2013-12-15

    A synthetic Militarin analog-1[(2R,3R,4R,5R)-1,6-bis(4-(2,4,4-trimethylpentan-2-yl)phenoxy) hexane-2,3,4,5-tetraol] is a novel derivative of constituents from Cordyceps militaris, which has been used to treat a variety of chronic diseases including inflammation, diabetes, hyperglycemia and cancers. Here, we report for the first time the synthesis of Militarin analog-1 (MA-1) and the apoptotic mechanism of MA-1 against human lung cancer cell lines. Treatment with MA-1 significantly inhibited the viability of 3 human lung cancer cell lines. The inhibition of viability and growth in MA-1-treated A549 cells with an IC50 of 5μM were mediated through apoptosis induction, as demonstrated by an increase in DNA fragmentation, sub-G0/G1-DNA fraction, nuclear condensation, and phosphatidylserine exposure. The apoptotic cell death caused mitochondrial membrane permeabilization through regulation of expression of the Bcl-2 family proteins, leading to cytochrome c release in a time-dependent manner. Subsequently, the final stage of apoptosis, activation of caspase-9/-3 and cleavage of poly (ADP ribose) polymerase, was induced. Furthermore, A549 lung cancer cells were more responsive to MA-1 than a bronchial epithelial cell line (BEAS-2B), involving the rapid generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) activation. The pharmacological inhibition of ROS generation and JNK/p38 MAPK exhibited attenuated DNA fragmentation in MA-1-induced apoptosis. Oral administration of MA-1 also retarded growth of A549 orthotopic xenografts. In conclusion, the present study indicates that the new synthetic derivative MA-1 triggers mitochondrial apoptosis through ROS generation and regulation of MAPKs and may be a potent therapeutic agent against human lung cancer. © 2013.

  12. Glucagon-like peptide-1 analogs against antipsychotic-induced weight gain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ebdrup, Bjørn H; Knop, Filip K; Ishøy, Pelle L

    2012-01-01

    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Antipsychotic-induced weight gain constitutes a major unresolved clinical problem which may ultimately be associated with reducing life expectancy by 25 years. Overweight is associated with brain deterioration, cognitive decline and poor quality of life, factors which...... are already compromised in normal weight patients with schizophrenia. Here we outline the current strategies against antipsychotic-induced weight gain, and we describe peripheral and cerebral effects of the gut hormone glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1). Moreover, we account for similarities in brain changes...... between schizophrenia and overweight patients. DISCUSSION: Current interventions against antipsychotic-induced weight gain do not facilitate a substantial and lasting weight loss. GLP-1 analogues used in the treatment of type 2 diabetes are associated with significant and sustained weight loss...

  13. Identification of Nucleoside Analogs as Inducers of Neuronal Differentiation in a Human Reporter Cell Line and Adult Stem Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raasch, Katharina; Malecki, Edith; Siemann, Maria; Martinez, Malayko M; Heinisch, Jürgen J; Müller, Janine; Bakota, Lidia; Kaltschmidt, Christian; Kaltschmidt, Barbara; Rosemeyer, Helmut; Brandt, Roland

    2015-08-01

    Nucleoside analogs (NSAs) were among the first chemotherapeutic agents and could also be useful for the manipulation of cell fate. To investigate the potential of NSAs for the induction of neuronal differentiation, we developed a novel phenotypic assay based on a human neuron-committed teratocarcinoma cell line (NT2) as a model for neuronal progenitors and constructed a NT2-based reporter cell line that expressed eGFP under the control of a neuron-specific promoter. We tested 38 structurally related NSAs and determined their activity to induce neuronal differentiation by immunocytochemistry of neuronal marker proteins, live cell imaging, fluorometric detection and immunoblot analysis. We identified twelve NSAs, which induced neuronal differentiation to different extents. NSAs with highest activity carried a halogen substituent at their pyrimidine nucleobase and an unmodified or 2'-O-methyl substituted 2-deoxy-β-D-ribofuranosyl residue as glyconic moiety. Cladribine, a purine nucleoside with similar structural features and in use to treat leukemia and multiple sclerosis, induced also differentiation of adult human neural crest-derived stem cells. Our results suggest that NSAs could be useful for the manipulation of neuronal cell fate in cell replacement therapy or treatment of neurodegenerative disorders. The data on the structure and function relationship will help to design compounds with increased activity and low toxicity. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  14. Mechanisms of sulfur mustard analog 2-chloroethyl ethyl sulfide-induced DNA damage in skin epidermal cells and fibroblasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inturi, Swetha; Tewari-Singh, Neera; Gu, Mallikarjuna; Shrotriya, Sangeeta; Gomez, Joe; Agarwal, Chapla; White, Carl W.; Agarwal, Rajesh

    2011-01-01

    Employing mouse skin epidermal JB6 cells and dermal fibroblasts, here we examined the mechanisms of DNA damage by 2-chloroethyl ethyl sulfide (CEES), a monofunctional analog of sulfur mustard (SM). CEES exposure caused H2A.X and p53 phosphorylation as well as p53 accumulation in both cell types, starting at 1 h, that was sustained for 24 h, indicating a DNA-damaging effect of CEES, which was also confirmed and quantified by alkaline comet assay. CEES exposure also induced oxidative stress and oxidative DNA damage in both cell types, measured by an increase in mitochondrial and cellular reactive oxygen species and 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine levels, respectively. In the studies distinguishing between oxidative and direct DNA damage, 1 h pretreatment with glutathione (GSH) or the antioxidant Trolox showed a decrease in CEES-induced oxidative stress and oxidative DNA damage. However, only GSH pretreatment decreased CEES-induced total DNA damage measured by comet assay, H2A.X and p53 phosphorylation, and total p53 levels. This was possibly due to the formation of GSH–CEES conjugates detected by LC-MS analysis. Together, our results show that CEES causes both direct and oxidative DNA damage, suggesting that to rescue SM-caused skin injuries, pleiotropic agents (or cocktails) are needed that could target multiple pathways of mustard skin toxicities. PMID:21920433

  15. Mechanisms of sulfur mustard analog 2-chloroethyl ethyl sulfide-induced DNA damage in skin epidermal cells and fibroblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inturi, Swetha; Tewari-Singh, Neera; Gu, Mallikarjuna; Shrotriya, Sangeeta; Gomez, Joe; Agarwal, Chapla; White, Carl W; Agarwal, Rajesh

    2011-12-15

    Employing mouse skin epidermal JB6 cells and dermal fibroblasts, here we examined the mechanisms of DNA damage by 2-chloroethyl ethyl sulfide (CEES), a monofunctional analog of sulfur mustard (SM). CEES exposure caused H2A.X and p53 phosphorylation as well as p53 accumulation in both cell types, starting at 1h, that was sustained for 24h, indicating a DNA-damaging effect of CEES, which was also confirmed and quantified by alkaline comet assay. CEES exposure also induced oxidative stress and oxidative DNA damage in both cell types, measured by an increase in mitochondrial and cellular reactive oxygen species and 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine levels, respectively. In the studies distinguishing between oxidative and direct DNA damage, 1h pretreatment with glutathione (GSH) or the antioxidant Trolox showed a decrease in CEES-induced oxidative stress and oxidative DNA damage. However, only GSH pretreatment decreased CEES-induced total DNA damage measured by comet assay, H2A.X and p53 phosphorylation, and total p53 levels. This was possibly due to the formation of GSH-CEES conjugates detected by LC-MS analysis. Together, our results show that CEES causes both direct and oxidative DNA damage, suggesting that to rescue SM-caused skin injuries, pleiotropic agents (or cocktails) are needed that could target multiple pathways of mustard skin toxicities. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Vitamin D3 analog maxacalcitol (OCT) induces hCAP-18/LL-37 production in human oral epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tada, Hiroyuki; Shimizu, Takamitsu; Nagaoka, Isao; Takada, Haruhiko

    2016-01-01

    Maxacalcitol (22-oxacalcitriol: OCT) is a synthetic vitamin D3 analog with a limited calcemic effect. In this study, we investigated whether OCT increases the production of LL-37/CAP-18, a human cathelicidin antimicrobial peptide, in human gingival/oral epithelial cells. A human gingival epithelial cell line (Ca9-22) and human oral epithelial cell lines (HSC-2, HSC-3, and HSC-4) exhibited the enhanced expression of LL-37 mRNA upon stimulation with OCT as well as active metabolites of vitamins D3 and D2. Among the human epithelial cell lines, Ca9-22 exhibited the strongest response to these vitamin D-related compounds. OCT induced the higher production of CAP-18 (ng/mL order) until 6 days time-dependently in Ca9-22 cells in culture. The periodontal pathogen Porphyromonas gingivalis was killed by treatment with the LL-37 peptide. These findings suggest that OCT induces the production of hCAP-18/LL-37 in a manner similar to that induced by the active metabolite of vitamin D3.

  17. Dust Bowl migration as an analog for possible global warming-induced migration from Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turner, M.H.; Longstreth, J.D.; Johnson, A.K.; Rosenberg, N.J.

    1994-06-01

    As a result of increases in CO{sub 2} and other radiatively important trace gases, scientists have predicted increases in mean worldwide temperatures of 2--5 degrees C over the next 50 to 100 years. Such temperature increases may result in climate modifications that would in turn be associated with increases in drought and desertification and could even change the patterns of the monsoons and tropical rains, which are important to agriculture throughout the world. They predicted that the rise in sea level caused by melting and thermal expansion of glaciers and polar icecaps could flood large population centers, destroying habitation and displacing populations. This will result in approximately 50 million ``environmental refugees`` worldwide, triple the number of today. The expected shifts in precipitation are also likely to result in (1) increased runoff contaminated with pesticides, salts, garbage, sewage, and eroded soil, and (2) drought also leading to increased soil erosion and salinization, as well as depletion of limited water resources. The total impact of global warming on agriculture and human habitation could considerably slow the economic development of some nations and would particularly affect agricultural production. Loss of homes, the inability to raise food, an increased prevalence of disease and worsened economic conditions may drive people to leave their homelands, seeking entry into countries which have more resources and greater resistance to the economic consequences of climatic change. This report looks at the possible environmental impacts and economic impacts of the greenhouse effect on Mexico while using the American Dust Bowl event as an analog.

  18. Inflammatory biomarkers of sulfur mustard analog 2-chloroethyl ethyl sulfide-induced skin injury in SKH-1 hairless mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tewari-Singh, Neera; Rana, Sumeet; Gu, Mallikarjuna; Pal, Arttatrana; Orlicky, David J; White, Carl W; Agarwal, Rajesh

    2009-03-01

    Sulfur mustard (HD) is an alkylating and cytotoxic chemical warfare agent, which inflicts severe skin toxicity and an inflammatory response. Effective medical countermeasures against HD-caused skin toxicity are lacking due to limited knowledge of related mechanisms, which is mainly attributed to the requirement of more applicable and efficient animal skin toxicity models. Using a less toxic analog of HD, chloroethyl ethyl sulfide (CEES), we identified quantifiable inflammatory biomarkers of CEES-induced skin injury in dose- (0.05-2 mg) and time- (3-168 h) response experiments, and developed a CEES-induced skin toxicity SKH-1 hairless mouse model. Topical CEES treatment at high doses caused a significant dose-dependent increase in skin bi-fold thickness indicating edema. Histopathological evaluation of CEES-treated skin sections revealed increases in epidermal and dermal thickness, number of pyknotic basal keratinocytes, dermal capillaries, neutrophils, macrophages, mast cells, and desquamation of epidermis. CEES-induced dose-dependent increases in epidermal cell apoptosis and basal cell proliferation were demonstrated by the terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase (tdt)-mediated dUTP-biotin nick end labeling and proliferative cell nuclear antigen stainings, respectively. Following an increase in the mast cells, myeloperoxidase activity in the inflamed skin peaked at 24 h after CEES exposure coinciding with neutrophil infiltration. F4/80 staining of skin integuments revealed an increase in the number of macrophages after 24 h of CEES exposure. In conclusion, these results establish CEES-induced quantifiable inflammatory biomarkers in a more applicable and efficient SKH-1 hairless mouse model, which could be valuable for agent efficacy studies to develop potential prophylactic and therapeutic interventions for HD-induced skin toxicity.

  19. Inflammatory Biomarkers of Sulfur Mustard Analog 2-Chloroethyl Ethyl Sulfide–Induced Skin Injury in SKH-1 Hairless Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tewari-Singh, Neera; Rana, Sumeet; Gu, Mallikarjuna; Pal, Arttatrana; Orlicky, David J.; White, Carl W.; Agarwal, Rajesh

    2009-01-01

    Sulfur mustard (HD) is an alkylating and cytotoxic chemical warfare agent, which inflicts severe skin toxicity and an inflammatory response. Effective medical countermeasures against HD-caused skin toxicity are lacking due to limited knowledge of related mechanisms, which is mainly attributed to the requirement of more applicable and efficient animal skin toxicity models. Using a less toxic analog of HD, chloroethyl ethyl sulfide (CEES), we identified quantifiable inflammatory biomarkers of CEES-induced skin injury in dose- (0.05–2 mg) and time- (3–168 h) response experiments, and developed a CEES-induced skin toxicity SKH-1 hairless mouse model. Topical CEES treatment at high doses caused a significant dose-dependent increase in skin bi-fold thickness indicating edema. Histopathological evaluation of CEES-treated skin sections revealed increases in epidermal and dermal thickness, number of pyknotic basal keratinocytes, dermal capillaries, neutrophils, macrophages, mast cells, and desquamation of epidermis. CEES-induced dose-dependent increases in epidermal cell apoptosis and basal cell proliferation were demonstrated by the terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase (tdt)-mediated dUTP-biotin nick end labeling and proliferative cell nuclear antigen stainings, respectively. Following an increase in the mast cells, myeloperoxidase activity in the inflamed skin peaked at 24 h after CEES exposure coinciding with neutrophil infiltration. F4/80 staining of skin integuments revealed an increase in the number of macrophages after 24 h of CEES exposure. In conclusion, these results establish CEES-induced quantifiable inflammatory biomarkers in a more applicable and efficient SKH-1 hairless mouse model, which could be valuable for agent efficacy studies to develop potential prophylactic and therapeutic interventions for HD-induced skin toxicity. PMID:19075041

  20. Gene Expression Patterns Define Key Transcriptional Events InCell-Cycle Regulation By cAMP And Protein Kinase A

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zambon, Alexander C.; Zhang, Lingzhi; Minovitsky, Simon; Kanter, Joan R.; Prabhakar, Shyam; Salomonis, Nathan; Vranizan, Karen; Dubchak Inna,; Conklin, Bruce R.; Insel, Paul A.

    2005-06-01

    Although a substantial number of hormones and drugs increase cellular cAMP levels, the global impact of cAMP and its major effector mechanism, protein kinase A (PKA), on gene expression is not known. Here we show that treatment of murine wild-type S49 lymphoma cells for 24 h with 8-(4-chlorophenylthio)-cAMP (8-CPTcAMP), a PKA-selective cAMP analog, alters the expression of approx equal to 4,500 of approx. equal to 13,600 unique genes. By contrast, gene expression was unaltered in Kin- S49 cells (that lack PKA) incubated with 8-CPTcAMP. Changes in mRNA and protein expression of several cell cycle regulators accompanied cAMP-induced G1-phase cell-cycle arrest of wild-type S49 cells. Within 2h, 8-CPT-cAMP altered expression of 152 genes that contain evolutionarily conserved cAMP-response elements within 5 kb of transcriptional start sites, including the circadian clock gene Per1. Thus, cAMP through its activation of PKA produces extensive transcriptional regulation in eukaryotic cells. These transcriptional networks include a primary group of cAMP-response element-containing genes and secondary networks that include the circadian clock.

  1. Carvedilol and Its New Analogs Suppress Arrhythmogenic Store Overload-induced Ca2+ Release

    OpenAIRE

    Zhou, Qiang; Xiao, Jianmin; Jiang, Dawei; Wang, Ruiwu; Vembaiyan, Kannan; Wang, Aixia; Smith, Chris D.; Xie, Cuihong; Chen, Wenqian; Zhang, Jingqun; Tian, Xixi; Jones, Peter P.; Zhong, Xiaowei; Guo, Ang; Chen, Haiyan

    2011-01-01

    Carvedilol is one of the most effective beta-blockers for preventing ventricular tachyarrhythmias (VTs) in heart failure (HF), but the mechanisms underlying its favorable anti-arrhythmic benefits remain unclear. Spontaneous Ca2+ waves, also termed store-overload-induced Ca2+ release (SOICR), are known to evoke VTs in patients with HF. Here we show that carvedilol is the only beta-blocker that effectively suppresses SOICR by directly reducing the open duration of the cardiac ryanodine receptor...

  2. Curcumin analog EF24 induces apoptosis via ROS-dependent mitochondrial dysfunction in human colorectal cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Guodong; Feng, Chen; Vinothkumar, Rajamanickam; Chen, Weiqian; Dai, Xuanxuan; Chen, Xi; Ye, Qingqing; Qiu, Chenyu; Zhou, Huiping; Wang, Yi; Liang, Guang; Xie, Yubo; Wu, Wei

    2016-12-01

    Colorectal cancer is the most commonly diagnosed malignancy with high mortality rates worldwide. Improved therapeutic strategies with minimal adverse side effects are urgently needed. In this study, the anti-tumor effects of EF24, a novel analog of the natural compound curcumin, were evaluated in colorectal cancer cells. The anti-tumor activity of EF24 on human colon cancer lines (HCT-116, SW-620, and HT-29) was determined by measures of cell cycle arrest, apoptosis, and mitochondrial function. The contribution of ROS in the EF24-induced anti-tumor activity was evaluated by measures of H2O2 and pretreatment with an ROS scavenger, NAC. The findings indicated that EF24 treatment dose-dependently inhibited cell viability and caused cell cycle arrest at G2/M phase in all the tested colon cancer cell lines. Furthermore, we demonstrated that EF24 treatment induced apoptosis effectively via enhancing intracellular accumulation of ROS in both HCT-116 and SW-620 cells, but with moderate effects in HT-29 cells. We found that EF24 treatment decreased the mitochondrial membrane potential in the colon cancer cells, leading to the release of mitochondrial cytochrome c. Also, EF24 induced activation of caspases 9 and 3, causing decreased Bcl-2 protein expression and Bcl-2/Bax ratio. Pretreatment with NAC, a ROS scavenger, abrogated the EF24-induced cell death, apoptosis, cell cycle arrest, and mitochondrial dysfunction, suggesting an upstream ROS generation which was responsible for the anticancer effects of EF24. Our findings support an anticancer mechanism by which EF24 enhanced ROS accumulation in colon cancer cells, thereby resulting in mitochondrial membrane collapse and activated intrinsic apoptotic signaling. Thus, EF24 could be a potential candidate for therapeutic application of colon cancer.

  3. The camp model for entrepreneurship teaching

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bager, Torben

    2011-01-01

    Artiklen omhandler brugen af camps i entrepreneurship undervising - illustreret med danske camp eksempler Udgivelsesdato: online 31.03.2010......Artiklen omhandler brugen af camps i entrepreneurship undervising - illustreret med danske camp eksempler Udgivelsesdato: online 31.03.2010...

  4. Inhibition of veratridine-induced delayed inactivation of the voltage-sensitive sodium channel by synthetic analogs of crambescin B.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsukamoto, Tadaaki; Chiba, Yukie; Nakazaki, Atsuo; Ishikawa, Yuki; Nakane, Yoshiki; Cho, Yuko; Yotsu-Yamashita, Mari; Nishikawa, Toshio; Wakamori, Minoru; Konoki, Keiichi

    2017-03-01

    Crambescin B carboxylic acid, a synthetic analog of crambescin B, was recently found to inhibit the voltage-sensitive sodium channels (VSSC) in a cell-based assay using neuroblastoma Neuro 2A cells. In the present study, whole-cell patch-clamp recordings were conducted with three heterologously expressed VSSC subtypes, Na v 1.2, Na v 1.6 and Na v 1.7, in a human embryonic kidney cell line HEK293T to further characterize the inhibition of VSSC by crambescin B carboxylic acid. Contrary to the previous observation, crambescin B carboxylic acid did not inhibit peak current evoked by depolarization from the holding potential of -100mV to the test potential of -10mV in the absence or presence of veratridine (VTD). In the presence of VTD, however, crambescin B carboxylic acid diminished VTD-induced sustained and tail currents through the three VSSC subtypes in a dose-dependent manner, whereas TTX inhibited both the peak current and the VTD-induced sustained and tail currents through all subtypes of VSSC tested. We thus concluded that crambescin B carboxylic acid does not block VSSC in a similar manner to TTX but modulate the action of VTD, thereby causing an apparent block of VSSC in the cell-based assay. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. GLP-1 analog liraglutide protects against cardiac steatosis, oxidative stress and apoptosis in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, Tomoaki; Inoguchi, Toyoshi; Sonoda, Noriyuki; Hendarto, Hari; Makimura, Hiroaki; Sasaki, Shuji; Yokomizo, Hisashi; Fujimura, Yoshinori; Miura, Daisuke; Takayanagi, Ryoichi

    2015-05-01

    Accumulating evidence has implicated that GLP-1 may have a beneficial effect on cardiovascular but the mechanism is not fully understood. Here we show that GLP-1 analog, liraglutide, inhibits cardiac steatosis, oxidative stress and apoptosis in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced type 1 diabetic rats, via activation of AMPK-Sirt1 pathway. Diabetic rats were treated with subcutaneous injections of liraglutide (0.3 mg/kg/12 h) for 4 weeks. Myocardial steatosis (detected by oil red O staining and myocardial triglyceride and diacylglycerol (DAG) contents assay), expression of protein kinase C (PKC), heart NAD(P)H oxidase activity, oxidative stress markers (8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine staining), apoptosis (TUNEL analysis) and genes that affect apoptosis and lipid metabolism were evaluated. Administration of liraglutide did not affect plasma glucose and insulin levels or body weights in STZ-induced diabetic rats, but normalized myocardial steatosis, expression of PKC, NAD(P)H oxidase activity, oxidative stress markers and apoptosis, all of which were significantly increased in diabetic hearts. Additionally, expression of genes mediating lipid uptake, synthesis and oxidation were increased in the diabetic hearts, and these increases were all reduced by liraglutide. In addition, liraglutide increased expression of Sirt1 and phosphorylated AMPK in the diabetic hearts. Liraglutide may have a beneficial effect on cardiac steatosis, DAG-PKC-NAD(P)H pathway, oxidative stress and apoptosis via activation of AMPK-Sirt1 pathway, independently of a glucose-lowering effect. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Analog Coding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    CODING, ANALOG SYSTEMS), INFORMATION THEORY, DATA TRANSMISSION SYSTEMS , TRANSMITTER RECEIVERS, WHITE NOISE, PROBABILITY, ERRORS, PROBABILITY DENSITY FUNCTIONS, DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS, SET THEORY, COMPUTER PROGRAMS

  7. Analog computing

    CERN Document Server

    Ulmann, Bernd

    2013-01-01

    This book is a comprehensive introduction to analog computing. As most textbooks about this powerful computing paradigm date back to the 1960s and 1970s, it fills a void and forges a bridge from the early days of analog computing to future applications. The idea of analog computing is not new. In fact, this computing paradigm is nearly forgotten, although it offers a path to both high-speed and low-power computing, which are in even more demand now than they were back in the heyday of electronic analog computers.

  8. Analog electromagnetically induced transparency for circularly polarized wave using three-dimensional chiral metamaterials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Hai; Yang, Dong; Han, Song; Liu, Yangjie; Yang, Helin

    2016-12-26

    In this paper, we theoretically and experimentally demonstrate a three-dimensional metamaterial that can motivate electromagnetic induced transparency (EIT) by using circular polarized wave as stimulations. The unit cell consists of a pair of metallic strips printed on both sides of the printed circuit board (PCB), where a conductive cylinder junction is used to connect the metal strips by drilling a hole inside the substrate. When a right circularly polarized wave is incident, destructive interference is excited between meta-atoms of the 3D structure, the transmission spectrum demonstrates a sharp transparency window. A coupled oscillator model and an electrical equivalent circuit model are applied to quantitatively and qualitatively analyze the coupling mechanism in the EIT-like metamaterial. Analysis in detail shows the EIT window's amplitude and frequency are modulated by changing the degree of symmetry breaking. The proposed metamaterial may achieve potential applications in developing chiral slow light devices.

  9. Analog electromagnetically induced transparency for circularly polarized wave using three dimensional chiral metamaterials

    CERN Document Server

    Lin, Hai; Han, Song; Liu, Yangjie; Yang, Helin

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we theoretically and experimentally demonstrate a three dimensional metamaterial that can motivate electromagnetic induced transparency (EIT) by using circular polarized wave as stimulations. The unit cell consists of a pair of metallic strips printed on both sides of the printed circuit board (PCB), where a conductive cylinder junction is used to connect the metal strips by drilling a hole inside the substrate. When a right circularly polarized wave is incident, destructive interference is excited between meta-atoms of the 3D structure, the transmission spectrum demonstrates a sharp transparency window. A coupled oscillator model and an electrical equivalent circuit model are applied to quantitatively and qualitatively analyze the coupling mechanism in the EIT-like metamaterial. Analysis in detail shows the EIT window's amplitude and frequency are modulated by changing the degree of symmetry breaking. The proposed metamaterial may achieve potential applications in developing chiral slow light ...

  10. Modulatory effects of cAMP and PKC activation on gap junctional intercellular communication among thymic epithelial cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neves-dos-Santos Sandra

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We investigated the effects of the signaling molecules, cyclic AMP (cAMP and protein-kinase C (PKC, on gap junctional intercellular communication (GJIC between thymic epithelial cells (TEC. Results Treatment with 8-Br-cAMP, a cAMP analog; or forskolin, which stimulates cAMP production, resulted in an increase in dye transfer between adjacent TEC, inducing a three-fold enhancement in the mean fluorescence of coupled cells, ascertained by flow cytometry after calcein transfer. These treatments also increased Cx43 mRNA expression, and stimulated Cx43 protein accumulation in regions of intercellular contacts. VIP, adenosine, and epinephrine which may also signal through cyclic nucleotides were tested. The first two molecules did not mimic the effects of 8-Br-cAMP, however epinephrine was able to increase GJIC suggesting that this molecule functions as an endogenous inter-TEC GJIC modulators. Stimulation of PKC by phorbol-myristate-acetate inhibited inter-TEC GJIC. Importantly, both the enhancing and the decreasing effects, respectively induced by cAMP and PKC, were observed in both mouse and human TEC preparations. Lastly, experiments using mouse thymocyte/TEC heterocellular co-cultures suggested that the presence of thymocytes does not affect the degree of inter-TEC GJIC. Conclusions Overall, our data indicate that cAMP and PKC intracellular pathways are involved in the homeostatic control of the gap junction-mediated communication in the thymic epithelium, exerting respectively a positive and negative role upon cell coupling. This control is phylogenetically conserved in the thymus, since it was seen in both mouse and human TEC preparations. Lastly, our work provides new clues for a better understanding of how the thymic epithelial network can work as a physiological syncytium.

  11. Geographies of the camp

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Minca, C.

    2015-01-01

    Facing the current growing global archipelago of encampments – including concentration, detention, transit, identification, refugee, military and training camps, this article is a geographical reflection on ‘the camp’, as a modern institution and as a spatial bio-political technology. In particular,

  12. Camp Sea Lab Visit

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited On Wednesday July 8th, CAVR hosted 32 eight to thirteen year olds from California State Monterey Bay’s summer Camp SEA Lab. The students had the opportunity to interact with robotic dogs, an autonomous underwater vehicle (AUV), remotely operated vehicle (ROV), and unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV).

  13. Genome-wide mutation avalanches induced in diploid yeast cells by a base analog or an APOBEC deaminase.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Artem G Lada

    Full Text Available Genetic information should be accurately transmitted from cell to cell; conversely, the adaptation in evolution and disease is fueled by mutations. In the case of cancer development, multiple genetic changes happen in somatic diploid cells. Most classic studies of the molecular mechanisms of mutagenesis have been performed in haploids. We demonstrate that the parameters of the mutation process are different in diploid cell populations. The genomes of drug-resistant mutants induced in yeast diploids by base analog 6-hydroxylaminopurine (HAP or AID/APOBEC cytosine deaminase PmCDA1 from lamprey carried a stunning load of thousands of unselected mutations. Haploid mutants contained almost an order of magnitude fewer mutations. To explain this, we propose that the distribution of induced mutation rates in the cell population is uneven. The mutants in diploids with coincidental mutations in the two copies of the reporter gene arise from a fraction of cells that are transiently hypersensitive to the mutagenic action of a given mutagen. The progeny of such cells were never recovered in haploids due to the lethality caused by the inactivation of single-copy essential genes in cells with too many induced mutations. In diploid cells, the progeny of hypersensitive cells survived, but their genomes were saturated by heterozygous mutations. The reason for the hypermutability of cells could be transient faults of the mutation prevention pathways, like sanitization of nucleotide pools for HAP or an elevated expression of the PmCDA1 gene or the temporary inability of the destruction of the deaminase. The hypothesis on spikes of mutability may explain the sudden acquisition of multiple mutational changes during evolution and carcinogenesis.

  14. Inhibition of cholinephosphotransferase activity in lung injury induced by 2-chloroethyl ethyl sulfide, a mustard analog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinha Roy, Somdutta; Mukherjee, Shyamali; Kabir, Syeda; Rajaratnam, Veera; Smith, Milton; Das, Salil K

    2005-01-01

    Exposure to mustard gas causes inflammatory lung diseases including acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). A defect in the lung surfactant system has been implicated as a cause of ARDS. A major component of lung surfactant is dipalmitoyl phosphatidylcholine (DPPC) and the major pathway for its synthesis is the cytidine diphosphocholine (CDP-choline) pathway. It is not known whether the ARDS induced by mustard gas is mediated by its direct effects on some of the enzymes in the CDP-choline pathway. In the present study we investigated whether mustard gas exposure modulates the activity of cholinephosphotransferase (CPT) the terminal enzyme by CDP-choline pathway. Adult guinea pigs were intratracheally infused with single doses of 2-chloroethyl ethyl sulfide (CEES) (0.5 mg/kg b.wt. in ethanol). Control animals were injected with vehicles only. The animals were sacrificed at different time and the lungs were removed after perfusion with physiological saline. CPT activity increased steadily up to 4 h and then decreased at 6 h and stabilized at 7 days in both mitochondria and microsomes. To determine the dose-dependent effect of CEES on CPT activity we varied the doses of CEES (0.5-6.0 mg/kg b.wt.) and sacrificed the animals at 1 h and 4 h. CPT activity showed a dose-dependent increase of up to 2.0 mg/kg b.wt. of CEES in both mitochondria and microsomes then decreased at 4.0 mg/kg b.wt. For further studies we used a fixed single dose of CEES (2.0 mg/kg b.wt.) and fixed exposure time (7 days). Lung injury was determined by measuring the leakage of iodinated-bovine serum albumin into lung tissue and expressed as the permeability index. CEES exposure (2.0 mg/kg b.wt. for 7 days) caused a significant decrease of both CPT gene expression (approximately 1.7-fold) and activity (approximately 1.5-fold) in the lung. This decrease in CPT activity was not associated with any mutation of the CPT gene. Previously we reported that CEES infusion increased the production of

  15. Time-dependent protective efficacy of Trolox (vitamin E analog) against microcystin-induced toxicity in tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prieto, Ana Isabel; Jos, Angeles; Pichardo, Silvia; Moreno, Isabel; de Sotomayor, María Alvarez; Moyano, Rosario; Blanco, Alfonso; Cameán, Ana María

    2009-12-01

    Microcystins (MCs), hepatotoxins from cyanobacteria, induce oxidative stress and pathological changes in fish that can be ameliorated with chemoprotectants such as vitamin E (vit E). This study investigated the time period after MCs exposure in which Trolox, a vitamin E analog, is effective against oxidative and histological damage in different organs of tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus). Fish were fed Trolox supplement (700 mg/kg diet) for 7 days, or received only commercial fish food, and then were exposed to a single oral dose of 120 microg/fish microcystin-LR, and sacrificed in 24, 48, or 72 h. The Trolox protective efficacy was evaluated based on lipid peroxidation (LPO), protein oxidation, enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidants, and a morphologic study. Regarding the oxidative stress biomarkers altered by MCs, the higher protective action of Trolox was observed 24 h post toxin exposure, although it extends also until 48 h in gills (superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT)), and liver, where glutathione reductase (GR) backed to control values 48 and 72 h after the toxin application. Glutathione-S- transferase (GST) activity in the liver was ameliorated by the chemoprotectant after 24 and 48 h, although control values were not recovered. Trolox modulation of these biomarkers and its ability to quench free radicals explain the recovery of LPO values in all organs at 24 h and also in gills at 48 h. Histopathologically, Trolox efficacy was more evident after 72 h.

  16. Hydrogen sulfide inhibits A2A adenosine receptor agonist induced β-amyloid production in SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells via a cAMP dependent pathway.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhushan Vijay Nagpure

    Full Text Available Alzheimer's disease (AD is the leading cause of senile dementia in today's society. Its debilitating symptoms are manifested by disturbances in many important brain functions, which are influenced by adenosine. Hence, adenosinergic system is considered as a potential therapeutic target in AD treatment. In the present study, we found that sodium hydrosulfide (NaHS, an H2S donor, 100 µM attenuated HENECA (a selective A2A receptor agonist, 10-200 nM induced β-amyloid (1-42 (Aβ42 production in SH-SY5Y cells. NaHS also interfered with HENECA-stimulated production and post-translational modification of amyloid precursor protein (APP by inhibiting its maturation. Measurement of the C-terminal APP fragments generated from its enzymatic cleavage by β-site amyloid precursor protein cleaving enzyme 1 (BACE1 showed that NaHS did not have any significant effect on β-secretase activity. However, the direct measurements of HENECA-elevated γ-secretase activity and mRNA expressions of presenilins suggested that the suppression of Aβ42 production in NaHS pretreated cells was mediated by inhibiting γ-secretase. NaHS induced reductions were accompanied by similar decreases in intracellular cAMP levels and phosphorylation of cAMP responsive element binding protein (CREB. NaHS significantly reduced the elevated cAMP and Aβ42 production caused by forskolin (an adenylyl cyclase, AC agonist alone or forskolin in combination with IBMX (a phosphodiesterase inhibitor, but had no effect on those caused by IBMX alone. Moreover, pretreatment with NaHS significantly attenuated HENECA-elevated AC activity and mRNA expressions of various AC isoforms. These data suggest that NaHS may preferentially suppress AC activity when it was stimulated. In conclusion, H2S attenuated HENECA induced Aβ42 production in SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells through inhibiting γ-secretase via a cAMP dependent pathway.

  17. Streptococcus pyogenes CAMP factor attenuates phagocytic activity of RAW 264.7 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurosawa, Mie; Oda, Masataka; Domon, Hisanori; Saitoh, Issei; Hayasaki, Haruaki; Terao, Yutaka

    2016-02-01

    Streptococcus pyogenes produces molecules that inhibit the function of human immune system, thus allowing the pathogen to grow and spread in tissues. It is known that S. pyogenes CAMP factor increases erythrocytosis induced by Staphylococcus aureus β-hemolysin. However, the effects of CAMP factor for immune cells are unclear. In this study, we investigated the effects of CAMP factor to macrophages. Western blotting analysis demonstrated that all examined strains expressed CAMP factor protein. In the presence of calcium or magnesium ion, CAMP factor was significantly released in the supernatant. In addition, both culture supernatant from S. pyogenes strain SSI-9 and recombinant CAMP factor dose-dependently induced vacuolation in RAW 264.7 cells, but the culture supernatant from Δcfa isogenic mutant strain did not. CAMP factor formed oligomers in RAW 264.7 cells in a time-dependent manner. CAMP factor suppressed cell proliferation via G2 phase cell cycle arrest without inducing cell death. Furthermore, CAMP factor reduced the uptake of S. pyogenes and phagocytic activity indicator by RAW 264.7 cells. These results suggest that CAMP factor works as a macrophage dysfunction factor. Therefore, we conclude that CAMP factor allows S. pyogenes to escape the host immune system, and contribute to the spread of streptococcal infection. Copyright © 2015 Institut Pasteur. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  18. Running Boot Camp

    CERN Document Server

    Toporek, Chuck

    2008-01-01

    When Steve Jobs jumped on stage at Macworld San Francisco 2006 and announced the new Intel-based Macs, the question wasn't if, but when someone would figure out a hack to get Windows XP running on these new "Mactels." Enter Boot Camp, a new system utility that helps you partition and install Windows XP on your Intel Mac. Boot Camp does all the heavy lifting for you. You won't need to open the Terminal and hack on system files or wave a chicken bone over your iMac to get XP running. This free program makes it easy for anyone to turn their Mac into a dual-boot Windows/OS X machine. Running Bo

  19. Elevated Levels of DNA Strand Breaks Induced by a Base Analog in the Human Cell Line with the P32T ITPA Variant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina S.-R. Waisertreiger

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Base analogs are powerful antimetabolites and dangerous mutagens generated endogenously by oxidative stress, inflammation, and aberrant nucleotide biosynthesis. Human inosine triphosphate pyrophosphatase (ITPA hydrolyzes triphosphates of noncanonical purine bases (i.e., ITP, dITP, XTP, dXTP, or their mimic: 6-hydroxyaminopurine (HAP deoxynucleoside triphosphate and thus regulates nucleotide pools and protects cells from DNA damage. We demonstrate that the model purine base analog HAP induces DNA breaks in human cells and leads to elevation of levels of ITPA. A human polymorphic allele of the ITPA, 94C->A encodes for the enzyme with a P32T amino-acid change and leads to accumulation of nonhydrolyzed ITP. The polymorphism has been associated with adverse reaction to purine base-analog drugs. The level of both spontaneous and HAP-induced DNA breaks is elevated in the cell line with the ITPA P32T variant. The results suggested that human ITPA plays a pivotal role in the protection of DNA from noncanonical purine base analogs.

  20. RL71, a second-generation curcumin analog, induces apoptosis and downregulates Akt in ER-negative breast cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Babasaheb; Taurin, Sebastien; Larsen, Lesley; Rosengren, Rhonda J

    2012-09-01

    There is a need for the development of new, safe and efficacious drug therapies for the treatment of estrogen receptor (ER)-negative breast cancers. RL71 is a second-generation curcumin analog that exhibits potent cytotoxicity towards a variety of ER-negative breast cancer cells. Therefore, we have further examined the mechanism of this anticancer activity in three different ER-negative breast cancer cell lines. The mechanistic studies demonstrated that RL71 (1 µM) induced cell cycle arrest in the G2/M phase of the cell cycle. Moreover, RL71 (1 µM) caused 35% of SKBr3 cells to undergo apoptosis after 48 h and this effect was time-dependent. This correlated with an increase in cleaved caspase-3 as shown by western blotting. RL71 (1 µM) also decreased HER2/neu phosphorylation and increased p27 in SKBr3 cells. While in MDA-MB-231 and MDA-MB-468 cells RL71 (1 µM) significantly decreased Akt phosphorylation and transiently increased the stress kinases JNK1/2 and p38 MAPK. In addition, RL71 exhibited anti-angiogenic potential in vitro as it inhibited HUVEC cell migration and the ability of these cells to form tube-like networks. RL71 (8.5 mg/kg) was also orally bioavailable as it produced a peak plasma concentration of 0.405 µg/ml, 5 min after oral drug administration. Thus, our findings provide evidence that RL71 has potent anticancer activity and has potential to be further developed as a drug for the treatment of ER-negative breast cancer.

  1. Antifeedant activity and high mortality in the pea aphid Acyrthosiphon pisum (Hemiptera: Aphidae) induced by biostable insect kinin analogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smagghe, Guy; Mahdian, Kamran; Zubrzak, Pawel; Nachman, Ronald J

    2010-03-01

    The insect kinins are multifunctional neuropeptides found in a variety of arthropod species, including the pea aphid Acyrthosiphon pisum (Hemiptera: Aphidae). A series of biostable insect kinin analogs based on the shared C-terminal pentapeptide core region were fed in solutions of artificial diet to the pea aphid over a period of 3 days and evaluated for antifeedant and aphicidal activity. The analogs contained either alpha,alpha-disubstituted or beta-amino acids in key positions to enhance resistance to tissue-bound peptidases and retain activity in a number of insect kinin bioassays and/or on expressed receptors. Three of the biostable analogs demonstrated antifeedant activity, with a marked reduction in honeydew formation observed after 1 day, and very high mortality. In contrast, an unmodified, parent insect kinin and two other analogs containing some of the same structural components that promote biostability are inactive. The most active analog, double Aib analog K-Aib-1 ([Aib]FF[Aib]WGa), featured aphicidal activity calculated at an LC(50) of 0.063 nmol/microl (0.048 microg/microl) and an LT(50) of 1.68 days, matching the potency of some commercially available aphicides. The mechanism of this activity has yet to be established. The aphicidal activity of the biostable insect kinin analogs may result from different potential mechanisms as disruption of digestive processes by interfering with gut motility patterns, digestive enzyme release, and/or with fluid cycling in the gut, and also nutrient transport across the gut itself; all processes shown to be regulated by the insect kinins in other insects. However the mechanism(s) is(are) not yet known. The active insect kinin analogs represent potential leads in the development of selective, environmentally friendly pest aphid control agents. (c) 2009 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Analog earthquakes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hofmann, R.B. [Center for Nuclear Waste Regulatory Analyses, San Antonio, TX (United States)

    1995-09-01

    Analogs are used to understand complex or poorly understood phenomena for which little data may be available at the actual repository site. Earthquakes are complex phenomena, and they can have a large number of effects on the natural system, as well as on engineered structures. Instrumental data close to the source of large earthquakes are rarely obtained. The rare events for which measurements are available may be used, with modfications, as analogs for potential large earthquakes at sites where no earthquake data are available. In the following, several examples of nuclear reactor and liquified natural gas facility siting are discussed. A potential use of analog earthquakes is proposed for a high-level nuclear waste (HLW) repository.

  3. Registration Day-Camp 2016

    CERN Multimedia

    Nursery School

    2016-01-01

    Reminder Registration for the CERN Staff Association Day-camp are open for children from 4 to 6 years old More information on the website: http://nurseryschool.web.cern.ch/. The day-camp is open to all children. An inscription per week is proposed, cost 480.-CHF/week, lunch included The camp will be open weeks 27, 28, 29 and 30, from 8:30 am to 5:30 pm. For further questions, thanks you for contacting us by email at Summer.Camp@cern.ch.

  4. No ordinary boot camp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tichy, N M

    2001-04-01

    Many companies now run boot camps--comprehensive orientation programs designed to help new hires hit the ground running. They're intense and intimidating, and new employees emerge from them with strong bonds to other recruits and to the organization. But at Trilogy, organizational consultant Noel Tichy discovered one program that's a breed apart. In this article, Tichy gives us a detailed tour of Trilogy's boot camp, Trilogy University, to demonstrate why it's so different--and so effective. Like the best boot camps, it serves as an immersion in both the technical skills new recruits will need for their jobs and Trilogy's corporate culture, which emphasizes risk-taking, teamwork, humility, and a strong customer focus. But this is a new-employee orientation session that's so fundamental to the company as a whole that it's presided over by the CEO and top corporate executives for fully six months of the year. Why? In two three-month sessions, these top executives hone their own strategic thinking about the company as they decide what to teach the new recruits each session. They also find the company's next generation of new products as they judge the innovative ideas the recruits are tasked with developing--making the program Trilogy's main R&D engine. And they pull the company's rising technical stars into mentoring roles for the new recruits, helping to build the next generation of top leadership. After spending months on-site studying Trilogy University, Tichy came away highly impressed by the power of the virtuous teaching cycle the program has set in motion. Leaders of the organization are learning from recruits at the same time that the recruits are learning from the leaders. It's a model, he argues, that other companies would do well to emulate.

  5. Structure-activity relationship of piperine and its synthetic amide analogs for therapeutic potential to prevent experimentally induced ER stress in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammad, Ayat S; Ravindran, Sreenithya; Khalil, Ashraf; Munusamy, Shankar

    2017-05-01

    Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is the key organelle involved in protein folding and maturation. Emerging studies implicate the role of ER stress in the development of chronic kidney disease. Thus, there is an urgent need for compounds that could ameliorate ER stress and prevent CKD. Piperine and its analogs have been reported to exhibit multiple pharmacological activities; however, their efficacy against ER stress in kidney cells has not been studied yet. Hence, the goal of this study was to synthesize amide-substituted piperine analogs and screen them for pharmacological activity to relieve ER stress using an in vitro model of tunicamycin-induced ER stress using normal rat kidney (NRK-52E) cells. Five amide-substituted piperine analogs were synthesized and their chemical structures were elucidated by pertinent spectroscopic techniques. An in vitro model of ER stress was developed using tunicamycin, and the compounds of interest were screened for their effect on cell viability, and the expression of ER chaperone GRP78, the pro-apoptotic ER stress marker CHOP, and apoptotic caspases 3 and 12 (via western blotting). Our findings indicate that exposure to tunicamycin (0.5 μg/mL) for 2 h induces the expression of GRP78 and CHOP, and apoptotic markers (caspase-3 and caspase-12) and causes a significant reduction in renal cell viability. Pre-treatment of cells with piperine and its cyclohexylamino analog decreased the tunicamycin-induced upregulation of GRP78 and CHOP and cell death. Taken together, our findings demonstrate that piperine and its analogs differentially regulate ER stress, and thus represent potential therapeutic agents to treat ER stress-related renal disorders. Graphical Abstract Piperine (PIP) reduces the expression of ER stress markers (GRP78 and CHOP) induced by pathologic stimuli and consequently decreases the activation of apoptotic caspase-12 and caspase-3; all of which contributes to its chemical chaperone and cytoprotective properties to protect

  6. Summer Camp, July 2016

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2016-01-01

    During the month of July, the Staff Association’s Children’s Day-Care Centre and School EVEE held a summer camp for 4- to 6-year-olds. 24 children altogether joined in on the adventures. On the summer camp, the children got to “travel” to a different continent of the world every week. Day after day, they would pass through make-believe Customs upon arrival and get their passports stamped by a “customs officer”. For the first week, we went on a trip to Africa. In the spirit of the theme, the children got to do plenty of crafts and coloring, make their own little bindles and play various games. They even had the chance to visit the Museum of Ethnography in Geneva (MEG), learn to play the balafon and make musical instruments with Sterrenlab. For the second week, we set off to discover the Americas, exploring both the South and the North. Alongside different workshops (singing, dancing, storytelling, crafts), the children could enjoy several special ac...

  7. Impact of novel palmitoylated prolactin-eleasing peptide analogs on metabolic changes in mice with diet-induced obesity

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pražienková, V.; Holubová, M.; Pelantová, H.; Bugáňová, M.; Pirník, Z.; Mikulášková, Barbora; Popelová, A.; Blechová, M.; Haluzík, M.; Železná, B.; Kuzma, M.; Kuneš, Jaroslav; Maletínská, L.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 12, č. 8 (2017), č. článku e0183449. E-ISSN 1932-6203 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA15-08679S Institutional support: RVO:67985823 Keywords : food intake regulation * peroxisome proliferation * lipidized analogs Subject RIV: FB - Endocrinology, Diabetology, Metabolism, Nutrition Impact factor: 2.806, year: 2016

  8. 5D imaging approaches reveal the formation of distinct intracellular cAMP spatial gradients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rich, Thomas C.; Annamdevula, Naga; Trinh, Kenny; Britain, Andrea L.; Mayes, Samuel A.; Griswold, John R.; Deal, Joshua; Hoffman, Chase; West, Savannah; Leavesley, Silas J.

    2017-02-01

    Cyclic AMP (cAMP) is a ubiquitous second messenger known to differentially regulate many cellular functions. Several lines of evidence suggest that the distribution of cAMP within cells is not uniform. However, to date, no studies have measured the kinetics of 3D cAMP distributions within cells. This is largely due to the low signal-tonoise ratio of FRET-based probes. We previously reported that hyperspectral imaging improves the signal-to-noise ratio of FRET measurements. Here we utilized hyperspectral imaging approaches to measure FRET signals in five dimensions (5D) - three spatial (x, y, z), wavelength (λ), and time (t) - allowing us to visualize cAMP gradients in pulmonary endothelial cells. cAMP levels were measured using a FRET-based sensor (H188) comprised of a cAMP binding domain sandwiched between FRET donor and acceptor - Turquoise and Venus fluorescent proteins. We observed cAMP gradients in response to 0.1 or 1 μM isoproterenol, 0.1 or 1 μM PGE1, or 50 μM forskolin. Forskolin- and isoproterenol-induced cAMP gradients formed from the apical (high cAMP) to basolateral (low cAMP) face of cells. In contrast, PGE1-induced cAMP gradients originated from both the basolateral and apical faces of cells. Data suggest that 2D (x,y) studies of cAMP compartmentalization may lead to erroneous conclusions about the existence of cAMP gradients, and that 3D (x,y,z) studies are required to assess mechanisms of signaling specificity. Results demonstrate that 5D imaging technologies are powerful tools for measuring biochemical processes in discrete subcellular domains.

  9. Insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1 induces the activation/phosphorylation of Akt kinase and cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB by activating different signaling pathways in PC12 cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zheng Wen-Hua

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1 is a polypeptide growth factor with a variety of functions in both neuronal and non-neuronal cells. IGF-1 plays anti-apoptotic and other functions by activating multiple signaling pathways including Akt kinase, a serine/threonine kinase essential for cell survival. The nuclear transcription factor cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB may also be involved although relationships between these two proteins in IGF-1 receptor signaling and protection is not clear, especially in neuronal cells. Results IGF-1, in a concentration- and time-dependent manner, induces the activation/phosphorylation of Akt and CREB in PC12 cells by activating different signaling pathways. IGF-1 induced a sustained phosphorylation of Akt while only a transient one was seen for CREB. The phosphorylation of Akt is mediated by the PI3 kinase pathway while that of CREB is dependent on the activation of both MAPK kinase and p38 MAPK. Moreover, the stimulation of PKC attenuated the phosphorylation of Akt induced by IGF-1 while enhancing that of CREB. Survival assays with various kinase inhibitors suggested that the activation/phosphorylation of both Akt and CREB contributes to IGF-1 mediated cell survival in PC12 cells. Conclusion These data suggest that IGF-1 induced the activation of Akt and CREB using distinct pathways in PC12 cells.

  10. The 2-oxoglutarate analog 3-oxoglutarate decreases normoxic hypoxia-inducible factor-1α in cancer cells, induces cell death, and reduces tumor xenograft growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koivunen P

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Peppi Koivunen,1 Stuart M Fell,2,3 Wenyun Lu,4 Joshua D Rabinowitz,4 Andrew L Kung,5,6 Susanne Schlisio,2,7 1Biocenter Oulu, Faculty of Biochemistry and Molecular Medicine, Oulu Center for Cell-Matrix Research, University of Oulu, Oulu, Finland; 2Ludwig Institute for Cancer Research Ltd, Stockholm, Sweden; 3Department of Cell and Molecular Biology, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden; 4Department of Chemistry and Integrative Genomics, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ, 5Department of Medical Oncology, Dana Farber Cancer Institute, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, 6Department of Pediatrics, Columbia University Medical Center, New York, NY, USA; 7Department of Microbiology and Tumor and Cell Biology, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden Abstract: The cellular response to hypoxia is primarily regulated by the hypoxia-inducible factors (HIFs. HIF-1α is also a major mediator of tumor physiology, and its abundance is correlated with therapeutic resistance in a broad range of cancers. Accumulation of HIF-1α under hypoxia is mainly controlled by the oxygen-sensing HIF prolyl 4-hydroxylases (EGLNs, also known as PHDs. Here, we identified a high level of normoxic HIF-1α protein in various cancer cell lines. EGLNs require oxygen and 2-oxoglutarate for enzymatic activity. We tested the ability of several cell-permeable 2-oxoglutarate analogs to regulate the abundance of HIF-1α protein. We identified 3-oxoglutarate as a potent regulator of HIF-1α in normoxic conditions. In contrast to 2-oxoglutarate, 3-oxoglutarate decreased the abundance of HIF-1α protein in several cancer cell lines in normoxia and diminished HIF-1α levels independent of EGLN enzymatic activity. Furthermore, we observed that 3-oxoglutarate was detrimental to cancer cell survival. We show that esterified 3-oxoglutarate, in combination with the cancer chemotherapeutic drug vincristine, induces apoptosis and inhibits tumor growth in vitro and in vivo. Our data

  11. Inhibition of the sarco/endoplasmic reticulum (ER) Ca2+-ATPase by thapsigargin analogs induces cell death via ER Ca2+ depletion and the unfolded protein response

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sehgal, Pankaj; Szalai, Paula; Olesen, Claus

    2017-01-01

    Calcium (Ca2+) is a fundamental regulator of cell signaling and function. Thapsigargin (Tg) blocks the sarco/endoplasmic reticulum (ER) Ca2+-ATPase (SERCA), disrupts Ca2+ homeostasis, and causes cell death. However, the exact mechanisms whereby SERCA-inhibition induces cell death are incompletely...... and their detrimental effects on cell viability. Furthermore, caspase activation and cell death were associated with a sustained unfolded protein response (UPR). We conclude that ER Ca2+ drainage and sustained UPR activation are key for initiation of apoptosis at low concentrations of Tg and Tg analogs, whereas high...

  12. Slave Labor Camps of the Third Reich.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, Adolf

    1983-01-01

    Describes the ground rules used by Nazi architects in choosing the sites for slave labor camps. While some, like Auschwitz, became extermination camps, others also produced armaments. One camp, Theresienstadt, became a "model" camp to show to reporters and Red Cross representatives. (CS)

  13. YMCA ROCKET RAMPAGE! SUMMER CAMP

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Anonymous

    2014-01-01

    ... & Controls, sponsored the Rocket Rampagel summer camp at the YMCA in Eklton MD. On day 1, campers took Rockets 101, constructing balloon rockets and straw rockets, followed by racket manufacturing, where campers made rocket "propellant" on day 2...

  14. Registration Day-Camp 2016

    CERN Document Server

    Nursery School

    2016-01-01

    Registration for the CERN SA Day-camp are open for children from 4 to 6 years old From March 14 to 25 for children already enrolled in CERN SA EVE and School From April 4 to 15 for the children of CERN members of the personnel (MP) From April 18 for other children More information on the website: http://nurseryschool.web.cern.ch/. The day-camp is open to all children. An inscription per week is proposed, cost 480.-CHF/week, lunch included The camp will be open weeks 27, 28, 29 and 30, from 8:30 am to 5:30 pm. For further questions, thanks you for contacting us by email at Summer.Camp@cern.ch.

  15. Coordinated induction of GST and MRP2 by cAMP in Caco-2 cells: Role of protein kinase A signaling pathway and toxicological relevance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arana, Maite Rocío, E-mail: arana@ifise-conicet.gov.ar [Instituto de Fisiología Experimental (CONICET), Facultad de Ciencias Bioquímicas y Farmacéuticas (UNR), Suipacha 570, 2000 Rosario (Argentina); Tocchetti, Guillermo Nicolás, E-mail: gtocchetti@live.com.ar [Instituto de Fisiología Experimental (CONICET), Facultad de Ciencias Bioquímicas y Farmacéuticas (UNR), Suipacha 570, 2000 Rosario (Argentina); Domizi, Pablo, E-mail: domizi@ibr-conicet.gov.ar [Instituto de Biología Molecular y Celular de Rosario (CONICET), Facultad de Ciencias Bioquímicas y Farmacéuticas (UNR), Suipacha 570, 2000 Rosario (Argentina); Arias, Agostina, E-mail: agoarias@yahoo.com.ar [Instituto de Fisiología Experimental (CONICET), Facultad de Ciencias Bioquímicas y Farmacéuticas (UNR), Suipacha 570, 2000 Rosario (Argentina); Rigalli, Juan Pablo, E-mail: jprigalli@gmail.com [Instituto de Fisiología Experimental (CONICET), Facultad de Ciencias Bioquímicas y Farmacéuticas (UNR), Suipacha 570, 2000 Rosario (Argentina); Ruiz, María Laura, E-mail: ruiz@ifise-conicet.gov.ar [Instituto de Fisiología Experimental (CONICET), Facultad de Ciencias Bioquímicas y Farmacéuticas (UNR), Suipacha 570, 2000 Rosario (Argentina); and others

    2015-09-01

    The cAMP pathway is a universal signaling pathway regulating many cellular processes including metabolic routes, growth and differentiation. However, its effects on xenobiotic biotransformation and transport systems are poorly characterized. The effect of cAMP on expression and activity of GST and MRP2 was evaluated in Caco-2 cells, a model of intestinal epithelium. Cells incubated with the cAMP permeable analog dibutyryl cyclic AMP (db-cAMP: 1,10,100 μM) for 48 h exhibited a dose–response increase in GST class α and MRP2 protein expression. Incubation with forskolin, an activator of adenylyl cyclase, confirmed the association between intracellular cAMP and upregulation of MRP2. Consistent with increased expression of GSTα and MRP2, db-cAMP enhanced their activities, as well as cytoprotection against the common substrate 1-chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene. Pretreatment with protein kinase A (PKA) inhibitors totally abolished upregulation of MRP2 and GSTα induced by db-cAMP. In silico analysis together with experiments consisting of treatment with db-cAMP of Caco-2 cells transfected with a reporter construct containing CRE and AP-1 sites evidenced participation of these sites in MRP2 upregulation. Further studies involving the transcription factors CREB and AP-1 (c-JUN, c-FOS and ATF2) demonstrated increased levels of total c-JUN and phosphorylation of c-JUN and ATF2 by db-cAMP, which were suppressed by a PKA inhibitor. Co-immunoprecipitation and ChIP assay studies demonstrated that db-cAMP increased c-JUN/ATF2 interaction, with further recruitment to the region of the MRP2 promoter containing CRE and AP-1 sites. We conclude that cAMP induces GSTα and MRP2 expression and activity in Caco-2 cells via the PKA pathway, thus regulating detoxification of specific xenobiotics. - Highlights: • cAMP positively modulates the expression and activity of GST and MRP2 in Caco-2 cells. • Such induction resulted in increased cytoprotection against chemical injury. • PKA

  16. Impact of novel palmitoylated prolactin-releasing peptide analogs on metabolic changes in mice with diet-induced obesity

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pražienková, Veronika; Holubová, Martina; Pelantová, Helena; Bugáňová, Martina; Pirník, Z.; Mikulášková, Barbora; Popelová, Andrea; Blechová, Miroslava; Haluzík, M.; Železná, Blanka; Kuzma, Marek; Kuneš, Jaroslav; Maletínská, Lenka

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 12, č. 8 (2017), č. článku e0183449. E-ISSN 1932-6203 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA15-08679S; GA ČR GA13-14105S Institutional support: RVO:61388963 ; RVO:61388971 Keywords : food intake regulation * peroxisome proliferation * lipidized analogs Subject RIV: FB - Endocrinology, Diabetology, Metabolism, Nutrition Impact factor: 2.806, year: 2016 http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0183449

  17. Base Camp Architecture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Warebi Gabriel Brisibe

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Longitudinal or time line studies of change in the architecture of a particular culture are common, but an area still open to further research is change across space or place. In particular, there is need for studies on architectural change of cultures stemming from the same ethnic source split between their homeland and other Diasporas. This change may range from minor deviations to drastic shifts away from an architectural norm and the accumulation of these shifts within a time frame constitutes variations. This article focuses on identifying variations in the architecture of the Ijo fishing group that migrates along the coastline of West Africa. It examines the causes of cross-cultural variation between base camp dwellings of Ijo migrant fishermen in the Bakassi Peninsula in Cameroon and Bayelsa State in Nigeria. The study draws on the idea of the inevitability of cultural and social change over time as proposed in the theories of cultural dynamism and evolution. It tests aspects of cultural transmission theory using the principal coordinates analysis to ascertain the possible causes of variation. From the findings, this research argues that migration has enhanced the forces of cultural dynamism, which have resulted in significant variations in the architecture of this fishing group.

  18. Spatially uniform microflows induced by thermoviscous expansion along a traveling temperature wave: Analogies with electro-osmotic transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pal, Debashis; Chakraborty, Suman

    2012-07-01

    We discover that thermoviscous expansion along a traveling wave in a microfluidic channel may be capable of generating a spatially uniform flow profile in a time-averaged sense. We further delineate that the resultant complex flow characteristics, realized by virtue of an intricate interplay between thermal compression-expansion waves and temperature-dependent viscosity variations and controlled by an external heating, may be remarkably characterized by a unique thermal penetration depth scale (analogous to Debye length in electro-osmosis) and a velocity scale (analogous to the Helmholtz Smulochowski velocity in electro-osmosis) that in turn depends on the considerations of “thin” and “thick” microchannel limits, as dictated by the thermal penetration depth as compared to the lateral extent of the microfluidic channel. We show that, when the thermal penetration depth is small as compared to the channel height, a uniform velocity profile is generated in the channel in a time-averaged sense. The velocity scale characterizing this uniform flow may be represented by a function of the thermal diffusivity, volumetric expansion coefficient and thermal viscosity coefficient of the fluid, characteristic amplitude and speed of the thermal wave, as well as the channel height. Results from the present study are expected to provide valuable insights towards arresting hydrodynamic dispersion in microchannels by nonelectrochemical means, following a pH-independent route.

  19. The Popeye Domain Containing Genes and cAMP Signaling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Brand

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available 3'-5'-cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP is a second messenger, which plays an important role in the heart. It is generated in response to activation of G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs. Initially, it was thought that protein kinase A (PKA exclusively mediates cAMP-induced cellular responses such as an increase in cardiac contractility, relaxation, and heart rate. With the identification of the exchange factor directly activated by cAMP (EPAC and hyperpolarizing cyclic nucleotide-gated (HCN channels as cAMP effector proteins it became clear that a protein network is involved in cAMP signaling. The Popeye domain containing (Popdc genes encode yet another family of cAMP-binding proteins, which are prominently expressed in the heart. Loss-of-function mutations in mice are associated with cardiac arrhythmia and impaired skeletal muscle regeneration. Interestingly, the cardiac phenotype, which is present in both, Popdc1 and Popdc2 null mutants, is characterized by a stress-induced sinus bradycardia, suggesting that Popdc proteins participate in cAMP signaling in the sinuatrial node. The identification of the two-pore channel TREK-1 and Caveolin 3 as Popdc-interacting proteins represents a first step into understanding the mechanisms of heart rate modulation triggered by Popdc proteins.

  20. Camp for Youth With Type 1 Diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fegan-Bohm, Kelly; Weissberg-Benchell, Jill; DeSalvo, Daniel; Gunn, Sheila; Hilliard, Marisa

    2016-08-01

    Camps for youth with type 1 diabetes (T1D) have grown in size and scope since they first emerged in the 1920s. Anecdotal evidence suggests that attending camp with other youth with T1D is beneficial, largely attributed to sharing fun, active experiences and removing the isolation of living with diabetes. However, few studies have evaluated the psychosocial and medical impacts of T1D camp attendance during and after camp sessions. In addition, T1D camps have been a setting for numerous studies on a variety of T1D-related research questions not related to camp itself, such as testing novel diabetes management technologies in an active, non-laboratory setting. This paper reviews the evidence of psychosocial and medical outcomes associated with T1D camp attendance across the globe, provides an overview of other research conducted at camp, and offers recommendations for future research conducted at T1D camp.

  1. Residential summer camp intervention improves camp food environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Noia, Jennifer; Orr, Lynne; Byrd-Bredbenner, Carol

    2014-07-01

    To evaluate the effects on fruit and vegetable (FV) intake of a camp-based intervention to improve the food environment. The intervention was evaluated in a variant of the recurrent institutional cycle design in a sample of 311 youth aged 7 to 13 years. FV intake and targeted environmental variables were assessed among youth who received the intervention relative to those who attended the camp before the program was implemented. Improvements occurred in the frequency and variety of FVs served, counselor informational and instrumental support for FV consumption, and in older youth who received nutrition education lessons, perceived peer attitudes towards eating FVs and FV intake. Improving the camp food environment can improve FV intake among youth in this setting.

  2. Inhibition of mitogen activated protein kinases increases the sensitivity of A549 lung cancer cells to the cytotoxicity induced by a kava chalcone analog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warmka, Janel K; Solberg, Eric L; Zeliadt, Nicholette A; Srinivasan, Balasubramanian; Charlson, Aaron T; Xing, Chengguo; Wattenberg, Elizabeth V

    2012-08-03

    We are interested in investigating the biological activity of chalcones, a major class of compounds found in the beverage kava, in order to develop potent and selective chemopreventive candidates. Consumption of kava in the South Pacific Islands is inversely correlated with cancer incidence, even among smokers. Accordingly, chalcones have anti-cancer activities in animal and cell culture models. To investigate signaling pathways that affect chalcone action we studied a potent analog, (E)-3-(3-hydroxy-4-methoxyphenyl)-1-(3,4,5-trimethoxyphenyl)prop-2-en-1-one (chalcone-24). Chalcone-24 was selected from a series of chalcone analogs that were synthesized based on the structures derived from flavokawain compounds found in kava, and screened in A549 lung cancer cells for induction of cytotoxicity and inhibition of NF-κB, a transcription factor associated with cell survival. Incubation of A549 cells with chalcone-24 resulted in a dose-dependent inhibition of cell viability, inhibition of NF-κB, activation of caspases, and activation of extracellular signal regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2) and c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK); ERK1/2 and JNK are mitogen activated protein kinases that play central roles in regulating cell fate. Pharmacological inhibitors of ERK1/2 or JNK increased the sensitivity of A549 cells to chalcone-24-induced cytotoxicity, without affecting NF-κB or caspase activity. These results will help refine the synthesis of chalcone analogs to maximize the combination of actions required to prevent and treat cancer. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Management of diabetes at summer camps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciambra, Roberta; Locatelli, Chiara; Suprani, Tosca; Pocecco, Mauro

    2005-01-01

    We report our experience in the organization of diabetic children summer-camps since 1973. Guidelines for organization have been recently reported by the SIEDP (Società Italiana di Endocrinologia e Diabetologia Pediatrica). Our attention is focused on diabetes management at camp, organization and planning, medical staff composition and staff training, treatment of diabetes-related emergencies, written camp management plan, diabetes education and psychological issues at camp, prevention of possible risks, assessment of effectiveness of education in summer camps and research at camp.

  4. Tiron and trolox potentiate the autophagic cell death induced by magnolol analog Ery5 by activation of Bax in HL-60 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Suresh; Kumar, Ajay; Pathania, Anup Singh; Guru, Santosh Kumar; Jada, Srinivas; Sharma, Parduman Raj; Bhushan, Shashi; Saxena, Ajit Kumar; Kumar, H M Sampath; Malik, Fayaz

    2013-05-01

    This study describes the mechanism of trolox and tiron induced potentiation of cytotoxicity caused by Ery5, an analog of magnolol, in human myeloid leukemia HL-60 cells. Ery5 induced cytotoxicity in HL-60 cells by involving activation of bax and cleavage of caspase 3, which contributed towards activation of both apoptotic and autophagic pathways. Trolox and tiron, even at non-toxic concentrations, contributed to the cytotoxicity of Ery5 by activation of autophagic proteins like ATG7, ATG12 and LC3-II. Z-VAD-fmk mediated reduction in the cytotoxicity and expression of autophagic proteins, further suggested that autophagy induced by Ery5 is largely dependent upon caspases. Interestingly, Ery5 induced autophagy was accompanied by the downregulation of PI3K/AKT pathway whereas, trolox and tiron strongly enhanced this effect. In addition to that treatment of cells with Ery5, trolox and tiron individually, displayed a marked upregulation of Bax. The involvement of Bax in trolox and tiron induced enhancement of the cytotoxicity of Ery5 was confirmed, when siRNA induced silencing of Bax led to increased viability of the cells and exerted a strong inhibitory effect on LC3-II accumulation and p62 degradation in case of cells treated by the combination of Ery5 with trolox or tiron. Additionally, an important role of PARP in Ery5 mediated cell death has been suggested by PARP silencing experiments, however, potentiation of autophagic cytotoxicity by trolox and tiron did not seem to be dependent on PARP-1. Therefore, Bax seems to play a vital role in trolox and tiron mediated potentiation of autophagic cell death by Ery5 in HL-60 cells.

  5. Phase shift multiplication effect of all-optical analog to electromagnetically induced transparency in two micro-cavities side coupled to a waveguide system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Boyun; Wang, Tao, E-mail: wangtao@hust.edu.cn; Tang, Jian; Li, Xiaoming; Dong, Chuanbo [Wuhan National Laboratory for Optoelectronics, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China)

    2014-01-14

    We propose phase shift multiplication effect of all-optical analog to electromagnetically induced transparency in two photonic crystal micro-cavities side coupled to a waveguide system through external optical pump beams. With dynamically tuning the propagation phase of the line waveguide, the phase shift of the transmission spectrum in two micro-cavities side coupled to a waveguide system is doubled along with the phase shift of the line waveguide. π-phase shift and 2π-phase shift of the transmission spectrum are obtained when the propagation phase of the line waveguide is tuned to 0.5π-phase shift and π-phase shift, respectively. All observed schemes are analyzed rigorously through finite-difference time-domain simulations and the coupled-mode formalism. These results show a new direction to the miniaturization and the low power consumption of microstructure integration photonic devices in optical communication and quantum information processing.

  6. Genistein prevents hyperglycemia-induced monocyte adhesion to human aortic endothelial cells through preservation of the cAMP signaling pathway and ameliorates vascular inflammation in obese diabetic mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babu, Pon Velayutham Anandh; Si, Hongwei; Fu, Zhuo; Zhen, Wei; Liu, Dongmin

    2012-04-01

    Hyperglycemia-induced vascular inflammation resulting in the enhanced monocyte-endothelial cell (EC) interaction is the key event in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis in diabetes. Here, we investigated the effect of isoflavone genistein on hyperglycemia-stimulated vascular inflammation. Human aortic EC (HAEC) were pretreated with genistein before the addition of high glucose (HG; 25 mmol/L) for 48 h. Genistein at a physiological concentration (0.1 μmol/L) significantly inhibited HG-induced adhesion of monocytes to HAEC and suppressed endothelial production of monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1) and IL-8. Inhibition of adenylate cyclase or protein kinase A (PKA) significantly attenuated the antiadhesion effect of genistein. Consistently, genistein improved HG-impaired intracellular cAMP production and PKA activity in HAEC. Six-week-old diabetic db/db mice were untreated (db/db) or treated with a diet containing 1 g genistein/kg diet (db/db+G) for 8 wk. Their nondiabetic db/+ mice were used as normal controls. Circulating concentrations of MCP-1/JE and KC were significantly greater, whereas IL-10 concentrations were lower in db/db mice than those in normal mice. Dietary supplementation of genistein did not normalize but significantly suppressed the elevated serum concentrations of MCP-1/JE from 286 ± 30 ng/L to 181 ± 35 ng/L and KC from 321 ± 21 ng/L to 232 ± 20 ng/L while increasing that of IL-10 from 35 ± 4 ng/L to 346 ± 35 ng/L in db/db+G mice. Further, genistein treatment suppressed diabetes-induced adhesion of monocytes to EC by 87% and endothelial secretion of adhesion molecules. We conclude that genistein improves diabetes-caused vascular inflammation, which may be mediated through promoting the cAMP/PKA pathway.

  7. Genistein Prevents Hyperglycemia-Induced Monocyte Adhesion to Human Aortic Endothelial Cells through Preservation of the cAMP Signaling Pathway and Ameliorates Vascular Inflammation in Obese Diabetic Mice123

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babu, Pon Velayutham Anandh; Si, Hongwei; Fu, Zhuo; Zhen, Wei; Liu, Dongmin

    2012-01-01

    Hyperglycemia-induced vascular inflammation resulting in the enhanced monocyte-endothelial cell (EC) interaction is the key event in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis in diabetes. Here, we investigated the effect of isoflavone genistein on hyperglycemia-stimulated vascular inflammation. Human aortic EC (HAEC) were pretreated with genistein before the addition of high glucose (HG; 25 mmol/L) for 48 h. Genistein at a physiological concentration (0.1 μmol/L) significantly inhibited HG-induced adhesion of monocytes to HAEC and suppressed endothelial production of monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1) and IL-8. Inhibition of adenylate cyclase or protein kinase A (PKA) significantly attenuated the antiadhesion effect of genistein. Consistently, genistein improved HG-impaired intracellular cAMP production and PKA activity in HAEC. Six-week-old diabetic db/db mice were untreated (db/db) or treated with a diet containing 1 g genistein/kg diet (db/db+G) for 8 wk. Their nondiabetic db/+ mice were used as normal controls. Circulating concentrations of MCP-1/JE and KC were significantly greater, whereas IL-10 concentrations were lower in db/db mice than those in normal mice. Dietary supplementation of genistein did not normalize but significantly suppressed the elevated serum concentrations of MCP-1/JE from 286 ± 30 ng/L to 181 ± 35 ng/L and KC from 321 ± 21 ng/L to 232 ± 20 ng/L while increasing that of IL-10 from 35 ± 4 ng/L to 346 ± 35 ng/L in db/db+G mice. Further, genistein treatment suppressed diabetes-induced adhesion of monocytes to EC by 87% and endothelial secretion of adhesion molecules. We conclude that genistein improves diabetes-caused vascular inflammation, which may be mediated through promoting the cAMP/PKA pathway. PMID:22399524

  8. From Refugee Camp to Resilient City: Zaatari Refugee Camp, Jordan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nada Maani

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available This project is about how architecture can transform a refugee camp into a child friendly city designed around existing social networks. The vision is to respond to the refugee crisis with long-term resilient solutions rather than reactionary ones. 

  9. Enantiomeric Excesses Induced in Amino Acids by Ultraviolet Circularly Polarized Light Irradiation of Extraterrestrial Ice Analogs: A Possible Source of Asymmetry for Prebiotic Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modica, Paola; Meinert, Cornelia; de Marcellus, Pierre; Nahon, Laurent; Meierhenrich, Uwe J.; Le Sergeant d'Hendecourt, Louis

    2014-06-01

    The discovery of meteoritic amino acids with enantiomeric excesses of the L-form (ee L) has suggested that extraterrestrial organic materials may have contributed to prebiotic chemistry and directed the initial occurrence of the ee L that further led to homochirality of amino acids on Earth. A proposed mechanism for the origin of ee L in meteorites involves an asymmetric photochemistry of extraterrestrial ices by UV circularly polarized light (CPL). We have performed the asymmetric synthesis of amino acids on achiral extraterrestrial ice analogs by VUV CPL, investigating the chiral asymmetry transfer at two different evolutionary stages at which the analogs were irradiated (regular ices and/or organic residues) and at two different photon energies (6.6 and 10.2 eV). We identify 16 distinct amino acids and precisely measure the L-enantiomeric excesses using the enantioselective GC × GC-TOFMS technique in five of them: α-alanine, 2,3-diaminopropionic acid, 2-aminobutyric acid, valine, and norvaline, with values ranging from ee L = -0.20% ± 0.14% to ee L = -2.54% ± 0.28%. The sign of the induced ee L depends on the helicity and the energy of CPL, but not on the evolutionary stage of the samples, and is the same for all five considered amino acids. Our results support an astrophysical scenario in which the solar system was formed in a high-mass star-forming region where icy grains were irradiated during the protoplanetary phase by an external source of CPL of a given helicity and a dominant energy, inducing a stereo-specific photochemistry.

  10. Enantiomeric excesses induced in amino acids by ultraviolet circularly polarized light irradiation of extraterrestrial ice analogs: A possible source of asymmetry for prebiotic chemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Modica, Paola; De Marcellus, Pierre; D' Hendecourt, Louis Le Sergeant [Univ. Paris-Sud, Institut d' Astrophysique Spatiale, UMR 8617, F-91405 Orsay (France); Meinert, Cornelia; Meierhenrich, Uwe J. [Univ. Nice Sophia Antipolis, Institut de Chimie de Nice, UMR 7272 CNRS, F-06108 Nice (France); Nahon, Laurent, E-mail: laurent.nahon@synchrotron-soleil.fr, E-mail: ldh@ias.u-psud.fr [Synchrotron SOLEIL, F-91192 Gif-sur-Yvette (France)

    2014-06-10

    The discovery of meteoritic amino acids with enantiomeric excesses of the L-form (ee {sub L}) has suggested that extraterrestrial organic materials may have contributed to prebiotic chemistry and directed the initial occurrence of the ee {sub L} that further led to homochirality of amino acids on Earth. A proposed mechanism for the origin of ee {sub L} in meteorites involves an asymmetric photochemistry of extraterrestrial ices by UV circularly polarized light (CPL). We have performed the asymmetric synthesis of amino acids on achiral extraterrestrial ice analogs by VUV CPL, investigating the chiral asymmetry transfer at two different evolutionary stages at which the analogs were irradiated (regular ices and/or organic residues) and at two different photon energies (6.6 and 10.2 eV). We identify 16 distinct amino acids and precisely measure the L-enantiomeric excesses using the enantioselective GC × GC-TOFMS technique in five of them: α-alanine, 2,3-diaminopropionic acid, 2-aminobutyric acid, valine, and norvaline, with values ranging from ee {sub L} = –0.20% ± 0.14% to ee {sub L} = –2.54% ± 0.28%. The sign of the induced ee {sub L} depends on the helicity and the energy of CPL, but not on the evolutionary stage of the samples, and is the same for all five considered amino acids. Our results support an astrophysical scenario in which the solar system was formed in a high-mass star-forming region where icy grains were irradiated during the protoplanetary phase by an external source of CPL of a given helicity and a dominant energy, inducing a stereo-specific photochemistry.

  11. Music in Concentration Camps 1933-1945

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Fackler, Guido

    2007-01-01

    The author addresses the topic of musical activities in the German concentration camps from 1933 to 1945, focusing on those camps that the Nazi regime started to erect just a few weeks after Hitler's assumption of power...

  12. cAMP-Induced Desensitization of Surface cAMP Receptors in Dictyostelium : Different Second Messengers Mediate Receptor Phosphorylation, Loss of Ligand Binding, Degradation of Receptor, and Reduction of Receptor mRNA Levels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haastert, Peter J.M. van; Wang, Mei; Bominaar, Anthony A.; Devreotes, Peter N.; Schaap, Pauline

    Surface cAMP receptors on Dictyostelium cells are linked to several second messenger systems and mediate multiple physiological responses, including chemotaxis and differentiation. Activation of the receptor also triggers events which desensitize signal transduction. These events include the

  13. Extension Sustainability Camp: Design, Implementation, and Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brain, Roslynn; Upton, Sally; Tingey, Brett

    2015-01-01

    Sustainability Camps provide an opportunity for Extension educators to be in the forefront of sustainability outreach and to meet the growing demand for sustainability education. This article shares development, implementation, and evaluation of an Extension Sustainability Camp for youth, grades 4-6. Camp impact was measured via daily pre-and…

  14. Growth potential of the family camping market

    Science.gov (United States)

    W.F. LaPage; W.F. LaPage

    1973-01-01

    A study of the camping market's short-term growth potential, based upon interviews with the heads of 2,003 representative American households. The study estimates the size of the potential camping market and divides it into three segments: those families with a high, medium and low propensity to become campers. The developed camping market is also divided into an...

  15. CAMP/PKA-mediated regulation of erythropoiesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boer, AK; Drayer, AL; Vellenga, E

    The role of cyclic AMP (cAMP) as second messenger in erythropoiesis has been suggested in the early 1980s. However, careful analysis showed that cAMP is not generated in direct response to the main erythropoiesis-controlling cytokines such as erythropoietin (Epo). As a result, cAMP disappeared from

  16. A Look at Humane Education Summer Camps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finch, Patty

    1984-01-01

    Reviews comments of humane education summer camp directors (N=6) who answered the following questions: What is a humane education? Who attends? What do the campers do? Who offers these camps? Why? What are the special challenges of running a camp? What do the campers get out of the experience? (BC)

  17. Compartmentalized accumulation of cAMP near complexes of multidrug resistance protein 4 (MRP4) and cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) contributes to drug-induced diarrhea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C. Moon (Changsuk); W. Zhang (Weiqiang); A. Ren (Aixia); K. Arora (Kavisha); C. Sinha (Chandrima); S. Yarlagadda (Sunitha); K. Woodrooffe (Koryse); J.D. Schuetz (John D.); K.R. Valasani (Koteswara Rao); H.R. de Jonge (Hugo); S.K. Shanmukhappa (Shiva Kumar); M.T.M. Shata (Mohamed Tarek M.); R.K. Buddington (Randal K.); K. Parthasarathi (Kaushik); A.P. Naren (Anjaparavanda P.)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractDiarrhea is one of the most common adverse side effects observed in ∼7% of individuals consuming Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved drugs. The mechanism of how these drugs alter fluid secretion in the gut and induce diarrhea is not clearly understood. Several drugs are either

  18. The NAO goes to camp

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wigdor, N.; Fraaije, A.; Solms, L.; Greeff, J. de; Janssen, J.; Blanson Henkemans, O.A.

    2014-01-01

    ALIZ-E is a Europe-wide project focusing on long-term child-robot interaction, specifically as a means of educating diabetic children on their condition. This video showcases a recent field study at "SugarKidsClub", a camp devoted to helping 7-12 year-olds handle type-1 diabetes. A wide range of CRI

  19. Sleep At Camp: A Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pravda, Myra

    1997-01-01

    Among 40 camp directors surveyed, the majority believed that campers get enough sleep, but that staff members and directors do not get enough sleep. Addresses how sleep deprivation can affect job performance and offers strategies for helping staff understand the importance of sleep to keep them alert and functioning in their job. Includes…

  20. Lyme Disease Comes to Camp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Michael

    1989-01-01

    Describes one summer camp's plan for dealing with Lyme disease. Describes the disease and the deer tick. Recommends avoiding tick exposure through clothing, frequent examination, showers, and avoiding high grass and brushy areas, and using chemical insect repellents and chemicals to kill ticks in deer mouse nests. (DHP)

  1. Surgical camps: the Ugandan experience

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    of Surgeons of Uganda (ASOU) organised a pilot project in which surgical teams travelled to three hospitals in the Lira and Apac districts of Norhern. Uganda. The objectives of this project or 'Surgical Camp' were the following: 1 to offer free specialised surgical services in three hospitals which had no specialists or regular.

  2. Novel Gemini vitamin D3 analogs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Okamoto, Ryoko; Gery, Sigal; Kuwayama, Yoshio

    2014-01-01

    We have synthesized 39 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 [1,25(OH)2D3] analogs having two side chains attached to carbon-20 (Gemini) with various modifications and compared their anticancer activities. Five structure-function rules emerged to identify analogs with enhanced anticancer activity. One...... of these active analogs, BXL-01-0126, was more potent than 1,25(OH)2D3 in mediating 50% clonal inhibition of cancer cell growth. Murine studies found that BXL-01-0126 and 1,25(OH)2D3 had nearly the same potency to raise serum calcium levels. Taken together, BXL-01-0126 when compared to 1,25(OH)2D3 has greater...... anticancer potency, but similar toxicity causing hypercalcemia. We focused on the effect of these compounds on the stimulation of expression of human cathelicidin antimicrobial peptide (CAMP) whose gene has a vitamin D response element in its promoter. Expression of CAMP mRNA and protein increased in a dose...

  3. LdrP, a cAMP receptor protein/FNR family transcriptional regulator, serves as a positive regulator for the light-inducible gene cluster in the megaplasmid of Thermus thermophilus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takano, Hideaki; Agari, Yoshihiro; Hagiwara, Kenta; Watanabe, Ren; Yamazaki, Ryuta; Beppu, Teruhiko; Shinkai, Akeo; Ueda, Kenji

    2014-12-01

    LdrP (TT_P0055) (LitR-dependent regulatory protein) is one of the four cAMP receptor protein (CRP)/FNR family transcriptional regulators retained by the extremely thermophilic bacterium Thermus thermophilus. Previously, we reported that LdrP served as a positive regulator for the light-induced transcription of crtB, a carotenoid biosynthesis gene encoded on the megaplasmid of this organism. Here, we showed that LdrP also functions as an activator of the expression of genes clustered around the crtB gene under the control of LitR, an adenosyl B12-bound light-sensitive regulator. Transcriptome analysis revealed the existence of 19 LitR-dependent genes on the megaplasmid. S1 nuclease protection assay confirmed that the promoters preceding TT_P0044 (P44), TT_P0049 (P49) and TT_P0070 (P70) were activated upon illumination in the WT strain. An ldrP mutant lost the ability to activate P44, P49 and P70, whilst disruption of litR resulted in constitutive transcription from these promoters irrespective of illumination, indicating that these genes were photo-dependently regulated by LdrP and LitR. An in vitro transcription experiment demonstrated that LdrP directly activated mRNA synthesis from P44 and P70 by the Thermus RNA polymerase holocomplex. The present evidence indicated that LdrP was the positive regulator essential for the transcription of the T. thermophilus light-inducible cluster encoded on the megaplasmid. © 2014 The Authors.

  4. Transformative Leadership: The Camp Counselor Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie Femrite

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A study, utilizing focus groups, was conducted with teens serving as camp counselors at the North Central 4-H camp in Missouri.  High school students, 14-18 years old, served as camp counselors during a four-day residential camp the summer of 2014. Each counselor was a current 4-H member and had served as a 4-H camp counselor in Missouri for at least one year, some serving as many as five years. Comparing two training models, evidence was found that intentional training sessions are crucial for the empowerment that leads to transformation.

  5. Suicide in the Soviet Gulag camps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krysinska, Karolina; Lester, David

    2008-01-01

    About 18 million Soviet citizens passed through the Gulag system of labor and concentration camps between 1929 and 1953. Based upon literary evidence from camp survivors and published documents, the authors present reports of attempted suicide and completed suicide, along with a discussion of whether suicide in Gulag camps was a frequent or rare behavior. Similar to reports from the Nazi concentration camps during WWII the existence of Muselmänner or dokhodyagi, the dying prisoners emaciated by hunger, sometimes considered as suicides, has been identified among the Gulag inmates. Also, the incidence and methods of self-mutilation among the camp inmates are discussed.

  6. Toxicity evaluation of magnetic hyperthermia induced by remote actuation of magnetic nanoparticles in 3D micrometastasic tumor tissue analogs for triple negative breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stocke, Nathanael A; Sethi, Pallavi; Jyoti, Amar; Chan, Ryan; Arnold, Susanne M; Hilt, J Zach; Upreti, Meenakshi

    2017-03-01

    Magnetic hyperthermia as a treatment modality is acquiring increased recognition for loco-regional therapy of primary and metastatic lung malignancies by pulmonary delivery of magnetic nanoparticles (MNP). The unique characteristic of magnetic nanoparticles to induce localized hyperthermia in the presence of an alternating magnetic field (AMF) allows for preferential killing of cells at the tumor site. In this study we demonstrate the effect of hyperthermia induced by low and high dose of MNP under the influence of an AMF using 3D tumor tissue analogs (TTA) representing the micrometastatic, perfusion independent stage of triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) that infiltrates the lungs. While application of inhalable magnetic nanocomposite microparticles or magnetic nanocomposites (MnMs) to the micrometastatic TNBC model comprised of TTA generated from cancer and stromal cells, showed no measureable adverse effects in the absence of AMF-exposure, magnetic hyperthermia generated under the influence of an AMF in TTA incubated in a high concentration of MNP (1 mg/mL) caused significant increase in cellular death/damage with mechanical disintegration and release of cell debris indicating the potential of these inhalable composites as a promising approach for thermal treatment of diseased lungs. The novelty and significance of this study lies in the development of methods to evaluate in vitro the application of inhalable composites containing MNPs in thermal therapy using a physiologically relevant metastatic TNBC model representative of the microenvironmental characteristics in secondary lung malignancies. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. A role for mitochondrial oxidative stress in sulfur mustard analog 2-chloroethyl ethyl sulfide-induced lung cell injury and antioxidant protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gould, Neal S; White, Carl W; Day, Brian J

    2009-03-01

    Sulfur mustards (SMs) have been used as warfare agents since World War I and still pose a significant threat against civilian and military personnel. SM exposure can cause significant blistering of the skin, respiratory injury, and fibrosis. No antidote currently exists for SM exposure, but recent studies, using the SM analog 2-chloroethyl ethyl sulfide (CEES), have focused on the ability of antioxidants to prevent toxicity. Although antioxidants can prevent CEES-induced toxicity, the mechanisms by which these compounds are effective against SM agents are largely unknown. Using human bronchial epithelial (16HBE) cells and primary small airway epithelial cells, we show that CEES causes a significant increase in mitochondrial dysfunction as early as 4 h, which is followed by increases in mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS), peaking 12 h after exposure. We also have identified a catalytic antioxidant metalloporphyrin that can rescue airway cells from CEES-induced toxicity when added 1 h after CEES exposure. In addition, the cytoprotective effects of the catalytic antioxidant are associated with correcting mitochondrial dysfunction ROS, DNA oxidation, and decreases in intracellular GSH. These findings suggest a role for oxidative stress in CEES toxicity and provide a rationale to investigate antioxidants as rescue agents in SM exposures.

  8. Post-marathon wearing of Masai Barefoot Technology shoes facilitates recovery from race-induced fatigue: an evaluation utilizing a visual analog scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nakagawa K

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Kento Nakagawa, Takashi Obu, Kazuyuki KanosueFaculty of Sport Sciences, Waseda University, Tokorozawa, Saitama, Japan Purpose: To investigate the potential benefit of post-race wearing of unstable shoes (Masai Barefoot Technology [MBT] on recovery from marathon race–induced fatigue.Patients and methods: Forty-five runners who participated in a full marathon race were divided into three groups: 1 MBT shoes, 2 trail running shoes, and 3 control (CON. Participants ran a full marathon with their own running shoes, and then put on the assigned shoes immediately after the race. They continued to wear the assigned shoes for the ensuing 3 days. The CON group wore their usual shoes. Estimates of post-race fatigue were made by the participants on questionnaires that utilized a visual analog scale. Estimates were made just after the race, as well as for the next 3 days.Results: The subjective fatigue of the MBT group was lower than that of the CON (P<0.05 or trail running shoe groups (P<0.05 on day 3.Conclusion: MBT shoe intervention can promote recovery from the fatigue induced by running a full marathon.Keywords: footwear, VAS, full marathon

  9. Analog of midinfrared electromagnetically induced-transparency and slow rainbow trapping light based on graphene nanoribbon-coated silica substrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Buzheng; Jian, Shuisheng

    2017-04-01

    A midinfrared band-tunable graphene-based plasmonic waveguide is analytically and numerically investigated to realize electromagnetically induced-transparency-like transmission and to slow rainbow trapping light. By applying different Fermi energy levels to the top and bottom graphene nanoribbons, a dynamic control of resonant wavelengths is thus obtained at the desired working regions. Plus, the structural size parameters play a significant role in modulating the resonant spectra and resonant depth. Combining the manipulation of the two sets of influential factors, the transparency window is therefore under control. Detailed investigations of the analytic mechanism of the device are made as well. Furthermore, the light signal that travels in the waveguide can be successfully slowed down to over 340 times the speed in a vacuum. If the nanoribbon width is gradiently distributed, the so-called rainbow trapping can be achieved. Hence, the device has potential applications in nanoimaging, sensing, integrated circuits, and light energy storage domains.

  10. Desensitization of beta-adrenergic receptors in lung injury induced by 2-chloroethyl ethyl sulfide, a mustard analog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabir, Syeda M; Mukherjee, Shyamali; Rajaratnam, Veera; Smith, Milton G; Das, Salil K

    2009-01-01

    2-Choloroethyl Ethyl Sulfide (CEES) exposure causes inflammatory lung diseases, including acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and pulmonary fibrosis. This may be associated with oxidative stress, which has been implicated in the desensitization of beta-adrenergic receptors (beta-ARs). The objective of this study was to investigate whether lung injury induced by intratracheal CEES exposure (2 mg/kg body weight) causes desensitization of beta-ARs. The animals were sacrificed after 7 days and lungs were removed. Lung injury was established by measuring the leakage of iodinated-bovine serum albumin ([(125)I]-BSA) into lung tissue. Receptor-binding characteristics were determined by measuring the binding of [(3)H] dihydroalprenolol ([(3)H] DHA) (0.5-24 nM) to membrane fraction in the presence and absence of DLDL-propranolol (10 micro M). Both high- and low-affinity beta-ARs were identified in the lung. Binding capacity was significantly higher in low-affinity site in both control and experimental groups. Although CEES exposure did not change K(D) and B(max) at the high-affinity site, it significantly decreased both K(D) and B(max) at low affinity sites. A 20% decrease in beta(2)-AR mRNA level and a 60% decrease in membrane protein levels were observed in the experimental group. Furthermore, there was significantly less stimulation of adenylate cyclase activity by both cholera toxin and isoproterenol in the experimental group in comparison to the control group. Treatment of lungs with 3-isobutyl-1-methylxanthine (IBMX), an inhibitor of phosphodiesterase (PDE) could not abolish the difference between the control group and the experimental group on the stimulation of the adenylate cyclase activity. Thus, our study indicates that CEES-induced lung injury is associated with desensitization of beta(2)-AR. (c) 2009 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Desensitization of β-Adrenergic Receptors in Lung Injury Induced by 2-Chloroethyl Ethyl Sulfide, a Mustard Analog

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabir, Syeda M.; Mukherjee, Shyamali; Rajaratnam, Veera; Smith, Milton G.

    2010-01-01

    2-Choloroethyl Ethyl Sulfide (CEES) exposure causes inflammatory lung diseases, including acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and pulmonary fibrosis. This may be associated with oxidative stress, which has been implicated in the desensitization of beta-adrenergic receptors (β-ARs). The objective of this study was to investigate whether lung injury induced by intratracheal CEES exposure (2 mg/kg body weight) causes desensitization of β-ARs. The animals were sacrificed after 7 days and lungs were removed. Lung injury was established by measuring the leakage of iodinated-bovine serum albumin ([125I]-BSA) into lung tissue. Receptor-binding characteristics were determined by measuring the binding of [3H] dihydroalprenolol ([3H] DHA) (0.5–24 nM) to membrane fraction in the presence and absence of DL-propranolol (10 μM). Both high- and low-affinity β-ARs were identified in the lung. Binding capacity was significantly higher in low-affinity site in both control and experimental groups. Although CEES exposure did not change KD and Bmax at the high-affinity site, it significantly decreased both KD and Bmax at low affinity sites. A 20% decrease in β2-AR mRNA level and a 60% decrease in membrane protein levels were observed in the experimental group. Furthermore, there was significantly less stimulation of adenylate cyclase activity by both cholera toxin and isoproterenol in the experimental group in comparison to the control group. Treatment of lungs with 3-isobutyl-1-methylxanthine (IBMX), an inhibitor of phosphodiesterase (PDE) could not abolish the difference between the control group and the experimental group on the stimulation of the adenylate cyclase activity. Thus, our study indicates that CEES-induced lung injury is associated with desensitization of β2-AR. PMID:19202564

  12. Analog current mode analog/digital converter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadidi, Khayrollah (Inventor)

    1996-01-01

    An improved subranging or comparator circuit is provided for an analog-to-digital converter. As a subranging circuit, the circuit produces a residual signal representing the difference between an analog input signal and an analog of a digital representation. This is achieved by subdividing the digital representation into two or more parts and subtracting from the analog input signal analogs of each of the individual digital portions. In another aspect of the present invention, the subranging circuit comprises two sets of differential input pairs in which the transconductance of one differential input pair is scaled relative to the transconductance of the other differential input pair. As a consequence, the same resistor string may be used for two different digital-to-analog converters of the subranging circuit.

  13. Activation of MAPK/AP-1 signaling pathway in lung injury induced by 2-chloroethyl ethyl sulfide, a mustard gas analog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukhopadhyay, Sutapa; Mukherjee, Shyamali; Smith, Milton; Das, Salil K

    2008-09-26

    We reported earlier that the activation of free-radical-mediated tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) cascade is the major pathway in the inflammatory lung disease induced by 2-chloroethyl ethyl sulfide (CEES), a mustard gas analog. TNF-alpha induces activating protein 1 (AP-1) activation via phosphorylation of mitogen activated protein kinases (MAPKs). The present study examines the relationship between CEES induced lung injury and MAPKs signaling pathway. Adult guinea pigs received single intratracheal injection of different doses of CEES and were sacrificed at different time points. CEES exposure caused lung injury with evidence of fibrosis. The optimum activation of all members of the MAPKs family (ERK1/2, p38 and JNK1/2) was achieved at 0.5 mg/kg dose and at 1h. No significant change was observed beyond that time point. This led to an activation of AP-1 transcription factors associated with an increase in the protein levels of Fos, activating transcription factor (ATF) and Jun family members. To explore the involvement of AP-1 in cell proliferation, we determined the protein levels of cell cycle protein cyclin D1 and cell differentiation marker proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA). An up regulation of these proteins was observed. Hence it is suggested that CEES exposure causes accumulation of TNF-alpha, which is associated with an activation of MAPK/AP-1 signaling pathway and cell proliferation. Further studies are needed to clarify whether the observed effects are the adaptive responses of the lung or they contribute to the lung injury.

  14. Summer Camp July 2017 - Registration

    CERN Multimedia

    EVE et École

    2017-01-01

    The CERN Staff Association’s Summer Camp will be open for children from 4 to 6 years old during four weeks, from 3 to 28 July. Registration is offered on a weekly basis for 450 CHF, lunch included. This year, the various activities will revolve around the theme of the Four Elements. Registration opened on 20 March 2017 for children currently attending the EVE and School of the Association. It will be open from 3 April for children of CERN Members of Personnel, and starting from 24 April for all other children. The general conditions are available on the website of the EVE and School of CERN Staff Association: http://nurseryschool.web.cern.ch. For further questions, please contact us by email at Summer.Camp@cern.ch.

  15. Science Teachers' Analogical Reasoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mozzer, Nilmara Braga; Justi, Rosária

    2013-08-01

    Analogies can play a relevant role in students' learning. However, for the effective use of analogies, teachers should not only have a well-prepared repertoire of validated analogies, which could serve as bridges between the students' prior knowledge and the scientific knowledge they desire them to understand, but also know how to introduce analogies in their lessons. Both aspects have been discussed in the literature in the last few decades. However, almost nothing is known about how teachers draw their own analogies for instructional purposes or, in other words, about how they reason analogically when planning and conducting teaching. This is the focus of this paper. Six secondary teachers were individually interviewed; the aim was to characterize how they perform each of the analogical reasoning subprocesses, as well as to identify their views on analogies and their use in science teaching. The results were analyzed by considering elements of both theories about analogical reasoning: the structural mapping proposed by Gentner and the analogical mechanism described by Vosniadou. A comprehensive discussion of our results makes it evident that teachers' content knowledge on scientific topics and on analogies as well as their pedagogical content knowledge on the use of analogies influence all their analogical reasoning subprocesses. Our results also point to the need for improving teachers' knowledge about analogies and their ability to perform analogical reasoning.

  16. Porcine induced pluripotent stem cells analogous to naïve and primed embryonic stem cells of the mouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Telugu, Bhanu Prakash V L; Ezashi, Toshihiko; Roberts, R Michael

    2010-01-01

    Authentic or naïve embryonic stem cells (ESC) have probably never been derived from the inner cell mass (ICM) of pig blastocysts, despite over 25 years of effort. Recently, several groups, including ours, have reported induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSC) from swine by reprogramming somatic cells with a combination of four factors, OCT4 (POU5F1)/SOX2/KLF4/c-MYC delivered by retroviral transduction. The porcine (p) iPSC resembled human (h) ESC and the mouse "Epiblast stem cells" (EpiSC) in their colony morphology and expression of pluripotent genes, and are likely dependent on FGF2/ACTIVIN/NODAL signaling, therefore representing a primed ESC state. These cells are likely to advance swine as a model in biomedical research, since grafts could potentially be matched to the animal that donated the cells for re-programming. The objective of the present work has been to develop naïve piPSC. Employing a combination of seven reprogramming factors assembled on episomal vectors, we successfully reprogrammed porcine embryonic fibroblasts on a modified LIF-medium supplemented with two kinase inhibitors; CHIR99021, which inhibits GSK-3beta, and PD0325901, a MEK inhibitor. The derived piPSC bear a striking resemblance to naïve mESC in colony morphology, are dependent on LIF to maintain an undifferentiated phenotype, and express markers consistent with pluripotency. They exhibit high telomerase activity, a short cell cycle interval, and a normal karyotype, and are able to generate teratomas. Currently, the competence of these lines for contributing to germ-line chimeras is being tested.

  17. Laser-induced breakdown spectra of rock powders at variable ablation and collection angles under Mars-analog conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breves, E. A.; Lepore, K.; Dyar, M. D.; Bender, S. C.; Tokar, R. L.; Boucher, T.

    2017-11-01

    Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy has become a popular tool for rapid elemental analysis of geological materials. However, quantitative applications of LIBS are plagued by variability in collected spectra that cannot be attributed to differences in geochemical composition. Even under ideal laboratory conditions, variability in LIBS spectra creates a host of difficulties for quantitative analysis. This is only exacerbated during field work, when both the laser-sample distance and the angle of ablation/collection are constantly changing. A primary goal of this study is to use empirical evidence to provide a more accurate assessment of uncertainty in LIBS-derived element predictions. We hope to provide practical guidance regarding the angles of ablation and collection that can be tolerated without substantially increasing prediction uncertainty beyond that which already exists under ideal laboratory conditions. Spectra were collected from ten geochemically diverse samples at angles of ablation and collection ranging from 0° to ± 60°. Ablation and collection angles were changed independently and simultaneously in order to isolate spectral changes caused by differences in ablation angle from those due to differences in collection angle. Most of the variability in atomic and continuum spectra is attributed to changes in the ablation angle, rather than the collection angle. At higher angles, the irradiance of the laser beam is lower and produces smaller, possibly less dense plasmas. Simultaneous changes in the collection angle do not appear to affect the collected spectra, possibly because smaller plasmas are still within the viewing area of the collection optics, even though this area is reduced at higher collection angles. A key observation is that changes in the magnitude of atomic and total emission are Mars targets at varying angles. Thus, the increased errors noted in this study for high incidence angle measurements are likely similar to additional

  18. Inhibition of NF-κB translocation by curcumin analogs induces G0/G1 arrest and downregulates thymidylate synthase in colorectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajitha, Balney; Belalcazar, Astrid; Nagaraju, Ganji Purnachandra; Shaib, Walid L; Snyder, James P; Shoji, Mamoru; Pattnaik, Subasini; Alam, Afroz; El-Rayes, Bassel F

    2016-04-10

    Cell cycle progression and DNA synthesis are essential steps in cancer cell growth and resistance. Thymidylate synthase (TS) is a therapeutic target for 5FU. Curcumin is a potent inhibitor of NF-κB. EF31 and UBS109 are potent synthetic analogues of curcumin. We tested the hypothesis that inhibition of NF-κB translocation by curcumin and its analogs EF31 and UBS109 can inhibit cell cycle progression and downregulate TS levels in colorectal cancer (CRC) cell lines. Two CRC cell lines (HCT116 and HT-29) were either untreated (control) or treated with IC50 concentrations of curcumin, EF31 UBS109 led to G0/G1 cell cycle arrest. Treatment with curcumin, EF31 or UBS109 inhibited NF-κB, downregulated survival pathways and inhibited cell cycle progression. Arrest in the G0/G1 phase was associated with downregulation of the transcription factor E2F-1 and its target gene TS. NF-κB over-expression induced E2F-1 and TS protein and mRNA levels in both cell lines. EF31 and UBS109 treatment significantly decreased tumor growth in compared to untreated tumors. EF31 and UBS109 are promising agents for the prevention and treatment of CRC. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. A model of the radiation-induced bystander effect based on an analogy with ferromagnets. Application to modelling tissue response in a uniform field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vassiliev, O. N.

    2014-12-01

    We propose a model of the radiation-induced bystander effect based on an analogy with magnetic systems. The main benefit of this approach is that it allowed us to apply powerful methods of statistical mechanics. The model exploits the similarity between how spin-spin interactions result in correlations of spin states in ferromagnets, and how signalling from a damaged cell reduces chances of survival of neighbour cells, resulting in correlated cell states. At the root of the model is a classical Hamiltonian, similar to that of an Ising ferromagnet with long-range interactions. The formalism is developed in the framework of the Mean Field Theory. It is applied to modelling tissue response in a uniform radiation field. In this case the results are remarkably simple and at the same time nontrivial. They include cell survival curves, expressions for the tumour control probability and effects of fractionation. The model extends beyond of what is normally considered as bystander effects. It offers an insight into low-dose hypersensitivity and into mechanisms behind threshold doses for deterministic effects.

  20. Analog photonic link based on the Aulter-Townes splitting induced dual-band filter for OCS and the SOI signal processor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Hongchen; Li, Pengxiao; Chen, Minghua; Chen, Hongwei; Yang, Sigang; Xie, Shizhong

    2015-05-15

    Analog photonic link (APL) is attractive for its potential high performance of larger dynamic range, tunability, and immunity to electromagnetic interference (EMI). An APL based on the Aulter-Townes splitting (ATS)-effect-induced dual-band filter for optical carrier suppression (OCS) and the SOI signal processor has been proposed and experimentally demonstrated. The bandwidths of the two passbands are approximately 780 MHz, and the interval could be tuned from 8 GHz to more than 80 GHz in simulation. The extinction ratio is larger than 20 dB, which can provide a 20-dB suppression of the optical carrier and higher order sidebands to obtain clean optical carrier and local oscillator (LO) for modulation and down-conversion. The down-conversion APL based on the proposed dual-band OCS filter at X-band has been presented, and the spurious free dynamic range (SFDR) of the link is measured to be as high as 102.2  dB-Hz(2/3).

  1. Treatment and prevention of chemotherapy-induced alopecia with PTH-CBD, a collagen-targeted parathyroid hormone analog, in a non-depilated mouse model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katikaneni, Ranjitha; Ponnapakkam, Tulasi; Matsushita, Osamu; Sakon, Joshua; Gensure, Robert

    2014-01-01

    Alopecia is a psychologically devastating complication of chemotherapy for which there is currently no effective therapy. PTH-CBD is a collagen-targeted parathyroid hormone analog that has shown promise as a therapy for alopecia disorders. To compare the efficacy of prophylactic versus therapeutic administration of PTH-CBD in chemotherapy-induced alopecia using a mouse model that mimics the cyclic chemotherapy dosing used clinically. C57BL/6J mice were treated with a single subcutaneous injection of PTH-CBD (320 mcg/kg) or vehicle control before or after hair loss developing from three courses of cyclophosphamide chemotherapy (50–150 mg/kg/week). Mice receiving chemotherapy alone developed hair loss and depigmentation over 6–12 months. Mice pretreated with PTH-CBD did not develop these changes and maintained a normal-appearing coat. Mice treated with PTH-CBD after development of hair loss showed a partial recovery. Observations of hair loss were confirmed quantitatively by gray scale analysis. Histological examination showed that in mice receiving chemotherapy alone, there were small, dystrophic hair follicles mostly in the catagen phase. Mice receiving PTH-CBD before chemotherapy showed a mix of normal-appearing telogen and anagen hair follicles with no evidence of dystrophy. Mice receiving PTH-CBD therapy after chemotherapy showed intermediate histological features. PTH-CBD was effective in both the prevention and the treatment of chemotherapy-induced alopecia in mice, but pretreatment appears to result in a better cosmetic outcome. PTH-CBD shows promise as an agent in the prevention of this complication of chemotherapy and improving the quality of life for cancer patients. PMID:24025564

  2. Intuitive analog circuit design

    CERN Document Server

    Thompson, Marc

    2013-01-01

    Intuitive Analog Circuit Design outlines ways of thinking about analog circuits and systems that let you develop a feel for what a good, working analog circuit design should be. This book reflects author Marc Thompson's 30 years of experience designing analog and power electronics circuits and teaching graduate-level analog circuit design, and is the ideal reference for anyone who needs a straightforward introduction to the subject. In this book, Dr. Thompson describes intuitive and ""back-of-the-envelope"" techniques for designing and analyzing analog circuits, including transistor amplifi

  3. The Camp Setting for Promoting Youth Physical Activity: Systematic Observations of Summer Day Camps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole Zarrett

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The risk for youth obesity is higher during the summer than any other time of year. Summer day camps can be ideal settings for preventing obesity through reducing youth summer sedentary behaviors. However, little-to-no research has examined the role of camps for promoting youth physical activity (PA and other healthy behaviors. This study begins to address the gap in research by conducting systematic observations of 4 summer day camps (2 highly- resourced and 2 low-resourced to determine: 1 the degree to which camps engage youth in moderate-to-vigorous PA, and; 2 to what extent camps provide important physical and social-motivational features for promoting PA. Results indicate camps provide opportunities for youth to meet national recommendations of daily MVPA. However, there were differences in PA and motivational features by level of camp resources. This study helps inform practice and policy through identifying strengths and needs of camps for promoting PA.

  4. Cyclic AMP induces IPC leukemia cell apoptosis via CRE-and CDK-dependent Bim transcription.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huseby, S; Gausdal, G; Keen, T J; Kjærland, E; Krakstad, C; Myhren, L; Brønstad, K; Kunick, C; Schwede, F; Genieser, H-G; Kleppe, R; Døskeland, S O

    2011-12-08

    The IPC-81 cell line is derived from the transplantable BNML model of acute myelogenic leukemia (AML), known to be a reliable predictor of the clinical efficiency of antileukemic agents, like the first-line AML anthracycline drug daunorubicin (DNR). We show here that cAMP acted synergistically with DNR to induce IPC cell death. The DNR-induced death differed from that induced by cAMP by (1) not involving Bim induction, (2) being abrogated by GSK3β inhibitors, (3) by being promoted by the HSP90/p23 antagonist geldanamycin and truncated p23 and (4) by being insensitive to the CRE binding protein (CREB) antagonist ICER and to cyclin-dependent protein kinase (CDK) inhibitors. In contrast, the apoptosis induced by cAMP correlated tightly with Bim protein expression. It was abrogated by Bim (BCL2L11) downregulation, whether achieved by the CREB antagonist ICER, by CDK inhibitors, by Bim-directed RNAi, or by protein synthesis inhibitor. The forced expression of BimL killed IPC-81(WT) cells rapidly, Bcl2-overexpressing cells being partially resistant. The pivotal role of CREB and CDK activity for Bim transcription is unprecedented. It is also noteworthy that newly developed cAMP analogs specifically activating PKA isozyme I (PKA-I) were able to induce IPC cell apoptosis. Our findings support the notion that AML cells may possess targetable death pathways not exploited by common anti-cancer agents.

  5. Research summer camp in photonics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buyanovskaya, Elizaveta; Melnik, Maksim; Egorov, Vladimir; Gleim, Artur; Lukishova, Svetlana; Kozlov, Sergei; Zhang, Xi-Cheng

    2017-08-01

    ITMO University and the University of Rochester became close partners several years ago. One of the first outcomes of this mutually beneficial partnership was the creation of International Institute of Photonics and Optical Information Technologies led by Prof. Sergei Kozlov and Prof. Xi-Cheng Zhang. Universities have created a double Masters-degree program in optics in 2014, and several ITMO students have been awarded degrees from Rochester. At the same time ITMO University organizes Summer Research camp in Photonics for University of Rochester students. Students spent two weeks in the Northern Capital of Russia learning about the emerging practical applications of femtosecond optics, terahertz biomedicine and quantum information technologies.

  6. Efficacy of glutathione in ameliorating sulfur mustard analog-induced toxicity in cultured skin epidermal cells and in SKH-1 mouse skin in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tewari-Singh, Neera; Agarwal, Chapla; Huang, Jie; Day, Brian J; White, Carl W; Agarwal, Rajesh

    2011-02-01

    Exposure to chemical warfare agent sulfur mustard (HD) is reported to cause GSH depletion, which plays an important role in HD-linked oxidative stress and skin injury. Using the HD analog 2-chloroethyl ethyl sulfide (CEES), we evaluated the role of GSH and its efficacy in ameliorating CEES-caused skin injury. Using mouse JB6 and human HaCaT epidermal keratinocytes, we observed both protective and therapeutic effects of exogenous GSH (1 or 10 mM) in attenuating a CEES-caused decrease in cell viability and DNA synthesis, as well as S and G(2)M phase arrest in cell cycle progression. However, the protective effect of GSH was stronger than its ability to reverse CEES-induced cytotoxic effect. The observed effect of GSH could be associated with an increase in intracellular GSH levels after its treatment before or after CEES exposure, which strongly depleted cellular GSH levels. N-Acetyl cysteine, a GSH precursor, also showed both protective and therapeutic effects against CEES-caused cytotoxicity. Buthionine sulfoximine, which reduces cellular GSH levels, caused an increased CEES cytotoxicity in both JB6 and HaCaT cells. In further studies translating GSH effects in cell culture, pretreatment of mice with 300 mg/kg GSH via oral gavage 1 h before topical application of CEES resulted in significant protection against CEES-caused increase in skin bifold and epidermal thickness, apoptotic cell death, and myeloperoxidase activity, which could be associated with increased skin GSH levels. Together, these results highlight GSH efficacy in ameliorating CEES-caused skin injury and further support the need for effective antioxidant countermeasures against skin injury by HD exposure.

  7. 21 Days head-down bed rest induces weakening of cell-mediated immunity - Some spaceflight findings confirmed in a ground-based analog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelsen, Jens; Bartels, Lars Erik; Dige, Anders; Hvas, Christian Lodberg; Frings-Meuthen, Petra; Boehme, Gisela; Thomsen, Marianne Kragh; Fenger-Grøn, Morten; Dahlerup, Jens Frederik

    2012-08-01

    Several studies indicate a weakening of cell-mediated immunity (CMI) and reactivation of latent herpes viruses during spaceflight. We tested the hypothesis that head-down bed rest (HDBR), a ground-based analog of spaceflight, mimics the impact of microgravity on human immunity. Seven healthy young males underwent two periods of 3 weeks HDBR in the test facility of the German Aerospace Center. As a nutritional countermeasure aimed against bone demineralisation, 90 mmol potassium bicarbonate (KHCO(3)) was administered daily in a crossover design. Blood samples were drawn on five occasions. Whole blood was stimulated with antigen i.e. Candida albicans, purified protein derivative (PPD) tuberculin, tetanus toxoid and Cytomegalovirus (CMV) (CMV-QuantiFERON). Flow cytometric analysis included CD4(+)CD25(+)CD127(-)FOXP3(+) regulatory T cells (Tregs), γδ T cells, B cells, NK cells and dendritic cells. In one of the two bed rest periods, we observed a significant decrease in production of interleukin-2 (IL-2), interferon-γ (IFN-γ) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) following phytohemagglutinin (PHA) stimulation, with a rapid normalization being observed after HDBR. The cytokine levels showed a V-shaped pattern that led to a relativeTh2-shift in cytokine balance. Only three individuals responded to the specific T cell antigens without showing signs of an altered response during HDBR, nor did we observe reactivation of CMV or Epstein-Barr virus (EBV). Of unknown significance, dietary supplementation with KHCO(3) counteracted the decrease in IL-2 levels during HDBR, while there was no impact on other immunological parameters. We conclude that discrete alterations in CMI may be induced by HDBR in selected individuals. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Acetaminophen analog N-acetyl-m-aminophenol, but not its reactive metabolite, N-acetyl-p-benzoquinone imine induces CYP3A activity via inhibition of protein degradation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santoh, Masataka; Sanoh, Seigo; Ohtsuki, Yuya; Ejiri, Yoko; Kotake, Yaichiro; Ohta, Shigeru

    2017-05-06

    Cytochrome P450 (CYP) 3A subfamily members are known to metabolize various types of drugs, highlighting the importance of understanding drug-drug interactions (DDI) depending on CYP3A induction or inhibition. While transcriptional regulation of CYP3A members is widely understood, post-translational regulation needs to be elucidated. We previously reported that acetaminophen (APAP) induces CYP3A activity via inhibition of protein degradation and proposed a novel DDI concept. N-Acetyl-p-benzoquinone imine (NAPQI), the reactive metabolite of APAP formed by CYP, is known to cause adverse events related to depletion of intracellular reduced glutathione (GSH). We aimed to inspect whether NAPQI rather than APAP itself could cause the inhibitory effects on protein degradation. We found that N-acetyl-l-cysteine, the precursor of GSH, and 1-aminobenzotriazole, a nonselective CYP inhibitor, had no effect on CYP3A1/23 protein levels affected by APAP. Thus, we used APAP analogs to test CYP3A1/23 mRNA levels, protein levels, and CYP3A activity. We found N-acetyl-m-aminophenol (AMAP), a regioisomer of APAP, has the same inhibitory effects of CYP3A1/23 protein degradation, while p-acetamidobenzoic acid (PAcBA), a carboxy-substituted form of APAP, shows no inhibitory effects. AMAP and PAcBA cannot be oxidized to quinone imine forms such as NAPQI, so the inhibitory effects could depend on the specific chemical structure of APAP. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Analog and hybrid computing

    CERN Document Server

    Hyndman, D E

    2013-01-01

    Analog and Hybrid Computing focuses on the operations of analog and hybrid computers. The book first outlines the history of computing devices that influenced the creation of analog and digital computers. The types of problems to be solved on computers, computing systems, and digital computers are discussed. The text looks at the theory and operation of electronic analog computers, including linear and non-linear computing units and use of analog computers as operational amplifiers. The monograph examines the preparation of problems to be deciphered on computers. Flow diagrams, methods of ampl

  10. Teenagers and Risk-Taking at Camp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woods, Ann

    2002-01-01

    Teen risk-taking is normal, healthy developmental behavior. Teens act out their fantasies--good and bad--at camp because it is a safe place away from parents. Signs of unhealthy risk-taking, camp staff responses, and how the September 11 tragedy might affect risk-taking are discussed. Sidebars describe tips for understanding adolescent behavior…

  11. Measuring Mindfulness in Summer Camp Staff

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillard, Ann; Roark, Mark F.; Nyaga, Lewis Ramsey Kanyiba; Bialeschki, M. Deborah

    2011-01-01

    Examining mindfulness in a non-clinical and non-therapeutic setting such as a summer camp is an area of growing interest. Our study tested three mindfulness scales with staff in a summer camp setting, and we conducted preliminary reliability and validity analyses for any modifications needed in the scales. Results indicated two major findings: (a)…

  12. Sustainable Design Principles for Refugee Camps

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rooij, de L.L.; Wascher, D.M.; Paulissen, M.P.C.P.

    2016-01-01

    This report’s main focus is on the phenomenon of refugee camps as one of the most visible and spatially explicit results of refuge and migration movements at the global scale. Given the steadily growing numbers of people on the move and staying in temporary homes and settlements, refugee camps must

  13. Summer Camp of Mathematical Modeling in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Xiaoxi; Xie, Jinxing

    2013-01-01

    The Summer Camp of Mathematical Modeling in China is a recently created experience designed to further Chinese students' academic pursuits in mathematical modeling. Students are given more than three months to research on a mathematical modeling project. Researchers and teams with outstanding projects are invited to the Summer Camp to present…

  14. Dealing with World Issues in Camp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kujawa, Charles

    1986-01-01

    Discusses dealing with global issues in the camp setting in a way that broadens young people's world views. Topics include the educational advantages of the camp setting, desired outcomes for campers, guidelines for staff, and program ideas for dealing with issues such as environmental awareness, racism, and economic justice. (JHZ)

  15. Suicides in the Nazi Concentration Camps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryn, Zdzislaw

    1986-01-01

    On the basis of psychiatric interviews with 69 former prisoners of the Auschwitz-Birkenau concentration camp, this paper describes the circumstances, motives, and ways of committing suicide in the camp. The interviews made it clear that thousands of prisoners perished by suicide. The number of committed suicides was larger than that of attempted…

  16. Opening of a summer camp at CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    Nursery School

    2015-01-01

    The Staff Association has the pleasure to announce the opening of a summer camp in l’EVE et Ecole de l’AP du CERN. With a capacity of 40 children, aged 4 to 6 years, it will be open from July 6 to 30. Registration Summer camp 2015 Registration for the CERN SA Summer camp for children aged 4 to 6 is open 16 to 30 April 2015 More information on the website: http://nurseryschool.web.cern.ch/ The Summer camp is open to all children of CERN Staff. An inscription per week is proposed, cost 480.-CHF/week, lunch included. The camp will be open weeks 28, 29, 30 and 31, from 8:30 am to 5:30 pm.

  17. Examining Youth Camping Outcomes Across Multiple States: the National 4-H Camping Research Consortium (NCRC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barry Garst

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The impact of residential camp participation is needed for camps focused on a variety of outcomes including education, summer fun, prevention, and youth development. One system, the Cooperative Extension Service, conducts 4-H residential camps in most states nationwide every year. These camps, though offering educational enhancement and fun activities, are focused on youth development, incorporating a framework called the essential elements of positive youth development. The National 4-H Camping Research Consortium (NCRC, a group of Extension specialists and county-level educators, designed and piloted assessment tools for 4-H camps that can be used at any camp that focuses on youth development. The camp context questionnaire measures three essential elements of youth development: relationship with a caring adult, self-determination and mastery, and safe and inclusive environments. The life skill questionnaire measures three life skills: accepting self and others, accomplishing goals, and taking responsibility. Logic models and evaluation guidelines help camp directors plan camps that work for youth.

  18. Analog circuit design

    CERN Document Server

    Dobkin, Bob

    2012-01-01

    Analog circuit and system design today is more essential than ever before. With the growth of digital systems, wireless communications, complex industrial and automotive systems, designers are being challenged to develop sophisticated analog solutions. This comprehensive source book of circuit design solutions aids engineers with elegant and practical design techniques that focus on common analog challenges. The book's in-depth application examples provide insight into circuit design and application solutions that you can apply in today's demanding designs. <

  19. cAMP signaling in subcellular compartments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lefkimmiatis, Konstantinos; Zaccolo, Manuela

    2014-09-01

    In the complex microcosm of a cell, information security and its faithful transmission are critical for maintaining internal stability. To achieve a coordinated response of all its parts to any stimulus the cell must protect the information received from potentially confounding signals. Physical segregation of the information transmission chain ensures that only the entities able to perform the encoded task have access to the relevant information. The cAMP intracellular signaling pathway is an important system for signal transmission responsible for the ancestral 'flight or fight' response and involved in the control of critical functions including frequency and strength of heart contraction, energy metabolism and gene transcription. It is becoming increasingly apparent that the cAMP signaling pathway uses compartmentalization as a strategy for coordinating the large number of key cellular functions under its control. Spatial confinement allows the formation of cAMP signaling "hot spots" at discrete subcellular domains in response to specific stimuli, bringing the information in proximity to the relevant effectors and their recipients, thus achieving specificity of action. In this report we discuss how the different constituents of the cAMP pathway are targeted and participate in the formation of cAMP compartmentalized signaling events. We illustrate a few examples of localized cAMP signaling, with a particular focus on the nucleus, the sarcoplasmic reticulum and the mitochondria. Finally, we discuss the therapeutic potential of interventions designed to perturb specific cAMP cascades locally. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Different effects of transcriptional regulators MarA, SoxS and Rob on susceptibility of Escherichia coli to cationic antimicrobial peptides (CAMPs): Rob-dependent CAMP induction of the marRAB operon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warner, Douglas M; Levy, Stuart B

    2010-02-01

    Cationic antimicrobial peptides (CAMPs), a component of the mammalian immune system, protect the host from bacterial infections. The roles of the Escherichia coli transcriptional regulators MarA, SoxS and Rob in susceptibility to these peptides were examined. Overexpression of marA, either in an antibiotic-resistant marR mutant or from a plasmid, decreased bacterial susceptibility to CAMPs. Overexpression of the soxS gene from a plasmid, which decreased susceptibility to antibiotics, unexpectedly caused no decrease in CAMP susceptibility; instead it produced increased susceptibility to different CAMPs. Deletion or overexpression of rob had little effect on CAMP susceptibility. The marRAB operon was upregulated when E. coli was incubated in sublethal amounts of CAMPs polymyxin B, LL-37 or human beta-defensin-1; however, this upregulation required Rob. Deletion of acrAB increased bacterial susceptibility to polymyxin B, LL-37 and human beta-defensin-1 peptides. Deletion of tolC yielded an even greater increase in susceptibility to these peptides and also led to increased susceptibility to human alpha-defensin-2. Inhibition of cellular proton-motive force increased peptide susceptibility for wild-type and acrAB deletion strains; however, it decreased susceptibility of tolC mutants. These findings demonstrate that CAMPs are both inducers of marA-mediated drug resistance through interaction with Rob and also substrates for efflux in E. coli. The three related transcriptional regulators show different effects on bacterial cell susceptibility to CAMPs.

  1. Computational approaches to analogical reasoning current trends

    CERN Document Server

    Richard, Gilles

    2014-01-01

    Analogical reasoning is known as a powerful mode for drawing plausible conclusions and solving problems. It has been the topic of a huge number of works by philosophers, anthropologists, linguists, psychologists, and computer scientists. As such, it has been early studied in artificial intelligence, with a particular renewal of interest in the last decade. The present volume provides a structured view of current research trends on computational approaches to analogical reasoning. It starts with an overview of the field, with an extensive bibliography. The 14 collected contributions cover a large scope of issues. First, the use of analogical proportions and analogies is explained and discussed in various natural language processing problems, as well as in automated deduction. Then, different formal frameworks for handling analogies are presented, dealing with case-based reasoning, heuristic-driven theory projection, commonsense reasoning about incomplete rule bases, logical proportions induced by similarity an...

  2. Creb and Sp/Krüppel response elements cooperate to control rat TRH gene transcription in response to cAMP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cote-Vélez, Antonieta; Pérez-Maldonado, Adrián; Osuna, Joel; Barrera, Benito; Charli, Jean-Louis; Joseph-Bravo, Patricia

    2011-03-01

    Expression of hypophysiotropic TRH, that controls thyroid axis activity, is increased by cold exposure; this effect is mimicked in rat hypothalamic cells incubated with norepinephrine or cAMP analogs. TRH proximal promoter contains three putative CRE: Site-4 or CRE-1 that overlaps an element recognized by thyroid hormone receptors, CRE-2 with adjacent sequences GC box or CACCC recognized by Sp/Krüppel factors (extended CRE-2), and AP-1 sites flanking a GRE(1/2). To evaluate the role of each element in the cAMP response, these sites were mutated or deleted in rat TRH promoter linked to luciferase gene (TRH-luc) and co-transfected with β-gal expression vector in various cell lines; C6 cells gave the highest response to forskolin. Basal activity was most affected by mutations or deletion of CRE-2 site, or CACCC (50-75% of wild type-WT). Forskolin-induced 3× stimulation in WT which decreased 25% with CRE-1 or AP-1 deletions, but 50% when CRE-2 or its 5' adjacent GC box was altered. SH-SY5Y cells co-transfected with CREB-expression vector increased dB-cAMP response in the wild type but not in the CRE-2 mutated plasmid; cotransfecting CREB-A (a dominant negative expression vector) strongly diminished basal or cAMP response. Primary cultures of hypothalamic cells transfected with plasmids containing deletions of CRE-1, CRE-2, or extended CRE-2 failed to respond to forskolin when CRE-2 was modified. These results corroborate the CRE-2 site as the main cAMP-response element of rat TRH promoter, not exclusive of transcription factors of hypothalamic cells, and stress the relevance of adjacent Sp-1 sites, important mediators of some metabolic hormones. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  3. Body and Gender in Nazi Concentration Camps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bożena Karwowska

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The article Body and Gender in Nazi Concentration Camps is an attempt to discuss difficult issues of human sexuality and sexually marked behaviors in the context of the concentration camps, and their descriptions in the memoirs of the survivors. Using notions and concepts of the so called "black American feminism" the author (referring extensively to books by Stanisław Grzesiuk and Zofia Romanowiczowa shows how in the concentration camp the human body became the only space of a relative privacy of the prisoner. At the same time the body becomes a territory on which all - both biological and socially constructed - human fates cross.

  4. Design and Development Issues for Educational Robotics Training Camps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ucgul, Memet; Cagiltay, Kursat

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study is to explore critical design issues for educational robotics training camps and to describe how these factors should be implemented in the development of such camps. For this purpose, two robotics training camps were organized for elementary school students. The first camp had 30 children attendees, and the second had 22. As…

  5. Summer Camps: A Fun Way to Reinforce Math Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tichenor, Mercedes; Plavchan, Joan

    2010-01-01

    Faculty members from a university teacher education department partnered with a local school district to develop a summer camp program for children at-risk. This four week summer camp for elementary students provides reading and math intervention to rising first graders. This article discusses the math aspects of the camp, including camp lessons,…

  6. Institutionalized Adolescents' Perceptions of a Summer Camp Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herr, David E.

    1977-01-01

    Describes the use of the facilities of Camp Easter Seal, Virginia, for institutionalized adolescents from different hospitals in Virginia. Also includes the attitudes of the patients toward their camping experience, their camp counselors, and what they learned from their camping experience. (Author/RK)

  7. The Camp Setting for Promoting Youth Physical Activity: Systematic Observations of Summer Day Camps

    OpenAIRE

    Nicole Zarrett; Brittany Skiles; Carl Sorensen

    2012-01-01

    The risk for youth obesity is higher during the summer than any other time of year. Summer day camps can be ideal settings for preventing obesity through reducing youth summer sedentary behaviors. However, little-to-no research has examined the role of camps for promoting youth physical activity (PA) and other healthy behaviors. This study begins to address the gap in research by conducting systematic observations of 4 summer day camps (2 highly- resourced and 2 low-resourced) to determine: 1...

  8. Digital to Analog Converter

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westra, Jan R.; Annema, Anne J.; van den Boom, Jeroen M.; Dijkmans, Eise C.

    2001-01-01

    A digital to analog converter (DAC) for converting a digital signal (DS) having a maximum voltage range which corresponds to a first supply voltage (UL) into an analog signal (UOUT) having a maximum voltage range which corresponds to a second supply voltage (UH). The first supply voltage (UL) is

  9. Digital to Analog Converter

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westra, Jan R.; Annema, Anne J.; van den Boom, Jeroen M.; Dijkmans, Eise C.

    2006-01-01

    A digital to analog converter (DAC) for converting a digital signal (DS) having a maximum voltage range which corresponds to a first supply voltage (UL) into an analog signal (UOUT) having a maximum voltage range which corresponds to a second supply voltage (UH). The first supply voltage (UL) is

  10. Hydraulic Capacitor Analogy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baser, Mustafa

    2007-03-01

    Students have difficulties in physics because of the abstract nature of concepts and principles. One of the effective methods for overcoming students' difficulties is the use of analogies to visualize abstract concepts to promote conceptual understanding.2,3 According to Iding,4 analogies are consistent with the tenets of constructivist learning theories, which claim that learners should be actively involved and new concepts should be based on learners' previous experiences. When analogies are used during the teaching-learning process, they may promote students' understanding of abstract science concepts.5 This paper suggests a capacitor analogy that aims to foster students' conceptual understanding of capacitors in a slightly different way than Greenslade's analogy.6

  11. 2012 USGS Lidar: Brooks Camp (AK)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) had a requirement for high resolution Lidar needed for mapping the Brooks Camp region of Katmai National Park in Alaska....

  12. Food Safety While Hiking, Camping and Boating

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Standard Forms FSIS United States Department of Agriculture Food Safety and Inspection Service About FSIS District Offices ... Web Content Viewer (JSR 286) Actions ${title} Loading... Food Safety While Hiking, Camping & Boating Outdoor activities are ...

  13. 33 CFR 334.910 - Pacific Ocean, Camp Pendleton Boat Basin, U.S. Marine Corps Base, Camp Pendleton, Calif...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Boat Basin, U.S. Marine Corps Base, Camp Pendleton, Calif.; restricted area. 334.910 Section 334.910... AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.910 Pacific Ocean, Camp Pendleton Boat Basin, U.S. Marine Corps Base, Camp Pendleton, Calif.; restricted area. (a) The area. All of the waters of Camp Pendleton Boat...

  14. Pioneer camps in post-Yugoslav context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jankov Sonja

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper is revalorisation and architectural analysis of pioneer cities/camps in Zagreb and Belgrade and of the children's camp Mitrovac at Tara. It is divided into an introductory analysis of the context within which pioneer camps were built and four study cases written from contemporary perspective. Artek, one of the best known pioneer camps in world, protected by UNESCO, is analysed in the paper as a paradigm for wider contextualisation of pioneer camps in former Yugoslavia. Chapter Pioneer City in Belgrade and Mitrovac at Tara emphasizes these complexes as important architectural heritage, were Mitrovac at Tara is one of the best preserved and active resorts for children. High Modernism of Vitić's Pioneer City Today summarises the process of protecting this heritage form 1951 in 2015. The paper proposes that these Yugoslav pioneer camps can be used in contemporary art production and graduate education, by opening to resident artists and students who come to Serbia via Erasmus + exchange programme.

  15. Meat analog: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malav, O P; Talukder, S; Gokulakrishnan, P; Chand, S

    2015-01-01

    The health-conscious consumers are in search of nutritious and convenient food item which can be best suited in their busy life. The vegetarianism is the key for the search of such food which resembles the meat in respect of nutrition and sensory characters, but not of animal origin and contains vegetable or its modified form, this is the point when meat analog evolved out and gets shape. The consumers gets full satisfaction by consumption of meat analog due to its typical meaty texture, appearance and the flavor which are being imparted during the skilled production of meat analog. The supplement of protein in vegetarian diet through meat alike food can be fulfilled by incorporating protein-rich vegetative food grade materials in meat analog and by adopting proper technological process which can promote the proper fabrication of meat analog with acceptable meat like texture, appearance, flavor, etc. The easily available vegetables, cereals, and pulses in India have great advantages and prospects to be used in food products and it can improve the nutritional and functional characters of the food items. The various form and functional characters of food items are available world over and attracts the meat technologists and the food processors to bring some innovativeness in meat analog and its presentation and marketability so that the acceptability of meat analog can be overgrown by the consumers.

  16. Troubleshooting analog circuits

    CERN Document Server

    Pease, Robert A

    1991-01-01

    Troubleshooting Analog Circuits is a guidebook for solving product or process related problems in analog circuits. The book also provides advice in selecting equipment, preventing problems, and general tips. The coverage of the book includes the philosophy of troubleshooting; the modes of failure of various components; and preventive measures. The text also deals with the active components of analog circuits, including diodes and rectifiers, optically coupled devices, solar cells, and batteries. The book will be of great use to both students and practitioners of electronics engineering. Other

  17. TV Analog Station Transmitters

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — This file is an extract from the Consolidated Database System (CDBS) licensed by the Media Bureau. It consists of Analog Television Stations (see Rule Part47 CFR...

  18. Challenges in Analogical Reasoning

    CERN Document Server

    Lin, Shih-Yin

    2016-01-01

    Learning physics requires understanding the applicability of fundamental principles in a variety of contexts that share deep features. One way to help students learn physics is via analogical reasoning. Students can be taught to make an analogy between situations that are more familiar or easier to understand and another situation where the same physics principle is involved but that is more difficult to handle. Here, we examine introductory physics students' ability to use analogies in solving problems involving Newton's second law. Students enrolled in an algebra-based introductory physics course were given a solved problem involving tension in a rope and were then asked to solve another problem for which the physics is very similar but involved a frictional force. They were asked to point out the similarities between the two problems and then use the analogy to solve the friction problem.

  19. Carbon monoxide poisoning during camping in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Youn-Jung; Sohn, Chang Hwan; Oh, Bum Jin; Lim, Kyoung Soo; Kim, Won Young

    2016-12-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the epidemiology and characteristics of unintentional carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning during camping in Korea. We performed a retrospective observational study on patients with unintentional camping-related CO poisoning who were admitted to the emergency department (ED) from 1 January 2010 to 31 December 2014. News reports about incidents of camping-related CO poisoning were collected using news search engines. A total of 72 patients (29 patients involved in 12 incidents, who were admitted to our ED, and 43 victims involved in 17 incidents reported in the media) were identified. Accidental camping-related CO poisoning occurred most frequently in May, late spring in Korea. Gas stove use and the burning of charcoal for tent heating were responsible for camping-related CO exposure. Seventeen victims (39.5%) were found dead when an ambulance arrived at the scene, in the cases reported in the media. In contrast, all the victims at our hospital were alive on hospital discharge. Twelve of the 17 incidents (70.6%) reported in the media were accidental fatalities. The majority of our patients (83.4%) were not aware of the potential danger of charcoal as a source of CO. Accidental camping-related CO poisoning occurred because of an ongoing lack of awareness about the potential danger of charcoal grills and stoves, and this caused prehospital mortality. Such accidents could be prevented by increasing the awareness of the potential danger of using charcoal grills and stoves during camping, as well as by establishing appropriate safety regulations.

  20. Analog circuits cookbook

    CERN Document Server

    Hickman, Ian

    2013-01-01

    Analog Circuits Cookbook presents articles about advanced circuit techniques, components and concepts, useful IC for analog signal processing in the audio range, direct digital synthesis, and ingenious video op-amp. The book also includes articles about amplitude measurements on RF signals, linear optical imager, power supplies and devices, and RF circuits and techniques. Professionals and students of electrical engineering will find the book informative and useful.

  1. FGF growth factor analogs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zamora, Paul O [Gaithersburg, MD; Pena, Louis A [Poquott, NY; Lin, Xinhua [Plainview, NY; Takahashi, Kazuyuki [Germantown, MD

    2012-07-24

    The present invention provides a fibroblast growth factor heparin-binding analog of the formula: ##STR00001## where R.sub.1, R.sub.2, R.sub.3, R.sub.4, R.sub.5, X, Y and Z are as defined, pharmaceutical compositions, coating compositions and medical devices including the fibroblast growth factor heparin-binding analog of the foregoing formula, and methods and uses thereof.

  2. Summer camps for children and adolescents with kidney disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klee, K; Greenleaf, K; Watkins, S

    1997-02-01

    Summer camps, sports camps, and residential camps are readily available to children and adolescents across the country. However, children and adolescents with end stage renal disease (ESRD) may not be able to participate in summer camp experiences because of specialized medical needs (e.g., dialysis or immunosuppressive medications) and concerns about abilities to keep up with camp activities. With enhancements in pediatric nephrology care in the past 10 years, patients can be expected to attend school full time and participate in peer activities. In addition, attendance at summer camps becomes a possibility for these children, particularly camps aimed at children with ESRD. Twenty pediatric nephrology centers in North America were surveyed about their participation in summer camp programs. This article reviews these and attempts to elucidate the values of summer camp programs for pediatric ESRD patients.

  3. Ladders to Leadership: What Camp Counselor Positions Do for Youth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darcy Tessman

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The 4-H youth development organization understands and has recognized residential camping as one of the major modes of program delivery. Primary benefactors of the residential camping program are those youth who serve as camp counselors. Not only are they recipients of the educational program, but also supervise and teach younger campers (Garst & Johnson, 2005; McNeely, 2004. As a result of their experience, camp counselors learn about and develop leadership and life skills (Thomas, 1996; Purcell, 1996. The residential camping experience allows youth to serve as volunteers through their role as camp counselors. In addition to the benefits earned from their volunteer role, residential camping provides youth camp counselors the opportunity to gain leadership skills (Arnold, 2003 as well as add to the camp structure, planning, and implementation (Hines & Riley, 2005.

  4. Induction of increased cAMP levels in articular chondrocytes blocks matrix metalloproteinase-mediated cartilage degradation, but not aggrecanase-mediated cartilage degradation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karsdal, Morten Asser; Sumer, Eren Ufuk; Wulf, Helle

    2007-01-01

    -dependently inhibited by forskolin and IBMX. The highest concentration of IBMX lowered cytokine-induced release of sGAG by 72%. CONCLUSION: Levels of cAMP in chondrocytes play a key role in controlling catabolic activity. Increased cAMP levels in chondrocytes inhibited MMP expression and activity and consequently......OBJECTIVE: Calcitonin has been suggested to have chondroprotective effects. One signaling pathway of calcitonin is via the second messenger cAMP. We undertook this study to investigate whether increased cAMP levels in chondrocytes would be chondroprotective. METHODS: Cartilage degradation...... was induced in bovine articular cartilage explants by 10 ng/ml oncostatin M (OSM) and 20 ng/ml tumor necrosis factor (TNF). In these cultures, cAMP levels were augmented by treatment with either forskolin (4, 16, or 64 microM) or 3-isobutyl-1-methyl xanthine (IBMX; 4, 16, or 64 microM). Cartilage degradation...

  5. Sulfur mustard analog, 2-chloroethyl ethyl sulfide-induced skin injury involves DNA damage and induction of inflammatory mediators, in part via oxidative stress, in SKH-1 hairless mouse skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Anil K; Tewari-Singh, Neera; Gu, Mallikarjuna; Inturi, Swetha; White, Carl W; Agarwal, Rajesh

    2011-09-10

    Bifunctional alkyalating agent, sulfur mustard (SM)-induced cutaneous injury is characterized by inflammation and delayed blistering. Our recent studies demonstrated that 2-chloroethyl ethyl sulfide (CEES), a monofunctional analog of SM that can be used in laboratory settings, induces oxidative stress. This could be the major cause of the activation of Akt/MAP kinase and AP1/NF-κB pathways that are linked to the inflammation and microvesication, and histopathological alterations in SKH-1 hairless mouse skin. To further establish a link between CEES-induced DNA damage and signaling pathways and inflammatory responses, skin samples from mice exposed to 2 mg or 4 mg CEES for 9-48 h were subjected to molecular analysis. Our results show a strong CEES-induced phosphorylation of H2A.X and an increase in cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), inducible NOS (iNOS), and matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) levels, indicating the involvement of DNA damage and inflammation in CEES-induced skin injury in male and female mice. Since, our recent studies showed reduction in CEES-induced inflammatory responses by glutathione (GSH), we further assessed the role of oxidative stress in CEES-related DNA damage and the induction of inflammatory molecules. Oral GSH (300 mg/kg) administration 1h before CEES exposure attenuated the increase in both CEES-induced H2A.X phosphorylation (59%) as well as expression of COX-2 (68%), iNOS (53%) and MMP-9 (54%). Collectively, our results indicate that CEES-induced skin injury involves DNA damage and an induction of inflammatory mediators, at least in part via oxidative stress. This study could help in identifying countermeasures that alone or in combination, can target the unveiled pathways for reducing skin injury in humans by SM. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. A specialized program for children with developmental disabilities within a "typical" overnight summer camp: Camp Ramah's Tikvah Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blas, Howard I

    2007-10-01

    The Tikvah Program is an overnight camping program at Camp Ramah in New England that serves campers with a range of developmental disabilities. The program has evolved over its 37-year history and includes a camping program, vocational training program, and inclusion program. Select graduates are hired by the camp for summer employment. The Tikvah Program offers a model for serving campers with special needs within a larger "typical" summer camp. Although serving the needs of such campers offers unique challenges, the presence of such a program in a regular summer camp offers tremendous opportunities and benefits for campers with special needs and more typically developing campers.

  7. cAMP level modulates scleral collagen remodeling, a critical step in the development of myopia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yijin Tao

    Full Text Available The development of myopia is associated with decreased ocular scleral collagen synthesis in humans and animal models. Collagen synthesis is, in part, under the influence of cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP. We investigated the associations between cAMP, myopia development in guinea pigs, and collagen synthesis by human scleral fibroblasts (HSFs. Form-deprived myopia (FDM was induced by unilateral masking of guinea pig eyes. Scleral cAMP levels increased selectively in the FDM eyes and returned to normal levels after unmasking and recovery. Unilateral subconjunctival treatment with the adenylyl cyclase (AC activator forskolin resulted in a myopic shift accompanied by reduced collagen mRNA levels, but it did not affect retinal electroretinograms. The AC inhibitor SQ22536 attenuated the progression of FDM. Moreover, forskolin inhibited collagen mRNA levels and collagen secretion by HSFs. The inhibition was reversed by SQ22536. These results demonstrate a critical role of cAMP in control of myopia development. Selective regulation of cAMP to control scleral collagen synthesis may be a novel therapeutic strategy for preventing and treating myopia.

  8. Refugees in and out North Africa: a study of the Choucha refugee camp in Tunisia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dourgnon, Paul; Kassar, Hassène

    2014-08-01

    In recent years, North African (NA) countries ceased to be emigration-only countries and are now on the verge of becoming immigration as well as transit countries for economic migrants and refugees. Contextual as well as structural long-term factors are driving these changes. The ongoing crises in Africa and the Middle East are prompting strong outflows of refugees, which are likely to induce NA countries to share some common public policy and public health concerns with European countries in a near future. This article highlights some aspects of these changes, from the study of the consequences of the 2011 Libyan crisis in Tunisia. It addresses individual trajectories and health concerns of refugees in and out North Africa from a study of the Choucha camp in Tunisia. The camp opened to immigrants from Libya during the 2011 crisis and accommodated the bulk of the refugees flow to Tunisia until July 2012. The study includes a monographic approach and a qualitative survey in the Choucha camp refugees. We describe the crisis history and the health response with a focus on the camp. We then address refugees' trajectories, and health needs and concerns from the interviews we collected in the camp in April 2012. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Public Health Association. All rights reserved.

  9. Involvement of a cyclic adenosine monophosphate-dependent signal in the diet-induced canalicular trafficking of adenosine triphosphate-binding cassette transporter g5/g8.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamazaki, Yasuhiro; Yasui, Kenta; Hashizume, Takahiro; Suto, Arisa; Mori, Ayaka; Murata, Yuzuki; Yamaguchi, Masahiko; Ikari, Akira; Sugatani, Junko

    2015-10-01

    The adenosine triphosphate-binding cassette (ABC) half-transporters Abcg5 and Abcg8 promote the secretion of neutral sterol into bile. Studies have demonstrated the diet-induced gene expression of these transporters, but the regulation of their trafficking when the nutritional status changes in the liver remains to be elucidated. Here, we generated a novel in vivo kinetic analysis that can monitor the intracellular trafficking of Abcg5/Abcg8 in living mouse liver by in vivo transfection of the genes of fluorescent protein-tagged transporters and investigated how hypernutrition affects the canalicular trafficking of these transporters. The kinetic analysis showed that lithogenic diet consumption accelerated the translocation of newly synthesized fluorescent-tagged transporters to intracellular pools in an endosomal compartment and enhanced the recruitment of these pooled gene products into the bile canalicular membrane in mouse liver. Because some ABC transporters are reported to be recruited from intracellular pools to the bile canaliculi by cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) signaling, we next evaluated the involvement of this machinery in a diet-induced event. Administration of a protein kinase A inhibitor, N-(2-{[3-(4-bromophenyl)-2-propenyl]amino}ethyl)-5-isoquinolinesulfonamide, decreased the canalicular expression of native Abcg5/Abcg8 in lithogenic diet-fed mice, and injection of a cAMP analog, dibutyryl cAMP, transiently increased their levels in standard diet-fed mice, indicating the involvement of cAMP signaling. Indeed, canalicular trafficking of the fluorescent-tagged Abcg5/Abcg8 was enhanced by dibutyryl cAMP administration. These observations suggest that diet-induced lipid loading into liver accelerates the trafficking of Abcg5/Abcg8 to the bile canalicular membrane through cAMP signaling machinery. © 2015 by the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases.

  10. Winter camp for pre-school children

    OpenAIRE

    Golc, Mateja

    2017-01-01

    This thesis details the importance of physical activity for a healthy development of pre-school children in all areas of their development. The focus is placed mainly on outdoor physical activity, in all seasons of the year and in all types of weather. Also highlighted is the importance of outdoor physical activity, stretching over several days, in the form of a winter camp for pre-school children. Pre-school teachers, who take over the organisation of a winter camp, face a challenging task, ...

  11. Flaubert et Du Camp : quelques remarques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michel Brix

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The Flaubert scholars accuse Maxime Du Camp of several instances of dishonesty and don’t pay attention to what Du Camp has said or written. This regrettable situation deprives the readers of numerous pieces of information which are likely to shed light on the stakes but also on the contradictions of the flaubertian poetics. This article takes a look at a few revealing cases and especially looks into the similitaries between a passage of the Du Camp’s book Le Nil (1854 and the episode where Marie Arnoux makes her appearance, in L’Éducation sentimentale (1869.

  12. Different roles of GNAS and cAMP signaling during early and late stages of osteogenic differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, S; Kaplan, F S; Shore, E M

    2012-09-01

    Progressive osseous heteroplasia (POH) and fibrous dysplasia (FD) are genetic diseases of bone formation at opposite ends of the osteogenic spectrum: imperfect osteogenesis of the skeleton occurs in FD, while heterotopic ossification in skin, subcutaneous fat, and skeletal muscle forms in POH. POH is caused by heterozygous inactivating germline mutations in GNAS, which encodes G-protein subunits regulating the cAMP pathway, while FD is caused by GNAS somatic activating mutations. We used pluripotent mouse ES cells to examine the effects of Gnas dysregulation on osteoblast differentiation. At the earliest stages of osteogenesis, Gnas transcripts Gsα, XLαs and 1A are expressed at low levels and cAMP levels are also low. Inhibition of cAMP signaling (as in POH) by 2',5'-dideoxyadenosine enhanced osteoblast differentiation while conversely, increased cAMP signaling (as in FD), induced by forskolin, inhibited osteoblast differentiation. Notably, increased cAMP was inhibitory for osteogenesis only at early stages after osteogenic induction. Expression of osteogenic and adipogenic markers showed that increased cAMP enhanced adipogenesis and impaired osteoblast differentiation even in the presence of osteogenic factors, supporting cAMP as a critical regulator of osteoblast and adipocyte lineage commitment. Furthermore, increased cAMP signaling decreased BMP pathway signaling, indicating that G protein-cAMP pathway activation (as in FD) inhibits osteoblast differentiation, at least in part by blocking the BMP-Smad pathway, and suggesting that GNAS inactivation as occurs in POH enhances osteoblast differentiation, at least in part by stimulating BMP signaling. These data support that differences in cAMP levels during early stages of cell differentiation regulate cell fate decisions. Supporting information available online at http:/www.thieme-connect.de/ejournals/toc/hmr. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  13. Analog Frame Store Memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-01-15

    enhancement when coupled with the video acquisition performed by the Frame Store Memory in mode 2. 3 -11 It cr (A 3 coJ 0( kLL P.- FAIRCHILO IMAGING ...AD-AOSI 979 FAIRCHILD IMAGING SYSTEMS SYOSSET N Y F/0 17/2 ANALOG FRAME STORE MEMORY . CU) JAN 80 OAAK77-C-0165 UNCLASSIFIED ED-CX-141-5 M 1 .0 H " 1...DESCRIPTION 1-2 1.1.1 Analog Frame Store Memory 1-2 1.1.2 Analog Field Storage Device 1-4 1.1.3 Image Analyzer Digital Display (IADD) 1-4 1.2 PROGRAM’S

  14. CMOS analog circuit design

    CERN Document Server

    Allen, Phillip E

    1987-01-01

    This text presents the principles and techniques for designing analog circuits to be implemented in a CMOS technology. The level is appropriate for seniors and graduate students familiar with basic electronics, including biasing, modeling, circuit analysis, and some familiarity with frequency response. Students learn the methodology of analog integrated circuit design through a hierarchically-oriented approach to the subject that provides thorough background and practical guidance for designing CMOS analog circuits, including modeling, simulation, and testing. The authors' vast industrial experience and knowledge is reflected in the circuits, techniques, and principles presented. They even identify the many common pitfalls that lie in the path of the beginning designer--expert advice from veteran designers. The text mixes the academic and practical viewpoints in a treatment that is neither superficial nor overly detailed, providing the perfect balance.

  15. Analogical Reasoning in Geometry Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magdas, Ioana

    2015-01-01

    The analogical reasoning isn't used only in mathematics but also in everyday life. In this article we approach the analogical reasoning in Geometry Education. The novelty of this article is a classification of geometrical analogies by reasoning type and their exemplification. Our classification includes: analogies for understanding and setting a…

  16. Teens Learn Leadership At Virginia Tech Summer Camps

    OpenAIRE

    Ho, Sookhan

    2003-01-01

    Summer camps are in full swing around the country. At Virginia Tech, rising 10th graders from all over the state are learning leadership skills at a series of unusual summer camps sponsored by the Virginia Police Chiefs Foundation.

  17. CPSC Warns of Carbon Monoxide Poisoning with Camping Equipment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Warns of Carbon Monoxide Poisoning Hazard with Camping Equipment The U.S. Consumer Product Safety Commission (CPSC) warns ... about the carbon monoxide (CO) hazard with camping equipment. CO can kill you! From 2002–2006, CPSC ...

  18. A resveratrol analog, phoyunbene B, induces G2/M cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in HepG2 liver cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Guanghui; Guo, Xiaoyu; Chen, Haifeng; Lin, Ting; Xu, Yang; Chen, Quancheng; Liu, Jie; Zeng, Jinzhang; Zhang, Xiao-Kun; Yao, Xinsheng

    2012-03-01

    Among the seven natural resveratrol analogs separated and identified from Pholidota yunnanensis R(OLFE), we found phoyunbene B (PYB, trans-3,4'-dihydroxy-2',3',5-trimethoxystilbene) was more effective in inhibiting the growth of HepG2 hepatocellular carcinoma cells than resveratrol. The inhibitory effect of PYB in HepG2 cells was due to its induction of G2/M cell cycle arrest and apoptosis. Induction of G2/M phase cell cycle arrest by PYB was associated with its up-regulation of Cyclin B1, while its induction of apoptosis was accompanied with its down-regulation of Bcl-2 and up-regulation of Bax. Our in vitro invasion/migration assays also showed that PYB could inhibit the invasion of hepatocellular carcinoma cells. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. [Analogies between "fraction P" with immunosuppressive properties in pregnant females and a protein fraction induced by estradiol treatment in the amphibian Salamandra salamandra L].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badet, M T

    1980-12-08

    A "fraction P" analogue possessing immunosuppressive properties during pregnancy in the Salamandra, can be induced by treating males and females with oestradiol. Both fractions possess the same physiochemical characteristics, and equally react against a Rabbit immune serum anti "fraction P" of pregnant Salamandra. But the proteic fraction induced by hormonal treatment does immunosuppressive properties.

  20. Medical Record Keeping in the Summer Camp Setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaufman, Laura; Holland, Jaycelyn; Weinberg, Stuart; Rosenbloom, S Trent

    2016-12-14

    Approximately one fifth of school-aged children spend a significant portion of their year at residential summer camp, and a growing number have chronic medical conditions. Camp health records are essential for safe, efficient care and for transitions between camp and home providers, yet little research exists regarding these systems. To survey residential summer camps for children to determine how camps create, store, and use camper health records. To raise awareness in the informatics community of the issues experienced by health providers working in a special pediatric care setting. We designed a web-based electronic survey concerning medical recordkeeping and healthcare practices at summer camps. 953 camps accredited by the American Camp Association received the survey. Responses were consolidated and evaluated for trends and conclusions. Of 953 camps contacted, 298 (31%) responded to the survey. Among respondents, 49.3% stated that there was no computer available at the health center, and 14.8% of camps stated that there was not any computer available to health staff at all. 41.1% of camps stated that internet access was not available. The most common complaints concerning recordkeeping practices were time burden, adequate completion, and consistency. Summer camps in the United States make efforts to appropriately document healthcare given to campers, but inconsistency and inefficiency may be barriers to staff productivity, staff satisfaction, and quality of care. Survey responses suggest that the current methods used by camps to document healthcare cause limitations in consistency, efficiency, and communications between providers, camp staff, and parents. As of 2012, survey respondents articulated need for a standard software to document summer camp healthcare practices that accounts for camp-specific needs. Improvement may be achieved if documentation software offers the networking capability, simplicity, pediatrics-specific features, and avoidance of

  1. Medical Record Keeping in the Summer Camp Setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holland, Jaycelyn; Weinberg, Stuart; Rosenbloom, S. Trent

    2016-01-01

    Summary Background Approximately one fifth of school-aged children spend a significant portion of their year at residential summer camp, and a growing number have chronic medical conditions. Camp health records are essential for safe, efficient care and for transitions between camp and home providers, yet little research exists regarding these systems. Objective To survey residential summer camps for children to determine how camps create, store, and use camper health records. To raise awareness in the informatics community of the issues experienced by health providers working in a special pediatric care setting. Methods We designed a web-based electronic survey concerning medical recordkeeping and healthcare practices at summer camps. 953 camps accredited by the American Camp Association received the survey. Responses were consolidated and evaluated for trends and conclusions. Results Of 953 camps contacted, 298 (31%) responded to the survey. Among respondents, 49.3% stated that there was no computer available at the health center, and 14.8% of camps stated that there was not any computer available to health staff at all. 41.1% of camps stated that internet access was not available. The most common complaints concerning recordkeeping practices were time burden, adequate completion, and consistency. Conclusions Summer camps in the United States make efforts to appropriately document health-care given to campers, but inconsistency and inefficiency may be barriers to staff productivity, staff satisfaction, and quality of care. Survey responses suggest that the current methods used by camps to document healthcare cause limitations in consistency, efficiency, and communications between providers, camp staff, and parents. As of 2012, survey respondents articulated need for a standard software to document summer camp healthcare practices that accounts for camp-specific needs. Improvement may be achieved if documentation software offers the networking capability

  2. Analog Experiment for rootless cone eruption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noguchi, R.; Hamada, A.; Suzuki, A.; Kurita, K.

    2017-09-01

    Rootless cone is a unique geomorphological landmark to specify igneous origin of investigated terrane, which is formed by magma-water interaction. To understand its formation mechanism we conducted analog experiment for heat-induced vesiculation by using hot syrup and sodium bicarbonate solution.

  3. Camp Health Aide Manual = Manual para trabajadores de salud.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, June Grube; And Others

    This bilingual manual serves as a textbook for migrant Camp Health Aides. Camp Health Aides are members of migrant labor camps enlisted to provide information about health and social services to migrant workers and their families. The manual is divided into 12 tabbed sections representing lessons. Teaching notes printed on contrasting paper…

  4. Summer Camp and Positive Youth Development: Program with Romanian Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feenstra, Jennifer S.

    2015-01-01

    A variety of activities are used in camps to help promote positive youth development, improving social skills and self-esteem in campers. I expanded on previous camp research in this study to address the influence camps have on trust, belief in the honesty of others, empowerment, and care for others in youth in Eastern Europe. Since 1999, New…

  5. Summer camps for diabetic children: an experience in Antalya, Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semiz, S; Bilgin, U O; Bundak, R; Bircan, I

    2000-01-01

    To evaluate the effectiveness of diabetic summer camps with objective parameters, we examined the data relative to summer camps organized by our department in Antalya in the last two years. The duration of the camps was 10 days. Twenty-eight diabetic children with an average age of 13.6 +/- 2.9 years (range 8-20) participated in the first camp, fourteen of whom participated in both camps. The medical personnel consisted of three pediatric endocrinologists, one psychologist, two diabetes nurses and two dietitians. Despite a mean 10% reduction in insulin dosage and 10% increment in daily calorie intake at the beginning of the camp, hypoglycemia was common (mean, 2.4 hypoglycemic episodes per subject). Ketoacidosis was not encountered in any of the subjects during and after camps. An increment in weight in children whose weights, with respect to heights, were under the ideal weight and a decrement in weight of overweight children were observed at the end of the first camp. A significant improvement in knowledge and self-management of the disease was noted at the end of the camps. Improvement in nutrition and diabetic knowledge level of the children who participated in these consecutive camps was more obvious in the second compared with that in the first camp. No significant change in HbA1c level was observed at follow-up. In conclusion, summer camps are an invaluable way for diabetic children to gain skills in managing their disease.

  6. 7 CFR 502.6 - Hunting, fishing, camping, horseback riding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Hunting, fishing, camping, horseback riding. 502.6..., MARYLAND § 502.6 Hunting, fishing, camping, horseback riding. The use of BARC grounds for any form of hunting, fishing, camping, or horseback riding is prohibited. Further, the use of these grounds for...

  7. Nutritional Status of Children in Displacement Camps in Sierra Leone

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this study, stunting, under nutrition, and wasting were measured among 454 children under the age of 10 years in four internally displaced persons (IDP) camps. Stunting was found to be the most common nutritional abnormality in all four IDP camps with the highest prevalence rate (29.3%) in the Trade Center Camp and ...

  8. Engaging in the Community: Zoo Camp Goes to School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martell, Emma

    2017-01-01

    Museum camps are a popular option over school vacation, but they are not always accessible to families who lack transportation and live far from the institution. This article presents an alternative format for camp: running a museum camp from within a neighborhood public school. Collaboration with school staff and community members is a key to…

  9. Three-Dimensional Learning at Camp Mind's Eye.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryant, Rita

    1987-01-01

    Camp Mind's Eye is a one-week residential summer program for intellectually and creatively gifted children provided by Camp Tyler (Texas), one of the oldest outdoor education facilities. The camp program stresses right brain thinking, a flexible curriculum, and autonomous instructors. (DB)

  10. Analog signal isolation techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beadle, E.R.

    1992-12-31

    This paper discusses several techniques for isolating analog signals in an accelerator environment. The techniques presented here encompass isolation amplifiers, voltage-to-frequency converters (VIFCs), transformers, optocouplers, discrete fiber optics, and commercial fiber optic links. Included within the presentation of each method are the design issues that must be considered when selecting the isolation method for a specific application.

  11. Analog signal isolation techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beadle, E.R.

    1992-01-01

    This paper discusses several techniques for isolating analog signals in an accelerator environment. The techniques presented here encompass isolation amplifiers, voltage-to-frequency converters (VIFCs), transformers, optocouplers, discrete fiber optics, and commercial fiber optic links. Included within the presentation of each method are the design issues that must be considered when selecting the isolation method for a specific application.

  12. Quantum Analog Computing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zak, M.

    1998-01-01

    Quantum analog computing is based upon similarity between mathematical formalism of quantum mechanics and phenomena to be computed. It exploits a dynamical convergence of several competing phenomena to an attractor which can represent an externum of a function, an image, a solution to a system of ODE, or a stochastic process.

  13. How Analogy Drives Physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hofstadter, Doug (Indiana University)

    2004-05-05

    Many new ideas in theoretical physics come from analogies to older ideas in physics. For instance, the abstract notion of 'isospin' (or isotopic spin) originated in the prior concept of 'spin' (quantized angular momentum); likewise, the concept of 'phonon' (quantum of sound, or quantized collective excitation of a crystal) was based on the prior concept of 'photon' (quantum of light, or quantized element of the electromagnetic field). But these two examples, far from being exceptions, in fact represent the bread and butter of inventive thinking in physics. In a nutshell, intraphysics analogy-making -- borrowing by analogy with something already known in another area of physics -- is central to the progress of physics. The aim of this talk is to reveal the pervasiveness -- indeed, the indispensability -- of this kind of semi-irrational, wholly intuitive type of thinking (as opposed to more deductive mathematical inference) in the mental activity known as 'doing physics'. Speculations as to why wild analogical leaps are so crucial to the act of discovery in physics (as opposed to other disciplines) will be offered.

  14. Sexual Harassment at Camp: Reducing Liability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oakleaf, Linda; Grube, Angela Johnson

    2003-01-01

    Employers are responsible for sexual harassment perpetrated by a supervisor. Camps may be responsible for sexual harassment between campers. Steps to reduce liability include providing multiple channels for reporting sexual harassment; having written policies prohibiting sexual harassment and procedures for reporting it; posting these policies and…

  15. Healthy Campers: The Physical Benefits of Camp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McSwegin, Patricia; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Discusses the importance of planning, implementing, and evaluating camp physical activity programs. Appropriate physical activity programing should consider frequency, intensity, time, and type of activity. Also important are following the principles critical to physical training: specificity, overload, and progression. Two examples of physical…

  16. British scorched earth and concentration camp policies.

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nick

    THE BRITISH SCORCHED EARTH AND. CONCENTRATION CAMP POLICIES IN THE. POTCHEFSTROOM REGION, 1899–1902. 1. Prof GN van den Bergh. Research Associate, North-West University. Abstract. The continued military resistance of the Republics after the occupation of. Bloemfontein and Pretoria and ...

  17. Camp Minden Fact Sheet April 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Two groups of PRPs which include GD/ATK and Hercules Inc. signed Administrative Orders on Consent with the EPA that will remove and dispose approximately 3.7 million pounds of explosive material at the Explo Systems, Inc Camp Minden, Louisiana site.

  18. E. Coli: Preventing Outbreaks at Camp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKinney, Mary D.

    1996-01-01

    One strain of E. coli is not usually found in foods, but has been related to consumption of undercooked ground beef. Symptoms are stomach cramps and diarrhea, and 2-7% of infections lead to hemolytic uremic syndrome, which is life threatening. Camps can prevent outbreaks by avoiding uncooked meat on overnight campouts and requiring appropriate…

  19. Curcumin analog 1, 5-bis (2-trifluoromethylphenyl)-1, 4-pentadien-3-one exhibits enhanced ability on Nrf2 activation and protection against acrolein-induced ARPE-19 cell toxicity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Yuan [Center for Mitochondrial Biology and Medicine, The Key Laboratory of Biomedical Information Engineering of Ministry of Education, School of Life Science and Technology and Frontier Institute of Life Science, FIST, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an (China); Zou, Xuan [Center for Translational Medicine, FIST, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an (China); Cao, Ke; Xu, Jie; Yue, Tingting [Center for Mitochondrial Biology and Medicine, The Key Laboratory of Biomedical Information Engineering of Ministry of Education, School of Life Science and Technology and Frontier Institute of Life Science, FIST, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an (China); Dai, Fang; Zhou, Bo [State Key Laboratory of Applied Organic Chemistry, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou (China); Lu, Wuyuan [Center for Translational Medicine, FIST, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an (China); Feng, Zhihui, E-mail: zhfeng@mail.xjtu.edu.cn [Center for Mitochondrial Biology and Medicine, The Key Laboratory of Biomedical Information Engineering of Ministry of Education, School of Life Science and Technology and Frontier Institute of Life Science, FIST, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an (China); Liu, Jiankang, E-mail: j.liu@mail.xjtu.edu.cn [Center for Mitochondrial Biology and Medicine, The Key Laboratory of Biomedical Information Engineering of Ministry of Education, School of Life Science and Technology and Frontier Institute of Life Science, FIST, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an (China)

    2013-11-01

    Curcumin, a phytochemical agent in the spice turmeric, has received increasing attention for its anticancer, anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties. However, application of curcumin has been limited due to its insolubility in water and poor bioavailability both clinically and experimentally. In addition, the protective effects and mechanisms of curcumin in eye diseases have been poorly studied. In the present study, we synthesized a curcumin analog, 1, 5-bis (2-trifluoromethylphenyl)-1, 4-pentadien-3-one (C3), which displayed improved protective effect against acrolein-induced toxicity in a human retinal pigment epithelial cell line (ARPE-19). At 5 μM, curcumin completely protected against acrolein-induced cell oxidative damage and preserved GSH levels and mitochondrial function. Surprisingly, C3 displayed a complete protective effect at 0.5 μM, which was much more efficient than curcumin. Both 0.5 μM C3 and 5 μM curcumin induced Nrf2 nuclear translocation and Nrf2 target genes transcription similarly. Experiments using Nrf2 siRNA showed that the protective effects of curcumin and C3 were eliminated by Nrf2 knockdown. Additionally, both curcumin and C3 activated the PI3/Akt pathway, however, Nrf2 activation was independent of this pathway, and therefore, we hypothesized that both curcumin and C3 activated phase II enzymes via directly disrupting the Nrf2/Keap1 complex and promoting Nrf2's nuclear translocation. Since acrolein challenge of ARPE-19 cells has been used as a model of smoking and age-related macular degeneration (AMD), we concluded that the curcumin analog, C3, may be a more promising drug candidate for its potential application for the prevention and treatment of eye diseases, such as AMD. - Highlights: • We examine toxicity effects of cigarette smoking component acrolein in retina cells. • We report a more efficient curcumin analog (C3) protecting cellular function. • Mitochondrial function and phase II enzyme activation are the

  20. Bioactivatable, membrane-permeant analogs of cyclic nucleotides as biological tools for growth control of C6 glioma cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bartsch, M; Zorn-Kruppa, M; Kuhl, N; Genieser, HG; Schwede, F; Jastorff, B

    In the present study, the cAMP analogs 8-bromocAMP (8-BrcAMP), N6-2OdibutyrylcAMP (DBcAMP) and 8-parachlorophenylthiocAMP (8-CPTcAMP), as well as the corresponding cAMPacetoxymethyl (AM)esterprodrugs were tested in a HPLC study for their membrane permeability, intracellular accumulation and

  1. cAMP inhibits CSF-1-stimulated tyrosine phosphorylation but augments CSF-1R-mediated macrophage differentiation and ERK activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Nicholas J; Cross, Maddalena; Nguyen, Thao; Hamilton, John A

    2005-08-01

    Macrophage colony stimulating factor (M-CSF) or CSF-1 controls the development of the macrophage lineage through its receptor tyrosine kinase, c-Fms. cAMP has been shown to influence proliferation and differentiation in many cell types, including macrophages. In addition, modulation of cellular ERK activity often occurs when cAMP levels are raised. We have shown previously that agents that increase cellular cAMP inhibited CSF-1-dependent proliferation in murine bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMM) which was associated with an enhanced extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) activity. We report here that increasing cAMP levels, by addition of either 8-bromo cAMP (8BrcAMP) or prostaglandin E(1) (PGE1), can induce macrophage differentiation in M1 myeloid cells engineered to express the CSF-1 receptor (M1/WT cells) and can potentiate CSF-1-induced differentiation in the same cells. The enhanced CSF-1-dependent differentiation induced by raising cAMP levels correlated with enhanced ERK activity. Thus, elevated cAMP can promote either CSF-1-induced differentiation or inhibit CSF-1-induced proliferation depending on the cellular context. The mitogen-activated protein kinase/extracellular signal-related protein kinase kinase (MEK) inhibitor, PD98059, inhibited both the cAMP- and the CSF-1R-dependent macrophage differentiation of M1/WT cells suggesting that ERK activity might be important for differentiation in the M1/WT cells. Surprisingly, addition of 8BrcAMP or PGE1 to either CSF-1-treated M1/WT or BMM cells suppressed the CSF-1R-dependent tyrosine phosphorylation of cellular substrates, including that of the CSF-1R itself. It appears that there are at least two CSF-1-dependent pathway(s), one MEK/ERK dependent pathway and another controlling the bulk of the tyrosine phosphorylation, and that cAMP can modulate signalling through both of these pathways.

  2. PDE4-Mediated cAMP Signalling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bracy A. Fertig

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available cAMP is the archetypal and ubiquitous second messenger utilised for the fine control of many cardiovascular cell signalling systems. The ability of cAMP to elicit cell surface receptor-specific responses relies on its compartmentalisation by cAMP hydrolysing enzymes known as phosphodiesterases. One family of these enzymes, PDE4, is particularly important in the cardiovascular system, where it has been extensively studied and shown to orchestrate complex, localised signalling that underpins many crucial functions of the heart. In the cardiac myocyte, cAMP activates PKA, which phosphorylates a small subset of mostly sarcoplasmic substrate proteins that drive β-adrenergic enhancement of cardiac function. The phosphorylation of these substrates, many of which are involved in cardiac excitation-contraction coupling, has been shown to be tightly regulated by highly localised pools of individual PDE4 isoforms. The spatial and temporal regulation of cardiac signalling is made possible by the formation of macromolecular “signalosomes”, which often include a cAMP effector, such as PKA, its substrate, PDE4 and an anchoring protein such as an AKAP. Studies described in the present review highlight the importance of this relationship for individual cardiac PKA substrates and we provide an overview of how this signalling paradigm is coordinated to promote efficient adrenergic enhancement of cardiac function. The role of PDE4 also extends to the vascular endothelium, where it regulates vascular permeability and barrier function. In this distinct location, PDE4 interacts with adherens junctions to regulate their stability. These highly specific, non-redundant roles for PDE4 isoforms have far reaching therapeutic potential. PDE inhibitors in the clinic have been plagued with problems due to the active site-directed nature of the compounds which concomitantly attenuate PDE activity in all highly localised “signalosomes”.

  3. Body Art Comes to Camp: Tattooing and Piercing Are Becoming Mainstream; Does Your Camp Have a Policy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameron, Sandy

    2000-01-01

    Tattooing and body piercing are becoming mainstream, especially among the college population that comprises camp staff. Campers often idolize their counselors and want to be like them. Piercings may present a safety hazard. Camps should develop a policy and communicate it to prospective counselors and campers as early as possible. Several camps'…

  4. Losartan decreases vasopressin-mediated cAMP accumulation in the thick ascending limb of the loop of Henle in rats with congestive heart failure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Torp, M; Brønd, L; Hadrup, N

    2007-01-01

    receptor type-1 (AT(1)) blockade with losartan. AIM: In this study, we investigated whether CHF rats displayed changes in AVP stimulated cAMP formation in the TAL and examined the role of AT(1) receptor blockade on this system. METHOD: CHF was induced by ligation of the left anterior descending coronary...... artery (LAD). SHAM-operated rats were used as controls. Half of the rats were treated with losartan (10 mg kg day(-1) i.p.). RESULTS: CHF rats were characterized by increased left ventricular end diastolic pressure. Measurement of cAMP in isolated outer medullary TAL showed that both basal and AVP (10......(-6) m) stimulated cAMP levels were significantly increased in CHF rats (25.52 +/- 4.49 pmol cAMP microg(-1) protein, P Losartan significantly reduced the basal level of cAMP in CHF rats (CHF: 12.56 +/- 1.93 fmol...

  5. Impairment of cardiac function and remodeling induced by myocardial infarction in rats are attenuated by the nonpeptide angiotensin-(1-7) analog AVE 0991.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Wu-tao; Chen, Wei-yan; Leng, Xiu-yu; Tang, Li-long; Sun, Xiu-ting; Li, Cui-ling; Dai, Gang

    2012-06-01

    We evaluated effects of the nonpeptide angiotensin (ANG)-(1-7) analog AVE 0991 (AVE) on cardiac function and remodeling as well as transforming growth factor-beta1 (TGF-β1)/tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) expression in myocardial infarction rat models. Sprague-Dawley rats underwent either sham surgery or coronary ligation. They were divided into four groups: sham, control, AVE, and AVE+A-779 [[D-Ala(7) ]-ANG-(1-7), a selective antagonist for the ANG-(1-7)] group. After 4 weeks of treatment, the AVE group displayed a significant elevation in left ventricular fractional shorting (LVFS) (25.5 ± 7.3% vs. 18.4 ± 3.3%, P AVE group when compared to the control group. There were no differences in LVFS, LVEF, myocyte diameter, and infarct size between the control and AVE+A-779 groups. AVE also markedly attenuated the increased mRNA expression of collagen I (P AVE could improve cardiac function and attenuate ventricular remodeling in MI rat models. It may involve the inhibition of inflammatory factors TGF-β1/TNF-α overexpression and the action on the specific receptor Mas of ANG-(1-7). © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  6. A novel protoapigenone analog RY10-4 induces breast cancer MCF-7 cell death through autophagy via the Akt/mTOR pathway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Xuenong; Wei, Han; Liu, Ziwei; Yuan, Qianying [Key Laboratory of Natural Medicinal Chemistry and Resource Evaluation of Hubei Province, School of Pharmacy, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430030 (China); Wei, Anhua [Department of Pharmacy, Tongji Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430030 (China); Shi, Du; Yang, Xian [Key Laboratory of Natural Medicinal Chemistry and Resource Evaluation of Hubei Province, School of Pharmacy, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430030 (China); Ruan, Jinlan, E-mail: jinlan8152@163.com [Key Laboratory of Natural Medicinal Chemistry and Resource Evaluation of Hubei Province, School of Pharmacy, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430030 (China)

    2013-07-15

    Protoapigenone is a unique flavonoid and enriched in many ferns, showing potent antitumor activity against a broad spectrum of human cancer cell lines. RY10-4, a modified version of protoapigenone, manifested better anti-proliferation activity in human breast cancer cell line MCF-7. The cytotoxicity of RY10-4 against MCF-7 cells is exhibited in both time- and concentration-dependent manners. Here we investigated a novel effect of RY10-4 mediated autophagy in autophagy defect MCF-7 cells. Employing immunofluorescence assay for microtubule-associated protein light-chain 3 (LC3), monodansylcadaverine staining, Western blotting analyses for LC3 and p62 as well as ultrastructural analysis by transmission electron microscopy, we showed that RY10-4 induced autophagy in MCF-7 cells but protoapigenone did not. Meanwhile, inhibition of autophagy by pharmacological and genetic approaches significantly increased the viability of RY10-4 treated cells, suggesting that the autophagy induced by RY10-4 played as a promotion mechanism for cell death. Further studies revealed that RY10-4 suppressed the activation of mTOR and p70S6K via the Akt/mTOR pathway. Our results provided new insights for the mechanism of RY10-4 induced cell death and the cause of RY10-4 showing better antitumor activity than protoapigenone, and supported further evidences for RY10-4 as a lead to design a promising antitumor agent. - Highlights: • We showed that RY10-4 induced autophagy in MCF-7 cells but protoapigenone did not. • Autophagy induced by RY10-4 played as a promotion mechanism for cell death. • RY10-4 induced autophagy in MCF-7 cell through the Akt/mTOR pathway. • We provided new insights for the mechanism of RY10-4 induced cell death.

  7. The Ca2+/CaMKK2 axis mediates the telbivudine induced upregulation of creatine kinase: Implications for mechanism of antiviral nucleoside analogs' side effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jianfei, Long; Min, Wang; Chunlai, Ma; Bicui, Chen; Jiming, Zhang; Bin, Wang

    2017-12-15

    Telbivudine (LdT), a widely prescribed anti-hepatitis B virus (HBV) drug for the treatment of chronic Hepatitis B (CHB), causes adverse reactions ranging from creatine kinase (CK) elevation to myopathy. The purpose of this study was to explore the mechanism(s) of LdT induced CK elevation. The effects of LdT on mitochondrial morphology and proteins (TK2 and β-actin), oxidative stress, intracellular Ca2+ levels, Ca2+-related signaling pathway (CaMKK2/AMPK), and Ca2+-related biomarkers such as superoxide dismutase (SOD) and malondialdehyde (MDA) were assessed in human skeletal muscle cells (HSKMCs). The results showed that LdT induced a dose-dependent increase in CK activity in HSKMCs, without affecting mitochondrial morphology, and TK2 and β-actin protein levels, following 72 h of treatment. In addition, LdT increased Ca2+ production, ROS generation, MDA and lipid peroxide (LPO) levels, and activated the CaMKK2/AMPK signaling pathway. Moreover, these effects were attenuated by the BAPIA-AM (the calcium chelator). We also confirmed the presence of relevant markers (MDA, LPO, and SOD) in serum from CHB patients after LdT treatment, and found that CK was positively correlated with MDA and LPO, and negatively associated with SOD. These findings indicate that LdT induces CK elevation and oxidative stress associated with imbalance of intracellular Ca2+ in HSKMCs, suggesting that Ca2+/CaMKK2 axis imbalance may underlie human LdT-induced CK elevation. The present findings provide a solid basis for assessing the mechanism of drug-induced CK elevation, which can help develop new tools for the prevention and treatment of diseases associated with drug-induced CK elevation. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  8. Summer camps for children with burn injuries: a literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maslow, Gary R; Lobato, Debra

    2010-01-01

    The first summer camps for children with burn injuries started over 25 years ago, and as of 2008, there were 60 camps worldwide. This review examines the literature on summer pediatric burn camps. The authors describe common characteristics of burn camp structure, activities, and staffing and then examine the scientific evidence regarding the effect of burn camp programs on campers and camp staff volunteers. A search of Pubmed and Psychinfo databases from 1970 to 2008 for articles related to pediatric burn summer camps identified 17 articles, of which 13 fit the inclusion criteria. Existing literature consists primarily of qualitative studies, suggesting that burn camp can decrease camper isolation, improve self-esteem, and promote coping and social skills. Studies examining volunteer staff at burn camp have consistently found that there are both personal and professional benefits. Quantitative studies of self-esteem have yielded equivocal results. No studies have examined safety or the effect of burn camp on medical or rehabilitation outcomes. For the past 25 years, pediatric summer camps for children with burn injuries have played an important rehabilitation role and provided a strong community that benefits both campers and staff. Future research using more rigorous research methods and examining a broader range of outcomes (eg, safety and medical/rehabilitation outcomes) is recommended.

  9. Communication Boot Camp: Discover the Speaker in You!

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zuraidah Binti Ali

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Learning can take place almost anywhere, and this is especially true for our undergraduates who wish to become public speakers. Besides university course and public speaking workshops on campus grounds, undergraduates are now looking for a different learning environment – communication boot camps!! This study presents a compilation of learners’ experience, fun-filled activities, insightful feedback and memorable boot camp moments as captured in camp photos and feedback surveys. It involves a total of thirty seven undergraduates who enrolled in a Communication Boot Camp at Janda Baik, Pahang. Results show that Communication Boot Camp is a successful strategy to groom public speakers with a positive correlation between camp success and camp objectives, particularly in reducing shyness, motivating participants to become public speakers and discovering their talent and skills. In short, the study adds to the promise of zest and delight in public speaking.

  10. Components of Camp Experiences for Positive Youth Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karla A. Henderson

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Youth development specialists advocate that well designed, implemented, and staffed youth centered programs result in positive outcomes for young people. Youth organizations have provided opportunities for young people to participate in camping experiences for over a century. The purpose of this paper is to describe what program components were related to camp environments and positive youth development. We describe these program components related to positive youth development based on a large scale national study of ACA (American Camp Association accredited camps that included independent, religiously affiliated, government, and not-for-profit organizations. Based on the responses given by camp directors, contact and leadership from trained staff and the supportive relationships they provided were essential elements of camp. Other aspects leading to positive youth development in camps were program mission and structure along with elements of accountability, assessment of outcomes, and opportunities for skill building.

  11. Children's cancer camps: a way to understand grief differently.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laing, Catherine M; Moules, Nancy J

    2015-01-01

    A philosophical hermeneutic study was conducted as part of the first author's doctoral research to understand the meaning of children's cancer camps for the child with cancer and the family. Twenty family members from six families were interviewed in order to bring understanding to this topic. This article will detail the finding related to the experience of grief that often accompanies a cancer diagnosis, and how camp seems to allow children and families to understand their grief differently. The interesting thing about this particular cancer camp is that families of children who have died continue to attend the camp yearly, and there are events to memorialize the many children known to all the campers who no longer attend camp. This is not a grief camp but a cancer camp where grief is allowed presence as it necessarily has to in the world of childhood cancer.

  12. Suicide in Nazi concentration camps, 1933-9.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goeschel, Christian

    2010-01-01

    Too often histories of the concentration camps tend to be ignorant of the wider political context of nazi repression and control. This article tries to overcome this problem. Combining legal, social and political history, it contributes to a more thorough understanding of the changing relationship between the camps as places of extra-legal terror and the judiciary, between nazi terror and the law. It argues that the conflict between the judiciary and the SS was not a conflict between "good" and "evil," as existing accounts claim. Rather, it was a power struggle for jurisdiction over the camps. Concentration camp authorities covered up the murders of prisoners as suicides to prevent judicial investigations. This article also looks at actual suicides in the pre-war camps, to highlight individual inmates' reactions to life within the camps. The article concludes that the history of the concentration camps needs to be firmly integrated into the history of nazi terror and the Third Reich.

  13. Terrestrial Spaceflight Analogs: Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crucian, Brian

    2013-01-01

    Alterations in immune cell distribution and function, circadian misalignment, stress and latent viral reactivation appear to persist during Antarctic winterover at Concordia Station. Some of these changes are similar to those observed in Astronauts, either during or immediately following spaceflight. Others are unique to the Concordia analog. Based on some initial immune data and environmental conditions, Concordia winterover may be an appropriate analog for some flight-associated immune system changes and mission stress effects. An ongoing smaller control study at Neumayer III will address the influence of the hypoxic variable. Changes were observed in the peripheral blood leukocyte distribution consistent with immune mobilization, and similar to those observed during spaceflight. Alterations in cytokine production profiles were observed during winterover that are distinct from those observed during spaceflight, but potentially consistent with those observed during persistent hypobaric hypoxia. The reactivation of latent herpesviruses was observed during overwinter/isolation, that is consistently associated with dysregulation in immune function.

  14. S-Equol Activates cAMP Signaling at the Plasma Membrane of INS-1 Pancreatic β-Cells and Protects against Streptozotocin-Induced Hyperglycemia by Increasing β-Cell Function in Male Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horiuchi, Hiroko; Usami, Atsuko; Shirai, Rie; Harada, Naoki; Ikushiro, Shinichi; Sakaki, Toshiyuki; Nakano, Yoshihisa; Inui, Hiroshi; Yamaji, Ryoichi

    2017-09-01

    Background:S-equol, which is enantioselectively produced from daidzein by gut microbiota, has been suggested as a chemopreventive agent against type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), but the underlying mechanisms remain unclear.Objective: We investigated the effects of S-equol on pancreatic β-cell function.Methods: β-Cell growth and insulin secretion were evaluated with male Institute of Cancer Research mice and isolated pancreatic islets from the mice, respectively. The mechanisms by which S-equol stimulated β-cell response were examined in INS-1 β-cells. The effect of S-equol treatment on β-cell function was assessed in low-dose streptozotocin-treated mice. S-equol was used at 10 μmol/L for in vitro and ex vivo studies and was administered by oral gavage (20 mg/kg, 2 times/d throughout the experimental period) for in vivo studies.Results:S-equol administration for 7 d increased Ki67-positive β-cells by 27% (P cells, S-equol exerted stronger effects than daidzein on cell growth, insulin secretion, and cAMP-response element (CRE)-mediated transcription. These S-equol effects were diminished by inhibiting protein kinase A. The effective concentration of S-equol for stimulating cAMP production at the plasma membrane was lower than that for phosphodiesterase inhibition. S-equol-stimulated CRE activation was negatively controlled by the knockdown of G-protein α subunit group S (stimulatory) and positively controlled by that of G-protein-coupled receptor kinase-3 and -6. Compared with vehicle-treated controls, S-equol gavage treatment resulted in an increase in β-cell mass of 104% (P cells by 62% (P cells by 75% (P cell function and prevents hypoglycemia in mice, suggesting its potential for T2DM prevention. © 2017 American Society for Nutrition.

  15. Antarctic analogs for Enceladus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, A. E.; Andersen, D. T.; McKay, C. P.

    2014-12-01

    Enceladus is a new world for Astrobiology. The Cassini discovery of the icy plume emanating from the South Polar region indicates an active world, where detection of water, organics, sodium, and nano-particle silica in the plume strongly suggests that the source is a subsurface salty ocean reservoir. Recent gravity data from Cassini confirms the presence of a regional sea extending north to 50°S. An ocean habitat under a thick ice cover is perhaps a recurring theme in the Outer Solar System, but what makes Enceladus unique is that the plume jetting out into space is carrying samples of this ocean. Therefore, through the study of Enceladus' plumes we can gain new insights not only of a possible habitable world in the Solar Systems, but also about the formation and evolution of other icy-satellites. Cassini has been able to fly through this plume - effectively sampling the ocean. It is time to plan for future missions that do more detailed analyses, possibly return samples back to Earth and search for evidence of life. To help prepare for such missions, the need for earth-based analog environments is essential for logistical, methodological (life detection) and theoretical development. We have undertaken studies of two terrestrial environments that are close analogs to Enceladus' ocean: Lake Vida and Lake Untersee - two ice-sealed Antarctic lakes that represent physical, chemical and possibly biological analogs for Enceladus. By studying the diverse biology and physical and chemical constraints to life in these two unique lakes we will begin to understand the potential habitability of Enceladus and other icy moons, including possible sources of nutrients and energy, which together with liquid water are the key ingredients for life. Analog research such as this will also enable us to develop and test new strategies to search for evidence of life on Enceladus.

  16. Pandemic influenza a in residential summer camps--Maine, 2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Sara; Averhoff, Francisco; Kiel, John; Blaisdell, Laura; Haber, Michael; Sites, Anne; Copeland, Daphne

    2012-06-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the preparedness for and response of Maine summer camps to the 2009 pandemic influenza H1N1 (pH1N1). We conducted a retrospective web-based survey of the Maine Youth Camping Foundation members at the end of the 2009 camping season. The outcome measures were responses to the pandemic including educational efforts, isolation practices and antiviral usages as well as percentage of influenza-like illness (ILI) and laboratory-confirmed influenza outbreaks among Maine residential summer camps. Of 107 residential camps queried, 91 (85%) responded. Although 43 (47%) of 91 camps reported cases of ILI, and 19 (21%) had outbreaks (ie, 3 or more confirmed cases of pH1N1), no respondents reported closing camps or canceling sessions. Most camps reported that they communicated with campers' families about pH1N1 and implemented control measures, including educating campers and staff about symptoms, isolating ill campers and staff, encouraging increased hand washing and hygiene practices and increasing the availability of hand sanitizers. Of the 43 camps with cases of ILI or laboratory-confirmed pH1N1, 25 (58%) used antiviral medication for treatment, and 18 (42%) used antiviral medications for prophylaxis; antiviral practices varied among camps. Summer camps in Maine were in general well prepared for pH1N1. Most camps followed public health guidance and implemented preventive measures. Many camps experienced ILI and outbreaks during the season, but did not report major disruptions. Camps should review their preparedness and disease control plans annually and public health authorities should keep guidance and recommendations simple and consistent.

  17. NaturAnalogs for the Unsaturated Zone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    A. Simmons; A. Unger; M. Murrell

    2000-03-08

    The purpose of this Analysis/Model Report (AMR) is to document natural and anthropogenic (human-induced) analog sites and processes that are applicable to flow and transport processes expected to occur at the potential Yucca Mountain repository in order to build increased confidence in modeling processes of Unsaturated Zone (UZ) flow and transport. This AMR was prepared in accordance with ''AMR Development Plan for U0135, Natural Analogs for the UZ'' (CRWMS 1999a). Knowledge from analog sites and processes is used as corroborating information to test and build confidence in flow and transport models of Yucca Mountain, Nevada. This AMR supports the Unsaturated Zone (UZ) Flow and Transport Process Model Report (PMR) and the Yucca Mountain Site Description. The objectives of this AMR are to test and build confidence in the representation of UZ processes in numerical models utilized in the UZ Flow and Transport Model. This is accomplished by: (1) applying data from Boxy Canyon, Idaho in simulations of UZ flow using the same methodologies incorporated in the Yucca Mountain UZ Flow and Transport Model to assess the fracture-matrix interaction conceptual model; (2) Providing a preliminary basis for analysis of radionuclide transport at Pena Blanca, Mexico as an analog of radionuclide transport at Yucca Mountain; and (3) Synthesizing existing information from natural analog studies to provide corroborating evidence for representation of ambient and thermally coupled UZ flow and transport processes in the UZ Model.

  18. Yoga camp in Ayurvedgrams of Chhattisgarh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raghavendra Madhu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The clinical and empirical health benefits of yoga and pranayam have been reiterated through research. Yoga is being adopted as a system to alleviate the burden of noncommunicable diseases (NCDs across the globe. The Directorate of AYUSH, Government of Chhattisgarh (DoA, GoCG conducts annual 5-day-yoga camp across 146 Ayurvedgrams in the State. The present article brings out the AYUSH initiatives the State is taking toward active ageing. A total of 71,096 people participated in the 5-day-yoga camp across the State. A mean participation of 5079 people over 5 days was reported across districts. Such statewide practices need to be promoted and appraised.

  19. A novel quinazoline-based analog induces G2/M cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in human A549 lung cancer cells via a ROS-dependent mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Hailong; Li, Yan; Ren, Xiaorong; Zhang, Yaohong; Yang, Zhen; Qi, Chenze

    2017-04-29

    6-amino-4-(4-phenoxyphenylethylamino)quinazoline (QNZ) is an excellent quinazoline-containing NF-κB inhibitor also acting as a novel anticancer agent. Considering both the medicinal significance of quinazoline scaffold and the tunable functionality of Michael acceptor-centric pharmacophores in the electrophilicity-based prooxidant strategy, we designed a novel QNZ-inspired electrophilic molecule QNZ-A by introducing a Michael acceptor unit at position-6 of quinazoline ring in QNZ. Our results identified QNZ-A as a promising selective cytotoxic agent against A549 cells. QNZ-A, by virtue of its Michael acceptor unit, induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) accumulation associated with collapse of the redox buffering system in A549 cells. This caused up-regulation of p53-inducible p21 and down-regulation of redox sensitive Cdc25C along with Cyclin B1/Cdk1, leading to a G2/M cell cycle arrest and final cell apoptosis. By contrast, QNZ-B, a reduction product of QNZ-A lacking the Michael acceptor unit failed to induce ROS generation and all these cell cycle-related events. In conclusion, this work provided a successful example of designing QNZ-directed anticancer agent by a ROS-promoting strategy and identified QNZ-A as a selective anticancer agent against A549 cells through G2/M cell cycle arrest and apoptosis via a ROS-dependent mechanism. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  20. Primary health care in Somalian refugee camps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, B

    1982-01-01

    The convergence of thousands in Somalia's refugee camps has created an emergency in health care provision. To tackle this problem, the Ministry of Health, in conjunction with UNICEF, recruited a small group of Somali professionals to draw up a plan for the training of community health workers to serve in the camps. A 2nd objective was to make an assessment of the nutritional status of the refugees, and provision of maternal and child health care. At the end of a 2 week workshop a plan was drawn up which emphasized the teaching of preventive medicine, particularly in the control of communicable diseases. It was decided that students in the postbasic training program in administration and teaching in the health service would serve as teachers. Teaching was kept basic and simple, mostly concentrating on topics related to hygiene and food preparation, for example. During program implementation inspection visits were carried out at intervals by a health educator and tutor from the nursing school. At the same time further briefing was given to as many concerned people in the camps as possible. Preliminary feedback suggested that the program was proceeding successfully. After 3 months an evaluation was carried out by teachers in the program. The evaluation showed a great deal to have been accomplished in spite of the disinterest of some parts of the population. The success was attributed to the involvement of Somalis in the camp communities. As of September 1981, the pace of the programs has increased, with the inclusion of health services from expatriate sources within Ministry of Health guidelines.

  1. S'Cool LAB Summer CAMP 2017

    CERN Document Server

    Woithe, Julia

    2017-01-01

    The S’Cool LAB Summer CAMP is an opportunity for high-school students (aged 16-19) from all around the world to spend 2 weeks exploring the fascinating world of particle physics. The 24 selected participants spend their summer at S’Cool LAB, CERN’s hands-on particle physics learning laboratory, for an epic programme of lectures and tutorials, team research projects, visits of CERN’s research installations, and social activities.

  2. Injury patterns at US and Canadian overnight summer camps: first year of the Healthy Camp study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldlust, E; Walton, E; Stanley, R; Yard, E; Garst, B; Comstock, R D; Erceg, L E; Cunningham, R

    2009-12-01

    To describe injury patterns at overnight summer camps in 2006, and identify risk factors for more significant injury. Surveillance data obtained from Healthy Camp Study from 2006 were analyzed from 71 overnight camps, representing 437,541 camper-days and 206,031 staff-days. Injuries were reported in 218 campers and 81 staff. 51.8% of injured campers were male versus 34.6% of staff. Among campers, 60.1% were evaluated off-site; 2.3% required hospital admission. 43.9% of injuries required >24 h activity restriction (deemed "significant injury"). Among campers, significant injury was associated with camp sessions > or =14 days (RR 1.48); among staff, with male sex (RR 1.85) and camper-to-staff ratio (RR 0.67). There were no associations with age, time of day, setting, or level of supervision. Significant injuries are uncommon at overnight summer camps. Rates appear similar to those in comparable activities. Targeted interventions may further reduce injury risk.

  3. Mealtimes at residential summer camps: What are camp staff doing to promote campers' healthy eating behaviors?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ventura, Alison K; Anzman-Frasca, Stephanie; Garst, Barry A

    2014-01-01

    To explore camp staff's reports of their interactions with campers during mealtimes at residential summer camps. Thirty-minute semistructured, face-to-face interviews with staff. Two residential summer camps in northeastern Pennsylvania. Fifty-two adult (>18 years of age) staff. Staff's perceived responsibilities, problems encountered, and feeding practices used during camp mealtimes. Qualitative interviews were analyzed using a hybrid analysis approach that combined deductive directed content analysis with inductive thematic analysis to identify themes and subthemes. The majority of staff indicated their responsibility during mealtimes was to ensure that campers eat. Common problems mentioned were campers' tendencies toward picky eating and overeating. Staff reported a number of strategies to deal with common mealtime problems including reasoning, modeling, limits or rules, punishment/contingencies, and responding to campers' needs/preferences. Most staff expressed concern about promoting campers' healthy eating behaviors. Although staff discussed several mealtime strategies that can be interpreted as adaptive in authoritative contexts, they need more guidance related to what they should and should not do during mealtimes. Avenues for future research to inform the promotion of healthier mealtime behaviors in camps are discussed. Copyright © 2014 Society for Nutrition Education and Behavior. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Summer Camp of the CERN Staff Association

    CERN Document Server

    Staff Association

    2017-01-01

    A Journey to Discover the Four Elements Over the past few years, the Children’s Day-Care Centre and School (EVEE) of the CERN Staff Association has transformed into a summer camp for the four weeks of July. Every year, this summer camp welcomes up to 40 children from 4 to 6 years old. The camp offers a rich and varied program. This year, the theme was the four elements of life, and the children set out on a journey to discover a different element every week: WATER was the theme of the first week. What is water? What purpose does it serve? Where can we find it? With these questions and many others in mind, the children set out on a cruise, sailing across Lake Geneva to visit the Lake Geneva Museum in Nyon. All through the week, the children were able to discover the different properties of water by carrying out various scientific experiments. For instance, getting soaked can certainly help observe a simple property of water: it’s wet! Giggles guaranteed. The children made fancy hats and e...

  5. Biological and molecular mechanisms of sulfur mustard analog-induced toxicity in JB6 and HaCaT cells: Possible role of ATM/ATR-cell cycle checkpoint pathway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tewari-Singh, Neera; Gu, Mallikarjuna; Agarwal, Chapla; White, Carl W.; Agarwal, Rajesh

    2010-01-01

    Effective medical treatment and preventive measures for chemical warfare agent sulfur mustard (HD)-caused incapacitating skin toxicity are lacking, owing to limited knowledge of its mechanism of action. The proliferating basal epidermal cells are primary major sites of attack during HD-caused skin injury. Therefore, employing mouse JB6 and human HaCaT epidermal cells, here we investigated the molecular mechanism of HD analog, 2-chloroethyl ethyl sulfide (CEES)-induced skin cytotoxicity. As compared to control, up to 1 mM CEES treatment of these cells for 2, 4 and 24 h, caused dose-dependent decreases in cell viability and proliferation as measured by DNA synthesis, together with S and G2-M phase arrest in cell cycle progression. Mechanistic studies showed phosphorylation of DNA damage sensors and checkpoint kinases, ATM at ser1981 and ATR at ser428 within 30 min of CEES exposure, and modulation of S and G2-M phase-associated cell cycle regulatory proteins which are downstream targets of ATM and ATR kinases. Hoechst-propidium iodide (PI) staining demonstrated that CEES-induced cell death was both necrotic and apoptotic in nature and latter was induced at 4 and 24 h of CEES treatment in HaCaT and JB6 cells, respectively. An increase in caspase-3 activity and both caspase-3 and PARP cleavage coinciding with CEES-caused apoptosis in both cell lines suggested the involvement of caspase pathway. Together, our findings suggest a DNA damaging effect of CEES that activates ATM/ATR-cell cycle checkpoint signaling as well as caspase-PARP pathways leading to cell cycle arrest and apoptosis/necrosis in both JB6 and HaCaT cells. The identified molecular targets, quantitative biomarkers and epidermal cell models in this study, have the potential and usefulness in rapid development of effective prophylactic and therapeutic interventions against HD-induced skin toxicity. PMID:20469912

  6. Analog design centering and sizing

    CERN Document Server

    Graeb, Helmut E

    2007-01-01

    Here is a compendium of fundamental problem formulations of analog design centering and sizing. It provides a differentiated knowledge about the many tasks of analog design centering and sizing. In particular, coverage formulates the worst-case problem. The book stands at the interface between process technology and design technology, detailing how the two are required to reach a solution. It presents a mathematically founded description based on numerical optimization and statistics. This volume will enable analog and mixed-signal designers to assess CAD solution methods that are presented to them as well as help developers of analog CAD tools to formulate and develop solution approaches for analog design centering and sizing.

  7. ESD analog circuits and design

    CERN Document Server

    Voldman, Steven H

    2014-01-01

    A comprehensive and in-depth review of analog circuit layout, schematic architecture, device, power network and ESD design This book will provide a balanced overview of analog circuit design layout, analog circuit schematic development, architecture of chips, and ESD design.  It will start at an introductory level and will bring the reader right up to the state-of-the-art. Two critical design aspects for analog and power integrated circuits are combined. The first design aspect covers analog circuit design techniques to achieve the desired circuit performance. The second and main aspect pres

  8. Genistein Prevents Hyperglycemia-Induced Monocyte Adhesion to Human Aortic Endothelial Cells through Preservation of the cAMP Signaling Pathway and Ameliorates Vascular Inflammation in Obese Diabetic Mice123

    OpenAIRE

    Babu, Pon Velayutham Anandh; Si, Hongwei; Fu, Zhuo; Zhen, Wei; Liu, Dongmin

    2012-01-01

    Hyperglycemia-induced vascular inflammation resulting in the enhanced monocyte-endothelial cell (EC) interaction is the key event in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis in diabetes. Here, we investigated the effect of isoflavone genistein on hyperglycemia-stimulated vascular inflammation. Human aortic EC (HAEC) were pretreated with genistein before the addition of high glucose (HG; 25 mmol/L) for 48 h. Genistein at a physiological concentration (0.1 μmol/L) significantly inhibited HG-induced ...

  9. The intrusive record of the CAMP and what it means for the end Triassic mass extinction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Joshua; Marzoli, Andrea; Bertrand, Hervé; Youbi, Nasrrddine; Ernesto, Marcia; Schaltegger, Urs

    2017-04-01

    The end-Triassic mass extinction is one of the Phanerozoic's five largest mass extinctions. The extinction is usually attributed to climate change associated with degassing of erupting basalt from the Central Atlantic Magmatic Province (CAMP). However, recent work has shown that the earliest known CAMP basaltic flows occur stratigraphically above the extinction horizon indicating that the relationship between the CAMP and the extinction is more complex when resolved at higher temporal resolution. Here we present new high-precision U-Pb age determinations from intrusive units, which show that CAMP magmatic activity was occurring 100 ka before the oldest known eruptions. We show that the early magmatic activity correlates temporally with the onset of globally recognized changes to climatic and biotic records. We also report ages from sills in the Amazonas basin in Brazil that intrude synchronously with the extinction. We suggest that the release of thermogenic gases from the contact metamorphism of these sediments induced by injection of mafic sills may have contributed to the climate change that drove the extinction. Our results indicate that the intrusive record from large igneous provinces may be more important for linking to mass extinctions than the eruptive record.

  10. Albert Einstein, Analogizer Extraordinaire

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2007-01-01

    Where does deep insight in physics come from? It is tempting to think that it comes from the purest and most precise of reasoning, following ironclad laws of thought that compel the clear mind completely rigidly. And yet the truth is quite otherwise. One finds, when one looks closely at any major discovery, that the greatest of physicists are, in some sense, the most crazily daring and irrational of all physicists. Albert Einstein exemplifies this thesis in spades. In this talk I will describe the key role, throughout Albert Einstein's fabulously creative life, played by wild guesses made by analogy lacking any basis whatsoever in pure reasoning. In particular, in this year of 2007, the centenary of 1907, I will describe how over the course of two years (1905 through 1907) of pondering, Einstein slowly came, via analogy, to understand the full, radical consequences of the equation that he had first discovered and published in 1905, arguably the most famous equation of all time: E = mc2.

  11. Objectively discriminating the optical analogy of electromagnetically induced transparency from Autler-Townes splitting in a side coupled graphene-based waveguide system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Buzheng; Jian, Shuisheng

    2017-11-01

    A mid-infrared side coupled graphene nanotube waveguide system is proposed to investigate the origin discerning from electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) to Autler-Townes splitting (ATS). The analytic transmission analysis seeks an evolution tendency of transmission spectrum from ATS to EIT, which is numerically verified by the simulation results. The origin of transparency is mainly attributed to ATS effect in the strong coupling regime while EIT is favored in the weak coupling condition. We plot the field distribution to help understand the underlying physics of the interference process. The high group index of 5000 indicates that a slow light effect is successfully observed and Fano resonance is presented by varying the Fermi energy of the dark mode. These ideas may provide potential views in filters, optical buffers, light storage and on chip metamaterials.

  12. Reciprocal bystander effect between α-irradiated macrophage and hepatocyte is mediated by cAMP through a membrane signaling pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Mingyuan; Dong, Chen; Xie, Yuexia; Li, Jitao; Yuan, Dexiao; Bai, Yang; Shao, Chunlin

    2014-01-01

    Irradiated cells can induce biological effects on vicinal non-irradiated bystander cells, meanwhile the bystander cells may rescue the irradiated cells through a feedback signal stress. To elucidate the nature of this reciprocal effect, we examined the interaction between α-irradiated human macrophage cells U937 and its bystander HL-7702 hepatocyte cells using a cell co-culture system. Results showed that after 6h of cell co-culture, mitochondria depolarization corresponding to apoptosis was significantly induced in the HL-7702 cells, but the formation of micronuclei in the irradiated U937 cells was markedly decreased compared to that without cell co-culture treatment. This reciprocal effect was not observed when the cell membrane signaling pathway was blocked by filipin that inhibited cAMP transmission from bystander cells to irradiated cells. After treatment of cells with exogenous cAMP, forskolin (an activator of cAMP) or KH-7 (an inhibitor of cAMP), respectively, it was confirmed that cAMP communication from bystander cells to targeted cells could mitigate radiation damage in U739 cells, and this cAMP insufficiency in the bystander cells contributed to the enhancement of bystander apoptosis. Moreover, the bystander apoptosis in HL-7702 cells was aggravated by cAMP inhibition but it could not be evoked when p53 of HL-7702 cells was knocked down no matter of forskolin and KH-7 treatment. In conclusion, this study disclosed that cAMP could be released from bystander HL-7702 cells and compensated to α-irradiated U937 cells through a membrane signaling pathway and this cAMP communication played a profound role in regulating the reciprocal bystander effects. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Prostaglandin Analogous and Antioxidant Activity Mediated Gastroprotective Action of Tabernaemontana divaricata (L. R. Br. Flower Methanolic Extract against Chemically Induced Gastric Ulcers in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Safwan Ali Khan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study was conducted to evaluate the antiulcerogenic effect and recognize the basic mechanism of action of Tabernaemontana divaricata (L. R. Br. flowers. T. divaricata flower methanolic extract (TDFME was screened for antiulcer activity versus aspirin and ethanol induced gastric ulcers at three doses—125, 250, and 500 mg/kg—orally using misoprostol as a standard. Besides histopathological examination, seven parameters, that is, ulcer index, total protein, nonprotein sulphhydryls, mucin, catalase, malondialdehyde, and superoxide dismutase levels, were estimated. In addition to HPLC profiling, GC-MS analysis and electrospray ionization—high resolution mass spectral (ESI-HRMS analysis of crude TDFME were carried out in an attempt to identify known phytochemicals present in the extract on the basis of m/z value. The results revealed a significant increase in the levels of catalase, superoxide dismutase, mucin, and nonprotein sulphhydryls, while they revealed a reduction in ulcer index, the levels of total protein, and malondialdehyde. Histopathological observations also demonstrated the protective effect. Though all the doses of TDFME exhibited gastroprotective function, higher doses were found to be more effective. Mass spectral analysis gave a few characteristic m/z values suggesting the presence of a few known indole alkaloids, while HPLC profiling highlighted the complexity of the extract. TDFME was found to exhibit its gastroprotective effect through antioxidant mechanism and by enhancing the production of gastric mucous.

  14. Camp Sports Injuries: Analysis of Causes, Modes and Frequencies

    OpenAIRE

    Panagiota Papageorgiou; George Mavrommatis; George Costa

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was the description of sports injuries sustained by campers at summer camps, aged 7-15 years. A sample of 8 camps from the Greek camp population participated in this sport injury surveillance study. Doctors and camp directors completed reports detailing the number of sports injuries events sustained and provided specific information about each event. During the period of the study, 337 sport injury reports were completed. A total of 237 (70.3%) boys and 100 (29.7%) g...

  15. Adventure Code Camp: Library Mobile Design in the Backcountry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Ward

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This article presents a case study exploring the use of a student Coding Camp as a bottom-up mobile design process to generate library mobile apps. A code camp sources student programmer talent and ideas for designing software services and features.  This case study reviews process, outcomes, and next steps in mobile web app coding camps. It concludes by offering implications for services design beyond the local camp presented in this study. By understanding how patrons expect to integrate library services and resources into their use of mobile devices, librarians can better design the user experience for this environment.

  16. Feedback in analog circuits

    CERN Document Server

    Ochoa, Agustin

    2016-01-01

    This book describes a consistent and direct methodology to the analysis and design of analog circuits with particular application to circuits containing feedback. The analysis and design of circuits containing feedback is generally presented by either following a series of examples where each circuit is simplified through the use of insight or experience (someone else’s), or a complete nodal-matrix analysis generating lots of algebra. Neither of these approaches leads to gaining insight into the design process easily. The author develops a systematic approach to circuit analysis, the Driving Point Impedance and Signal Flow Graphs (DPI/SFG) method that does not require a-priori insight to the circuit being considered and results in factored analysis supporting the design function. This approach enables designers to account fully for loading and the bi-directional nature of elements both in the feedback path and in the amplifier itself, properties many times assumed negligible and ignored. Feedback circuits a...

  17. The cAMP pathway in combination with BMP2 regulates Phox2a transcription via cAMP response element binding sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benjanirut, Chutamas; Paris, Maryline; Wang, Wen-Horng; Hong, Seok Jong; Kim, Kwang Soo; Hullinger, Ronald L; Andrisani, Ourania M

    2006-02-03

    Combined BMP2 and cAMP signaling induces the catechola-minergic lineage in neural crest (NC) cultures by increasing expression of the proneural transcription factor Phox2a, in a cAMP response element (CRE)-binding protein (CREB)-mediated mechanism. To determine whether CREB acts directly on Phox2a transcription induced by BMP2+cAMP-elevating agent IBMX, transient transfections of hPhox2a-reporter constructs were performed in avian NC cultures and murine, catecholaminergic CAD cells. Although BMP2+IBMX increased endogenous Phox2a expression, the 7.5-kb hPhox2a reporters expressing either luciferase or DsRed1-E5 fluorescent protein were unresponsive to BMP2+IBMX, but active in both cell types. Cell sorting of fluorescence-positive NC cells expressing the 7.5-kb hPhox2a fluorescent timer reporter differentiated to equal numbers of catecholaminergic cells as fluorescence-negative cells, suggesting inappropriate transcription from the transfected hPhox2a promoter. NC or CAD cells treated with histone deacetylase inhibitor trichostatin A and BMP2+IBMX display increased endogenous Phox2a transcription and prolonged CREB phosphorylation, indicating Phox2a chromatin remodeling is linked to CREB activation. Chromatin immunoprecipitations employing CREB, CREB-binding protein, and acetylated H4 antibodies identified two CRE half-sites at -5.5 kb in the murine Phox2a promoter, which is also conserved in the human promoter. Proximal to the CRE half-sites, within a 170-bp region, are E-box and CCAAT binding sites, also conserved in mouse and human genes. This 170-bp promoter region confers cAMP, BMP2, and enhanced BMP2+cAMP regulation to Phox2a-luciferase reporters. We conclude these CREs are functional, with CREB directly activating Phox2a transcription. Because the E-box binds bHLH proteins like ASH1 induced in NC cells by BMP2, we propose this novel 170-bp cis-acting element is a composite site, mediating the synergistic regulation by BMP2+cAMP on Phox2a transcription.

  18. An Inaugural Girl Scout Destinations Astronomy Camp

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebofsky, Larry A.; McCarthy, Donald W.; Wright, Joe; Wright, Rita; Mace, Mikayla; Floyd, Charmayne

    2017-10-01

    The University of Arizona (UA) conducted its first teenage Girl Scout Destinations Astronomy Camp. This program was preceded by 24 Leadership Workshops for Adult Girl Scout Leaders, initially supported by EPO funding from NIRCam for JWST. For five days in late June, 24 girls (ages 13-17 years) attended from 16 states. The Camp was led by UA astronomers and long-term educators. Representing Girl Scouts of the USA (GSUSA) were a husband/wife amateur astronomer team who are SOFIA Airborne Astronomy and NASA Solar System Ambassadors. Other leaders included a Stanford undergraduate engineering student who is a lifelong Girl Scout and Gold Award recipient and a recent UA Master’s degree science journalist. The Camp is a residential, hands-on “immersion” adventure in scientific exploration using telescopes in southern Arizona’s Catalina Mountains near Tucson. Under uniquely dark skies girls become real astronomers, operating telescopes (small and large) and associated technologies, interacting with scientists, obtaining images and quantitative data, investigating their own questions, and most importantly having fun actually doing science and building observing equipment. Girls achieve a basic understanding of celestial objects, how and why they move, and their historical significance, leading to an authentic understanding of science, research, and engineering. Girls can lead these activities back home in their own troops and councils, encouraging others to consider STEM field careers. These programs are supported by a 5-year NASA Collaborative Agreement, Reaching for the Stars: NASA Science for Girl Scouts (www.seti.org/GirlScoutStars), through the SETI Institute in collaboration with the UA, GSUSA, Girl Scouts of Northern California, the Astronomical Society of the Pacific, and Aries Scientific, Inc. The Girl Scout Destinations Astronomy Camp aligns with the GSUSA Journey: It’s Your Planet-Love It! and introduces the girls to some of the activities being

  19. Contingency Base Camp Solid Waste Generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-01

    0.8% Grass clippings 39 0.107 18 0.049 0.7% Glass 40 0.110 18 0.049 0.7% Textiles 25 0.068 11 0.068 0.4% Medical waste 13 0.036...waste and 80 pounds of liquid waste per day.” 2. Paragraph 3-21 ( Composting ): “A base camp population of 2,500 can pro- duce approximately 5,500...cubic meters, or 1,500 tons, of compostable sol- id waste (SW) (including sewage sludge) per year. 3. Paragraph 3-63 (Develop Preliminary Waste

  20. Organisation for the relief of concentration camps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engel, H O

    2003-12-01

    To review the essential principles involved in rescue missions for natural and man-made disasters. A description of the relief of a concentration camp in 1945 as an example of the logistics required in any major disaster or rescue. The arrival of trained Army rescue teams on the first day and dealing systematically with priorities in salvage, treatment and nursing saved many lives, even of desperately ill patients. A centralised administration and organisation of supplies is the first priority. Suitable intravenous and very light nutrients, and the prevention and combating of infections are more urgent than the provision of shelter and clothing.

  1. Analog regulation of metabolic demand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muskhelishvili Georgi

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The 3D structure of the chromosome of the model organism Escherichia coli is one key component of its gene regulatory machinery. This type of regulation mediated by topological transitions of the chromosomal DNA can be thought of as an analog control, complementing the digital control, i.e. the network of regulation mediated by dedicated transcription factors. It is known that alterations in the superhelical density of chromosomal DNA lead to a rich pattern of differential expressed genes. Using a network approach, we analyze these expression changes for wild type E. coli and mutants lacking nucleoid associated proteins (NAPs from a metabolic and transcriptional regulatory network perspective. Results We find a significantly higher correspondence between gene expression and metabolism for the wild type expression changes compared to mutants in NAPs, indicating that supercoiling induces meaningful metabolic adjustments. As soon as the underlying regulatory machinery is impeded (as for the NAP mutants, this coherence between expression changes and the metabolic network is substantially reduced. This effect is even more pronounced, when we compute a wild type metabolic flux distribution using flux balance analysis and restrict our analysis to active reactions. Furthermore, we are able to show that the regulatory control exhibited by DNA supercoiling is not mediated by the transcriptional regulatory network (TRN, as the consistency of the expression changes with the TRN logic of activation and suppression is strongly reduced in the wild type in comparison to the mutants. Conclusions So far, the rich patterns of gene expression changes induced by alterations of the superhelical density of chromosomal DNA have been difficult to interpret. Here we characterize the effective networks formed by supercoiling-induced gene expression changes mapped onto reconstructions of E. coli's metabolic and transcriptional regulatory network. Our

  2. Novel GLP-1 Analog Supaglutide Reduces HFD-Induced Obesity Associated with Increased Ucp-1 in White Adipose Tissue in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Yun; Bao, Xi; Huang, Jiabao; Zhang, Xiangyu; Liu, Wenjuan; Cui, Qiaoli; Jiang, Dongdong; Wang, Zhihong; Liu, Rui; Wang, Qinghua

    2017-01-01

    GLP-1, an important incretin hormone plays an important role in the regulation of glucose homeostasis. However, the therapeutic use of native GLP-1 is limited due to its short half-life. We recently developed a novel GLP-1 mimetics (supaglutide) by genetically engineering recombinant fusion protein production techniques. We demonstrated that this formulation possessed long-lasting GLP-1 actions and was effective in glycemic control in both type 1 and type 2 diabetes rodent models. Here, we investigated the effects of supaglutide in regulating energy homeostasis in obese mice. Mice were fed with high-fat diet (HFD) for 6 months to induce obesity and then subjected to supaglutide treatment (300 μg/kg, bi-weekly for 4 weeks), and placebo as control. Metabolic conditions were monitored and energy expenditure was assessed by indirect calorimetry (CLAMS). Cold tolerance test was performed to evaluate brown-adipose tissue (BAT) activities in response to cold challenge. Glucose tolerance and insulin resistance were evaluated by intraperitoneal glucose tolerance test and insulin tolerance tests. Liver and adipose tissues were collected for histology analysis. Expression of uncoupling protein 1(Ucp1) in adipose tissues was evaluated by Western blotting. We found that supaglutide treatment reduced body weight, which was associated with reduced food intake. Compared to the placebo control, supaglutide treatment improved lipid profile, i.e., significantly decreased circulating total cholesterol levels, declined serum triglyceride, and free fatty acid levels. Importantly, the intervention significantly reduced fatty liver, decreased liver triglyceride content, and concomitantly ameliorated liver injury exemplified by declined hepatic alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartic transaminase (AST) content. Remarkably, supaglutide reduced hepatic lipid accumulation and altered morphometry in favor of small adipocytes in fat. This is consistent with the observation that supaglutide

  3. Novel GLP-1 Analog Supaglutide Reduces HFD-Induced Obesity Associated with Increased Ucp-1 in White Adipose Tissue in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun Wan

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available GLP-1, an important incretin hormone plays an important role in the regulation of glucose homeostasis. However, the therapeutic use of native GLP-1 is limited due to its short half-life. We recently developed a novel GLP-1 mimetics (supaglutide by genetically engineering recombinant fusion protein production techniques. We demonstrated that this formulation possessed long-lasting GLP-1 actions and was effective in glycemic control in both type 1 and type 2 diabetes rodent models. Here, we investigated the effects of supaglutide in regulating energy homeostasis in obese mice. Mice were fed with high-fat diet (HFD for 6 months to induce obesity and then subjected to supaglutide treatment (300 μg/kg, bi-weekly for 4 weeks, and placebo as control. Metabolic conditions were monitored and energy expenditure was assessed by indirect calorimetry (CLAMS. Cold tolerance test was performed to evaluate brown-adipose tissue (BAT activities in response to cold challenge. Glucose tolerance and insulin resistance were evaluated by intraperitoneal glucose tolerance test and insulin tolerance tests. Liver and adipose tissues were collected for histology analysis. Expression of uncoupling protein 1(Ucp1 in adipose tissues was evaluated by Western blotting. We found that supaglutide treatment reduced body weight, which was associated with reduced food intake. Compared to the placebo control, supaglutide treatment improved lipid profile, i.e., significantly decreased circulating total cholesterol levels, declined serum triglyceride, and free fatty acid levels. Importantly, the intervention significantly reduced fatty liver, decreased liver triglyceride content, and concomitantly ameliorated liver injury exemplified by declined hepatic alanine aminotransferase (ALT and aspartic transaminase (AST content. Remarkably, supaglutide reduced hepatic lipid accumulation and altered morphometry in favor of small adipocytes in fat. This is consistent with the observation that

  4. Beginning analog electronics through projects

    CERN Document Server

    Singmin, Andrew

    2001-01-01

    Analog electronics is the simplest way to start a fun, informative, learning program. Beginning Analog Electronics Through Projects, Second Edition was written with the needs of beginning hobbyists and students in mind. This revision of Andrew Singmin's popular Beginning Electronics Through Projects provides practical exercises, building techniques, and ideas for useful electronics projects. Additionally, it features new material on analog and digital electronics, and new projects for troubleshooting test equipment.Published in the tradition of Beginning Electronics Through Projects an

  5. A link of Ca2+ to cAMP oscillations in Dictyostelium: the calmodulin antagonist W-7 potentiates cAMP relay and transiently inhibits the acidic Ca2+-store

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malchow Dieter

    2004-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background During early differentiation of Dictyostelium the attractant cAMP is released periodically to induce aggregation of the cells. Here we pursue the question whether pulsatile cAMP signaling is coupled to a basic Ca2+-oscillation. Results We found that the calmodulin antagonist W-7 transiently enhanced cAMP spikes. We show that W-7 acts on an acidic Ca2+-store: it abolished ATP-dependent vesicular acidification, inhibited V-type H+ATPase activity more potently than the weaker antagonist W-5 and caused vesicular Ca2+-leakage. Concanamycin A, an inhibitor of the V-type H+-pump, blocked the Ca2+-leakage elicited by W-7 as well as cAMP-oscillations in the presence of W-7. Concanamycin A caused an increase of the cytosolic Ca2+-concentration whereas W-7 did not. In case of the latter, Ca2+ was secreted by the cells. In accord with our hypothesis that the link from Ca2+ to cAMP synthesis is mediated by a Ca2+-dependent phospholipase C we found that W-7 was not active in the phospholipase C knockout mutant. Conclusion We conclude that the potentiation of cAMP relay by W-7 is due to a transient inhibition of the acidic Ca2+-store. The inhibition of the proton pump by W-7 causes a leakage of Ca2+ that indirectly stimulates adenylyl cyclase activity via phospholipase C.

  6. Extracellular cAMP activates molecular signalling pathways associated with sperm capacitation in bovines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso, Carlos Agustín I; Osycka-Salut, Claudia E; Castellano, Luciana; Cesari, Andreína; Di Siervi, Nicolás; Mutto, Adrián; Johannisson, Anders; Morrell, Jane M; Davio, Carlos; Perez-Martinez, Silvina

    2017-08-01

    Is extracellular cAMP involved in the regulation of signalling pathways in bovine sperm capacitation? Extracellular cAMP induces sperm capacitation through the activation of different signalling pathways that involve phospholipase C (PLC), PKC/ERK1-2 signalling and an increase in sperm Ca2+ levels, as well as soluble AC and cAMP/protein kinase A (PKA) signalling. In order to fertilize the oocyte, ejaculated spermatozoa must undergo a series of changes in the female reproductive tract, known as capacitation. This correlates with a number of membrane and metabolic modifications that include an increased influx of bicarbonate and Ca2+, activation of a soluble adenylyl cyclase (sAC) to produce cAMP, PKA activation, protein tyrosine phosphorylation and the development of hyperactivated motility. We previously reported that cAMP efflux by Multidrug Resistance Protein 4 (MRP4) occurs during sperm capacitation and the pharmacological blockade of this inhibits the process. Moreover, the supplementation of incubation media with cAMP abolishes the inhibition and leads to sperm capacitation, suggesting that extracellular cAMP regulates crucial signalling cascades involved in this process. Bovine sperm were selected by the wool glass column method, and washed by centrifugation in BSA-Free Tyrode's Albumin Lactate Pyruvate (sp-TALP). Pellets were resuspended then diluted for each treatment. For in vitro capacitation, 10 to 15 × 106 SPZ/ml were incubated in 0.3% BSA sp-TALP at 38.5°C for 45 min under different experimental conditions. To evaluate the role of extracellular cAMP on different events associated with sperm capacitation, 10 nM cAMP was added to the incubation medium as well as different inhibitors of enzymes associated with signalling transduction pathways: U73122 (PLC inhibitor, 10 μM), Gö6983 (PKC inhibitor, 10 μM), PD98059 (ERK-1/2 inhibitor, 30 μM), H89 and KT (PKA inhibitors, 50 μM and 100 nM, respectively), KH7 (sAC inhibitor, 10 μM), BAPTA

  7. [Analogies and analogy research in technical biology and bionics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nachtigall, Werner

    2010-01-01

    The procedural approaches of Technical Biology and Bionics are characterized, and analogy research is identified as their common basis. The actual creative aspect in bionical research lies in recognizing and exploiting technically oriented analogies underlying a specific biological prototype to indicate a specific technical application.

  8. Camping under Western Stars: Joan Crawford in "Johnny Guitar."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Pamela

    1995-01-01

    Examines the dissonant and "camp" effect inherent in describing "Johnny Guitar" as a Joan Crawford western. Argues that the film's camp effect depends on its crossing of a female star vehicle with the western, a stereotypically masculine genre. Summarizes Crawford's childhood and rise to fame. Concludes by exploring the lesbian…

  9. EduCamp Colombia: Social Networked Learning for Teacher Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonseca, Diego Ernesto Leal

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes a learning experience called EduCamp, which was launched by the Ministry of Education of Colombia in 2007, based on emerging concepts such as e-Learning 2.0, connectivism, and personal learning environments. An EduCamp proposes an unstructured collective learning experience, which intends to make palpable the possibilities of…

  10. Camp GLOW (Girls Leading Our World): Handbook for Volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peace Corps, Washington, DC. Information Collection and Exchange Div.

    Camp GLOW (Girls Leading Our World) began in Romania in 1995 as a weeklong leadership camp with the purpose of encouraging young women to become active citizens by building their self-esteem and confidence, increasing their self-awareness, and developing their skills in goal-setting, assertiveness, and career and life planning. Since that first…

  11. Architecture of Stalin’s Prison Camps in Yakutia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolai Kradin

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Based on archive and field studies, the article considers architecture of prison camp facilities built on the territory of Yakutia during Stalin’s terror. With the help of field studies, measurements and photofixation we have revealed compositional, planning and design features of bridges and prison camp facilities and analyzed their location.

  12. Inclusion Coordinators at Jewish Summer Camps: Roles and Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shefter, Laura; Uhrman, Abigail L.; Tobin, Lisa; Kress, Jeffrey S.

    2017-01-01

    As appreciation of the impact of Jewish camping has grown, so have efforts to increase the number of campers able to participate in these settings. Inclusion of campers with disabilities, though not a new phenomenon, has likewise expanded. As more services are provided to campers with disabilities, more camps are hiring an Inclusion Coordinator to…

  13. Teaching Ugandan Traditional Dances and Drumming in Summer Camps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mabingo, Alfdaniels

    2017-01-01

    Dances and drum rhythms from African traditions have been integrated into summer camp activities in the United States as a response to the ever-globalized environments in which these camps are located and the diversity of the campers and teachers that they attract. This reflective article draws on critical reflections, observations and experiences…

  14. Specialized Summer Camps: Provide Benefits for Children and Families Alike

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neff, John M.

    2009-01-01

    The arrival of summer signals a season of endless days of swimming, fishing, summer camps, and other outdoor activities. For children with chronic or terminal illnesses, it can be difficult to participate in many of these activities as well as challenging for parents to find summer camps that not only engage their children, but also offer the…

  15. Socialization of Adolescents: Cultural Practices in Children's Summer Camp

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demakova, Irina D.; Valeeva, Roza A.; Shipova, Alina V.

    2016-01-01

    The article describes the relevant aspects of the adolescents' cultural practices in children's summer camp, taking into account their specific characteristics. The summer camp is considered as an educational formation and holistic socio-pedagogical body, designed to create conditions for the development of the person. The criteria for inclusion…

  16. Residential Grief Camps: An Initial Phenomenological Study of Staff Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Tiffany B.; Kimball, Thomas G.

    2012-01-01

    Research has focused primarily on the impact of death on family functioning and the stages and tasks of grief, though little attention has been given to grief camps or the experiences of those who work there. This study explored the experiences of staff at a four-day overnight children's grief camp. Eight participants reported their experience of…

  17. Students Become Scientists at Science Skills Boot Camp | Poster

    Science.gov (United States)

    At the 2016 Science Skills Boot Camp (SSBC), a one-day training program designed for NIH summer interns with little or no prior research experience, students gathered to learn about basic research and laboratory skills. The boot camp provided a unique opportunity for interns to expand their knowledge of simple bench techniques, scientific papers, and ways to communicate their research.

  18. Crisis Management: How to Handle a Salmonella Outbreak at Camp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, William A.; Popkin, Rodger

    1992-01-01

    Details events of six days during Salmonella outbreak at camp in North Carolina. Explains how camp handled 280 sick campers and staff, well campers, news media, and parents. Based on an epidemiologic survey of food eaten, it was suspected that the culprit of the outbreak was a meat item. Offers suggestions for crisis management in the camp…

  19. 36 CFR 1002.10 - Camping and food storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Camping and food storage... USE AND RECREATION § 1002.10 Camping and food storage. (a) The Board may require permits, designate... result in the suspension or revocation of the permit. (d) Food storage. The Board may designate all or a...

  20. 36 CFR 2.10 - Camping and food storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Camping and food storage. 2... RESOURCE PROTECTION, PUBLIC USE AND RECREATION § 2.10 Camping and food storage. (a) The superintendent may... revocation of the permit. (d) Food storage. The superintendent may designate all or a portion of a park area...

  1. Short Communication: Vegetation response to wagon wheel camp ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Wagon wheel camp layouts have been favoured, in some quarters, for rotational grazing due to the economy and convenience of having the camps radially arranged around central facilities. A possible disadvantage of such layouts is the tendency for over-grazing near the hub and under-grazing at the extremities.

  2. Tactics, Techniques, and Procedures (TTP) for Migrant Camp Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-04-15

    include soap, towel, shower shoes, sheet, blanket, a wash bucket, toothbrush and toothpaste, comb/brush, razor, feminine hygiene products, and a...the camp. This may mean leasing of a hotel , other building, or open land for use as a camp. Also, consultation with the Army Corps of Engineers may

  3. Volunteer Surgical Camp at Gombe Hospital in Uganda | Alimoglu ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: The Islamic University Habib Medical School in Uganda (IUIU), in collaboration with Doctors Worldwide (DWW) from Turkey, organized a surgical camp in April 2014. In this camp, different types of hernia repair, among other general surgical procedures were conducted. The target population was the ...

  4. Outdoor adventure camps for people with mental illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotton, Sue; Butselaar, Felicity

    2013-08-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate a novel outdoor adventure camping program for individuals with mental illness. The program was developed by YMCA Victoria in partnership with Sport and Recreation Victoria, and mental health service agencies. Orygen Youth Health Research Centre conducted the program evaluation. One hundred and eight individuals from mental health services across Victoria participated in 12 camps. Five camps targeted young people between the ages of 18 and 25 years. Seven camps were run for adults 26 years and older. Participants were assessed at baseline, end of camp, and four weeks following the camp in terms of self-esteem, mastery, and social connectedness. Quality of life was assessed at baseline and four weeks post-camp. Participants demonstrated significant improvements in mastery, self-esteem and social connectedness from baseline to end of the camp; however, these improvements were not sustained by the four-week follow-up. We have demonstrated that utilizing the expertise of mental health services and a community recreation provider can benefit individuals experiencing mental illness. More research is required with respect to how to sustain these benefits over the longer term.

  5. Camp Verde Adult Reading Program. Final Performance Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maynard, David A.

    This document begins with a four-page performance report describing how the Camp Verde Adult Reading Program site was relocated to the Community Center Complex, and the Town Council contracted directly with the Friends of the Camp Verde Library to provide for the requirements of the program. The U.S. Department of Education grant allowed the…

  6. Making STEM Fun: How to Organize a STEM Camp

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Kimberly E. Bryant; Hardin, Stacey E.

    2013-01-01

    The work from the University of Central Florida's STEM summer camp (sponsored by Workforce Central Florida) is shared. The camps targeted low-SES schools with a high percentage of students on free and reduced lunch as well as high percentages of students with. Students were given preassessments and postassessments to gauge their knowledge of and…

  7. Novel Analog For Muscle Deconditioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ploutz-Snyder, Lori; Ryder, Jeff; Buxton, Roxanne; Redd. Elizabeth; Scott-Pandorf, Melissa; Hackney, Kyle; Fiedler, James; Ploutz-Snyder, Robert; Bloomberg, Jacob

    2011-01-01

    Existing models (such as bed rest) of muscle deconditioning are cumbersome and expensive. We propose a new model utilizing a weighted suit to manipulate strength, power, or endurance (function) relative to body weight (BW). Methods: 20 subjects performed 7 occupational astronaut tasks while wearing a suit weighted with 0-120% of BW. Models of the full relationship between muscle function/BW and task completion time were developed using fractional polynomial regression and verified by the addition of pre-and postflightastronaut performance data for the same tasks. Splineregression was used to identify muscle function thresholds below which task performance was impaired. Results: Thresholds of performance decline were identified for each task. Seated egress & walk (most difficult task) showed thresholds of leg press (LP) isometric peak force/BW of 18 N/kg, LP power/BW of 18 W/kg, LP work/BW of 79 J/kg, isokineticknee extension (KE)/BW of 6 Nm/kg, and KE torque/BW of 1.9 Nm/kg.Conclusions: Laboratory manipulation of relative strength has promise as an appropriate analog for spaceflight-induced loss of muscle function, for predicting occupational task performance and establishing operationally relevant strength thresholds.

  8. Natural analog studies: Licensing perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bradbury, J.W. [Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Washington, DC (United States)

    1995-09-01

    This report describes the licensing perspective of the term {open_quotes}natural analog studies{close_quotes} as used in CFR Part 60. It describes the misunderstandings related to its definition which has become evident during discussions at the U.S Nuclear Regulatory Commission meetings and tries to clarify the appropriate applications of natural analog studies to aspects of repository site characterization.

  9. Molecular interactions between (--epigallocatechin gallate analogs and pancreatic lipase.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shihui Wang

    Full Text Available The molecular interactions between pancreatic lipase (PL and four tea polyphenols (EGCG analogs, like (--epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG, (--gallocatechin gallate (GCG, (--epicatechin gallate (ECG, and (--epigallocatechin (EC, were studied from PL activity, conformation, kinetics and thermodynamics. It was observed that EGCG analogs inhibited PL activity, and their inhibitory rates decreased by the order of EGCG>GCG>ECG>EC. PL activity at first decreased rapidly and then slowly with the increase of EGCG analogs concentrations. α-Helix content of PL secondary structure decreased dependent on EGCG analogs concentration by the order of EGCG>GCG>ECG>EC. EGCG, ECG, and EC could quench PL fluorescence both dynamically and statically, while GCG only quenched statically. EGCG analogs would induce PL self-assembly into complexes and the hydrodynamic radii of the complexes possessed a close relationship with the inhibitory rates. Kinetics analysis showed that EGCG analogs non-competitively inhibited PL activity and did not bind to PL catalytic site. DSC measurement revealed that EGCG analogs decreased the transition midpoint temperature of PL enzyme, suggesting that these compounds reduced PL enzyme thermostability. In vitro renaturation through urea solution indicated that interactions between PL and EGCG analogs were weak and non-covalent.

  10. Opioid receptor activation triggering downregulation of cAMP improves effectiveness of anti-cancer drugs in treatment of glioblastoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friesen, Claudia; Hormann, Inis; Roscher, Mareike; Fichtner, Iduna; Alt, Andreas; Hilger, Ralf; Debatin, Klaus-Michael; Miltner, Erich

    2014-01-01

    Glioblastoma are the most frequent and malignant human brain tumors, having a very poor prognosis. The enhanced radio- and chemoresistance of glioblastoma and the glioblastoma stem cells might be the main reason why conventional therapies fail. The second messenger cyclic AMP (cAMP) controls cell proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis. Downregulation of cAMP sensitizes tumor cells for anti-cancer treatment. Opioid receptor agonists triggering opioid receptors can activate inhibitory Gi proteins, which, in turn, block adenylyl cyclase activity reducing cAMP. In this study, we show that downregulation of cAMP by opioid receptor activation improves the effectiveness of anti-cancer drugs in treatment of glioblastoma. The µ-opioid receptor agonist D,L-methadone sensitizes glioblastoma as well as the untreatable glioblastoma stem cells for doxorubicin-induced apoptosis and activation of apoptosis pathways by reversing deficient caspase activation and deficient downregulation of XIAP and Bcl-xL, playing critical roles in glioblastomas' resistance. Blocking opioid receptors using the opioid receptor antagonist naloxone or increasing intracellular cAMP by 3-isobutyl-1-methylxanthine (IBMX) strongly reduced opioid receptor agonist-induced sensitization for doxorubicin. In addition, the opioid receptor agonist D,L-methadone increased doxorubicin uptake and decreased doxorubicin efflux, whereas doxorubicin increased opioid receptor expression in glioblastomas. Furthermore, opioid receptor activation using D,L-methadone inhibited tumor growth significantly in vivo. Our findings suggest that opioid receptor activation triggering downregulation of cAMP is a promising strategy to inhibit tumor growth and to improve the effectiveness of anti-cancer drugs in treatment of glioblastoma and in killing glioblastoma stem cells.

  11. Reciprocal bystander effect between α-irradiated macrophage and hepatocyte is mediated by cAMP through a membrane signaling pathway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    He, Mingyuan [Institute of Radiation Medicine, Fudan University, No. 2094 Xie-Tu Road, Shanghai 200032 (China); Department of Radiation Oncology, China–Japan Union Hospital of Jilin University, Changchun 130033 (China); Dong, Chen; Xie, Yuexia; Li, Jitao; Yuan, Dexiao; Bai, Yang [Institute of Radiation Medicine, Fudan University, No. 2094 Xie-Tu Road, Shanghai 200032 (China); Shao, Chunlin, E-mail: clshao@shmu.edu.cn [Institute of Radiation Medicine, Fudan University, No. 2094 Xie-Tu Road, Shanghai 200032 (China)

    2014-05-15

    Highlights: • α-Irradiation induced reciprocal effects between macrophage and hepatocyte cells. • cAMP played a protective role in regulating the reverse bystander effect. • cAMP communication contributed to the reciprocal effects via membrane signaling. • p53 was required for cAMP-regulated bystander effect in the recipient cells. - Abstract: Irradiated cells can induce biological effects on vicinal non-irradiated bystander cells, meanwhile the bystander cells may rescue the irradiated cells through a feedback signal stress. To elucidate the nature of this reciprocal effect, we examined the interaction between α-irradiated human macrophage cells U937 and its bystander HL-7702 hepatocyte cells using a cell co-culture system. Results showed that after 6 h of cell co-culture, mitochondria depolarization corresponding to apoptosis was significantly induced in the HL-7702 cells, but the formation of micronuclei in the irradiated U937 cells was markedly decreased compared to that without cell co-culture treatment. This reciprocal effect was not observed when the cell membrane signaling pathway was blocked by filipin that inhibited cAMP transmission from bystander cells to irradiated cells. After treatment of cells with exogenous cAMP, forskolin (an activator of cAMP) or KH-7 (an inhibitor of cAMP), respectively, it was confirmed that cAMP communication from bystander cells to targeted cells could mitigate radiation damage in U739 cells, and this cAMP insufficiency in the bystander cells contributed to the enhancement of bystander apoptosis. Moreover, the bystander apoptosis in HL-7702 cells was aggravated by cAMP inhibition but it could not be evoked when p53 of HL-7702 cells was knocked down no matter of forskolin and KH-7 treatment. In conclusion, this study disclosed that cAMP could be released from bystander HL-7702 cells and compensated to α-irradiated U937 cells through a membrane signaling pathway and this cAMP communication played a profound role in

  12. High glucose enhances cAMP level and extracellular signal-regulated kinase phosphorylation in Chinese hamster ovary cell: Usage of Br-cAMP in foreign protein β-galactosidase expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Hsiao-Hsien; Lee, Tsung-Yih; Liu, Ting-Wei; Tseng, Ching-Ping

    2017-07-01

    Glucose is a carbon source for Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cell growth, while low growth rate is considered to enhance the production of recombinant proteins. The present study reveals that glucose concentrations higher than 1 g/L reduce the growth rate and substantially increase in cAMP (∼300%) at a high glucose concentration (10 g/L). High glucose also enhances the phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) and p27 kip by Western blot analysis. To determine whether the phosphorylation of ERK is involved in the mechanism, a cyclic-AMP dependent protein kinase A (PKA) inhibitor (H-8) or MEK (MAPKK) inhibitor (PD98059) was added to block ERK phosphorylation. We show that both the high glucose-induced ERK phosphorylation and growth rate return to baseline levels. These results suggest that the cAMP/PKA and MAP signaling pathways are involved in the abovementioned mechanism. Interestingly, the direct addition of 8-bromo-cAMP (Br-cAMP), a membrane-permeable cAMP analog, can mimic the similar effects produced by high glucose. Subsequently Br-cAMP could induce β-galactosidase (β-Gal) recombinant protein expression by 1.6-fold. Furthermore, Br-cAMP can additionally enhance the β-Gal production (from 2.8- to 4.5-fold) when CHO cells were stimulated with glycerol, thymidine, dimethyl sulfoxide, pentanoic acid, or sodium butyrate. Thus, Br-cAMP may be used as an alternative agent in promoting foreign protein expression for CHO cells. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  13. Enhanced glutamate, IP3 and cAMP activity in the cerebral cortex of Unilateral 6-hydroxydopamine induced Parkinson's rats: Effect of 5-HT, GABA and bone marrow cell supplementation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romeo Chinthu

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Parkinson's disease is characterized by progressive cell death in the substantia nigra pars compacta, which leads to dopamine depletion in the striatum and indirectly to cortical dysfunction. Increased glutamatergic transmission in the basal ganglia is implicated in the pathophysiology of Parkinson's disease and glutamate receptor mediated excitotoxicity has been suggested to be one of the possible causes of the neuronal degeneration. In the present study, the effects of serotonin, gamma-aminobutyric acid and bone marrow cells infused intranigrally to substantia nigra individually and in combination on unilateral 6-hydroxydopamine induced Parkinson's rat model was analyzed. Scatchard analysis of total glutamate and NMDA receptor binding parameters showed a significant increase in Bmax (P

  14. Down-regulation of protein kinase C by parathyroid hormone and mezerein differentially modulates cAMP production and phosphate transport in opossum kidney cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, J A

    1997-08-01

    We examined the effects of prolonged exposure to parathyroid hormone (PTH) and the protein kinase C (PKC) activator mezerein (MEZ) on cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) production, PKC activity, and Na(+)-dependent phosphate (Na/Pi) transport in an opossum kidney cell line (OK/E). A 5 minute exposure to PTH stimulated, while a 6 h incubation reduced, cAMP production, Na/Pi transport was maximally inhibited under desensitizing conditions and was not affected by reintroduction of the hormone. MEZ pretreatment (6 h) enhanced PTH-, cholera toxin (CTX)-, and forskolin (FSK)-stimulated cAMP production, suggesting enhanced Gs alpha coupling and increased adenylyl cyclase activity. However, PKA- and PKC-dependent regulation of Na/Pi were blocked in MEZ-treated cells. The PTH-induced decrease in cAMP production was associated with a reduction in membrane-associated PKC activity while MEZ-induced increases in cAMP production were accompanied by decreases in membrane and cytosolic PKC activity. Enhanced cAMP production was not accompanied by significant changes in PTH/PTH related peptide (PTHrP) receptor affinity or number, nor was the loss of Na/Pi transport regulation associated with changes in PKA activity. The results indicate that down-regulation of PKC by PTH or MEZ differentially modulates cAMP production and regulation of Na/Pi transport. The distinct effects of PTH and MEZ on PKC activity suggest that agonist-specific activation and/or down-regulation of PKC isozyme(s) may be involved in the observed changes in cAMP production and Na/Pi transport.

  15. Theophylline potentiates lipopolysaccharide-induced NO production in cultured astrocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogawa, Mizue; Takano, Katsura; Kawabe, Kenji; Moriyama, Mitsuaki; Ihara, Hideshi; Nakamura, Yoichi

    2014-01-01

    Elucidation of the functions of astrocytes is important for understanding of the pathogenic mechanism of various neurodegenerative diseases. Theophylline is a common drug for bronchial asthma and occasionally develops side-effects, such as acute encephalopathy; although the pathogenic mechanism of the side-effects is unknown. The lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced nitricoxide (NO) production is generally used for an index of the activation of astrocyte in vitro. In this study, in order to elucidate the effect of theophylline on the astrocytic functions, we examined the LPS-induced NO production and the expression of iNOS in cultured rat cortex astrocytes.Theophylline alone could not induce the NO production; however, NO production induced by LPS was enhanced by theophylline in a dose-dependent manner; and by isobutylmethylxanthine, a phosphodiesterase inhibitor. The theophylline enhancement of LPS-induced NO production was further increased by dibutyryl cyclic AMP, a membrane-permeable cAMP analog; and by forskolin, an adenylate cyclase activator. When the cells were preincubated with Rp-8-Br-cAMP, an inhibitor of protein kinase A, the theophylline enhancement of LPS-induced NO production was decreased. The extent of iNOS protein expression induced by LPS was also enhanced by theophylline.It is likely that phosphodiesterase inhibition is a major action mechanism for the theophylline enhancement of LPS-induced NO production in astrocytes. Theophylline-induced acute encephalopathy might be due to the hyper-activation of astrocytes via cAMP signaling to produce excess amount of NO.

  16. Camp Counseling and the Development and Transfer of Workforce Skills: The Perspective of Ohio 4-H Camp Counselor Alumni

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janel K. Digby

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Recent research shows that camp counselors, including those in 4-H, benefit from the experience by developing important life skills. However, because research regarding the perception of workforce skill development in this context has yielded inconsistent findings, the present study used focus groups to examine 4-H camp counselor alumni perceptions about the skills gained and transfer of these skills to other settings. Overall, 4-H camp counselor alumni thought their experience was fun and enjoyable, yet challenging. They believed they developed important life and workforce skills. Not only did alumni learn these skills, but the skills transferred beyond the camp setting. Leadership was noted as the skill most frequently applied to other contexts. Alumni believed that their counseling experiences had both indirect and direct impacts on their career choice. This study suggests many practical applications for those who work with camp programs.

  17. Rocket experiments and payloads for Super CAMP. [Cold Arctic Mesopause Project (CAMP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopp, E.; Goldberg, R. A.

    1987-01-01

    The super Cold Arctic Mesopause Project (CAMP) follow-up project in the summer of 1990 is outlined. In situ measurements of appropriate height resolution are needed in the summer mesosphere at high latitudes to investigate structures and formation processes of polar mesospheric clouds. The rocket measurements from the high latitude site Thule AB in Greenland (76.6 N) are decisive for the understanding of the cold Arctic mesopause. Similar rocket measurements from the European ranges Andenes and Esrange (68 to 69 N) are needed to investigate the latitudinal variability of the parameters relevant for the formation, transport, and loss of mesospheric ice particles. An important aspect of Super CAMP is the study of the heterogeneous chemistry, the loss of electrons on aggregates, and the build-up of horizontal and vertical electric fields in the presence of charged ice particles. Instruments, measurements, and purpose are listed.

  18. Analog-to-digital conversion

    CERN Document Server

    Pelgrom, Marcel J M

    2010-01-01

    The design of an analog-to-digital converter or digital-to-analog converter is one of the most fascinating tasks in micro-electronics. In a converter the analog world with all its intricacies meets the realm of the formal digital abstraction. Both disciplines must be understood for an optimum conversion solution. In a converter also system challenges meet technology opportunities. Modern systems rely on analog-to-digital converters as an essential part of the complex chain to access the physical world. And processors need the ultimate performance of digital-to-analog converters to present the results of their complex algorithms. The same progress in CMOS technology that enables these VLSI digital systems creates new challenges for analog-to-digital converters: lower signal swings, less power and variability issues. Last but not least, the analog-to-digital converter must follow the cost reduction trend. These changing boundary conditions require micro-electronics engineers to consider their design choices for...

  19. Molecular modeling of fentanyl analogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LJILJANA DOSEN-MICOVIC

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available Fentanyl is a highly potent and clinically widely used narcotic analgesic. A large number of its analogs have been synthesized, some of which (sufentanil and alfentanyl are also in clinical use. Theoretical studies, in recent years, afforded a better understanding of the structure-activity relationships of this class of opiates and allowed insight into the molecular mechanism of the interactions of fentanyl analogs with their receptors. An overview of the current computational techniques for modeling fentanyl analogs, their receptors and ligand-receptor interactions is presented in this paper.

  20. Analog Systems for Gravity Duals

    OpenAIRE

    Hossenfelder, S.

    2014-01-01

    We show that analog gravity systems exist for charged, planar black holes in asymptotic Anti-de Sitter space. These black holes have been employed to describe, via the gauge-gravity duality, strongly coupled condensed matter systems on the boundary of AdS-space. The analog gravity system is a different condensed matter system that, in a suitable limit, describes the same bulk physics as the theory on the AdS boundary. This combination of the gauge-gravity duality and analog gravity therefore ...

  1. Summer camps for diabetic children: an experience in Campania, Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misuraca, A; Di Gennaro, M; Lioniello, M; Duval, M; Aloi, G

    1996-04-01

    To evaluate the effectiveness of summer camps with objective parameters, the authors examined data relative to nine summer camps organized by the Young Diabetics Association in Campania, Italy. The mean duration of camps was 10 days (range, 8-15) and a total of 256 diabetic children with an average age of 10 (range 8-16) participated in them. The medical personnel consisted of three pediatric endocrinologists, one psychologist, two male nurses and two parents who were directors of the Association. A significant improvement in knowledge and self-management of the disease was noted at the end of the camps. A beneficial effect on mean HbA1c level was also observed in the diabetic children who attended the monthly meetings and follow-up checks with their parents after the camp. On the other hand, a worsening of these values was noted in diabetic children who did not participate in them. No increased incidence of hypoglycaemia or ketoacidosis was found during or after camps, in contrast with previous studies. From a psychological viewpoint, the results suggest that summer camps have an important bearing on achieving acceptance of the disease. Sharing personal experiences with actively involved parents who participated in self-management training together with their children, has favourably influenced the results of this experience in Campania.

  2. Transcriptome changes and cAMP oscillations in an archaeal cell cycle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soppa Jörg

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The cell cycle of all organisms includes mass increase by a factor of two, replication of the genetic material, segregation of the genome to different parts of the cell, and cell division into two daughter cells. It is tightly regulated and typically includes cell cycle-specific oscillations of the levels of transcripts, proteins, protein modifications, and signaling molecules. Until now cell cycle-specific transcriptome changes have been described for four eukaryotic species ranging from yeast to human, but only for two prokaryotic species. Similarly, oscillations of small signaling molecules have been identified in very few eukaryotic species, but not in any prokaryote. Results A synchronization procedure for the archaeon Halobacterium salinarum was optimized, so that nearly 100% of all cells divide in a time interval that is 1/4th of the generation time of exponentially growing cells. The method was used to characterize cell cycle-dependent transcriptome changes using a genome-wide DNA microarray. The transcript levels of 87 genes were found to be cell cycle-regulated, corresponding to 3% of all genes. They could be clustered into seven groups with different transcript level profiles. Cluster-specific sequence motifs were detected around the start of the genes that are predicted to be involved in cell cycle-specific transcriptional regulation. Notably, many cell cycle genes that have oscillating transcript levels in eukaryotes are not regulated on the transcriptional level in H. salinarum. Synchronized cultures were also used to identify putative small signaling molecules. H. salinarum was found to contain a basal cAMP concentration of 200 μM, considerably higher than that of yeast. The cAMP concentration is shortly induced directly prior to and after cell division, and thus cAMP probably is an important signal for cell cycle progression. Conclusion The analysis of cell cycle-specific transcriptome changes of H. salinarum

  3. Food Allergy Trends and Epinephrine Autoinjector Presence in Summer Camps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schellpfeffer, Natalie R; Leo, Harvey L; Ambrose, Michael; Hashikawa, Andrew N

    Pediatric campers with food allergies are at greater risk for exposure and anaphylaxis. A diagnosis of asthma increases risk for anaphylaxis. Epidemiological investigations of food-allergic children at high risk for allergic reactions requiring intervention in camp settings are lacking. The objectives of this study were to estimate the prevalence of food allergies among otherwise healthy campers in summer camps throughout the United States and Canada, and to assess asthma comorbidity and determine rates of epinephrine autoinjector prescriptions present in this population. We partnered with CampDoc.com, a web-based camp electronic health record system. Deidentified data were abstracted from 170 camps representing 122,424 campers. Only food allergies with a parental report of symptoms requiring intervention or with a camp prescription for an epinephrine autoinjector were included, whereas gluten, lactose intolerance, and food dyes were excluded. Asthma status and epinephrine presence on the camp medication list were assessed. Overall, 2.5% of campers (n = 3055) had documented food allergies. Of these campers, 22% had multiple food allergies. Median age was 11 years; 52% were female. Nuts (81%), seafood (17.4%), egg (8.5%), fruit (8.1%), and seeds (7.2%) were the top 5 food allergies reported. Of food-allergic campers, 44.3% had concurrent asthma and 34.7% of those campers were taking multiple asthma medications. Less than half (39.7%) of food-allergic children brought an epinephrine autoinjector to the camp. Life-saving epinephrine is not necessarily available for food-allergic children in camp settings. A substantial proportion of food-allergic campers are at higher risk for anaphylaxis based on concurrent asthma status. Copyright © 2016 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Summer Camp for Children And Adolescents with Chronic Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, Alicia

    2015-01-01

    Children with chronic conditions experience physical, social, emotional, and developmental challenges that include physical differences, negative body image, social isolation, decreased emotional functioning, and developmental concerns. Summer camps are a way to help these children overcome their difficulties. They provide an enjoyable experience, encourage goal achievement, give children a sense of community and friendship, improve children's self-concept, increase children's disease knowledge and management, and contribute to campers' positive development. Nurses can encourage families to use these camps as a therapeutic intervention and help families evaluate individual camps to find a good fit for their child.

  5. Imaging alterations of cardiomyocyte cAMP microdomains in disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander eFroese

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available 3’,5’-cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP is an important second messenger which regulates heart function by acting in distinct subcellular microdomains. Recent years have provided deeper mechanistic insights into compartmentalized cAMP signaling and its link to cardiac disease. In this mini review, we summarize newest developments in this field achieved by cutting-edge biochemical and biophysical techniques. We further compile the data from different studies into a bigger picture of so far uncovered alterations in cardiomyocyte cAMP microdomains which occur in compensated cardiac hypertrophy and chronic heart failure. Finally, future research directions and translational perspectives are briefly discussed.

  6. Analog filters in nanometer CMOS

    CERN Document Server

    Uhrmann, Heimo; Zimmermann, Horst

    2014-01-01

    Starting from the basics of analog filters and the poor transistor characteristics in nanometer CMOS 10 high-performance analog filters developed by the authors in 120 nm and 65 nm CMOS are described extensively. Among them are gm-C filters, current-mode filters, and active filters for system-on-chip realization for Bluetooth, WCDMA, UWB, DVB-H, and LTE applications. For the active filters several operational amplifier designs are described. The book, furthermore, contains a review of the newest state of research on low-voltage low-power analog filters. To cover the topic of the book comprehensively, linearization issues and measurement methods for the characterization of advanced analog filters are introduced in addition. Numerous elaborate illustrations promote an easy comprehension. This book will be of value to engineers and researchers in industry as well as scientists and Ph.D students at universities. The book is also recommendable to graduate students specializing on nanoelectronics, microelectronics ...

  7. Analog-to-digital converter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewyn, L. L. (Inventor)

    1965-01-01

    An analog to digital converter circuit arrangement is reported that is suitable for use in ultra fast pulse height analysis. The circuit uses series connected tunnel diodes to quantize a voltage signal into discrete levels.

  8. Kukoamine A analogs with lipoxygenase inhibitory activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadjipavlou-Litina, Dimitra; Garnelis, Thomas; Athanassopoulos, Constantinos M; Papaioannou, Dionissios

    2009-10-01

    Kukoamine A (KukA) is a spermine (SPM) conjugate with dihydrocaffeic acid (DHCA), with interesting biological activities. The four possible regioisomers of KukA, as well as a series of KukA analogs incorporating changes in either the SPM or the DHCA structural units, were evaluated for their antioxidant activity and their inhibitory activity on soybean lipoxygenase (LOX) and lipid peroxidation. The reducing properties of the compounds were evaluated using the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical scavenging assay and found to be in the range 5-97.5%. KukA significantly inhibits LOX with IC(50) 9.5 microM. All tested analogs inhibited lipid peroxidation in the range of 11-100%. The most potent compounds KukA and its analog 3, in which the DHCA units had been replaced by O,O9-dimethylcaffeic acid units, were studied for their anti-inflammatory activity in vivo on rat paw edema induced by carrageenan and found to be of comparable activity to indomethacin. The results of the biological tests are discussed in terms of structural characteristics.

  9. Clinical laboratory evaluation of a reverse CAMP test for presumptive identification of Clostridium perfringens.

    OpenAIRE

    Buchanan, A G

    1982-01-01

    Ninety-six percent of Clostridium perfringens isolates from clinical specimens were reverse CAMP test positive, whereas several other Clostridium species tested were reverse CAMP test negative. C. perfringens was detected by direct inoculation of clinical specimens to reverse CAMP plates, and the reverse CAMP procedure provided reliable presumptive identification of this organism.

  10. A second look at the heavy half of the camping market

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilbur R. LaPage; Dale P. Ragain; Dale P. Ragain

    1971-01-01

    A 1968 survey of campers revealed that one-half of the campers did more than three-fourths of all the reported camping. Campers in this heavy half of the camping market were found to differ significantly from light-half campers in their camping motivations, past experience, and investments in camping equipment (LdPage 1969). However, the 1968 survey identified heavy-...

  11. Retinoic acid and cAMP inhibit rat hepatocellular carcinoma cell proliferation and enhance cell differentiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ionta, M. [Instituto de Ciências Biomédicas, Universidade Federal de Alfenas, Alfenas MG (Brazil); Departamento de Biologia Celular e do Desenvolvimento, Instituto de Ciências Biomédicas, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo SP (Brazil); Rosa, M.C.; Almeida, R.B.; Freitas, V.M.; Rezende-Teixeira, P.; Machado-Santelli, G.M. [Departamento de Biologia Celular e do Desenvolvimento, Instituto de Ciências Biomédicas, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo SP (Brazil)

    2012-05-25

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the third highest cause of cancer death worldwide. In general, the disease is diagnosed at an advanced stage when potentially curative therapies are no longer feasible. For this reason, it is very important to develop new therapeutic approaches. Retinoic acid (RA) is a natural derivative of vitamin A that regulates important biological processes including cell proliferation and differentiation. In vitro studies have shown that RA is effective in inhibiting growth of HCC cells; however, responsiveness to treatment varies among different HCC cell lines. The objective of the present study was to determine if the combined use of RA (0.1 µM) and cAMP (1 mM), an important second messenger, improves the responsiveness of HCC cells to RA treatment. We evaluated the proliferative behavior of an HCC cell line (HTC) and the expression profile of genes related to cancer signaling pathway (ERK and GSK-3β) and liver differentiation [E-cadherin, connexin 26 (Cx26), and connexin 32 (Cx32)]. RA and cAMP were effective in inhibiting the proliferation of HTC cells independently of combined use. However, when a mixture of RA and cAMP was used, the signals concerning the degree of cell differentiation were increased. As demonstrated by Western blot, the treatment increased E-cadherin, Cx26, Cx32 and Ser9-GSK-3β (inactive form) expression while the expression of Cx43, Tyr216-GSK-3β (active form) and phosphorylated ERK decreased. Furthermore, telomerase activity was inhibited along treatment. Taken together, the results showed that the combined use of RA and cAMP is more effective in inducing differentiation of HTC cells.

  12. Retinoic acid and cAMP inhibit rat hepatocellular carcinoma cell proliferation and enhance cell differentiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Ionta

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC is the third highest cause of cancer death worldwide. In general, the disease is diagnosed at an advanced stage when potentially curative therapies are no longer feasible. For this reason, it is very important to develop new therapeutic approaches. Retinoic acid (RA is a natural derivative of vitamin A that regulates important biological processes including cell proliferation and differentiation. In vitro studies have shown that RA is effective in inhibiting growth of HCC cells; however, responsiveness to treatment varies among different HCC cell lines. The objective of the present study was to determine if the combined use of RA (0.1 µM and cAMP (1 mM, an important second messenger, improves the responsiveness of HCC cells to RA treatment. We evaluated the proliferative behavior of an HCC cell line (HTC and the expression profile of genes related to cancer signaling pathway (ERK and GSK-3β and liver differentiation (E-cadherin, connexin 26 (Cx26, and Cx32. RA and cAMP were effective in inhibiting the proliferation of HTC cells independently of combined use. However, when a mixture of RA and cAMP was used, the signals concerning the degree of cell differentiation were increased. As demonstrated by Western blot, the treatment increased E-cadherin, Cx26, Cx32 and Ser9-GSK-3β (inactive form expression while the expression of Cx43, Tyr216-GSK-3β (active form and phosphorylated ERK decreased. Furthermore, telomerase activity was inhibited along treatment. Taken together, the results showed that the combined use of RA and cAMP is more effective in inducing differentiation of HTC cells.

  13. Cardiac cAMP: production, hydrolysis, modulation and detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cédric eBOULARAN

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Cyclic adenosine 3’,5’-monophosphate (cAMP modulates a broad range of biological processes including the regulation of cardiac myocyte contractile function where it constitutes the main second messenger for β-adrenergic receptors’ signaling to fulfill positive chronotropic, inotropic and lusitropic effects. A growing number of studies pinpoint the role of spatial organization of the cAMP signaling as an essential mechanism to regulate cAMP outcomes in cardiac physiology. Here, we will briefly discuss the complexity of cAMP synthesis and degradation in the cardiac context, describe the way to detect it and review the main pharmacological arsenal to modulate its availability.

  14. STRATEGI CAMP DALAM NOVEL HIDING MY CANDY KARYA LADY CHABLIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sri Saraswati

    2016-07-01

    Penerapan strategi Camp tersebut ditujukan sebagai upaya untuk meraih kebertahanan transgender. Selanjutnya, kebertahanan transgender dapat dicerminkan melalui visibilitas sosial, terbentuknya wacana normalitas alternatif dan pemberdayaan transgender

  15. Psychiatric Morbidity in a Leprosy Camp in Northern Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    . Most of the previous studies have focused on leprosy patients in clinical settings while studies on isolated people with leprosy remain scanty. Aims : To determine the prevalence of psychiatric morbidity in a leprosy camp and its associated ...

  16. The Physics of Quidditch Summer Camp: An Interdisciplinary Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammer, Donna; Uher, Tim

    The University of Maryland Physics Department has developed an innovative summer camp program that takes an interdisciplinary approach to engaging and teaching physics. The Physics of Quidditch Camp uniquely sits at the intersection of physics, sports, and literature, utilizing the real-life sport of quidditch adapted from the Harry Potter novels to stimulate critical thinking about real laws of physics and leaps of imagination, while actively engaging students in learning the sport and discussing the literature. Throughout the camp, middle school participants become immersed in fun physics experiments and exciting physical activities, which aim to build and enhance skills in problem-solving, analytical thinking, and teamwork. This camp has pioneered new ways of teaching physics to pre-college students, successfully engaged middle school students in learning physics, and grown a large demand for such activities.

  17. Supporting Transgender and Gender Nonconforming Youth at Summer Camp

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ann Gillard; Erin E Buzuvis; M Deborah Bialeschki

    2014-01-01

    .... Given that transgender and gender nonconforming youth tend to experience profound difficulties during the school year, camp can be a potential setting for positive youth development for these youth...

  18. Nationalsozialistische Konzentrations- und Vernichtungslager National Socialist Concentration and Extermination Camps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Max Plassmann

    2000-11-01

    Full Text Available Das Buch stellt Organisationsformen, Zuständigkeiten und Politik hinter dem nationalsozialistischen Konzentrationslagersystem dar.This book presents organization, competences and policies underlying the system of National Socialist concentration camps.

  19. Thinking Big for 25 Years: Astronomy Camp Research Projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hooper, Eric Jon; McCarthy, D. W.; Benecchi, S. D.; Henry, T. J.; Kirkpatrick, J. D.; Kulesa, C.; Oey, M. S.; Regester, J.; Schlingman, W. M.; Camp Staff, Astronomy

    2013-01-01

    Astronomy Camp is a deep immersion educational adventure for teenagers and adults in southern Arizona that is entering its 25th year of existence. The Camp Director (McCarthy) is the winner of the 2012 AAS Education Prize. A general overview of the program is given in an accompanying contribution (McCarthy et al.). In this presentation we describe some of the research projects conducted by Astronomy Camp participants over the years. Many of the Camps contain a strong project-oriented emphasis, which reaches its pinnacle in the Advanced Camps for teenagers. High school students from around the world participate in a microcosm of the full arc of astronomy research. They plan their own projects before the start of Camp, and the staff provide a series of "key projects." Early in the Camp the students submit observing proposals to utilize time on telescopes. (The block of observing time is secured in advance by the staff.) The participants collect, reduce and analyze astronomical data with the help of staff, and they present the results to their peers on the last night of Camp, all in a span of eight days. The Camps provide research grade telescopes and instruments, in addition to amateur telescopes. Some of the Camps occur on Kitt Peak, where we use an ensemble of telescopes: the 2.3-meter (University of Arizona) with a spectrograph; the WIYN 0.9-meter; the McMath-Pierce Solar Telescope; and the 12-meter millimeter wave telescope. Additionally the Camp has one night on the 10-meter Submillimeter Telescope on Mt. Graham. Campers use these resources to study stars, galaxies, AGN, transiting planets, molecular clouds, etc. Some of the camper-initiated projects have led to very high level performances in prestigious international competitions, such as the Intel International Science and Engineering Fair. The key projects often contribute to published astronomical research (e.g., Benecchi et al. 2010, Icarus, 207, 978). Many former Campers have received Ph.D. degrees in

  20. Spaceflight Sensorimotor Analogs: Simulating Acute and Adaptive Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Laura C.; Harm, Deborah L.; Kozlovskaya, Inessa; Reschke, Millard F.; Wood, Scott J.

    2009-01-01

    reviewed. DISCUSSION. A true ground-based flight analog for sensorimotor function is not feasible. A combination of flight analogs; however, can be used to selectively mimic different aspects of the spaceflight-induced sensorimotor performance decrements.

  1. EduCamp Colombia: Social Networked Learning for Teacher Training

    OpenAIRE

    Diego Ernesto Leal Fonseca

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes a learning experience called EduCamp, which was launched by the Ministry of Education of Colombia in 2007, based on emerging concepts such as e-Learning 2.0, connectivism, and personal learning environments. An EduCamp proposes an unstructured collective learning experience, which intends to make palpable the possibilities of social software tools in learning and interaction processes while demonstrating face-to-face organizational forms that reflect social networked lear...

  2. Science and technology camp for girls. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-12-31

    This document reports on the success of Pacific University`s camp held during the summers of 1992 and 1993; ultimate goal of this summer day camp was to increase the number of women in technical and scientific fields. Some experimentation was done with the age groups (7th and 8th grade girls). The curriculum was biology, chemistry, physics, and mathematics/computer science. Laboratory work and field trips were emphasized, along with socialization.

  3. Camp Upshur, Marine Corps Base Quantico, VA Architectural Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-08-01

    mon occurrence during and post World War II construction. The building type was a quick fix to the growing needs of the Marine Corps. In 1950, the...of Skinner Street East of Mitchell Street South of Bonnyman Street West of Bailey Street at Camp Upshur, which is located in the northwest corner...of Skinner Street, east of Mitchell Street, south of Bonnyman Street, and west of Bailey Ave- nue at Camp Upshur, Marine Corps Base Quantico, Virginia

  4. Camp Sherman, Ohio: History of a World War I Training Camp

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-01

    t.t.’T !tC.AL.t: O r MILl:, " · t CO ... TRUCTION OIVI.ION WA R OEJOT. WASH INGTON. D. C CAMP jHE12.MAN , OHIO KEY ~1AP OF PROPERTY .10e No 6...the rear of the bunker. It was an all-day assignment and at noon a cook’s truck arrived with some unsavory victuals with cold coffee slopped over...land for training purposes, but the OHARNG took full control of the land in 1971. 114 The rifle range was likely used for troop training in

  5. Targeted antiviral prophylaxis with oseltamivir in a summer camp setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimberlin, David W; Escude, Janell; Gantner, Janel; Ott, Jeanne; Dronet, Melissa; Stewart, Timothy A; Jester, Penelope; Redden, David T; Chapman, Whitney; Hammond, Rob

    2010-04-01

    To describe the effectiveness of containment of novel influenza A(H1N1) infection at a summer camp. Targeted use of oseltamivir phosphate by individuals in close contact with influenza-confirmed cases. Boys' camp in Alabama in July 2009. A total of 171 campers, 48 camp counselors, and 27 camp staff. Campers with confirmed influenza received oseltamivir and were immediately isolated and sent home. All boys and counselors in the infected child's adjoining cabins received prophylactic oseltamivir for 10 days, including 8 campers at higher risk for influenza infection (eg, those with asthma, seizure disorder, or diabetes). Alcohol-based hand sanitizer was provided at each of the daily activities, in the boys' cabins, and in the dining hall, and counselors were educated by the medical staff on the spread of influenza and its prevention through good hand hygiene. All cabins, bathrooms, and community sports equipment were sprayed or wiped down with disinfectant each day. Main Outcome Measure Virologic confirmation of influenza. Three of the 171 campers tested positive for influenza A during the course of the 2-week fourth session, for an attack rate of 1.8%. The probability of observing 3 or fewer infected campers if the attack rate was 12% is less than 1 in 10,000,000 (P camp session. In conjunction with comprehensive hand sanitization and surface decontamination, a targeted approach to antiviral prophylaxis contained the spread of influenza in a summer camp setting.

  6. Core Concepts: Orthopedic Intern Curriculum Boot Camp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seeley, Mark A; Kazarian, Erick; King, Brandon; Biermann, Janet S; Carpenter, James E; Caird, Michelle S; Irwin, Todd A

    2016-01-01

    Orthopedic surgical interns must gain a broad array of clinical skills in a short time. However, recent changes in health care have limited resident-patient exposures. With the reported success of simulation training in the surgical literature, the American Board of Orthopaedic Surgery (ABOS) and Residency Review Committee for Orthopaedic Surgery have required that surgical simulation training be a component of the intern curricula in orthopedic surgical residencies. This study examined the short-term effectiveness of an orthopedic "intern boot camp" covering 7 of 17 simulation training concept modules published by the ABOS. Eight orthopedic post-graduate year 1 (PGY-1) residents (study group) completed a structured 3-month curriculum and were compared with 7 post-graduate year 2 (PGY-2) residents (comparison group) who had just completed their orthopedic surgical internship. Seven core skills were assessed using both task-specific and global rating scales. The PGY-1 residents demonstrated a statistically significant improvement in all 7 modules with respect to their task-specific pre-test scores: sterile technique (P=.001), wound closure (Porthopedic internship elevated a variety of clinical skills to levels exhibited by PGY-2 residents. Copyright 2016, SLACK Incorporated.

  7. L-pGlu-(2-propyl)-L-His-L-ProNH₂ attenuates 4-aminopyridine-induced epileptiform activity and sodium current: a possible action of new thyrotropin-releasing hormone analog for its anticonvulsant potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sah, N; Rajput, S K; Singh, J N; Meena, C L; Jain, R; Sikdar, S K; Sharma, S S

    2011-12-29

    L-PGlu-(2-propyl)-L-His-L-ProNH₂ (NP-647) is a CNS active thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH) analog with potential application in various CNS disorders including seizures. In the present study, mechanism of action for protective effect of NP-647 was explored by studying role of NP-647 on epileptiform activity and sodium channels by using patch-clamp methods. Epileptiform activity was induced in subicular pyramidal neurons of hippocampal slice of rat by perfusing 4-aminopyridine (4-AP) containing Mg⁺²-free normal artificial cerebrospinal fluid (nACSF). Increase in mean firing frequency was observed after perfusion of 4-AP and zero Mg⁺² (2.10±0.47 Hz) as compared with nACSF (0.12±0.08 Hz). A significant decrease in mean firing frequency (0.61±0.22 Hz), mean frequency of epileptiform events (0.03±0.02 Hz vs. 0.22±0.05 Hz of 4-AP+0 Mg), and average number of action potentials in paroxysmal depolarization shift-burst (2.54±1.21 Hz vs. 8.16±0.88 Hz of 4-AP+0 Mg) was observed. A significant reduction in peak dV/dt (246±19 mV ms⁻¹ vs. 297±18 mV ms⁻¹ of 4-AP+0 Mg) and increase (1.332±0.018 ms vs. 1.292±0.019 ms of 4-AP+0 Mg) in time required to reach maximum depolarization were observed indicating role of sodium channels. Concentration-dependent depression of sodium current was observed after exposure to dorsal root ganglion neurons to NP-647. NP-647 at different concentrations (1, 3, and 10 μM) depressed sodium current (15±0.5%, 50±2.6%, and 75±0.7%, respectively). However, NP-647 did not show change in the peak sodium current in CNa18 cells. Results of present study demonstrated potential of NP-647 in the inhibition of epileptiform activity by inhibiting sodium channels indirectly. Copyright © 2011 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Propranolol Targets Hemangioma Stem Cells via cAMP and Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase Regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munabi, Naikhoba C O; England, Ryan W; Edwards, Andrew K; Kitajewski, Alison A; Tan, Qian Kun; Weinstein, Andrew; Kung, Justin E; Wilcox, Maya; Kitajewski, Jan K; Shawber, Carrie J; Wu, June K

    2016-01-01

    Infantile hemangiomas (IHs) are the most common vascular tumor and arise from a hemangioma stem cell (HemSC). Propranolol has proved efficacious for problematic IHs. Propranolol is a nonselective β-adrenergic receptor (βAR) antagonist that can lower cAMP levels and activate the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway downstream of βARs. We found that HemSCs express β1AR and β2AR in proliferating IHs and determined the role of these βARs and the downstream pathways in mediating propranolol's effects. In isolated HemSCs, propranolol suppressed cAMP levels and activated extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK)1/2 in a dose-dependent fashion. Propranolol, used at doses of Propranolol at ≥10(-5) M reduced cAMP levels and activated ERK1/2, and this correlated with HemSC apoptosis and cytotoxicity at ≥10(-4) M. Stimulation with a βAR agonist, isoprenaline, promoted HemSC proliferation and rescued the antiproliferative effects of propranolol, suggesting that propranolol inhibits βAR signaling in HemSCs. Treatment with a cAMP analog or a MAPK inhibitor partially rescued the HemSC cell viability suppressed by propranolol. A selective β2AR antagonist mirrored propranolol's effects on HemSCs in a dose-dependent fashion, and a selective β1AR antagonist had no effect, supporting a role for β2AR signaling in IH pathobiology. In a mouse model of IH, propranolol reduced the vessel caliber and blood flow assessed by ultrasound Doppler and increased activation of ERK1/2 in IH cells. We have thus demonstrated that propranolol acts on HemSCs in IH to suppress proliferation and promote apoptosis in a dose-dependent fashion via β2AR perturbation, resulting in reduced cAMP and MAPK activation. The present study investigated the action of propranolol in infantile hemangiomas (IHs). IHs are the most common vascular tumor in children and have been proposed to arise from a hemangioma stem cell (HemSC). Propranolol, a nonselective β-adrenergic receptor (

  9. Analog electronics for radiation detection

    CERN Document Server

    2016-01-01

    Analog Electronics for Radiation Detection showcases the latest advances in readout electronics for particle, or radiation, detectors. Featuring chapters written by international experts in their respective fields, this authoritative text: Defines the main design parameters of front-end circuitry developed in microelectronics technologies Explains the basis for the use of complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) image sensors for the detection of charged particles and other non-consumer applications Delivers an in-depth review of analog-to-digital converters (ADCs), evaluating the pros and cons of ADCs integrated at the pixel, column, and per-chip levels Describes incremental sigma delta ADCs, time-to-digital converter (TDC) architectures, and digital pulse-processing techniques complementary to analog processing Examines the fundamental parameters and front-end types associated with silicon photomultipliers used for single visible-light photon detection Discusses pixel sensors ...

  10. Staphylococcus aureus hijacks a skin commensal to intensify its virulence: immunization targeting β-hemolysin and CAMP factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, Chih-Wei; Lai, Yiu-Kay; Liu, Yu-Tsueng; Gallo, Richard L; Huang, Chun-Ming

    2011-02-01

    The need for a new anti-Staphylococcus aureus therapy that can effectively cripple bacterial infection, neutralize secretory virulence factors, and lower the risk of creating bacterial resistance is undisputed. Here, we propose what is, to our knowledge, a previously unreported infectious mechanism by which S. aureus may commandeer Propionibacterium acnes, a key member of the human skin microbiome, to spread its invasion and highlight two secretory virulence factors (S. aureus β-hemolysin and P. acnes CAMP (Christie, Atkins, Munch-Peterson) factor) as potential molecular targets for immunotherapy against S. aureus infection. Our data demonstrate that the hemolysis and cytolysis by S. aureus were noticeably augmented when S. aureus was grown with P. acnes. The augmentation was significantly abrogated when the P. acnes CAMP factor was neutralized or β-hemolysin of S. aureus was mutated. In addition, the hemolysis and cytolysis of recombinant β-hemolysin were markedly enhanced by recombinant CAMP factor. Furthermore, P. acnes exacerbated S. aureus-induced skin lesions in vivo. The combination of CAMP factor neutralization and β-hemolysin immunization cooperatively suppressed the skin lesions caused by coinfection of P. acnes and S. aureus. These observations suggest a previously unreported immunotherapy targeting the interaction of S. aureus with a skin commensal.

  11. Analogies in Science and Science Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Simon; Salter, Susan

    2010-01-01

    Analogies are often used in science, but students may not appreciate their significance, and so the analogies can be misunderstood or discounted. For this reason, educationalists often express concern about the use of analogies in teaching. Given the important place of analogies in the discourse of science, it is necessary that students are…

  12. The Psychological Impact of First Burn Camp in Nicaragua.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tropez-Arceneaux, Lisa L; Castillo Alaniz, Arlen Tatiana; Lucia Icaza, Ivette; Alejandra Murillo, Evelyn

    Asociacion Pro-Ninos Quemados de Nicaragua (APROQUEN) is a comprehensive burn center that provides a holistic and integrated approach to treating burns. APROQUEN has set the standards internationally with acute treatment for burns, intensive care, reconstructive surgeries, nutritional care, rehabilitation, occupational therapy, and psychological treatment. APROQUEN is excelling within Central and South America with life-saving techniques and quality of care. It is imperative that burn centers in Central America recognize that the treatment of a child with a burn injury surpasses physical care to include psychological treatment for the complete well-being of the child. It is necessary to provide the tools necessary to reintegrate the child back into their environment. APROQUEN developed and implemented the first burn camp in Latin America, "Confio en Mi" (I trust myself). The camp theme focused on self-esteem. The camp program included theory (educational) and practice (applied) components where the campers through "classroom type" activities had the opportunity to reflect and share with other campers and camp staff on self-esteem, depression, and anxiety. Participants were children who survived major burns (N = 33; 58% women; ages 12-25; 61% <18) and were shown to have difficulty socializing. Comprehensive interviews were conducted to ensure fit for camp. Forty-two percent of the campers had not slept away from home since the burn injury. Mean TBSA = 20% and mean age at time of burn injury was 13. The majority of campers (46%) endured flame burn injuries, with 24% having scald injuries. Mean years postburn = 4.8 + 3.2. Most campers (40%) were enrolled in secondary school, 30% in elementary school, and 21% in college. Standardized measures (CDI-2 Parent Form and Child Form, Rosenberg Scale, APROQUEN Burn Camp Measure Parent and Child Form, Beck Anxiety Inventory, and Beck Depression Inventory) were given to all campers prior to attending camp. The same measures

  13. Camp Golden Treasures: a multidisciplinary weight-loss and a healthy lifestyle camp for adolescent girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratt, Keeley J; Lamson, Angela L; Collier, David N; Harris, Nancy; Ballard, Sharon; Saporito, Maria; Sarvey, Sharon; Gross, Kevin; Crawford, Yancey S

    2009-03-01

    Camp Golden Treasures, (CGT) the first non-profit weight loss camp for overweight adolescent girls in the nation, was held for six weeks from June 24 to August 3, 2007 at the East Carolina University campus in Greenville, NC. The primary goal was to support campers to lose weight, raise self esteem, and to learn the tools necessary to lead a healthy lifestyle while reducing risks for developing chronic disease or mitigating the effects of existing obesity-related conditions (sleep apnea, insulin resistance, hypertension, lower extremity dysfunction, etc.). While at CGT, campers learned about the importance of physical activity and proper nutrition through workshops, discussion groups and hands-on activities. Additionally campers were taught the necessary tools and strategies needed to make concrete, positive lifestyle changes so they can achieve a healthy weight. Due to the nature of a chronic disease such as obesity, multidisciplinary collaborators including physical therapy, nutrition, health education, management, family therapy, risk management, fundraising, public relations, medical, nursing, and physician coverage were involved in designing, planning, and implementing CGT.

  14. Ethanol induces apoptotic death of developing beta-endorphin neurons via suppression of cyclic adenosine monophosphate production and activation of transforming growth factor-beta1-linked apoptotic signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Cui Ping; Kuhn, Peter; Chaturvedi, Kirti; Boyadjieva, Nadka; Sarkar, Dipak K

    2006-03-01

    The mechanism by which ethanol induces beta-endorphin (beta-EP) neuronal death during the developmental period was determined using fetal rat hypothalamic cells in primary cultures. The addition of ethanol to hypothalamic cell cultures stimulated apoptotic cell death of beta-EP neurons by increasing caspase-3 activity. Ethanol lowered the levels of adenylyl cyclase (AC)7 mRNA, AC8 mRNA, and/or cAMP in hypothalamic cells, whereas a cAMP analog blocked the apoptotic action of ethanol on beta-EP neurons. The AC inhibitor dideoxyadenosine (DDA) increased cell apoptosis and reduced the number of beta-EP neurons, and it potentiated the apoptotic action of ethanol on these neurons. beta-EP neurons in hypothalamic cultures showed immunoreactivity to transforming growth factor-beta1 (TGF-beta1) protein. Ethanol and DDA increased TGF-beta1 production and/or release from hypothalamic cells. A cAMP analog blocked the activation by ethanol of TGF-beta1 in these cells. TGF-beta1 increased apoptosis of beta-EP neurons, but it did not potentiate the action of ethanol or DDA actions on these neurons. TGF-beta1 neutralizing antibody blocked the apoptotic action of ethanol on beta-EP neurons. Determination of TGF-beta1-controlled cell apoptosis regulatory gene levels in hypothalamic cell cultures and in isolated beta-EP neurons indicated that ethanol, TGF-beta1, and DDA similarly alter the expression of these genes in these cells. These data suggest that ethanol increases beta-EP neuronal death during the developmental period by cellular mechanisms involving, at least partly, the suppression of cAMP production and activation of TGF-beta1-linked apoptotic signaling.

  15. Modulation of phenotype and function of human CD4+CD25+ T regulatory lymphocytes mediated by cAMP elevating agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonella Riccomi

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available We have shown that Cholera Toxin (CT and other cyclic AMP (cAMP elevating agents induce up-regulation of the inhibitory molecule CTLA-4 in human resting CD4+ T lymphocytes, which following the treatment acquired suppressive functions. In this study, we evaluated the effect of cAMP elevating agents on human CD4+CD25+ T cells, which include the T regulatory (Treg cells that play a pivotal role in the maintenance of immunological tolerance. We found that cAMP elevating agents induce up-regulation of CTLA-4 in CD4+CD25- and further enhance its expression in CD4+CD25+ T cells. We observed an increase of two isoforms of mRNA coding for the membrane and the soluble CTLA-4 molecules, suggesting that the regulation of CTLA-4 expression by cAMP is at the transcriptional level. In addition, we found that the increase of cAMP in CD4+CD25+ T cells converts the CD4+CD25+Foxp3- T cells in CD4+CD25+Foxp3+ T cells, whereas the increase of cAMP in CD4+CD25- T cells did not up-regulate Foxp3 in the absence of activation stimuli. To investigate the function of these cells, we performed an in vitro suppression assay by culturing CD4+CD25+ T cells untreated or pre-treated with CT with anti-CD3 mAbs-stimulated autologous PBMC. We found that CT enhances the inhibitory function of CD4+CD25+ T cells, CD4+ and CD8+ T cell proliferation and IFNγ production are strongly inhibited by CD4+CD25+ T cells pre-treated with cAMP elevating agents. Furthermore, we found that CD4+CD25+ T lymphocytes pre-treated with cAMP elevating agents induce the up-regulation of CD80 and CD86 co-stimulatory molecules on immature dendritic cells (DCs in the absence of antigenic stimulation, however without leading to full DC maturation. These data show that the increase of intracellular cAMP modulates the phenotype and function of human CD4+CD25+ T cells.

  16. Role of clinical tutors in volunteering work camps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alloni, Rossana; D'Elia, Annunziata; Navajas, Francisca; De Gara, Laura

    2014-04-01

    The Università Campus Bio-Medico (Italy) promotes a summer volunteering work camp (Workcamp Perù) as a social activity for medical and non-medical students. Some junior doctors participate as 'clinical tutors', together with tutors from other professions; all clinical tutors have some teaching experience in our teaching hospital. The campsite is located in the South of Peru in the Cañete Valley, an area characterised by extreme poverty and a severe lack of infrastructure. During the five Workcamp Perù trips that have been organised so far, health science students have carried out many activities for disease prevention and health education, and bio-medical engineering students have organised sessions on the safety of electrical installations, for accident prevention. We observed that in this setting tutorial activity is fundamental, because it not only offers students an opportunity to learn but also encourages them to react in a more personal and reflective manner to various stressful situations, which often occur in the work camp. The professional competence of the tutor plays an important role before the work camp, in defining the learning objectives for the students and involving them in training sessions held prior to the work camp. Also, during the camp, tutors work with students and also direct the daily briefing and debriefing sessions that are the most important learning activity. For medical tutors involved in the work camp the volunteering experience is a challenge for developing their specific professional and teaching skills, but it also provides an enriching experience in both professional and personal terms. We consider these work camps to be a useful experience in the training of our clinical tutors. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Children's Moderate to Vigorous Physical Activity Attending Summer Day Camps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brazendale, Keith; Beets, Michael W; Weaver, R Glenn; Chandler, Jessica L; Randel, Allison B; Turner-McGrievy, Gabrielle M; Moore, Justin B; Huberty, Jennifer L; Ward, Dianne S

    2017-07-01

    National physical activity standards call for all children to accumulate 60 minutes/day of moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA). The contribution of summer day camps toward meeting this benchmark is largely unknown. The purpose of this study was to provide estimates of children's MVPA during summer day camps. Children (n=1,061, 78% enrollment; mean age, 7.8 years; 46% female; 65% African American; 48% normal weight) from 20 summer day camps wore ActiGraph GT3x+ accelerometers on the wrist during camp hours for up to 4 non-consecutive days over the summer of 2015 (July). Accumulated MVPA at the 25th, 50th, and 75th percentile of the distribution was estimated using random-effects quantile regression. All models were estimated separately for boys and girls and controlled for wear time. Minutes of MVPA were dichotomized to ≥60 minutes/day of MVPA or summer day camps, boys (n=569) and girls (n=492) accumulated a median of 96 and 82 minutes/day of MVPA, respectively. The percentage of children meeting 60 minutes/day of MVPA was 80% (range, 41%-94%) for boys and 73% (range, 30%-97%) for girls. Summer day camps are a setting where a large portion of boys and girls meet daily physical activity guidelines. Public health practitioners should focus efforts on making summer day camps accessible for children in the U.S. Copyright © 2017 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Emergency Medicine Residency Boot Camp Curriculum: A Pilot Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ataya, Ramsey

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Establishing a boot camp curriculum is pertinent for emergency medicine (EM residents in order to develop proficiency in a large scope of procedures and leadership skills.  In this article, we describe our program’s EM boot camp curriculum as well as measure the confidence levels of resident physicians through a pre- and post-boot camp survey. Methods: We designed a one-month boot camp curriculum with the intention of improving the confidence, procedural performance, leadership, communication and resource management of EM interns. Our curriculum consisted of 12 hours of initial training and culminated in a two-day boot camp. The initial day consisted of clinical skill training and the second day included code drill scenarios followed by interprofessional debriefing.   Results: Twelve EM interns entered residency with an overall confidence score of 3.2 (1-5 scale across all surveyed skills. Interns reported the highest pre-survey confidence scores in suturing (4.3 and genitourinary exams (3.9. The lowest pre-survey confidence score was in thoracostomy (2.4. Following the capstone experience, overall confidence scores increased to 4.0. Confidence increased the most in defibrillation and thoracostomy. Additionally, all interns reported post-survey confidence scores of at least 3.0 in all skills, representing an internal anchor of “moderately confident/need guidance at times to perform procedure.” Conclusion: At the completion of the boot camp curriculum, EM interns had improvement in self-reported confidence across all surveyed skills and procedures. The described EM boot camp curriculum was effective, feasible and provided a foundation to our trainees during their first month of residency. [West J Emerg Med. 2015;16(2:356–361.

  19. Students' Perceptions of the Long-Term Impact of Attending a "CSI Science Camp"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanowitz, Karen L.

    2016-12-01

    A science summer camp is a popular type of informal science experience for youth. While there is no one model of a science camp, these experiences typically allow for more focused and in-depth exploration of different science domains and are usually hands-on and participatory. The goal of this research was to examine the impact of a short science camp program approximately 1 year after students attended the camp. Overall, the results revealed that attending a 2-day forensic science camp had a positive and continuing influence on the participants. Students' science self-efficacy increased immediately after attending the camp and remained higher than pre-camp levels approximately 1 year later. Students were able to articulate why they believed the camp had a long-term impact on their lives. Furthermore, participants attributed a higher level of engaging in additional informal STEM-related activities during the academic year as a result of attending the camp.

  20. A multisite evaluation of summer camps for children with cancer and their siblings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yelena P; McPhail, Jessica; Mooney, Ryan; Martiniuk, Alexandra; Amylon, Michael D

    2016-01-01

    Summer camps for pediatric cancer patients and their families are ubiquitous. However, there is relatively little research, particularly studies including more than one camp, documenting outcomes associated with children's participation in summer camp. The current cross-sectional study used a standardized measure to examine the role of demographic, illness, and camp factors in predicting children's oncology camp-related outcomes. In total, 2,114 children at 19 camps participated. Campers were asked to complete the pediatric camp outcome measure, which assesses camp-specific self-esteem, emotional, physical, and social functioning. Campers reported high levels of emotional, physical, social, and self-esteem functioning. There were differences in functioning based on demographic and illness characteristics, including gender, whether campers/siblings were on or off active cancer treatment, age, and number of prior years attending camp. Results indicated that summer camps can be beneficial for pediatric oncology patients and their siblings, regardless of demographic factors (e.g., gender, treatment status) and camp factors (e.g., whether camp sessions included patients only, siblings only, or both). Future work could advance the oncology summer camp literature by examining other outcomes linked to summer camp attendance, using longitudinal designs, and including comparison groups.

  1. A multisite evaluation of summer camps for children with cancer and their siblings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yelena P.; McPhail, Jessica; Mooney, Ryan; Martiniuk, Alexandra; Amylon, Michael D.

    2017-01-01

    Summer camps for pediatric cancer patients and their families are ubiquitous. However, there is relatively little research, particularly studies including more than one camp, documenting outcomes associated with children’s participation in summer camp. The current cross-sectional study used a standardized measure to examine the role of demographic, illness, and camp factors in predicting children’s oncology camp-related outcomes. In total, 2,114 children at 19 camps participated. Campers were asked to complete the pediatric camp outcome measure, which assesses camp-specific self-esteem, emotional, physical, and social functioning. Campers reported high levels of emotional, physical, social, and self-esteem functioning. There were differences in functioning based on demographic and illness characteristics, including gender, whether campers/siblings were on or off active cancer treatment, age, and number of prior years attending camp. Results indicated that summer camps can be beneficial for pediatric oncology patients and their siblings, regardless of demographic factors (e.g., gender, treatment status) and camp factors (e.g., whether camp sessions included patients only, siblings only, or both). Future work could advance the oncology summer camp literature by examining other outcomes linked to summer camp attendance, using longitudinal designs, and including comparison groups. PMID:27491385

  2. Components of Geometric Analogy Solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulholland, Timothy M.; And Others

    1980-01-01

    Adults' geometric analogy solution was investigated as a function of systematic variations in the information structure of items. Latency data from verification of true and false items were recorded. A model incorporating assumptions about the form of item representation, working memory factors, and processing components and strategies was…

  3. Analog Input Data Acquisition Software

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arens, Ellen

    2009-01-01

    DAQ Master Software allows users to easily set up a system to monitor up to five analog input channels and save the data after acquisition. This program was written in LabVIEW 8.0, and requires the LabVIEW runtime engine 8.0 to run the executable.

  4. A digital to analog converter

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westra, Jan R.; Annema, Anne J.

    2000-01-01

    A digital to analog converter for a multibit digital input signal has a set of conversion elements for the positive signal excursions and a set of conversion elements for the negative signal excursions. In each set the conversion elements are selected according to a dynamic element matching

  5. A digital to analog converter

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westra, Jan R.; Annema, Anne J.

    2006-01-01

    A digital to analog converter for a multibit digital input signal has a set of conversion elements for the positive signal excursions and a set of conversion elements for the negative signal excursions. In each set the conversion elements are selected according to a dynamic element matching

  6. Drawing Analogies to Deepen Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fava, Michelle

    2017-01-01

    This article offers examples of how drawing can facilitate thinking skills that promote analogical reasoning to enable deeper learning. The instructional design applies cognitive principles, briefly described here. The workshops were developed iteratively, through feedback from student and teacher participants. Elements of the UK National…

  7. Designing analog circuits in CMOS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Annema, Anne J.; Nauta, Bram; van Langevelde, Ronald; Tuinhout, Hans

    2004-01-01

    The evolution in CMOS technology dictated by Moore's Law is clearly beneficial for designers of digital circuits, but it presents difficult challenges, such as lowered nominal supply voltages, for their peers in the analog world who want to keep pace with this rapid progression. This article

  8. Paper Analogies Enhance Biology Teaching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stencel, John E.

    1997-01-01

    Describes how to use paper analogies as models to illustrate various concepts in biology, human anatomy, and physiology classes. Models include biochemical paper models, protein papergrams, a paper model of early brain development, and a 3-D paper model of a eukaryotic cell. (AIM)

  9. Crows spontaneously exhibit analogical reasoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smirnova, Anna; Zorina, Zoya; Obozova, Tanya; Wasserman, Edward

    2015-01-19

    Analogical reasoning is vital to advanced cognition and behavioral adaptation. Many theorists deem analogical thinking to be uniquely human and to be foundational to categorization, creative problem solving, and scientific discovery. Comparative psychologists have long been interested in the species generality of analogical reasoning, but they initially found it difficult to obtain empirical support for such thinking in nonhuman animals (for pioneering efforts, see [2, 3]). Researchers have since mustered considerable evidence and argument that relational matching-to-sample (RMTS) effectively captures the essence of analogy, in which the relevant logical arguments are presented visually. In RMTS, choice of test pair BB would be correct if the sample pair were AA, whereas choice of test pair EF would be correct if the sample pair were CD. Critically, no items in the correct test pair physically match items in the sample pair, thus demanding that only relational sameness or differentness is available to support accurate choice responding. Initial evidence suggested that only humans and apes can successfully learn RMTS with pairs of sample and test items; however, monkeys have subsequently done so. Here, we report that crows too exhibit relational matching behavior. Even more importantly, crows spontaneously display relational responding without ever having been trained on RMTS; they had only been trained on identity matching-to-sample (IMTS). Such robust and uninstructed relational matching behavior represents the most convincing evidence yet of analogical reasoning in a nonprimate species, as apes alone have spontaneously exhibited RMTS behavior after only IMTS training. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Evaluating the Effectiveness of the General Surgery Intern Boot Camp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoolfield, Clint S; Samra, Navdeep; Kim, Roger H; Shi, Runhua; Zhang, Wayne W; Tan, Tze-Woei

    2016-03-01

    The aim of our study is to evaluate the effectiveness of newly implemented general surgery intern boot camp. A 2-day didactic and skills-based intern boot camp was implemented before the start of clinical duties. Participants who did not attend all boot camp activities and had prior postgraduate training were excluded. A survey utilizing a 5-point Likert scale scoring system was used to assess the participants' confidence to perform intern-level tasks before and after the boot camp. Subgroup analyses were performed comparing changes in confidence among graduates from home institution versus others and general surgery versus other subspecialties. In the analysis, 21 participants over two years were included. Among them, 7 were graduates from home institution (4 general surgery, 3 subspecialty) and 14 were from other institutions (6 general surgery and 8 subspecialty). There were significant increases in overall confidence levels (pre = 2.79 vs post = 3.43, P surgery (2.78 vs 3.46, P = 0.001) and other specialties (2.74 vs 3.34, P surgery intern boot camp before the start of official rotation is effective in improving confidence level in performing level-appropriate tasks of the incoming new interns.

  11. A cAMP and CREB-mediated feed-forward mechanism regulates GSK3β in polycystic kidney disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kakade, Vijayakumar R; Tao, Shixin; Rajagopal, Madhumitha; Zhou, Xia; Li, Xiaogang; Yu, Alan S L; Calvet, James P; Pandey, Pankaj; Rao, Reena

    2016-12-01

    Glycogen synthase kinase 3β (GSK3β), a serine/threonine protein kinase, is commonly known to be regulated at the level of its activity. However, in some diseases including polycystic kidney disease (PKD), GSK3β expression is increased and plays a pathophysiological role. The current studies aimed to determine the mechanism for the increased GSK3β expression in PKD and its significance to disease progression. In mouse models of PKD, increases in renal GSK3β corresponded with increases in renal cAMP levels and disease progression. In vivo and in vitro studies revealed that GSK3β is a cAMP-responsive gene, and elevated cAMP levels, as seen in PKD, can increase GSK3β expression. In normal mice, vasopressin signaling induced by water deprivation increased GSK3β expression, which decreased following rehydration. Examination of the GSK3β promoter revealed five potential binding sites for the transcription factor, cAMP response element binding protein (CREB). CREB was found to bind to GSK3β promoter and essential for cAMP-mediated regulation of GSK3β. Importantly, this regulation was demonstrated to be part of a feed-forward loop in which cAMP through CREB regulates GSK3β expression, and GSK3β in turn positively regulates cAMP generation. GSK3β or CREB inhibition reduced transepithelial fluid secretion and cyst expansion in vitro Thus, disruption at any point of this destructive cycle may be therapeutically useful to reduce cyst expansion and preserve renal function in PKD. © The Author (2016). Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Journal of Molecular Cell Biology, IBCB, SIBS, CAS. All rights reserved.

  12. Analog circuit design art, science and personalities

    CERN Document Server

    Williams, Jim

    1991-01-01

    This book is far more than just another tutorial or reference guide - it's a tour through the world of analog design, combining theory and applications with the philosophies behind the design process. Readers will learn how leading analog circuit designers approach problems and how they think about solutions to those problems. They'll also learn about the `analog way' - a broad, flexible method of thinking about analog design tasks.A comprehensive and useful guide to analog theory and applications. Covers visualizing the operation of analog circuits. Looks at how to rap

  13. Camp as a Teaching Method in Health Education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ringby, Betina

    Background Camp as a learning activity was introduced in entrepreneurship teaching. Students were engaged to get experiences on how to cope with uncertainty, complexity and to take action in collaboration with external partners. Relevance Society calls for creative and innovative health professio......Background Camp as a learning activity was introduced in entrepreneurship teaching. Students were engaged to get experiences on how to cope with uncertainty, complexity and to take action in collaboration with external partners. Relevance Society calls for creative and innovative health...... and concentration. Responsibility of own and others' learning process in combination with a professional focus seemed to ensure and maintain students’ motivation. Furthermore, CAMP was experienced as a self-governing and dialogue-based way of learning. Conclusions The result comprises important issues of interest...

  14. GIS IN EDUCATION: ESRI SUMMER CAMP FOR SECONDARY SCHOOLS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maxime Rwaka

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Since 2007, Esri is supporting GIS education in Secondary Schools. From 2009 until today, 2000 pupils have learned GIS but they do not have time and means to link what they learn at school to the reality on the ground. It is therefore difficult for them to plan for a career in the GIS field. It is in that perspective that Esri has organized Summer Camps each year since 2008 with the objective of connecting pupils with GIS professionals by doing a real GIS project and achieve results that are beneficial for both students and professionals from partner institutions. The Summer Camp last for one week, during which pupils collect geographic and attribute data with GPS and questionnaires, prepare, edit, analyse and visualize collected data using GIS. They finally learn how to present and publish the result. This presentation will give an overview of topics, results and benefit of Summer Camps carried out for the last 6 years.

  15. Investigation of Sylvatic Typhus at a Wilderness Camp

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2009-06-30

    In this podcast, Dr. Greg Dasch discusses an outbreak of four cases of sylvatic typhus that occurred at a wilderness camp in Pennsylvania. Sylvatic typhus is very rare in the United States, with only 41 cases since it was discovered in the United States in 1975. Lab work at CDC and the discovery that all four camp counselors who became ill had slept in the same bunk at the camp between 2004 and 2006 ultimately led to confirmation that flying squirrels living in the wall of the cabin were to blame for the illnesses.  Created: 6/30/2009 by Emerging Infectious Diseases.   Date Released: 6/30/2009.

  16. Camp jump start: effects of a residential summer weight-loss camp for older children and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huelsing, Jean; Kanafani, Nadim; Mao, Jingnan; White, Neil H

    2010-04-01

    Residential weight-loss camps offer an opportunity for overweight and obese children to lose weight in a medically safe, supervised, supportive environment. The purpose of this report is to describe short-term outcomes in 76 children participating in a 4- or 8-week residential weight-loss camp for children and adolescents. The camp program enrolled obese 10- to 18-year-old adolescents. The program consisted of structured and nonstructured physical activities and group educational sessions covering nutrition, physical fitness, and self-esteem. A diet plan of 3 balanced meals and 2 snacks per day was prepared under the supervision of a registered dietitian. Participants had height, weight, and blood pressure measured and performed a 1-mile run at maximum effort on an outdoor track. For all campers, statistically significant (P camps are highly effective in improving measures of health and fitness among overweight and obese children and adolescents. Additional study is needed on the long-term effects of such camps in terms of weight maintenance, behavior change, and metabolic and health outcomes.

  17. Advances in Pediatric Cardiology Boot Camp: Boot Camp Training Promotes Fellowship Readiness and Enables Retention of Knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceresnak, Scott R; Axelrod, David M; Sacks, Loren D; Motonaga, Kara S; Johnson, Emily R; Krawczeski, Catherine D

    2017-03-01

    We previously demonstrated that a pediatric cardiology boot camp can improve knowledge acquisition and decrease anxiety for trainees. We sought to determine if boot camp participants entered fellowship with a knowledge advantage over fellows who did not attend and if there was moderate-term retention of that knowledge. A 2-day training program was provided for incoming pediatric cardiology fellows from eight fellowship programs in April 2016. Hands-on, immersive experiences and simulations were provided in all major areas of pediatric cardiology. Knowledge-based examinations were completed by each participant prior to boot camp (PRE), immediately post-training (POST), and prior to the start of fellowship in June 2016 (F/U). A control group of fellows who did not attend boot camp also completed an examination prior to fellowship (CTRL). Comparisons of scores were made for individual participants and between participants and controls. A total of 16 participants and 16 control subjects were included. Baseline exam scores were similar between participants and controls (PRE 47 ± 11% vs. CTRL 52 ± 10%; p = 0.22). Participants' knowledge improved with boot camp training (PRE 47 ± 11% vs. POST 70 ± 8%; p cardiology knowledge after the training program and had excellent moderate-term retention of that knowledge. Participants began fellowship with a larger fund of knowledge than those fellows who did not attend.

  18. The role of concentration camps in the policies of the independent state of Croatia (NDH) in 1941

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Koljanin Milan

    2015-01-01

    .... After the outbreak of a mass Serb uprising and the dissolution of the Gospić camp, a new and much larger system of camps centred at Jasenovac operated as an extermination and concentration camp from the end of August...

  19. Healthcare needs of displaced women: Osire refugee camp, Namibia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinehas, Lusia N; van Wyk, Neltjie C; Leech, Ronell

    2016-03-01

    The aim of this study was to explore and describe the experiences of healthcare needs of displaced women in the Osire refugee camp in Namibia. Namibia is a country where displaced people from other African countries seek refuge as a result of their own country's political instability. All displaced people are hosted in the Osire camp, which is a highly protected area. There are more women than men in the camp and their health is often compromised. In this descriptive phenomenological study, the natural dimension of the experiences of the participants of their healthcare needs were explored through in-depth interviews and reflected upon through transcendental processes to formulate the phenomenological dimension thereof. The essence of displaced women's healthcare needs was "the need for the restoration of hope and human dignity". Their needs refer to measures to enhance their autonomy and freedom; skills training; certainty about their future; security with aid distribution; protection against stigmatization due to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection; protection against abuse; and participation in reproductive health care. When displaced women are admitted in a camp they lose their freedom to make decisions about everyday functioning and future. They thus develop feelings of insecurity and vulnerability. The participants referred to several factors that were detrimental for their well-being. The essence of their needs was "the need for the restoration of hope and human dignity" that could only be achieved when their needs are addressed. As nurses are in close contact with displaced women in refugee camps they should negotiate opportunities for the women to discuss their concerns with the camp officials. Policies should make provision for the involvement of displaced people in all aspects that relate to their everyday and future living arrangements. © 2016 International Council of Nurses.

  20. Analog Nonvolatile Computer Memory Circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacLeod, Todd

    2007-01-01

    In nonvolatile random-access memory (RAM) circuits of a proposed type, digital data would be stored in analog form in ferroelectric field-effect transistors (FFETs). This type of memory circuit would offer advantages over prior volatile and nonvolatile types: In a conventional complementary metal oxide/semiconductor static RAM, six transistors must be used to store one bit, and storage is volatile in that data are lost when power is turned off. In a conventional dynamic RAM, three transistors must be used to store one bit, and the stored bit must be refreshed every few milliseconds. In contrast, in a RAM according to the proposal, data would be retained when power was turned off, each memory cell would contain only two FFETs, and the cell could store multiple bits (the exact number of bits depending on the specific design). Conventional flash memory circuits afford nonvolatile storage, but they operate at reading and writing times of the order of thousands of conventional computer memory reading and writing times and, hence, are suitable for use only as off-line storage devices. In addition, flash memories cease to function after limited numbers of writing cycles. The proposed memory circuits would not be subject to either of these limitations. Prior developmental nonvolatile ferroelectric memories are limited to one bit per cell, whereas, as stated above, the proposed memories would not be so limited. The design of a memory circuit according to the proposal must reflect the fact that FFET storage is only partly nonvolatile, in that the signal stored in an FFET decays gradually over time. (Retention times of some advanced FFETs exceed ten years.) Instead of storing a single bit of data as either a positively or negatively saturated state in a ferroelectric device, each memory cell according to the proposal would store two values. The two FFETs in each cell would be denoted the storage FFET and the control FFET. The storage FFET would store an analog signal value

  1. Analog-to-digital conversion

    CERN Document Server

    Pelgrom, Marcel

    2017-01-01

    This textbook is appropriate for use in graduate-level curricula in analog-to-digital conversion, as well as for practicing engineers in need of a state-of-the-art reference on data converters. It discusses various analog-to-digital conversion principles, including sampling, quantization, reference generation, nyquist architectures and sigma-delta modulation. This book presents an overview of the state of the art in this field and focuses on issues of optimizing accuracy and speed, while reducing the power level. This new, third edition emphasizes novel calibration concepts, the specific requirements of new systems, the consequences of 22-nm technology and the need for a more statistical approach to accuracy. Pedagogical enhancements to this edition include additional, new exercises, solved examples to introduce all key, new concepts and warnings, remarks and hints, from a practitioner’s perspective, wherever appropriate. Considerable background information and practical tips, from designing a PCB, to lay-o...

  2. Preserving the Non-Instrumentality of Summer Camp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumann, Steven L

    2015-10-01

    After a brief consideration of the types of camps, this introduction questions what is the most beneficial aspect of a two week summer day camp for children living in disadvantaged circumstances or struggling in school? Is it a formal educational program or professional-lead therapeutic activities or the provision of an opportunity for children to play with peers in a relaxed, scenic and supportive place? The introduction suggests that being with peers living with similar circumstances or challenges while being in a scenic place with supportive staff and having the opportunity to play may provide such children with a greater good. © The Author(s) 2015.

  3. EduCamp Colombia: Social Networked Learning for Teacher Training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Ernesto Leal Fonseca

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes a learning experience called EduCamp, which was launched by the Ministry of Education of Colombia in 2007, based on emerging concepts such as e-Learning 2.0, connectivism, and personal learning environments. An EduCamp proposes an unstructured collective learning experience, which intends to make palpable the possibilities of social software tools in learning and interaction processes while demonstrating face-to-face organizational forms that reflect social networked learning ideas. The experience opens new perspectives for the design of technology training workshops and for the development of lifelong learning experiences.

  4. Science Skills Boot Camp Gets Interns Ready for Research | Poster

    Science.gov (United States)

    By Ashley DeVine, Staff Writer Summer interns learned how to read a scientific paper, present a poster, maintain a laboratory notebook, and much more, at the Science Skills Boot Camp in June. “It was a great experience, and it was a great opportunity to meet some of the other interns also working on the campus,” said Alyssa Klein, a Werner H. Kirsten student intern in the Cellular Immunology Group, Laboratory of Molecular Immunoregulation. “The boot camp covered many topics essential to being a good scientist and science researcher.”

  5. The Operation of Franco’s concentration camps in Catalonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aram Monfort I Coll

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available For Franco’s army, concentration camps represented a tool for the socio-political classification of prisoners of war. In Catalonia, this process began in the spring of 1938, with the stabilization of Franco’s Catalan front. An analysis of the operation of Catalonia’s concentration camps leads to an explanation of how the ‘Nuevo Estado’ adapted an extrajudicial system that had been developed in the context of the Civil War to meet its needs to maintain the separation of different sectors of Spanish society at the end of the war and the beginning of the postwar period.

  6. Activation of protein kinase A and exchange protein directly activated by cAMP promotes adipocyte differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jia, Bingbing; Madsen, Lise; Petersen, Rasmus Koefoed

    2012-01-01

    Human mesenchymal stem cells are primary multipotent cells capable of differentiating into several cell types including adipocytes when cultured under defined in vitro conditions. In the present study we investigated the role of cAMP signaling and its downstream effectors, protein kinase A (PKA......) and exchange protein directly activated by cAMP (Epac) in adipocyte conversion of human mesenchymal stem cells derived from adipose tissue (hMADS). We show that cAMP signaling involving the simultaneous activation of both PKA- and Epac-dependent signaling is critical for this process even in the presence...... of the strong adipogenic inducers insulin, dexamethasone, and rosiglitazone, thereby clearly distinguishing the hMADS cells from murine preadipocytes cell lines, where rosiglitazone together with dexamethasone and insulin strongly promotes adipocyte differentiation. We further show that prostaglandin I(2) (PGI...

  7. A digital to analog converter

    OpenAIRE

    Westra, Jan R.; Annema, Anne J.

    2000-01-01

    A digital to analog converter for a multibit digital input signal has a set of conversion elements for the positive signal excursions and a set of conversion elements for the negative signal excursions. In each set the conversion elements are selected according to a dynamic element matching algorithm. To improve the mismatch-noise shaping of these algorithms, excess conversion elements may be additionally selected.

  8. Electrostatic analogy for symmetron gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogden, Lillie; Brown, Katherine; Mathur, Harsh; Rovelli, Kevin

    2017-12-01

    The symmetron model is a scalar-tensor theory of gravity with a screening mechanism that suppresses the effect of the symmetron field at high densities characteristic of the Solar System and laboratory scales but allows it to act with gravitational strength at low density on the cosmological scale. We elucidate the screening mechanism by showing that in the quasistatic Newtonian limit there are precise analogies between symmetron gravity and electrostatics for both strong and weak screening. For strong screening we find that large dense bodies behave in a manner analogous to perfect conductors in electrostatics. Based on this analogy we find that the symmetron field exhibits a lightning rod effect wherein the field gradients are enhanced near the ends of pointed or elongated objects. An ellipsoid placed in a uniform symmetron gradient is shown to experience a torque. By symmetry there is no gravitational torque in this case. Hence this effect unmasks the symmetron and might serve as the basis for future laboratory experiments. The symmetron force between a point mass and a large dense body includes a component corresponding to the interaction of the point mass with its image in the larger body. None of these effects have counterparts in the Newtonian limit of Einstein gravity. We discuss the similarities between symmetron gravity and the chameleon model as well as the differences between the two.

  9. Science Possibilities Enabled by the Mars Base Camp Human Exploration Architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cichan, T.; Murrow, D. W.; Jolly, S. D.; Bierhaus, E. B.; Clark, B.

    2017-02-01

    The Mars Base Camp architecture study reveals scientific possibilities enabled by a crewed orbital base camp, and that collaborative human and robotic missions should be part of the vision for Mars exploration by 2050.

  10. Measuring the Influences of Youth Participation in Ohio 4-H Camps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Greg Homan

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Findings from a multi-component 4-H camp marketing and enrollment study of Ohio 4-H camps are highlighted. Significant influencers on the camp enrollment decision (parents, other adults, peers, siblings, and the respective camper are evaluated as well as the effectiveness of various marketing techniques. The data found in this study indicates that the decision to enroll in camp is most influenced by the respective 4-H camper; however parents are also a strong factor in the choice to participate in 4-H camps. Alumni parents report significantly higher influence in the camp enrollment decision than those parents who are not alumni of 4-H. Personal methods of promoting camps were rated the most effective in reaching potential camp audiences.

  11. Third order digital-to-analog converter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dotson, W. P.

    1972-01-01

    System, consisting of sample and hold digital-to-analog converter, clock circuit, sample delay circuit, initial condition circuit and interpolator circuit, improves accuracy of reconstructed analog signal without increasing sample rates.

  12. Seafloor Science and Remotely Operated Vehicle (SSROV) Day Camp: A Week-Long, Hands-On STEM Summer Camp

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheat, C. G.; Fournier, T.; Monahan, K.; Paul, C.

    2015-12-01

    RETINA (Robotic Exploration Technologies IN Astrobiology) has developed a program geared towards stimulating our youth with innovative and relevant hands-on learning modules under a STEM umbrella. Given the breadth of potential science and engineering topics that excite children, the RETINA Program focuses on interactive participation in the design and development of simple robotic and sensor systems, providing a range of challenges to engage students through project-based learning (PBL). Thus, young students experience scientific discovery through the use and understanding of technology. This groundwork serves as the foundation for SSROV Camp, a week-long, summer day camp for 6th-8th grade students. The camp is centered on the sensors and platforms that guide seafloor exploration and discovery and builds upon the notion that transformative discoveries in the deep sea result from either sampling new environments or making new measurements with sensors adapted to this extreme environment. These technical and scientific needs are folded into the curriculum. Each of the first four days of the camp includes four team-based, hands-on technical challenges, communication among peer groups, and competition. The fifth day includes additional activities, culminating in camper-led presentations to describe a planned mission based on a given geologic setting. Presentations include hypotheses, operational requirements and expected data products. SSROV Camp was initiated last summer for three sessions, two in Monterey, CA and one in Oxford, MS. Campers from both regions grasped key elements of the program, based on written responses to questions before and after the camp. On average, 32% of the pre-test questions were answered correctly compared with 80% of the post-test questions. Additional confirmation of gains in campers' knowledge, skills, and critical thinking on environmental issues and engineering problems were apparent during the "jeopardy" competition, nightly homework

  13. Transcription factor CREB3L1 mediates cAMP and glucocorticoid regulation of arginine vasopressin gene transcription in the rat hypothalamus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenwood, Mingkwan; Greenwood, Michael P; Mecawi, Andre S; Loh, Su Yi; Rodrigues, José Antunes; Paton, Julian F R; Murphy, David

    2015-10-26

    Arginine vasopressin (AVP), a neuropeptide hormone that functions in the regulation of water homeostasis by controlling water re-absorption at kidneys, is synthesised in supraoptic nucleus and paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus. An increase in plasma osmolality stimulates secretion of AVP to blood circulation and induces AVP synthesis in these nuclei. Although studies on mechanism of AVP transcriptional regulation in hypothalamus proposed that cAMP and glucocorticoids positively and negatively regulate Avp expression, respectively, the molecular mechanisms have remained elusive. Recently, we identified CREB3L1 (cAMP-responsive element binding protein 3 like 1) as a putative transcription factor of Avp transcription in the rat hypothalamus. However the mechanism of how CREB3L1 is regulated in response of hyperosmotic stress in the neurons of hypothalamus has never been reported. This study aims to investigate effect of previously reported regulators (cAMP and glucocorticoid) of Avp transcription on transcription factor CREB3L1 in order to establish a molecular explanation for cAMP and glucocorticoids effect on AVP expression. The effect of cAMP and glucocorticoid treatment on Creb3l1 was investigated in both AtT20 cells and hypothalamic organotypic cultures. The expression of Creb3l1 was increased in both mRNA and protein level by treatment with forskolin, which raises intracellular cAMP levels. Activation of cAMP by forskolin also increased Avp promoter activity in AtT20 cells and this effect was blunted by shRNA mediated silencing of Creb3l1. The forskolin induced increase in Creb3l1 expression was diminished by combined treatment with dexamethasone, and, in vivo, intraperitoneal dexamethasone injection blunted the increase in Creb3l1 and Avp expression induced by hyperosmotic stress. Here we shows that cAMP and glucocorticoid positively and negatively regulate Creb3l1 expression in the rat hypothalamus, respectively, and regulation of cAMP on AVP

  14. Hegel, Analogy, and Extraterrestrial Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Joseph T.

    Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel rejected the possibility of life outside of the Earth, according to several scholars of extraterrestrial life. Their position is that the solar system and specifically the planet Earth is the unique place in the cosmos where life, intelligence, and rationality can be. The present study offers a very different interpretation of Hegel's statements about the place of life on Earth by suggesting that, although Hegel did not believe that there were other solar systems where rationality is present, he did in fact suggest that planets in general, not the Earth exclusively, have life and possibly also intelligent inhabitants. Analogical syllogisms are superficial, according to Hegel, insofar as they try to conclude that there is life on the Moon even though there is no evidence of water or air on that body. Similar analogical arguments for life on the Sun made by Johann Elert Bode and William Herschel were considered by Hegel to be equally superficial. Analogical arguments were also used by astronomers and philosophers to suggest that life could be found on other planets in our solar system. Hegel offers no critique of analogical arguments for life on other planets, and in fact Hegel believed that life would be found on other planets. Planets, after all, have meteorological processes and therefore are "living" according to his philosophical account, unlike the Moon, Sun, and comets. Whereas William Herschel was already finding great similarities between the Sun and the stars and had extended these similarities to the property of having planets or being themselves inhabitable worlds, Hegel rejected this analogy. The Sun and stars have some properties in common, but for Hegel one cannot conclude from these similarities to the necessity that stars have planets. Hegel's arguments against the presence of life in the solar system were not directed against other planets, but rather against the Sun and Moon, both of which he said have a different

  15. Suicide in Inmates in Nazis and Soviet Concentration Camps: Historical Overview and Critique

    OpenAIRE

    López-Muñoz, Francisco; Cuerda-Galindo, Esther

    2016-01-01

    Living conditions in concentration camps were harsh and often inhumane, leading many prisoners to commit suicide. We have reviewed this topic in Nazi concentration camps (KL), Soviet special camps, and gulags, providing some preliminary data for our research. Data show that the incidence of suicide in Nazi KL could be up to 30 times higher than the general population and was also much higher than in Soviet special camps (maybe due to more favorable conditions for prisoners and the abolishment...

  16. The suicide rate in the concentration camps was extraordinarily high: a comment on Bronisch and Lester.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lester, David

    2004-01-01

    Previous reports, based on limited reports from inmates who survived the Nazi concentration camps, have claimed that suicide was rare in the concentration camps. Using slightly more detailed, but nonetheless still limited, data from survivors of the camps, it is estimated that the suicide rates in the camp were most likely 25,000 per 100,000 per year or higher and, therefore, enormous!

  17. Effect of a 10-week weight loss camp on fatty liver disease and insulin sensitivity in obese Danish children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grønbæk, Henning; Lange, Aksel; Birkebæk, Niels H

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Childhood nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) associated with insulin resistance and obesity is a growing problem and increases the risk of cirrhosis, type 2 diabetes mellitus, and cardiovascular complications. We examined the effects of a 10-week "weight loss camp......" residency in obese children on the prevalence and degree of NAFLD and insulin sensitivity with 12-month follow-up. METHODS: At the camp, 117 obese white children (body mass index 28.0 ± 3.6  kg/m, age 12.1 ± 1.3 years) exercised moderately for 1 hour/day and restricted their energy intake to induce weight...... loss. NAFLD was diagnosed and graded using ultrasound and transaminasemia. Insulin sensitivity and glucose tolerance were assessed using homeostasis model assessment and oral glucose tolerance test. We performed anthropometric measurements and determined body composition using bioimpedance. Data were...

  18. Design and Analysis of Reconfigurable Analog System

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-01

    NUMBER(S) 12. DISTRIBUTION/AVAILABILITY STATEMENT Approved for public release; distribution unlimited 13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 14. ABSTRACT A highly...2008/12/12/31e83bac-500f-4182- acca -4d360295fd9c.pdf, Analog Devices, Analog Dialogue 39-06, June 2005. [15] D. A. Johns, K. Martin "Analog Integrated

  19. Analogies and the 5E Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orgill, Mary Kay; Thomas, Megan

    2007-01-01

    Science classes are full of abstract or challenging concepts that are easier to understand if an analogy is used to illustrate the points. Effective analogies motivate students, clarify students' thinking, help students overcome misconceptions, and give students ways to visualize abstract concepts. When they are used appropriately, analogies can…

  20. Culture Camp, Ethnic Identity, and Adoption Socialization for Korean Adoptees: A Pretest and Posttest Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baden, Amanda L.

    2015-01-01

    This study explores the impact of racial-ethnic socialization on adopted South Korean children and adolescents who attended a sleepaway Korean culture camp for one week. This camp provided racial-ethnic socialization experiences via exposure to camp counselors, staff, and teachers who were Korean Americans, Korean nationals, and Korean adult…

  1. Hack City Summer: Computer Camps Can Bring a Vacation of Keyboard Delights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shell, Ellen Ruppel

    1983-01-01

    Activities at a summer computer camp (Camp Atari held at East Stroudsburg State College PA) are described. The curriculum, using logic, systematic analysis, and other fundamental programing skills, teaches students to interact effectively and creatively with computers. Sources for finding a computer camp are included. (JN)

  2. [Experience gained in organizing outpatient care in summer camps for children and adolescents].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grebniak, N P; Churilina, A K; Churilina, A A

    2000-01-01

    Relative risk of gastrointestinal diseases, tonsillitis, and injuries is notably increased at summer camps for children; epidemic hazards are high there too. Central outpatient clinic for these camps, functioning on the base of processual and structural standards and the final result standard, plays an important role in improving the quality of medical care rendered at summer camps.

  3. The Accidental City: Urbanisation in an East-African refugee camp

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, B.J.

    2009-01-01

    Refugee camps are regarded as temporary settlements,organised according to the functionality of humanitarian operations. According to this political view, refugees are passive recipients of aid and the dynamics of life in the camps remain hidden. Instead, refugee camps can be seen as emerging urban

  4. Impact of Attending Jump Start Literacy Camp on Reading Achievement among Third and Fourth Grade Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padgett, Carrie B.

    2010-01-01

    The Jump Start Literacy Camp was developed as a means to combat summer learning loss. The camp utilized high-energy activities to target phonemic awareness, phonics, vocabulary, fluency, and comprehension. This study examined the effects of the Jump Start Literacy Camp on reading achievement for rising third and fourth grade students in an urban…

  5. The accidental city : violence, economy and humanitarianism in Kakuma refugee camp Kenya

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, B.J.

    2011-01-01

    In this research I examine social ordering processes in Kakuma refugee camp in Kenya. I view the camp as an accidental city, by which I challenge the image of the camp as a temporary and artificial waiting space or a protracted refugee crisis per se. The reference to the city is both

  6. 76 FR 64 - Safety and Health Requirements Related to Camp Cars

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-03

    ... each camp car be kept as clean as is practicable given the type of work performed by the occupants of... Camp Cars AGENCY: Federal Railroad Administration (FRA), Department of Transportation (DOT). ACTION... is proposing to create regulations prescribing minimum safety and health requirements for camp cars...

  7. A Multidisciplinary Science Summer Camp for Students with Emphasis on Environmental and Analytical Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarz, Gunnar; Frenzel, Wolfgang; Richter, Wolfgang M.; Ta¨uscher, Lothar; Kubsch, Georg

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents the course of events of a five-day summer camp on environmental chemistry with high emphasis on chemical analysis. The annual camp was optional and open for students of all disciplines and levels. The duration of the summer camp was five and a half days in the Feldberg Lake District in northeast Germany (federal state of…

  8. The Impact of Learning Styles on Learning Outcomes at FFA Camp: What Campers Retain over Time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Nicholas R.; Terry, Robert, Jr.; Kelsey, Kathleen D.

    2013-01-01

    Twenty-four states host FFA summer camps to support adolescent maturation along with indoctrination into the culture and values of the FFA. Camps typically include a variety of activities designed to engage members in social activities and non-formal academic content. More than 1500 campers attend the Oklahoma FFA Alumni Leadership Camp annually…

  9. Reflections on Refugee Students' Major Perceptions of Education in Kakuma Refugee Camp, Kenya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mareng, Chuei D.

    2010-01-01

    This reflective study explores refugee students' perceptions of the educational approach used in Kakuma Refugee Camp in Kenya. The study focuses on my personal reflections as a teacher and a student in this camp, and as a refugee. My goal of writing this narrative is to reflect fully on the refugee students' life in a camp and then contribute to…

  10. Phun Physics 4 Phemales: Physics Camp for High School Girls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Chuhee; Gu, Jiyeong; Henriquez, Laura

    2014-03-01

    The department of Physics and Astronomy with the department of Science Education at California State University, Long Beach hosted summer program of ``Phun Physics 4 Phemales (PP4P)'' during summer 2012 and summer 2013 with the support from APS public outreach program. PP4P summer camp was hosted along with a two-week summer science camp, Young Scientists Camp, which has been institutionalized for the last 14 years since 1999. More than 2,500 3rd -8th grade students and 250 teachers have participated in the program. PP4P program provided the tools and support that female high school students need to pursue careers in physics and/or science, technology, engineering and math (STEM) field. This girls-only camp created connections among the girls and built confidence. In addition PP4P program introduced students to key principles in physics by a hands-on lab environment and demonstrated the real-world social impact of physics. In summer 2012, high school girls worked on physics experimental project on electronics and in summer 2013 they worked on the mechanics. I would share our experience in this program and the impact on the female high school students. This work was supported by 2012 Public Outreach and Informing the Public Grants from American Physical Society.

  11. Academic Boot Camp for the Writing of Psychology Research Reports

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skues, Jason L.; Wise, Lisa

    2014-01-01

    Herein, we describe the implementation of, and responses to, a structured writing workshop in the form of an academic boot camp. Participants were 42 undergraduate psychology students from a medium-sized Australian university who were completing their major assignment for the semester. A majority of the students expressed satisfaction with the…

  12. Summer Science Camp for Middle School Students: A Turkish Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sezen Vekli, Gulsah

    2013-01-01

    The present study aims to identify the effectiveness of summer science camp experience on middle school students' content knowledge and interest towards biology. For this purpose, two instruments including reflective journal and pre-post questionnaire were developed by four researchers who are expert in science education. Besides, the instruction…

  13. Using psychological science to improve summer camp staff training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schafer, Ethan D

    2007-10-01

    Preseason staff training is an exciting and stressful time for all camping professionals. By using principles of developmental psychology, learning theory, and self-monitoring, however, we can maximize the usefulness of training sessions. This article also discusses educating staff about children's mental health issues and managing challenging situations with adolescents.

  14. Educating for a Culture of Peace in Refugee Camps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tillman, Diane G.

    2001-01-01

    Describes the "Living Values Activities for Refugees and Children Affected by War" program and its use in two refugee camps in Thailand. Details how the program provides children an opportunity to relate their experiences in an accepting environment and offers some tools for dealing with emotional pain, while helping them develop…

  15. Camp stability predicts patterns of hunter-gatherer cooperation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Daniel; Dyble, Mark; Thompson, James; Major, Katie; Page, Abigail E; Chaudhary, Nikhil; Salali, Gul Deniz; Vinicius, Lucio; Migliano, Andrea Bamberg; Mace, Ruth

    2016-07-01

    Humans regularly cooperate with non-kin, which has been theorized to require reciprocity between repeatedly interacting and trusting individuals. However, the role of repeated interactions has not previously been demonstrated in explaining real-world patterns of hunter-gatherer cooperation. Here we explore cooperation among the Agta, a population of Filipino hunter-gatherers, using data from both actual resource transfers and two experimental games across multiple camps. Patterns of cooperation vary greatly between camps and depend on socio-ecological context. Stable camps (with fewer changes in membership over time) were associated with greater reciprocal sharing, indicating that an increased likelihood of future interactions facilitates reciprocity. This is the first study reporting an association between reciprocal cooperation and hunter-gatherer band stability. Under conditions of low camp stability individuals still acquire resources from others, but do so via demand sharing (taking from others), rather than based on reciprocal considerations. Hunter-gatherer cooperation may either be characterized as reciprocity or demand sharing depending on socio-ecological conditions.

  16. Summer Camp for Girls Sparks Interest in Welding and Electronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peckham, Susanne

    2010-01-01

    Even in the face of a recession, great careers are currently available in many technical fields, and throughout the nation efforts are under way to grow the workforce in those jobs through greater diversity. In this article, the author describes a weeklong, free summer camp offered by Calhoun Community College, Decatur, Alabama, which gets high…

  17. First urology simulation boot camp in the United Kingdom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.S. Biyani

    2017-09-01

    Conclusion: This first UK Urology Simulation Boot Camp has demonstrated feasibility and effectiveness in enhancing trainee’s experience. Given these positive feedbacks there is a good reason to expect that future courses will improve the overall skills of a new urology trainee.

  18. Can an Immersion in Wellness Camp Influence Youth Health Behaviors?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mabary-Olsen, Elizabeth A.; Litchfield, Ruth E.; Foster, Randal; Lanningham-Foster, Lorraine; Campbell, Christina

    2015-01-01

    Summer 4-H camps present an untapped opportunity for advancement of mission mandates. The project reported here immersed campers in healthy living experiential learning. The goal was to improve self-efficacy and health behaviors related to nutrition and physical activity. Data was collected from enrolled campers through multiple survey tools. A…

  19. Post‑Operative Complications and Visual Outcome in Eye Camp ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2015 Nigerian Journal of Ophthalmology | Published by Wolters Kluwer - Medknow. 16. Post‑Operative Complications and Visual. Outcome in Eye Camp Patients Undergoing. Sutureless Cataract Surgery at a Base Hospital in Vijayapura District, South India. Sushma Hosamani, Vallabha K1, Vijaykumar Warad2.

  20. Criticality for Global Citizenship in Korean English Immersion Camps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, So-Yeon

    2015-01-01

    Given a heavy social, ideological pressure for parents to pursue better English education for their children in the globalized world, short-term English immersion camp programs have emerged as an educational option in South Korea, promoted as environments for intercultural communication between native English-speaking teachers and local Korean…

  1. Post traumatic stress disorder among Mau Mau concentration camp ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: A decade before Kenya's independence in 1963 thousands of 'Mau Mau' fighters were arrested and incarcerated in concentration camps where many underwent torture and inhuman treatment. No studies have been done to establish the presence of post traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and other psychiatric ...

  2. Group-Integrated Reality Therapy in a Wilderness Camp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clagett, Arthur F.

    1992-01-01

    Abridges Glasser's (1975) theory of United States as identity society to explicate causative characteristics of "identity achievers" versus "failures" in U.S. society. Discusses Reality Therapy and therapeutic treatment programs developed by Hope Center Wilderness Camp. Presents evidence to suggest that group-integrated reality…

  3. Camp as a Teaching Method in Health Education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ringby, Betina

    methodology and theories/methods put INTO action. The camp method encourages a student-participatory and an inter-professionally approach required to think out-of-the-box. Teachers were offered the possibility to be mentor/coach for students. ‘Effectuation’, the ‘PUSH model’ and the ‘Entrepreneurial...

  4. 14 CFR 91.1427 - CAMP: Manual requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... to the Administrator, that is retrievable in the English language. ... (CONTINUED) AIR TRAFFIC AND GENERAL OPERATING RULES GENERAL OPERATING AND FLIGHT RULES Fractional Ownership... program aircraft under a CAMP must put in the operating manual the chart or description of the program...

  5. English Camp: A Language Immersion Program in Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rugasken, Kris; Harris, Jacqueline A.

    2009-01-01

    A summer English camp language immersion program, which began in 2003, provided instruction by native English speakers to Thai college students via collaboration between Prince of Songkla University in Thailand and Ball State University in Indiana, USA. During this program, Thai students were exposed to English formally through classroom…

  6. Outdoor education camp and group cohesion: an investigation in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study seeks to investigate the effect of outdoor education camp toward group cohesion among second year undergraduate teacher trainees from selected Teacher Education Institutes of Malaysia. A pre-test and post-test approach with non-equivalent control group was utilised among 350 second year undergraduate ...

  7. Expert Review of Pedagogical Activities at Therapeutic Recreation Camps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiselev, N. N.; Kiseleva, E. V.

    2015-01-01

    An analysis of pedagogical expert reviews at children's therapeutic recreation camps in Novosibirsk Region shows that it is necessary to implement an expert review system that plays a supporting and developmental role. Such a system should allow teams of teachers to submit their work to expert review and to move forward by reflecting on their…

  8. Trainer Guide: Food Service Managerial. Camp Administration Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farley, Elizabeth, Ed.

    Designed for a food service managerial workshop, the trainer's guide is organized into four separate units: personnel management, menu planning, food purchasing, and food service operations. Performance objectives to be met on completion of the workshop include: improving personnel operations for a camp's food service; demonstrating knowledge of…

  9. Optimal Experience among Campers in a Resident Camp Setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bialeschki, M. Deborah; Henderson, Karla A.

    The purpose of this study was to assess optimal experience, also known as "flow" and "quality of experience" in a private, coeducational resident camp program for children. Flow refers to those times in work and leisure when people report feelings of enjoyment, concentration, and deep involvement. Flow theory predicts that an…

  10. Camping Burner-Based Flame Emission Spectrometer for Classroom Demonstrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ne´el, Bastien; Crespo, Gasto´n A.; Perret, Didier; Cherubini, Thomas; Bakker, Eric

    2014-01-01

    A flame emission spectrometer was built in-house for the purpose of introducing this analytical technique to students at the high school level. The aqueous sample is sprayed through a homemade nebulizer into the air inlet of a consumer-grade propane camping burner. The resulting flame is analyzed by a commercial array spectrometer for the visible…

  11. Snakes Have Feelings, Too: Elements of a Camp Snake Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Robert Ross

    2001-01-01

    A camp snake program can help campers overcome their fear of snakes, and people cannot truly enjoy nature when they carry a phobia about any one part of it. It can also help overcome prejudice by teaching truth and respect, instilling compassion, and helping campers develop empathy. Advice on catching, handling, identifying, keeping, and feeding…

  12. International Physics Summer Camp for High School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pope, Damian T.; Korsunsky, B.

    2006-12-01

    Each year for the past three years, Perimeter Institute for Theoretical Physics in Waterloo, Ontario, Canada, has staged an annual physics summer camp for high school students worldwide. Known as the International Summer School for Young Physicists (ISSYP), it attracts students from all corners of the globe and this year had attendees from 15 countries and 5 continents. The camp is aimed at motivated students around the age of 16 and is a two-week immersion into the exciting world of cutting-edge physics today. It covers topics such as dark matter, superstring theory and quantum computers, and exposes attendees to some of the very latest research results. It includes lectures, tutorials, laboratory visits and small-group projects and, in addition to teaching new material, strives to give students a deeper appreciation of the true nature of science. Throughout, attendees have a great deal of interaction with the institute's scientists. This presentation will give an overview of the camp including the material taught within it, its impact on students and the goals of the program. More information about the camp can be found at: http://www.youngphysicists.ca

  13. Proton-induced single event upset characterisation of a 1 giga-sample per second analog to digital converter; Caracterisation de la sensibilite aux upsets induits par les protons d'un convertisseur analogique numerique de 1 giga-echantillons par seconde

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reed, R.A. [NASA/GSFC Greenbelt, MD (United States); Marshall, P.W. [NASA/GSFC Greenbelt, Consultant, MD (United States); Carts, M.A. [Naval Research Lab., Washington (United States)

    1999-07-01

    The SPT7760 is an analog to digital converter that is used in satellite for digital processing. In this paper we describe the characterization and analysis of proton-induced single event upsets (SEU) for the SPT7760 operating at sample rates from 125 Msps (Mega-samples per second) to 1 Gsps. The SEU cross-section has been measured as a function of sample rate for various input levels. The data collected is clearly non-linear for all cases. The data shows that this device has a relative low cross-section for proton-induced SEUs and remains functional at a proton dose of 580 krad (Si). (A.C.)

  14. How Come the Best Job I Ever Had Was When I Worked at a Summer Camp?: Understanding Retention Among Camp Counselors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jay Whitacre

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available When attempting to discover a manner in which to maintain employment during the summer, many individuals have realized the job of camp counselor. What begins as a seasonal position may transform into a lifelong commitment to both person and place. For years, individuals have come to appreciate and understand the experiences that occur when approaching particular places. Data, for this study, was collected via in-depth interviews from twenty-four camp counselors from three separate, but similar camps. Phenomenological analysis on the qualitative data was performed to explore the staff retention amongst counselors. This study links sense of place as a salient component of employee retention among camp counselors. By developing a strong sense of community amongst staff, camp administrators may be promoting a deeper, more long-term, commitment among the staff and towards the camp.

  15. Analog circuit design art, science, and personalities

    CERN Document Server

    Williams, Jim

    1991-01-01

    Analog Circuit Design: Art, Science, and Personalities discusses the many approaches and styles in the practice of analog circuit design. The book is written in an informal yet informative manner, making it easily understandable to those new in the field. The selection covers the definition, history, current practice, and future direction of analog design; the practice proper; and the styles in analog circuit design. The book also includes the problems usually encountered in analog circuit design; approach to feedback loop design; and other different techniques and applications. The text is

  16. Analog and mixed-signal electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Stephan, Karl

    2015-01-01

    A practical guide to analog and mixed-signal electronics, with an emphasis on design problems and applications This book provides an in-depth coverage of essential analog and mixed-signal topics such as power amplifiers, active filters, noise and dynamic range, analog-to-digital and digital-to-analog conversion techniques, phase-locked loops, and switching power supplies. Readers will learn the basics of linear systems, types of nonlinearities and their effects, op-amp circuits, the high-gain analog filter-amplifier, and signal generation. The author uses system design examples to motivate

  17. Practical analog electronics for technicians

    CERN Document Server

    Kimber, W A

    2013-01-01

    'Practical Analog Electronics for Technicians' not only provides an accessible introduction to electronics, but also supplies all the problems and practical activities needed to gain hands-on knowledge and experience. This emphasis on practice is surprisingly unusual in electronics texts, and has already gained Will Kimber popularity through the companion volume, 'Practical Digital Electronics for Technicians'. Written to cover the Advanced GNVQ optional unit in electronics, this book is also ideal for BTEC National, A-level electronics and City & Guilds courses. Together with 'Practical Digit

  18. Effectiveness of previous mumps vaccination during a summer camp outbreak.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaffzin, Joshua K; Pollock, Lynn; Schulte, Cynthia; Henry, Kyle; Dayan, Gustavo; Blog, Debra; Smith, Perry

    2007-10-01

    Mumps is a vaccine-preventable disease that may cause outbreaks. In July 2005, an outbreak of mumps occurred during a children's summer camp in upstate New York. An investigation was initiated to describe the cases and evaluate vaccine effectiveness. A retrospective cohort study was conducted among 541 children from the United States and abroad who attended a 1- or 2-month overnight summer camp. Patients with mumps were interviewed; serologic analysis was conducted for 6 case patients. Vaccine effectiveness was calculated by retrospective review of immunization records for 507 attendees who were eligible for vaccination and had verified immunization history. Thirty-one camp attendees were identified as having mumps (attack rate: 5.7%); 5 (83%) of 6 patients tested had positivity for mumps immunoglobulin M. Of the 507 participants (including 29 patients) with available immunization history, 440 (including 16 [87%] patients) were 2-dose recipients of mumps vaccine (attack rate: 3.6%); 46 participants (including 4 [9%] patients) were 1-dose recipients (attack rate: 8.7%); and 21 (including 9 [4%] patients) were unvaccinated (attack rate: 42.9%). Vaccine effectiveness was 92% for 2 doses and 80% for 1 dose. Outbreaks of mumps in settings such as summer camps can occur despite high vaccination rates. Vaccine effectiveness for 2 mumps vaccinations was greater than vaccine effectiveness for 1 mumps vaccination. Therefore, recommendation of 2 mumps vaccinations for summer camp participants continues to be appropriate. Control of mumps disease relies on broad vaccination coupled with correct clinical diagnosis and strict control measures.

  19. Regulation of monocarboxylic acid transporter-1 by cAMP dependent vesicular trafficking in brain microvascular endothelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uhernik, Amy L; Li, Lun; LaVoy, Nathan; Velasquez, Micah J; Smith, Jeffrey P

    2014-01-01

    In this study, a detailed characterization of Monocarboxylic Acid Transporter-1 (Mct1) in cytoplasmic vesicles of cultured rat brain microvascular endothelial cells shows them to be a diverse population of endosomes intrinsic to the regulation of the transporter by a brief 25 to 30 minute exposure to the membrane permeant cAMP analog, 8Br-cAMP. The vesicles are heterogeneous in size, mobility, internal pH, and co-localize with discreet markers of particular types of endosomes including early endosomes, clathrin coated vesicles, caveolar vesicles, trans-golgi, and lysosomes. The vesicular localization of Mct1 was not dependent on its N or C termini, however, the size and pH of Mct1 vesicles was increased by deletion of either terminus demonstrating a role for the termini in vesicular trafficking of Mct1. Using a novel BCECF-AM based assay developed in this study, 8Br-cAMP was shown to decrease the pH of Mct1 vesicles after 25 minutes. This result and method were confirmed in experiments with a ratiometric pH-sensitive EGFP-mCherry dual tagged Mct1 construct. Overall, the results indicate that cAMP signaling reduces the functionality of Mct1 in cerebrovascular endothelial cells by facilitating its entry into a highly dynamic vesicular trafficking pathway that appears to lead to the transporter's trafficking to autophagosomes and lysosomes.

  20. Resveratrol Ameliorates Aging-Related Metabolic Phenotypes by Inhibiting cAMP Phosphodiesterases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sung-Jun; Ahmad, Faiyaz; Philp, Andrew; Baar, Keith; Williams, Tishan; Luo, Haibin; Ke, Hengming; Rehmann, Holger; Taussig, Ronald; Brown, Alexandra L.; Kim, Myung K.; Beaven, Michael A.; Burgin, Alex B.; Manganiello, Vincent; Chung, Jay H.

    2012-01-01

    SUMMARY Resveratrol, a polyphenol in red wine, has been reported as a calorie restriction mimetic with potential antiaging and antidiabetogenic properties. It is widely consumed as a nutritional supplement, but its mechanism of action remains a mystery. Here, we report that the metabolic effects of resveratrol result from competitive inhibition of cAMP-degrading phosphodiesterases, leading to elevated cAMP levels. The resulting activation of Epac1, a cAMP effector protein, increases intracellular Ca2+ levels and activates the CamKKβ-AMPK pathway via phospholipase C and the ryanodine receptor Ca2+-release channel. As a consequence, resveratrol increases NAD+ and the activity of Sirt1. Inhibiting PDE4 with rolipram reproduces all of the metabolic benefits of resveratrol, including prevention of diet-induced obesity and an increase in mitochondrial function, physical stamina, and glucose tolerance in mice. Therefore, administration of PDE4 inhibitors may also protect against and ameliorate the symptoms of metabolic diseases associated with aging. PMID:22304913

  1. Using Science Camps to Develop Understandings about Scientific Inquiry--Taiwanese Students in a U.S. Summer Science Camp

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antink-Meyer, Allison; Bartos, Stephen; Lederman, Judith S.; Lederman, Norman G.

    2016-01-01

    Recent years have witnessed a dramatic rise in the number of middle and high school students from Asian countries participating in U.S.-based summer experiences (Perlez & Gao, 2013). Although summer science camps have been shown to improve students' attitudes and interests related to science and science learning (Bhattacharyya, Mead &…

  2. Cyclic AMP relay and cyclic AMP-induced cyclic GMP accumulation during development of Dictyostelium discoideum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kesbeke, Fanja; Haastert, Peter J.M. van; Schaap, Pauline

    1986-01-01

    Cyclic AMP-induced cAMP and cGMP responses during development of Dictyostelium discoideum were investigated. The cAMP-induced cGMP response is maximal when aggregation is in full progress, and then decreases to about 10% of the maximal level during further multicellular development. The cAMP

  3. Pilot Study Evaluating Physical Activity and Fatigue in Adolescent Oncology Patients and Survivors During Summer Camp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Withycombe, Janice S; Baek, Min Joo; Jordan, Dorothy H; Thomas, Nimmy J; Hale, Sally

    2017-11-03

    Summer camps for adolescent cancer patients and survivors are popular. Little is known about the impact of camp attendance on physical activity (PA) and fatigue. This pilot study was conducted in 24 adolescents, 13-17 years of age, to measure objective PA (steps/day) along with self-reported PA and fatigue during camp. Findings demonstrate adolescents are willing to complete a PA research study during camp. On average, campers demonstrated 18,198 steps/day. Self-reported PA significantly increased with no significant change in self-reported fatigue. Summer camps offer a unique setting, in which to encourage and explore PA in adolescent oncology patients and survivors.

  4. Analog-to-digital conversion

    CERN Document Server

    Pelgrom, Marcel J. M

    2013-01-01

    This textbook is appropriate for use in graduate-level curricula in analog to digital conversion, as well as for practicing engineers in need of a state-of-the-art reference on data converters.  It discusses various analog-to-digital conversion principles, including sampling, quantization, reference generation, nyquist architectures and sigma-delta modulation.  This book presents an overview of the state-of-the-art in this field and focuses on issues of optimizing accuracy and speed, while reducing the power level. This new, second edition emphasizes novel calibration concepts, the specific requirements of new systems, the consequences of 45-nm technology and the need for a more statistical approach to accuracy.  Pedagogical enhancements to this edition include more than twice the exercises available in the first edition, solved examples to introduce all key, new concepts and warnings, remarks and hints, from a practitioner’s perspective, wherever appropriate.  Considerable background information and pr...

  5. Reliability of analog quantum simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarovar, Mohan [Sandia National Laboratories, Digital and Quantum Information Systems, Livermore, CA (United States); Zhang, Jun; Zeng, Lishan [Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Joint Institute of UMich-SJTU, Key Laboratory of System Control and Information Processing (MOE), Shanghai (China)

    2017-12-15

    Analog quantum simulators (AQS) will likely be the first nontrivial application of quantum technology for predictive simulation. However, there remain questions regarding the degree of confidence that can be placed in the results of AQS since they do not naturally incorporate error correction. Specifically, how do we know whether an analog simulation of a quantum model will produce predictions that agree with the ideal model in the presence of inevitable imperfections? At the same time there is a widely held expectation that certain quantum simulation questions will be robust to errors and perturbations in the underlying hardware. Resolving these two points of view is a critical step in making the most of this promising technology. In this work we formalize the notion of AQS reliability by determining sensitivity of AQS outputs to underlying parameters, and formulate conditions for robust simulation. Our approach naturally reveals the importance of model symmetries in dictating the robust properties. To demonstrate the approach, we characterize the robust features of a variety of quantum many-body models. (orig.)

  6. A Novel T55A Variant of Gsα Associated with Impaired cAMP Production, Bone Fragility, and Osteolysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelly Wentworth

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs mediate a wide spectrum of biological activities. The GNAS complex locus encodes the stimulatory alpha subunit of the guanine nucleotide binding protein (Gsα and regulates production of the second messenger cyclic AMP (cAMP. Loss-of-function GNAS mutations classically lead to Albright’s Hereditary Osteodystrophy (AHO and pseudohypoparathyroidism, often with significant effects on bone formation and mineral metabolism. We present the case of a child who exhibits clinical features of osteolysis, multiple childhood fractures, and neonatal SIADH. Exome sequencing revealed a novel de novo heterozygous missense mutation of GNAS (c.163AcAMP activity associated with this mutation. We identified a 64% decrease in isoproterenol-induced cAMP production in vitro, compared to wild type, consistent with loss of Gsα activity. Despite a significant decrease in isoproterenol-induced cAMP production in vitro, this mutation did not produce a classical AHO phenotype in our patient; however, it may account for her presentation with childhood fractures and osteolysis.

  7. Musik in Konzentrationslagern The Role of Music in Concentration Camps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriele Knapp

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available Die Holocaust-Forschung hat sich jahrzehntelang vorwiegend mit den Verbrechen in den Konzentrationslagern beschäftigt, während Fragen nach dem „Alltag“ der Häftlinge und ihren Strategien des Überlebens nebensächlich erschienen. Untersuchungen zum (ÜberLeben im KZ können aber gerade die Brutalität des Systems deutlich machen. So war Musik ein integraler Bestandteil des Lageralltags und diente keineswegs nur der Erbauung der Häftlinge, sondern bedeutete für sie häufig eine zusätzliche Tortur, wie Forschungsarbeiten für die Zeit von 1939 bis 1945 bereits belegt haben. Inwieweit dies für die frühen Lager von 1933 bis 1936 zutraf, untersucht Guido Fackler in seiner Studie. Darüber hinaus versucht er, musikalische Kontinuitätslinien von den frühen Lagern bis in die späte Phase (1937–1945 zu zeichnen. Eine Gesamtdarstellung zu KZ-Musik von 1933 bis 1945 konnte dem Autor indes nicht gelingen, wenn er auch einzelne Zusammenhänge zwischen musikalischen Phänomenen in unterschiedlichen Lagern aufzeigt. Facklers Buch lässt sich eher als Quellensammlung für Musik in unterschiedlichsten Konzentrationslagern verstehen und gebrauchen – wenn auch fast ausschließlich begrenzt auf Männerlager.In the past decades, Holocaust studies have focused on researching the annihilating structures of concentration camps, while the study of the inmates’ everyday lives and their strategies for survival was not included in this field of work. However, studying aspects of daily life and survival in the concentration camps can serve to truly bring out the brutality of the Holocaust. Music, for example, was an integral part of everyday life in the camps and did not solely serve to entertain the inmates, but also represented an additional form of torture for them, as previous studies for the time period between 1939 and 1945 have documented. Fackler’s study investigates the extent to which this was the case in the early concentration camps between

  8. [Medicine in the concentration camps of the Third Reich].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shasha, Shaul M

    2005-04-01

    Between 1942 and 1944 millions of prisoners were subjected to forced labor in concentration camps throughout the Third Reich, all the while being the victims of a systematic and "scientific" extermination policy. Though the policy was directed mainly against Jews, it was implemented against other "inferior races" as well. The prisoners, stripped of all rights, experienced constant humiliation, uncertain survival and terror. The harsh living condition, characterized by crowding, absent sanitation and poor personal hygiene led to considerable morbidity, mainly due to injuries, infectious diseases and famine, and to high mortality rates. Medical care in the camps was the responsibility of the S.S. Each camp had a chief S.S. physician accompanied by a number of assistants and orderlies. There was also a parallel system of "prisoner-physicians." There was a chief prisoner-physician in every camp, and each block was assigned a "block doctor" who was responsible for sanitation, the removal of corpses, setting up the sick- call and authorizing sick leave. Work teams were accompanied by "mobile doctors" (Streckenpfleger), who dispensed first aid for work injuries. Prisoner-physicians were also charged with disinfecting the blocks and maintaining hygienic conditions in the camp. Every camp had one or more blocks, called "Reviers", that were used for treatment and hospitalization. In the larger camps a number of blocks were designated to function as a sort of hospital (Krankenbau). At times one camp out of a group of camps would be set aside as quarantine, primarily for patients with infectious diseases. Officially, the "Revier" was the responsibility of an S.S. physicians', assisted by a chief prisoner-physician, his assistants and, at times, nurses. But in actuality the Reviers were managed by prisoners (Capos) who did not have medical training but were authorized to make decisions in medical matters such as operations and, on occasion, even performed them. The Reviers

  9. Intracranial Fluid Redistribution During a Spaceflight Analog

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koppelmans, Vincent; Pasternak, Ofer; Bloomberg, Jacob J.; De Dios, Yiri E.; Wood, Scott J.; Riascos, Roy; Reuter-Lorenz, Patrica A.; Kofman, Igor S.; Mulavara, Ajitkumar P.; Seidler, Rachael D.

    2017-01-01

    The neural correlates of spaceflight-induced sensorimotor impairments are unknown. Head down-tilt bed rest (HDBR) serves as a microgravity analog because it mimics the headward fluid shift and limb unloading of spaceflight. We investigated focal brain white matter (WM) changes and fluid shifts during 70 days of 6 deg HDBR in 16 subjects who were assessed pre (2x), during (3x), and post-HDBR (2x). Changes over time were compared to those in control subjects (n=12) assessed four times over 90 days. Diffusion MRI was used to assess WM microstructure and fluid shifts. Free-Water Imaging, derived from diffusion MRI, was used to quantify the distribution of intracranial extracellular free water (FW). Additionally, we tested whether WM and FW changes correlated with changes in functional mobility and balance measures. HDBR resulted in FW increases in fronto-temporal regions and decreases in posterior-parietal regions that largely recovered by two weeks post-HDBR. WM microstructure was unaffected by HDBR. FW decreased in the post-central gyrus and precuneus. We previously reported that gray matter increases in these regions were associated with less HDBR-induced balance impairment, suggesting adaptive structural neuroplasticity. Future studies are warranted to determine causality and underlying mechanisms.

  10. Suppression of programmed cell death by intracellular cAMP is not mediated by expression of genes encoding an inhibitor of apoptosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taurin, S; Ryazhsky, G G; Maximova, N V; Chuchalin, A G; Hamet, P; Pshezhetsky, A V; Orlov, S N

    2002-02-01

    The elevation of intracellular cAMP content is accompanied by expression of genes whose promoter contains a Ca(2+)-cAMP responsive element. In vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC), activation of cAMP signaling blocks apoptosis triggered by serum deprivation. In the present study we investigated the role of gene expression in the inhibition of apoptosis by cAMP. In VSMC transfected with E1A adenovirus, incubation in the absence of serum for 6 h led to 20-fold elevation of chromatin fragmentation and 10-fold activation of caspase-3 activity, these being employed as markers of apoptosis. Forskolin-induced activation of cAMP signaling was accompanied by 50% elevation of RNA synthesis and completely abolished the development of apoptosis during the initial 6 h incubation in growth factor-free medium. In 12 h apoptosis in forskolin-treated VSMC was slowly developed and after 24 h the content of chromatin fragments was 2-fold less than in control cells. Addition of actinomycin D and cycloheximide completely blocked RNA synthesis and decreased protein synthesis by 80%, respectively. Neither compound affected baseline apoptosis or its inhibition by forskolin. More than 70 newly phosphorylated proteins were observed by 2D-electrophoresis of VSMC after incubation with forskolin for 3 h; in 24 h the number of phosphoproteins triggered by forskolin was decreased by 2-3-fold. These results show that suppression of VSMC apoptosis under activation of cAMP signaling is mediated via posttranslational modification of pre-existing intermediates of the apoptotic machinery rather than by de novo synthesis of inhibitors of programmed cell death.

  11. Benefits of attending a summer camp for children with inflammatory bowel disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salazar, Guadalupe; Heyman, Melvin B

    2014-07-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate knowledge of pediatric patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and perceptions of Camp Gut Busters, an IBD summer camp. The present ethnographic study uses traditional anthropological methods to investigate participants' knowledge and perceptions of Camp Gut Busters. Data were gathered using in-depth qualitative interviews, participant observation during 4 Camp Gut Busters summer sessions, and attendance records for the summer camp. Participants either attended Camp Gut Busters (campers) or did not attend (noncampers). Campers' knowledge and perceptions were based on their actual experience at Camp Gut Busters, whereas those of noncampers were based on their expectations of camp. Participant responses reference their illness experience with IBD, their struggles of learning to live with a chronic condition, and the benefits of attending a disease-specific camp. Campers addressed notions of identity, the isolation associated with having a potentially stigmatizing chronic condition, therapeutic routines, and awareness of IBD. Noncampers focused on discomfort with IBD and their identity as an individual and child with the disease. Pediatric patients with IBD who attended a disease-specific summer camp benefited from the experience. Exposure to peers with similar therapeutic routines and to the range of IBD helped campers build an empathetic social network and introduced a new perspective on their disease. Attending a disease-specific camp helps pediatric patients with IBD in psychosocial adjustment and acquisition of knowledge about their disease. Ultimately, it helps them learn to live with their chronic condition.

  12. Assessing Disaster Preparedness Among Select Children's Summer Camps in the United States and Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Megan; Sielaff, Alan; Bradin, Stuart; Walker, Kevin; Ambrose, Michael; Hashikawa, Andrew

    2017-08-01

    Children's summer camps are at risk for multiple pediatric casualties during a disaster. The degree to which summer camps have instituted disaster preparedness is unknown. We assessed disaster preparedness among selected camps nationally for a range of disasters. We partnered with a national, web-based electronic health records system to send camp leadership of 315 camp organizations a 14-question online survey of disaster preparedness. One response from each camp was selected in the following order of importance: owner, director, physician, nurse, medical technician, office staff, and other. The results were analyzed using descriptive statistics. A total of 181 camps responses were received, 169 of which were complete. Camp types were overnight (60%), day (21%), special/medical needs (14%), and other (5%). Survey respondents were directors (52%), nurses (14%), office staff (10%), physicians (5%), owners (5%), emergency medical technicians (2%), and other (12%). Almost 18% of camps were located >20 mi from a major medical center, and 36% were >5 mi from police/fire departments. Many camps were missing emergency supplies: car/booster seats for evacuation (68%), shelter (35%), vehicles for evacuation (26%), quarantine isolation areas (21%), or emergency supplies of extra water (20%) or food (17%). Plans were unavailable for the following: power outages (23%); lockdowns (15%); illness outbreaks (15%); tornadoes (11%); evacuation for fire, flood, or chemical spill (9%); and other severe weather (8%). Many camps did not have online emergency plans (53%), plans for children with special/medical needs (38%), methods to rapidly communicate information to parents (25%), or methods to identify children for evacuation/reunification with parents (40%). Respondents reported that staff participation in disaster drills varied for weather (58%), evacuations (46%), and lockdowns (36%). The majority (75%) of respondents had not collaborated with medical organizations for planning. A

  13. Residential summer camp: a new venue for nutrition education and physical activity promotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ventura, Alison K; Garst, Barry A

    2013-05-24

    Millions of children attend residential summer camps each year. However, few studies have examined the potential of camps for obesity prevention efforts. Research in the domain of positive youth development has shown that camp programs as short as one week have both short- and long-term positive effects on self-esteem, self-efficacy and other youth outcomes. The objective of the present study was to highlight the potential of resident camps as promising venues for the promotion of healthy eating and physical activity behaviors in the children who attend. Data for this study came from the American Camp Association 2007 Emerging Issues Survey. This survey assessed camp professionals' perspectives on a diverse array of issues, including the healthy eating and physical activity of children. Data analysis focused on responses from 247 camp professionals whose camps offered resident camp programs. Descriptive and Chi-square statistics were calculated. Ninety-two percent of camp professionals reported that the healthy eating and physical activity of campers was an "important" or "very important" issue for camps. The majority of camps reported offering vegetarian options, healthy snacks and salad bars, and allergen-free options. Additionally, 86% of camp professionals indicated that they had implemented one or more strategies to address concerns related to the unhealthy eating behaviors of children, with top strategies including increasing the availability of fruits and vegetables, increasing the availability of healthy drink options, and improving the nutritional quality of menus. Fewer camp professionals (50%) indicated they had implemented strategies to increase children's physical activity levels, but many professionals indicated that their camp programs were inherently active and additional strategies to promote physical activity were not necessary. Associations were found between camp affiliation and food options available to campers. The majority of camp

  14. Interleukin-1 beta-induced nitric oxide production from isolated rat islets is modulated by D-glucose and 3-isobutyl-1-methyl xanthine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, H U; Mauricio, D; Karlsen, Allan Ertman

    1996-01-01

    -glucose-mediated modulation of interleukin-1 beta effects on insulin release from isolated rat islets was related to modulation of nitric oxide production. Further, we wished to investigate the effects of agents increasing the intracellular concentration of cAMP on interleukin-1 beta-induced nitrite production. We......Interleukin-1 beta has been proposed to cause selective beta-cell destruction via the induction of nitric oxide synthesis. The cytotoxic effect of interleukin-1 beta is modulated by the concentration of D-glucose in the medium. The aim of this study was to investigate if D...... effects on acute insulin release was found at high (28 mmol/l) concentrations of D-glucose, and blocking nitrite production by the L-arginine analog aminoguanidine, which selectively inhibits the cytokine-inducible nitric oxide synthase, did not result in protection against the inhibitory action...

  15. The relationship of analogical distance to analogical function and preinventive structure: the case of engineering design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, Bo T; Schunn, Christian D

    2007-01-01

    Analogy was studied in real-world engineering design, using the in vivo method. Analogizing was found to occur frequently, entailing a roughly equal amount of within- and between-domain analogies. In partial support for theories of unconscious plagiarism (Brown & Murphy, 1989; Marsh, Landau, & Hicks, 1996) and Ward's (1994) path-of-least-resistance model, it was found that the reference to exemplars (in the form of prototypes) significantly reduced the number of between-domain analogies between source and target, as compared with using sketches or no external representational systems. Analogy served three functions in relation to novel design concepts: identifying problems, solving problems, and explaining concepts. Problem identifying analogies were mainly within domain, explanatory analogies were mainly between domain, and problem-solving analogies were a mixture of within- and between-domain analogies.

  16. The Young Solar Analogs Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Richard O.; Saken, J. M.; Corbally, C. J.; Seeds, M. F.; Morrison, S. S.

    2012-01-01

    We are carrying out a long-term project of measuring chromospheric activity and brightness variations in 31 young solar analogs (YSAs) using the Dark Sky Observatory (DSO -- Appalachian State University) 32-inch telescope and the G/M spectrograph. These YSAs are solar-type (spectral types F8 - K2) stars with ages ranging from 0.3 - 1.5 Gyr. The goal of this project is to gain better understanding of the magnetic activity of the early Sun, and especially how that activity may have impacted the development of life on the Earth. This project will also yield insights into the space environments experienced by young Earth analogs. We are currently in our 5th year of obtaining Ca II K & H chromospheric flux measurements, and are beginning to see signs of long-term activity cycles in a number of our stars. In addition, rotational modulation of the chromospheric fluxes is detectable in our data, and we have determined rotational periods for many of our stars. Short timescale increases in the K & H fluxes have been observed in a number of our stars; these events may be related to stellar flares. VATTSpec, a new moderate-resolution spectrograph on the 1.8-m Vatican Telescope in Arizona, has recently become involved with the project. This spectrograph will increase our ability to detect short-term changes in stellar activity on timescales of hours to minutes. We have been monitoring the program stars for one year in a multi-band photometric system consisting of Stromgren-v, and Johnson B, V, and R filters. We will soon add a narrow-band H-alpha filter to the system. Photometry is being carried out with a small piggy-back telescope on the 32-inch, but a robotic photometric telescope is currently being installed at DSO for this purpose. This project is supported by the National Science Foundation.

  17. Neural correlates of creativity in analogical reasoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Adam E; Kraemer, David J M; Fugelsang, Jonathan A; Gray, Jeremy R; Dunbar, Kevin N

    2012-03-01

    Brain-based evidence has implicated the frontal pole of the brain as important for analogical mapping. Separately, cognitive research has identified semantic distance as a key determinant of the creativity of analogical mapping (i.e., more distant analogies are generally more creative). Here, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging to assess brain activity during an analogy generation task in which we varied the semantic distance of analogical mapping (as derived quantitatively from a latent semantic analysis). Data indicated that activity within an a priori region of interest in left frontopolar cortex covaried parametrically with increasing semantic distance, even after removing effects of task difficulty. Results implicate increased recruitment of frontopolar cortex as a mechanism for integrating semantically distant information to generate solutions in creative analogical reasoning. 2012 APA, all rights reserved

  18. From camp to kitsch: A queer eye on console fandom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rob Gallagher

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Offering a queer perspective on video game fandom, this article considers the factors that fostered a subculture of Western devotees of Japanese video games in the 1990s. Focused on readers of the English publication Sega Saturn Magazine, it shows how, for these players, Japanese games became the basis of a collective identity founded on precisely the kinds of perverse over-attachment, projective identification and hermeneutic ingenuity that Eve Kosofsky Sedgwick identifies with camp. Citing this subculture as an example of how fans transform the texts they put to use, the article also addresses its implications for our understanding of fandom today, at a time when the proliferation of quantitative analysis techniques is transforming the production and consumption of games. Such techniques, I argue, threaten to compromise the contingency and ambiguity on which camp thrives, instead fostering the kinds of cynical calculation Sedgwick associates with kitsch.

  19. Yoga cAMP in ayurvedgrams of chhattisgarh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madhu, Raghavendra; Jain, Nilesh

    2012-04-01

    The clinical and empirical health benefits of yoga and pranayam have been reiterated through research. Yoga is being adopted as a system to alleviate the burden of noncommunicable diseases (NCDs) across the globe. The Directorate of AYUSH, Government of Chhattisgarh (DoA, GoCG) conducts annual 5-day-yoga camp across 146 Ayurvedgrams in the State. The present article brings out the AYUSH initiatives the State is taking toward active ageing. A total of 71,096 people participated in the 5-day-yoga camp across the State. A mean participation of 5079 people over 5 days was reported across districts. Such statewide practices need to be promoted and appraised.

  20. Analog MOS integrated circuits for signal processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregorian, R.; Temes, G. C.

    Theoretical and practical aspects of analog MOS integrated circuits are discussed. The basic properties of these circuits are described, providing necessary background material in mathematics and semiconductor device physics and technology. The operation and design of such important circuits as switched-capacitor filters, analog-to-digital and digital-to-analog converters, amplifiers, modulators, and oscillators. Practical problems encountered in design are discussed, solutions are provided, and some examples of actual system applications are given.

  1. Assessment of DoD Wounded Warrior Matters -- Camp Lejeune

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-30

    appointments at both Camp Lejeune and the DVA . He said that although he didn’t know what the Medical Evaluation Board counselor did, the battalion command...Composite Health Care System CONUS Continental United States CTP Comprehensive Transition Plan DES Disability Evaluation System DVA ...Summary of Prior Coverage During the last 6 years, there has been a multitude of prior coverage on DOD and Department of Veterans Affairs ( DVA ) health

  2. Smart and Green Energy (SAGE) for Base Camps Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Engels, Matthias; Boyd, Paul A.; Koehler, Theresa M.; Goel, Supriya; Sisk, Daniel R.; Hatley, Darrel D.; Mendon, Vrushali V.; Hail, John C.

    2014-02-11

    The U.S. Army Logistics Innovation Agency’s (LIA’s) Smart and Green Energy (SAGE) for Base Camps project was to investigate how base camps’ fuel consumption can be reduced by 30% to 60% using commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) technologies for power generation, renewables, and energy efficient building systems. Field tests and calibrated energy models successfully demonstrated that the fuel reductions are achievable.

  3. CORRECTIVE SURGERY IN CONGENITAL TALIPES EQUINOVARUS DEFORMITY: A CAMP APPROACH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antony R.

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The study was intended to assess the results of soft tissue release and bony corrective surgery in patients of moderate to severe deformed rigid club foot (CTEV and neglected clubfoot (CTEV at free disabled surgical camps at Chhattisgarh state . MATERIAL AND METHODS : In our study 50 patients were included with 70% male and 30% female with 4 - 16 years of age grou p and 70% unilateral and 30% bilateral foot involvement. Patients were admitted and operated in different free disabled surgical camps at Chhattisgarh state over the period of 36 months (1 may 2004 to 30 th April 2007. Improvement in functional ability and locomotion of all operated patients were assessed by physical and clinical examination. RESULTS : All patients who were operated in our study showed significant improvement in functional ability and locomotion after surgery. All patients were maintaining f unctional ability at follow up duration of 12 months (1 year. 75% patients were walking normally, 10% cases were walking with internal rotation of leg and 5% cases were walking with midtarsal varus foot with AFO with medial bar support. CONCLUSION : Our st udy showed and established that excellent results can be obtained in congenital talipes equinovarus (CTEV patients by soft tissue release with bony corrective surgery. The team work of devoted surgeons, paramedical and rehabilitation staff in whole durati on of camps to achieve the goal. With an aim to help more number of CTEV cases by surgery, our team has started doing surgeries in small institutions, and organize charity camps to help poor patients and mankind even in small clinics

  4. Camp Pendleton Saves 91% in Parking Lot Lighting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2016-01-01

    Case study describes how Camp Pendleton Marine Corps Base replaced high-pressure sodium (HPS) fixtures in one parking lot with high-efficiency induction fixtures for 91% savings in energy use and $5,700 in cost savings annually. This parking lot is estimated to have a simple payback of 2.9 years. Sitewide up-grades yielded annual savings of 1 million kWh.

  5. Tidal Marsh Vegetation of China Camp, San Pablo Bay, California

    OpenAIRE

    Baye, Peter R.

    2012-01-01

    China Camp (Marin County, California) preserves extensive relict stands of salt marsh vegetation developed on a prehistoric salt marsh platform with a complex sinuous tidal creek network. The low salt marsh along tidal creeks supports extensive native stands of Pacific cordgrass (Spartina foliosa). The outer salt marsh accreted following hydraulic gold mining sedimentation. It consists of a wave-scarped pickleweed-dominated (Sarcocornia pacifica) high salt marsh terrace with a broad fringing ...

  6. Building Energy Audit Report for Camp Smith, HI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chvala, William D.; De La Rosa, Marcus I.; Brown, Daryl R.; Dixon, Douglas R.

    2010-09-30

    A detailed energy assessment was performed by a team of engineers from Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) under contract to the Department of Energy/Federal Energy Management program (FEMP). The effort used the Facility Energy Decision System (FEDS) model to determine how energy is consumed at Camp Smith, identify the most cost-effective energy retrofit measures, and calculate the potential energy and cost savings. This report documents the results of that assessment.

  7. The Promotion of HAMK Winter and Summer Camps: Case China

    OpenAIRE

    Lin, Yulu

    2017-01-01

    The main purpose of this thesis is to promote HAMK winter and summer camps in China and maintain its competitive advantages by figuring out more effective marketing activities to attract students. The theories used to support and give references to this thesis were based on the research and studies from Philip Kotler, Kevin Keller and Armstrong. Some marketing related books such as Principles of Marketing or Marketing Management proved to be professional sources and explanations for conce...

  8. S'Cool LAB Summer CAMP 2017 at CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    2017-01-01

    The S’Cool LAB Summer CAMP is an opportunity for high-school students (aged 16-19) from all around the world to spend 2 weeks exploring the fascinating world of particle physics. The 24 selected participants spend their summer at S’Cool LAB, CERN’s hands-on particle physics learning laboratory, for an epic programme of lectures and tutorials, team research projects, visits of CERN’s research installations, and social activities.

  9. A Pediatric Cardiology Fellowship Boot Camp improves trainee confidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allan, Catherine K; Tannous, Paul; DeWitt, Elizabeth; Farias, Michael; Mansfield, Laura; Ronai, Christina; Schidlow, David; Sanders, Stephen P; Lock, James E; Newburger, Jane W; Brown, David W

    2016-12-01

    Introduction New paediatric cardiology trainees are required to rapidly assimilate knowledge and gain clinical skills to which they have limited or no exposure during residency. The Pediatric Cardiology Fellowship Boot Camp (PCBC) at Boston Children's Hospital was designed to provide incoming fellows with an intensive exposure to congenital cardiac pathology and a broad overview of major areas of paediatric cardiology practice. The PCBC curriculum was designed by core faculty in cardiac pathology, echocardiography, electrophysiology, interventional cardiology, exercise physiology, and cardiac intensive care. Individual faculty contributed learning objectives, which were refined by fellowship directors and used to build a programme of didactics, hands-on/simulation-based activities, and self-guided learning opportunities. A total of 16 incoming fellows participated in the 4-week boot camp, with no concurrent clinical responsibilities, over 2 years. On the basis of pre- and post-PCBC surveys, 80% of trainees strongly agreed that they felt more prepared for clinical responsibilities, and a similar percentage felt that PCBC should be offered to future incoming fellows. Fellows showed significant increase in their confidence in all specific knowledge and skills related to the learning objectives. Fellows rated hands-on learning experiences and simulation-based exercises most highly. We describe a novel 4-week-long boot camp designed to expose incoming paediatric cardiology fellows to the broad spectrum of knowledge and skills required for the practice of paediatric cardiology. The experience increased trainee confidence and sense of preparedness to begin fellowship-related responsibilities. Given that highly interactive activities were rated most highly, boot camps in paediatric cardiology should strongly emphasise these elements.

  10. From camp to kitsch: A queer eye on console fandom

    OpenAIRE

    Rob Gallagher

    2014-01-01

    Offering a queer perspective on video game fandom, this article considers the factors that fostered a subculture of Western devotees of Japanese video games in the 1990s. Focused on readers of the English publication Sega Saturn Magazine, it shows how, for these players, Japanese games became the basis of a collective identity founded on precisely the kinds of perverse over-attachment, projective identification and hermeneutic ingenuity that Eve Kosofsky Sedgwick identifies with camp. Citing ...

  11. Planning and Executing the Neurosurgery Boot Camp: The Bolivia Experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ament, Jared D; Kim, Timothy; Gold-Markel, Judah; Germano, Isabelle M; Dempsey, Robert; Weaver, John P; DiPatri, Arthur J; Andrews, Russell J; Sanchez, Mary; Hinojosa, Juan; Moser, Richard P; Glick, Roberta

    2017-08-01

    The neurosurgical boot camp has been fully incorporated into U.S. postgraduate education. This is the first implementation of the neurosurgical boot in a developing country. To advance neurosurgical education, we developed a similar boot camp program, in collaboration with Bolivian neurosurgeons, to determine its feasibility and effectiveness in an international setting. In a collective effort, the Bolivian Society for Neurosurgery, Foundation for International Education in Neurological Surgery, Solidarity Bridge, and University of Massachusetts organized and executed the first South American neurosurgical boot camp in Bolivia in 2015. Both U.S. and Bolivian faculty led didactic lectures followed by a practicum day using mannequins and simulators. South American residents and faculty were surveyed after the course to determine levels of enthusiasm and their perceived improvement in fund of knowledge and course effectiveness. Twenty-four neurosurgery residents from 5 South American countries participated. Average survey scores ranged between 4.2 and 4.9 out of 5. Five Bolivian neurosurgeons completed the survey with average scores of 4.5-5. This event allowed for Bolivian leaders in the field to unify around education, resulting in the formation of an institute to continue similar initiatives. Total cost was estimated at $40 000 USD; however, significant faculty, industry, and donor support helped offset this amount. The first South American neurosurgical boot camp had significant value and was well received in Bolivia. This humanitarian model provides a sustainable solution to education needs and should be expanded to other regions as a means for standardizing the core competencies in neurosurgery. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Analogies between continuum dislocation theory, continuum mechanics and fluid mechanics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silbermann, C. B.; Ihlemann, J.

    2017-03-01

    Continuum Dislocation Theory (CDT) relates gradients of plastic deformation in crystals with the presence of geometrically necessary dislocations. Interestingly, CDT shows striking analogies to other branches of continuum mechanics. The present contribution demonstrates this on two essential kinematical quantities which reflect tensorial dislocation properties: the (resultant) Burgers vector and the dislocation density tensor. First, the limiting process for the (resultant) Burgers vector from an integral to a local quantity is performed analogously to the limiting process from the force vector to the traction vector. By evaluating the balance of forces on a tetrahedral volume element, Cauchy found his famous formula relating traction vector and stress tensor. It is shown how this procedure may be adopted to a continuously dislocated tetrahedron. Here, the conservation of Burger’s vector implicates the introduction of the dislocation density tensor. Second, analogies between the plastic flow of a continuously dislocated solid and the liquid flow of a fluid are highlighted: the resultant Burgers vector of a dislocation ensemble plays a similar role as the (resultant) circulation of a vortex tube. Moreover, both vortices within flowing fluids and dislocations within deforming solids induce discontinuities in the velocity field and the plastic distortion field, respectively. Beyond the analogies, some peculiar properties of the dislocation density tensor are presented as well.

  13. Vitamin D analogs for the treatment of secondary hyperparathyroidism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slatopolsky, Eduardo; Brown, Alex J

    2002-01-01

    Calcitriol controls parathyroid gland (PTG) growth and suppresses the synthesis and secretion of PTH. However, because of its potent effects on intestinal calcium and phosphorus absorption and bone mobilization, calcitriol treatment can induce hypercalcemia and hyperphosphatemia often precluding its use at therapeutic doses. In the past decade, several vitamin D analogs have been developed. These analogs retain the action on the PTG while having less effect on calcium and phosphorus. Most of these analogs for the treatment of secondary hyperparathyroidism (SH) have a modification on the side chain of calcitriol. In the USA, two vitamin D analogs 19-nor 1,25(OH)(2)D(2) and 1 alpha(OH)D(2) are currently used for the treatment of SH. Studies in animals demonstrated that 19-nor-1,25(OH)(2)D(2) is less calcemic and phosphatemic than 1 alpha(OH)D(2). The lower Ca x P product in 19-nor-1,25(OH)(2)D(2)-treated rats may be an important consideration in patient therapy. Further studies in patients are necessary to define these differences. Copyright 2002 S. Karger AG, Basel

  14. The Effect of a Disability Camp Program on Attitudes towards the Inclusion of Children with Disabilities in a Summer Sport and Leisure Activity Camp

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papaioannou, Christina; Evaggelinou, Christina

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine the impact of a specific Disability Camp Program (DCP) in the attitudes of children without disabilities toward the inclusion of children with disabilities in a summer sport and leisure activity camp. Three hundred eighty-seven campers without disabilities participated in the study and were divided into…

  15. Developing Social Skills of Summer Campers with Autism Spectrum Disorder: A Case Study of Camps on TRACKS Implementation in an Inclusive Day-Camp Setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maich, Kimberly; Hall, Carmen L.; van Rhijn, Tricia Marie; Quinlan, Laurie

    2015-01-01

    This research provides preliminary results of an exploratory case study conducted of the Camps on TRACKS program in an inclusive, municipal day-camp program in southwestern Ontario, Canada. Positive changes are demonstrated in the social skills of nine day campers with an autism spectrum disorder (ASD) who participated in the program. In this…

  16. The progressive nature of concentration camp syndrome in former prisoners of Nazi concentration camps--Not just history, but the important issue of contemporary medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jabłoński, Robert; Rosińczuk, Joanna; Leszek, Jerzy; Uchmanowicz, Izabella; Panaszek, Bernard

    2016-04-01

    Constant stress, slave labor, tortures, and starvation all affected the health of concentration camp prisoners, contributing to multimorbidities, increased mortality and accelerated development of chronic illnesses, what we have shown in an earlier publication. The interrelated somatic and psychological symptoms gave rise to concentration camp syndrome (KZ-syndrome), which has many features of PTSD, occurring frequently nowadays. The paper attempts at assessing the influence of concentration camp conditions on functional disorders in each system of the human body, occurring in KZ-syndrome, and at demonstrating the progressive nature of the syndrome. A retrospective assessment of the former prisoners' health after 5 and 30 years following their leaving camps was performed based on medical records and surveys. The materials included 250 former prisoners who underwent medical examination in 1950, i.e. 5 years after leaving the camp, of whom 120 former prisoners survived and were examined and surveyed in 1975, i.e. 30 years after leaving the camp. KZ-syndrome was shown to occur in 58.8% of former prisoners 5 years after leaving the camp, and in 77.5% after 30 years (p concentration camps, in the form of KZ-syndrome, were observed in most former prisoners. Over time, the number of morbidities and the intensity of symptoms increased, which indicates that the syndrome has a chronic and progressive nature. KZ-syndrome is a multi-organ disorder, with numerous chronic comorbidities exacerbating the progression. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Exchange Protein Directly Activated by cAMP (epac) : A Multidomain cAMP Mediator in the Regulation of Diverse Biological Functions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schmidt, Martina; Dekker, Frank J.; Maarsingh, Harm

    Since the discovery nearly 60 years ago, cAMP is envisioned as one of the most universal and versatile second messengers. The tremendous feature of cAMP to tightly control highly diverse physiologic processes, including calcium homeostasis, metabolism, secretion, muscle contraction, cell fate, and

  18. Eye diseases and blindness in Adjumani refugee settlement camps, Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawuma, M

    2000-11-01

    To determine the prevalence and causes of the blindness and ocular morbidity amongst Sudanese refugees; to prioritise and provide eye care services to the refugees and; to device administrative strategies and logistics of prevention and control of blinding diseases among the refugees. A mobile outreach clinic study for six weeks. Adjumani settlement camps for Sudanese refugees in Uganda. Seven hundred patients in eighteen settlement camps. Medical treatment and surgical correction offered. Cataract, trachoma and xerophthalmia are the major causes of blindness. One hundred and forty six patients (21%) were bilaterally blind, and 77 patients (11%) were unilaterally blind. The three leading causes of blindness are cataract (42%), xerophthalmia (28%) and trachoma (21%). Glaucoma and other non-specified causes were responsible for the remaining blindness (9%). The crude prevalence of blindness among the 700 patients was 20. This is an extremely high prevalence, nearly ten times higher than for Ugandans living in Uganda. In refugee settlement camps setting, residents may have a much higher prevalence of eye diseases and blindness than non-refugees.

  19. Outbreak of chickenpox in a refugee camp of northern Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camélique Olivier

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Although chickenpox is a generally mild, self-limited illness of children, it can cause fatal disease in adults. Accumulating reports from tropical countries showed a high prevalence of seronegativity among the adults, implying that varicella diseases could become a heavy burden in tropical countries. However, in the situation of humanitarian emergencies in tropical areas, chickenpox has largely been ignored as a serious communicable disease, due to lack of data regarding varicella mortality and hospital admissions in such a context. This is the first report describing an outbreak of chickenpox in a refugee camp of tropical region. In 2008, we experienced a varicella outbreak in ethnic Lao Hmong refugee camp in Phetchabun Province, northern Thailand. The attack rate was 4.0% (309/7,815 and this caused 3 hospitalizations including one who developed severe varicella pneumonia with respiratory failure. All hospitalizations were exclusively seen in adults, and the proportion of patients ≥15 years old was 13.6% (42/309. Because less exposure to varicella-zoster virus due to low population density has previously been suggested to be one of the reasons behind higher prevalence of susceptible adults in tropics, the influx of displaced people from rural areas to a densely populated asylum might result in many severe adult cases once a varicella outbreak occurs. Control interventions such as vaccination should be considered even in refugee camp, if the confluence of the risk factors present in this situation.

  20. Effectiveness of mammography boot camp for radiology residents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Keum Won; Kim, Young Joong; Seo, Jae Young [Dept. of Radiology, Konyang University Hospital, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); and others

    2017-01-15

    To evaluate an educational effect of the mammography boot camp (MBC) for radiology residents and analyze affecting factors. Between December 2014 and February 2015, radiology residents in 16 institutions performed the MBC program. We compared the educational effect (score difference between pre- and post-camp test) using 25 case series and analyzed the affecting factors including institution, grades of residents, training periods, presence of sub-specialized breast staff, breast density, and types of cases. The mean scores of 92 residents were 52.80 ± 18.10 and 72.50 ± 12.91 in the pre- and post-camp test, respectively (p = 0.001). There was no significant difference of educational effect according to institution (19.70 ± 16.31), grade, or training period. Although the educational effect of non-trainees was superior to that of trainees (28.10 ± 17.55 vs. 15.90 ± 14.22; p = 0.001), the scores of trainees were higher than those of non-trainees. The diagnostic accuracy showed more improvement in a fatty breast and cases with microcalcifications than compared with others. The MBC showed an effective educational result for radiology residents when interpretating a mammography. It was helpful even for non-trainees. The institution, grades training period, and presence of sub-specialized breast staff did not affect the educational effect.

  1. Proteomic and Metabolic Analyses of S49 Lymphoma Cells Reveal Novel Regulation of Mitochondria by cAMP and Protein Kinase A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilderman, Andrea; Guo, Yurong; Divakaruni, Ajit S; Perkins, Guy; Zhang, Lingzhi; Murphy, Anne N; Taylor, Susan S; Insel, Paul A

    2015-09-04

    Cyclic AMP (cAMP), acting via protein kinase A (PKA), regulates many cellular responses, but the role of mitochondria in such responses is poorly understood. To define such roles, we used quantitative proteomic analysis of mitochondria-enriched fractions and performed functional and morphologic studies of wild-type (WT) and kin(-) (PKA-null) murine S49 lymphoma cells. Basally, 75 proteins significantly differed in abundance between WT and kin(-) S49 cells. WT, but not kin(-), S49 cells incubated with the cAMP analog 8-(4-chlorophenylthio)adenosine cAMP (CPT-cAMP) for 16 h have (a) increased expression of mitochondria-related genes and proteins, including ones in pathways of branched-chain amino acid and fatty acid metabolism and (b) increased maximal capacity of respiration on branched-chain keto acids and fatty acids. CPT-cAMP also regulates the cellular rate of ATP-utilization, as the rates of both ATP-linked respiration and proton efflux are decreased in WT but not kin(-) cells. CPT-cAMP protected WT S49 cells from glucose or glutamine deprivation, In contrast, CPT-cAMP did not protect kin(-) cells or WT cells treated with the PKA inhibitor H89 from glutamine deprivation. Under basal conditions, the mitochondrial structure of WT and kin(-) S49 cells is similar. Treatment with CPT-cAMP produced apoptotic changes (i.e. decreased mitochondrial density and size and loss of cristae) in WT, but not kin(-) cells. Together, these findings show that cAMP acts via PKA to regulate multiple aspects of mitochondrial function and structure. Mitochondrial perturbation thus likely contributes to cAMP/PKA-mediated cellular responses. © 2015 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  2. Transformative Learning and the 4-H Camp Counselor Experience in Minnesota

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donna M. Leff

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available While many studies about the 4-H camping experience focus on youth who are campers, few studies examine the outcomes of the experience for counselors. This study examines the extent to which 4-H camp results in transformative learning for 4-H members who serve as camp counselors, examines the perceived changes that occur within counselors, and describes the factors and characteristics of camp that result in personal transformation. The population for this study was 2012 Minnesota 4-H camp counselors. Using the Transformative Learning and the Camp Experience Staff Member Survey, the results indicated that camp counselors experienced transformative learning. Major personal changes involved developing skills for working with children and exposure to new people, activities, and experiences. Factors leading to personal transformation included the opportunity to be role models and positively impact children, opportunities for leadership and challenge, and camp traditions. This study provides support for strong and intentional camp counseling experiences that can positively impact the individual, 4-H campers, and later, the communities in which these camp counselors reside.

  3. Opportunities for promoting youth physical activity: an examination of youth summer camps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hickerson, Benjamin D; Henderson, Karla A

    2014-01-01

    Youth summer camp programs have the potential to provide opportunities for physical activity, but little to no research has been conducted to determine activity levels of campers. This study aimed to examine physical activity occurring in day and resident summer camps and how activity levels differed in these camps based upon demographic characteristics. Pedometer data were collected during hours of camp operation from 150 day campers and 114 resident campers between the ages of 8 and 12 years old. Independent t tests were used to compare physical activity by sex, race, and Body Mass Index. Campers at day camps averaged 11,916 steps per camp day, while resident campers averaged 19,699 steps per camp day. Day campers averaged 1586 steps per hour over 7.5 hour days and resident campers averaged 1515 steps per hour over 13 hour days. Male sex, Caucasian race, and normal Body Mass Index were significant correlates of more physical activity. Youth summer camps demonstrate the potential to provide ample opportunities for physical activity during the summer months. Traditional demographic disparities persisted in camps, but the structure of camp programs should allow for changes to increase physical activity for all participants.

  4. Impact of pediatric burn camps on participants' self esteem and body image: an empirical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakker, Anne; Van der Heijden, Peter G M; Van Son, Maarten J M; Van de Schoot, Rens; Van Loey, Nancy E E

    2011-12-01

    This study focuses on possible effects of specialized summer camps on young burn survivors' self esteem and body image. Quantitative as well as qualitative measures was used. To study possible effects, a pretest-posttest comparison group design with a follow-up was employed. Self-report questionnaires were used to measure self esteem and body image in a burn camp group (n=83, 8-18 years) and in a comparison group of children with burns who did not attend a burn camp during the course of the study (n=90, 8-18 years). Additionally, burn camp participants and parents completed an evaluation form about benefits derived from burn camp. A small positive short-term effect of burn camp participation was found on the 'satisfaction with appearance' component of body image. Overall, participants and parents showed high appreciation of the burn camps and reported several benefits, particularly concerning meeting other young burn survivors. Albeit statistically modest, this is the first quantitative study to document on a significant short-term impact of burn camp on young burn survivors' body image. Implications of this result for future research and burn camp organization were discussed, including the strengths of residential camps for young burn survivors. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  5. A ski and adventure camp for young patients with severe forms of epidermolysis bullosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nading, Mary Alice; Lahmar, Julien J; Frew, John W; Ghionis, Nicholas; Hanley, Martin; Welch, Anna Kemble; Murrell, Dedee F

    2009-09-01

    The Dystrophic Epidermolysis Bullosa (EB) Research Association (DebRA) of New Zealand has run 3 adventure camps specifically geared to the unique and specific needs of teenagers and young adults with EB. We sought to describe how the 2007 winter camp was organized, funded, and run for teenagers and young adults with a range of EB severities. Planning and fundraising by DebRA of New Zealand began 1 year before the camp. Nurses and international medical personnel volunteered as camp staff. Instructors qualified to assist persons with disabilities were hired to provide camp activities. The 5-day adventure camp was held at a national park on the North Island of New Zealand. The 2007 camp included 5 campers (aged 21-35 years) with recessive dystrophic EB, 3 of whom used wheelchairs, and two teenagers with EB simplex. All campers were male. Twelve international volunteers assisted with daily dressing changes and camp activities, which included skiing, whitewater rafting, and fly-fishing. Challenges included difficulty in recruiting new campers each year, particularly female campers. The camp allowed campers to challenge themselves both physically and mentally, while developing lifelong friendships. It was immensely rewarding for all the volunteers. This camp demonstrated that it is possible to provide such activities safely to severely affected patients.

  6. Preparing for the primary care clinic: an ambulatory boot camp for internal medicine interns.

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    Esch, Lindsay M; Bird, Amber-Nicole; Oyler, Julie L; Lee, Wei Wei; Shah, Sachin D; Pincavage, Amber T

    2015-01-01

    Internal medicine (IM) interns start continuity clinic with variable ambulatory training. Multiple other specialties have utilized a boot camp style curriculum to improve surgical and procedural skills, but boot camps have not been used to improve interns' ambulatory knowledge and confidence. The authors implemented and assessed the impact of an intern ambulatory boot camp pilot on primary care knowledge, confidence, and curricular satisfaction. During July 2014, IM interns attended ambulatory boot camp. It included clinically focused case-based didactic sessions on common ambulatory topics as well as orientation to the clinic and electronic medical records. Interns anonymously completed a 15-question pre-test on topics covered in the boot camp as well as an identical post-test after the boot camp. The interns were surveyed regarding their confidence and satisfaction. Thirty-eight interns participated in the boot camp. Prior to the boot camp, few interns reported confidence managing common outpatient conditions. The average pre-test knowledge score was 46.3%. The average post-test knowledge score significantly improved to 76.1% (pambulatory boot camp pilot improved primary care knowledge, and interns thought it was good preparation for clinic. The ambulatory boot camp was well received and may be an effective way to improve the preparation of interns for primary care clinic. Further assessment of clinical performance and expansion to other programs and specialties should be considered.

  7. A Computational Modeling and Simulation Approach to Investigate Mechanisms of Subcellular cAMP Compartmentation.

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    Pei-Chi Yang

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Subcellular compartmentation of the ubiquitous second messenger cAMP has been widely proposed as a mechanism to explain unique receptor-dependent functional responses. How exactly compartmentation is achieved, however, has remained a mystery for more than 40 years. In this study, we developed computational and mathematical models to represent a subcellular sarcomeric space in a cardiac myocyte with varying detail. We then used these models to predict the contributions of various mechanisms that establish subcellular cAMP microdomains. We used the models to test the hypothesis that phosphodiesterases act as functional barriers to diffusion, creating discrete cAMP signaling domains. We also used the models to predict the effect of a range of experimentally measured diffusion rates on cAMP compartmentation. Finally, we modeled the anatomical structures in a cardiac myocyte diad, to predict the effects of anatomical diffusion barriers on cAMP compartmentation. When we incorporated experimentally informed model parameters to reconstruct an in silico subcellular sarcomeric space with spatially distinct cAMP production sites linked to caveloar domains, the models predict that under realistic conditions phosphodiesterases alone were insufficient to generate significant cAMP gradients. This prediction persisted even when combined with slow cAMP diffusion. When we additionally considered the effects of anatomic barriers to diffusion that are expected in the cardiac myocyte dyadic space, cAMP compartmentation did occur, but only when diffusion was slow. Our model simulations suggest that additional mechanisms likely contribute to cAMP gradients occurring in submicroscopic domains. The difference between the physiological and pathological effects resulting from the production of cAMP may be a function of appropriate compartmentation of cAMP signaling. Therefore, understanding the contribution of factors that are responsible for coordinating the spatial and

  8. Chlorella intake attenuates reduced salivary SIgA secretion in kendo training camp participants

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    Otsuki Takeshi

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The green alga Chlorella contains high levels of proteins, vitamins, and minerals. We previously reported that a chlorella-derived multicomponent supplement increased the secretion rate of salivary secretory immunoglobulin A (SIgA in humans. Here, we investigated whether intake of this chlorella-derived supplement attenuated the reduced salivary SIgA secretion rate during a kendo training camp. Methods Ten female kendo athletes participated in inter-university 6-day spring and 4-day summer camps. They were randomized into two groups; one took placebo tablets during the spring camp and chlorella tablets during the summer camp, while the other took chlorella tablets during the spring camp and placebo tablets during the summer camp. Subjects took these tablets starting 4 weeks before the camp until post-camp saliva sampling. Salivary SIgA concentrations were measured by ELISA. Results All subjects participated in nearly all training programs, and body-mass changes and subjective physical well-being scores during the camps were comparable between the groups. However, salivary SIgA secretion rate changes were different between these groups. Salivary SIgA secretion rates decreased during the camp in the placebo group (before vs. second, middle, and final day of camp, and after the camp: 146 ± 89 vs. 87 ± 56, 70 ± 45, 94 ± 58, and 116 ± 71 μg/min, whereas no such decreases were observed in the chlorella group (121 ± 53 vs. 113 ± 68, 98 ± 69,115 ± 80, and 128 ± 59 μg/min. Conclusion Our results suggest that a use of a chlorella-derived dietary supplement attenuates reduced salivary SIgA secretion during a training camp for a competitive sport.

  9. Chlorella intake attenuates reduced salivary SIgA secretion in kendo training camp participants

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background The green alga Chlorella contains high levels of proteins, vitamins, and minerals. We previously reported that a chlorella-derived multicomponent supplement increased the secretion rate of salivary secretory immunoglobulin A (SIgA) in humans. Here, we investigated whether intake of this chlorella-derived supplement attenuated the reduced salivary SIgA secretion rate during a kendo training camp. Methods Ten female kendo athletes participated in inter-university 6-day spring and 4-day summer camps. They were randomized into two groups; one took placebo tablets during the spring camp and chlorella tablets during the summer camp, while the other took chlorella tablets during the spring camp and placebo tablets during the summer camp. Subjects took these tablets starting 4 weeks before the camp until post-camp saliva sampling. Salivary SIgA concentrations were measured by ELISA. Results All subjects participated in nearly all training programs, and body-mass changes and subjective physical well-being scores during the camps were comparable between the groups. However, salivary SIgA secretion rate changes were different between these groups. Salivary SIgA secretion rates decreased during the camp in the placebo group (before vs. second, middle, and final day of camp, and after the camp: 146 ± 89 vs. 87 ± 56, 70 ± 45, 94 ± 58, and 116 ± 71 μg/min), whereas no such decreases were observed in the chlorella group (121 ± 53 vs. 113 ± 68, 98 ± 69,115 ± 80, and 128 ± 59 μg/min). Conclusion Our results suggest that a use of a chlorella-derived dietary supplement attenuates reduced salivary SIgA secretion during a training camp for a competitive sport. PMID:23227811

  10. Differential regulation of cardiac excitation–contraction coupling by cAMP phosphodiesterase subtypes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mika, Delphine; Bobin, Pierre; Pomérance, Martine; Lechêne, Patrick; Westenbroek, Ruth E.; Catterall, William A.; Vandecasteele, Grégoire; Leroy, Jérôme; Fischmeister, Rodolphe

    2013-01-01

    Aims Multiple phosphodiesterases (PDEs) hydrolyze cAMP in cardiomyocytes, but the functional significance of this diversity is not well understood. Our goal here was to characterize the involvement of three different PDEs (PDE2–4) in cardiac excitation–contraction coupling (ECC). Methods and results Sarcomere shortening and Ca2+ transients were recorded simultaneously in adult rat ventricular myocytes and ECC protein phosphorylation by PKA was determined by western blot analysis. Under basal conditions, selective inhibition of PDE2 or PDE3 induced a small but significant increase in Ca2+ transients, sarcomere shortening, and troponin I phosphorylation, whereas PDE4 inhibition had no effect. PDE3 inhibition, but not PDE2 or PDE4, increased phospholamban phosphorylation. Inhibition of either PDE2, 3, or 4 increased phosphorylation of the myosin-binding protein C, but neither had an effect on L-type Ca2+ channel or ryanodine receptor phosphorylation. Dual inhibition of PDE2 and PDE3 or PDE2 and PDE4 further increased ECC compared with individual PDE inhibition, but the most potent combination was obtained when inhibiting simultaneously PDE3 and PDE4. This combination also induced a synergistic induction of ECC protein phosphorylation. Submaximal β-adrenergic receptor stimulation increased ECC, and this effect was potentiated by individual PDE inhibition with the rank order of potency PDE4 = PDE3 > PDE2. Identical results were obtained on ECC protein phosphorylation. Conclusion Our results demonstrate that PDE2, PDE3, and PDE4 differentially regulate ECC in adult cardiomyocytes. PDE2 and PDE3 play a more prominent role than PDE4 in regulating basal cardiac contraction and Ca2+ transients. However, PDE4 becomes determinant when cAMP levels are elevated, for instance, upon β-adrenergic stimulation or PDE3 inhibition. PMID:23933582

  11. Differential regulation of cardiac excitation-contraction coupling by cAMP phosphodiesterase subtypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mika, Delphine; Bobin, Pierre; Pomérance, Martine; Lechêne, Patrick; Westenbroek, Ruth E; Catterall, William A; Vandecasteele, Grégoire; Leroy, Jérôme; Fischmeister, Rodolphe

    2013-11-01

    Multiple phosphodiesterases (PDEs) hydrolyze cAMP in cardiomyocytes, but the functional significance of this diversity is not well understood. Our goal here was to characterize the involvement of three different PDEs (PDE2-4) in cardiac excitation-contraction coupling (ECC). Sarcomere shortening and Ca(2+) transients were recorded simultaneously in adult rat ventricular myocytes and ECC protein phosphorylation by PKA was determined by western blot analysis. Under basal conditions, selective inhibition of PDE2 or PDE3 induced a small but significant increase in Ca(2+) transients, sarcomere shortening, and troponin I phosphorylation, whereas PDE4 inhibition had no effect. PDE3 inhibition, but not PDE2 or PDE4, increased phospholamban phosphorylation. Inhibition of either PDE2, 3, or 4 increased phosphorylation of the myosin-binding protein C, but neither had an effect on L-type Ca(2+) channel or ryanodine receptor phosphorylation. Dual inhibition of PDE2 and PDE3 or PDE2 and PDE4 further increased ECC compared with individual PDE inhibition, but the most potent combination was obtained when inhibiting simultaneously PDE3 and PDE4. This combination also induced a synergistic induction of ECC protein phosphorylation. Submaximal β-adrenergic receptor stimulation increased ECC, and this effect was potentiated by individual PDE inhibition with the rank order of potency PDE4 = PDE3 > PDE2. Identical results were obtained on ECC protein phosphorylation. Our results demonstrate that PDE2, PDE3, and PDE4 differentially regulate ECC in adult cardiomyocytes. PDE2 and PDE3 play a more prominent role than PDE4 in regulating basal cardiac contraction and Ca(2+) transients. However, PDE4 becomes determinant when cAMP levels are elevated, for instance, upon β-adrenergic stimulation or PDE3 inhibition.

  12. Activation of exchange protein activated by cAMP in the rat basolateral amygdala impairs reconsolidation of a memory associated with self-administered cocaine.

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    Xun Wan

    Full Text Available The intracellular mechanisms underlying memory reconsolidation critically involve cAMP signaling. These events were originally attributed to PKA activation by cAMP, but the identification of Exchange Protein Activated by cAMP (Epac, as a distinct mediator of cAMP signaling, suggests that cAMP-regulated processes that subserve memory reconsolidation are more complex. Here we investigated how activation of Epac with 8-pCPT-cAMP (8-CPT impacts reconsolidation of a memory that had been associated with cocaine self-administration. Rats were trained to lever press for cocaine on an FR-1 schedule, in which each cocaine delivery was paired with a tone+light cue. Lever pressing was then extinguished in the absence of cue presentations and cocaine delivery. Following the last day of extinction, rats were put in a novel context, in which the conditioned cue was presented to reactivate the cocaine-associated memory. Immediate bilateral infusions of 8-CPT into the basolateral amygdala (BLA following reactivation disrupted subsequent cue-induced reinstatement in a dose-dependent manner, and modestly reduced responding for conditioned reinforcement. When 8-CPT infusions were delayed for 3 hours after the cue reactivation session or were given after a cue extinction session, no effect on cue-induced reinstatement was observed. Co-administration of 8-CPT and the PKA activator 6-Bnz-cAMP (10 nmol/side rescued memory reconsolidation while 6-Bnz alone had no effect, suggesting an antagonizing interaction between the two cAMP signaling substrates. Taken together, these studies suggest that activation of Epac represents a parallel cAMP-dependent pathway that can inhibit reconsolidation of cocaine-cue memories and reduce the ability of the cue to produce reinstatement of cocaine-seeking behavior.

  13. Folding Digital Mapping into a Traditional Field Camp Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelley, D. F.

    2011-12-01

    Louisiana State University runs a field camp with a permanent fixed-base which has continually operated since 1928 in the Front Range just to the south of Colorado Springs, CO. The field camp program which offers a 6-credit hour course in Field Geology follows a very traditional structure. The first week is spent collecting data for the construction of a detailed stratigraphic column of the local geology. The second week is spent learning the skills of geologic mapping, while the third applies these skills to a more geologically complicated mapping area. The final three weeks of the field camp program are spent studying and mapping igneous and metamorphic rocks as well as conducting a regional stratigraphic correlation exercise. Historically there has been a lack of technology involved in this program. All mapping has been done in the field without the use of any digital equipment and all products have been made in the office without the use of computers. In the summer of 2011 the use of GPS units, and GIS software were introduced to the program. The exercise that was chosen for this incorporation of technology was one in which metamorphic rocks are mapped within Golden Gate Canyon State Park in Colorado. This same mapping exercise was carried out during the 2010 field camp session with no GPS or GIS use. The students in both groups had the similar geologic backgrounds, similar grade point averages, and similar overall performances at field camp. However, the group that used digital mapping techniques mapped the field area more quickly and reportedly with greater ease. Additionally, the students who used GPS and GIS included more detailed rock descriptions with their final maps indicating that they spent less time in the field focusing on mapping contacts between units. The outcome was a better overall product. The use of GPS units also indirectly caused the students to produce better field maps. In addition to greater ease in mapping, the use of GIS software to

  14. CNP-pGC-cGMP-PDE3-cAMP Signal Pathway Upregulated in Gastric Smooth Muscle of Diabetic Rats

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    Ying-Lan Cai

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Our previous studies have shown that CNP-NPR-B/pGC-cGMP is upregulated in the diabetic rats. The present study was designed to determine whether the upregulation of CNP-NPR-B/pGC-cGMP signal pathway affects cGMP-PDE3-cAMP signal pathway in diabetic gastric smooth muscle. The gastric smooth muscle motility was observed by using isometric measurement. PDEs expressions in diabetic gastric smooth muscle tissue were observed by using immunohistochemistry, Western blotting, and RT-PCR methods. The results demonstrated that the inhibitory effect of CNP on the spontaneous contraction of gastric antral circular smooth muscle was potentiated in STZ-induced diabetic rat. CNP-induced increase of cGMP and cAMP was much higher in diabetic gastric smooth muscle tissue than in controls. The expression of PDE3 is downregulated while the levels of gene expression of PDE1, PDE2, PDE4, and PDE5 were not altered in the diabetic gastric smooth muscle tissue. The results suggest that the sensitivity of gastric smooth muscle to CNP is potentiated via activation of CNP-pGC-cGMP-PDE3-cAMP signal pathway in STZ-induced diabetic rats, which may be associated with diabetes-induced gastric motility disorder.

  15. Immunomodulatory effects of Lippia sidoides extract: induction of IL-10 through cAMP and p38 MAPK-dependent mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajgopal, Arun; Rebhun, John F; Burns, Charlie R; Scholten, Jeffrey D; Balles, John A; Fast, David J

    2015-03-01

    Lippia sidoides is an aromatic shrub that grows wild in the northeastern region of Brazil. In local traditional medicine, the aerial portions of this species are used as anti-infectives, antiseptics, spasmolytics, sedatives, hypotensives, and anti-inflammatory agents. In this research, we evaluate the potential immunological properties of Lippia extract through in vitro analysis of its ability to modulate intracellular cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) levels and interleukin-10 (IL-10) production. These results show that Lippia extract increases intracellular cAMP through the inhibition of phosphodiesterase activity. They also demonstrate that Lippia extract increases IL-10 production in THP-1 monocytes through both an increase in intracellular cAMP and the activation of p38 MAPK. These results suggest that the Lippia-mediated inhibition of phosphodiesterase activity and the subsequent increase in intracellular cAMP may explain some of the biological activities associated with L. sidoides. In addition, the anti-inflammatory activity of L. sidoides may also be due, in part, to its ability to induce IL-10 production through the inhibition of cyclic nucleotide-dependent phosphodiesterase activity and by its activation of the p38 MAPK pathway.

  16. Analogies in biology textbooks in zoology teaching

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    Saulo Cézar Seiffert Santos

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The biologic structures of living creatures are of difficult understanding for students, because they are usually unknown by those, in needs of strategic didactics in order to facilitate the student understanding. There are several strategies and methods for teaching, such as, analogies, metaphors, descriptions, among others. In this article we aim to identify, assess and classify the analogies used in the Higher School Biology textbooks, commonly used in Public State Schools of Manaus – AM, related to the zoology theme. The methodological procedure includes: a analysis of the whole zoological content of the most used textbooks in the public state network of Amazonas throughout the year; b three didactic textbooks have been specifically analyzed in order to specify the class taxon of “Fish” for the comparison of possible variations of types and quantities of analogies. The adopted classification of analogies was of Curtis & Reigeluth (1984 and the model of enriching analysis was according to the TWA Glynn model (Harrison & Treagust, 1993. It has been concluded that the use of analogies is greater in the content of invertebrates than that of vertebrates. Most Analogies are presented in a simple and direct manner, comparing structures, concrete to concrete, and of verbal mediation, almost nothing is presented in a diverse and heuristic manner of Zoology content on the LD. The development of limits of comparison and reflexion about the analogies was rare, only the presentation of the analogue and the target of analogy occurred.

  17. The Use of Analogies in Written Text.

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    Curtis, Ruth V.; Reigeluth, Charles M.

    1984-01-01

    Describes a study that explored and inductively classified analogies in 26 science textbooks, ranging from elementary to postsecondary level, to provide a systematic description of the phenomenon and generate prescriptive principles for their use in instruction. Classification categories include analogical relationship, presentation format,…

  18. The Pennies-as-Electrons Analogy

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    Ashmann, Scott

    2009-01-01

    Everyday experiences familiarize students with the ways in which electricity is used, but often the underlying concepts remain a mystery. Teachers often use analogies to help students relate the flow of electrons to other common systems, but many times these analogies are incomplete and lead to more student misconceptions. However, the "pass the…

  19. Antibacterial and Antibiofilm Activities of Makaluvamine Analogs

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    Bhavitavya Nijampatnam

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Streptococcus mutans is a key etiological agent in the formation of dental caries. The major virulence factor is its ability to form biofilms. Inhibition of S. mutans biofilms offers therapeutic prospects for the treatment and the prevention of dental caries. In this study, 14 analogs of makaluvamine, a marine alkaloid, were evaluated for their antibacterial activity against S. mutans and for their ability to inhibit S. mutans biofilm formation. All analogs contained the tricyclic pyrroloiminoquinone core of makaluvamines. The structural variations of the analogs are on the amino substituents at the 7-position of the ring and the inclusion of a tosyl group on the pyrrole ring N of the makaluvamine core. The makaluvamine analogs displayed biofilm inhibition with IC50 values ranging from 0.4 μM to 88 μM. Further, the observed bactericidal activity of the majority of the analogs was found to be consistent with the anti-biofilm activity, leading to the conclusion that the anti-biofilm activity of these analogs stems from their ability to kill S. mutans. However, three of the most potent N-tosyl analogs showed biofilm IC50 values at least an order of magnitude lower than that of bactericidal activity, indicating that the biofilm activity of these analogs is more selective and perhaps independent of bactericidal activity.

  20. An Analog Computer for Electronic Engineering Education

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    Fitch, A. L.; Iu, H. H. C.; Lu, D. D. C.

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes a compact analog computer and proposes its use in electronic engineering teaching laboratories to develop student understanding of applications in analog electronics, electronic components, engineering mathematics, control engineering, safe laboratory and workshop practices, circuit construction, testing, and maintenance. The…