WorldWideScience

Sample records for camera phone-based wayfinding

  1. Low-cost mobile phone microscopy with a reversed mobile phone camera lens.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neil A Switz

    Full Text Available The increasing capabilities and ubiquity of mobile phones and their associated digital cameras offer the possibility of extending low-cost, portable diagnostic microscopy to underserved and low-resource areas. However, mobile phone microscopes created by adding magnifying optics to the phone's camera module have been unable to make use of the full image sensor due to the specialized design of the embedded camera lens, exacerbating the tradeoff between resolution and field of view inherent to optical systems. This tradeoff is acutely felt for diagnostic applications, where the speed and cost of image-based diagnosis is related to the area of the sample that can be viewed at sufficient resolution. Here we present a simple and low-cost approach to mobile phone microscopy that uses a reversed mobile phone camera lens added to an intact mobile phone to enable high quality imaging over a significantly larger field of view than standard microscopy. We demonstrate use of the reversed lens mobile phone microscope to identify red and white blood cells in blood smears and soil-transmitted helminth eggs in stool samples.

  2. Low-cost mobile phone microscopy with a reversed mobile phone camera lens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Switz, Neil A; D'Ambrosio, Michael V; Fletcher, Daniel A

    2014-01-01

    The increasing capabilities and ubiquity of mobile phones and their associated digital cameras offer the possibility of extending low-cost, portable diagnostic microscopy to underserved and low-resource areas. However, mobile phone microscopes created by adding magnifying optics to the phone's camera module have been unable to make use of the full image sensor due to the specialized design of the embedded camera lens, exacerbating the tradeoff between resolution and field of view inherent to optical systems. This tradeoff is acutely felt for diagnostic applications, where the speed and cost of image-based diagnosis is related to the area of the sample that can be viewed at sufficient resolution. Here we present a simple and low-cost approach to mobile phone microscopy that uses a reversed mobile phone camera lens added to an intact mobile phone to enable high quality imaging over a significantly larger field of view than standard microscopy. We demonstrate use of the reversed lens mobile phone microscope to identify red and white blood cells in blood smears and soil-transmitted helminth eggs in stool samples.

  3. Cameras in mobile phones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nummela, Ville; Viinikanoja, Jarkko; Alakarhu, Juha

    2006-04-01

    One of the fastest growing markets in consumer markets today are camera phones. During past few years total volume has been growing fast and today millions of mobile phones with camera will be sold. At the same time resolution and functionality of the cameras has been growing from CIF towards DSC level. From camera point of view the mobile world is an extremely challenging field. Cameras should have good image quality but in small size. They also need to be reliable and their construction should be suitable for mass manufacturing. All components of the imaging chain should be well optimized in this environment. Image quality and usability are the most important parameters to user. The current trend of adding more megapixels to cameras and at the same time using smaller pixels is affecting both. On the other hand reliability and miniaturization are key drivers for product development as well as the cost. In optimized solution all parameters are in balance but the process of finding the right trade-offs is not an easy task. In this paper trade-offs related to optics and their effects to image quality and usability of cameras are discussed. Key development areas from mobile phone camera point of view are also listed.

  4. Mobile phone camera benchmarking: combination of camera speed and image quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peltoketo, Veli-Tapani

    2014-01-01

    When a mobile phone camera is tested and benchmarked, the significance of quality metrics is widely acknowledged. There are also existing methods to evaluate the camera speed. For example, ISO 15781 defines several measurements to evaluate various camera system delays. However, the speed or rapidity metrics of the mobile phone's camera system have not been used with the quality metrics even if the camera speed has become more and more important camera performance feature. There are several tasks in this work. Firstly, the most important image quality metrics are collected from the standards and papers. Secondly, the speed related metrics of a mobile phone's camera system are collected from the standards and papers and also novel speed metrics are identified. Thirdly, combinations of the quality and speed metrics are validated using mobile phones in the market. The measurements are done towards application programming interface of different operating system. Finally, the results are evaluated and conclusions are made. The result of this work gives detailed benchmarking results of mobile phone camera systems in the market. The paper defines also a proposal of combined benchmarking metrics, which includes both quality and speed parameters.

  5. Comparative evaluation of consumer grade cameras and mobile phone cameras for close range photogrammetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chikatsu, Hirofumi; Takahashi, Yoji

    2009-08-01

    The authors have been concentrating on developing convenient 3D measurement methods using consumer grade digital cameras, and it was concluded that consumer grade digital cameras are expected to become a useful photogrammetric device for the various close range application fields. On the other hand, mobile phone cameras which have 10 mega pixels were appeared on the market in Japan. In these circumstances, we are faced with alternative epoch-making problem whether mobile phone cameras are able to take the place of consumer grade digital cameras in close range photogrammetric applications. In order to evaluate potentials of mobile phone cameras in close range photogrammetry, comparative evaluation between mobile phone cameras and consumer grade digital cameras are investigated in this paper with respect to lens distortion, reliability, stability and robustness. The calibration tests for 16 mobile phone cameras and 50 consumer grade digital cameras were conducted indoors using test target. Furthermore, practability of mobile phone camera for close range photogrammetry was evaluated outdoors. This paper presents that mobile phone cameras have ability to take the place of consumer grade digital cameras, and develop the market in digital photogrammetric fields.

  6. Evaluation of mobile phone camera benchmarking using objective camera speed and image quality metrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peltoketo, Veli-Tapani

    2014-11-01

    When a mobile phone camera is tested and benchmarked, the significance of image quality metrics is widely acknowledged. There are also existing methods to evaluate the camera speed. However, the speed or rapidity metrics of the mobile phone's camera system has not been used with the quality metrics even if the camera speed has become a more and more important camera performance feature. There are several tasks in this work. First, the most important image quality and speed-related metrics of a mobile phone's camera system are collected from the standards and papers and, also, novel speed metrics are identified. Second, combinations of the quality and speed metrics are validated using mobile phones on the market. The measurements are done toward application programming interface of different operating systems. Finally, the results are evaluated and conclusions are made. The paper defines a solution to combine different image quality and speed metrics to a single benchmarking score. A proposal of the combined benchmarking metric is evaluated using measurements of 25 mobile phone cameras on the market. The paper is a continuation of a previous benchmarking work expanded with visual noise measurement and updates of the latest mobile phone versions.

  7. Using a Camera Phone as a Mixed-Reality Laser Cannon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fadi Chehimi

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite the ubiquity and rich features of current mobile phones, mobile games have failed to reach even the lowest estimates of expected revenues. This is unfortunate as mobile phones offer unique possibilities for creating games aimed at attracting demographics not currently catered for by the traditional console market. As a result, there has been a growing call for greater innovation within the mobile games industry and support for games outside the current console genres. In this paper, we present the design and implementation of a novel location-based game which allows us turn a camera phone into a mixed-reality laser cannon. The game uses specially designed coloured tags, which are worn by the players, and advanced colour tracking software running on a camera phone, to create a novel first person shoot-em-up (FPS with innovative game interactions and play.

  8. Applying image quality in cell phone cameras: lens distortion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baxter, Donald; Goma, Sergio R.; Aleksic, Milivoje

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes the framework used in one of the pilot studies run under the I3A CPIQ initiative to quantify overall image quality in cell-phone cameras. The framework is based on a multivariate formalism which tries to predict overall image quality from individual image quality attributes and was validated in a CPIQ pilot program. The pilot study focuses on image quality distortions introduced in the optical path of a cell-phone camera, which may or may not be corrected in the image processing path. The assumption is that the captured image used is JPEG compressed and the cellphone camera is set to 'auto' mode. As the used framework requires that the individual attributes to be relatively perceptually orthogonal, in the pilot study, the attributes used are lens geometric distortion (LGD) and lateral chromatic aberrations (LCA). The goal of this paper is to present the framework of this pilot project starting with the definition of the individual attributes, up to their quantification in JNDs of quality, a requirement of the multivariate formalism, therefore both objective and subjective evaluations were used. A major distinction in the objective part from the 'DSC imaging world' is that the LCA/LGD distortions found in cell-phone cameras, rarely exhibit radial behavior, therefore a radial mapping/modeling cannot be used in this case.

  9. Swarm-based adaptation: wayfinding support for lifelong learners

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tattersall, Colin; Van den Berg, Bert; Van Es, René; Janssen, José; Manderveld, Jocelyn; Koper, Rob

    2004-01-01

    Please refer to the orinigal publication in: Tattersall, C. Van den Berg, B., Van Es, R., Janssen, J., Manderveld, J., Koper, R. (2004). Swarm-based adaptation: wayfinding support for lifelong learners. In P. de Bra & W. Nejdl, Adaptive Hypermedia and Adaptive Web-Based Systems (LNCS3137), (pp.

  10. Cost Effective Paper-Based Colorimetric Microfluidic Devices and Mobile Phone Camera Readers for the Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koesdjojo, Myra T.; Pengpumkiat, Sumate; Wu, Yuanyuan; Boonloed, Anukul; Huynh, Daniel; Remcho, Thomas P.; Remcho, Vincent T.

    2015-01-01

    We have developed a simple and direct method to fabricate paper-based microfluidic devices that can be used for a wide range of colorimetric assay applications. With these devices, assays can be performed within minutes to allow for quantitative colorimetric analysis by use of a widely accessible iPhone camera and an RGB color reader application…

  11. Passive auto-focus for digital still cameras and camera phones: Filter-switching and low-light techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamadia, Mark Noel

    In order to gain valuable market share in the growing consumer digital still camera and camera phone market, camera manufacturers have to continually add and improve existing features to their latest product offerings. Auto-focus (AF) is one such feature, whose aim is to enable consumers to quickly take sharply focused pictures with little or no manual intervention in adjusting the camera's focus lens. While AF has been a standard feature in digital still and cell-phone cameras, consumers often complain about their cameras' slow AF performance, which may lead to missed photographic opportunities, rendering valuable moments and events with undesired out-of-focus pictures. This dissertation addresses this critical issue to advance the state-of-the-art in the digital band-pass filter, passive AF method. This method is widely used to realize AF in the camera industry, where a focus actuator is adjusted via a search algorithm to locate the in-focus position by maximizing a sharpness measure extracted from a particular frequency band of the incoming image of the scene. There are no known systematic methods for automatically deriving the parameters such as the digital pass-bands or the search step-size increments used in existing passive AF schemes. Conventional methods require time consuming experimentation and tuning in order to arrive at a set of parameters which balance AF performance in terms of speed and accuracy ultimately causing a delay in product time-to-market. This dissertation presents a new framework for determining an optimal set of passive AF parameters, named Filter- Switching AF, providing an automatic approach to achieve superior AF performance, both in good and low lighting conditions based on the following performance measures (metrics): speed (total number of iterations), accuracy (offset from truth), power consumption (total distance moved), and user experience (in-focus position overrun). Performance results using three different prototype cameras

  12. Wayfinding and Glaucoma: A Virtual Reality Experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daga, Fábio B; Macagno, Eduardo; Stevenson, Cory; Elhosseiny, Ahmed; Diniz-Filho, Alberto; Boer, Erwin R; Schulze, Jürgen; Medeiros, Felipe A

    2017-07-01

    Wayfinding, the process of determining and following a route between an origin and a destination, is an integral part of everyday tasks. The purpose of this study was to investigate the impact of glaucomatous visual field loss on wayfinding behavior using an immersive virtual reality (VR) environment. This cross-sectional study included 31 glaucomatous patients and 20 healthy subjects without evidence of overall cognitive impairment. Wayfinding experiments were modeled after the Morris water maze navigation task and conducted in an immersive VR environment. Two rooms were built varying only in the complexity of the visual scene in order to promote allocentric-based (room A, with multiple visual cues) versus egocentric-based (room B, with single visual cue) spatial representations of the environment. Wayfinding tasks in each room consisted of revisiting previously visible targets that subsequently became invisible. For room A, glaucoma patients spent on average 35.0 seconds to perform the wayfinding task, whereas healthy subjects spent an average of 24.4 seconds (P = 0.001). For room B, no statistically significant difference was seen on average time to complete the task (26.2 seconds versus 23.4 seconds, respectively; P = 0.514). For room A, each 1-dB worse binocular mean sensitivity was associated with 3.4% (P = 0.001) increase in time to complete the task. Glaucoma patients performed significantly worse on allocentric-based wayfinding tasks conducted in a VR environment, suggesting visual field loss may affect the construction of spatial cognitive maps relevant to successful wayfinding. VR environments may represent a useful approach for assessing functional vision endpoints for clinical trials of emerging therapies in ophthalmology.

  13. Video Sharing System Based on Wi-Fi Camera

    OpenAIRE

    Qidi Lin; Hewei Yu; Jinbin Huang; Weile Liang

    2015-01-01

    This paper introduces a video sharing platform based on WiFi, which consists of camera, mobile phone and PC server. This platform can receive wireless signal from the camera and show the live video on the mobile phone captured by camera. In addition, it is able to send commands to camera and control the camera's holder to rotate. The platform can be applied to interactive teaching and dangerous area's monitoring and so on. Testing results show that the platform can share ...

  14. WAYFINDING STUDY IN VIRTUAL ENVIRONMENTS: THE ELDERLY VS. THE YOUNGER-AGED GROUPS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seunghae Lee

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to examine the impact of architectural wayfinding aids on wayfinding performances in comparison of the elderly group and the younger aged group. An ambulatory healthcare facility was simulated using Virtual Reality (VR to develop two levels of wayfinding aids for the same environments. The base model included minimal wayfinding aids, and the design model included more wayfinding aids. The VR environment was presented in the form of video in order to test wayfinding performances at three different wayfinding decision points. Results showed that age and wayfinding aids impacted wayfinding performances. The younger-aged group performed wayfinding better compared to the elderly group. Participants who were tested in the design model were more successful in wayfinding compared to the elderly group. The elderly group reported that more salient wayfinding aids such as a big logo and paint colors helped their wayfinding while the younger-aged group reported less salient aids such as door designs as helpful wayfinding aids. When there were minimal wayfinding aids, the elderly participants needed to rely mostly on memory recall by remembering turns or paying close attention. When participants felt that the wayfinding test was difficult, their performances were less successful. Findings in this study suggest that wayfinding design for the elderly should consider the limited ability of recall and therefore, design wayfinding aids more frequently with more salient aids to avoid confusion. The elderly group needed to rely on their limited cognitive ability when there were not enough wayfinding aids, which make them experience difficulties in wayfinding.

  15. Swarm-based wayfinding support in open and distance learning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tattersall, Colin; Manderveld, Jocelyn; Van den Berg, Bert; Van Es, René; Janssen, José; Koper, Rob

    2005-01-01

    Please refer to the original source: Tattersall, C. Manderveld, J., Van den Berg, B., Van Es, R., Janssen, J., & Koper, R. (2005). Swarm-based wayfinding support in open and distance learning. In Alkhalifa, E.M. (Ed). Cognitively Informed Systems: Utilizing Practical Approaches to Enrich Information

  16. A vision driven wayfinding simulation system based on the architectural features perceived in the office environment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chen, Qunli

    2012-01-01

    Human wayfinding in the built environment is extensively investigated in the last 50 years. One major aspect of the outcome is the decision made on the egresses based on the information perceived during the wayfinding. Information acquired of the environment could be categorized into several types,

  17. Mechanically assisted liquid lens zoom system for mobile phone cameras

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wippermann, F. C.; Schreiber, P.; Bräuer, A.; Berge, B.

    2006-08-01

    Camera systems with small form factor are an integral part of today's mobile phones which recently feature auto focus functionality. Ready to market solutions without moving parts have been developed by using the electrowetting technology. Besides virtually no deterioration, easy control electronics and simple and therefore cost-effective fabrication, this type of liquid lenses enables extremely fast settling times compared to mechanical approaches. As a next evolutionary step mobile phone cameras will be equipped with zoom functionality. We present first order considerations for the optical design of a miniaturized zoom system based on liquid-lenses and compare it to its mechanical counterpart. We propose a design of a zoom lens with a zoom factor of 2.5 considering state-of-the-art commercially available liquid lens products. The lens possesses auto focus capability and is based on liquid lenses and one additional mechanical actuator. The combination of liquid lenses and a single mechanical actuator enables extremely short settling times of about 20ms for the auto focus and a simplified mechanical system design leading to lower production cost and longer life time. The camera system has a mechanical outline of 24mm in length and 8mm in diameter. The lens with f/# 3.5 provides market relevant optical performance and is designed for an image circle of 6.25mm (1/2.8" format sensor).

  18. Development of an Algorithm for Heart Rate Measurement Using a Mobile Phone Camera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. A. Laure

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays there exist many different ways to measure a person’s heart rate. One of them assumes the usage of a mobile phone built-in camera. This method is easy to use and does not require any additional skills or special devices for heart rate measurement. It requires only a mobile cellphone with a built-in camera and a flash. The main idea of the method is to detect changes in finger skin color that occur due to blood pulsation. The measurement process is simple: the user covers the camera lens with a finger and the application on the mobile phone starts catching and analyzing frames from the camera. Heart rate can be calculated by analyzing average red component values of frames taken by the mobile cellphone camera that contain images of an area of the skin.In this paper the authors review the existing algorithms for heart rate measurement with the help of a mobile phone camera and propose their own algorithm which is more efficient than the reviewed algorithms.

  19. Learning as way-finding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dau, Susanne

    motions of humans and non-human agencies. The findings reveal that learning; formal and informal can be conceptualized by the metaphor of way-finding; embodied, emotionally and/or cognitive both individually and socially. Way-finding, is argued, to be a contemporary concept for learning processes......, knowledge development and identity-shaping, where learning emerges through motions, feeling and thinking within an information rich world in constant change.......Based on empirical case-study findings and the theoretical framework of learning by Illeris coupled with Nonaka & Takeuchis´s perspectives on knowledge creation, it is stressed that learning are conditioned by contextual orientations-processes in spaces near the body (peripersonal spaces) through...

  20. Colorimetric analyzer based on mobile phone camera for determination of available phosphorus in soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moonrungsee, Nuntaporn; Pencharee, Somkid; Jakmunee, Jaroon

    2015-05-01

    A field deployable colorimetric analyzer based on an "Android mobile phone" was developed for the determination of available phosphorus content in soil. An inexpensive mobile phone embedded with digital camera was used for taking photograph of the chemical solution under test. The method involved a reaction of the phosphorus (orthophosphate form), ammonium molybdate and potassium antimonyl tartrate to form phosphomolybdic acid which was reduced by ascorbic acid to produce the intense colored molybdenum blue. The software program was developed to use with the phone for recording and analyzing RGB color of the picture. A light tight box with LED light to control illumination was fabricated to improve precision and accuracy of the measurement. Under the optimum conditions, the calibration graph was created by measuring blue color intensity of a series of standard phosphorus solution (0.0-1.0mgPL(-1)), then, the calibration equation obtained was retained by the program for the analysis of sample solution. The results obtained from the proposed method agreed well with the spectrophotometric method, with a detection limit of 0.01mgPL(-1) and a sample throughput about 40h(-1) was achieved. The developed system provided good accuracy (REphosphorus nutrient. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Use of a smart phone based thermo camera for skin prick allergy testing: a feasibility study (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barla, Lindi; Verdaasdonk, Rudolf M.; Rustemeyer, Thomas; Klaessens, John; van der Veen, Albert

    2016-02-01

    Allergy testing is usually performed by exposing the skin to small quantities of potential allergens on the inner forearm and scratching the protective epidermis to increase exposure. After 15 minutes the dermatologist performs a visual check for swelling and erythema which is subjective and difficult for e.g. dark skin types. A small smart phone based thermo camera (FLIR One) was used to obtain quantitative images in a feasibility study of 17 patients Directly after allergen exposure on the forearm, thermal images were captured at 30 seconds interval and processed to a time lapse movie over 15 minutes. Considering the 'subjective' reading of the dermatologist as golden standard, in 11/17 pts (65%) the evaluation of dermatologist was confirmed by the thermo camera including 5 of 6 patients without allergic response. In 7 patients thermo showed additional spots. Of the 342 sites tested, the dermatologist detected 47 allergies of which 28 (60%) were confirmed by thermo imaging while thermo imaging showed 12 additional spots. The method can be improved with user dedicated acquisition software and better registration between normal and thermal images. The lymphatic reaction seems to shift from the original puncture site. The interpretation of the thermal images is still subjective since collecting quantitative data is difficult due to motion patient during 15 minutes. Although not yet conclusive, thermal imaging shows to be promising to improve the sensitivity and selectivity of allergy testing using a smart phone based camera.

  2. Route complexity and simulated physical ageing negatively influence wayfinding

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zijlstra, Emma; Hagedoorn, Mariet; Krijnen, Wim P.; Schans, van der Cornelis; Mobach, Mark P.

    The aim of this age-simulation field experiment was to assess the influence of route complexity and physical ageing on wayfinding. Seventy-five people (aged 18-28) performed a total of 108 wayfinding tasks (i.e., 42 participants performed two wayfinding tasks and 33 performed one wayfinding task),

  3. Surface Plasmon Resonance Biosensor Based on Smart Phone Platforms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yun; Liu, Qiang; Chen, Shimeng; Cheng, Fang; Wang, Hanqi; Peng, Wei

    2015-08-10

    We demonstrate a fiber optic surface plasmon resonance (SPR) biosensor based on smart phone platforms. The light-weight optical components and sensing element are connected by optical fibers on a phone case. This SPR adaptor can be conveniently installed or removed from smart phones. The measurement, control and reference channels are illuminated by the light entering the lead-in fibers from the phone's LED flash, while the light from the end faces of the lead-out fibers is detected by the phone's camera. The SPR-sensing element is fabricated by a light-guiding silica capillary that is stripped off its cladding and coated with 50-nm gold film. Utilizing a smart application to extract the light intensity information from the camera images, the light intensities of each channel are recorded every 0.5 s with refractive index (RI) changes. The performance of the smart phone-based SPR platform for accurate and repeatable measurements was evaluated by detecting different concentrations of antibody binding to a functionalized sensing element, and the experiment results were validated through contrast experiments with a commercial SPR instrument. This cost-effective and portable SPR biosensor based on smart phones has many applications, such as medicine, health and environmental monitoring.

  4. Design and Development of a Mobile Sensor Based the Blind Assistance Wayfinding System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barati, F.; Delavar, M. R.

    2015-12-01

    The blind and visually impaired people are facing a number of challenges in their daily life. One of the major challenges is finding their way both indoor and outdoor. For this reason, routing and navigation independently, especially in urban areas are important for the blind. Most of the blind undertake route finding and navigation with the help of a guide. In addition, other tools such as a cane, guide dog or electronic aids are used by the blind. However, in some cases these aids are not efficient enough in a wayfinding around obstacles and dangerous areas for the blind. As a result, the need to develop effective methods as decision support using a non-visual media is leading to improve quality of life for the blind through their increased mobility and independence. In this study, we designed and implemented an outdoor mobile sensor-based wayfinding system for the blind. The objectives of this study are to guide the blind for the obstacle recognition and the design and implementation of a wayfinding and navigation mobile sensor system for them. In this study an ultrasonic sensor is used to detect obstacles and GPS is employed for positioning and navigation in the wayfinding. This type of ultrasonic sensor measures the interval between sending waves and receiving the echo signals with respect to the speed of sound in the environment to estimate the distance to the obstacles. In this study the coordinates and characteristics of all the obstacles in the study area are already stored in a GIS database. All of these obstacles were labeled on the map. The ultrasonic sensor designed and constructed in this study has the ability to detect the obstacles in a distance of 2cm to 400cm. The implementation and the results obtained from the interview of a number of blind persons who employed the sensor verified that the designed mobile sensor system for wayfinding was very satisfactory.

  5. DESIGN AND DEVELOPMENT OF A MOBILE SENSOR BASED THE BLIND ASSISTANCE WAYFINDING SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Barati

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The blind and visually impaired people are facing a number of challenges in their daily life. One of the major challenges is finding their way both indoor and outdoor. For this reason, routing and navigation independently, especially in urban areas are important for the blind. Most of the blind undertake route finding and navigation with the help of a guide. In addition, other tools such as a cane, guide dog or electronic aids are used by the blind. However, in some cases these aids are not efficient enough in a wayfinding around obstacles and dangerous areas for the blind. As a result, the need to develop effective methods as decision support using a non-visual media is leading to improve quality of life for the blind through their increased mobility and independence. In this study, we designed and implemented an outdoor mobile sensor-based wayfinding system for the blind. The objectives of this study are to guide the blind for the obstacle recognition and the design and implementation of a wayfinding and navigation mobile sensor system for them. In this study an ultrasonic sensor is used to detect obstacles and GPS is employed for positioning and navigation in the wayfinding. This type of ultrasonic sensor measures the interval between sending waves and receiving the echo signals with respect to the speed of sound in the environment to estimate the distance to the obstacles. In this study the coordinates and characteristics of all the obstacles in the study area are already stored in a GIS database. All of these obstacles were labeled on the map. The ultrasonic sensor designed and constructed in this study has the ability to detect the obstacles in a distance of 2cm to 400cm. The implementation and the results obtained from the interview of a number of blind persons who employed the sensor verified that the designed mobile sensor system for wayfinding was very satisfactory.

  6. Mobile phone based mini-spectrometer for rapid screening of skin cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Anshuman; Swedish, Tristan; Wahi, Akshat; Moufarrej, Mira; Noland, Marie; Gurry, Thomas; Aranda-Michel, Edgar; Aksel, Deniz; Wagh, Sneha; Sadashivaiah, Vijay; Zhang, Xu; Raskar, Ramesh

    2015-06-01

    We demonstrate a highly sensitive mobile phone based spectrometer that has potential to detect cancerous skin lesions in a rapid, non-invasive manner. Earlier reports of low cost spectrometers utilize the camera of the mobile phone to image the field after moving through a diffraction grating. These approaches are inherently limited by the closed nature of mobile phone image sensors and built in optical elements. The system presented uses a novel integrated grating and sensor that is compact, accurate and calibrated. Resolutions of about 10 nm can be achieved. Additionally, UV and visible LED excitation sources are built into the device. Data collection and analysis is simplified using the wireless interfaces and logical control on the smart phone. Furthermore, by utilizing an external sensor, the mobile phone camera can be used in conjunction with spectral measurements. We are exploring ways to use this device to measure endogenous fluorescence of skin in order to distinguish cancerous from non-cancerous lesions with a mobile phone based dermatoscope.

  7. Executive and memory correlates of age-related differences in wayfinding performances using a virtual reality application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taillade, Mathieu; Sauzéon, Hélène; Dejos, Marie; Pala, Prashant Arvind; Larrue, Florian; Wallet, Grégory; Gross, Christian; N'Kaoua, Bernard

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate in large-scale spaces wayfinding and spatial learning difficulties for older adults in relation to the executive and memory decline associated with aging. We compared virtual reality (VR)-based wayfinding and spatial memory performances between young and older adults. Wayfinding and spatial memory performances were correlated with classical measures of executive and visuo-spatial memory functions, but also with self-reported estimates of wayfinding difficulties. We obtained a significant effect of age on wayfinding performances but not on spatial memory performances. The overall correlations showed significant correlations between the wayfinding performances and the classical measures of both executive and visuo-spatial memory, but only when the age factor was not partialled out. Also, older adults underestimated their wayfinding difficulties. A significant relationship between the wayfinding performances and self-reported wayfinding difficulty estimates is found, but only when the age effect was partialled out. These results show that, even when older adults have an equivalent spatial knowledge to young adults, they had greater difficulties with the wayfinding task, supporting an executive decline view in age-related wayfinding difficulties. However, the correlation results are in favor of both the memory and executive decline views as mediators of age-related differences in wayfinding performances. This is discussed in terms of the relationships between memory and executive functioning in wayfinding task orchestration. Our results also favor the use of objective assessments of everyday navigation difficulties in virtual applications, instead of self-reported questionnaires, since older adults showed difficulties in estimating their everyday wayfinding problems.

  8. Flying solo: A review of the literature on wayfinding for older adults experiencing visual or cognitive decline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosch, Sheila J; Gharaveis, Arsalan

    2017-01-01

    Accessible tourism is a growing market within the travel industry, but little research has focused on travel barriers for older adults who may be experiencing visual and cognitive decline as part of the normal aging process, illness, or other disabling conditions. Travel barriers, such as difficulty finding one's way throughout an airport, may adversely affect older adults' travel experience, thereby reducing their desire to travel. This review of the literature investigates wayfinding strategies to ensure that older passengers who have planned to travel independently can do so with dignity. These include facility planning and design strategies (e.g., layout, signage) and technological solutions. Although technological approaches, such as smart phone apps, appear to offer the most promising new solutions for enhancing airport navigation, more traditional approaches, such as designing facilities with an intuitive building layout, are still heavily relied upon in the aviation industry. While there are many design guidelines for enhancing wayfinding for older adults, many are not based on scientific investigation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Indoor wayfinding and navigation

    CERN Document Server

    2015-01-01

    Due to the widespread use of navigation systems for wayfinding and navigation in the outdoors, researchers have devoted their efforts in recent years to designing navigation systems that can be used indoors. This book is a comprehensive guide to designing and building indoor wayfinding and navigation systems. It covers all types of feasible sensors (for example, Wi-Fi, A-GPS), discussing the level of accuracy, the types of map data needed, the data sources, and the techniques for providing routes and directions within structures.

  10. MEMS-based thermally-actuated image stabilizer for cellular phone camera

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, Chun-Ying; Chiou, Jin-Chern

    2012-01-01

    This work develops an image stabilizer (IS) that is fabricated using micro-electro-mechanical system (MEMS) technology and is designed to counteract the vibrations when human using cellular phone cameras. The proposed IS has dimensions of 8.8 × 8.8 × 0.3 mm 3 and is strong enough to suspend an image sensor. The processes that is utilized to fabricate the IS includes inductive coupled plasma (ICP) processes, reactive ion etching (RIE) processes and the flip-chip bonding method. The IS is designed to enable the electrical signals from the suspended image sensor to be successfully emitted out using signal output beams, and the maximum actuating distance of the stage exceeds 24.835 µm when the driving current is 155 mA. Depending on integration of MEMS device and designed controller, the proposed IS can decrease the hand tremor by 72.5%. (paper)

  11. Wayfinding Research in Library and Information Studies: State of the Field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lauren H. Mandel

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective – Often people enter libraries focused on their primary information needs and haven't considered their need for spatial information to find their way to what they need. This presents unique wayfinding information challenges for libraries. Papers on library wayfinding often include some discussion of the lack of wayfinding research in libraries, but apparently there has been no comprehensive review of the LIS literature on wayfinding. Methods – This paper is a comprehensive review of library wayfinding literature, using the Library, Information Science & Technology Abstracts with Full Text (via EBSCOhost database to collect the dataset. Results – Findings indicate a small collection of library wayfinding research, primarily focused on academic libraries. Conclusion – Empirical research in this area is limited. Suggestions for future research on library wayfinding, including potential foci for that research, are presented.

  12. Wayfinding search strategies and matching familiarity in the built environment through virtual navigation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkstra, J.; Vries, de B.; Jessurun, A.J.

    2014-01-01

    There is an underestimation of the conscious and unconscious wayfinding search strategies in a virtual built environment without signage information. Wayfinding is the process of determining and following a path or route between an origin and destination.This is the base of the experiment discussed

  13. Rapid Prototyping a Collections-Based Mobile Wayfinding Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahn, Jim; Morales, Alaina

    2011-01-01

    This research presents the results of a project that investigated how students use a library developed mobile app to locate books in the library. The study employed a methodology of formative evaluation so that the development of the mobile app would be informed by user preferences for next generation wayfinding systems. A key finding is the…

  14. Effects of Recording Food Intake Using Cell Phone Camera Pictures on Energy Intake and Food Choice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doumit, Rita; Long, JoAnn; Kazandjian, Chant; Gharibeh, Nathalie; Karam, Lina; Song, Huaxin; Boswell, Carol; Zeeni, Nadine

    2016-06-01

    The well-documented increases in obesity and unhealthy dietary practices substantiate the need for evidence-based tools that can help people improve their dietary habits. The current spread of mobile phone-embedded cameras offers new opportunities for recording food intake. Moreover, the act of taking pictures of food consumed may enhance visual consciousness of food choice and quantity. The present study aimed to assess the effect of using cell phone pictures to record food intake on energy intake and food choice in college students. The effectiveness and acceptability of cell phone picture-based diet recording also was assessed. A repeated measures crossover design was used. One group of participants entered their food intake online during 3 days based on their memory, although a second group recorded their food intake using cell phone pictures as their reference. Participants then crossed over to complete 3 more days of diet recording using the alternate method. Focus groups were conducted to obtain feedback on the effectiveness and acceptability of cell phone picture-based diet recording. Intake of meat and vegetable servings were significantly higher in the memory period compared with the cell phone period, regardless of the order. Results from the focus group indicated a positive attitude toward the use of cell phone pictures in recording food intake and an increased awareness of food choice and portion size. Cell phone pictures may be an easy, relevant, and accessible method of diet self-monitoring when aiming at dietary changes. Future trials should combine this technique with healthy eating education. © 2015 Sigma Theta Tau International.

  15. Working memory in wayfinding-a dual task experiment in a virtual city.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meilinger, Tobias; Knauff, Markus; Bülthoff, Heinrich H

    2008-06-01

    This study examines the working memory systems involved in human wayfinding. In the learning phase, 24 participants learned two routes in a novel photorealistic virtual environment displayed on a 220° screen while they were disrupted by a visual, a spatial, a verbal, or-in a control group-no secondary task. In the following wayfinding phase, the participants had to find and to "virtually walk" the two routes again. During this wayfinding phase, a number of dependent measures were recorded. This research shows that encoding wayfinding knowledge interfered with the verbal and with the spatial secondary task. These interferences were even stronger than the interference of wayfinding knowledge with the visual secondary task. These findings are consistent with a dual-coding approach of wayfinding knowledge. 2008 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.

  16. Smart phone-based Chemistry Instrumentation: Digitization of Colorimetric Measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, Byoung Yong

    2012-01-01

    This report presents a mobile instrumentation platform based on a smart phone using its built-in functions for colorimetric diagnosis. The color change as a result of detection is taken as a picture through a CCD camera built in the smart phone, and is evaluated in the form of the hue value to give the well-defined relationship between the color and the concentration. To prove the concept in the present work, proton concentration measurements were conducted on pH paper coupled with a smart phone for demonstration. This report is believed to show the possibility of adapting a smart phone to a mobile analytical transducer, and more applications for bioanalysis are expected to be developed using other built-in functions of the smart phone

  17. Phone camera detection of glucose blood level based on magnetic particles entrapped inside bubble wrap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinkova, Pavla; Pohanka, Miroslav

    2016-12-18

    Glucose is an important diagnostic biochemical marker of diabetes but also for organophosphates, carbamates, acetaminophens or salicylates poisoning. Hence, innovation of accurate and fast detection assay is still one of priorities in biomedical research. Glucose sensor based on magnetic particles (MPs) with immobilized enzymes glucose oxidase (GOx) and horseradish peroxidase (HRP) was developed and the GOx catalyzed reaction was visualized by a smart-phone-integrated camera. Exponential decay concentration curve with correlation coefficient 0.997 and with limit of detection 0.4 mmol/l was achieved. Interfering and matrix substances were measured due to possibility of assay influencing and no effect of the tested substances was observed. Spiked plasma samples were also measured and no influence of plasma matrix on the assay was proved. The presented assay showed complying results with reference method (standard spectrophotometry based on enzymes glucose oxidase and peroxidase inside plastic cuvettes) with linear dependence and correlation coefficient 0.999 in concentration range between 0 and 4 mmol/l. On the grounds of measured results, method was considered as highly specific, accurate and fast assay for detection of glucose.

  18. a Novel Approach to Camera Calibration Method for Smart Phones Under Road Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Bijun; Zhou, Jian; Ye, Maosheng; Guo, Yuan

    2016-06-01

    Monocular vision-based lane departure warning system has been increasingly used in advanced driver assistance systems (ADAS). By the use of the lane mark detection and identification, we proposed an automatic and efficient camera calibration method for smart phones. At first, we can detect the lane marker feature in a perspective space and calculate edges of lane markers in image sequences. Second, because of the width of lane marker and road lane is fixed under the standard structural road environment, we can automatically build a transformation matrix between perspective space and 3D space and get a local map in vehicle coordinate system. In order to verify the validity of this method, we installed a smart phone in the `Tuzhi' self-driving car of Wuhan University and recorded more than 100km image data on the road in Wuhan. According to the result, we can calculate the positions of lane markers which are accurate enough for the self-driving car to run smoothly on the road.

  19. Differential signaling spread-spectrum modulation of the LED visible light wireless communications using a mobile-phone camera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shih-Hao; Chow, Chi-Wai

    2015-02-01

    Visible light communication (VLC) using spread spectrum modulation (SSM) and differential signaling (DS), detected by a mobile-phone camera is proposed and demonstrated for the first time to provide high immunity to background ambient light interference. The SSM signal provides the coding gain while the DS scheme enhances the clock recovery particular under high background ambient light. Experiment results confirm the feasibility of the proposed scheme, showing that the proposed system has 6-dB gain comparing with the traditional on-off keying (OOK) modulation under background ambient light of 3000 lux. The direct incident ambient light to the mobile-phone camera is 520 lux.

  20. Color-filter-free spatial visible light communication using RGB-LED and mobile-phone camera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shih-Hao; Chow, Chi-Wai

    2014-12-15

    A novel color-filter-free visible-light communication (VLC) system using red-green-blue (RGB) light emitting diode (LED) and mobile-phone camera is proposed and demonstrated for the first time. A feature matching method, which is based on the scale-invariant feature transform (SIFT) algorithm for the received grayscale image is used instead of the chromatic information decoding method. The proposed method is simple and saves the computation complexity. The signal processing is based on the grayscale image computation; hence neither color-filter nor chromatic channel information is required. A proof-of-concept experiment is performed and high performance channel recognition is achieved.

  1. The use of a camera-enabled mobile phone to triage patients with nasal bone injuries.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Barghouthi, Taleb

    2012-03-01

    To identify the accuracy of a camera-enabled mobile phone in assessing patients with nasal bone injuries and to determine if treatment in the form of manipulation of the nasal bones and therefore outpatient attendance was necessary.

  2. Quantitative imaging with a mobile phone microscope.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arunan Skandarajah

    Full Text Available Use of optical imaging for medical and scientific applications requires accurate quantification of features such as object size, color, and brightness. High pixel density cameras available on modern mobile phones have made photography simple and convenient for consumer applications; however, the camera hardware and software that enables this simplicity can present a barrier to accurate quantification of image data. This issue is exacerbated by automated settings, proprietary image processing algorithms, rapid phone evolution, and the diversity of manufacturers. If mobile phone cameras are to live up to their potential to increase access to healthcare in low-resource settings, limitations of mobile phone-based imaging must be fully understood and addressed with procedures that minimize their effects on image quantification. Here we focus on microscopic optical imaging using a custom mobile phone microscope that is compatible with phones from multiple manufacturers. We demonstrate that quantitative microscopy with micron-scale spatial resolution can be carried out with multiple phones and that image linearity, distortion, and color can be corrected as needed. Using all versions of the iPhone and a selection of Android phones released between 2007 and 2012, we show that phones with greater than 5 MP are capable of nearly diffraction-limited resolution over a broad range of magnifications, including those relevant for single cell imaging. We find that automatic focus, exposure, and color gain standard on mobile phones can degrade image resolution and reduce accuracy of color capture if uncorrected, and we devise procedures to avoid these barriers to quantitative imaging. By accommodating the differences between mobile phone cameras and the scientific cameras, mobile phone microscopes can be reliably used to increase access to quantitative imaging for a variety of medical and scientific applications.

  3. Wayfinding for people with dementia: a review of the role of architectural design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marquardt, Gesine

    2011-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of the available literature on architectural wayfinding design for people with dementia in nursing homes. The results were to be summarized and substantiated through an interdisciplinary interpretation, taking into account changes in the orientation process of people with dementia. Spatial disorientation and declining wayfinding abilities are among the early symptoms of dementia, limiting a person's ability to perform activities of daily living (ADLs) independently and ultimately, perhaps leading to institutionalization. A prerequisite to maintaining residents' quality of life in a nursing home is their ability to orient themselves within their new environment. The available literature on wayfinding design for people with dementia in nursing homes was reviewed. Two aspects of interventions for residents' wayfinding abilities were identified: the design of the floor plan typology and environmental cues. The design of the physical environment plays a major role in supporting the wayfinding abilities of people with dementia. The floor plan design of a nursing home in particular has a significant influence on residents' spatial orientation and wayfinding. Additional interventions such as signage, furnishing, lighting, and colors are additional supporting features but they cannot compensate for an adverse architectural design. For the creation of a supportive, dementia-friendly environment, both aspects of architectural design must be considered. Design guidelines to support the wayfinding abilities of people with dementia were developed to synthesize both.

  4. Quantitative Imaging with a Mobile Phone Microscope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skandarajah, Arunan; Reber, Clay D.; Switz, Neil A.; Fletcher, Daniel A.

    2014-01-01

    Use of optical imaging for medical and scientific applications requires accurate quantification of features such as object size, color, and brightness. High pixel density cameras available on modern mobile phones have made photography simple and convenient for consumer applications; however, the camera hardware and software that enables this simplicity can present a barrier to accurate quantification of image data. This issue is exacerbated by automated settings, proprietary image processing algorithms, rapid phone evolution, and the diversity of manufacturers. If mobile phone cameras are to live up to their potential to increase access to healthcare in low-resource settings, limitations of mobile phone–based imaging must be fully understood and addressed with procedures that minimize their effects on image quantification. Here we focus on microscopic optical imaging using a custom mobile phone microscope that is compatible with phones from multiple manufacturers. We demonstrate that quantitative microscopy with micron-scale spatial resolution can be carried out with multiple phones and that image linearity, distortion, and color can be corrected as needed. Using all versions of the iPhone and a selection of Android phones released between 2007 and 2012, we show that phones with greater than 5 MP are capable of nearly diffraction-limited resolution over a broad range of magnifications, including those relevant for single cell imaging. We find that automatic focus, exposure, and color gain standard on mobile phones can degrade image resolution and reduce accuracy of color capture if uncorrected, and we devise procedures to avoid these barriers to quantitative imaging. By accommodating the differences between mobile phone cameras and the scientific cameras, mobile phone microscopes can be reliably used to increase access to quantitative imaging for a variety of medical and scientific applications. PMID:24824072

  5. The Effects of Senses of Direction on Wayfinding Behaviors: Evidence from Biking Tourists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Jo-Hui

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to examine and observe the effects of senses of direction (i.e., abilities of memory and awareness of orientation on wayfinding behaviors for biking tourists. A total of 295 biking tourists completed a questionnaire using a purposive sampling method. The hierarchical regression model was employed to test the proposed hypotheses. Results show that biking tourists’ abilities of memory and awareness of orientation have a direct effect on their wayfinding behaviors. The contribution of this study is to demonstrate the implication of senses of direction to biking tourists’ wayfinding behaviors and to provide biking tourists suggestions for wayfinding strategies.

  6. Smart phone based bacterial detection using bio functionalized fluorescent nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rajendran, Vinoth Kumar; Bakthavathsalam, Padmavathy; Ali, Baquir Mohammed Jaffar

    2014-01-01

    We are describing immunochromatographic test strips with smart phone-based fluorescence readout. They are intended for use in the detection of the foodborne bacterial pathogens Salmonella spp. and Escherichia coli O157. Silica nanoparticles (SiNPs) were doped with FITC and Ru(bpy), conjugated to the respective antibodies, and then used in a conventional lateral flow immunoassay (LFIA). Fluorescence was recorded by inserting the nitrocellulose strip into a smart phone-based fluorimeter consisting of a light weight (40 g) optical module containing an LED light source, a fluorescence filter set and a lens attached to the integrated camera of the cell phone in order to acquire high-resolution fluorescence images. The images were analysed by exploiting the quick image processing application of the cell phone and enable the detection of pathogens within few minutes. This LFIA is capable of detecting pathogens in concentrations as low as 10 5 cfu mL −1 directly from test samples without pre-enrichment. The detection is one order of magnitude better compared to gold nanoparticle-based LFIAs under similar condition. The successful combination of fluorescent nanoparticle-based pathogen detection by LFIAs with a smart phone-based detection platform has resulted in a portable device with improved diagnosis features and having potential application in diagnostics and environmental monitoring. (author)

  7. A NOVEL APPROACH TO CAMERA CALIBRATION METHOD FOR SMART PHONES UNDER ROAD ENVIRONMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Lee

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Monocular vision-based lane departure warning system has been increasingly used in advanced driver assistance systems (ADAS. By the use of the lane mark detection and identification, we proposed an automatic and efficient camera calibration method for smart phones. At first, we can detect the lane marker feature in a perspective space and calculate edges of lane markers in image sequences. Second, because of the width of lane marker and road lane is fixed under the standard structural road environment, we can automatically build a transformation matrix between perspective space and 3D space and get a local map in vehicle coordinate system. In order to verify the validity of this method, we installed a smart phone in the ‘Tuzhi’ self-driving car of Wuhan University and recorded more than 100km image data on the road in Wuhan. According to the result, we can calculate the positions of lane markers which are accurate enough for the self-driving car to run smoothly on the road.

  8. Spatial problem-solving strategies of middle school students: Wayfinding with geographic information systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wigglesworth, John C.

    2000-06-01

    Geographic Information Systems (GIS) is a powerful computer software package that emphasizes the use of maps and the management of spatially referenced environmental data archived in a systems data base. Professional applications of GIS have been in place since the 1980's, but only recently has GIS gained significant attention in the K--12 classroom. Students using GIS are able to manipulate and query data in order to solve all manners of spatial problems. Very few studies have examined how this technological innovation can support classroom learning. In particular, there has been little research on how experience in using the software correlates with a child's spatial cognition and his/her ability to understand spatial relationships. This study investigates the strategies used by middle school students to solve a wayfinding (route-finding) problem using the ArcView GIS software. The research design combined an individual background questionnaire, results from the Group Assessment of Logical Thinking (GALT) test, and analysis of reflective think-aloud sessions to define the characteristics of the strategies students' used to solve this particular class of spatial problem. Three uniquely different spatial problem solving strategies were identified. Visual/Concrete Wayfinders used a highly visual strategy; Logical/Abstract Wayfinders used GIS software tools to apply a more analytical and systematic approach; Transitional Wayfinders used an approach that showed evidence of one that was shifting from a visual strategy to one that was more analytical. The triangulation of data sources indicates that this progression of wayfinding strategy can be correlated both to Piagetian stages of logical thought and to experience with the use of maps. These findings suggest that GIS teachers must be aware that their students' performance will lie on a continuum that is based on cognitive development, spatial ability, and prior experience with maps. To be most effective, GIS teaching

  9. Interference of mobile phones and digitally enhanced cordless telecommunications mobile phones in renal scintigraphy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stegmayr, Armin; Fessl, Benjamin; Hörtnagl, Richard; Marcadella, Michael; Perkhofer, Susanne

    2013-08-01

    The aim of the study was to assess the potential negative impact of cellular phones and digitally enhanced cordless telecommunication (DECT) devices on the quality of static and dynamic scintigraphy to avoid repeated testing in infant and teenage patients to protect them from unnecessary radiation exposure. The assessment was conducted by performing phantom measurements under real conditions. A functional renal-phantom acting as a pair of kidneys in dynamic scans was created. Data were collected using the setup of cellular phones and DECT phones placed in different positions in relation to a camera head to test the potential interference of cellular phones and DECT phones with the cameras. Cellular phones reproducibly interfered with the oldest type of gamma camera, which, because of its single-head specification, is the device most often used for renal examinations. Curves indicating the renal function were considerably disrupted; cellular phones as well as DECT phones showed a disturbance concerning static acquisition. Variable electromagnetic tolerance in different types of γ-cameras could be identified. Moreover, a straightforward, low-cost method of testing the susceptibility of equipment to interference caused by cellular phones and DECT phones was generated. Even though some departments use newer models of γ-cameras, which are less susceptible to electromagnetic interference, we recommend testing examination rooms to avoid any interference caused by cellular phones. The potential electromagnetic interference should be taken into account when the purchase of new sensitive medical equipment is being considered, not least because the technology of mobile communication is developing fast, which also means that different standards of wave bands will be issued in the future.

  10. Use of a mobile phone for potentiostatic control with low cost paper-based microfluidic sensors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delaney, Jacqui L.; Doeven, Egan H.; Harsant, Anthony J.; Hogan, Conor F., E-mail: c.hogan@latrobe.edu.au

    2013-08-06

    Graphical abstract: -- Highlights: •The ability to generate ECL emission using the audio output of a mobile phone is demonstrated. •Electrochemical control can be achieved by controlling the amplitude and waveform of the sound. •A mobile phone “app” synchronises the electrochemical stimulation with detection via the camera. •In combination with paper-based microfluidic sensors, extremely low cost analysis is possible. •Detection of proline at levels suitable for diagnosis of hyperprolinemia is demonstrated. -- Abstract: By exploiting its ability to play sounds, a mobile phone with suitable software installed can serve the basic functions of a potentiostat in controlling an applied potential to oxidise ECL-active molecules, while the resultant photonic signal is monitored using the camera in video mode. In combination with paper microfluidic sensors this opens significant new possibilities for low-cost, instrument-free sensing.

  11. Use of a mobile phone for potentiostatic control with low cost paper-based microfluidic sensors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delaney, Jacqui L.; Doeven, Egan H.; Harsant, Anthony J.; Hogan, Conor F.

    2013-01-01

    Graphical abstract: -- Highlights: •The ability to generate ECL emission using the audio output of a mobile phone is demonstrated. •Electrochemical control can be achieved by controlling the amplitude and waveform of the sound. •A mobile phone “app” synchronises the electrochemical stimulation with detection via the camera. •In combination with paper-based microfluidic sensors, extremely low cost analysis is possible. •Detection of proline at levels suitable for diagnosis of hyperprolinemia is demonstrated. -- Abstract: By exploiting its ability to play sounds, a mobile phone with suitable software installed can serve the basic functions of a potentiostat in controlling an applied potential to oxidise ECL-active molecules, while the resultant photonic signal is monitored using the camera in video mode. In combination with paper microfluidic sensors this opens significant new possibilities for low-cost, instrument-free sensing

  12. Near-infrared fluorescence imaging with a mobile phone (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghassemi, Pejhman; Wang, Bohan; Wang, Jianting; Wang, Quanzeng; Chen, Yu; Pfefer, T. Joshua

    2017-03-01

    Mobile phone cameras employ sensors with near-infrared (NIR) sensitivity, yet this capability has not been exploited for biomedical purposes. Removing the IR-blocking filter from a phone-based camera opens the door to a wide range of techniques and applications for inexpensive, point-of-care biophotonic imaging and sensing. This study provides proof of principle for one of these modalities - phone-based NIR fluorescence imaging. An imaging system was assembled using a 780 nm light source along with excitation and emission filters with 800 nm and 825 nm cut-off wavelengths, respectively. Indocyanine green (ICG) was used as an NIR fluorescence contrast agent in an ex vivo rodent model, a resolution test target and a 3D-printed, tissue-simulating vascular phantom. Raw and processed images for red, green and blue pixel channels were analyzed for quantitative evaluation of fundamental performance characteristics including spectral sensitivity, detection linearity and spatial resolution. Mobile phone results were compared with a scientific CCD. The spatial resolution of CCD system was consistently superior to the phone, and green phone camera pixels showed better resolution than blue or green channels. The CCD exhibited similar sensitivity as processed red and blue pixels channels, yet a greater degree of detection linearity. Raw phone pixel data showed lower sensitivity but greater linearity than processed data. Overall, both qualitative and quantitative results provided strong evidence of the potential of phone-based NIR imaging, which may lead to a wide range of applications from cancer detection to glucose sensing.

  13. Reprint of: Use of a mobile phone for potentiostatic control with low cost paper-based microfluidic sensors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delaney, Jacqui L.; Doeven, Egan H.; Harsant, Anthony J.; Hogan, Conor F., E-mail: c.hogan@latrobe.edu.au

    2013-11-25

    Graphical abstract: -- Highlights: •The ability to generate ECL emission using the audio output of a mobile phone is demonstrated. •Electrochemical control can be achieved by controlling the amplitude and waveform of the sound. •A mobile phone “app” synchronises the electrochemical stimulation with detection via the camera. •In combination with paper-based microfluidic sensors, extremely low cost analysis is possible. •Detection of proline at levels suitable for diagnosis of hyperprolinemia is demonstrated. -- Abstract: By exploiting its ability to play sounds, a mobile phone with suitable software installed can serve the basic functions of a potentiostat in controlling an applied potential to oxidise ECL-active molecules, while the resultant photonic signal is monitored using the camera in video mode. In combination with paper microfluidic sensors this opens significant new possibilities for low-cost, instrument-free sensing.

  14. Reprint of: Use of a mobile phone for potentiostatic control with low cost paper-based microfluidic sensors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delaney, Jacqui L.; Doeven, Egan H.; Harsant, Anthony J.; Hogan, Conor F.

    2013-01-01

    Graphical abstract: -- Highlights: •The ability to generate ECL emission using the audio output of a mobile phone is demonstrated. •Electrochemical control can be achieved by controlling the amplitude and waveform of the sound. •A mobile phone “app” synchronises the electrochemical stimulation with detection via the camera. •In combination with paper-based microfluidic sensors, extremely low cost analysis is possible. •Detection of proline at levels suitable for diagnosis of hyperprolinemia is demonstrated. -- Abstract: By exploiting its ability to play sounds, a mobile phone with suitable software installed can serve the basic functions of a potentiostat in controlling an applied potential to oxidise ECL-active molecules, while the resultant photonic signal is monitored using the camera in video mode. In combination with paper microfluidic sensors this opens significant new possibilities for low-cost, instrument-free sensing

  15. Opto-fluidics based microscopy and flow cytometry on a cell phone for blood analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Hongying; Ozcan, Aydogan

    2015-01-01

    Blood analysis is one of the most important clinical tests for medical diagnosis. Flow cytometry and optical microscopy are widely used techniques to perform blood analysis and therefore cost-effective translation of these technologies to resource limited settings is critical for various global health as well as telemedicine applications. In this chapter, we review our recent progress on the integration of imaging flow cytometry and fluorescent microscopy on a cell phone using compact, light-weight and cost-effective opto-fluidic attachments integrated onto the camera module of a smartphone. In our cell-phone based opto-fluidic imaging cytometry design, fluorescently labeled cells are delivered into the imaging area using a disposable micro-fluidic chip that is positioned above the existing camera unit of the cell phone. Battery powered light-emitting diodes (LEDs) are butt-coupled to the sides of this micro-fluidic chip without any lenses, which effectively acts as a multimode slab waveguide, where the excitation light is guided to excite the fluorescent targets within the micro-fluidic chip. Since the excitation light propagates perpendicular to the detection path, an inexpensive plastic absorption filter is able to reject most of the scattered light and create a decent dark-field background for fluorescent imaging. With this excitation geometry, the cell-phone camera can record fluorescent movies of the particles/cells as they are flowing through the microchannel. The digital frames of these fluorescent movies are then rapidly processed to quantify the count and the density of the labeled particles/cells within the solution under test. With a similar opto-fluidic design, we have recently demonstrated imaging and automated counting of stationary blood cells (e.g., labeled white blood cells or unlabeled red blood cells) loaded within a disposable cell counting chamber. We tested the performance of this cell-phone based imaging cytometry and blood analysis platform

  16. Wavefront measurement of plastic lenses for mobile-phone applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Li-Ting; Cheng, Yuan-Chieh; Wang, Chung-Yen; Wang, Pei-Jen

    2016-08-01

    In camera lenses for mobile-phone applications, all lens elements have been designed with aspheric surfaces because of the requirements in minimal total track length of the lenses. Due to the diffraction-limited optics design with precision assembly procedures, element inspection and lens performance measurement have become cumbersome in the production of mobile-phone cameras. Recently, wavefront measurements based on Shack-Hartmann sensors have been successfully implemented on injection-molded plastic lens with aspheric surfaces. However, the applications of wavefront measurement on small-sized plastic lenses have yet to be studied both theoretically and experimentally. In this paper, both an in-house-built and a commercial wavefront measurement system configured on two optics structures have been investigated with measurement of wavefront aberrations on two lens elements from a mobile-phone camera. First, the wet-cell method has been employed for verifications of aberrations due to residual birefringence in an injection-molded lens. Then, two lens elements of a mobile-phone camera with large positive and negative power have been measured with aberrations expressed in Zernike polynomial to illustrate the effectiveness in wavefront measurement for troubleshooting defects in optical performance.

  17. The Way-Finding in Educational Modular Buildings: The Case of the Male Engineering Building at Qatar University

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simona Azzali

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Way-finding is the ability of people to perceive routes, flow patterns, or passageways inside and/or around a building. In other words, it is the capability of a person to know their whereabouts in a space. Modular buildings and complex spatial plan structure, in general, can be very confusing, especially from a way-finding point of view. This research attempts to measure the way-finding performance of a modular building by assessing the users’ experience in finding their way inside the Male Engineering Building at Qatar University. The study involved students, faculty, and staff members that utilize that space daily. The research focused on accessing indoor spaces as well as the walkways and spaces connected to the building. Results show that parameters as the use of colours and numbers can improve capability and swiftness in way-finding. In future research, several types of signage and visual elements will be tested, in order to understand how they can enhance way-finding efficiency and user performance within indoor spaces.

  18. iHand: an interactive bare-hand-based augmented reality interface on commercial mobile phones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Junyeong; Park, Jungsik; Park, Hanhoon; Park, Jong-Il

    2013-02-01

    The performance of mobile phones has rapidly improved, and they are emerging as a powerful platform. In many vision-based applications, human hands play a key role in natural interaction. However, relatively little attention has been paid to the interaction between human hands and the mobile phone. Thus, we propose a vision- and hand gesture-based interface in which the user holds a mobile phone in one hand but sees the other hand's palm through a built-in camera. The virtual contents are faithfully rendered on the user's palm through palm pose estimation, and reaction with hand and finger movements is achieved that is recognized by hand shape recognition. Since the proposed interface is based on hand gestures familiar to humans and does not require any additional sensors or markers, the user can freely interact with virtual contents anytime and anywhere without any training. We demonstrate that the proposed interface works at over 15 fps on a commercial mobile phone with a 1.2-GHz dual core processor and 1 GB RAM.

  19. Wayfinding in ageing and Alzheimer's disease within a virtual senior residence: study protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Rebecca; Ohman, Jennifer

    2016-07-01

    To report a study protocol that examines the impact of adding salient cues in a virtual reality simulation of a senior residential building on wayfinding for older adults with and without Alzheimer's disease. An early symptom of Alzheimer's disease is the inability to find one's way (wayfinding). Senior residential environments are especially difficult for wayfinding. Salient cues may be able to help persons with Alzheimer's disease find their way more effectively so they can maintain independence. A repeated measures, within and between subjects design. This study was funded by the National Institutes of Health (August 2012). Older adults (N = 40) with normal cognition and older adults with early stage Alzheimer's disease/mild cognitive impairment (N = 40) will try to find their way to a location repeatedly in a virtual reality simulation of senior residence. There are two environments: standard (no cues) and salient (multiple cues). Outcome measures include how often and how quickly participants find the target location in each cue condition. The results of this study have the potential to provide evidence for ways to make the environment more supportive for wayfinding for older adults with Alzheimer's disease. This study is registered at Trialmatch.alz.org (Identifier 260425-5). © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Computationally determining the salience of decision points for real-time wayfinding support

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Makoto Takemiya

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This study introduces the concept of computational salience to explain the discriminatory efficacy of decision points, which in turn may have applications to providing real-time assistance to users of navigational aids. This research compared algorithms for calculating the computational salience of decision points and validated the results via three methods: high-salience decision points were used to classify wayfinders; salience scores were used to weight a conditional probabilistic scoring function for real-time wayfinder performance classification; and salience scores were correlated with wayfinding-performance metrics. As an exploratory step to linking computational and cognitive salience, a photograph-recognition experiment was conducted. Results reveal a distinction between algorithms useful for determining computational and cognitive saliences. For computational salience, information about the structural integration of decision points is effective, while information about the probability of decision-point traversal shows promise for determining cognitive salience. Limitations from only using structural information and motivations for future work that include non-structural information are elicited.

  1. Using virtual reality to determine how emergency signs facilitate way-finding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Chieh-Hsin; Wu, Wu-Tai; Lin, Ching-Yuan

    2009-07-01

    In this study, virtual reality was the tool used to construct an experimental space. Three scenarios - one without emergency signs, another with an old-version emergency sign, and the third with a new-version emergency sign - were created, after which 107 subjects, divided into three groups, engaged in an emergency escape game to determine if and how various emergency signs aid in way-finding in the event of an emergency. Under the presupposition that the minimum time needed for an emergency escape without any mistake occurring was 40s, we found that the average way-finding time in the scenario without any emergency signs was 123.8s, for the scenario with the new-version signs 84.8s, and for the scenario with the old-version signs 75.6s; statistically, this demonstrated that the absence of signs results in slower escape than either old signs (p=0.001) or new signs (p=0.005). These findings indicate that signs do help way-finding greatly. Males were found to exhibit better way-finding skills than females (pConstruction workers and fire safety personnel, as a combined group, did not fare better than others with less presumed prior experience with building plans or emergency exit procedures. In addition, when faced with both an emergency direction sign and an exit door, almost half of the subjects (42% of the participants) were chosen to take the door instead of following the direction posted on the sign. Finally, we found that, at T-intersections, the majority of participants (60%) chose to turn left versus right.

  2. CONTEXT BASED ANDROID APPLICATIONADMINISTRATIVE ACCESS CONTROL (CBAA–AAC FOR SMART PHONES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Sharavanan

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Android applications in smart phones are generally towards provide greater flexibility and convince for users. Considering the fact that the Android applications are having privilege to access data and resources in mobile after it gets installed (one time permission provided by end user on the time installation, these application may also lead to issues in security for the user data as well as issues relate smart phone with peripheral environment. A practical example for an issue which relates smart phone with peripheral environment can be even an Android smart phone application of a college student use camera resource to capture photos of R&D cell and transfer without user or organization permission. The security of the organization and user should be prevented by providing an adoptable solution. The proposed concept of CBAA-AAC (Context Based Android Application Administrative Access Control is used to control the privileges of any Android application over a corresponding longitude and latitude by the organization administrator. In this way, administrator is able to block malicious application of every individual smart phone which can have activity towards utilizing services and resources that may affect the security of the organization, such an move is must for assuring security of any organization and educational institutions while they allow users to “bring their own smart phones/mobile devices” into the campus.

  3. The Effects of Senses of Direction on Wayfinding Behaviors: Evidence from Biking Tourists

    OpenAIRE

    Lin Jo-Hui; Ho Ching-Hua; Ngan Kok-Lim; Tu Jin-Hua; Weerapaiboon Wongladda

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine and observe the effects of senses of direction (i.e., abilities of memory and awareness of orientation) on wayfinding behaviors for biking tourists. A total of 295 biking tourists completed a questionnaire using a purposive sampling method. The hierarchical regression model was employed to test the proposed hypotheses. Results show that biking tourists’ abilities of memory and awareness of orientation have a direct effect on their wayfinding behaviors. ...

  4. Mobile phone-based biosensing: An emerging "diagnostic and communication" technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quesada-González, Daniel; Merkoçi, Arben

    2017-06-15

    In this review we discuss recent developments on the use of mobile phones and similar devices for biosensing applications in which diagnostics and communications are coupled. Owing to the capabilities of mobile phones (their cameras, connectivity, portability, etc.) and to advances in biosensing, the coupling of these two technologies is enabling portable and user-friendly analytical devices. Any user can now perform quick, robust and easy (bio)assays anywhere and at any time. Among the most widely reported of such devices are paper-based platforms. Herein we provide an overview of a broad range of biosensing possibilities, from optical to electrochemical measurements; explore the various reported designs for adapters; and consider future opportunities for this technology in fields such as health diagnostics, safety & security, and environment monitoring. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Cuffless differential blood pressure estimation using smart phones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandrasekaran, Vikram; Dantu, Ram; Jonnada, Srikanth; Thiyagaraja, Shanti; Subbu, Kalyan Pathapati

    2013-04-01

    Smart phones today have become increasingly popular with the general public for their diverse functionalities such as navigation, social networking, and multimedia facilities. These phones are equipped with high-end processors, high-resolution cameras, and built-in sensors such as accelerometer, orientation-sensor, and light-sensor. According to comScore survey, 26.2% of U.S. adults use smart phones in their daily lives. Motivated by this statistic and the diverse capability of smart phones, we focus on utilizing them for biomedical applications. We present a new application of the smart phone with its built-in camera and microphone replacing the traditional stethoscope and cuff-based measurement technique, to quantify vital signs such as heart rate and blood pressure. We propose two differential blood pressure estimating techniques using the heartbeat and pulse data. The first method uses two smart phones whereas the second method replaces one of the phones with a customized external microphone. We estimate the systolic and diastolic pressure in the two techniques by computing the pulse pressure and the stroke volume from the data recorded. By comparing the estimated blood pressure values with those measured using a commercial blood pressure meter, we obtained encouraging results of 95-100% accuracy.

  6. PhoneSat: Ground Testing of a Phone-Based Prototype Bus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felix, Carmen; Howard, Benjamin; Reyes, Matthew; Snarskiy, Fedor; Hickman, Ryan; Boshuizen, Christopher; Marshall, William

    2010-01-01

    Most of the key capabilities that are requisite of a satellite bus are housed in today's smart phones. PhoneSat refers to an initiative to build a ground-based prototype vehicle that could all the basic functionality of a satellite, including attitude control, using a smart Phone as its central hardware. All components used were also low cost Commercial off the Shelf (COTS). In summer 2009, an initial prototype was created using the LEGO Mindstorm toolkit demonstrating simple attitude control. Here we report on a follow up initiative to design, build and test a vehicle based on the Google s smart phone Nexus One. The report includes results from initial thermal-vacuum chamber tests and low altitude sub-orbital rocket flights which show that, at least for short durations, the Nexus One phone is able to withstand key aspects of the space environment without failure. We compare the sensor data from the Phone's accelerometers and magnetometers with that of an external microelectronic inertial measurement unit.

  7. A camera-phone based study reveals erratic eating pattern and disrupted daily eating-fasting cycle among adults in India.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neelu Jain Gupta

    Full Text Available The daily rhythm of feeding-fasting and meal-timing are emerging as important determinants of health. Circadian rhythm research in animal models and retrospective analyses of human nutrition data have shown that reduced length of overnight fasting or increased late night eating increases risk for metabolic diseases including obesity and diabetes. However, the daily rhythm in eating pattern in humans is rarely measured. Traditional methods to collect nutrition information through food diary and food log pay little attention to the timing of eating which may also change from day to day. We adopted a novel cell-phone based approach to longitudinally record all events of food and beverage intake in adults. In a feasibility study daily food-eating patterns of 93 healthy individuals were recorded for 21 days using camera phones. Analysis of the daily eating patterns of these individuals indicates deviation from conventional assumption that people eat three meals-a-day within a 12 h interval. We found that eating events are widespread throughout the day, with 30% consumed in evening and late night hours. There was little difference in eating pattern between weekdays and weekends. In this cohort more than 50% of people spread their caloric intake events over 15 h or longer. One decile of the cohort who were spouses of shift-workers or had flexible work schedule spread their caloric intake over 20 h. Although the nutrition quality and diversity of food consumed is different between South-East Asian and Western countries, such overall disruption of daily eating-fasting rhythm is similar. Therefore, in view of hypothesis that disrupted daily eating pattern may contribute to the global increase in metabolic diseases and modification of daily eating pattern is a potential modifiable behavior to contain these diseases, monitoring eating pattern is an important aspect of lifestyle.

  8. A camera-phone based study reveals erratic eating pattern and disrupted daily eating-fasting cycle among adults in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Neelu Jain; Kumar, Vinod; Panda, Satchidananda

    2017-01-01

    The daily rhythm of feeding-fasting and meal-timing are emerging as important determinants of health. Circadian rhythm research in animal models and retrospective analyses of human nutrition data have shown that reduced length of overnight fasting or increased late night eating increases risk for metabolic diseases including obesity and diabetes. However, the daily rhythm in eating pattern in humans is rarely measured. Traditional methods to collect nutrition information through food diary and food log pay little attention to the timing of eating which may also change from day to day. We adopted a novel cell-phone based approach to longitudinally record all events of food and beverage intake in adults. In a feasibility study daily food-eating patterns of 93 healthy individuals were recorded for 21 days using camera phones. Analysis of the daily eating patterns of these individuals indicates deviation from conventional assumption that people eat three meals-a-day within a 12 h interval. We found that eating events are widespread throughout the day, with 30% consumed in evening and late night hours. There was little difference in eating pattern between weekdays and weekends. In this cohort more than 50% of people spread their caloric intake events over 15 h or longer. One decile of the cohort who were spouses of shift-workers or had flexible work schedule spread their caloric intake over 20 h. Although the nutrition quality and diversity of food consumed is different between South-East Asian and Western countries, such overall disruption of daily eating-fasting rhythm is similar. Therefore, in view of hypothesis that disrupted daily eating pattern may contribute to the global increase in metabolic diseases and modification of daily eating pattern is a potential modifiable behavior to contain these diseases, monitoring eating pattern is an important aspect of lifestyle.

  9. Signage and wayfinding design a complete guide to creating environmental graphic design systems

    CERN Document Server

    Calori, Chris

    2015-01-01

    A new edition of the market-leading guide to signage and wayfinding design This new edition of Signage and Wayfinding Design: A Complete Guide to Creating Environmental Graphic Design Systems has been fully updated to offer you the latest, most comprehensive coverage of the environmental design process-from research and design development to project execution. Utilizing a cross-disciplinary approach that makes the information relevant to architects, interior designers, landscape architects, graphic designers, and industrial engineers alike, the book arms you with the skills needed to apply a

  10. Wayfinding Services for Open Educational Practices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Kalz

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available To choose suitable resources for personalcompetence development in the vast amount of openeducational resources is a challenging task for a learner.Starting with a needs analysis of lifelong learners andlearning designers we introduce two wayfinding servicesthat are currently researched and developed in theframework of the Integrated Project TENCompetence.Then we discuss the role of these services to supportlearners in finding and selecting open educational resourcesand finally we give an outlook on future research.

  11. GlowPhones

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Merritt, Timothy Robert; Nielsen, Christine Linding; Jakobsen, Frederik Lund

    2017-01-01

    Location-based mobile games often utilize built-in sensors for supporting game experiences tied to the physical world, yet the visual user interface remains constrained to the small high-resolution screen. GlowPhones is a location-based mobile social game using low-resolution displays to augment...... the physical space and move the attention away from the mobile screen. Players explore the physical world and collaborate to overcome challenges relying on the screen glow intensity emitted from the phone’s screen and light flash frequency of the camera flash for navigation. Three game stages explore proxemics...

  12. Cognitive maps, spatial abilities and human wayfinding.

    OpenAIRE

    Golledge, Reginald G.; Jacobson, R. Daniel; Kitchin, Rob; Blades, Mark

    2000-01-01

    In this paper we discuss the relations between cognitive maps, spatial abilities and human wayfinding, particularly in the context of traveling without the use of sight. Initially we discuss the nature of cognitive maps and the process of cognitive mapping as mechanisms for developing person to object (egocentric) and object to object (allocentric) internal representations. Imperfections in encoding either relations can introduce imperfections in representations of environments in memory. Thi...

  13. Cellular Phone-Based Image Acquisition and Quantitative Ratiometric Method for Detecting Cocaine and Benzoylecgonine for Biological and Forensic Applications

    OpenAIRE

    Cadle, Brian A.; Rasmus, Kristin C.; Varela, Juan A.; Leverich, Leah S.; O’Neill, Casey E.; Bachtell, Ryan K.; Cooper, Donald C.

    2010-01-01

    Here we describe the first report of using low-cost cellular or web-based digital cameras to image and quantify standardized rapid immunoassay strips as a new point-of-care diagnostic and forensics tool with health applications. Quantitative ratiometric pixel density analysis (QRPDA) is an automated method requiring end-users to utilize inexpensive (~ $1 USD/each) immunotest strips, a commonly available web or mobile phone camera or scanner, and internet or cellular service. A model is descri...

  14. Mobile phone based clinical microscopy for global health applications.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David N Breslauer

    Full Text Available Light microscopy provides a simple, cost-effective, and vital method for the diagnosis and screening of hematologic and infectious diseases. In many regions of the world, however, the required equipment is either unavailable or insufficiently portable, and operators may not possess adequate training to make full use of the images obtained. Counterintuitively, these same regions are often well served by mobile phone networks, suggesting the possibility of leveraging portable, camera-enabled mobile phones for diagnostic imaging and telemedicine. Toward this end we have built a mobile phone-mounted light microscope and demonstrated its potential for clinical use by imaging P. falciparum-infected and sickle red blood cells in brightfield and M. tuberculosis-infected sputum samples in fluorescence with LED excitation. In all cases resolution exceeded that necessary to detect blood cell and microorganism morphology, and with the tuberculosis samples we took further advantage of the digitized images to demonstrate automated bacillus counting via image analysis software. We expect such a telemedicine system for global healthcare via mobile phone -- offering inexpensive brightfield and fluorescence microscopy integrated with automated image analysis -- to provide an important tool for disease diagnosis and screening, particularly in the developing world and rural areas where laboratory facilities are scarce but mobile phone infrastructure is extensive.

  15. Comparison of the effectiveness of three retinal camera technologies for malarial retinopathy detection in Malawi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soliz, Peter; Nemeth, Sheila C.; Barriga, E. Simon; Harding, Simon P.; Lewallen, Susan; Taylor, Terrie E.; MacCormick, Ian J.; Joshi, Vinayak S.

    2016-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to test the suitability of three available camera technologies (desktop, portable, and iphone based) for imaging comatose children who presented with clinical symptoms of malaria. Ultimately, the results of the project would form the basis for a design of a future camera to screen for malaria retinopathy (MR) in a resource challenged environment. The desktop, portable, and i-phone based cameras were represented by the Topcon, Pictor Plus, and Peek cameras, respectively. These cameras were tested on N=23 children presenting with symptoms of cerebral malaria (CM) at a malaria clinic, Queen Elizabeth Teaching Hospital in Malawi, Africa. Each patient was dilated for binocular indirect ophthalmoscopy (BIO) exam by an ophthalmologist followed by imaging with all three cameras. Each of the cases was graded according to an internationally established protocol and compared to the BIO as the clinical ground truth. The reader used three principal retinal lesions as markers for MR: hemorrhages, retinal whitening, and vessel discoloration. The study found that the mid-priced Pictor Plus hand-held camera performed considerably better than the lower price mobile phone-based camera, and slightly the higher priced table top camera. When comparing the readings of digital images against the clinical reference standard (BIO), the Pictor Plus camera had sensitivity and specificity for MR of 100% and 87%, respectively. This compares to a sensitivity and specificity of 87% and 75% for the i-phone based camera and 100% and 75% for the desktop camera. The drawback of all the cameras were their limited field of view which did not allow complete view of the periphery where vessel discoloration occurs most frequently. The consequence was that vessel discoloration was not addressed in this study. None of the cameras offered real-time image quality assessment to ensure high quality images to afford the best possible opportunity for reading by a remotely located

  16. Trained neurons-based motion detection in optical camera communications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teli, Shivani; Cahyadi, Willy Anugrah; Chung, Yeon Ho

    2018-04-01

    A concept of trained neurons-based motion detection (TNMD) in optical camera communications (OCC) is proposed. The proposed TNMD is based on neurons present in a neural network that perform repetitive analysis in order to provide efficient and reliable motion detection in OCC. This efficient motion detection can be considered another functionality of OCC in addition to two traditional functionalities of illumination and communication. To verify the proposed TNMD, the experiments were conducted in an indoor static downlink OCC, where a mobile phone front camera is employed as the receiver and an 8 × 8 red, green, and blue (RGB) light-emitting diode array as the transmitter. The motion is detected by observing the user's finger movement in the form of centroid through the OCC link via a camera. Unlike conventional trained neurons approaches, the proposed TNMD is trained not with motion itself but with centroid data samples, thus providing more accurate detection and far less complex detection algorithm. The experiment results demonstrate that the TNMD can detect all considered motions accurately with acceptable bit error rate (BER) performances at a transmission distance of up to 175 cm. In addition, while the TNMD is performed, a maximum data rate of 3.759 kbps over the OCC link is obtained. The OCC with the proposed TNMD combined can be considered an efficient indoor OCC system that provides illumination, communication, and motion detection in a convenient smart home environment.

  17. Optofluidic fluorescent imaging cytometry on a cell phone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Hongying; Mavandadi, Sam; Coskun, Ahmet F; Yaglidere, Oguzhan; Ozcan, Aydogan

    2011-09-01

    Fluorescent microscopy and flow cytometry are widely used tools in biomedical sciences. Cost-effective translation of these technologies to remote and resource-limited environments could create new opportunities especially for telemedicine applications. Toward this direction, here we demonstrate the integration of imaging cytometry and fluorescent microscopy on a cell phone using a compact, lightweight, and cost-effective optofluidic attachment. In this cell-phone-based optofluidic imaging cytometry platform, fluorescently labeled particles or cells of interest are continuously delivered to our imaging volume through a disposable microfluidic channel that is positioned above the existing camera unit of the cell phone. The same microfluidic device also acts as a multilayered optofluidic waveguide and efficiently guides our excitation light, which is butt-coupled from the side facets of our microfluidic channel using inexpensive light-emitting diodes. Since the excitation of the sample volume occurs through guided waves that propagate perpendicular to the detection path, our cell-phone camera can record fluorescent movies of the specimens as they are flowing through the microchannel. The digital frames of these fluorescent movies are then rapidly processed to quantify the count and the density of the labeled particles/cells within the target solution of interest. We tested the performance of our cell-phone-based imaging cytometer by measuring the density of white blood cells in human blood samples, which provided a decent match to a commercially available hematology analyzer. We further characterized the imaging quality of the same platform to demonstrate a spatial resolution of ~2 μm. This cell-phone-enabled optofluidic imaging flow cytometer could especially be useful for rapid and sensitive imaging of bodily fluids for conducting various cell counts (e.g., toward monitoring of HIV+ patients) or rare cell analysis as well as for screening of water quality in

  18. 3DS-colorimeter based on a mobile phone camera for industrial applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miettinen, Jari; Martinkauppi, J. Birgitta; Suopajärvi, Pekka

    2013-02-01

    Colour gives an essential finishing touch to many products. Consumers find it as an important factor, for example, when selecting doors, furniture, parquet and coated metal products. Currently, colour evaluation is often carried out by looking at the product. Since people's memory for an exact colour is poor, this method often produces unsatisfactory results in industrial quality control. In this paper, we discuss how to solve this problem by the use of a colour measurement technology for mobile phones equipped with a suitable accessory. Mobile phones provide a suitable monitor platform even for laymen as people are increasingly using their mobile devices for purposes of entertainment, communication and business, thus making them a familiar device to use. Our 3DS-colorimeter is a new, handheld, low-cost consumer/industrial-level prototype combining both a colorimeter feature and 3D surface measurement feature. In this paper, we describe its colorimeter features shortly and demonstrate its performance in measurement repeatability and colorimetric accuracy. As an application example, we show its usefulness for monitoring the colour appearance of painted doors. This study indicates that the 3DS-colorimeter is applicable to industrial quality control.

  19. Control Design and Digital Implementation of a Fast 2-Degree-of-Freedom Translational Optical Image Stabilizer for Image Sensors in Mobile Camera Phones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jeremy H-S; Qiu, Kang-Fu; Chao, Paul C-P

    2017-10-13

    This study presents design, digital implementation and performance validation of a lead-lag controller for a 2-degree-of-freedom (DOF) translational optical image stabilizer (OIS) installed with a digital image sensor in mobile camera phones. Nowadays, OIS is an important feature of modern commercial mobile camera phones, which aims to mechanically reduce the image blur caused by hand shaking while shooting photos. The OIS developed in this study is able to move the imaging lens by actuating its voice coil motors (VCMs) at the required speed to the position that significantly compensates for imaging blurs by hand shaking. The compensation proposed is made possible by first establishing the exact, nonlinear equations of motion (EOMs) for the OIS, which is followed by designing a simple lead-lag controller based on established nonlinear EOMs for simple digital computation via a field-programmable gate array (FPGA) board in order to achieve fast response. Finally, experimental validation is conducted to show the favorable performance of the designed OIS; i.e., it is able to stabilize the lens holder to the desired position within 0.02 s, which is much less than previously reported times of around 0.1 s. Also, the resulting residual vibration is less than 2.2-2.5 μm, which is commensurate to the very small pixel size found in most of commercial image sensors; thus, significantly minimizing image blur caused by hand shaking.

  20. Citizen Camera-Witnessing: A Case Study of the Umbrella Movement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wai Han Lo

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Citizen camera-witness is a new concept by which to describe using mobile camera phone to engage in civic expression. I argue that the meaning of this concept should not be limited to painful testimony; instead, it is a mode of civic camera-mediated mass self-testimony to brutality. The use of mobile phone recordings in Hong Kong’s Umbrella Movement is examined to understand how mobile cameras are employed as personal witnessing devices to provide recordings to indict unjust events and engage others in the civic movement. This study has examined the Facebook posts and You Tube videos of the Umbrella Movement between September 22, 2014 and December 22, 2014. The results suggest that the camera phone not only contributes to witnessing the brutal repression of the state, but also witnesses the beauty of the movement, and provides a testimony that allows for rituals to develop and semi-codes to be transformed.

  1. Wayfinding Sign pada Ruang Pameran Tetap di Museum Nasional Indonesia – Jakarta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heru Budi Kusuma

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Wayfinding atau orientasi topografi, merupakan kemampuan menentukan lokasi, menemukan tempat dalam fasilitas gedung. Sebagai media penunjuk arah, Wayfinding Sign yang diterapkan pada ruang pameran tetap belum memenuhi kebutuhan yang dapat memberikan informasi yang cukup, mengenai arah mana yang harus dituju untuk mencapai area tertentu, warna-warna yang tercantum dalam panel informasi pun tidak memberikan arti tertentu. Permasalahan pada Wayfinding Sign pada ruang pameran tetap yang dianalisis meliputi: Ukuran; dimensi tanda yang proporsional terhadap luas area dimana tanda tersebut berada,sehingga memungkinkan tanda tersebut dapat mudah terlihat. Warna; berkaitan dengan warna pada tanda telah sesuai peruntukannya dan memperhatikan warna disekitar tanda berada. Kontras; berkaitan dengan estetika tanda yang dominan terhadap kondisi disekitar tanda sehingga tanda tampak eksistensinya. Intensitas; berkaitan terhadap sesuatu yang dapat memberikan stimulus sehingga menarik perhatian terhadap tanda. Posisi ; berkaitan dengan perletakan tanda yang memperhatikan jangkauan penglihatan pengunjung yang mengarah ketempat tanda tersebut berada. Untuk memfokuskan penelitian dan menemukan hubungan antara satu data dengan data yang lain, maka penelitian ini menggunakan metode penelitian kualitatif. Data hasil observasi, pengukuran, deskripsi, dan analisis data dengan teknik Triangulasi Data diperoleh kesimpulan sebagai berikut: Directional Sign; menggunakan tanda ‘warna’ yang tidak ada hubungannya dengan lokasi lantai ruang pameran dan nuansa warna ruangan yang ditunjukan, dan terdapat sign yang menginformasikan arah yang tidak tepat. Informational Sign; tanda yang memberikan informasi tentang materi koleksi yang didisplay dalam ruang pameran tetap, sudah sesuai dan efektif. Identificational Sign; perletakannya yang tidak tepat sehingga menggangu kenyamanan pengunjung dalam membaca informasinya dan membuat posisi membaca yang tidak sehat dan aman

  2. Augmented Reality: Sustaining Autonomous Way-Finding in the Community for Older Persons with Cognitive Impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sejunaite, K; Lanza, C; Ganders, S; Iljaitsch, A; Riepe, M W

    2017-01-01

    Impairment of autonomous way-finding subsequent to a multitude of neurodegenerative and other diseases impedes independence of older persons and their everyday activities. It was the goal to use augmented reality to aid autonomous way-finding in a community setting. A spatial map and directional information were shown via head-up display to guide patients from the start zone on the hospital campus to a bakery in the nearby community. Hospital campus and nearby community. Patients with mild cognitive impairment (age 63 to 89). A head-up display was used to help patients find their way. Time needed to reach goal and number of assists needed. With use of augmented reality device, patients preceded along the correct path in 113 out of 120 intersections. Intermittent reassurance was needed for most patients. Patients affirmed willingness to use such an augmented reality device in everyday life if needed or even pay for it. Augmented reality guided navigation is a promising means to sustain autonomous way-finding as a prerequisite for autonomy of older persons in everyday activities. Thus, this study lays ground for a field trial in the community using assistive technology for older persons with cognitive impairment.

  3. Embedded Adaptive Optics for Ubiquitous Lab-on-a-Chip Readout on Intact Cell Phones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pakorn Preechaburana

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The evaluation of disposable lab-on-a-chip (LOC devices on cell phones is an attractive alternative to migrate the analytical strength of LOC solutions to decentralized sensing applications. Imaging the micrometric detection areas of LOCs in contact with intact phone cameras is central to provide such capability. This work demonstrates a disposable and morphing liquid lens concept that can be integrated in LOC devices and refocuses micrometric features in the range necessary for LOC evaluation using diverse cell phone cameras. During natural evaporation, the lens focus varies adapting to different type of cameras. Standard software in the phone commands a time-lapse acquisition for best focal selection that is sufficient to capture and resolve, under ambient illumination, 50 μm features in regions larger than 500 × 500 μm2. In this way, the present concept introduces a generic solution compatible with the use of diverse and unmodified cell phone cameras to evaluate disposable LOC devices.

  4. Street navigation using visual information on mobile phones

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nguyen, Phuong Giang; Andersen, Hans Jørgen; Høilund, Carsten

    2010-01-01

    Applications with street navigation have been recently introduced on mobile phone devices. A major part of existing systems use integrated GPS as input for indicating the location. However, these systems often fail or make abrupt shifts in urban environment due to occlusion of satellites....... Furthermore, they only give the position of a person and not the object of his attention, which is just as important for localization based services. In this paper we introduce a system using mobile phones built-in cameras for navigation and localization using visual information in accordance with the way we...

  5. A mobile device-based imaging spectrometer for environmental monitoring by attaching a lightweight small module to a commercial digital camera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Fuhong; Lu, Wen; Shi, Wuxiong; He, Sailing

    2017-11-15

    Spatially-explicit data are essential for remote sensing of ecological phenomena. Lately, recent innovations in mobile device platforms have led to an upsurge in on-site rapid detection. For instance, CMOS chips in smart phones and digital cameras serve as excellent sensors for scientific research. In this paper, a mobile device-based imaging spectrometer module (weighing about 99 g) is developed and equipped on a Single Lens Reflex camera. Utilizing this lightweight module, as well as commonly used photographic equipment, we demonstrate its utility through a series of on-site multispectral imaging, including ocean (or lake) water-color sensing and plant reflectance measurement. Based on the experiments we obtain 3D spectral image cubes, which can be further analyzed for environmental monitoring. Moreover, our system can be applied to many kinds of cameras, e.g., aerial camera and underwater camera. Therefore, any camera can be upgraded to an imaging spectrometer with the help of our miniaturized module. We believe it has the potential to become a versatile tool for on-site investigation into many applications.

  6. Cell phones as imaging sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatti, Nina; Baker, Harlyn; Marguier, Joanna; Berclaz, Jérôme; Süsstrunk, Sabine

    2010-04-01

    Camera phones are ubiquitous, and consumers have been adopting them faster than any other technology in modern history. When connected to a network, though, they are capable of more than just picture taking: Suddenly, they gain access to the power of the cloud. We exploit this capability by providing a series of image-based personal advisory services. These are designed to work with any handset over any cellular carrier using commonly available Multimedia Messaging Service (MMS) and Short Message Service (SMS) features. Targeted at the unsophisticated consumer, these applications must be quick and easy to use, not requiring download capabilities or preplanning. Thus, all application processing occurs in the back-end system (i.e., as a cloud service) and not on the handset itself. Presenting an image to an advisory service in the cloud, a user receives information that can be acted upon immediately. Two of our examples involve color assessment - selecting cosmetics and home décor paint palettes; the third provides the ability to extract text from a scene. In the case of the color imaging applications, we have shown that our service rivals the advice quality of experts. The result of this capability is a new paradigm for mobile interactions - image-based information services exploiting the ubiquity of camera phones.

  7. Hidden cameras everything you need to know about covert recording, undercover cameras and secret filming

    CERN Document Server

    Plomin, Joe

    2016-01-01

    Providing authoritative information on the practicalities of using hidden cameras to expose abuse or wrongdoing, this book is vital reading for anyone who may use or encounter secret filming. It gives specific advice on using phones or covert cameras and unravels the complex legal and ethical issues that need to be considered.

  8. Haptic Cues Used for Outdoor Wayfinding by Individuals with Visual Impairments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koutsoklenis, Athanasios; Papadopoulos, Konstantinos

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: The study presented here examines which haptic cues individuals with visual impairments use more frequently and determines which of these cues are deemed by these individuals to be the most important for way-finding in urban environments. It also investigates the ways in which these haptic cues are used by individuals with visual…

  9. Perception of mobile phone and base station risks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegrist, Michael; Earle, Timothy C; Gutscher, Heinz; Keller, Carmen

    2005-10-01

    Perceptions of risks associated with mobile phones, base stations, and other sources of electromagnetic fields (EMF) were examined. Data from a telephone survey conducted in the German- and French-speaking parts of Switzerland are presented (N = 1,015). Participants assessed both risks and benefits associated with nine different sources of EMF. Trust in the authorities regulating these hazards was assessed as well. In addition, participants answered a set of questions related to attitudes toward EMF and toward mobile phone base stations. According to respondents' assessments, high-voltage transmission lines are the most risky source of EMF. Mobile phones and mobile phone base stations received lower risk ratings. Results showed that trust in authorities was positively associated with perceived benefits and negatively associated with perceived risks. People who use their mobile phones frequently perceived lower risks and higher benefits than people who use their mobile phones infrequently. People who believed they lived close to a base station did not significantly differ in their level of risks associated with mobile phone base stations from people who did not believe they lived close to a base station. Regarding risk regulation, a majority of participants were in favor of fixing limiting values based on the worst-case scenario. Correlations suggest that belief in paranormal phenomena is related to level of perceived risks associated with EMF. Furthermore, people who believed that most chemical substances cause cancer also worried more about EMF than people who did not believe that chemical substances are that harmful. Practical implications of the results are discussed.

  10. Colour contribution to children's wayfinding in school environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helvacıoǧlu, Elif; Olguntürk, Nilgün

    2011-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the contribution of colour to children's wayfinding ability in school environments and to examine the differences between colours in terms of their remembrance and usability in route learning process. The experiment was conducted with three different sample groups for each of three experiment sets differentiated by their colour arrangement. The participants totalled 100 primary school children aged seven and eight years old. The study was conducted in four phases. In the first phase, the participants were tested for familiarity with the experiment site and also for colour vision deficiencies by using Ishihara's tests for colour-blindness. In the second phase, they were escorted on the experiment route by the tester one by one, from one starting point to one end point and were asked to lead the tester to the end point by the same route. In the third phase, they were asked to describe verbally the route. In the final phase, they were asked to remember the specific colours at their correct locations. It was found that colour has a significant effect on children's wayfinding performances in school environments. However, there were no differences between different colours in terms of their remembrances in route finding tasks. In addition, the correct identifications of specific colours and landmarks were dependent on their specific locations. Contrary to the literature, gender differences were not found to be significant in the accuracy of route learning performances.

  11. Smart-phone based computational microscopy using multi-frame contact imaging on a fiber-optic array.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navruz, Isa; Coskun, Ahmet F; Wong, Justin; Mohammad, Saqib; Tseng, Derek; Nagi, Richie; Phillips, Stephen; Ozcan, Aydogan

    2013-10-21

    We demonstrate a cellphone based contact microscopy platform, termed Contact Scope, which can image highly dense or connected samples in transmission mode. Weighing approximately 76 grams, this portable and compact microscope is installed on the existing camera unit of a cellphone using an opto-mechanical add-on, where planar samples of interest are placed in contact with the top facet of a tapered fiber-optic array. This glass-based tapered fiber array has ~9 fold higher density of fiber optic cables on its top facet compared to the bottom one and is illuminated by an incoherent light source, e.g., a simple light-emitting-diode (LED). The transmitted light pattern through the object is then sampled by this array of fiber optic cables, delivering a transmission image of the sample onto the other side of the taper, with ~3× magnification in each direction. This magnified image of the object, located at the bottom facet of the fiber array, is then projected onto the CMOS image sensor of the cellphone using two lenses. While keeping the sample and the cellphone camera at a fixed position, the fiber-optic array is then manually rotated with discrete angular increments of e.g., 1-2 degrees. At each angular position of the fiber-optic array, contact images are captured using the cellphone camera, creating a sequence of transmission images for the same sample. These multi-frame images are digitally fused together based on a shift-and-add algorithm through a custom-developed Android application running on the smart-phone, providing the final microscopic image of the sample, visualized through the screen of the phone. This final computation step improves the resolution and also removes spatial artefacts that arise due to non-uniform sampling of the transmission intensity at the fiber optic array surface. We validated the performance of this cellphone based Contact Scope by imaging resolution test charts and blood smears.

  12. Field-testing of a cost-effective mobile-phone based microscope for screening of Schistosoma haematobium infection (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceylan Koydemir, Hatice; Bogoch, Isaac I.; Tseng, Derek; Ephraim, Richard K. D.; Duah, Evans; Tee, Joseph; Andrews, Jason R.; Ozcan, Aydogan

    2016-03-01

    Schistosomiasis is a parasitic and neglected tropical disease, and affects mobile-phone microscope, a custom-designed 3D printed opto-mechanical attachment (~150g) is placed in contact with the smartphone camera-lens, creating an imaging-system with a half-pitch resolution of ~0.87µm. This unit includes an external lens (also taken from a mobile-phone camera), a sample tray, a z-stage to adjust the focus, two light-emitting-diodes (LEDs) and two diffusers for uniform illumination of the sample. In our field-testing, 60 urine samples, collected from children, were used, where the prevalence of the infection was 72.9%. After concentration of the sample with centrifugation, the sediment was placed on a glass-slide and S. haematobium eggs were first identified/quantified using conventional benchtop microscopy by an expert diagnostician, and then a second expert, blinded to these results, determined the presence/absence of eggs using our mobile-phone microscope. Compared to conventional microscopy, our mobile-phone microscope had a diagnostic sensitivity of 72.1%, specificity of 100%, positive-predictive-value of 100%, and a negative-predictive-value of 57.1%. Furthermore, our mobile-phone platform demonstrated a sensitivity of 65.7% and 100% for low-intensity infections (≤50 eggs/10 mL urine) and high-intensity infections (mobile-phone microscope may play an important role in the diagnosis of schistosomiasis and various other global health challenges.

  13. Mobile Phone-Based Unobtrusive Ecological Momentary Assessment of Day-to-Day Mood: An Explorative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asselbergs, Joost; Ruwaard, Jeroen; Ejdys, Michal; Schrader, Niels; Sijbrandij, Marit; Riper, Heleen

    2016-03-29

    Ecological momentary assessment (EMA) is a useful method to tap the dynamics of psychological and behavioral phenomena in real-world contexts. However, the response burden of (self-report) EMA limits its clinical utility. The aim was to explore mobile phone-based unobtrusive EMA, in which mobile phone usage logs are considered as proxy measures of clinically relevant user states and contexts. This was an uncontrolled explorative pilot study. Our study consisted of 6 weeks of EMA/unobtrusive EMA data collection in a Dutch student population (N=33), followed by a regression modeling analysis. Participants self-monitored their mood on their mobile phone (EMA) with a one-dimensional mood measure (1 to 10) and a two-dimensional circumplex measure (arousal/valence, -2 to 2). Meanwhile, with participants' consent, a mobile phone app unobtrusively collected (meta) data from six smartphone sensor logs (unobtrusive EMA: calls/short message service (SMS) text messages, screen time, application usage, accelerometer, and phone camera events). Through forward stepwise regression (FSR), we built personalized regression models from the unobtrusive EMA variables to predict day-to-day variation in EMA mood ratings. The predictive performance of these models (ie, cross-validated mean squared error and percentage of correct predictions) was compared to naive benchmark regression models (the mean model and a lag-2 history model). A total of 27 participants (81%) provided a mean 35.5 days (SD 3.8) of valid EMA/unobtrusive EMA data. The FSR models accurately predicted 55% to 76% of EMA mood scores. However, the predictive performance of these models was significantly inferior to that of naive benchmark models. Mobile phone-based unobtrusive EMA is a technically feasible and potentially powerful EMA variant. The method is young and positive findings may not replicate. At present, we do not recommend the application of FSR-based mood prediction in real-world clinical settings. Further

  14. A Study on Iris Localization and Recognition on Mobile Phones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dae Sik Jeong

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available A new iris recognition method for mobile phones based on corneal specular reflections (SRs is discussed. We present the following three novelties over previous research. First, in case of user with glasses, many noncorneal SRs may happen on the surface of glasses and it is very difficult to detect genuine SR on the cornea. To overcome such problems, we propose a successive on/off dual illuminator scheme to detect genuine SRs on the corneas of users with glasses. Second, to detect SRs robustly, we estimated the size, shape, and brightness of the SRs based on eye, camera, and illuminator models. Third, the detected eye (iris region was verified again using the AdaBoost eye detector. Experimental results with 400 face images captured from 100 persons with a mobile phone camera showed that the rate of correct iris detection was 99.5% (for images without glasses and 98.9% (for images with glasses or contact lenses. The consequent accuracy of iris authentication was 0.05% of the EER (equal error rate based on detected iris images.

  15. OD Matrix Acquisition Based on Mobile Phone Positioning Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoqing ZUO

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Dynamic OD matrix is basic data of traffic travel guidance, traffic control, traffic management and traffic planning, and reflects the basic needs of travelers on the traffic network. With the rising popularity of positioning technology and the communication technology and the generation of huge mobile phone users, the mining and use of mobile phone positioning data, can get more traffic intersections and import and export data. These data will be integrated into obtaining the regional OD matrix, which is bound to bring convenience. In this article, mobile phone positioning data used in the data acquisition of intelligent transportation system, research a kind of regional dynamic OD matrix acquisition method based on the mobile phone positioning data. The method based on purpose of transportation, using time series similarity classification algorithm based on piecewise linear representation of the corner point (CP-PLR, mapping each base station cell to traffic zone of different traffic characteristics, and through a series of mapping optimization of base station cell to traffic zone to realize city traffic zone division based on mobile phone traffic data, on the basis, adjacency matrix chosen as the physical data structure of OD matrix storage, the principle of obtaining regional dynamic OD matrix based on the mobile phone positioning data are expounded, and the algorithm of obtaining regional dynamic OD matrix based on mobile phone positioning data are designed and verified.

  16. Mobile Phone User Interfaces in Multiplayer Games

    OpenAIRE

    NURMINEN, MINNA

    2007-01-01

    This study focuses on the user interface elements of mobile phones and their qualities in multiplayer games. Mobile phone is not intended as a gaming device. Therefore its technology has many shortcomings when it comes to playing mobile games on the device. One of those is the non-standardized user interface design. However, it has also some strengths, such as the portability and networked nature. In addition, many mobile phone models today have a camera, a feature only few gaming devices hav...

  17. Muon Trigger for Mobile Phones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borisyak, M.; Usvyatsov, M.; Mulhearn, M.; Shimmin, C.; Ustyuzhanin, A.

    2017-10-01

    The CRAYFIS experiment proposes to use privately owned mobile phones as a ground detector array for Ultra High Energy Cosmic Rays. Upon interacting with Earth’s atmosphere, these events produce extensive particle showers which can be detected by cameras on mobile phones. A typical shower contains minimally-ionizing particles such as muons. As these particles interact with CMOS image sensors, they may leave tracks of faintly-activated pixels that are sometimes hard to distinguish from random detector noise. Triggers that rely on the presence of very bright pixels within an image frame are not efficient in this case. We present a trigger algorithm based on Convolutional Neural Networks which selects images containing such tracks and are evaluated in a lazy manner: the response of each successive layer is computed only if activation of the current layer satisfies a continuation criterion. Usage of neural networks increases the sensitivity considerably comparable with image thresholding, while the lazy evaluation allows for execution of the trigger under the limited computational power of mobile phones.

  18. Mobile phone-based interventions for smoking cessation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whittaker, Robyn; McRobbie, Hayden; Bullen, Chris; Rodgers, Anthony; Gu, Yulong

    2016-04-10

    Access to mobile phones continues to increase exponentially globally, outstripping access to fixed telephone lines, fixed computers and the Internet. Mobile phones are an appropriate and effective option for the delivery of smoking cessation support in some contexts. This review updates the evidence on the effectiveness of mobile phone-based smoking cessation interventions. To determine whether mobile phone-based smoking cessation interventions increase smoking cessation in people who smoke and want to quit. For the most recent update, we searched the Cochrane Tobacco Addiction Group Specialised Register in April 2015. We also searched the UK Clinical Research Network Portfolio for current projects in the UK, and the ClinicalTrials.gov register for ongoing or recently completed studies. We searched through the reference lists of identified studies and attempted to contact the authors of ongoing studies. We applied no restrictions on language or publication date. We included randomised or quasi-randomised trials. Participants were smokers of any age who wanted to quit. Studies were those examining any type of mobile phone-based intervention for smoking cessation. This included any intervention aimed at mobile phone users, based around delivery via mobile phone, and using any functions or applications that can be used or sent via a mobile phone. Review authors extracted information on risk of bias and methodological details using a standardised form. We considered participants who dropped out of the trials or were lost to follow-up to be smoking. We calculated risk ratios (RR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for each included study. Meta-analysis of the included studies used the Mantel-Haenszel fixed-effect method. Where meta-analysis was not possible, we presented a narrative summary and descriptive statistics. This updated search identified 12 studies with six-month smoking cessation outcomes, including seven studies completed since the previous review. The

  19. Incorporating Mobile Phone Technologies to Expand Evidence-Based Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Deborah J; Anton, Margaret; Gonzalez, Michelle; Honeycutt, Amanda; Khavjou, Olga; Forehand, Rex; Parent, Justin

    2015-08-01

    Ownership of mobile phones is on the rise, a trend in uptake that transcends age, region, race, and ethnicity, as well as income. It is precisely the emerging ubiquity of mobile phones that has sparked enthusiasm regarding their capacity to increase the reach and impact of health care, including mental health care. Community-based clinicians charged with transporting evidence-based interventions beyond research and training clinics are in turn, ideally and uniquely situated to capitalize on mobile phone uptake and functionality to bridge the efficacy to effectiveness gap. As such, this article delineates key considerations to guide these frontline clinicians in mobile phone-enhanced clinical practice, including an overview of industry data on the uptake of and evolution in the functionality of mobile phone platforms, conceptual considerations relevant to the integration of mobile phones into practice, representative empirical illustrations of mobile-phone enhanced assessment and treatment, and practical considerations relevant to ensuring the feasibility and sustainability of such an approach.

  20. Incorporating Mobile Phone Technologies to Expand Evidence-Based Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Deborah J.; Anton, Margaret; Gonzalez, Michelle; Honeycutt, Amanda; Khavjou, Olga; Forehand, Rex; Parent, Justin

    2014-01-01

    Ownership of mobile phones is on the rise, a trend in uptake that transcends age, region, race, and ethnicity, as well as income. It is precisely the emerging ubiquity of mobile phones that has sparked enthusiasm regarding their capacity to increase the reach and impact of health care, including mental health care. Community-based clinicians charged with transporting evidence-based interventions beyond research and training clinics are in turn, ideally and uniquely situated to capitalize on mobile phone uptake and functionality to bridge the efficacy to effectiveness gap. As such, this article delineates key considerations to guide these frontline clinicians in mobile phone-enhanced clinical practice, including an overview of industry data on the uptake of and evolution in the functionality of mobile phone platforms, conceptual considerations relevant to the integration of mobile phones into practice, representative empirical illustrations of mobile-phone enhanced assessment and treatment, and practical considerations relevant to ensuring the feasibility and sustainability of such an approach. PMID:26213458

  1. Proposal of secure camera-based radiation warning system for nuclear detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsuchiya, Ken'ichi; Kurosawa, Kenji; Akiba, Norimitsu; Kakuda, Hidetoshi; Imoto, Daisuke; Hirabayashi, Manato; Kuroki, Kenro

    2016-01-01

    Counter-terrorisms against radiological and nuclear threat are significant issues toward Tokyo 2020 Olympic and Paralympic Games. In terms of cost benefit, it is not easy to build a warning system for nuclear detection to prevent a Dirty Bomb attack (dispersion of radioactive materials using a conventional explosive) or a Silent Source attack (hidden radioactive materials) from occurring. We propose a nuclear detection system using the installed secure cameras. We describe a method to estimate radiation dose from noise pattern in CCD images caused by radiation. Some dosimeters under neutron and gamma-ray irradiations (0.1mSv-100mSv) were taken in CCD video camera. We confirmed amount of noise in CCD images increased in radiation exposure. The radiation detection using CMOS in secure cameras or cell phones has been implemented. However, in this presentation, we propose a warning system including neutron detection to search shielded nuclear materials or radiation exposure devices using criticality. (author)

  2. Movement-based Interaction in Camera Spaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksson, Eva; Riisgaard Hansen, Thomas; Lykke-Olesen, Andreas

    2006-01-01

    In this paper we present three concepts that address movement-based interaction using camera tracking. Based on our work with several movement-based projects we present four selected applications, and use these applications to leverage our discussion, and to describe our three main concepts space......, relations, and feedback. We see these as central for describing and analysing movement-based systems using camera tracking and we show how these three concepts can be used to analyse other camera tracking applications....

  3. Using a Camera Phone as a Mixed-Reality Laser Cannon.

    OpenAIRE

    Chehimi, Fadi; Coulton, Paul; Edwards, Reuben

    2008-01-01

    Despite the ubiquity and rich features of current mobile phones, mobile games have failed to reach even the lowest estimates of expected revenues. This is unfortunate as mobile phones offer unique possibilities for creating games aimed at attracting demographics not currently catered for by the traditional console market. As a result, there has been a growing call for greater innovation within the mobile games industry and support for games outside the current console genres. In this paper, w...

  4. Optimal protocol for teleconsultation with a cellular phone for dentoalveolar trauma: an in-vitro study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Won Se; Lee, Hae Na; Jeong, Jin Sun; Kwon, Jung Hoon; Lee, Grace H; Kim, Kee Dong

    2012-01-01

    Dental trauma is frequently unpredictable. The initial assessment and urgent treatment are essential for dentists to save the patient's teeth. Mobile-phone-assisted teleconsultation and telediagnosis for dental trauma could be an aid when a dentist is not available. In the present in-vitro study, we evaluated the success rate and time to transfer images under various conditions. We analyzed the image quality of cameras built into mobile phones based on their resolution, autofocus, white-balance, and anti-movement functions. The image quality of most built-in cameras was acceptable to perform the initial assessment, with the autofocus function being essential to obtain high-quality images. The transmission failure rate increased markedly when the image size exceeded 500 kB and the additional text messaging did not improve the success rate or the transmission time. Our optimal protocol could be useful for emergency programs running on the mobile phones.

  5. Optimal protocol for teleconsultation with a cellular phone for dentoalveolar trauma: an in-vitro study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Won Se; Lee, Hae Na; Jeong, Jin Sun; Kwon, Jung Hoon; Lee, Grace H; Kim, Kee Dong [College of Dentistry, Yonsei University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-06-15

    Dental trauma is frequently unpredictable. The initial assessment and urgent treatment are essential for dentists to save the patient's teeth. Mobile-phone-assisted teleconsultation and telediagnosis for dental trauma could be an aid when a dentist is not available. In the present in-vitro study, we evaluated the success rate and time to transfer images under various conditions. We analyzed the image quality of cameras built into mobile phones based on their resolution, autofocus, white-balance, and anti-movement functions. The image quality of most built-in cameras was acceptable to perform the initial assessment, with the autofocus function being essential to obtain high-quality images. The transmission failure rate increased markedly when the image size exceeded 500 kB and the additional text messaging did not improve the success rate or the transmission time. Our optimal protocol could be useful for emergency programs running on the mobile phones.

  6. Detecting Signage and Doors for Blind Navigation and Wayfinding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shuihua; Yang, Xiaodong; Tian, Yingli

    2013-07-01

    Signage plays a very important role to find destinations in applications of navigation and wayfinding. In this paper, we propose a novel framework to detect doors and signage to help blind people accessing unfamiliar indoor environments. In order to eliminate the interference information and improve the accuracy of signage detection, we first extract the attended areas by using a saliency map. Then the signage is detected in the attended areas by using a bipartite graph matching. The proposed method can handle multiple signage detection. Furthermore, in order to provide more information for blind users to access the area associated with the detected signage, we develop a robust method to detect doors based on a geometric door frame model which is independent to door appearances. Experimental results on our collected datasets of indoor signage and doors demonstrate the effectiveness and efficiency of our proposed method.

  7. Mobile phone based imaging system for selected tele-healthcare applications

    OpenAIRE

    Condominas Guàrdia, Jordi

    2013-01-01

    A mobile phone based telemedicine study is developed to see how feasible phone usage is in selected health care applications. The research is divided into three different objectives. The first objective is to compile the technical characteristics of selected mobile phones from telemedicine perspective. The second objective is to develop techniques to acquire quality images of skin with mobile phones. Finally a smartphone based telemedicine application will be developed to asses...

  8. Wide-field fluorescent microscopy and fluorescent imaging flow cytometry on a cell-phone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Hongying; Ozcan, Aydogan

    2013-04-11

    Fluorescent microscopy and flow cytometry are widely used tools in biomedical research and clinical diagnosis. However these devices are in general relatively bulky and costly, making them less effective in the resource limited settings. To potentially address these limitations, we have recently demonstrated the integration of wide-field fluorescent microscopy and imaging flow cytometry tools on cell-phones using compact, light-weight, and cost-effective opto-fluidic attachments. In our flow cytometry design, fluorescently labeled cells are flushed through a microfluidic channel that is positioned above the existing cell-phone camera unit. Battery powered light-emitting diodes (LEDs) are butt-coupled to the side of this microfluidic chip, which effectively acts as a multi-mode slab waveguide, where the excitation light is guided to uniformly excite the fluorescent targets. The cell-phone camera records a time lapse movie of the fluorescent cells flowing through the microfluidic channel, where the digital frames of this movie are processed to count the number of the labeled cells within the target solution of interest. Using a similar opto-fluidic design, we can also image these fluorescently labeled cells in static mode by e.g. sandwiching the fluorescent particles between two glass slides and capturing their fluorescent images using the cell-phone camera, which can achieve a spatial resolution of e.g. - 10 μm over a very large field-of-view of - 81 mm(2). This cell-phone based fluorescent imaging flow cytometry and microscopy platform might be useful especially in resource limited settings, for e.g. counting of CD4+ T cells toward monitoring of HIV+ patients or for detection of water-borne parasites in drinking water.

  9. Data upload capability of 3G mobile phones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, Jon K; Barden, Charles M; Wohlers, Erica M

    2009-01-01

    Mobile phones are becoming an important platform to measure free-living energy balance and to support weight management therapies. Sensor data, camera images and user input are needed by clinicians and researchers in close to real time. We assessed upload (reverse link) data transport rates for 2007-2008 model mobile phones on two major US wireless systems. Even the slowest phone (EVDO Rev 0) reliably uploaded 40 MB of data in less than 1 h. More than 95% of file uploads were successful in tests that simulated normal phone use over 3 d. Practical bandwidth and data currency from typical smart phones will likely keep pace with the data needs of energy balance studies and weight management therapy.

  10. A Mobile Phone Application Enabling Visually Impaired Users to Find and Read Product Barcodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tekin, Ender; Coughlan, James M

    2010-07-01

    While there are many barcode readers available for identifying products in a supermarket or at home on mobile phones (e.g., Red Laser iPhone app), such readers are inaccessible to blind or visually impaired persons because of their reliance on visual feedback from the user to center the barcode in the camera's field of view. We describe a mobile phone application that guides a visually impaired user to the barcode on a package in real-time using the phone's built-in video camera. Once the barcode is located by the system, the user is prompted with audio signals to bring the camera closer to the barcode until it can be resolved by the camera, which is then decoded and the corresponding product information read aloud using text-to-speech. Experiments with a blind volunteer demonstrate proof of concept of our system, which allowed the volunteer to locate barcodes which were then translated to product information that was announced to the user. We successfully tested a series of common products, as well as user-generated barcodes labeling household items that may not come with barcodes.

  11. The future of consumer cameras

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battiato, Sebastiano; Moltisanti, Marco

    2015-03-01

    In the last two decades multimedia, and in particular imaging devices (camcorders, tablets, mobile phones, etc.) have been dramatically diffused. Moreover the increasing of their computational performances, combined with an higher storage capability, allows them to process large amount of data. In this paper an overview of the current trends of consumer cameras market and technology will be given, providing also some details about the recent past (from Digital Still Camera up today) and forthcoming key issues.

  12. Toward a Computer Vision-based Wayfinding Aid for Blind Persons to Access Unfamiliar Indoor Environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Yingli; Yang, Xiaodong; Yi, Chucai; Arditi, Aries

    2013-04-01

    Independent travel is a well known challenge for blind and visually impaired persons. In this paper, we propose a proof-of-concept computer vision-based wayfinding aid for blind people to independently access unfamiliar indoor environments. In order to find different rooms (e.g. an office, a lab, or a bathroom) and other building amenities (e.g. an exit or an elevator), we incorporate object detection with text recognition. First we develop a robust and efficient algorithm to detect doors, elevators, and cabinets based on their general geometric shape, by combining edges and corners. The algorithm is general enough to handle large intra-class variations of objects with different appearances among different indoor environments, as well as small inter-class differences between different objects such as doors and door-like cabinets. Next, in order to distinguish intra-class objects (e.g. an office door from a bathroom door), we extract and recognize text information associated with the detected objects. For text recognition, we first extract text regions from signs with multiple colors and possibly complex backgrounds, and then apply character localization and topological analysis to filter out background interference. The extracted text is recognized using off-the-shelf optical character recognition (OCR) software products. The object type, orientation, location, and text information are presented to the blind traveler as speech.

  13. An Adapted Wayfinding System for Pedestrians with Cognitive Disabilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Gomez

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a novel wayfinding system adapted to people with cognitive disabilities. It adapts to the user in terms of route calculation, instructions delivery, and interface design. To do so, the system divides the calculated route into atomic instructions and uses street-level photographs at the decision points. To evaluate this approach, we compared it with a commercial navigation application on a field trial with a sample of users (N = 18. From the evaluation, we concluded that our system improves users’ performance in terms of the number who reached the destination and were able to identify it correctly.

  14. Homography-based multiple-camera person-tracking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turk, Matthew R.

    2009-01-01

    Multiple video cameras are cheaply installed overlooking an area of interest. While computerized single-camera tracking is well-developed, multiple-camera tracking is a relatively new problem. The main multi-camera problem is to give the same tracking label to all projections of a real-world target. This is called the consistent labelling problem. Khan and Shah (2003) introduced a method to use field of view lines to perform multiple-camera tracking. The method creates inter-camera meta-target associations when objects enter at the scene edges. They also said that a plane-induced homography could be used for tracking, but this method was not well described. Their homography-based system would not work if targets use only one side of a camera to enter the scene. This paper overcomes this limitation and fully describes a practical homography-based tracker. A new method to find the feet feature is introduced. The method works especially well if the camera is tilted, when using the bottom centre of the target's bounding-box would produce inaccurate results. The new method is more accurate than the bounding-box method even when the camera is not tilted. Next, a method is presented that uses a series of corresponding point pairs "dropped" by oblivious, live human targets to find a plane-induced homography. The point pairs are created by tracking the feet locations of moving targets that were associated using the field of view line method. Finally, a homography-based multiple-camera tracking algorithm is introduced. Rules governing when to create the homography are specified. The algorithm ensures that homography-based tracking only starts after a non-degenerate homography is found. The method works when not all four field of view lines are discoverable; only one line needs to be found to use the algorithm. To initialize the system, the operator must specify pairs of overlapping cameras. Aside from that, the algorithm is fully automatic and uses the natural movement of

  15. Web Camera Based Eye Tracking to Assess Visual Memory on a Visual Paired Comparison Task

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas T. Bott

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Web cameras are increasingly part of the standard hardware of most smart devices. Eye movements can often provide a noninvasive “window on the brain,” and the recording of eye movements using web cameras is a burgeoning area of research.Objective: This study investigated a novel methodology for administering a visual paired comparison (VPC decisional task using a web camera.To further assess this method, we examined the correlation between a standard eye-tracking camera automated scoring procedure [obtaining images at 60 frames per second (FPS] and a manually scored procedure using a built-in laptop web camera (obtaining images at 3 FPS.Methods: This was an observational study of 54 clinically normal older adults.Subjects completed three in-clinic visits with simultaneous recording of eye movements on a VPC decision task by a standard eye tracker camera and a built-in laptop-based web camera. Inter-rater reliability was analyzed using Siegel and Castellan's kappa formula. Pearson correlations were used to investigate the correlation between VPC performance using a standard eye tracker camera and a built-in web camera.Results: Strong associations were observed on VPC mean novelty preference score between the 60 FPS eye tracker and 3 FPS built-in web camera at each of the three visits (r = 0.88–0.92. Inter-rater agreement of web camera scoring at each time point was high (κ = 0.81–0.88. There were strong relationships on VPC mean novelty preference score between 10, 5, and 3 FPS training sets (r = 0.88–0.94. Significantly fewer data quality issues were encountered using the built-in web camera.Conclusions: Human scoring of a VPC decisional task using a built-in laptop web camera correlated strongly with automated scoring of the same task using a standard high frame rate eye tracker camera.While this method is not suitable for eye tracking paradigms requiring the collection and analysis of fine-grained metrics, such as

  16. Mobile Phone Ratiometric Imaging Enables Highly Sensitive Fluorescence Lateral Flow Immunoassays without External Optical Filters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Kamal G; Singh, Vidhi; Kauffman, Peter C; Abe, Koji; Yager, Paul

    2018-05-14

    Paper-based diagnostic tests based on the lateral flow immunoassay concept promise low-cost, point-of-care detection of infectious diseases, but such assays suffer from poor limits of detection. One factor that contributes to poor analytical performance is a reliance on low-contrast chromophoric optical labels such as gold nanoparticles. Previous attempts to improve the sensitivity of paper-based diagnostics include replacing chromophoric labels with enzymes, fluorophores, or phosphors at the expense of increased fluidic complexity or the need for device readers with costly optoelectronics. Several groups, including our own, have proposed mobile phones as suitable point-of-care readers due to their low cost, ease of use, and ubiquity. However, extant mobile phone fluorescence readers require costly optical filters and were typically validated with only one camera sensor module, which is inappropriate for potential point-of-care use. In response, we propose to couple low-cost ultraviolet light-emitting diodes with long Stokes-shift quantum dots to enable ratiometric mobile phone fluorescence measurements without optical filters. Ratiometric imaging with unmodified smartphone cameras improves the contrast and attenuates the impact of excitation intensity variability by 15×. Practical application was shown with a lateral flow immunoassay for influenza A with nucleoproteins spiked into simulated nasal matrix. Limits of detection of 1.5 and 2.6 fmol were attained on two mobile phones, which are comparable to a gel imager (1.9 fmol), 10× better than imaging gold nanoparticles on a scanner (18 fmol), and >2 orders of magnitude better than gold nanoparticle-labeled assays imaged with mobile phones. Use of the proposed filter-free mobile phone imaging scheme is a first step toward enabling a new generation of highly sensitive, point-of-care fluorescence assays.

  17. iPhone 4 pocket genius

    CERN Document Server

    McFedries, Paul

    2010-01-01

    If you want to get the very most out of your iPhone 4, put this savvy Portable Genius guide to work. Want to chat face to face using the new FaceTime video calling? Create movie masterpieces with high-def video? Capture life's great moments with the 5-megapixel camera-now with zoom and flash? E-sort your favorite e-books? You'll find cool and useful Genius tips, full-color screenshots, and pages of easy-to-access shortcuts and tools that will save you loads of time and let you enjoy your iPhone 4 to the max.

  18. Evaluation of a cell phone-based physical activity diary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sternfeld, Barbara; Jiang, Sheng-Fang; Picchi, Teresa; Chasan-Taber, Lisa; Ainsworth, Barbara; Quesenberry, Charles P

    2012-03-01

    Physical activity (PA) diaries reduce the recall error inherent in self-reported PA but are burdensome. The purpose of this study was to compare a cell phone-based diary with a paper diary and examine the reliability and validity of the cell phone diary. In a pilot study, 25 women and 23 men, age 45-65 yr, completed cell phone and paper PA diaries 4 d·wk(-1) for three consecutive weeks and a user satisfaction survey. In the subsequent validation study, 623 middle-age participants (52.5% women) were asked to complete the cell phone diary and wear an accelerometer for two 7-d periods, approximately 6 months apart. They also completed two PA questionnaires. Fitness, body mass index, and percent body fat were obtained as indirect validation criteria. Estimates of PA from the cell phone and paper diaries were similar (mean within person difference = -43.8 MET·min·d(-1) of total PA, SD = 360, P = 0.49, 7.4 min·d(-1) of moderate-vigorous PA, SD = 66, P = 0.53). Users preferred the cell phone diary over the paper diary (59.6% vs 35.4%). In the subsequent study, intraclass correlations for the cell phone diary ranged from 0.55 for light PA to 0.63 for vigorous PA. Although PA estimates from the cell phone diary were generally significantly higher than those from the accelerometer and the questionnaires, correlations for moderate and vigorous PA were moderate (ρ = 0.25-0.59 with the questionnaires and 0.27-0.35 with the accelerometer). The correlations between the cell phone diary and the indirect validation criteria were generally in the expected direction and of moderate magnitude. A cell phone-based PA diary is equivalent to a paper diary, acceptable to users, and a relatively reliable and valid approach to self-reported PA.

  19. Mobile Phone Images and Video in Science Teaching and Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekanayake, Sakunthala Yatigammana; Wishart, Jocelyn

    2014-01-01

    This article reports a study into how mobile phones could be used to enhance teaching and learning in secondary school science. It describes four lessons devised by groups of Sri Lankan teachers all of which centred on the use of the mobile phone cameras rather than their communication functions. A qualitative methodological approach was used to…

  20. Smart phones and apps application in dermatology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meltem Önder

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Mobile phones are a device that is more than just a phone and more than a personel digital assistant.Nowadays a phone is as a powerful handheld computer,camera,video recorder,media player,GPS receiver,MP3 player,radio and as well as a communication tool. Smartphones (mobile phones with advanced computing capability are rapidly gaining new use with the advent of dowloadable applications known as ‘Apps’. There are a lot of medical apps avaliable.Dermatology themed smartphone apps were provided as reference materials,illustrated databases of common skin conditions for accessing online versions of popular dermatology textbook and journals;dermatology based questionnairs; including disease severity scoring calculators and /or providing automated photo analysers for skin lesions / as an electronic dermoscopy. Most of the apps applications are free of charge and can be easily dowloaded to smartphones. Furthermore the possibility to send and save both text and images by this technology seems perfectly tailored to dermatology.Recently electronic teaching and learning via smartphones are becoming very popular for medical students aswell. However there is relatively little research on medical uses and potential roles of them in dermatology.This article summarizes the curent trends in the ‘smartphone market’ and takes a glance at some dermatology apps ‘which are currently available.

  1. Identification of Mobile Phone and Analysis of Original Version of Videos through a Delay Time Analysis of Sound Signals from Mobile Phone Videos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Min Gu; Har, Dong Hwan

    2017-11-01

    This study designs a method of identifying the camera model used to take videos that are distributed through mobile phones and determines the original version of the mobile phone video for use as legal evidence. For this analysis, an experiment was conducted to find the unique characteristics of each mobile phone. The videos recorded by mobile phones were analyzed to establish the delay time of sound signals, and the differences between the delay times of sound signals for different mobile phones were traced by classifying their characteristics. Furthermore, the sound input signals for mobile phone videos used as legal evidence were analyzed to ascertain whether they have the unique characteristics of the original version. The objective of this study was to find a method for validating the use of mobile phone videos as legal evidence using mobile phones through differences in the delay times of sound input signals. © 2017 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  2. Implementation of smart phone video plethysmography and dependence on lighting parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fletcher, Richard Ribón; Chamberlain, Daniel; Paggi, Nicholas; Deng, Xinyue

    2015-08-01

    The remote measurement of heart rate (HR) and heart rate variability (HRV) via a digital camera (video plethysmography) has emerged as an area of great interest for biomedical and health applications. While a few implementations of video plethysmography have been demonstrated on smart phones under controlled lighting conditions, it has been challenging to create a general scalable solution due to the large variability in smart phone hardware performance, software architecture, and the variable response to lighting parameters. In this context, we present a selfcontained smart phone implementation of video plethysmography for Android OS, which employs both stochastic and deterministic algorithms, and we use this to study the effect of lighting parameters (illuminance, color spectrum) on the accuracy of the remote HR measurement. Using two different phone models, we present the median HR error for five different video plethysmography algorithms under three different types of lighting (natural sunlight, compact fluorescent, and halogen incandescent) and variations in brightness. For most algorithms, we found the optimum light brightness to be in the range 1000-4000 lux and the optimum lighting types to be compact fluorescent and natural light. Moderate errors were found for most algorithms with some devices under conditions of low-brightness (4000 lux). Our analysis also identified camera frame rate jitter as a major source of variability and error across different phone models, but this can be largely corrected through non-linear resampling. Based on testing with six human subjects, our real-time Android implementation successfully predicted the measured HR with a median error of -0.31 bpm, and an inter-quartile range of 2.1bpm.

  3. Mobile phone based ELISA (MELISA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhdanov, Arsenii; Keefe, Jordan; Franco-Waite, Luis; Konnaiyan, Karthik Raj; Pyayt, Anna

    2018-04-30

    Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) is one of the most important technologies for biochemical analysis critical for diagnosis and monitoring of many diseases. Traditional systems for ELISA incubation and reading are expensive and bulky, thus cannot be used at point-of-care or in the field. Here, we propose and demonstrate a new miniature mobile phone based system for ELISA (MELISA). This system can be used to complete all steps of the assay, including incubation and reading. It weighs just 1 pound, can be fabricated at low cost, portable, and can transfer test results via mobile phone. We successfully demonstrated how MELISA can be calibrated for accurate measurements of progesterone and demonstrated successful measurements with the calibrated system. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. DistancePPG: Robust non-contact vital signs monitoring using a camera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Mayank; Veeraraghavan, Ashok; Sabharwal, Ashutosh

    2015-01-01

    Vital signs such as pulse rate and breathing rate are currently measured using contact probes. But, non-contact methods for measuring vital signs are desirable both in hospital settings (e.g. in NICU) and for ubiquitous in-situ health tracking (e.g. on mobile phone and computers with webcams). Recently, camera-based non-contact vital sign monitoring have been shown to be feasible. However, camera-based vital sign monitoring is challenging for people with darker skin tone, under low lighting conditions, and/or during movement of an individual in front of the camera. In this paper, we propose distancePPG, a new camera-based vital sign estimation algorithm which addresses these challenges. DistancePPG proposes a new method of combining skin-color change signals from different tracked regions of the face using a weighted average, where the weights depend on the blood perfusion and incident light intensity in the region, to improve the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of camera-based estimate. One of our key contributions is a new automatic method for determining the weights based only on the video recording of the subject. The gains in SNR of camera-based PPG estimated using distancePPG translate into reduction of the error in vital sign estimation, and thus expand the scope of camera-based vital sign monitoring to potentially challenging scenarios. Further, a dataset will be released, comprising of synchronized video recordings of face and pulse oximeter based ground truth recordings from the earlobe for people with different skin tones, under different lighting conditions and for various motion scenarios. PMID:26137365

  5. Applying and extending ISO/TC42 digital camera resolution standards to mobile imaging products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Don; Burns, Peter D.

    2007-01-01

    There are no fundamental differences between today's mobile telephone cameras and consumer digital still cameras that suggest many existing ISO imaging performance standards do not apply. To the extent that they have lenses, color filter arrays, detectors, apertures, image processing, and are hand held, there really are no operational or architectural differences. Despite this, there are currently differences in the levels of imaging performance. These are driven by physical and economic constraints, and image-capture conditions. Several ISO standards for resolution, well established for digital consumer digital cameras, require care when applied to the current generation of cell phone cameras. In particular, accommodation of optical flare, shading non-uniformity and distortion are recommended. We offer proposals for the application of existing ISO imaging resolution performance standards to mobile imaging products, and suggestions for extending performance standards to the characteristic behavior of camera phones.

  6. Minimizing the Power Consumption of Location-Based Services on Mobile Phones

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjærgaard, Mikkel Baun

    2012-01-01

    Location-based services have to pay careful attention to their power consumption in order not to drain the batteries of mobile phones. It is not a simple task to build low power location-based services that can run for hours because such services make heavy use of many power consuming features...... of mobile phones. In this article we discuss the power consumption of location-based services and mobile phone features, survey methods for how to minimize power consumption and summarize a number of design considerations for location-based service developers....

  7. Finding Objects for Assisting Blind People

    OpenAIRE

    Yi, Chucai; Flores, Roberto W.; Chincha, Ricardo; Tian, YingLi

    2013-01-01

    Computer vision technology has been widely used for blind assistance, such as navigation and wayfinding. However, few camera-based systems are developed for helping blind or visually-impaired people to find daily necessities. In this paper, we propose a prototype system of blind-assistant object finding by camera-based network and matching-based recognition. We collect a dataset of daily necessities and apply Speeded-Up Robust Features (SURF) and Scale Invariant Feature Transform (SIFT) featu...

  8. Using a Smartphone Camera for Nanosatellite Attitude Determination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimmin, R.

    2014-09-01

    The PhoneSat project at NASA Ames Research Center has repeatedly flown a commercial cellphone in space. As this project continues, additional utility is being extracted from the cell phone hardware to enable more complex missions. The camera in particular shows great potential as an instrument for position and attitude determination, but this requires complex image processing. This paper outlines progress towards that image processing capability. Initial tests on a small collection of sample images have demonstrated the determination of a Moon vector from an image by automatic thresholding and centroiding, allowing the calibration of existing attitude control systems. Work has been undertaken on a further set of sample images towards horizon detection using a variety of techniques including thresholding, edge detection, applying a Hough transform, and circle fitting. Ultimately it is hoped this will allow calculation of an Earth vector for attitude determination and an approximate altitude. A quick discussion of work towards using the camera as a star tracker is then presented, followed by an introduction to further applications of the camera on space missions.

  9. Neurobehavioral effects among inhabitants around mobile phone base stations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Rassoul, G; El-Fateh, O Abou; Salem, M Abou; Michael, A; Farahat, F; El-Batanouny, M; Salem, E

    2007-03-01

    There is a general concern on the possible hazardous health effects of exposure to radiofrequency electromagnetic radiations (RFR) emitted from mobile phone base station antennas on the human nervous system. To identify the possible neurobehavioral deficits among inhabitants living nearby mobile phone base stations. A cross-sectional study was conducted on (85) inhabitants living nearby the first mobile phone station antenna in Menoufiya governorate, Egypt, 37 are living in a building under the station antenna while 48 opposite the station. A control group (80) participants were matched with the exposed for age, sex, occupation and educational level. All participants completed a structured questionnaire containing: personal, educational and medical histories; general and neurological examinations; neurobehavioral test battery (NBTB) [involving tests for visuomotor speed, problem solving, attention and memory]; in addition to Eysenck personality questionnaire (EPQ). The prevalence of neuropsychiatric complaints as headache (23.5%), memory changes (28.2%), dizziness (18.8%), tremors (9.4%), depressive symptoms (21.7%), and sleep disturbance (23.5%) were significantly higher among exposed inhabitants than controls: (10%), (5%), (5%), (0%), (8.8%) and (10%), respectively (Pstation exhibited a lower performance in the problem solving test (block design) than those under the station. All inhabitants exhibited a better performance in the two tests of visuomotor speed (Digit symbol and Trailmaking B) and one test of attention (Trailmaking A) than controls. The last available measures of RFR emitted from the first mobile phone base station antennas in Menoufiya governorate were less than the allowable standard level. Inhabitants living nearby mobile phone base stations are at risk for developing neuropsychiatric problems and some changes in the performance of neurobehavioral functions either by facilitation or inhibition. So, revision of standard guidelines for public

  10. Analysis of Consumer Preference of Mobile Phone throug the Use of Conjoint Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faisal Afzal Siddiqui

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to provide an introduction to conjoint analysis as a research tool, and to indicate its value for analyzing consumer preference based on the value that the consumers attach to the attributes of the goods that they intend to purchase. The study involves the use of the tool of conjoint Analysis to evaluate consumer preference vis.a.vis Brand, Price Level, FM Radio, and Camera. The results of the study indicate that the most important attribute behind consumer preference for mobile phones was Brand, followed by Price, then Camera, and finally FM Radio.

  11. Influence of Landmarks on Wayfinding and Brain Connectivity in Immersive Virtual Reality Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Greeshma Sharma

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Spatial navigation is influenced by landmarks, which are prominent visual features in the environment. Although previous research has focused on finding advantages of landmarks on wayfinding via experimentation; however, less attention has been given to identifying the key attributes of landmarks that facilitate wayfinding, including the study of neural correlates (involving electroencephalogram, EEG analyses. In this paper, we combine behavioral measures, virtual environment, and EEG signal-processing to provide a holistic investigation about the influence of landmarks on performance during navigation in a maze-like environment. In an experiment, participants were randomly divided into two conditions, Landmark-enriched (LM+; N = 17 and Landmark-devoid (LM-; N = 18, and asked to navigate from an initial location to a goal location in a maze. In the LM+ condition, there were landmarks placed at certain locations, which participants could use for wayfinding in the maze. However, in the LM- condition, such landmarks were not present. Beyond behavioral analyses of data, analyses were carried out of the EEG data collected using a 64-channel device. Results revealed that participants took less time and committed fewer errors in navigating the maze in the LM+ condition compared to the LM- condition. EEG analyses of the data revealed that the left-hemispheric activation was more prominent in the LM+ condition compared to the LM- condition. The event-related desynchronization/synchronization (ERD/ERS of the theta frequency band, revealed activation in the left posterior inferior and superior regions in the LM+ condition compared to the LM- condition, suggesting an occurrence of an object-location binding in the LM+ condition along with spatial transformation between representations. Moreover, directed transfer function method, which measures information flow between two regions, showed a higher number of active channels in the LM- condition compared to

  12. Optics for mobile phone imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vigier-Blanc, Emmanuelle E.

    2004-02-01

    Micro cameras for mobile phones require specific opto electronic designs using high-resolution micro technologies for compromising optical, electronical and mechanical requirements. The purpose of this conference is to present the optical critical parameters for imaging optics embedded into mobile phones. We will overview the optics critical parameters involved into micro optical cameras, as seen from user point of view, and their interdependence and relative influence onto optical performances of the product, as: -Focal length, field of view and array size. -Lens speed and depth of field: what is hidden behind lens speed, how to compromise small aperture, production tolerances, sensitivity, good resolution in corners and great depth of field -Relative illumination, this smooth fall off of intensity toward edge of array -Resolution; how to measure it, the interaction of pixel size, small dimensions -Sensitivity, insuring same sensitivity as human being under both twilight and midday sunny conditions. -Mischievous effects, as flare, glare, ghost effects and how to avoid them -How to match sensor spectrum and photopic eye curve: IR filter, and color balancing. We will compromise above parameters and see how to match with market needs and productivity insurance.

  13. Where is my car? Examining wayfinding behavior in a parking lot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Mora

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available This article examines wayfinding behavior in an extended parking lot belonging to one of the largest shopping malls in Santiago, Chile. About 500 people were followed while going to the mall and returning from it, and their trajectories were mapped and analyzed. The results indicate that inbound paths were, in average, 10% shorter that outbound paths, and that people stopped three times more frequently when leaving the mall than when accessing it. It is argued that these results are in line with previous research on the subject, which stress the importance of environmental information in shaping people`s behavior.

  14. Melanoma detection using a mobile phone app

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diniz, Luciano E.; Ennser, K.

    2016-03-01

    Mobile phones have had their processing power greatly increased since their invention a few decades ago. As a direct result of Moore's Law, this improvement has made available several applications that were impossible before. The aim of this project is to develop a mobile phone app, integrated with its camera coupled to an amplifying lens, to help distinguish melanoma. The proposed device has the capability of processing skin mole images and suggesting, using a score system, if it is a case of melanoma or not. This score system is based on the ABCDE signs of melanoma, and takes into account the area, the perimeter and the colors present in the nevus. It was calibrated and tested using images from the PH2 Dermoscopic Image Database from Pedro Hispano Hospital. The results show that the system created can be useful, with an accuracy of up to 100% for malign cases and 80% for benign cases (including common and atypical moles), when used in the test group.

  15. Hyperspectral imaging with near-infrared-enabled mobile phones for tissue oximetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Jonathan L.; Ghassemi, Pejhman; Chen, Yu; Pfefer, Joshua

    2018-02-01

    Hyperspectral reflectance imaging (HRI) is an emerging clinical tool for characterizing spatial and temporal variations in blood perfusion and oxygenation for applications such as burn assessment, wound healing, retinal exams and intraoperative tissue viability assessment. Since clinical HRI-based oximeters often use near-infrared (NIR) light, NIR-enabled mobile phones may provide a useful platform for future point-of-care devices. Furthermore, quantitative NIR imaging on mobile phones may dramatically increase the availability and accessibility of medical diagnostics for low-resource settings. We have evaluated the potential for phone-based NIR oximetry imaging and elucidated factors affecting performance using devices from two different manufacturers, as well as a scientific CCD. A broadband light source and liquid crystal tunable filter were used for imaging at 10 nm bands from 650 to 1000 nm. Spectral sensitivity measurements indicated that mobile phones with standard NIR blocking filters had minimal response beyond 700 nm, whereas one modified phone showed sensitivity to 800 nm and another to 1000 nm. Red pixel channels showed the greatest sensitivity up to 800 nm, whereas all channels provided essentially equivalent sensitivity at longer wavelengths. Referencing of blood oxygenation levels was performed with a CO-oximeter. HRI measurements were performed using cuvettes filled with hemoglobin solutions of different oxygen saturation levels. Good agreement between absorbance spectra measured with mobile phone and a CCD cameras were seen for wavelengths below 900 nm. Saturation estimates showed root-mean-squared-errors of 5.2% and 4.5% for the CCD and phone, respectively. Overall, this work provides strong evidence of the potential for mobile phones to provide quantitative spectral imaging in the NIR for applications such as oximetry, and generates practical insights into factors that impact performance as well as test methods for performance assessment.

  16. Mobile phone use patterns and preferences in safety net office-based buprenorphine patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tofighi, Babak; Grossman, Ellie; Buirkle, Emily; McNeely, Jennifer; Gourevitch, Marc; Lee, Joshua D

    2015-01-01

    Integrating mobile phone technologies in addiction treatment is of increasing importance and may optimize patient engagement with their care and enhance the delivery of existing treatment strategies. Few studies have evaluated mobile phone and text message (TM) use patterns in persons enrolled in addiction treatment, and none have assessed the use in safety net, office-based buprenorphine practices. A 28-item, quantitative and qualitative semistructured survey was administered to opiate-dependent adults in an urban, publicly funded, office-based buprenorphine program. Survey domains included demographic characteristics, mobile phone and TM use patterns, and preferences pertaining to their recovery. Surveyors approached 73 of the 155 eligible subjects (47%); 71 respondents completed the survey. Nearly all participants reported mobile phone ownership (93%) and TM use (93%), and most reported "very much" or "somewhat" comfort sending TM (79%). Text message contact with 12-step group sponsors, friends, family members, and counselors was also described (32%). Nearly all preferred having their providers' mobile phone number (94%), and alerting the clinic via TM in the event of a potential relapse to receive both supportive TM and a phone call from their buprenorphine provider was also well received (62%). Mobile phone and TM use patterns and preferences among this sample of office-based buprenorphine participants highlight the potential of adopting patient-centered mobile phone-based interventions in this treatment setting.

  17. Real-Time 3D Tracking and Reconstruction on Mobile Phones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prisacariu, Victor Adrian; Kähler, Olaf; Murray, David W; Reid, Ian D

    2015-05-01

    We present a novel framework for jointly tracking a camera in 3D and reconstructing the 3D model of an observed object. Due to the region based approach, our formulation can handle untextured objects, partial occlusions, motion blur, dynamic backgrounds and imperfect lighting. Our formulation also allows for a very efficient implementation which achieves real-time performance on a mobile phone, by running the pose estimation and the shape optimisation in parallel. We use a level set based pose estimation but completely avoid the, typically required, explicit computation of a global distance. This leads to tracking rates of more than 100 Hz on a desktop PC and 30 Hz on a mobile phone. Further, we incorporate additional orientation information from the phone's inertial sensor which helps us resolve the tracking ambiguities inherent to region based formulations. The reconstruction step first probabilistically integrates 2D image statistics from selected keyframes into a 3D volume, and then imposes coherency and compactness using a total variational regularisation term. The global optimum of the overall energy function is found using a continuous max-flow algorithm and we show that, similar to tracking, the integration of per voxel posteriors instead of likelihoods improves the precision and accuracy of the reconstruction.

  18. Epidemiological evidence for a health risk from mobile phone base stations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khurana, Vini G; Hardell, Lennart; Everaert, Joris; Bortkiewicz, Alicja; Carlberg, Michael; Ahonen, Mikko

    2010-01-01

    Human populations are increasingly exposed to microwave/radiofrequency (RF) emissions from wireless communication technology, including mobile phones and their base stations. By searching PubMed, we identified a total of 10 epidemiological studies that assessed for putative health effects of mobile phone base stations. Seven of these studies explored the association between base station proximity and neurobehavioral effects and three investigated cancer. We found that eight of the 10 studies reported increased prevalence of adverse neurobehavioral symptoms or cancer in populations living at distances base stations. None of the studies reported exposure above accepted international guidelines, suggesting that current guidelines may be inadequate in protecting the health of human populations. We believe that comprehensive epidemiological studies of long-term mobile phone base station exposure are urgently required to more definitively understand its health impact.

  19. Radiation area monitoring by wireless-communicating area monitor with surveillance camera

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimura, Mitsuo; Kobayashi, Hiromitsu; Kitahara, Hideki; Kobayashi, Hironobu; Okamoto, Shinji

    2004-01-01

    Aiming at a dose reduction and a work efficiency improvement for nuclear power plants that have high dose regions, we have developed our system of wireless-communicating Area Monitor with Surveillance Camera, and have performed an on-site test. Now we are implementing this Area Monitor with Surveillance Camera for a use as a TV camera in the controlled-area, which enables a personal computer to simultaneously display two or more dose values and site live images on the screen. For the radiation detector of this Area Monitor System, our wireless-communicating dosimeter is utilized. Image data are transmitted via a wireless Local Area Network (LAN). As a test result, image transmission of a maximum of 20 frames per second has been realized, which shows that this concept is a practical application. Remote-site monitoring also has been realized from an office desk located within the non-controlled area, adopting a Japan's wireless phone system, PHS (Personal Handy Phone) for the transmission interface. (author)

  20. Mobile phones, mobile phone base stations and cancer: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moulder, J E; Foster, K R; Erdreich, L S; McNamee, J P

    2005-03-01

    There have been reports in the media and claims in the courts that radiofrequency (RF) emissions from mobile phones are a cause of cancer, and there have been numerous public objections to the siting of mobile phone base antennas because of a fear of cancer. This review summarizes the current state of evidence concerning whether the RF energy used for wireless communication might be carcinogenic. Relevant studies were identified by searching MedLine with a combination of exposure and endpoint terms. This was supplemented by a review of the over 1700 citations assembled by the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) International Committee on Electromagnetic Safety as part of their updating of the IEEE C95.1 RF energy safety guidelines. Where there were multiple studies, preference was given to recent reports, to positive reports of effects and to attempts to confirm such positive reports. Biophysical considerations indicate that there is little theoretical basis for anticipating that RF energy would have significant biological effects at the power levels used by modern mobile phones and their base station antennas. The epidemiological evidence for a causal association between cancer and RF energy is weak and limited. Animal studies have provided no consistent evidence that exposure to RF energy at non-thermal intensities causes or promotes cancer. Extensive in vitro studies have found no consistent evidence of genotoxic potential, but in vitro studies assessing the epigenetic potential of RF energy are limited. Overall, a weight-of-evidence evaluation shows that the current evidence for a causal association between cancer and exposure to RF energy is weak and unconvincing. However, the existing epidemiology is limited and the possibility of epigenetic effects has not been thoroughly evaluated, so that additional research in those areas will be required for a more thorough assessment of the possibility of a causal connection between cancer and the

  1. Simulation-based camera navigation training in laparoscopy-a randomized trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nilsson, Cecilia; Sørensen, Jette Led; Konge, Lars

    2017-01-01

    patient safety. The objectives of this trial were to examine how to train laparoscopic camera navigation and to explore the transfer of skills to the operating room. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A randomized, single-center superiority trial with three groups: The first group practiced simulation-based camera...... navigation tasks (camera group), the second group practiced performing a simulation-based cholecystectomy (procedure group), and the third group received no training (control group). Participants were surgical novices without prior laparoscopic experience. The primary outcome was assessment of camera.......033), had a higher score. CONCLUSIONS: Simulation-based training improves the technical skills required for camera navigation, regardless of practicing camera navigation or the procedure itself. Transfer to the clinical setting could, however, not be demonstrated. The control group demonstrated higher...

  2. Graphics hardware accelerated panorama builder for mobile phones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bordallo López, Miguel; Hannuksela, Jari; Silvén, Olli; Vehviläinen, Markku

    2009-02-01

    Modern mobile communication devices frequently contain built-in cameras allowing users to capture highresolution still images, but at the same time the imaging applications are facing both usability and throughput bottlenecks. The difficulties in taking ad hoc pictures of printed paper documents with multi-megapixel cellular phone cameras on a common business use case, illustrate these problems for anyone. The result can be examined only after several seconds, and is often blurry, so a new picture is needed, although the view-finder image had looked good. The process can be a frustrating one with waits and the user not being able to predict the quality beforehand. The problems can be traced to the processor speed and camera resolution mismatch, and application interactivity demands. In this context we analyze building mosaic images of printed documents from frames selected from VGA resolution (640x480 pixel) video. High interactivity is achieved by providing real-time feedback on the quality, while simultaneously guiding the user actions. The graphics processing unit of the mobile device can be used to speed up the reconstruction computations. To demonstrate the viability of the concept, we present an interactive document scanning application implemented on a Nokia N95 mobile phone.

  3. Photography in Dermatologic Surgery: Selection of an Appropriate Camera Type for a Particular Clinical Application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Brian R; Poon, Emily; Alam, Murad

    2017-08-01

    Photographs are an essential tool for the documentation and sharing of findings in dermatologic surgery, and various camera types are available. To evaluate the currently available camera types in view of the special functional needs of procedural dermatologists. Mobile phone, point and shoot, digital single-lens reflex (DSLR), digital medium format, and 3-dimensional cameras were compared in terms of their usefulness for dermatologic surgeons. For each camera type, the image quality, as well as the other practical benefits and limitations, were evaluated with reference to a set of ideal camera characteristics. Based on these assessments, recommendations were made regarding the specific clinical circumstances in which each camera type would likely be most useful. Mobile photography may be adequate when ease of use, availability, and accessibility are prioritized. Point and shoot cameras and DSLR cameras provide sufficient resolution for a range of clinical circumstances, while providing the added benefit of portability. Digital medium format cameras offer the highest image quality, with accurate color rendition and greater color depth. Three-dimensional imaging may be optimal for the definition of skin contour. The selection of an optimal camera depends on the context in which it will be used.

  4. Novel computer-based endoscopic camera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabinovitz, R.; Hai, N.; Abraham, Martin D.; Adler, Doron; Nissani, M.; Fridental, Ron; Vitsnudel, Ilia

    1995-05-01

    We have introduced a computer-based endoscopic camera which includes (a) unique real-time digital image processing to optimize image visualization by reducing over exposed glared areas and brightening dark areas, and by accentuating sharpness and fine structures, and (b) patient data documentation and management. The image processing is based on i Sight's iSP1000TM digital video processor chip and Adaptive SensitivityTM patented scheme for capturing and displaying images with wide dynamic range of light, taking into account local neighborhood image conditions and global image statistics. It provides the medical user with the ability to view images under difficult lighting conditions, without losing details `in the dark' or in completely saturated areas. The patient data documentation and management allows storage of images (approximately 1 MB per image for a full 24 bit color image) to any storage device installed into the camera, or to an external host media via network. The patient data which is included with every image described essential information on the patient and procedure. The operator can assign custom data descriptors, and can search for the stored image/data by typing any image descriptor. The camera optics has extended zoom range of f equals 20 - 45 mm allowing control of the diameter of the field which is displayed on the monitor such that the complete field of view of the endoscope can be displayed on all the area of the screen. All these features provide versatile endoscopic camera with excellent image quality and documentation capabilities.

  5. Kilohoku Ho`okele Wa`a : Astronomy of the Modern Hawaiian Wayfinders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha`o, Celeste; Dye, Ahia G.; Slater, Stephanie J.; Slater, Timothy F.; Baybayan, Kalepa

    2015-08-01

    This paper provides an introduction to Kilohoku Ho`okele Wa`a, the astronomy of the Hawaiian wayfinders. Rooted in a legacy of navigation across the Polynesian triangle, wayfinding astronomy has been part of a suite of skills that allows navigators to deliberately hop between the small islands of the Pacific, for thousands of years. Forty years ago, in one manifestation of the Hawaiian Renaissance, our teachers demonstrated that ancient Hawaiians were capable of traversing the wide Pacific to settle and trade on islands separated by thousands of miles. Today those same mentors train a new generation of navigators, making Hawaiian voyaging a living, evolving, sustainable endeavor. This paper presents two components of astronomical knowledge that all crewmen, but particularly those in training to become navigators, learn early in their training. Na Ohana Hoku, the Hawaiian Star Families constitute the basic units of the Hawaiian sky. In contrast to the Western system of 88 constellations, Na Ohana Hoku divides the sky into four sections that each run from the northern to the southern poles. This configuration reduces cognitive load, allowing the navigator to preserve working memory for other complex tasks. In addition, these configurations of stars support the navigator in finding and generatively using hundreds of individual, and navigationally important pairs of stars. The Hawaiian Star Compass divides the celestial sphere into a directional system that uses 32 rather than 8 cardinal points. Within the tropics, the rising and setting of celestial objects are consistent within the Hawaiian Star Compass, providing for extremely reliable direction finding. Together, Na Ohana Hoku and the Hawaiian Star Compass provide the tropical navigator with astronomical assistance that is not available to, and would have been unknown to Western navigators trained at higher latitudes.

  6. E-Learning over Mobile Phone Technology: Best Practices and Guidelines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferial Khaddage

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Over the past decade, we have seen a large advancement in picture and sound quality that is now offered through mobile phones. Through this advancement we have now seen the development of mobile phones that have cameras that can take picture and videos. They can also play music, provide internet services, pay-per-view TV, radio, and even hi-res computer games are now becoming available to mobile phone users. With all these available services that are now offered through mobile phone, we now believe that those who provide E-learning materials can now provide their presentations that is clear and concise, but also make their materials fun and enjoyable so that it does not have the opposite effect of learning. In this brief paper, we covered some of the best practices and guidelines that course designers could use in guiding them to provide E-learning material over mobile phones.

  7. Principal axis-based correspondence between multiple cameras for people tracking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Weiming; Hu, Min; Zhou, Xue; Tan, Tieniu; Lou, Jianguang; Maybank, Steve

    2006-04-01

    Visual surveillance using multiple cameras has attracted increasing interest in recent years. Correspondence between multiple cameras is one of the most important and basic problems which visual surveillance using multiple cameras brings. In this paper, we propose a simple and robust method, based on principal axes of people, to match people across multiple cameras. The correspondence likelihood reflecting the similarity of pairs of principal axes of people is constructed according to the relationship between "ground-points" of people detected in each camera view and the intersections of principal axes detected in different camera views and transformed to the same view. Our method has the following desirable properties: 1) Camera calibration is not needed. 2) Accurate motion detection and segmentation are less critical due to the robustness of the principal axis-based feature to noise. 3) Based on the fused data derived from correspondence results, positions of people in each camera view can be accurately located even when the people are partially occluded in all views. The experimental results on several real video sequences from outdoor environments have demonstrated the effectiveness, efficiency, and robustness of our method.

  8. Mobile phone base stations and adverse health effects: phase 1 of a population-based, cross-sectional study in Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blettner, M; Schlehofer, B; Breckenkamp, J; Kowall, B; Schmiedel, S; Reis, U; Potthoff, P; Schüz, J; Berg-Beckhoff, G

    2009-02-01

    The aim of this first phase of a cross-sectional study from Germany was to investigate whether proximity of residence to mobile phone base stations as well as risk perception is associated with health complaints. The researchers conducted a population-based, multi-phase, cross-sectional study within the context of a large panel survey regularly carried out by a private research institute in Germany. In the initial phase, reported on in this paper, 30,047 persons from a total of 51,444 who took part in the nationwide survey also answered questions on how mobile phone base stations affected their health. A list of 38 health complaints was used. A multiple linear regression model was used to identify predictors of health complaints including proximity of residence to mobile phone base stations and risk perception. Of the 30,047 participants (response rate 58.6%), 18.7% of participants were concerned about adverse health effects of mobile phone base stations, while an additional 10.3% attributed their personal adverse health effects to the exposure from them. Participants who were concerned about or attributed adverse health effects to mobile phone base stations and those living in the vicinity of a mobile phone base station (500 m) reported slightly more health complaints than others. A substantial proportion of the German population is concerned about adverse health effects caused by exposure from mobile phone base stations. The observed slightly higher prevalence of health complaints near base stations can not however be fully explained by attributions or concerns.

  9. Dynamic Human Body Modeling Using a Single RGB Camera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Haiyu; Yu, Yao; Zhou, Yu; Du, Sidan

    2016-03-18

    In this paper, we present a novel automatic pipeline to build personalized parametric models of dynamic people using a single RGB camera. Compared to previous approaches that use monocular RGB images, our system can model a 3D human body automatically and incrementally, taking advantage of human motion. Based on coarse 2D and 3D poses estimated from image sequences, we first perform a kinematic classification of human body parts to refine the poses and obtain reconstructed body parts. Next, a personalized parametric human model is generated by driving a general template to fit the body parts and calculating the non-rigid deformation. Experimental results show that our shape estimation method achieves comparable accuracy with reconstructed models using depth cameras, yet requires neither user interaction nor any dedicated devices, leading to the feasibility of using this method on widely available smart phones.

  10. Data and image transfer using mobile phones to strengthen microscopy-based diagnostic services in low and middle income country laboratories.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coosje J Tuijn

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The emerging market of mobile phone technology and its use in the health sector is rapidly expanding and connecting even the most remote areas of world. Distributing diagnostic images over the mobile network for knowledge sharing, feedback or quality control is a logical innovation. OBJECTIVE: To determine the feasibility of using mobile phones for capturing microscopy images and transferring these to a central database for assessment, feedback and educational purposes. METHODS: A feasibility study was carried out in Uganda. Images of microscopy samples were taken using a prototype connector that could fix a variety of mobile phones to a microscope. An Information Technology (IT platform was set up for data transfer from a mobile phone to a website, including feedback by text messaging to the end user. RESULTS: Clear images were captured using mobile phone cameras of 2 megapixels (MP up to 5MP. Images were sent by mobile Internet to a website where they were visualized and feedback could be provided to the sender by means of text message. CONCLUSION: The process of capturing microscopy images on mobile phones, relaying them to a central review website and feeding back to the sender is feasible and of potential benefit in resource poor settings. Even though the system needs further optimization, it became evident from discussions with stakeholders that there is a demand for this type of technology.

  11. LAMOST CCD camera-control system based on RTS2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Yuan; Wang, Zheng; Li, Jian; Cao, Zi-Huang; Dai, Wei; Wei, Shou-Lin; Zhao, Yong-Heng

    2018-05-01

    The Large Sky Area Multi-Object Fiber Spectroscopic Telescope (LAMOST) is the largest existing spectroscopic survey telescope, having 32 scientific charge-coupled-device (CCD) cameras for acquiring spectra. Stability and automation of the camera-control software are essential, but cannot be provided by the existing system. The Remote Telescope System 2nd Version (RTS2) is an open-source and automatic observatory-control system. However, all previous RTS2 applications were developed for small telescopes. This paper focuses on implementation of an RTS2-based camera-control system for the 32 CCDs of LAMOST. A virtual camera module inherited from the RTS2 camera module is built as a device component working on the RTS2 framework. To improve the controllability and robustness, a virtualized layer is designed using the master-slave software paradigm, and the virtual camera module is mapped to the 32 real cameras of LAMOST. The new system is deployed in the actual environment and experimentally tested. Finally, multiple observations are conducted using this new RTS2-framework-based control system. The new camera-control system is found to satisfy the requirements for automatic camera control in LAMOST. This is the first time that RTS2 has been applied to a large telescope, and provides a referential solution for full RTS2 introduction to the LAMOST observatory control system.

  12. Neutron imaging system based on a video camera

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dinca, M.

    2004-01-01

    The non-destructive testing with cold, thermal, epithermal or fast neutrons is nowadays more and more useful because the world-wide level of industrial development requires considerably higher standards of quality of manufactured products and reliability of technological processes especially where any deviation from standards could result in large-scale catastrophic consequences or human loses. Thanks to their properties, easily obtained and very good discrimination of the materials that penetrate, the thermal neutrons are the most used probe. The methods involved for this technique have advanced from neutron radiography based on converter screens and radiological films to neutron radioscopy based on video cameras, that is, from static images to dynamic images. Many neutron radioscopy systems have been used in the past with various levels of success. The quality of an image depends on the quality of the neutron beam and the type of the neutron imaging system. For real time investigations there are involved tube type cameras, CCD cameras and recently CID cameras that capture the image from an appropriate scintillator through the agency of a mirror. The analog signal of the camera is then converted into digital signal by the signal processing technology included into the camera. The image acquisition card or frame grabber from a PC converts the digital signal into an image. The image is formatted and processed by image analysis software. The scanning position of the object is controlled by the computer that commands the electrical motors that move horizontally, vertically and rotate the table of the object. Based on this system, a lot of static image acquisitions, real time non-destructive investigations of dynamic processes and finally, tomographic investigations of the small objects are done in a short time. A system based on a CID camera is presented. Fundamental differences between CCD and CID cameras lie in their pixel readout structure and technique. CIDs

  13. Multidimensional control using a mobile-phone based brain-muscle-computer interface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vernon, Scott; Joshi, Sanjay S

    2011-01-01

    Many well-known brain-computer interfaces measure signals at the brain, and then rely on the brain's ability to learn via operant conditioning in order to control objects in the environment. In our lab, we have been developing brain-muscle-computer interfaces, which measure signals at a single muscle and then rely on the brain's ability to learn neuromuscular skills via operant conditioning. Here, we report a new mobile-phone based brain-muscle-computer interface prototype for severely paralyzed persons, based on previous results from our group showing that humans may actively create specified power levels in two separate frequency bands of a single sEMG signal. Electromyographic activity on the surface of a single face muscle (Auricularis superior) is recorded with a standard electrode. This analog electrical signal is imported into an Android-based mobile phone. User-modulated power in two separate frequency band serves as two separate and simultaneous control channels for machine control. After signal processing, the Android phone sends commands to external devices via Bluetooth. Users are trained to use the device via biofeedback, with simple cursor-to-target activities on the phone screen.

  14. Wayfinding characteristics and familiarity indexes in an urban environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Najafpour

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Many people are encountered with finding the best way to reach to their destination. One definition for wayfinding is “the act of travelling to the destination by continuous processes of making route-choices whilst evaluating previous spatial decisions against stable cognition of the environment.  General understanding and keen appraisal of the environment can aid decision-making process of how to navigate around an area in the form of mental schemas. However, having a level of familiarity and attachment to a place is the underlying factor. The study is aimed at evaluating what is the level of familiarity of people and what is their attachment to notable landmarks in the town of Muar, Malaysia. To do so, the traditional survey analysis with the focus on data set that is attributed to a specific phenomenon and the quantifiable variable using statistical analysis on the tabularized format is undertaken.

  15. Finding Objects for Assisting Blind People.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Chucai; Flores, Roberto W; Chincha, Ricardo; Tian, Yingli

    2013-07-01

    Computer vision technology has been widely used for blind assistance, such as navigation and wayfinding. However, few camera-based systems are developed for helping blind or visually-impaired people to find daily necessities. In this paper, we propose a prototype system of blind-assistant object finding by camera-based network and matching-based recognition. We collect a dataset of daily necessities and apply Speeded-Up Robust Features (SURF) and Scale Invariant Feature Transform (SIFT) feature descriptors to perform object recognition. Experimental results demonstrate the effectiveness of our prototype system.

  16. External Mask Based Depth and Light Field Camera

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-08

    External mask based depth and light field camera Dikpal Reddy NVIDIA Research Santa Clara, CA dikpalr@nvidia.com Jiamin Bai University of California...passive depth acquisition technology is illustrated by the emergence of light field camera companies like Lytro [1], Raytrix [2] and Pelican Imaging

  17. The 'wayfinding' experience of family carers who learn to manage technical health procedures at home: a grounded theory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Janet; McKinlay, Eileen; Keeling, Sally; Levack, William

    2017-12-01

    With more care taking place in the home, family carers play an important role in supporting patients. Some family carers undertake technical health procedures generally managed by health professionals in hospital settings (e.g. managing a tracheostomy or enteral feeding). To explore how family carers learn to manage technical health procedures in order to help health professionals better understand and support this process. A grounded theory study using data from interviews with 26 New Zealand family carers who managed technical health procedures including nasogastric or gastrostomy feeding, stoma care, urinary catheterisation, tracheostomy management, intravenous therapy, diabetes management and complex wound dressings. Most (20 participants) were caring for their child and the remaining six for their spouse, parent or grandparent. Following grounded theory methods, each interview was coded soon after completion. Additional data were compared with existing material, and as analysis proceeded, initial codes were grouped into higher order concepts until a core concept was developed. Interviewing continued until no new ideas emerged and concepts were well defined. The core concept of 'wayfinding' indicates that the learning process for family carers is active, individualised and multi-influenced, developing over time as a response to lived experience. Health professional support was concentrated on the initial phase of carers' training, reducing and becoming more reactive as carers took responsibility for day-to-day management. Wayfinding involves self-navigation by carers, in contrast to patient navigator models which provide continuing professional assistance to patients receiving cancer or chronic care services. Wayfinding by carers raises questions about how carers should be best supported in their initial and ongoing learning as the management of these procedures changes over time. © 2017 Nordic College of Caring Science.

  18. Determination of exposure due to mobile phone base stations in an epidemiological study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neitzke, H. P.; Osterhoff, J.; Peklo, K.; Voigt, H.

    2007-01-01

    To investigate a supposed relationship between exposure by mobile phone base stations and well-being, an epidemiological cross sectional study is carried out within the German Mobile Telecommunication Research Program. In a parallel project, a method for the classification of electromagnetic exposure due to mobile phone base stations has been developed. This is based on the results of measurements of high frequency immissions in the interior of more than 1100 rooms and at outdoor locations, the calculation of the emissions of mobile phone antennas under free space propagation conditions and empirically determined transmission factors for the propagation of electromagnetic waves in different types of residential areas for passage of walls and windows. Standard tests (correlation-test, kappa-test, Bland-Altman-Plot, analysis of sensitivity and specificity) show that the method for computational exposure assessment developed in this project is applicable for a first classification of exposures due to mobile phone base stations in epidemiological studies. (authors)

  19. Phone Application Based Wireless Application Protocol (Wap)

    OpenAIRE

    Berrie Nugraha Adiwinata; Sunarto Usna

    2001-01-01

    WAP mobile phone sales in Indonesia is quite high, evidenced by a recent survey saidnearly about 5% of mobile phone users in Indonesia is a mobile phone using WAPtechnology. For those who always need accurate information and quick. WAPtechnology a ride on a GSM network still has weaknesses such as an expensiveaccess costs. But do not close the possibility that one day we will get a perfect WAPphones.

  20. Camera Based Navigation System with Augmented Reality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Marcu

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays smart mobile devices have enough processing power, memory, storage and always connected wireless communication bandwidth that makes them available for any type of application. Augmented reality (AR proposes a new type of applications that tries to enhance the real world by superimposing or combining virtual objects or computer generated information with it. In this paper we present a camera based navigation system with augmented reality integration. The proposed system aims to the following: the user points the camera of the smartphone towards a point of interest, like a building or any other place, and the application searches for relevant information about that specific place and superimposes the data over the video feed on the display. When the user moves the camera away, changing its orientation, the data changes as well, in real-time, with the proper information about the place that is now in the camera view.

  1. Novel versatile smart phone based Microplate readers for on-site diagnoses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Qiangqiang; Wu, Ze; Li, Xiuqing; Yao, Cuize; Yu, Shiting; Xiao, Wei; Tang, Yong

    2016-07-15

    Microplate readers are important diagnostic instruments, used intensively for various readout test kits (biochemical analysis kits and ELISA kits). However, due to their expensive and non-portability, commercial microplate readers are unavailable for home testing, community and rural hospitals, especially in developing countries. In this study, to provide a field-portable, cost-effective and versatile diagnostic tool, we reported a novel smart phone based microplate reader. The basic principle of this devise relies on a smart phone's optical sensor that measures transmitted light intensities of liquid samples. To prove the validity of these devises, developed smart phone based microplate readers were applied to readout results of various analytical targets. These targets included analanine aminotransferase (ALT; limit of detection (LOD) was 17.54 U/L), alkaline phosphatase (AKP; LOD was 15.56 U/L), creatinine (LOD was 1.35μM), bovine serum albumin (BSA; LOD was 0.0041mg/mL), prostate specific antigen (PSA; LOD was 0.76pg/mL), and ractopamine (Rac; LOD was 0.31ng/mL). The developed smart phone based microplate readers are versatile, portable, and inexpensive; they are unique because of their ability to perform under circumstances where resources and expertize are limited. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Radiation safety of mobile phones and base stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jokela, K.; Leszczynski, D.; Paile, W.; Salomaa, S.; Puranen, L.; Hyysalo, P.

    1997-06-01

    The recent expansion of personal telecommunications has led to a rapid increase in the exposure of people to the radio-frequency (RF) radiation. Although the mobile phones are low power devices, the antenna is so close to the head that the local exposure may slightly exceed 2 W/kg, the current exposure limit for the local specific absorption rate SAR for the general public. The increase in the temperature is, however, too small to have any physiological significance. On the basis of experiments with cell cultures it is possible that other biological effects caused by some unknown non-thermal mechanism exist, but thus far there is conclusive biological or epidemiological evidence to suggest any diseases adverse physiological changes below the thermal threshold. The use of a mobile phone by a person wearing a pace-maker, the immunity which against the electromagnetic interference from the mobile phone has not be assured, is not recommended. The exposure caused by the base stations is in almost all practical ceases all below the power density limits for general public. (orig.) (115 refs.)

  3. Developing a Behavioral Model for Mobile Phone-Based Diabetes Interventions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nundy, Shantanu; Dick, Jonathan J.; Solomon, Marla C.; Peek, Monica E.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives Behavioral models for mobile phone-based diabetes interventions are lacking. This study explores the potential mechanisms by which a text message-based diabetes program affected self-management among African-Americans. Methods We conducted in-depth, individual interviews among 18 African-American patients with type 2 diabetes who completed a 4-week text message-based diabetes program. Each interview was audio- taped, transcribed verbatim, and imported into Atlas.ti software. Coding was done iteratively. Emergent themes were mapped onto existing behavioral constructs and then used to develop a novel behavioral model for mobile phone-based diabetes self-management programs. Results The effects of the text message-based program went beyond automated reminders. The constant, daily communications reduced denial of diabetes and reinforced the importance of self-management (Rosenstock Health Belief Model). Responding positively to questions about self-management increased mastery experience (Bandura Self-Efficacy). Most surprisingly, participants perceived the automated program as a “friend” and “support group” that monitored and supported their self-management behaviors (Barrera Social Support). Conclusions A mobile phone-based diabetes program affected self-management through multiple behavioral constructs including health beliefs, self-efficacy, and social support. Practice implications: Disease management programs that utilize mobile technologies should be designed to leverage existing models of behavior change and can address barriers to self-management associated with health disparities. PMID:23063349

  4. Cell phones and cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cancer and cell phones; Do cell phones cause cancer? ... Several major studies show no link between cell phones and cancer at this time. However, since the information available is based on short-term studies, the impact of many years of ...

  5. A generic model for camera based intelligent road crowd control ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This research proposes a model for intelligent traffic flow control by implementing camera based surveillance and feedback system. A series of cameras are set minimum three signals ahead from the target junction. The complete software system is developed to help integrating the multiple camera on road as feedback to ...

  6. A dual-mode mobile phone microscope using the onboard camera flash and ambient light.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orth, A; Wilson, E R; Thompson, J G; Gibson, B C

    2018-02-19

    Mobile phone microscopes are a natural platform for point-of-care imaging, but current solutions require an externally powered illumination source, thereby adding bulk and cost. We present a mobile phone microscope that uses the internal flash or sunlight as the illumination source, thereby reducing complexity whilst maintaining functionality and performance. The microscope is capable of both brightfield and darkfield imaging modes, enabling microscopic visualisation of samples ranging from plant to mammalian cells. We describe the microscope design principles, assembly process, and demonstrate its imaging capabilities through the visualisation of unlabelled cell nuclei to observing the motility of cattle sperm and zooplankton.

  7. A cell-phone-based brain-computer interface for communication in daily life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yu-Te; Wang, Yijun; Jung, Tzyy-Ping

    2011-04-01

    Moving a brain-computer interface (BCI) system from a laboratory demonstration to real-life applications still poses severe challenges to the BCI community. This study aims to integrate a mobile and wireless electroencephalogram (EEG) system and a signal-processing platform based on a cell phone into a truly wearable and wireless online BCI. Its practicality and implications in a routine BCI are demonstrated through the realization and testing of a steady-state visual evoked potential (SSVEP)-based BCI. This study implemented and tested online signal processing methods in both time and frequency domains for detecting SSVEPs. The results of this study showed that the performance of the proposed cell-phone-based platform was comparable, in terms of the information transfer rate, with other BCI systems using bulky commercial EEG systems and personal computers. To the best of our knowledge, this study is the first to demonstrate a truly portable, cost-effective and miniature cell-phone-based platform for online BCIs.

  8. Whole body scan system based on γ camera

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma Tianyu; Jin Yongjie

    2001-01-01

    Most existing domestic γ cameras can not perform whole body scan protocol, which is of important use in clinic. The authors designed a set of whole body scan system, which is made up of a scan bed, an ISA interface card controlling the scan bed and the data acquisition software based on a data acquisition and image processing system for γ cameras. The image was obtained in clinical experiment, and the authors think it meets the need of clinical diagnosis. Application of this system in γ cameras can provide whole body scan function at low cost

  9. HEDONIC ANALYSIS OF CELL PHONES SOLD WITH POST-PAID SERVICE PLANS IN BRAZIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cláudio R. Lucinda

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to analyze the determining factors for the pricing of handsets sold with service plans, using the hedonic price method. This was undertaken by building a database comprising 48 handset models, under nine different service plans, over a period of 53 weeks in 2008, and resulted in 27 different attributes and a total number of nearly 300,000 data registers. The results suggest that the value of monthly subscriptions and calling minutes are important to explain the prices of handsets. Furthermore, both the physical volume and number of megapixels of a camera had an effect on the prices. The bigger the handset, the cheaper it becomes, and the more megapixels a camera phone has, the more expensive it becomes. Additionally, it was found that in 2008 Brazilian phone companies were subsidizing enabled data connection handsets.

  10. Global Calibration of Multiple Cameras Based on Sphere Targets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junhua Sun

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Global calibration methods for multi-camera system are critical to the accuracy of vision measurement. Proposed in this paper is such a method based on several groups of sphere targets and a precision auxiliary camera. Each camera to be calibrated observes a group of spheres (at least three, while the auxiliary camera observes all the spheres. The global calibration can be achieved after each camera reconstructs the sphere centers in its field of view. In the process of reconstructing a sphere center, a parameter equation is used to describe the sphere projection model. Theoretical analysis and computer simulation are carried out to analyze the factors that affect the calibration accuracy. Simulation results show that the parameter equation can largely improve the reconstruction accuracy. In the experiments, a two-camera system calibrated by our method is used to measure a distance about 578 mm, and the root mean squared error is within 0.14 mm. Furthermore, the experiments indicate that the method has simple operation and good flexibility, especially for the onsite multiple cameras without common field of view.

  11. iPhones and Smartphones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin YE

    2009-10-01

    further discuss theanonymous work. Cameras may also be useful in field work and group projects.But perhaps the greatest use of Smartphones has been the web browsing capability.Essentially pocket computers carried by almost all students, today‘s cell phones cansurf the Internet and access most content that formerly had to be seen from theirdesktop computers at home.Instructors might imagine students in the lecture hall looking up facts, verifyinginformation, or using web-based prompts for roleplays, groupwork, and problem-basedlearning, in some cases entirely replacing the need for handouts.10There are limitations; some Course-Management Software (CMS like BlackBoard maynot function on cell phone browsers, since they lack web programming languages suchas Flash or Java.One of the major revolutions created by the iPhone specifically has been theconvenience of offering apps, including many free ones, from the ubiquitous iTunesshopping cart software also used to purchase and manage mp3s on iPods. The resultingcascade of available apps has been breathtaking. In the first twelve months since itsinception in July, 2008, the iTunes App Store logged 65,000 apps and 1.5 billiondownloads (Apple, 2009.Inevitably, many apps are offered for free, and dozens speak to individual industriesand disciplines. The list is seemingly endless: customizable flash cards, an interactiveperiodic table, the collected works of Shakespeare, scientific and graphic calculators(which can render 3D objects and rotate them at a touch, art collections, MRI brainscans, foreign language tutors, maps of the world, dictionaries, and dozens more.iPhones feature still more built-in applications, including one for YouTube that mayalso encourage faculty to weave more videos into their teaching. Suddenly, studentsmay have access to rich media right from their seats, and the possibilities for on-thespotgroupwork are enticing indeed.The primary hurdle may not be technological, but rather financial in nature. Not

  12. Utilization of services in a randomized trial testing phone- and web-based interventions for smoking cessation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zbikowski, Susan M; Jack, Lisa M; McClure, Jennifer B; Deprey, Mona; Javitz, Harold S; McAfee, Timothy A; Catz, Sheryl L; Richards, Julie; Bush, Terry; Swan, Gary E

    2011-05-01

    Phone counseling has become standard for behavioral smoking cessation treatment. Newer options include Web and integrated phone-Web treatment. No prior research, to our knowledge, has systematically compared the effectiveness of these three treatment modalities in a randomized trial. Understanding how utilization varies by mode, the impact of utilization on outcomes, and predictors of utilization across each mode could lead to improved treatments. One thousand two hundred and two participants were randomized to phone, Web, or combined phone-Web cessation treatment. Services varied by modality and were tracked using automated systems. All participants received 12 weeks of varenicline, printed guides, an orientation call, and access to a phone supportline. Self-report data were collected at baseline and 6-month follow-up. Overall, participants utilized phone services more often than the Web-based services. Among treatment groups with Web access, a significant proportion logged in only once (37% phone-Web, 41% Web), and those in the phone-Web group logged in less often than those in the Web group (mean = 2.4 vs. 3.7, p = .0001). Use of the phone also was correlated with increased use of the Web. In multivariate analyses, greater use of the phone- or Web-based services was associated with higher cessation rates. Finally, older age and the belief that certain treatments could improve success were consistent predictors of greater utilization across groups. Other predictors varied by treatment group. Opportunities for enhancing treatment utilization exist, particularly for Web-based programs. Increasing utilization more broadly could result in better overall treatment effectiveness for all intervention modalities.

  13. Mobile cell-phones (M-phones in telemicroscopy: increasing connectivity of isolated laboratories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Missoni Eduardo

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The development of modern information telecommunication (ITC technology and its use in telemedicine plays an increasingly important role in facilitating access to some diagnostic services even to people living in the most remote areas. However, physical and economical constraints in the access to broad band data-transmission network, still represent a considerable obstacle to the transmission of images for the purpose of tele-pathology. Methods Indifferently using m-phones of different brands, and a variety of microscopic preparations, images were taken without the use of any adaptor simply approaching the lens of the mobile cell phone camera to the ocular of common optical microscopes, and subsequently sent via Multimedia Messaging Services (MMS to distant reference centres for tele-diagnosis. Access to MMS service was reviewed with specific reference to the African information communication technology (ICT market. Results Images of any pathologic preparation could be captured and sent over the mobile phone with an MMS, without being limited by appropriate access to the internet for transmission (i.e. access to broad-band services. The quality of the image was not influenced by the brand or model of the mobile-phone used, but only by its digital resolution, with any resolution above 0.8 megapixel resulting in images sufficient for diagnosis. Access to MMS services is increasingly reaching remote disadvantaged areas. Current penetration of the service in Africa was mapped appearing already available in almost every country, with penetration index varying from 1.5% to 92.2%. Conclusion The use of otherwise already widely available technologies, without any need for adaptors or otherwise additional technology, could significantly increase opportunities and quality diagnostics while lowering costs and considerably increasing connectivity between most isolated laboratories and distant reference center.

  14. A cooperative control algorithm for camera based observational systems.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Young, Joseph G.

    2012-01-01

    Over the last several years, there has been considerable growth in camera based observation systems for a variety of safety, scientific, and recreational applications. In order to improve the effectiveness of these systems, we frequently desire the ability to increase the number of observed objects, but solving this problem is not as simple as adding more cameras. Quite often, there are economic or physical restrictions that prevent us from adding additional cameras to the system. As a result, we require methods that coordinate the tracking of objects between multiple cameras in an optimal way. In order to accomplish this goal, we present a new cooperative control algorithm for a camera based observational system. Specifically, we present a receding horizon control where we model the underlying optimal control problem as a mixed integer linear program. The benefit of this design is that we can coordinate the actions between each camera while simultaneously respecting its kinematics. In addition, we further improve the quality of our solution by coupling our algorithm with a Kalman filter. Through this integration, we not only add a predictive component to our control, but we use the uncertainty estimates provided by the filter to encourage the system to periodically observe any outliers in the observed area. This combined approach allows us to intelligently observe the entire region of interest in an effective and thorough manner.

  15. Multi-camera synchronization core implemented on USB3 based FPGA platform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sousa, Ricardo M.; Wäny, Martin; Santos, Pedro; Dias, Morgado

    2015-03-01

    Centered on Awaiba's NanEye CMOS image sensor family and a FPGA platform with USB3 interface, the aim of this paper is to demonstrate a new technique to synchronize up to 8 individual self-timed cameras with minimal error. Small form factor self-timed camera modules of 1 mm x 1 mm or smaller do not normally allow external synchronization. However, for stereo vision or 3D reconstruction with multiple cameras as well as for applications requiring pulsed illumination it is required to synchronize multiple cameras. In this work, the challenge of synchronizing multiple selftimed cameras with only 4 wire interface has been solved by adaptively regulating the power supply for each of the cameras. To that effect, a control core was created to constantly monitor the operating frequency of each camera by measuring the line period in each frame based on a well-defined sampling signal. The frequency is adjusted by varying the voltage level applied to the sensor based on the error between the measured line period and the desired line period. To ensure phase synchronization between frames, a Master-Slave interface was implemented. A single camera is defined as the Master, with its operating frequency being controlled directly through a PC based interface. The remaining cameras are setup in Slave mode and are interfaced directly with the Master camera control module. This enables the remaining cameras to monitor its line and frame period and adjust their own to achieve phase and frequency synchronization. The result of this work will allow the implementation of smaller than 3mm diameter 3D stereo vision equipment in medical endoscopic context, such as endoscopic surgical robotic or micro invasive surgery.

  16. An Evidence-Based Forensic Taxonomy of Windows Phone Communication Apps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cahyani, Niken Dwi Wahyu; Martini, Ben; Choo, Kim-Kwang Raymond; Ab Rahman, Nurul Hidayah; Ashman, Helen

    2018-05-01

    Communication apps can be an important source of evidence in a forensic investigation (e.g., in the investigation of a drug trafficking or terrorism case where the communications apps were used by the accused persons during the transactions or planning activities). This study presents the first evidence-based forensic taxonomy of Windows Phone communication apps, using an existing two-dimensional Android forensic taxonomy as a baseline. Specifically, 30 Windows Phone communication apps, including Instant Messaging (IM) and Voice over IP (VoIP) apps, are examined. Artifacts extracted using physical acquisition are analyzed, and seven digital evidence objects of forensic interest are identified, namely: Call Log, Chats, Contacts, Locations, Installed Applications, SMSs and User Accounts. Findings from this study would help to facilitate timely and effective forensic investigations involving Windows Phone communication apps. © 2017 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  17. Mobile phone-based clinical guidance for rural health providers in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gautham, Meenakshi; Iyengar, M Sriram; Johnson, Craig W

    2015-12-01

    There are few tried and tested mobile technology applications to enhance and standardize the quality of health care by frontline rural health providers in low-resource settings. We developed a media-rich, mobile phone-based clinical guidance system for management of fevers, diarrhoeas and respiratory problems by rural health providers. Using a randomized control design, we field tested this application with 16 rural health providers and 128 patients at two rural/tribal sites in Tamil Nadu, Southern India. Protocol compliance for both groups, phone usability, acceptability and patient feedback for the experimental group were evaluated. Linear mixed-model analyses showed statistically significant improvements in protocol compliance in the experimental group. Usability and acceptability among patients and rural health providers were very high. Our results indicate that mobile phone-based, media-rich procedural guidance applications have significant potential for achieving consistently standardized quality of care by diverse frontline rural health providers, with patient acceptance. © The Author(s) 2014.

  18. Phone-based metric as a predictor for basic personality traits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mønsted, Bjarke; Mollgaard, Anders; Mathiesen, Joachim

    2018-01-01

    Basic personality traits are believed to be expressed in, and predictable from, smart phone data. We investigate the extent of this predictability using data (n = 636) from the Copenhagen Network Study, which to our knowledge is the most extensive study concerning smartphone usage and personality...... traits. Based on phone usage patterns, earlier studies have reported surprisingly high predictability of all Big Five personality traits. We predict personality trait tertiles (low, medum, high) from a set of behavioral variables extracted from the data, and find that only extraversion can be predicted...

  19. Phone-based metric as a predictor for basic personality traits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mønsted, Bjarke; Mollgaard, Anders; Mathiesen, Joachim

    2018-01-01

    traits. Based on phone usage patterns, earlier studies have reported surprisingly high predictability of all Big Five personality traits. We predict personality trait tertiles (low, medum, high) from a set of behavioral variables extracted from the data, and find that only extraversion can be predicted......Basic personality traits are believed to be expressed in, and predictable from, smart phone data. We investigate the extent of this predictability using data (n = 636) from the Copenhagen Network Study, which to our knowledge is the most extensive study concerning smartphone usage and personality...

  20. Comparison of helmet-mounted display designs in support of wayfinding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumagai, Jason K.; Massel, Lisa; Tack, David; Bossi, Linda

    2003-09-01

    The Canadian Soldier Information Requirements Technology Demonstration (SIREQ TD) soldier modernization research and development program has conducted experiments to help determine the types and amount of information needed to support wayfinding across a range of terrain environments, the most effective display modality for providing the information (visual, auditory or tactile) that will minimize conflict with other infantry tasks, and to optimize interface design. In this study, seven different visual helmet-mounted display (HMD) designs were developed based on soldier feedback from previous studies. The displays and an in-service compass condition were contrasted to investigate how the visual HMD interfaces influenced navigation performance. Displays varied with respect to their information content, frame of reference, point of view, and display features. Twelve male infantry soldiers used all eight experimental conditions to locate bearings to waypoints. From a constant location, participants were required to face waypoints presented at offset bearings of 25, 65, and 120 degrees. Performance measures included time to identify waypoints, accuracy, and head misdirection errors. Subjective measures of performance included ratings of ease of use, acceptance for land navigation, and mental demand. Comments were collected to identify likes, dislikes and possible improvements required for HMDs. Results underlined the potential performance enhancement of GPS-based navigation with HMDs, the requirement for explicit directional information, the desirability of both analog and digital information, the performance benefits of an egocentric frame of reference, the merit of a forward field of view, and the desirability of a guide to help landmark. Implications for the information requirements and human factors design of HMDs for land-based navigational tasks are discussed.

  1. Structural hippocampal anomalies in a schizophrenia population correlate with navigation performance on a wayfinding task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ledoux, Andrée-Anne; Boyer, Patrice; Phillips, Jennifer L; Labelle, Alain; Smith, Andra; Bohbot, Véronique D

    2014-01-01

    Episodic memory, related to the hippocampus, has been found to be impaired in schizophrenia. Further, hippocampal anomalies have also been observed in schizophrenia. This study investigated whether average hippocampal gray matter (GM) would differentiate performance on a hippocampus-dependent memory task in patients with schizophrenia and healthy controls. Twenty-one patients with schizophrenia and 22 control participants were scanned with an MRI while being tested on a wayfinding task in a virtual town (e.g., find the grocery store from the school). Regressions were performed for both groups individually and together using GM and performance on the wayfinding task. Results indicate that controls successfully completed the task more often than patients, took less time, and made fewer errors. Additionally, controls had significantly more hippocampal GM than patients. Poor performance was associated with a GM decrease in the right hippocampus for both groups. Within group regressions found an association between right hippocampi GM and performance in controls and an association between the left hippocampi GM and performance in patients. A second analysis revealed that different anatomical GM regions, known to be associated with the hippocampus, such as the parahippocampal cortex, amygdala, medial, and orbital prefrontal cortices, covaried with the hippocampus in the control group. Interestingly, the cuneus and cingulate gyrus also covaried with the hippocampus in the patient group but the orbital frontal cortex did not, supporting the hypothesis of impaired connectivity between the hippocampus and the frontal cortex in schizophrenia. These results present important implications for creating intervention programs aimed at measuring functional and structural changes in the hippocampus in schizophrenia.

  2. New light field camera based on physical based rendering tracing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Ming-Han; Chang, Shan-Ching; Lee, Chih-Kung

    2014-03-01

    Even though light field technology was first invented more than 50 years ago, it did not gain popularity due to the limitation imposed by the computation technology. With the rapid advancement of computer technology over the last decade, the limitation has been uplifted and the light field technology quickly returns to the spotlight of the research stage. In this paper, PBRT (Physical Based Rendering Tracing) was introduced to overcome the limitation of using traditional optical simulation approach to study the light field camera technology. More specifically, traditional optical simulation approach can only present light energy distribution but typically lack the capability to present the pictures in realistic scenes. By using PBRT, which was developed to create virtual scenes, 4D light field information was obtained to conduct initial data analysis and calculation. This PBRT approach was also used to explore the light field data calculation potential in creating realistic photos. Furthermore, we integrated the optical experimental measurement results with PBRT in order to place the real measurement results into the virtually created scenes. In other words, our approach provided us with a way to establish a link of virtual scene with the real measurement results. Several images developed based on the above-mentioned approaches were analyzed and discussed to verify the pros and cons of the newly developed PBRT based light field camera technology. It will be shown that this newly developed light field camera approach can circumvent the loss of spatial resolution associated with adopting a micro-lens array in front of the image sensors. Detailed operational constraint, performance metrics, computation resources needed, etc. associated with this newly developed light field camera technique were presented in detail.

  3. Determining Sala mango qualities with the use of RGB images captured by a mobile phone camera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yahaya, Ommi Kalsom Mardziah; Jafri, Mohd Zubir Mat; Aziz, Azlan Abdul; Omar, Ahmad Fairuz

    2015-04-01

    Sala mango (Mangifera indicia) is one of the Malaysia's most popular tropical fruits that are widely marketed within the country. The degrees of ripeness of mangoes have conventionally been evaluated manually on the basis of color parameters, but a simple non-destructive technique using the Samsung Galaxy Note 1 mobile phone camera is introduced to replace the destructive technique. In this research, color parameters in terms of RGB values acquired using the ENVI software system were linked to detect Sala mango quality parameters. The features of mango were extracted from the acquired images and then used to classify of fruit skin color, which relates to the stages of ripening. A multivariate analysis method, multiple linear regression, was employed with the purpose of using RGB color parameters to estimate the pH, soluble solids content (SSC), and firmness. The relationship between these qualities parameters of Sala mango and its mean pixel values in the RGB system is analyzed. Findings show that pH yields the highest accuracy with a correlation coefficient R = 0.913 and root mean square of error RMSE = 0.166 pH. Meanwhile, firmness has R = 0.875 and RMSE = 1.392 kgf, whereas soluble solid content has the lowest accuracy with R = 0.814 and RMSE = 1.218°Brix with the correlation between color parameters. Therefore, this non-invasive method can be used to determine the quality attributes of mangoes.

  4. Mobile phones for retinopathy of prematurity screening in Lagos, Nigeria, sub-Saharan Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oluleye, Tunji S; Rotimi-Samuel, Adekunle; Adenekan, Adetunji

    2016-01-01

    Retinopathy of prematurity (ROP), thought to be rare in Nigeria, sub-Saharan Africa, has been reported in recent studies. Developing cost-effective screening is crucial for detecting retinal changes amenable to treatment. This study describes the use of an iPhone combined with a 20-D lens in screening for ROP in Lagos, Nigeria. The ROP screening program was approved by the Lagos University Teaching Hospital Ethical Committee. Preterm infants with birthweight of less than 1.5 kg or gestational age of less than 32 weeks were screened. In conjunction with the neonatologist, topical tropicamide (0.5%) and phenylephrine (2.5%) was used to dilate the pupils. A pediatric lid speculum was used. Indirect ophthalmoscopy was used to examine the fundus to ensure there were no missed diagnoses. An iPhone 5 with 20-D lens was used to examine the fundus. The App Filmic Pro was launched in the video mode. The camera flash served as the source of illumination. Its intensity was controlled by the app. The 20-D lens was used to capture the image of the retina, which was picked up by the camera system of the mobile phone. Another app, Aviary, was used to edit the picture. The images captured by the system were satisfactory for staging and determining the need for treatment. An iPhone combined with a 20-D lens appear to be useful in screening for ROP in resource-poor settings. More studies are needed in this area.

  5. Cell phone based balance trainer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee Beom-Chan

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In their current laboratory-based form, existing vibrotactile sensory augmentation technologies that provide cues of body motion are impractical for home-based rehabilitation use due to their size, weight, complexity, calibration procedures, cost, and fragility. Methods We have designed and developed a cell phone based vibrotactile feedback system for potential use in balance rehabilitation training in clinical and home environments. It comprises an iPhone with an embedded tri-axial linear accelerometer, custom software to estimate body tilt, a "tactor bud" accessory that plugs into the headphone jack to provide vibrotactile cues of body tilt, and a battery. Five young healthy subjects (24 ± 2.8 yrs, 3 females and 2 males and four subjects with vestibular deficits (42.25 ± 13.5 yrs, 2 females and 2 males participated in a proof-of-concept study to evaluate the effectiveness of the system. Healthy subjects used the system with eyes closed during Romberg, semi-tandem Romberg, and tandem Romberg stances. Subjects with vestibular deficits used the system with both eyes-open and eyes-closed conditions during semi-tandem Romberg stance. Vibrotactile feedback was provided when the subject exceeded either an anterior-posterior (A/P or a medial-lateral (M/L body tilt threshold. Subjects were instructed to move away from the vibration. Results The system was capable of providing real-time vibrotactile cues that informed corrective postural responses. When feedback was available, both healthy subjects and those with vestibular deficits significantly reduced their A/P or M/L RMS sway (depending on the direction of feedback, had significantly smaller elliptical area fits to their sway trajectory, spent a significantly greater mean percentage time within the no feedback zone, and showed a significantly greater A/P or M/L mean power frequency. Conclusion The results suggest that the real-time feedback provided by this system can be used

  6. Cell phone based balance trainer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background In their current laboratory-based form, existing vibrotactile sensory augmentation technologies that provide cues of body motion are impractical for home-based rehabilitation use due to their size, weight, complexity, calibration procedures, cost, and fragility. Methods We have designed and developed a cell phone based vibrotactile feedback system for potential use in balance rehabilitation training in clinical and home environments. It comprises an iPhone with an embedded tri-axial linear accelerometer, custom software to estimate body tilt, a "tactor bud" accessory that plugs into the headphone jack to provide vibrotactile cues of body tilt, and a battery. Five young healthy subjects (24 ± 2.8 yrs, 3 females and 2 males) and four subjects with vestibular deficits (42.25 ± 13.5 yrs, 2 females and 2 males) participated in a proof-of-concept study to evaluate the effectiveness of the system. Healthy subjects used the system with eyes closed during Romberg, semi-tandem Romberg, and tandem Romberg stances. Subjects with vestibular deficits used the system with both eyes-open and eyes-closed conditions during semi-tandem Romberg stance. Vibrotactile feedback was provided when the subject exceeded either an anterior-posterior (A/P) or a medial-lateral (M/L) body tilt threshold. Subjects were instructed to move away from the vibration. Results The system was capable of providing real-time vibrotactile cues that informed corrective postural responses. When feedback was available, both healthy subjects and those with vestibular deficits significantly reduced their A/P or M/L RMS sway (depending on the direction of feedback), had significantly smaller elliptical area fits to their sway trajectory, spent a significantly greater mean percentage time within the no feedback zone, and showed a significantly greater A/P or M/L mean power frequency. Conclusion The results suggest that the real-time feedback provided by this system can be used to reduce body sway. Its

  7. A real-time camera calibration system based on OpenCV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hui; Wang, Hua; Guo, Huinan; Ren, Long; Zhou, Zuofeng

    2015-07-01

    Camera calibration is one of the essential steps in the computer vision research. This paper describes a real-time OpenCV based camera calibration system, and developed and implemented in the VS2008 environment. Experimental results prove that the system to achieve a simple and fast camera calibration, compared with MATLAB, higher precision and does not need manual intervention, and can be widely used in various computer vision system.

  8. Design of microcontroller based system for automation of streak camera

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joshi, M. J.; Upadhyay, J.; Deshpande, P. P.; Sharma, M. L.; Navathe, C. P.

    2010-01-01

    A microcontroller based system has been developed for automation of the S-20 optical streak camera, which is used as a diagnostic tool to measure ultrafast light phenomenon. An 8 bit MCS family microcontroller is employed to generate all control signals for the streak camera. All biasing voltages required for various electrodes of the tubes are generated using dc-to-dc converters. A high voltage ramp signal is generated through a step generator unit followed by an integrator circuit and is applied to the camera's deflecting plates. The slope of the ramp can be changed by varying values of the capacitor and inductor. A programmable digital delay generator has been developed for synchronization of ramp signal with the optical signal. An independent hardwired interlock circuit has been developed for machine safety. A LABVIEW based graphical user interface has been developed which enables the user to program the settings of the camera and capture the image. The image is displayed with intensity profiles along horizontal and vertical axes. The streak camera was calibrated using nanosecond and femtosecond lasers.

  9. Design of microcontroller based system for automation of streak camera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, M J; Upadhyay, J; Deshpande, P P; Sharma, M L; Navathe, C P

    2010-08-01

    A microcontroller based system has been developed for automation of the S-20 optical streak camera, which is used as a diagnostic tool to measure ultrafast light phenomenon. An 8 bit MCS family microcontroller is employed to generate all control signals for the streak camera. All biasing voltages required for various electrodes of the tubes are generated using dc-to-dc converters. A high voltage ramp signal is generated through a step generator unit followed by an integrator circuit and is applied to the camera's deflecting plates. The slope of the ramp can be changed by varying values of the capacitor and inductor. A programmable digital delay generator has been developed for synchronization of ramp signal with the optical signal. An independent hardwired interlock circuit has been developed for machine safety. A LABVIEW based graphical user interface has been developed which enables the user to program the settings of the camera and capture the image. The image is displayed with intensity profiles along horizontal and vertical axes. The streak camera was calibrated using nanosecond and femtosecond lasers.

  10. Design of microcontroller based system for automation of streak camera

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joshi, M. J.; Upadhyay, J.; Deshpande, P. P.; Sharma, M. L.; Navathe, C. P. [Laser Electronics Support Division, RRCAT, Indore 452013 (India)

    2010-08-15

    A microcontroller based system has been developed for automation of the S-20 optical streak camera, which is used as a diagnostic tool to measure ultrafast light phenomenon. An 8 bit MCS family microcontroller is employed to generate all control signals for the streak camera. All biasing voltages required for various electrodes of the tubes are generated using dc-to-dc converters. A high voltage ramp signal is generated through a step generator unit followed by an integrator circuit and is applied to the camera's deflecting plates. The slope of the ramp can be changed by varying values of the capacitor and inductor. A programmable digital delay generator has been developed for synchronization of ramp signal with the optical signal. An independent hardwired interlock circuit has been developed for machine safety. A LABVIEW based graphical user interface has been developed which enables the user to program the settings of the camera and capture the image. The image is displayed with intensity profiles along horizontal and vertical axes. The streak camera was calibrated using nanosecond and femtosecond lasers.

  11. A mathematical model for camera calibration based on straight lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio M. G. Tommaselli

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available In other to facilitate the automation of camera calibration process, a mathematical model using straight lines was developed, which is based on the equivalent planes mathematical model. Parameter estimation of the developed model is achieved by the Least Squares Method with Conditions and Observations. The same method of adjustment was used to implement camera calibration with bundles, which is based on points. Experiments using simulated and real data have shown that the developed model based on straight lines gives results comparable to the conventional method with points. Details concerning the mathematical development of the model and experiments with simulated and real data will be presented and the results with both methods of camera calibration, with straight lines and with points, will be compared.

  12. Patient attitudes toward mobile phone-based health monitoring: questionnaire study among kidney transplant recipients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGillicuddy, John William; Weiland, Ana Katherine; Frenzel, Ronja Maximiliane; Mueller, Martina; Brunner-Jackson, Brenda Marie; Taber, David James; Baliga, Prabhakar Kalyanpur; Treiber, Frank Anton

    2013-01-08

    Mobile phone based remote monitoring of medication adherence and physiological parameters has the potential of improving long-term graft outcomes in the recipients of kidney transplants. This technology is promising as it is relatively inexpensive, can include intuitive software and may offer the ability to conduct close patient monitoring in a non-intrusive manner. This includes the optimal management of comorbidities such as hypertension and diabetes. There is, however, a lack of data assessing the attitudes of renal transplant recipients toward this technology, especially among ethnic minorities. To assess the attitudes of renal transplant recipients toward mobile phone based remote monitoring and management of their medical regimen; and to identify demographic or clinical characteristics that impact on this attitude. After a 10 minute demonstration of a prototype mobile phone based monitoring system, a 10 item questionnaire regarding attitude toward remote monitoring and the technology was administered to the participants, along with the 10 item Perceived Stress Scale and the 7 item Morisky Medication Adherence Scale. Between February and April 2012, a total of 99 renal transplant recipients were identified and agreed to participate in the survey. The results of the survey indicate that while 90% (87/97) of respondents own a mobile phone, only 7% (7/98) had any prior knowledge of mobile phone based remote monitoring. Despite this, the majority of respondents, 79% (78/99), reported a positive attitude toward the use of a prototype system if it came at no cost to themselves. Blacks were more likely than whites to own smartphones (43.1%, 28/65 vs 20.6%, 7/34; P=.03) and held a more positive attitude toward free use of the prototype system than whites (4.25±0.88 vs 3.76±1.07; P=.02). The data demonstrates that kidney transplant recipients have a positive overall attitude toward mobile phone based health technology (mHealth). Additionally, the data demonstrates

  13. On the phone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paasch, Bettina Sletten

    In most Danish hospitals clinicians are being equipped with a mobile phone in order to improve their availability. Based on an ethnomethodological approach (Garfinkel, 1967) the present paper explores how mobile phones shape clinicians´ practices. Using Nexus Analysis (Scollon & Scollon, 2004....... The analysis shows how the mobile phone becomes part of the way clinicians choreograph body movement in interactions with patients, how they arrange their bodies and how they gesture and position themselves. It is demonstrated how the use of mobile phones can mediate the clinicians´ accomplishment of an action...... space with the patient, the boundaries of attention created by the clinicians and the trajectories of actions. The analysis further shows how the mobile phone allows for the clinicians to negotiate and co-construct their practices across space and physical materiality. It is demonstrated how the use...

  14. Is Dysfunctional Use of the Mobile Phone a Behavioural Addiction? Confronting Symptom-Based Versus Process-Based Approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Billieux, Joël; Philippot, Pierre; Schmid, Cécile; Maurage, Pierre; De Mol, Jan; Van der Linden, Martial

    2015-01-01

    Dysfunctional use of the mobile phone has often been conceptualized as a 'behavioural addiction' that shares most features with drug addictions. In the current article, we challenge the clinical utility of the addiction model as applied to mobile phone overuse. We describe the case of a woman who overuses her mobile phone from two distinct approaches: (1) a symptom-based categorical approach inspired from the addiction model of dysfunctional mobile phone use and (2) a process-based approach resulting from an idiosyncratic clinical case conceptualization. In the case depicted here, the addiction model was shown to lead to standardized and non-relevant treatment, whereas the clinical case conceptualization allowed identification of specific psychological processes that can be targeted with specific, empirically based psychological interventions. This finding highlights that conceptualizing excessive behaviours (e.g., gambling and sex) within the addiction model can be a simplification of an individual's psychological functioning, offering only limited clinical relevance. The addiction model, applied to excessive behaviours (e.g., gambling, sex and Internet-related activities) may lead to non-relevant standardized treatments. Clinical case conceptualization allowed identification of specific psychological processes that can be targeted with specific empirically based psychological interventions. The biomedical model might lead to the simplification of an individual's psychological functioning with limited clinical relevance. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  15. Object Detection and Tracking-Based Camera Calibration for Normalized Human Height Estimation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaehoon Jung

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a normalized human height estimation algorithm using an uncalibrated camera. To estimate the normalized human height, the proposed algorithm detects a moving object and performs tracking-based automatic camera calibration. The proposed method consists of three steps: (i moving human detection and tracking, (ii automatic camera calibration, and (iii human height estimation and error correction. The proposed method automatically calibrates camera by detecting moving humans and estimates the human height using error correction. The proposed method can be applied to object-based video surveillance systems and digital forensic.

  16. Infrared thermography based studies on mobile phone induced heating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahiri, B. B.; Bagavathiappan, S.; Soumya, C.; Jayakumar, T.; Philip, John

    2015-07-01

    Here, we report the skin temperature rise due to the absorption of radio frequency (RF) energy from three handheld mobile phones using infrared thermography technique. Experiments are performed under two different conditions, viz. when the mobile phones are placed in soft touch with the skin surface and away from the skin surface. Additionally, the temperature rise of mobile phones during charging, operation and simultaneous charging and talking are monitored under different exposure conditions. It is observed that the temperature of the cheek and ear regions monotonically increased with time during the usage of mobile phones and the magnitude of the temperature rise is higher for the mobile phone with higher specific absorption rate. The increase in skin temperature is higher when the mobile phones are in contact with the skin surface due to the combined effect of absorption of RF electromagnetic power and conductive heat transfer. The increase in the skin temperature in non-contact mode is found to be within the safety limit of 1 °C. The measured temperature rise is in good agreement with theoretical predictions. The empirical equation obtained from the temperature rise on the cheek region of the subjects correlates well with the specific absorption rate of the mobile phones. Our study suggests that the use of mobile phones in non-contact mode can significantly lower the skin temperature rise during its use and hence, is safer compared to the contact mode.

  17. iPhone Idol

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Technophiles around the world are snapping up Apple’s new iPhone. How much longer must the Chinese wait?The iPhone, a faster and more versatile version of Apple Inc.’s original touch-based mobile handset, has been a market hit since it went on

  18. High dynamic range image acquisition based on multiplex cameras

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Hairui; Sun, Huayan; Zhang, Tinghua

    2018-03-01

    High dynamic image is an important technology of photoelectric information acquisition, providing higher dynamic range and more image details, and it can better reflect the real environment, light and color information. Currently, the method of high dynamic range image synthesis based on different exposure image sequences cannot adapt to the dynamic scene. It fails to overcome the effects of moving targets, resulting in the phenomenon of ghost. Therefore, a new high dynamic range image acquisition method based on multiplex cameras system was proposed. Firstly, different exposure images sequences were captured with the camera array, using the method of derivative optical flow based on color gradient to get the deviation between images, and aligned the images. Then, the high dynamic range image fusion weighting function was established by combination of inverse camera response function and deviation between images, and was applied to generated a high dynamic range image. The experiments show that the proposed method can effectively obtain high dynamic images in dynamic scene, and achieves good results.

  19. Using web-sources for location based systems on mobile phones

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pannevis, M.; Marx, M.

    2008-01-01

    The paper describes the implementation of a context aware location and time based system on a normal mobile phone, with a minimum of requirements (Bluetooth, Internet access, Java ME, and a simple webbrowser). We can answer the following queries based on data crawled from the web and enriched with

  20. Radiofrequency radiation injures trees around mobile phone base stations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldmann-Selsam, Cornelia; Balmori-de la Puente, Alfonso; Breunig, Helmut; Balmori, Alfonso

    2016-12-01

    In the last two decades, the deployment of phone masts around the world has taken place and, for many years, there has been a discussion in the scientific community about the possible environmental impact from mobile phone base stations. Trees have several advantages over animals as experimental subjects and the aim of this study was to verify whether there is a connection between unusual (generally unilateral) tree damage and radiofrequency exposure. To achieve this, a detailed long-term (2006-2015) field monitoring study was performed in the cities of Bamberg and Hallstadt (Germany). During monitoring, observations and photographic recordings of unusual or unexplainable tree damage were taken, alongside the measurement of electromagnetic radiation. In 2015 measurements of RF-EMF (Radiofrequency Electromagnetic Fields) were carried out. A polygon spanning both cities was chosen as the study site, where 144 measurements of the radiofrequency of electromagnetic fields were taken at a height of 1.5m in streets and parks at different locations. By interpolation of the 144 measurement points, we were able to compile an electromagnetic map of the power flux density in Bamberg and Hallstadt. We selected 60 damaged trees, in addition to 30 randomly selected trees and 30 trees in low radiation areas (n=120) in this polygon. The measurements of all trees revealed significant differences between the damaged side facing a phone mast and the opposite side, as well as differences between the exposed side of damaged trees and all other groups of trees in both sides. Thus, we found that side differences in measured values of power flux density corresponded to side differences in damage. The 30 selected trees in low radiation areas (no visual contact to any phone mast and power flux density under 50μW/m 2 ) showed no damage. Statistical analysis demonstrated that electromagnetic radiation from mobile phone masts is harmful for trees. These results are consistent with the fact

  1. Mobile Phone Antenna Performance 2016

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Gert F.

    This study investigates the antenna performance of a number of mobile phones widely used in the Nordic Countries. The study is supported by the Nordic Council of Ministers. The antenna performance of the phones is vital for the phones ability to ensure radio coverage in low signal situations....... The study is based on the mobile systems in the Nordic mobile networks and on both speech and data services. The selected phone models are among the most popular new phones at the time of this study....

  2. Lane Detection on the iPhone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Feixiang; Huang, Jinsheng; Terauchi, Mutsuhiro; Jiang, Ruyi; Klette, Reinhard

    A robust and efficient lane detection system is an essential component of Lane Departure Warning Systems, which are commonly used in many vision-based Driver Assistance Systems (DAS) in intelligent transportation. Various computation platforms have been proposed in the past few years for the implementation of driver assistance systems (e.g., PC, laptop, integrated chips, PlayStation, and so on). In this paper, we propose a new platform for the implementation of lane detection, which is based on a mobile phone (the iPhone). Due to physical limitations of the iPhone w.r.t. memory and computing power, a simple and efficient lane detection algorithm using a Hough transform is developed and implemented on the iPhone, as existing algorithms developed based on the PC platform are not suitable for mobile phone devices (currently). Experiments of the lane detection algorithm are made both on PC and on iPhone.

  3. A cost-effective assay for antioxidant using simple cotton thread combining paper based device with mobile phone detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sateanchok, Suphasinee; Wangkarn, Sunanta; Saenjum, Chalermpong; Grudpan, Kate

    2018-01-15

    A cost-effective assay for antioxidant using simple cotton thread combining paper based device with mobile phone detection has been investigated. Standard and sample solutions flow along a bunch of cotton thread treated with sodium hydroxide via microfluidic behaviors without external pumping. The analyte solution reacts with the reagents that have been immobilized on the paper strip fixed at the end of the cotton bunch. The developed platforms were used for the assays of total phenolic content and antioxidant capacity by employing Folin-Ciocalteu and 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picryhydrazyl (DPPH) respectively. Simple detection can be made by employing a mobile phone camera (iPhone 4S) with Image J or Photoshop for image processing and evaluation. Gallic acid was used as a reference standard in this work, as its polyphenol structures can be found in many plants. The total phenolic content is expressed as gallic acid equivalents (GAE) (mg/g material). Inhibition capacity is calculated by the equation: % I = [(I o - I s )/ I o ] × 100, where I s is the relative magenta intensity (CMYK mode) of sample, and I o the relative magenta intensity of DPPH•. IC 50 inhibition can be estimated from the graph and can be used for the antioxidant capacity consideration. Applications to the assay green tea samples were demonstrated. The total phenolic contents in the green tea samples were found to be 48-105mg/g, with %RSD of less than 10 for that of higher 50 GAE mg/g and IC 50 values of the samples studied were 25-50mg/L. The results obtained by the developed methods agree with that of the standard methods. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Adherence to self-monitoring healthy lifestyle behaviours through mobile phone-based ecological momentary assessments and photographic food records over 6 months in mostly ethnic minority mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comulada, W Scott; Swendeman, Dallas; Koussa, Maryann K; Mindry, Deborah; Medich, Melissa; Estrin, Deborah; Mercer, Neil; Ramanathan, Nithya

    2018-03-01

    Mobile phones can replace traditional self-monitoring tools through cell phone-based ecological momentary assessment (CEMA) of lifestyle behaviours and camera phone-based images of meals, i.e. photographic food records (PFR). Adherence to mobile self-monitoring needs to be evaluated in real-world treatment settings. Towards this goal, we examine CEMA and PFR adherence to the use of a mobile app designed to help mothers self-monitor lifestyle behaviours and stress. Design/Setting In 2012, forty-two mothers recorded CEMA of diet quality, exercise, sleep, stress and mood four times daily and PFR during meals over 6 months in Los Angeles, California, USA. A purposive sample of mothers from mixed ethnicities. Adherence to recording CEMA at least once daily was higher compared with recording PFR at least once daily over the study period (74 v. 11 %); adherence to both types of reports decreased over time. Participants who recorded PFR for more than a day (n 31) were more likely to be obese v. normal- to overweight and to have higher blood pressure, on average (all P<0·05). Based on random-effects regression, CEMA and PFR adherence was highest during weekdays (both P<0·01). Additionally, PFR adherence was associated with older age (P=0·04). CEMA adherence was highest in the morning (P<0·01). PFR recordings occurred throughout the day. Variations in population and temporal characteristics should be considered for mobile assessment schedules. Neither CEMA nor PFR alone is ideal over extended periods.

  5. Structural hippocampal anomalies in a schizophrenia population correlate with navigation performance on a wayfinding task

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrée-Anne eLedoux

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Episodic memory, related to the hippocampus, has been found to be impaired in schizophrenia. Further, hippocampal anomalies have also been observed in schizophrenia. This study investigated whether average hippocampal grey matter (GM would differentiate performance on a hippocampus-dependent memory task in patients with schizophrenia and healthy controls. Twenty-one patients with schizophrenia and twenty-two control participants were scanned with an MRI while being tested on a wayfinding task in a virtual town (e.g., find the grocery store from the school. Regressions were performed for both groups individually and together using GM and performance on the wayfinding task. Results indicate that controls successfully completed the task more often than patients, took less time, and made fewer errors. Additionally, controls had significantly more hippocampal GM than patients. Poor performance was associated with a GM decrease in the right hippocampus for both groups. Within group regressions found an association between right hippocampi GM and performance in controls and an association between the left hippocampi GM and performance in patients. A second analysis revealed that different anatomical GM regions, known to be associated with the hippocampus, such as the parahippocampal cortex, amygdala, medial and orbital prefrontal cortices, covaried with the hippocampus in the control group. Interestingly, the cuneus and cingulate gyrus also covaried with the hippocampus in the patient group but the orbital frontal cortex did not, supporting the hypothesis of impaired connectivity between the hippocampus and the frontal cortex in schizophrenia. These results present important implications for creating intervention programs aimed at measuring functional and structural changes in the hippocampus in schizophrenia.

  6. Applicability of an exposure model for the determination of emissions from mobile phone base stations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Breckenkamp, J; Neitzke, H P; Bornkessel, C

    2008-01-01

    Applicability of a model to estimate radiofrequency electromagnetic field (RF-EMF) strength in households from mobile phone base stations was evaluated with technical data of mobile phone base stations available from the German Net Agency, and dosimetric measurements, performed in an epidemiologi......Applicability of a model to estimate radiofrequency electromagnetic field (RF-EMF) strength in households from mobile phone base stations was evaluated with technical data of mobile phone base stations available from the German Net Agency, and dosimetric measurements, performed...... in an epidemiological study. Estimated exposure and exposure measured with dosemeters in 1322 participating households were compared. For that purpose, the upper 10th percentiles of both outcomes were defined as the 'higher exposed' groups. To assess the agreement of the defined 'higher' exposed groups, kappa...... coefficient, sensitivity and specificity were calculated. The present results show only a weak agreement of calculations and measurements (kappa values between -0.03 and 0.28, sensitivity between 7.1 and 34.6). Only in some of the sub-analyses, a higher agreement was found, e.g. when measured instead...

  7. Flow, Staging, Wayfinding, Personalization: Evaluating User Experience with Mobile Museum Narratives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Roussou

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available A multitude of challenges comes into play when attempting to design (and evaluate an interactive digital storytelling experience for use by visitors in a museum. This paper reports on the evaluation of the prototype mobile-based storytelling “guides” designed, developed and deployed as part of a research project at the Acropolis Museum in Athens, Greece. Experiences designed for different visitor profiles were evaluated several times throughout the iterative design process, in a number of on-site studies, and with more than 180 museum visitors of all ages (with this paper reporting on two studies conducted with a total of 53 users visiting individually or in pairs. The evaluation methods included ethnography (i.e., observation of visitors in the Museum’s galleries, pre- and post-experience in-depth interviews and questionnaires to measure the Users’ Experience (UX, as well as data logging. The analysis of the data focused on themes representing components of the experiences, such as interactive story plot and narration, staging and way-finding in the physical space, personalization and social interaction. Our findings confirmed that understanding UX and what makes it effective or not in the rich context of a cultural setting is a complex endeavor. The paper discusses our findings and proposes relevant recommendations for the design of digital experiences for cultural, educational, and recreational purposes.

  8. Understanding Urban Spatial Structure of Shanghai Central City Based on Mobile Phone Data

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Niu; Xinyi; Ding; Liang; Song; Xiaodong; Zhang; Qingfei

    2015-01-01

    Taking Shanghai Central City as its case study, this paper presents an approach to exploring the urban spatial structure through mobile phone positioning data. Firstly, based on base station location data and mobile phone signaling data, the paper analyses the number of users connecting to each base station, and further generates the maps of mobile phone user density through kernel density analysis. We move on to calculate the multi-day average user density based on a time frame of 10:00 and 23:00 at workdays and 15:00 and 23:00 at weekends for Shanghai Central City. Then, through spatial aggregation and density classifi cation on the density maps of 10:00 at workdays and 15:00 at weekends, we identify the ranks and functions of public centers within Shanghai Central City. Lastly, we identify residential areas, business off ice areas, and leisure areas in Shanghai Central City and measure the degree of functional mix by comparing the ratio of day and night user density as well as the user density at nighttime of workdays and weekends.

  9. Camera calibration method of binocular stereo vision based on OpenCV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Wanzhen; Dong, Xiaona

    2015-10-01

    Camera calibration, an important part of the binocular stereo vision research, is the essential foundation of 3D reconstruction of the spatial object. In this paper, the camera calibration method based on OpenCV (open source computer vision library) is submitted to make the process better as a result of obtaining higher precision and efficiency. First, the camera model in OpenCV and an algorithm of camera calibration are presented, especially considering the influence of camera lens radial distortion and decentering distortion. Then, camera calibration procedure is designed to compute those parameters of camera and calculate calibration errors. High-accurate profile extraction algorithm and a checkboard with 48 corners have also been used in this part. Finally, results of calibration program are presented, demonstrating the high efficiency and accuracy of the proposed approach. The results can reach the requirement of robot binocular stereo vision.

  10. Effects of mobile phone-based app learning compared to computer-based web learning on nursing students: pilot randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Myung Kyung

    2015-04-01

    This study aimed to determine the effect of mobile-based discussion versus computer-based discussion on self-directed learning readiness, academic motivation, learner-interface interaction, and flow state. This randomized controlled trial was conducted at one university. Eighty-six nursing students who were able to use a computer, had home Internet access, and used a mobile phone were recruited. Participants were randomly assigned to either the mobile phone app-based discussion group (n = 45) or a computer web-based discussion group (n = 41). The effect was measured at before and after an online discussion via self-reported surveys that addressed academic motivation, self-directed learning readiness, time distortion, learner-learner interaction, learner-interface interaction, and flow state. The change in extrinsic motivation on identified regulation in the academic motivation (p = 0.011) as well as independence and ability to use basic study (p = 0.047) and positive orientation to the future in self-directed learning readiness (p = 0.021) from pre-intervention to post-intervention was significantly more positive in the mobile phone app-based group compared to the computer web-based discussion group. Interaction between learner and interface (p = 0.002), having clear goals (p = 0.012), and giving and receiving unambiguous feedback (p = 0.049) in flow state was significantly higher in the mobile phone app-based discussion group than it was in the computer web-based discussion group at post-test. The mobile phone might offer more valuable learning opportunities for discussion teaching and learning methods in terms of self-directed learning readiness, academic motivation, learner-interface interaction, and the flow state of the learning process compared to the computer.

  11. Wayfinding: a quality factor in human design approach to healthcare facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Nord, R

    1999-01-01

    The specific aim of this paper is the systematic analysis of interactions and reciprocal conditions existing between the physical space of hospital buildings and the different categories of individuals that come in contact with them. The physical and environmental facilities of hospital architecture often influence the therapeutic character of space and the employees. If the values of the individual are to be safeguarded in this context, priority needs to be given to such factors as communication, privacy, etc. This would mean the involvement of other professional groups such as psychologists, sociologists, ergonomists, etc. at the hospital building planning stage. This paper will outline the result of some research conducted at the University Research Center "TESIS" of Florence to provide better understanding of design strategies applied to reduce the pathology of spaces within the healthcare environment. The case studies will highlight the parameters and the possible architectural solutions to wayfinding and the humanization of spaces, with particular emphasis on lay-outs, technologies, furniture and finishing design.

  12. Mobile phone base stations and adverse health effects: phase 1 of a population-based, cross-sectional study in Germany

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blettner, M; Schlehofer, B; Breckenkamp, J

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of this first phase of a cross-sectional study from Germany was to investigate whether proximity of residence to mobile phone base stations as well as risk perception is associated with health complaints. METHODS: The researchers conducted a population-based, multi-phase, cross......-sectional study within the context of a large panel survey regularly carried out by a private research institute in Germany. In the initial phase, reported on in this paper, 30,047 persons from a total of 51,444 who took part in the nationwide survey also answered questions on how mobile phone base stations...... affected their health. A list of 38 health complaints was used. A multiple linear regression model was used to identify predictors of health complaints including proximity of residence to mobile phone base stations and risk perception. RESULTS: Of the 30,047 participants (response rate 58.6%), 18...

  13. Attitudes of heart failure patients and health care providers towards mobile phone-based remote monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seto, Emily; Leonard, Kevin J; Masino, Caterina; Cafazzo, Joseph A; Barnsley, Jan; Ross, Heather J

    2010-11-29

    Mobile phone-based remote patient monitoring systems have been proposed for heart failure management because they are relatively inexpensive and enable patients to be monitored anywhere. However, little is known about whether patients and their health care providers are willing and able to use this technology. The objective of our study was to assess the attitudes of heart failure patients and their health care providers from a heart function clinic in a large urban teaching hospital toward the use of mobile phone-based remote monitoring. A questionnaire regarding attitudes toward home monitoring and technology was administered to 100 heart failure patients (94/100 returned a completed questionnaire). Semi-structured interviews were also conducted with 20 heart failure patients and 16 clinicians to determine the perceived benefits and barriers to using mobile phone-based remote monitoring, as well as their willingness and ability to use the technology. The survey results indicated that the patients were very comfortable using mobile phones (mean rating 4.5, SD 0.6, on a five-point Likert scale), even more so than with using computers (mean 4.1, SD 1.1). The difference in comfort level between mobile phones and computers was statistically significant (Pmobile phones to view health information (mean 4.4, SD 0.9). Patients and clinicians were willing to use the system as long as several conditions were met, including providing a system that was easy to use with clear tangible benefits, maintaining good patient-provider communication, and not increasing clinical workload. Clinicians cited several barriers to implementation of such a system, including lack of remuneration for telephone interactions with patients and medicolegal implications. Patients and clinicians want to use mobile phone-based remote monitoring and believe that they would be able to use the technology. However, they have several reservations, such as potential increased clinical workload, medicolegal

  14. Identification of Mobile Phones Using the Built-In Magnetometers Stimulated by Motion Patterns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gianmarco Baldini

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available We investigate the identification of mobile phones through their built-in magnetometers. These electronic components have started to be widely deployed in mass market phones in recent years, and they can be exploited to uniquely identify mobile phones due their physical differences, which appear in the digital output generated by them. This is similar to approaches reported in the literature for other components of the mobile phone, including the digital camera, the microphones or their RF transmission components. In this paper, the identification is performed through an inexpensive device made up of a platform that rotates the mobile phone under test and a fixed magnet positioned on the edge of the rotating platform. When the mobile phone passes in front of the fixed magnet, the built-in magnetometer is stimulated, and its digital output is recorded and analyzed. For each mobile phone, the experiment is repeated over six different days to ensure consistency in the results. A total of 10 phones of different brands and models or of the same model were used in our experiment. The digital output from the magnetometers is synchronized and correlated, and statistical features are extracted to generate a fingerprint of the built-in magnetometer and, consequently, of the mobile phone. A SVM machine learning algorithm is used to classify the mobile phones on the basis of the extracted statistical features. Our results show that inter-model classification (i.e., different models and brands classification is possible with great accuracy, but intra-model (i.e., phones with different serial numbers and same model classification is more challenging, the resulting accuracy being just slightly above random choice.

  15. Mobile phone-based interventions for improving contraception use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Chris; Gold, Judy; Ngo, Thoai D; Sumpter, Colin; Free, Caroline

    2015-06-26

    Contraception provides significant benefits for women's and children's health, yet an estimated 225 million women had an unmet need for modern contraceptive methods in 2014. Interventions delivered by mobile phone have been demonstrated to be effective in other health areas, but their effects on use of contraception have not been established. To assess the effects of mobile phone-based interventions for improving contraception use. We searched for randomised controlled trials (RCTs) of client-provider interventions delivered by mobile phone to improve contraception use compared with standard care or another intervention. We searched the electronic databases Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), MEDLINE, EMBASE, Global Health, PsycINFO, POPLINE, Africa-Wide Information and Latin American Caribbean Health Sciences Literature (LILACS) from January 1993 to October 2014, as well as clinical trials registries, online mHealth resources and abstracts from key conferences. Randomised controlled trials of mobile phone-based interventions to improve any form of contraception use amongst users or potential users of contraception. Outcome measures included uptake of contraception, measures of adherence, pregnancy and abortion. Two review authors independently screened titles and abstracts of studies retrieved using the search strategy and extracted data from the included studies. We calculated the Mantel-Haenszel risk ratio (RR) for dichotomous outcomes and the mean difference (MD) for continuous outcomes, together with 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Differences in interventions and outcome measures did not permit us to undertake meta-analysis. Five RCTs met our inclusion criteria. Three trials aimed to improve adherence to a specific method of contraception amongst existing or new contraception users by comparing automated text message interventions versus standard care. Two trials aimed to improve both uptake and adherence, not limited to one method, in

  16. Medically Relevant Assays with a Simple Smartphone and Tablet Based Fluorescence Detection System

    OpenAIRE

    Wargocki, Piotr; Deng, Wei; Anwer, Ayad G.; Goldys, Ewa M.

    2015-01-01

    Cell phones and smart phones can be reconfigured as biomedical sensor devices but this requires specialized add-ons. In this paper we present a simple cell phone-based portable bioassay platform, which can be used with fluorescent assays in solution. The system consists of a tablet, a polarizer, a smart phone (camera) and a box that provides dark readout conditions. The assay in a well plate is placed on the tablet screen acting as an excitation source. A polarizer on top of the well plate s...

  17. Dual cameras acquisition and display system of retina-like sensor camera and rectangular sensor camera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Nan; Cao, Fengmei; Lin, Yabin; Bai, Tingzhu; Song, Shengyu

    2015-04-01

    For a new kind of retina-like senor camera and a traditional rectangular sensor camera, dual cameras acquisition and display system need to be built. We introduce the principle and the development of retina-like senor. Image coordinates transformation and interpolation based on sub-pixel interpolation need to be realized for our retina-like sensor's special pixels distribution. The hardware platform is composed of retina-like senor camera, rectangular sensor camera, image grabber and PC. Combined the MIL and OpenCV library, the software program is composed in VC++ on VS 2010. Experience results show that the system can realizes two cameras' acquisition and display.

  18. Mobile-phone-based home exercise training program decreases systemic inflammation in COPD: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chun-Hua; Chou, Pai-Chien; Joa, Wen-Ching; Chen, Li-Fei; Sheng, Te-Fang; Ho, Shu-Chuan; Lin, Horng-Chyuan; Huang, Chien-Da; Chung, Fu-Tsai; Chung, Kian Fan; Kuo, Han-Pin

    2014-08-30

    Moderate-intensity exercise training improves skeletal muscle aerobic capacity and increased oxidative enzyme activity, as well as exercise tolerance in COPD patients. To investigate whether the home-based exercise training program can reduce inflammatory biomarkers in patients with COPD, twelve patients using mobile phone assistance and 14 with free walk were assessed by incremental shuttle walk test (ISWT), spirometry, strength of limb muscles, and serum C-reactive protein (CRP) and inflammatory cytokines. Patients in the mobile phone group improved their ISWT walking distance, with decrease in serum CRP after 2 months, and sustained at 6 months. Patients in the control group had no improvement. Serum IL-8 in the mobile phone group was significantly reduced at 2, 3 and 6 months after doing home exercise training compared to baseline. IL-6 and TNF-α were significantly elevated at 3 and 6 months in control group, while there were no changes in mobile phone group. The strength of limb muscles was significantly greater compared to baseline at 3 and 6 months in the mobile phone group. A mobile-phone-based system can provide an efficient home endurance exercise training program with improved exercise capacity, strength of limb muscles and a decrease in serum CRP and IL-8 in COPD patients. Decreased systemic inflammation may contribute to these clinical benefits. (Clinical trial registration No.: NCT01631019).

  19. BENCHMARKING THE OPTICAL RESOLVING POWER OF UAV BASED CAMERA SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Meißner

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available UAV based imaging and 3D object point generation is an established technology. Some of the UAV users try to address (very highaccuracy applications, i.e. inspection or monitoring scenarios. In order to guarantee such level of detail and accuracy high resolving imaging systems are mandatory. Furthermore, image quality considerably impacts photogrammetric processing, as the tie point transfer, mandatory for forming the block geometry, fully relies on the radiometric quality of images. Thus, empirical testing of radiometric camera performance is an important issue, in addition to standard (geometric calibration, which normally is covered primarily. Within this paper the resolving power of ten different camera/lens installations has been investigated. Selected systems represent different camera classes, like DSLRs, system cameras, larger format cameras and proprietary systems. As the systems have been tested in wellcontrolled laboratory conditions and objective quality measures have been derived, individual performance can be compared directly, thus representing a first benchmark on radiometric performance of UAV cameras. The results have shown, that not only the selection of appropriate lens and camera body has an impact, in addition the image pre-processing, i.e. the use of a specific debayering method, significantly influences the final resolving power.

  20. Reaching the end of the line: Operational issues with implementing phone-based unannounced pill counts in resource-limited settings.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yael Hirsch-Moverman

    Full Text Available Accurate measurement of adherence is necessary to ensure that therapeutic outcomes can be attributed to the recommended treatment. Phone-based unannounced pill counts were shown to be feasible and reliable measures of adherence in developed settings; and have been further used as part of medication adherence interventions. However, it is not clear whether this method can be implemented successfully in resource-limited settings, where cellular network and mobile phone coverage may be low. Our objective is to describe operational issues surrounding the use of phone-based unannounced pill counts in Lesotho and Ethiopia.Phone-based monthly unannounced pill counts, using an adaptation of a standardized protocol from previous US-based studies, were utilized to measure anti-TB and antiretroviral medication adherence in two implementation science studies in resource-limited settings, START (Lesotho and ENRICH (Ethiopia.In START, 19.6% of calls were completed, with 71.9% of participants reached at least once; majority of failed call attempts were due to phones not being available (54.8% or because participants were away from the pills (32.7%. In ENRICH, 33.5% of calls were completed, with 86.7% of participants reached at least once; the main reasons for failed call attempts were phones being switched off (31.5%, participants not answering (27.3%, participants' discomfort speaking on the phone (15.4%, and network problems (13.2%. Structural, facility-level, participant-level, and data collection challenges were encountered in these settings.Phone-based unannounced pill counts were found to be challenging, and response rates suboptimal. While some of these challenges were specific to local contexts, most of them are generalizable to resource-limited settings. In a research study context, a possible solution to ease operational challenges may be to focus phone-based unannounced pill count efforts on a randomly selected sample from participants who are

  1. Refocusing from a plenoptic camera within seconds on a mobile phone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Cárdenes, Ã.`scar; Marichal-Hernández, José G.; Rosa, Fernando L.; Lüke, Jonas P.; Fernández-Valdivia, Juan José; Rodríguez-Ramos, José M.

    2014-05-01

    Refocusing a plenoptic image by digital means and after the exposure has been thoroughly studied in the last years, but few efforts have been made in the direction of real time implementation in a constrained environment such as that provided by current mobile phones and tablets. In this work we address the aforementioned challenge demonstrating that a complete focal stack, comprising 31 refocused planes from a (256ff16)2 plenoptic image, can be achieved within seconds by a current SoC mobile phone platform. The election of an appropriate algorithm is the key to success. In a previous work we developed an algorithm, the fast approximate 4D:3D discrete Radon transform, that performs this task with linear time complexity where others obtain quadratic or linearithmic time complexity. Moreover, that algorithm does not requires complex number transforms, trigonometric calculus nor even multiplications nor oat numbers. Our algorithm has been ported to a multi core ARM chip on an off-the-shelf tablet running Android. A careful implementation exploiting parallelism at several levels has been necessary. The final implementation takes advantage of multi-threading in native code and NEON SIMD instructions. As a result our current implementation completes the refocusing task within seconds for a 16 megapixels image, much faster than previous attempts running on powerful PC platforms or dedicated hardware. The times consumed by the different stages of the digital refocusing are given and the strategies to achieve this result are discussed. Time results are given for a variety of environments within Android ecosystem, from the weaker/cheaper SoCs to the top of the line for 2013.

  2. Effects of competing environmental variables and signage on route-choices in simulated everyday and emergency wayfinding situations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilar, Elisângela; Rebelo, Francisco; Noriega, Paulo; Duarte, Emília; Mayhorn, Christopher B

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the relative influence of environmental variables (corridor width and brightness) and signage (directional and exit signs), when presented in competition, on participants' route-choices in two situational variables (everyday vs. emergency), during indoor wayfinding in virtual environments. A virtual reality-based methodology was used. Thus, participants attempted to find a room (everyday situation) in a virtual hotel, followed by a fire-related emergency egress (emergency situation). Different behaviours were observed. In the everyday situation, for no-signs condition, participants choose mostly the wider and brighter corridors, suggesting a heavy reliance on the environmental affordances. Conversely, for signs condition, participants mostly complied with signage, suggesting a greater reliance on the signs rather than on the environmental cues. During emergency, without signage, reliance on environmental affordances seems to be affected by the intersection type. In the sign condition, the reliance on environmental affordances that started strong decreases along the egress route.

  3. Remote diagnosis of traumatic dental injuries using digital photographs captured via a mobile phone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Almeida Geraldino, Rogério; Rezende, Liliana Vicente Melo de Lucas; da-Silva, Cibele Queiroz; Almeida, Júlio César Franco

    2017-10-01

    Intra-oral photographs have been aided diagnosis of several pathologies in teledentistry. Mobile phone cameras may produce high-quality photographs, presenting itself as a viable tool for remote diagnosis of traumatic dental injuries. To evaluate the levels of interexaminer agreement in cases of traumatic dental injuries when comparing diagnoses conducted in person and remotely. The sample included 40 patients with 73 traumatized teeth, and a total of 90 diagnoses, who had presented to two dental clinics, one private, and the other public, in Brazil's Federal District. The dental history and clinical examination data were registered in electronic forms, and digital photographs were captured with a mobile phone camera and uploaded to a cloud drive. Six remote examiners formulated their diagnoses based solely on photographic analysis. Thereafter, they were provided with additional clinical data and asked to provide a second round of diagnoses. These diagnoses were compared to those conducted in person, which were considered the gold standard. The data were analyzed with Gwet's AC1 interexaminers' measure to evaluate the agreement between the in-surgery and remote diagnoses. The levels of interexaminer agreement between the in-surgery and remote diagnoses formulated exclusively with images were 0.83 or higher (95% confidence interval: 0.73-0.91), and 0.93 or higher (95% confidence interval: 0.88-0.97), when clinical information was available. The precision of the remote diagnoses was comparable to the diagnoses conducted in person. The levels of interexaminer agreement were higher when clinical data were included with the images. Mobile phones may be an effective tool for capturing images that assist in the remote diagnosis of traumatic dental injuries. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. A new method for mobile phone image denoising

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Lianghai; Jin, Min; Li, Xiang; Xu, Xiangyang

    2015-12-01

    Images captured by mobile phone cameras via pipeline processing usually contain various kinds of noises, especially granular noise with different shapes and sizes in both luminance and chrominance channels. In chrominance channels, noise is closely related to image brightness. To improve image quality, this paper presents a new method to denoise such mobile phone images. The proposed scheme converts the noisy RGB image to luminance and chrominance images, which are then denoised by a common filtering framework. The common filtering framework processes a noisy pixel by first excluding the neighborhood pixels that significantly deviate from the (vector) median and then utilizing the other neighborhood pixels to restore the current pixel. In the framework, the strength of chrominance image denoising is controlled by image brightness. The experimental results show that the proposed method obviously outperforms some other representative denoising methods in terms of both objective measure and visual evaluation.

  5. New data from Virginia Tech Transportation Institute provides insight into cell phone use and driving distraction

    OpenAIRE

    Box, Sherri

    2009-01-01

    Several large-scale, naturalistic driving studies -- using sophisticated cameras and instrumentation in participants' personal vehicles -- conducted by the Virginia Tech Transportation Institute (VTTI), provide a clear picture of driver distraction and cell phone use under real-world driving conditions, according to the institute.

  6. Risk and benefit perceptions of mobile phone and base station technology in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Kleef, Ellen; Fischer, Arnout R H; Khan, Moin; Frewer, Lynn J

    2010-06-01

    Research in developed countries showed that many citizens perceive that radio signals transmitted by mobile phones and base stations represent potential health risks. Less research has been conducted in developing countries focused on citizen perceptions of risks and benefits, despite the recent and rapid introduction of mobile communication technologies. This study aims to identify factors that are influential in determining the tradeoffs that Bangladeshi citizens make between risks and benefits in terms of mobile phone technology acceptance and health concerns associated with the technology. Bangladesh was selected as representative of many developing countries inasmuch as terrestrial telephone infrastructure is insubstantial, and mobile phone use has expanded rapidly over the last decade, even among the poor. Issues of importance were identified in a small-scale qualitative study among Bangladeshi citizens (n = 13), followed by a survey within a sample of Bangladeshi citizens (n = 500). The results demonstrate that, in general, the perceived benefits of mobile phone technology outweigh the risks. The perceived benefits are primarily related to the social and personal advantages of mobile phone use, including the ability to receive emergency news about floods, cyclones, and other natural disasters. Base stations were seen as a symbol of societal advance. The results furthermore suggest that overall risk perceptions are relatively low, in particular health risks, and are primarily driven by perceptions that related to crime and social inconvenience. Perceived health risks are relatively small. These findings show that risk communication and management may be particularly effective when contextual factors of the society where the system is implemented are taken into consideration.

  7. Review and Evaluation of Mindfulness-Based iPhone Apps

    OpenAIRE

    Mani, Madhavan; Kavanagh, David J; Hides, Leanne; Stoyanov, Stoyan R

    2015-01-01

    Background There is growing evidence for the positive impact of mindfulness on wellbeing. Mindfulness-based mobile apps may have potential as an alternative delivery medium for training. While there are hundreds of such apps, there is little information on their quality. Objective This study aimed to conduct a systematic review of mindfulness-based iPhone mobile apps and to evaluate their quality using a recently-developed expert rating scale, the Mobile Application Rating Scale (MARS). It al...

  8. Semantic Labeling of User Location Context Based on Phone Usage Features

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helena Leppäkoski

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In mobile phones, the awareness of the user’s context allows services better tailored to the user’s needs. We propose a machine learning based method for semantic labeling that utilizes phone usage features to detect the user’s home, work, and other visited places. For place detection, we compare seven different classification methods. We organize the phone usage data based on periods of uninterrupted time that the user has been in a certain place. We consider three approaches to represent this data: visits, places, and cumulative samples. Our main contribution is semantic place labeling using a small set of privacy-preserving features and novel data representations suitable for resource constrained mobile devices. The contributions include (1 introduction of novel data representations including accumulation and averaging of the usage, (2 analysis of the effect of the data accumulation time on the accuracy of the place classification, (3 analysis of the confidence on the classification outcome, and (4 identification of the most relevant features obtained through feature selection methods. With a small set of privacy-preserving features and our data representations, we detect the user’s home and work with probability of 90% or better, and in 3-class problem the overall classification accuracy was 89% or better.

  9. Epidemic of cell phone virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Pu; González, Marta; Barabási, Albert-László.

    2008-03-01

    Standard operating systems and Bluetooth technology will be a trend for future cell phone features. These will enable cell phone viruses to spread either through SMS or by sending Bluetooth requests when cell phones are physically close enough. The difference in spreading methods gives these two types of viruses' different epidemiological characteristics. SMS viruses' spread is mainly based on people's social connections, whereas the spreading of Bluetooth viruses is affected by people's mobility patterns and population distribution. Using cell phone data recording calls, SMS and locations of more than 6 million users, we study the spread of SMS and Bluetooth viruses and characterize how the social network and the mobility of mobile phone users affect such spreading processes.

  10. A Compton camera application for the GAMOS GEANT4-based framework

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harkness, L.J., E-mail: ljh@ns.ph.liv.ac.uk [Oliver Lodge Laboratory, The University of Liverpool, Liverpool L69 7ZE (United Kingdom); Arce, P. [Department of Basic Research, CIEMAT, Madrid (Spain); Judson, D.S.; Boston, A.J.; Boston, H.C.; Cresswell, J.R.; Dormand, J.; Jones, M.; Nolan, P.J.; Sampson, J.A.; Scraggs, D.P.; Sweeney, A. [Oliver Lodge Laboratory, The University of Liverpool, Liverpool L69 7ZE (United Kingdom); Lazarus, I.; Simpson, J. [STFC Daresbury Laboratory, Daresbury, Warrington WA4 4AD (United Kingdom)

    2012-04-11

    Compton camera systems can be used to image sources of gamma radiation in a variety of applications such as nuclear medicine, homeland security and nuclear decommissioning. To locate gamma-ray sources, a Compton camera employs electronic collimation, utilising Compton kinematics to reconstruct the paths of gamma rays which interact within the detectors. The main benefit of this technique is the ability to accurately identify and locate sources of gamma radiation within a wide field of view, vastly improving the efficiency and specificity over existing devices. Potential advantages of this imaging technique, along with advances in detector technology, have brought about a rapidly expanding area of research into the optimisation of Compton camera systems, which relies on significant input from Monte-Carlo simulations. In this paper, the functionality of a Compton camera application that has been integrated into GAMOS, the GEANT4-based Architecture for Medicine-Oriented Simulations, is described. The application simplifies the use of GEANT4 for Monte-Carlo investigations by employing a script based language and plug-in technology. To demonstrate the use of the Compton camera application, simulated data have been generated using the GAMOS application and acquired through experiment for a preliminary validation, using a Compton camera configured with double sided high purity germanium strip detectors. Energy spectra and reconstructed images for the data sets are presented.

  11. Effect of electromagnetic radiations from mobile phone base stations on general health and salivary function

    OpenAIRE

    Singh, Kushpal; Nagaraj, Anup; Yousuf, Asif; Ganta, Shravani; Pareek, Sonia; Vishnani, Preeti

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Cell phones use electromagnetic, nonionizing radiations in the microwave range, which some believe may be harmful to human health. The present study aimed to determine the effect of electromagnetic radiations (EMRs) on unstimulated/stimulated salivary flow rate and other health-related problems between the general populations residing in proximity to and far away from mobile phone base stations. Materials and Methods: A total of four mobile base stations were randomly selected from...

  12. Convolutional Neural Network-Based Shadow Detection in Images Using Visible Light Camera Sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong Seop Kim

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Recent developments in intelligence surveillance camera systems have enabled more research on the detection, tracking, and recognition of humans. Such systems typically use visible light cameras and images, in which shadows make it difficult to detect and recognize the exact human area. Near-infrared (NIR light cameras and thermal cameras are used to mitigate this problem. However, such instruments require a separate NIR illuminator, or are prohibitively expensive. Existing research on shadow detection in images captured by visible light cameras have utilized object and shadow color features for detection. Unfortunately, various environmental factors such as illumination change and brightness of background cause detection to be a difficult task. To overcome this problem, we propose a convolutional neural network-based shadow detection method. Experimental results with a database built from various outdoor surveillance camera environments, and from the context-aware vision using image-based active recognition (CAVIAR open database, show that our method outperforms previous works.

  13. Mobile phone-based syndromic surveillance system, Papua New Guinea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosewell, Alexander; Ropa, Berry; Randall, Heather; Dagina, Rosheila; Hurim, Samuel; Bieb, Sibauk; Datta, Siddhartha; Ramamurthy, Sundar; Mola, Glen; Zwi, Anthony B; Ray, Pradeep; MacIntyre, C Raina

    2013-11-01

    The health care system in Papua New Guinea is fragile, and surveillance systems infrequently meet international standards. To strengthen outbreak identification, health authorities piloted a mobile phone-based syndromic surveillance system and used established frameworks to evaluate whether the system was meeting objectives. Stakeholder experience was investigated by using standardized questionnaires and focus groups. Nine sites reported data that included 7 outbreaks and 92 cases of acute watery diarrhea. The new system was more timely (2.4 vs. 84 days), complete (70% vs. 40%), and sensitive (95% vs. 26%) than existing systems. The system was simple, stable, useful, and acceptable; however, feedback and subnational involvement were weak. A simple syndromic surveillance system implemented in a fragile state enabled more timely, complete, and sensitive data reporting for disease risk assessment. Feedback and provincial involvement require improvement. Use of mobile phone technology might improve the timeliness and efficiency of public health surveillance.

  14. Portraiture lens concept in a mobile phone camera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheil, Conor J.; Goncharov, Alexander V.

    2017-11-01

    A small form-factor lens was designed for the purpose of portraiture photography, the size of which allows use within smartphone casing. The current general requirement of mobile cameras having good all-round performance results in a typical, familiar, many-element design. Such designs have little room for improvement, in terms of the available degrees of freedom and highly-demanding target metrics such as low f-number and wide field of view. However, the specific application of the current portraiture lens relaxed the requirement of an all-round high-performing lens, allowing improvement of certain aspects at the expense of others. With a main emphasis on reducing depth of field (DoF), the current design takes advantage of the simple geometrical relationship between DoF and pupil diameter. The system has a large aperture, while a reasonable f-number gives a relatively large focal length, requiring a catadioptric lens design with double ray path; hence, field of view is reduced. Compared to typical mobile lenses, the large diameter reduces depth of field by a factor of four.

  15. Cell Phone-Based System (Chaak) for Surveillance of Immatures of Dengue Virus Mosquito Vectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    LOZANO–FUENTES, SAUL; WEDYAN, FADI; HERNANDEZ–GARCIA, EDGAR; SADHU, DEVADATTA; GHOSH, SUDIPTO; BIEMAN, JAMES M.; TEP-CHEL, DIANA; GARCÍA–REJÓN, JULIÁN E.; EISEN, LARS

    2014-01-01

    Capture of surveillance data on mobile devices and rapid transfer of such data from these devices into an electronic database or data management and decision support systems promote timely data analyses and public health response during disease outbreaks. Mobile data capture is used increasingly for malaria surveillance and holds great promise for surveillance of other neglected tropical diseases. We focused on mosquito-borne dengue, with the primary aims of: 1) developing and field-testing a cell phone-based system (called Chaak) for capture of data relating to the surveillance of the mosquito immature stages, and 2) assessing, in the dengue endemic setting of Mérida, México, the cost-effectiveness of this new technology versus paper-based data collection. Chaak includes a desktop component, where a manager selects premises to be surveyed for mosquito immatures, and a cell phone component, where the surveyor receives the assigned tasks and captures the data. Data collected on the cell phone can be transferred to a central database through different modes of transmission, including near-real time where data are transferred immediately (e.g., over the Internet) or by first storing data on the cell phone for future transmission. Spatial data are handled in a novel, semantically driven, geographic information system. Compared with a pen-and-paper-based method, use of Chaak improved the accuracy and increased the speed of data transcription into an electronic database. The cost-effectiveness of using the Chaak system will depend largely on the up-front cost of purchasing cell phones and the recurring cost of data transfer over a cellular network. PMID:23926788

  16. Cellular phone-based image acquisition and quantitative ratiometric method for detecting cocaine and benzoylecgonine for biological and forensic applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cadle, Brian A; Rasmus, Kristin C; Varela, Juan A; Leverich, Leah S; O'Neill, Casey E; Bachtell, Ryan K; Cooper, Donald C

    2010-01-01

    Here we describe the first report of using low-cost cellular or web-based digital cameras to image and quantify standardized rapid immunoassay strips as a new point-of-care diagnostic and forensics tool with health applications. Quantitative ratiometric pixel density analysis (QRPDA) is an automated method requiring end-users to utilize inexpensive (∼ $1 USD/each) immunotest strips, a commonly available web or mobile phone camera or scanner, and internet or cellular service. A model is described whereby a central computer server and freely available IMAGEJ image analysis software records and analyzes the incoming image data with time-stamp and geo-tag information and performs the QRPDA using custom JAVA based macros (http://www.neurocloud.org). To demonstrate QRPDA we developed a standardized method using rapid immunotest strips directed against cocaine and its major metabolite, benzoylecgonine. Images from standardized samples were acquired using several devices, including a mobile phone camera, web cam, and scanner. We performed image analysis of three brands of commercially available dye-conjugated anti-cocaine/benzoylecgonine (COC/BE) antibody test strips in response to three different series of cocaine concentrations ranging from 0.1 to 300 ng/ml and BE concentrations ranging from 0.003 to 0.1 ng/ml. This data was then used to create standard curves to allow quantification of COC/BE in biological samples. Across all devices, QRPDA quantification of COC and BE proved to be a sensitive, economical, and faster alternative to more costly methods, such as gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, tandem mass spectrometry, or high pressure liquid chromatography. The limit of detection was determined to be between 0.1 and 5 ng/ml. To simulate conditions in the field, QRPDA was found to be robust under a variety of image acquisition and testing conditions that varied temperature, lighting, resolution, magnification and concentrations of biological fluid in a sample. To

  17. Cellular Phone-Based Image Acquisition and Quantitative Ratiometric Method for Detecting Cocaine and Benzoylecgonine for Biological and Forensic Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian A. Cadle

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Here we describe the first report of using low-cost cellular or web-based digital cameras to image and quantify standardized rapid immunoassay strips as a new point-of-care diagnostic and forensics tool with health applications. Quantitative ratiometric pixel density analysis (QRPDA is an automated method requiring end-users to utilize inexpensive (~ $1 USD/each immunotest strips, a commonly available web or mobile phone camera or scanner, and internet or cellular service. A model is described whereby a central computer server and freely available IMAGEJ image analysis software records and analyzes the incoming image data with time-stamp and geo-tag information and performs the QRPDA using custom JAVA based macros ( http://www.neurocloud.org . To demonstrate QRPDA we developed a standardized method using rapid immunotest strips directed against cocaine and its major metabolite, benzoylecgonine. Images from standardized samples were acquired using several devices, including a mobile phone camera, web cam, and scanner. We performed image analysis of three brands of commercially available dye-conjugated anti-cocaine/benzoylecgonine (COC/BE antibody test strips in response to three different series of cocaine concentrations ranging from 0.1 to 300 ng/ml and BE concentrations ranging from 0.003 to 0.1 ng/ml. This data was then used to create standard curves to allow quantification of COC/BE in biological samples. Across all devices, QRPDA quantification of COC and BE proved to be a sensitive, economical, and faster alternative to more costly methods, such as gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, tandem mass spectrometry, or high pressure liquid chromatography. The limit of detection was determined to be between 0.1 and 5 ng/ml. To simulate conditions in the field, QRPDA was found to be robust under a variety of image acquisition and testing conditions that varied temperature, lighting, resolution, magnification and concentrations of biological fluid

  18. Research on the Collinear Equation Model of Visual Positioning Based on Visible Light Communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Yuqi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A positioning method based on visible light communication is proposed, which receiving visible light information by low-resolution photodiode array and receiving visual information by the front camera of mobile phone. The terminal position is determined by matching spot information provided by photodiode array with visual information and position information provided by visible light communication. A collinear equation model is derived which based on mobile phone front camera. A hardware-in-loop simulation has been conducted to verify the collinear equation. The three-dimensional positioning error is on the level of decimeter. Moreover, the main factors which affect the positioning accuracy are analyzed in order to further improve the positioning accuracy.

  19. Feature-based automatic color calibration for networked camera system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Shoji; Taki, Keisuke; Tsumura, Norimichi; Nakaguchi, Toshiya; Miyake, Yoichi

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we have developed a feature-based automatic color calibration by using an area-based detection and adaptive nonlinear regression method. Simple color matching of chartless is achieved by using the characteristic of overlapping image area with each camera. Accurate detection of common object is achieved by the area-based detection that combines MSER with SIFT. Adaptive color calibration by using the color of detected object is calculated by nonlinear regression method. This method can indicate the contribution of object's color for color calibration, and automatic selection notification for user is performed by this function. Experimental result show that the accuracy of the calibration improves gradually. It is clear that this method can endure practical use of multi-camera color calibration if an enough sample is obtained.

  20. Key Technologies of Phone Storage Forensics Based on ARM Architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jianghan; Che, Shengbing

    2018-03-01

    Smart phones are mainly running Android, IOS and Windows Phone three mobile platform operating systems. The android smart phone has the best market shares and its processor chips are almost ARM software architecture. The chips memory address mapping mechanism of ARM software architecture is different with x86 software architecture. To forensics to android mart phone, we need to understand three key technologies: memory data acquisition, the conversion mechanism from virtual address to the physical address, and find the system’s key data. This article presents a viable solution which does not rely on the operating system API for a complete solution to these three issues.

  1. Automatic inference of geometric camera parameters and inter-camera topology in uncalibrated disjoint surveillance cameras

    Science.gov (United States)

    den Hollander, Richard J. M.; Bouma, Henri; Baan, Jan; Eendebak, Pieter T.; van Rest, Jeroen H. C.

    2015-10-01

    Person tracking across non-overlapping cameras and other types of video analytics benefit from spatial calibration information that allows an estimation of the distance between cameras and a relation between pixel coordinates and world coordinates within a camera. In a large environment with many cameras, or for frequent ad-hoc deployments of cameras, the cost of this calibration is high. This creates a barrier for the use of video analytics. Automating the calibration allows for a short configuration time, and the use of video analytics in a wider range of scenarios, including ad-hoc crisis situations and large scale surveillance systems. We show an autocalibration method entirely based on pedestrian detections in surveillance video in multiple non-overlapping cameras. In this paper, we show the two main components of automatic calibration. The first shows the intra-camera geometry estimation that leads to an estimate of the tilt angle, focal length and camera height, which is important for the conversion from pixels to meters and vice versa. The second component shows the inter-camera topology inference that leads to an estimate of the distance between cameras, which is important for spatio-temporal analysis of multi-camera tracking. This paper describes each of these methods and provides results on realistic video data.

  2. The AOTF-Based NO2 Camera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dekemper, E.; Fussen, D.; Vanhellemont, F.; Vanhamel, J.; Pieroux, D.; Berkenbosch, S.

    2017-12-01

    In an urban environment, nitrogen dioxide is emitted by a multitude of static and moving point sources (cars, industry, power plants, heating systems,…). Air quality models generally rely on a limited number of monitoring stations which do not capture the whole pattern, neither allow for full validation. So far, there has been a lack of instrument capable of measuring NO2 fields with the necessary spatio-temporal resolution above major point sources (power plants), or more extended ones (cities). We have developed a new type of passive remote sensing instrument aiming at the measurement of 2-D distributions of NO2 slant column densities (SCDs) with a high spatial (meters) and temporal (minutes) resolution. The measurement principle has some similarities with the popular filter-based SO2 camera (used in volcanic and industrial sulfur emissions monitoring) as it relies on spectral images taken at wavelengths where the molecule absorption cross section is different. But contrary to the SO2 camera, the spectral selection is performed by an acousto-optical tunable filter (AOTF) capable of resolving the target molecule's spectral features. A first prototype was successfully tested with the plume of a coal-firing power plant in Romania, revealing the dynamics of the formation of NO2 in the early plume. A lighter version of the NO2 camera is now being tested on other targets, such as oil refineries and urban air masses.

  3. Mobile phone induced sensorineural hearing loss

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Dousary, Surayie H.

    2007-01-01

    The increased use of mobile phones worldwide has focused interest on the biological effects and possible health outcomes of exposure to radiofrequency fields from mobile phones, and their base stations. Various reports suggest that mobile phone use can cause health problems like fatigue, headache, dizziness, tension and sleep disturbances, however, only limited research data is available in medical literature regarding interaction between electromagnetic fields emitted by mobile phones and auditory function and the possible impact on hearing. We report a case of sensorineural hearing loss due to Global System for Mobile Communication mobile phone use in a 42-year-old male. (author)

  4. The effect of navigational expertise on wayfinding in new environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woollett, Katherine; Maguire, Eleanor A

    2010-12-01

    Becoming proficient at navigation in urban environments is something that we all aspire to. Here we asked whether being an expert at wayfinding in one environment has any effect on learning new spatial layouts. Licensed London taxi drivers are among the most proficient urban navigators, training for many years to find their way around a complex and irregularly-laid out city. We first tested how well they could learn the layout of an unfamiliar town compared with a group of non-taxi drivers. Second, we investigated how effectively taxi drivers could integrate a new district into their existing spatial representation of London. We found that taxi drivers were significantly better than control participants at executing routes through the new town, and representing it at a map-like survey level. However, the benefits of navigational expertise were not universal. Compared with their performance in the new town, taxi drivers were significantly poorer at learning the layout of a new area that had to be integrated with their existing knowledge of London. We consider reasons for this picture of facilitation and limitation, in particular drawing parallels with how knowledge acquisition occurs in the context of expertise in general.

  5. The Application of Data Mining Techniques to Create Promotion Strategy for Mobile Phone Shop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khasanah, A. U.; Wibowo, K. S.; Dewantoro, H. F.

    2017-12-01

    The number of mobile shop is growing very fast in various regions in Indonesia including in Yogyakarta due to the increasing demand of mobile phone. This fact leads high competition among the mobile phone shops. In these conditions the mobile phone shop should have a good promotion strategy in order to survive in competition, especially for a small mobile phone shop. To create attractive promotion strategy, the companies/shops should know their customer segmentation and the buying pattern of their target market. These kind of analysis can be done using Data mining technique. This study aims to segment customer using Agglomerative Hierarchical Clustering and know customer buying pattern using Association Rule Mining. This result conducted in a mobile shop in Sleman Yogyakarta. The clustering result shows that the biggest customer segment of the shop was male university student who come on weekend and from association rule mining, it can be concluded that tempered glass and smart phone “x” as well as action camera and waterproof monopod and power bank have strong relationship. This results that used to create promotion strategies which are presented in the end of the study.

  6. Radiation dosimetry properties of smart-phone CMOS sensors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Hoey, Olivier; Salavrakos, Alexia; Marques, Antonio; Nagao, Alexandre; Vanhavere, Filip; Cauwels, Vanessa; Nascimento, Luana F.; Willems, Ruben

    2016-01-01

    During the past years, several smart-phone applications have been developed for radiation detection. These applications measure radiation using the smart-phone camera complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor sensor. They are potentially useful for data collection and personal dose assessment in case of a radiological incident. However, it is important to assess these applications. Six applications were tested by means of irradiations with calibrated X-ray and gamma sources. It was shown that the measurement stabilises only after at least 10-25 min. All applications exhibited a flat dose rate response in the studied ambient dose equivalent range from 2 to 1000 μSv h -1 . Most applications significantly over- or underestimate the dose rate or are not calibrated in terms of dose rate. A considerable energy dependence was observed below 100 keV but not for the higher energy range more relevant for incident scenarios. Photon impact angle variation gave a measured signal variation of only about 10 %. (authors)

  7. Place-based attributes predict community membership in a mobile phone communication network.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T Trevor Caughlin

    Full Text Available Social networks can be organized into communities of closely connected nodes, a property known as modularity. Because diseases, information, and behaviors spread faster within communities than between communities, understanding modularity has broad implications for public policy, epidemiology and the social sciences. Explanations for community formation in social networks often incorporate the attributes of individual people, such as gender, ethnicity or shared activities. High modularity is also a property of large-scale social networks, where each node represents a population of individuals at a location, such as call flow between mobile phone towers. However, whether or not place-based attributes, including land cover and economic activity, can predict community membership for network nodes in large-scale networks remains unknown. We describe the pattern of modularity in a mobile phone communication network in the Dominican Republic, and use a linear discriminant analysis (LDA to determine whether geographic context can explain community membership. Our results demonstrate that place-based attributes, including sugar cane production, urbanization, distance to the nearest airport, and wealth, correctly predicted community membership for over 70% of mobile phone towers. We observed a strongly positive correlation (r = 0.97 between the modularity score and the predictive ability of the LDA, suggesting that place-based attributes can accurately represent the processes driving modularity. In the absence of social network data, the methods we present can be used to predict community membership over large scales using solely place-based attributes.

  8. Place-based attributes predict community membership in a mobile phone communication network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caughlin, T Trevor; Ruktanonchai, Nick; Acevedo, Miguel A; Lopiano, Kenneth K; Prosper, Olivia; Eagle, Nathan; Tatem, Andrew J

    2013-01-01

    Social networks can be organized into communities of closely connected nodes, a property known as modularity. Because diseases, information, and behaviors spread faster within communities than between communities, understanding modularity has broad implications for public policy, epidemiology and the social sciences. Explanations for community formation in social networks often incorporate the attributes of individual people, such as gender, ethnicity or shared activities. High modularity is also a property of large-scale social networks, where each node represents a population of individuals at a location, such as call flow between mobile phone towers. However, whether or not place-based attributes, including land cover and economic activity, can predict community membership for network nodes in large-scale networks remains unknown. We describe the pattern of modularity in a mobile phone communication network in the Dominican Republic, and use a linear discriminant analysis (LDA) to determine whether geographic context can explain community membership. Our results demonstrate that place-based attributes, including sugar cane production, urbanization, distance to the nearest airport, and wealth, correctly predicted community membership for over 70% of mobile phone towers. We observed a strongly positive correlation (r = 0.97) between the modularity score and the predictive ability of the LDA, suggesting that place-based attributes can accurately represent the processes driving modularity. In the absence of social network data, the methods we present can be used to predict community membership over large scales using solely place-based attributes.

  9. Mobile cosmetics advisor: an imaging based mobile service

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatti, Nina; Baker, Harlyn; Chao, Hui; Clearwater, Scott; Harville, Mike; Jain, Jhilmil; Lyons, Nic; Marguier, Joanna; Schettino, John; Süsstrunk, Sabine

    2010-01-01

    Selecting cosmetics requires visual information and often benefits from the assessments of a cosmetics expert. In this paper we present a unique mobile imaging application that enables women to use their cell phones to get immediate expert advice when selecting personal cosmetic products. We derive the visual information from analysis of camera phone images, and provide the judgment of the cosmetics specialist through use of an expert system. The result is a new paradigm for mobile interactions-image-based information services exploiting the ubiquity of camera phones. The application is designed to work with any handset over any cellular carrier using commonly available MMS and SMS features. Targeted at the unsophisticated consumer, it must be quick and easy to use, not requiring download capabilities or preplanning. Thus, all application processing occurs in the back-end system and not on the handset itself. We present the imaging pipeline technology and a comparison of the services' accuracy with respect to human experts.

  10. Mobile phone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    Almost the entire Norwegian population has cell phone. The usefulness of the cell phone is great, but can use a mobile phone to health or discomfort? How can exposure be reduced? NRPA follows research and provides advice on mobile phone use. (AG)

  11. Movement-based interaction in camera spaces: a conceptual framework

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksson, Eva; Hansen, Thomas Riisgaard; Lykke-Olesen, Andreas

    2007-01-01

    In this paper we present three concepts that address movement-based interaction using camera tracking. Based on our work with several movementbased projects we present four selected applications, and use these applications to leverage our discussion, and to describe our three main concepts space,...

  12. Design of external sensors board based on Bluetooth interface of smart phones for structural health monitoring system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yan; Zhou, Yaping; Zhao, Xuefeng; Li, Dongsheng; Ou, Jinping

    2016-04-01

    As an important part of new information technology, the Internet of Things(IoT) is based on intelligent perception, recognition technology, ubiquitous computing, ubiquitous network integration, and it is known as the third wave of the development of information industry in the world after the computer and the Internet. And Smart Phones are the general term for a class of mobile phones with a separate operating system and operational memory, in which the third-party service programs including software, games, navigation, et.al, can be installed. Smart Phones, with not only sensors but also actuators, are widely used in the IoT world. As the current hot issues in the engineering area, Structural health monitoring (SHM) is also facing new problems about design ideas in the IoT environment. The development of IoT, wireless sensor network and mobile communication technology, provides a good technical platform for SHM. Based on these facts, this paper introduces a kind of new idea for Structural Health Monitoring using Smart Phones Technique. The system is described in detail, and the external sensor board based on Bluetooth interface is designed, the test based on Smart Phones is finished to validate the implementation and feasibility. The research is preliminary and more tests need to be carried out before it can be of practical use.

  13. An iPhone-based digital image colorimeter for detecting tetracycline in milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masawat, Prinya; Harfield, Antony; Namwong, Anan

    2015-10-01

    An iPhone-based digital image colorimeter (DIC) was fabricated as a portable tool for monitoring tetracycline (TC) in bovine milk. An application named ColorConc was developed for the iPhone that utilizes an image matching algorithm to determine the TC concentration in a solution. The color values; red (R), green (G), blue (B), hue (H), saturation (S), brightness (V), and gray (Gr) were measured from each pictures of the TC standard solutions. TC solution extracted from milk samples using solid phase extraction (SPE) was captured and the concentration was predicted by comparing color values with those collected in a database. The amount of TC could be determined in the concentration range of 0.5-10 μg mL(-1). The proposed DIC-iPhone is able to provide a limit of detection (LOD) of 0.5 μg mL(-1) and limit of quantitation (LOQ) of 1.5 μg mL(-1). The enrichment factor was 70 and color of the extracted milk sample was a strong yellow solution after SPE. Therefore, the SPE-DIC-iPhone could be used for the assay of TC residues in milk at the concentration lower than LOD and LOQ of the proposed technique. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Image Mosaicking Approach for a Double-Camera System in the GaoFen2 Optical Remote Sensing Satellite Based on the Big Virtual Camera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Yufeng; Jin, Shuying; Wang, Mi; Zhu, Ying; Dong, Zhipeng

    2017-06-20

    The linear array push broom imaging mode is widely used for high resolution optical satellites (HROS). Using double-cameras attached by a high-rigidity support along with push broom imaging is one method to enlarge the field of view while ensuring high resolution. High accuracy image mosaicking is the key factor of the geometrical quality of complete stitched satellite imagery. This paper proposes a high accuracy image mosaicking approach based on the big virtual camera (BVC) in the double-camera system on the GaoFen2 optical remote sensing satellite (GF2). A big virtual camera can be built according to the rigorous imaging model of a single camera; then, each single image strip obtained by each TDI-CCD detector can be re-projected to the virtual detector of the big virtual camera coordinate system using forward-projection and backward-projection to obtain the corresponding single virtual image. After an on-orbit calibration and relative orientation, the complete final virtual image can be obtained by stitching the single virtual images together based on their coordinate information on the big virtual detector image plane. The paper subtly uses the concept of the big virtual camera to obtain a stitched image and the corresponding high accuracy rational function model (RFM) for concurrent post processing. Experiments verified that the proposed method can achieve seamless mosaicking while maintaining the geometric accuracy.

  15. Maternal cell phone and cordless phone use during pregnancy and behaviour problems in 5-year-old children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guxens, Mònica; van Eijsden, Manon; Vermeulen, Roel; Loomans, Eva; Vrijkotte, Tanja G M; Komhout, Hans; van Strien, Rob T; Huss, Anke

    2013-05-01

    A previous study found an association between maternal cell phone use during pregnancy and maternal-reported child behaviour problems at age 7. Together with cell phones, cordless phones represent the main exposure source of radiofrequency-electromagnetic fields to the head. Therefore, we assessed the association between maternal cell phone and cordless phone use during pregnancy and teacher-reported and maternal-reported child behaviour problems at age 5. The study was embedded in the Amsterdam Born Children and their Development study, a population-based birth cohort study in Amsterdam, the Netherlands (2003-2004). Teachers and mothers reported child behaviour problems using the Strength and Difficulties Questionnaire at age 5. Maternal cell phone and cordless phone use during pregnancy was asked when children were 7 years old. A total of 2618 children were included. As compared to non-users, those exposed to prenatal cell phone use showed an increased but non-significant association of having teacher-reported overall behaviour problems, although without dose-response relationship with the number of calls (OR=2.12 (95% CI 0.95 to 4.74) for cell phone and cordless phone use with maternal-reported overall behaviour problems remained non-significant. Non-significant associations were found for the specific behaviour problem subscales. Our results do not suggest that maternal cell phone or cordless phone use during pregnancy increases the odds of behaviour problems in their children.

  16. Motion Analysis of Thumb in Cellular Phone Use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naotaka Sakai

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The thumb motion of 10 normal subjects during cellular phone use was measured using a reflective marker detection system to compare the maximum, minimum and range of flexion angles of the interphalangeal (IP, metacarpophalangeal (MP and carpometacarpal (CM joints. Two micro-reflective markers 3 mm in diameter were each placed on the dorsal surface of the distal phalanx, basal phalanx and metacarpal bone of the thumb. Three markers were placed on the dorsal hand in order to define the dorsal hand plane. Each subject pushed the 12 keys of a folding cellular phone with an 85-mm-long and 40-mm-wide keypad, sequentially from ‘1’ to ‘#’, and the pushing motion was recorded by six infrared video cameras for 12 seconds, using the VICON 612 system. The mean maximum flexion angle of the MP joint was significantly (p < .05 larger than the CM joint, and the mean minimum flexion angle of the CM joint was significantly (p < .01 smaller than the IP and MP joints. The mean range of motion of the IP joint was significantly (p < .05 larger than the MP and the CM joints. In a comparison of different key-pushing motions, only the CM joint was significantly (p < .05 larger in its range of motion. In conclusion, thumb motion on pushing the keys of the cellular phone was produced mainly by the MP and the CM joints. In addition, the ability to reach keys in different areas of the cellular phone keypad is regulated by changing the flexion angle of the CM joint.

  17. Construct and face validity of a virtual reality-based camera navigation curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shetty, Shohan; Panait, Lucian; Baranoski, Jacob; Dudrick, Stanley J; Bell, Robert L; Roberts, Kurt E; Duffy, Andrew J

    2012-10-01

    Camera handling and navigation are essential skills in laparoscopic surgery. Surgeons rely on camera operators, usually the least experienced members of the team, for visualization of the operative field. Essential skills for camera operators include maintaining orientation, an effective horizon, appropriate zoom control, and a clean lens. Virtual reality (VR) simulation may be a useful adjunct to developing camera skills in a novice population. No standardized VR-based camera navigation curriculum is currently available. We developed and implemented a novel curriculum on the LapSim VR simulator platform for our residents and students. We hypothesize that our curriculum will demonstrate construct and face validity in our trainee population, distinguishing levels of laparoscopic experience as part of a realistic training curriculum. Overall, 41 participants with various levels of laparoscopic training completed the curriculum. Participants included medical students, surgical residents (Postgraduate Years 1-5), fellows, and attendings. We stratified subjects into three groups (novice, intermediate, and advanced) based on previous laparoscopic experience. We assessed face validity with a questionnaire. The proficiency-based curriculum consists of three modules: camera navigation, coordination, and target visualization using 0° and 30° laparoscopes. Metrics include time, target misses, drift, path length, and tissue contact. We analyzed data using analysis of variance and Student's t-test. We noted significant differences in repetitions required to complete the curriculum: 41.8 for novices, 21.2 for intermediates, and 11.7 for the advanced group (P medical students during their surgery rotations. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Sub-Camera Calibration of a Penta-Camera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobsen, K.; Gerke, M.

    2016-03-01

    Penta cameras consisting of a nadir and four inclined cameras are becoming more and more popular, having the advantage of imaging also facades in built up areas from four directions. Such system cameras require a boresight calibration of the geometric relation of the cameras to each other, but also a calibration of the sub-cameras. Based on data sets of the ISPRS/EuroSDR benchmark for multi platform photogrammetry the inner orientation of the used IGI Penta DigiCAM has been analyzed. The required image coordinates of the blocks Dortmund and Zeche Zollern have been determined by Pix4Dmapper and have been independently adjusted and analyzed by program system BLUH. With 4.1 million image points in 314 images respectively 3.9 million image points in 248 images a dense matching was provided by Pix4Dmapper. With up to 19 respectively 29 images per object point the images are well connected, nevertheless the high number of images per object point are concentrated to the block centres while the inclined images outside the block centre are satisfying but not very strongly connected. This leads to very high values for the Student test (T-test) of the finally used additional parameters or in other words, additional parameters are highly significant. The estimated radial symmetric distortion of the nadir sub-camera corresponds to the laboratory calibration of IGI, but there are still radial symmetric distortions also for the inclined cameras with a size exceeding 5μm even if mentioned as negligible based on the laboratory calibration. Radial and tangential effects of the image corners are limited but still available. Remarkable angular affine systematic image errors can be seen especially in the block Zeche Zollern. Such deformations are unusual for digital matrix cameras, but it can be caused by the correlation between inner and exterior orientation if only parallel flight lines are used. With exception of the angular affinity the systematic image errors for corresponding

  19. YouTube War: Fighting in a World of Cameras in Every Cell Phone and Photoshop on Every Computer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-11-01

    was the ordinary tourist with a digital cameras (sic) and an Internet connection— the blogger—who brought the first accounts of the monster to the...the deployed soldier. 51. Wendland, “From ENG to SNG.” 52. This is based in part on the typology in Ben Venzke, “Jihadi Master Video Guide, JMVG

  20. Advances in top-down and bottom-up approaches to video-based camera tracking

    OpenAIRE

    Marimón Sanjuán, David

    2007-01-01

    Video-based camera tracking consists in trailing the three dimensional pose followed by a mobile camera using video as sole input. In order to estimate the pose of a camera with respect to a real scene, one or more three dimensional references are needed. Examples of such references are landmarks with known geometric shape, or objects for which a model is generated beforehand. By comparing what is seen by a camera with what is geometrically known from reality, it is possible to recover the po...

  1. Advances in top-down and bottom-up approaches to video-based camera tracking

    OpenAIRE

    Marimón Sanjuán, David; Ebrahimi, Touradj

    2008-01-01

    Video-based camera tracking consists in trailing the three dimensional pose followed by a mobile camera using video as sole input. In order to estimate the pose of a camera with respect to a real scene, one or more three dimensional references are needed. Examples of such references are landmarks with known geometric shape, or objects for which a model is generated beforehand. By comparing what is seen by a camera with what is geometrically known from reality, it is possible to recover the po...

  2. Prism-based single-camera system for stereo display

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yue; Cui, Xiaoyu; Wang, Zhiguo; Chen, Hongsheng; Fan, Heyu; Wu, Teresa

    2016-06-01

    This paper combines the prism and single camera and puts forward a method of stereo imaging with low cost. First of all, according to the principle of geometrical optics, we can deduce the relationship between the prism single-camera system and dual-camera system, and according to the principle of binocular vision we can deduce the relationship between binoculars and dual camera. Thus we can establish the relationship between the prism single-camera system and binoculars and get the positional relation of prism, camera, and object with the best effect of stereo display. Finally, using the active shutter stereo glasses of NVIDIA Company, we can realize the three-dimensional (3-D) display of the object. The experimental results show that the proposed approach can make use of the prism single-camera system to simulate the various observation manners of eyes. The stereo imaging system, which is designed by the method proposed by this paper, can restore the 3-D shape of the object being photographed factually.

  3. A Portable, Inexpensive, Nonmydriatic Fundus Camera Based on the Raspberry Pi® Computer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bailey Y. Shen

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Nonmydriatic fundus cameras allow retinal photography without pharmacologic dilation of the pupil. However, currently available nonmydriatic fundus cameras are bulky, not portable, and expensive. Taking advantage of recent advances in mobile technology, we sought to create a nonmydriatic fundus camera that was affordable and could be carried in a white coat pocket. Methods. We built a point-and-shoot prototype camera using a Raspberry Pi computer, an infrared-sensitive camera board, a dual infrared and white light light-emitting diode, a battery, a 5-inch touchscreen liquid crystal display, and a disposable 20-diopter condensing lens. Our prototype camera was based on indirect ophthalmoscopy with both infrared and white lights. Results. The prototype camera measured 133mm×91mm×45mm and weighed 386 grams. The total cost of the components, including the disposable lens, was $185.20. The camera was able to obtain good-quality fundus images without pharmacologic dilation of the pupils. Conclusion. A fully functional, inexpensive, handheld, nonmydriatic fundus camera can be easily assembled from a relatively small number of components. With modest improvements, such a camera could be useful for a variety of healthcare professionals, particularly those who work in settings where a traditional table-mounted nonmydriatic fundus camera would be inconvenient.

  4. Printed products for digital cameras and mobile devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fageth, Reiner; Schmidt-Sacht, Wulf

    2005-01-01

    Digital photography is no longer simply a successor to film. The digital market is now driven by additional devices such as mobile phones with camera and video functions (camphones) as well as innovative products derived from digital files. A large number of consumers do not print their images and non-printing has become the major enemy of wholesale printers, home printing suppliers and retailers. This paper addresses the challenge facing our industry, namely how to encourage the consumer to print images easily and conveniently from all types of digital media.

  5. Global Calibration of Multi-Cameras Based on Refractive Projection and Ray Tracing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mingchi Feng

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Multi-camera systems are widely applied in the three dimensional (3D computer vision, especially when multiple cameras are distributed on both sides of the measured object. The calibration methods of multi-camera systems are critical to the accuracy of vision measurement and the key is to find an appropriate calibration target. In this paper, a high-precision camera calibration method for multi-camera systems based on transparent glass checkerboards and ray tracing is described, and is used to calibrate multiple cameras distributed on both sides of the glass checkerboard. Firstly, the intrinsic parameters of each camera are obtained by Zhang’s calibration method. Then, multiple cameras capture several images from the front and back of the glass checkerboard with different orientations, and all images contain distinct grid corners. As the cameras on one side are not affected by the refraction of glass checkerboard, extrinsic parameters can be directly calculated. However, the cameras on the other side are influenced by the refraction of glass checkerboard, and the direct use of projection model will produce a calibration error. A multi-camera calibration method using refractive projection model and ray tracing is developed to eliminate this error. Furthermore, both synthetic and real data are employed to validate the proposed approach. The experimental results of refractive calibration show that the error of the 3D reconstruction is smaller than 0.2 mm, the relative errors of both rotation and translation are less than 0.014%, and the mean and standard deviation of reprojection error of the four-camera system are 0.00007 and 0.4543 pixels, respectively. The proposed method is flexible, highly accurate, and simple to carry out.

  6. Detection and quantification of subtle changes in red blood cell density using a cell phone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felton, Edward J; Velasquez, Anthony; Lu, Shulin; Murphy, Ryann O; ElKhal, Abdala; Mazor, Ofer; Gorelik, Pavel; Sharda, Anish; Ghiran, Ionita C

    2016-08-16

    Magnetic levitation has emerged as a technique that offers the ability to differentiate between cells with different densities. We have developed a magnetic levitation system for this purpose that distinguishes not only different cell types but also density differences in cells of the same type. This small-scale system suspends cells in a paramagnetic medium in a capillary placed between two rare earth magnets, and cells levitate to an equilibrium position determined solely by their density. Uniform reference beads of known density are used in conjunction with the cells as a means to quantify their levitation positions. In one implementation images of the levitating cells are acquired with a microscope, but here we also introduce a cell phone-based device that integrates the magnets, capillary, and a lens into a compact and portable unit that acquires images with the phone's camera. To demonstrate the effectiveness of magnetic levitation in cell density analysis we carried out levitation experiments using red blood cells with artificially altered densities, and also levitated those from donors. We observed that we can distinguish red blood cells of an anemic donor from those that are healthy. Since a plethora of disease states are characterized by changes in cell density magnetic cell levitation promises to be an effective tool in identifying and analyzing pathologic states. Furthermore, the low cost, portability, and ease of use of the cell phone-based system may potentially lead to its deployment in low-resource environments.

  7. Reciprocity of mobile phone calls

    OpenAIRE

    Kovanen, Lauri; Saramaki, Jari; Kaski, Kimmo

    2010-01-01

    We present a study of the reciprocity of human behaviour based on mobile phone usage records. The underlying question is whether human relationships are mutual, in the sense that both are equally active in keeping up the relationship, or is it on the contrary typical that relationships are lopsided, with one party being significantly more active than the other. We study this question with the help of a mobile phone data set consisting of all mobile phone calls between 5.3 million customers of...

  8. Studies on a silicon-photomultiplier-based camera for Imaging Atmospheric Cherenkov Telescopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arcaro, C.; Corti, D.; De Angelis, A.; Doro, M.; Manea, C.; Mariotti, M.; Rando, R.; Reichardt, I.; Tescaro, D.

    2017-12-01

    Imaging Atmospheric Cherenkov Telescopes (IACTs) represent a class of instruments which are dedicated to the ground-based observation of cosmic VHE gamma ray emission based on the detection of the Cherenkov radiation produced in the interaction of gamma rays with the Earth atmosphere. One of the key elements of such instruments is a pixelized focal-plane camera consisting of photodetectors. To date, photomultiplier tubes (PMTs) have been the common choice given their high photon detection efficiency (PDE) and fast time response. Recently, silicon photomultipliers (SiPMs) are emerging as an alternative. This rapidly evolving technology has strong potential to become superior to that based on PMTs in terms of PDE, which would further improve the sensitivity of IACTs, and see a price reduction per square millimeter of detector area. We are working to develop a SiPM-based module for the focal-plane cameras of the MAGIC telescopes to probe this technology for IACTs with large focal plane cameras of an area of few square meters. We will describe the solutions we are exploring in order to balance a competitive performance with a minimal impact on the overall MAGIC camera design using ray tracing simulations. We further present a comparative study of the overall light throughput based on Monte Carlo simulations and considering the properties of the major hardware elements of an IACT.

  9. ICAT: Development of an Internet-Based Data Collection Method for Ecological Momentary Assessment Using Personal Cell Phones

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuntsche, E.N.; Labhart, F.

    2013-01-01

    Rapid advances in mobile data-transfer technologies offer new possibilities in the use of cell phones to conduct assessments of a person’s natural environment in real time. This paper describes features of a new Internet-based, cell phone-optimized assessment technique (ICAT), which consists of a

  10. Radiation safety of handheld mobile phones and base stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jokela, K.; Leszczynski, D.; Paile, W.; Salomaa, S.; Puranen, L.; Hyysalo, P.

    1999-01-01

    The recent expansion of personal telecommunications has led to a rapid increase in the exposure of people to the radio-frequency (RF) radiation. Although the mobile phones are low power devices, the antenna is so close to the head that the local exposure may slightly exceed 2 W/kg, the current exposure limit for the local specific absorption rate SAR for the general public. The increase in the temperature is, however, too small to have any physiological significance. On the basis of experiments with cell cultures it is possible that other biological effects caused by some unknown non-thermal mechanism exist, but thus far there is no conclusive biological or epidemiological evidence to suggest any diseases or adverse physiological changes below the thermal threshold. The use of a mobile phone by a person wearing a pace-maker, is not recommended, if the immunity of the pace-maker has not been assured. The exposure caused by the base stations is in all practical cases well below the power density limits for general public. (author)

  11. Radiation safety of handheld mobile phones and base stations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jokela, K.; Leszczynski, D.; Paile, W.; Salomaa, S.; Puranen, L.; Hyysalo, P

    1999-01-01

    The recent expansion of personal telecommunications has led to a rapid increase in the exposure of people to the radio-frequency (RF) radiation. Although the mobile phones are low power devices, the antenna is so close to the head that the local exposure may slightly exceed 2 W/kg, the current exposure limit for the local specific absorption rate SAR for the general public. The increase in the temperature is, however, too small to have any physiological significance. On the basis of experiments with cell cultures it is possible that other biological effects caused by some unknown non-thermal mechanism exist, but thus far there is no conclusive biological or epidemiological evidence to suggest any diseases or adverse physiological changes below the thermal threshold. The use of a mobile phone by a person wearing a pace-maker, is not recommended, if the immunity of the pace-maker has not been assured. The exposure caused by the base stations is in all practical cases well below the power density limits for general public. (author) 118 refs.

  12. Calibration of high resolution digital camera based on different photogrammetric methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamid, N F A; Ahmad, A

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents method of calibrating high-resolution digital camera based on different configuration which comprised of stereo and convergent. Both methods are performed in the laboratory and in the field calibration. Laboratory calibration is based on a 3D test field where a calibration plate of dimension 0.4 m × 0.4 m with grid of targets at different height is used. For field calibration, it uses the same concept of 3D test field which comprised of 81 target points located on a flat ground and the dimension is 9 m × 9 m. In this study, a non-metric high resolution digital camera called Canon Power Shot SX230 HS was calibrated in the laboratory and in the field using different configuration for data acquisition. The aim of the calibration is to investigate the behavior of the internal digital camera whether all the digital camera parameters such as focal length, principal point and other parameters remain the same or vice-versa. In the laboratory, a scale bar is placed in the test field for scaling the image and approximate coordinates were used for calibration process. Similar method is utilized in the field calibration. For both test fields, the digital images were acquired within short period using stereo and convergent configuration. For field calibration, aerial digital images were acquired using unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) system. All the images were processed using photogrammetric calibration software. Different calibration results were obtained for both laboratory and field calibrations. The accuracy of the results is evaluated based on standard deviation. In general, for photogrammetric applications and other applications the digital camera must be calibrated for obtaining accurate measurement or results. The best method of calibration depends on the type of applications. Finally, for most applications the digital camera is calibrated on site, hence, field calibration is the best method of calibration and could be employed for obtaining accurate

  13. PC based simulation of gamma camera for training of operating and maintenance staff

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, B.; Kataria, S.K.; Samuel, A.M.

    2000-01-01

    Gamma camera- a sophisticated imaging system is used for functional assessment of biological subsystems/organs in nuclear medicine. The radioactive tracer attached to the native substance is injected into the patient. The distribution of radioactivity in the patient is imaged by the gamma camera. This report describes a PC based package for simulation of gamma cameras and effect of malfunctioning of its subsystems on images of different phantoms

  14. Radiation safety of mobile phones and base stations; Matkapuhelimien ja tukiasemien saeteilyturvallisuus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jokela, K.; Leszczynski, D.; Paile, W.; Salomaa, S.; Puranen, L.; Hyysalo, P.

    1997-06-01

    The recent expansion of personal telecommunications has led to a rapid increase in the exposure of people to the radio-frequency (RF) radiation. Although the mobile phones are low power devices, the antenna is so close to the head that the local exposure may slightly exceed 2 W/kg, the current exposure limit for the local specific absorption rate SAR for the general public. The increase in the temperature is, however, too small to have any physiological significance. On the basis of experiments with cell cultures it is possible that other biological effects caused by some unknown non-thermal mechanism exist, but thus far there is conclusive biological or epidemiological evidence to suggest any diseases adverse physiological changes below the thermal threshold. The use of a mobile phone by a person wearing a pace-maker, the immunity which against the electromagnetic interference from the mobile phone has not be assured, is not recommended. The exposure caused by the base stations is in almost all practical ceases all below the power density limits for general public. (orig.) (115 refs.).

  15. Design and application of the emergency response mobile phone-based information system for infectious disease reporting in the Wenchuan earthquake zone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Jiaqi; Zhou, Maigeng; Li, Yanfei; Guo, Yan; Su, Xuemei; Qi, Xiaopeng; Ge, Hui

    2009-05-01

    To describe the design and application of an emergency response mobile phone-based information system for infectious disease reporting. Software engineering and business modeling were used to design and develop the emergency response mobile phone-based information system for infectious disease reporting. Seven days after the initiation of the reporting system, the reporting rate in the earthquake zone reached the level of the same period in 2007, using the mobile phone-based information system. Surveillance of the weekly report on morbidity in the earthquake zone after the initiation of the mobile phone reporting system showed the same trend as the previous three years. The emergency response mobile phone-based information system for infectious disease reporting was an effective solution to transmit urgently needed reports and manage communicable disease surveillance information. This assured the consistency of disease surveillance and facilitated sensitive, accurate, and timely disease surveillance. It is an important backup for the internet-based direct reporting system for communicable disease. © 2009 Blackwell Publishing Asia Pty Ltd and Chinese Cochrane Center, West China Hospital of Sichuan University.

  16. Joint Calibration of 3d Laser Scanner and Digital Camera Based on Dlt Algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, X.; Li, M.; Xing, L.; Liu, Y.

    2018-04-01

    Design a calibration target that can be scanned by 3D laser scanner while shot by digital camera, achieving point cloud and photos of a same target. A method to joint calibrate 3D laser scanner and digital camera based on Direct Linear Transformation algorithm was proposed. This method adds a distortion model of digital camera to traditional DLT algorithm, after repeating iteration, it can solve the inner and external position element of the camera as well as the joint calibration of 3D laser scanner and digital camera. It comes to prove that this method is reliable.

  17. Art with an iPhone a photographer's guide to creating altered realities

    CERN Document Server

    Sloma, Kat

    2015-01-01

    iPhone boasts a powerful and highly capable camera that is always at the ready, allowing you to document the people, places, and things that surround you. Kat Sloma teaches you how to harness natural light, both indoors and out, to create high-quality images—and then she details some of the amazing, inexpensive, and powerful apps that can be used to finesse every aspect of the image—from capture to output. You'll learn how to choose and use apps that mimic the controls offered on professional-level cameras to take control over focus and exposure. You'll also discover apps that boost your camera's resolution, improve stability, and more. Of course, you'll also delve into the myriad apps on the market that will allow you to manipulate color and contrast, add special effects, and implement image-editing strategies that were once the exclusive domain of professional editing programs aimed at serious professional photographers and graphic designers.

  18. Development of Portable Automatic Number Plate Recognition System on Android Mobile Phone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutholib, Abdul; Gunawan, Teddy S.; Chebil, Jalel; Kartiwi, Mira

    2013-12-01

    The Automatic Number Plate Recognition (ANPR) System has performed as the main role in various access control and security, such as: tracking of stolen vehicles, traffic violations (speed trap) and parking management system. In this paper, the portable ANPR implemented on android mobile phone is presented. The main challenges in mobile application are including higher coding efficiency, reduced computational complexity, and improved flexibility. Significance efforts are being explored to find suitable and adaptive algorithm for implementation of ANPR on mobile phone. ANPR system for mobile phone need to be optimize due to its limited CPU and memory resources, its ability for geo-tagging image captured using GPS coordinates and its ability to access online database to store the vehicle's information. In this paper, the design of portable ANPR on android mobile phone will be described as follows. First, the graphical user interface (GUI) for capturing image using built-in camera was developed to acquire vehicle plate number in Malaysia. Second, the preprocessing of raw image was done using contrast enhancement. Next, character segmentation using fixed pitch and an optical character recognition (OCR) using neural network were utilized to extract texts and numbers. Both character segmentation and OCR were using Tesseract library from Google Inc. The proposed portable ANPR algorithm was implemented and simulated using Android SDK on a computer. Based on the experimental results, the proposed system can effectively recognize the license plate number at 90.86%. The required processing time to recognize a license plate is only 2 seconds on average. The result is consider good in comparison with the results obtained from previous system that was processed in a desktop PC with the range of result from 91.59% to 98% recognition rate and 0.284 second to 1.5 seconds recognition time.

  19. A mobile phone-based care model for outpatient cardiac rehabilitation: the care assessment platform (CAP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francis Rebecca

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cardiac rehabilitation programs offer effective means to prevent recurrence of a cardiac event, but poor uptake of current programs have been reported globally. Home based models are considered as a feasible alternative to avoid various barriers related to care centre based programs. This paper sets out the study design for a clinical trial seeking to test the hypothesis that these programs can be better and more efficiently supported with novel Information and Communication Technologies (ICT. Methods/Design We have integrated mobile phones and web services into a comprehensive home- based care model for outpatient cardiac rehabilitation. Mobile phones with a built-in accelerometer sensor are used to measure physical exercise and WellnessDiary software is used to collect information on patients' physiological risk factors and other health information. Video and teleconferencing are used for mentoring sessions aiming at behavioural modifications through goal setting. The mentors use web-portal to facilitate personal goal setting and to assess the progress of each patient in the program. Educational multimedia content are stored or transferred via messaging systems to the patients phone to be viewed on demand. We have designed a randomised controlled trial to compare the health outcomes and cost efficiency of the proposed model with a traditional community based rehabilitation program. The main outcome measure is adherence to physical exercise guidelines. Discussion The study will provide evidence on using mobile phones and web services for mentoring and self management in a home-based care model targeting sustainable behavioural modifications in cardiac rehabilitation patients. Trial registration The trial has been registered in the Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry (ANZCTR with number ACTRN12609000251224.

  20. Phone-based motivational interviewing to increase self-efficacy in individuals with phenylketonuria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krista S. Viau

    2016-03-01

    Conclusion: These results demonstrate the feasibility of implementing phone-based dietary counseling for PKU using MI. This study also supports further investigation of MI as an intervention approach to improving self-efficacy and self-management behaviors in adolescents and adults with PKU.

  1. Analyzing the Influence of Mobile Phone Use of Drivers on Traffic Flow Based on an Improved Cellular Automaton Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yao Xiao

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper aimed to analyze the influence of drivers’ behavior of phone use while driving on traffic flow, including both traffic efficiency and traffic safety. An improved cellular automaton model was proposed to simulate traffic flow with distracted drivers based on the Nagel-Schreckenberg model. The driving characters of drivers using a phone were first discussed and a value representing the probability to use a phone while driving was put into the CA model. Simulation results showed that traffic flow rate was significantly reduced if some drivers used a phone compared to no phone use. The flow rate and velocity decreased as the proportion of drivers using a phone increased. While, under low density, the risk of traffic decreased first and then increased as the distracted drivers increased, the distracted behavior of drivers, like using a phone, could reduce the flow rate by 5 percent according to the simulation.

  2. rf streak camera based ultrafast relativistic electron diffraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musumeci, P; Moody, J T; Scoby, C M; Gutierrez, M S; Tran, T

    2009-01-01

    We theoretically and experimentally investigate the possibility of using a rf streak camera to time resolve in a single shot structural changes at the sub-100 fs time scale via relativistic electron diffraction. We experimentally tested this novel concept at the UCLA Pegasus rf photoinjector. Time-resolved diffraction patterns from thin Al foil are recorded. Averaging over 50 shots is required in order to get statistics sufficient to uncover a variation in time of the diffraction patterns. In the absence of an external pump laser, this is explained as due to the energy chirp on the beam out of the electron gun. With further improvements to the electron source, rf streak camera based ultrafast electron diffraction has the potential to yield truly single shot measurements of ultrafast processes.

  3. The Impact of Driver Cell Phone Use on Accidents

    OpenAIRE

    James E. Prieger; Robert W. Hahn

    2005-01-01

    Cell phone use is increasing worldwide, leading to a concern that cell phone use while driving increases accidents. We develop a new approach for estimating the relationship between cell phone use while driving and accidents, based on new survey data. We test for selection effects, such as whether drivers who use cell phones are inherently less safe drivers, even when not on the phone. The paper has two key findings. First, the impact of cell phone use on accidents varies across the populatio...

  4. A G-APD based Camera for Imaging Atmospheric Cherenkov Telescopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderhub, H.; Backes, M.; Biland, A.; Boller, A.; Braun, I.; Bretz, T.; Commichau, S.; Commichau, V.; Dorner, D.; Gendotti, A.; Grimm, O.; Gunten, H. von; Hildebrand, D.; Horisberger, U.; Koehne, J.-H.; Kraehenbuehl, T.; Kranich, D.; Lorenz, E.; Lustermann, W.; Mannheim, K.

    2011-01-01

    Imaging Atmospheric Cherenkov Telescopes (IACT) for Gamma-ray astronomy are presently using photomultiplier tubes as photo sensors. Geiger-mode avalanche photodiodes (G-APD) promise an improvement in sensitivity and, important for this application, ease of construction, operation and ruggedness. G-APDs have proven many of their features in the laboratory, but a qualified assessment of their performance in an IACT camera is best undertaken with a prototype. This paper describes the design and construction of a full-scale camera based on G-APDs realized within the FACT project (First G-APD Cherenkov Telescope).

  5. PhoneGap 3 beginner's guide

    CERN Document Server

    Natili, Giorgio

    2013-01-01

    Written in a friendly, example-driven Beginner's Guide format, there are plenty of step-by-step instructions to help you get started with PhoneGap.If you are a web developer or mobile application developer interested in an examples-based approach to learning mobile application development basics with PhoneGap, then this book is for you.

  6. Rural patients' access to mobile phones and willingness to receive mobile phone-based pharmacy and other health technology services: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sankaranarayanan, Jayashri; Sallach, Rory E

    2014-02-01

    This pilot study explores the patient-centered demand for mobile phone-based health (mobile health [m-health]) services in the rural United States by documenting rural patients' access to mobile phones and patients' willingness to receive m-health services. An anonymous institutional review board-approved survey was completed by patients visiting two rural pharmacies in Nebraska from August to October 2011. Patients who volunteered to complete the survey provided their demographic data, disease state information, health status, mobile phone access, and willingness to receive (in terms of using and giving time to) m-health services. The majority of the 24 survey respondents were 19-40 years old (52%), female (88%), married (63%), with excellent to very good health status (63%), with no comorbidities (83%), with ≤$100 monthly medication expenses (80%), with private insurance (78%), living within 5 miles of their pharmacy (71%), and reporting that m-health services are important to them (75%; 12/16). Approximately 95%, 81%, 73%, and 55% of respondents reported access to a mobile phone, voice mails, text messaging, and mobile phone applications, respectively. Of the respondents, 65%, 57%, 52%, and 48% were willing to receive prerecorded messages for appointment reminders from the doctor, disease information, medication use/self-care information, and symptom monitoring information, respectively. In total, 70%, 63%, 61%, 54%, and 50% were willing to receive prerecorded messages from the pharmacist containing contact requests, new/refill prescription reminders, information on medication problems, reviewing/monitoring of medication use, and medication self-management/preventive screenings/immunizations, respectively. Of 44% (7/16) respondents willing to give time for m-health services, 83% were willing to give 15 min, and 17% were willing to give 30 min every month. By demonstrating rural patients' demand for m-health (including pharmacy) services, this is one of the

  7. Melanoma screening with cellular phones.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cesare Massone

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Mobile teledermatology has recently been shown to be suitable for teledermatology despite limitations in image definition in preliminary studies. The unique aspect of mobile teledermatology is that this system represents a filtering or triage system, allowing a sensitive approach for the management of patients with emergent skin diseases. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In this study we investigated the feasibility of teleconsultation using a new generation of cellular phones in pigmented skin lesions. 18 patients were selected consecutively in the Pigmented Skin Lesions Clinic of the Department of Dermatology, Medical University of Graz, Graz (Austria. Clinical and dermoscopic images were acquired using a Sony Ericsson with a built-in two-megapixel camera. Two teleconsultants reviewed the images on a specific web application (http://www.dermahandy.net/default.asp where images had been uploaded in JPEG format. Compared to the face-to-face diagnoses, the two teleconsultants obtained a score of correct telediagnoses of 89% and of 91.5% reporting the clinical and dermoscopic images, respectively. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The present work is the first study performing mobile teledermoscopy using cellular phones. Mobile teledermatology has the potential to become an easy applicable tool for everyone and a new approach for enhanced self-monitoring for skin cancer screening in the spirit of the eHealth program of the European Commission Information for Society and Media.

  8. Nanometer-scale sizing accuracy of particle suspensions on an unmodified cell phone using elastic light scattering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Zachary J; Chu, Kaiqin; Wachsmann-Hogiu, Sebastian

    2012-01-01

    We report on the construction of a Fourier plane imaging system attached to a cell phone. By illuminating particle suspensions with a collimated beam from an inexpensive diode laser, angularly resolved scattering patterns are imaged by the phone's camera. Analyzing these patterns with Mie theory results in predictions of size distributions of the particles in suspension. Despite using consumer grade electronics, we extracted size distributions of sphere suspensions with better than 20 nm accuracy in determining the mean size. We also show results from milk, yeast, and blood cells. Performing these measurements on a portable device presents opportunities for field-testing of food quality, process monitoring, and medical diagnosis.

  9. SecurePhone: a mobile phone with biometric authentication and e-signature support for dealing secure transactions on the fly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricci, R.; Chollet, G.; Crispino, M. V.; Jassim, S.; Koreman, J.; Olivar-Dimas, M.; Garcia-Salicetti, S.; Soria-Rodriguez, P.

    2006-05-01

    This article presents an overview of the SecurePhone project, with an account of the first results obtained. SecurePhone's primary aim is to realise a mobile phone prototype - the 'SecurePhone' - in which biometrical authentication enables users to deal secure, dependable transactions over a mobile network. The SecurePhone is based on a commercial PDA-phone, supplemented with specific software modules and a customised SIM card. It integrates in a single environment a number of advanced features: access to cryptographic keys through strong multimodal biometric authentication; appending and verification of digital signatures; real-time exchange and interactive modification of (esigned) documents and voice recordings. SecurePhone's 'biometric recogniser' is based on original research. A fused combination of three different biometric methods - speaker, face and handwritten signature verification - is exploited, with no need for dedicated hardware components. The adoption of non-intrusive, psychologically neutral biometric techniques is expected to mitigate rejection problems that often inhibit the social use of biometrics, and speed up the spread of e-signature technology. Successful biometric authentication grants access to SecurePhone's built-in esignature services through a user-friendly interface. Special emphasis is accorded to the definition of a trustworthy security chain model covering all aspects of system operation. The SecurePhone is expected to boost m-commerce and open new scenarios for m-business and m-work, by changing the way people interact and by improving trust and confidence in information technologies, often considered intimidating and difficult to use. Exploitation plans will also explore other application domains (physical and logical access control, securised mobile communications).

  10. Camera Coverage Estimation Based on Multistage Grid Subdivision

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meizhen Wang

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Visual coverage is one of the most important quality indexes for depicting the usability of an individual camera or camera network. It is the basis for camera network deployment, placement, coverage-enhancement, planning, etc. Precision and efficiency are critical influences on applications, especially those involving several cameras. This paper proposes a new method to efficiently estimate superior camera coverage. First, the geographic area that is covered by the camera and its minimum bounding rectangle (MBR without considering obstacles is computed using the camera parameters. Second, the MBR is divided into grids using the initial grid size. The status of the four corners of each grid is estimated by a line of sight (LOS algorithm. If the camera, considering obstacles, covers a corner, the status is represented by 1, otherwise by 0. Consequently, the status of a grid can be represented by a code that is a combination of 0s or 1s. If the code is not homogeneous (not four 0s or four 1s, the grid will be divided into four sub-grids until the sub-grids are divided into a specific maximum level or their codes are homogeneous. Finally, after performing the process above, total camera coverage is estimated according to the size and status of all grids. Experimental results illustrate that the proposed method’s accuracy is determined by the method that divided the coverage area into the smallest grids at the maximum level, while its efficacy is closer to the method that divided the coverage area into the initial grids. It considers both efficiency and accuracy. The initial grid size and maximum level are two critical influences on the proposed method, which can be determined by weighing efficiency and accuracy.

  11. Template-based education toolkit for mobile platforms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golagani, Santosh Chandana; Esfahanian, Moosa; Akopian, David

    2012-02-01

    Nowadays mobile phones are the most widely used portable devices which evolve very fast adding new features and improving user experiences. The latest generation of hand-held devices called smartphones is equipped with superior memory, cameras and rich multimedia features, empowering people to use their mobile phones not only as a communication tool but also for entertainment purposes. With many young students showing interest in learning mobile application development one should introduce novel learning methods which may adapt to fast technology changes and introduce students to application development. Mobile phones become a common device, and engineering community incorporates phones in various solutions. Overcoming the limitations of conventional undergraduate electrical engineering (EE) education this paper explores the concept of template-based based education in mobile phone programming. The concept is based on developing small exercise templates which students can manipulate and revise for quick hands-on introduction to the application development and integration. Android platform is used as a popular open source environment for application development. The exercises relate to image processing topics typically studied by many students. The goal is to enable conventional course enhancements by incorporating in them short hands-on learning modules.

  12. Mobile phones and health concerns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vaikuntam, Shreenivas; Pushparaja

    2003-01-01

    As Mobile Cellular phone ownership grows throughout the developed as well as the developing world, concerns about the health risks due to radio frequency emissions from the mobile phone base stations and due to usage of mobile handsets are slowly growing. This article has a look at the concepts used in the mobile phone technology, the power outputs from base stations and mobile handsets, the quantities Specific Energy Absorption Rate (SAR) and power density as a means to assess the effects on biological tissue. The precautionary approach to manage the health risks from mobile phones by specifying exposure guidelines is explored. Having surveyed the relevant epidemiological surveys and finding them inconclusive, NRPB, United Kingdom's national regulatory body has issued exposure guidelines based on the potential of RF radiation to cause illness or injury through heating of body tissues. USA's Federal Communications Commission (FCC) limits are also listed for comparison. ICNIRP has issued two-tier guidelines, differentiating between occupational and public exposure. The public exposure limits are kept at one-fifth of the occupational exposure limits. The evidence till date, suggests that exposure to RF radiation below NRPB and ICNIRP limits do not cause adverse effects to the general population. However, the gaps in our knowledge warrant a precautionary approach. (author)

  13. Mobile phone; Mobiltelefon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2009-07-01

    Almost the entire Norwegian population has cell phone. The usefulness of the cell phone is great, but can use a mobile phone to health or discomfort? How can exposure be reduced? NRPA follows research and provides advice on mobile phone use. (AG)

  14. The Influence of Mobile Phone's Forms in the User Perception

    OpenAIRE

    The Jaya Suteja; Stephany Tedjohartoko

    2011-01-01

    Not all types of mobile phone are successful in entering the market because some types of the mobile phone have a negative perception of user. Therefore, it is important to understand the influence of mobile phone's characteristics in the local user perception. This research investigates the influence of QWERTY mobile phone's forms in the perception of Indonesian user. First, some alternatives of mobile phone-s form are developed based on a certain number of mobile phone's models. At the seco...

  15. Laser-based terahertz-field-driven streak camera for the temporal characterization of ultrashort processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schuette, Bernd

    2011-09-15

    In this work, a novel laser-based terahertz-field-driven streak camera is presented. It allows for a pulse length characterization of femtosecond (fs) extreme ultraviolet (XUV) pulses by a cross-correlation with terahertz (THz) pulses generated with a Ti:sapphire laser. The XUV pulses are emitted by a source of high-order harmonic generation (HHG) in which an intense near-infrared (NIR) fs laser pulse is focused into a gaseous medium. The design and characterization of a high-intensity THz source needed for the streak camera is also part of this thesis. The source is based on optical rectification of the same NIR laser pulse in a lithium niobate crystal. For this purpose, the pulse front of the NIR beam is tilted via a diffraction grating to achieve velocity matching between NIR and THz beams within the crystal. For the temporal characterization of the XUV pulses, both HHG and THz beams are focused onto a gas target. The harmonic radiation creates photoelectron wavepackets which are then accelerated by the THz field depending on its phase at the time of ionization. This principle adopted from a conventional streak camera and now widely used in attosecond metrology. The streak camera presented here is an advancement of a terahertz-field-driven streak camera implemented at the Free Electron Laser in Hamburg (FLASH). The advantages of the laser-based streak camera lie in its compactness, cost efficiency and accessibility, while providing the same good quality of measurements as obtained at FLASH. In addition, its flexibility allows for a systematic investigation of streaked Auger spectra which is presented in this thesis. With its fs time resolution, the terahertz-field-driven streak camera thereby bridges the gap between attosecond and conventional cameras. (orig.)

  16. Laser-based terahertz-field-driven streak camera for the temporal characterization of ultrashort processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schuette, Bernd

    2011-09-01

    In this work, a novel laser-based terahertz-field-driven streak camera is presented. It allows for a pulse length characterization of femtosecond (fs) extreme ultraviolet (XUV) pulses by a cross-correlation with terahertz (THz) pulses generated with a Ti:sapphire laser. The XUV pulses are emitted by a source of high-order harmonic generation (HHG) in which an intense near-infrared (NIR) fs laser pulse is focused into a gaseous medium. The design and characterization of a high-intensity THz source needed for the streak camera is also part of this thesis. The source is based on optical rectification of the same NIR laser pulse in a lithium niobate crystal. For this purpose, the pulse front of the NIR beam is tilted via a diffraction grating to achieve velocity matching between NIR and THz beams within the crystal. For the temporal characterization of the XUV pulses, both HHG and THz beams are focused onto a gas target. The harmonic radiation creates photoelectron wavepackets which are then accelerated by the THz field depending on its phase at the time of ionization. This principle adopted from a conventional streak camera and now widely used in attosecond metrology. The streak camera presented here is an advancement of a terahertz-field-driven streak camera implemented at the Free Electron Laser in Hamburg (FLASH). The advantages of the laser-based streak camera lie in its compactness, cost efficiency and accessibility, while providing the same good quality of measurements as obtained at FLASH. In addition, its flexibility allows for a systematic investigation of streaked Auger spectra which is presented in this thesis. With its fs time resolution, the terahertz-field-driven streak camera thereby bridges the gap between attosecond and conventional cameras. (orig.)

  17. Using web-sources for location based systems on mobile phones

    OpenAIRE

    Pannevis, M.; Marx, M.

    2008-01-01

    The paper describes the implementation of a context aware location and time based system on a normal mobile phone, with a minimum of requirements (Bluetooth, Internet access, Java ME, and a simple webbrowser). We can answer the following queries based on data crawled from the web and enriched with location coordinates: • Where are my friends? • What movies are playing, right here, right now? • I need to park my car. Where is the closest parking lot with free space? • What is a good place to h...

  18. Are people living next to mobile phone base stations more strained? Relationship of health concerns, self-estimated distance to base station, and psychological parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Augner, Christoph; Hacker, Gerhard W

    2009-12-01

    Coeval with the expansion of mobile phone technology and the associated obvious presence of mobile phone base stations, some people living close to these masts reported symptoms they attributed to electromagnetic fields (EMF). Public and scientific discussions arose with regard to whether these symptoms were due to EMF or were nocebo effects. The aim of this study was to find out if people who believe that they live close to base stations show psychological or psychobiological differences that would indicate more strain or stress. Furthermore, we wanted to detect the relevant connections linking self-estimated distance between home and the next mobile phone base station (DBS), daily use of mobile phone (MPU), EMF-health concerns, electromagnetic hypersensitivity, and psychological strain parameters. Fifty-seven participants completed standardized and non-standardized questionnaires that focused on the relevant parameters. In addition, saliva samples were used as an indication to determine the psychobiological strain by concentration of alpha-amylase, cortisol, immunoglobulin A (IgA), and substance P. Self-declared base station neighbors (DBS base station neighbors are more strained than others. EMF-related health concerns cannot explain these findings. Further research should identify if actual EMF exposure or other factors are responsible for these results.

  19. Design and evaluation of a telemonitoring concept based on NFC-enabled mobile phones and sensor devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morak, Jürgen; Kumpusch, Hannes; Hayn, Dieter; Modre-Osprian, Robert; Schreier, Günter

    2012-01-01

    Utilization of information and communication technologies such as mobile phones and wireless sensor networks becomes more and more common in the field of telemonitoring for chronic diseases. Providing elderly people with a mobile-phone-based patient terminal requires a barrier-free design of the overall user interface including the setup of wireless communication links to sensor devices. To easily manage the connection between a mobile phone and wireless sensor devices, a concept based on the combination of Bluetooth and near-field communication technology has been developed. It allows us initiating communication between two devices just by bringing them close together for a few seconds without manually configuring the communication link. This concept has been piloted with a sensor device and evaluated in terms of usability and feasibility. Results indicate that this solution has the potential to simplify the handling of wireless sensor networks for people with limited technical skills.

  20. REAL-TIME CAMERA GUIDANCE FOR 3D SCENE RECONSTRUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Schindler

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available We propose a framework for operator guidance during the image acquisition process for reliable multi-view stereo reconstruction. Goal is to achieve full coverage of the object and sufficient overlap. Multi-view stereo is a commonly used method to reconstruct both camera trajectory and 3D object shape. After determining an initial solution, a globally optimal reconstruction is usually obtained by executing a bundle adjustment involving all images. Acquiring suitable images, however, still requires an experienced operator to ensure accuracy and completeness of the final solution. We propose an interactive framework for guiding unexperienced users or possibly an autonomous robot. Using approximate camera orientations and object points we estimate point uncertainties within a sliding bundle adjustment and suggest appropriate camera movements. A visual feedback system communicates the decisions to the user in an intuitive way. We demonstrate the suitability of our system with a virtual image acquisition simulation as well as in real-world scenarios. We show that when following the camera movements suggested by our system, the proposed framework is able to generate good approximate values for the bundle adjustment, leading to accurate results compared to ground truth after few iterations. Possible applications are non-professional 3D acquisition systems on low-cost platforms like mobile phones, autonomously navigating robots as well as online flight planning of unmanned aerial vehicles.

  1. Human tracking over camera networks: a review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Li; Wan, Wanggen; Hwang, Jenq-Neng; Muhammad, Rizwan; Yang, Mingyang; Han, Kang

    2017-12-01

    In recent years, automated human tracking over camera networks is getting essential for video surveillance. The tasks of tracking human over camera networks are not only inherently challenging due to changing human appearance, but also have enormous potentials for a wide range of practical applications, ranging from security surveillance to retail and health care. This review paper surveys the most widely used techniques and recent advances for human tracking over camera networks. Two important functional modules for the human tracking over camera networks are addressed, including human tracking within a camera and human tracking across non-overlapping cameras. The core techniques of human tracking within a camera are discussed based on two aspects, i.e., generative trackers and discriminative trackers. The core techniques of human tracking across non-overlapping cameras are then discussed based on the aspects of human re-identification, camera-link model-based tracking and graph model-based tracking. Our survey aims to address existing problems, challenges, and future research directions based on the analyses of the current progress made toward human tracking techniques over camera networks.

  2. Accurate measurement of imaging photoplethysmographic signals based camera using weighted average

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pang, Zongguang; Kong, Lingqin; Zhao, Yuejin; Sun, Huijuan; Dong, Liquan; Hui, Mei; Liu, Ming; Liu, Xiaohua; Liu, Lingling; Li, Xiaohui; Li, Rongji

    2018-01-01

    Imaging Photoplethysmography (IPPG) is an emerging technique for the extraction of vital signs of human being using video recordings. IPPG technology with its advantages like non-contact measurement, low cost and easy operation has become one research hot spot in the field of biomedicine. However, the noise disturbance caused by non-microarterial area cannot be removed because of the uneven distribution of micro-arterial, different signal strength of each region, which results in a low signal noise ratio of IPPG signals and low accuracy of heart rate. In this paper, we propose a method of improving the signal noise ratio of camera-based IPPG signals of each sub-region of the face using a weighted average. Firstly, we obtain the region of interest (ROI) of a subject's face based camera. Secondly, each region of interest is tracked and feature-based matched in each frame of the video. Each tracked region of face is divided into 60x60 pixel block. Thirdly, the weights of PPG signal of each sub-region are calculated, based on the signal-to-noise ratio of each sub-region. Finally, we combine the IPPG signal from all the tracked ROI using weighted average. Compared with the existing approaches, the result shows that the proposed method takes modest but significant effects on improvement of signal noise ratio of camera-based PPG estimated and accuracy of heart rate measurement.

  3. Adolescents' risk perceptions on mobile phones and their base stations, their trust to authorities and incivility in using mobile phones: a cross-sectional survey on 2240 high school students in Izmir, Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassoy, Hur; Durusoy, Raika; Karababa, Ali Osman

    2013-01-25

    Use of mobile phones has rapidly risen among adolescents despite a lack of scientific certainty on their health risks. Risk perception is an important determinant of behavior, and studies on adolescents' risk perceptions of mobile phones or base stations are very scarce. This study aims to evaluate high school students' risk perceptions on mobile phones and base stations, their trust to authorities, their opinions regarding incivility while using mobile phones and to assess associated factors. For this cross-sectional study, 2530 students were chosen with stratified cluster sampling among 20,493 high school students studying in Bornova district of Izmir, Turkey, among whom 2240 (88.5%) participated. Risk perceptions and opinions were questioned with a 5-point Likert scale for 24 statements grouped under four dimensions. The mean responses to the four dimensions were categorized as mobile phone, base station, trust to authority and incivility dimensions were 3.69 ± 0.89, 4.34 ± 0.78, 3.77 ± 0.93, 3.16 ± 0.93 and the prevalence of high risk perception was 65.1%, 86.7%, 66.2%, 39.7%, respectively. In the mobile phone dimension; students attending industrial technical high school had lower risk perceptions while female students, lower mothers' education groups and students not using mobile phones (OR = 2.82, 95% CI = 1.80-4.40) had higher risk perceptions. In the base station dimension girls had higher risk perceptions (OR = 1.68, 95% CI = 1.20-2.37). Girls and students attending industrial technical high school had significantly lower risk perception however 11-12th grade group perceived the risk higher (OR = 1.45 95% CI = 1.15-1.84) in the trust to authority dimension. For the incivility dimension, female students (OR = 1.44, 95% CI = 1.14-1.82), illiterate/only literate mothers (OR = 1.79, 95% CI = 1.04-2.75) and students not using mobile phones (OR = 2.50, 95% CI = 1.62-3.87) perceived higher risk. Understanding the effects of these determinants might aid in

  4. Radiation of Base Stations of Mobile Phone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lipnjak, G.

    2003-01-01

    In recent years there has been a rapid expansion of new, technological sources of non-ionizing electromagnetic radiation from mobile phones, microwave ovens, various antennas, transmitters, new ultrasound devices. The category of non-ionizing radiation includes electromagnetic radiation at frequencies below 3 000 000 GHz or at ultrasound frequencies below 500 MHz which in interaction with substances do not generate ions. In view of this trend concerns have been raised about the impact of these new (radiation) sources on human health. An increasing amount of scientific research points to the fact that NIR causes various adverse effects to human health: eyes injuries, irritability, insomnia, temporary changes in the metabolism, hazardous heat stress and even carcinoma. The manufacturers and users of radio wave equipment pay great attention to the influence of the electromagnetic fields on human health. This issue has been taken into serious consideration, which is confirmed by a number of studies carried out either by mobile phone manufacturers or by many independent organizations. The limits of electromagnetic radiation exposure are defined in numerous standards and international rule books, and if these limits are complied with, then, according to present knowledge, there is no risk. Considering the concerns of the employees of Ericsson Nikola Tesla the levels of radiation from various types of base stations on company premises were examined. It was found out that there is no hazard to the health of employees. Still, further research is required and it is initiated both by the users and manufacturers of the mobile telephony equipment. (author)

  5. Cost-effective and compact wide-field fluorescent imaging on a cell-phone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Hongying; Yaglidere, Oguzhan; Su, Ting-Wei; Tseng, Derek; Ozcan, Aydogan

    2011-01-21

    We demonstrate wide-field fluorescent and darkfield imaging on a cell-phone with compact, light-weight and cost-effective optical components that are mechanically attached to the existing camera unit of the cell-phone. For this purpose, we used battery powered light-emitting diodes (LEDs) to pump the sample of interest from the side using butt-coupling, where the pump light was guided within the sample cuvette to uniformly excite the specimen. The fluorescent emission from the sample was then imaged using an additional lens that was positioned right in front of the existing lens of the cell-phone camera. Because the excitation occurs through guided waves that propagate perpendicular to our detection path, an inexpensive plastic colour filter was sufficient to create the dark-field background required for fluorescent imaging, without the need for a thin-film interference filter. We validate the performance of this platform by imaging various fluorescent micro-objects in 2 colours (i.e., red and green) over a large field-of-view (FOV) of ∼81 mm(2) with a raw spatial resolution of ∼20 μm. With additional digital processing of the captured cell-phone images, through the use of compressive sampling theory, we demonstrate ∼2 fold improvement in our resolving power, achieving ∼10 μm resolution without a trade-off in our FOV. Further, we also demonstrate darkfield imaging of non-fluorescent specimen using the same interface, where this time the scattered light from the objects is detected without the use of any filters. The capability of imaging a wide FOV would be exceedingly important to probe large sample volumes (e.g., >0.1 mL) of e.g., blood, urine, sputum or water, and for this end we also demonstrate fluorescent imaging of labeled white-blood cells from whole blood samples, as well as water-borne pathogenic protozoan parasites such as Giardia Lamblia cysts. Weighing only ∼28 g (∼1 ounce), this compact and cost-effective fluorescent imaging platform

  6. People counting with stereo cameras : two template-based solutions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Englebienne, Gwenn; van Oosterhout, Tim; Kröse, B.J.A.

    2012-01-01

    People counting is a challenging task with many applications. We propose a method with a fixed stereo camera that is based on projecting a template onto the depth image. The method was tested on a challenging outdoor dataset with good results and runs in real time.

  7. Association between vestibular schwannomas and mobile phone use

    OpenAIRE

    Moon, In Seok; Kim, Bo Gyung; Kim, Jinna; Lee, Jong Dae; Lee, Won-Sang

    2013-01-01

    Vestibular schwannomas (VSs) grow in the region where the energy from mobile phone use is absorbed. We examined the associations of VSs with mobile phone use. This study included 119 patients who had undergone surgical tumor removal. We used two approaches in this investigation. First, a case–control study for the association of mobile phone use and incidence of VSs was conducted. Both cases and controls were investigated with questions based on INTERPHONE guidelines. Amount of mobile phone u...

  8. Construction of a frameless camera-based stereotactic neuronavigator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornejo, A; Algorri, M E

    2004-01-01

    We built an infrared vision system to be used as the real time 3D motion sensor in a prototype low cost, high precision, frameless neuronavigator. The objective of the prototype is to develop accessible technology for increased availability of neuronavigation systems in research labs and small clinics and hospitals. We present our choice of technology including camera and IR emitter characteristics. We describe the methodology for setting up the 3D motion sensor, from the arrangement of the cameras and the IR emitters on surgical instruments, to triangulation equations from stereo camera pairs, high bandwidth computer communication with the cameras and real time image processing algorithms. We briefly cover the issues of camera calibration and characterization. Although our performance results do not yet fully meet the high precision, real time requirements of neuronavigation systems we describe the current improvements being made to the 3D motion sensor that will make it suitable for surgical applications.

  9. NutriPhone: vitamin B12 testing on your smartphone (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Seoho; O'Dell, Dakota; Hohenstein, Jessica; Colt, Susannah; Mehta, Saurabh; Erickson, David

    2016-03-01

    Vitamin B12 deficiency is the leading cause of cognitive decline in the elderly and is associated with increased risks of several acute and chronic conditions including anemia. The deficiency is prevalent among the world population, most of whom are unaware of their condition due to the lack of a simple diagnostics system. Recent advancements in the smartphone-enabled mobile health can help address this problem by making the deficiency tests more accessible. Previously, our group has demonstrated the NutriPhone, a smartphone platform for the accurate quantification of vitamin D levels. The NutriPhone technology comprises of a disposable test strip that performs a colorimetric reaction upon collecting a sample, a reusable accessory that interfaces with the smartphone camera, and a smartphone app that stores the algorithm for analyzing the test-strip reaction. In this work, we show that the NutriPhone can be expanded to measure vitamin B12 concentrations by developing a lateral flow assay for B12 that is compatible with our NutriPhone system. Our novel vitamin B12 assay incorporates blood sample processing and key reagent storage on-chip, which advances it into a sample-in-answer-out format that is suitable for point-of-care diagnostic applications. In order to enable the detection of pM levels of vitamin B12 levels, silver amplification of the initial signal is used within the total assay time of less than 15 minutes. We demonstrate the effectiveness of our NutriPhone system by deploying it in a resource-limited clinical setting in India where it is used to test tens of participants for vitamin B12 deficiency.

  10. A portable smart phone-based plasmonic nanosensor readout platform that measures transmitted light intensities of nanosubstrates using an ambient light sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Qiangqiang; Wu, Ze; Xu, Fangxiang; Li, Xiuqing; Yao, Cuize; Xu, Meng; Sheng, Liangrong; Yu, Shiting; Tang, Yong

    2016-05-21

    Plasmonic nanosensors may be used as tools for diagnostic testing in the field of medicine. However, quantification of plasmonic nanosensors often requires complex and bulky readout instruments. Here, we report the development of a portable smart phone-based plasmonic nanosensor readout platform (PNRP) for accurate quantification of plasmonic nanosensors. This device operates by transmitting excitation light from a LED through a nanosubstrate and measuring the intensity of the transmitted light using the ambient light sensor of a smart phone. The device is a cylinder with a diameter of 14 mm, a length of 38 mm, and a gross weight of 3.5 g. We demonstrated the utility of this smart phone-based PNRP by measuring two well-established plasmonic nanosensors with this system. In the first experiment, the device measured the morphology changes of triangular silver nanoprisms (AgNPRs) in an immunoassay for the detection of carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA). In the second experiment, the device measured the aggregation of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) in an aptamer-based assay for the detection of adenosine triphosphate (ATP). The results from the smart phone-based PNRP were consistent with those from commercial spectrophotometers, demonstrating that the smart phone-based PNRP enables accurate quantification of plasmonic nanosensors.

  11. Mobile Phone-Based Questionnaire for Assessing 3 Months Modified Rankin Score After Acute Stroke: A Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooray, Charith; Matusevicius, Marius; Wahlgren, Nils; Ahmed, Niaz

    2015-10-01

    In many countries, a majority of stroke patients are not assessed for long-term functional outcome owing to limited resources and time. We investigated whether automatic assessment of the modified Rankin Scale (mRS) based on a mobile phone questionnaire may serve as an alternative to mRS assessments at clinical visits after stroke. We enrolled 62 acute stroke patients admitted to our stroke unit during March to May 2014. Forty-eight patients completed the study. During the stay, patients and/or caregivers were equipped with a mobile phone application in their personal mobile phones. The mobile phone application contained a set of 20 questions, based on the Rankin Focused Assessment, which we previously tested in a pilot study. Three months after inclusion, the mobile phone application automatically prompted the study participants to answer the mRS questionnaire in the mobile phones. Each question or a group of questions in the questionnaire corresponded to a certain mRS score. Using a predefined protocol, the highest mRS score question where the study participant had answered yes was deemed the final mobile mRS score. A few days later, a study personnel performed a clinical visit mRS assessment. The 2 assessments were compared using quadratic weighing κ-statistics. Mean age was 67 years (38% females), and median baseline National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) score was 5 (interquartile range 2-10.5, range 0-23). Median and mean clinical visit mRS at 3 months was 2 and 2.3, respectively. We found a 62.5% agreement between clinical visit and mobile mRS assessment, weighted kappa 0.89 (95% confidence interval 0.82-0.96), and unweighted kappa 0.53 (95% confidence interval 0.36-0.70). Dichotomized mRS outcome separating functionally independent (mRS score 0-2) from dependent (mRS score 3-5) showed 83% agreement and unweighted kappa of 0.66 (95% confidence interval 0.45-0.87). Mobile phone-based automatic assessments of mRS performed well in comparison with

  12. Development of plenoptic infrared camera using low dimensional material based photodetectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Liangliang

    Infrared (IR) sensor has extended imaging from submicron visible spectrum to tens of microns wavelength, which has been widely used for military and civilian application. The conventional bulk semiconductor materials based IR cameras suffer from low frame rate, low resolution, temperature dependent and highly cost, while the unusual Carbon Nanotube (CNT), low dimensional material based nanotechnology has been made much progress in research and industry. The unique properties of CNT lead to investigate CNT based IR photodetectors and imaging system, resolving the sensitivity, speed and cooling difficulties in state of the art IR imagings. The reliability and stability is critical to the transition from nano science to nano engineering especially for infrared sensing. It is not only for the fundamental understanding of CNT photoresponse induced processes, but also for the development of a novel infrared sensitive material with unique optical and electrical features. In the proposed research, the sandwich-structured sensor was fabricated within two polymer layers. The substrate polyimide provided sensor with isolation to background noise, and top parylene packing blocked humid environmental factors. At the same time, the fabrication process was optimized by real time electrical detection dielectrophoresis and multiple annealing to improve fabrication yield and sensor performance. The nanoscale infrared photodetector was characterized by digital microscopy and precise linear stage in order for fully understanding it. Besides, the low noise, high gain readout system was designed together with CNT photodetector to make the nano sensor IR camera available. To explore more of infrared light, we employ compressive sensing algorithm into light field sampling, 3-D camera and compressive video sensing. The redundant of whole light field, including angular images for light field, binocular images for 3-D camera and temporal information of video streams, are extracted and

  13. QoE-Driven Energy-Aware Multipath Content Delivery Approach for MPTCP-Based Mobile Phones

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yuanlong Cao; Shengyang Chen; Qinghua Liu; Yi Zuo; Hao Wang; Minghe Huang

    2017-01-01

    Mobile phones equipped with multiple wireless interfaces can increase their goodput performance by making use of concurrent transmissions over multiple paths,enabled by the Multipath TCP (MPTCP).However,utilizing MPTCP for data delivery may generally result in higher energy consumption,while the battery power of a mobile phone is limited.Thus,how to optimize the energy usage becomes very crucial and urgent.In this paper,we propose MPTCP-QE,a novel quality of experience (QoE)-driven energy-aware multipath content delivery approach for MPTCP-based mobile phones.The main idea of MPTCP-QE is described as follows:it first provides an application rate-aware energy-efficient subflow management strategy to tradeoff throughput performance and energy consumption for mobile phones;then uses an available bandwidth-aware congestion window fast recovery strategy to make a sender avoid unnecessary slow-start and utilize wireless resource quickly;and further introduces a novel receiver-driven energy-efficient SACK strategy to help a receiver possible to detect SACK loss timely and trigger loss recovery in a more energy-efficient way.The simulation results show that with the MPTCP-QE,the energy usage is enhanced while the performance level is maintained compared to existing MPTCP solutions.

  14. What determines product ramp-up performance? : a review of characteristics based on a case study at Nokia Mobile Phones

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pufall, A.A.; Fransoo, J.C.; Kok, de A.G.

    2007-01-01

    We present a conceptual model to explore the essential characteristics that affect product ramp-up performance in the consumer electronics industry, specifically in the mobile phones sector. Our findings are based on data analysis within Nokia’s mobile phones business group. Fast product ramp-ups

  15. Adolescents' Dialogic Composing with Mobile Phones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warner, Julie

    2016-01-01

    This 14-month study examined the phone-based composing practice of three adolescents. Given the centrality of mobile phones to youth culture, the researcher sought to create a description of the participants' composing practices with these devices. Focal participants were users of Twitter and Instagram, two social media platforms that are usually…

  16. Risk and Benefit Perceptions of Mobile Phone and Base Station Technology in Bangladesh

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kleef, van E.; Fischer, A.R.H.; Khan, M.; Frewer, L.J.

    2010-01-01

    Research in developed countries showed that many citizens perceive that radio signals transmitted by mobile phones and base stations represent potential health risks. Less research has been conducted in developing countries focused on citizen perceptions of risks and benefits, despite the recent and

  17. Nanometer-scale sizing accuracy of particle suspensions on an unmodified cell phone using elastic light scattering.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zachary J Smith

    Full Text Available We report on the construction of a Fourier plane imaging system attached to a cell phone. By illuminating particle suspensions with a collimated beam from an inexpensive diode laser, angularly resolved scattering patterns are imaged by the phone's camera. Analyzing these patterns with Mie theory results in predictions of size distributions of the particles in suspension. Despite using consumer grade electronics, we extracted size distributions of sphere suspensions with better than 20 nm accuracy in determining the mean size. We also show results from milk, yeast, and blood cells. Performing these measurements on a portable device presents opportunities for field-testing of food quality, process monitoring, and medical diagnosis.

  18. Texton-based super-resolution for achieving high spatiotemporal resolution in hybrid camera system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamimura, Kenji; Tsumura, Norimichi; Nakaguchi, Toshiya; Miyake, Yoichi

    2010-05-01

    Many super-resolution methods have been proposed to enhance the spatial resolution of images by using iteration and multiple input images. In a previous paper, we proposed the example-based super-resolution method to enhance an image through pixel-based texton substitution to reduce the computational cost. In this method, however, we only considered the enhancement of a texture image. In this study, we modified this texton substitution method for a hybrid camera to reduce the required bandwidth of a high-resolution video camera. We applied our algorithm to pairs of high- and low-spatiotemporal-resolution videos, which were synthesized to simulate a hybrid camera. The result showed that the fine detail of the low-resolution video can be reproduced compared with bicubic interpolation and the required bandwidth could be reduced to about 1/5 in a video camera. It was also shown that the peak signal-to-noise ratios (PSNRs) of the images improved by about 6 dB in a trained frame and by 1.0-1.5 dB in a test frame, as determined by comparison with the processed image using bicubic interpolation, and the average PSNRs were higher than those obtained by the well-known Freeman’s patch-based super-resolution method. Compared with that of the Freeman’s patch-based super-resolution method, the computational time of our method was reduced to almost 1/10.

  19. Effect of electromagnetic radiations from mobile phone base stations on general health and salivary function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Kushpal; Nagaraj, Anup; Yousuf, Asif; Ganta, Shravani; Pareek, Sonia; Vishnani, Preeti

    2016-01-01

    Cell phones use electromagnetic, nonionizing radiations in the microwave range, which some believe may be harmful to human health. The present study aimed to determine the effect of electromagnetic radiations (EMRs) on unstimulated/stimulated salivary flow rate and other health-related problems between the general populations residing in proximity to and far away from mobile phone base stations. A total of four mobile base stations were randomly selected from four zones of Jaipur, Rajasthan, India. Twenty individuals who were residing in proximity to the selected mobile phone towers were taken as the case group and the other 20 individuals (control group) who were living nearly 1 km away in the periphery were selected for salivary analysis. Questions related to sleep disturbances were measured using Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) and other health problems were included in the questionnaire. Chi-square test was used for statistical analysis. It was unveiled that a majority of the subjects who were residing near the mobile base station complained of sleep disturbances, headache, dizziness, irritability, concentration difficulties, and hypertension. A majority of the study subjects had significantly lesser stimulated salivary secretion (P base stations on the health and well-being of the general population cannot be ruled out. Further studies are warranted to evaluate the effect of electromagnetic fields (EMFs) on general health and more specifically on oral health.

  20. Cellular phones were found to pose no health risks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Puranen, L.

    1997-01-01

    A cellular phone emits radiation very close to a person's head. Any harmful effects that might arise from the use of cellular phones are being studied carefully, but so far no health risks have been determined. However, the phones may interfere with the operation of electrical devices located close-by, such as a cardiac pacemaker. The biological effects of the microwaves emitted by cellular phones might be based on the resultant higher temperatures in the tissues of the head. Since, even in the worst cases, a cellular phone cannot raise the temperature of tissues by more than some tenths of a degree, no health risks based on thermal effects can be attributed to the use of a cellular phone. No reliable theory has been presented for the non-thermal effects of microwaves. Such effects may exist, however. The studies conducted so far have been unable to show that these effects might be harmful to human health. (orig.)

  1. Psychotherapeutic Applications of Mobile Phone-based Technologies: A Systematic Review of Current Research and Trends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menon, Vikas; Rajan, Tess Maria; Sarkar, Siddharth

    2017-01-01

    There is a growing interest in using mobile phone technology to offer real-time psychological interventions and support. However, questions remain on the clinical effectiveness and feasibility of such approaches in psychiatric populations. Our aim was to systematically review the published literature on mobile phone apps and other mobile phone-based technology for psychotherapy in mental health disorders. To achieve this, electronic searches of PubMed, ScienceDirect, and Google Scholar were carried out in January 2016. Generated abstracts were systematically screened for eligibility to be included in the review. Studies employing psychotherapy in any form, being delivered through mobile-based technology and reporting core mental health outcomes in mental illness were included in the study. We also included trials in progress with published protocols reporting at least some outcome measures of such interventions. From a total of 1563 search results, 24 eligible articles were identified and reviewed. These included trials in anxiety disorders (8), substance use disorders (5), depression (4), bipolar disorders (3), schizophrenia and psychotic disorders (3), and attempted suicide (1). Of these, eight studies involved the use of smartphone apps and others involved personalized text messages, automated programs, or delivered empirically supported treatments. Trial lengths varied from 6 weeks to 1 year. Good overall retention rates indicated that the treatments were feasible and largely acceptable. Benefits were reported on core outcomes in mental health illness indicating efficacy of such approaches though sample sizes were small. To conclude, mobile phone-based psychotherapies are a feasible and acceptable treatment option for patients with mental disorders. However, there remains a paucity of data on their effectiveness in real-world settings, especially from low- and middle-income countries.

  2. The Harvard Automated Phone Task: new performance-based activities of daily living tests for early Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Gad A; Dekhtyar, Maria; Bruno, Jonathan M; Jethwani, Kamal; Amariglio, Rebecca E; Johnson, Keith A; Sperling, Reisa A; Rentz, Dorene M

    2015-12-01

    Impairment in activities of daily living is a major burden for Alzheimer's disease dementia patients and caregivers. Multiple subjective scales and a few performance-based instruments have been validated and proven to be reliable in measuring instrumental activities of daily living in Alzheimer's disease dementia but less so in amnestic mild cognitive impairment and preclinical Alzheimer's disease. To validate the Harvard Automated Phone Task, a new performance-based activities of daily living test for early Alzheimer's disease, which assesses high level tasks that challenge seniors in daily life. In a cross-sectional study, the Harvard Automated Phone Task was associated with demographics and cognitive measures through univariate and multivariate analyses; ability to discriminate across diagnostic groups was assessed; test-retest reliability with the same and alternate versions was assessed in a subset of participants; and the relationship with regional cortical thickness was assessed in a subset of participants. Academic clinical research center. One hundred and eighty two participants were recruited from the community (127 clinically normal elderly and 45 young normal participants) and memory disorders clinics at Brigham and Women's Hospital and Massachusetts General Hospital (10 participants with mild cognitive impairment). As part of the Harvard Automated Phone Task, participants navigated an interactive voice response system to refill a prescription (APT-Script), select a new primary care physician (APT-PCP), and make a bank account transfer and payment (APT-Bank). The 3 tasks were scored based on time, errors, and repetitions from which composite z-scores were derived, as well as a separate report of correct completion of the task. We found that the Harvard Automated Phone Task discriminated well between diagnostic groups (APT-Script: p=0.002; APT-PCP: pHarvard Automated Phone Task and executive function (APT-PCP: pHarvard Automated Phone Task, which

  3. Simulation-Based Optimization of Camera Placement in the Context of Industrial Pose Estimation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Troels Bo; Iversen, Thorbjørn Mosekjær; Lindvig, Anders Prier

    2018-01-01

    In this paper, we optimize the placement of a camera in simulation in order to achieve a high success rate for a pose estimation problem. This is achieved by simulating 2D images from a stereo camera in a virtual scene. The stereo images are then used to generate 3D point clouds based on two diff...

  4. Secure Chaotic Map Based Block Cryptosystem with Application to Camera Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Khurram Khan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Recently, Wang et al. presented an efficient logistic map based block encryption system. The encryption system employs feedback ciphertext to achieve plaintext dependence of sub-keys. Unfortunately, we discovered that their scheme is unable to withstand key stream attack. To improve its security, this paper proposes a novel chaotic map based block cryptosystem. At the same time, a secure architecture for camera sensor network is constructed. The network comprises a set of inexpensive camera sensors to capture the images, a sink node equipped with sufficient computation and storage capabilities and a data processing server. The transmission security between the sink node and the server is gained by utilizing the improved cipher. Both theoretical analysis and simulation results indicate that the improved algorithm can overcome the flaws and maintain all the merits of the original cryptosystem. In addition, computational costs and efficiency of the proposed scheme are encouraging for the practical implementation in the real environment as well as camera sensor network.

  5. Hemispheric dominance and cell phone use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seidman, Michael D; Siegel, Bianca; Shah, Priyanka; Bowyer, Susan M

    2013-05-01

    A thorough understanding of why we hold a cell phone to a particular ear may be of importance when studying the impact of cell phone safety. To determine if there is an obvious association between sidedness of cell phone use and auditory hemispheric dominance (AHD) or language hemispheric dominance (LHD). It is known that 70% to 95% of the population are right-handed, and of these, 96% have left-brain LHD. We have observed that most people use their cell phones in their right ear. An Internet survey was e-mailed to individuals through surveymonkey.com. The survey used a modified Edinburgh Handedness Inventory protocol. Sample questions surveyed which hand was used to write with, whether the right or left ear was used for phone conversations, as well as whether a brain tumor was present. General community. An Internet survey was randomly e-mailed to 5000 individuals selected from an otology online group, patients undergoing Wada testing and functional magnetic resonance imaging, as well as persons on the university listserv, of which 717 surveys were completed. Determination of hemispheric dominance based on preferred ear for cell phone use. A total of 717 surveys were returned. Ninety percent of the respondents were right handed, and 9% were left handed. Sixty-eight percent of the right-handed people used the cell phone in their right ear, 25% in the left ear, and 7% had no preference. Seventy-two of the left-handed respondents used their left ear, 23% used their right ear, and 5% had no preference. Cell phone use averaged 540 minutes per month over the past 9 years. An association exists between hand dominance laterality of cell phone use (73%) and our ability to predict hemispheric dominance. Most right-handed people have left-brain LHD and use their cell phone in their right ear. Similarly, most left-handed people use their cell phone in their left ear. Our study suggests that AHD may differ from LHD owing to the difference in handedness and cell phone ear use

  6. Augmented reality system using lidar point cloud data for displaying dimensional information of objects on mobile phones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, S.; Lohani, B.

    2014-05-01

    Mobile augmented reality system is the next generation technology to visualise 3D real world intelligently. The technology is expanding at a fast pace to upgrade the status of a smart phone to an intelligent device. The research problem identified and presented in the current work is to view actual dimensions of various objects that are captured by a smart phone in real time. The methodology proposed first establishes correspondence between LiDAR point cloud, that are stored in a server, and the image t hat is captured by a mobile. This correspondence is established using the exterior and interior orientation parameters of the mobile camera and the coordinates of LiDAR data points which lie in the viewshed of the mobile camera. A pseudo intensity image is generated using LiDAR points and their intensity. Mobile image and pseudo intensity image are then registered using image registration method SIFT thereby generating a pipeline to locate a point in point cloud corresponding to a point (pixel) on the mobile image. The second part of the method uses point cloud data for computing dimensional information corresponding to the pairs of points selected on mobile image and fetch the dimensions on top of the image. This paper describes all steps of the proposed method. The paper uses an experimental setup to mimic the mobile phone and server system and presents some initial but encouraging results

  7. Efficient color correction method for smartphone camera-based health monitoring application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duc Dang; Chae Ho Cho; Daeik Kim; Oh Seok Kwon; Jo Woon Chong

    2017-07-01

    Smartphone health monitoring applications are recently highlighted due to the rapid development of hardware and software performance of smartphones. However, color characteristics of images captured by different smartphone models are dissimilar each other and this difference may give non-identical health monitoring results when the smartphone health monitoring applications monitor physiological information using their embedded smartphone cameras. In this paper, we investigate the differences in color properties of the captured images from different smartphone models and apply a color correction method to adjust dissimilar color values obtained from different smartphone cameras. Experimental results show that the color corrected images using the correction method provide much smaller color intensity errors compared to the images without correction. These results can be applied to enhance the consistency of smartphone camera-based health monitoring applications by reducing color intensity errors among the images obtained from different smartphones.

  8. Cell phone-based health education messaging improves health literacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuang, Runsen; Xiang, Yueying; Han, Tieguang; Yang, Guo-An; Zhang, Yuan

    2016-03-01

    The ubiquity of cell phones, which allow for short message service (SMS), provides new and innovative opportunities for disease prevention and health education. To explore the use of cell phone-based health education SMS to improve the health literacy of community residents in China. A multi-stage random sampling method was used to select representative study communities and participants ≥ 18 years old. Intervention participants were sent health education SMSs once a week for 1 year and controls were sent conventional, basic health education measures. Health literacy levels of the residents before and after the intervention were evaluated between intervention and control groups. Public health literacy scores increased 1.5 points, from 61.8 to 63.3, after SMS intervention for 1 year (P<0.01); the increase was greater for males than females (2.01 vs. 1.03; P<0.01) and for Shenzhen local residents than non-permanent residents (2.56 vs. 1.14; P<0.01). The frequency of high health literacy scores was greater for the intervention than control group (22.03% to 30.93% vs. 22.07% to 20.82%). With health literacy as a cost-effective index, the cost-effectiveness per intervention was 0.54. SMS may be a useful tool for improving health literacy.

  9. Association between vestibular schwannomas and mobile phone use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, In Seok; Kim, Bo Gyung; Kim, Jinna; Lee, Jong Dae; Lee, Won-Sang

    2014-01-01

    Vestibular schwannomas (VSs) grow in the region where the energy from mobile phone use is absorbed. We examined the associations of VSs with mobile phone use. This study included 119 patients who had undergone surgical tumor removal. We used two approaches in this investigation. First, a case-control study for the association of mobile phone use and incidence of VSs was conducted. Both cases and controls were investigated with questions based on INTERPHONE guidelines. Amount of mobile phone use according to duration, daily amount, and cumulative hours were compared between two groups. We also conducted a case-case study. The location and volume of the tumors were investigated by MRI. Associations between the estimated amount of mobile phone use and tumor volume and between the laterality of phone use and tumor location were analyzed. In a case-control study, the odds ratio (OR) of tumor incidence according to mobile phone use was 0.956. In the case-case study, tumor volume and estimated cumulative hours showed a strong correlation (r(2) = 0.144, p = 0.002), and regular mobile phone users showed tumors of a markedly larger volume than those of non-regular users (p mobile phones and tumor volume that showed strong correlation with amount of mobile phone use, thus there is a possibility that mobile phone use may affect tumor growth.

  10. SU-F-BRA-16: Development of a Radiation Monitoring Device Using a Low-Cost CCD Camera Following Radionuclide Therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taneja, S; Fru, L Che; Desai, V; Lentz, J; Lin, C; Scarpelli, M; Simiele, E; Trestrail, A; Bednarz, B [University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: It is now commonplace to handle treatments of hyperthyroidism using iodine-131 as an outpatient procedure due to lower costs and less stringent federal regulations. The Nuclear Regulatory Commission has currently updated release guidelines for these procedures, but there is still a large uncertainty in the dose to the public. Current guidelines to minimize dose to the public require patients to remain isolated after treatment. The purpose of this study was to use a low-cost common device, such as a cell phone, to estimate exposure emitted from a patient to the general public. Methods: Measurements were performed using an Apple iPhone 3GS and a Cs-137 irradiator. The charge-coupled device (CCD) camera on the phone was irradiated to exposure rates ranging from 0.1 mR/hr to 100 mR/hr and 30-sec videos were taken during irradiation with the camera lens covered by electrical tape. Interactions were detected as white pixels on a black background in each video. Both single threshold (ST) and colony counting (CC) methods were performed using MATLAB®. Calibration curves were determined by comparing the total pixel intensity output from each method to the known exposure rate. Results: The calibration curve showed a linear relationship above 5 mR/hr for both analysis techniques. The number of events counted per unit exposure rate within the linear region was 19.5 ± 0.7 events/mR and 8.9 ± 0.4 events/mR for the ST and CC methods respectively. Conclusion: Two algorithms were developed and show a linear relationship between photons detected by a CCD camera and low exposure rates, in the range of 5 mR/hr to 100-mR/hr. Future work aims to refine this model by investigating the dose-rate and energy dependencies of the camera response. This algorithm allows for quantitative monitoring of exposure from patients treated with iodine-131 using a simple device outside of the hospital.

  11. Cell phone use among homeless youth: potential for new health interventions and research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, Eric; Lee, Alex; Taitt, Sean

    2011-12-01

    Cell phone use has become nearly ubiquitous among adolescents in the United States. Despite the potential for cell phones to facilitate intervention, research, and care for homeless youth, no data exists to date on cell phone use among this population. In 2009, a survey of cell phone use was conducted among a non-probability sample of 169 homeless youth in Los Angeles, CA. Levels of ownership and use, instrumental uses (connecting to case workers, employers) and patterns of connecting to various network types were assessed (family, home-based peers, street-based peers). Differences in socio-demographic characteristics and cell phone ownership were assessed via t test and chi-square statistics. Sixty-two percent of homeless youth own a cell phone; 40% have a working phone. Seventeen percent used their phone to call a case manager, 36% to call either a potential or current employer. Fifty-one percent of youth connected with home-based peers on the phone and 41% connected to parents. Cell phones present new opportunities for intervention research, connecting homeless youth to family and home-based peers who can be sources of social support in times of need. Moreover, cell phones provide researchers and providers with new avenues to maintain connections with these highly transient youth.

  12. Enhancing physics demos using iPhone slow motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lincoln, James

    2017-12-01

    Slow motion video enhances our ability to perceive and experience the physical world. This can help students and teachers especially in cases of fast moving objects or detailed events that happen too quickly for the eye to follow. As often as possible, demonstrations should be performed by the students themselves and luckily many of them will already have this technology in their pockets. The "S" series of iPhone has the slow motion video feature standard, which also includes simultaneous sound recording (somewhat unusual among slow motion cameras). In this article I share some of my experiences using this feature and provide advice on how to successfully use this technology in the classroom.

  13. Parallelised photoacoustic signal acquisition using a Fabry-Perot sensor and a camera-based interrogation scheme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saeb Gilani, T.; Villringer, C.; Zhang, E.; Gundlach, H.; Buchmann, J.; Schrader, S.; Laufer, J.

    2018-02-01

    Tomographic photoacoustic (PA) images acquired using a Fabry-Perot (FP) based scanner offer high resolution and image fidelity but can result in long acquisition times due to the need for raster scanning. To reduce the acquisition times, a parallelised camera-based PA signal detection scheme is developed. The scheme is based on using a sCMOScamera and FPI sensors with high homogeneity of optical thickness. PA signals were acquired using the camera-based setup and the signal to noise ratio (SNR) was measured. A comparison of the SNR of PA signal detected using 1) a photodiode in a conventional raster scanning detection scheme and 2) a sCMOS camera in parallelised detection scheme is made. The results show that the parallelised interrogation scheme has the potential to provide high speed PA imaging.

  14. Electromagnetic fields from mobile phone base station - variability analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bienkowski, Pawel; Zubrzak, Bartlomiej

    2015-09-01

    The article describes the character of electromagnetic field (EMF) in mobile phone base station (BS) surroundings and its variability in time with an emphasis on the measurement difficulties related to its pulse and multi-frequency nature. Work also presents long-term monitoring measurements performed recently in different locations in Poland - small city with dispersed building development and in major polish city - dense urban area. Authors tried to determine the trends in changing of EMF spectrum analyzing daily changes of measured EMF levels in those locations. Research was performed using selective electromagnetic meters and also EMF meter with spectrum analysis.

  15. NEMA NU-1 2007 based and independent quality control software for gamma cameras and SPECT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vickery, A; Joergensen, T; De Nijs, R

    2011-01-01

    A thorough quality assurance of gamma and SPECT cameras requires a careful handling of the measured quality control (QC) data. Most gamma camera manufacturers provide the users with camera specific QC Software. This QC software is indeed a useful tool for the following of day-to-day performance of a single camera. However, when it comes to objective performance comparison of different gamma cameras and a deeper understanding of the calculated numbers, the use of camera specific QC software without access to the source code is rather avoided. Calculations and definitions might differ, and manufacturer independent standardized results are preferred. Based upon the NEMA Standards Publication NU 1-2007, we have developed a suite of easy-to-use data handling software for processing acquired QC data providing the user with instructive images and text files with the results.

  16. Why Chinese Mobile Phones Sells Their Products in Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    W. Puspokusumo, R. A. Aryanti

    2012-01-01

    This paper mainly discusses about strategy of China mobile phone manufacturer. Based on the interview with the manufacturer’s representative, we tried to comprehend the strategy behind the China mobile phone raid in Indonesia. As people know that mobile phone industry keeps on growing day by day, especially by the invention of the Android operating system, an open source OS with integrated capability. By having a free licensed OS, mobile phone manufacturer can focus mainly on their hardware d...

  17. A Cherenkov camera with integrated electronics based on the 'Smart Pixel' concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bulian, Norbert; Hirsch, Thomas; Hofmann, Werner; Kihm, Thomas; Kohnle, Antje; Panter, Michael; Stein, Michael

    2000-01-01

    An option for the cameras of the HESS telescopes, the concept of a modular camera based on 'Smart Pixels' was developed. A Smart Pixel contains the photomultiplier, the high voltage supply for the photomultiplier, a dual-gain sample-and-hold circuit with a 14 bit dynamic range, a time-to-voltage converter, a trigger discriminator, trigger logic to detect a coincidence of X=1...7 neighboring pixels, and an analog ratemeter. The Smart Pixels plug into a common backplane which provides power, communicates trigger signals between neighboring pixels, and holds a digital control bus as well as an analog bus for multiplexed readout of pixel signals. The performance of the Smart Pixels has been studied using a 19-pixel test camera

  18. Are mobile phones harmful?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blettner, M; Berg, G

    2000-01-01

    There is increasing public interest in health risks of mobile phone use. Although there is a vast body of material on the biological effects of radiofrequency fields, current risk assessment is still limited. The article describes several hypotheses and results of biological effects such as thermal effect, genetic and carcinogenic effects and cancer related investigations. Mobile phones transmit and receive waves of frequencies mainly at 800-1800 MHz. Findings on the thermal effect of acute exposure to radiofrequency fields were consistent, resulting in an increase of cellular, tissue or body temperature by 1 degree C or more. Guidelines for risk limits are based on this thermal effect. Experimental investigation suggests that radiofrequency fields are not tumor initiators and that if they are related to carcinogenicity, this would be by tumor promotion or by increasing the uptake of carcinogens in cells. Implications of these experimental results on public health concerns are yet unclear. Few epidemiological studies are available on the use of mobile phones or on the radiofrequency exposure and the development of cancer. Most of these studies have no or little quantitative exposure data and they are limited by the small number of observations. Large epidemiological studies are necessary in order to investigate the use of mobile phones on the development of cancer. It should be emphasized that even a small elevated risk may have a large implication for public health, as the use of mobile phones and the exposure is rapidly increasing.

  19. Mobile Phone-Based Lifestyle Intervention for Reducing Overall Cardiovascular Disease Risk in Guangzhou, China: A Pilot Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiting Liu

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available With the rapid and widespread adoption of mobile devices, mobile phones offer an opportunity to deliver cardiovascular disease (CVD interventions. This study evaluated the efficacy of a mobile phone-based lifestyle intervention aimed at reducing the overall CVD risk at a health management center in Guangzhou, China. We recruited 589 workers from eight work units. Based on a group-randomized design, work units were randomly assigned either to receive the mobile phone-based lifestyle interventions or usual care. The reduction in 10-year CVD risk at 1-year follow-up for the intervention group was not statistically significant (–1.05%, p = 0.096. However, the mean risk increased significantly by 1.77% (p = 0.047 for the control group. The difference of the changes between treatment arms in CVD risk was –2.83% (p = 0.001. In addition, there were statistically significant changes for the intervention group relative to the controls, from baseline to year 1, in systolic blood pressure (–5.55 vs. 6.89 mmHg; p < 0.001, diastolic blood pressure (–6.61 vs. 5.62 mmHg; p < 0.001, total cholesterol (–0.36 vs. –0.10 mmol/L; p = 0.005, fasting plasma glucose (–0.31 vs. 0.02 mmol/L; p < 0.001, BMI (–0.57 vs. 0.29 kg/m2; p < 0.001, and waist hip ratio (–0.02 vs. 0.01; p < 0.001. Mobile phone-based intervention may therefore be a potential solution for reducing CVD risk in China.

  20. Relative Panoramic Camera Position Estimation for Image-Based Virtual Reality Networks in Indoor Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakagawa, M.; Akano, K.; Kobayashi, T.; Sekiguchi, Y.

    2017-09-01

    Image-based virtual reality (VR) is a virtual space generated with panoramic images projected onto a primitive model. In imagebased VR, realistic VR scenes can be generated with lower rendering cost, and network data can be described as relationships among VR scenes. The camera network data are generated manually or by an automated procedure using camera position and rotation data. When panoramic images are acquired in indoor environments, network data should be generated without Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS) positioning data. Thus, we focused on image-based VR generation using a panoramic camera in indoor environments. We propose a methodology to automate network data generation using panoramic images for an image-based VR space. We verified and evaluated our methodology through five experiments in indoor environments, including a corridor, elevator hall, room, and stairs. We confirmed that our methodology can automatically reconstruct network data using panoramic images for image-based VR in indoor environments without GNSS position data.

  1. RELATIVE PANORAMIC CAMERA POSITION ESTIMATION FOR IMAGE-BASED VIRTUAL REALITY NETWORKS IN INDOOR ENVIRONMENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Nakagawa

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Image-based virtual reality (VR is a virtual space generated with panoramic images projected onto a primitive model. In imagebased VR, realistic VR scenes can be generated with lower rendering cost, and network data can be described as relationships among VR scenes. The camera network data are generated manually or by an automated procedure using camera position and rotation data. When panoramic images are acquired in indoor environments, network data should be generated without Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS positioning data. Thus, we focused on image-based VR generation using a panoramic camera in indoor environments. We propose a methodology to automate network data generation using panoramic images for an image-based VR space. We verified and evaluated our methodology through five experiments in indoor environments, including a corridor, elevator hall, room, and stairs. We confirmed that our methodology can automatically reconstruct network data using panoramic images for image-based VR in indoor environments without GNSS position data.

  2. Effects of short-term W-CDMA mobile phone base station exposure on women with or without mobile phone related symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furubayashi, Toshiaki; Ushiyama, Akira; Terao, Yasuo; Mizuno, Yoko; Shirasawa, Kei; Pongpaibool, Pornanong; Simba, Ally Y; Wake, Kanako; Nishikawa, Masami; Miyawaki, Kaori; Yasuda, Asako; Uchiyama, Mitsunori; Yamashita, Hitomi Kobayashi; Masuda, Hiroshi; Hirota, Shogo; Takahashi, Miyuki; Okano, Tomoko; Inomata-Terada, Satomi; Sokejima, Shigeru; Maruyama, Eiji; Watanabe, Soichi; Taki, Masao; Ohkubo, Chiyoji; Ugawa, Yoshikazu

    2009-02-01

    To investigate possible health effects of mobile phone use, we conducted a double-blind, cross-over provocation study to confirm whether subjects with mobile phone related symptoms (MPRS) are more susceptible than control subjects to the effect of electromagnetic fields (EMF) emitted from base stations. We sent questionnaires to 5,000 women and obtained 2,472 valid responses from possible candidates; from these, we recruited 11 subjects with MPRS and 43 controls. There were four EMF exposure conditions, each of which lasted 30 min: continuous, intermittent, and sham exposure with and without noise. Subjects were exposed to EMF of 2.14 GHz, 10 V/m (W-CDMA), in a shielded room to simulate whole-body exposure to EMF from base stations, although the exposure strength we used was higher than that commonly received from base stations. We measured several psychological and cognitive parameters pre- and post-exposure, and monitored autonomic functions. Subjects were asked to report on their perception of EMF and level of discomfort during the experiment. The MPRS group did not differ from the controls in their ability to detect exposure to EMF; nevertheless they consistently experienced more discomfort, regardless of whether or not they were actually exposed to EMF, and despite the lack of significant changes in their autonomic functions. Thus, the two groups did not differ in their responses to real or sham EMF exposure according to any psychological, cognitive or autonomic assessment. In conclusion, we found no evidence of any causal link between hypersensitivity symptoms and exposure to EMF from base stations. Copyright 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  3. Development of a compact scintillator-based high-resolution Compton camera for molecular imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kishimoto, A., E-mail: daphne3h-aya@ruri.waseda.jp [Research Institute for Science and Engineering, Waseda University, 3-4-1 Ohkubo, Shinjuku, Tokyo (Japan); Kataoka, J.; Koide, A.; Sueoka, K.; Iwamoto, Y.; Taya, T. [Research Institute for Science and Engineering, Waseda University, 3-4-1 Ohkubo, Shinjuku, Tokyo (Japan); Ohsuka, S. [Central Research Laboratory, Hamamatsu Photonics K.K., 5000 Hirakuchi, Hamakita-ku, Hamamatsu, Shizuoka (Japan)

    2017-02-11

    The Compton camera, which shows gamma-ray distribution utilizing the kinematics of Compton scattering, is a promising detector capable of imaging across a wide range of energy. In this study, we aim to construct a small-animal molecular imaging system in a wide energy range by using the Compton camera. We developed a compact medical Compton camera based on a Ce-doped Gd{sub 3}Al{sub 2}Ga{sub 3}O{sub 12} (Ce:GAGG) scintillator and multi-pixel photon counter (MPPC). A basic performance confirmed that for 662 keV, the typical energy resolution was 7.4 % (FWHM) and the angular resolution was 4.5° (FWHM). We then used the medical Compton camera to conduct imaging experiments based on a 3-D imaging reconstruction algorithm using the multi-angle data acquisition method. The result confirmed that for a {sup 137}Cs point source at a distance of 4 cm, the image had a spatial resolution of 3.1 mm (FWHM). Furthermore, we succeeded in producing 3-D multi-color image of different simultaneous energy sources ({sup 22}Na [511 keV], {sup 137}Cs [662 keV], and {sup 54}Mn [834 keV]).

  4. Neutron cameras for ITER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, L.C.; Barnes, C.W.; Batistoni, P.

    1998-01-01

    Neutron cameras with horizontal and vertical views have been designed for ITER, based on systems used on JET and TFTR. The cameras consist of fan-shaped arrays of collimated flight tubes, with suitably chosen detectors situated outside the biological shield. The sight lines view the ITER plasma through slots in the shield blanket and penetrate the vacuum vessel, cryostat, and biological shield through stainless steel windows. This paper analyzes the expected performance of several neutron camera arrangements for ITER. In addition to the reference designs, the authors examine proposed compact cameras, in which neutron fluxes are inferred from 16 N decay gammas in dedicated flowing water loops, and conventional cameras with fewer sight lines and more limited fields of view than in the reference designs. It is shown that the spatial sampling provided by the reference designs is sufficient to satisfy target measurement requirements and that some reduction in field of view may be permissible. The accuracy of measurements with 16 N-based compact cameras is not yet established, and they fail to satisfy requirements for parameter range and time resolution by large margins

  5. Cell-Phone Tower Power System Prototype Testing for Verizon Wireless |

    Science.gov (United States)

    Advanced Manufacturing Research | NREL Cell-Phone Tower Power System Prototype Testing for Verizon Wireless Cell-Phone Tower Power System Prototype Testing for Verizon Wireless For Verizon Wireless , NREL tested a new cell-phone tower power system prototype based on DC interconnection and photovoltaics

  6. SMART PHONE USER ASSISTANCE APPLICATION FOR ANDROID

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. PRABHAVATHY

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays people seem to be more dependent on smart phones rather than any other electronic devices. Smart phones act like mini laptops with the mobilecommunication facility. Moreover, people possess more than one SIM card/Smart phone for many purposes. So non-ambiguity between various roles performed by them is crucial. For an example, person can have smart phone for his personal use at the residence and another phone for his official use. Consider a scenario: person at the residence urgently needs the official contact information available on the phone at his office (remote place. This application plays major dual role by acting as Server (official Smart phone and Client (personal Smart phone. Irrespective of geographic area, the server smart phone (SSP provides various services based on the request received from the client smart phone (CSP. The CSP send various requests through the SMS communication. Various requests can be fetching information from SSP such as log for unread messages and missed calls, unread message content, contact numbers, SIM and IMEI numbers. When the SSP is on silent mode and got misplaced, the CSP can be used to change the sound profile of SSP from silent to ringing mode by sending a request through SMS. If the SSP is in audible distance, then a phone call to it will help us to find the misplaced phone. Besides, the CSP can delete secret data available in the SSP’s memory. This application is different from other applications because it provides User Interface having options to send request through SMS and web database login through internet connectivity for phone’s data backup to provide unlimited memory. Upload any information such as contacts and messages from the smart phone into web database and save phone’s memory space. This application will upload the information in encoded format over the internet, which can be decoded using the application’s login password for security purpose.

  7. Parallel Computational Intelligence-Based Multi-Camera Surveillance System

    OpenAIRE

    Orts-Escolano, Sergio; Garcia-Rodriguez, Jose; Morell, Vicente; Cazorla, Miguel; Azorin-Lopez, Jorge; García-Chamizo, Juan Manuel

    2014-01-01

    In this work, we present a multi-camera surveillance system based on the use of self-organizing neural networks to represent events on video. The system processes several tasks in parallel using GPUs (graphic processor units). It addresses multiple vision tasks at various levels, such as segmentation, representation or characterization, analysis and monitoring of the movement. These features allow the construction of a robust representation of the environment and interpret the behavior of mob...

  8. High-resolution Compton cameras based on Si/CdTe double-sided strip detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Odaka, Hirokazu; Ichinohe, Yuto; Takeda, Shin'ichiro; Fukuyama, Taro; Hagino, Koichi; Saito, Shinya; Sato, Tamotsu; Sato, Goro; Watanabe, Shin; Kokubun, Motohide; Takahashi, Tadayuki; Yamaguchi, Mitsutaka

    2012-01-01

    We have developed a new Compton camera based on silicon (Si) and cadmium telluride (CdTe) semiconductor double-sided strip detectors (DSDs). The camera consists of a 500-μm-thick Si-DSD and four layers of 750-μm-thick CdTe-DSDs all of which have common electrode configuration segmented into 128 strips on each side with pitches of 250μm. In order to realize high angular resolution and to reduce size of the detector system, a stack of DSDs with short stack pitches of 4 mm is utilized to make the camera. Taking advantage of the excellent energy and position resolutions of the semiconductor devices, the camera achieves high angular resolutions of 4.5° at 356 keV and 3.5° at 662 keV. To obtain such high resolutions together with an acceptable detection efficiency, we demonstrate data reduction methods including energy calibration using Compton scattering continuum and depth sensing in the CdTe-DSD. We also discuss imaging capability of the camera and show simultaneous multi-energy imaging.

  9. An Approach to Evaluate Stability for Cable-Based Parallel Camera Robots with Hybrid Tension-Stiffness Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huiling Wei

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on studying the effect of cable tensions and stiffness on the stability of cable-based parallel camera robots. For this purpose, the tension factor and the stiffness factor are defined, and the expression of stability is deduced. A new approach is proposed to calculate the hybrid-stability index with the minimum cable tension and the minimum singular value. Firstly, the kinematic model of a cable-based parallel camera robot is established. Based on the model, the tensions are solved and a tension factor is defined. In order to obtain the tension factor, an optimization of the cable tensions is carried out. Then, an expression of the system's stiffness is deduced and a stiffness factor is defined. Furthermore, an approach to evaluate the stability of the cable-based camera robots with hybrid tension-stiffness properties is presented. Finally, a typical three-degree-of-freedom cable-based parallel camera robot with four cables is studied as a numerical example. The simulation results show that the approach is both reasonable and effective.

  10. PhoneSat In-flight Experience Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salas, Alberto Guillen; Attai, Watson; Oyadomari, Ken Y.; Priscal, Cedric; Schimmin, Rogan S.; Gazulla, Oriol Tintore; Wolfe, Jasper L.

    2014-01-01

    Over the last decade, consumer technology has vastly improved its performances, become more affordable and reduced its size. Modern day smartphones offer capabilities that enable us to figure out where we are, which way we are pointing, observe the world around us, and store and transmit this information to wherever we want. These capabilities are remarkably similar to those required for multi-million dollar satellites. The PhoneSat project at NASA Ames Research Center is building a series of CubeSat-size spacecrafts using an off-the-shelf smartphone as its on-board computer with the goal of showing just how simple and cheap space can be. Since the PhoneSat project started, different suborbital and orbital flight activities have proven the viability of this revolutionary approach. In early 2013, the PhoneSat project launched the first triage of PhoneSats into LEO. In the five day orbital life time, the nano-satellites flew the first functioning smartphone-based satellites (using the Nexus One and Nexus S phones), the cheapest satellite (a total parts cost below $3,500) and one of the fastest on-board processors (CPU speed of 1GHz). In this paper, an overview of the PhoneSat project as well as a summary of the in-flight experimental results is presented.

  11. Motion camera based on a custom vision sensor and an FPGA architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arias-Estrada, Miguel

    1998-09-01

    A digital camera for custom focal plane arrays was developed. The camera allows the test and development of analog or mixed-mode arrays for focal plane processing. The camera is used with a custom sensor for motion detection to implement a motion computation system. The custom focal plane sensor detects moving edges at the pixel level using analog VLSI techniques. The sensor communicates motion events using the event-address protocol associated to a temporal reference. In a second stage, a coprocessing architecture based on a field programmable gate array (FPGA) computes the time-of-travel between adjacent pixels. The FPGA allows rapid prototyping and flexible architecture development. Furthermore, the FPGA interfaces the sensor to a compact PC computer which is used for high level control and data communication to the local network. The camera could be used in applications such as self-guided vehicles, mobile robotics and smart surveillance systems. The programmability of the FPGA allows the exploration of further signal processing like spatial edge detection or image segmentation tasks. The article details the motion algorithm, the sensor architecture, the use of the event- address protocol for velocity vector computation and the FPGA architecture used in the motion camera system.

  12. PhoneSat

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The PhoneSat series of missions demonstrated the use of a commercial mobile phone as an on-board computer for CubeSats. The project also demonstrated the...

  13. A drone detection with aircraft classification based on a camera array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hao; Qu, Fangchao; Liu, Yingjian; Zhao, Wei; Chen, Yitong

    2018-03-01

    In recent years, because of the rapid popularity of drones, many people have begun to operate drones, bringing a range of security issues to sensitive areas such as airports and military locus. It is one of the important ways to solve these problems by realizing fine-grained classification and providing the fast and accurate detection of different models of drone. The main challenges of fine-grained classification are that: (1) there are various types of drones, and the models are more complex and diverse. (2) the recognition test is fast and accurate, in addition, the existing methods are not efficient. In this paper, we propose a fine-grained drone detection system based on the high resolution camera array. The system can quickly and accurately recognize the detection of fine grained drone based on hd camera.

  14. An Introduction to iPhone Hardware, Operating System, Applications and Development of iPhone Applications

    OpenAIRE

    Abdul Qadir, Yasir

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this thesis work is to discuss the newly popular mobile phone device named iPhone made by Apple Inc, iPhone operating system and iPhone Applications. Apple iPhone has recently become extremely popular and just within two years of its launch it has captured millions of customers around the world. Thousands of developers have been developing all kinds of mobile phone applications for iPhone and a new era of mobile phone applications development has started. Augmented reality applicat...

  15. User Interface Preferences in the Design of a Camera-Based Navigation and Wayfinding Aid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arditi, Aries; Tian, YingLi

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Development of a sensing device that can provide a sufficient perceptual substrate for persons with visual impairments to orient themselves and travel confidently has been a persistent rehabilitation technology goal, with the user interface posing a significant challenge. In the study presented here, we enlist the advice and ideas of…

  16. Impact of mobile phone-based technology to improve health, population and nutrition services in Rural Bangladesh: a study protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uddin, Jasim; Biswas, Tuhin; Adhikary, Gourab; Ali, Wazed; Alam, Nurul; Palit, Rajesh; Uddin, Nizam; Uddin, Aftab; Khatun, Fatema; Bhuiya, Abbas

    2017-07-06

    Mobile phone-based technology has been used in improving the delivery of healthcare services in many countries. However, data on the effects of this technology on improving primary healthcare services in resource-poor settings are limited. The aim of this study is to develop and test a mobile phone-based system to improve health, population and nutrition services in rural Bangladesh and evaluate its impact on service delivery. The study will use a quasi-experimental pre-post design, with intervention and comparison areas. Outcome indicators will include: antenatal care (ANC), delivery care, postnatal care (PNC), neonatal care, expanded programme on immunization (EPI) coverage, and contraceptive prevalence rate (CPR). The study will be conducted over a period of 30 months, using the existing health systems of Bangladesh. The intervention will be implemented through the existing service-delivery personnel at various primary-care levels, such as community clinic, union health and family welfare centre, and upazila health complex. These healthcare providers will be given mobile phones equipped with Apps for sending text and voice messages, along with the use of Internet and device for data-capturing. Training on handling of the Smartphones, data-capturing and monitoring will be given to selected service providers. They will also be trained on inputs, editing, verifying, and monitoring the outcome variables. Mobile phone-based technology has the potential to improve primary healthcare services in low-income countries, like Bangladesh. It is expected that our study will contribute to testing and developing a mobile phone-based intervention to improve the coverage and quality of services. The learning can be used in other similar settings in the low-and middle-income countries.

  17. Mobile phone base stations-Effects on wellbeing and health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kundi, Michael; Hutter, Hans-Peter

    2009-08-01

    Studying effects of mobile phone base station signals on health have been discouraged by authoritative bodies like WHO International EMF Project and COST 281. WHO recommended studies around base stations in 2003 but again stated in 2006 that studies on cancer in relation to base station exposure are of low priority. As a result only few investigations of effects of base station exposure on health and wellbeing exist. Cross-sectional investigations of subjective health as a function of distance or measured field strength, despite differences in methods and robustness of study design, found indications for an effect of exposure that is likely independent of concerns and attributions. Experimental studies applying short-term exposure to base station signals gave various results, but there is weak evidence that UMTS and to a lesser degree GSM signals reduce wellbeing in persons that report to be sensitive to such exposures. Two ecological studies of cancer in the vicinity of base stations report both a strong increase of incidence within a radius of 350 and 400m respectively. Due to the limitations inherent in this design no firm conclusions can be drawn, but the results underline the urgent need for a comprehensive investigation of this issue. Animal and in vitro studies are inconclusive to date. An increased incidence of DMBA induced mammary tumors in rats at a SAR of 1.4W/kg in one experiment could not be replicated in a second trial. Indications of oxidative stress after low-level in vivo exposure of rats could not be supported by in vitro studies of human fibroblasts and glioblastoma cells. From available evidence it is impossible to delineate a threshold below which no effect occurs, however, given the fact that studies reporting low exposure were invariably negative it is suggested that power densities around 0.5-1mW/m(2) must be exceeded in order to observe an effect. The meager data base must be extended in the coming years. The difficulties of investigating

  18. The Harvard Automated Phone Task: new performance-based activities of daily living tests for early Alzheimer’s disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Gad A.; Dekhtyar, Maria; Bruno, Jonathan M.; Jethwani, Kamal; Amariglio, Rebecca E.; Johnson, Keith A.; Sperling, Reisa A.; Rentz, Dorene M.

    2015-01-01

    Background Impairment in activities of daily living is a major burden for Alzheimer’s disease dementia patients and caregivers. Multiple subjective scales and a few performance-based instruments have been validated and proven to be reliable in measuring instrumental activities of daily living in Alzheimer’s disease dementia but less so in amnestic mild cognitive impairment and preclinical Alzheimer’s disease. Objective To validate the Harvard Automated Phone Task, a new performance-based activities of daily living test for early Alzheimer’s disease, which assesses high level tasks that challenge seniors in daily life. Design In a cross-sectional study, the Harvard Automated Phone Task was associated with demographics and cognitive measures through univariate and multivariate analyses; ability to discriminate across diagnostic groups was assessed; test-retest reliability with the same and alternate versions was assessed in a subset of participants; and the relationship with regional cortical thickness was assessed in a subset of participants. Setting Academic clinical research center. Participants One hundred and eighty two participants were recruited from the community (127 clinically normal elderly and 45 young normal participants) and memory disorders clinics at Brigham and Women’s Hospital and Massachusetts General Hospital (10 participants with mild cognitive impairment). Measurements As part of the Harvard Automated Phone Task, participants navigated an interactive voice response system to refill a prescription (APT-Script), select a new primary care physician (APT-PCP), and make a bank account transfer and payment (APT-Bank). The 3 tasks were scored based on time, errors, and repetitions from which composite z-scores were derived, as well as a separate report of correct completion of the task. Results We found that the Harvard Automated Phone Task discriminated well between diagnostic groups (APT-Script: p=0.002; APT-PCP: pHarvard Automated Phone

  19. Cell Phones

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Radiation-Emitting Products and Procedures Home, Business, and Entertainment Products Cell Phones Cell Phones Share Tweet Linkedin ... Follow FDA on Facebook View FDA videos on YouTube View FDA photos on Flickr FDA Archive Combination ...

  20. Improving Inpatient Surveys: Web-Based Computer Adaptive Testing Accessed via Mobile Phone QR Codes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chien, Tsair-Wei; Lin, Weir-Sen

    2016-03-02

    The National Health Service (NHS) 70-item inpatient questionnaire surveys inpatients on their perceptions of their hospitalization experience. However, it imposes more burden on the patient than other similar surveys. The literature shows that computerized adaptive testing (CAT) based on item response theory can help shorten the item length of a questionnaire without compromising its precision. Our aim was to investigate whether CAT can be (1) efficient with item reduction and (2) used with quick response (QR) codes scanned by mobile phones. After downloading the 2008 inpatient survey data from the Picker Institute Europe website and analyzing the difficulties of this 70-item questionnaire, we used an author-made Excel program using the Rasch partial credit model to simulate 1000 patients' true scores followed by a standard normal distribution. The CAT was compared to two other scenarios of answering all items (AAI) and the randomized selection method (RSM), as we investigated item length (efficiency) and measurement accuracy. The author-made Web-based CAT program for gathering patient feedback was effectively accessed from mobile phones by scanning the QR code. We found that the CAT can be more efficient for patients answering questions (ie, fewer items to respond to) than either AAI or RSM without compromising its measurement accuracy. A Web-based CAT inpatient survey accessed by scanning a QR code on a mobile phone was viable for gathering inpatient satisfaction responses. With advances in technology, patients can now be offered alternatives for providing feedback about hospitalization satisfaction. This Web-based CAT is a possible option in health care settings for reducing the number of survey items, as well as offering an innovative QR code access.

  1. Camera calibration based on the back projection process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Feifei; Zhao, Hong; Ma, Yueyang; Bu, Penghui

    2015-12-01

    Camera calibration plays a crucial role in 3D measurement tasks of machine vision. In typical calibration processes, camera parameters are iteratively optimized in the forward imaging process (FIP). However, the results can only guarantee the minimum of 2D projection errors on the image plane, but not the minimum of 3D reconstruction errors. In this paper, we propose a universal method for camera calibration, which uses the back projection process (BPP). In our method, a forward projection model is used to obtain initial intrinsic and extrinsic parameters with a popular planar checkerboard pattern. Then, the extracted image points are projected back into 3D space and compared with the ideal point coordinates. Finally, the estimation of the camera parameters is refined by a non-linear function minimization process. The proposed method can obtain a more accurate calibration result, which is more physically useful. Simulation and practical data are given to demonstrate the accuracy of the proposed method.

  2. Telemedicine through the use of digital cell phone technology in pediatric neurosurgery: a case series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pirris, Stephen M; Monaco, Edward A; Tyler-Kabara, Elizabeth C

    2010-05-01

    Advances in medicine have largely followed advances in technology. Medical strides have been made when physicians and researchers have adapted growing science to target specific problems. A new medical field, telemedicine, has emerged that links physicians with colleagues and patients. Cell phone technology is affordable for almost everyone, and basic models include digital photography. We present a case series exhibiting the utility of digital pictures taken with patients' cell phones. Our patients had wound infections requiring daily intravenous antibiotics and dressing changes. In years past, these patients would have required prolonged hospitalizations. In the era of managed care, patients with these infections are discharged from the hospital, but close outpatient observation is required to monitor the wound. Our patients lived up to 8 hours away from the hospital. Daily appointments for wound checks in the clinic were not practical. Wounds were thus monitored via cell phone images without the inconvenience of travel and the expense of staying in a local hotel, along with leaving appointments in the clinic available for others with new neurosurgical issues. Wound evaluations were conducted with the cameras on patients' cell phones. These images were transmitted to the surgeon via text messaging and emails. This application of cell phone technology has been documented previously in the literature of other specialties and could attain greater stature as a legitimate method for close outpatient observation by neurosurgeons if medicolegal issues are addressed.

  3. High school students’ usage behavior and views about mobile phones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmet Ergin

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of this study was to determine high school students’ usage behavior and views about mobile phones. Methods:Totally 253 (85.5% students educated at Honaz High School within the academic year 2010-2011, participated to this cross-sectional study and a questionnaire consisting of 42 questions which aimed to determine usage behavior and views about mobile phones was administered to the students. Results:The mean age of the students was 16.1 ± 1.1 years, and 56.9% of them were girl. 79.8% of students have mobile phone and 53.9% of them make daily average of over 30 minutes mobile phone calls. 76.1% of participants stated that they did not use headphones, 78.1% did not turn off their mobile phones when they are sleeping and 67.3% put it right next to them or under the pillow. 83.1% of students think mobile phones are harmful for human health, 56.7% think the base stations are harmful to human health and the environment, 91.3% think mobile phones are harmful for children, pregnant women and elderly people. Conclusion: It is found that students’ mobile phone ownership is widespread, the age of starting to use mobile phone and headphones usage is low, knowledge about the base stations is not adequate.

  4. Vibration extraction based on fast NCC algorithm and high-speed camera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Xiujun; Jin, Yi; Guo, Jie; Zhu, Chang'an

    2015-09-20

    In this study, a high-speed camera system is developed to complete the vibration measurement in real time and to overcome the mass introduced by conventional contact measurements. The proposed system consists of a notebook computer and a high-speed camera which can capture the images as many as 1000 frames per second. In order to process the captured images in the computer, the normalized cross-correlation (NCC) template tracking algorithm with subpixel accuracy is introduced. Additionally, a modified local search algorithm based on the NCC is proposed to reduce the computation time and to increase efficiency significantly. The modified algorithm can rapidly accomplish one displacement extraction 10 times faster than the traditional template matching without installing any target panel onto the structures. Two experiments were carried out under laboratory and outdoor conditions to validate the accuracy and efficiency of the system performance in practice. The results demonstrated the high accuracy and efficiency of the camera system in extracting vibrating signals.

  5. Segmenting texts from outdoor images taken by mobile phones using color features

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zongyi; Zhou, Hanning

    2011-01-01

    Recognizing texts from images taken by mobile phones with low resolution has wide applications. It has been shown that a good image binarization can substantially improve the performances of OCR engines. In this paper, we present a framework to segment texts from outdoor images taken by mobile phones using color features. The framework consists of three steps: (i) the initial process including image enhancement, binarization and noise filtering, where we binarize the input images in each RGB channel, and apply component level noise filtering; (ii) grouping components into blocks using color features, where we compute the component similarities by dynamically adjusting the weights of RGB channels, and merge groups hierachically, and (iii) blocks selection, where we use the run-length features and choose the Support Vector Machine (SVM) as the classifier. We tested the algorithm using 13 outdoor images taken by an old-style LG-64693 mobile phone with 640x480 resolution. We compared the segmentation results with Tsar's algorithm, a state-of-the-art camera text detection algorithm, and show that our algorithm is more robust, particularly in terms of the false alarm rates. In addition, we also evaluated the impacts of our algorithm on the Abbyy's FineReader, one of the most popular commercial OCR engines in the market.

  6. Parallel Computational Intelligence-Based Multi-Camera Surveillance System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Orts-Escolano

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available In this work, we present a multi-camera surveillance system based on the use of self-organizing neural networks to represent events on video. The system processes several tasks in parallel using GPUs (graphic processor units. It addresses multiple vision tasks at various levels, such as segmentation, representation or characterization, analysis and monitoring of the movement. These features allow the construction of a robust representation of the environment and interpret the behavior of mobile agents in the scene. It is also necessary to integrate the vision module into a global system that operates in a complex environment by receiving images from multiple acquisition devices at video frequency. Offering relevant information to higher level systems, monitoring and making decisions in real time, it must accomplish a set of requirements, such as: time constraints, high availability, robustness, high processing speed and re-configurability. We have built a system able to represent and analyze the motion in video acquired by a multi-camera network and to process multi-source data in parallel on a multi-GPU architecture.

  7. Auditory Brainstem Responses and EMFs Generated by Mobile Phones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khullar, Shilpa; Sood, Archana; Sood, Sanjay

    2013-12-01

    There has been a manifold increase in the number of mobile phone users throughout the world with the current number of users exceeding 2 billion. However this advancement in technology like many others is accompanied by a progressive increase in the frequency and intensity of electromagnetic waves without consideration of the health consequences. The aim of our study was to advance our understanding of the potential adverse effects of GSM mobile phones on auditory brainstem responses (ABRs). 60 subjects were selected for the study and divided into three groups of 20 each based on their usage of mobile phones. Their ABRs were recorded and analysed for latency of waves I-V as well as interpeak latencies I-III, I-V and III-V (in ms). Results revealed no significant difference in the ABR parameters between group A (control group) and group B (subjects using mobile phones for maximum 30 min/day for 5 years). However the latency of waves was significantly prolonged in group C (subjects using mobile phones for 10 years for a maximum of 30 min/day) as compared to the control group. Based on our findings we concluded that long term exposure to mobile phones may affect conduction in the peripheral portion of the auditory pathway. However more research needs to be done to study the long term effects of mobile phones particularly of newer technologies like smart phones and 3G.

  8. Personal exposure to mobile phone frequencies and well-being in adults: a cross-sectional study based on dosimetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Silke; Kühnlein, Anja; Heinrich, Sabine; Praml, Georg; Nowak, Dennis; von Kries, Rüdiger; Radon, Katja

    2008-09-01

    The use of mobile phone telecommunication has increased in recent years. In parallel, there is growing concern about possible adverse health effects of cellular phone networks. We used personal dosimetry to investigate the association between exposure to mobile phone frequencies and well-being in adults. A random population-based sample of 329 adults living in four different Bavarian towns was assembled for the study. Using a dosimeter (ESM-140 Maschek Electronics), we obtained an exposure profile over 24 h for three mobile phone frequency ranges (measurement interval 1 s, limit of determination 0.05 V/m). Exposure levels over waking hours were totalled and expressed as mean percentage of the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP) reference level. Each participant reported acute symptoms in a day-long diary. Data on five groups of chronic symptoms and potential confounders were assessed during an interview. The overall exposure to high-frequency electromagnetic fields was markedly below the ICNIRP reference level. We did not find any statistically significant association between the exposure and chronic symptoms or between the exposure and acute symptoms. Larger studies using mobile phone dosimetry are warranted to confirm these findings. Copyright 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  9. Mobile phone imaging and cloud-based analysis for standardized malaria detection and reporting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scherr, Thomas F.; Gupta, Sparsh; Wright, David W.; Haselton, Frederick R.

    2016-06-01

    Rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) have been widely deployed in low-resource settings. These tests are typically read by visual inspection, and accurate record keeping and data aggregation remains a substantial challenge. A successful malaria elimination campaign will require new strategies that maximize the sensitivity of RDTs, reduce user error, and integrate results reporting tools. In this report, an unmodified mobile phone was used to photograph RDTs, which were subsequently uploaded into a globally accessible database, REDCap, and then analyzed three ways: with an automated image processing program, visual inspection, and a commercial lateral flow reader. The mobile phone image processing detected 20.6 malaria parasites/microliter of blood, compared to the commercial lateral flow reader which detected 64.4 parasites/microliter. Experienced observers visually identified positive malaria cases at 12.5 parasites/microliter, but encountered reporting errors and false negatives. Visual interpretation by inexperienced users resulted in only an 80.2% true negative rate, with substantial disagreement in the lower parasitemia range. We have demonstrated that combining a globally accessible database, such as REDCap, with mobile phone based imaging of RDTs provides objective, secure, automated, data collection and result reporting. This simple combination of existing technologies would appear to be an attractive tool for malaria elimination campaigns.

  10. Cell Phone-Based and Adherence Device Technologies for HIV Care and Treatment in Resource-Limited Settings: Recent Advances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Jeffrey I; Haberer, Jessica E

    2015-12-01

    Numerous cell phone-based and adherence monitoring technologies have been developed to address barriers to effective HIV prevention, testing, and treatment. Because most people living with HIV and AIDS reside in resource-limited settings (RLS), it is important to understand the development and use of these technologies in RLS. Recent research on cell phone-based technologies has focused on HIV education, linkage to and retention in care, disease tracking, and antiretroviral therapy adherence reminders. Advances in adherence devices have focused on real-time adherence monitors, which have been used for both antiretroviral therapy and pre-exposure prophylaxis. Real-time monitoring has recently been combined with cell phone-based technologies to create real-time adherence interventions using short message service (SMS). New developments in adherence technologies are exploring ingestion monitoring and metabolite detection to confirm adherence. This article provides an overview of recent advances in these two families of technologies and includes research on their acceptability and cost-effectiveness when available. It additionally outlines key challenges and needed research as use of these technologies continues to expand and evolve.

  11. Adolescents’ perceptions of a mobile cell phone text messaging-enhanced intervention and development of a mobile cell phone-based HIV prevention intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornelius, Judith B.; St. Lawrence, Janet S.; Howard, Jacquelyn C.; Shah, Deval; Poka, Avinash; McDonald, Delilah; White, Ann C.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose This study examined African American adolescents’ perceptions of a mobile cell phone (MCP)-enhanced intervention and development of an MCP-based HIV prevention intervention. Design and Methods One focus group was conducted with 11 adolescents who participated in the Becoming a Responsible Teen Text Messaging project. Results Adolescents said they benefited from the MCP-enhanced approach and were receptive to the idea of developing an MCP-based intervention. Practice Implications Nurses can use the findings of this report as a starting point in examining the development of MCP-based sexuality education with parents and adolescents. PMID:22188273

  12. Mobile Phone Based RIMS for Traffic Control a Case Study of Tanzania

    OpenAIRE

    Angela-Aida Karugila Runyoro; Jesuk Ko

    2015-01-01

    Vehicles saturation in transportation infrastructure causes traffic congestion, accidents, transportation delays and environment pollution. This problem can be resolved with proper management of traffic flow. Existing traffic management systems are challenged on capturing and processing real-time road data from wide area road networks. The main purpose of this study is to address the gap by implementing a mobile phone based Road Information Management System. The proposed...

  13. Do mobile phone base stations affect sleep of residents? Results from an experimental double-blind sham-controlled field study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danker-Hopfe, Heidi; Dorn, Hans; Bornkessel, Christian; Sauter, Cornelia

    2010-01-01

    The aim of the present double-blind, sham-controlled, balanced randomized cross-over study was to disentangle effects of electromagnetic fields (EMF) and non-EMF effects of mobile phone base stations on objective and subjective sleep quality. In total 397 residents aged 18-81 years (50.9% female) from 10 German sites, where no mobile phone service was available, were exposed to sham and GSM (Global System for Mobile Communications, 900 MHz and 1,800 MHz) base station signals by an experimental base station while their sleep was monitored at their homes during 12 nights. Participants were randomly exposed to real (GSM) or sham exposure for five nights each. Individual measurement of EMF exposure, questionnaires on sleep disorders, overall sleep quality, attitude towards mobile communication, and on subjective sleep quality (morning and evening protocols) as well as objective sleep data (frontal EEG and EOG recordings) were gathered. Analysis of the subjective and objective sleep data did not reveal any significant differences between the real and sham condition. During sham exposure nights, objective and subjective sleep efficiency, wake after sleep onset, and subjective sleep latency were significantly worse in participants with concerns about possible health risks resulting from base stations than in participants who were not concerned. The study did not provide any evidence for short-term physiological effects of EMF emitted by mobile phone base stations on objective and subjective sleep quality. However, the results indicate that mobile phone base stations as such (not the electromagnetic fields) may have a significant negative impact on sleep quality. (c) 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  14. Mobile Phone

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    籍万杰

    2004-01-01

    Your mobile phone rings.and instead of usual electronic signals,it's playing your favorite music.A friend sends your favorite song to cheer you up.One day,a record company might forward new records and music videos to your phone.

  15. Health Impacts Of Radiofrequency Exposure From Mobile Phone ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: The widespread use of mobile phones and indiscriminate siting of transmitter base stations near residential buildings in our environment may have serious health impacts. Objective: To investigate the possible health risks associated with radiofrequency (RF) exposure from mobile phones and other transmitter ...

  16. A phone-assistive device based on Bluetooth technology for cochlear implant users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Haifeng; Loizou, Philipos C; Dorman, Michael F

    2003-09-01

    Hearing-impaired people, and particularly hearing-aid and cochlear-implant users, often have difficulty communicating over the telephone. The intelligibility of telephone speech is considerably lower than the intelligibility of face-to-face speech. This is partly because of lack of visual cues, limited telephone bandwidth, and background noise. In addition, cellphones may cause interference with the hearing aid or cochlear implant. To address these problems that hearing-impaired people experience with telephones, this paper proposes a wireless phone adapter that can be used to route the audio signal directly to the hearing aid or cochlear implant processor. This adapter is based on Bluetooth technology. The favorable features of this new wireless technology make the adapter superior to traditional assistive listening devices. A hardware prototype was built and software programs were written to implement the headset profile in the Bluetooth specification. Three cochlear implant users were tested with the proposed phone-adapter and reported good speech quality.

  17. An autonomous sensor module based on a legacy CCTV camera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kent, P. J.; Faulkner, D. A. A.; Marshall, G. F.

    2016-10-01

    A UK MoD funded programme into autonomous sensors arrays (SAPIENT) has been developing new, highly capable sensor modules together with a scalable modular architecture for control and communication. As part of this system there is a desire to also utilise existing legacy sensors. The paper reports upon the development of a SAPIENT-compliant sensor module using a legacy Close-Circuit Television (CCTV) pan-tilt-zoom (PTZ) camera. The PTZ camera sensor provides three modes of operation. In the first mode, the camera is automatically slewed to acquire imagery of a specified scene area, e.g. to provide "eyes-on" confirmation for a human operator or for forensic purposes. In the second mode, the camera is directed to monitor an area of interest, with zoom level automatically optimized for human detection at the appropriate range. Open source algorithms (using OpenCV) are used to automatically detect pedestrians; their real world positions are estimated and communicated back to the SAPIENT central fusion system. In the third mode of operation a "follow" mode is implemented where the camera maintains the detected person within the camera field-of-view without requiring an end-user to directly control the camera with a joystick.

  18. Design of gamma camera data acquisition system based on PCI9810

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Yuanyuan; Zhao Shujun; Liu Yang

    2004-01-01

    This paper describe the design of gamma camera's data acquisition system, which is based on PCI9810 data acquisition card of ADLink Technology Inc. The main function of PCI9810 and the program of data acquisition system are described. (authors)

  19. Radiation level survey of a mobile phone base station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campos, M.C.; Schaffer, S.R.

    2006-01-01

    Electromagnetic field (E.M.F.) evaluations were carried out in the surroundings of a roof-top mobile-phone radio-base station (R.B.S.). Four of its sector-panel antennas are installed on two parallel vertical masts, each supporting two panels in a vertical collinear-array. The geometry is such that the vertical plane containing both masts is about 10 meters distant and parallel to the backside of an educational institution. This proximity provoked great anxiety among the local community members regarding potential health hazards.1. Introduction: To keep up with the expansion of the mobile-phone services, the number of Radio-Base Stations (R.B.S.) installations is increasing tremendously in Brazil. Efficient control and radiation monitoring to assess R.B.S. compliance to existing regulations are still lacking and particularly in big cities, clearly non - compliant R.B.S. can be seen which represent potentially hazardous E.M.F. sources to the nearby population. This first survey of an irregular R.B.S. revealed significant E-field strengths outside, as well as inside a classroom of an educational building where an usually prolonged stay is necessary. These results confirm that this problem deserves further attention, moreover, if one considers that public and occupational exposure limits set by I.C.N.I.R.P. (also adopted in Brazil) are exclusively based on the immediate thermal effects of acute exposure, disregarding any potential health risk from prolonged exposure to lower level radiation. Research activities focusing on quantitative aspects of electromagnetic radiation from R.B.S., as well as on biological and adverse health effects are still at a very incipient level, urging for immediate actions to improve this scenario in our country. 2. Material, methods and results Measurements were carried out with a broadband field strength monitor, E.M.R.-300 (W and G) coupled to an isotropic E-field probe (100 khz to 3 GHz). Preliminary measurements helped locating

  20. Cell phone ringtone, but not landline phone ringtone, affects complex reaction time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radosław Zajdel

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Legislation systems of most countries prohibited using the handheld mobile phone while driving due to the fact that it disturbs concentration and causes hand involvement. Every phone owner is accustomed to the ringtone of his phone and almost involuntarily endeavors to pick it up or check who calls. This engages one’s psychomotor skills, which in our opinion contributes to the attenuation of reaction time needed for performing other crucial functions. Objectives: The aim of the study was: (1 to evaluate the infl uence of the sound of a ringing mobile phone on the complex reaction time (RT score in healthy subjects (owners, and (2 to check if there are any differences in RT when a landline phone and mobile phone ring. Methods: To assess RT we used our system and protocol of examination, previously validated. The examination conditions were standardized. All tests were performed in the same room with the same light and general acoustic conditions. The test group consisted of 23 women and 24 men, aged 19–24 years. The examination comprised 4 sessions: Training Session (TS during which the subjects were accustomed with the application and sample stimuli, Control Session (CS with no telephone ringing, Landline Session (LS with landline phone ringing, Mobile Session (MS with mobile phone ringing. Results: The median RT in the study population was signifi cantly elongated (p 0.05. Conclusions: We think that the specifi c ‘bond’ between a person and their private phone can signifi cantly disrupt their attention and thus affect the attention-demanding activities.

  1. APPLICATION OF SMART MOBILE PHONES IN VIBRATION MONITORING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ljubomir Vračar

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the research presented in this paper is the development of the smart mobile phone application for vibration monitoring of pumping aggregate, based on Microchip’s microcontroller (MC. Hardware used is based on Bluetooth connection between smart sensor and smart mobile phone. Software for acquisition and data analysis is optimized for imbedded application in smart sensors. Smart acceleration sensor in conjunction with Bluetooth connection to smart mobile phone creates one touch mobile vibration monitoring system. The authors have performed numerous measurements on a wide range of aggregates for establishing the operating functionality of the newly created system. The possibility of system application I rail vehicle vibration monitoring is also analyzed.

  2. Interpretation of way-finding healthcare symbols by a multicultural population: navigation signage design for global health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashim, Muhammad Jawad; Alkaabi, Mariam Salem Khamis Matar; Bharwani, Sulaiman

    2014-05-01

    The interpretation of way-finding symbols for healthcare facilities in a multicultural community was assessed in a cross-sectional study. One hundred participants recruited from Al Ain city in the United Arab Emirates were asked to interpret 28 healthcare symbols developed at Hablamos Juntos (such as vaccinations and laboratory) as well as 18 general-purpose symbols (such as elevators and restrooms). The mean age was 27.6 years (16-55 years) of whom 84 (84%) were females. Healthcare symbols were more difficult to comprehend than general-purpose signs. Symbols referring to abstract concepts were the most misinterpreted including oncology, diabetes education, outpatient clinic, interpretive services, pharmacy, internal medicine, registration, social services, obstetrics and gynecology, pediatrics and infectious diseases. Interpretation rates varied across cultural backgrounds and increased with higher education and younger age. Signage within healthcare facilities should be tested among older persons, those with limited literacy and across a wide range of cultures. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd and The Ergonomics Society. All rights reserved.

  3. Questionnaire-based evaluation of mobile phone interference with medical-electrical equipment in Swedish hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiinberg, Stig; Samuelsson, Göran; Larsson, Stefan; Nilsson, Barbro; Jönsson, Patrik X; Ivarsson, Bodil; Olofsson, Per-Åke

    2017-08-09

    National recommendations in Sweden recommend a safety distance of 3 meter (m) between mobile phones and medical-electrical (ME) equipment in hospitals. A questionnaire was used to investigate how often mobile phones were reported to interfere with ME products in clinical practice across Sweden. The results confirmed that ME equipment can be affected by mobile phone use but, the risk of the patient's outcome being affected were minimal; no cases were identified which led to injury or death. In conclusion, the results support recommendations for a general safety distance of 0.5 m between mobile phones and ME equipment in care environments.

  4. iPhone Hacks Tips and Tools for Pushing the Smartest Phone to Its Limits

    CERN Document Server

    Jurick, David; Stolarz, Damien

    2009-01-01

    With iPhone Hacks, you can make your iPhone do all you'd expect of a smartphone -- and more. Learn tips and techniques to unleash little-known features, find and create innovative applications for both the iPhone and iPod touch, and unshackle these devices to run everything from network utilities to video game emulators. iPhone Hacks is exactly what you need to make the most of your iPhone.

  5. Wavefront analysis for plenoptic camera imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luan Yin-Sen; Xu Bing; Yang Ping; Tang Guo-Mao

    2017-01-01

    The plenoptic camera is a single lens stereo camera which can retrieve the direction of light rays while detecting their intensity distribution. In this paper, to reveal more truths of plenoptic camera imaging, we present the wavefront analysis for the plenoptic camera imaging from the angle of physical optics but not from the ray tracing model of geometric optics. Specifically, the wavefront imaging model of a plenoptic camera is analyzed and simulated by scalar diffraction theory and the depth estimation is redescribed based on physical optics. We simulate a set of raw plenoptic images of an object scene, thereby validating the analysis and derivations and the difference between the imaging analysis methods based on geometric optics and physical optics are also shown in simulations. (paper)

  6. Fabrication of multi-focal microlens array on curved surface for wide-angle camera module

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Jun-Gu; Su, Guo-Dung J.

    2017-08-01

    In this paper, we present a wide-angle and compact camera module that consists of microlens array with different focal lengths on curved surface. The design integrates the principle of an insect's compound eye and the human eye. It contains a curved hexagonal microlens array and a spherical lens. Compared with normal mobile phone cameras which usually need no less than four lenses, but our proposed system only uses one lens. Furthermore, the thickness of our proposed system is only 2.08 mm and diagonal full field of view is about 100 degrees. In order to make the critical microlens array, we used the inkjet printing to control the surface shape of each microlens for achieving different focal lengths and use replication method to form curved hexagonal microlens array.

  7. RETHINKING THE GROCERY STORE: INCLUSIVE WAYFINDING SYSTEM FOR VISUALLY IMPAIRED SHOPPERS IN GROCERY STORES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doaa Khattab

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Many people with disabilities face considerable barriers while shopping in grocery stores.  One such barrier is that they cannot find their way around easily, especially when they visit the grocery store for the first time and have not yet built a cognitive map in their memory. They may also experience delays in finding the right product or waiting for assistance from store employees, thus leading them to rely on family, friends, relatives, or volunteers to help them with their shopping. Problems start when these people are not available, in which case the individual is forced to cancel their visit to the grocery store and reschedule the trip. Grocery stores include many different zones and services, the aisles area being one of the main barriers to access for people with different disabilities. This area features many different sections such as canned goods, dry packaged goods, spices, drinks and snacks, baking supplies, baby items, cereals, cleaning products, pet supplies, and health and beauty items. For visually impaired individuals, however, it can be hard to reach these various sections and find the relevant products. The objective of this research is to design an inclusive and innovative wayfinding system in grocery stores for visually impaired shoppers in order to help them find the center zone, orient between different aisles, decide where to go, move easily between different sections, and select products with ease. The research approach will be based on the literature review and the application of the Delphi method.

  8. Person re-identification using height-based gait in colour depth camera

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    John, V.; Englebienne, G.; Kröse, B.

    2013-01-01

    We address the problem of person re-identification in colour-depth camera using the height temporal information of people. Our proposed gait-based feature corresponds to the frequency response of the height temporal information. We demonstrate that the discriminative periodic motion associated with

  9. Sound Surfing Network (SSN): Mobile Phone-based Sound Spatialization with Audience Collaboration

    OpenAIRE

    Park, Saebyul; Ban, Seonghoon; Hong, Dae Ryong; Yeo, Woon Seung

    2013-01-01

    SSN (Sound Surfing Network) is a performance system that provides a new musicalexperience by incorporating mobile phone-based spatial sound control tocollaborative music performance. SSN enables both the performer and theaudience to manipulate the spatial distribution of sound using the smartphonesof the audience as distributed speaker system. Proposing a new perspective tothe social aspect music appreciation, SSN will provide a new possibility tomobile music performances in the context of in...

  10. Mobile Phone-Based Unobtrusive Ecological Momentary Assessment of Day-to-Day Mood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Asselbergs, Joost; Ruwaard, Jeroen; Ejdys, Michal

    2016-01-01

    Background: Ecological momentary assessment (EMA) is a useful method to tap the dynamics of psychological and behavioral phenomena in real-world contexts. However, the response burden of (self-report) EMA limits its clinical utility. Objective: The aim was to explore mobile phone-based unobtrusive...... is a technically feasible and potentially powerful EMA variant. The method is young and positive findings may not replicate. At present, we do not recommend the application of FSR-based mood prediction in real-world clinical settings. Further psychometric studies and more advanced data mining techniques are needed...

  11. Impact of radiofrequency radiation on DNA damage and antioxidants in peripheral blood lymphocytes of humans residing in the vicinity of mobile phone base stations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zothansiama; Zosangzuali, Mary; Lalramdinpuii, Miriam; Jagetia, Ganesh Chandra

    2017-01-01

    Radiofrequency radiations (RFRs) emitted by mobile phone base stations have raised concerns on its adverse impact on humans residing in the vicinity of mobile phone base stations. Therefore, the present study was envisaged to evaluate the effect of RFR on the DNA damage and antioxidant status in cultured human peripheral blood lymphocytes (HPBLs) of individuals residing in the vicinity of mobile phone base stations and comparing it with healthy controls. The study groups matched for various demographic data including age, gender, dietary pattern, smoking habit, alcohol consumption, duration of mobile phone use and average daily mobile phone use. The RF power density of the exposed individuals was significantly higher (p base stations, showed significantly (p base station/s. The analysis of various antioxidants in the plasma of exposed individuals revealed a significant attrition in glutathione (GSH) concentration (p < 0.01), activities of catalase (CAT) (p < 0.001) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) (p < 0.001) and rise in lipid peroxidation (LOO) when compared to controls. Multiple linear regression analyses revealed a significant association among reduced GSH concentration (p < 0.05), CAT (p < 0.001) and SOD (p < 0.001) activities and elevated MN frequency (p < 0.001) and LOO (p < 0.001) with increasing RF power density.

  12. The Light Field Attachment: Turning a DSLR into a Light Field Camera Using a Low Budget Camera Ring

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Yuwang

    2016-11-16

    We propose a concept for a lens attachment that turns a standard DSLR camera and lens into a light field camera. The attachment consists of 8 low-resolution, low-quality side cameras arranged around the central high-quality SLR lens. Unlike most existing light field camera architectures, this design provides a high-quality 2D image mode, while simultaneously enabling a new high-quality light field mode with a large camera baseline but little added weight, cost, or bulk compared with the base DSLR camera. From an algorithmic point of view, the high-quality light field mode is made possible by a new light field super-resolution method that first improves the spatial resolution and image quality of the side cameras and then interpolates additional views as needed. At the heart of this process is a super-resolution method that we call iterative Patch- And Depth-based Synthesis (iPADS), which combines patch-based and depth-based synthesis in a novel fashion. Experimental results obtained for both real captured data and synthetic data confirm that our method achieves substantial improvements in super-resolution for side-view images as well as the high-quality and view-coherent rendering of dense and high-resolution light fields.

  13. Microprocessor-controlled wide-range streak camera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Amy E.; Hollabaugh, Craig

    2006-08-01

    Bechtel Nevada/NSTec recently announced deployment of their fifth generation streak camera. This camera incorporates many advanced features beyond those currently available for streak cameras. The arc-resistant driver includes a trigger lockout mechanism, actively monitors input trigger levels, and incorporates a high-voltage fault interrupter for user safety and tube protection. The camera is completely modular and may deflect over a variable full-sweep time of 15 nanoseconds to 500 microseconds. The camera design is compatible with both large- and small-format commercial tubes from several vendors. The embedded microprocessor offers Ethernet connectivity, and XML [extensible markup language]-based configuration management with non-volatile parameter storage using flash-based storage media. The camera's user interface is platform-independent (Microsoft Windows, Unix, Linux, Macintosh OSX) and is accessible using an AJAX [asynchronous Javascript and XML]-equipped modem browser, such as Internet Explorer 6, Firefox, or Safari. User interface operation requires no installation of client software or browser plug-in technology. Automation software can also access the camera configuration and control using HTTP [hypertext transfer protocol]. The software architecture supports multiple-simultaneous clients, multiple cameras, and multiple module access with a standard browser. The entire user interface can be customized.

  14. Microprocessor-controlled, wide-range streak camera

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amy E. Lewis; Craig Hollabaugh

    2006-01-01

    Bechtel Nevada/NSTec recently announced deployment of their fifth generation streak camera. This camera incorporates many advanced features beyond those currently available for streak cameras. The arc-resistant driver includes a trigger lockout mechanism, actively monitors input trigger levels, and incorporates a high-voltage fault interrupter for user safety and tube protection. The camera is completely modular and may deflect over a variable full-sweep time of 15 nanoseconds to 500 microseconds. The camera design is compatible with both large- and small-format commercial tubes from several vendors. The embedded microprocessor offers Ethernet connectivity, and XML [extensible markup language]-based configuration management with non-volatile parameter storage using flash-based storage media. The camera's user interface is platform-independent (Microsoft Windows, Unix, Linux, Macintosh OSX) and is accessible using an AJAX [asynchronous Javascript and XML]-equipped modem browser, such as Internet Explorer 6, Firefox, or Safari. User interface operation requires no installation of client software or browser plug-in technology. Automation software can also access the camera configuration and control using HTTP [hypertext transfer protocol]. The software architecture supports multiple-simultaneous clients, multiple cameras, and multiple module access with a standard browser. The entire user interface can be customized

  15. Evaluation of a Mobile Phone-Based Microscope for Screening of Schistosoma haematobium Infection in Rural Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogoch, Isaac I; Koydemir, Hatice C; Tseng, Derek; Ephraim, Richard K D; Duah, Evans; Tee, Joseph; Andrews, Jason R; Ozcan, Aydogan

    2017-06-01

    AbstractSchistosomiasis affects over 170 million people in Africa. Here we compare a novel, low-cost mobile phone microscope to a conventional light microscope for the label-free diagnosis of Schistosoma haematobium infections in a rural Ghanaian school setting. We tested the performance of our handheld microscope using 60 slides that were randomly chosen from an ongoing epidemiologic study in school-aged children. The mobile phone microscope had a sensitivity of 72.1% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 56.1-84.2), specificity of 100% (95% CI: 75.9-100), positive predictive value of 100% (95% CI: 86.3-100), and a negative predictive value of 57.1% (95% CI: 37.4-75.0). With its modest sensitivity and high specificity, this handheld and cost-effective mobile phone-based microscope is a stepping-stone toward developing a powerful tool in clinical and public health settings where there is limited access to conventional laboratory diagnostic support.

  16. Generic Learning-Based Ensemble Framework for Small Sample Size Face Recognition in Multi-Camera Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Cuicui; Liang, Xuefeng; Matsuyama, Takashi

    2014-12-08

    Multi-camera networks have gained great interest in video-based surveillance systems for security monitoring, access control, etc. Person re-identification is an essential and challenging task in multi-camera networks, which aims to determine if a given individual has already appeared over the camera network. Individual recognition often uses faces as a trial and requires a large number of samples during the training phrase. This is difficult to fulfill due to the limitation of the camera hardware system and the unconstrained image capturing conditions. Conventional face recognition algorithms often encounter the "small sample size" (SSS) problem arising from the small number of training samples compared to the high dimensionality of the sample space. To overcome this problem, interest in the combination of multiple base classifiers has sparked research efforts in ensemble methods. However, existing ensemble methods still open two questions: (1) how to define diverse base classifiers from the small data; (2) how to avoid the diversity/accuracy dilemma occurring during ensemble. To address these problems, this paper proposes a novel generic learning-based ensemble framework, which augments the small data by generating new samples based on a generic distribution and introduces a tailored 0-1 knapsack algorithm to alleviate the diversity/accuracy dilemma. More diverse base classifiers can be generated from the expanded face space, and more appropriate base classifiers are selected for ensemble. Extensive experimental results on four benchmarks demonstrate the higher ability of our system to cope with the SSS problem compared to the state-of-the-art system.

  17. Generic Learning-Based Ensemble Framework for Small Sample Size Face Recognition in Multi-Camera Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cuicui Zhang

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Multi-camera networks have gained great interest in video-based surveillance systems for security monitoring, access control, etc. Person re-identification is an essential and challenging task in multi-camera networks, which aims to determine if a given individual has already appeared over the camera network. Individual recognition often uses faces as a trial and requires a large number of samples during the training phrase. This is difficult to fulfill due to the limitation of the camera hardware system and the unconstrained image capturing conditions. Conventional face recognition algorithms often encounter the “small sample size” (SSS problem arising from the small number of training samples compared to the high dimensionality of the sample space. To overcome this problem, interest in the combination of multiple base classifiers has sparked research efforts in ensemble methods. However, existing ensemble methods still open two questions: (1 how to define diverse base classifiers from the small data; (2 how to avoid the diversity/accuracy dilemma occurring during ensemble. To address these problems, this paper proposes a novel generic learning-based ensemble framework, which augments the small data by generating new samples based on a generic distribution and introduces a tailored 0–1 knapsack algorithm to alleviate the diversity/accuracy dilemma. More diverse base classifiers can be generated from the expanded face space, and more appropriate base classifiers are selected for ensemble. Extensive experimental results on four benchmarks demonstrate the higher ability of our system to cope with the SSS problem compared to the state-of-the-art system.

  18. Goal-oriented rectification of camera-based document images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stamatopoulos, Nikolaos; Gatos, Basilis; Pratikakis, Ioannis; Perantonis, Stavros J

    2011-04-01

    Document digitization with either flatbed scanners or camera-based systems results in document images which often suffer from warping and perspective distortions that deteriorate the performance of current OCR approaches. In this paper, we present a goal-oriented rectification methodology to compensate for undesirable document image distortions aiming to improve the OCR result. Our approach relies upon a coarse-to-fine strategy. First, a coarse rectification is accomplished with the aid of a computationally low cost transformation which addresses the projection of a curved surface to a 2-D rectangular area. The projection of the curved surface on the plane is guided only by the textual content's appearance in the document image while incorporating a transformation which does not depend on specific model primitives or camera setup parameters. Second, pose normalization is applied on the word level aiming to restore all the local distortions of the document image. Experimental results on various document images with a variety of distortions demonstrate the robustness and effectiveness of the proposed rectification methodology using a consistent evaluation methodology that encounters OCR accuracy and a newly introduced measure using a semi-automatic procedure.

  19. Image and diagnosis quality of X-ray image transmission via cell phone camera: a project study evaluating quality and reliability.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hans Goost

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Developments in telemedicine have not produced any relevant benefits for orthopedics and trauma surgery to date. For the present project study, several parameters were examined during assessment of x-ray images, which had been photographed and transmitted via cell phone. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 100 x-ray images of various body regions were photographed with a Nokia cell phone and transmitted via email or MMS. Next, the transmitted photographs were reviewed on a laptop computer by five medical specialists and assessed regarding quality and diagnosis. RESULTS: Due to their poor quality, the transmitted MMS images could not be evaluated and this path of transmission was therefore excluded. Mean size of transmitted x-ray email images was 394 kB (range: 265-590 kB, SD ± 59, average transmission time was 3.29 min ± 8 (CI 95%: 1.7-4.9. Applying a score from 1-10 (very poor - excellent, mean image quality was 5.8. In 83.2 ± 4% (mean value ± SD of cases (median 82; 80-89%, there was agreement between final diagnosis and assessment by the five medical experts who had received the images. However, there was a markedly low concurrence ratio in the thoracic area and in pediatric injuries. DISCUSSION: While the rate of accurate diagnosis and indication for surgery was high with a concurrence ratio of 83%, considerable differences existed between the assessed regions, with lowest values for thoracic images. Teleradiology is a cost-effective, rapid method which can be applied wherever wireless cell phone reception is available. In our opinion, this method is in principle suitable for clinical use, enabling the physician on duty to agree on appropriate measures with colleagues located elsewhere via x-ray image transmission on a cell phone.

  20. Mobile phone-based mHealth approaches for public health surveillance in sub-Saharan Africa: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brinkel, Johanna; Krämer, Alexander; Krumkamp, Ralf; May, Jürgen; Fobil, Julius

    2014-11-12

    Whereas mobile phone-based surveillance has the potential to provide real-time validated data for disease clustering and prompt respond and investigation, little evidence is available on current practice in sub-Sahara Africa. The objective of this review was to examine mobile phone-based mHealth interventions for Public Health surveillance in the region. We conducted electronic search in MEDLINE, EMBASE, IEE Xplore, African Index Medicus (AIM), BioMed Central, PubMed Central (PMC), the Public Library of Science (PLoS) and IRIS for publications used in the review. In all, a total of nine studies were included which focused on infectious disease surveillance of malaria (n = 3), tuberculosis (n = 1) and influenza-like illnesses (n = 1) as well as on non-infectious disease surveillance of child malnutrition (n = 2), maternal health (n = 1) and routine surveillance of various diseases and symptoms (n = 1). Our review revealed that mobile phone-based surveillance projects in the sub-Saharan African countries are on small scale, fragmented and not well documented. We conclude by advocating for a strong drive for more research in the applied field as well as a better reporting of lessons learned in order to create an epistemic community to help build a more evidence-based field of practice in mHealth surveillance in the region.

  1. Mobile Phone-Based mHealth Approaches for Public Health Surveillance in Sub-Saharan Africa: A Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johanna Brinkel

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Whereas mobile phone-based surveillance has the potential to provide real-time validated data for disease clustering and prompt respond and investigation, little evidence is available on current practice in sub-Sahara Africa. The objective of this review was to examine mobile phone-based mHealth interventions for Public Health surveillance in the region. We conducted electronic search in MEDLINE, EMBASE, IEE Xplore, African Index Medicus (AIM, BioMed Central, PubMed Central (PMC, the Public Library of Science (PLoS and IRIS for publications used in the review. In all, a total of nine studies were included which focused on infectious disease surveillance of malaria (n = 3, tuberculosis (n = 1 and influenza-like illnesses (n = 1 as well as on non-infectious disease surveillance of child malnutrition (n = 2, maternal health (n = 1 and routine surveillance of various diseases and symptoms (n = 1. Our review revealed that mobile phone-based surveillance projects in the sub-Saharan African countries are on small scale, fragmented and not well documented. We conclude by advocating for a strong drive for more research in the applied field as well as a better reporting of lessons learned in order to create an epistemic community to help build a more evidence-based field of practice in mHealth surveillance in the region.

  2. Women's views and experiences of a mobile phone-based intervention to support post-abortion contraception in Cambodia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Chris; Ly, Sokhey; Uk, Vannak; Warnock, Ruby; Free, Caroline

    2017-06-12

    The MObile Technology for Improved Family Planning (MOTIF) trial assessed a mobile phone-based intervention comprising voice messages and counsellor support to increase post-abortion contraception at four Marie Stopes International clinics in Cambodia. The aim of this process evaluation was to assess women's views and experiences of receiving the MOTIF intervention, gain insights into the mechanism of action of the intervention and seek recommendations for improvements. We conducted a qualitative study comprising15 semi-structured interviews with women who had received the intervention and undertook a simple thematic analysis. We identified themes relating to communication via mobile phone, supporting contraception use, broader post-abortion care, interaction with family and friends and suggestions for improvement. The majority of women were positive about the mobile phone-based intervention to support contraception use and reported it to be a convenient way to ask questions or get advice without going to a health centre, although a few women found the voice messages intrusive. The intervention supported contraception use by provision of information, encouragement, reminders to return to clinic, reassurance and advice for problems and had a positive effect on contraceptive uptake and continuation. Women reported a sense of being cared for and received support for additional physical and emotional issues. Most women thought that the duration of the intervention and frequency of messages were acceptable. The majority of women were positive about the mobile phone-based intervention which provided support for contraception use as well as additional physical and emotional issues. The study provides some insights into how the intervention might have worked and considers how the intervention could be improved.

  3. Effect of a mobile phone-based intervention on post-abortion contraception: a randomized controlled trial in Cambodia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngo, Thoai D; Gold, Judy; Edwards, Phil; Vannak, Uk; Sokhey, Ly; Machiyama, Kazuyo; Slaymaker, Emma; Warnock, Ruby; McCarthy, Ona; Free, Caroline

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Objective To assess the effect of a mobile phone-based intervention (mHealth) on post-abortion contraception use by women in Cambodia. Methods The Mobile Technology for Improved Family Planning (MOTIF) study involved women who sought safe abortion services at four Marie Stopes International clinics in Cambodia. We randomly allocated 249 women to a mobile phone-based intervention, which comprised six automated, interactive voice messages with counsellor phone support, as required, whereas 251 women were allocated to a control group receiving standard care. The primary outcome was the self-reported use of an effective contraceptive method, 4 and 12 months after an abortion. Findings Data on effective contraceptive use were available for 431 (86%) participants at 4 months and 328 (66%) at 12 months. Significantly more women in the intervention than the control group reported effective contraception use at 4 months (64% versus 46%, respectively; relative risk, RR: 1.39; 95% confidence interval, CI: 1.17–1.66) but not at 12 months (50% versus 43%, respectively; RR: 1.16; 95% CI: 0.92–1.47). However, significantly more women in the intervention group reported using a long-acting contraceptive method at both follow-up times. There was no significant difference between the groups in repeat pregnancies or abortions at 4 or 12 months. Conclusion Adding a mobile phone-based intervention to abortion care services in Cambodia had a short-term effect on the overall use of any effective contraception, while the use of long-acting contraceptive methods lasted throughout the study period. PMID:26668436

  4. Pilot study of a cell phone-based exercise persistence intervention post-rehabilitation for COPD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huong Q Nguyen

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Huong Q Nguyen1, Dawn P Gill1, Seth Wolpin1, Bonnie G Steele2, Joshua O Benditt11University of Washington, seattle, WA, USA; 2VA Puget Sound Health Care System, Seattle, WA, USAObjective: To determine the feasibility and efficacy of a six-month, cell phone-based exercise persistence intervention for patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD following pulmonary rehabilitation.Methods: Participants who completed a two-week run-in were randomly assigned to either MOBILE-Coached (n = 9 or MOBILE-Self-Monitored (n = 8. All participants met with a nurse to develop an individualized exercise plan, were issued a pedometer and exercise booklet, and instructed to continue to log their daily exercise and symptoms. MOBILE-Coached also received weekly reinforcement text messages on their cell phones; reports of worsening symptoms were automatically flagged for follow-up. Usability and satisfaction were assessed. Participants completed incremental cycle and six minute walk (6MW tests, wore an activity monitor for 14 days, and reported their health-related quality of life (HRQL at baseline, three, and six months.Results: The sample had a mean age of 68 ± 11 and forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1 of 40 ± 18% predicted. Participants reported that logging their exercise and symptoms was easy and that keeping track of their exercise helped them remain active. There were no differences between groups over time in maximal workload, 6MW distance, or HRQL (p > 0.05; however, MOBILE-Self-Monitored increased total steps/day whereas MOBILE-Coached logged fewer steps over six months (p = 0.04.Conclusions: We showed that it is feasible to deliver a cell phone-based exercise persistence intervention to patients with COPD post-rehabilitation and that the addition of coaching appeared to be no better than self-monitoring. The latter finding needs to be interpreted with caution since this was a purely exploratory study.Trial registration: Clinical

  5. Analysis of Movement, Orientation and Rotation-Based Sensing for Phone Placement Recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ozlem Durmaz Incel

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Phone placement, i.e., where the phone is carried/stored, is an important source of information for context-aware applications. Extracting information from the integrated smart phone sensors, such as motion, light and proximity, is a common technique for phone placement detection. In this paper, the efficiency of an accelerometer-only solution is explored, and it is investigated whether the phone position can be detected with high accuracy by analyzing the movement, orientation and rotation changes. The impact of these changes on the performance is analyzed individually and both in combination to explore which features are more efficient, whether they should be fused and, if yes, how they should be fused. Using three different datasets, collected from 35 people from eight different positions, the performance of different classification algorithms is explored. It is shown that while utilizing only motion information can achieve accuracies around 70%, this ratio increases up to 85% by utilizing information also from orientation and rotation changes. The performance of an accelerometer-only solution is compared to solutions where linear acceleration, gyroscope and magnetic field sensors are used, and it is shown that the accelerometer-only solution performs as well as utilizing other sensing information. Hence, it is not necessary to use extra sensing information where battery power consumption may increase. Additionally, I explore the impact of the performed activities on position recognition and show that the accelerometer-only solution can achieve 80% recognition accuracy with stationary activities where movement data are very limited. Finally, other phone placement problems, such as in-pocket and on-body detections, are also investigated, and higher accuracies, ranging from 88% to 93%, are reported, with an accelerometer-only solution.

  6. Student motorcyclists' mobile phone use while driving in Vientiane, Laos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phommachanh, Sysavanh; Ichikawa, Masao; Nakahara, Shinji; Mayxay, Mayfong; Kimura, Akio

    2017-06-01

    To investigate mobile phone use while driving among student motorcyclists in Laos, we conducted a school-based questionnaire survey in central Vientiane in May 2014. Of the 883 high school students who reported to drive motorcycles at least once a week, 40% have ever used phones while driving motorcycles in both sexes. Those phone users had longer driving exposures than non-users, with about half engaging in phone use while driving at least 2 days a week and 70% engaging for 1 min or longer on an average day. They reported not just talking on the phone while driving but operating the phone such as dialling and text-messaging. In some instances, phone use was reportedly involved in their past crash experiences. To formulate a sound policy on this emerging distracting behaviour among motorcyclists, its contribution to the occurrence of overall crashes among motorcyclists should be investigated.

  7. Effect of an Educational Program Based on the Health Belief Model to Reduce Cell Phone Usage During Driving in Taxi drivers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Babak Moeini

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Cell phone usage during driving has become a threat to traffic safety. This study aimed to determine the effectiveness of an educational program based on the health belief model to reduce cell phone usage during driving in taxi drivers of Tuyserkan. Materials and Methods: In this quasi-experimental study, 110 taxi drivers younger than 35 years were randomly divided into two experimental and control groups in Tuyserkan, Iran. Data was collected using a questionnaire including the health belief model constructs, knowledge, behaviors of using cell phone and demographic variables. The questionnaires were self-reported. Intervention was three sessions applied in the experimental group. Both groups were followed for two months after the intervention. Finally, data analysis was performed using SPSS- 19 by Chi-square, Independent T-test, Paired T-test and McNemar. Results: The mean scores for the constructs of health belief model (perceived susceptibility, severity, barriers, perceived benefits, self-efficacy and cues to action, knowledge and desired behaviors about the use of cell phone during driving showed no significant differences between the two groups before the intervention. After the educational intervention, significant differences were observed in experimental group compared to control group. After educational intervention, cell phone usage reduced by 35.14% in the experimental group. Conclusion: An educational intervention based on the health belief model could reduce cell phone usage during driving in taxi drivers.

  8. [Electormagnetic field of the mobile phone base station: case study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bieńkowski, Paweł; Zubrzak, Bartłomiej; Surma, Robert

    2011-01-01

    The paper presents changes in the electromagnetic field intensity in a school building and its surrounding after the mobile phone base station installation on the roof of the school. The comparison of EMF intensity measured before the base station was launched (electromagnetic background measurement) and after starting its operation (two independent control measurements) is discussed. Analyses of measurements are presented and the authors also propose the method of the electromagnetic field distribution adjustment in the area of radiation antennas side lobe to reduce the intensity of the EMF level in the base station proximity. The presented method involves the regulation of the inclination. On the basis of the measurements, it was found that the EMF intensity increased in the building and its surroundings, but the values measured with wide margins meet the requirements of the Polish law on environmental protection.

  9. A Probabilistic Feature Map-Based Localization System Using a Monocular Camera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyungjin Kim

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Image-based localization is one of the most widely researched localization techniques in the robotics and computer vision communities. As enormous image data sets are provided through the Internet, many studies on estimating a location with a pre-built image-based 3D map have been conducted. Most research groups use numerous image data sets that contain sufficient features. In contrast, this paper focuses on image-based localization in the case of insufficient images and features. A more accurate localization method is proposed based on a probabilistic map using 3D-to-2D matching correspondences between a map and a query image. The probabilistic feature map is generated in advance by probabilistic modeling of the sensor system as well as the uncertainties of camera poses. Using the conventional PnP algorithm, an initial camera pose is estimated on the probabilistic feature map. The proposed algorithm is optimized from the initial pose by minimizing Mahalanobis distance errors between features from the query image and the map to improve accuracy. To verify that the localization accuracy is improved, the proposed algorithm is compared with the conventional algorithm in a simulation and realenvironments

  10. A Probabilistic Feature Map-Based Localization System Using a Monocular Camera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyungjin; Lee, Donghwa; Oh, Taekjun; Choi, Hyun-Taek; Myung, Hyun

    2015-08-31

    Image-based localization is one of the most widely researched localization techniques in the robotics and computer vision communities. As enormous image data sets are provided through the Internet, many studies on estimating a location with a pre-built image-based 3D map have been conducted. Most research groups use numerous image data sets that contain sufficient features. In contrast, this paper focuses on image-based localization in the case of insufficient images and features. A more accurate localization method is proposed based on a probabilistic map using 3D-to-2D matching correspondences between a map and a query image. The probabilistic feature map is generated in advance by probabilistic modeling of the sensor system as well as the uncertainties of camera poses. Using the conventional PnP algorithm, an initial camera pose is estimated on the probabilistic feature map. The proposed algorithm is optimized from the initial pose by minimizing Mahalanobis distance errors between features from the query image and the map to improve accuracy. To verify that the localization accuracy is improved, the proposed algorithm is compared with the conventional algorithm in a simulation and realenvironments.

  11. Handheld Longwave Infrared Camera Based on Highly-Sensitive Quantum Well Infrared Photodetectors, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We propose to develop a compact handheld longwave infrared camera based on quantum well infrared photodetector (QWIP) focal plane array (FPA) technology. Based on...

  12. Qualification Tests of Micro-camera Modules for Space Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimura, Shinichi; Miyasaka, Akira

    Visual capability is very important for space-based activities, for which small, low-cost space cameras are desired. Although cameras for terrestrial applications are continually being improved, little progress has been made on cameras used in space, which must be extremely robust to withstand harsh environments. This study focuses on commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) CMOS digital cameras because they are very small and are based on an established mass-market technology. Radiation and ultrahigh-vacuum tests were conducted on a small COTS camera that weighs less than 100 mg (including optics). This paper presents the results of the qualification tests for COTS cameras and for a small, low-cost COTS-based space camera.

  13. CONTEXT BASED ANDROID APPLICATIONADMINISTRATIVE ACCESS CONTROL (CBAA–AAC) FOR SMART PHONES

    OpenAIRE

    S. Sharavanan; R.M. Balajee

    2016-01-01

    Android applications in smart phones are generally towards provide greater flexibility and convince for users. Considering the fact that the Android applications are having privilege to access data and resources in mobile after it gets installed (one time permission provided by end user on the time installation), these application may also lead to issues in security for the user data as well as issues relate smart phone with peripheral environment. A practical example for an issue which relat...

  14. Convolutional Neural Network-Based Human Detection in Nighttime Images Using Visible Light Camera Sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jong Hyun; Hong, Hyung Gil; Park, Kang Ryoung

    2017-05-08

    Because intelligent surveillance systems have recently undergone rapid growth, research on accurately detecting humans in videos captured at a long distance is growing in importance. The existing research using visible light cameras has mainly focused on methods of human detection for daytime hours when there is outside light, but human detection during nighttime hours when there is no outside light is difficult. Thus, methods that employ additional near-infrared (NIR) illuminators and NIR cameras or thermal cameras have been used. However, in the case of NIR illuminators, there are limitations in terms of the illumination angle and distance. There are also difficulties because the illuminator power must be adaptively adjusted depending on whether the object is close or far away. In the case of thermal cameras, their cost is still high, which makes it difficult to install and use them in a variety of places. Because of this, research has been conducted on nighttime human detection using visible light cameras, but this has focused on objects at a short distance in an indoor environment or the use of video-based methods to capture multiple images and process them, which causes problems related to the increase in the processing time. To resolve these problems, this paper presents a method that uses a single image captured at night on a visible light camera to detect humans in a variety of environments based on a convolutional neural network. Experimental results using a self-constructed Dongguk night-time human detection database (DNHD-DB1) and two open databases (Korea advanced institute of science and technology (KAIST) and computer vision center (CVC) databases), as well as high-accuracy human detection in a variety of environments, show that the method has excellent performance compared to existing methods.

  15. Convolutional Neural Network-Based Human Detection in Nighttime Images Using Visible Light Camera Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jong Hyun Kim

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Because intelligent surveillance systems have recently undergone rapid growth, research on accurately detecting humans in videos captured at a long distance is growing in importance. The existing research using visible light cameras has mainly focused on methods of human detection for daytime hours when there is outside light, but human detection during nighttime hours when there is no outside light is difficult. Thus, methods that employ additional near-infrared (NIR illuminators and NIR cameras or thermal cameras have been used. However, in the case of NIR illuminators, there are limitations in terms of the illumination angle and distance. There are also difficulties because the illuminator power must be adaptively adjusted depending on whether the object is close or far away. In the case of thermal cameras, their cost is still high, which makes it difficult to install and use them in a variety of places. Because of this, research has been conducted on nighttime human detection using visible light cameras, but this has focused on objects at a short distance in an indoor environment or the use of video-based methods to capture multiple images and process them, which causes problems related to the increase in the processing time. To resolve these problems, this paper presents a method that uses a single image captured at night on a visible light camera to detect humans in a variety of environments based on a convolutional neural network. Experimental results using a self-constructed Dongguk night-time human detection database (DNHD-DB1 and two open databases (Korea advanced institute of science and technology (KAIST and computer vision center (CVC databases, as well as high-accuracy human detection in a variety of environments, show that the method has excellent performance compared to existing methods.

  16. Waves and mobile phones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    This article reports the methodology used to assess the exposure to radio-frequency of the population. The main radio-frequency emitters are transmitting antennas, mobile phones, Wi-Fi systems, cord-less home phones, and micro-wave ovens. We have to know that the level of exposure is very different depending on the device, for instance a 10 minutes long use of a mobile phone with a DAS (specific absorption dose rate) of 0.04 W/kg is equivalent to a 15 day long exposure to a transmitting antenna at a spot where the field is 0.6 V/m. It appears that for transmitting antennas the exposure levels of the population are always very low and far below the protection standards. As for mobile phones, today's results can not exclude a risk for people having used a phone for more than 10 years. Experts recommend for children a restraint use of mobile phones and for adults to keep a safety distance of a few tens of centimeters between the speaker and his phone. The passage to the new UMTS-3G standard will be favourable. (A.C.)

  17. Lifestyle intervention using an internet-based curriculum with cell phone reminders for obese Chinese teens: a randomized controlled study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anisha A Abraham

    Full Text Available Obesity is an increasing public health problem affecting young people. The causes of obesity are multi-factorial among Chinese youth including lack of physical activity and poor eating habits. The use of an internet curriculum and cell phone reminders and texting may be an innovative means of increasing follow up and compliance with obese teens. The objectives of this study were to determine the feasibility of using an adapted internet curriculum and existing nutritional program along with cell phone follow up for obese Chinese teens.This was a randomized controlled study involving obese teens receiving care at a paediatric obesity clinic of a tertiary care hospital in Hong Kong. Forty-eight subjects aged 12 to 18 years were randomized into three groups. The control group received usual care visits with a physician in the obesity clinic every three months. The first intervention (IT group received usual care visits every three months plus a 12-week internet-based curriculum with cell phone calls/texts reminders. The second intervention group received usual care visits every three months plus four nutritional counselling sessions.The use of the internet-based curriculum was shown to be feasible as evidenced by the high recruitment rate, internet log-in rate, compliance with completing the curriculum and responses to phone reminders. No significant differences in weight were found between IT, sLMP and control groups.An internet-based curriculum with cell phone reminders as a supplement to usual care of obesity is feasible. Further study is required to determine whether an internet plus text intervention can be both an effective and a cost-effective adjunct to changing weight in obese youth.Chinese Clinical Trial Registry ChiCTR-TRC-12002624.

  18. Students using mobile phones in the classroom: Can the phones increase content learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rinehart, David Lee

    A study was conducted at a high-performing school in Southern California to explore the effects on learning content from students using their own smart phones in and out of the classroom. The study used a Switching Replications design format which allowed two independent analyses of posttest scores between a group using e-flash cards on smart phones and a group using paper flash cards. Quantitative data was collected via two tailed, t-tests and qualitative data was collected through observations and interviews. Results suggest that knowledge level learning may be increased with mobile phone use, but no effect on comprehension level learning was found. Students found the phones to be convenient in accessing flash cards anytime and anywhere. Enthusiasm for using the phones in class while initially high waned over the 1 month study duration. Students perceived the phones to not be a significant source of distraction outside of class.

  19. Determinants of exposure to electromagnetic fields from mobile phones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ardoino, L.; Barbieri, E.; Vecchia, P.

    2004-01-01

    In actual conditions of use, the power radiated from cellular phones changes during conversation depending on several factors. Upon request from the radio base station (RBS), the phone in fact, reduces, its power to a level that is deemed optimum for the quality of conversation. In this study, special phones, which had been modified to allow the continuous logging of power emitted during the calls have been used. Off-line processing of recorded data allowed the analysis of the behaviour of mobile phones under real-use conditions. Further data recorded by operators at selected base stations were used for the purposes of comparison and checking of the effectiveness of the experimental method. The results indicate a high proportion of use of the highest power levels, under any circumstance. Such behaviour is mainly due to frequent hand-overs requested by the control software to optimise the communication traffic. (authors)

  20. Spectral colors capture and reproduction based on digital camera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Defen; Huang, Qingmei; Li, Wei; Lu, Yang

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of this work is to develop a method for the accurate reproduction of the spectral colors captured by digital camera. The spectral colors being the purest color in any hue, are difficult to reproduce without distortion on digital devices. In this paper, we attempt to achieve accurate hue reproduction of the spectral colors by focusing on two steps of color correction: the capture of the spectral colors and the color characterization of digital camera. Hence it determines the relationship among the spectral color wavelength, the RGB color space of the digital camera device and the CIEXYZ color space. This study also provides a basis for further studies related to the color spectral reproduction on digital devices. In this paper, methods such as wavelength calibration of the spectral colors and digital camera characterization were utilized. The spectrum was obtained through the grating spectroscopy system. A photo of a clear and reliable primary spectrum was taken by adjusting the relative parameters of the digital camera, from which the RGB values of color spectrum was extracted in 1040 equally-divided locations. Calculated using grating equation and measured by the spectrophotometer, two wavelength values were obtained from each location. The polynomial fitting method for the camera characterization was used to achieve color correction. After wavelength calibration, the maximum error between the two sets of wavelengths is 4.38nm. According to the polynomial fitting method, the average color difference of test samples is 3.76. This has satisfied the application needs of the spectral colors in digital devices such as display and transmission.

  1. Use of Mobile Phones to Support Coursework: Evidence from Wa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Department of Information and Communication Technology. Wa Polytechnic .... A smartphone is a mobile phone with more advanced computing capability and ..... Use of mobile phones for project based learning by undergraduate students of ...

  2. Validation of a Spanish Questionnaire on Mobile Phone Abuse

    OpenAIRE

    María A. Olivencia-Carrión; Isabel Ramírez-Uclés; Pablo Holgado-Tello; Francisca López-Torrecillas

    2018-01-01

    Mobile phone addiction has attracted much attention recently and is showing similarity to other substance use disorders. Because no studies on mobile phone addiction had yet been conducted in Spain, we developed and validated a questionnaire (Cuestionario de Abuso del Teléfono Móvil, ATeMo) to measure mobile phone abuse among young adults in Spanish. The ATeMo questionnaire was designed based on relevant DSM-5 diagnostic criteria and included craving as a diagnostic symptom. Using stratified ...

  3. The Brothel Phone Number

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korsby, Trine Mygind

    2017-01-01

    Taking a point of departure in negotiations for access to a phone number for a brothel abroad, the article demonstrates how a group of pimps in Eastern Romania attempt to extend their local business into the rest of the EU. The article shows how the phone number works as a micro-infrastructure in......Taking a point of departure in negotiations for access to a phone number for a brothel abroad, the article demonstrates how a group of pimps in Eastern Romania attempt to extend their local business into the rest of the EU. The article shows how the phone number works as a micro...... in turn cultivate and maximize uncertainty about themselves in others. When making the move to go abroad into unknown terrains, accessing the infrastructure generated by the phone number can provide certainty and consolidate one’s position within criminal networks abroad. However, at the same time......, mishandling the phone number can be dangerous and in that sense produce new doubts and uncertainties....

  4. A theory-based video messaging mobile phone intervention for smoking cessation: randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whittaker, Robyn; Dorey, Enid; Bramley, Dale; Bullen, Chris; Denny, Simon; Elley, C Raina; Maddison, Ralph; McRobbie, Hayden; Parag, Varsha; Rodgers, Anthony; Salmon, Penny

    2011-01-21

    Advances in technology allowed the development of a novel smoking cessation program delivered by video messages sent to mobile phones. This social cognitive theory-based intervention (called "STUB IT") used observational learning via short video diary messages from role models going through the quitting process to teach behavioral change techniques. The objective of our study was to assess the effectiveness of a multimedia mobile phone intervention for smoking cessation. A randomized controlled trial was conducted with 6-month follow-up. Participants had to be 16 years of age or over, be current daily smokers, be ready to quit, and have a video message-capable phone. Recruitment targeted younger adults predominantly through radio and online advertising. Registration and data collection were completed online, prompted by text messages. The intervention group received an automated package of video and text messages over 6 months that was tailored to self-selected quit date, role model, and timing of messages. Extra messages were available on demand to beat cravings and address lapses. The control group also set a quit date and received a general health video message sent to their phone every 2 weeks. The target sample size was not achieved due to difficulty recruiting young adult quitters. Of the 226 randomized participants, 47% (107/226) were female and 24% (54/226) were Maori (indigenous population of New Zealand). Their mean age was 27 years (SD 8.7), and there was a high level of nicotine addiction. Continuous abstinence at 6 months was 26.4% (29/110) in the intervention group and 27.6% (32/116) in the control group (P = .8). Feedback from participants indicated that the support provided by the video role models was important and appreciated. This study was not able to demonstrate a statistically significant effect of the complex video messaging mobile phone intervention compared with simple general health video messages via mobile phone. However, there was

  5. iPhone User Interface Cookbook

    CERN Document Server

    Banga, Cameron

    2011-01-01

    Written in a cookbook style, this book offers solutions using a recipe based approach. Each recipe contains step-by-step instructions followed by an analysis of what was done in each task and other useful information. The cookbook approach means you can dive into whatever recipes you want in no particular order. The iPhone Interface Cookbook is written from the ground up for people who are new to iOS or application interface design in general. Each chapter discusses the reasoning and design strategy behind critical interface components, as well as how to best integrate each into any iPhone or

  6. Mobile communication using a mobile phone with a glucometer for glucose control in Type 2 patients with diabetes: as effective as an Internet-based glucose monitoring system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Jae-Hyoung; Lee, Hye-Chung; Lim, Dong-Jun; Kwon, Hyuk-Sang; Yoon, Kun-Ho

    2009-01-01

    A mobile phone with a glucometer integrated into the battery pack (the 'Diabetes Phone') was launched in Korea in 2003. We compared its effect on management of type 2 diabetes to the Internet-based glucose monitoring system (IBGMS), which had been studied previously. We conducted a randomized trial involving 69 patients for three months. Participants were assigned to an Internet group or a phone group. The phone group communicated with medical staff through the mobile phone only. Their glucose-monitoring data were automatically transferred to individual, web-based charts and they received medical recommendations by short message service. The Internet group used the IBGMS. There were no significant differences between the groups at baseline. After three months' intervention, HbA(1c) levels of both groups had decreased significantly, from 7.6% to 6.9% for the Internet group and from 8.3% to 7.1% for the phone group (P glucose control as the previously-studied Internet-based monitoring system and it was good for patient satisfaction and adherence.

  7. Cell phone-based ecological momentary assessment of substance use context for Latino youth in outpatient treatment: Who, what, when and where.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comulada, W Scott; Swendeman, Dallas; Wu, Nancy

    2016-10-01

    Relationships between alcohol, marijuana and other drug (AOD) use and contextual factors have mostly been established through retrospective self-report. Given the embeddedness of cell phones in adolescents' daily activities, cell phone-based ecological momentary assessment (CEMA) provides an opportunity to better understand AOD use in youth and how cell phones can be used to self-monitor and deliver interventions. We use CEMA to examine AOD use in Latino youth who have been especially understudied. Twenty-eight mostly Latino youth (ages 13-18) in outpatient substance abuse treatment recorded AOD use, contextual factors, cravings, and affect through once-daily CEMA over one month periods. Random-effects logistic regression was used to compare contextual factors between periods of AOD use and non-use. The most frequent contextual factors reported during AOD use were being with close friends and "hanging out" as the primary activity. During AOD use compared to non-use, youth were more likely to be with close friends (OR=4.76; pcell phone-based interventions triggered by contextual data. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. A rear-end collision risk assessment model based on drivers' collision avoidance process under influences of cell phone use and gender-A driving simulator based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaomeng; Yan, Xuedong; Wu, Jiawei; Radwan, Essam; Zhang, Yuting

    2016-12-01

    Driver's collision avoidance performance has a direct link to the collision risk and crash severity. Previous studies demonstrated that the distracted driving, such as using a cell phone while driving, disrupted the driver's performance on road. This study aimed to investigate the manner and extent to which cell phone use and driver's gender affected driving performance and collision risk in a rear-end collision avoidance process. Forty-two licensed drivers completed the driving simulation experiment in three phone use conditions: no phone use, hands-free, and hand-held, in which the drivers drove in a car-following situation with potential rear-end collision risks caused by the leading vehicle's sudden deceleration. Based on the experiment data, a rear-end collision risk assessment model was developed to assess the influence of cell phone use and driver's gender. The cell phone use and driver's gender were found to be significant factors that affected the braking performances in the rear-end collision avoidance process, including the brake reaction time, the deceleration adjusting time and the maximum deceleration rate. The minimum headway distance between the leading vehicle and the simulator during the rear-end collision avoidance process was the final output variable, which could be used to measure the rear-end collision risk and judge whether a collision occurred. The results showed that although cell phone use drivers took some compensatory behaviors in the collision avoidance process to reduce the mental workload, the collision risk in cell phone use conditions was still higher than that without the phone use. More importantly, the results proved that the hands-free condition did not eliminate the safety problem associated with distracted driving because it impaired the driving performance in the same way as much as the use of hand-held phones. In addition, the gender effect indicated that although female drivers had longer reaction time than male drivers in

  9. Emergency Based Remote Collateral Tracking System Using Google's Android Mobile Platform

    OpenAIRE

    Ramalingam, Ashokkumar; Dorairaj, Prabhu; Ramamoorthy, Saranya

    2011-01-01

    Introduction of Smart phones redefined the usage of mobile phones in the communication world. Smart phones are equipped with various sophisticated features such as Wi-Fi, GPS navigation, high resolution camera, touch screen with broadband access which helps the mobile phone users to keep in touch with the modern world. Many of these features are primarily integrated with the mobile operating system which is out of reach to public, by which the users can’t manipulate those features. Google cam...

  10. Image compensation for camera and lighting variability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daley, Wayne D.; Britton, Douglas F.

    1996-12-01

    With the current trend of integrating machine vision systems in industrial manufacturing and inspection applications comes the issue of camera and illumination stabilization. Unless each application is built around a particular camera and highly controlled lighting environment, the interchangeability of cameras of fluctuations in lighting become a problem as each camera usually has a different response. An empirical approach is proposed where color tile data is acquired using the camera of interest, and a mapping is developed to some predetermined reference image using neural networks. A similar analytical approach based on a rough analysis of the imaging systems is also considered for deriving a mapping between cameras. Once a mapping has been determined, all data from one camera is mapped to correspond to the images of the other prior to performing any processing on the data. Instead of writing separate image processing algorithms for the particular image data being received, the image data is adjusted based on each particular camera and lighting situation. All that is required when swapping cameras is the new mapping for the camera being inserted. The image processing algorithms can remain the same as the input data has been adjusted appropriately. The results of utilizing this technique are presented for an inspection application.

  11. Predictability of Mobile Phone Associations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Bjørn Sand; Larsen, Jan; Hansen, Lars Kai

    2010-01-01

    Prediction and understanding of human behavior is of high importance in many modern applications and research areas ranging from context-aware services, wireless resource allocation to social sciences. In this study we collect a novel dataset using standard mobile phones and analyze how the predi...... representation, and general behavior. This is of vital interest in the development of context-aware services which rely on forecasting based on mobile phone sensors.......Prediction and understanding of human behavior is of high importance in many modern applications and research areas ranging from context-aware services, wireless resource allocation to social sciences. In this study we collect a novel dataset using standard mobile phones and analyze how...... the predictability of mobile sensors, acting as proxies for humans, change with time scale and sensor type such as GSM and WLAN. Applying recent information theoretic methods, it is demonstrated that an upper bound on predictability is relatively high for all sensors given the complete history (typically above 90...

  12. Prevalence of Mobile Phone Dependence in Secondary School Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikhita, Chimatapu Sri; Jadhav, Pradeep R; Ajinkya, Shaunak A

    2015-11-01

    Mobile phones have become an essential part of modern human life. They have many attributes which makes them very attractive to both young and old. There has been an increasing trend of use of mobile phones among students. Data has now started emerging with respect to the negative physical and psychological consequences of excessive use of mobile phones. New research has shown excessive use of mobile phones leading to development of symptoms suggestive of dependence syndrome. To study the prevalence of Mobile Phone Dependence (MPD) in secondary school adolescents. Cross-sectional, observational study conducted in secondary section of English-medium schools at Navi Mumbai (India). Four hundred and fifteen students studying in 8(th), 9(th) and 10(th) standards of schools at Navi Mumbai (India) having personal mobile phone were randomly included in the study. Participant information like age, gender, family type, phone type, duration of use per day and years of mobile phone usage was recorded. They were administered an MPD questionnaire based upon the dependence syndrome criteria as per ICD-10. According to their responses, participants who fulfilled three or more of the diagnostic criteria were rated as having MPD. Mobile Phone Dependence was found in 31.33% of sample students. It was significantly associated with gender (p=0.003, OR=1.91, CI: 1.23-2.99), family type (p=0.0012), type of mobile phone used (pphone (pphone usage (p =0.004, OR=2.4, CI: 1.31-4.55). Mobile Phone Dependence has been found to be an emerging public health problem. There is need to recognize and identify early the growing trends and negative consequences of inappropriate mobile phone use in young users so as to generate awareness, and plan educational and treatment interventions, if need be, so as to prevent a major public health concern.

  13. A semi-automatic image-based close range 3D modeling pipeline using a multi-camera configuration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rau, Jiann-Yeou; Yeh, Po-Chia

    2012-01-01

    The generation of photo-realistic 3D models is an important task for digital recording of cultural heritage objects. This study proposes an image-based 3D modeling pipeline which takes advantage of a multi-camera configuration and multi-image matching technique that does not require any markers on or around the object. Multiple digital single lens reflex (DSLR) cameras are adopted and fixed with invariant relative orientations. Instead of photo-triangulation after image acquisition, calibration is performed to estimate the exterior orientation parameters of the multi-camera configuration which can be processed fully automatically using coded targets. The calibrated orientation parameters of all cameras are applied to images taken using the same camera configuration. This means that when performing multi-image matching for surface point cloud generation, the orientation parameters will remain the same as the calibrated results, even when the target has changed. Base on this invariant character, the whole 3D modeling pipeline can be performed completely automatically, once the whole system has been calibrated and the software was seamlessly integrated. Several experiments were conducted to prove the feasibility of the proposed system. Images observed include that of a human being, eight Buddhist statues, and a stone sculpture. The results for the stone sculpture, obtained with several multi-camera configurations were compared with a reference model acquired by an ATOS-I 2M active scanner. The best result has an absolute accuracy of 0.26 mm and a relative accuracy of 1:17,333. It demonstrates the feasibility of the proposed low-cost image-based 3D modeling pipeline and its applicability to a large quantity of antiques stored in a museum.

  14. Mixel camera--a new push-broom camera concept for high spatial resolution keystone-free hyperspectral imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Høye, Gudrun; Fridman, Andrei

    2013-05-06

    Current high-resolution push-broom hyperspectral cameras introduce keystone errors to the captured data. Efforts to correct these errors in hardware severely limit the optical design, in particular with respect to light throughput and spatial resolution, while at the same time the residual keystone often remains large. The mixel camera solves this problem by combining a hardware component--an array of light mixing chambers--with a mathematical method that restores the hyperspectral data to its keystone-free form, based on the data that was recorded onto the sensor with large keystone. A Virtual Camera software, that was developed specifically for this purpose, was used to compare the performance of the mixel camera to traditional cameras that correct keystone in hardware. The mixel camera can collect at least four times more light than most current high-resolution hyperspectral cameras, and simulations have shown that the mixel camera will be photon-noise limited--even in bright light--with a significantly improved signal-to-noise ratio compared to traditional cameras. A prototype has been built and is being tested.

  15. Cell phone use while driving and attributable crash risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farmer, Charles M; Braitman, Keli A; Lund, Adrian K

    2010-10-01

    Prior research has estimated that crash risk is 4 times higher when talking on a cell phone versus not talking. The objectives of this study were to estimate the extent to which drivers talk on cell phones while driving and to compute the implied annual number of crashes that could have been avoided if driver cell phone use were restricted. A national survey of approximately 1200 U.S. drivers was conducted. Respondents were asked to approximate the amount of time spent driving during a given day, number of cell phone calls made or received, and amount of driving time spent talking on a cell phone. Population attributable risk (PAR) was computed for each combination of driver gender, driver age, day of week, and time of day. These were multiplied by the corresponding crash counts to estimate the number of crashes that could have been avoided. On average, drivers were talking on cell phones approximately 7 percent of the time while driving. Rates were higher on weekdays (8%), in the afternoon and evening (8%), and for drivers younger than 30 (16%). Based on these use rates, restricting cell phones while driving could have prevented an estimated 22 percent (i.e., 1.3 million) of the crashes in 2008. Although increased rates of cell phone use while driving should be leading to increased crash rates, crash rates have been declining. Reasons for this paradox are unclear. One possibility is that the increase in cell phone use and crash risk due to cell phone use have been overestimated. Another possibility is that cell phone use has supplanted other driving distractions that were similarly hazardous.

  16. Cell Phones: Business Students in the Business Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piotrowski, Chris

    2013-01-01

    Research on the topic of cell phones has proliferated over the past decade. Based on a review of the literature, it appears that the majority of the extant research on the topic resides in the technology, education, and social sciences fields. Recent reviews indicate that the scope of the research on cell/mobile phones is eclectic in nature…

  17. Medically relevant assays with a simple smartphone and tablet based fluorescence detection system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wargocki, Piotr; Deng, Wei; Anwer, Ayad G; Goldys, Ewa M

    2015-05-20

    Cell phones and smart phones can be reconfigured as biomedical sensor devices but this requires specialized add-ons. In this paper we present a simple cell phone-based portable bioassay platform, which can be used with fluorescent assays in solution. The system consists of a tablet, a polarizer, a smart phone (camera) and a box that provides dark readout conditions. The assay in a well plate is placed on the tablet screen acting as an excitation source. A polarizer on top of the well plate separates excitation light from assay fluorescence emission enabling assay readout with a smartphone camera. The assay result is obtained by analysing the intensity of image pixels in an appropriate colour channel. With this device we carried out two assays, for collagenase and trypsin using fluorescein as the detected fluorophore. The results of collagenase assay with the lowest measured concentration of 3.75 µg/mL and 0.938 µg in total in the sample were comparable to those obtained by a microplate reader. The lowest measured amount of trypsin was 930 pg, which is comparable to the low detection limit of 400 pg for this assay obtained in a microplate reader. The device is sensitive enough to be used in point-of-care medical diagnostics of clinically relevant conditions, including arthritis, cystic fibrosis and acute pancreatitis.

  18. Medically Relevant Assays with a Simple Smartphone and Tablet Based Fluorescence Detection System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotr Wargocki

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Cell phones and smart phones can be reconfigured as biomedical sensor devices but this requires specialized add-ons. In this paper we present a simple cell phone-based portable bioassay platform, which can be used with fluorescent assays in solution. The system consists of a tablet, a polarizer, a smart phone (camera and a box that provides dark readout conditions. The assay in a well plate is placed on the tablet screen acting as an excitation source. A polarizer on top of the well plate separates excitation light from assay fluorescence emission enabling assay readout with a smartphone camera. The assay result is obtained by analysing the intensity of image pixels in an appropriate colour channel. With this device we carried out two assays, for collagenase and trypsin using fluorescein as the detected fluorophore. The results of collagenase assay with the lowest measured concentration of 3.75 µg/mL and 0.938 µg in total in the sample were comparable to those obtained by a microplate reader. The lowest measured amount of trypsin was 930 pg, which is comparable to the low detection limit of 400 pg for this assay obtained in a microplate reader. The device is sensitive enough to be used in point-of-care medical diagnostics of clinically relevant conditions, including arthritis, cystic fibrosis and acute pancreatitis.

  19. Influence of mobile phone traffic on base station exposure of the general public.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, Wout; Verloock, Leen

    2010-11-01

    The influence of mobile phone traffic on temporal radiofrequency exposure due to base stations during 7 d is compared for five different sites with Erlang data (representing average mobile phone traffic intensity during a period of time). The time periods of high exposure and high traffic during a day are compared and good agreement is obtained. The minimal required measurement periods to obtain accurate estimates for maximal and average long-period exposure (7 d) are determined. It is shown that these periods may be very long, indicating the necessity of new methodologies to estimate maximal and average exposure from short-period measurement data. Therefore, a new method to calculate the fields at a time instant from fields at another time instant using normalized Erlang values is proposed. This enables the estimation of maximal and average exposure during a week from short-period measurements using only Erlang data and avoids the necessity of long measurement times.

  20. Mobile Phone Assessment in Egocentric Networks: A Pilot Study on Gay Men and Their Peers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comulada, W Scott

    2014-12-01

    Mobile phone-based data collection encompasses the richness of social network research. Both individual-level and network-level measures can be recorded. For example, health-related behaviors can be reported via mobile assessment. Social interactions can be assessed by phone-log data. Yet the potential of mobile phone data collection has largely been untapped. This is especially true of egocentric studies in public health settings where mobile phones can enhance both data collection and intervention delivery, e.g. mobile users can video chat with counselors. This is due in part to privacy issues and other barriers that are more difficult to address outside of academic settings where most mobile research to date has taken place. In this article, we aim to inform a broader discussion on mobile research. In particular, benefits and challenges to mobile phone-based data collection are highlighted through our mobile phone-based pilot study that was conducted on egocentric networks of 12 gay men (n = 44 total participants). HIV-transmission and general health behaviors were reported through a mobile phone-based daily assessment that was administered through study participants' own mobile phones. Phone log information was collected from gay men with Android phones. Benefits and challenges to mobile implementation are discussed, along with the application of multi-level models to the type of longitudinal egocentric data that we collected.

  1. Improving public health surveillance using a dual-frame survey of landline and cell phone numbers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, S Sean; Balluz, Lina; Battaglia, Michael P; Frankel, Martin R

    2011-03-15

    To meet challenges arising from increasing rates of noncoverage in US landline-based telephone samples due to cell-phone-only households, the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) expanded a traditional landline-based random digit dialing survey to a dual-frame survey of landline and cell phone numbers. In 2008, a survey of adults with cell phones only was conducted in parallel with an ongoing landline-based health survey in 18 states. The authors used the optimal approach to allocate samples into landline and cell-phone-only strata and used a new approach to weighting state-level landline and cell phone samples. They developed logistic models for each of 16 health indicators to examine whether exclusion of adults with cell phones only affected estimates after adjustment for demographic characteristics. The extents of the potential biases in landline telephone surveys that exclude cell phones were estimated. Biases resulting from exclusion of adults with cell phones only from the landline-based survey were found for 9 out of the 16 health indicators. Because landline noncoverage rates for adults with cell phones only continue to increase, these biases are likely to increase. Use of a dual-frame survey of landline and cell phone numbers assisted the BRFSS efforts in obtaining valid, reliable, and representative data. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health 2011.

  2. Mobile Phone Assessment in Egocentric Networks: A Pilot Study on Gay Men and Their Peers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comulada, W. Scott

    2015-01-01

    Mobile phone-based data collection encompasses the richness of social network research. Both individual-level and network-level measures can be recorded. For example, health-related behaviors can be reported via mobile assessment. Social interactions can be assessed by phone-log data. Yet the potential of mobile phone data collection has largely been untapped. This is especially true of egocentric studies in public health settings where mobile phones can enhance both data collection and intervention delivery, e.g. mobile users can video chat with counselors. This is due in part to privacy issues and other barriers that are more difficult to address outside of academic settings where most mobile research to date has taken place. In this article, we aim to inform a broader discussion on mobile research. In particular, benefits and challenges to mobile phone-based data collection are highlighted through our mobile phone-based pilot study that was conducted on egocentric networks of 12 gay men (n = 44 total participants). HIV-transmission and general health behaviors were reported through a mobile phone-based daily assessment that was administered through study participants’ own mobile phones. Phone log information was collected from gay men with Android phones. Benefits and challenges to mobile implementation are discussed, along with the application of multi-level models to the type of longitudinal egocentric data that we collected. PMID:25844003

  3. Challenges amp Solutions Of Adoption In Regards To Phone-Based Remote E-Voting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hermann Ken Jamnadas

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Remote Voting Systems has not been universally adopted by most countries for their elections such as in the case of Fiji. Although mobile phones are quite prevalent around the world and the amount of smart phones sold is increasing at a rapid rate there have not been many elections which have capitalized on the use of Mobile Phones as a remote voting tool. This paper is a limited review of previous papers on remote voting systems. The aim was to study challenges of adoption of remote e-voting systems such as through a mobile phone and suggest innovative solutions to those challenges. As such we propose a combination of new policy solutions and technical solutions such as the use of QR code and checksum for vote verification the use of real time facial recognition systems and the leveraging of existing mobile hardware to ensure a secure anonymous and trustworthy remote voting system like it has never been before.

  4. Mobile phone base stations and early childhood cancers: case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, Paul; Toledano, Mireille B; Bennett, J; Beale, L; de Hoogh, K; Best, N; Briggs, D J

    2010-06-22

    To investigate the risk of early childhood cancers associated with the mother's exposure to radiofrequency from and proximity to macrocell mobile phone base stations (masts) during pregnancy. Case-control study. Cancer registry and national birth register data in Great Britain. 1397 cases of cancer in children aged 0-4 from national cancer registry 1999-2001 and 5588 birth controls from national birth register, individually matched by sex and date of birth (four controls per case). Incidence of cancers of the brain and central nervous system, leukaemia, and non-Hodgkin's lymphomas, and all cancers combined, adjusted for small area measures of education level, socioeconomic deprivation, population density, and population mixing. Mean distance of registered address at birth from a macrocell base station, based on a national database of 76,890 base station antennas in 1996-2001, was similar for cases and controls (1107 (SD 1131) m v 1073 (SD 1130) m, P=0.31), as was total power output of base stations within 700 m of the address (2.89 (SD 5.9) kW v 3.00 (SD 6.0) kW, P=0.54) and modelled power density (-30.3 (SD 21.7) dBm v -29.7 (SD 21.5) dBm, P=0.41). For modelled power density at the address at birth, compared with the lowest exposure category the adjusted odds ratios were 1.01 (95% confidence interval 0.87 to 1.18) in the intermediate and 1.02 (0.88 to 1.20) in the highest exposure category for all cancers (P=0.79 for trend), 0.97 (0.69 to 1.37) and 0.76 (0.51 to 1.12), respectively, for brain and central nervous system cancers (P=0.33 for trend), and 1.16 (0.90 to 1.48) and 1.03 (0.79 to 1.34) for leukaemia and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (P=0.51 for trend). There is no association between risk of early childhood cancers and estimates of the mother's exposure to mobile phone base stations during pregnancy.

  5. SENSITIVITY TEMPERATURE DEPENDENCE RESEARCH OF TV-CAMERAS BASED ON SILICON MATRIXES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexey N. Starchenko

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Subject of Research. The research is dedicated to the analysis of sensitivity change patterns of the cameras based on silicon CMOS-matrixes in various ambient temperatures. This information is necessary for the correct camera application for photometric measurements in-situ. The paper deals with studies of sensitivity variations of two digital cameras with different silicon CMOS matrixes in visible and near IR regions of the spectrum at temperature change. Method. Due to practical restrictions the temperature changes were recorded in separate spectral intervals important for practical use of the cameras. The experiments were carried out with the use of a climatic chamber, providing change and keeping the temperature range from minus 40 to plus 50 °C at a pitch of 10 о С. Two cameras were chosen for research: VAC-135-IP with OmniVision OV9121 matrix and VAC-248-IP with OnSemiconductor VITA2000 matrix. The two tested devices were placed in a climatic chamber at the same time and illuminated by one radiation source with a color temperature about 3000 K in order to eliminate a number of methodological errors. Main Results. The temperature dependence of the signals was shown to be linear and the matrixes sensitivities were determined. The results obtained are consistent with theoretical views, in general. The coefficients of thermal sensitivity were computed by these dependencies. It is shown that the greatest affect of temperature on the sensitivity occurs in the area (0.7–1.1 mkm. Temperature coefficients of sensitivity increase with the downward radiation wavelength increase. The experiments carried out have shown that it is necessary to take into account the changes in temperature sensitivity of silicon matrixes in the red and near in IR regions of the spectrum. The effect reveals itself in a clearly negative way in cameras with an amplitude resolution of 10-12 bits used for aerospace and space spectrozonal photography. Practical Relevance

  6. Pedestrian Detection Based on Adaptive Selection of Visible Light or Far-Infrared Light Camera Image by Fuzzy Inference System and Convolutional Neural Network-Based Verification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Jin Kyu; Hong, Hyung Gil; Park, Kang Ryoung

    2017-07-08

    A number of studies have been conducted to enhance the pedestrian detection accuracy of intelligent surveillance systems. However, detecting pedestrians under outdoor conditions is a challenging problem due to the varying lighting, shadows, and occlusions. In recent times, a growing number of studies have been performed on visible light camera-based pedestrian detection systems using a convolutional neural network (CNN) in order to make the pedestrian detection process more resilient to such conditions. However, visible light cameras still cannot detect pedestrians during nighttime, and are easily affected by shadows and lighting. There are many studies on CNN-based pedestrian detection through the use of far-infrared (FIR) light cameras (i.e., thermal cameras) to address such difficulties. However, when the solar radiation increases and the background temperature reaches the same level as the body temperature, it remains difficult for the FIR light camera to detect pedestrians due to the insignificant difference between the pedestrian and non-pedestrian features within the images. Researchers have been trying to solve this issue by inputting both the visible light and the FIR camera images into the CNN as the input. This, however, takes a longer time to process, and makes the system structure more complex as the CNN needs to process both camera images. This research adaptively selects a more appropriate candidate between two pedestrian images from visible light and FIR cameras based on a fuzzy inference system (FIS), and the selected candidate is verified with a CNN. Three types of databases were tested, taking into account various environmental factors using visible light and FIR cameras. The results showed that the proposed method performs better than the previously reported methods.

  7. Mobile phone social harms (mobile phone, communicative device or ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    One of the human inventions created in order to facilitate life but it became scourge for him is mobile phone. Ignorance on quality of using mobile phone and conscious use of it in inappropriate way will have consequences that it seems that it gradually becomes as social problem and harm. Author of this paper aims to warns ...

  8. Get the Picture: A Pilot Feasibility Study of Telemedical Wound Assessment Using a Mobile Phone in Cardiology Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Heide, John; Vroegh, C J; Szili Torok, T; Gobbens, R J J; Zijlstra, F; Takens-Lameijer, M; Lenzen, M J; Yap, S C; Scholte Op Reimer, W J M

    Postprocedural complications after elective cardiac interventions include hematomas and infections. Telemedical wound assessment using mobile phones with integrated cameras may improve quality of care and help reduce costs. We aimed to study the feasibility of telemedical wound assessment using a mobile phone. The primary aim was the number of patients who were able to upload their pictures. Secondary aims were image interpretability, agreement between nurse practitioners, and patient evaluation of the intervention. This is a prospective study of all consecutive patients who underwent an elective cardiac intervention. Patients were instructed to photograph their wound or puncture site after hospital discharge and upload the pictures to a secure email address 6 days after hospital discharge. Received photos were assessed by 2 nurse practitioners. The intervention was evaluated using a peer-reviewed questionnaire and photo assessment scheme. In total, 46 eligible patients were included in the study, with 5 screen failures (eg, clinical stay ≥ 6 days) and 1 patient lost to follow-up. Thirty-three of 40 patients (83%) were able to upload their pictures. Smartphone users were more successful in uploading their pictures compared with feature phone users (93% vs 55%, P Smartphone users were more successful than feature phone users in uploading their pictures. The interobserver variability was good.

  9. Biological responses of mobile phone frequency exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behari, Jitendra

    2010-10-01

    Existence of low level electromagnetic fields in the environment has been known since antiquity and their biological implications are noted for several decades. As such dosimetry of such field parameters and their emissions from various sources of mass utilization has been a subject of constant concern. Recent advancement in mobile communications has also drawn attention to their biological effects. Hand held children and adults alike generally use mobile sources as cordless phones in various positions with respect to the body. Further, an increasing number of mobile communication base stations have led to wide ranging concern about possible health effects of radiofrequency emissions. There are two distinct possibilities by which health could be affected as a result of radio frequency field exposure. These are thermal effects caused by holding mobile phones close to the body and extended conversations over a long period of time. Secondly, there could be possibly non thermal effects from both phones and base stations whereby the affects could also be cumulative. Some people may be adversely affected by the environmental impact of mobile phone base stations situated near their homes, schools or any other place. In addition to mobile phones, appliances like microwave oven etc are also in increasing use. Apart from the controversy over the possible health effects due to the non-thermal effect of electromagnetic fields the electromagnetic interaction of portable radio waves with human head needs to be quantitatively evaluated. Relating to this is the criteria of safe exposure to the population at large. While a lot of efforts have gone into resolving the issue, a clear picture has yet to emerge. Recent advances and the problems relating to the safety criteria are discussed.

  10. Thermal modelling of the multi-stage heating system with variable boundary conditions in the wafer based precision glass moulding process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sarhadi, Ali; Hattel, Jesper Henri; Hansen, Hans Nørgaard

    2012-01-01

    pressures. Finally, the three-dimensional modelling of the multi-stage heating system in the wafer based glass moulding process is simulated with the FEM software ABAQUS for a particular industrial application for mobile phone camera lenses to obtain the temperature distribution in the glass wafer...

  11. Corporate Smart Phones

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cavazotte, Flávia; Heloisa Lemos, Ana; Villadsen, Kaspar

    2014-01-01

    This article explores how the adoption of company sponsored smart phones inflicts upon the lives of professionals. Drawing upon qualitative interviews at a law firm in Brazil, the experiences of new smart phone users are reported upon in detail. Increased accessibility, accuracy and speed...... that negatively affected their private spheres, yet many of them paradoxically requested more efficient smart phone connectivity. The article focuses on the justifications, the different narrative strategies, employed by professionals for their conscious engagement in escalating work connectivity. It is suggested...

  12. Use of mobile phones and cordless phones is associated with increased risk for glioma and acoustic neuroma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardell, Lennart; Carlberg, Michael; Hansson Mild, Kjell

    2013-04-01

    The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) at WHO evaluation of the carcinogenic effect of RF-EMF on humans took place during a 24-31 May 2011 meeting at Lyon in France. The Working Group consisted of 30 scientists and categorised the radiofrequency electromagnetic fields from mobile phones, and from other devices that emit similar non-ionising electromagnetic fields (RF-EMF), as Group 2B, i.e., a 'possible', human carcinogen. The decision on mobile phones was based mainly on the Hardell group of studies from Sweden and the IARC Interphone study. We give an overview of current epidemiological evidence for an increased risk for brain tumours including a meta-analysis of the Hardell group and Interphone results for mobile phone use. Results for cordless phones are lacking in Interphone. The meta-analysis gave for glioma in the most exposed part of the brain, the temporal lobe, odds ratio (OR)=1.71, 95% confidence interval (CI)=1.04-2.81 in the ≥10 years (>10 years in the Hardell group) latency group. Ipsilateral mobile phone use ≥1640h in total gave OR=2.29, 95% CI=1.56-3.37. The results for meningioma were OR=1.25, 95% CI=0.31-4.98 and OR=1.35, 95% CI=0.81-2.23, respectively. Regarding acoustic neuroma ipsilateral mobile phone use in the latency group ≥10 years gave OR=1.81, 95% CI=0.73-4.45. For ipsilateral cumulative use ≥1640h OR=2.55, 95% CI=1.50-4.40 was obtained. Also use of cordless phones increased the risk for glioma and acoustic neuroma in the Hardell group studies. Survival of patients with glioma was analysed in the Hardell group studies yielding in the >10 years latency period hazard ratio (HR)=1.2, 95% CI=1.002-1.5 for use of wireless phones. This increased HR was based on results for astrocytoma WHO grade IV (glioblastoma multiforme). Decreased HR was found for low-grade astrocytoma, WHO grades I-II, which might be caused by RF-EMF exposure leading to tumour-associated symptoms and earlier detection and surgery with better

  13. Towards Adaptive Virtual Camera Control In Computer Games

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burelli, Paolo; Yannakakis, Georgios N.

    2011-01-01

    Automatic camera control aims to define a framework to control virtual camera movements in dynamic and unpredictable virtual environments while ensuring a set of desired visual properties. We inves- tigate the relationship between camera placement and playing behaviour in games and build a user...... model of the camera behaviour that can be used to control camera movements based on player preferences. For this purpose, we collect eye gaze, camera and game-play data from subjects playing a 3D platform game, we cluster gaze and camera information to identify camera behaviour profiles and we employ...... camera control in games is discussed....

  14. Reading with Mobile Phone & Large Display

    OpenAIRE

    Gostner, Roswitha; Gellersen, Hans; Kray, Christian; Sas, Corina

    2008-01-01

    In this paper we compare performance and usability between three different device combinations: a) mobile phone b) touch screen c) mobile phone & screen. We show that mobile phone & screen has a better perform-ance than phone only. We also discuss some interaction issues when using a mobile phone with a large screen.

  15. Present status of recycling waste mobile phones in China: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jingying; Ge, Zhongying; Liang, Changjin; An, Ni

    2017-07-01

    A large number of waste mobile phones have already been generated and are being generated. Various countries around the world have all been positively exploring the way of recycling and reuse when facing such a large amount of waste mobile phones. In some countries, processing waste mobile phones has been forming a complete industrial chain, which can not only recycle waste mobile phones to reduce their negative influence on the environment but also turn waste into treasure to acquire economic benefits dramatically. However, the situation of recycling waste mobile phones in China is not going well. Waste mobile phones are not formally covered by existing regulations and policies for the waste electric and electronic equipment in China. In order to explore an appropriate system to recover waste mobile phones, the mobile phone production and the amount of waste mobile phones are introduced in this paper, and status of waste mobile phones recycling is described; then, the disposal technology of electronic waste that would be most likely to be used for processing of electronic waste in industrial applications in the near future is reviewed. Finally, rationalization proposals are put forward based on the current recovery status of waste mobile phones for the purpose of promoting the development of recycling waste mobile phones in developing countries with a special emphasis on China.

  16. Location Dependency and Antenna/Body/Sensor-Lead Interaction Effects in a Cell-Phone Based GSM 1800 Telemedicine Link

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Troulis, S

    2001-01-01

    The error-free requirement of today's cell-phone based telemedicine systems demands investigations into the potential causes of service degradation, Measuring the Received Signal Strength Indication (RSSI...

  17. Adventures with Cell Phones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolb, Liz

    2011-01-01

    Teachers are finding creative ways to turn the basic cell phone from a digital distraction into a versatile learning tool. In this article, the author explains why cell phones are important in learning and suggests rather than banning them that they be integrated into learning. She presents activities that can be done on a basic cell phone with a…

  18. Pathological Internet use, cyberbullying and mobile phone use in adolescence: a school-based study in Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsimtsiou, Zoi; Haidich, Anna-Bettina; Drontsos, Anastasios; Dantsi, Fotini; Sekeri, Zafiria; Drosos, Evangelos; Trikilis, Nikolaos; Dardavesis, Theodoros; Nanos, Panagiotis; Arvanitidou, Malamatenia

    2017-04-22

    Purpose This study investigated the prevalence of Internet addiction (IA) and cyberbullying and examined profiles of adolescents with increased risk to develop pathological behaviors. Methods In this cross-sectional, school-based study, 8053 students of 30 middle and 21 high schools (12-18 years old) were invited to participate, based on a multistage stratified random sampling technique. The Internet aiddiction test (IAT) was used along with information on socio-demographics, Internet activities and cyberbullying experience. Results Five thousand five hundred and ninety students participated (response rate 69.4%). Pathological Internet use (IAT ≥50) was found in 526 (10.1%), while 403 (7.3%) experienced cyberbullying as victims and 367 (6.6%) as perpetrators during the last year. In multivariable models, the odds of IA increased with online hours on mobile phones and Internet use during weekends, Internet café visits, chatrooms usage and engagement in cyberbullying. Cyberbullying victims were more likely to be older, female, Facebook and chatrooms users, while perpetrators were more likely to be male, older Internet users and fans of pornographic sites. A perpetrator was significantly more likely to have also been a victim [odds ratio (OR) = 5.51, confidence interval (CI): 3.92-7.74]. Hours of daily Internet use on a mobile phone was independently associated with IA and cyberbullying (OR) 1.41, 95% CI 1.30, 1.53 and OR 1.11, 95% CI 1.01, 1.21, respectively. Conclusions Cyberbullying is associated with IA and the hours spent online on a mobile phone affected both conditions. The increasing Internet access through mobile phones or other devices should be accompanied by the appropriate education of both parents and adolescents on safe Internet use.

  19. Consistency of color representation in smart phones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dain, Stephen J; Kwan, Benjamin; Wong, Leslie

    2016-03-01

    One of the barriers to the construction of consistent computer-based color vision tests has been the variety of monitors and computers. Consistency of color on a variety of screens has necessitated calibration of each setup individually. Color vision examination with a carefully controlled display has, as a consequence, been a laboratory rather than a clinical activity. Inevitably, smart phones have become a vehicle for color vision tests. They have the advantage that the processor and screen are associated and there are fewer models of smart phones than permutations of computers and monitors. Colorimetric consistency of display within a model may be a given. It may extend across models from the same manufacturer but is unlikely to extend between manufacturers especially where technologies vary. In this study, we measured the same set of colors in a JPEG file displayed on 11 samples of each of four models of smart phone (iPhone 4s, iPhone5, Samsung Galaxy S3, and Samsung Galaxy S4) using a Photo Research PR-730. The iPhones are white LED backlit LCD and the Samsung are OLEDs. The color gamut varies between models and comparison with sRGB space shows 61%, 85%, 117%, and 110%, respectively. The iPhones differ markedly from the Samsungs and from one another. This indicates that model-specific color lookup tables will be needed. Within each model, the primaries were quite consistent (despite the age of phone varying within each sample). The worst case in each model was the blue primary; the 95th percentile limits in the v' coordinate were ±0.008 for the iPhone 4 and ±0.004 for the other three models. The u'v' variation in white points was ±0.004 for the iPhone4 and ±0.002 for the others, although the spread of white points between models was u'v'±0.007. The differences are essentially the same for primaries at low luminance. The variation of colors intermediate between the primaries (e.g., red-purple, orange) mirror the variation in the primaries. The variation in

  20. [Level of microwave radiation from mobile phone base stations built in residential districts].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Ji; Lu, Yiyang; Zhang, Huacheng; Xie, Hebing; Yang, Xinwen

    2009-11-01

    To investigate the condition of microwave radiation pollution from mobile phone base station built in populated area. Random selected 18 residential districts where had base station and 10 residential districts where had no base stations. A TES-92 electromagnetic radiation monitor were used to measure the intensity of microwave radiation in external and internal living environment. The intensities of microwave radiation in the exposure residential districts were more higher than those of the control residential districts (p station, it would gradually weaken with the increase of the distance. The level of microwave radiation in antenna main lobe region is not certainly more higher than the side lobe direction, and the side lobe direction also is not more lower. At the same district, where there were two base stations, the electromagnetic field nestification would take place in someplace. The intensities of microwave radiation outside the exposure windows in the resident room not only changed with distance but also with the height of the floor. The intensities of microwave radiation inside the aluminum alloys security net were more lower than those of outside the aluminum alloys security net (p 0.05). Although all the measure dates on the ground around the base station could be below the primary standard in "environment electromagnetic wave hygienic standard" (GB9175-88), there were still a minorities of windows which exposed to the base station were higher, and the outside or inside of a few window was even higher beyond the primary safe level defined standard. The aluminum alloys security net can partly shield the microwave radiation from the mobile phone base station.

  1. Selecting a digital camera for telemedicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patricoski, Chris; Ferguson, A Stewart

    2009-06-01

    The digital camera is an essential component of store-and-forward telemedicine (electronic consultation). There are numerous makes and models of digital cameras on the market, and selecting a suitable consumer-grade camera can be complicated. Evaluation of digital cameras includes investigating the features and analyzing image quality. Important features include the camera settings, ease of use, macro capabilities, method of image transfer, and power recharging. Consideration needs to be given to image quality, especially as it relates to color (skin tones) and detail. It is important to know the level of the photographer and the intended application. The goal is to match the characteristics of the camera with the telemedicine program requirements. In the end, selecting a digital camera is a combination of qualitative (subjective) and quantitative (objective) analysis. For the telemedicine program in Alaska in 2008, the camera evaluation and decision process resulted in a specific selection based on the criteria developed for our environment.

  2. Modeling the Propagation of Mobile Phone Virus under Complex Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Wei; Wei, Xi-liang; Guo, Hao; An, Gang; Guo, Lei

    2014-01-01

    Mobile phone virus is a rogue program written to propagate from one phone to another, which can take control of a mobile device by exploiting its vulnerabilities. In this paper the propagation model of mobile phone virus is tackled to understand how particular factors can affect its propagation and design effective containment strategies to suppress mobile phone virus. Two different propagation models of mobile phone viruses under the complex network are proposed in this paper. One is intended to describe the propagation of user-tricking virus, and the other is to describe the propagation of the vulnerability-exploiting virus. Based on the traditional epidemic models, the characteristics of mobile phone viruses and the network topology structure are incorporated into our models. A detailed analysis is conducted to analyze the propagation models. Through analysis, the stable infection-free equilibrium point and the stability condition are derived. Finally, considering the network topology, the numerical and simulation experiments are carried out. Results indicate that both models are correct and suitable for describing the spread of two different mobile phone viruses, respectively. PMID:25133209

  3. Microprocessor-controlled, wide-range streak camera

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amy E. Lewis, Craig Hollabaugh

    2006-09-01

    Bechtel Nevada/NSTec recently announced deployment of their fifth generation streak camera. This camera incorporates many advanced features beyond those currently available for streak cameras. The arc-resistant driver includes a trigger lockout mechanism, actively monitors input trigger levels, and incorporates a high-voltage fault interrupter for user safety and tube protection. The camera is completely modular and may deflect over a variable full-sweep time of 15 nanoseconds to 500 microseconds. The camera design is compatible with both large- and small-format commercial tubes from several vendors. The embedded microprocessor offers Ethernet connectivity, and XML [extensible markup language]-based configuration management with non-volatile parameter storage using flash-based storage media. The camera’s user interface is platform-independent (Microsoft Windows, Unix, Linux, Macintosh OSX) and is accessible using an AJAX [asynchronous Javascript and XML]-equipped modem browser, such as Internet Explorer 6, Firefox, or Safari. User interface operation requires no installation of client software or browser plug-in technology. Automation software can also access the camera configuration and control using HTTP [hypertext transfer protocol]. The software architecture supports multiple-simultaneous clients, multiple cameras, and multiple module access with a standard browser. The entire user interface can be customized.

  4. Mobile Phone Banking Usage Behaviour: An Australian Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majharul Talukder

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available While the use of mobile phones in financial transactions is witnessing phenomenal growth at the international level, its growth has been relatively slow in Australia. Drawing on the theory of reasoned action and technology adoption framework, this paper reports the results concerning a survey of mobile phone users for banking transactions in Australia. The paper specifically identified the factors affecting usage behaviour when mobile phone banking services were engaged. The findings broaden and deepen our understanding of the usage of mobile-based banking in the information age. This paper contributes to the knowledge of this subject by including identification and testing of constructs of predictors regarding mobile phone banking, which are additional to those employed in the extant theories indicated above. The findings of this paper have important policy implications for banks in terms of understanding the underlying factors that drive customers’ mobile banking for financial transactions. Accordingly, design strategies have been developed to promote mobile phone banking – a cost effective channel for delivering financial services.

  5. Convolutional Neural Network-Based Classification of Driver's Emotion during Aggressive and Smooth Driving Using Multi-Modal Camera Sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kwan Woo; Yoon, Hyo Sik; Song, Jong Min; Park, Kang Ryoung

    2018-03-23

    Because aggressive driving often causes large-scale loss of life and property, techniques for advance detection of adverse driver emotional states have become important for the prevention of aggressive driving behaviors. Previous studies have primarily focused on systems for detecting aggressive driver emotion via smart-phone accelerometers and gyro-sensors, or they focused on methods of detecting physiological signals using electroencephalography (EEG) or electrocardiogram (ECG) sensors. Because EEG and ECG sensors cause discomfort to drivers and can be detached from the driver's body, it becomes difficult to focus on bio-signals to determine their emotional state. Gyro-sensors and accelerometers depend on the performance of GPS receivers and cannot be used in areas where GPS signals are blocked. Moreover, if driving on a mountain road with many quick turns, a driver's emotional state can easily be misrecognized as that of an aggressive driver. To resolve these problems, we propose a convolutional neural network (CNN)-based method of detecting emotion to identify aggressive driving using input images of the driver's face, obtained using near-infrared (NIR) light and thermal camera sensors. In this research, we conducted an experiment using our own database, which provides a high classification accuracy for detecting driver emotion leading to either aggressive or smooth (i.e., relaxed) driving. Our proposed method demonstrates better performance than existing methods.

  6. Head first iPhone development

    CERN Document Server

    Pilone, Dan

    2010-01-01

    Let's say you have an idea for a killer iPhone app. Where do you begin? Head First iPhone Development will help you get your first application up and running in no time. You'll quickly learn to use iPhone SDK tools, including Interface Builder and Xcode, and master Objective-C programming principles that will make your app stand out. It's a complete learning experience for creating eye-catching, top-selling iPhone applications. Put Objective-C core concepts to work, including message passing, protocols, properties, and memory managementTake advantage of iPhone patterns such as datasources

  7. Building iPhone OS Accessories

    CERN Document Server

    Maskrey, Ken

    2010-01-01

    This book provides a serious, in-depth look at Apple's External Accessory Framework and the iPhone Accessories API. You'll learn how to create new, integrated solutions that combine iPhone apps with dedicated hardware. The iPhone OS Accessories API expands the opportunities for innovative iPhone developers, allowing you to control and monitor external devices, whether you've built them yourself or obtained them from a third party. What you'll learn * Develop accessories and apps for the iPhone and iPod touch. * Use Apple's External Accessory Framework to create hardware/software interaction. *

  8. Perceptual Color Characterization of Cameras

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Vazquez-Corral

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Color camera characterization, mapping outputs from the camera sensors to an independent color space, such as \\(XYZ\\, is an important step in the camera processing pipeline. Until now, this procedure has been primarily solved by using a \\(3 \\times 3\\ matrix obtained via a least-squares optimization. In this paper, we propose to use the spherical sampling method, recently published by Finlayson al., to perform a perceptual color characterization. In particular, we search for the \\(3 \\times 3\\ matrix that minimizes three different perceptual errors, one pixel based and two spatially based. For the pixel-based case, we minimize the CIE \\(\\Delta E\\ error, while for the spatial-based case, we minimize both the S-CIELAB error and the CID error measure. Our results demonstrate an improvement of approximately 3for the \\(\\Delta E\\ error, 7& for the S-CIELAB error and 13% for the CID error measures.

  9. Wired and Wireless Camera Triggering with Arduino

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kauhanen, H.; Rönnholm, P.

    2017-10-01

    Synchronous triggering is an important task that allows simultaneous data capture from multiple cameras. Accurate synchronization enables 3D measurements of moving objects or from a moving platform. In this paper, we describe one wired and four wireless variations of Arduino-based low-cost remote trigger systems designed to provide a synchronous trigger signal for industrial cameras. Our wireless systems utilize 315 MHz or 434 MHz frequencies with noise filtering capacitors. In order to validate the synchronization accuracy, we developed a prototype of a rotating trigger detection system (named RoTriDeS). This system is suitable to detect the triggering accuracy of global shutter cameras. As a result, the wired system indicated an 8.91 μs mean triggering time difference between two cameras. Corresponding mean values for the four wireless triggering systems varied between 7.92 and 9.42 μs. Presented values include both camera-based and trigger-based desynchronization. Arduino-based triggering systems appeared to be feasible, and they have the potential to be extended to more complicated triggering systems.

  10. SMARTPHONE-BASED APPROACH TO ADVANCED DRIVER ASSISTANCE SYSTEM (ADAS RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. B. Lashkov

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Subject of Research.The paper deals with findings and presents asmartphone-based approach to advanced driver assistance system (ADAS research and development.The approach is based on the data of smartphone cameras and sensors. The line of researchis associated with the developmentof mobile advanced driver assistance system (ADAS. Method.The proposedapproach isbased on the use of driver'sand vehicle behavior ontologies. Current ADAS systems can be divided into two main categories according to the method of implementation: mobile applications, manually installed by the driver from the application stores, and safetyhardware and softwaresystems,integrated into vehicles by manufacturesor in the automotive service centers.Mobile application installed on the smartphone uses the built-in rear and front-facing cameras and sensors to monitor both the road and vehicles ahead, and at the same time the driver in order to prevent traffic collisions. The service consists of components for objects recognition in the images obtained with cameras, and components for traffic situation analysis. Main Results. The driver safety mobile application has been developedfor the use on mobile phones.The mobile phone is mounted on the windshield of a car.In case of dangerous event occurrence, the application engine will make an audible or vibration signal to inform the driver to be concentratedand more vigilant. For example, road obstacles, rear-end and stationary vehicle accidents are the most common accident types.The mobile application detects whether a crash is imminent by computing the ‘Time To Contact’ (TTC taking into account host vehicle speed, relative speed and relative acceleration.If the driver doesn’t maintain safe minimum distance with the car immediately ahead, the mobile application will alert the driver by displaying an attention icon with an audible alert. The dual-camera sensing application is designed to help the drivers increase the trip safety

  11. An evolution of image source camera attribution approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahanirad, Mehdi; Wahab, Ainuddin Wahid Abdul; Anuar, Nor Badrul

    2016-05-01

    Camera attribution plays an important role in digital image forensics by providing the evidence and distinguishing characteristics of the origin of the digital image. It allows the forensic analyser to find the possible source camera which captured the image under investigation. However, in real-world applications, these approaches have faced many challenges due to the large set of multimedia data publicly available through photo sharing and social network sites, captured with uncontrolled conditions and undergone variety of hardware and software post-processing operations. Moreover, the legal system only accepts the forensic analysis of the digital image evidence if the applied camera attribution techniques are unbiased, reliable, nondestructive and widely accepted by the experts in the field. The aim of this paper is to investigate the evolutionary trend of image source camera attribution approaches from fundamental to practice, in particular, with the application of image processing and data mining techniques. Extracting implicit knowledge from images using intrinsic image artifacts for source camera attribution requires a structured image mining process. In this paper, we attempt to provide an introductory tutorial on the image processing pipeline, to determine the general classification of the features corresponding to different components for source camera attribution. The article also reviews techniques of the source camera attribution more comprehensively in the domain of the image forensics in conjunction with the presentation of classifying ongoing developments within the specified area. The classification of the existing source camera attribution approaches is presented based on the specific parameters, such as colour image processing pipeline, hardware- and software-related artifacts and the methods to extract such artifacts. The more recent source camera attribution approaches, which have not yet gained sufficient attention among image forensics

  12. Electronics for the camera of the First G-APD Cherenkov Telescope (FACT) for ground based gamma-ray astronomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderhub, H; Biland, A; Boller, A; Braun, I; Commichau, V; Djambazov, L; Dorner, D; Gendotti, A; Grimm, O; Gunten, H P von; Hildebrand, D; Horisberger, U; Huber, B; Kim, K-S; Krähenbühl, T; Backes, M; Köhne, J-H; Krumm, B; Bretz, T; Farnier, C

    2012-01-01

    Within the FACT project, we construct a new type of camera based on Geiger-mode avalanche photodiodes (G-APDs). Compared to photomultipliers, G-APDs are more robust, need a lower operation voltage and have the potential of higher photon-detection efficiency and lower cost, but were never fully tested in the harsh environments of Cherenkov telescopes. The FACT camera consists of 1440 G-APD pixels and readout channels, based on the DRS4 (Domino Ring Sampler) analog pipeline chip and commercial Ethernet components. Preamplifiers, trigger system, digitization, slow control and power converters are integrated into the camera.

  13. Cost-effective and rapid blood analysis on a cell-phone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Hongying; Sencan, Ikbal; Wong, Justin; Dimitrov, Stoyan; Tseng, Derek; Nagashima, Keita; Ozcan, Aydogan

    2013-04-07

    We demonstrate a compact and cost-effective imaging cytometry platform installed on a cell-phone for the measurement of the density of red and white blood cells as well as hemoglobin concentration in human blood samples. Fluorescent and bright-field images of blood samples are captured using separate optical attachments to the cell-phone and are rapidly processed through a custom-developed smart application running on the phone for counting of blood cells and determining hemoglobin density. We evaluated the performance of this cell-phone based blood analysis platform using anonymous human blood samples and achieved comparable results to a standard bench-top hematology analyser. Test results can either be stored on the cell-phone memory or be transmitted to a central server, providing remote diagnosis opportunities even in field settings.

  14. Bifocal liquid lens zoom objective for mobile phone applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wippermann, F. C.; Schreiber, P.; Bräuer, A.; Craen, P.

    2007-02-01

    Miniaturized camera systems are an integral part of today's mobile phones which recently possess auto focus functionality. Commercially available solutions without moving parts have been developed using the electrowetting technology. Here, the contact angle of a drop of a conductive or polar liquid placed on an insulating substrate can be influenced by an electric field. Besides the compensation of the axial image shift due to different object distances, mobile phones with zoom functionality are desired as a next evolutionary step. In classical mechanically compensated zoom lenses two independently driven actuators combined with precision guides are needed leading to a delicate, space consuming and expansive opto-mechanical setup. Liquid lens technology based on the electrowetting effect gives the opportunity to built adaptive lenses without moving parts thus simplifying the mechanical setup. However, with the recent commercially available liquid lens products a completely motionless and continuously adaptive zoom system with market relevant optical performance is not feasible. This is due to the limited change in optical power the liquid lenses can provide and the dispersion of the used materials. As an intermediate step towards a continuously adjustable and motionless zoom lens we propose a bifocal system sufficient for toggling between two effective focal lengths without any moving parts. The system has its mechanical counterpart in a bifocal zoom lens where only one lens group has to be moved. In a liquid lens bifocal zoom two groups of adaptable liquid lenses are required for adjusting the effective focal length and keeping the image location constant. In order to overcome the difficulties in achromatizing the lens we propose a sequential image acquisition algorithm. Here, the full color image is obtained from a sequence of monochrome images (red, green, blue) leading to a simplified optical setup.

  15. iPhone Application Development For Dummies

    CERN Document Server

    Goldstein, Neal

    2009-01-01

    Here's the fun and easy way to learn how to create your own iPhone applications. Whether you're a professional developer or an iPhone user with a knack for technology, this plain English guide shows you how easy it can be to create your own cool iPhone and iPod touch apps. The open iPhone SDK offers a world of opportunities, and with the information in iPhone Application Development For Dummies , you can get in on the fun and profit. You don't need high-level programming skills to create iPhone apps. iPhone Application Development For Dummies walks you through the fundamentals for building a v

  16. Call-related factors influencing output power from mobile phones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hillert, Lena; Ahlbom, Anders; Neasham, David; Feychting, Maria; Järup, Lars; Navin, Roshan; Elliott, Paul

    2006-11-01

    Mobile phone use is increasing but there is also concern for adverse health effects. Well-designed prospective studies to assess several health outcomes are required. In designing a study of mobile phone use, it is important to assess which factors need to be considered in classifying the exposure to radiofrequency fields (RF). A pilot study was performed in Sweden and in the UK 2002 to 2003 to test the feasibility of recruiting a cohort of mobile phone users from a random population sample and from mobile phone subscription lists for a prospective study. As one part of this pilot study, different factors were evaluated regarding possible influence on the output power of the phones. By local switch logging, information on calls made from predefined subscriptions or dedicated handsets were obtained and the output power of phones during calls made indoors and outdoors, in moving and stationary mode, and in rural as well in urban areas were compared. In this experiment, calls were either 1, 1.5 or 5 min long. The results showed that high mobile phone output power is more frequent in rural areas whereas the other factors (length of call, moving/stationary, indoor/outdoor) were of less importance. Urban and rural area should be considered in an exposure index for classification of the exposure to RF from mobile phones and may be assessed by first base station during mobile phone calls or, if this information is not available, possibly by using home address as a proxy.

  17. iPhone For Dummies

    CERN Document Server

    Baig, Edward C

    2010-01-01

    The full-color guide to getting the most out of your iPhone. Completely updated and revised throughout, this full-color guide covers Apple's new iPhone and iOS 4. Bestselling veteran authors Baig and LeVitus introduce you to the capabilities of the iPhone whether you're making phone calls, browsing the Internet, sending and receiving e-mails, working with the calendar, watching videos, taking great photos, or much more. You'll discover how to set up iTunes, buy music and videos from the iTunes store, protect your information, troubleshoot, multitask, and download the hundreds of thousands of a

  18. Collecting Social Network Data from Mobile Phone SIM Cards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peseckas, Ryan

    2016-01-01

    I used a subscriber identity module card reader to copy the lists of saved contacts from 170 mobile phones in Fiji. This approach has both advantages and disadvantages compared to other techniques for collecting telephone network data. Copying phone contacts avoids recall biases associated with survey-based name generators. It also obviates the…

  19. Generalized free-space diffuse photon transport model based on the influence analysis of a camera lens diaphragm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xueli; Gao, Xinbo; Qu, Xiaochao; Chen, Duofang; Ma, Xiaopeng; Liang, Jimin; Tian, Jie

    2010-10-10

    The camera lens diaphragm is an important component in a noncontact optical imaging system and has a crucial influence on the images registered on the CCD camera. However, this influence has not been taken into account in the existing free-space photon transport models. To model the photon transport process more accurately, a generalized free-space photon transport model is proposed. It combines Lambertian source theory with analysis of the influence of the camera lens diaphragm to simulate photon transport process in free space. In addition, the radiance theorem is also adopted to establish the energy relationship between the virtual detector and the CCD camera. The accuracy and feasibility of the proposed model is validated with a Monte-Carlo-based free-space photon transport model and physical phantom experiment. A comparison study with our previous hybrid radiosity-radiance theorem based model demonstrates the improvement performance and potential of the proposed model for simulating photon transport process in free space.

  20. Investigation of an Autofocusing Method for Visible Aerial Cameras Based on Image Processing Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhichao Chen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to realize the autofocusing in aerial camera, an autofocusing system is established and its characteristics such as working principle and optical-mechanical structure and focus evaluation function are investigated. The reason for defocusing in aviation camera is analyzed and several autofocusing methods along with appropriate focus evaluation functions are introduced based on the image processing techniques. The proposed autofocusing system is designed and implemented using two CMOS detectors. The experiment results showed that the proposed method met the aviation camera focusing accuracy requirement, and a maximum focusing error of less than half of the focus depth is achieved. The system designed in this paper can find the optical imaging focal plane in real-time; as such, this novel design has great potential in practical engineering, especially aerospace applications.

  1. Sensing expressive lips with a mobile phone

    OpenAIRE

    ur Réhman, Shafiq; Liu, Li

    2008-01-01

    Considering potential benefits of vibrations in mobile phones,we propose an intuitive method to render human emotions for the vi-sually impaired. A mobile phone is "synchronized" with emotional in-formation extracted from human lips dynamics. By holding the mobilephone, the user will be able to get on-line emotion information of others.Experimental results based on usability evaluation of the system are encouraging. The user studies show a perfect pattern recognition accuracy on the designed ...

  2. Developing iPhone application

    OpenAIRE

    Nebo, Charles

    2015-01-01

    IPhone application popularity and demand are continuously on the increase since 2008 when Apple launched iPhone. Consequently, many applications are built targeting different user needs. But developing iPhone applications do have challenges. This research study explores current development study for developing iPhone application where the development environment and technologies are problematic. This paper intends to review some software development methodologies, methods, and techniques for ...

  3. Gamma camera based FDG PET in oncology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, C. H.

    2002-01-01

    Positron Emission Tomography(PET) was introduced as a research tool in the 1970s and it took about 20 years before PET became an useful clinical imaging modality. In the USA, insurance coverage for PET procedures in the 1990s was the turning point, I believe, for this progress. Initially PET was used in neurology but recently more than 80% of PET procedures are in oncological applications. I firmly believe, in the 21st century, one can not manage cancer patients properly without PET and PET is very important medical imaging modality in basic and clinical sciences. PET is grouped into 2 categories; conventional (c) and gamma camera based ( CB ) PET. CB PET is more readily available utilizing dual-head gamma cameras and commercially available FDG to many medical centers at low cost to patients. In fact there are more CB PET in operation than cPET in the USA. CB PET is inferior to cPET in its performance but clinical studies in oncology is feasible without expensive infrastructures such as staffing, rooms and equipments. At Ajou university Hospital, CBPET was installed in late 1997 for the first time in Korea as well as in Asia and the system has been used successfully and effectively in oncological applications. Our was the fourth PET operation in Korea and I believe this may have been instrumental for other institutions got interested in clinical PET. The following is a brief description of our clinical experience of FDG CBPET in oncology

  4. Cell-Phone Use and Self-Reported Hypertension: National Health Interview Survey 2008

    OpenAIRE

    Suresh, Sivaranjani; Sabanayagam, Charumathi; Kalidindi, Sita; Shankar, Anoop

    2011-01-01

    Background. Cell-phone usage has increased dramatically over the last decade, along with a rising public concern over the health effects of using this device. The association between cell-phone usage and hypertension has not been examined before. Methods. We analysed data from 21,135 adults aged ≥18 years who participated in the 2008 National Health Interview Survey. Based on reported cell-phone use, participants were categorized as cell-phone nonusers, predominantly landline users, dual user...

  5. Cell phone explosion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atreya, Alok; Kanchan, Tanuj; Nepal, Samata; Pandey, Bhuwan Raj

    2016-03-01

    Cell phone explosions and resultant burn injuries are rarely reported in the scientific literature. We report a case of cell phone explosion that occurred when a young male was listening to music while the mobile was plugged in for charging. © The Author(s) 2015.

  6. Speed of sound and photoacoustic imaging with an optical camera based ultrasound detection system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuster, Robert; Paltauf, Guenther

    2017-07-01

    CCD camera based optical ultrasound detection is a promising alternative approach for high resolution 3D photoacoustic imaging (PAI). To fully exploit its potential and to achieve an image resolution SOS) in the image reconstruction algorithm. Hence, in the proposed work the idea and a first implementation are shown how speed of sound imaging can be added to a previously developed camera based PAI setup. The current setup provides SOS-maps with a spatial resolution of 2 mm and an accuracy of the obtained absolute SOS values of about 1%. The proposed dual-modality setup has the potential to provide highly resolved and perfectly co-registered 3D photoacoustic and SOS images.

  7. Cell phone ringtone, but not landline phone ringtone, affects complex reaction time

    OpenAIRE

    Radosław Zajdel; Justyna Zajdel; Janusz Śmigielski; Dariusz Nowak

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Legislation systems of most countries prohibited using the handheld mobile phone while driving due to the fact that it disturbs concentration and causes hand involvement. Every phone owner is accustomed to the ringtone of his phone and almost involuntarily endeavors to pick it up or check who calls. This engages one’s psychomotor skills, which in our opinion contributes to the attenuation of reaction time needed for performing other crucial functions. Objectives: The aim of the ...

  8. Cell-phone use and self-reported hypertension: national health interview survey 2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suresh, Sivaranjani; Sabanayagam, Charumathi; Kalidindi, Sita; Shankar, Anoop

    2011-01-01

    Background. Cell-phone usage has increased dramatically over the last decade, along with a rising public concern over the health effects of using this device. The association between cell-phone usage and hypertension has not been examined before. Methods. We analysed data from 21,135 adults aged ≥18 years who participated in the 2008 National Health Interview Survey. Based on reported cell-phone use, participants were categorized as cell-phone nonusers, predominantly landline users, dual users of cell phone and landline, and predominantly cell-phone users. The main outcome of interest was self-reported physician-diagnosed hypertension (n = 6,793). Results. 43.5% of the participants were cell-phone nonusers, while 13.8% were predominantly cell-phone users. We found that cell-phone use was inversely associated with hypertension, independent of age, sex, race/ethnicity, smoking, alcohol consumption, education, body mass index (BMI), and physical activity. Compared to cell-phone nonusers, the multivariable odds ratio (95% confidence interval) of hypertension was 0.86 (0.75-0.98, P trend  =  .005) among predominantly cell-phone users. This inverse association between cell-phone use and hypertension was stronger in women, those aged <60 years, whites, and those with BMI <25 kg/m(2). Conclusion. We found that cell-phone usage was protectively associated with self-reported hypertension in a nationally representative sample of US adults.

  9. A cross-sectional case control study on genetic damage in individuals residing in the vicinity of a mobile phone base station.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gandhi, Gursatej; Kaur, Gurpreet; Nisar, Uzma

    2015-01-01

    Mobile phone base stations facilitate good communication, but the continuously emitting radiations from these stations have raised health concerns. Hence in this study, genetic damage using the single cell gel electrophoresis (comet) assay was assessed in peripheral blood leukocytes of individuals residing in the vicinity of a mobile phone base station and comparing it to that in healthy controls. The power density in the area within 300 m from the base station exceeded the permissive limits and was significantly (p = 0.000) higher compared to the area from where control samples were collected. The study participants comprised 63 persons with residences near a mobile phone tower, and 28 healthy controls matched for gender, age, alcohol drinking and occupational sub-groups. Genetic damage parameters of DNA migration length, damage frequency (DF) and damage index were significantly (p = 0.000) elevated in the sample group compared to respective values in healthy controls. The female residents (n = 25) of the sample group had significantly (p = 0.004) elevated DF than the male residents (n = 38). The linear regression analysis further revealed daily mobile phone usage, location of residence and power density as significant predictors of genetic damage. The genetic damage evident in the participants of this study needs to be addressed against future disease-risk, which in addition to neurodegenerative disorders, may lead to cancer.

  10. Brain-muscle-computer interface: mobile-phone prototype development and testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vernon, Scott; Joshi, Sanjay S

    2011-07-01

    We report prototype development and testing of a new mobile-phone-based brain-muscle-computer interface for severely paralyzed persons, based on previous results from our group showing that humans may actively create specified power levels in two separate frequency bands of a single surface electromyography (sEMG) signal. EMG activity on the surface of a single face muscle site (auricularis superior) is recorded with a standard electrode. This analog electrical signal is imported into an Android-based mobile phone and digitized via an internal A/D converter. The digital signal is split, and then simultaneously filtered with two band-pass filters to extract total power within two separate frequency bands. The user-modulated power in each frequency band serves as two separate control channels for machine control. After signal processing, the Android phone sends commands to external devices via a Bluetooth interface. Users are trained to use the device via visually based operant conditioning, with simple cursor-to-target activities on the phone screen. The mobile-phone prototype interface is formally evaluated on a single advanced Spinal Muscle Atrophy subject, who has successfully used the interface in his home in evaluation trials and for remote control of a television. Development of this new device will not only guide future interface design for community use, but will also serve as an information technology bridge for in situ data collection to quantify human sEMG manipulation abilities for a relevant population.

  11. Optical character recognition of camera-captured images based on phase features

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz-Escobar, Julia; Kober, Vitaly

    2015-09-01

    Nowadays most of digital information is obtained using mobile devices specially smartphones. In particular, it brings the opportunity for optical character recognition in camera-captured images. For this reason many recognition applications have been recently developed such as recognition of license plates, business cards, receipts and street signal; document classification, augmented reality, language translator and so on. Camera-captured images are usually affected by geometric distortions, nonuniform illumination, shadow, noise, which make difficult the recognition task with existing systems. It is well known that the Fourier phase contains a lot of important information regardless of the Fourier magnitude. So, in this work we propose a phase-based recognition system exploiting phase-congruency features for illumination/scale invariance. The performance of the proposed system is tested in terms of miss classifications and false alarms with the help of computer simulation.

  12. An Airborne Multispectral Imaging System Based on Two Consumer-Grade Cameras for Agricultural Remote Sensing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chenghai Yang

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the design and evaluation of an airborne multispectral imaging system based on two identical consumer-grade cameras for agricultural remote sensing. The cameras are equipped with a full-frame complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS sensor with 5616 × 3744 pixels. One camera captures normal color images, while the other is modified to obtain near-infrared (NIR images. The color camera is also equipped with a GPS receiver to allow geotagged images. A remote control is used to trigger both cameras simultaneously. Images are stored in 14-bit RAW and 8-bit JPEG files in CompactFlash cards. The second-order transformation was used to align the color and NIR images to achieve subpixel alignment in four-band images. The imaging system was tested under various flight and land cover conditions and optimal camera settings were determined for airborne image acquisition. Images were captured at altitudes of 305–3050 m (1000–10,000 ft and pixel sizes of 0.1–1.0 m were achieved. Four practical application examples are presented to illustrate how the imaging system was used to estimate cotton canopy cover, detect cotton root rot, and map henbit and giant reed infestations. Preliminary analysis of example images has shown that this system has potential for crop condition assessment, pest detection, and other agricultural applications.

  13. Health effects of living near mobile phone base transceiver station (BTS) antennae: a report from Isfahan, Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahbazi-Gahrouei, Daryoush; Karbalae, Mojtaba; Moradi, Habib Allah; Baradaran-Ghahfarokhi, Milad

    2014-09-01

    In recent years, by tremendous use of mobile phone telecommunication, a growing concern about the possible health hazards has increased greatly among public and scientists. The mobile phone exposure has been shown to have many effects upon the immune functions, stimulating hormones, mammalian brain, sperm motility and morphology, and neurological pathologies syndrome. The aim of this study was to find out the psychological and psychobiological reactions of the people who are living near mobile phone base transceiver stations (BTS) antenna, in Isfahan, Iran. A cross-sectional study on 250 randomly selected inhabitants (133 women and 117 men) was performed in October 2012 till November 2012. The inhabitants were requested to complete a standardized questionnaire that focused on the relevant psychological and psychobiological reactions parameters. A computer program (SPSS version16.0, Chicago, IL) was used for statistical analysis using the Chi-square test with Yates correction. All the data were tested using a criterion level of p = 0.05. The results showed that most of the symptoms such as nausea, headache, dizziness, irritability, discomfort, nervousness, depression, sleep disturbance, memory loss and lowering of libido were statistically significant in the inhabitants living near the BTS antenna (300 m). It is suggested that cellular phone BTS antenna should not be sited closer than 300 m to populations to minimize exposure of neighbors.

  14. Mobile Phone Chips Reduce Increases in EEG Brain Activity Induced by Mobile Phone-Emitted Electromagnetic Fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henz, Diana; Schöllhorn, Wolfgang I.; Poeggeler, Burkhard

    2018-01-01

    Recent neurophysiological studies indicate that exposure to electromagnetic fields (EMFs) generated by mobile phone radiation can exert effects on brain activity. One technical solution to reduce effects of EMFs in mobile phone use is provided in mobile phone chips that are applied to mobile phones or attached to their surfaces. To date, there are no systematical studies on the effects of mobile phone chip application on brain activity and the underlying neural mechanisms. The present study investigated whether mobile phone chips that are applied to mobile phones reduce effects of EMFs emitted by mobile phone radiation on electroencephalographic (EEG) brain activity in a laboratory study. Thirty participants volunteered in the present study. Experimental conditions (mobile phone chip, placebo chip, no chip) were set up in a randomized within-subjects design. Spontaneous EEG was recorded before and after mobile phone exposure for two 2-min sequences at resting conditions. During mobile phone exposure, spontaneous EEG was recorded for 30 min during resting conditions, and 5 min during performance of an attention test (d2-R). Results showed increased activity in the theta, alpha, beta and gamma bands during EMF exposure in the placebo and no chip conditions. Application of the mobile phone chip reduced effects of EMFs on EEG brain activity and attentional performance significantly. Attentional performance level was maintained regarding number of edited characters. Further, a dipole analysis revealed different underlying activation patterns in the chip condition compared to the placebo chip and no chip conditions. Finally, a correlational analysis for the EEG frequency bands and electromagnetic high-frequency (HF) emission showed significant correlations in the placebo chip and no chip condition for the theta, alpha, beta, and gamma bands. In the chip condition, a significant correlation of HF with the theta and alpha bands, but not with the beta and gamma bands was

  15. Mobile Phone Chips Reduce Increases in EEG Brain Activity Induced by Mobile Phone-Emitted Electromagnetic Fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henz, Diana; Schöllhorn, Wolfgang I; Poeggeler, Burkhard

    2018-01-01

    Recent neurophysiological studies indicate that exposure to electromagnetic fields (EMFs) generated by mobile phone radiation can exert effects on brain activity. One technical solution to reduce effects of EMFs in mobile phone use is provided in mobile phone chips that are applied to mobile phones or attached to their surfaces. To date, there are no systematical studies on the effects of mobile phone chip application on brain activity and the underlying neural mechanisms. The present study investigated whether mobile phone chips that are applied to mobile phones reduce effects of EMFs emitted by mobile phone radiation on electroencephalographic (EEG) brain activity in a laboratory study. Thirty participants volunteered in the present study. Experimental conditions (mobile phone chip, placebo chip, no chip) were set up in a randomized within-subjects design. Spontaneous EEG was recorded before and after mobile phone exposure for two 2-min sequences at resting conditions. During mobile phone exposure, spontaneous EEG was recorded for 30 min during resting conditions, and 5 min during performance of an attention test (d2-R). Results showed increased activity in the theta, alpha, beta and gamma bands during EMF exposure in the placebo and no chip conditions. Application of the mobile phone chip reduced effects of EMFs on EEG brain activity and attentional performance significantly. Attentional performance level was maintained regarding number of edited characters. Further, a dipole analysis revealed different underlying activation patterns in the chip condition compared to the placebo chip and no chip conditions. Finally, a correlational analysis for the EEG frequency bands and electromagnetic high-frequency (HF) emission showed significant correlations in the placebo chip and no chip condition for the theta, alpha, beta, and gamma bands. In the chip condition, a significant correlation of HF with the theta and alpha bands, but not with the beta and gamma bands was

  16. Validation of a Spanish Questionnaire on Mobile Phone Abuse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María A. Olivencia-Carrión

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Mobile phone addiction has attracted much attention recently and is showing similarity to other substance use disorders. Because no studies on mobile phone addiction had yet been conducted in Spain, we developed and validated a questionnaire (Cuestionario de Abuso del Teléfono Móvil, ATeMo to measure mobile phone abuse among young adults in Spanish. The ATeMo questionnaire was designed based on relevant DSM-5 diagnostic criteria and included craving as a diagnostic symptom. Using stratified sampling, the ATeMo questionnaire was administered to 856 students (mean age 21, 62% women. The MULTICAGE questionnaire was administered to assess history of drug abuse and addiction. Using confirmatory factor analysis, we found evidence for the construct validity of the following factors: Craving, Loss of Control, Negative Life Consequences, and Withdrawal Syndrome, and their association with a second order factor related to mobile phone abuse. The four ATeMO factors were also associated with alcoholism, internet use, and compulsive buying. Important gender differences were found that should be considered when studying mobile phone addictions. The ATeMo is a valid and reliable instrument that can be used in further research on mobile phone abuse.

  17. Validation of a Spanish Questionnaire on Mobile Phone Abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olivencia-Carrión, María A; Ramírez-Uclés, Isabel; Holgado-Tello, Pablo; López-Torrecillas, Francisca

    2018-01-01

    Mobile phone addiction has attracted much attention recently and is showing similarity to other substance use disorders. Because no studies on mobile phone addiction had yet been conducted in Spain, we developed and validated a questionnaire (Cuestionario de Abuso del Teléfono Móvil, ATeMo) to measure mobile phone abuse among young adults in Spanish. The ATeMo questionnaire was designed based on relevant DSM-5 diagnostic criteria and included craving as a diagnostic symptom. Using stratified sampling, the ATeMo questionnaire was administered to 856 students (mean age 21, 62% women). The MULTICAGE questionnaire was administered to assess history of drug abuse and addiction. Using confirmatory factor analysis, we found evidence for