WorldWideScience

Sample records for camouflage

  1. Camouflage Chameleons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Housewright, Mary Kay

    1999-01-01

    Discusses an art activity that has students create pictures in which they first trace a chameleon pattern and then add camouflage to conceal the chameleon. Explains that different materials and techniques are used for students in grades k-1 and 2-5. (CMK)

  2. Camouflage therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rayner, V L

    1995-04-01

    Camouflage therapy is a system of cosmetic techniques designed for patients to use to assist themselves in coping constructively with the psychological and physical trauma of their disfigurements. It is described as a "system" because these techniques are interrelated. A camouflage therapist may teach the patient to use one, two, or all of the techniques at the same time in order to normalize their appearance. Four basic techniques have been described in this article. They are as follows: (1) the use of opaque, waterproof cover creams to conceal scarring; (2) the application of pancake makeup for patients with oily or acne-prone skin; (3) color correctors to obliterate discoloration from postoperative trauma; and (4) recreating imperfections on the skin. For more information about the use of cosmetics to normalize the appearance of physical disfigurements, the following books are recommended. PMID:7600717

  3. The Art of Camouflage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Rebecca

    2010-01-01

    The zoo is a favorite field trip destination for young students. This lesson was created for use before their excursion to increase their awareness of camouflage as a pattern design in animals. In this article, the author describes how her students made an art project on camouflage. (Contains 1 online resource.)

  4. Camouflage for patients with vitiligo

    OpenAIRE

    Feroze Kaliyadan; Ambika Kumar

    2012-01-01

    Vitiligo is known to be associated with social stigma and a decreased quality of life, especially when lesions are located over the face. While there are numerous treatment options for vitiligo, most of these need a long time to produce good cosmetic results. Camouflaging the skin lesions can be a useful option in such patients. The proper use of camouflage has been shown to improve the quality of life in patients with vitiligo. In this article, we discuss the different camouflage options ava...

  5. COSMETIC CAMOUFLAGE IN VITILIGO

    OpenAIRE

    Sarveswari K

    2010-01-01

    Vitiligo is not a life-threatening nor a contagious disease. But the disfigurement of vitiligo can be devastating to its sufferers, especially dark-skinned individuals. Available treatment options are disappointing and sufferers often use various forms of camouflage. Remedial cosmetic cover creams help conceal the blemish of vitiligo at least temporarily. A high concentration of pigment is incorporated into water-free or anhydrous foundations to give a color that matches the patient′s ...

  6. Cosmetic camouflage in vitiligo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarveswari K

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Vitiligo is not a life-threatening nor a contagious disease. But the disfigurement of vitiligo can be devastating to its sufferers, especially dark-skinned individuals. Available treatment options are disappointing and sufferers often use various forms of camouflage. Remedial cosmetic cover creams help conceal the blemish of vitiligo at least temporarily. A high concentration of pigment is incorporated into water-free or anhydrous foundations to give a color that matches the patient′s skin, thereby concealing vitiligo patches. The article highlights the content and technique of application of these creams.

  7. Birds build camouflaged nests

    OpenAIRE

    Bailey, Ida Elizabeth; Muth, Felicity; Morgan, Kate; Meddle, Simone L.; Healy, Susan Denise

    2014-01-01

    This work was supported by the Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council (BBSRC) (BB/I019502/1 to S.D.H. and S.L.M.) and by Roslin Institute Strategic Grant funding from the BBSRC (to S.L.M). It is assumed that many birds attempt to conceal their nests by using camouflage. To our knowledge, however, no previous experimental studies have explicitly tested this assumption. To explore whether birds choose materials that match the background colors of nest sites to reduce the cons...

  8. Steering laws for motion camouflage

    OpenAIRE

    Justh, E. W.; Krishnaprasad, P. S.

    2005-01-01

    Motion camouflage is a stealth strategy observed in nature. We formulate the problem as a feedback system for particles moving at constant speed, and define what it means for the system to be in a state of motion camouflage. (Here we focus on the planar setting, although the results can be generalized to three-dimensional motion.) We propose a biologically plausible feedback law, and use a high-gain limit to prove accessibility of a motion camouflage state in finite time. We discuss connectio...

  9. Camouflage for patients with vitiligo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feroze Kaliyadan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Vitiligo is known to be associated with social stigma and a decreased quality of life, especially when lesions are located over the face. While there are numerous treatment options for vitiligo, most of these need a long time to produce good cosmetic results. Camouflaging the skin lesions can be a useful option in such patients. The proper use of camouflage has been shown to improve the quality of life in patients with vitiligo. In this article, we discuss the different camouflage options available in vitiligo - products and techniques with their relative advantages and disadvantages.

  10. How Much Does Camouflage Help?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunner, Regina Baron; Brunner, Carl E.

    1994-01-01

    Describes an activity which connects mathematics and science by using data analysis and studies of animal camouflage. Includes a reproducible student worksheet to be used for data collection. (11 references) (MKR)

  11. The mathematics of motion camouflage.

    OpenAIRE

    Glendinning, Paul

    2004-01-01

    Motion camouflage is a strategy whereby an aggressor moves towards a target while appearing stationary to the target except for the inevitable change in perceived size of the aggressor as it approaches. The strategy has been observed in insects, and mathematical models using discrete time or neural-network control have been used to simulate the behaviour. Here, the differential equations for motion camouflage are derived and some simple cases are analysed. These equations are easy to simulate...

  12. Motion camouflage in three dimensions

    OpenAIRE

    Reddy, P.V.; Justh, E. W.; Krishnaprasad, P. S.

    2006-01-01

    We formulate and analyze a three-dimensional model of motion camouflage, a stealth strategy observed in nature. A high-gain feedback law for motion camouflage is formulated in which the pursuer and evader trajectories are described using natural Frenet frames (or relatively parallel adapted frames), and the corresponding natural curvatures serve as controls. The biological plausibility of the feedback law is discussed, as is its connection to missile guidance. Simulations illustrating motion ...

  13. Disruptive camouflage impairs object recognition

    OpenAIRE

    Richard J. Webster; Hassall, Christopher; Herdman, Chris M.; Godin, Jean-Guy J.; Sherratt, Thomas N.

    2013-01-01

    Whether hiding from predators, or avoiding battlefield casualties, camouflage is widely employed to prevent detection. Disruptive coloration is a seemingly well-known camouflage mechanism proposed to function by breaking up an object's salient features (for example their characteristic outline), rendering objects more difficult to recognize. However, while a wide range of animals are thought to evade detection using disruptive patterns, there is no direct experimental evidence that disruptive...

  14. A Review Paper on Camouflage Texture Evaluation

    OpenAIRE

    Amol Patil; Girraj Prasad Rathode

    2013-01-01

    Traditional evaluation method of camouflage texture effect is subjective evaluation. It’s very tedious and inconvenient to direct the texture designing. In this project, a systemic and rational method for direction and evaluation of camouflage texture designing is proposed. Camouflage consists of things such as leaves, branches, or brown and green paint, which are used to make it difficult for an enemy to see military forces and equipment. A camouflage texture evaluation method based on WSSIM...

  15. Design and evaluation of (urban) camouflage

    OpenAIRE

    Hogervorst, M A; Toet, A.; Jacobs, P.

    2010-01-01

    An international group consisting of several NATO nations participated in a trial in which urban camouflage was developed and compared. First, photographs were taken in and around a small town (arid climate). Next, the different groups derived urban camouflage patterns from these photographs. We applied our method for deriving a camouflage pattern from a set of (characteristic) background images to the imagery. Eleven different patterns were made into prototype camouflage suits. Panoramic ima...

  16. Camouflage, Color Schemes, and Cubism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guhin, Paula

    2002-01-01

    Presents an art activity where students learn about Cubism and color mixing. Explains that the students create camouflaged animals after learning about the work, "Female Torso" (Pablo Picasso). Includes directions for how to create the pictures and states that the assignment can be used with students of all ages. (CMK)

  17. Camouflage, detection and identification of moving targets

    OpenAIRE

    Hall, Joanna R.; Cuthill, Innes C.; Baddeley, Roland; Shohet, Adam J.; Scott-Samuel, Nicholas E.

    2013-01-01

    Nearly all research on camouflage has investigated its effectiveness for concealing stationary objects. However, animals have to move, and patterns that only work when the subject is static will heavily constrain behaviour. We investigated the effects of different camouflages on the three stages of predation—detection, identification and capture—in a computer-based task with humans. An initial experiment tested seven camouflage strategies on static stimuli. In line with previous literature, b...

  18. Cognition and the evolution of camouflage

    OpenAIRE

    Skelhorn, John; Rowe, Candy

    2016-01-01

    Camouflage is one of the most widespread forms of anti-predator defence and prevents prey individuals from being detected or correctly recognized by would-be predators. Over the past decade, there has been a resurgence of interest in both the evolution of prey camouflage patterns, and in understanding animal cognition in a more ecological context. However, these fields rarely collide, and the role of cognition in the evolution of camouflage is poorly understood. Here, we review what we curren...

  19. Camouflage Cosmetics in Dermatologic Therapy

    OpenAIRE

    Shear, Neil H.; Graff, Lee

    1987-01-01

    Psychological well-being is based on multiple factors, one of which is satisfaction with physical appearance. The use of cosmetics is helpful for many women, as has been shown in psychological studies and implied by market sales. People with obvious cutaneous defects (e.g., port-wine stains, pigmentary disorders) may suffer a range of distress reactions, including diminished self-esteem. Specially designed camouflage cosmetics are an ideal adjunct to other therapies for successful treatment o...

  20. Camouflage therapy in aesthetic surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filinte, Gaye Taylan; Aköz, Tayfun

    2014-01-01

    The use of makeup has been traced back to antiquity. Today, there are multiple reasons that makeup constitutes an important part of, and is a driving force in, almost every woman's life. The idea of using cosmetics for camouflage therapy, especially in the postoperative period, originates from the illusionary effect, which is thought to diminish the post-traumatic stress frequently seen after facial operations. The patients will feel better following cosmetic application, as they will see themselves better. PMID:25441475

  1. Dazzle camouflage affects speed perception

    OpenAIRE

    Scott-Samuel, Nicholas E.; Roland Baddeley; Palmer, Chloe E.; Cuthill, Innes C.

    2011-01-01

    Movement is the enemy of camouflage: most attempts at concealment are disrupted by motion of the target. Faced with this problem, navies in both World Wars in the twentieth century painted their warships with high contrast geometric patterns: so-called “dazzle camouflage”. Rather than attempting to hide individual units, it was claimed that this patterning would disrupt the perception of their range, heading, size, shape and speed, and hence reduce losses from, in particular, torpedo attacks ...

  2. Camouflaging Agents for Vitiligo Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hossain, Claudia; Porto, Dennis A; Hamzavi, Iltefat; Lim, Henry W

    2016-04-01

    Vitiligo is an acquired condition resulting in patches of depigmented skin that is cosmetically disfiguring and can subsequently be psychologically disturbing. For patients seeking to mask their vitiligo, camouflage options have historically been limited and been designated as a cosmetic, rather than a medical, concern. As research has indicated that proper concealment of vitiligo lesions can vastly improve quality of life, we believe it is essential that dermatologists become aware of all the options available to their patients and that discussions of camouflage options be broached from the first visit. Methods for concealment include cosmetic tattoos, dihydroxyacetone, general cosmetics, and various topical camouflage agents, including the newest product, Microskin™. We conducted a literature review of all of the available options for vitiligo concealment and evaluated their advantages and disadvantages. Ultimately, temporary methods of concealment are recommended; but the particular agent used can come from discussion with the patient based on the location of the lesions, degree of concealment desired, cost, and availability. PMID:27050692

  3. Dazzle camouflage affects speed perception.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas E Scott-Samuel

    Full Text Available Movement is the enemy of camouflage: most attempts at concealment are disrupted by motion of the target. Faced with this problem, navies in both World Wars in the twentieth century painted their warships with high contrast geometric patterns: so-called "dazzle camouflage". Rather than attempting to hide individual units, it was claimed that this patterning would disrupt the perception of their range, heading, size, shape and speed, and hence reduce losses from, in particular, torpedo attacks by submarines. Similar arguments had been advanced earlier for biological camouflage. Whilst there are good reasons to believe that most of these perceptual distortions may have occurred, there is no evidence for the last claim: changing perceived speed. Here we show that dazzle patterns can distort speed perception, and that this effect is greatest at high speeds. The effect should obtain in predators launching ballistic attacks against rapidly moving prey, or modern, low-tech battlefields where handheld weapons are fired from short ranges against moving vehicles. In the latter case, we demonstrate that in a typical situation involving an RPG7 attack on a Land Rover the reduction in perceived speed is sufficient to make the grenade miss where it was aimed by about a metre, which could be the difference between survival or not for the occupants of the vehicle.

  4. Design and evaluation of (urban) camouflage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hogervorst, M.A.; Toet, A.; Jacobs, P.

    2010-01-01

    An international group consisting of several NATO nations participated in a trial in which urban camouflage was developed and compared. First, photographs were taken in and around a small town (arid climate). Next, the different groups derived urban camouflage patterns from these photographs. We app

  5. Guidelines for Camouflage Assessment Using Observers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ronconi, P.; Jacobs, P.A.M.; Mauer, E.; Huebner, G.; Dotoli, P.; Peak, J.E.; Hepfinger, L.; Balma, R.; Christopher, G.; Fleuriet, J.; Honke, T.

    2007-01-01

    The objective of SCI-095 was to advance alternative techniques for determining the camouflage effectiveness of military systems reliably at reduced cost. SCI-095 produced “Guidelines for Camouflage Assessment Using Observers” which is a standardized methodology for observerbased tests and statistica

  6. Corrective camouflage in pediatric dermatology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tedeschi, Aurora; Dall'Oglio, Federica; Micali, Giuseppe; Schwartz, Robert A; Janniger, Camila K

    2007-02-01

    Many dermatologic diseases, including vitiligo and other pigmentary disorders, vascular malformations, acne, and disfiguring scars from surgery or trauma, can be distressing to pediatric patients and can cause psychological alterations such as depression, loss of self-esteem, deterioration of quality of life, emotional distress, and, in some cases, body dysmorphic disorder. Corrective camouflage can help cover cutaneous unaesthetic disorders using a variety of water-resistant and light to very opaque products that provide effective and natural coverage. These products also can serve as concealers during medical treatment or after surgical procedures before healing is complete. Between May 2001 and July 2003. corrective camouflage was used on 15 children and adolescents (age range, 7-16 years; mean age, 14 years). The majority of patients were girls. Six patients had acne vulgaris; 4 had vitiligo; 2 had Becker nevus; and 1 each had striae distensae, allergic contact dermatitis. and postsurgical scarring. Parents of all patients were satisfied with the cosmetic cover results. We consider corrective makeup to be a well-received and valid adjunctive therapy for use during traditional long-term treatment and as a therapeutic alternative in patients in whom conventional therapy is ineffective. PMID:17388210

  7. Cognition and the evolution of camouflage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skelhorn, John; Rowe, Candy

    2016-02-24

    Camouflage is one of the most widespread forms of anti-predator defence and prevents prey individuals from being detected or correctly recognized by would-be predators. Over the past decade, there has been a resurgence of interest in both the evolution of prey camouflage patterns, and in understanding animal cognition in a more ecological context. However, these fields rarely collide, and the role of cognition in the evolution of camouflage is poorly understood. Here, we review what we currently know about the role of both predator and prey cognition in the evolution of prey camouflage, outline why cognition may be an important selective pressure driving the evolution of camouflage and consider how studying the cognitive processes of animals may prove to be a useful tool to study the evolution of camouflage, and vice versa. In doing so, we highlight that we still have a lot to learn about the role of cognition in the evolution of camouflage and identify a number of avenues for future research. PMID:26911959

  8. Camouflage mimetico e il problema della rappresentazione pittorica / Mimetic Camouflage and the Problem of Pictorial Representation

    OpenAIRE

    Méndez Baiges, Maite

    2015-01-01

    A hundred years ago , during the I World War, the first forms of military camouflage were devoloped. The earlier Unité de Camouflage was born in February 1915 in the french army. Mimetic camouflage design, called Disruptive Pattern Material (DPM), was the product of an intention of deceit based on concealment of equipment and facilities against the enemy. These primitive forms of invisibility searched the mimesis with the environment, and they developed both abstract and figurative solutions....

  9. Camouflage cosmetics in dermatologic therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shear, N H; Graff, L

    1987-10-01

    Psychological well-being is based on multiple factors, one of which is satisfaction with physical appearance. The use of cosmetics is helpful for many women, as has been shown in psychological studies and implied by market sales. People with obvious cutaneous defects (e.g., port-wine stains, pigmentary disorders) may suffer a range of distress reactions, including diminished self-esteem. Specially designed camouflage cosmetics are an ideal adjunct to other therapies for successful treatment of such skin conditions. New products are appealing because they are readily available, safe, and inexpensive. To enjoy optimum use of these products, patients should be assessed and advised in a professional setting. The results are extremely gratifying for both patients and physicians. PMID:21263958

  10. Guidelines for Camouflage Assessment Using Observers

    OpenAIRE

    Ronconi, P.; Jacobs, P.A.M.; Mauer, E.; Huebner, G.; Dotoli, P.; Peak, J.E.; Hepfinger, L.; Balma, R.; Christopher, G.; Fleuriet, J.; Honke, T.

    2007-01-01

    The objective of SCI-095 was to advance alternative techniques for determining the camouflage effectiveness of military systems reliably at reduced cost. SCI-095 produced “Guidelines for Camouflage Assessment Using Observers” which is a standardized methodology for observerbased tests and statistical analysis. A comparative trial concluded that following the recommended procedures as described in this standardized methodology and with careful attention to experimental setup, produces consiste...

  11. Computer vision, camouflage breaking and countershading

    OpenAIRE

    Tankus, Ariel; Yeshurun, Yehezkel

    2008-01-01

    Camouflage is frequently used in the animal kingdom in order to conceal oneself from visual detection or surveillance. Many camouflage techniques are based on masking the familiar contours and texture of the subject by superposition of multiple edges on top of it. This work presents an operator, Darg, for the detection of three-dimensional smooth convex (or, equivalently, concave) objects. It can be used to detect curved objects on a relatively flat background, regardless of image edges, cont...

  12. Energy-efficient motion camouflage in three dimensions

    OpenAIRE

    Carey, N. E.; Srinivasan, M. V.

    2008-01-01

    Recent observations suggest that one insect may camouflage its own motion whilst tracking another. Here we present a strategy by which one agent can efficiently track and intercept another agent, whilst camouflaging its own motion and minimizing its energy consumption

  13. Camouflage predicts survival in ground-nesting birds

    OpenAIRE

    Jolyon Troscianko; Jared Wilson-Aggarwal; Martin Stevens; Spottiswoode, Claire N.

    2016-01-01

    Evading detection by predators is crucial for survival. Camouflage is therefore a widespread adaptation, but despite substantial research effort our understanding of different camouflage strategies has relied predominantly on artificial systems and on experiments disregarding how camouflage is perceived by predators. Here we show for the first time in a natural system, that survival probability of wild animals is directly related to their level of camouflage as perceived by the visual systems...

  14. Camouflage and perceptual organization in the animal kingdom

    OpenAIRE

    Osorio, Daniel; Cuthill, Innes

    2015-01-01

    Camouflage allows the bearer to ‘hide in plain sight’ by means of colour patterns that interfere with detection or recognition. Basic principles of camouflage that were proposed over a century ago by artists and natural historians have informed recent studies that seek to tease apart the different mechanisms by which camouflage exploits perception. The effectiveness of much animal camouflage against humans, even though the patterns evolved to fool different viewers, suggests that diverse visu...

  15. Development of Instrumental Techniques for Color Assessment of Camouflage Patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Gang

    2012-01-01

    Camouflage fabrics are produced on a large scale for use in the US military and other applications. One of the highest volume camouflage fabrics is known as the Universal Camouflage Pattern (UCP) which is produced for the US Department of Defense. At present, no standard measurement-based color quality control method exists for camouflage…

  16. Camouflage target reconnaissance based on hyperspectral imaging technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hua, Wenshen; Guo, Tong; Liu, Xun

    2015-08-01

    Efficient camouflaged target reconnaissance technology makes great influence on modern warfare. Hyperspectral images can provide large spectral range and high spectral resolution, which are invaluable in discriminating between camouflaged targets and backgrounds. Hyperspectral target detection and classification technology are utilized to achieve single class and multi-class camouflaged targets reconnaissance respectively. Constrained energy minimization (CEM), a widely used algorithm in hyperspectral target detection, is employed to achieve one class camouflage target reconnaissance. Then, support vector machine (SVM), a classification method, is proposed to achieve multi-class camouflage target reconnaissance. Experiments have been conducted to demonstrate the efficiency of the proposed method.

  17. Siim Nestor soovitab : Turbodisko. Camouflage / Siim Nestor

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Nestor, Siim, 1974-

    2006-01-01

    Üritusest "Turbodisko" 2. dets. Tallinnas KuKu klubis, indieansambli Bad Apples heliplaadi "When Colours Become Day and Night" (plaadifirmalt Seksound) esitluskontserdist. Saksamaa futuelektroonika ansambli Camouflage albumi "Relocated" esitluskontserdist 3. dets klubis Hollywood (kontserti soojendab läti ansambel STandArt)

  18. Urban camouflage assessment through visual search and computational saliency

    OpenAIRE

    Toet, A.; Hogervorst, M A

    2013-01-01

    We present a new method to derive a multiscale urban camouflage pattern from a given set of background image samples. We applied this method to design a camouflage pattern for a given (semi-arid) urban environment. We performed a human visual search experiment and a computational evaluation study to assess the effectiveness of this multiscale camouflage pattern relative to the performance of 10 other (multiscale, disruptive and monotonous) patterns that were also designed for deployment in th...

  19. Microhabitat choice in island lizards enhances camouflage against avian predators

    OpenAIRE

    Marshall, Kate L A; Philpot, Kate E.; Martin Stevens

    2016-01-01

    Camouflage can often be enhanced by genetic adaptation to different local environments. However, it is less clear how individual behaviour improves camouflage effectiveness. We investigated whether individual Aegean wall lizards (Podarcis erhardii) inhabiting different islands rest on backgrounds that improve camouflage against avian predators. In free-ranging lizards, we found that dorsal regions were better matched against chosen backgrounds than against other backgrounds on the same island...

  20. Camouflage, communication and thermoregulation: lessons from colour changing organisms

    OpenAIRE

    Stuart-Fox, Devi; Moussalli, Adnan

    2008-01-01

    Organisms capable of rapid physiological colour change have become model taxa in the study of camouflage because they are able to respond dynamically to the changes in their visual environment. Here, we briefly review the ways in which studies of colour changing organisms have contributed to our understanding of camouflage and highlight some unique opportunities they present. First, from a proximate perspective, comparison of visual cues triggering camouflage responses and the visual percepti...

  1. Humans deceived by predatory stealth strategy camouflaging motion.

    OpenAIRE

    Anderson, Andrew James; McOwan, Peter William

    2003-01-01

    Motion camouflage is a stealth strategy that allows a predator to conceal its apparent motion as it approaches a moving prey. Although male hoverflies have been observed to move in a manner consistent with motion camouflage to track females, the successful application of the technique has not previously been demonstrated. This article describes the implementation and results of a psychophysical experiment suggesting that humans are susceptible to motion camouflage. The experiment masqueraded ...

  2. Camouflage as Communicator of Survivor Mentality in Contemporary Popular Music

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langkjær, Michael Alexander

    2010-01-01

    Michael A. Langkjær wants to know why military style in general and camouflage in particular have become true pillars of pop and rock culture. How is this prolonged influence to be explained? He places rock and camouflage in the larger framework of "military rock" since the sixties. Contrary...... used as identification marks in the transatlantic battle opposing various music groups. The military look transmitted a political message and the camouflage style referred to the Mods' parkas. The permanent influence of the camouflage look is indissolubly linked to revolution, to resistance fighters...

  3. Camouflage and Display for Soft Machines

    OpenAIRE

    Morin, Stephen A.; Shepherd, Robert F.; Kwok, Sen Wai; Stokes, Adam A.; Nemiroski, Alex; Whitesides, George M.

    2012-01-01

    Synthetic systems cannot easily mimic the color-changing abilities of animals such as cephalopods. Soft machines—machines fabricated from soft polymers and flexible reinforcing sheets—are rapidly increasing in functionality. This manuscript describes simple microfluidic networks that can change the color, contrast, pattern, apparent shape, luminescence, and surface temperature of soft machines for camouflage and display. The color of these microfluidic networks can be changed simultaneously i...

  4. Experimental evaluation of thermal camouflage effectiveness

    OpenAIRE

    Jacobs, P A

    1995-01-01

    The detectability of a target in the infrared spectral region is determined by differences between the radiative signatures of the target and the local background. This implies that both, the difference in surface temperature and emissivity ΔT resp. Δε and the distribution of these differences over the target area and the background, are of major importance. Therefore camouflage measures have to address both issues in order to achieve maximum signature adaptation to the background. To determi...

  5. Subversive patterning: the surficial qualities of camouflage

    OpenAIRE

    Isla Forsyth

    2013-01-01

    During the mid-20th century there was new utility in combining scientific, artistic, and military knowledge for the development of effective military camouflage. When WWII was declared the military began recruiting seemingly disparate specialists, such as surrealist artists, a zoologist, and a magician to train in concealment: to become camoufleurs. Across diverse environments and battlefields these camoufleurs plied their trade of secrecy, in the process militarising landscapes and their kno...

  6. Color change, phenotypic plasticity, and camouflage

    OpenAIRE

    Martin eStevens

    2016-01-01

    The ability to change appearance over a range of timescales is widespread in nature, existing in many invertebrate and vertebrate groups. This can include color change occurring in seconds, minutes, and hours, to longer term changes associated with phenotypic plasticity and development. A major function is for camouflage against predators because color change and plasticity enables animals to match their surroundings and potentially reduce the risk of predation. Recently, we published finding...

  7. Rockpool Gobies Change Colour for Camouflage

    OpenAIRE

    Martin Stevens; Alice E Lown; Alexander M Denton

    2014-01-01

    Camouflage is found in a wide range of species living in numerous habitat types, offering protection from visually guided predators. This includes many species from the intertidal zone, which must cope with background types diverse in appearance and with multiple predator groups foraging at high and low tide. Many animals are capable of either relatively slow (hours, days, weeks) or rapid (seconds and minutes) colour change in order to better resemble the background against which they are fou...

  8. Camouflaging Timing Channels in Web Traffic

    OpenAIRE

    Sellke, Sarah H; Wang, Chih-Chun; Bagchi, Saurabh; Shroff, Ness B.

    2009-01-01

    Web traffic accounts for more than half of Internet traffic today. Camouflaging covert timing channels in Web traffic would be advantageous for concealment. In this paper, we investigate the possibility of disguising network covert timing channels as HTTP traffic to avoid detection. Extensive research has shown that Internet traffic, including HTTP traffic, exhibits self-similarity and long range persistence. Existing covert timing channels that mimic i.i.d. legitimate traffic cannot imitate ...

  9. Color change, phenotypic plasticity, and camouflage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin eStevens

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The ability to change appearance over a range of timescales is widespread in nature, existing in many invertebrate and vertebrate groups. This can include color change occurring in seconds, minutes, and hours, to longer term changes associated with phenotypic plasticity and development. A major function is for camouflage against predators because color change and plasticity enables animals to match their surroundings and potentially reduce the risk of predation. Recently, we published findings (Stevens et al. 2014a showing how shore crabs can change their appearance and better match the background to predator vision in the short term. This, coupled with a number of past studies, emphasizes the potential that animals have to modify their appearance for camouflage. However, the majority of studies on camouflage and color plasticity have focused on a small number of species capable of unusually rapid changes. There are many broad questions that remain about the nature, mechanisms, evolution, and adaptive value of color change and plasticity for concealment. Here, I discuss past work and outline six questions relating to color change and plasticity, as well as major avenues for future work.

  10. Urban camouflage assessment through visual search and computational saliency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Toet, A.; Hogervorst, M.A.

    2013-01-01

    We present a new method to derive a multiscale urban camouflage pattern from a given set of background image samples. We applied this method to design a camouflage pattern for a given (semi-arid) urban environment. We performed a human visual search experiment and a computational evaluation study to

  11. Testing for Camouflage Using Virtual Prey and Human "Predators"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todd, Peter A.

    2009-01-01

    Camouflage is a prevalent feature of the natural world and as such has a ready appeal to students; however, it is a difficult subject to study using real predators and prey. This paper focuses how one fundamental type of camouflage, disruptive colouration (bold markings that break up the outline of the organism), can be tested using paper…

  12. Camouflage predicts survival in ground-nesting birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troscianko, Jolyon; Wilson-Aggarwal, Jared; Stevens, Martin; Spottiswoode, Claire N

    2016-01-01

    Evading detection by predators is crucial for survival. Camouflage is therefore a widespread adaptation, but despite substantial research effort our understanding of different camouflage strategies has relied predominantly on artificial systems and on experiments disregarding how camouflage is perceived by predators. Here we show for the first time in a natural system, that survival probability of wild animals is directly related to their level of camouflage as perceived by the visual systems of their main predators. Ground-nesting plovers and coursers flee as threats approach, and their clutches were more likely to survive when their egg contrast matched their surrounds. In nightjars - which remain motionless as threats approach - clutch survival depended on plumage pattern matching between the incubating bird and its surrounds. Our findings highlight the importance of pattern and luminance based camouflage properties, and the effectiveness of modern techniques in capturing the adaptive properties of visual phenotypes. PMID:26822039

  13. SPECIFICS OF WAR JOURNALISM: THE PROBLEM OF CAMOUFLAGE AND THE LANGUAGE SPECIFICS OF USING COLOR NAMES FOR DENOTING CAMOUFLAGE UNIFORMS

    OpenAIRE

    Polyakova, D.

    2013-01-01

    The paper discusses some specifics of war journalism, such as the issue of journalists’ security and the problem of using camouflage in the conditions of war and social conflicts, as well as the features of professional military language is terms of using color names for denoting camouflage uniforms in Russian and American English.

  14. Method on camouflaged target recognition using the angle of ellipsometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuansun, Xiao-bo; Wu, Wen-Yuan; Huang, Yan-hua; Li, Zhao-zhao

    2015-10-01

    Using polarimetric information of the camouflaged target surface to identify camouflage has been a hot research area in camouflage detecting. The main method is to use the difference in the degree of polarization(DOP) between background and target to add the contrast ratio of them. The measurement of the DOP has some requirements on the intensity of reflected radiation. In case of low reflected radiation intensity, the difference in the DOP for different materials is not so distinguishable. In addition, the linear degree of polarization is largely under the effects of detection angle and surface roughness, so it is hard to differentiate the degree of polarization when the targets with similar surface roughness are detected at the same detection angle. By analyzing the elements affecting the reflected electromagnetic radiation amplitudes and phase on the camouflaged target surface, this article makes a research on the polarization character of reflected radiation A method on camouflaged target recognition directly or indirectly by taking the angle of ellipsometry (AOE) imaging under the linear polarized light. The function model of the angle of incidence, complex refractive index and AOE was modeled, then the model was simulated by MATLAB and the results showed it can describe the distribution properties of AOE. A new thought for the approach of identifying camouflaged target recognition by detecting polarimetric information was proposed, and it has a deep theoretical and practical significance in camouflaged target recognition.

  15. Microhabitat choice in island lizards enhances camouflage against avian predators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Kate L A; Philpot, Kate E; Stevens, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Camouflage can often be enhanced by genetic adaptation to different local environments. However, it is less clear how individual behaviour improves camouflage effectiveness. We investigated whether individual Aegean wall lizards (Podarcis erhardii) inhabiting different islands rest on backgrounds that improve camouflage against avian predators. In free-ranging lizards, we found that dorsal regions were better matched against chosen backgrounds than against other backgrounds on the same island. This suggests that P. erhardii make background choices that heighten individual-specific concealment. In achromatic camouflage, this effect was more evident in females and was less distinct in an island population with lower predation risk. This suggests that behavioural enhancement of camouflage may be more important in females than in sexually competing males and related to predation risk. However, in an arena experiment, lizards did not choose the background that improved camouflage, most likely due to the artificial conditions. Overall, our results provide evidence that behavioural preferences for substrates can enhance individual camouflage of lizards in natural microhabitats, and that such adaptations may be sexually dimorphic and dependent on local environments. This research emphasizes the importance of considering links between ecology, behaviour, and appearance in studies of intraspecific colour variation and local adaptation. PMID:26804463

  16. Multispectral and hyperspectral advanced characterization of soldier's camouflage equipment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagueux, Philippe; Kastek, Mariusz; Chamberland, Martin; PiÄ tkowski, Tadeusz; Farley, Vincent; Dulski, Rafał; Trzaskawka, Piotr

    2013-10-01

    The requirements for soldier camouflage in the context of modern warfare are becoming more complex and challenging given the emergence of novel infrared sensors. There is a pressing need for the development of adapted fabrics and soldier camouflage devices to provide efficient camouflage in both the visible and infrared spectral ranges. The Military University of Technology has conducted an intensive project to develop new materials and fabrics to further improve the camouflage efficiency of soldiers. The developed materials shall feature visible and infrared properties that make these unique and adapted to various military context needs. This paper presents the details of an advanced measurement campaign of those unique materials where the correlation between multispectral and hyperspectral infrared measurements is performed.

  17. An Improved Convexity Based Segmentation Algorithm for Heavily Camouflaged Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amarjot Singh

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper proposes an advanced convexity based segmentation algorithm for heavily camouflaged images. The convexity of the intensity function is used to detect camouflaged objects from complex environments. We take advantage of operator for the detection of 3D concave or convex graylevels to exhibit the effectiveness of camouflage breaking based on convexity. The biological motivation behind operator and its high robustness make it suitable for camouflage breaking. The traditional convexity based algorithm identifies the desired targets but in addition also identifies sub-targets due to their three dimensional behavior. The problem is overcome by combining the conventional algorithm with thresholding. The proposed method is able to eliminate the sub-targets leaving behind only the target of interest in the input image. The proposed method is compared with the conventional operator. It is also compared with some conventional edge based operator for performance evaluation.

  18. Camouflaging in Digital Image for Secure Communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jindal, B.; Singh, A. P.

    2013-06-01

    The present paper reports on a new type of camouflaging in digital image for hiding crypto-data using moderate bit alteration in the pixel. In the proposed method, cryptography is combined with steganography to provide a two layer security to the hidden data. The novelty of the algorithm proposed in the present work lies in the fact that the information about hidden bit is reflected by parity condition in one part of the image pixel. The remaining part of the image pixel is used to perform local pixel adjustment to improve the visual perception of the cover image. In order to examine the effectiveness of the proposed method, image quality measuring parameters are computed. In addition to this, security analysis is also carried by comparing the histograms of cover and stego images. This scheme provides a higher security as well as robustness to intentional as well as unintentional attacks.

  19. Motion dazzle and camouflage as distinct anti-predator defenses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stevens Martin

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Camouflage patterns that hinder detection and/or recognition by antagonists are widely studied in both human and animal contexts. Patterns of contrasting stripes that purportedly degrade an observer's ability to judge the speed and direction of moving prey ('motion dazzle' are, however, rarely investigated. This is despite motion dazzle having been fundamental to the appearance of warships in both world wars and often postulated as the selective agent leading to repeated patterns on many animals (such as zebra and many fish, snake, and invertebrate species. Such patterns often appear conspicuous, suggesting that protection while moving by motion dazzle might impair camouflage when stationary. However, the relationship between motion dazzle and camouflage is unclear because disruptive camouflage relies on high-contrast markings. In this study, we used a computer game with human subjects detecting and capturing either moving or stationary targets with different patterns, in order to provide the first empirical exploration of the interaction of these two protective coloration mechanisms. Results Moving targets with stripes were caught significantly less often and missed more often than targets with camouflage patterns. However, when stationary, targets with camouflage markings were captured less often and caused more false detections than those with striped patterns, which were readily detected. Conclusions Our study provides the clearest evidence to date that some patterns inhibit the capture of moving targets, but that camouflage and motion dazzle are not complementary strategies. Therefore, the specific coloration that evolves in animals will depend on how the life history and ontogeny of each species influence the trade-off between the costs and benefits of motion dazzle and camouflage.

  20. Color change and camouflage in juvenile shore crabs Carcinus maenas

    OpenAIRE

    Martin eStevens; Alice E Lown; Wood, Louisa E.

    2014-01-01

    Camouflage is perhaps the most widespread anti-predator defense in nature, with many different types thought to exist. Of these, resembling the general color and pattern of the background (background matching) is likely to be the most common. Background matching can be achieved by adaptation of individual appearance to different habitats or substrates, behavioral choice, and color change. Although the ability to change coloration for camouflage over a period of hours or days is likely to be w...

  1. Cuttlefish use visual cues to determine arm postures for camouflage

    OpenAIRE

    Barbosa, Alexandra; Allen, Justine J.; Mäthger, Lydia M.; Hanlon, Roger T.

    2011-01-01

    To achieve effective visual camouflage, prey organisms must combine cryptic coloration with the appropriate posture and behaviour to render them difficult to be detected or recognized. Body patterning has been studied in various taxa, yet body postures and their implementation on different backgrounds have seldom been studied experimentally. Here, we provide the first experimental evidence that cuttlefish (Sepia officinalis), masters of rapid adaptive camouflage, use visual cues from adjacent...

  2. Disruptive coloration provides camouflage independent of background matching

    OpenAIRE

    Schaefer, H. Martin; Stobbe, Nina

    2006-01-01

    Natural selection shapes the evolution of anti-predator defences, such as camouflage. It is currently contentious whether crypsis and disruptive coloration are alternative mechanisms of camouflage or whether they are interrelated anti-predator defences. Disruptively coloured prey is characterized by highly contrasting patterns to conceal the body shape, whereas cryptic prey minimizes the contrasts to background. Determining bird predation of artificial moths, we found that moths which were di...

  3. Testing Thayer's hypothesis: can camouflage work by distraction?

    OpenAIRE

    Stevens, Martin; Graham, Julia; Winney, Isabel S; Cantor, Abi

    2008-01-01

    One of the oldest theories of animal camouflage predicts that apparently conspicuous markings enhance concealment. Such ‘distraction’ marks are hypothesized to work by drawing the viewer's attention away from salient features, such as the body outline, that would otherwise reveal the animal. If distraction marks enhance concealment, then they offer a route for animals to combine camouflage markings with conspicuous signalling strategies, such as warning signals. However, the theory has never ...

  4. Contrast, contours and the confusion effect in dazzle camouflage

    OpenAIRE

    Hogan, Benedict G; Scott-Samuel, Nicholas E.; Cuthill, Innes C.

    2016-01-01

    ‘Motion dazzle camouflage’ is the name for the putative effects of highly conspicuous, often repetitive or complex, patterns on parameters important in prey capture, such as the perception of speed, direction and identity. Research into motion dazzle camouflage is increasing our understanding of the interactions between visual tracking, the confusion effect and defensive coloration. However, there is a paucity of research into the effects of contrast on motion dazzle camouflage: is maximal co...

  5. Defeating Crypsis: Detection and Learning of Camouflage Strategies

    OpenAIRE

    Jolyon Troscianko; Alice E Lown; Hughes, Anna E.; Martin Stevens

    2013-01-01

    Camouflage is perhaps the most widespread defence against predators in nature and an active area of interdisciplinary research. Recent work has aimed to understand what camouflage types exist (e.g. background matching, disruptive, and distractive patterns) and their effectiveness. However, work has almost exclusively focused on the efficacy of these strategies in preventing initial detection, despite the fact that predators often encounter the same prey phenotype repeatedly, affording them op...

  6. Scalp Medical Tattooing Technique to Camouflage Bifid Parietal Whorls

    OpenAIRE

    Park, Jae hyun; You, Seung Hyun

    2016-01-01

    Background: To the best of the authors’ knowledge, no reports have described cosmetic problems arising from the hair direction around the parietal whorl (PW). This study was performed to evaluate the efficacy of scalp medical tattooing technique for camouflaging bifid PWs. Methods: We retrospectively examined the outcomes of scalp medical tattooing in 38 patients who were admitted for camouflage of a bifid PW. Results: All patients’ cosmetic appearance was judged, by both the patients and the...

  7. Anatomical basis for camouflaged polarized light communication in squid

    OpenAIRE

    Mäthger, Lydia M.; Hanlon, Roger T.

    2006-01-01

    Camouflage is a means to defeat visual detection by predators, whereas visual communication involves a signal that is conspicuous to a receiver (usually a conspecific). However, most intraspecific visual signals are also conspicuous to predators, so that signalling can lead to the serious consequence of predation. Could an animal achieve visual camouflage and simultaneously send a hidden visual message to a conspecific? Here, we present evidence that the polarized aspect of iridescent colour ...

  8. Camouflage effectiveness of static nets in SAR images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jersblad, Johan; Larsson, Christer

    2015-10-01

    We present a methodology to determine the camouflage effectiveness of static nets in a SAR image. There is currently no common recognized methodology within the signature management community in this research topic. One step towards establishing a common methodology is to use a standardized target to be camouflaged. We use the STANdard Decoy for CAmouflage Materials (STANDCAM) target developed by the German Army, WTD 52, Oberjettenberg. An ISAR measurement of the STANDCAM with a camouflage configuration is acquired as the first step of the method. The ISAR data is then blended with SAR data acquired in field trials. In the final SAR image a contrast metric between the target and background is extracted. The contrast measure is then the measure of the camouflage effectiveness. As an example of result we present ISAR measurements and determine the camouflage effectiveness in a SAR image using SAR blending for static nets with different electrical conductivity and design. This methodology presents a measure to determine the effectiveness of a static net on the STANDCAM target.

  9. Evaluation criteria for spectral design of camouflage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Škerlind, Christina; Fagerström, Jan; Hallberg, Tomas; Kariis, Hans

    2015-10-01

    In development of visual (VIS) and infrared (IR) camouflage for signature management, the aim is the design of surface properties of an object to spectrally match or adapt to a background and thereby minimizing the contrast perceived by a threatening sensor. The so called 'ladder model" relates the requirements for task measure of effectiveness with surface structure properties through the steps signature effectiveness and object signature. It is intended to link materials properties via platform signature to military utility and vice versa. Spectral design of a surface intends to give it a desired wavelength dependent optical response to fit a specific application of interest. Six evaluation criteria were stated, with the aim to aid the process to put requirement on camouflage and for evaluation. The six criteria correspond to properties such as reflectance, gloss, emissivity, and degree of polarization as well as dynamic properties, and broadband or multispectral properties. These criteria have previously been exemplified on different kinds of materials and investigated separately. Anderson and Åkerlind further point out that the six criteria rarely were considered or described all together in one and same publication previously. The specific level of requirement of the different properties must be specified individually for each specific situation and environment to minimize the contrast between target and a background. The criteria or properties are not totally independent of one another. How they are correlated is part of the theme of this paper. However, prioritization has been made due to the limit of space. Therefore all of the interconnections between the six criteria will not be considered in the work of this report. The ladder step previous to digging into the different material composition possibilities and choice of suitable materials and structures (not covered here), includes the object signature and decision of what the spectral response should be

  10. Breaking cover: neural responses to slow and fast camouflage-breaking motion

    OpenAIRE

    Yin, Jiapeng; Gong, Hongliang; An, Xu; Chen, Zheyuan; Lu, Yiliang; Andolina, Ian M.; McLoughlin, Niall; Wang, Wei

    2015-01-01

    Primates need to detect and recognize camouflaged animals in natural environments. Camouflage-breaking movements are often the only visual cue available to accomplish this. Specifically, sudden movements are often detected before full recognition of the camouflaged animal is made, suggesting that initial processing of motion precedes the recognition of motion-defined contours or shapes. What are the neuronal mechanisms underlying this initial processing of camouflaged motion in the primate vi...

  11. Cuttlefish dynamic camouflage: responses to substrate choice and integration of multiple visual cues

    OpenAIRE

    Allen, Justine J.; Mäthger, Lydia M.; Barbosa, Alexandra; Buresch, Kendra C.; Sogin, Emilia; Schwartz, Jillian; Chubb, Charles; Hanlon, Roger T.

    2009-01-01

    Prey camouflage is an evolutionary response to predation pressure. Cephalopods have extensive camouflage capabilities and studying them can offer insight into effective camouflage design. Here, we examine whether cuttlefish, Sepia officinalis, show substrate or camouflage pattern preferences. In the first two experiments, cuttlefish were presented with a choice between different artificial substrates or between different natural substrates. First, the ability of cuttlefish to show substrate p...

  12. Contrast, contours and the confusion effect in dazzle camouflage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogan, Benedict G; Scott-Samuel, Nicholas E; Cuthill, Innes C

    2016-07-01

    'Motion dazzle camouflage' is the name for the putative effects of highly conspicuous, often repetitive or complex, patterns on parameters important in prey capture, such as the perception of speed, direction and identity. Research into motion dazzle camouflage is increasing our understanding of the interactions between visual tracking, the confusion effect and defensive coloration. However, there is a paucity of research into the effects of contrast on motion dazzle camouflage: is maximal contrast a prerequisite for effectiveness? If not, this has important implications for our recognition of the phenotype and understanding of the function and mechanisms of potential motion dazzle camouflage patterns. Here we tested human participants' ability to track one moving target among many identical distractors with surface patterns designed to test the influence of these factors. In line with previous evidence, we found that targets with stripes parallel to the object direction of motion were hardest to track. However, reduction in contrast did not significantly influence this result. This finding may bring into question the utility of current definitions of motion dazzle camouflage, and means that some animal patterns, such as aposematic or mimetic stripes, may have previously unrecognized multiple functions. PMID:27493775

  13. Defeating crypsis: detection and learning of camouflage strategies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jolyon Troscianko

    Full Text Available Camouflage is perhaps the most widespread defence against predators in nature and an active area of interdisciplinary research. Recent work has aimed to understand what camouflage types exist (e.g. background matching, disruptive, and distractive patterns and their effectiveness. However, work has almost exclusively focused on the efficacy of these strategies in preventing initial detection, despite the fact that predators often encounter the same prey phenotype repeatedly, affording them opportunities to learn to find those prey more effectively. The overall value of a camouflage strategy may, therefore, reflect both its ability to prevent detection by predators and resist predator learning. We conducted four experiments with humans searching for hidden targets of different camouflage types (disruptive, distractive, and background matching of various contrast levels over a series of touch screen trials. As with previous work, disruptive coloration was the most successful method of concealment overall, especially with relatively high contrast patterns, whereas potentially distractive markings were either neutral or costly. However, high contrast patterns incurred faster decreases in detection times over trials compared to other stimuli. In addition, potentially distractive markings were sometimes learnt more slowly than background matching markings, despite being found more readily overall. Finally, learning effects were highly dependent upon the experimental paradigm, including the number of prey types seen and whether subjects encountered targets simultaneously or sequentially. Our results show that the survival advantage of camouflage strategies reflects both their ability to avoid initial detection (sensory mechanisms and predator learning (perceptual mechanisms.

  14. Cultural camouflage--a critical study of how artefacts are camouflaged and mental health policy subverted.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berlin, Johan M; Carlström, Eric D

    2015-01-01

    This study identifies hidden artefacts in a public organisation. In contrast to earlier studies, it focuses on artefacts as concealing rather than conveying meaning. Negligent behaviour caused by an unpopular culture was recognised in five psychiatric wards at a Swedish university hospital. Data comprising observations (87 h) and interviews (n = 60) were collected over a period of 48 months (2008-2011). Four different items used in everyday work representing a deeper meaning of the organisation were identified during the observations. The items selected were work attire, nametags, keys and restraint beds. These were considered particularly promising when it came to the aim of the study, namely, to find out how artefacts are camouflaged. The observations and the interviews revealed that these were controversial and contested artefacts in the organisation. The study uses the term 'cultural camouflage' for behaviour that ignores and consciously conceals symbols that have negative values. This concept contrasts with previous research that shows how artefacts are emphasised and how they contribute to the character of the activity in a transparent way. Conservative and backward-looking behaviour among staff provided one explanation as to why artefacts were concealed. Another was the need to establish harmonious internal interactions. PMID:23861217

  15. Scalp Medical Tattooing Technique to Camouflage Bifid Parietal Whorls

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, Seung Hyun

    2016-01-01

    Background: To the best of the authors’ knowledge, no reports have described cosmetic problems arising from the hair direction around the parietal whorl (PW). This study was performed to evaluate the efficacy of scalp medical tattooing technique for camouflaging bifid PWs. Methods: We retrospectively examined the outcomes of scalp medical tattooing in 38 patients who were admitted for camouflage of a bifid PW. Results: All patients’ cosmetic appearance was judged, by both the patients and the surgeon, to be markedly improved. No specific complications occurred, such as infection, hair loss in the operative field, or other problems. Conclusion: Scalp medical tattooing appears to be an effective method that helps to camouflage the see-through appearance of bifid PWs. PMID:27200232

  16. On the Hunt: Searching for Poorly Defined Camouflaged Targets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hess, Alyssa S; Wismer, Andrew J; Bohil, Corey J; Neider, Mark B

    2016-01-01

    As camouflaged targets share visual characteristics with the environment within which they are embedded, searchers rarely have access to a perfect visual template of such targets. Instead, they must rely on less specific representations to guide search. Although search for camouflaged and non-specified targets have both received attention in the literature, to date they have not been explored in a combined context. Here we introduce a new paradigm for characterizing behavior during search for camouflaged targets in natural scenes, while also exploring how the fidelity of the target template affects search processes. Search scenes were created from forest images, with targets a distortion (varied size) of that image at a random location. In Experiment 1 a preview of the target was provided; in Experiment 2 there was no preview. No differences were found between experiments on nearly all measures. Generally, reaction times and accuracy improved with familiarity on the task (more so for small targets). Analysis of eye movements indicated that performance benefits were related to improvements in both Search and Target Verification time. Combined, our data suggest that search for camouflaged targets can be improved over a short time-scale, even when targets are poorly defined. PMID:27018588

  17. Maternal influence on eggshell maculation: implications for cryptic camouflaged eggs

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Duval, C.; Cassey, P.; Lovell, P.G.; Mikšík, Ivan; Reynolds, S.J.; Spencer, K.A.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 157, č. 1 (2016), s. 303-310. ISSN 0021-8375 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA15-01948S Institutional support: RVO:67985823 Keywords : body condition * camouflage * Coturnix coturnix japonica * eggshell maculation * Protoporphyrin Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation Impact factor: 1.711, year: 2014

  18. Hyperspectral imaging of cuttlefish camouflage indicates good color match in the eyes of fish predators

    OpenAIRE

    Chiao, Chuan-Chin; Wickiser, J. Kenneth; Allen, Justine J.; Genter, Brock; Hanlon, Roger T.

    2011-01-01

    Camouflage is a widespread phenomenon throughout nature and an important antipredator tactic in natural selection. Many visual predators have keen color perception, and thus camouflage patterns should provide some degree of color matching in addition to other visual factors such as pattern, contrast, and texture. Quantifying camouflage effectiveness in the eyes of the predator is a challenge from the perspectives of both biology and optical imaging technology. Here we take advantage of hypers...

  19. The evolution of pattern camouflage strategies in waterfowl and game birds

    OpenAIRE

    Marshall, Kate L A; Gluckman, Thanh-Lan

    2015-01-01

    Visual patterns are common in animals. A broad survey of the literature has revealed that different patterns have distinct functions. Irregular patterns (e.g., stipples) typically function in static camouflage, whereas regular patterns (e.g., stripes) have a dual function in both motion camouflage and communication. Moreover, irregular and regular patterns located on different body regions (?bimodal? patterning) can provide an effective compromise between camouflage and communication and/or e...

  20. Imaging and reflectance spectroscopy for the evaluation of effective camouflage in the SWIR

    OpenAIRE

    Ho, Chee Leong

    2007-01-01

    The emergence of SWIR (short-wave infrared) sensors and ongoing development of multi-spectral imagers that operate across four wavebands (visible, NIR, SWIR and MWIR) pose new challenges for current camouflage, concealment and deception technologies. For one, they render ineffective conventional camouflage material that worked well in the visible part of the spectrum. The aim of this thesis is to propose means to provide effective camouflage across the visible and SWIR spectrums. A system was...

  1. High fitness costs of climate change-induced camouflage mismatch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimova, Marketa; Mills, L Scott; Nowak, J Joshua

    2016-03-01

    Anthropogenic climate change has created myriad stressors that threaten to cause local extinctions if wild populations fail to adapt to novel conditions. We studied individual and population-level fitness costs of a climate change-induced stressor: camouflage mismatch in seasonally colour molting species confronting decreasing snow cover duration. Based on field measurements of radiocollared snowshoe hares, we found strong selection on coat colour molt phenology, such that animals mismatched with the colour of their background experienced weekly survival decreases up to 7%. In the absence of adaptive response, we show that these mortality costs would result in strong population-level declines by the end of the century. However, natural selection acting on wide individual variation in molt phenology might enable evolutionary adaptation to camouflage mismatch. We conclude that evolutionary rescue will be critical for hares and other colour molting species to keep up with climate change. PMID:26799459

  2. Motion dazzle and camouflage as distinct anti-predator defenses

    OpenAIRE

    Stevens Martin; Searle W Tom L; Seymour Jenny E; Marshall Kate LA; Ruxton Graeme D

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Camouflage patterns that hinder detection and/or recognition by antagonists are widely studied in both human and animal contexts. Patterns of contrasting stripes that purportedly degrade an observer's ability to judge the speed and direction of moving prey ('motion dazzle') are, however, rarely investigated. This is despite motion dazzle having been fundamental to the appearance of warships in both world wars and often postulated as the selective agent leading to repeated ...

  3. Invisibility System Using Image Processing and Optical Camouflage Technology

    OpenAIRE

    Srikanth, Vasireddy; Ramesh, Pillem

    2014-01-01

    Invisible persons are seen in fiction stories only, but in the real world it is proved that invisibility is possible. This paper describes the creation of invisibility with the help of technologies like Optical camouflage; Image based rendering and Retro reflective projection. The object that needs to be made transparent or invisible is painted or covered with retro reflective material. Then a projector projects the background image on it making the masking object virtually transparent. Captu...

  4. The wolf in sheep's clothing: Camouflaged borrowing in Modern German

    OpenAIRE

    Mailhammer, Robert

    2008-01-01

    This article addresses a phenomenon of language contact that has not received much attention in mainstream contact linguistics, namely borrowing via a mechanism Zuckermann (2003) calls MULTISOURCED NEOLOGISATION. Multisourced neologisation is a subtype of Zuckermann's larger class of CAMOUFLAGED BORROWING, and constitutes a special form of calquing in which the calque is phonetically similar to the source language material: It has much in common with folk etymology and is sometimes identified...

  5. Debris-carrying camouflage among diverse lineages of Cretaceous insects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Bo; Xia, Fangyuan; Engel, Michael S; Perrichot, Vincent; Shi, Gongle; Zhang, Haichun; Chen, Jun; Jarzembowski, Edmund A; Wappler, Torsten; Rust, Jes

    2016-06-01

    Insects have evolved diverse methods of camouflage that have played an important role in their evolutionary success. Debris-carrying, a behavior of actively harvesting and carrying exogenous materials, is among the most fascinating and complex behaviors because it requires not only an ability to recognize, collect, and carry materials but also evolutionary adaptations in related morphological characteristics. However, the fossil record of such behavior is extremely scarce, and only a single Mesozoic example from Spanish amber has been recorded; therefore, little is known about the early evolution of this complicated behavior and its underlying anatomy. We report a diverse insect assemblage of exceptionally preserved debris carriers from Cretaceous Burmese, French, and Lebanese ambers, including the earliest known chrysopoid larvae (green lacewings), myrmeleontoid larvae (split-footed lacewings and owlflies), and reduviids (assassin bugs). These ancient insects used a variety of debris material, including insect exoskeletons, sand grains, soil dust, leaf trichomes of gleicheniacean ferns, wood fibers, and other vegetal debris. They convergently evolved their debris-carrying behavior through multiple pathways, which expressed a high degree of evolutionary plasticity. We demonstrate that the behavioral repertoire, which is associated with considerable morphological adaptations, was already widespread among insects by at least the Mid-Cretaceous. Together with the previously known Spanish specimen, these fossils are the oldest direct evidence of camouflaging behavior in the fossil record. Our findings provide a novel insight into early evolution of camouflage in insects and ancient ecological associations among plants and insects. PMID:27386568

  6. Social Camouflage: Interpreting Male Student Veterans' Behavior for Residence Life Professionals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Livingston, Wade G.; Scott, David A.; Havice, Pamela A.; Cawthon, Tony W.

    2012-01-01

    The term "camouflage" implies obscurity and concealment. Male student veterans who return from the military often employ a social camouflage; though some may reveal and discuss their military experience, their overriding objective is to blend in, have a "normal" college experience, and graduate. This creates challenges for housing professionals…

  7. Developing and evaluating a target-background similarity metric for camouflage detection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiuhsiang Joe Lin

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Measurement of camouflage performance is of fundamental importance for military stealth applications. The goal of camouflage assessment algorithms is to automatically assess the effect of camouflage in agreement with human detection responses. In a previous study, we found that the Universal Image Quality Index (UIQI correlated well with the psychophysical measures, and it could be a potentially camouflage assessment tool. METHODOLOGY: In this study, we want to quantify the camouflage similarity index and psychophysical results. We compare several image quality indexes for computational evaluation of camouflage effectiveness, and present the results of an extensive human visual experiment conducted to evaluate the performance of several camouflage assessment algorithms and analyze the strengths and weaknesses of these algorithms. SIGNIFICANCE: The experimental data demonstrates the effectiveness of the approach, and the correlation coefficient result of the UIQI was higher than those of other methods. This approach was highly correlated with the human target-searching results. It also showed that this method is an objective and effective camouflage performance evaluation method because it considers the human visual system and image structure, which makes it consistent with the subjective evaluation results.

  8. Camouflage simulation and effectiveness assessment for the individual soldier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hepfinger, Lisa B.

    1990-09-01

    The mission of the Individual Protection Directorate of the U. S. Army Natick Research, Development and Engineering Center is to develop clothing and equipment to protect the individual combat soldier against battlefield chemical, ballistic, surveillance, environmental and nuclear hazards. In an effort to meet our countersurveillance mission, the Terrain Analysis Systn was developed by Natick in conjunction with Decilog, Inc., Melville, New York. The Terrain Analysis System was developed to satisfy the need for a scientific method of designing camouflage patterns based on natural terrain reflectance data. It functions as a portable, abridged spectrophotometer to obtain spectral refltance data in the visible and near-infrared on any scene of interest. Data is collected on videotape in the field, digitized into the computer back in the laboratory, and spectral reflectance factors determined for each pixel in the scene. The 1976 CIE L*a*b* color coordinates are calculated and the image is clustered to a user-specific number of color domains. Camouflage patterns can be designed based on these domains, and visual camouflage evaluations can be made by overlaying the designed patterns on any desired background scene. Additional capabilities include calculation of values analogous to the CIE values, which use infrared film or an image intensifier as the observer. The Terrain Analysis System is also capable of analyzing video data taken through an image intensifier or thermal imager and calculating the probability of detection of a user-defined target against the background. "What if" cases can be run to determine the detection probability under other sets of conditions, such as a detector with a different spectral response or under different atmospheric conditions.

  9. A moving foreground objects extraction method under camouflage effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Zhen-zhen; Li, Jing-yue; Yang, Si-si; Zhou, Hong

    2015-07-01

    This paper discusses the problem of segmenting foreground objects with apertures or discontinuities under camouflage effect and the optical physics model is introduced into foreground detection. A moving foreground objects extraction method based on color invariants is proposed in which color invariants are used as descriptors to model the background and do the foreground segmentation. It makes full use of the color spectral information and spatial configuration. Experimental results demonstrate that the proposed method performs well in various situations of color similarity and meets the demand of real-time performance.

  10. Physically realistic camouflage net models for visualization and signature generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loyd, Jody S.; Sanders, Jeffrey S.

    2001-09-01

    The Virtual Targets Center (VTC) is a strategic alliance between the Targets Management Office within the US Army Simulation, Training, and Instrumentation Command (STRICOM) and the Systems Simulation and Development Directorate within the US Army Aviation and Missile Command (AMCOM). This center reduces duplication of effort by making DoD owned geometry models available for reutilization and supports the modeling and simulation community by redistributing or creating geometry models in formats applicable to a wide range of simulation activities. In addition to these activites, the VTC is developing methods and tools to enhance existing target models. A new software simulation exists at the VTC to automatically create facet models of camouflage netting by considering the netting as a 2D membrane that balances internal tensional stresses and the external force of gravity by assuming a minimum energy configuration - accurately replicating the draping of real netting. The geometric information of this virtual camouflage netting is exported to a file in a format commonly used for three-dimensional modeling, thereby making it available to workers in signature prediction and visualization.

  11. Training and transfer of training in rapid visual search for camouflaged targets.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark B Neider

    Full Text Available Previous examinations of search under camouflage conditions have reported that performance improves with training and that training can engender near perfect transfer to similar, but novel camouflage-type displays [1]. What remains unclear, however, are the cognitive mechanisms underlying these training improvements and transfer benefits. On the one hand, improvements and transfer benefits might be associated with higher-level overt strategy shifts, such as through the restriction of eye movements to target-likely (background display regions. On the other hand, improvements and benefits might be related to the tuning of lower-level perceptual processes, such as figure-ground segregation. To decouple these competing possibilities we had one group of participants train on camouflage search displays and a control group train on non-camouflage displays. Critically, search displays were rapidly presented, precluding eye movements. Before and following training, all participants completed transfer sessions in which they searched novel displays. We found that search performance on camouflage displays improved with training. Furthermore, participants who trained on camouflage displays suffered no performance costs when searching novel displays following training. Our findings suggest that training to break camouflage is related to the tuning of perceptual mechanisms and not strategic shifts in overt attention.

  12. Utilization of hyperspectral camera for determination of camouflage surfaces spectral characteristics homogeneity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Racek, František; Jobánek, Adam; Baláž, Teodor

    2015-10-01

    The paper deals with description of newly developing method of Hyperspectral camera utilization for determination of camouflage surfaces spectral characteristics homogeneity. The color patterns of camouflage surfaces are usually checked pointwise. It is assumed subsequently that the spectral characteristics of the pattern are the same for whole area of camouflage surface. The essential properties of hyperspectral camera allow to determine the level of spectral qualities homogeneity of the surface. Although the respective snapping of hyperspectral image is fairly easy, the evaluation of HS datacube features specific problems connected with homogeneity of illuminance, optical system aberrations, transformation to reflectance and spectral unmixing. All the measurement aspects have to be taken into account to correctly determine the homogeneity of camouflage surfaces spectral characteristics.

  13. Hide and Seek in the Open Sea: Pelagic Camouflage and Visual Countermeasures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnsen, Sönke

    2014-01-01

    Camouflage is exceptionally challenging in pelagic environments because of their featureless nature. Thus, it is perhaps no surprise that pelagic species have evolved highly sophisticated cryptic strategies, three of which - transparency, mirrors, and counterillumination - are rare or absent in other habitats. Pelagic visual systems are equally complex, and several visual capabilities, including UV and polarization sensitivity and intraocular filters, are thought to facilitate detection of camouflaged animals. This article reviews the optical nature of the pelagic realm and both the camouflage and camouflage-breaking strategies of its inhabitants, focusing primarily on underlying principles and what remains to be discovered. A theme throughout is that far more is known about the structures of the optical and visual systems involved than about their function, an imbalance that is due primarily to the rarity of observations of undisturbed behavior.

  14. A "Mimic Octopus" in the Atlantic: Flatfish mimicry and camouflage by Macrotritopus defilippi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanlon, Roger T; Watson, Anya C; Barbosa, Alexandra

    2010-02-01

    The sand-dwelling octopus Macrotritopus defilippi was filmed or photographed in five Caribbean locations mimicking the swimming behavior (posture, style, speed, duration) and coloration of the common, sand-dwelling flounder Bothus lunatus. Each species was exceptionally well camouflaged when stationary, and details of camouflaging techniques are described for M. defilippi. Octopuses implemented flounder mimicry only during swimming, when their movement would give away camouflage in this open sandy habitat. Thus, both camouflage and fish mimicry were used by the octopuses as a primary defense against visual predators. This is the first documentation of flounder mimicry by an Atlantic octopus, and only the fourth convincing case of mimicry for cephalopods, a taxon renowned for its polyphenism that is implemented mainly by neurally controlled skin patterning, but also-as shown here-by their soft flexible bodies. PMID:20203250

  15. To go into hiding on camouflage meta-surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, R.; Gao, D. X.; Su, H.; Wang, Z. X.; Lei, Z. Y.; Fan, J.; Man, M. Y.

    2014-11-01

    Inspired by the natural phenomena that rough sea surfaces often mask the ship target when the wind comes big, or another case in point, vehicles can usually hide themselves in the mountains with dense vegetation. Here in this paper, we demonstrate a practical strategy of hiding by using gradient-index meta-surfaces based on the quasi-conformal transformation optics. Different from the prevalent choice of the invisible cloak to virtually extinguish an object that is wrapped inside, our approach aims to suppress the detectability of the target through creating diffuse reflections by proposing the camouflage meta-surface underneath. Our design, possessing a flat and slim profile with solely a few randomly distributed dielectrics on a metallic sheet, can readily offer the perfect cover to mask the hiding object adjacently above in a broad frequency range.

  16. Thermal cum DC Camouflage in Duet with Undecorated Natural Materials

    CERN Document Server

    Yang, Tian-Zhi; Gao, Dongliang; Wu, Linzhi; Li, Baowen; Thong, John T L; Qiu, Cheng-Wei

    2015-01-01

    To manipulate various types of physical signals in one single device has long captivated the attention of scientists and engineers. This however is very challenging, if not impossible, even for emerging metamaterials. Up to date, many artificial materials have been proposed, theoretically and (or) experimentally, for manipulating various waves/signals on a one-function-one-device basis. In this work, for the very first time, we employ undecorated natural materials to experimentally demonstrate a simultaneous camouflage for thermal current and electric dc current on the same device. It demonstrates how ingenuity can overcome the limitations of natural material systems without the need for complex decoration to impart inhomogeneous and (or) anisotropic properties, which was previously considered impossible to accomplish except by using metamaterials.

  17. Skeletal class III camouflage by mandibular incisor extraction: A case report

    OpenAIRE

    Janardhanan Kumaresan; Tamizharasi Senthil Kumar; Senthil Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Treatment planning in orthodontics plays a key role in determining the successful treatment of any kind of malocclusion. Skeletal class III malocclusions are generally difficult to treat because of the complex nature of the skeletal and dental manifestations they produce. Mild to moderate skeletal class III malocclusions sometimes have an acceptable facial profile where orthodontic camouflage is possible. In this case report, camouflage of a mild skeletal class III is done by the extraction o...

  18. CAMOUFLAGE AND ITS IMPACT ON AUSTRALIA IN WWII: AN ART HISTORIAN’S PERSPECTIVE

    OpenAIRE

    Ann Elias

    2016-01-01

    The impact of modern camouflage on Australian military practices and on the public imagination intensified during the Second World War. A new organisation was created to support national security through concealment and deception. Its core members were civilians and included a zoologist who specialised in animal camouflage as well as a group of Australia’s leading artists who specialised in optical tricks and visual illusions. While concealment and deception remain central to contemporary app...

  19. Adaptive camouflage in the VIS and IR spectral range: main principles and mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarz, Alexander

    2015-10-01

    This paper presents a survey of main applicable technical principles and mechanisms for adaptive camouflage in the visible (VIS) and infrared (IR) spectral ranges. All principles are described by their operation method and technical data such as the active spectral range, the degree and speed of adaptation, weight, power consumption, robustness, usability, lifetime, technology readiness level (TRL) etc.. The paper allows to compare the different principles and to assess them with regard to an application to an adaptive camouflage system.

  20. A highly distributed Bragg stack with unique geometry provides effective camouflage for Loliginid squid eyes

    OpenAIRE

    Holt, Amanda L.; Alison M. Sweeney; Johnsen, Sönke; Morse, Daniel E.

    2011-01-01

    Cephalopods possess a sophisticated array of mechanisms to achieve camouflage in dynamic underwater environments. While active mechanisms such as chromatophore patterning and body posturing are well known, passive mechanisms such as manipulating light with highly evolved reflectors may also play an important role. To explore the contribution of passive mechanisms to cephalopod camouflage, we investigated the optical and biochemical properties of the silver layer covering the eye of the Califo...

  1. Perception of visual texture and the expression of disruptive camouflage by the cuttlefish, Sepia officinalis

    OpenAIRE

    Kelman, E. J.; Baddeley, R. J.; Shohet, A.J; Osorio, D.

    2007-01-01

    Juvenile cuttlefish (Sepia officinalis) camouflage themselves by changing their body pattern according to the background. This behaviour can be used to investigate visual perception in these molluscs and may also give insight into camouflage design. Edge detection is an important aspect of vision, and here we compare the body patterns that cuttlefish produced in response to checkerboard backgrounds with responses to backgrounds that have the same spatial frequency power spectrum as the checke...

  2. Revisiting Abbott Thayer: non-scientific reflections about camouflage in art, war and zoology

    OpenAIRE

    Behrens, Roy R.

    2008-01-01

    This paper reviews the achievements of Abbott Handerson Thayer (1849–1921), an American painter and naturalist whose pioneering writings on animal camouflage addressed shared concerns among artists, zoologists and military tacticians. It discusses his beliefs about camouflage (both natural and military) in the context of his training as an artist, with particular emphasis on three of his major ideas: countershading, ruptive (or disruptive) coloration and background picturing.

  3. Perception of edges and visual texture in the camouflage of the common cuttlefish, Sepia officinalis

    OpenAIRE

    Zylinski, S.; Osorio, D.; Shohet, A.J

    2008-01-01

    The cuttlefish, Sepia officinalis, provides a fascinating opportunity to investigate the mechanisms of camouflage as it rapidly changes its body patterns in response to the visual environment. We investigated how edge information determines camouflage responses through the use of spatially high-pass filtered ‘objects’ and of isolated edges. We then investigated how the body pattern responds to objects defined by texture (second-order information) compared with those defined by luminance. We f...

  4. [Design of plant leaf bionic camouflage materials based on spectral analysis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yu-Jie; Liu, Zhi-Ming; Hu, Bi-Ru; Wu, Wen-Jian

    2011-06-01

    The influence of structure parameters and contents of plant leaves on their reflectance spectra was analyzed using the PROSPECT model. The result showed that the bionic camouflage materials should be provided with coarse surface and spongy inner structure, the refractive index of main content must be close to that of plant leaves, the contents of materials should contain chlorophyll and water, and the content of C-H bond must be strictly controlled. Based on the analysis above, a novel camouflage material, which was constituted by coarse transparent waterproof surface, chlorophyll, water and spongy material, was designed. The result of verifiable experiment showed that the reflectance spectra of camouflage material exhibited the same characteristics as those of plant leaves. The similarity coefficient of reflectance spectrum of the camouflage material and camphor leaves was 0.988 1, and the characteristics of camouflage material did not change after sunlight treatment for three months. The bionic camouflage material, who exhibited a high spectral similarity with plant leaves and a good weather resistance, will be an available method for reconnaissance of hyperspectral imaging hopefully. PMID:21847955

  5. Emotional benefit of cosmetic camouflage in the treatment of facial skin conditions: personal experience and review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Levy LL

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Lauren L Levy, Jason J EmerDepartment of Dermatology, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, New York, NY, USABackground: Recent studies highlighting the psychological benefits of medical treatment for dermatological skin conditions have demonstrated a clear role for medical therapy in psychological health. Skin conditions, particularly those that are overtly visible, such as those located on the face, neck, and hands, often have a profound effect on the daily functioning of those affected. The literature documents significant emotional benefits using medical therapy in conditions such as acne, psoriasis, vitiligo, and rosacea, but there is little evidence documenting similar results with the use of cosmetic camouflage. Here we present a review highlighting the practical use of cosmetic camouflage makeup in patients with facial skin conditions and review its implications for psychological health.Methods: A search of the Medline and Scopus databases was performed to identify articles documenting the emotional benefit of cosmetic camouflage.Results: Cosmetic camouflage provides a significant emotional benefit for patients with facial skin conditions, and this is substantiated by a literature review and personal experience. More clinical studies are needed to assess and validate the findings reported here.Conclusion: Patients with visible skin conditions have increased rates of depression, anxiety, and decreased self-esteem. It is prudent for us to consider therapies that can offer rapid and dramatic results, such as cosmetic camouflage.Keywords: facial skin conditions, psychological health, emotional benefits, cosmetic camouflage, makeup

  6. Corticotropin-Releasing Factor Critical for Zebrafish Camouflage Behavior Is Regulated by Light and Sensitive to Ethanol

    OpenAIRE

    Wagle, Mahendra; Mathur, Priya; Guo, Su

    2011-01-01

    The zebrafish camouflage response is an innate “hard-wired” behavior that offers an excellent opportunity to explore neural circuit assembly and function. Moreover, the camouflage response is sensitive to ethanol, making it a tractable system for understanding how ethanol influences neural circuit development and function. Here we report the identification of corticotropin releasing factor (CRF) as a critical component of the camouflage response pathway. We further show that ethanol, having n...

  7. Analysis of the camouflage effect in time of segregation in texturized regions using the Cox proportional hazard model

    OpenAIRE

    Eduardo Yoshio Nakano; Juliana Ferrari Cunha

    2012-01-01

    Humans have trichromatic vision. However variations in gene can cause deficiency in color vision resulting to dichromatism. The aim of this work was to verify the real efficiency of dichromats to break colour camouflage. Total of nine colour-blind individuals participated in this study and the variable considered was the time to segregation of camouflaged targets. The interest was to compare the response time in several conditions of camouflage and the analysis was performed using the Cox pro...

  8. ANALYSIS OF CAMOUFLAGE COVER SPECTRAL CHARACTERISTICS BY IMAGING SPECTROMETER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Y. Kouznetsov

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Subject of Research.The paper deals with the problems of detection and identification of objects in hyperspectral imagery. The possibility of object type determination by statistical methods is demonstrated. The possibility of spectral image application for its data type identification is considered. Method. Researching was done by means of videospectral equipment for objects detection at "Fregat" substrate. The postprocessing of hyperspectral information was done with the use of math model of pattern recognition system. The vegetation indexes TCHVI (Three-Channel Vegetation Index and NDVI (Normalized Difference Vegetation Index were applied for quality control of object recognition. Neumann-Pearson criterion was offered as a tool for determination of objects differences. Main Results. We have carried out analysis of the spectral characteristics of summer-typecamouflage cover (Germany. We have calculated the density distribution of vegetation indexes. We have obtained statistical characteristics needed for creation of mathematical model for pattern recognition system. We have shown the applicability of vegetation indices for detection of summer camouflage cover on averdure background. We have presented mathematical model of object recognition based on Neumann-Pearson criterion. Practical Relevance. The results may be useful for specialists in the field of hyperspectral data processing for surface state monitoring.

  9. Camouflaged target detection based on polarized spectral features

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Jian; Zhang, Junping; Zou, Bin

    2016-05-01

    The polarized hyperspectral images (PHSI) include polarization, spectral, spatial and radiant features, which provide more information about objects and scenes than traditional intensity or spectrum ones. And polarization can suppress the background and highlight the object, leading to the high potential to improve camouflaged target detection. So polarized hyperspectral imaging technique has aroused extensive concern in the last few years. Nowadays, the detection methods are still not very mature, most of which are rooted in the detection of hyperspectral image. And before using these algorithms, Stokes vector is used to process the original four-dimensional polarized hyperspectral data firstly. However, when the data is large and complex, the amount of calculation and error will increase. In this paper, tensor is applied to reconstruct the original four-dimensional data into new three-dimensional data, then, the constraint energy minimization (CEM) is used to process the new data, which adds the polarization information to construct the polarized spectral filter operator and takes full advantages of spectral and polarized information. This way deals with the original data without extracting the Stokes vector, so as to reduce the computation and error greatly. The experimental results also show that the proposed method in this paper is more suitable for the target detection of the PHSI.

  10. Emotional benefit of cosmetic camouflage in the treatment of facial skin conditions: personal experience and review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, Lauren L; Emer, Jason J

    2012-01-01

    Background Recent studies highlighting the psychological benefits of medical treatment for dermatological skin conditions have demonstrated a clear role for medical therapy in psychological health. Skin conditions, particularly those that are overtly visible, such as those located on the face, neck, and hands, often have a profound effect on the daily functioning of those affected. The literature documents significant emotional benefits using medical therapy in conditions such as acne, psoriasis, vitiligo, and rosacea, but there is little evidence documenting similar results with the use of cosmetic camouflage. Here we present a review highlighting the practical use of cosmetic camouflage makeup in patients with facial skin conditions and review its implications for psychological health. Methods A search of the Medline and Scopus databases was performed to identify articles documenting the emotional benefit of cosmetic camouflage. Results Cosmetic camouflage provides a significant emotional benefit for patients with facial skin conditions, and this is substantiated by a literature review and personal experience. More clinical studies are needed to assess and validate the findings reported here. Conclusion Patients with visible skin conditions have increased rates of depression, anxiety, and decreased self-esteem. It is prudent for us to consider therapies that can offer rapid and dramatic results, such as cosmetic camouflage. PMID:23152694

  11. The effect of contrast in camouflage patterns on detectability by human observers and CAMAELEON

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinrich, Daniela H.; Selj, Gorm K.

    2015-05-01

    Evaluation of signature properties of military equipment is very important. It is crucial to apply the proper method out of many possible approaches, based on amongst others ranking by probability of detection, detection time, and distance to target, which have been carried out by various countries. In this paper we present results from camouflage pattern assessments utilising two different approaches, based on human observers (detection time) and simulations (CAMAELEON). CAMAELEON ranks camouflaged targets by their local contrast, orientation and spatial frequency, mimicking the human eye's response, and is a rapid and low cost method for signature assessment. In our camouflage tests, human observers were asked to search for targets (in a natural setting) presented on a high resolution pc screen, and the corresponding detection times were recorded. In our study we find a good correspondence between the camouflage properties of the targets in most of our unique tests (scenes), but in some particular cases there is an interesting deviation. Two similar camouflage patterns (both were random samples of the pattern) were tested, and it seemed that the results depended on the way the pattern is attached to the test subject. More precisely, it may seem that high-contrast coloured patches of the pattern in the target outline were significantly different detected by humans compared to CAMAELEON. In this paper we discuss this deviation in the two signature evaluation methods and look at potential risks.

  12. STUDY ON MECHANISM OF MODIFICATION OF HLA ANTIGEN CAMOUFLAGED BY DIVERSE mPEGs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张印则; 周华友; 兰炯采; 李伟; 张志欣; 章扬培

    2004-01-01

    Objective To study mechanism of various effects of HLA antigen camouflaged by different mPEGs. Methods Effects of the modification of HLA antigen camouflaged by various mPEGs were detected by microlymphocytotoxicity test. The ability of modification was detected by SDS-PAGE. The mechanism of the modification was depicted by the three-dimensional structure of HLA antigen. Results The specific reaction between HLA-A2 antigen and its antibody were completely blocked by mPEG-BTC and mPEG-SPA. mPEG-MAL did not camouflage HLA antigen. The diversity of the modification of HLA antigen camouflaged by varied mPEGs was closely associated with the amides displayed on the surface of HLA antigen. Conclusion Only the amides which were exposed to the surface of HLA antigen can be camouflaged by mPEG. The amides on the surface of three-dimensional structure of HLA-A2 antigen determine the effect of the modification by various mPEGs.

  13. Camouflaging in a complex environment--octopuses use specific features of their surroundings for background matching.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noam Josef

    Full Text Available Living under intense predation pressure, octopuses evolved an effective and impressive camouflaging ability that exploits features of their surroundings to enable them to "blend in." To achieve such background matching, an animal may use general resemblance and reproduce characteristics of its entire surroundings, or it may imitate a specific object in its immediate environment. Using image analysis algorithms, we examined correlations between octopuses and their backgrounds. Field experiments show that when camouflaging, Octopus cyanea and O. vulgaris base their body patterns on selected features of nearby objects rather than attempting to match a large field of view. Such an approach enables the octopus to camouflage in partly occluded environments and to solve the problem of differences in appearance as a function of the viewing inclination of the observer.

  14. A new method of multispectral image processing with camouflage effect detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Jianghua; Cui, Guangzhen; Qin, Lei

    2015-10-01

    In order to enhance the observability of multispectral image and improve the accuracy of camouflage effect evaluation based on multispectral photographic. A new method for multispectral image processing has been put forward. In the visible band, more spectral images for image fusion which are based on wavelet transformation respectively are chosen. The image information is enhanced. The visible light and near infrared band images are fused and introduced in three-channel of red, green and blue. The true color image is synthetized. While the detail of visible light image is enhanced, near infrared image information which is more interesting in camouflage evaluation is kept. Finally the fusion image are processed through histogram stretching and correlation method. The image color and luminance difference of each part is enhanced. The target recognition and camouflage effect evaluation is more advantageous. The experimental results proved that the method has a good effect.

  15. CAMOUFLAGE AND ITS IMPACT ON AUSTRALIA IN WWII: AN ART HISTORIAN’S PERSPECTIVE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ann Elias

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The impact of modern camouflage on Australian military practices and on the public imagination intensified during the Second World War. A new organisation was created to support national security through concealment and deception. Its core members were civilians and included a zoologist who specialised in animal camouflage as well as a group of Australia’s leading artists who specialised in optical tricks and visual illusions. While concealment and deception remain central to contemporary approaches to national security (i.e. part of a counterintelligence strategy, the history outlined here draws attention to ethical conflicts and conceptual struggles in relation to camouflage and warfare that were important in WWII, but may seem quaint today.

  16. Use of makeup, hairstyles, glasses, and prosthetics as adjuncts to scar camouflage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidle, Douglas M; Decker, Jennifer R

    2011-08-01

    Scars after facial trauma or surgery can be a source of distress for patients, and facial plastic surgeons are frequently called upon to help manage them. Although no technique can remove a scar, numerous treatment modalities have been developed to improve facial scar appearance with varying levels of invasiveness. This article reviews techniques that camouflage scars without surgical intervention. Topical scar treatments, camouflage cosmetics, use of hairstyling and glasses, and facial prosthetics are discussed. In addition, professional counseling is provided on selection and application of topical cosmetics for use as part of an office practice. PMID:21856536

  17. Shape recognition for ships: World War I naval camouflage under the magnifying glass

    OpenAIRE

    Bekers, Willem; Meyer, Ronald; Strobbe, Tiemen

    2016-01-01

    Much of the experiments that led to the development of World War I ship camouflage were conducted on an intuitive basis or based upon pseudo-scientific work. As a result of this rather empirical approach, possible effects of the naval camouflage schemes that were developed against the background of submarine warfare on the Atlantic still remain unclear. So-called dazzle paint schemes were conceived to break up target contours and disclose the ship’s number, direction, speed and distance—thus ...

  18. Skeletal class III camouflage by mandibular incisor extraction: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janardhanan Kumaresan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Treatment planning in orthodontics plays a key role in determining the successful treatment of any kind of malocclusion. Skeletal class III malocclusions are generally difficult to treat because of the complex nature of the skeletal and dental manifestations they produce. Mild to moderate skeletal class III malocclusions sometimes have an acceptable facial profile where orthodontic camouflage is possible. In this case report, camouflage of a mild skeletal class III is done by the extraction of a single mandibular incisor, which helped in maintaining the profile of the patient and also in the correction of crowding in the mandibular anterior region.

  19. Reducing Sand Fly Numbers in Leishmania Endemic Regions in Kenya with Insecticide Treated Camouflage Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Current US military operations in deserts face persistent threats from sand flies that transmit human Leishmania. Methods to reduce the risk of human infection from leishmaniasis by reducing the number of sand fly vectors were investigated in Kenya. Bifenthrin treated and un-treated camouflage netti...

  20. For the Classroom--The Five Signs of Death: Cold Water Camouflage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Leslie

    1981-01-01

    Outlines a classroom science activity suitable for elementary through adult levels demonstrating that coldwater submergence may cause some people to appear dead when they are not. Includes a description of several activities which exhibit the signs of coldwater camouflage, materials needed, and discussion topics. (DS)

  1. Study on the recognition of camouflage targets with hyper-spectral detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jia-chun; Wang, Qi-chao; Lin, Zhi-dan; Zhao, Da-peng; Shi, Jia-ming; Chen, Zong-sheng

    2015-10-01

    In order to acquire more information of the scene to improve the veracity of recognition of camouflage targets, an electrically tunable hyper-spectral detection system, which is based on acousto-optic tunable filter (AOTF), was designed. The system includes collimated optical system, AOTF and its controller, imaging lens, CCD sensor and so on. The system has a property of being fast and electronically tunable, so a quick scan of spectrum over the waveband of 550 nm ~ 900nm can be realized. A series of hyper-spectral imaging experiments about a camouflage aluminum plane, coated with three typical camouflage pigments (dark green, light green and khaki) within a complex meadow environment were accomplished at specific wavelengths from 580 nm to 840 nm with 10 nm spectral resolution. The hyper-spectral characteristics of three pigments and various backgrounds were acquired to deduce the intensity contrast information between them. The experimental results demonstrated that the reflex characteristic of three typical camouflage pigments were different from that of natural background. The several wavelengths or wave bands, which were used to detect and recognize the man-made targets placed in typical woodland environment, were obtained by analyzing the experimental data.

  2. Survey on network traffic camouflaging%网络流量伪装技术研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张连成; 王振兴; 苗甫

    2011-01-01

    根据伪装目标的不同,将流量伪装分为流量抗发现、流量低截获、流量身份伪装和流量模式伪装.首先对流寄生、隧道承载和流量变换等流量抗发现技术进行简要介绍,阐述流量分散、端口跳变和地址跳变等流量低截获技术;然后介绍匿名通信、跳板和地址伪造等流量身份伪装技术,对流量填充、流量规范化和流量掩饰等流量模式伪装技术进行概述;最后总结和展望网络流量伪装技术存在的问题及发展前景.%According to the different camouflaging purposes,traffic camouflaging technologies can be divided into four catego-ries; traffic anti-awareness, traffic anti-interception, traffic identification camouflaging and traffic pattern camouflaging. Firstly, this paper briefly discussed flow parasite, tunnel encapsulation and traffic morphing technologies,next introduced traffic disper-sion , port hopping and network address hopping technologies, after that, described anonymous communication, stepping stone and address spoofing technologies,then represented traffic padding, traffic normalization and traffic masking technologies,final-ly , summarized and discussed existing problems and near future research directions of traffic camouflaging technologies.

  3. Hiding in plain sight: A study on camouflage and habitat selection in a slow-moving desert herbivore

    OpenAIRE

    Nafus, MG; Germano, JM; Perry, JA; Todd, BD; Walsh, A.; Swaisgood, RR

    2015-01-01

    © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the International Society for Behavioral Ecology. All rights reserved. Camouflage via animal coloration and patterning is a broadly important antipredator strategy. Behavioral decision making is an influential facet of many camouflage strategies; fitness benefits often are not realized unless an organism selects suitable backgrounds. Controlled experimental studies of behavioral strategies in selection of backgrounds conferr...

  4. Predator perception of detritus and eggsac decorations spun by orb-web spiders Cyclosa octotuberculata: Do they function to camouflage the spiders?

    OpenAIRE

    Wenjin GAN, Fengxiang LIU, Zengtao ZHANG, Daiqin LI

    2010-01-01

    Camouflage is one of the most widespread and powerful strategies that animals use to make detection/recognition more difficult. Many orb-web spiders of the genus Cyclosa add prey remains, plant debris, moults, and/or eggsacs to their webs called web decorations. Web decorations resembling spider body colour pattern have been considered to camouflage the spider from predators. While this camouflage is obvious from a human’s perspective, it has rarely been investigated from a predator’s perspec...

  5. A new strategy of counterattacking anti-satellite based on motion camouflage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    RADICE; Gianmarco

    2010-01-01

    Motion Camouflage (MC) is illuminated as a novel strategy in counterattacking anti-satellite by way of stealth trajectory scheduling. The dynamics model of MC in space is developed and a quadratic function with three boundary constraints is employed for trajectory determination. Based on the model a scenario is set to run the simulation. The results indicate given the designed acceleration input, the predator will be moved following a prescribed route, which precisely locates the predator between two objects at each time instant. In the last approaching phase, the motion is achieved with a big bumping rate which guarantees the power of this striking. Methods for deriving minimum fuel cost in the fixed approaching duration and the minimum approaching duration in limited acceleration input are proposed and are verified in the simulation. At last, camouflage is recognized as a multi-faceted affair, in which stealth trajectory design is considered an effective technique in stealth cooperation.

  6. Hanna Rose Shell, Hide and Seek: Camouflage, Photography and the Media of Reconnaissance

    OpenAIRE

    Contarelli, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    L’ouvrage de Hanna Rose Shell, enseignante-chercheuse au M.I.T., trace l’histoire et le développement des techniques de camouflage, de l’invention de ce terme jusqu’à son application pratique dans le domaine militaire. L’intérêt de l’auteure sur le sujet se centre sur les relations entre l’apparition de la notion de camouflage et les moyens d’enregistrement émergents à l’époque autour de la photographie et du cinéma. Introduisant des artistes et des cinéastes impliqués dans le sujet et propos...

  7. Patternable PEDOT nanofilms with grid electrodes for transparent electrochromic devices targeting thermal camouflage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Bumsoo; Koh, Jong Kwan; Park, Junyong; Ahn, Changui; Ahn, Joonmo; Kim, Jong Hak; Jeon, Seokwoo

    2015-10-01

    This paper reports a new type of transmitting mode electrochromic device that uses the high-contrast electrochromism of poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT) and operates at long-wavelength infrared (8-12 μm) . To maximize the transmittance contrast and transmittance contrast ratio of the device for thermal camouflage, we control the thickness of the thin PEDOT layer from 25 nm to 400 nm and develop a design of grid-type counter electrodes. The cyclability can be greatly improved by selective deposition of the PEDOT film on grid electrodes as an ion storage layer without any loss of overall transmittance. The device with optimized architectures shows a high transmittance contrast ratio of 83 % at a wavelength of 10 μm with a response rate under 1.4 s when alternating voltage is applied. Captured images of an LED lamp behind the device prove the possibility of active, film-type camouflage against thermal detection.

  8. Camouflage of Severe Skeletal Class II Gummy Smile Patient Treated Nonsurgically with Mini Implants

    OpenAIRE

    Irfan Qamruddin; Fazal Shahid; Mohammad Khursheed Alam; Wafa Zehra Jamal

    2014-01-01

    Skeletal class II has always been a challenge in orthodontics and often needs assistance of surgical orthodontics in nongrowing patients when it presents with severe discrepancy. Difficulty increases more when vertical dysplasia is also associated with sagittal discrepancy. The advent of mini implants in orthodontics has broadened the spectrum of camouflage treatment. This case report presents a 16-year-old nongrowing girl with severe class II because of retrognathic mandible, and anterior de...

  9. Treatment in borderline class III malocclusion: orthodontic camouflage (extraction) versus orthognathic surgery

    OpenAIRE

    A-Bakr M Rabie; Wong, Ricky W.K; Min, G.U.

    2008-01-01

    AIMS: To investigate the differences in morphological characteristics of borderline class III patients who had undergone camouflage orthodontic treatment or orthognathic surgery, and to compare the treatment effects between these two modalities. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Cephalograms of 25 patients (13 orthodontic, 12 surgical) with class III malocclusion were analyzed. All had a pretreatment ANB angle greater than -5 masculine. RESULTS: Using discriminant analysis, only Holdaway angle was selec...

  10. Cephalopod dynamic camouflage: bridging the continuum between background matching and disruptive coloration

    OpenAIRE

    Hanlon, R.T.; Chiao, C.-C.; Mäthger, L.M.; BARBOSA, A.; Buresch, K.C.; Chubb, C

    2008-01-01

    Individual cuttlefish, octopus and squid have the versatile capability to use body patterns for background matching and disruptive coloration. We define—qualitatively and quantitatively—the chief characteristics of the three major body pattern types used for camouflage by cephalopods: uniform and mottle patterns for background matching, and disruptive patterns that primarily enhance disruptiveness but aid background matching as well. There is great variation within each of the three body patt...

  11. The practice and poetics of fieldwork: Hugh Cott and the study of camouflage

    OpenAIRE

    Forsyth, Isla

    2014-01-01

    This paper examines the practice and poetics of the British zoologist Hugh Cott’s fieldwork in order to explore the hybrid nature of developments in biological and military camouflage. Specifically focusing on two fieldtrips conducted in the 1920s to the Amazon and the Zambesi, and by examining how Cott communicated his scientific findings through photography and art this paper reveals that the performance of scientific knowledge production is spatially contingent; born of embodied, creative...

  12. A Virtual Motion Camouflage Approach for Cooperative Trajectory Planning of Multiple UCAVs

    OpenAIRE

    Xueqiang Gu; Lincheng Shen; Jing Chen; Yu Zhang; Wanpeng Zhang

    2014-01-01

    This paper investigates cooperative trajectory planning of multiple unmanned combat aerial vehicles (multi-UCAV) in performing autonomous cooperative air-to-ground target attack missions. By integrating an approximate allowable attack region model, several constraint models, and a multicriterion objective function, the problem is formulated as a cooperative trajectory optimal control problem (CTOCP). Then, a virtual motion camouflage (VMC) for cooperative trajectory planning of multi-UCAV, co...

  13. Near-field SAR for signature and camouflage evaluation in realistic backgrounds

    OpenAIRE

    Larsson, Christer; Jersblad, Johan

    2011-01-01

    Outdoor ranges are commonly used for accurate RCS measurements of full scale vehicles with or without camouflage. Furthermore, ISAR processing is often used to obtain high quality imagery of the objects. However, these images do not show the vehicles in the environment where they are supposed to operate. This paper describes a ground based SAR system that is used to make accurate measurements on vehicles or other objects in realistic backgrounds. A transportable short range SAR measurement...

  14. Escape Distance in Ground-Nesting Birds Differs with Individual Level of Camouflage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson-Aggarwal, Jared K; Troscianko, Jolyon T; Stevens, Martin; Spottiswoode, Claire N

    2016-08-01

    Camouflage is one of the most widespread antipredator strategies in the animal kingdom, yet no animal can match its background perfectly in a complex environment. Therefore, selection should favor individuals that use information on how effective their camouflage is in their immediate habitat when responding to an approaching threat. In a field study of African ground-nesting birds (plovers, coursers, and nightjars), we tested the hypothesis that individuals adaptively modulate their escape behavior in relation to their degree of background matching. We used digital imaging and models of predator vision to quantify differences in color, luminance, and pattern between eggs and their background, as well as the plumage of incubating adult nightjars. We found that plovers and coursers showed greater escape distances when their eggs were a poorer pattern match to the background. Nightjars sit on their eggs until a potential threat is nearby, and, correspondingly, they showed greater escape distances when the pattern and color match of the incubating adult's plumage-rather than its eggs-was a poorer match to the background. Finally, escape distances were shorter in the middle of the day, suggesting that escape behavior is mediated by both camouflage and thermoregulation. PMID:27420787

  15. Cuttlefish responses to visual orientation of substrates, water flow and a model of motion camouflage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shohet, A J; Baddeley, R J; Anderson, J C; Kelman, E J; Osorio, D

    2006-12-01

    Low-level mechanisms in vertebrate vision are sensitive to line orientation. Here we investigate orientation sensitivity in the cuttlefish Sepia pharaonis, by allowing animals to settle on stripe patterns. When camouflaging themselves cuttlefish are known to be sensitive to image parameters such as contrast and spatial scale, but we find no effect of background orientation on the patterns displayed. It is nonetheless clear that the animals see orientation, because they prefer to rest with the body-axis perpendicular to the stripes. We consider three possible mechanisms to account for this behaviour. Firstly, that the body patterns are themselves oriented, and that the cuttlefish align themselves to aid static camouflage. This is unlikely, as the patterns displayed have no dominant orientation at any spatial scale. A second possibility is that motion camouflage favours alignment of the body orthogonal to background stripes, and we suggest how this alignment can minimise motion signals produced by occlusion. Thirdly we show that cuttlefish prefer to rest with their body-axis parallel to the water flow, and it is possible that they use visual patterns such as sand ripples to determine water flow. PMID:17114404

  16. A highly distributed Bragg stack with unique geometry provides effective camouflage for Loliginid squid eyes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holt, Amanda L; Sweeney, Alison M; Johnsen, Sönke; Morse, Daniel E

    2011-10-01

    Cephalopods possess a sophisticated array of mechanisms to achieve camouflage in dynamic underwater environments. While active mechanisms such as chromatophore patterning and body posturing are well known, passive mechanisms such as manipulating light with highly evolved reflectors may also play an important role. To explore the contribution of passive mechanisms to cephalopod camouflage, we investigated the optical and biochemical properties of the silver layer covering the eye of the California fishery squid, Loligo opalescens. We discovered a novel nested-spindle geometry whose correlated structure effectively emulates a randomly distributed Bragg reflector (DBR), with a range of spatial frequencies resulting in broadband visible reflectance, making it a nearly ideal passive camouflage material for the depth at which these animals live. We used the transfer-matrix method of optical modelling to investigate specular reflection from the spindle structures, demonstrating that a DBR with widely distributed thickness variations of high refractive index elements is sufficient to yield broadband reflectance over visible wavelengths, and that unlike DBRs with one or a few spatial frequencies, this broadband reflectance occurs from a wide range of viewing angles. The spindle shape of the cells may facilitate self-assembly of a random DBR to achieve smooth spatial distributions in refractive indices. This design lends itself to technological imitation to achieve a DBR with wide range of smoothly varying layer thicknesses in a facile, inexpensive manner. PMID:21325315

  17. Red trap colour of the carnivorous plant Drosera rotundifolia does not serve a prey attraction or camouflage function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foot, G; Rice, S P; Millett, J

    2014-01-01

    The traps of many carnivorous plants are red in colour. This has been widely hypothesized to serve a prey attraction function; colour has also been hypothesized to function as camouflage, preventing prey avoidance. We tested these two hypotheses in situ for the carnivorous plant Drosera rotundifolia. We conducted three separate studies: (i) prey attraction to artificial traps to isolate the influence of colour; (ii) prey attraction to artificial traps on artificial backgrounds to control the degree of contrast and (iii) observation of prey capture by D. rotundifolia to determine the effects of colour on prey capture. Prey were not attracted to green traps and were deterred from red traps. There was no evidence that camouflaged traps caught more prey. For D. rotundifolia, there was a relationship between trap colour and prey capture. However, trap colour may be confounded with other leaf traits. Thus, we conclude that for D. rotundifolia, red trap colour does not serve a prey attraction or camouflage function. PMID:24740904

  18. Camouflage effects of various colour-marking morphs against different microhabitat backgrounds in a polymorphic pygmy grasshopper Tetrix japonica.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaori Tsurui

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Colour-marking polymorphism is widely distributed among cryptic species. To account for the adaptive significance of such polymorphisms, several hypotheses have been proposed to date. Although these hypotheses argue over the degree of camouflage effects of marking morphs (and the interactions between morphs and their microhabitat backgrounds, as far as we know, most empirical evidence has been provided under unnatural conditions (i.e., using artificial prey. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Tetrix japonica, a pygmy grasshopper, is highly polymorphic in colour-markings and occurs in both sand and grass microhabitats. Even within a microhabitat, T. japonica is highly polymorphic. Using humans as dummy predators and printed photographs in which various morphs of grasshoppers were placed against different backgrounds, we addressed three questions to test the neutral, background heterogeneity, and differential crypsis hypotheses in four marking-type morphs: 1 do the morphs differ in the degree of crypsis in each microhabitat, 2 are different morphs most cryptic in specific backgrounds of the microhabitats, and 3 does the morph frequency reflect the degree of crypsis? CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The degree of camouflage differed among the four morphs; therefore, the neutral hypothesis was rejected. Furthermore, the order of camouflage advantage among morphs differed depending on the two types of backgrounds (sand and grass, although the grass background consistently provided greater camouflage effects. Thus, based on our results, we could not reject the background heterogeneity hypothesis. Under field conditions, the more cryptic morphs comprised a minority of the population. Overall, our results demonstrate that the different morphs were not equivalent in the degree of crypsis, but the degree of camouflage of the morphs was not consistent with the morph frequency. These findings suggest that trade-offs exist between the camouflage benefit of

  19. Evidence for passive chemical camouflage in the parasitic mite Varroa destructor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kather, Ricarda; Drijfhout, Falko P; Shemilt, Sue; Martin, Stephen J

    2015-02-01

    Social insect colonies provide a stable and safe environment for their members. Despite colonies being heavily guarded, parasites have evolved numerous strategies to invade and inhabit these hostile places. Two such strategies are (true) chemical mimicry via biosynthesis of host odor, and chemical camouflage, in which compounds are acquired from the host. The ectoparasitic mite Varroa destructor feeds on hemolymph of its honey bee host, Apis mellifera. The mite's odor closely resembles that of its host, which allows V. destructor to remain undetected as it lives on the adult host during its phoretic phase and while reproducing on the honeybee brood. During the mite life cycle, it switches between host adults and brood, which requires it to adjust its profile to mimic the very different odors of honey bee brood and adults. In a series of transfer experiments, using bee adults and pupae, we tested whether V. destructor changes its profile by synthesizing compounds or by using chemical camouflage. We show that V. destructor required direct access to host cuticle to mimic its odor, and that it was unable to synthesize host-specific compounds itself. The mite was able to mimic host odor, even when dead, indicating a passive physico-chemical mechanism of the parasite cuticle. The chemical profile of V. destructor was adjusted within 3 to 9 h after switching hosts, demonstrating that passive camouflage is a highly efficient, fast and flexible way for the mite to adapt to a new host profile when moving between different host life stages or colonies. PMID:25620373

  20. Design of camouflage material for visible and near infrared based on thin film technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miao, Lei; Shi, Jia-ming; Zhao, Da-peng; Liu, Hao; Wang, Chao; Xu, Yan-liang

    2015-11-01

    Visible light and near infrared based camouflage materials achieve good stealth under traditional optical detection equipment but its spectral differences with green plants can be taken advantage of by high spectrum based detection technologies. Based on the thin structure of bandpass filter, we designed an optical film with both green and near infrared spectrum. We conducted simulations using transfer matrix methods and optimized the result by simplex methods. The spectral reflectance curve of the proposed thin film matches that of green plants, and experiments show that the proposed thin film achieve good invisibility under visible light and near infrared in a wide viewing angle.

  1. Hidden in Plain Sight: How Ventral Line Markings in Chameleons May Enhance Camouflage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resetarits, Emlyn J; Raxworthy, Christopher J

    2016-02-01

    Chameleons, lizards often synonymous with camouflage for their color-changing abilities, possess a variety of permanent coloration patterns whose evolutionary significance remains largely unknown. In this study, we explore the potential for white ventral line markings in species across the genus Chamaeleonidae to function as a camouflage pattern against diurnal predators. Diurnal behavioral field studies of the white-lined chameleon Furcifer viridis showed that individuals typically exposed ventral line markings during the characteristic ring-flip antipredator behavior in response to a predatory threat. These ventral line markings are largely inconspicuous in other postures. Comparative morphological analyses of 86 species found that there was a significant positive correlation between ventral line markings with arboreal habitat type, even when accounting for phylogeny. These results suggest that ventral line markings (and the ring-flip behavior) could act as a disruptive or mimetic coloration marking for arboreal chameleons against visual diurnal predators. Further work testing differential predation rates is necessary in order to verify the proposed function of these line markings. PMID:26807752

  2. Serum albumin 'camouflage' of plant virus based nanoparticles prevents their antibody recognition and enhances pharmacokinetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitek, Andrzej S; Jameson, Slater A; Veliz, Frank A; Shukla, Sourabh; Steinmetz, Nicole F

    2016-05-01

    Plant virus-based nanoparticles (VNPs) are a novel class of nanocarriers with unique potential for biomedical applications. VNPs have many advantageous properties such as ease of manufacture and high degree of quality control. Their biocompatibility and biodegradability make them an attractive alternative to synthetic nanoparticles (NPs). Nevertheless, as with synthetic NPs, to be successful in drug delivery or imaging, the carriers need to overcome several biological barriers including innate immune recognition. Plasma opsonization can tag (V)NPs for clearance by the mononuclear phagocyte system (MPS), resulting in shortened circulation half lives and non-specific sequestration in non-targeted organs. PEG coatings have been traditionally used to 'shield' nanocarriers from immune surveillance. However, due to broad use of PEG in cosmetics and other industries, the prevalence of anti-PEG antibodies has been reported, which may limit the utility of PEGylation in nanomedicine. Alternative strategies are needed to tailor the in vivo properties of (plant virus-based) nanocarriers. We demonstrate the use of serum albumin (SA) as a viable alternative. SA conjugation to tobacco mosaic virus (TMV)-based nanocarriers results in a 'camouflage' effect more effective than PEG coatings. SA-'camouflaged' TMV particles exhibit decreased antibody recognition, as well as enhanced pharmacokinetics in a Balb/C mouse model. Therefore, SA-coatings may provide an alternative and improved coating technique to yield (plant virus-based) NPs with improved in vivo properties enhancing drug delivery and molecular imaging. PMID:26950168

  3. Are stripes beneficial? Dazzle camouflage influences perceived speed and hit rates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bettina von Helversen

    Full Text Available In the animal kingdom, camouflage refers to patterns that help potential prey avoid detection. Mostly camouflage is thought of as helping prey blend in with their background. In contrast, disruptive or dazzle patterns protect moving targets and have been suggested as an evolutionary force in shaping the dorsal patterns of animals. Dazzle patterns, such as stripes and zigzags, are thought to reduce the probability with which moving prey will be captured by impairing predators' perception of speed. We investigated how different patterns of stripes (longitudinal-i.e., parallel to movement direction-and vertical-i.e., perpendicular to movement direction affect the probability with which humans can hit moving objects and if differences in hitting probability are caused by a misperception of speed. A first experiment showed that longitudinally striped objects were hit more often than unicolored objects. However, vertically striped objects did not differ from unicolored objects. A second study examining the link between perceived speed and hitting probability showed that longitudinally and vertically striped objects were both perceived as moving faster and were hit more often than unicolored objects. In sum, our results provide evidence that striped patterns disrupt the perception of speed, which in turn influences how often objects are hit. However, the magnitude and the direction of the effects depend on additional factors such as speed and the task setup.

  4. The carboxyl terminus of human cytomegalovirus-encoded 7 transmembrane receptor US28 camouflages agonism by mediating constitutive endocytosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Waldhoer, Maria; Casarosa, Paola; Rosenkilde, Mette M;

    2003-01-01

    US28 is one of four 7 transmembrane (7TM) chemokine receptors encoded by human cytomegalovirus and has been shown to both signal and endocytose in a ligand-independent, constitutively active manner. Here we show that the constitutive activity and constitutive endocytosis properties of US28 are se...... a 7TM receptor can camouflage the agonist properties of a ligand....

  5. Camouflage of Severe Skeletal Class II Gummy Smile Patient Treated Nonsurgically with Mini Implants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irfan Qamruddin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Skeletal class II has always been a challenge in orthodontics and often needs assistance of surgical orthodontics in nongrowing patients when it presents with severe discrepancy. Difficulty increases more when vertical dysplasia is also associated with sagittal discrepancy. The advent of mini implants in orthodontics has broadened the spectrum of camouflage treatment. This case report presents a 16-year-old nongrowing girl with severe class II because of retrognathic mandible, and anterior dentoalveolar protrusion sagittally and vertically resulted in severe overjet of 13 mm and excessive display of incisors and gums. Both maxillary central incisors were trimmed by general practitioner few years back to reduce visibility. Treatment involved use of micro implant for retraction and intrusion of anterior maxillary dentoalveolar segment while lower incisors were proclined to obtain normal overjet, and overbite and pleasing soft tissue profile. Smile esthetics was further improved with composite restoration of incisal edges of both central incisors.

  6. Orthodontic camouflage via total arch movement in a Class II with idiopathic condylar resorption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji-Sung Jang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Idiopathic condylar resorption (ICR, also known as idiopathic condylysis or condylar atrophy, is multifactorial pathology leading to severe mandibular retrognathism. The etiology has been shown to be multifactorial, such as avascular necrosis, traumatic injuries, hormone and autoimmune disease and it is largely difficult to distinguish the exact cause in each individual. In spite of the remarkable morphological alteration, surgical intervention is not readily recruited due to the possibility of recurrence of resorption. In order to restore balanced facial profile and occlusion. In this report, we present a camouflage treatment for skeletal Class II with ICR and facial asymmetry involving total arch movement, for the improvement facial profile and reconstruction of occlusion.

  7. The Camouflage of the Sacred in the Short Fiction of Hemingway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaid Ali

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This essay examines the short fiction of Ernest Hemingway in the light of Mircea Eliade’s notion of the camouflage of the sacred and the larval survival of original spiritual meaning. A subterranean love pulsates beneath the terse dialogue of Hemingway’s characters whose inner life we glimpse only obliquely. In the short play (“Today Is Friday” and four short stories (“The Killers,” “A Clean Well-Lighted Place,” “Old Man at the Bridge,” and “The Light of the World,” discussed here, light imagery, biblical allusions, and the figure of Christ, reveal a hidden imaginary universe. This sacral dimension has been largely overlooked by critics who dwell on the ostensible spiritual absence that characterizes Hemingway’s fiction.

  8. Camouflaged Supersymmetry

    CERN Document Server

    Bena, Iosif; Vercnocke, Bert

    2011-01-01

    We establish a relation between certain classes of flux compactifications and certain families of black hole microstate solutions. This connection reveals a rather unexpected result: there exist supersymmetric solutions of N=8 supergravity that live inside many N=2 truncations, but are not supersymmetric inside any of them. If this phenomenon is generic, it indicates the possible existence of much larger families of supersymmetric black rings and black hole microstates than previously thought.

  9. Intraspecific Colour Variation among Lizards in Distinct Island Environments Enhances Local Camouflage.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kate L A Marshall

    Full Text Available Within-species colour variation is widespread among animals. Understanding how this arises can elucidate evolutionary mechanisms, such as those underlying reproductive isolation and speciation. Here, we investigated whether five island populations of Aegean wall lizards (Podarcis erhardii have more effective camouflage against their own (local island substrates than against other (non-local island substrates to avian predators, and whether this was linked to island differences in substrate appearance. We also investigated whether degree of local substrate matching varied among island populations and between sexes. In most populations, both sexes were better matched against local backgrounds than against non-local backgrounds, particularly in terms of luminance (perceived lightness, which usually occurred when local and non-local backgrounds were different in appearance. This was found even between island populations that historically had a land connection and in populations that have been isolated relatively recently, suggesting that isolation in these distinct island environments has been sufficient to cause enhanced local background matching, sometimes on a rapid evolutionary time-scale. However, heightened local matching was poorer in populations inhabiting more variable and unstable environments with a prolonged history of volcanic activity. Overall, these results show that lizard coloration is tuned to provide camouflage in local environments, either due to genetic adaptation or changes during development. Yet, the occurrence and extent of selection for local matching may depend on specific conditions associated with local ecology and biogeographic history. These results emphasize how anti-predator adaptations to different environments can drive divergence within a species, which may contribute to reproductive isolation among populations and lead to ecological speciation.

  10. Sunscreen for fish: co-option of UV light protection for camouflage.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaspar P Mueller

    Full Text Available Many animals change their body pigmentation according to illumination of their environment. In aquatic vertebrates, this reaction is mediated through aggregation or dispersion of melanin-filled vesicles (melanosomes in dermal pigment cells (melanophores. The adaptive value of this behavior is usually seen in camouflage by allowing the animal to visually blend into the background. When exposed to visible light from below, however, dark-adapted zebrafish embryos at the age of 2 days post fertilization (dpf surprisingly display dispersal instead of aggregation of melanosomes, i.e. their body coloration becomes dark on a bright background. Melanosomes of older embryos and early larvae (3-5 dpf on the other hand aggregate as expected under these conditions. Here we provide an explanation to this puzzling finding: Melanosome dispersion in larvae 3 dpf and older is efficiently triggered by ultraviolet (UV light, irrespective of the visual background, suggesting that the extent of pigmentation is a trade-off between threats from predation and UV irradiation. The UV light-induced dispersion of melanosomes thereby is dependent on input from retinal short wavelength-sensitive (SWS cone photoreceptors. In young embryos still lacking a functional retina, protection from UV light predominates, and light triggers a dispersal of melanosomes via photoreceptors intrinsic to the melanophores, regardless of the actual UV content. In older embryos and early larvae with functional retinal photoreceptors in contrast, this light-induced dispersion is counteracted by a delayed aggregation in the absence of UV light. These data suggest that the primary function of melanosome dispersal has evolved as a protective adaption to prevent UV damage, which was only later co-opted for camouflage.

  11. Discriminating between camouflaged targets by their time of detection by a human-based observer assessment method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selj, G. K.; Søderblom, M.

    2015-10-01

    Detection of a camouflaged object in natural sceneries requires the target to be distinguishable from its local background. The development of any new camouflage pattern therefore has to rely on a well-founded test methodology - which has to be correlated with the final purpose of the pattern - as well as an evaluation procedure, containing the optimal criteria for i) discriminating between the targets and then eventually ii) for a final rank of the targets. In this study we present results from a recent camouflage assessment trial where human observers were used in a search by photo methodology to assess generic test camouflage patterns. We conducted a study to investigate possible improvements in camouflage patterns for battle dress uniforms. The aim was to do a comparative study of potential, and generic patterns intended for use in arid areas (sparsely vegetated, semi desert). We developed a test methodology that was intended to be simple, reliable and realistic with respect to the operational benefit of camouflage. Therefore we chose to conduct a human based observer trial founded on imagery of realistic targets in natural backgrounds. Inspired by a recent and similar trial in the UK, we developed new and purpose-based software to be able to conduct the observer trial. Our preferred assessment methodology - the observer trial - was based on target recordings in 12 different, but operational relevant scenes, collected in a dry and sparsely vegetated area (Rhodes). The scenes were chosen with the intention to span as broadly as possible. The targets were human-shaped mannequins and were situated identically in each of the scenes to allow for a relative comparison of camouflage effectiveness in each scene. Test of significance, among the targets' performance, was carried out by non-parametric tests as the corresponding time of detection distributions in overall were found to be difficult to parameterize. From the trial, containing 12 different scenes from

  12. Red trap colour of the carnivorous plant Drosera rotundifolia does not serve a prey attraction or camouflage function

    OpenAIRE

    Foot, G.; RICE S.p.; Millett, J.

    2014-01-01

    The traps of many carnivorous plants are red in colour. This has been widely hypothesized to serve a prey attraction function; colour has also been hypothesized to function as camouflage, preventing prey avoidance. We tested these two hypotheses in situ for the carnivorous plant Drosera rotundifolia. We conducted three separate studies: (i) prey attraction to artificial traps to isolate the influence of colour; (ii) prey attraction to artificial traps on artificial backgrounds to control the ...

  13. Response to Comment on "Open-ocean fish reveal an omnidirectional solution to camouflage in polarized environments".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brady, Parrish; Gilerson, Alex; Kattawar, George; Sullivan, Jim; Twardowski, Mike; Dierssen, Heidi; Cummings, Molly

    2016-08-01

    Cronin et al take issue with our evidence for polarocryptic carangid fish based on concerns of pseudoreplication, our contrast metric, and habitat. We clarify (i) the importance of camouflage in near-surface open ocean environments and (ii) the use of a Stokes contrast metric and further (iii) conduct individual-based statistics on our data set to confirm the reported polarocrypsis patterns. PMID:27493177

  14. Camouflage Effects of Various Colour-Marking Morphs against Different Microhabitat Backgrounds in a Polymorphic Pygmy Grasshopper Tetrix japonica

    OpenAIRE

    Kaori Tsurui; Atsushi Honma; Takayoshi Nishida

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Colour-marking polymorphism is widely distributed among cryptic species. To account for the adaptive significance of such polymorphisms, several hypotheses have been proposed to date. Although these hypotheses argue over the degree of camouflage effects of marking morphs (and the interactions between morphs and their microhabitat backgrounds), as far as we know, most empirical evidence has been provided under unnatural conditions (i.e., using artificial prey). METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPA...

  15. Are camouflaged seeds less attacked by wild birds? Sementes camufladas são menos atacadas por aves silvestres?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre de Almeida

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Wheat, corn and rice crops in Brazil use seeds treated with systemic insecticide/nematicide carbofuran, mixed to rhodamine B red dye. Carbofuran is toxic and rhodamine B is attractive to wild birds that eat up these seeds, resulting in notable mortality during planting. A field experiment was performed in southeast Brazil to evaluate if camouflaged seeds would be less consumed by wild birds in comparison to commercial seeds with red-colored rhodamine B and aposematic blue seeds. Camouflaged seeds were less removed than seeds with rhodamine B and natural colors. The camouflaging was more effective in the presence of irregularities and litter. There was no removal of blue-colored seeds. As legislation requires treated seeds to receive a different color to avoid accidents with humans, camouflaging may be used as replacement of rhodamine B to reduce mortality rates of wild birds.Plantações de trigo milho e arroz no Brasil utilizam sementes tratadas com o inseticida e nematicida sistêmico carbofuran, associado ao corante vermelho rodamina B. O carbofuran é tóxico e a rodamina B é atrativa às aves silvestres, as quais consomem estas sementes, resultando em notável mortalidade durante o plantio. Um experimento realizado em campo agrícola no sudeste do Brasil mostrou que sementes camufladas foram menos removidas por aves silvestres do que sementes com rodamina B. A camuflagem foi potencializada em presença de irregularidades e serrapilheira no solo. Não houve remoção de sementes de cor azul, mas a formulação granular de cor azul tem causado mortalidade de aves nos USA e Canadá. Como sementes tratadas com agrotóxicos devem, de acordo com a legislação, receber coloração diferenciada para evitar acidentes com humanos, a camuflagem pode ser utilizada, substituindo a rodamina B.

  16. The role of rehabilitative camouflage after cervicofacial reconstructive surgery: a preliminary study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicoletti G

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Giovanni Nicoletti,1–3 Andrea Sasso,1 Alberto Malovini,4,5 Luisa Ponchio,6 Silvia Scevola,2 Angela Faga,1–3 Aldo Pontone1 1Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, Department of Clinical Surgical Diagnostic and Pediatric Sciences, 2Advanced Technologies for Regenerative Medicine and Inductive Surgery Research Centre, University of Pavia, Pavia, Italy; 3Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery Unit, Salvatore Maugeri Research and Care Institute, Pavia, Italy; 4Department of Computer Engineering and Systems Science, University of Pavia, Pavia, Italy; 5Laboratory of Informatics and Systems Engineering for Clinical Research, 6Oncology Unit, Salvatore Maugeri Research and Care Institute, Pavia, Italy Abstract: A randomized, prospective, controlled study was carried out at the Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery Unit of the University of Pavia, Salvatore Maugeri Research and Care Institute, Pavia, Italy, to evaluate the psychological benefits from corrective medical camouflage (CMC following surgical treatment for skin cancer of the face. Twenty-four female patients, following recovery from facial skin cancer surgery, were enrolled in the study over a period of 1 year. The study was performed using two health-related quality of life tests, the Satisfaction Profile (SAT-P test and the Body Uneasiness Test (BUT. The patients were randomized into two groups: group A, patients undergoing CMC; and group B, controls. Both the SAT-P and BUT demonstrated statistically significant better results in the treated patients versus the controls in the following functional parameters: Psychological Functionality (PsF, Physical Functionality (PhF, and Work Performance (WP for the SAT-P test and Compulsive Self-Monitoring (CSM for the BUT. The PsF demonstrated a better result 6 months post-treatment. Such a difference was particularly significant when comparing the performance at 6 months versus that at 3 months. The PhF demonstrated a better outcome at 6 months post

  17. [Limiting factors in the class III camouflage treatment: a potential protocol].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaques Asensi, José

    2016-06-01

    The Class III skeletal malocclusion has been traditionally treated with a combined approach of orthodontics and orthognathic surgery or with a strategy of orthodontic camouflage. Some severe cases can be identified as ideal candidates for a surgical treatment whereas some others can be handled with orthodontics alone, with a reasonable expectation of an acceptable result. However, the problem remains for the borderline patient. In fact, limited information is available in the literature regarding the identification of the factors that can help in establishing the limits for one treatment modality or the other. Furthermore, the quantification of some of these factors, for practical purposes, is practically missing or very seldom suggested. Therefore, the decision making process remains a subjective reflection based on the "good clinical sense" of the orthodontist or just reduced to an "educated guess". In order to add some information, hopefully useful in deciding the most suitable treatment option for the individual patient, we propose a clinical protocol based on four different factors. Namely: the skeletal discrepancy, the occlusal discrepancy, the periodontal condition and facial aesthetics. For each one of these factors several parameters will be evaluated and, for some of them, an attempt to provide some reference numerical values will be made. Finally, clinical examples will be presented to illustrate the concepts discussed and the treatment alternatives, final treatment plan and treatment outcome will be analyzed for each one of them. PMID:27358006

  18. Open water camouflage via 'leaky' light guides in the midwater squid Galiteuthis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holt, Amanda L; Sweeney, Alison M

    2016-06-01

    Galiteuthis, a midwater squid, has photophores on the ventral surfaces of its eyes. These photophores emit bioluminescence to counter-illuminate the shadows cast by the eyes in downwelling sunlight, thereby hiding the eyes from upward-looking predators. The photophores consist of laminated fibre-like cells with semi-coaxial protein-dense layers around axial cytoplasm. These cells have been suggested to function as light guides: bioluminescence is an isotropic process used to hide in an anisotropic light environment, so any emission must be reshaped to be effective. We found a wide variation in cross-sectional geometries of photophore cells; some were more efficient at light guiding than others. We used a set of optical models to place these photophores in the context of the radiance where Galiteuthis lives and discovered a possible adaptive reason for this variation. In Galiteuthis's horizontal and vertical range, ocean radiance is also quite variable. For complete camouflage, photophores must reproduce this variation in radiance using an isotropic source. Our models show that variation in the geometry of the photophore light guides reproduces the predicted variation in ocean radiance experienced by this species. By selectively activating geometrically distinct populations of photophore cells, the animal may reproduce the angular distribution of light at all positions in its habitat. PMID:27278362

  19. Snowshoe hares display limited phenotypic plasticity to mismatch in seasonal camouflage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimova, Marketa; Mills, L. Scott; Lukacs, Paul M.; Mitchell, Michael S.

    2014-01-01

    As duration of snow cover decreases owing to climate change, species undergoing seasonal colour moults can become colour mismatched with their background. The immediate adaptive solution to this mismatch is phenotypic plasticity, either in phenology of seasonal colour moults or in behaviours that reduce mismatch or its consequences. We observed nearly 200 snowshoe hares across a wide range of snow conditions and two study sites in Montana, USA, and found minimal plasticity in response to mismatch between coat colour and background. We found that moult phenology varied between study sites, likely due to differences in photoperiod and climate, but was largely fixed within study sites with only minimal plasticity to snow conditions during the spring white-to-brown moult. We also found no evidence that hares modify their behaviour in response to colour mismatch. Hiding and fleeing behaviours and resting spot preference of hares were more affected by variables related to season, site and concealment by vegetation, than by colour mismatch. We conclude that plasticity in moult phenology and behaviours in snowshoe hares is insufficient for adaptation to camouflage mismatch, suggesting that any future adaptation to climate change will require natural selection on moult phenology or behaviour.

  20. Synthetic nanoparticles camouflaged with biomimetic erythrocyte membranes for reduced reticuloendothelial system uptake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Lang; Xu, Jun-Hua; Cai, Bo; Liu, Huiqin; Li, Ming; Jia, Yan; Xiao, Liang; Guo, Shi-Shang; Liu, Wei; Zhao, Xing-Zhong

    2016-02-01

    Suppression of the reticuloendothelial system (RES) uptake is one of the most challenging tasks in nanomedicine. Coating stratagems using polymers, such as poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG), have led to great success in this respect. Nevertheless, recent observations of immunological response toward these synthetic polymers have triggered a search for better alternatives. In this work, natural red blood cell (RBC) membranes are camouflaged on the surface of Fe3O4 nanoparticles for reducing the RES uptake. In vitro macrophage uptake, in vivo biodistribution and pharmacokinetic studies demonstrate that the RBC membrane is a superior alternative to the current gold standard PEG for nanoparticle ‘stealth’. Furthermore, we systematically investigate the in vivo potential toxicity of RBC membrane-coated nanoparticles by blood biochemistry, whole blood panel examination and histology analysis based on animal models. The combination of synthetic nanoparticles and natural cell membranes embodies a novel and biomimetic nanomaterial design strategy and presents a compelling property of functional materials for a broad range of biomedical applications.

  1. Camouflage Patterning in Maize Leaves Results from a Defect in Porphobilinogen Deaminase

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mingshu Huang; Thomas L.Slewinski; R.Frank Baker; Diane Janick-Buckner; Brent Buckner; Gurmukh S.Johal; David M.Braun

    2009-01-01

    Maize leaves are produced from polarized cell divisions that result in clonal cell lineages arrayed along the long axis of the leaf.We utilized this stereotypical division pattern to identify a collection of mutants that form chloroplast pigmentation sectors that violate the clonal cell lineages.Here,we describe the camouflage1 (cf1) mutant,which develops nonclonal,yellow-green sectors in its leaves.We cloned the cf1 gene by transposon tagging and determined that it encodes porphobilinogen deaminase (PBGD),an enzyme that functions early in chlorophyll and heme biosynthesis.While PBGD has been characterized biochemically,no viable mutations in this gene have been reported in plants.To investigate the in vivo function of PBGD,we characterized the cf1 mutant.Histological analyses revealed that of 1 yellow sectors display the novel phenotype of bundle sheath cell-specific death.Light-shift experiments determined that constant light suppressed cf1 sector formation,a dark/light transition is required to induce yellow sectors,and that sectors form only during a limited time of leaf development.Biochemical experiments determined that cf1 mutant leaves have decreased PBGD activity and increased levels of the enzyme substrate in both green and yellow regions.Furthermore,the cf1 yellow regions displayed a reduction in catalase activity.A threshold model is hypothesized to explain the cf1 variegation and incorporates photosynthetic cell differentiation,reactive oxygen species scavenging,and PBGD function.

  2. Red blood cell membrane camouflaged magnetic nanoclusters for imaging-guided photothermal therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Xiaoqing; Zheng, Rui; Fang, Xiaoling; Wang, Xiaofei; Zhang, Xiaoyan; Yang, Wuli; Sha, Xianyi

    2016-06-01

    Along with intrinsic magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) advantages, iron oxide nanomaterials capable of photothermal conversion have been reported very recently and have again raised great interest in their designs among biomedical researchers. However, like other inorganic nanomaterials, high macrophage uptake, short blood retention time and unfavorable biodistributions have strongly hampered their applications in vivo. To solve these problems, a rational design of red blood cell (RBC) membrane camouflaged iron oxide magnetic clusters (MNC@RBCs) is presented in this paper. Our data show that by simply introducing an "ultra-stealth" biomimetic coating to iron oxide magnetic nanoclusters (MNCs), MNC@RBCs maintain the imaging and photothermal functionalities inherited from MNCs cores while achieving much lower nonspecific macrophage uptake and dramatically altered fate in vivo. MNC@RBCs with superior prolonged blood retention time, preferred high tumor accumulation and relatively lowered liver biodistribution are demonstrated when injected intravenously in mice, leading to greatly enhanced photothermal therapeutic efficacy by a single treatment without further magnetic force manipulation. Our study illustrates a well prepared integration of MNCs and RBCs, exploiting advantages of both functionalities within a single unit and suggests a promising future for iron-based nanomaterials application in vivo. PMID:27031929

  3. Camouflage through an active choice of a resting spot and body orientation in moths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, C-K; Moon, J-Y; Lee, S-I; Jablonski, P G

    2012-09-01

    Cryptic colour patterns in prey are classical examples of adaptations to avoid predation, but we still know little about behaviours that reinforce the match between animal body and the background. For example, moths avoid predators by matching their colour patterns with the background. Active choice of a species-specific body orientation has been suggested as an important function of body positioning behaviour performed by moths after landing on the bark. However, the contribution of this behaviour to moths' crypticity has not been directly measured. From observations of geometrid moths, Hypomecis roboraria and Jankowskia fuscaria, we determined that the positioning behaviour, which consists of walking and turning the body while repeatedly lifting and lowering the wings, resulted in new resting spots and body orientations in J. fuscaria and in new resting spots in H. roboraria. The body positioning behaviour of the two species significantly decreased the probability of visual detection by humans, who viewed photographs of the moths taken before and after the positioning behaviour. This implies that body positioning significantly increases the camouflage effect provided by moth's cryptic colour pattern regardless of whether the behaviour involves a new body orientation or not. Our study demonstrates that the evolution of morphological adaptations, such as colour pattern of moths, cannot be fully understood without taking into account a behavioural phenotype that coevolved with the morphology for increasing the adaptive value of the morphological trait. PMID:22775528

  4. Disruptive camouflage tricks the human eye: a study of detection times of two near-similar targets in natural backgrounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selj, Gorm K.

    2015-10-01

    Our understanding of camouflage, in military as well as in evolutionary perspectives, has been developing over the last 100 years. In that period of time several underlying principles have emerged. It has turned out in the recent decade that background pattern matching alone may not be sufficient to conceal targets because of the ubiquitous and revealing information contained by the edges of a target. In this paper we have studied one concealment strategy, the so-called disruptive coloration, further as it predicts that high contrast patches placed at the target's outline will impede detection, by creating false target edges when exposed to the observer. Such disruptive coloration is contra-intuitive as it may impede detection in spite of the fact that the patches themselves may be poorly concealed. In military environments the "disruptive approach" within camouflage has been textbook material for decades. Still, very little has been reported, supporting this idea, especially when it comes to the concealment of human targets in natural sceneries. We report here experimental evidence from a field study, containing detection data from 12 unique natural scenes (5 testing the disruptive effect, 7 as reference tests), with both human targets and human observers, showing that disruptively colored camouflage patches along a human's outline (its head) may increase detection time significantly as when compared to a similar (human) target concealed only with background matching. Hence, our results support the idea that disruptive coloration may impede detection and similarly that the best concealment is achieved when disruptive coloration is added to a target that matches the background (reasonably) well. This study raises important question to the current understanding of human vision and concealment as well as to any approach to describe the human visual system mathematically.

  5. Orthodontic Camouflage Treatment in an Adult Patient with a Class II, Division 1 Malocclusion – A Case Report

    OpenAIRE

    Naragond, Appasaheb; Kenganal, Smitha; Sagarkar, Roshan; Sugaradday,

    2012-01-01

    Since so many decades, various treatment modalities have been presented for the treatment for the class II, div 1 malocclusions. In recent times, we have seen enormously increasing numbers of young adults who desire the shortest, cost effective and a non surgical correction of Class II malocclusions and they accept dental camouflage as a treatment option to mask the skeletal discrepancy. This case report presents one such case of a 22 year old non-growing female who had a skeletal Class II, d...

  6. Longevity and efficacy of bifenthrin treatment on desert-pattern U.S. military camouflage netting against mosquitoes in a hot-arid environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Personnel deployed in support of US military operations will benefit from additions to the current Department of Defense pest management system. A recent study showed that residual insecticide treatment of woodland pattern US military camouflage netting was long lasting and effective at reducing mos...

  7. Predator perception of detritus and eggsac decorations spun by orb-web spiders Cyclosa octotuberculata: Do they function to camouflage the spiders?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenjin GAN, Fengxiang LIU, Zengtao ZHANG, Daiqin LI

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Camouflage is one of the most widespread and powerful strategies that animals use to make detection/recognition more difficult. Many orb-web spiders of the genus Cyclosa add prey remains, plant debris, moults, and/or eggsacs to their webs called web decorations. Web decorations resembling spider body colour pattern have been considered to camouflage the spider from predators. While this camouflage is obvious from a human’s perspective, it has rarely been investigated from a predator’s perspective. In this study, we tested the visibility of web decorations by calculating chromatic and achromatic contrasts of detritus and eggsac decorations built by Cyclosa octotuberculata, against four different backgrounds viewed by both bird (e.g., blue tits and hymenopteran (e.g. wasps predators. We showed that both juvenile and adult spiders on webs with detritus or egg-sac decorations were undetectable by both hymenopteran and bird predators over short and long distances. Our results thus suggest that decorating webs with detritus or eggsacs by C. octotuberculata may camouflage the spider from both hymenopteran and bird predators in their common habitats [Current Zoology 56 (3: 379–387, 2010].

  8. Differential neural activation for camouflage detection task in Field-independent and Field-Dependent individuals: Evidence from fMRI

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Janani Rajagopalan; Shilpi Modi; Pawan Kumar; Subash Khushu; Manas K Mandal

    2015-12-01

    It is not clearly known as to why some people identify camouflaged objects with ease compared with others. The literature suggests that Field-Independent individuals detect camouflaged object better than their Field-Dependent counterparts, without having evidence at the neural activation level. A paradigm was designed to obtain neural correlates of camouflage detection, with real-life photographs, using functional magnetic resonance imaging. Twenty-three healthy human subjects were stratified as Field-Independent (Fl) and Field-Dependent (FD), with Witkins Embedded Figure Test. FIs performed better than FDs (marginal significance; =0.054) during camouflage detection task. fMRI revealed differential activation pattern between Fl and FD subjects for this task. One sample T-test showed greater activation in terms of cluster size in FDs, whereas FIs showed additional areas for the same task. On direct comparison of the two groups, Fl subjects showed additional activation in parts of primary visual cortex, thalamus, cerebellum, inferior and middle frontal gyrus. Conversely, FDs showed greater activation in inferior frontal gyms, precentral gyms, putamen, caudate nucleus and superior parietal lobule as compared to FIs. The results give preliminary evidence to the differential neural activation underlying the variances in cognitive styles of the two groups.

  9. Long wave infrared metamaterials and nano-materials design, simulation, and laboratory test for target camouflage in the defence application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albertoni, Alessandro

    2011-11-01

    The thermal analysis (TA) of the wave propagation in the long-wave (LWIR) infrared bands, performed on metamaterials and nano-materials, is suitable for manufacturing a new type of infrared (IR) thermal vision camouflage, useful for defence, military and security application and to evaluate the capability of new kind of materials to block night vision (NV) thermal sighting capabilities as new countermeasure technology. This is mainly generated by the very detailed signature characterization database, available in most automatic vision systems that are able to detect targets by the IR spectral signature provided by the IR sensor. These metamaterials, called photonics band gap devices (PBG) or more in general photonic crystal (PhC), works on IR photons providing absorbing, transmission and reflecting bands. All the optical properties are function of the specific nano design tuned in the thermal wavelength.

  10. An investigation of the ?female camouflage effect? in autism using a computerized ADOS-2 , and a test of sex/gender difference

    OpenAIRE

    Rynkiewicz, Agnieszka; Schuller, Bj?ern; Marchi, Erik; Piana, Stefano; Camurri, Antonio; Lassalle, Amandine; Baron-Cohen, Simon

    2016-01-01

    Background Autism spectrum conditions (autism) are diagnosed more frequently in boys than in girls. Females with autism may have been under-identified due to not only a male-biased understanding of autism but also females’ camouflaging. The study describes a new technique that allows automated coding of non-verbal mode of communication (gestures) and offers the possibility of objective, evaluation of gestures, independent of human judgment. The EyesWeb software platform and the Kinect sensor ...

  11. An investigation of the ‘female camouflage effect’ in autism using a computerized ADOS-2 and a test of sex/gender differences

    OpenAIRE

    Rynkiewicz, Agnieszka; Schuller, Björn; Marchi, Erik; Piana, Stefano; Camurri, Antonio; Lassalle, Amandine; Baron-Cohen, Simon

    2016-01-01

    Background: Autism spectrum conditions (autism) are diagnosed more frequently in boys than in girls. Females with autism may have been under-identified due to not only a male-biased understanding of autism but also females’ camouflaging. The study describes a new technique that allows automated coding of non-verbal mode of communication (gestures) and offers the possibility of objective, evaluation of gestures, independent of human judgment. The EyesWeb software platform and the Kinect sensor...

  12. Design and implementation of optical imaging and sensor systems for characterization of deep-sea biological camouflage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haag, Justin Mathew

    The visual ecology of deep-sea animals has long been of scientific interest. In the open ocean, where there is no physical structure to hide within or behind, diverse strategies have evolved to solve the problem of camouflage from a potential predator. Simulations of specific predator-prey scenarios have yielded estimates of the range of possible appearances that an animal may exhibit. However, there is a limited amount of quantitative information available related to both animal appearance and the light field at mesopelagic depths (200 m to 1000 m). To mitigate this problem, novel optical instrumentation, taking advantage of recent technological advances, was developed and is described in this dissertation. In the first half of this dissertation, the appearance of mirrored marine animals is quantitatively evaluated. A portable optical imaging scatterometer was developed to measure angular reflectance, described by the bidirectional reflectance distribution function (BRDF), of biological specimens. The instrument allows for BRDF capture from samples of arbitrary size, over a significant fraction of the reflectance hemisphere. Multiple specimens representing two species of marine animals, collected at mesopelagic depths, were characterized using the scatterometer. Low-dimensional parametric models were developed to simplify use of the data sets, and to validate the BRDF method. Results from principal component analysis confirm that BRDF measurements can be used to study intra- and interspecific variability of mirrored marine animal appearance. Collaborative efforts utilizing the BRDF data sets to develop physically-based scattering models are underway. In the second half of this dissertation, another key part of the deep-sea biological camouflage problem is examined. Two underwater radiometers, capable of low-light measurements, were developed to address the lack of available information related to the deep-sea light field. Quantitative comparison of spectral

  13. Design and Preparation of Bionic Camouflage Materials by Simulating Plant Leaves%植物叶片仿生伪装材料的设计与制备

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨玉杰; 胡碧茹; 吴文健

    2011-01-01

    设计和制备了一种新型的植物叶片仿生伪装材料,其由透明聚氯乙烯表层、叶绿素/聚乙烯醇薄膜、含水高阻隔袋和纸张四层组成.其中,透明聚氯乙烯表层提供防水性能,叶绿素封装于高隔氧材料聚乙烯醇中提高了其光稳定性,水封装于高隔水材料中降低了其蒸发散失速度,纸张提供了类植物叶片的疏松多孔结构.光谱测试结果表明,该仿生伪装材料在可见光、近红外和短波红外波段的反射光谱特征与植物叶片一致,相似度可达0.9983,室外日光照射三个月后仍能保持与植物叶片一致的反射光谱特征.该伪装材料与植物叶片光谱相似度高,耐候性好,有望可以有效对抗高光谱侦察.%A novel bionic camouflage material, which is constituted of transparent poly ( vinyl chloride) surface, chlorophyll/poly (vinyl alcohol) film, high-vapor-barrier water bag and paper, was designed and prepared by simulating plant leaves. The transparent poly (vinyl chloride) surface was used to provide waterproof capability of the camouflage material; the chlorophyll was concealed into the high-oxygen-barrier poly( vinyl alcohol) film to improve its photostability; the water was sealed into the bag of high-vapor-barrier poly( vinylidene chloride) to prevent its vaporization loss; and the paper was used to simulate the spongy mesophyll of plant leaf organs. The result of spectral tests showed that the reflectance spectra of camouflage material and plant leaves, whose similarity was 0. 9983, exhibited the same characteristics in visible, near infrared and short wave infrared wave bands, and the spectral characteristics of camouflage material did not change after three months' sunlight treatment. The bionic camouflage material, which displayed a high spectral similarity with plant leaves and a good weather resistance, is an effective method to take on reconnaissance of hyperspectral imaging hopefully.

  14. Macrophage Cell Membrane Camouflaged Au Nanoshells for in Vivo Prolonged Circulation Life and Enhanced Cancer Photothermal Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xuan, Mingjun; Shao, Jingxin; Dai, Luru; Li, Junbai; He, Qiang

    2016-04-20

    Macrophage cell membrane (MPCM)-camouflaged gold nanoshells (AuNS) that can serve as a new generation of photothermal conversion agents for in vivo photothermal cancer therapy are presented. They are constructed by the fusion of biocompatible AuNSs and MPCM vesicles. The resulting MPCM-coated AuNSs exhibited good colloidal stability and kept the original near-infrared (NIR) adsorption of AuNSs. Because AuNS carried high-density coverage of MPCMs, the totally functional portions of macrophage cells membrane were grafted onto the surface of AuNSs. This surface functionalization provided active targeting ability by recognizing tumor endothelium and thus improved tumoritropic accumulation compared to the red blood cell membrane-coating approach. These biomimetic nanoparticles significantly enhance in vivo blood circulation time and local accumulation at the tumor when administered systematically. Upon NIR laser irradiation, local heat generated by the MPCM-coated AuNS achieves high efficiency to suppress tumor growth and selectively ablate cancerous cells within the illuminated zone. Therefore, MPCM-coated AuNSs remained the natural properties of their source cells, which may improve the efficacy of photothermal therapy modulated by AuNSs and other noble-metal nanoparticles. PMID:27039688

  15. Combination strategy of multi-layered surface camouflage using hyperbranched polyethylene glycol and immunosuppressive drugs for the prevention of immune reactions against transplanted porcine islets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haque, Muhammad R; Jeong, Jee-Heon; Byun, Youngro

    2016-04-01

    This study suggests a novel method of stabilizing fragile porcine islets to prevent the dissociation after isolation and reducing immune cell invasion in a combination therapy of 'surface camouflaging' and immunosuppressive drugs (FK506, Rapamycin, MR-1, anti-CD19 mAb, and Clodrosome(®)) to effectively alleviate overall immune reactions against xenotransplanted porcine islets. The surface camouflage of pancreatic islets using biocompatible materials improved stabilization of pancreatic islet and prevented the infiltration of immune cells. Firstly, the surface of porcine islets was camouflaged by SH-6-arm-PEG-lipid and gelatin-catechol (artificial extracellular matrix) in order to stabilize the fragile isolated islets. Secondly, three different PEG layers (6-arm-PEG-SH, 6-arm-PEG-catechol, and linear PEG-SH) were chemically conjugated onto the surface of the stabilized porcine islets. Both artificial extracellular matrix (artificial ECM) and PEGylation effectively covered the surface of porcine islets without increasing the size of the whole islet. In addition, the viability and functionality of the islets were not affected by this multi-layer surface modification. The multi-layer modification significantly reduced the attachment of human serum albumin, fibronectin, and immunoglobulin G in comparison to the control collagen surface. The combination effect of multi-layer PEGylation and cocktailed immunosuppressive drugs on the survival time of the transplanted islets was assessed in a xenogeneic porcine-to-mouse model. The median survival time (MST) of 'artificial ECM + PEGylation' group was 4-fold increased compared to that of control group. In addition, the MST of 'artificial ECM + PEGylation + drug' group was 2.16-fold increased, compared to the 'control + drug' group. In conclusion, we proposed a novel porcine islet transplantation protocol using surface multi-layer modification and cocktailed immunosuppressive drugs, for stabilization and

  16. Controllable liquid colour-changing lenses with microfluidic channels for vision protection, camouflage and optical filtering based on soft lithography fabrication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Min; Li, Songjing

    2016-01-01

    In this work, liquid colour-changing lenses for vision protection, camouflage and optical filtering are developed by circulating colour liquids through microfluidic channels on the lenses manually. Soft lithography technology is applied to fabricate the silicone liquid colour-changing layers with microfluidic channels on the lenses instead of mechanical machining. To increase the hardness and abrasion resistance of the silicone colour-changing layers on the lenses, proper fabrication parameters such as 6:1 (mass ration) mixing proportion and 100 °C curing temperature for 2 h are approved for better soft lithography process of the lenses. Meanwhile, a new surface treatment for the irreversible bonding of silicone colour-changing layer with optical resin (CR39) substrate lens by using 5 % (volume ratio) 3-Aminopropyltriethoxysilane solution is proposed. Vision protection, camouflage and optical filtering functions of the lenses are investigated with different designs of the channels and multi-layer structures. Each application can not only well achieve their functional demands, but also shows the advantages of functional flexibility, rapid prototyping and good controllability compared with traditional ways. Besides optometry, some other designs and applications of the lenses are proposed for potential utility in the future. PMID:27247877

  17. Camouflage Protection Quality of the Combat Individual Protection System within Electromagnetic Spectral Band Range of 3 μm to 12 μm TIR (thermo infra-red)

    OpenAIRE

    Šitvjenkins, I; Ābele, I; Viļumsone, A; Torbicka, H

    2012-01-01

    Research was made on the evaluation of the thermo infra-red (TIR) camouflage protection quality of the combat individual protection system (CIPS) in order to define actual level of the TIR protection of the CIPS as well as suggest clothing systems solutions to increase actual level of the TIR protection

  18. Sequential Camouflage of the arachno-6,9-C2B8H14 Cage by Substituents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakardjiev, Mario; Štíbr, Bohumil; Holub, Josef; Tok, Oleg L; Švec, Petr; Růžičková, Zdeňka; Růžička, Aleš

    2016-07-18

    Sequential methylation of arachno-6,9-C2B8H14 (1) led to a series of methyl derivatives and finally to the camouflaging of all boron positions by mixed persubstitution. Thus, deprotonation of 1 produced the [arachno-6,9-C2B8H13] anion (1(-)), the methylation of which with MeI in tetrahydrofuran proceeded on the open-face boron vertexes with the formation of 5-Me-arachno-6,9-C2B8H13 (2; yield 28%) and 5,8-Me2-arachno-6,9-C2B8H12 (3; yield 36%). Observed in this reaction was also a side formation of 2-Me-closo-1,6-C2B8H9 (4; yield 6%).The electrophilic AlCl3-catalyzed CH3(+) attack of the neutral 1 in neat MeI at ambient temperature afforded 1,3-Me2-arachno-6,9-C2B8H12 (5), while a 76-h heating at 120 °C generated a mixture of the di- and triiodo derivatives 1,2,3,4,8,10-Me6-5,7-I2-arachno-6,9-C2B8H6 (6) and 1,2,3,4,7-Me5-5,7,10-I3-arachno-6,9-C2B8H6 (7). On the other hand, a HOTf-catalyzed reaction between 1 and MeOTf at reflux resulted in the isolation of 2-TfO-1,3.4,5,7,8,10-Me7-arachno-6,9-C2B8H6 (8; Tf = CF3SO2; yield 65%). The compounds were characterized by multinuclear ((11)B, (1)H, (13)C, and (19)F) NMR spectroscopy, mass spectrometry, and elemental analysis, and the structures of compounds 1, 1(-), 5, and 6 were established by X-ray diffraction analysis. PMID:27351461

  19. Fallen leaves on the water-bed: diurnal camouflage of three night active fish species in an Amazonian streamlet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Sazima

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Resemblance to dead leaves is a well known type of camouflage recorded for several small vertebrates that dwell in the leaf and root litter on the ground. We present here instances of such resemblance in three species of nocturnal fishes (Siluriformes and Gymnotiformes that spend the daytime among submersed root-tangle with leaf litter in Amazonian streams. All three species are very difficult to spot visually, due both to their shape and colors which blend with the substrate, as well as to the heterogeneous nature of their cover. Two species were recorded to lie on their sides, which adds to their resemblance to dead leaves. When disturbed, one species may drift like a waterlogged leaf, whereas another moves upwards the root-tangle, exposing its fore body above the water surface. We regard their leaf-like shapes, cryptic colors, and escape movements as a convergence in defensive responses to visually hunting aquatic vertebrates, most likely diurnal predaceous fishes.Semelhança com folhas mortas é um tipo bem conhecido de camuflagem, presente em diversos pequenos vertebrados que vivem em meio à serapilheira do chão da floresta. Apresentamos aqui exemplos deste tipo de semelhança em três espécies de peixes de hábitos noturnos (Siluriformes e Gymnotiformes que permanecem durante o dia em meio a aglomerados de raízes e folhas submersas em igarapés amazônicos. As três espécies são difíceis de localizar visualmente, tanto devido ao formato e cores, que se confundem com o substrato, como pela heterogeneidade estrutural dos seus abrigos. Duas espécies foram observadas deitadas de lado durante o dia, o que aumenta sua semelhança com folhas mortas. Quando perturbada, uma das espécies deixa-se levar à deriva como uma folha semi-encharcada, ao passo que outra espécie se desloca para cima, nos aglomerados de raízes, expondo a porção anterior do corpo acima da superfície da água. Consideramos o formato semelhante a uma folha, as

  20. Towards the standardization of nanoecotoxicity testing: Natural organic matter 'camouflages' the adverse effects of TiO2 and CeO2 nanoparticles on green microalgae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerrillo, Cristina; Barandika, Gotzone; Igartua, Amaya; Areitioaurtena, Olatz; Mendoza, Gemma

    2016-02-01

    In the last few years, the emission of CeO2 and TiO2 nanoparticles (NPs) into the environment has been raising concerns about their potential adverse effects on wildlife and human health. Aquatic organisms constitute one of the most important pathways for the entrance of these NPs and transfer throughout the food web, but divergences exist in the experimental data published on their aquatic toxicity. The pressing need for standardization of methods to analyze their ecotoxicity requires aquatic media representing realistic environmental conditions. The present study aimed to determine the usefulness of Suwannee River natural organic matter (SR-NOM) in the assessment of the agglomeration kinetics and ecotoxicity of CeO2 and TiO2 NPs towards green microalgae Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata. SR-NOM alleviated the adverse effects of NPs on algal growth, completely in the case of TiO2 NPs and partially in the case of CeO2 NPs, suggesting a 'camouflage' of toxicity. This behavior has been observed also for other algal species and types of natural organic matter in the literature. Furthermore, SR-NOM markedly increased the stability of the NPs in algal medium, which led to a better reproducibility of the toxicity test results, and provided an electrophoretic mobility similar to that previously reported in various river and groundwaters. Thus, SR-NOM can be a representative sample of what is found in many different ecosystems, and the observed 'camouflage' of the effects of CeO2 and TiO2 NPs on algal cells might be considered as a natural interaction occurring in their standardized ecotoxicological assessment. PMID:26580731

  1. 基于SAR图像模拟的混凝土路面反雷达伪装设计%Anti-radar camouflage design of concrete road based on SAR image simulation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王友军; 邓安仲; 何国杰; 吕绪良

    2012-01-01

    针对混凝土路面目标反雷达伪装设计问题,提出了一种基于合成孔径雷达SAR图像模拟的反雷达伪装设计方法.利用小面元法实现SAR图像的模拟,对模拟图像进行基于马尔科夫随机场模型的分割和数学形态学的操作,基于伪装设计原则进行混凝土路面的反雷达伪装设计,所设计的雷达图像能较好地与背景匹配.制备了不同类型的电磁功能混凝土试样,在外场条件下测试了其后向散射特性.实验结果表明,改变混凝土的成分能够得到不同后向散射特性的混凝土,从而表明了该设计方法的可行性.%Anti-radar camouflage design method based on synthetic aperture radar(SAR) image simulation was put forward for concrete road anti-radar camouflage. Small plane method was used for SAR image simulation and the Markov random field model used for image segmentation and mathematical morphology. Design principle of camouflage was applied to the anti-radar camouflage design of the concrete road. The design image matches with the background. Several different types of electromagnetic function concrete samples were prepared. The backward scattering characteristic of them were tested in outside field. The results indicate that the alternative concrete composite can achieve different backward scattering characteristic, and the design method is feasible.

  2. A Prominent Site of Antibody Vulnerability on HIV Envelope Incorporates a Motif Associated with CCR5 Binding and Its Camouflaging Glycans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sok, Devin; Pauthner, Matthias; Briney, Bryan; Lee, Jeong Hyun; Saye-Francisco, Karen L; Hsueh, Jessica; Ramos, Alejandra; Le, Khoa M; Jones, Meaghan; Jardine, Joseph G; Bastidas, Raiza; Sarkar, Anita; Liang, Chi-Hui; Shivatare, Sachin S; Wu, Chung-Yi; Schief, William R; Wong, Chi-Huey; Wilson, Ian A; Ward, Andrew B; Zhu, Jiang; Poignard, Pascal; Burton, Dennis R

    2016-07-19

    The dense patch of high-mannose-type glycans surrounding the N332 glycan on the HIV envelope glycoprotein (Env) is targeted by multiple broadly neutralizing antibodies (bnAbs). This region is relatively conserved, implying functional importance, the origins of which are not well understood. Here we describe the isolation of new bnAbs targeting this region. Examination of these and previously described antibodies to Env revealed that four different bnAb families targeted the (324)GDIR(327) peptide stretch at the base of the gp120 V3 loop and its nearby glycans. We found that this peptide stretch constitutes part of the CCR5 co-receptor binding site, with the high-mannose patch glycans serving to camouflage it from most antibodies. GDIR-glycan bnAbs, in contrast, bound both (324)GDIR(327) peptide residues and high-mannose patch glycans, which enabled broad reactivity against diverse HIV isolates. Thus, as for the CD4 binding site, bnAb effectiveness relies on circumventing the defenses of a critical functional region on Env. PMID:27438765

  3. A scenario for the evolution of selective egg coloration: the roles of enemy-free space, camouflage, thermoregulation and pigment limitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres-Campos, Inmaculada; Abram, Paul K; Guerra-Grenier, Eric; Boivin, Guy; Brodeur, Jacques

    2016-04-01

    Behavioural plasticity can drive the evolution of new traits in animals. In oviparous species, plasticity in oviposition behaviour could promote the evolution of new egg traits by exposing them to different selective pressures in novel oviposition sites. Individual females of the predatory stink bug Podisus maculiventris are able to selectively colour their eggs depending on leaf side, laying lightly pigmented eggs on leaf undersides and more pigmented eggs, which are more resistant to ultraviolet (UV) radiation damage, on leaf tops. Here, we propose an evolutionary scenario for P. maculiventris egg pigmentation and its selective application. We experimentally tested the influence of several ecological factors that: (i) could have favoured a behavioural shift towards laying eggs on leaf tops and thus the evolution of a UV-protective egg pigment (i.e. exploitation of enemy-reduced space or a thermoregulatory benefit) and (ii) could have subsequently led to the evolution of selective pigment application (i.e. camouflage or costly pigment production). We found evidence that a higher predation pressure on leaf undersides could have caused a shift in oviposition effort towards leaf tops. We also found the first evidence of an insect egg pigment providing a thermoregulatory advantage. Our study contributes to an understanding of how plasticity in oviposition behaviour could shape the responses of organisms to ecological factors affecting their reproductive success, spurring the evolution of new morphological traits. PMID:27152215

  4. A scenario for the evolution of selective egg coloration: the roles of enemy-free space, camouflage, thermoregulation and pigment limitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres-Campos, Inmaculada; Abram, Paul K.; Guerra-Grenier, Eric; Boivin, Guy; Brodeur, Jacques

    2016-01-01

    Behavioural plasticity can drive the evolution of new traits in animals. In oviparous species, plasticity in oviposition behaviour could promote the evolution of new egg traits by exposing them to different selective pressures in novel oviposition sites. Individual females of the predatory stink bug Podisus maculiventris are able to selectively colour their eggs depending on leaf side, laying lightly pigmented eggs on leaf undersides and more pigmented eggs, which are more resistant to ultraviolet (UV) radiation damage, on leaf tops. Here, we propose an evolutionary scenario for P. maculiventris egg pigmentation and its selective application. We experimentally tested the influence of several ecological factors that: (i) could have favoured a behavioural shift towards laying eggs on leaf tops and thus the evolution of a UV-protective egg pigment (i.e. exploitation of enemy-reduced space or a thermoregulatory benefit) and (ii) could have subsequently led to the evolution of selective pigment application (i.e. camouflage or costly pigment production). We found evidence that a higher predation pressure on leaf undersides could have caused a shift in oviposition effort towards leaf tops. We also found the first evidence of an insect egg pigment providing a thermoregulatory advantage. Our study contributes to an understanding of how plasticity in oviposition behaviour could shape the responses of organisms to ecological factors affecting their reproductive success, spurring the evolution of new morphological traits. PMID:27152215

  5. Design of Plant Leaf Bionic Camouflage Materials Based on Spectral Analysis%基于光谱分析的植物叶片仿生伪装材料设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨玉杰; 刘志明; 胡碧茹; 吴文健

    2011-01-01

    The influence of structure parameters and contents of plant leaves on their reflectance spectra was analyzed using the PROSPECT model. The result showed that the bionic camouflage materials should be provided with coarse surface and spongy inner structure, the refractive index of main content must be close to that of plant leaves, the contents of materials should contain chlorophyll and water, and the content of C-H bond must be strictly controlled. Based on the analysis above, a novel camouflage material, which was constituted by coarse transparent waterproof surface, chlorophyll, water and spongy material,was designed. The result of verifiable experiment showed that the reflectance spectra of camouflage material exhibited the same characteristics as those of plant leaves. The similarity coefficient of reflectance spectrum of the camouflage material and camphor leaves was 0. 988 1, and the characteristics of camouflage material did not change after sunlight treatment for three months. The bionic camouflage material, who exhibited a high spectral similarity with plant leaves and a good weather resistance, will be an available method for reconnaissance of hyperspectral imaging hopefully.%利用植物单叶光谱模型PROSPECT分析了植物叶片结构和组分对其反射光谱的影响.结果表明,模拟植物叶片反射光谱的仿生伪装材料应具有粗糙表面和疏松多孔结构,基体材料的折射指数应接近植物叶片且在400~2 500 nm之间基本不变,成分中应含有叶绿素和水并严格控制C-H键的含量.依据上述原则,设计了一种由粗糙透明防水表面、叶绿素、水和多孔材料四层构成的新型仿生伪装材料.验证实验表明,上述四层简单复合后的反射光谱即呈现出与植物叶片一致的反射光谱特征,相似度可达0.988 1,且经过三个月的日照后,其反射光谱特征不变,显示了较好的耐候性.该伪装材料与植物叶片光谱相似度高,耐候性好,有望成

  6. Comprehensive microarray-based analysis for stage-specific larval camouflage pattern-associated genes in the swallowtail butterfly, Papilio xuthus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Futahashi Ryo

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Body coloration is an ecologically important trait that is often involved in prey-predator interactions through mimicry and crypsis. Although this subject has attracted the interest of biologists and the general public, our scientific knowledge on the subject remains fragmentary. In the caterpillar of the swallowtail butterfly Papilio xuthus, spectacular changes in the color pattern are observed; the insect mimics bird droppings (mimetic pattern as a young larva, and switches to a green camouflage coloration (cryptic pattern in the final instar. Despite the wide variety and significance of larval color patterns, few studies have been conducted at a molecular level compared with the number of studies on adult butterfly wing patterns. Results To obtain a catalog of genes involved in larval mimetic and cryptic pattern formation, we constructed expressed sequence tag (EST libraries of larval epidermis for P. xuthus, and P. polytes that contained 20,736 and 5,376 clones, respectively, representing one of the largest collections available in butterflies. A comparison with silkworm epidermal EST information revealed the high expression of putative blue and yellow pigment-binding proteins in Papilio species. We also designed a microarray from the EST dataset information, analyzed more than five stages each for six markings, and confirmed spatial expression patterns by whole-mount in situ hybridization. Hence, we succeeded in elucidating many novel marking-specific genes for mimetic and cryptic pattern formation, including pigment-binding protein genes, the melanin-associated gene yellow-h3, the ecdysteroid synthesis enzyme gene 3-dehydroecdysone 3b-reductase, and Papilio-specific genes. We also found many cuticular protein genes with marking specificity that may be associated with the unique surface nanostructure of the markings. Furthermore, we identified two transcription factors, spalt and ecdysteroid signal-related E75, as genes

  7. 林地背景下伪装目标偏振成像检测算法%Algorithm for camouflage target detection based on polarization imaging in woodland background

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘晓; 薛模根; 王峰; 乔延利

    2011-01-01

    Synthetically utilizing polarization characteristics and fractal characteristics, an algorithm based on polarization imaging was proposed to detect camouflaged target in woodland background. Firstly, fuzzy clustering method was used to segment the regions containing potential target in polarization image, and the morphological method was used to remove the small interference. The information of these regions was recorded. Secondly, fractal features were exacted from these regions. The fractal differences were used to select out the background. Finally, regions with different fractal features were judged. The position and shape of the targets were determined. The experimental results of real scene show that the fractal dimension of camouflage target is between 2.0 and 2.3, the fractal dimension of woodland background is higher while its change is little and the difference between each other is about 0.2. It proves that this method is validity and reliability of the scheme which based on the fractal dimension difference between the camouflage target and woodland background.%综合利用了偏振特征和偏振融合图像的分形特征,提出了一种林地背景下伪装目标偏振成像检测算法.首先通过模糊聚类的方法分割出偏振图像中目标的潜在区域,通过形态学方法去除微小干扰;然后在潜在区域提取分形特征,利用伪装目标与背景分形维数的差异排除背景奇异区域的干扰;最后对记录的目标区域进行判决,得到真实目标的位置和形状特征,从而检测出伪装目标.实验结果表明,伪装目标区域的分形维数在2.0~2.3之间,而林地区域的分形维数较大,变化幅度小,且与目标的分形维数差值在0.2左右.利用伪装目标与林地背景分形维数的差异可以有效地进行伪装目标检测.

  8. Camouflaging of seeds treated with pesticides mitigates the mortality of wild birds in wheat and rice crops Camuflagem de sementes tratadas com pesticidas mitiga a mortalidade de aves silvestres em plantações de trigo e arroz

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre de Almeida

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Seeds used to plant wheat, corn and rice crops in Brazil are treated with the insecticide carbofuran associated with the dye rhodamine B, attracting granivorous birds and causing mortality during sowing. The objective of this study was to evaluate if using camouflaged seeds can minimize mortality caused by the ingestion of seeds with carbofuran. Alternatives for reducing mortality, such as using carbofuran without rhodamine B or replacing carbofuran by carbosulfan, were compared. Three experiments were carried out in regions of known bird mortality in the states of Paraná and São Paulo, Brazil, using conventional sowing over plowed soil in the traditional planting system, 15,896 kg of seeds in 111.46 ha. Bird carcasses were collected and dissected to unveil which poisoned seed treatments had caused birds' deaths. The mortality mounted to 296 birds of 11 species. Eared doves were the most numerous casualties (263. There was significant correlation between mortality and number of consumed seeds. The consumption of camouflaged seeds was lower than that of commercial seeds treated with rhodamine B. The mortality caused by seeds with both rhodamine B and carbofuran was higher than mortality caused by seeds camouflaged only with carbofuran. The replacement of carbofuran with carbosulfan also seemingly reduced mortality, but carbosulfan mortality might have been underestimated as a result of the apparent movement of affected birds after exposure. Seeds treated with carbofuran and rhodamine B and without any dye, were attractive. Because legal requirement for seeds treated with pesticides to be differentiated by dying, the substitution of rhodamine B by camouflaging must be encouraged.Plantações de trigo, milho e arroz no Brasil utilizam sementes tratadas com o inseticida carbofuran, associado ao corante rodamina B, que é atrativo às aves granívoras, causando notável mortalidade durante o plantio. O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar se sementes

  9. Aposematism: balancing salience and camouflage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnett, James B; Scott-Samuel, Nicholas E; Cuthill, Innes C

    2016-08-01

    Aposematic signals are often characterized by high conspicuousness. Larger and brighter signals reinforce avoidance learning, distinguish defended from palatable prey and are more easily memorized by predators. Conspicuous signalling, however, has costs: encounter rates with naive, specialized or nutritionally stressed predators are likely to increase. It has been suggested that intermediate levels of aposematic conspicuousness can evolve to balance deterrence and detectability, especially for moderately defended species. The effectiveness of such signals, however, has not yet been experimentally tested under field conditions. We used dough caterpillar-like baits to test whether reduced levels of aposematic conspicuousness can have survival benefits when predated by wild birds in natural conditions. Our results suggest that, when controlling for the number and intensity of internal contrast boundaries (stripes), a reduced-conspicuousness aposematic pattern can have a survival advantage over more conspicuous signals, as well as cryptic colours. Furthermore, we find a survival benefit from the addition of internal contrast for both high and low levels of conspicuousness. This adds ecological validity to evolutionary models of aposematic saliency and the evolution of honest signalling. PMID:27484645

  10. Hair cosmetics and camouflage technics

    OpenAIRE

    Zahide Eriş Eken; Banu Taşkın; Sibel Alper

    2014-01-01

    Hair is composed of a mixture of trace elements in small quantities, proteins, lipids and water. Proteins consist of helical polypeptide amino acid molecules. In the hair cells; polypeptide chains of keratin protein would be organized in filaments. In recent years, hair cosmetics showed a significant change and development. The content of shampoos which is used to cleanse the hair has enhanced significantly. Hair conditioner, hair styling products, pomades, brilliantine, and gloss sprays, hai...

  11. Assessing Camouflage Methods Using Textural Features

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nyberg, S.; Schutte, K.

    2000-01-01

    Developments in the area of signature suppression make it progressively more difficult to recognize targets. In order to obtain a sufficient low degree of false alarms it is necessary to observe spatial and spectral properties. There is a genuine need to use spatial properties when analyzing the dif

  12. Don't Camouflage Budget Cuts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeLuca, Nicholas M.

    1982-01-01

    Instead of shielding the public from the effects of budget cuts by making small across-the-board cuts on many programs, school administrators should slash whole programs. This will maintain the system's overall educational effectiveness while making clear the consequences of the public's political actions. (Author/RW)

  13. Experimental evaluation of thermal camouflage effectiveness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jacobs, P.A.

    1995-01-01

    The detectability of a target in the infrared spectral region is determined by differences between the radiative signatures of the target and the local background. This implies that both, the difference in surface temperature and emissivity ΔT resp. Δε and the distribution of these differences over

  14. Protein Camouflage: Supramolecular Anion Recognition by Ubiquitin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallon, Madeleine; Dutt, Som; Schrader, Thomas; Crowley, Peter B

    2016-04-15

    Progress in the field of bio-supramolecular chemistry, the bottom-up assembly of protein-ligand systems, relies on a detailed knowledge of molecular recognition. To address this issue, we have characterised complex formation between human ubiquitin (HUb) and four supramolecular anions. The ligands were: pyrenetetrasulfonic acid (4PSA), p-sulfonato-calix[4]arene (SCLX4), bisphosphate tweezers (CLR01) and meso-tetrakis (4-sulfonatophenyl)porphyrin (TPPS), which vary in net charge, size, shape and hydrophobicity. All four ligands induced significant changes in the HSQC spectrum of HUb. Chemical shift perturbations and line-broadening effects were used to identify binding sites and to quantify affinities. Supporting data were obtained from docking simulations. It was found that these weakly interacting ligands bind to extensive surface patches on HUb. A comparison of the data suggests some general indicators for the protein-binding specificity of supramolecular anions. Differences in binding were observed between the cavity-containing and planar ligands. The former had a preference for the arginine-rich, flexible C terminus of HUb. PMID:26818656

  15. Humor as Camouflage of Televised Violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potter, W. James; Warren, Ron

    1998-01-01

    Contributes to research on schema theory and media effects by examining how violence is portrayed in comedy programs. Finds a high rate of violence (especially verbal forms) on comedy programs; and the combination of humor, minor acts of violence, and program context tend to trivialize its presence. Suggests that viewers' schema for comedy uses…

  16. Board Independence, CEO Pay, and Camouflaged Compensation

    OpenAIRE

    Ruiz-Verdú, Pablo; Singh, Ravi

    2014-01-01

    We study how directors' reputational concerns influence executive compensation and the use ofcamouflaged forms of pay. We show that, in order to signal their independence to investors,boards lower managers' pay, but may also pay managers in hidden ways or structure compensationinefficiently. We also show that independent boards are more likely to make use of hiddencompensation than manager-friendly boards. We apply our model to study the costs and benefitsof greater pay transparency and of me...

  17. Predator-specific camouflage in chameleons

    OpenAIRE

    Stuart-Fox, Devi; Moussalli, Adnan; Martin J Whiting

    2008-01-01

    A crucial problem for most animals is how to deal with multiple types of predator, which differ in their sensory capabilities and methods of prey detection. For animals capable of rapid colour change, one potential strategy is to change their appearance in relation to the threat posed by different predators. Here, we show that the dwarf chameleon, Bradypodion taeniabronchum, exhibits different colour responses to two predators that differ in their visual capabilities. Using a model of animal ...

  18. 三色迷彩油添加避蚊胺对白纹伊蚊驱避效果的实验室评价%The laboratory evaluation of repellent effect of camouflage face paint mixed with DEET to Aedes albopictus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    余静; 邱薇; 叶锋平; 周卫国; 冯子良; 范泉水

    2012-01-01

    参照中华人民共和国国家标准GB/T 17322.10-1998和《军队特需药品研发勤务技术指导原则(试行)》规定的测试方法,测试了避蚊胺和水溶性二氧化钛处理迷彩油(CFP)对白纹伊蚊Aedes albopictus的驱避效果,为研发我军专用的防蚊虫迷彩油提供依据.结果表明:在3种颜色迷彩油中加入DEET后,不影响DEET的驱蚊效果;添加不同浓度DEET对蚊虫的驱避效果差异显著,20%dEET和25%dEET+迷彩油对白纹伊蚊的平均防护时间均达到或超过10h,达到《军队特需药品研发勤务技术指导原则(试行)》规定的标准,15%dEET+迷彩油平均防护时间不足10h,未达《军队特需药品研发勤务技术指导原则(试行)》规定的标准.研究表明:将适量DEET与迷彩油混合涂抹于皮肤可能作为演习或战时的伪装和防蚊的一种有效的综合保护措施.%In accordance with the national standards of the People' s Republic of China, GB/T 17322. 10 - 1998, and the" supporting technology guideline of special pharmaceutical research and development for the People' s Liberation Army" ( hereafter 《the guidline》 ) , we evaluated the effectiveness of a combination of the insect repellent N, N-diethyl-3-methylbenzamide (DEET) and camouflage face paint (CFP) in repelling mosquitoes in a laboratory. The results show that CFP mixed with DEET provided effective protection against mosquitoes. CFP mixed with 20% and 25% DEET provided protection against mosquitoes for 10 hours or more, which met the requirement of the guideline. However, CFP mixed with 15% DEET provided protection against mosquitoes for no more than 10 hours, which didn' t meet the guideline' s requirements. The results indicate that CFP mixed with DEET could provide both camouflage and mosquito protection during field exercises and in wartime.

  19. Design of biomimetic camouflage materials based on angiosperm leaf organs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    The micro structures and reflectance spectra of angiosperm leaves were compared with those of angiosperm petals. The study indicated that angiosperm leaf organs had identical micro structures and reflectance characteristics in the wave band of near infrared. Micro structures and compositions of leaf organs were the crucial factors influencing their reflectance spectra. The model of biomimetic materials based on angiosperm leaf organs was introduced and verified. From 300 to 2600 nm, the similarity coefficients of reflectance spectra of the foam containing water and Platanus Orientalis Linn. leaves were all above 0.969. The biomimetic camou- flage material exhibited almost the same reflectance spectra with those of green leaves in ultraviolet, visible and near infrared wave bands. And its "concolor and conspectrum" effect might take on reconnaissance of hyperspectral and ultra hy- perspectral imaging.

  20. The "Ass" Camouflage Construction: Masks as Parasitic Heads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, Robert D.

    2010-01-01

    Collins et al. 2008 offers a principles-and-parameters-based analysis of an AAVE construction first described in Spears 1998, in which nominal phrases such as "John's ass" appear to have exactly the same denotation, and behavior with respect to familiar conditions on anaphora, as the possessor ["John," and similarly for pronominal possessors.…

  1. Brilliant camouflage: photonic crystals in the diamond weevil, Entimus imperialis

    OpenAIRE

    Wilts, Bodo D.; Michielsen, Kristel; Kuipers, Jeroen; De Raedt, Hans; Stavenga, Doekele G.

    2012-01-01

    The neotropical diamond weevil, Entimus imperialis, is marked by rows of brilliant spots on the overall black elytra. The spots are concave pits with intricate patterns of structural-coloured scales, consisting of large domains of three-dimensional photonic crystals that have a diamond-type structure. Reflectance spectra measured from individual scale domains perfectly match model spectra, calculated with anatomical data and finite-difference time-domain methods. The reflections of single dom...

  2. Brilliant camouflage : photonic crystals in the diamond weevil, Entimus imperialis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wilts, Bodo D.; Michielsen, Kristel; Kuipers, Jeroen; Raedt, Hans De; Stavenga, Doekele G.

    2012-01-01

    The neotropical diamond weevil, Entimus imperialis, is marked by rows of brilliant spots on the overall black elytra. The spots are concave pits with intricate patterns of structural-coloured scales, consisting of large domains of three-dimensional photonic crystals that have a diamond-type structur

  3. Metastatic Breast Cancer or Multiple Myeloma? Camouflage by Lytic Lesions

    OpenAIRE

    Bruce Hough; Adam Brufsky; Suzanne Lentzsch

    2010-01-01

    We report a case of a female with stage I infiltrating ductal carcinoma who received adjuvant therapy including trastuzumab. One year later she developed lytic lesions and was retreated with trastuzumab that was held after she developed symptomatic heart failure. Lytic lesions were attributed to relapse of breast cancer, and cardiac failure attributed to prior trastuzumab therapy. After complications necessitated multiple hospitalizations, a further workup revealed that the lytic lesions were...

  4. Experimental Evaluation of Camouflage Effectiveness in the Thermal Infrared

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jacobs, P.A.M.

    1993-01-01

    The detectability of a target ln the infrared spectral region ls determined by differences between the radiative stignatures of the target and the local background. This implies that both, the difference in surface temperature and emissivity ^T resp. ^€ and the distribution of these differences over

  5. Metastatic Breast Cancer or Multiple Myeloma? Camouflage by Lytic Lesions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruce Hough

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available We report a case of a female with stage I infiltrating ductal carcinoma who received adjuvant therapy including trastuzumab. One year later she developed lytic lesions and was retreated with trastuzumab that was held after she developed symptomatic heart failure. Lytic lesions were attributed to relapse of breast cancer, and cardiac failure attributed to prior trastuzumab therapy. After complications necessitated multiple hospitalizations, a further workup revealed that the lytic lesions were not metastatic breast cancer but multiple myeloma. Her advanced multiple myeloma was associated with systemic amyloidosis involving gut and heart, which ultimately led to her demise. This report addresses the pitfalls of overlapping symptoms and the question of which patients with suspected metastatic disease should undergo a biopsy.

  6. Camouflage: The Experiences of Low-Income Business College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponton de Dutton, Scarlett

    2011-01-01

    This qualitative study shares the complex stories of two low-income business students who attend a flagship, public university as out-of-state students with the purpose of understanding, describing, giving voice to, and discovering insight from their experiences. Throughout U.S. Higher Education history, there is a pattern of limited participation…

  7. The Camouflaged At-Risk Student: White and Wealthy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metz, Elinor D.

    1993-01-01

    Argues that white, upper-middle-class adolescents are particularly vulnerable to depression, suicide, alcohol/substance abuse, date rape, anxiety, low self-esteem, and eating disorders. Discusses lack of parental involvement and the difficulties wealthy youth have in developing inner resources. Recommends involving students in service projects and…

  8. Photoletter to the editor: Topical 0.5% brimonidine gel to camouflage redness of immature scars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinholz, Markus; Heppt, Markus; Tietze, Julia K; Ruzicka, Thomas; Gauglitz, Gerd G; Schauber, Jürgen

    2015-09-30

    Cutaneous scars develop as a result of a defective wound healing process. Scars are commonly visible as erythematous, sometimes disfiguring lesions which might be stigmatizing for the affected patient. Only a few therapies to improve the appearance of scars are available. Recently, brimonidine - a selective α2-receptor-agonist which causes vasoconstriction of small cutaneous vessels - was approved for the treatment of erythemato-telangiectatic rosacea. Topical brimonidine might also be helpful to improve redness of immature scars. Here we report on the effect of brimonidine 0.5% gel on a flat, erythematous scar in a 25-year-old female patient. Whitening of the scar could be observed immediately after application of brimonidine 0.5% gel and a good clinical result was observed within one hour. This effect lasted for up to three hours. We conclude that brimonidine 0.5% gel is a suitable topical therapy to reduce erythema in visible cutaneous scars. PMID:26512307

  9. Ciprofloxacin conjugated zinc oxide nanoparticle: A camouflage towards multidrug resistant bacteria

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Prasun Patra; Shouvik Mitra; Nitai Debnath; Panchanan Pramanik; Arunava Goswami

    2014-04-01

    Gradual development of antibiotic resistant bacteria is producing severe global threat. Newer strategies are now being employed in order to control the microbial infections and to reduce the mortality as well as infection rates. Herein we describe successful synthesis of ZnO nanoparticles (ZNP) under microwave assisted condition followed by functionalization with ciprofloxacin, an antibiotic, using EDC/NHS chemistry. Successful conjugation of ciprofloxacin was confirmed by FTIR spectra. Ciprofloxacin-conjugated ZnO nanoparticles (ZN-CIP) exhibited excellent antibacterial activity against clinically isolated multidrug resistant bacterial strains of Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus and Klebsiella sp. ZNP were small in size with particle size distribution 18–20 nm as obtained from transmission electron microscope (TEM). Surface topology was obtained from atomic force microscopic (AFM) image and x-ray diffraction confirmed that ZNP possessed hexagonal crystal structure. A concentration of 10 g/mL of ZN-CIP was a benchmark concentration. During evaluation of minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values, similar concentration of antibiotic was incapable of producing antibacterial activity.

  10. Illusion thermodynamics: A camouflage technique changing an object into another one with arbitrary cross section

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    He, Xiao; Wu, Linzhi, E-mail: wlz@hit.edu.cn [Center for Composite Materials, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001 (China)

    2014-12-01

    The previously reported magical thermal devices, such as the thermal invisible cloak and the thermal concentrator, are generalized into one general case named here thermal illusion device. The thermal illusion device is displayed by the design of a thermal reshaper which can reshape an arbitrary thermal object into another one with arbitrary cross section. General expressions of the material parameters for the thermal reshaper are derived unambiguously to greatly facilitate the design of general thermal illusion device. We believe that this work will broaden the current research and pave a path to the thermal invisibility. Numerical simulations show good agreement with the analytical results of the thermal illusion device.

  11. Emotional benefit of cosmetic camouflage in the treatment of facial skin conditions: personal experience and review

    OpenAIRE

    Levy LL; Emer JJ

    2012-01-01

    Lauren L Levy, Jason J EmerDepartment of Dermatology, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, New York, NY, USABackground: Recent studies highlighting the psychological benefits of medical treatment for dermatological skin conditions have demonstrated a clear role for medical therapy in psychological health. Skin conditions, particularly those that are overtly visible, such as those located on the face, neck, and hands, often have a profound effect on the daily functioning of those affected. The lite...

  12. Insecticide Treated Camouflage Sceening Reduces Sand Fly Numbers in Leishmania-Endemic Regions in Kenya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Current U.S. military operations in deserts face persistent threats from sand flies that transmit human Leishmania. In this study we investigated the efficacy of artificial barriers treated with residual insecticide to potentially reduce the risk of human infection from leishmaniasis by reducing the...

  13. Chemical camouflage--a frog's strategy to co-exist with aggressive ants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark-Oliver Rödel

    Full Text Available Whereas interspecific associations receive considerable attention in evolutionary, behavioural and ecological literature, the proximate bases for these associations are usually unknown. This in particular applies to associations between vertebrates with invertebrates. The West-African savanna frog Phrynomantis microps lives in the underground nest of ponerine ants (Paltothyreus tarsatus. The ants usually react highly aggressively when disturbed by fiercely stinging, but the frog is not attacked and lives unharmed among the ants. Herein we examined the proximate mechanisms for this unusual association. Experiments with termites and mealworms covered with the skin secretion of the frog revealed that specific chemical compounds seem to prevent the ants from stinging. By HPLC-fractionation of an aqueous solution of the frogs' skin secretion, two peptides of 1,029 and 1,143 Da were isolated and found to inhibit the aggressive behaviour of the ants. By de novo sequencing using tandem mass spectrometry, the amino acid sequence of both peptides consisting of a chain of 9 and 11 residues, respectively, was elucidated. Both peptides were synthesized and tested, and exhibited the same inhibitory properties as the original frog secretions. These novel peptides most likely act as an appeasement allomone and may serve as models for taming insect aggression.

  14. Shiny wing scales cause spec(tac)ular camouflage of the angled sunbeam butterfly, Curetis acuta

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wilts, Bodo D.; Pirih, Primoz; Arikawa, Kentaro; Stavenga, Doekele G.; Pirih, Primož

    2013-01-01

    The angled sunbeam butterfly, Curetis acuta (Lycaenidae), is a distinctly sexually dimorphic lycaenid butterfly from Asia. The dorsal wings of female and male butterflies have a similar pattern, with a large white area in the female and an orange area in the male, framed within brownblack margins. T

  15. Computationally Recoverable Camouflage: A Universal Model for Privacy-Aware Location-Based Services

    OpenAIRE

    Ma, Changsha; Yan, Zhisheng; Chen, Chang Wen

    2016-01-01

    With the prevalence of location-based services (LBSs) supported by advanced positioning technology, there is a dramatic increase in the transmission of high-precision personal geographical data. Malicious use of these sensitive data will threaten the privacy of LBS users. Although privacy research in LBSs has received wide attention, related works are mostly focused on some specific applications. Due to high diversity of LBSs, it is critical to build a universal model that is able to handle p...

  16. Ervaringen met camouflage- en afleidingstrategieën in Woonzorgcentra Flevoland : Een kwalitatief onderzoek

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dumisevic, S.; Mourits, P.M.C.; Schreuder, E.J.A.

    2012-01-01

    Woonzorgcentra Flevoland (verder WZF) is een zorginstelling die verpleeghuiszorg, verzorgingshuiszorg, dagverzorging en thuiszorg levert in Lelystad. Er zijn twee locaties, De Uiterton en Hanzeborg. Voor ouderen met dementie heeft WZF kleinschalige woongroepen gerealiseerd waarbij een open deuren be

  17. Orthodontic retreatment using anchorage with miniplate to camouflage a Class III skeletal pattern.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farret, Marcel Marchiori

    2016-06-01

    This manuscript describes the treatment of a 27-year-old patient who was previously treated with two maxillary first premolar extractions. The patient had skeletal Class III malocclusion, Class III canine relationship, anterior crossbite, and a concave profile. As the patient refused orthognathic surgery, a miniplate was used on the right side of the lower arch as an anchorage unit after the extraction of mandibular first premolars, aiding the retraction of anterior teeth. At the end of treatment, anterior crossbite was corrected, in which first molars and canines were in a Class I relationship, and an excellent intercuspation was reached. Furthermore, patient's profile remarkably improved as a result of mandibular incisor retraction. A 30-month follow-up showed good stability of the results obtained. This case was presented to the Brazilian Board of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics (BBO) as one of the requirements to become diplomate by the BBO. PMID:27409659

  18. Unsafe in the Camouflage Tower: Sexual Victimization and Perceptions of Military Academy Leadership

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder, Jamie A.; Fisher, Bonnie S.; Scherer, Heidi L.; Daigle, Leah E.

    2012-01-01

    Few studies have examined sexual victimization among cadets and midshipmen at the three U.S. Military Academies. Self-report data from the 2005 Service Academy Sexual Assault Survey of Cadets and Midshipmen (n = 5,220) were used to examine the extent of unwanted sexual attention, sexual harassment, unwanted sexual contact, sexual coercion, and…

  19. Comment on "Open-ocean fish reveal an omnidirectional solution to camouflage in polarized environments".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cronin, Thomas W; Gagnon, Yakir Luc; Johnsen, Sönke; Marshall, N Justin; Roberts, Nicholas W

    2016-08-01

    Brady et al (Reports, 20 November 2015, p. 965) claimed that the silvery sides of certain fish are cryptic when viewed by animals with polarization sensitivity, which they termed "polarocrypsis." After examining their evidence, we find this claim to be unsupported due to (i) pseudoreplication, (ii) confounding polarization contrast with intensity contrast, and (iii) measurements taken at very shallow depths. PMID:27493176

  20. Teacher's Guide to Animal Camouflage: The MATCH Box Project; Prototype Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Standring, Gillian; Bernath, Robert

    The Materials and Activities for Teachers and Children (MATCH Box) project was developed in 1965 to provide for the relatively intensive treatment of a subject over a short period through materials geared to the elementary school level. Each MATCH Box contains materials, equipment, and activities that work together to foster the teaching/learning…

  1. Visual tracking: detecting and mapping occlusion and camouflage using process-behaviour charts

    OpenAIRE

    Chandesa, Tissa

    2013-01-01

    Visual tracking aims to identify a target object in each frame of an image sequence. It presents an important scientific problem since the human visual system is capable of tracking moving objects in a wide variety of situations. Artificial visual tracking systems also find practical application in areas such as visual surveillance, robotics, biomedical image analysis, medicine and the media. However, automatic visual tracking algorithms suffer from two common problems: occlusion and camoufla...

  2. Camouflaged galactic CMB foregrounds: total and polarized contributions of the kinetic Sunyaev Zeldovich effect

    CERN Document Server

    Waelkens, A; Ensslin, T

    2007-01-01

    We consider the role of the galactic kinetic Sunyaev Zeldovich (SZ) effect as a CMB foreground. While the galactic thermal Sunyaev Zeldovich effect has previously been studied and discarded as a potential CMB foreground, we find that the kinetic SZ effect is dominant in the galactic case. We analyse the detectability of the kinetic SZ effect by means of an optimally matched filter technique applied to a simulation of an ideal observation. We obtain no detection, getting a S/N ratio of 0.1, thereby demonstrating that the kinetic SZ effect can also safely be ignored as a CMB foreground. However we provide maps of the expected signal for inclusion in future high precision data processing. Furthermore, we rule out the significant contamination of the polarised CMB signal by second scattering of galactic kinetic Sunyaev-Zeldovich photons, since we show that the scattering of the CMB quadrupole photons by galactic electrons is a stronger effect than the Sunyaev Zeldovich second scattering, and has already been show...

  3. The role of rehabilitative camouflage after cervicofacial reconstructive surgery: a preliminary study

    OpenAIRE

    Nicoletti, Giovanni

    2014-01-01

    Giovanni Nicoletti,1–3 Andrea Sasso,1 Alberto Malovini,4,5 Luisa Ponchio,6 Silvia Scevola,2 Angela Faga,1–3 Aldo Pontone1 1Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, Department of Clinical Surgical Diagnostic and Pediatric Sciences, 2Advanced Technologies for Regenerative Medicine and Inductive Surgery Research Centre, University of Pavia, Pavia, Italy; 3Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery Unit, Salvatore Maugeri Research and Care Institute, Pavia, Italy; 4Department of Computer E...

  4. The role of rehabilitative camouflage after cervicofacial reconstructive surgery: a preliminary study

    OpenAIRE

    Nicoletti G; Sasso A; Malovini A; Ponchio L; Scevola S; Faga A; Pontone A

    2014-01-01

    Giovanni Nicoletti,1–3 Andrea Sasso,1 Alberto Malovini,4,5 Luisa Ponchio,6 Silvia Scevola,2 Angela Faga,1–3 Aldo Pontone1 1Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, Department of Clinical Surgical Diagnostic and Pediatric Sciences, 2Advanced Technologies for Regenerative Medicine and Inductive Surgery Research Centre, University of Pavia, Pavia, Italy; 3Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery Unit, Salvatore Maugeri Research and Care Institute, Pavia, Italy; 4Department of Computer Engineeri...

  5. Analysis of FOVEON multi-spectral sensor for counter-camouflage, concealment and deception applications

    OpenAIRE

    Nugent, Devon Courtney

    2005-01-01

    D techniques. A commercial off the shelf (COTS) imagery sensor able to distinguish near-infrared (NIR), near-ultraviolet (NUV), and visible wavelengths has been studied. The FOVEON image sensor, a multi-layer focal plane technology, was used in a simple camera implementation to test its viability as a multispectral imager. As expected the sensor functioned as both a visible and NIR detector. Vegetation was easily distinguished based on its NIR reflectance, and man-made materials could be effe...

  6. Maskeering : uus reaalsus = Camouflage : a New Reality / Jean-Philippe Dore, Urs Keller

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Dore, Jean-Philippe

    2001-01-01

    Šveitsi arhitektide Jacques Herzogi ja Pierre de Meuroni ning nende koolkonna - Peter Zumthor, Annette Gigon, Mike Guyer, Valerio Olgiati - "sõnatust" arhitektuurist ja selle sotsiaalsest tähendusest.

  7. Exploration of camouflage printing of nylon fabric%锦纶面料迷彩伪装印花初探

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓海英

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, nylon fabrics were printed with two formulations of weak acid dyes. It inVestigated the color fastness to washing, rubbing, perspiration showed that printed fabrics with weak acid dyes ha requirements of military purposes in actual uses sunlight and d better color the reflectance of printed nylon fabrics. The results fastness. And its anti-infrared effect can meet the%以锦纶面料为主要研究对象,采用弱酸性染料二种配方对其进行印花,并测试其不同配方印花后的耐皂洗色牢度、耐摩擦色牢度、耐汗渍色牢度、耐日晒色牢度以及反射率等,结果表明弱酸性染料用于锦纶织物印花后,不仅有较佳的色牢度,并且防红外效果能达到军用产品要求,因此有较好的实用性。

  8. Regulatory mutations in TBX3 disrupt asymmetric hair pigmentation that underlies Dun camouflage color in horses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Imsland, Freyja; McGowan, Kelly; Rubin, Carl-Johan;

    2016-01-01

    Dun is a wild-type coat color in horses characterized by pigment dilution with a striking pattern of dark areas termed primitive markings. Here we show that pigment dilution in Dun horses is due to radially asymmetric deposition of pigment in the growing hair caused by localized expression of the...

  9. Residual mosquito barrier treatments on U.S. military camouflage netting in a southern California desert environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treating perimeters of vegetation with residual insecticides for protection from mosquito vectors has potential for U.S. military force health protection. However, for current U.S. military operations in hot-arid environments with little or no vegetation, residual applications on portable artificial...

  10. Reactant-solute encounters in aqueous solutions studied by kinetic methods : hydration cosphere overlap and camouflage effects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Engberts, Jan B.F.N.; Blandamer, Michael J.

    1998-01-01

    Rates of chemical reactions in aqueous solutions are often sensitive to low concentrations of added solutes such as ureas, alcohols, α-amino acids and carbohydrates. In this work, several simple chemical reactions were used to probe this sensitivity, which arises from interactions between added solu

  11. Kamuflaj Tespiti için Hiperspektral Görüntüleme / Hyperspectral Imaging for Camouflage Detection

    OpenAIRE

    Karaca, Ali Can; Ertürk, Alp; Güllü, M. Kemal; Ertürk, Sarp

    2013-01-01

    Hiperspektral görüntüleme ile birçok görüntü işleme uygulaması için, görsel veya kızılötesi kameralardan çok daha yüksek başarım elde etmek mümkündür. Kamuflaj tespiti ise askeri alanda önemini ve güncelliğini koruyan, hiperspektral görüntülemenin başarımından faydalanabilecek bir görüntü işleme problemidir. Bu makalede, bitkiler arasında gizlenmiş nesne veya insanların tespiti için hiperspektral görüntülemenin başarımı incelenmektedir. Problemin benzetimi için doğal ve yapay yapraklar, kamuf...

  12. Non-visual crypsis: a review of the empirical evidence for camouflage to senses other than vision

    OpenAIRE

    Ruxton, Graeme D

    2008-01-01

    I review the evidence that organisms have adaptations that confer difficulty of detection by predators and parasites that seek their targets primarily using sensory systems other than vision. In other words, I will answer the question of whether crypsis is a concept that can usefully be applied to non-visual sensory perception. Probably because vision is such an important sensory system in humans, research in this field is sparse. Thus, at present we have very few examples of chemical camoufl...

  13. Rendering of surface-geometries at job-generation level for camouflaging the layered nature of Additively Manufactured parts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, D. B.; Hansen, H. N.; Nielsen, J. S.;

    2014-01-01

    The layered nature of Additive Manufactured parts, specifically those given from the Fused Deposition Modelling (FDM) process, exhibit a distinct surface definition. The origin of this is from the 2.5D deposition scheme, which leaves the seam between the individual layers clearly visible.[1] It is...

  14. Nähtamatuse saladus paljastatud / Allar Viik

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Viik, Allar

    2006-01-01

    Teadlased töötavad välja mitut nähtamatuks tegemise meetodit. Tuntumad neist on active camouflage ehk aktiivne maskeering, optical camouflage ehk aktiivne maskeering ja optical camouflage ehk optiline maskeering

  15. The devil is in the detail: Acute Guillain-Barré syndrome camouflaged as neurosarcoidosis in a critically ill patient admitted to an Intensive Care Unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pooja Prathapan Sarada

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS is an acute demyelinating polyneuropathy, usually evoked by antecedent infection. Sarcoidosis is a multisystem chronic granulomatous disorder with neurological involvement occurring in a minority. We present a case of a 43-year-old Caucasian man who presented with acute ascending polyradiculoneuropathy with a recent diagnosis of pulmonary sarcoidosis. The absence of acute flaccid paralysis excluded a clinical diagnosis of GBS in the first instance. Subsequently, a rapid onset of proximal weakness with multi-organ failure led to the diagnosis of GBS, which necessitated intravenous immunoglobulin and plasmapheresis to which the patient responded adequately, and he was subsequently discharged home. Neurosarcoidosis often masquerades as other disorders, leading to a diagnostic dilemma; also, the occurrence of a GBS-like clinical phenotype secondary to neurosarcoidosis may make diagnosing coexisting GBS a therapeutic challenge. This article not only serves to exemplify the rare association of neurosarcoidosis with GBS but also highlights the need for a high index of clinical suspicion for GBS and accurate history taking in any patient who may present with rapidly progressing weakness to an Intensive Care Unit.

  16. Flight Investigation at High Speeds of Profile Drag of Wing of a P-47D Airplane Having Production Surfaces Covered with Camouflage Paint

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daum, Fred L.; Zalovcik, John A.

    1946-01-01

    Wing section outboard of flap was tested by wake surveys in Mach range of 0.25 - 0.78 and lift coefficient range 0.06 - 0.69. Results indicated that minimum profile-drag coefficient of 0.0097 was attained for lift coefficients from 0.16 to 0.25 at Mach less than 0.67. Below Mach number at which compressibility shock occurred, variations in Mach of 0.2 had negligible effect on profile drag coefficient. Shock was not evident until critical Mach was exceeded by 0.025.

  17. 防激光探测伪装涂层的制备与实验研究%Experiment Research on Properties of Laser Camouflage Material

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张拴勤; 连长春; 卢言利

    2011-01-01

    A theoretical model for laser transmission in atmosphere is established according to the working principle of laser guided weapons, and the requirements for the laser absorption materials are calculated. Some laser absorption pigments with green, grey, black and red colors, are synthesized by using high temperature sintering. Three laser absorption paints with deep green, middle green and yellow earth colors are fabricated. A Nd: YAG laser rangefinder is used to measure the laser absorption properties. The measurement results show that laser absorption paints have better properties.%针对激光制导武器的工作原理,建立了激光大气传输的理论模型,计算了激光吸收材料的指标要求.采用高温烧结法制备出绿色、灰色、黑色和红色等几种激光吸收颜料,利用这些颜料配置出深绿、中绿和黄土3种兼容可见光伪装的激光吸收涂料.采用Nd:YAG激光测距仪测试了深绿、中绿和黄土3种颜色的涂层,并对测试原理进行了分析说明,测试结果表明,制备的激光吸收涂料性能优良,能有效对付激光制导武器的威胁.

  18. Combined variants in reading epilepsy; coexisting anterior and posterior variants camouflaged as heat cramps where the patient finds his own diagnosis searching the internet

    OpenAIRE

    Henning Kristian Olberg; Tom Eichele; Thomas Schwarzlmüller; Jonas Lind; Ina Elen Hjelland; Bernt Andreas Engelsen

    2016-01-01

    Reading epilepsy is a form of reflex-induced seizures. Two entities are postulated as part of a clinical spectrum; one anterior variant with jaw jerks and orofacial myoclonia and another posterior variant with visual symptoms and alexia or dyslexia. We present a case with suggestible evidence of both conditions coexisting within the same patient, a finding that, to our knowledge, has not been previously reported. The diagnosis in this specific case was contributed to by the patient searching ...

  19. 76 FR 7824 - Procurement List; Proposed Additions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-11

    ..., M26 12-guage shotgun MASS, Camouflage 8465-00-NIB-0212--Pouch, Four 5-round magazines, M26 12-guage shotgun MASS, Camouflage 8465-00-NIB-0213--Soft carrying case, Shotgun, 3-round magazine, M26 12-guage shotgun MASS, Camouflage 8465-00-NIB-0214--Soft carrying case, Shotgun, 5-round magazine, M26...

  20. 78 FR 24732 - Procurement List; Proposed Additions and Deletions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-26

    ...--Digital Camouflage Time Management System NSN: 7530-01-573-4845--JR Deluxe Version TMS, Black NSN: 7530-01-573-4845L--JR Deluxe Version TMS, Black w/Logo NSN: 7530-01-573-4846L--JR Deluxe Version TMS, Digital Camouflage w/ Logo NSN: 7530-01-573-4846--JR Deluxe Version TMS, Digital Camouflage NPA: The Easter...

  1. Study on Wireless Sensor Networks’Camouflage Based on Routing Algorithms%基于路由算法的无线传感器网络伪装研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    段苗莹; 何聚厚; 何秀青

    2012-01-01

      在研究如何通过无线传感器网络WSN有效获取信息的同时,如何确保敏感地区的信息不被WSN窃取也成为研究者关注的热点问题。基于WSN已有的路由算法,利用其开放的特点在敏感地区设置WSN伪装节点,并使其加入WSN节点的路由构建过程,伪装节点采用路由算法自适应伪装,通过修改数据报中的控制信息进而实现阻止WSN节点构建有效路由,并在最大程度上消耗WSN节点能量的目的。从WSN节点能耗速度和网络生命周期两方面验证了基于路由算法的WSN伪装的有效性。

  2. Optical Digital Imitation Painting Design Based on Self-Adaptive Image Feature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhu Liyan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on the study of existing digital imitation camouflage technology, we propose a kind of optical digital imitation camouflage design algorithm which is based on the characteristic of self-adaptive image. Picking main color feature of the background by using K-means clustering algorithm, counting the shape characteristics of each main color spots by separating layers, we generated digital camouflage pattern automatically by segmenting the background region characteristics and fill the background color image according to the statistics expected value. The simulation results show that, the digital camouflage generated automatically is blend well with the background .It keeps the background color and shape features, so has good camouflage effect. This algorithm can also provide the basic algorithm foundation for digital deformation camouflage.

  3. Optical Digital Imitation Painting Design Based on Self-Adaptive Image Feature

    OpenAIRE

    Zhu Liyan; Qin Jianfei; Qu Liyong; Song Shuwei; Xu Weidong

    2016-01-01

    Based on the study of existing digital imitation camouflage technology, we propose a kind of optical digital imitation camouflage design algorithm which is based on the characteristic of self-adaptive image. Picking main color feature of the background by using K-means clustering algorithm, counting the shape characteristics of each main color spots by separating layers, we generated digital camouflage pattern automatically by segmenting the background region characteristics and fill the back...

  4. Young Children's Learning and Transfer of Biological Information from Picture Books to Real Animals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganea, Patricia A.; Ma, Lili; DeLoache, Judy S.

    2011-01-01

    Preschool children (N = 104) read a book that described and illustrated color camouflage in animals (frogs and lizards). Children were then asked to indicate and explain which of 2 novel animals would be more likely to fall prey to a predatory bird. In Experiment 1, 3- and 4-year-olds were tested with pictures depicting animals in camouflage and…

  5. The Baby-Faced Assassin Majoy City founder Mao Kankan is attempting to build a real-life war game empire in China-just don't mention Counter-Strike

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    AMY CHI

    2008-01-01

    @@ Mao Kankan looks even younger in the flesh than the boyish figure that appears in his publicity shots. But looks can be deceiving: the 25-year-old has built his reputation on camouflage, guns, and tactical warfare.

  6. West Creates Biography Of "Fritz Muller, A Naturalist In Brazil"

    OpenAIRE

    Harris, Sally L.

    2003-01-01

    Some caterpillars can adjust the color of their chrysalids, or pupae, from brown to green to camouflage them in their environment, so it's no wonder butterflies have evolved to mimic toxic butterflies to save themselves from predators.

  7. Perspectives on Periocular Asymmetry

    OpenAIRE

    Tower, Robert N.; Soparkar, Charles N.S.; Patrinely, James R.

    2007-01-01

    Eyelid, orbit, and eye position asymmetry may adversely affect overall facial aesthetics. Armed with the knowledge of important periocular measures and landmarks, asymmetries can be easily identified and consideration may be given to correction or camouflage.

  8. Methylation of the phosphate oxygen moiety of phospholipid-methoxy(polyethylene glycol) conjugate prevents PEGylated liposome-mediated complement activation and anaphylatoxin production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moghimi, S.M.; Hamad, I.; Andresen, Thomas Lars;

    2006-01-01

    anaphylatoxin production through complement activation. Despite the general view that vesicle surface camouflaging with mPEG should dramatically suppress complement activation, here we show that bilayer enrichment of noncomplement activating liposomes [di-palmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC) vesicles] with...

  9. At Home with MS: Adapting Your Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 1 | At Home with MS with books, articles, radio programs, television shows, and Websites, on living with ... the outside to be sure you aren’t advertising that someone with a disability lives there. Camouflage ...

  10. Bruising Hands and Arms

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Derm App Skin Facts Aging and Sun Damage Beauty Myths Preventing Sun Damage Skin Cancer Detection Skin ... skin thickness and may help a small amount. Cosmetics can be used to camouflage the lesions. Finally, ...

  11. Mimicry in Heliconius and Ithomiini butterflies: The profound consequences of an adaptation

    OpenAIRE

    Elias Marianne; Joron Mathieu

    2015-01-01

    Prey populations have evolved multiple strategies to escape predation. Camouflage is a strategy resting on avoiding detection by potential predators, whereas aposematism relies on advertising chemical defences with conspicuous warning signals. While camouflaged phenotypes are subject to negative frequency-dependent selection, aposematic preys are under positive frequency-dependence, where the efficiency of a signal increases with its own local abundance. Because of his “strength-in-number” ef...

  12. Predator perception and the interrelation between different forms of protective coloration

    OpenAIRE

    Stevens, Martin

    2007-01-01

    Animals possess a range of defensive markings to reduce the risk of predation, including warning colours, camouflage, eyespots and mimicry. These different strategies are frequently considered independently, and with little regard towards predator vision, even though they may be linked in various ways and can be fully understood only in terms of predator perception. For example, camouflage and warning coloration need not be mutually exclusive, and may frequently exploit similar features of vi...

  13. Ultra-wideband RF helmet antenna

    OpenAIRE

    Lebaric, Jovan; Tan, Ah-Tuan

    2000-01-01

    This paper addresses the development of an ultra-wideband, vertically polarized communications antenna integrated into the camouflage cover of a standard military-issue Kevlar helmet. The Helmet Camouflage Cover Antenna (referred to as the “helmet antenna’y is one of three antennas based on the antenna COMbat Wear INtegration (COMWIN) concept developed at the Naval Postgraduate School (NPS) for the man -portable implementation of the new Joint Tactical Radio System (JTRS). The results of c...

  14. Stealth Compensation Via Retirement Benefits

    OpenAIRE

    Lucian Arye Bebchuk; Fried, Jesse M.

    2004-01-01

    This paper analyzes an important form of "stealth compensation" provided to managers of public companies. We show how boards have been able to camouflage large amount of executive compensation through the use of retirement benefits and payments. Our study highlights the significant role that camouflage and stealth compensation play in the design of compensation arrangements. Our study also highlights the significance of whether information about compensation arrangements is not merely publicl...

  15. The multiple disguises of spiders: web colour and decorations, body colour and movement

    OpenAIRE

    Théry, Marc; Casas, Jérôme

    2008-01-01

    Diverse functions have been assigned to the visual appearance of webs, spiders and web decorations, including prey attraction, predator deterrence and camouflage. Here, we review the pertinent literature, focusing on potential camouflage and mimicry. Webs are often difficult to detect in a heterogeneous visual environment. Static and dynamic web distortions are used to escape visual detection by prey, although particular silk may also attract prey. Recent work using physiological models of vi...

  16. Exploring a chromatic oblique effect.

    OpenAIRE

    Curran, Paul G.

    1997-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited For centuries, military forces have used camouflage to obscure potential targets from the enemy. Because the eye is fairly adept at picking out edges, colors, and bright areas, camouflage is often used to degrade these qualities from human detection. The purpose of this thesis was to investigate the role of certain spatial, temporal, and chromatic features on the human visual system and how these features may aid the quest for better c...

  17. Cuttlefish Sepia officinalis Preferentially Respond to Bottom Rather than Side Stimuli When Not Allowed Adjacent to Tank Walls.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darcy A A Taniguchi

    Full Text Available Cuttlefish are cephalopods capable of rapid camouflage responses to visual stimuli. However, it is not always clear to what these animals are responding. Previous studies have found cuttlefish to be more responsive to lateral stimuli rather than substrate. However, in previous works, the cuttlefish were allowed to settle next to the lateral stimuli. In this study, we examine whether juvenile cuttlefish (Sepia officinalis respond more strongly to visual stimuli seen on the sides versus the bottom of an experimental aquarium, specifically when the animals are not allowed to be adjacent to the tank walls. We used the Sub Sea Holodeck, a novel aquarium that employs plasma display screens to create a variety of artificial visual environments without disturbing the animals. Once the cuttlefish were acclimated, we compared the variability of camouflage patterns that were elicited from displaying various stimuli on the bottom versus the sides of the Holodeck. To characterize the camouflage patterns, we classified them in terms of uniform, disruptive, and mottled patterning. The elicited camouflage patterns from different bottom stimuli were more variable than those elicited by different side stimuli, suggesting that S. officinalis responds more strongly to the patterns displayed on the bottom than the sides of the tank. We argue that the cuttlefish pay more attention to the bottom of the Holodeck because it is closer and thus more relevant for camouflage.

  18. Ultra-wideband conformal helmet antenna

    OpenAIRE

    Lebaric, J.; Ah-Tuan Tan

    2000-01-01

    The article of record may be found at http://dx.doi.org/10.1.1109/APMC.2000.926116 This paper presents the development of an ultra-wideband (300 to 3000 MHz), vertically polarized, nearly omni-directional (in azimuth) communications antenna integrated into the camouflage cover of a standard military-issue Kevlar helmet. The Helmet Camouflage Cover Antenna (referred to as the “helmet antenna”) is one of three antennas (with the combined frequency coverage from 2 to 2000 MHz) based on the an...

  19. Management of post-orthodontic white spot lesions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sonesson, Mikael; Bergstrand, Fredrik; Gizani, Sotiria;

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: The management of post-orthodontic white spot lesions is based on remineralization strategies or a minimal-invasive camouflage of the lesions. AIM: The aim of this systematic review was to identify and assess the quality of evidence for the various clinical technologies...... were considered. Furthermore, a follow-up period of at least 8 weeks was required. The publication bias could not be assessed due to the paucity of included trials. CONCLUSIONS/CLINICAL IMPLICATIONS: There is a lack of reliable scientific evidence to support re-mineralizing or camouflaging strategies...

  20. Asymmetry a challenge for orthodontists

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Melsen, Birte

    2007-01-01

      Asymmetry is considered a challenge and often the reason for which the optimal result cannot be obtained. The explanations are many. Only rarely, the cause of the asymmetry is localized and camouflage is frequently resulting in the development a different type of asymmetry occurring in all three...... planes of space. A systematic approach to the identification of the cause of the asymmetry head precede the decision whether to correct or to camouflage. The definition of a specific treatment goal should be done only following an analysis of the likelihood that the force system necessary to perform the...

  1. 男孩走四方·Boy Should Support Himself

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周正

    2000-01-01

    When I was a child, I dreamt of becom-ing a brave soldier. Wearing the camouflage clothing and holding the steel gun, I were struggling against the enemies for my coun-try in the dark forest. But when I became a student of high school, I turned back in the reality from dreams.

  2. Elementary Students' Investigations in Natural Selection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartley, Nancy; Concannon, James P.; Brown, Patrick L.

    2014-01-01

    Students love learning about animals: how animals behave, what animals eat, why some animals are more dangerous than others are, and why animals look the way they do. In this 5E lesson, students investigate why some animals look the way they do--specifically, the advantages of camouflage and mimicry. What are an animal's advantages of being…

  3. Bug City: Spiders and Scorpions [Videotape].

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998

    "Bug City" is a video series created to help children learn about insects and other small critters. All aspects of bug life are touched upon including body structure, food, habitat, life cycle, mating habits, camouflage, mutualism (symbiosis), adaptations, social behavior, and more. Each program features dramatic microscopic photography, fun…

  4. Sex-Related Cognitive Profile in Autism Spectrum Disorders Diagnosed Late in Life: Implications for the Female Autistic Phenotype

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehnhardt, Fritz-Georg; Falter, Christine Michaela; Gawronski, Astrid; Pfeiffer, Kathleen; Tepest, Ralf; Franklin, Jeremy; Vogeley, Kai

    2016-01-01

    Females with high-functioning ASD are known to camouflage their autistic symptoms better than their male counterparts, making them prone to being under-ascertained and delayed in diagnostic assessment. Thus far the underlying cognitive processes that enable such successful socio-communicative adaptation are not well understood. The current results…

  5. Badminton--Teaching Concepts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbs, Marilyn J.

    1988-01-01

    Teaching four basic badminton concepts along with the usual basic skill shots allows players to develop game strategy awareness as well as mechanical skills. These four basic concepts are: (1) ready position, (2) flight trajectory, (3) early shuttle contact, and (4) camouflage. (IAH)

  6. Robustness of Input features from Noisy Silhouettes in Human Pose Estimation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gong, Wenjuan; Fihl, Preben; Gonzàlez, Jordi;

    2014-01-01

    measurement of noisy inputs. The proposed measurement is able to automatically discard noise, like camouflage from the background or shadows. With the proposed measurement, we split inputs into different noise levels and assess their pose estimation accuracies. Furthermore, we explore performances of...... silhouette samples of different noise levels and compare with the selected feature on a public dataset: Human Eva dataset....

  7. Dichoptic fusion of thermal and intensified imagery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Toet, A.; Hogervorst, M.A.; Hoeven, M. van der

    2006-01-01

    Subjects used the dichoptic combination of a monocular image intensifier (NVG) and a monocular uncooled microbolometer (LWIR) to detect and localise both visual targets and camouflaged thermal targets while moving through a dimly lit complex environment. The NVG imagery enabled the subjects to move

  8. Masquerade, mimicry and crypsis of the polymorphic sea anemone Phyllodiscus semoni and its aggregations in South Sulawesi

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoeksema, B.; Crowther, A.L.

    2011-01-01

    Phyllodiscus semoni is a morphologically variable sea anemone species from the Indo-Pacific with morphotypes ranging from upright and branched to low-lying and rounded. The apparent camouflage strategies of this sea anemone allow it to resemble other species or objects in its environment, such as st

  9. Now You See Me Now You Don’t:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ventura, Joanthan; Gunn, Wendy

    connotations of discomfort, shame, disability or even inferiority, depending on their ability to act as extensions or appendages to the human body. By choosing either a path of visibility or invisibility, the industrial designers discussed here provide ways to camouflage worn devices, therefore, avoiding...

  10. The Spatial Politics of Spatial Representation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Kristian; Richardson, Tim

    2011-01-01

    spatial planning in Denmark reveals how fuzzy spatial representations and relational spatial concepts are being used to depoliticise strategic spatial planning processes and to camouflage spatial politics. The paper concludes that, while relational geography might play an important role in building...

  11. Patient Belief in Miracles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvidt, Niels Christian

    2011-01-01

    Faith and hope in divine healing figure in most religious traditions. This chapter looks at faith in healing miracles and explores how following that faith may involve both risks and advantages. On the one hand, it may imply a risk by camouflaging a deferring attitude as when patients decline...

  12. Priit Tenderi film sai Dresdenis auhinna

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2002-01-01

    Dresdeni 14. filmifestivali animafilmide kategoorias sai teise preemia Priit Tenderi joonisfilm "Mont Blanc". Peapreemia sai saksa režissööri Jonathan Hodgsoni film "Camouflage". Kolmas oli PÖFFi peaauhinna saanud Stepan Birjukovi "Sossedi". Osales ka Nukufilmis diplomitööna valminud Jelena Girlini "Guff"

  13. Conspicuity of moving soldiers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beintema, J.A.; Toet, A.; Vries, S.J. de

    2011-01-01

    The construction and validation of soldier combat models requires data on the conspicuity of camouflaged targets in the field, and human targets in particular. So far, this data is lacking. Also, it si currently unknown to what degree luminance contrast and motion contribute to target conspicuity. T

  14. Principia Orthographica

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davidsen-Nielsen, Niels; Herslund, Michael

    2013-01-01

    respect to so-called double forms (e.g. camouflage/kamuflage). As we see it, the existence of a standardized orthography constitutes a clear advantage, and we share the opinion once proposed that the purpose of an orthography is to curtail free initiative within the area of spelling so that irrelevant and...

  15. Review of the functional morphology, biology and perturbation impacts on the boreal, habitat-forming horse mussel Modiolus modiolus (Bivalvia: Mytilidae: Modiolinae)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dinesen, Grete E.; Morton, Brian

    2014-01-01

    by the byssal gland and foot complex and becomes covered in sand grains held in place by a mucoid cement secreted by the dorsal mantle. The camouflaged shell at this vulnerable time probably serves as an anti-predator device. Individuals grow to maximum shell lengths of ∼60–213 mm, depending on depth...

  16. Stealth: the art of invisibility - the future is bright, the future is stealth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, R.; Breur, J.

    2011-01-01

    The philosophy of stealth is simple: if they cannot see you, the cannot attack you. This starts with basic things such as a camouflage painting and noise reduction. Stealth technology takes 'not being seen' to the next level with radar absorbing materials, complicated shapes and reduced heat emissio

  17. Background matching and evolution of cryptic colours of selected passerines in deciduous woodlands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bursell, Jens; Dyck, Jan

    2003-01-01

    Most drab plumage colours are probably cryptic. Crypsis (camouflage) occurs when the colour of a significant part of the plumage is similar to the colour of a significant part of the background against which the prey bird may be detected by a potential predator. In this study we compare back...

  18. Retskultur - "ein modischer Begriff"

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Hanne

    2011-01-01

    Artiklen, der indgår i et festskrift til Ditlev Tamm, diskuterer retskultur som modebegreb, den retskulturelle modes udtryk, og retskultur og mode herunder køn og camouflage. Tilslørings- og repræsentationskonflikter har i Danmark fået udtryk i lovgivningen om 'dommeres fremtræden', der i praksis...

  19. A scent shield to survive: identification of the repellent compounds secreted by the male offspring of the cuckoo bumblebee Bombus vestalis

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Lhomme, P.; Ayasse, M.; Valterová, Irena; Lecocq, T.; Rasmont, P.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 157, č. 3 (2015), s. 263-270. ISSN 0013-8703 Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : Hymenoptera * Apidae * Psithyrus * social parasitism * repellent * GC-EAD * chemical camouflage Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 1.616, year: 2014

  20. Bug City: Bees [Videotape].

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998

    "Bug City" is a video series created to help children learn about insects and other small critters. All aspects of bug life are touched upon including body structure, food, habitat, life cycle, mating habits, camouflage, mutualism (symbiosis), adaptations, social behavior, and more. Each program features dramatic microscopic photography, fun…

  1. Direct and indirect immunosuppression by a malaria parasite in its mosquito vector

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boëte, C.H.J.J.; Paul, R.E.L.; Koëlla, J.C.

    2004-01-01

    Malaria parasites develop as oocysts within the haemocoel of their mosquito vector during a period that is longer than the average lifespan of many of their vectors. How can they escape from the mosquito's immune responses during their long development? Whereas older oocysts might camouflage themsel

  2. Functions in Biological Kind Classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lombrozo, Tania; Rehder, Bob

    2012-01-01

    Biological traits that serve functions, such as a zebra's coloration (for camouflage) or a kangaroo's tail (for balance), seem to have a special role in conceptual representations for biological kinds. In five experiments, we investigate whether and why functional features are privileged in biological kind classification. Experiment 1…

  3. The Gravitational Invisibility

    OpenAIRE

    De Aquino, Fran

    2015-01-01

    The possible obtention of invisibility by means of a gravitational method is shown in this work. This method is based on a gravity control process patented on 2008 (BR Patent Number: PI0805046-5). It goes far beyond the known methods of invisibility and camouflage, which use the principles of light refraction to allow light to pass right through an object (metamaterials).

  4. Not Entirely Subversive

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langkjær, Michael Alexander

    2011-01-01

    followed by analysis of the 1960s guitar hussar look of Jimi Hendrix and the 21st century camouflaged survivor look of Destiny's Child. Elucidation of the motivation behind their respective versions of 'rock military style' is achieved through utilization of personal statements in interviews and contextual...

  5. Not Entirely Subversive

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langkjær, Michael Alexander

    2012-01-01

    followed by analyses of the 1960s guitar hussar look of Jimi Hendrix and the 21st century camouflaged survivor look of Destiny's Child. Elucidation of the motivation behind their respective versions of 'rock military style' is achieved through utilization of personal statements in interviews, song lyrics...

  6. Exploring Predation and Animal Coloration through Outdoor Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontaine, Joseph J.; Decker, Karie L.

    2009-01-01

    Although children often characterize animals by the animals' color or pattern, the children seldom understand the evolutionary and ecological factors that favor particular colors. In this article, we describe two activities that help students understand the distinct evolutionary strategies of warning coloration and camouflage. Because both of…

  7. An Investigation of Self-Concept, Clothing Selection, and Life Satisfaction among Disabled Consumers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Hyo Jung

    2012-01-01

    This dissertation investigates the relationships between various aspects of self-concept (i.e., generalized self-efficacy, public self-consciousness, state hope, and self-esteem), clothing selection (i.e., clothing that expresses individuality, clothing that improves the emotional state, clothing that camouflages the body), and life satisfaction…

  8. Comparative Advantage Not Cause of Trade Surplus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Since adopting` the reform and opening-up policy in the late 1970s, China has constantly expanded its foreign trade by giving full play to its comparative advantage in production cost. However, nowadays, problems previously camouflaged by high GDP growth

  9. Anti-predator behaviour of Sahamalaza sportive lemurs, Lepilemur sahamalazensis, at diurnal sleeping sites

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Seiler, M.; Schwitzer, C.; Holderied, M.

    2013-01-01

    In response to predation pressure by raptors, snakes, and carnivores, primates employ anti-predator behaviours such as avoiding areas of high predation risk, cryptic behaviour and camouflage, vigilance and group formation (including mixedspecies associations), and eavesdropping on other species’ ala

  10. Clinical Application of a Behavioral Model for the Treatment of Body Dysmorphic Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabinowitz, Dena; Neziroglu, Fugen; Roberts, Marty

    2007-01-01

    Body dysmorphic disorder (BDD) is characterized by an obsessive concern over a perceived flaw in bodily appearance. If a minor flaw does exist, the patient displays unwarranted distress. This preoccupation typically leads to compulsive behaviors, such as mirror checking or mirror avoiding, camouflaging, and seeking reassurance from others…

  11. A method of using commercial virtual satellite image to check the pattern painting spot effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zheng-gang; Kang, Qing; Shen, Zhi-qiang; Cui, Chang-bin

    2014-02-01

    A method of using commercial virtual satellite image to check the pattern painting spot effect contrast with the satellite images before painting and after painting have been discussed. Using a housetop as the testing platform analyses and discusses the factors' influence such as resolution of satellite image, spot size and color of pattern painting spot and pattern painting camouflage method choosing to the plan implement. The pattern painting design and spot size used in the testing has been ensured, and housetop pattern painting has been painted. Finally, the small spot pattern painting camouflage effect of engineering using upon painting pattern size, color and texture have been checked, contrasting with the satellite image before painting and after painting.

  12. New caulerpenyne-derived metabolites of an Elysia Sacoglossan from the south Indian coast

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Ciavatta, M.L.; Gresa, M.P.L.; Gavagnin, M.; Manzo, E.; Mollo, E.; DeSouza, L.; Cimino, G.

    . Keywords: Caulerpenyne, Sesquiterpenes, Sacoglossans, Elysia, NMR. Introduction Sacoglossan molluscs are herbivorous and primarily associated, with a few exceptions, with siphonalean green algae [1]. They are often well camouflaged, as much... of their color being derived from the chloroplasts of algae on which they feed [2,3]. The order Sacoglossa includes both shelled and shell-less species, it has been reported that shelled sacoglossans, all belonging to the superfamily Oxynoidea, feed...

  13. ERP, Ciborgues e Memórias Protéticas

    OpenAIRE

    Ludmer, Gilson

    2011-01-01

    ERP systems have profound impacts on businesses processes and on the knowledge that employees need to carry out their activities. This essay discusses the ERP phenomenon using the metaphor of the cyborg and concepts about prosthetic memory based on the works of Haraway (2000) and Landsberg (1995). These works are used to explore aspects of ERP that seem to be otherwise obscure or camouflaged, so in need to be revealed. The cyborg can contribute to the understanding of different ways in which ...

  14. Eye-independent, light-activated chromatophore expansion (LACE) and expression of phototransduction genes in the skin of Octopus bimaculoides

    OpenAIRE

    Ramirez, M. Desmond; Oakley, Todd H.

    2015-01-01

    Cephalopods are renowned for changing the color and pattern of their skin for both camouflage and communication. Yet, we do not fully understand how cephalopods control the pigmented chromatophore organs in their skin and change their body pattern. Although these changes primarily rely on eyesight, we found that light causes chromatophores to expand in excised pieces of Octopus bimaculoides skin. We call this behavior light-activated chromatophore expansion (or LACE). To uncover how octopus s...

  15. Israel-criticism and modern anti-Semitism

    OpenAIRE

    Kempf, Wilhelm

    2009-01-01

    After the Third Reich was defeated, the expression of openly anti-Semitic attitudes was, to be sure, discredited in the German public, but anti-Semitism did not, however, disappear entirely. It was instead camouflaged in various ways, and even found socially and politically compatible expression in the criticism of Israeli Palestine policy.Previous research in this area gives evidence that modern anti-Semitism represents a complex formation constituted from a variety of facets which range fro...

  16. Patterns of criticizing Israel and their relationship to modern anti-Semitism

    OpenAIRE

    Wilhelm Kempf

    2010-01-01

    Even though the expression of anti-Semitic attitudes is no longer socially acceptable to the German public, it has not ceased entirely. It has been camouflaged in various ways and has even found politically correct expression in the criticism of Israeli Palestine policy. It cannot, however, be assumed that all criticism of Israel is motivated by anti-Semitic attitudes. The present paper uses Latent Class Analysis to identify typical patterns of criticizing Israel and relates them to manif...

  17. Vergleich aktiv und passiv beschichteter Stents im Hinblick auf Restenoseprophylaxe - eine vergleichende tierexperimentelle Studie

    OpenAIRE

    Reinke, Julia Margaretha

    2011-01-01

    Zusammenfassend kann aus dieser Studie entnommen werden, dass der getestete Ramapycin-Stent (+ Camouflage® Nanocoating) in der Lage ist die Neointimaproliferation und damit die Gefahr der Restenose signifikant zu senken. Weiterhin scheint dieser Stent durch seine antithrombogene Beschichtung in der Lage zu sein die Einheilung in die Gefäßwand zu verbessern, was möglicherweise durch die verbesserte vaskuläre Einheilung zu weniger ...

  18. Problematising the Ethics and Conduct of the Ruling Party during Series of Malaysia’s Post-political Tsunami By-elections

    OpenAIRE

    Badrul Azmier Mohamed; Mujibu Abd Muis; Jennifah Nordin; Mahazril ‘Aini Yaacob; Chuah Bee Peng; Zaherawati Zakaria; Nazni Noordin

    2012-01-01

    The ethical aspect of election is inherently an uncommon topic to be brought up for discussion in Malaysia, and more so when it involves the ruling party. Essentially, the ethics of election is in itself an exceptionally rare subject since ethics and politics are not commonly discussed. The ethical dimension of politics is often camouflaged as the seemingly more important and desirable sub-topics of transparency and accountability in the discussion of good governance. This leads to an obvious...

  19. A Multi-Axis Best Fit to the Collider Supersymmetry Search: The Aroma of Stops and Gluinos at the \\sqrt{s} = 7 TeV LHC

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Tianjun; Maxin, James A.; Nanopoulos, Dimitri V.; Walker, Joel W.

    2012-01-01

    In Profumo di SUSY, we presented evidence that CMS&ATLAS may have already registered a handful of deftly camouflaged supersymmetry events at the LHC in the multijet channels. Here, we explore the prospect for corroboration of this suggestion from 5 additional CMS&ATLAS search strategies targeting the production of light stops & gluinos at lower jet counts, which variously depend on heavy flavor tagging and the inclusion or exclusion of associated leptons. The current operating phase of the 7T...

  20. State-of-the-art Intrusion Detection: Technology, Challenges, and Evaluation.

    OpenAIRE

    Peddisetty, Naga Raju

    2005-01-01

    Due to the invention of automated hacking tools, Hacking is not a black art anymore. Even script kiddies can launch attacks in few seconds. Therefore, there is a great emphasize on the Security to protect the resources from camouflage. Intrusion Detection System is also one weapon in the security arsenal. It is the process of monitoring and analyzing information sources in order to detect vicious traffic. With its unique capabilities like monitoring, analyzing, detecting and archiving, IDS as...

  1. Moral qualms, future persons, and embryo research

    OpenAIRE

    Shaw, D. M.

    2008-01-01

    Many people have moral qualms about embryo research, feeling that embryos must deserve some kind of protection, if not so much as is afforded to persons. This paper will show that these qualms serve to camouflage motives that are really prudential, at the cost of also obscuring the real ethical issues at play in the debate concerning embryo research and therapeutic cloning. This in turn leads to fallacious use of the Actions/Omissions Distinction and ultimately neglects the duties that we hav...

  2. Melanin-based colour polymorphism responding to climate change.

    OpenAIRE

    Roulin A.

    2014-01-01

    Climate warming leads to a decrease in biodiversity. Organisms can deal with the new prevailing environmental conditions by one of two main routes, namely evolving new genetic adaptations or through phenotypic plasticity to modify behaviour and physiology. Melanin-based colouration has important functions in animals including a role in camouflage and thermoregulation, protection against UV-radiation and pathogens and, furthermore, genes involved in melanogenesis can pleiotropically regulate b...

  3. Pyrolytic carbon coated black silicon

    OpenAIRE

    Shah, Ali; Stenberg, Petri; Karvonen, Lasse; Ali, Rizwan; Honkanen, Seppo; Lipsanen, Harri; Peyghambarian, N.; Kuittinen, Markku; Svirko, Yuri; Kaplas, Tommi

    2016-01-01

    Carbon is the most well-known black material in the history of man. Throughout the centuries, carbon has been used as a black material for paintings, camouflage, and optics. Although, the techniques to make other black surfaces have evolved and become more sophisticated with time, carbon still remains one of the best black materials. Another well-known black surface is black silicon, reflecting less than 0.5% of incident light in visible spectral range but becomes a highly reflecting surface ...

  4. The role of Lhx2 in hair follicle morphogenesis and regeneration

    OpenAIRE

    Törnqvist, Gunilla

    2010-01-01

    Hair is important for thermoregulation, physical protection, sensory activity, seasonal camouflage and social interactions. Hair is produced in hair follicles (HFs), complex mini-organs in the skin devoted to this task. HFs are formed during embryonic development (morphogenesis) and new hair is continuously generated throughout life since the postnatal HF goes through cycles of regression (catagen), quiescence (telogen) and growth (anagen). The transcriptional regulation of this process is no...

  5. CURRENT TRENDS IN β-CYCLODEXTRIN BASED DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEMS

    OpenAIRE

    Lala Rita; Thorat Amit; Gargote Chandrashekhar

    2011-01-01

    Many compounds identified through various screening programs are poorly soluble in the water. These molecules are difficult to formulate using the conventional formulation approaches. An important tool in this regard is the use of cyclodextrins, especially chemically modified cyclodextrins. These starch derivatives interact via dynamic complex formation and other mechanisms in a way that camouflages undesirable physicochemical properties, including low aqueous solubility, poor dissolution rat...

  6. PENGGUNAAN FACE-MASK & EKSPANSI PALATAL PADA PERAWATAN MALOKLUSI KLAS III (Studi Pustaka)

    OpenAIRE

    Krisnawati Krisnawati

    2015-01-01

    Class III skeletal anomaly is one of the most difficult malocclusions to correct in orthodontics. Orthodontist usually involved chincup appliances to restrain mandibular growth, camouflage techniques to advances maxillary incisors and retract mandibular incisors or waiting untul growth ceased to pursue orthognathic surgery. Many studies found that most of Class III malocclusions were characterized by maxillary retrognathism. In the late 1960s, the Delaire mask was popularized to protract the ...

  7. Injectable Cartilage Shaving: An Autologous and Long Lasting Filler Material for Correction of Minor Contour Deformities in Rhinoplasty

    OpenAIRE

    Manafi, Ali; Hamedi, Zahra Sadat; Manafi, Amir; Rajabiani, Afsaneh; Rajaee, Ahmadreza; Manafi, Farzad

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND Filler materials are gaining popularity in nonsurgical rhinoplasty the major advantages are the ability to camouflage the surface deformities, and also the soft and malleable consistency; while the major drawback of the safe fillers such as hyaluronic acid is short durability. In this study, we evaluated the injectable cartilage shaving as an autologous filler material for correction of minor contour deformities in rhinoplasty. METHODS Injectable cartilage shaving was used for corr...

  8. Broadening the Bandwidth of Metamaterial Cloaks with Non-Foster Metasurfaces

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Pai-Yen; Alu, Andrea

    2013-01-01

    We introduce the concept and practical design of broadband, ultrathin cloaks based on non-Foster, negatively capacitive metasurfaces. By using properly tailored, active frequency-selective screens conformal to an object, within the realm of practical realization, is shown to enable drastically reduced scattering over a wide frequency range in the microwave regime, orders of magnitude broader than any available passive cloaking technology. The proposed active cloak may impact not only invisibility and camouflaging, but also practical antenna and sensing applications.

  9. Histochemical studies on genetical control of hormonal enzyme inducibility in the mouse. I. Non-specific esterase activity and regional histology of the epididymis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blecher, S R; Kirkeby, S

    1978-01-01

    As a base line for future cell genetical studies the authors record the distribution of non-specific esterase reaction in the various histologically distinguishable cell types of the mouse epididymis. The findings are correlated with previous descriptions of the lobar structure of the organ. Assu...... described. Methodological studies using different fixatives indicate that apparent similarity of esterase reaction at different sites may camouflage an underlying difference in the nature of the esterases at these sites....

  10. The Renaissance Teacher

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Per Skafte

    2002-01-01

    The teacher of the new renaissance engineer must be able to draw on all of his or her possible resources, while inspiring students to do likewise. A somewhat pedestrian tabular method is proposed for analysing what skills and propensities are available or desirable and for managing their balanced...... embedding into the teaching activities. Also, to avoid the pitfall of intimidating students with the apparently massive renaissance-style demands, a method of camouflaging the learning tasks is outlined and briefly illustrated....

  11. Compensatory orthodontic treatment of Angle Class II malocclusion with posterior open bite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Newton Torres

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The present case report addresses the treatment of an Angle Class II malocclusion in an adult female patient, long face pattern, with posterior open bite and dental arches extremely expanded, due to previous treatment. The patient and parents rejection to a treatment with orthognathic surgery led to orthodontic camouflage of the skeletal discrepancies. This clinical case was presented to the Brazilian Board of Orthodontics and Facial Orthopedics (BBO as one of the requirements to become a BBO Diplomate.

  12. Utility of gel nails in improving the appearance of cosmetically disfigured nails: Experience with 25 cases

    OpenAIRE

    Soni Nanda; Chander Grover

    2014-01-01

    Background: Gel nails are a commonly used cosmetic procedure, though their use by dermatologists has not been evaluated. These can be used to improve the appearance of cosmetically disfigured nails where other treatment options have failed; the condition is self-limiting or irreversible; or to camouflage the dystrophy until healing. Materials and Methods: A prospective, uncontrolled, open-label study on 25 participants presenting with cosmetically disfigured nails was undertaken. Mycologicall...

  13. Various Chemical Strategies to Deceive Ants in Three Arhopala Species (Lepidoptera: Lycaenidae) Exploiting Macaranga Myrmecophytes

    OpenAIRE

    Inui, Yoko; Shimizu-kaya, Usun; Okubo, Tadahiro; Yamsaki, Eri; Itioka, Takao

    2015-01-01

    Macaranga myrmecophytes (ant-plants) are generally well protected from herbivore attacks by their symbiotic ants (plant-ants). However, larvae of Arhopala (Lepidoptera: Lycaenidae) species survive and develop on specific Macaranga ant-plant species without being attacked by the plant-ants of their host species. We hypothesized that Arhopala larvae chemically mimic or camouflage themselves with the ants on their host plant so that the larvae are accepted by the plant-ant species of their host....

  14. 缤纷前沿

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    夏之黎

    2013-01-01

    Is Harry Potter’s Invisibility Cloak Finally A Reality?哈利·波特的隐形斗篷终成真?Ever since J.K.Rowling planted the idea of an invisibility cloak in her Harry Potter book series,scientists have been falling all over themselves to create a material that can not only camouflage(使隐蔽)people,but also,buildings.Now a Canadian company claims

  15. Colour patterns on Silurian orthocerid and pseudorthocerid conchs from Gotland – palaeoecological implications

    OpenAIRE

    Štěpán Manda; Vojtěch Turek

    2015-01-01

    The longitudinal colour pattern – an adaptively controlled feature functioning in cephalopods as camouflage – is described in two straight-shelled cephalopods from the Silurian of Gotland. A shell of the orthocerid Dawsonoceras annulatum (Sowerby) exhibits relatively broad longitudinal colour bands around the entire shell circumference, which in combination with transverse annuli and undulated growth ridges form a visually reticulate ornament. Such a combination is not known in other Silurian...

  16. Mechanisms and behavioural functions of structural coloration in cephalopods

    OpenAIRE

    Mäthger, Lydia M.; Denton, Eric J.; Marshall, N. Justin; Hanlon, Roger T.

    2008-01-01

    Octopus, squid and cuttlefish are renowned for rapid adaptive coloration that is used for a wide range of communication and camouflage. Structural coloration plays a key role in augmenting the skin patterning that is produced largely by neurally controlled pigmented chromatophore organs. While most iridescence and white scattering is produced by passive reflectance or diffusion, some iridophores in squid are actively controlled via a unique cholinergic, non-synaptic neural system. We review t...

  17. La retórica bajo el barniz de la lógica: Samuel Ramos y su discurso sobre la inferioridad mexicana

    OpenAIRE

    Houvenaghel, Eugenia

    2014-01-01

    Samuel Ramos reflects on the essence of the Mexican people in the philosophical essay El perfil del hombre y la cultura en Mexico (1934). He emphasizes the sentiment of inferiority and the desire to hide this inferiority by camouflage strategies as a distinctive characteristic of the Mexican. This analysis of Ramos's Perfil unveils a discrepancy between the form that the author imitatesthe scientific treatiseand the true argumentative constitution of his textthe rhetorical discourse. Along wi...

  18. A Fluorescent Chromatophore Changes the Level of Fluorescence in a Reef Fish

    OpenAIRE

    Wucherer, Matthias F; Michiels, Nico K.

    2012-01-01

    Body coloration plays a major role in fish ecology and is predominantly generated using two principles: a) absorbance combined with reflection of the incoming light in pigment colors and b) scatter, refraction, diffraction and interference in structural colors. Poikilotherms, and especially fishes possess several cell types, so-called chromatophores, which employ either of these principles. Together, they generate the dynamic, multi-color patterns used in communication and camouflage. Several...

  19. Coincident disruptive coloration

    OpenAIRE

    Cuthill, Innes C.; Székely, Aron

    2008-01-01

    Even if an animal matches its surroundings perfectly in colour and texture, any mismatch between the spatial phase of its pattern and that of the background, or shadow created by its three-dimensional relief, is potentially revealing. Nevertheless, for camouflage to be fully broken, the shape must be recognizable. Disruptive coloration acts against object recognition by the use of high-contrast internal colour boundaries to break up shape and form. As well as the general outline, characterist...

  20. Surgical correction of "rhinoplastic look"

    OpenAIRE

    Sciuto, S.; BIANCO, N.

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY A pointed, narrow and exaggeratedly upturned nasal tip and concave dorsal profile can give the nose an unnatural and artificial appearance that is the unmistakable hallmark of plastic surgery. As a result of changes in social attitudes, noses that have evidently been operated on are no longer acceptable and requests are made for correction. While a more natural dorsal profile can be obtained with camouflage grafts of autologous cartilage or alloplastic material (EPTFE), autologous gra...

  1. The Hidden Snake in the Grass: Superior Detection of Snakes in Challenging Attentional Conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Soares, Sandra C.; Lindström, Björn; Esteves, Francisco; Öhman, Arne

    2014-01-01

    Snakes have provided a serious threat to primates throughout evolution. Furthermore, bites by venomous snakes still cause significant morbidity and mortality in tropical regions of the world. According to the Snake Detection Theory (SDT Isbell, 2006; 2009), the vital need to detect camouflaged snakes provided strong evolutionary pressure to develop astute perceptual capacity in animals that were potential targets for snake attacks. We performed a series of behavioral tests that assessed snake...

  2. Meeting the challenges of acne treatment in Asian Patients: A review of the role of dermocosmetics as adjunctive therapy

    OpenAIRE

    Chee Leok Goh; Nopadon Noppakun; Giuseppe Micali; Noor Zalmy Azizan; Waranya Boonchai; Yung Chan; Wai Kwong Cheong; Pin Chi Chiu; Kristiana Etnawati; Zharlah Gulmatico-Flores; Henry Foong; Raj Kubba; Purita Paz-Lao; Yin Yin Lee; Steven Loo

    2016-01-01

    Conventional acne treatment presents several challenges such as intolerable side effects and antibiotic resistance. Dermocosmetic products may be used to reduce these unwanted effects. Dermocosmetics include skin cleansers, topical sebum-controllers, skin antimicrobial/anti-inflammatory agents, moisturizers, sunscreens, and camouflage products. Appropriate use of these products may help augment the benefit of acne treatment, minimize side effects, and reduce the need for topical antibiotics. ...

  3. Electrostatic Field Invisibility Cloak

    OpenAIRE

    Lan, Chuwen; Yang, Yuping; Geng, Zhaoxin; Li, Bo; Yu, Xianglong; Zhou, Ji

    2014-01-01

    Invisibility cloak is drawing much attention due to its special camouflage when exposed to physical field varing from wave (electromagnetic field, acoustic field, elastic wave, etc.) to scalar field (thermal field, static magnetic field, dc electric field and mass diffusion). Here, an electrostatic field invisibility cloak has been theoretically investigated, and experimentally demonstrated for the first time to perfectly hide a certain region from sight without disturbing the external electr...

  4. Labour Standards and WTO : a New Form of Protectionism

    OpenAIRE

    Amit Dasgupta

    2000-01-01

    The paper attempts to explore the implications of introducing a non-trade issue like labour standards into the trade agenda. It argues that the moral or humanitarian arguments are quickly picked up by labour and trade lobbies because it is a convenient manner of camouflaging the 'real' or 'core' motivation, which the paper asserts is a new form of protectionism. Studies have suggested that withdrawing the children from the work force may in fact disadvantage them. Moreover, child labour is on...

  5. Colour and pattern change against visually heterogeneous backgrounds in the tree frog Hyla japonica

    OpenAIRE

    Changku Kang; Ye Eun Kim; Yikweon Jang

    2016-01-01

    Colour change in animals can be adaptive phenotypic plasticity in heterogeneous environments. Camouflage through background colour matching has been considered a primary force that drives the evolution of colour changing ability. However, the mechanism to which animals change their colour and patterns under visually heterogeneous backgrounds (i.e. consisting of more than one colour) has only been identified in limited taxa. Here, we investigated the colour change process of the Japanese tree ...

  6. Application of passive defense in urban housing planning

    OpenAIRE

    H. Kamran; D. Amini; H. Hossaini Amini

    2013-01-01

    Extended abstract1-IntroductionToday, with advances in the technology of weapons and military equipment, urban areas are most at risk of invasion. Among the most important factors in enhancing human casualties in military attacks on urban areas, one can point to the unrealistic architecture of houses which does not conform to principles such as optimal site selection and layout of the structure of human settlements, proper distribution, principles of concealment, camouflage and deception, the...

  7. Street art, spaces and visual rhetoric

    OpenAIRE

    Marco Mondino

    2014-01-01

    Street-art is a widespread urban phenomenon characterised by several different styles and concepts. This essay will introduce few artistic works, analysing the rhetoric strategies used. Artists create unpredictable narratives catching the audiences’ attention through various regimes of visibility and some figures of speech, such as hyperbole, apostrophe, and camouflage. Therefore, the relationship between street artworks and the audience can trigger a discourse of challenge, conflict or compl...

  8. The Leuven Embedded Figures Test (L-EFT): Re-embedding the EFT into vision sciences

    OpenAIRE

    Van der Hallen, Ruth; Chamberlain, Rebecca; Huygelier, Hanne; de-Wit, Lee; Wagemans, Johan

    2015-01-01

    Based on Gestalt psychological work on perceptual organization (Gottschaldt, 1926, 1929), Witkin (1950) developed the Embedded Figures Test (EFT) where he asked participants to find a target stimulus (e.g., a triangle) within a complex figure which was designed to camouflage the target. Since then, several different EFT versions have been developed. As a result of these modifications, the perceptual demands of the EFT have been subsumed by aspects of intelligence, executive function and perso...

  9. Variation in predator species abundance can cause variable selection pressure on warning signaling prey

    OpenAIRE

    Valkonen, Janne K.; Nokelainen, Ossi; Niskanen, Martti; Kilpimaa, Janne; Björklund, Mats; Mappes, Johanna

    2012-01-01

    Predation pressure is expected to drive visual warning signals to evolve toward conspicuousness. However, coloration of defended species varies tremendously and can at certain instances be considered as more camouflaged rather than conspicuous. Recent theoretical studies suggest that the variation in signal conspicuousness can be caused by variation (within or between species) in predators' willingness to attack defended prey or by the broadness of the predators' signal generalization. If som...

  10. The Behavioral Relevance of Landmark Texture for Honeybee Homing

    OpenAIRE

    Laura eDittmar; Martin eEgelhaaf; Wolfgang eStürzl; Norbert eBoeddeker

    2011-01-01

    Honeybees visually pinpoint the location of a food source using landmarks. Studies on the role of visual memories have suggested that bees approach the goal by finding a close match between their current view and a memorized view of the goal location. The most relevant landmark features for this matching process seem to be their retinal positions, the size as defined by their edges, and their colour. Recently, we showed that honeybees can use landmarks that are statically camouflaged, suggest...

  11. Cyclic Colour Change in the Bearded Dragon Pogona vitticeps under Different Photoperiods

    OpenAIRE

    Marie Fan; Devi Stuart-Fox; Viviana Cadena

    2014-01-01

    The ability to change colour rapidly is widespread among ectotherms and has various functions including camouflage, communication and thermoregulation. The process of colour change can occur as an aperiodic event or be rhythmic, induced by cyclic environmental factors or regulated by internal oscillators. Despite the importance of colour change in reptile ecology, few studies have investigated the occurrence of a circadian rhythm in lizard pigmentation. Additionally, although colour change al...

  12. Function of bright coloration in the wasp spider Argiope bruennichi (Araneae: Araneidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Alex A Bush; Yu, Douglas W; Marie E Herberstein

    2008-01-01

    There are two major competing explanations for the counter-intuitive presence of bright coloration in certain orb-web spiders. Bright coloration could lure insect prey to the web vicinity, increasing the spider's foraging success. Alternatively, the markings could function as disruptive camouflage, making it difficult for the insect prey to distinguish spiders from background colour variation. We measured the prey capture rates of wasp spiders, Argiope bruennichi, that were blacked out, shiel...

  13. The gross face and virtual fame: Semiotic mediation in Japanese virtual communication

    OpenAIRE

    Nozawa, Shunsuke

    2012-01-01

    This article examines an emerging art of self–fashioning and sociality in Japanese–language virtual communication. Through an ethnographic exploration I argue that crucial to the structure and experience of Japanese virtual communication are acts of opacity. People in the Japanese virtual mobilize elaborate techniques of material camouflage and anonymity to effectively conceal their body and obscure their identity. They are normatively faceless. I offer this ethnography to suggest...

  14. Colors and Some Morphological Traits as Defensive Mechanisms in Anurans

    OpenAIRE

    Luís Felipe Toledo; Célio F. B. Haddad

    2009-01-01

    Anurans may be brightly colored or completely cryptic. Generally, in the former situation, we are dealing with aposematism, and the latter is an example of camouflage. However, these are only simple views of what such colorations really mean and which defensive strategy is implied. For instance, a brightly colored frog may be part of a mimicry ring, which could be either Batesian, Müllerian, or Browerian. These are only examples of the diversity of color-usage systems as defensive strate...

  15. Large Spatial Scale of the Phenotype-Environment Color Matching in Two Cryptic Species of African Desert Jerboas (Dipodidae: Jaculus)

    OpenAIRE

    Boratyński, Zbyszek; Brito, José Carlos; Campos, João Carlos; Karala, Maija; Mappes, Tapio

    2014-01-01

    We tested the camouflage hypothesis, or the linkage between animal (Saharan rodent) and habitat coloration, on the largest geographical scale yet conducted. We aimed to determine whether phenotypic variation is explained by micro-habitat variation and/or genetic polymorphism to determine 1) the strength of linkage between fur color and local substrate color, and 2) the divergence in fur coloration between two genetic clades, representing cryptic species, throughout the complete range of the A...

  16. Active and thermal imaging performance under bad weather conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Bernard, Erwan; Rivière, Nicolas; Renaudat, Mathieu; Pealat, Michel; Zenou, Emmanuel

    2014-01-01

    Thermal imaging cameras are widely used in military contexts for their night vision capabilities and their observation range; there are based on passive infrared sensors (e.g. MWIR or LWIR range). Under bad weather conditions or when the target is partially hidden (e.g. foliage, military camouflage) they are more and more complemented by active imaging systems, a key technology to perform target identification at long range. The 2D flash imaging technique is based on a high powered pulsed las...

  17. Experiments and Models of Active and Thermal Imaging Under Bad Weather Conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Bernard, Erwan; Rivière, Nicolas; Renaudat, Mathieu; Guiset, Pierrick; Péalat, Michel; Zenou, Emmanuel

    2013-01-01

    Thermal imaging cameras are widely used in military contexts for their night vision capabilities and their observation range; there are based on passive infrared sensors (e.g. MWIR or LWIR range). Under bad weather conditions or when the target is partially hidden (e.g. foliage, military camouflage) they are more and more complemented by active imaging systems, a key technology to perform target identification at long range. The 2D flash imaging technique is based on a high powered pulsed las...

  18. Visual Behaviour Based Bio-Inspired Polarization Techniques in Computer Vision and Robotics

    OpenAIRE

    Shabayek, Abd El Rahman; Morel, Olivier; Fofi, David

    2012-01-01

    For long time, it was thought that the sensing of polarization by animals is invariably related to their behavior, such as navigation and orientation. Recently, it was found that polarization can be part of a high-level visual perception, permitting a wide area of vision applications. Polarization vision can be used for most tasks of color vision including object recognition, contrast enhancement, camouflage breaking, and signal detection and discrimination. The polarization based visual beha...

  19. Detecting targets hidden in random forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kouritzin, Michael A.; Luo, Dandan; Newton, Fraser; Wu, Biao

    2009-05-01

    Military tanks, cargo or troop carriers, missile carriers or rocket launchers often hide themselves from detection in the forests. This plagues the detection problem of locating these hidden targets. An electro-optic camera mounted on a surveillance aircraft or unmanned aerial vehicle is used to capture the images of the forests with possible hidden targets, e.g., rocket launchers. We consider random forests of longitudinal and latitudinal correlations. Specifically, foliage coverage is encoded with a binary representation (i.e., foliage or no foliage), and is correlated in adjacent regions. We address the detection problem of camouflaged targets hidden in random forests by building memory into the observations. In particular, we propose an efficient algorithm to generate random forests, ground, and camouflage of hidden targets with two dimensional correlations. The observations are a sequence of snapshots consisting of foliage-obscured ground or target. Theoretically, detection is possible because there are subtle differences in the correlations of the ground and camouflage of the rocket launcher. However, these differences are well beyond human perception. To detect the presence of hidden targets automatically, we develop a Markov representation for these sequences and modify the classical filtering equations to allow the Markov chain observation. Particle filters are used to estimate the position of the targets in combination with a novel random weighting technique. Furthermore, we give positive proof-of-concept simulations.

  20. Signalling with a cryptic trait: the regularity of barred plumage in common waxbills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marques, Cristiana I J; Batalha, Helena R; Cardoso, Gonçalo C

    2016-05-01

    Sexual signals often compromise camouflage because of their conspicuousness. Pigmentation patterns, on the contrary, aid in camouflage. It was hypothesized that a particular type of pattern-barred plumage in birds, whereby pigmented bars extend across feathers-could simultaneously signal individual quality, because disruptions of these patterns should be perceptually salient at close range and help assess plumage condition. Here we show that common waxbills (Estrilda astrild), which have extensive barred plumage, have more regular patterns as adults than as juveniles, and that adult males have more regular patterns than females. Both these differences are indicative of sexual signalling in species with conventional sex roles. More regular barred plumage was related to better body condition in adult males. Colour ornamentation traits were also related to aspects of quality, either the same as barred plumage (body condition) or a different one (good feather development), supporting both the 'redundant message' and the 'multiple message' hypotheses for the coexistence of multiple sexual signals. Although receiver responses to the regularity of barred plumage were not studied here, research on other species has shown that barred plumage can mediate social interactions. We conclude that using barred plumage as a signal of quality helps circumvent the functional compromise between camouflage and communication. PMID:27293800

  1. Use of Hyperspectral Imagery to Assess Cryptic Color Matching in Sargassum Associated Crabs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brandon J Russell

    Full Text Available Mats of the pelagic macroalgae Sargassum represent a complex environment for the study of marine camouflage at the air-sea interface. Endemic organisms have convergently evolved similar colors and patterns, but quantitative assessments of camouflage strategies are lacking. Here, spectral camouflage of two crab species (Portunus sayi and Planes minutus was assessed using hyperspectral imagery (HSI. Crabs matched Sargassum reflectance across blue and green wavelengths (400-550 nm and diverged at longer wavelengths. Maximum discrepancy was observed in the far-red (i.e., 675 nm where Chlorophyll a absorption occurred in Sargassum and not the crabs. In a quantum catch color model, both crabs showed effective color matching against blue/green sensitive dichromat fish, but were still discernible to tetrachromat bird predators that have visual sensitivity to far red wavelengths. The two species showed opposing trends in background matching with relation to body size. Variation in model parameters revealed that discrimination of crab and background was impacted by distance from the predator, and the ratio of cone cell types for bird predators. This is one of the first studies to detail background color matching in this unique, challenging ecosystem at the air-sea interface.

  2. The functional requirements of mammalian hair: a compromise between crypsis and thermoregulation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wacker, Chris B.; McAllan, Bronwyn M.; Körtner, Gerhard; Geiser, Fritz

    2016-08-01

    Mammalian fur often shows agouti banding with a proximal dark band near the skin and a lighter distal band. We examined the function of both bands in relation to camouflage, thermal properties of pelts, and thermal energetics of dunnarts ( Sminthopsis crassicaudata), which are known to use torpor and basking. Although the distal band of dunnart fur darkened with increasing latitude, which is important for camouflage, it did not affect the thermal properties and the length of the dark band and total hair length were not correlated. In contrast, the length of the proximal dark band of preserved pelts exposed to sunlight was positively correlated ( r 2 = 0.59) with the temperature underneath the pelt ( T pelt). All dunnarts offered radiant heat basked by exposing the dark band of the hair during both rest and torpor. Basking dunnarts with longer dark bands had lower resting metabolism ( r 2 = 0.69), warmed faster from torpor ( r 2 = 0.77), required less energy to do so ( r 2 = 0.32), and reached a higher subcutaneous temperature ( T sub) at the end of rewarming ( r 2 = 0.75). We provide the first experimental evidence on the possible dual function of the color banding of mammalian fur. The distal colored band appears to be important for camouflage, whereas the length of the dark proximal hair band facilitates heat gain for energy conservation and allows animals to rewarm quickly and economically from torpor.

  3. Al Hirschfeld's NINA as a prototype search task for studying perceptual error in radiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nodine, Calvin F.; Kundel, Harold L.

    1997-04-01

    Artist Al Hirschfeld has been hiding the word NINA (his daughter's name) in line drawings of theatrical scenes that have appeared in the New York Times for over 50 years. This paper shows how Hirschfeld's search task of finding the name NINA in his drawings illustrates basic perceptual principles of detection, discrimination and decision-making commonly encountered in radiology search tasks. Hirschfeld's hiding of NINA is typically accomplished by camouflaging the letters of the name and blending them into scenic background details such as wisps of hair and folds of clothing. In a similar way, pulmonary nodules and breast lesions are camouflaged by anatomic features of the chest or breast image. Hirschfeld's hidden NINAs are sometimes missed because they are integrated into a Gestalt overview rather than differentiated from background features during focal scanning. This may be similar to overlooking an obvious nodule behind the heart in a chest x-ray image. Because it is a search game, Hirschfeld assigns a number to each drawing to indicate how many NINAs he has hidden so as not to frustrate his viewers. In the radiologists' task, the number of targets detected in a medical image is determined by combining perceptual input with probabilities generated from clinical history and viewing experience. Thus, in the absence of truth, searching for abnormalities in x-ray images creates opportunities for recognition and decision errors (e.g. false positives and false negatives). We illustrate how camouflage decreases the conspicuity of both artistic and radiographic targets, compare detection performance of radiologists with lay persons searching for NINAs, and, show similarities and differences between scanning strategies of the two groups based on eye-position data.

  4. What enables size-selective trophy hunting of wildlife?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chris T Darimont

    Full Text Available Although rarely considered predators, wildlife hunters can function as important ecological and evolutionary agents. In part, their influence relates to targeting of large reproductive adults within prey populations. Despite known impacts of size-selective harvests, however, we know little about what enables hunters to kill these older, rarer, and presumably more wary individuals. In other mammalian predators, predatory performance varies with knowledge and physical condition, which accumulates and declines, respectively, with age. Moreover, some species evolved camouflage as a physical trait to aid in predatory performance. In this work, we tested whether knowledge-based faculty (use of a hunting guide with accumulated experience in specific areas, physical traits (relative body mass [RBM] and camouflage clothing, and age can predict predatory performance. We measured performance as do many hunters: size of killed cervid prey, using the number of antler tines as a proxy. Examining ∼ 4300 online photographs of hunters posing with carcasses, we found that only the presence of guides increased the odds of killing larger prey. Accounting for this effect, modest evidence suggested that unguided hunters presumably handicapped with the highest RBM actually had greater odds of killing large prey. There was no association with hunter age, perhaps because of our coarse measure (presence of grey hair and the performance trade-offs between knowledge accumulation and physical deterioration with age. Despite its prevalence among sampled hunters (80%, camouflage had no influence on size of killed prey. Should these patterns be representative of other areas and prey, and our interpretations correct, evolutionarily-enlightened harvest management might benefit from regulatory scrutiny on guided hunting. More broadly, we suggest that by being nutritionally and demographically de-coupled from prey and aided by efficient killing technology and road access

  5. Potemkin Ranch : blending industrial buildings into their surrounding environments is a good idea that may yet catch on

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stastny, P.

    2006-09-15

    The oil and gas industry is attempting to blend into their surroundings in order to improve relations with landowners. This article presented details of a 7.5 million-cubic-feet-per-day gas facility disguised as a cattleman's ranch through the use of convincing facades. The compressor unit is disguised as a ranch house, while the dehydration unit looks like a carriage house. Electrical controls are housed in a separate bunkhouse. In 2001, a skid-mounted refrigeration unit was added and enclosed in a barn facade. The total cost over and above a typical metal-clad gas facility was approximately $100,000, almost 4 per cent of the total facility cost of $2.5 million. While some companies have been using colour to camouflage facilities for many years, other companies have placed more importance on noise suppression, which can add 10 to 20 per cent to the cost of each building. In order to improve noise control, some facilities are now being constructed in topographical low spots with insulated enclosures and hospital-grade mufflers. Pioneer Canada has recently camouflaged a gas facility to mimic a farm which was subsequently fitted with standard noise attenuation. The company's new standard of noise reduction has resulted in additional costs of up to $200,000 per site. Landowners have commented favourably on Pioneer Canada's camouflage efforts. It was concluded that as land access becomes an even bigger issue in some plays, operators may increasingly use architectural features to make their facilities less obtrusive. 5 figs.

  6. Wild Plum: novel particles of improved optical brightness and fluorescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groathouse, Jordan; Barcena, Homar; Gustafson, Casey; Wilson, Mark V; Symonsbergen, David J; Lucas, Kerry A; Holmes, Andrea E

    2010-01-01

    A novel compound named Wild Plum fluoresces blue, and has been synthesized to camouflage skin imperfections, addressing the market demand for an anti-aging product. Wild Plum imparts optical brightness and fluorescence and can be used as an ingredient in cosmetic formulations. Skin appearance before and after application of Wild Plum compounds demonstrated an improved appearance of skin including a decreased number of wrinkles. When added to makeup, lotions, creams, and powders, Wild Plum conveys the glow of healthy youthful skin, replacing other costly or invasive alternatives such as cosmetic surgery. PMID:20716436

  7. Evaluation of a color fused dual-band NVG

    OpenAIRE

    Hogervorst, M.A.; Toet, A

    2009-01-01

    We designed and evaluated a dual-band Night Vision Goggles sensor system. The sensor system consists of two optically aligned NVGs fitted with filters splitting the sensitive range into a visual and a near-infrared band. The Color-the-night technique (Hogervorst & Toet, FUSION2008) was used to fuse the images of the two sensors, using a color scheme optimized for the detection of camouflaged targets. The added value of this system was established in an experiment in which observers detected t...

  8. PERAWATAN ORTHODONTI SEBAGAI PERSIAPAN BEDAH ORTHOGNATIK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andri Anggraeni

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available In adult patients if the jaw discrepancy is too great to compensate for, and camouflage by tooth movement alone, surgery is the only way to obtain a reasonable result. Before surgery, the orthodontist must establish not only anteroposterior and transverse position, but also the vertical position of the teeth. Inadequate orthodontic preparation can jeopardize the quality of the surgical result. Occlusion is important but satisfactory facial esthetic must accompany it. A good team work between orthodontist and oral surgeon is the key of success of the treatment, which will be shown in case reports of 3 patients. 

  9. Protecting the Right to Effective Assistance of Capital Postconviction Counsel: The Scope of the Constitutional Obligation to Monitor Counsel Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celestine Richards McConville

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available It is no secret that capital cases in the United States are far from error free. According to a recent study, the two most common errors in capital cases are “egregiously incompetent defense lawyering” and “prosecutorial suppression of evidence that the defendant is innocent or does not deserve the death penalty.” Other errors include inaccurate eyewitness testimony, perjured testimony, and false confessions, just to name a few. And, since 1973, no fewer than 117 capital inmates have been released from death row because errors such as these camouflaged their innocence.

  10. Hair care and dyeing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Draelos, Zoe Diana

    2015-01-01

    Alopecia can be effectively camouflaged or worsened through the use of hair care techniques and dyeing. Proper hair care, involving hair styling and the use of mild shampoos and body-building conditioners, can amplify thinning scalp hair; however, chemical processing, including hair dyeing, permanent waving, and hair straightening, can encourage further hair loss through breakage. Many patients suffering from alopecia attempt to improve their hair through extensive manipulation, which only increases problems. Frequent haircuts to minimize split ends, accompanied by gentle handling of the fragile fibers, is best. This chapter offers the dermatologist insight into hair care recommendations for the alopecia patient. PMID:26370650

  11. Near-infrared organic materials and emerging applications

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Zhi Yuan

    2013-01-01

    Highlighting emerging applications of near-infrared (NIR) organic materials that are currently receiving great attention due to their potential use in optical communications, biomedicine, and camouflage materials, this cutting-edge book reviews important recent advances in an accessible style suitable for researchers and graduates in the field on organic/polymer solar cells, optical communications, and advanced optoelectronics. A beacon in the field literature, this comprehensive work discusses several areas of research and development including thermal control and emission detectors in which

  12. Practical of Ethics Education in Junior High School Technical Arts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwata, Ryo; Hirano, Shigeo

    Now, such as forgery, camouflage, concealment, and the alteration, the problems resulting from lack of the sense of ethics are occurring frequently. The department of junior high school technical arts to engineering ethics education is required for the solution. However, the example of introducing the ethics education is few in a current junior high school technical arts department. It is considered that it leads to a further improvement of the morality consideration by teaching from a past case to the engineering ethics at the stage of the compulsory education. In this thesis, it reports on the execution contents and an educational result.

  13. ECHOES OF WAR 1915-1918 (PART 4

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.G.J. Lawrence

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Third Ypres Menin Road Battle 20 September 1917Our troop train crawled at snail's pace along the SW line leading to Ypres on a bright September morning in 1917. The enemy balloons were floating over their line all along the ill-famed Salient and we could only bank on the sketchy camouflage nets strung up between us to conceal what would be a prize target to the enemy observers perched on high and in close touch with their heavy batteries of guns below.

  14. Combined Orthodontic and Surgical Approach in the Correction of a Class III Skeletal Malocclusion with Mandibular Prognathism and Vertical Maxillary Excess Using Bimaxillary Osteotomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Jose Cherackal

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available For patients whose orthodontic problems are so severe that neither growth modification nor camouflage offers a solution, surgery to realign the jaws or reposition dentoalveolar segments is the only possible treatment. Surgery is not a substitute for orthodontics in these patients. Instead, it must be properly coordinated with orthodontics and other dental treatments to achieve good overall results. Dramatic progress in recent years has made it possible for combined surgical orthodontic treatment to be carried out successfully for patients with a severe dentofacial problem of any type. This case report provides an overview of the current treatment methodology in managing a combination of asymmetrical mandibular prognathism and vertical maxillary excess.

  15. The quantum walk temperature

    CERN Document Server

    Romanelli, Alejandro

    2011-01-01

    A thermodynamic theory is developed to describe the behavior of the entanglement between the coin and position degrees of freedom of the quantum walk on the line. This theory shows that, in spite of the unitary evolution, a steady state is established after a Markovian transient stage. This study suggests that if a quantum dynamics is developed in a composite Hilbert space (i.e. the tensor product of several sub-spaces) then the behavior of an operator that only belongs to one of the sub-spaces may camouflage the unitary character of the global evolution.

  16. Alopecia areata: An update

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kolalapudi Anjaneyulu Seetharam

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Alopecia areata (AA is a common form of non-scarring hair loss of scalp and/or body. Genetic predisposition, autoimmunity, and environmental factors play a major role in the etiopathogenesis of AA. Patchy AA is the most common form. Atopy and autoimmune thyroiditis are most common associated conditions. Peribulbar and intrabulbar lymphocytic inflammatory infiltrate resembling "swarm of bees" is characteristic on histopathology. Treatment is mainly focused to contain the disease activity. Corticosteroids are the preferred treatments in form of topical, intralesional, or systemic therapy. Camouflage in the form of wigs may be an alternative option in refractory cases.

  17. Color change at the push of a buttom; Farbwechsel auf Knopfdruck

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mortimer, Roger J. [Loughborough Univ. (United Kingdom)

    2013-05-15

    Materials with electrically switchable color open up many fascinating application possibilities - from the glare protection on low-cost displays to adaptive camouflage. Electrochromic materials can be electrically switched between different colors back and forth. The effect is based on a change of light absorption by current induced oxidation and reduction processes. Meanwhile electrochromic materials cover the entire color spectrum. In addition, the electrochromic materials are inexpensive and consume little power. This makes them attractive for many applications. However, their response times are still relatively long. The first commercial products include mirrors with automatic anti-glare and aircraft windows that can be darkened electrically.

  18. Optimization of physical education and sports of students with disabilities throughout the entire period of study at the university

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adyrkhaev S.G.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Considered personal and proactive approach to physical education students with different nosologies and ensure close connection processes of personal training and physical development. In the experiment involved 644 students, with 2 and 3 of disability. The level of physical performance determined using the indexes. Identified organizational and methodological priorities of physical education and sports of students. Using the model of physical education allows full integration into the student environment. Students feel more comfortable. Students changing attitude toward themselves, manifested in the appropriate perception, finding camouflage disabilities struggle with her self-presentation. The effectiveness of didactic technology of physical education of students with disabilities in the pedagogical process.

  19. Macrodontic maxillary incisor in alagille syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauro Cozzani

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This case report describes the surgical-orthodontic guided-eruption of a deeply impacted macrodontic maxillary central incisor in a 10-year-old patient with Alagille syndrome (ALGS. In the first stage, orthodontic treatment with fixed appliance on deciduous teeth allowed to create enough space for the eruption of the maxillary right central incisor. The second stage included closed surgical exposure and vertical traction. After impacted tooth erupted in the proper position, accessory periodontal treatment and dental reshaping procedures may be indicated to camouflage macrodontic incisor with the adjacent teeth. This is the first report that presents a patient with ALGS undergoing orthodontic and surgical treatment.

  20. QCD-supression by Black Hole Production at the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Lönnblad, L; Åkesson, T; Lonnblad, Leif; Sjodahl, Malin; Akesson, Torsten

    2005-01-01

    Possible consequences of the production of small black holes at the LHC for different scenarios with large extra dimensions are investigated. The effects from black hole production on some standard jet observables are examined, concentrating on the reduction of the QCD cross section. It is found that black hole production of partons interacting on a short enough distance indeed seem to generate a drastic drop in the QCD cross section. However from an experimental point of view this will in most cases be camouflaged by energetic radiation from the black holes.

  1. Surgical correction of class II skeletal malocclusion in an adult patient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramakrishnan Balachander

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Correction of skeletal deformities in adult patients with orthodontics is limited. Orthognathic surgery is the best option for cases when camouflage treatment is questionable and growth modulation is not possible. This case report illustrates the benefit of the team approach in correcting vertical maxillary excess along with class II skeletal deformity. A cosmetic correction was achieved by superior repositioning of maxilla with LeFort I osteotomy and augmentation genioplasty, along with orthodontic treatment. The patient′s facial appearance was markedly improved along with functional and stable occlusion

  2. First Records of Two Species of Crabs (Crustacea: Decapoda: Brachyura Collected from Southern Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyun Sook Ko

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Two species of crabs, Homola orientalis Henderson, 1888 and Pseudomicippe nipponica (Sakai, 1938, are described and illustrated for the first time in Korea. Homola orientalis was collected at 30 m depth by trap from Busan, and P. nipponica was collected on the intertidal region in Seongsanpo, Jejudo Island. Homola orientalis is the first species of its family in the region. The family Homoldae is characterized by a linea homolica on the carapace and they carry camouflage in the form of sponges or cnidarians with subchelate of the fourth ambulatory legs. The Korean brachyuran fauna now comprises 223 species including the new records from this study.

  3. Noiseless Steganography The Key to Covert Communications

    CERN Document Server

    Desoky, Abdelrahman

    2012-01-01

    Among the features that make Noiseless Steganography: The Key to Covert Communications a first of its kind: The first to comprehensively cover Linguistic Steganography The first to comprehensively cover Graph Steganography The first to comprehensively cover Game Steganography Although the goal of steganography is to prevent adversaries from suspecting the existence of covert communications, most books on the subject present outdated steganography approaches that are detectable by human and/or machine examinations. These approaches often fail because they camouflage data as a detectable noise b

  4. Z-Plasty Made Simple

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sumaira Z. Aasi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A Z-plasty is a critical and reliable technique that is useful for scar revisions and correction of free margin distortion. A Z-plasty can help lengthen a contracted scar, change the direction of a scar so that it is better aligned with the relaxed skin tension lines, or interrupt and break a scar for better camouflage. This article will review the technique of a basic Z-plasty as well as provide case examples of its use in free margin distortion and scar revision.

  5. Clothing choices, weight, and trait self-objectification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiggemann, Marika; Andrew, Rachel

    2012-06-01

    The present study aimed to assess the link between clothing choice and aspects of body image. Participants were 112 female undergraduate students who completed a questionnaire containing a measure of clothing functions, as well as BMI, self-classified weight, and trait self-objectification. Results indicated that BMI and self-classified weight were positively correlated with the choice of clothes for camouflage. Self-objectification was positively correlated with choice of clothes for fashion, and negatively correlated with choosing clothes for comfort. It was concluded that clothing represents an important but neglected aspect of contemporary women's management of their body's appearance. PMID:22465473

  6. On the nesting biology of Pirhosigma Giordani Soika (Hymenoptera, Vespidae, Eumeninae, with special reference to the use of vegetable matter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcel G. Hermes

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available On the nesting biology of Pirhosigma Giordani Soika (Hymenoptera, Vespidae, Eumeninae, with special reference to the use of vegetable matter. The use of vegetable matter in nest building is not widespread among the Eumeninae, and is reported for the first time for the two species of potter wasps Pirhosigma superficiale and P. limpidum. These wasps make mostly spherical mud nests over which they attach small pieces of unmasticated plant matter. Use of plant fragments in this group of wasps is interpreted as camouflage behavior.

  7. 十二月至潮鞋款

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    AIR FORCE 1"STEALTH ASSASSIN"引用2004年SBTG与PACKER SHOES合作推出MISSIONDESERT MAYHEM军事系列,创新的展现出MISSIONESPIONAGE SUPREME。AIR FORCE 1"STEALTH ASSASSIN"采用全新创作的"ESPIO- NANG CAMOUFLAGE"迷彩去设计,并配以黑色和绿色作军事主题。此外,MISSION ESPIONAGE SU- PREME更是首个采用SBTG自家鞋扣的系列,珍贵度不言而喻。

  8. Förord

    OpenAIRE

    Granqvist, Raoul J.

    2015-01-01

    Nuruddin Farah’s Secret, the third in a suite of three novels called ‘Blood in the Sun,’ was written in Berlin in 1990. It was originally dubbed ‘Awake, When Asleep,’ an evangelical plea for social and political redemption whose idealism Farah did not walk out on but camouflaged under an uncompromising exploration. Somalia had become a nightmare and has stayed a life-long trauma for Farah himself. With the Wall collapsing outside the windows at Potsdamer Platz and the jubilant demonstrators’ ...

  9. Street art, spaces and visual rhetoric

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Mondino

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Street-art is a widespread urban phenomenon characterised by several different styles and concepts. This essay will introduce few artistic works, analysing the rhetoric strategies used. Artists create unpredictable narratives catching the audiences’ attention through various regimes of visibility and some figures of speech, such as hyperbole, apostrophe, and camouflage. Therefore, the relationship between street artworks and the audience can trigger a discourse of challenge, conflict or complicity showed by the practice of rewriting or deleting of urban art that we will study.

  10. VAATE MAISEMASSA —TUTKIELMA VAATTEEN JA MAISEMAN SUHTEESTA

    OpenAIRE

    Maaranen, Satu

    2012-01-01

    Opinnäytteeni on sekä kirjallinen, että visuaalinen tutkielma vaatteen ja maiseman suhteesta. Sen teoreettinen perusta tarkastelee vaatetta maisemassa, maisemaa vaatteessa sekä maisemaa kan-kaalla. Näkökulmia tarkasteluun antaa aiheeseen sopivat esimerkit camouflage- ilmiön, ympäris-tötaiteen, maisemasuunnittelun, maisemamaalauksen sekä suomalaisen pintasuunnittelun saral-ta. Lisäksi opinnäytteeni tarkastelee vaatteen roolia suojana ja viestinä kun liikutaan sekä raken-netussa että luonnon ma...

  11. Homogeneous illusion device exhibiting transformed and shifted scattering effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mei, Jin-Shuo; Wu, Qun; Zhang, Kuang; He, Xun-Jun; Wang, Yue

    2016-06-01

    Based on the theory of transformation optics, a type of homogeneous illusion device exhibiting transformed and shifted scattering effect is proposed in this paper. The constitutive parameters of the proposed device are derived, and full-wave simulations are performed to validate the electromagnetic properties of transformed and shifted scattering effect. The simulation results show that the proposed device not only can visually shift the image of target in two dimensions, but also can visually transform the shape of target. It is expected that such homogeneous illusion device could possess potential applications in military camouflage and other field of electromagnetic engineering.

  12. Propulsion efficiency and imposed flow fields of a copepod jump

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jiang, H.; Kiørboe, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    imposed flow fields and associated energetics of jumps by means of computational fluid dynamics simulations by modeling the copepod as a self-propelled body. The computational fluid dynamics simulation was validated by particle image velocimetry data. The flow field generated by a repositioning jump...... quickly evolves into two counter-rotating viscous vortex rings that are near mirror image of one another, one in the wake and one around the body of the copepod; this near symmetrical flow may provide hydrodynamic camouflage because it contains no information about the position of the copepod prey within...

  13. The First Color Tire of Doublestar-Dongfeng Tape-out

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    On November 16, the first color tire produced by Dou- blestar-Dongfeng Tire Co., Ltd. was taped out into the market, and military camouflage tires, color high-grade passenger car tires, color truck radial tires, color off-road tires and color per-sonality fashion tires were also taped out in the meantime, which have broken through the only market of black tires. Besides, the first color all steel tire of Double Star also made a successful test run experiment that traveled different kinds of roads and tens of thousands of kilometers.

  14. Research on an imaging spectropolarimeter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Xuling; Wang, Zheng; Zhao, Haibo; Li, Huan; Zhou, Feng; Ruan, Ningjuan

    2015-11-01

    Imaging spectropolarimetry has been explored as a method that increment in our capability to respond to existing requirements, as well as to our insatiable need for more information in remote sensing applications. Spectrometry enables detailed comparison of target and background spectra. The polarimetric state of received radiation contains valuable information about source object surface roughness and orientation, it has the potential to highlight manmade objects despite spectral camouflage. A laboratory breadboard spectropolarimetric system has been design for operation in the visible waveband to demonstrate the potential of this technique for future airborne and spaceborne systems. The experiment setup and some experimental results are presented in this paper.

  15. Pigmented concealing powders for the hair loss patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cossman, Jack P; Ladizinski, Barry; Lee, Kachiu C

    2013-12-01

    Patients suffering from alopecia may experience low self-esteem, low self-image, and other psychological consequences. While medical and surgical options for treating hair loss exist, these may be prohibitively expensive or have an unpredictable outcome. In lieu of or in addition to therapeutic approaches, cosmetic options have long been an approach to hair loss. However, patients and clinicians alike often regard cosmetic options to be limited to hairstyling and hairpieces, unaware that newer options, namely pigmented concealing powders, may offer a more practical and seemingly natural camouflage. This article introduces the clinician to concealing powders as a viable option for the hair loss patient. PMID:24305431

  16. Kinetic method for determination of molybdenum(6) and tungsten(6) from oxidaton of O-aminophenol with hydrogen peroxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new method for determination of Mo(6) and W(6), based on the oxidation of O-aminophenol with hydrogen peroxide, catalysed by Mo and W(6) ions, is suggested. The reaction takes place in the neutral medium at a rather high substrate concentrations. The 1.5 M acetate buffer solution, 0.2N EDTA and 0.1M solution of O-aminophenol in 0.1M HCl were suggested for determination of Mo (0.2N EDTA was used for Fe(3) camouflage). The 1.5M acetate buffer solution with 0.3M K2C2O4xH2O additions, for Fe(3) and Mo(6) camouflage, and 0.1M O-aminophenol solution in 0.1M solution of H2C2O4xH2O were used for tungsten determination. The range for Mo and W determination is 3x10-3 and 1x10-2 mkg/ml respectively. The range of Mo and W concentrations under determination is from 3x10-3-10-2 to 2 mkg/ml. The techniques for the analysis of highly pure substances is developed

  17. Why women use makeup: implication of psychological traits in makeup functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korichi, Rodolphe; Pelle-de-Queral, Delphine; Gazano, Germaine; Aubert, Arnaud

    2008-01-01

    Makeup acts and stimulates three of our senses: touch (which encompasses all sensations from the body surface), smell (fragrance), and sight (the process of becoming and looking beautiful). The positive stimulation of these senses by makeup can induce sensory as well as psychological pleasure. In order to understand the relationship of women to their makeup, we interviewed different groups of women on their quality of life and makeup habits. Then, through four standard well-validated psychometric self-questionnaires, we examined the possible relation between the need to make up oneself and specific psychological features. Our first results clearly showed that makeup could support two opposite "up" functions, i.e., "camouflage" vs "seduction." Concerning their psychological profiles, results showed that women of the functional class "camouflage" are more anxious, defensive, and emotionally unstable compared to those of the functional class "seduction," who appear to be more sociable, assertive, and extroverted. Further analyses revealed a division of the two classes into subclasses of volunteers with opposed personality and psychological profiles. This new classification allowed us to define more precisely the relations existing within the subjective experience of women during the makeup process. In conclusion, our study revealed that beyond the simple application of colorful products on the face, makeup has two major functional implications depending on specific psychological profiles of women. PMID:18408870

  18. Colour gamuts in polychromatic dielectric elastomer artificial chromatophores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossiter, Jonathan; Conn, Andrew; Cerruto, Antonio; Winters, Amy; Roke, Calum

    2014-03-01

    Chromatophores are the colour changing organelles in the skins of animals including fish and cephalopods. The ability of cephalopods in particular to rapidly change their colouration in response to environmental changes, for example to camouflage against a new background, and in social situations, for example to attract a mate or repel a rival, is extremely attractive for engineering, medical, active clothing and biomimetic robotic applications. The rapid response of these chromatophores is possible by the direct coupling of fast acting muscle and pigmented saccules. In artificial chromatophores we are able to mimic this structure using electroactive polymer artificial muscles. In contrast to prior research which has demonstrated monochromatic artificial chromatophores, here we consider a novel multi-colour, multi-layer, artificial chromatophore structure inspired by the complex dermal chromatophore unit in nature and which exploits dielectric elastomer artificial muscles as the electroactive actuation mechanism. We investigate the optical properties of this chromatophore unit and explore the range of colours and effects that a single unit and a matrix of chromatophores can produce. The colour gamut of the multi-colour chromatophore is analysed and shows its suitability for practical display and camouflage applications. It is demonstrated how, by varying actuator strain and chromatophore base colour, the gamut can be shifted through colour space, thereby tuning the artificial chromatophore to a specific environment or application.

  19. The Hidden Snake in the Grass: Superior Detection of Snakes in Challenging Attentional Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, Sandra C; Lindström, Björn; Esteves, Francisco; Ohman, Arne

    2014-01-01

    Snakes have provided a serious threat to primates throughout evolution. Furthermore, bites by venomous snakes still cause significant morbidity and mortality in tropical regions of the world. According to the Snake Detection Theory (SDT Isbell, 2006; 2009), the vital need to detect camouflaged snakes provided strong evolutionary pressure to develop astute perceptual capacity in animals that were potential targets for snake attacks. We performed a series of behavioral tests that assessed snake detection under conditions that may have been critical for survival. We used spiders as the control stimulus because they are also a common object of phobias and rated negatively by the general population, thus commonly lumped together with snakes as "evolutionary fear-relevant". Across four experiments (N = 205) we demonstrate an advantage in snake detection, which was particularly obvious under visual conditions known to impede detection of a wide array of common stimuli, for example brief stimulus exposures, stimuli presentation in the visual periphery, and stimuli camouflaged in a cluttered environment. Our results demonstrate a striking independence of snake detection from ecological factors that impede the detection of other stimuli, which suggests that, consistent with the SDT, they reflect a specific biological adaptation. Nonetheless, the empirical tests we report are limited to only one aspect of this rich theory, which integrates findings across a wide array of scientific disciplines. PMID:25493937

  20. Anomalous dispersions of `hedgehog' particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahng, Joong Hwan; Yeom, Bongjun; Wang, Yichun; Tung, Siu On; Hoff, J. Damon; Kotov, Nicholas

    2015-01-01

    Hydrophobic particles in water and hydrophilic particles in oil aggregate, but can form colloidal dispersions if their surfaces are chemically camouflaged with surfactants, organic tethers, adsorbed polymers or other particles that impart affinity for the solvent and increase interparticle repulsion. A different strategy for modulating the interaction between a solid and a liquid uses surface corrugation, which gives rise to unique wetting behaviour. Here we show that this topographical effect can also be used to disperse particles in a wide range of solvents without recourse to chemicals to camouflage the particles' surfaces: we produce micrometre-sized particles that are coated with stiff, nanoscale spikes and exhibit long-term colloidal stability in both hydrophilic and hydrophobic media. We find that these `hedgehog' particles do not interpenetrate each other with their spikes, which markedly decreases the contact area between the particles and, therefore, the attractive forces between them. The trapping of air in aqueous dispersions, solvent autoionization at highly developed interfaces, and long-range electrostatic repulsion in organic media also contribute to the colloidal stability of our particles. The unusual dispersion behaviour of our hedgehog particles, overturning the notion that like dissolves like, might help to mitigate adverse environmental effects of the use of surfactants and volatile organic solvents, and deepens our understanding of interparticle interactions and nanoscale colloidal chemistry.

  1. Mimicry in Heliconius and Ithomiini butterflies: The profound consequences of an adaptation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elias Marianne

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Prey populations have evolved multiple strategies to escape predation. Camouflage is a strategy resting on avoiding detection by potential predators, whereas aposematism relies on advertising chemical defences with conspicuous warning signals. While camouflaged phenotypes are subject to negative frequency-dependent selection, aposematic preys are under positive frequency-dependence, where the efficiency of a signal increases with its own local abundance. Because of his “strength-in-number” effect, multiple chemically-defended species exposed to the same suite of predators gain a selective advantage from converging on the same warning signals. Convergence in warning signals is called Müllerian mimicry. Here, we review the results of recent genetic and ecological research on two well-studied groups of neotropical Müllerian mimetic butterflies, the genus Heliconius and the tribe Ithomiini, which advertise their unpalatability through conspicuous wing colour patterns. Mimicry represents a major adaptation in these groups, where the effects of selection extend well beyond mere phenotypic resemblance. Selection acts on other traits used as mating cues, on the genetic architecture of colour pattern and even on the ecological niche of species. The origin of mimicry itself and the coexistence of multiple mimicry patterns are well understood, but the ultimate drivers of mimicry diversity remain unclear.

  2. Combining thermochromics and conventional inks to deter document fraud

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, George K.

    2000-04-01

    The ability to print high-resolution thermochromic indicia, combining conventional inks with sophisticated printing technologies to either camouflage latent messages or create a warning message when copied, is new. (1) For Authentication: Offset thermochromic inks can trap a message that is printed in conventional ink. The conventional ink must match the thermochromic ink in density and color hue in order to perfectly hide at typical office room temperature. This technique is very difficult to manufacture. Even if a fraudster was to obtain the protected ink, the technology is still extremely difficult to replicate. (2) For Copy Protection: Irregular pattern graphics printed in thermochromic ink over a linear Copy/Void message, or dot pattern Copy/Void message, allows for superior protection against replication. The thermochromic pantograph camouflages the Copy/Void message. But, because thermochromic inks are both temperature sensitive and low in color pigment, the Copy/Void message prints through the ink onto the copy. This technology allows for an increase in disparity between the message and the background screen; maximizing protection effectiveness. Documents utilizing ThermoSafe and TouchSafe technologies have been produced in the tens of millions as a fraud deterrent. To our knowledge these security technologies have yet to be compromised.

  3. Improving control of high risk customs merchandise in Paraguay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paraguay shares its borders with Argentina, Brazil and Bolivia. Import and/or export loads must be subjected to several types of controls before arriving at their destination; this includes controlling for radioactive substances and anticipating illicit trafficking of radioactive material. In order to improve control at border points, the National Direction of Customs of Paraguay decided to install detectors in the primary zones of ports, airports and railway terminals, and of areas of automotive transport, as well as at other locations where loading and unloading of goods takes place. Adequate control of exported and imported merchandise diminished for several reasons: false declaration of the weight of products, irresponsible personnel, robberies, political influences, camouflaged or hidden drugs, lack of detectors and qualification of civil employees. These are some of the reasons why merchandise from Paraguay is given low credibility and is not accepted in foreign ports. For this reason, the National Direction of Customs of Paraguay decided to change the image of the country and adapted to the international exigencies of worldwide commerce. The normative framework to ensure and to facilitate global commerce, with the support of the World Customs Organization (WCO), was signed in Brussels on 25 June 2005. Thus, Paraguay fulfils Law 2422/04, implementing systems of control that avoid trafficking in drugs, robbery of radioactive material, dangerous arms and substances, which appear to be camouflaged between imported and exported merchandise. (author)

  4. Signal Use by Octopuses in Agonistic Interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheel, David; Godfrey-Smith, Peter; Lawrence, Matthew

    2016-02-01

    Cephalopods show behavioral parallels to birds and mammals despite considerable evolutionary distance [1, 2]. Many cephalopods produce complex body patterns and visual signals, documented especially in cuttlefish and squid, where they are used both in camouflage and a range of interspecific interactions [1, 3-5]. Octopuses, in contrast, are usually seen as solitary and asocial [6, 7]; their body patterns and color changes have primarily been interpreted as camouflage and anti-predator tactics [8-12], though the familiar view of the solitary octopus faces a growing list of exceptions. Here, we show by field observation that in a shallow-water octopus, Octopus tetricus, a range of visible displays are produced during agonistic interactions, and these displays correlate with the outcome of those interactions. Interactions in which dark body color by an approaching octopus was matched by similar color in the reacting octopus were more likely to escalate to grappling. Darkness in an approaching octopus met by paler color in the reacting octopus accompanied retreat of the paler octopus. Octopuses also displayed on high ground and stood with spread web and elevated mantle, often producing these behaviors in combinations. This study is the first to document the systematic use of signals during agonistic interactions among octopuses. We show prima facie conformity of our results to an influential model of agonistic signaling [13]. These results suggest that interactions have a greater influence on octopus evolution than has been recognized and show the importance of convergent evolution in behavioral traits. PMID:26832440

  5. Colors and Some Morphological Traits as Defensive Mechanisms in Anurans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luís Felipe Toledo

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Anurans may be brightly colored or completely cryptic. Generally, in the former situation, we are dealing with aposematism, and the latter is an example of camouflage. However, these are only simple views of what such colorations really mean and which defensive strategy is implied. For instance, a brightly colored frog may be part of a mimicry ring, which could be either Batesian, Müllerian, or Browerian. These are only examples of the diversity of color-usage systems as defensive strategies. Unfortunately, reports on the use of colors as defensive mechanisms are widespread in the available literature, and the possible functions are rarely mentioned. Therefore, we reviewed the literature and added new data to this subject. Then, we the use of colors (as defensive mechanism into categories. Mimicry was divided into the subcategories camouflage, homotypy, and nondeceitful homotypy, and these groups were also subcategorized. Dissuasive coloration was divided into behavioral display of colors, polymorphism, and polyphenism. Aposematism was treated apart, but aposematic colorations may be present in other defensive strategies. Finally, we propose functions and forms of evolution for some color systems in post-metamorphic anurans and hope that this review can be the basis for future research, even on other animal groups.

  6. The Hidden Snake in the Grass: Superior Detection of Snakes in Challenging Attentional Conditions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra C Soares

    Full Text Available Snakes have provided a serious threat to primates throughout evolution. Furthermore, bites by venomous snakes still cause significant morbidity and mortality in tropical regions of the world. According to the Snake Detection Theory (SDT Isbell, 2006; 2009, the vital need to detect camouflaged snakes provided strong evolutionary pressure to develop astute perceptual capacity in animals that were potential targets for snake attacks. We performed a series of behavioral tests that assessed snake detection under conditions that may have been critical for survival. We used spiders as the control stimulus because they are also a common object of phobias and rated negatively by the general population, thus commonly lumped together with snakes as "evolutionary fear-relevant". Across four experiments (N = 205 we demonstrate an advantage in snake detection, which was particularly obvious under visual conditions known to impede detection of a wide array of common stimuli, for example brief stimulus exposures, stimuli presentation in the visual periphery, and stimuli camouflaged in a cluttered environment. Our results demonstrate a striking independence of snake detection from ecological factors that impede the detection of other stimuli, which suggests that, consistent with the SDT, they reflect a specific biological adaptation. Nonetheless, the empirical tests we report are limited to only one aspect of this rich theory, which integrates findings across a wide array of scientific disciplines.

  7. Indirect building localization based on a prominent solid landmark from a forward-looking infrared imagery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiaoping Wang; Tianxu Zhang; Xiaoyu Yang

    2011-01-01

    A novel indirect building localization technique based on a prominent solid landmark from a forwardlooking infrared imagery is proposed to localize low, deeply buried, or carefully camouflaged buildings in dense urban areas.First, the widely used effective methods are applied to detect and localize the solid landmark.The building target is then precisely indirectly localized by perspective transformation according to the imaging parameters and the space constraint relations between the building target and the solid landmark.Experimental results demonstrate this technique can indirectly localize buildings in dense urban areas effectively.%@@ A novel indirect building localization technique based on a prominent solid landmark from a forward-looking infrared imagery is proposed to localize low, deeply buried, or carefully camouflaged buildings in dense urban areas.First, the widely used effective methods are applied to detect and localize the solid landmark.The building target is then precisely indirectly localized by perspective transformation according to the imaging parameters and the space constraint relations between the building target and the solid landmark.Experimental results demonstrate this technique can indirectly localize buildings in dense urban areas effectively.

  8. Methylation of the phosphate oxygen moiety of phospholipid-methoxy(polyethylene glycol) conjugate prevents PEGylated liposome-mediated complement activation and anaphylatoxin production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moghimi, S.M.; Hamad, I.; Andresen, Thomas Lars; Jørgensen, Kent; Szebeni, J.

    2006-01-01

    Methoxy(polyethylene glycol), mPEG, -grafted liposomes are known to exhibit prolonged circulation time in the blood, but their infusion into a substantial percentage of human subjects triggers immediate non-IgE-mediated hypersensitivity reactions. These reactions are strongly believed to arise from...... anaphylatoxin production through complement activation. Despite the general view that vesicle surface camouflaging with mPEG should dramatically suppress complement activation, here we show that bilayer enrichment of noncomplement activating liposomes [di-palmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC) vesicles] with...... in activation of both classical and alternative pathways of complement and anaphylatoxin production (reflected in significant rises in SC5b-9, C4d, and C3a-desarg levels in normal human sera as well as SC5b-9 in EGTA-chelated/Mg2+ supplemented serum), since methylation of the phosphate oxygen of...

  9. Medical makeup for concealing facial scars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mee, Donna; Wong, Brian J F

    2012-10-01

    Surgical, laser, and pharmacological therapies are all used to correct scars and surgical incisions, though have limits with respect to how well facial skin can be restored or enhanced. The use of cosmetics has long been a relevant adjunct to all scar treatment modalities. In recent years, technical advancements in the chemistry and composition of cosmetic products have provided the patient with a broader range of products to employ for concealing scars. This review will provide an overview of contemporary methods for concealing facial scars, birthmarks, and pigmentary changes without the use of traditional/dated, heavy appearing camouflage products. Additionally, general guidelines and information will be provided with respect to identifying competent makeup artists for care of the medical patient. The article by no means is meant to be a tutorial, but rather serves as a starting point in this allied field of medicine. PMID:23027221

  10. [Acne therapy in pregnancy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayerl, C

    2013-04-01

    Acne should be treated during pregnancy to prevent worsening, scarring, secondary infection or psychological impairment of the mother. Safe products must be chosen. Systemic tetracycline, doxycycline, minocycline or isotretinoin can not be used. Topical benzoyl peroxide or topical azelaic acid are safe therapeutic options. According to the guidelines, systemic corticosteroids or systemic erythromycin (the latter not in lactation) can be employed beginning in the second trimester for severe flares of acne and should be started in cooperation with the patient's gynecologist. Oral zinc is another option, but not for longer than 3 months. Accessory cosmetic measures may be useful, including mechanical peeling or chemical peeling with glycolic or alpha-hydroxy-acids. In contrast, salicylic acid, trichloracetic acid or phenol peels should not be performed in pregnancy. Camouflage makeup can clearly lower the psychological stress. PMID:23430167

  11. MUSICAL PARADIGMS OF SOCIAL HORROR IN THE APARTHEID POETRY OF DENNIS BRUTUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kontein Trinya

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The poetry of Dennis Brutus the anti-Apartheid South African freedom fighter is often an intricate combination of content and form, with its sometimes overt, sometimes covert but pervasive structure of bipartition involving multiple units of paired (often volatile and conflicting opposites. This paper shall largely explore how skilfully he casts that theme of horror against the contrasting backdrop of music, by which he further stresses the dimensions of the horrific conflicts between victims and victimizers. It is the persuasion of this paper that the binary vision of Dennis Brutus is the tacit censorious expression of his creative perspective on the social conflicts in Apartheid South Africa; unspeakable conflicts for whose imperative expression even the devices of music become a (sometimes camouflaging, sometimes accentuating technical paradigm.

  12. Flower Men: The Australian Canon and Flower Painting 1910-1935

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ann Elias

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Historical studies of Hans Heysen, George Lambert, Tom Roberts and Arthur Streeton concentrate on paintings of landscape and people. Less well known are their paintings of flowers, which take the form of still-life painting or adjuncts to figure painting, such as portraits. While these artists are famous for the masculine way they approached masculine themes, and flower painting represents a stereotypically feminine subject, I argue that by making flowers their object of study, they intended to define and differentiate femininity from masculinity in an era of the ‘New Woman’. Sex and gender are central to the subject of flower painting and are important for discussions about the work produced by all four men, although sex is often camouflaged behind the innocence of naturalistically painted flowers.

  13. Polarization Patterns Control Based on Photoinduced Anisotropy of Photochromic Fulgide

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王英利; 姚保利; 门克内木乐; 陈懿; 黎甜楷; 郑媛; 雷铭; 董卫斌; 樊美公; 陈国夫

    2004-01-01

    We investigate the photoinduced anisotropy of a photochromic material of pyrrylfulgide/PMMA films. It is proven that when the film is illuminated with a linear polarization light, an optical axis that has the same polarization as the excitation light could be induced in the film. A matrix of light spots with different polarizations is recorded on the pyrrylfulgide/PMMA film. When reading out with non-polarization light, the matrix of light spots shows no information of patterns. However, when reading out with different linear polarization lights, different patterns could be observed. The experiment confirms that the pyrrylfulgide/PMMA film could be used to record two different polarization patterns in a matrix of spots. This property may be applied in camouflage technology.

  14. ERP, Ciborgues e Memórias Protéticas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ludmer, Gilson

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available ERP systems have profound impacts on businesses processes and on the knowledge that employees need to carry out their activities. This essay discusses the ERP phenomenon using the metaphor of the cyborg and concepts about prosthetic memory based on the works of Haraway (2000 and Landsberg (1995. These works are used to explore aspects of ERP that seem to be otherwise obscure or camouflaged, so in need to be revealed. The cyborg can contribute to the understanding of different ways in which science and technology affect our lives, subjectivity and concepts. Issues such as complexity, changes in the workforce, changes in control strategies, identity and potential influences on knowledge and organizational actions related with ERP systems are interpreted in this essay. Finally, some questions and recommendations are presented on how to work with ERP systems.

  15. The inappropriateness of conventional cephalometrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moyers, R E; Bookstein, F L

    1979-06-01

    1. Cephalometric conventions today may have little basis in either biology or biometrics. 2. There is no theory of cephalometrics, only conventions which involve landmarks and straight lines only. These fail to capture the curving of form and its changes, exclude proper measures of size for bent structures, and misrepresent growth, portraying it as vector displacement rather than a generalized distortion. 3. Conventional cephalometric procedures misinform by fabrication of misleading geometric quantities, by camouflage, particularly of remodeling, by confusion about what is happening (analysis of rotations, treating shape separately from size, and registering angles on landmarks as vertices), and by subtraction as a representation of growth. 4. We suggest that the present systems offer little real hope of improvement sufficient to meet our needs in craniofacial growth research. We call attention to three possible techniques to be included in future cephalometric conventions: (1) tangents and curvatures, (2) Blum's medial axis ("skeleton"), and (3) biorthogonal grids. PMID:287374

  16. Color image encryption using iterative phase retrieve process in quaternion Fourier transform domain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sui, Liansheng; Duan, Kuaikuai

    2015-02-01

    A single-channel color image encryption method is proposed based on iterative phase iterative process in quaternion Fourier transform domain. First, three components of the plain color image is confused respectively by using cat map. Second, the confused components are combined into a pure quaternion image, which is encode to the phase only function by using an iterative phase retrieval process. Finally, the phase only function is encrypted into the gray scale ciphertext with stationary white noise distribution based on the chaotic diffusion, which has camouflage property to some extent. The corresponding plain color image can be recovered from the ciphertext only with correct keys in the decryption process. Simulation results verify the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed method.

  17. Patterns of criticizing Israel and their relationship to modern anti-Semitism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilhelm Kempf

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Even though the expression of anti-Semitic attitudes is no longer socially acceptable to the German public, it has not ceased entirely. It has been camouflaged in various ways and has even found politically correct expression in the criticism of Israeli Palestine policy. It cannot, however, be assumed that all criticism of Israel is motivated by anti-Semitic attitudes. The present paper uses Latent Class Analysis to identify typical patterns of criticizing Israel and relates them to manifest, secondary and latent anti-Semitism. The study suggests that it is not criticism of Israel per se which should alarm us, but rather the ways in which Israel is criticized. However, it also suggests that the sort of neutrality that avoids expressing any criticism may also conceal anti-Semitic tendencies.

  18. A situaciones nuevas, ideas nuevas: El mestizo como camaleón.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Esteban Lewin.

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available Rooted in Spanish colonization, white and Indian crossbreeding is a subject of great interest for understanding both the colonial society and the whole social history of Latin America. This article seeks to study the phenomenon. It first inquires into the type of society that characterized the colonial period as well as about the mestizos' place in it, showing their marginal status. It then approaches the question of the development of this society, emphasizing the mestizo response to their own exclusión through diverse social-camouflage mechanisms. Given these strategies, together with the slow growth of the mestizo population within Latin American society, and based on the advantages of their bi-culturalism (due to their Hispanic and American origins, the formally ignored mestizos slowly undermined the social system itself, without having to participate as a cohesive social group in the bourgeois revolution that led to independence.

  19. Random-phase metasurfaces at optical wavelengths

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pors, Anders; Ding, Fei; Chen, Yiting;

    2016-01-01

    Random-phase metasurfaces, in which the constituents scatter light with random phases, have the property that an incident plane wave will diffusely scatter, hereby leading to a complex far-field response that is most suitably described by statistical means. In this work, we present and exemplify...... of an optically thick gold film overlaid by a subwavelength thin glass spacer and an array of gold nanobricks, we design and realize random-phase metasurfaces at a wavelength of 800 nm. Optical characterisation of the fabricated samples convincingly demonstrates the diffuse scattering of reflected...... light, with statistics obeying the theoretical predictions. We foresee the use of random-phase metasurfaces for camouflage applications and as high-quality reference structures in dark-field microscopy, while the control of the statistics for polarised and unpolarised light might find usage in security...

  20. Nanostructured thin film-based near-infrared tunable perfect absorber using phase-change material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kocer, Hasan

    2015-01-01

    Nanostructured thin film absorbers embedded with phase-change thermochromic material can provide a large level of absorption tunability in the near-infrared region. Vanadium dioxide was employed as the phase-change material in the designed structures. The optical absorption properties of the designed structures with respect to the geometric and material parameters were systematically investigated using finite-difference time-domain computations. Absorption level of the resonance wavelength in the near-IR region was tuned from the perfect absorption level to a low level (17%) with a high positive dynamic range of near-infrared absorption intensity tunability (83%). Due to the phase transition of vanadium dioxide, the resonance at the near-infrared region is being turned on and turned off actively and reversibly under the thermal bias, thereby rendering these nanostructures suitable for infrared camouflage, emitters, and sensors.

  1. Knitted radar absorbing materials (RAM) based on nickel-cobalt magnetic materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teber, Ahmet; Unver, Ibrahim; Kavas, Huseyin; Aktas, Bekir; Bansal, Rajeev

    2016-05-01

    There has been a long-standing interest in the development of flexible, lightweight, thin, and reconfigurable radar absorbing materials (RAM) for military applications such as camouflaging ground-based hardware against airborne radar observation. The use of polymeric Polyacrylonitrile (PAN) fabrics as a host matrix for magnetic metal nano-particles (either at the yarn-stage or after weaving the fabric) for shielding and absorbing applications has been described in the literature. In our experimental investigation, the relative concentrations of Nickel and Cobalt as well as the coating time are varied with a view to optimizing the microwave absorption characteristics of the resulting PAN-based composite material in the radar-frequency bands (X, Ku, and K). It is found that the PAN samples with the shortest coating time have the best return losses (under -20 dB return loss over a moderate bandwidth).

  2. Scalable, ultra-resistant structural colors based on network metamaterials

    CERN Document Server

    Galinski, Henning; Dong, Hao; Gongora, Juan S Totero; Favaro, Grégory; Döbeli, Max; Spolenak, Ralph; Fratalocchi, Andrea; Capasso, Federico

    2016-01-01

    Structural colours have drawn wide attention for their potential as a future printing technology for various applications, ranging from biomimetic tissues to adaptive camouflage materials. However, an efficient approach to realise robust colours with a scalable fabrication technique is still lacking, hampering the realisation of practical applications with this platform. Here we develop a new approach based on large scale network metamaterials, which combine dealloyed subwavelength structures at the nanoscale with loss-less, ultra-thin dielectrics coatings. By using theory and experiments, we show how sub-wavelength dielectric coatings control a mechanism of resonant light coupling with epsilon-near-zero (ENZ) regions generated in the metallic network, manifesting the formation of highly saturated structural colours that cover a wide portion of the spectrum. Ellipsometry measurements report the efficient observation of these colours even at angles of $70$ degrees. The network-like architecture of these nanoma...

  3. Tuning the Color of Silicon Nanostructures

    KAUST Repository

    Cao, Linyou

    2010-07-14

    Empowering silicon (Si) with optical functions constitutes a very important challenge in photonics. The scalable fabrication capabilities for this earth-abundant, environmentally friendly material are unmatched in sophistication and can be unleashed to realize a plethora of high-performance photonic functionalities that find application in information, bio-, display, camouflage, ornamental, and energy technologies. Nanofashioning represents a general strategy to turn Si into a useful optical material and Si structures have already been engineered to enable light emission, optical cloaking, waveguiding, nonlinear optics, enhanced light absorption, and sensing. Here, we demonstrate that a wide spectrum of colors can be generated by harnessing the strong resonant light scattering properties of Si nanostructures under white light illumination. The ability to engineer such colors in a predetermined fashion through a choice of the structure size, dielectric environment, and illumination conditions opens up entirely new applications of Si and puts this material in a new light. © 2010 American Chemical Society.

  4. Platonic scattering cancellation for bending waves in a thin plate

    KAUST Repository

    Farhat, M.

    2014-04-10

    We propose an ultra-thin elastic cloak to control the scattering of bending waves in isotropic heterogeneous thin plates. The cloak design makes use of the scattering cancellation technique applied, for the first time, to the biharmonic operator describing the propagation of bending waves in thin plates. We first analyze scattering from hard and soft cylindrical objects in the quasistatic limit, then we prove that the scattering of bending waves from an object in the near and far-field regions can be suppressed significantly by covering it with a suitably designed coating. Beyond camouflaging, these findings may have potential applications in protection of buildings from earthquakes and isolating structures from vibrations in the motor vehicle industry.

  5. Identifying and tracking dynamic processes in social networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Wayne; Savell, Robert; Schütt, Jan-Peter; Cybenko, George

    2006-05-01

    The detection and tracking of embedded malicious subnets in an active social network can be computationally daunting due to the quantity of transactional data generated in the natural interaction of large numbers of actors comprising a network. In addition, detection of illicit behavior may be further complicated by evasive strategies designed to camouflage the activities of the covert subnet. In this work, we move beyond traditional static methods of social network analysis to develop a set of dynamic process models which encode various modes of behavior in active social networks. These models will serve as the basis for a new application of the Process Query System (PQS) to the identification and tracking of covert dynamic processes in social networks. We present a preliminary result from application of our technique in a real-world data stream-- the Enron email corpus.

  6. From biological and social network metaphors to coupled bio-social wireless networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, Christopher L; Channakeshava, Karthik; Eubank, Stephen; Anil Kumar, V S; Marathe, Madhav V

    2011-01-01

    Biological and social analogies have been long applied to complex systems. Inspiration has been drawn from biological solutions to solve problems in engineering products and systems, ranging from Velcro to camouflage to robotics to adaptive and learning computing methods. In this paper, we present an overview of recent advances in understanding biological systems as networks and use this understanding to design and analyse wireless communication networks. We expand on two applications, namely cognitive sensing and control and wireless epidemiology. We discuss how our work in these two applications is motivated by biological metaphors. We believe that recent advances in computing and communications coupled with advances in health and social sciences raise the possibility of studying coupled bio-social communication networks. We argue that we can better utilise the advances in our understanding of one class of networks to better our understanding of the other. PMID:21643462

  7. CURRENT TRENDS IN β-CYCLODEXTRIN BASED DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lala Rita

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Many compounds identified through various screening programs are poorly soluble in the water. These molecules are difficult to formulate using the conventional formulation approaches. An important tool in this regard is the use of cyclodextrins, especially chemically modified cyclodextrins. These starch derivatives interact via dynamic complex formation and other mechanisms in a way that camouflages undesirable physicochemical properties, including low aqueous solubility, poor dissolution rate and limited drug stability, which leads to additional benefits such as increased solubility, increased bioavaibility, protection of active molecules from physicochemical degradation and decreased side-effects. This review aims to assess the use of cyclodextrins in newer drug delivery systems such as nanosponges, nanoparticles, nanospheres, nanoassemblies, drug-in cyclodextrin-in deformable liposomes and other drug delivery systems. These approaches are useful for resolving many of the current issues associated with developing and commercializing poorly water soluble drugs.

  8. Strain-engineered manufacturing of freeform carbon nanotube microstructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Volder, M.; Park, S.; Tawfick, S.; Hart, A. J.

    2014-07-01

    The skins of many plants and animals have intricate microscale surface features that give rise to properties such as directed water repellency and adhesion, camouflage, and resistance to fouling. However, engineered mimicry of these designs has been restrained by the limited capabilities of top-down fabrication processes. Here we demonstrate a new technique for scalable manufacturing of freeform microstructures via strain-engineered growth of aligned carbon nanotubes (CNTs). Offset patterning of the CNT growth catalyst is used to locally modulate the CNT growth rate. This causes the CNTs to collectively bend during growth, with exceptional uniformity over large areas. The final shape of the curved CNT microstructures can be designed via finite element modeling, and compound catalyst shapes produce microstructures with multidirectional curvature and unusual self-organized patterns. Conformal coating of the CNTs enables tuning of the mechanical properties independently from the microstructure geometry, representing a versatile principle for design and manufacturing of complex microstructured surfaces.

  9. Testing, Testing...Simple Technology Improves Groundwater Monitoring along the Columbia River

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Graybeal, Judith W.

    2006-05-16

    "Leave No Trace" is a popular ethic for outdoor recreationists who advocate a natural landscape. Now it is also applicable to groundwater sampling collection sites along the Columbia River in southeastern Washington State. Hydrologists from the Department of Energy's Pacific Northwest National Laboratory are using a simple apparatus of ¼-inch-diameter plastic tubing to collect samples at varying levels in the aquifer along the river's edge. Though a permanent installation, the low-cost, lightweight materials are easy to camouflage with indigenous rocks and vegetation so that the collection site appears undisturbed. Hydrologists compare the aquifer tube method to sipping groundwater through a long straw. The tube system was developed to provide supplemental monitoring in locations where traditional monitoring wells cannot be installed because of access constraints. It has proven to be economical, visually unobtrusive and effective in providing an accurate picture of the vertical distribution of contaminants in groundwater at a specific location.

  10. Management of skeletal Class III malocclusion with face mask therapy and comprehensive orthodontic treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirthika Muthukumar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Orthopedic correction of skeletal Class III malocclusion in a growing patient is crucial as it can circumvent future surgical procedures. Further, as surgery is done only at a later stage, early treatment helps to avoid the detrimental effects produced by the facial disfigurement on the patient's social life. This case report describes the treatment of a child aged 9 years 6 months who had a skeletal Class III malocclusion. The treatment plan involved the use of a reverse pull headgear (facemask and multibracket appliance therapy resulting in successful correction of the malocclusion. The treatment results were highly satisfactory resulting in improved facial esthetics, a skeletal Class I with a Dental Class I molar and canine relationship, an ideal overjet and overbite. Thus, dentoalveolar camouflage, if done in properly selected cases, alleviates the need for surgical intervention. The patient is being monitored until the end of growth to ensure the stability of treatment results.

  11. PENGGUNAAN FACE-MASK & EKSPANSI PALATAL PADA PERAWATAN MALOKLUSI KLAS III (Studi Pustaka

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krisnawati Krisnawati

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Class III skeletal anomaly is one of the most difficult malocclusions to correct in orthodontics. Orthodontist usually involved chincup appliances to restrain mandibular growth, camouflage techniques to advances maxillary incisors and retract mandibular incisors or waiting untul growth ceased to pursue orthognathic surgery. Many studies found that most of Class III malocclusions were characterized by maxillary retrognathism. In the late 1960s, the Delaire mask was popularized to protract the maxilla. The development of maxillary protraction with facemask and palatal expansion have provided a predictable and effective approach to managing treatment that was once considered difficult. Although no significant difference was found between early or late treatment group, the effect of improvement in facial aesthetics on psychosocial development resulted in a significant advantage for early treatment. However, the effects of face mask therapy should be evaluated over the long term in order to determine the relaps tendency.

  12. Hiding Lorentz Invariance Violation with MOND

    CERN Document Server

    Sanders, R H

    2011-01-01

    Ho\\v{r}ava gravity is a attempt to construct a renormalizable theory of gravity by breaking the Lorentz Invariance of the gravitational action at high energies. The underlying principle is that Lorentz Invariance is an approximate symmetry and its violation by gravitational phenomena is somehow hidden to present limits of observational precision. Here I point out that a simple modification of the low energy limit of Ho\\v{r}ava gravity in its non-projectable form can effectively camouflage the presence of a preferred frame in regions where the Newtonian gravitational field gradient is higher than $cH_0$; this modification results in the phenomenology of MOND at lower accelerations.

  13. Guidance Needs of Gifted and Talented Children’s Parents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Üzeyir Ogurlu

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Gifted children can face some social and emo-tional difficulties resulting from their unique characteristics. Gifted children’s high intellec-tual functioning sometimes can camouflage their social and emotional problems and be-cause these problems are nor recognized their guidance and counseling needs can be over-looked too during their psychosocial develop-ment. The aim of this study was to determine gifted children’s parents’ beliefs about their children’s counseling needs. A counseling needs questionnaire was conducted to 133 par-ents of gifted children (1st-5th grade. Research results showed that counseling areas were over-sensitivity, perfectionism, lack of talent devel-opment programs, participation in too many ac-tivities, disorganized in life and adherence to rules. Besides these findings, some counseling needs differed according to children’s gender and parents’ sex.

  14. Inorganic optical taggant and method of making

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lauf, Robert J.; Anderson, Kimberly K.; Montgomery, Frederick C.

    2005-05-31

    Sintered, translucent ceramic microbeads, preferably alumina, titania, zirconia, yttria, zirconium phosphate, or yttrium aluminum garnet (YAG) are doped with one or more optically active species. The beads may be added to substances such as explosives in order to create a distinctive optical signature that identifies a manufacturer, lot number, etc. in the event of the need for forensic analysis. Because the beads have a generally spherical surface, the radius of curvature provides an additional distinguishing characteristic by which a particular sample may be identified. The beads could also be formulated into paints if needed to create distinctive optical signatures for camouflage, decoys, or other countermeasures and could also be applied as a dust to track the movement of personnel, vehicles, etc.

  15. Vanadium dioxide as a natural disordered metamaterial: perfect thermal emission and large broadband negative differential thermal emittance

    CERN Document Server

    Kats, Mikhail A; Zhang, Shuyan; Genevet, Patrice; Ko, Changhyun; Ramanathan, Shriram; Capasso, Federico

    2013-01-01

    We experimentally demonstrate that a thin (~150 nm) film of vanadium dioxide (VO2) deposited on sapphire has an anomalous thermal emittance profile when heated, which arises due to the optical interaction between the film and the substrate when the VO2 is at an intermediate state of its insulator-metal transition (IMT). Within the IMT region, the VO2 film comprises nanoscale islands of metal- and dielectric-phase, and can thus be viewed as a natural, disordered metamaterial. This structure displays "perfect" blackbody-like thermal emissivity over a narrow wavelength range (~40 cm-1), surpassing the emissivity of our black soot reference. We observed large broadband negative differential thermal emittance over a >10 {\\deg}C range: upon heating, the VO2/sapphire structure emitted less thermal radiation and appeared colder on an infrared camera. We anticipate that emissivity engineering with thin film geometries comprising VO2 will find applications in infrared camouflage, thermal regulation, infrared tagging an...

  16. Segmenting Intracellular Distribution Images Derived by Fluorescent Dyes Using a Potts Model Hamiltonian

    CERN Document Server

    Hu, Dandan; Ronhovde, Peter; Bloch, Sharon; Achilefu, Samuel; Nussinov, Zohar

    2012-01-01

    We apply a multiresolution community detection algorithm to perform unsupervised segmentation of complex intracellular signals derived using fluorescent dyes. In our earlier work, when applying our method to benchmarks, our algorithm was shown to be one of the best and to be especially suited to the detection of camouflage images. In the current manuscript, we have explored this algorithm in a more complex scenario. The current image processing problem is framed as identifying clusters with respective average fluorescent lifetimes (FLTs) against a background or "solvent" in fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy (FLIM) images derived using NIR fluorescent dyes. We have identified significant multiresolution structures using replica correlations in these images, where such correlations are manifested by information theoretic overlaps of the independent solutions ("replicas") attained using the proposed algorithm from different starting points. Our method is more efficient than a well-known image segmentation...

  17. Wavevector Selective Metasurfaces and Tunnel Vision Filters

    CERN Document Server

    Fedotov, Vassili A; Walther, Markus; Perino, Mauro; Papasimakis, Nikitas; Zheludev, Nikolay I

    2015-01-01

    Metasurfaces offer unprecedented flexibility in the design and control of light propagation, replacing bulk optical components and exhibiting exotic optical effects. One of the basic properties of the metasurfaces, which renders them as frequency selective surfaces, is the ability to transmit or reflect radiation within a narrow spectral band that can be engineered on demand. Here we introduce and demonstrate experimentally in the THz domain the concept of wavevector selective surfaces -- metasurfaces transparent only within a narrow range of light propagation directions operating effectively as tunnel vision filters. Practical implementations of the new concept include applications in wavefront manipulation, observational instruments, vision and free-space communication in light-scattering environments, as well as passive camouflage.

  18. A game theoretic investigation of deception in network security

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carroll, Thomas E.; Grosu, Daniel

    2010-12-03

    We perform a game theoretic investigation of the effects of deception on the interactions between an attacker and a defender of a computer network. The defender can employ camouflage by either disguising a normal system as a honeypot or by disguising a honeypot as a normal system. We model the interactions between defender and attacker using a signaling game, a non-cooperative two player dynamic game of incomplete information. For this model, we determine which strategies admit perfect Bayesian equilibria. These equilibria are refined Nash equilibria in which neither the defender nor the attacker will unilaterally choose to deviate from their strategies. Finally, we discuss the benefits of employing deceptive equilibrium strategies in the defense of a computer network.

  19. The Use of Scalp as a Donor Site for Pediatric Burn Patients to Obtain Split Thickness Skin Graft

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fuat Yüksel

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To treat the pediatric burn patients, split thickness skin grafting (STSG is used widespreadly. STSG is frequently taken from the thigh or buttock. Some serious donor site morbidities such as long healing period and permanent scars are seen in these patients. Materials and Method: We retrospectively analyzed 86 pediatric burn patients in wich scalp was used as a donor-site of STSG between January 2002 and November 2008. Results: We determined that the healing time of the scalp is more rapid than conventional STSG donor site. Furthermore, this technique had important advantages such as to minimize postoperative discomforts, to allow repetitive graft harvesting and to camouflage visible scar. Conclusion: In our study, we revealed that scalp donor sites were dependable areas with low morbidity in pediatric burn patients. (Journal of Current Pediatrics 2009; 7: 1-6

  20. Black Holes and Fourfolds

    CERN Document Server

    Bena, Iosif; Vercnocke, Bert

    2012-01-01

    We establish the relation between the structure governing supersymmetric and non-supersymmetric four- and five-dimensional black holes and multicenter solutions and Calabi-Yau flux compactifications of M-theory and type IIB string theory. We find that the known BPS and almost-BPS multicenter black hole solutions can be interpreted as GKP compactifications with (2,1) and (0,3) imaginary self-dual flux. We also show that the most general GKP compactification leads to new classes of BPS and non-BPS multicenter solutions. We explore how these solutions fit into N=2 truncations, and elucidate how supersymmetry becomes camouflaged. As a necessary tool in our exploration we show how the fields in the largest N=2 truncation fit inside the six-torus compactification of eleven-dimensional supergravity.

  1. Creation of Ghost Illusions Using Metamaterials in Wave Dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Jiang, Weixiang; Han, Tiancheng; Zhang, Shuang; Cui, Tiejun

    2013-01-01

    The creation of wave-dynamic illusion functionality is of great interests to various scientific communities, which can potentially transform an actual perception into the pre-controlled perception, thus empowering unprecedented applications in the advanced-material science, camouflage, cloaking, optical and/or microwave cognition, and defense security, etc. By using the space transformation theory and engineering capability of metamaterials, we propose and realize a functional ghost illusion device, which is capable of creating wave-dynamic virtual ghost images off the original object's position under the illumination of electromagnetic waves. The scattering signature of the object is thus ghosted and perceived as multiple ghost targets with different geometries and compositions. The ghost-illusion material, being inhomogeneous and anisotropic, was realized by thousands of varying unit cells working at non-resonance. The experimental demonstration of the ghost illusion validates our theory of scattering metam...

  2. Broadband phase-preserved optical elevator

    CERN Document Server

    Luo, Yuan; Zhang, Baile; Qiu, Cheng-Wei; Barbastathis, George

    2011-01-01

    Phase-preserved optical elevator is an optical device to lift up an entire plane virtually without distortion in light path or phase. Using transformation optics, we have predicted and observed the realization of such a broadband phase-preserved optical elevator, made of a natural homogeneous birefringent crystal without resorting to absorptive and narrowband metamaterials involving time-consuming nano-fabrication. In our demonstration, the optical elevator is designed to lift a sheet upwards, and the phase is verified to be preserved always. The camouflage capability is also demonstrated in the presence of adjacent objects of the same scale at will. The elevating device functions in different surrounding media over the wavelength range of 400-700 nm. Our work opens up prospects for studies of light trapping, solar energy, illusion optics, communication, and imaging.

  3. Shopping for clothes: Body satisfaction, appearance investment, and functions of clothing among female shoppers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiggemann, Marika; Lacey, Catherine

    2009-09-01

    The present study aimed to investigate the link between clothing and body experience in women of different ages. Participants were 162 female clothes shoppers between the ages of 18 and 55 who completed questionnaire measures of body image, functions of clothing, self-esteem, and enjoyment of clothes shopping. It was found that clothing was worn primarily for assurance and fashion by women of all ages. On the other hand, BMI and body dissatisfaction were related to the use of clothing for camouflage purposes and to a more negative clothes shopping experience. Both components of appearance investment were related to choice of clothes for fashion and assurance. However, the self-evaluative salience component was negatively related, while the motivational salience was positively related, to enjoyment of clothes shopping. It was concluded that although clothing is an under-researched aspect of body image, it represents an important part of women's appearance management, whatever their age. PMID:19660999

  4. Trzeci dogmat empiryzmu wyjaśniony, czyli co Donald davidson miał na myśli, ale jasno tego nie powiedział (THE THIRD DOGMA OF EMPIRICISM REVEALED

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roman P. Godlewski

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The article is focused on the idea rejected by Davidson in his 'On the very Idea of the Conceptual Scheme'. The idea is described as dualism of conceptual scheme and content or as the third dogma of empiricism. In the article it is explained as thesis that every language stays in a relation to the world. The author claims that this interpretation is the closest to Davidson's suggestions that refutation of the dualism lets to avoid relativism and save the objective concept of truth and to his understanding of truth as logically simple - not a relation camouflaged. The presented interpretation best deals with difficulties that other do not. Davidson did not refute the third dogma, so the article gives two arguments. The first is based on the thesis that the world is not an object of any kind; the second - on the thesis that the world is not any object at all, because the word 'world' is an onomatoid.

  5. Legal determination of money laundering in a comprehensive approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naim Mëçalla

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzes the legal determinants of Money laundering referring to international legal acts and the national legislation of selected countries. The proper legal terminology of money laundering is hiding the true nature of the source, location, transferring of the real rights of ownership, having the knowledge that such “wealth” derives from a criminal activity. Money laundering is the process that makes “dirty money” appear legitimate, a criminal activity that encompasses the efforts to hide or camouflage criminal profit. Analyzing the legal dispositions attributable to money laundering, there are no substantial differentiations about this phenomenon. However, different countries do not have a consistent approach regarding Money laundering deriving from all sorts of criminal activity. Some countries criminalize every activity aiming at legitimizing criminal income; other countries have penal responsibility in the cases when money laundering is linked only to legalizing income from certain criminal acts.

  6. Teaching Science Through Pictorial Models During Read-Alouds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Alandeom W.; Rivera, Seema; Glass, Rory; Mastroianni, Michael; Wizner, Francine; Amodeo, Vincent

    2013-03-01

    This study examines how three elementary teachers refer to pictorial models (photographs, drawings, and cartoons) during science read-alouds. While one teacher used realistic photographs for the purpose of visually verifying facts about crystals, another employed analytical diagrams as heuristic tools to help students visualize complex target systems (rainbow formation and human eye functioning). Another teacher used fictional cartoons to engage students in analogical storytelling, communicating animal camouflage as analogous to human "blending in." However, teachers did not always explicitly convey the representational nature of pictorial models (analog and target as separate entities). It is argued that teachers need to become more aware of how they refer to pictorial models in children's science books and how to promote student visual literacy.

  7. Transference neurosis as a waking dream: notes on a clinical enigma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kern, J W

    1987-01-01

    This paper demonstrates clinically that the interactional features of a transference neurosis are the waking equivalents of a manifest dream. Through analytic investigation of the emerging repetitive extraverbal elements of apparent transference resistance behavior, it is discovered that the systematic analysis of the details of such behavior yields a picture of synthetic construction fundamentally the same as that seen in dreams. By using Freud's technique of systematic dream interpretation, the tightly organized, coded, and camouflaged presence of many key compromise formations determining a neurosis are found to be represented in compact, highly condensed clinical interactions, providing an overall picture of dreamwork in action. The four components of dreamwork are found to be the principal means by which the unconscious genetic and dynamic material is represented in the analytic field. PMID:3584824

  8. Contributions of Phenoxazone-Based Pigments to the Structure and Function of Nanostructured Granules in Squid Chromatophores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Thomas L; DiBona, Christopher W; Dinneen, Sean R; Jones Labadie, Stephanie F; Chu, Feixia; Deravi, Leila F

    2016-04-19

    Understanding the structure-function relationships of pigment-based nanostructures can provide insight into the molecular mechanisms behind biological signaling, camouflage, or communication experienced in many species. In squid Doryteuthis pealeii, combinations of phenoxazone-based pigments are identified as the source of visible color within the nanostructured granules that populate dermal chromatophore organs. In the absence of the pigments, granules experience a reduction in diameter with the loss of visible color, suggesting important structural and functional features. Energy gaps are estimated from electronic absorption spectra, revealing highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO)-lowest unoccupied molecular orbital (LUMO) energies that are dependent upon the varying carboxylated states of the pigment. These results implicate a hierarchical mechanism for the bulk coloration in cephalopods originating from the molecular components confined within in the nanostructured granules of chromatophore organs. PMID:27049640

  9. [Pregnancy and acute pulmonary embolism: a case report].

    Science.gov (United States)

    dos Santos, Luís Ferreira; Andrade, Cláudia; Rodrigues, Bruno; Moreira, Davide; Delgado, Anne; Manso, Pedro; Pipa, António; Gama, Pedro; Nunes, Luís; Dionísio, Odete; Ribeiro, Nuno; Santos, Oliveira

    2012-05-01

    We describe the case of a 37-year-old pregnant woman who presented at 29 weeks of gestation with syncope and shortness of breath caused by pulmonary embolism. Due to persistent hypotension thrombolytic therapy with tenecteplase was administered and the clinical and hemodynamic response was excellent, with no maternal or fetal hemorrhagic complications. The clinical presentation of pulmonary embolism is sometimes camouflaged by the physiological changes that occur in pregnancy and diagnosis is often delayed by reluctance to expose the fetus to ionizing radiation. Systemic thrombolysis is considered a high-risk treatment in pregnancy and very few women have received it. However the complication rates of thrombolytic therapy are acceptable in the light of the underlying disease. PMID:22483795

  10. Topology with applications topological spaces via near and far

    CERN Document Server

    Naimpally, Somashekhar A

    2013-01-01

    The principal aim of this book is to introduce topology and its many applications viewed within a framework that includes a consideration of compactness, completeness, continuity, filters, function spaces, grills, clusters and bunches, hyperspace topologies, initial and final structures, metric spaces, metrization, nets, proximal continuity, proximity spaces, separation axioms, and uniform spaces. This book provides a complete framework for the study of topology with a variety of applications in science and engineering that include camouflage filters, classification, digital image processing, forgery detection, Hausdorff raster spaces, image analysis, microscopy, paleontology, pattern recognition, population dynamics, stem cell biology, topological psychology, and visual merchandising. It is the first complete presentation on topology with applications considered in the context of proximity spaces, and the nearness and remoteness of sets of objects. A novel feature throughout this book is the use of near and...

  11. High-emulation mask recognition with high-resolution hyperspectral video capture system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Jiao; Fang, Xiaojing; Li, Shoufeng; Wang, Yongjin

    2014-11-01

    We present a method for distinguishing human face from high-emulation mask, which is increasingly used by criminals for activities such as stealing card numbers and passwords on ATM. Traditional facial recognition technique is difficult to detect such camouflaged criminals. In this paper, we use the high-resolution hyperspectral video capture system to detect high-emulation mask. A RGB camera is used for traditional facial recognition. A prism and a gray scale camera are used to capture spectral information of the observed face. Experiments show that mask made of silica gel has different spectral reflectance compared with the human skin. As multispectral image offers additional spectral information about physical characteristics, high-emulation mask can be easily recognized.

  12. False color viewing device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A viewing device for observing objects in near-infrared false-color comprising a pair of goggles with one or more filters in the apertures, and pads that engage the face for blocking stray light from the sides so that all light reaching the user's eyes come through the filters. The filters attenuate most visible light and pass near-infrared (having wavelengths longer than approximately 700 nm) and a small amount of blue-green and blue-violet (having wavelengths in the 500 to 520 nm and shorter than 435 nm, respectively). The goggles are useful for looking at vegetation to identify different species and for determining the health of the vegetation, and to detect some forms of camouflage. 7 figs

  13. [The adopted child and his problems. Pedo-psychiatric point of view].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schachter, M

    1980-12-01

    After a survey of the recent pedopsychiatric literature concerning the difficulties exhibited by young adoptees, we describe our own experience with 35 adopted children. The subjects were divided in two groups: a) the first group of 26 cases (74%) concerning clinical disturbances with no evident relation to the situation derived by the adoption; b) the second group of 9 cases (26%) concerning: 1. four cases ou rebellious behaviour against the adopters et 2. fives cases of camouflaged rejection of the adoptees by their adopters. These 9 cases are given with details; the characteristics of the other 26 cases are summarized. Our pedopsychiatric experience has shown that adoption was a failure in 26% of the cases related in the present study. PMID:7224473

  14. Hiding Lorentz invariance violation with MOND

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horava-Lifshitz gravity is an attempt to construct a renormalizable theory of gravity by breaking the Lorentz invariance of the gravitational action at high energies. The underlying principle is that Lorentz invariance is an approximate symmetry and its violation by gravitational phenomena is somehow hidden to present limits of observational precision. Here I point out that a simple modification of the low-energy limit of Horava-Lifshitz gravity in its nonprojectable form can effectively camouflage the presence of a preferred frame in regions where the Newtonian gravitational field gradient is higher than cH0; this modification results in the phenomenology of modified Newtonian dynamics (MOND) at lower accelerations. As a relativistic theory of MOND, this modified Horava-Lifshitz theory presents several advantages over its predecessors.

  15. Ultra-wideband microwave absorber by connecting multiple absorption bands of two different-sized hyperbolic metamaterial waveguide arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Xiang; Long, Chang; Li, Junhao; Zhu, Hua; Chen, Lin; Guan, Jianguo; Li, Xun

    2015-10-01

    Microwave absorbers have important applications in various areas including stealth, camouflage, and antenna. Here, we have designed an ultra-broadband light absorber by integrating two different-sized tapered hyperbolic metamaterial (HMM) waveguides, each of which has wide but different absorption bands due to broadband slow-light response, into a unit cell. Both the numerical and experimental results demonstrate that in such a design strategy, the low absorption bands between high absorption bands with a single-sized tapered HMM waveguide array can be effectively eliminated, resulting in a largely expanded absorption bandwidth ranging from 2.3 to 40 GHz. The presented ultra-broadband light absorber is also insensitive to polarization and robust against incident angle. Our results offer a further step in developing practical artificial electromagnetic absorbers, which will impact a broad range of applications at microwave frequencies.

  16. Elimination of Specular reflection and Identification of ROI: The First Step in Automated Detection of Cervical Cancer using Digital Colposcopy

    CERN Document Server

    Das, Abhishek; Bhattacharyya, Debasis

    2011-01-01

    Cervical Cancer is one of the most common forms of cancer in women worldwide. Most cases of cervical cancer can be prevented through screening programs aimed at detecting precancerous lesions. During Digital Colposcopy, Specular Reflections (SR) appear as bright spots heavily saturated with white light. These occur due to the presence of moisture on the uneven cervix surface, which act like mirrors reflecting light from the illumination source. Apart from camouflaging the actual features, the SR also affects subsequent segmentation routines and hence must be removed. Our novel technique eliminates the SR and makes the colposcopic images (cervigram) ready for segmentation algorithms. The cervix region occupies about half of the cervigram image. Other parts of the image contain irrelevant information, such as equipment, frames, text and non-cervix tissues. This irrelevant information can confuse automatic identification of the tissues within the cervix. The first step is, therefore, focusing on the cervical bor...

  17. Optical properties of a scorpion (Centruroides limpidus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ullrich, Bruno; Duckworth, Robyn M.; Singh, Akhilesh K.; Barik, Puspendu; Mejía-Villanueva, Vicente O.; Garcia-Pérez, Alberto C.

    2016-04-01

    Scorpions, elusive by nature, tend to appear nocturnally and are usually not appreciated when encountered. The exoskeleton is capable of fluorescing allowing for their detection at night in order to prevent undesirable encounters. The specificity of their fluorescing suggests specialized optical features. However, despite the blue-green fluorescence, to the best of our knowledge, no further results have been published on the optical properties of scorpions. Their exoskeletal structure whose versatility provides them protection, camouflage, and flexibility has not been studied under laser excitation and monochromatic light. The experiments reveal the nonlinear optical properties, infrared photoluminescence, and photoconductivity of the epicuticle of scorpions, demonstrating that the scorpion’s outer-covering is a prototype of a semiconducting inherently integrated multifunctional polymeric film with appealing potential applications such as optical logics, photonic frequency converters, novel multiplexers handling electronic and photonic inputs, and lasers.

  18. Advances in explosives analysis--part I: animal, chemical, ion, and mechanical methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Kathryn E; Greenfield, Margo T; McGrane, Shawn D; Moore, David S

    2016-01-01

    The number and capability of explosives detection and analysis methods have increased substantially since the publication of the Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry special issue devoted to Explosives Analysis (Moore and Goodpaster, Anal Bioanal Chem 395(2):245-246, 2009). Here we review and critically evaluate the latest (the past five years) important advances in explosives detection, with details of the improvements over previous methods, and suggest possible avenues towards further advances in, e.g., stand-off distance, detection limit, selectivity, and penetration through camouflage or packaging. The review consists of two parts. This part, Part I, reviews methods based on animals, chemicals (including colorimetry, molecularly imprinted polymers, electrochemistry, and immunochemistry), ions (both ion-mobility spectrometry and mass spectrometry), and mechanical devices. Part II will review methods based on photons, from very energetic photons including X-rays and gamma rays down to the terahertz range, and neutrons. PMID:26462922

  19. The Hair Follicle: A Comparative Review of Canine Hair Follicle Anatomy and Physiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welle, Monika M; Wiener, Dominique J

    2016-06-01

    The hair follicle (HF) has a wide range of functions including thermoregulation, physical and immunological protection against external insults, sensory perception, social interactions, and camouflage. One of the most characteristic features of HFs is that they self-renew during hair cycle (HC) throughout the entire life of an individual to continuously produce new hair. HC disturbances are common in humans and comparable to some alopecic disorders in dogs. A normal HC is maintained by follicular stem cells (SCs), which are predominately found in an area known as the bulge. Due to similar morphological characteristics of the human and canine bulge area, the particularity of compound HFs in humans and dogs as well as similarities in follicular biomarker expression, the dog might be a promising model to study human HC and SC disorders. In this review, we give an overview of normal follicular anatomy, the HC, and follicular SCs and discuss the possible pathogenetic mechanisms of noninflammatory alopecia. PMID:27000375

  20. De l’effet de sidération et de peur dans les autoportraits d’Andy Warhol

    OpenAIRE

    Cordié-Levy, Marie

    2011-01-01

    Nous nous proposons d’analyser la sidération et la peur dans la dernière série d’autoportraits faite par Andy Warhol en 1986 qui donnent à voir les subterfuges de l’artiste pour en contrer ou en accompagner les effets. Après une première mise en perspective, nous avons tissé un réseau de correspondances serrées entre ces œuvres et le texte « Méduse et Compagnie » de Roger Caillois sur le travestissement, le camouflage et l’intimidation, en utilisant la micro-analyse tactile, technique inspiré...

  1. Relationship between swelling and irradiation creep in cold-worked PCA stainless steel irradiated to similar 178 dpa at similar 400 C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The eighth and final irradiation segment for pressurized tubes constructed from the fusion Prime Candidate Alloy (PCA) has been completed in FFTF. At 178 dpa and similar 400 C, the irradiation creep of 20% cold-worked PCA has become dominated by the ''creep disappearance'' phenomenon. The total diametral deformation rate has reached the limiting value of 0.33%/dpa at the three highest stress levels employed in this test. The stress-enhancement of swelling tends to camouflage the onset of creep disappearance, however, requiring the use of several non-traditional techniques to extract the creep coefficients. No failures occurred in these tubes, even though the swelling ranged from similar 20 to 40%. ((orig.))

  2. Advances in explosives analysis--part II: photon and neutron methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Kathryn E; Greenfield, Margo T; McGrane, Shawn D; Moore, David S

    2016-01-01

    The number and capability of explosives detection and analysis methods have increased dramatically since publication of the Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry special issue devoted to Explosives Analysis [Moore DS, Goodpaster JV, Anal Bioanal Chem 395:245-246, 2009]. Here we review and critically evaluate the latest (the past five years) important advances in explosives detection, with details of the improvements over previous methods, and suggest possible avenues towards further advances in, e.g., stand-off distance, detection limit, selectivity, and penetration through camouflage or packaging. The review consists of two parts. Part I discussed methods based on animals, chemicals (including colorimetry, molecularly imprinted polymers, electrochemistry, and immunochemistry), ions (both ion-mobility spectrometry and mass spectrometry), and mechanical devices. This part, Part II, will review methods based on photons, from very energetic photons including X-rays and gamma rays down to the terahertz range, and neutrons. PMID:26446898

  3. Management of skeletal Class III malocclusion with face mask therapy and comprehensive orthodontic treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muthukumar, Kirthika; Vijaykumar, N M; Sainath, M C

    2016-01-01

    Orthopedic correction of skeletal Class III malocclusion in a growing patient is crucial as it can circumvent future surgical procedures. Further, as surgery is done only at a later stage, early treatment helps to avoid the detrimental effects produced by the facial disfigurement on the patient's social life. This case report describes the treatment of a child aged 9 years 6 months who had a skeletal Class III malocclusion. The treatment plan involved the use of a reverse pull headgear (facemask) and multibracket appliance therapy resulting in successful correction of the malocclusion. The treatment results were highly satisfactory resulting in improved facial esthetics, a skeletal Class I with a Dental Class I molar and canine relationship, an ideal overjet and overbite. Thus, dentoalveolar camouflage, if done in properly selected cases, alleviates the need for surgical intervention. The patient is being monitored until the end of growth to ensure the stability of treatment results. PMID:27041912

  4. A new purpose for tattoos: medical alert tattoos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kluger, Nicolas; Aldasouqi, Saleh

    2013-02-01

    Tattooing has gained a tremendous popularity for the past twenty years. The motivations that drive an individual to acquire a tattoo are plentiful. Tattooing has also found its way in the field of medicine (corneal tattooing, gastrointestinal tattooing during endoscopy, permanent make-up tattooing, scar camouflage or radiotherapy field marking...). An emerging application of tattooing is for the purpose of medical identification for conditions requiring special attention during emergency situations, such as patients with diabetes who may be found unconscious due to hypoglycaemia or with allergy to specific medication. This new phenomenon, (practiced by patients on their own without medical consultation) can be found on the Internet. We review here this practice, which is seemingly underreported in the medical literature with its advantages and potential drawbacks. PMID:22647627

  5. Audre's daughter: Black lesbian steganography in Dee Rees' Pariah and Audre Lorde's Zami: A New Spelling of My Name.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Nancy

    2016-01-01

    This article argues that African-American director Dee Rees' critically acclaimed debut Pariah (2011) is a rewriting of lesbian poet-activist Audre Lorde's iconic "bio-mythography" Zami: A New Spelling of My Name (1982). The article examines how Rees' work creatively and subtly re-envisions Lorde's Zami by way of deeply rooted and often cleverly camouflaged patterns, resonances, and contrasts. Shared topics include naming, mother-daughter bonds, the role of clothing in identity formation, domestic abuse, queer time, and lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender legacy discourse construction. What emerges between the visual and written texts is a hidden language of connection-what may be termed Black lesbian steganography-which proves thought-provoking to viewers and readers alike. PMID:26914826

  6. Real-time two-level foreground detection and person-silhouette extraction enhanced by body-parts tracking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deeb, Rada; Desserée, Elodie; Bouakaz, Saida

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we discuss foreground detection and human body silhouette extraction and tracking in monocular video systems designed for human motion analysis applications. Vision algorithms face many challenges when it comes to analyze human activities in non-controlled environments. For instance, issues like illumination changes, shadows, camouflage and occlusions make the detection and the tracking of a moving person a hard task to accomplish. Hence, advanced solutions are required to analyze the content of video sequences. We propose a real-time, two-level foreground detection, enhanced by body parts tracking, designed to efficiently extract person silhouette and body parts for monocular video-based human motion analysis systems. We aim to find solutions for different non-controlled environment challenges, which make the detection and the tracking of a moving person a hard task to accomplish. On the first level, we propose an enhanced Mixture of Gaussians, built on both chrominanceluminance and chrominance-only spaces, which handles global illumination changes. On the second level, we improve segmentation results, in interesting areas, by using statistical foreground models updated by a high-level tracking of body parts. Each body part is represented with a set of template characterized by a feature vector built in an initialization phase. Then, high level tracking is done by finding blob-template correspondences via distance minimization in feature space. Correspondences are then used to update foreground models, and a graph cut algorithm, which minimizes a Markov random field energy function containing these models, is used to refine segmentation. We were able to extract a refined silhouette in the presence of light changes, noise and camouflage. Moreover, the tracking approach allowed us to infer information about the presence and the location of body parts even in the case of partial occlusion.

  7. 导电涂料在复合材料雷达目标特性控制中的应用研究%Applied Research of Conductive Coating in Composite Radar Target Characteristics Control

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张天才; 王永凤; 冯利军; 张凯; 邓爱明; 陈亮; 王运奇

    2012-01-01

    以水性聚氯酯为粘结剂,短切碳纤维为导电填料,制备了系列不同电阻率的导电涂料,研究了导电涂料中碳纤维对表面电阻率、雷达波透过率及RCS的影响,并通过调节涂层碳纤维含量实现了对复合材料外形伪装诱饵RCS的控制。实验结果表明,导电涂料具有优异的雷达波反射特性,可应用于装备伪装领域假目标RCS控制、复合材料包装箱电磁屏蔽以及装备防静电包装。%A series of conductive coatings with different resistivity were synthesized by using waterborne polyu rethane as binder and chopped carbon fiber as conductive filler. The effect of carbon fiber in conductive coating on surface resistivity, radar transmission, and RCS was studied. By adjusting the content of carbon fiber, the RCS of shape camouflage bait can be controlled. The results showed that conductive coating has excellent radar reflection characteristics, and can be used in controlling fake target RCS in equipment camouflage field, electromagnetic shielding in composite materials packing box, and anti-electrostatic packaging needs of equipment.

  8. The almost invisible league: crypsis and association between minute fishes and shrimps as a possible defence against visually hunting predators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucélia Nobre Carvalho

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Camouflage is one of the most widespread defence modes used by substrate-dwelling animals, whereas transparency is generally found in open-water organisms. Both these defence types are regarded as effective against visually guided predators. We present here three assemblages of similarly-sized freshwater fish and shrimp species which apparently rely on camouflage and transparency to evade some of their potential predators. In one of the associations, there is a transition from cryptic colours and translucency to transparency of the component species according to the position each of them occupies in the habitat. The likeness between the fishes and the shrimps is here regarded as a type of protective association similar to numerical or social mimicry. Additionally, we suggest that the assemblage may contain Batesian-like mimicry components.Camuflagem é um dos tipos de defesa mais bem distribuídos entre os animais que vivem no substrato, sendo a transparência geralmente encontrada em organismos pelágicos. Ambos os tipos de defesa são considerados como eficientes contra predadores visualmente orientados. Apresentamos três conjuntos de espécies de peixes e camarões de tamanhos similares, que aparentemente dependem da camuflagem e transparência para escapar de potenciais predadores. Em uma das associações, há uma transição de coloração críptica ou translúcida para transparente, de acordo com a posição que cada espécie ocupa no habitat. A semelhança entre peixes e camarões é aqui considerada como um tipo de associação protetiva, similar a mimetismo numérico ou social. Além disso, sugerimos que o conjunto pode conter elementos similares ao mimetismo Batesiano.

  9. AI And Early Vision - Part II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Julesz, Bela

    1989-08-01

    A quarter of a century ago I introduced two paradigms into psychology which in the intervening years have had a direct impact on the psychobiology of early vision and an indirect one on artificial intelligence (AI or machine vision). The first, the computer-generated random-dot stereogram (RDS) paradigm (Julesz, 1960) at its very inception posed a strategic question both for AI and neurophysiology. The finding that stereoscopic depth perception (stereopsis) is possible without the many enigmatic cues of monocular form recognition - as assumed previously - demonstrated that stereopsis with its basic problem of finding matches between corresponding random aggregates of dots in the left and right visual fields became ripe for modeling. Indeed, the binocular matching problem of stereopsis opened up an entire field of study, eventually leading to the computational models of David Marr (1982) and his coworkers. The fusion of RDS had an even greater impact on neurophysiologists - including Hubel and Wiesel (1962) - who realized that stereopsis must occur at an early stage, and can be studied easier than form perception. This insight recently culminated in the studies by Gian Poggio (1984) who found binocular-disparity - tuned neurons in the input stage to the visual cortex (layer IVB in V1) in the monkey that were selectively triggered by dynamic RDS. Thus the first paradigm led to a strategic insight: that with stereoscopic vision there is no camouflage, and as such was advantageous for our primate ancestors to evolve the cortical machinery of stereoscopic vision to capture camouflaged prey (insects) at a standstill. Amazingly, although stereopsis evolved relatively late in primates, it captured the very input stages of the visual cortex. (For a detailed review, see Julesz, 1986a)

  10. Early life stress shapes female reproductive strategy through eggshell pigmentation in Japanese quail.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duval, Camille; Zimmer, Cédric; Mikšík, Ivan; Cassey, Phillip; Spencer, Karen A

    2014-11-01

    Physiological constraints on colouration have been widely reported; especially in birds, which trade-off antioxidant responses against colourful costly signals. One female extended phenotypic trait, which might also highlight important physiological trade-offs, is the pigmentation of their eggshells. In ground-nesting species, producing eggs that are visually undetectable by predators is the best camouflage strategy. However, the condition-dependence of eggshell pigmentation, and the pigments role in oxidative stress, may constrain females to trade-off between their antioxidant capacity and maximising the camouflage of their eggs when they deposit eggshell pigments. Developmental stress is one factor that influences female antioxidant capacity, and could lead to variations in eggshell pigmentation that might have crucial consequences on individual fitness if egg crypsis is compromised especially under stressful conditions. We investigated the interaction between developmental and breeding conditions with respect to eggshell pigmentation in Japanese quail. We studied 30 females that bred under both control and stressful conditions, and were exposed to pre- and/or post-natal stress, or neither. Pre- and post-natal stress independently influenced eggshell pigmentation strategies under stressful breeding conditions. Under stressful reproduction, eggshell protoporphyrin concentration and maculation were affected by pre-natal stress, whereas eggshell reflectance and biliverdin concentration were influenced by post-natal stress. These changes may reflect potential adaptive strategies shaped by developmental stress, but additional data on the benefit of egg crypsis in quail, combined with studies on the role of both pigments on chick survival, will help to clarify whether early life stress can enhance fitness through eggshell pigmentation when developmental and reproductive environments match. PMID:25169834

  11. Use of mammal manure by nesting burrowing owls: a test of four functional hypotheses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, M.D.; Conway, C.J.

    2007-01-01

    Animals have evolved an impressive array of behavioural traits to avoid depredation. Olfactory camouflage of conspicuous odours is a strategy to avoid depredation that has been implicated only in a few species of birds. Burrowing owls, Athene cunicularia, routinely collect dried manure from mammals and scatter it in their nest chamber, in the tunnel leading to their nest and at the entrance to their nesting burrow. This unusual behaviour was thought to reduce nest depredation by concealing the scent of adults and juveniles, but a recent study suggests that manure functions to attract arthropod prey. However, burrowing owls routinely scatter other materials in the same way that they scatter manure, and this fact seems to be at odds with both of these hypotheses. Thus, we examined the function of this behaviour by testing four alternative hypotheses. We found no support for the widely cited olfactory-camouflage hypothesis (manure did not lower the probability of depredation), or for the mate-attraction hypothesis (males collected manure after, not before, pair formation). Predictions of the burrow-occupied hypothesis (manure indicates occupancy to conspecifics and thereby reduces agonistic interactions) were supported, but results were not statistically significant. Our results also supported several predictions of the prey-attraction hypothesis. Pitfall traps at sampling sites with manure collected more arthropod biomass (of taxa common in the diet of burrowing owls) than pitfall traps at sampling sites without manure. Scattering behaviour of burrowing owls appears to function to attract arthropod prey, but may also signal occupancy of a burrow to conspecifics. ?? 2006 The Association for the Study of Animal Behaviour.

  12. Hiding in plain sight: cuticular compound profile matching conceals a larval tortoise beetle in its host chemical cloud.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massuda, Kamila Ferreira; Trigo, José Roberto

    2014-04-01

    Larvae of tortoise beetles are postulated to have fecal shields as the main defensive strategy against predators. Such a device protects beetles both physically and chemically. In order to examine how larvae Chelymorpha reimoseri are protected against predatory ants, which frequently visit extrafloral nectaries in their host plant, the morning glory Ipomoea carnea, we conducted anti-predation bioassays with live 5th instars. In the field, larvae in contact with ants had survival between 40 and 73 %, independently of shield presence. In the laboratory, when exposed to Camponotus crassus, larvae with shields had significantly higher survival (85 %) than those without shields (64 %). In both scenarios, larval survival was significantly higher when compared with palatable Spodoptera frugiperda larvae, as the latter were all consumed. We also observed that when C. reimoseri larvae showed no movement, the ants walked on them without attacking. We hypothesized that if the larval integument has a pattern of cuticular compounds (CCs) similar to that of its host plant, larvae would be rendered chemically camouflaged. In the field and laboratory, the freeze-dried palatable larvae of S. frugiperda treated with CCs of 5th instar C. reimoseri and left on I. carnea leaves were significantly less removed by ants than controls without these compounds. We also found a similarity of approximately 50 % between the CCs in C. reimoseri larvae and I. carnea host leaves. Both findings provide evidence in support of the hypothesis that chemical camouflage plays an important role in larval defense, which is reported for the first time in an ectophagous leaf beetle larva. PMID:24744044

  13. 道路交通事故致颅脑损伤后智力缺损法68例医学鉴定分析%Judicial Expertise on 68 Cases of Intelligence Defect Caused by Craniocerebral Injury Resulted from Traffic Accidents

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢夏德; 张冬先

    2011-01-01

    Objective To study the characteristics of medicolegal investigation cases about intelligence defect caused by craniocerebral injury resulted from traffic accidents, and to discuss how to evaluate the intelligence defect through clinical data such as detection report of IQ and forensic examinaiton. Method We collected 68 cases of intelligence defect caused by craniocerebral injury after traffic accidents, and analyzed the difference among individual character, injury condition, grandiosity, camouflage and expertise conclusion. Results Adult man and victims with education background of middle school level accounted for the majority of the 68 cases. Grandiosity and camouflage were found in some victims. Contusion and laceration of brain and subarachnoid hemorrhage were more common in the craniocerebral injury. Conclusion Judicial expertise of craniocerebral injury should be done by synthetically analyzing the details of cases, carefully reviewing the case history, scientifically examining the wound and objectively analyzing IQ detection result.%目的 研究道路交通事故致颅脑损伤后智力损缺法医学鉴定案件的特点,探讨如何运用临床资料包括IQ检测报告和法医学检验,对智力缺损者进行法医学鉴定.方法 抽取因道路交通事故致颅脑损伤后智力缺损的鉴定资料68例,对其个体特征、损伤情况、夸大伪装情况与鉴定结论的差异性进行分析.结果 68例中以成年男性为多,初中文化程度者为主,夸大伪装者具有一定的比例,颅脑损伤中以脑挫裂伤及蛛网膜下腔出血较多.结论 鉴定过程要结合案情,细心复习病历资料,科学的法医学检验和客观地采用IQ检测结果.

  14. Patrimonialiser les bases de sous-marins et le Mur de l’Atlantique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claude Prelorenzo

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Le Mur de l’Atlantique court de la frontière espagnole jusqu’au nord de la Norvège. Au sein de ce dispositif sont installées cinq bases de sous-marins : Dunkerque, Saint-Nazaire, Lorient, La Rochelle et Bordeaux. Après une période de purgatoire, liée aux souvenirs trop frais des bombardements qu’ils ont attirés sur les villes, les édifices du mur sont entrés dans la sphère de la culture et du tourisme. Nous posons alors la question suivante : de quoi ces édifices portent-ils témoignage, et nous envisageons plusieurs aspects : leur évident modernisme qui les situe à un moment de l’histoire de l’architecture, leur hétérogénéité qui fait de ces bâtiments des sortes d’ovni, sans aucun rapport ni d’échelle ni de forme avec l’architecture civile, une technique d’enfouissement et de camouflage génératrice d’un nouveau paysage. Mais ces édifices peuvent-ils être exonérés de leur but guerrier ? Quel est le message de leur recyclage dans le culturel, le festif ou le commercial ? Deux bases de sous-marins sont plus particulièrement présentées, celle de Saint-Nazaire et celle de Lorient.The Atlantic Wall stretches from the Spanish border to northern Norway. Within this system there are five bases for submarines: Dunkirk, Saint-Nazaire, Lorient, La Rochelle and Bordeaux. After a period of purgatory, with the painful memories of the wartime air raids which destroyed the cities around the bases, the buildings which the Atlantic Wall comprises have now entered the spheres of culture and tourism. What do these buildings bear witness to? Their frank modernism puts them at a precise moment in the history of architecture. Their heterogeneity makes them like UFOs, without any relation of scale or form to civil architecture. Their specific techniques of dissimulation and camouflage created new landscapes. But can these buildings be freed from the memories of their original military purpose? What message is

  15. Two Concept Premises in Marxism Popularity Linguistic Environment%马克思主义大众化语境中的两个基本概念前提

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗小青

    2012-01-01

    目前,学界非常重视马克思主义大众化研究,但是,理论界忽视了两个基本概念的界定:即什么是马克思主义大众化语境中的"马克思主义",什么是马克思主义大众化语境中的"大众"。结果是:第一,把马克思的思想与马克思以后的马克思主义混为一谈,把经典马克思主义和中国化的马克思主义完全等同,同时把前苏联的马克思主义当成了经典马克思主义,使马克思主义大众化的内容变得模糊化、抽象化;第二,把一般意义上的"人民大众"或"人民群众"当成了特殊语境下的"大众",抛开具体历史条件抽象地谈论大众概念,必然使马克思主义大众化的大众主体被遮蔽。两个关键概念被遮蔽,马克思主义大众化将脱离实际,产生不了实际效果。%At present,the Academic circles takes the Marxism popularity research,But,the theorists have neglected two basic concept limits:Anything is in the Marxism linguistic environment "the Marxism",anything is in the Marxism popularity linguistic environment "the populace".The result is: First,Marxism jumbles together Marx's thought and Marx the later,equates completely the classics Marxism and Chinese Marxism,simultaneously has regarded former Soviet Union's Marxism the classics Marxism,causes the content of Marxism popularity becomes fuzzy,the Abstraction.Second,the general sense "the masses" or "people" has regarded under the special linguistic environment in "the populace",abandons the concrete historic condition to discuss Abstractly the populace concept,causes the populace main body of the Marxism popularity to camouflage inevitably.Two essential concepts are camouflaged,Marxism popularity will divorced from the reality,could not have the actual result.

  16. Polymeric capsule-cushioned leukocyte cell membrane vesicles as a biomimetic delivery platform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Changyong; Wu, Zhiguang; Lin, Zhihua; Lin, Xiankun; He, Qiang

    2016-02-01

    We report a biomimetic delivery of microsized capsule-cushioned leukocyte membrane vesicles (CLMVs) through the conversion of freshly reassembled leukocyte membrane vesicles (LMVs), including membrane lipids and membrane-bound proteins onto the surface of layer-by-layer assembled polymeric multilayer microcapsules. The leukocyte membrane coating was verified by using electron microscopy, a quartz crystal microbalance, dynamic light scattering, and confocal laser scanning microscopy. The resulting CLMVs have the ability to effectively evade clearance by the immune system and thus prolong the circulation time in mice. Moreover, we also show that the right-side-out leukocyte membrane coating can distinctly improve the accumulation of capsules in tumor sites through the molecular recognition of membrane-bound proteins of CLMVs with those of tumor cells in vitro and in vivo. The natural cell membrane camouflaged polymeric multilayer capsules with the immunosuppressive and tumor-recognition functionalities of natural leukocytes provide a new biomimetic delivery platform for disease therapy.We report a biomimetic delivery of microsized capsule-cushioned leukocyte membrane vesicles (CLMVs) through the conversion of freshly reassembled leukocyte membrane vesicles (LMVs), including membrane lipids and membrane-bound proteins onto the surface of layer-by-layer assembled polymeric multilayer microcapsules. The leukocyte membrane coating was verified by using electron microscopy, a quartz crystal microbalance, dynamic light scattering, and confocal laser scanning microscopy. The resulting CLMVs have the ability to effectively evade clearance by the immune system and thus prolong the circulation time in mice. Moreover, we also show that the right-side-out leukocyte membrane coating can distinctly improve the accumulation of capsules in tumor sites through the molecular recognition of membrane-bound proteins of CLMVs with those of tumor cells in vitro and in vivo. The natural

  17. De l’effet de sidération et de peur dans les autoportraits d’Andy Warhol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie CORDIÉ-LEVY

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Nous nous proposons d’analyser la sidération et la peur dans la dernière série d’autoportraits faite par Andy Warhol en 1986 qui donnent à voir les subterfuges de l’artiste pour en contrer ou en accompagner les effets. Après une première mise en perspective, nous avons tissé un réseau de correspondances serrées entre ces œuvres et le texte « Méduse et Compagnie » de Roger Caillois sur le travestissement, le camouflage et l’intimidation, en utilisant la micro-analyse tactile, technique inspirée de Carlo Ginzburg en histoire et d’Aloïs Riegl en histoire de l’art. Nous avons pu ainsi mettre en lumière comment, par le médium de la photographie ou de la sérigraphie, l’artiste s’est réinscrit tout en s’en démarquant, dans l’histoire visuelle de ceux qui, depuis Caravage, ont révolutionné le traitement de la peur dans l’image. Nous concluons en soulignant comment la spécificité américaine du cadrage y a introduit un autre rapport au réel.The following article analyses the way fear and shock appear in Andy Warhol’s last self portraits, produced in 1986, through the mechanisms that oppose and accompany it. Using the technique of the tactile micro-analysis inspired by historian Carlo Ginzburg and art historian Aloïs Riegl, we will attempt to decipher the effects of fear and shock by referring to the different stages defined by Roger Caillois as composing fear: travestissement, camouflage, and bullying. This representation of fear through the medium of photography and serigraphy simultaneously conforms to the tradition of the pictorial expressions of fear such as can be seen in Caravaggio, while also renewing the concept by introducing traits more typical of the American psyche: a close up view of the character and a touch of the surreal, which could be considered as the modern form of eternity.

  18. Analysis of 158 Forensic Identification Cases Involved with Peripheral Nerve Injury%158例"周围神经损伤"法医学鉴定分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张馨元; 徐晓明; 刘技辉; 刘鹏; 张彪; 刘兴本; 郑传斐; 张颖

    2011-01-01

    目的 研究"周围神经损伤"法医学鉴定案件的特点,探讨如何运用临床资料、法医检查和神经电生理检测结果等对周围神经损伤者进行法医学鉴定.方法收集临床诊断为"周围神经损伤"的158例法医学鉴定案件,对其个体特征、损伤情况、鉴定结果、夸大与伪装情况等进行统计分析.结果 在158例"周围神经损伤"案件中以男性、青壮年及无业人员多见."周围神经损伤"的原因以交通事故损伤和伤害案件中的锐器伤为主.损伤部位以四肢为主.被鉴定人中存在明显夸大与伪装神经功能障碍的占相当比例.结论 对"周围神经损伤"者的法医学鉴定应综合运用临床资料、法医检查和神经电生理检测结果等进行.%Objective To study the characteristics of forensic identification cases involved with peripheral nerve injury, and to discuss how to apply the clinical information, forensic examination and neurophysiological testing. Methods One hundred and fifty-eight cases which were diagnosed peripheral nerve injury in clinic, were collected. Then the individual characteristics, injuries, identification results, exaggeration or camouflage were analysed. Results The male, the unemployed, and the young and middle-aged were common in our cases. The main reasons of "peripheral nerve injury" were traffic accidents and sharp injuries. Most wounded parts were in limbs. Also the exaggeration and camouflage accounted for a considerable proportion in our cases. Conclusion The forensic identification of "peripheral nerve injury" cases should be evaluated with clinical information, forensic examination and electrophysiological testing comprehensively.

  19. RECONSTRUCTION OF SUPPLE SCAR OF POST BURN CONTRACTURE OF NECK BY Z - PLASTY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subha Dhua

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Denonvilliers in 1856 was the first one to describe Z - plasty technique as a surgical co rrection for lower lid ectrpion and it was McCurdy who made the first reference to this technique in the American Literature in 1913 for treatment of contracture at the oral commissure. In 1929 Limberg came up with a more geometric description but geometri c details showing optimal angles and length were provided by Davis in 1946. 1 Z - Plasty is one of the most versatile and widely used technique after number of modifications namely multiple serial, 2 four - flap, 3 five - flap, 4,5 and six - flap, 6 double - opposing Z - p lasties, and other, less commonly used modifications. 7,8 These are not just theoretical extensions of the Z - Plasty, but practical and applicable procedures. Z - plasty was chosen in our studies to release contracture of the neck scar. In our case we have performed the release of contracture of the neck for improving functional and cosmetic appearance of post burn contracture of the neck. Through multiple Z - plasty techni que without excision of Supple Scar, it is possible to lengthen the contracted scars due to burns through changing the direction of the scar. This technique has helped to interrupt and break the scar for better camouflage. The paper describes correction of 20 post burn cases of scar contracture in the neck. The majority of the cases happen to be female who sustained flame burns while cooking. The major disability of limitation was of neck movement as well as of the lower jaw was effectively addressed throug h this technique by creating longer final gain in length of the contracted scar. The final results obtained by changing the direction of the scar and aligning it with the skin tension lines gave excellent camouflage and cosmetically acceptable outcome. Thi s technique has given the following advantages: Achieve good extension of the neck to normal. There is no chance of recurrence of contracture of neck

  20. Adjunctive measures in rhinoplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simons, R L

    1975-10-01

    Modern day rhinoplasty demands more than a plan for a new nose. It requires consideration of the individual in terms of a new facial image. Adjacent skeletal and soft tissue weaknesses must be evaluated along with the primary nasal deformity. Frequently facial disharmonies may be corrected with relatively simple operative procedures or with cosmetics. When the procedure does not measurably increase the operative time, postoperative morbidity, or financial cose of the rhinoplasty, it will be more readily accepted by the patient. These criteria are considered in the suggested methods of chin augmentation with alloplastic implants and reduction mentoplasty, utilizing the intraoral subapical horizontal osteotomy of the mandible. At times, simple methods of camouflage will be inadequate. Significant jaw disharmony with unacceptable occlusion requires the interdisciplinary teamwork of the orthodontist, the surgeon, and possibly the prosthodontist. In these cases rhinoplasty waits upon skeletal and dental realignment. Almost without exception, the rhinoplasty patient appreciates and profits from the surgeon's concern over her general appearance. Advice regarding skin care, makeup, hair styling, and facial rejuvenation frequently aids that person in attaining a happy and satisfying rhinoplastic experience. PMID:1178201

  1. Bio-inspired varying subspace based computational framework for a class of nonlinear constrained optimal trajectory planning problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biological species have produced many simple but efficient rules in their complex and critical survival activities such as hunting and mating. A common feature observed in several biological motion strategies is that the predator only moves along paths in a carefully selected or iteratively refined subspace (or manifold), which might be able to explain why these motion strategies are effective. In this paper, a unified linear algebraic formulation representing such a predator–prey relationship is developed to simplify the construction and refinement process of the subspace (or manifold). Specifically, the following three motion strategies are studied and modified: motion camouflage, constant absolute target direction and local pursuit. The framework constructed based on this varying subspace concept could significantly reduce the computational cost in solving a class of nonlinear constrained optimal trajectory planning problems, particularly for the case with severe constraints. Two non-trivial examples, a ground robot and a hypersonic aircraft trajectory optimization problem, are used to show the capabilities of the algorithms in this new computational framework. (paper)

  2. A Comprehensive Review on Cyclodextrin-Based Carriers for Delivery of Chemotherapeutic Cytotoxic Anticancer Drugs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bina Gidwani

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Most of the cytotoxic chemotherapeutic agents have poor aqueous solubility. These molecules are associated with poor physicochemical and biopharmaceutical properties, which makes the formulation difficult. An important approach in this regard is the use of combination of cyclodextrin and nanotechnology in delivery system. This paper provides an overview of limitations associated with anticancer drugs, their complexation with cyclodextrins, loading/encapsulating the complexed drugs into carriers, and various approaches used for the delivery. The present review article aims to assess the utility of cyclodextrin-based carriers like liposomes, niosomes, nanoparticles, micelles, millirods, and siRNA for delivery of antineoplastic agents. These systems based on cyclodextrin complexation and nanotechnology will camouflage the undesirable properties of drug and lead to synergistic or additive effect. Cyclodextrin-based nanotechnology seems to provide better therapeutic effect and sustain long life of healthy and recovered cells. Still, considerable study on delivery system and administration routes of cyclodextrin-based carriers is necessary with respect to their pharmacokinetics and toxicology to substantiate their safety and efficiency. In future, it would be possible to resolve the conventional and current issues associated with the development and commercialization of antineoplastic agents.

  3. Suitable for human beings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    If a society decides to make use of the advantages of technologies that at the same time bear extensive potentials of harm, society has to prevent abuse of these potentials. Physical protection and other security measures inevitably entail a curtailment of personal liberty. The civil rights will not provide sufficient protection against such creeping loss of personal freedom. The high priority of the objects of legal protection in question will make it necessary to specify the civil rights according to conditions if the security measures are to become effective in practice. Weighing the legal merits and the principle of reasonableness will be the main instruments that will pave the way for a camouflaged change of legal concepts and, finally, a factual restriction of civil rights. Any policy of law intended to protect the civil rights therefore will have to clain responsible participation in research activities, technological development, and energy policy. The policy of law has to take care that the criterion of compatibility with the constitution, the weakening or strengthening effect of a technological system on the civil rights, will duly be taken into account in the process of democratic technology steering, and as early as possible. (orig./HSCH)

  4. Cuttlefish see shape from shading, fine-tuning coloration in response to pictorial depth cues and directional illumination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zylinski, Sarah; Osorio, D; Johnsen, Sonke

    2016-03-16

    Humans use shading as a cue to three-dimensional form by combining low-level information about light intensity with high-level knowledge about objects and the environment. Here, we examine how cuttlefish Sepia officinalis respond to light and shadow to shade the white square (WS) feature in their body pattern. Cuttlefish display the WS in the presence of pebble-like objects, and they can shade it to render the appearance of surface curvature to a human observer, which might benefit camouflage. Here we test how they colour the WS on visual backgrounds containing two-dimensional circular stimuli, some of which were shaded to suggest surface curvature, whereas others were uniformly coloured or divided into dark and light semicircles. WS shading, measured by lateral asymmetry, was greatest when the animal rested on a background of shaded circles and three-dimensional hemispheres, and less on plain white circles or black/white semicircles. In addition, shading was enhanced when light fell from the lighter side of the shaded stimulus, as expected for real convex surfaces. Thus, the cuttlefish acts as if it perceives surface curvature from shading, and takes account of the direction of illumination. However, the direction of WS shading is insensitive to the directions of background shading and illumination; instead the cuttlefish tend to turn to face the light source. PMID:26984626

  5. Zika virus infection and once again the risk from other neglected diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porrino, Pedro

    2016-07-01

    Since the first cases of Zika were identified and reported in Brazil, the magnitude and consequences of the outbreak in the Americas have increased tremendously, leading the World Health Organization to consider Zika and its link with clusters of microcephaly a Public Health Emergency of International Concern. Only a previous large outbreak in French Polynesia was known and no neurological anomalies have been reported. Differences in African and Asian lineage and differences in genetic evolution of the Zika virus may possibly provide an explanation for the development of the recent outbreaks and their variable presentation. However, the similar clinical presentation between Zika and other diseases like Dengue and Chikungunya can support that Zika has been circulating and spreading inadvertently. This hypothesis gains strength when rates of laboratory confirmation diagnosis for Dengue are observed in Brazil and Colombia, two of the most affected countries by Zika virus (ZIKV) infection.The lack of attention and resources on neglected diseases supposes a huge risk that new lethal pathogens camouflage themselves to spread into large areas and populations. PMID:27390166

  6. Vision-based bio-inspired guidance law for small aerial vehicle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Zhengjie; Huang Weilin; Yan Yonghong

    2015-01-01

    During predation, a flying insect can form a stealth flight path. This behavior is called motion camouflage. Based on the study results of this behavior, the perception and neurology of flying insects, a novel bio-inspired guidance law is proposed for the terminal guidance for small aer-ial vehicle with charge-coupled device imaging seekers. The kinematics relationship between a small aerial vehicle and target is analyzed, and a two-dimensional guidance law model is established by using artificial neural networks. To compare with the proportional guidance law, the numerical sim-ulations are carried out in the vertical plane and in the horizontal plane respectively. The simulation results show that the ballistic of the small aerial vehicle is straighter and the normal acceleration is smaller by using the bio-inspired guidance law than by using the proportional guidance law. That is to say, the bio-inspired guidance law just uses the information of the target from the imaging seeker, but the performance of it can be better than that of the proportional guidance law.

  7. Absorption intensity tunability in the near infrared region using phase-change nanostructure (Presentation Recording)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozdemir, Abdurrahman; Saraydemir, Safak; Barut, Bilal; Kocer, Hasan

    2015-08-01

    Nanostructured thin film absorbers embedded with phase-change material (PCM) can provide large level of absorption intensity tunability in the near-infrared region. Germanium Antimonide Tellurite (Ge2Sb1Te4-GST) was employed as the phase-change material in the designed structures. The structure is composed of a periodic grating-type array of 200 nm thick Au buried with 100 nm-thick GST layer from the top of the Au layer. The period of the gratings is 2 μm and in each period, GST width is 0.5 μm. GST was selected as the active PCM because its optical properties undergo a substantial change during a structural transition from the amorphous to the crystalline phase. The optical absorption properties of the designed structures with respect to the geometric and material parameters were systematically investigated using finite-difference time-domain computations. It was shown that absorption intensity in the near-infrared region was tuned from the near-perfect to the near-zero level by switching the PCM from its amorphous to crystalline states. The distributions of the electric field and absorbed power at the resonant wavelengths with respect to different phases of the GST were investigated to further explain the physical origin of the absorption tuning. This study provides a path toward the realization of tunable infrared absorbers for the applications, such as selective infrared emitters, infrared camouflage, sensors, and photovoltaic devices.

  8. Composition and adaptation in the life of Robert Schumann.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graves, John S

    2005-01-01

    The composer Robert Schumann, who suffered from bipolar disorder, utilized his impressive musical and literary talents in attempts to adapt to multiple developmental traumas, separations, and losses as well as to the ongoing ravages of his mood disorder. By analyzing several of his Lieder, the author formulates and describes several defense mechanisms involved in these adaptations. These include identification with the lost object, the use of transitional objects and phenomena, sublimation, denial, minimization, idealization, playfulness, and the employment of healthy obsessive traits. Schumann utilized these adaptive defenses successfully for a brief period, thus coping with a difficult separation from his fiancée, Clara. Ultimately, however, he was unable to experience mature mourning regarding the deaths of several family members. The author, drawing on his extensive experience with treating bipolar individuals in outpatient settings, discusses some of the difficulties that many bipolar patients like Schumann have with mourning, including early developmental vulnerabilities to separation and loss, the disorganizing effects of bipolar mood episodes on cognition and self-coherence, the need to camouflage affects reminiscent of bipolar mood episodes, and experiencing these affects and mood episodes as traumatic reoccurrences. By studying the biographies of creative individuals such as Schumann, clinicians can expand their appreciation of their patients' adaptive capacities and thus assist them in restoring a sense of hope and vitality in their lives. PMID:16370792

  9. Colorful solar selective absorber integrated with different colored units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Feiliang; Wang, Shao-Wei; Liu, Xingxing; Ji, Ruonan; Li, Zhifeng; Chen, Xiaoshuang; Chen, Yuwei; Lu, Wei

    2016-01-25

    Solar selective absorbers are the core part for solar thermal technologies such as solar water heaters, concentrated solar power, solar thermoelectric generators and solar thermophotovoltaics. Colorful solar selective absorber can provide new freedom and flexibility beyond energy performance, which will lead to wider utilization of solar technologies. In this work, we present a monolithic integration of colored solar absorber array with different colors on a single substrate based on a multilayered structure of Cu/TiN(x)O(y)/TiO(2)/Si(3)N(4)/SiO(2). A colored solar absorber array with 16 color units is demonstrated experimentally by using combinatorial deposition technique via changing the thickness of SiO(2) layer. The solar absorptivity and thermal emissivity of all the color units is higher than 92% and lower than 5.5%, respectively. The colored solar selective absorber array can have colorful appearance and designable patterns while keeping high energy performance at the same time. It is a new candidate for a number of solar applications, especially for architecture integration and military camouflage. PMID:26832602

  10. Red Blood Cell Membrane as a Biomimetic Nanocoating for Prolonged Circulation Time and Reduced Accelerated Blood Clearance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Lang; Bu, Lin-Lin; Xu, Jun-Hua; Cai, Bo; Yu, Guang-Tao; Yu, Xiaolei; He, Zhaobo; Huang, Qinqin; Li, Andrew; Guo, Shi-Shang; Zhang, Wen-Feng; Liu, Wei; Sun, Zhi-Jun; Wang, Hao; Wang, Tza-Huei; Zhao, Xing-Zhong

    2015-12-01

    For decades, poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) has been widely incorporated into nanoparticles for evading immune clearance and improving the systematic circulation time. However, recent studies have reported a phenomenon known as "accelerated blood clearance (ABC)" where a second dose of PEGylated nanomaterials is rapidly cleared when given several days after the first dose. Herein, we demonstrate that natural red blood cell (RBC) membrane is a superior alternative to PEG. Biomimetic RBC membrane-coated Fe(3)O(4) nanoparticles (Fe(3)O(4) @RBC NPs) rely on CD47, which is a "don't eat me" marker on the RBC surface, to escape immune clearance through interactions with the signal regulatory protein-alpha (SIRP-α) receptor. Fe(3)O(4) @RBC NPs exhibit extended circulation time and show little change between the first and second doses, with no ABC suffered. In addition, the administration of Fe(3)O(4) @RBC NPs does not elicit immune responses on neither the cellular level (myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs)) nor the humoral level (immunoglobulin M and G (IgM and IgG)). Finally, the in vivo toxicity of these cell membrane-camouflaged nanoparticles is systematically investigated by blood biochemistry, hematology testing, and histology analysis. These findings are significant advancements toward solving the long-existing clinical challenges of developing biomaterials that are able to resist both immune response and rapid clearance. PMID:26488923

  11. Host Responses to Biofilm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watters, C; Fleming, D; Bishop, D; Rumbaugh, K P

    2016-01-01

    From birth to death the human host immune system interacts with bacterial cells. Biofilms are communities of microbes embedded in matrices composed of extracellular polymeric substance (EPS), and have been implicated in both the healthy microbiome and disease states. The immune system recognizes many different bacterial patterns, molecules, and antigens, but these components can be camouflaged in the biofilm mode of growth. Instead, immune cells come into contact with components of the EPS matrix, a diverse, hydrated mixture of extracellular DNA (bacterial and host), proteins, polysaccharides, and lipids. As bacterial cells transition from planktonic to biofilm-associated they produce small molecules, which can increase inflammation, induce cell death, and even cause necrosis. To survive, invading bacteria must overcome the epithelial barrier, host microbiome, complement, and a variety of leukocytes. If bacteria can evade these initial cell populations they have an increased chance at surviving and causing ongoing disease in the host. Planktonic cells are readily cleared, but biofilms reduce the effectiveness of both polymorphonuclear neutrophils and macrophages. In addition, in the presence of these cells, biofilm formation is actively enhanced, and components of host immune cells are assimilated into the EPS matrix. While pathogenic biofilms contribute to states of chronic inflammation, probiotic Lactobacillus biofilms cause a negligible immune response and, in states of inflammation, exhibit robust antiinflammatory properties. These probiotic biofilms colonize and protect the gut and vagina, and have been implicated in improved healing of damaged skin. Overall, biofilms stimulate a unique immune response that we are only beginning to understand. PMID:27571696

  12. Pre-hatching fluoxetine-induced neurochemical, neurodevelopmental, and immunological changes in newly hatched cuttlefish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bidel, Flavie; Di Poi, Carole; Imarazene, Boudjema; Koueta, Noussithé; Budzinski, Hélène; Van Delft, Pierre; Bellanger, Cécile; Jozet-Alves, Christelle

    2016-03-01

    Embryonic and early postembryonic development of the cuttlefish Sepia officinalis (a cephalopod mollusk) occurs in coastal waters, an environment subject to considerable pressure from xenobiotic pollutants such as pharmaceutical residues. Given the role of serotonin in brain development and its interaction with neurodevelopmental functions, this study focused on fluoxetine (FLX), a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI, antidepressant). The goal was to determine the effects of subchronic waterborne FLX exposure (1 and 10 μg L(-1)) during the last 15 days of embryonic development on neurochemical, neurodevelopmental, behavioral, and immunological endpoints at hatching. Our results showed for the first time that organic contaminants, such as FLX, could pass through the eggshell during embryonic development, leading to a substantial accumulation of this molecule in hatchlings. We also found that FLX embryonic exposure (1 and 10 μg L(-1)) (1) modulated dopaminergic but not serotonergic neurotransmission, (2) decreased cell proliferation in key brain structures for cognitive and visual processing, (3) did not induce a conspicuous change in camouflage quality, and (4) decreased lysozyme activity. In the long term, these alterations observed during a critical period of development may impair complex behaviors of the juvenile cuttlefish and thus lead to a decrease in their survival. Finally, we suggest a different mode of action by FLX between vertebrate and non-vertebrate species and raise questions regarding the vulnerability of early life stages of cuttlefish to the pharmaceutical contamination found in coastal waters. PMID:25966880

  13. Use of Wood Characters in the Identification of Selected Timber Species in Nigeria.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adeniyi Akanni JAYEOLA

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Ten popular timber species belonging to seven families in Nigeria were identified in the Herbarium. Wood samples of each species were studied anatomically in search of stable taxonomic micromorphological attributes. Characters of the treachery elements, in particular, the vessel; fibre and ray structure; intercellular canal and phloem parenchyma are diagnostic among the species. The invariable presence of non-septate fibres in Afzelia africana (Sm. and Milicia excelsa (Welsh. and C. C. Berg. delimits them from other woods which all posses septate fibres. Occurrence of tyloses in the metaxylem of Cordia millenii (Bak., Antiaris toxicaria(Lesch., Tectona grandis (L. F., Terminalia ivorensis (A. Chev. and Triplochiton scleroxylon (K. Schum. separates them from Anogeissus leiocarpus (Guill. and Perr., Khaya ivorensis (A. Chev. and Mansonia altissima (A. Chev.. A detailed study of the wood structure of the commercial Nigerian timber species may provide an invaluable tool for determination, identification of fragments and thereby assisting in promoting quality assurance as well as detecting adulteration in wood trade and detecting camouflage and substitution of CITES-listed trees.

  14. False recognition of instruction-set lures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtis, Evan T; Chubala, Chrissy M; Spear, Jackie; Jamieson, Randall K; Hockley, William E; Crump, Matthew J C

    2016-01-01

    False remembering has been examined using a variety of procedures, including the Deese-Roediger-McDermott procedure, the false fame procedure and the two-list recognition procedure. We present six experiments in a different empirical framework examining false recognition of words included in the experimental instructions (instruction-set lures). The data show that participants' false alarm rate to instruction-set lures was twice their false alarm rate to standard lures. That result was statistically robust even when (1) the relative strength of targets to instruction-set lures was increased, (2) participants were warned about the instruction-set lures, (3) the instruction-set lures were camouflaged in the study instructions and (4) the instruction-set lures were presented verbally at study but visually at test. False recognition of instruction-set lures was only mitigated when participants were distracted between encountering the instruction-set lures and studying the training list. The results confirm the ease with which recognition succumbs to familiarity and demonstrate the robustness of false recognition. PMID:25438094

  15. The "we of me": Carson McCullers as lesbian novelist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitt, J

    1999-01-01

    Although Carson McCullers camouflaged her love for women in her fiction, gay and lesbian themes are inarguably present in her work. The loneliness that her characters face takes on allegorical intensity, and it is even more potent due to her own sexual confusion and alienation. Married twice to the same man and falling in love repeatedly with both women and men, McCullers wrestled with bisexuality throughout her personal and literary life. Her deepest attachments were to her husband Reeves McCullers; David Diamond, a musician-composer in love with both McCullers and her husband; and Anne-marie Clarac-Schwarzenbach, a Swiss writer. All three of these love interests required that McCullers deal with complicated and ultimately destructive triangles. Given that fact, it is no surprise that she created fictional worlds peopled with characters engaged in three-way relationships. In her novels, Mick (The Heart Is a Lonely Hunter), Frankie (The Member of the Wedding), Miss Amelia (The Ballad of the Sad Cafe) and Weldon Penderton (Reflections in a Golden Eye) also reflect the author's sexual ambivalence and inability to fit into the prescribed social structures of the South. PMID:10203074

  16. Termites utilise clay to build structural supports and so increase foraging resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oberst, Sebastian; Lai, Joseph C S; Evans, Theodore A

    2016-01-01

    Many termite species use clay to build foraging galleries and mound-nests. In some cases clay is placed within excavations of their wooden food, such as living trees or timber in buildings; however the purpose for this clay is unclear. We tested the hypotheses that termites can identify load bearing wood, and that they use clay to provide mechanical support of the load and thus allow them to eat the wood. In field and laboratory experiments, we show that the lower termite Coptotermes acinaciformis, the most basal species to build a mound-nest, can distinguish unloaded from loaded wood, and use clay differently when eating each type. The termites target unloaded wood preferentially, and use thin clay sheeting to camouflage themselves while eating the unloaded wood. The termites attack loaded wood secondarily, and build thick, load-bearing clay walls when they do. The termites add clay and build thicker walls as the load-bearing wood is consumed. The use of clay to support wood under load unlocks otherwise unavailable food resources. This behaviour may represent an evolutionary step from foraging behaviour to nest building in lower termites. PMID:26854187

  17. Homogeneous Nature of Malaysian Marine Fish Epinephelus fuscoguttatus (Perciformes; Serranidae: Evidence Based on Molecular Markers, Morphology and Fourier Transform Infrared Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A'wani Aziz Nurdalila

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Taxonomic confusion exists within the genus Epinephelus due to the lack of morphological specializations and the overwhelming number of species reported in several studies. The homogenous nature of the morphology has created confusion in the Malaysian Marine fish species Epinephelus fuscoguttatus and Epinephelus hexagonatus. In this study, the partial DNA sequence of the 16S gene and mitochondrial nucleotide sequences of two gene regions, Cytochrome Oxidase Subunit I and III were used to investigate the phylogenetic relationship between them. In the phylogenetic trees, E. fuscoguttatus was monophyletic with E. hexagonatus species and morphology examination shows that no significant differences were found in the morphometric features between these two taxa. This suggests that E. fuscoguttatus is not distinguishable from E. hexagonatus species, and that E. fuscoguttatus have been identified to be E. hexagonatus species is likely attributed to differences in environment and ability to camouflage themselves under certain conditions. Interestingly, this finding was also supported by Principal Component Analysis on Attenuated Total Reflectance–Fourier-transform Infrared (ATR-FTIR data analysis. Molecular, morphological and meristic characteristics were combined with ATR-FTIR analysis used in this study offer new perspectives in fish species identification. To our knowledge, this is the first report of an extensive genetic population study of E. fuscoguttatus in Malaysia and this understanding will play an important role in informing genetic stock-specific strategies for the management and conservation of this highly valued fish.

  18. Identifying the lost generation of adults with autism spectrum conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Meng-Chuan; Baron-Cohen, Simon

    2015-11-01

    Autism spectrum conditions comprise a set of early-onset neurodevelopmental syndromes with a prevalence of 1% across all ages. First diagnosis in adulthood has finally become recognised as an important clinical issue due to the increasing awareness of autism, broadening of diagnostic criteria, and the introduction of the spectrum concept. Thus, the idea of a lost generation of people who were previously excluded from a diagnosis of classic autism has arisen. Making a first diagnosis of autism spectrum conditions in adults can be challenging for practical reasons (eg, no person to provide a developmental history), developmental reasons (eg, the acquisition of learnt or camouflaging strategies), and clinical reasons (eg, high frequency of co-occurring disorders). The diagnostic process includes referral, screening, interviews with informants and patients, and functional assessments. In delineating differential diagnoses, true comorbidities, and overlapping behaviour with other psychiatric diagnoses, particular attention should be paid to anxiety, depression, obsessive-compulsive disorder, psychosis, personality disorders, and other neurodevelopmental disorders. Possible misdiagnosis, especially in women, should be explored. The creation of supportive, accepting, and autism-friendly social and physical environments is important and requires a coordinated effort across agencies and needs support from government policies. PMID:26544750

  19. Signaling Pathways in Melanogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stacey A. N. D’Mello

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Melanocytes are melanin-producing cells found in skin, hair follicles, eyes, inner ear, bones, heart and brain of humans. They arise from pluripotent neural crest cells and differentiate in response to a complex network of interacting regulatory pathways. Melanins are pigment molecules that are endogenously synthesized by melanocytes. The light absorption of melanin in skin and hair leads to photoreceptor shielding, thermoregulation, photoprotection, camouflage and display coloring. Melanins are also powerful cation chelators and may act as free radical sinks. Melanin formation is a product of complex biochemical events that starts from amino acid tyrosine and its metabolite, dopa. The types and amounts of melanin produced by melanocytes are determined genetically and are influenced by a variety of extrinsic and intrinsic factors such as hormonal changes, inflammation, age and exposure to UV light. These stimuli affect the different pathways in melanogenesis. In this review we will discuss the regulatory mechanisms involved in melanogenesis and explain how intrinsic and extrinsic factors regulate melanin production. We will also explain the regulatory roles of different proteins involved in melanogenesis.

  20. Signaling Pathways in Melanogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Mello, Stacey A N; Finlay, Graeme J; Baguley, Bruce C; Askarian-Amiri, Marjan E

    2016-01-01

    Melanocytes are melanin-producing cells found in skin, hair follicles, eyes, inner ear, bones, heart and brain of humans. They arise from pluripotent neural crest cells and differentiate in response to a complex network of interacting regulatory pathways. Melanins are pigment molecules that are endogenously synthesized by melanocytes. The light absorption of melanin in skin and hair leads to photoreceptor shielding, thermoregulation, photoprotection, camouflage and display coloring. Melanins are also powerful cation chelators and may act as free radical sinks. Melanin formation is a product of complex biochemical events that starts from amino acid tyrosine and its metabolite, dopa. The types and amounts of melanin produced by melanocytes are determined genetically and are influenced by a variety of extrinsic and intrinsic factors such as hormonal changes, inflammation, age and exposure to UV light. These stimuli affect the different pathways in melanogenesis. In this review we will discuss the regulatory mechanisms involved in melanogenesis and explain how intrinsic and extrinsic factors regulate melanin production. We will also explain the regulatory roles of different proteins involved in melanogenesis. PMID:27428965

  1. 电致变色材料、器件及应用研究进展%Research Progress in Electrochromic Materials, Devices and Applications

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董子尧; 李昕

    2012-01-01

    Electrochromic material is one of the most promising intelligent materials due to its controllable structure, rich color, low cost and energy. The structure and mechanism of electrochromic device are summarized, and the progress of each layer material (transparent conductor, electrochromic, electrolyte, ion storage) is emphatically introduced. Besides, several important applications of electrochromic devices are listed in detail, taking smart windows, auto dimming rearview mirror, electronic paper, sensors, military camouflage for example.%电致变色材料具有结构可控、色彩丰富、成本低廉、节能低耗等特点,是目前最具应用前景的智能材料之一.概述了电致变色器件的基本结构、变色机理,着重介绍了电致变色器件各层材料(透明导电层、电致变色层、电解质层、离子储存层)的特性要求及研究现状,举例说明了其在智能窗、防眩目汽车后视镜、电子纸、传感器、军事伪装中的应用.

  2. DNA barcoding of marine ornamental fishes from India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bamaniya, Dhaval C; Pavan-Kumar, A; Gireesh-Babu, P; Sharma, Niti; Reang, Dhalongsaih; Krishna, Gopal; Lakra, W S

    2016-09-01

    India has rich marine ornamental fish diversity with 400 fish species distributed in Gulf of Munnar/Palk Bay, Gulf of Kutch, and in reefs around Andaman & Nicobar and Lakshadweep Islands. Marine ornamental fish identification at the field level is very difficult because of their high diversity and profound changes in appearance during their developmental stages and camouflage. To facilitate ornamental fish trading with ease and in compliance with the biodiversity act, DNA barcoding technique could be used to accurately identify species. In this study, DNA barcodes were generated for 31 species of commercially important marine ornamental fishes from India. The average genetic distance (K2P model) within species, genus, and family was 0.446, 13.08, and 20.09%, respectively. Intraspecific variation has increased several folds (15-20 times) after including conspecific sequences from different geographical locations. The presence of allopatric lineages/cryptic species was observed in the Indo-pacific region. The NJ tree constructed based on K2P values showed distinct clusters shared by congeneric species specific to populations. PMID:25703851

  3. Lorentz invariance violation in modified gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We consider an environmentally dependent violation of Lorentz invariance in scalar-tensor models of modified gravity where General Relativity is retrieved locally thanks to a screening mechanism. We find that fermions have a modified dispersion relation and would go faster than light in an anisotropic and space-dependent way along the scalar field lines of force. Phenomenologically, these models are tightly restricted by the amount of Cerenkov radiation emitted by the superluminal particles, a constraint which is only satisfied by chameleons. Measuring the speed of neutrinos emitted radially from the surface of the earth and observed on the other side of the earth would probe the scalar field profile of modified gravity models in dense environments. We argue that the test of the equivalence principle provided by the Lunar ranging experiment implies that a deviation from the speed of light, for natural values of the coupling scale between the scalar field and fermions, would be below detectable levels, unless gravity is modified by camouflaged chameleons where the field normalisation is environmentally dependent.

  4. Availability of primary care health personnel. The States speak out.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamliel, S; Mullan, F; Politzer, R; Stambler, H

    1992-02-01

    The adequacy of the supply of health personnel, and primary care personnel in particular, has been assessed at the aggregate national level and the disaggregate or regional/state perspective. While Federal programs have been successful in expanding the Nation's supply of health care practitioners and alleviating aggregate national shortages in some occupations and specialties, problems of geographic distribution remain. In an effort to obtain information on the adequacy of the supply of health care personnel within each state and jurisdiction, the chief executives were asked to assess their most pressing personnel supply concerns. The two occupations most often cited as being in short supply were primary care physicians and registered nurses. The state assessment of shortages of registered nurses is in concert with national assessments. In contrast, the supply of primary care physicians appears to be adequate if not in excess at the national level, implying that aggregate assessments may camouflage significant regional and state shortages. Disaggregate assessments are essential to derive an appropriate picture of national supply adequacy. PMID:1739353

  5. [Not enough help for themselves--the risk of physicians to commit suicide].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Püschel, Klaus; Schalinski, Sarah

    2006-01-01

    Physicians seem unwilling to deal with their own suicidal problems professionally. Suicide is a repressed topic. According to international studies, medical students and physicians are clearly over-represented among suicide victims. Committing suicide stands in sharp contrast to the positive image physicians enjoy as competent, strong helpers transmitting positive energy. Various studies and meta-analyses show that physicians use knowledge specific to their profession and are therefore "more successful" than the general population in committing suicide. Moreover, the data reveal a number of risk factors specifically correlating with medical practice. This is confirmed by an increased number of suicides during medical training and professional life in comparison with the general population. Gender-specific analyses show an even higher suicide risk for female physicians. In this context it cannot be excluded that out of "professional respect" cardiovascular causes of death are sometimes falsely documented in death certificates instead of suicide. Despite their special education, physicians are not very good at diagnosing their own emotional disorders and asking colleagues for adequate professional help. They rather tend to camouflage their own psychological problems also because they are afraid of occupational and personal discrimination. PMID:17067089

  6. Substantiating Timing and Behavioral Anomalies in Wireless LANs Using GCL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elankayer Sithirasenan

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available With the increasing dependence on wireless LANs (WLANs, businesses, educational institutions and other organizations are in need of a reliable security mechanism. The latest security protocol, the IEEE 802.11i assures rigid security for WLANs with the support of IEEE 802.1x protocol for authentication, authorization and key distribution. Nevertheless, fresh security threats are emerging often to oust these new defense mechanisms. Further, many organizations based on superficial vendor literature, believe their wireless security is sufficient enough to prevent any unauthorized access. Having wide ranging options for security configurations, users are camouflaged into deep uncertainty. This volatile state of affairs has prevented many organizations from fully deploying WLANs for their secure communication needs, though WLANs may be cost effective and flexible. In this paper, we present a novel mechanism to detect and substantiate anomalies caused by both known and unknown security threats in WLANs. We monitor the wireless environment for timing and/or behavior anomalies during the security association process and use outlier based data association approaches to substantiate their legitimacy. The proposed concept was tested on our experimental setup. The results obtained from wireless hosts configured for EAP-LEAP, PEAP and TLS security association show high confidence for EAP group events.

  7. Skin pigmentation provides evidence of convergent melanism in extinct marine reptiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindgren, Johan; Sjövall, Peter; Carney, Ryan M; Uvdal, Per; Gren, Johan A; Dyke, Gareth; Schultz, Bo Pagh; Shawkey, Matthew D; Barnes, Kenneth R; Polcyn, Michael J

    2014-02-27

    Throughout the animal kingdom, adaptive colouration serves critical functions ranging from inconspicuous camouflage to ostentatious sexual display, and can provide important information about the environment and biology of a particular organism. The most ubiquitous and abundant pigment, melanin, also has a diverse range of non-visual roles, including thermoregulation in ectotherms. However, little is known about the functional evolution of this important biochrome through deep time, owing to our limited ability to unambiguously identify traces of it in the fossil record. Here we present direct chemical evidence of pigmentation in fossilized skin, from three distantly related marine reptiles: a leatherback turtle, a mosasaur and an ichthyosaur. We demonstrate that dark traces of soft tissue in these fossils are dominated by molecularly preserved eumelanin, in intimate association with fossilized melanosomes. In addition, we suggest that contrary to the countershading of many pelagic animals, at least some ichthyosaurs were uniformly dark-coloured in life. Our analyses expand current knowledge of pigmentation in fossil integument beyond that of feathers, allowing for the reconstruction of colour over much greater ranges of extinct taxa and anatomy. In turn, our results provide evidence of convergent melanism in three disparate lineages of secondarily aquatic tetrapods. Based on extant marine analogues, we propose that the benefits of thermoregulation and/or crypsis are likely to have contributed to this melanisation, with the former having implications for the ability of each group to exploit cold environments. PMID:24402224

  8. Detection of disturbed earth using passive LWIR polarimetric imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurton, Kristan P.; Felton, Melvin

    2009-08-01

    We report test results of a study to assess the applicability for using passive polarimetric imaging in the long-wave infrared (LWIR) to detect regions of recently altered road-type surfaces, e.g., soil, gravel, asphalt, etc. The field test was conducted at the U.S. Army Research Laboratory, Adelphi, MD, on a test surface best described as a well traveled dirt road consisting of a gravel clay-soil mixture that was well compacted. During this initial proof-of-concept test, a LWIR polarimetric camera system was positioned at a slant-path of 10 degrees with respect to the line-of-site (LOS) and the natural lay of the surface, approximately 15 meters from the target test-bed. Stokes images, S0, S1, and S2, were recorded using the LWIR polarimeter that utilizes a spinning achromatic retarder design mated to Mercury Cadmium Telluride (MCT) focal plane array (FPA). Various surrogate targets were buried near the surface and great care was taken to camouflage the area to eliminate any "visible" signs of disturbance. Thermal gradients resulting from the unearthing of cool soil were allowed to dissipate. Two metrics were used to evaluate performance, i.e., conventional receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis and an effective contrast ratio between the target and background. Results showed particularly good detectability in the S2 imagery, with less in S1, and no detectability in S0, i.e., the conventional LWIR thermal image.

  9. Ontogeny of photophore pattern in the velvet belly lantern shark, Etmopterus spinax.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claes, Julien M; Mallefet, Jérôme

    2009-01-01

    Bioluminescence is known to be of great ecological importance to a luminous organism but extremely few studies investigate the ontogeny of luminous capabilities. The photogenic pattern of the velvet belly lantern shark Etmopterus spinax was investigated over ontogeny (14.0-52.5 cm total length) to determine the scaling of the surface area and the photophore density of different luminous zones as well as the ecological consequences of ontogenetic variations in bioluminescence efficiency. According to the luminous zone considered, different scaling patterns were found for the surface areas while the photophore densities of all zones scale with negative allometry, even though photophore insertion occurs. No sexual differences in these relationships were found. Luminous zones can be placed in two morphologically different groups: the "coverage" and the "isolated" zones. While counter-illumination is certainly the function of the former, the latter are probably involved in intraspecific behaviours. Due to the discrepancy between luminous capabilities of these two luminous zone categories, there is an ontogenetic increase in the luminescence heterogeneity of the luminous pattern as it was shown by luminescence modelling and confirmed by direct observations of spontaneous luminescence in living sharks. This heterogeneity certainly represents a trade-off between an efficient ventral camouflage and a strong identification tool for intraspecific behaviours such as coordinate hunting, which would be particularly useful when E. spinax become fish eaters (>19 cm total length), and for sexual recognition in mature individuals. PMID:19674879

  10. FeNi3/indium tin oxide (ITO) composite nanoparticles with excellent microwave absorption performance and low infrared emissivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► Electrical conductivity and infrared emissivity can be controlled by ITO content. ► The infrared emissivity is the lowest when the mole ratio of In:Sn in sol is 9:1. ► The permittivity in microwave band can be controlled by the electrical conductivity. ► EMA performance is significantly influenced by the content of ITO phase. ► FeNi3/ITO composite particles are suitable for both infrared and radar camouflage. - Abstract: FeNi3/indium tin oxide (ITO) composite nanoparticles were synthesized by a self-catalyzed reduction method and a sol–gel process. The dependence of the content of ITO phase with the mole ratios of In:Sn of different sols was investigated. The relation between the electrical conductivity, infrared emissivity of FeNi3/ITO composite nanoparticles and the content of ITO phase was discussed. Electromagnetic wave absorption (EMA) performance of products was evaluated by using transmission line theory. It was found that EMA performance including the intensity and the location of effective band is significantly dependent on the content of ITO phase. The low infrared emissivity and superior EMA performance of FeNi3/ITO composite nanoparticles can be both achieved when the mole ratio of In:Sn in sol is 9:1.

  11. Chromogenic behaviors of the Humboldt squid (Dosidicus gigas) studied in situ with an animal-borne video package.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosen, Hannah; Gilly, William; Bell, Lauren; Abernathy, Kyler; Marshall, Greg

    2015-01-15

    Dosidicus gigas (Humboldt or jumbo flying squid) is an economically and ecologically influential species, yet little is known about its natural behaviors because of difficulties in studying this active predator in its oceanic environment. By using an animal-borne video package, National Geographic's Crittercam, we were able to observe natural behaviors in free-swimming D. gigas in the Gulf of California with a focus on color-generating (chromogenic) behaviors. We documented two dynamic displays without artificial lighting at depths of up to 70 m. One dynamic pattern, termed 'flashing' is characterized by a global oscillation (2-4 Hz) of body color between white and red. Flashing was almost always observed when other squid were visible in the video frame, and this behavior presumably represents intraspecific signaling. Amplitude and frequency of flashing can be modulated, and the phase relationship with another squid can also be rapidly altered. Another dynamic display termed 'flickering' was observed whenever flashing was not occurring. This behavior is characterized by irregular wave-like activity in neighboring patches of chromatophores, and the resulting patterns mimic reflections of down-welled light in the water column, suggesting that this behavior may provide a dynamic type of camouflage. Rapid and global pauses in flickering, often before a flashing episode, indicate that flickering is under inhibitory neural control. Although flashing and flickering have not been described in other squid, functional similarities are evident with other species. PMID:25609785

  12. Study of nano-architecture of the wings of Paris Peacock butterfly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghate, Ekata; Bhoraskar, S. V.; Kulkarni, G. R.

    Butterflies are one of the most colorful creatures in animal Kingdom. Wings of the male butterfly are brilliantly colored to attract females. Color of the wings plays an important role in camouflage. Study of structural colors in case of insects and butterflies are important for their biomimic and biophotonic applications. Structural color is the color which is produced by physical structures and their interaction with light. Paris Peacock or Papilio paris butterfly belongs to the family Papilionidae. The basis of structural color of this butterfly is investigated in the present study. The upper surface of the wings in this butterfly is covered with blue, green and brown colored scales. Nano-architecture of these scales was investigated with scanning electron microscope (SEM) and environmental scanning electron microscope (ESEM). Photomicrographs were analyzed using image analysis software. Goniometric color or iridescence in blue and green colored scales of this butterfly was observed and studied with the help of gonio spectrophotometer in the visible range. No iridescence was observed in brown colored scales of the butterfly. Hues of the blue and green color were measured with spectrophotometer and were correlated with nano-architecture of the wing. Results of electron microscopy and reflection spectroscopy are used to explain the iridescent nature of blue and green scales. Sinusoidal grating like structures of these scales were prominently seen in the blue scales. It is possible that the structure of these wings can act as a template for the fabrication of sinusoidal gratings using nano-imprint technology.

  13. Vision-based bio-inspired guidance law for small aerial vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Zhengjie

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available During predation, a flying insect can form a stealth flight path. This behavior is called motion camouflage. Based on the study results of this behavior, the perception and neurology of flying insects, a novel bio-inspired guidance law is proposed for the terminal guidance for small aerial vehicle with charge-coupled device imaging seekers. The kinematics relationship between a small aerial vehicle and target is analyzed, and a two-dimensional guidance law model is established by using artificial neural networks. To compare with the proportional guidance law, the numerical simulations are carried out in the vertical plane and in the horizontal plane respectively. The simulation results show that the ballistic of the small aerial vehicle is straighter and the normal acceleration is smaller by using the bio-inspired guidance law than by using the proportional guidance law. That is to say, the bio-inspired guidance law just uses the information of the target from the imaging seeker, but the performance of it can be better than that of the proportional guidance law.

  14. Radiometry in military applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chrzanowski, Krzysztof

    2001-08-01

    Missiles guided using optoelectronic methods, optoelectronic imaging systems (thermal imaging systems, night vision devices, LLLTV cameras, TV cameras), and optoelectronic countermeasures (smoke screens, camouflage paints and nets, IR flares, decoys, jamming systems, warning systems) are one of the most important components of modern military armament. There are numerous military standards, some of them secret, that precise radiometric parameters to be measured and the testing methods to be used. There is also much literature on the subject of testing of the systems mentioned above, although mostly on subject of testing of the thermal imaging systems. In spite of this apparently numerous literature, there still significant confusion in this area due to secrecy of some parameters and testing methods, differences in recommendations of different military standards, fast progress in military optoelectronics, and also due to enormous number of different types of optoelectronics systems used in the military armament. A review of testing methods of the three basic groups of optoelectronics systems used in modern military armament: the missiles guided using optoelectronics methods, the optoelectronic imaging systems, and the optoelectronic countermeasures is presented in this paper. Trends in the measuring sets.

  15. The limited worldwide opening of the electric power sector: from States pre-eminence to the relative comeback of the Centre; La mondialisation limitee du secteur electrique: de la preeminence des Etats au retour relatif du Centre

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruet, J.

    2002-07-01

    There are at least two reasons for undertaking a study of the political economy of India's electrical sector. Given that it is placed under the joint responsibility of the Centre and the States, its evolution reflects the relations between these two levels of the Indian federal system. Besides, the recent implementation of guidelines which have found favour with a large number of foreign countries could camouflage a subtle relationship with globalization which, in the case of India, is determined largely by the power equations within the country. Indeed, the reform path chosen integrates two elements: the argument that reforms have become necessary on account of the inefficiency of public sector organisations whose modes of functioning are inherited from the Indian bureaucratic system; secondly, there are political and economic forces who demand reforms as an essential element of their political strategy. In particular, contrary to the classical view in India that with liberalization there has been an emancipation of the States with regard to the Centre and the creation of expanding markets for foreign investments, the 'globalization' of the electricity sector, understood here as the opening up to the foreign private sector, could in reality be equated to a relative strengthening of the Centre vis-a-vis the States. It could also turn out to be to the advantage of some very local components, such as consumers' associations, whether rural or of local communities. (author)

  16. Study on the characteristics of magneto-sensitive electromagnetic wave-absorbing properties of magnetorheological elastomers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Miao; Yang, Pingan; Fu, Jie; Liu, Shuzhi; Qi, Song

    2016-08-01

    Magnetorheological (MR) materials are a class of materials whose mechanical and electrical properties can be reversible controlled by the magnetic field. In this study, we pioneered research on the effect of a uniform magnetic field with different strengths and directions on the microwave-absorbing properties of magnetorheological elastomers (MREs), in which the ferromagnetic particles are flower-like carbonyl iron powders (CIPs) prepared by an in situ reduction method. The electromagnetic (EM) absorbing properties of the composites have been analyzed by vector network analysis with the coaxial reflection/transmission technique. Under the magnetic field, the columnar or chainlike structures were formed, which allows EM waves to penetrate. Meanwhile, stronger Debye dipolar relaxation and attenuation constant have been obtained when changing the direction of the applied magnetic field. Compared with untreated MREs, not only have the minimum reflection loss (RL) and the effective absorption bandwidth (below ‑20 dB) greatly increased, the frequencies of the absorbing peaks shift about 15%. This suggests that MREs are a magnetic-field-sensitive electromagnetic wave-absorbing material and have great potential in applications such as in anti-radar camouflage, due to the fact that radar can continuously conduct detection at many electromagnetic frequencies, while the MR materials can adjust the microwave-absorption peak according to the radar frequency.

  17. Sex-dependent foraging effort and vigilance in coal-crested finches, Charitospiza eucosma (Aves: Emberizidae during the breeding season: evidence of female-biased predation?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Diniz

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Sexual dimorphism in birds is often attributed to sexual selection, but another interpretation suggests the evolution of this phenomenon by natural selection. Predation may be an important selective pressure, acting mainly on females. In this study, I tested the latter hypothesis on the coal-crested finch (Charitospiza eucosma Oberholser, 1905 in a neotropical savanna of the Central Brazil (Cerrado. I used capture methods for ascertaining the sex ratio in the population, and focal observations to gather behavioral data. My results show that the sex ratio is skewed toward males (1:1.39. Males were more vigilant, vocalized for longer periods of time, and used higher perches than females. Females foraged more, spent more time on parental care and remained on the ground for longer periods than males. These results support the 'foraging effort hypothesis, suggesting that females are more preyed upon because they spend more time foraging. Ultimately, this may reflect the fact that females invest more on parental care than males. The sex-dependent parental investment may favor the evolution of different antipredator strategies in males and females: the camouflage in females as a less efficient strategy than vigilance in males.

  18. Electrochromic properties of a novel low band gap conductive copolymer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yigitsoy, Basak; Varis, Serhat; Tanyeli, Cihangir; Akhmedov, Idris M.; Toppare, Levent [Department of Chemistry, Middle East Technical University, 06531 Ankara (Turkey)

    2007-07-10

    A copolymer of 2,5-di(thiophen-2-yl)-1-p-tolyl-1H-pyrrole (DTTP) with 3,4-ethylene dioxythiophene (EDOT) was electrochemically synthesized. The resultant copolymer P(DTTP-co-EDOT) was characterized via cyclic voltammetry, FTIR, SEM, conductivity measurements and spectroelectrochemistry. Copolymer film has distinct electrochromic properties. It has four different colors (chestnut, khaki, camouflage green, and blue). At the neutral state {lambda}{sub max} due to the {pi}-{pi}{sup *} transition was found to be 487 nm and E{sub g} was calculated as 1.65 eV. Double potential step chronoamperometry experiment shows that copolymer film has good stability, fast switching time (less than 1 s) and good optical contrast (20%). An electrochromic device based on P(DTTP-co-EDOT) and poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT) was constructed and characterized. The device showed reddish brown color at -0.6 V when the P(DTTP-co-EDOT) layer was in its reduced state; whereas blue color at 2.0 V when PEDOT was in its reduced state and P(DTTP-co-EDOT) layer was in its oxidized state. At 0.2 V intermediate green state was observed. Maximum contrast (%{delta}T) and switching time of the device were measured as 18% and 1 s at 615 nm. ECD has good environmental and redox stability. (author)

  19. Nuclear power: Hour of fog producers; Atomkraft: Stunde der Nebelwerfer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rauner, M.; Schuh, H.

    2004-03-04

    Seven advanced nuclear power plants in Germany can withstand a frontal crash by a full-tanked Jumbo-Jet. But for five older plants even smaller planes can cause an hazard impossible to control. A fog generation around the power plants, favorized by operators and politicians, to camouflage this plants against terroristic flights is absurd because of the possibility of flight automation. However terrorists may attack reactors also from the ground, but how they can do is top secret. (GL) [German] Einem frontalen Aufprall eines voll getankten Jumbo-Jets mit hoher Geschwindigkeit koennen in Deutschland sieben moderne Kernkraftwerke standhalten. Bei fuenf aelteren Modellen kann dagegen selbst ein kleineres Flugzeug ein schwer beherrschbares Unglueck ausloesen. Obwohl Experten eine vorzeitige Schliessung solch alter Meiler fuer realistisch halten, ist die Verhandlungslage aufgrund ideologischer Einfluesse verfahren. Die von Betreibern und Politikern gern gepriesenen Nebelwerfer zur Tarnung der Kraftwerke sind wegen der Moeglichkeit des Instrumentenfluges sinnlos. Die beste Abwehr bieten vorgelagerte Schutzbauten aus Beton. Jedoch koennen Terroristen Reaktoren auch vom Boden aus gefaehrden, wie, ist natuerlich geheim.

  20. An Unexpected Diversity of Photoreceptor Classes in the Longfin Squid, Doryteuthis pealeii.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra C N Kingston

    Full Text Available Cephalopods are famous for their ability to change color and pattern rapidly for signaling and camouflage. They have keen eyes and remarkable vision, made possible by photoreceptors in their retinas. External to the eyes, photoreceptors also exist in parolfactory vesicles and some light organs, where they function using a rhodopsin protein that is identical to that expressed in the retina. Furthermore, dermal chromatophore organs contain rhodopsin and other components of phototransduction (including retinochrome, a photoisomerase first found in the retina, suggesting that they are photoreceptive. In this study, we used a modified whole-mount immunohistochemical technique to explore rhodopsin and retinochrome expression in a number of tissues and organs in the longfin squid, Doryteuthis pealeii. We found that fin central muscles, hair cells (epithelial primary sensory neurons, arm axial ganglia, and sucker peduncle nerves all express rhodopsin and retinochrome proteins. Our findings indicate that these animals possess an unexpected diversity of extraocular photoreceptors and suggest that extraocular photoreception using visual opsins and visual phototransduction machinery is far more widespread throughout cephalopod tissues than previously recognized.