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Sample records for camelus dromedarius affected

  1. Histogenesis of rumen in one-humped camel (Camelus dromedarius)

    OpenAIRE

    E. Salimi Naghani* and L. Akradi1

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to follow several sequence histological changes that occur during the histogenesis of the rumen in one-humped camel (Camelus dromedarius). Histogenesis study was carried out on 66 fetuses of camel from 50th day of gestation until birth (390 days), according to the most relevant histo-differentiation characteristics of the rumen in fetuses, these were divided into four groups: group I (5-24 cm crown-rump length (C-RL); 50-140 days); group II (24-30 cm C-RL; 140-160 d...

  2. Gastrointestinal helminths of camels (Camelus dromedarius) in center of Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anvari-Tafti, M; Sazmand, A; Hekmatimoghaddam, S; Moobedi, I

    2013-03-01

    Camels are multipurpose animals in Iran. As parasitic diseases are the major cause of impaired meat and milk production in this animal, the present study aimed at determining gastrointestinal helminthic infections of Iranian camels in the center of the country. Gastrointestinal (GI) tract of 144 carcasses of one-humped camels (Camelus dromedarius) slaughtered in Yazd, Esfahan and Kerman provinces' abattoirs were examined for adult helminths. Camels were from both sexes and different ages. Recovered parasites were identified according to described keys by light microscope. Of 144 tested camels, 117 were infected with at least one helminth species (81.3%). A total of 28 worm species from 14 genera were identified in the digestive tract of infected animals, including 26 species of nematodes and two species of cestodes. The infection rates in stomach, small intestine, and caecum/large intestine were 86.3%, 91.5% and 11.1%, respectively. However, no worm was found in the oesophagus. The recovered worms with infection rates are discussed in this paper. In the present study, Haemonchus tataricus, Trichostrongylus hamatus and Trichuris infundibulus are reported from Iranian dromedaries for the first time. Regarding high prevalence of infection, using anthelminthic drugs seemed necessary to improve the health and productivity of camels. On the other hand, the high rate of zoonotic species indicated that camels have important role in maintaining and transmitting infection to humans.

  3. Histogenesis of rumen in one-humped camel (Camelus dromedarius

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    E. Salimi Naghani* and L. Akradi1

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to follow several sequence histological changes that occur during the histogenesis of the rumen in one-humped camel (Camelus dromedarius. Histogenesis study was carried out on 66 fetuses of camel from 50th day of gestation until birth (390 days, according to the most relevant histo-differentiation characteristics of the rumen in fetuses, these were divided into four groups: group I (5-24 cm crown-rump length (C-RL; 50-140 days; group II (24-30 cm C-RL; 140-160 days; group III (30-60 cm C-RL; 160-250 days; group IV (60-108 cm C-RL; 250-390 days. At 50 days, the rumen consisted of four layers: the epithelial layer, propria-submucosa, tunica muscularis and serosa. The epithelium glandular region was pseudostratified and in non-glandular region was stratified. The muscularis mucosa was observed incompletely from 140 days between lamina propria and submucosa in glandular region of the rumen to the birth day. The primary lymphatic nodules appeared in lamina propria of glandular region of the rumen at 160 days of gestation. The epithelium of the glandular region in rumen was formed by a simple columnar layer at 250 days. In all groups, the tunica muscularis layer of rumen was increased with ruminal development, gradually. The non-glandular region of rumen was formed by a stratified epithelium and number of these cells increased with ruminal development. The lymphatic nodules and muscularis mucosa in non-glandular region did not observe in all groups. The study observations revealed that non-glandular region of the rumen in the fetuses of camel are less precocious than the rumen of the domestic ruminants.

  4. Biometric and Ultrasonographic Evaluation of the Testis of One-humped Camel (Camelus dromedarius)

    OpenAIRE

    Riaz Hussain Pasha, Anas Sarwar Qureshi*, Laeeq Akbar Lodhi1 and Huma Jamil1

    2011-01-01

    Twenty four adult clinically healthy one-humped male camels (Camelus dromedarius) were examined three times (beginning, mid and end) in each season (winter, spring, summer and autumn) for establishing the normal ultrasonic appearance and seasonal changes in the testicular parenchyma in the natural ecology of Punjab, Pakistan. The testes of each camel were scanned by using a B-mode real time ultrasound scanner fitted with a 7.5-MHz linear-array transducer. Scrotal biometry was done with the me...

  5. Molecular identification and phylogenetic analysis of Dipetalonema evansi (LEWIS, 1882) in camels (Camelus dromedarius) of Iran.

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    Sazmand, Alireza; Eigner, Barbara; Mirzaei, Mohammad; Hekmatimoghaddam, Seyedhossein; Harl, Josef; Duscher, Georg Gerhard; Fuehrer, Hans-Peter; Joachim, Anja

    2016-04-01

    Despite the economic importance of camels, the parasites that affect them have not received adequate attention so far and molecular studies are scarce compared to other livestock. In this study, we characterized peripheral blood microfilariae in 200 healthy one-humped camels (Camelus dromedarius) from south-east Iran by microscopy and molecular tools to receive a more detailed insight into prevalence and species that affect them. Moreover, adult specimens of the filarial nematode Dipetalonema evansi were collected from the carcass of an infected animal. Microscopic examination was performed on Giemsa-stained blood smears, and blood was also spotted on Whatman FTA(®) cards for DNA analysis. Genomic DNA was extracted, and PCR was carried out for the detection of filaroid helminths, followed by sequence analysis of positive samples. Four samples were positive for microfilariae by microscopy, while 16 animals (8 %) were positive by PCR. Sequence analysis revealed D. evansi in all cases. Phylogenetic analysis of a cytochrome C oxidase subunit I (COI) sequence of filaroid nematodes showed that most species in a single genus cluster in the same clade; however, D. evansi and D. gracile are not monophyletic and branch rather at the base of the tree. Further studies on the life cycle of D. evansi, specifically the identification of intermediate host(s), have become feasible with the provision of the first specific COI sequences in this study.

  6. Molecular genotyping of Echinococcus granulosus from dromedaries (Camelus dromedarius) in eastern Iran.

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    Moghaddas, E; Borji, H; Naghibi, A; Shayan, P; Razmi, G R

    2015-01-01

    With the aim of genotyping Echinococcus granulosus cysts found in Iranian dromedaries (Camelus dromedarius), 50 cysts of E. granulosus were collected from five geographical regions in Iran. Cysts were characterized using polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) analysis of the internal transcribed spacer 1 (ITS1) gene and sequencing fragments of the genes coding for mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (cox1). Morphological criteria using rostellar hook dimensions were also undertaken. The present results have shown that 27 out of 50 E. granulosus cysts (54%) were determined as the G1 strain, and the other (46%) were determined as the G6 strain. The molecular analysis of the ITS1 region of ribosomal DNA corresponded with the morphological findings. Because of its recognized infectivity in humans, the G1 genotype is a direct threat to human health and its presence in Iranian dromedaries is of urgent public health importance.

  7. Effect of dystocia on some hormonal and biochemical parameters in the one-humped camel (Camelus dromedarius).

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    Ghoneim, I M; Waheed, M M; Al-Eknah, M M; Al-Raja'a, A

    2016-08-01

    The present study compared some of the hormonal and biochemical constituents of serum from eutocic and dystocic one-humped camels (Camelus dromedarius). Sera were harvested from eutocic (n = 9) and dystocic (n = 20) camels within the first 15 minutes after delivery. Although there were no differences in the concentrations of estradiol-17β (E2) and prostaglandin F2α (PGF2α) between the eutocic and the dystocic animals, the level of progesterone (P4) and cortisol was significantly higher (P dystocia than those that had a normal birth. There were no differences between the concentrations of alkaline phosphatase, aspartate aminotransferase, calcium, cholesterol, creatine kinase, creatinine, or magnesium (Mg) in eutocic and dystocic animals. The nitric oxide concentration was significantly higher (P dystocia than those that had normal births. By contrast, the serum concentrations of glucose, phosphorus (P), and triglycerides were significantly lower (P dystocia. Moreover, stress and hormonal changes may affect the metabolic traits in dystocia camels. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Biometric and Ultrasonographic Evaluation of the Testis of One-humped Camel (Camelus dromedarius

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    Riaz Hussain Pasha, Anas Sarwar Qureshi*, Laeeq Akbar Lodhi1 and Huma Jamil1

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Twenty four adult clinically healthy one-humped male camels (Camelus dromedarius were examined three times (beginning, mid and end in each season (winter, spring, summer and autumn for establishing the normal ultrasonic appearance and seasonal changes in the testicular parenchyma in the natural ecology of Punjab, Pakistan. The testes of each camel were scanned by using a B-mode real time ultrasound scanner fitted with a 7.5-MHz linear-array transducer. Scrotal biometry was done with the measuring tape during all the seasons of year. The tunics of the testes appeared as hyperechoic lines surrounding the homogenous, moderately echogenic parenchyma of the testis. The mediastinum testis was visualized as hyperechoic central line and a spot, in longitudinal and transverse sections, respectively. During winter season, the parenchyma was hyperechoic and mediastinum testis was seen as thin hyperechoic line. In spring, the echogenicity of parenchyma was moderate and mediastinum appeared relatively thick central hyperechoic line. In summer and autumn, less echoic parenchyma and thick band of mediastinum was recorded. Biometric studies showed significantly (P<0.01 higher scrotal length and width of the testis during winter and spring season as compared to summer and autumn. Present study revealed that the ultrasonic structure of camel testis resembles other mammals and season has an apparent effect on the testicular size and echogenicity of the testicular parenchyma in the one-humped camel.

  9. Minerals and nutritional composition of camel (camelus dromedarius) meat in Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muhmud, T.; Rehman, R.; Anwar, J.; Ali, S.

    2011-01-01

    The quality of camel meat has received little attention so far in Pakistan. It is nutritionally as good as that of the major sources of red or white meat. Camel is a desert animal but is not less than other red meat animals (beef, lamb and goat) in its composition. The proximate composition, fatty acid profile and mineral contents of the local camel (Camelus dromedarius) meat have been investigated. It contained 72.03 +- 0.014% water, 4.45 +- 0.011% ash, 5.79 +- 0.012% fat and 66.42 +- 0.534% protein. It has been found that camel meat has relatively more moisture, less fat, less ash and similar protein content than that of beef, lamb and goat [1]. It has similar mineral composition (Na, K, Ca, Fe, Zn, P, Mg, Cd, Cr, Co, Mo, Ni, and Pb) to beef except for sodium. Fatty acid profile for camel meat oil showed high content of palmitic acid and oleic acid. These two fatty acids are essential in human nutrition. In view of the above, it is possible that camel meat could make a greater contribution to the growing need for meat in developing countries like Pakistan. (author)

  10. Special cutaneous vascular elements in one-humped camel (Camelus dromedarius

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    Mohammad Rashad Fath-Elbab

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate the histomorphological structure and functional significance of various special regulatory devices of the vascular terminal branches of the skin in one-humped camel (Camelus dromedarius. Materials and methods: Skin samples from different body parts (e.g., front, neck and shoulder, back, belly, chest, thigh, flank and tail of camel were used in this study. The samples were stained with Harris hematoxylin and trichrome stain. Semithin sections were also prepared from these samples. Results: The vascular elements demonstrated in the current study included- throttle arteries within the dermis on the level of the hair papillae, glomus bodies within the dermis on the level mid-length of the hair follicles, medium-sized arteries on the level of the secretory end-pieces of the epitrichial sweat glands, and tufts of spirally-oriented arterioles in the nearby of the hair follicles. Conclusions: These vascular elements are either designed to control blood pressure (Hemo-dynamic mechanism or patterned to control body temperature (Thermo-regulatory mechanism. [J Adv Vet Anim Res 2016; 3(2.000: 106-111

  11. Serosurvey of Coxiella burnetii (Q fever) in Dromedary Camels (Camelus dromedarius) in Laikipia County, Kenya.

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    Browne, A S; Fèvre, E M; Kinnaird, M; Muloi, D M; Wang, C A; Larsen, P S; O'Brien, T; Deem, S L

    2017-11-01

    Dromedary camels (Camelus dromedarius) are an important protein source for people in semi-arid and arid regions of Africa. In Kenya, camel populations have grown dramatically in the past few decades resulting in the potential for increased disease transmission between humans and camels. An estimated four million Kenyans drink unpasteurized camel milk, which poses a disease risk. We evaluated the seroprevalence of a significant zoonotic pathogen, Coxiella burnetii (Q fever), among 334 camels from nine herds in Laikipia County, Kenya. Serum testing revealed 18.6% positive seroprevalence of Coxiella burnetii (n = 344). Increasing camel age was positively associated with C. burnetii seroprevalence (OR = 5.36). Our study confirmed that camels living in Laikipia County, Kenya, have been exposed to the zoonotic pathogen, C. burnetii. Further research to evaluate the role of camels in disease transmission to other livestock, wildlife and humans in Kenya should be conducted. © 2017 The Authors. Zoonoses and Public Health Published by Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  12. Camelus dromedarius

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    a plate of blood agar (5% defibrinated sheep blood) (Oxoid, Hampshire, Eng- land). ... tracts from the roots, leaves, seeds and exudates of different plant species to ... Herd size (mean ± SD), milking procedure, tick infestation and traditional.

  13. Alpha S1-casein polymorphisms in camel (Camelus dromedarius) and descriptions of biological active peptides and allergenic epitopes.

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    Erhardt, Georg; Shuiep, El Tahir Salih; Lisson, Maria; Weimann, Christina; Wang, Zhaoxin; El Zubeir, Ibtisam El Yas Mohamed; Pauciullo, Alfredo

    2016-06-01

    Milk samples of 193 camels (Camelus dromedarius) from different regions of Sudan were screened for casein variability by isoelectric focusing. Kappa-casein and beta-casein were monomorphic, whereas three protein patterns named αs1-casein A, C, and D were identified. The major allele A revealed frequencies of 0.79 (Lahaoi), 0.75 (Shanbali), 0.90 (Arabi Khali), and 0.88 (Arabi Gharbawi) in the different ecotypes. CSN1S1*C shows a single G > T nucleotide substitution in the exon 5, leading to a non-synonymous amino acid exchange (p.Glu30 > Asp30) in comparison to CSN1S1*A and D. At cDNA level, no further single nucleotide polymorphisms could be identified in CSN1S1* A, C, and D, whereas the variants CSN1S1*A and CSN1S1*C are characterized by missing of exon 18 compared to the already described CSN1S1*B, as consequence of DNA insertion of 11 bp at intron 17 which alter the pre-mRNA spliceosome machinery. A polymerase chain-restriction fragment length polymorphism method (PCR-RFLP) was established to type for G > T nucleotide substitution at genomic DNA level. The occurrence and differences of IgE-binding epitopes and bioactive peptides between αs1-casein A, C, and D after digestion were analyzed in silico. The amino acid substitutions and deletion affected the arising peptide pattern and thus modifications between IgE-binding epitopes and bioactive peptides of the variants were found. The allergenic potential of these different peptides will be investigated by microarray immunoassay using sera from milk-sensitized individuals, as it was already demonstrated for bovine αs1-casein variants.

  14. Molecular analysis of the bacterial microbiome in the forestomach fluid from the dromedary camel (Camelus dromedarius).

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    Bhatt, Vaibhav D; Dande, Suchitra S; Patil, Nitin V; Joshi, Chaitanya G

    2013-04-01

    Rumen microorganisms play an important role in ruminant digestion and absorption of nutrients and have great potential applications in the field of rumen adjusting, food fermentation and biomass utilization etc. In order to investigate the composition of microorganisms in the rumen of camel (Camelus dromedarius), this study delves in the microbial diversity by culture-independent approach. It includes comparison of rumen samples investigated in the present study to other currently available metagenomes to reveal potential differences in rumen microbial systems. Pyrosequencing based metagenomics was applied to analyze phylogenetic and metabolic profiles by MG-RAST, a web based tool. Pyrosequencing of camel rumen sample yielded 8,979,755 nucleotides assembled to 41,905 sequence reads with an average read length of 214 nucleotides. Taxonomic analysis of metagenomic reads indicated Bacteroidetes (55.5 %), Firmicutes (22.7 %) and Proteobacteria (9.2 %) phyla as predominant camel rumen taxa. At a finer phylogenetic resolution, Bacteroides species dominated the camel rumen metagenome. Functional analysis revealed that clustering-based subsystem and carbohydrate metabolism were the most abundant SEED subsystem representing 17 and 13 % of camel metagenome, respectively. A high taxonomic and functional similarity of camel rumen was found with the cow metagenome which is not surprising given the fact that both are mammalian herbivores with similar digestive tract structures and functions. Combined pyrosequencing approach and subsystems-based annotations available in the SEED database allowed us access to understand the metabolic potential of these microbiomes. Altogether, these data suggest that agricultural and animal husbandry practices can impose significant selective pressures on the rumen microbiota regardless of rumen type. The present study provides a baseline for understanding the complexity of camel rumen microbial ecology while also highlighting striking

  15. A comparative study of ketone body metabolism between the camel (Camelus dromedarius) and the sheep (Ovis aries).

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    Chandrasena, L G; Emmanuel, B; Hamar, D W; Howard, B R

    1979-01-01

    1. Plasma levels of beta-hydroxybutyrate (BHB), and acetoacetate (AcAc) have been measured in camels (Camelus dromedarius) and sheep (Ovis aries). The activity of beta-hydroxybutyrate dehydrogenase (BHB-deH2) (E.C. 1.1.1.30) was studied in the rumen epithelium and the liver of these animals. 2. Concentrations of plasma BHB and AcAc in the camel were in respective order 33 and 4 times lower than that of the sheep. The ratios of BHB to AcAc were 0.61 and 4.8 for the camel and sheep, respectively. 3. The activity of BHB-deH2 in the rumen epithelium of the camel and sheep were 7.15 and 66 mumol/hr/g wet wt tissue, respectively. The activity in both species was higher in the rumen epithelium than in the liver.

  16. Cholesterol addition aids the cryopreservation of dromedary camel (Camelus dromedarius) spermatozoa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crichton, Elizabeth G; Pukazhenthi, Budhan S; Billah, M; Skidmore, Julian A

    2015-01-15

    The cryopreservation of dromedary camel (Camelus dromedarius) sperm has proved challenging with little success reported. The routine application of artificial insemination with frozen semen would assist the flow of valuable genetic material nationally and internationally. The current study sought to examine the effects of cholesterol (cholesterol-loaded cyclodextrin [CLC]) preloading on camel sperm cryosurvival. Ejaculates (n = 3 males; 3 ejaculates per male) were collected using an artificial vagina during the breeding season and extended in HEPES-buffered Tyrode's albumin lactate pyruvate (TALP) and allowed to liquefy in the presence of papain (0.1 mg/mL) before removal of the seminal plasma by centrifugation. Sperm pellets were resuspended (120 million/mL) in fresh TALP and incubated (15 minutes; 37 °C) with 0, 1.5, or 4.5 mg CLC/mL. Sperm suspensions were then centrifuged and reconstituted in INRA-96 containing 20% (v:v) egg yolk and 2.5% (v:v) methylformamide, loaded in 0.5-mL plastic straws, sealed, and cooled for 20 minutes at 4 °C. Straws were frozen over liquid nitrogen (4 cm above liquid; 15 minutes), plunged, and stored. Sperm motility, forward progressive status, and acrosomal integrity were recorded at 0 and 3 hours after thawing and compared with these same parameters before freezing. Aliquots also were stained with chlortetracycline hydrochloride to assess spontaneous sperm capacitation status before freezing and post-thaw. Pretreatment with CLC (1.5 and 4.5 mg/mL) enhanced cryosurvival. Post-thaw sperm motility was highest (P < 0.05) in 1.5 mg CLC/mL immediately after thawing (44%) and after 3 hours incubation at room temperature (34%). Highest post-thaw sperm progressive status was also achieved in the presence of 1.5 CLC. Greater proportions of spermatozoa retained acrosomal membrane integrity when cryopreserved in the presence of CLC, but there was no difference between 1.5 and 4.5 CLC. Although thawed spermatozoa underwent spontaneous

  17. Molecular Cloning, Characterization and Predicted Structure of a Putative Copper-Zinc SOD from the Camel, Camelus dromedarius

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    Ajamaluddin Malik

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Superoxide dismutase (SOD is the first line of defense against oxidative stress induced by endogenous and/or exogenous factors and thus helps in maintaining the cellular integrity. Its activity is related to many diseases; so, it is of importance to study the structure and expression of SOD gene in an animal naturally exposed most of its life to the direct sunlight as a cause of oxidative stress. Arabian camel (one humped camel, Camelus dromedarius is adapted to the widely varying desert climatic conditions that extremely changes during daily life in the Arabian Gulf. Studying the cSOD1 in C. dromedarius could help understand the impact of exposure to direct sunlight and desert life on the health status of such mammal. The full coding region of a putative CuZnSOD gene of C. dromedarius (cSOD1 was amplified by reverse transcription PCR and cloned for the first time (gene bank accession number for nucleotides and amino acids are JF758876 and AEF32527, respectively. The cDNA sequencing revealed an open reading frame of 459 nucleotides encoding a protein of 153 amino acids which is equal to the coding region of SOD1 gene and protein from many organisms. The calculated molecular weight and isoelectric point of cSOD1 was 15.7 kDa and 6.2, respectively. The level of expression of cSOD1 in different camel tissues (liver, kidney, spleen, lung and testis was examined using Real Time-PCR. The highest level of cSOD1 transcript was found in the camel liver (represented as 100% followed by testis (45%, kidney (13%, lung (11% and spleen (10%, using 18S ribosomal subunit as endogenous control. The deduced amino acid sequence exhibited high similarity with Cebus apella (90%, Sus scrofa (88%, Cavia porcellus (88%, Mus musculus (88%, Macaca mulatta (87%, Pan troglodytes (87%, Homo sapiens (87%, Canis familiaris (86%, Bos taurus (86%, Pongo abelii (85% and Equus caballus (82%. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that cSOD1 is grouped together with S. scrofa. The

  18. Molecular cloning, characterization and predicted structure of a putative copper-zinc SOD from the camel, Camelus dromedarius.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ataya, Farid S; Fouad, Dalia; Al-Olayan, Ebtsam; Malik, Ajamaluddin

    2012-01-01

    Superoxide dismutase (SOD) is the first line of defense against oxidative stress induced by endogenous and/or exogenous factors and thus helps in maintaining the cellular integrity. Its activity is related to many diseases; so, it is of importance to study the structure and expression of SOD gene in an animal naturally exposed most of its life to the direct sunlight as a cause of oxidative stress. Arabian camel (one humped camel, Camelus dromedarius) is adapted to the widely varying desert climatic conditions that extremely changes during daily life in the Arabian Gulf. Studying the cSOD1 in C. dromedarius could help understand the impact of exposure to direct sunlight and desert life on the health status of such mammal. The full coding region of a putative CuZnSOD gene of C. dromedarius (cSOD1) was amplified by reverse transcription PCR and cloned for the first time (gene bank accession number for nucleotides and amino acids are JF758876 and AEF32527, respectively). The cDNA sequencing revealed an open reading frame of 459 nucleotides encoding a protein of 153 amino acids which is equal to the coding region of SOD1 gene and protein from many organisms. The calculated molecular weight and isoelectric point of cSOD1 was 15.7 kDa and 6.2, respectively. The level of expression of cSOD1 in different camel tissues (liver, kidney, spleen, lung and testis) was examined using Real Time-PCR. The highest level of cSOD1 transcript was found in the camel liver (represented as 100%) followed by testis (45%), kidney (13%), lung (11%) and spleen (10%), using 18S ribosomal subunit as endogenous control. The deduced amino acid sequence exhibited high similarity with Cebus apella (90%), Sus scrofa (88%), Cavia porcellus (88%), Mus musculus (88%), Macaca mulatta (87%), Pan troglodytes (87%), Homo sapiens (87%), Canis familiaris (86%), Bos taurus (86%), Pongo abelii (85%) and Equus caballus (82%). Phylogenetic analysis revealed that cSOD1 is grouped together with S. scrofa. The

  19. Gross Morphology and Localization of Adenohypophyseal Cells in Camel (Camelus dromedarius Using A New Combination of Stains

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    S. A. S. Jaspal, Z. U. Rahman* and A. M. Cheema

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Thirty normal camels (Camelus dromedarius were selected for gross morphological and modified staining of anterior pituitary. Camels were divided in three age groups viz 2-4, 5-10 and above 10 years. Pituitary weight, length, width and circumference were recorded before preservation and at midsegittal cutting. Pituitary weight increased significantly as these animals grew older. Male had heavier pituitary as compared to female. Higher pituitary weight was observed in old as compared to young camel. Sections (4m of camel pituitary gland were stained with “Phosphotungstic acid haematoxylin-Orange G-Acid fuchsin-Light green” combination of dyes. This combination of acidic and basic dyes showed affinity to their respective adenohypophyseal cells and proved a suitable combination for differentiation of adenohypophyseal cells and architectural pattern of pituitary gland. Use of Lugol’s Iodine and sodium thiosulphate solution caused mercury fixation which ultimately enhanced the staining of camel adenohypophysis. The whole pituitary presented a brilliant appearance of clarity, enabling cell counts to be performed easily, purely with reference to the colors of adenohypophyseal cell types. This method can be applied for differential staining of adenohypophysis and with good cytology results to the hypophysis of many mammals. The method also provides a sharp contrast between cellular and connective tissue components. With this staining technique, the quantitative and qualitative characteristics of different adenohypophyseal cell types at various functional and hormonal stages, under certain physiological and pathological conditions can also be studied.

  20. Streptococcus equi subsp zooepidemicus pleuropneumonia and peritonitis in a dromedary camel (Camelus dromedarius) calf in North America.

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    Stoughton, William B; Gold, Jenifer

    2015-08-01

    A 12-week-old female dromedary camel (Camelus dromedarius) calf was evaluated because of acute (blood, peritoneal fluid, and pleural fluid samples indicated Streptococcus equi subsp zooepidemicus septicemia as the etiology for the polyserositis (ie, alpaca fever). Treatment with IV broad-spectrum antimicrobials, an NSAID, and pleural drainage was initiated. Clinical signs of pleuropneumonia, peritonitis, and systemic infection improved rapidly 24 hours after initiation of medical treatment. The calf was discharged from the hospital after 11 days, and antimicrobial treatment continued for 2 weeks after discharge. At follow-up approximately 4 weeks after hospital discharge (6 weeks after the initial examination), there were no clinical signs suggestive of relapse or any reported complications. S equi subsp zooepidemicus may cause polyserositis in Old World camelids (eg, dromedary camels) with signs similar to those seen in New World camelids (eg, alpaca and llama). The rapid response to medical treatment for the patient described suggested that S equi subsp zooepidemicus-induced polyserositis (alpaca fever) in dromedary camels may respond favorably to appropriate treatment. Reducing stress, reducing overcrowding, and separate housing of equids and camelids are suggested. Further studies are needed to better assess the epidemiology of alpaca fever in dromedary camels in North America.

  1. A new anaerobic fungus (Oontomyces anksri gen. nov., sp. nov.) from the digestive tract of the Indian camel (Camelus dromedarius).

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    Dagar, Sumit S; Kumar, Sanjay; Griffith, Gareth W; Edwards, Joan E; Callaghan, Tony M; Singh, Rameshwar; Nagpal, Ashok K; Puniya, Anil K

    2015-08-01

    Two cultures of anaerobic fungi were isolated from the forestomach of an Indian camel (Camelus dromedarius). Phylogenetic analysis using both the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) and large-subunit (LSU) regions of the rRNA locus demonstrated that these isolates were identical and formed a distinct clade within the anaerobic fungi (phylum Neocallimastigomycota). Morphological examination showed that these fungi formed monocentric thalli with filamentous rhizoids and uniflagellate zoospores, broadly similar to members of the genus Piromyces. However, distinctive morphological features were observed, notably the pinching of the cytoplasm in the sporangiophore and the formation of intercalary rhizoidal swellings. Since genetic analyses demonstrated this fungus was only distantly related to Piromyces spp. and closer to the polycentric Anaeromyces clade, we have assigned it to a new genus and species Oontomyces anksri gen. nov., sp. nov. Interrogation of the GenBank database identified several closely related ITS sequences, which were all environmental sequences obtained from camels, raising the possibility that this fungus may be specific to camelids. Copyright © 2015 The British Mycological Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Urinary excretion of purine derivatives as an index of microbial protein synthesis in the camel (Camelus dromedarius).

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    Guerouali, Abdelhai; El Gass, Youssef; Balcells, Joaquim; Belenguer, Alvaro; Nolan, John

    2004-08-01

    Five experiments were carried out to extend knowledge of purine metabolism in the camel (Camelus dromedarius) and to establish a model to enable microbial protein outflow from the forestomachs to be estimated from the urinary excretion of purine derivatives (PD; i.e. xanthine, hypoxanthine, uric acid, allantoin). In experiment 1, four camels were fasted for five consecutive days to enable endogenous PD excretion in urine to be determined. Total PD excretion decreased during the fasting period to 267 (SE 41.5) micromol/kg body weight (W)0.75 per d. Allantoin and xanthine + hypoxanthine were consistently 86 and 6.1 % of total urinary PD during this period but uric acid increased from 3.6 % to 7.4 %. Xanthine oxidase activity in tissues (experiment 2) was (micromol/min per g fresh tissue) 0.038 in liver and 0.005 in gut mucosa but was not detected in plasma. In experiment 3, the duodenal supply of yeast containing exogenous purines produced a linear increase in urinary PD excretion rate with the slope indicating that 0.63 was excreted in urine. After taking account of endogenous PD excretion, the relationship can be used to predict purine outflow from the rumen. From the latter prediction, and also the purine:protein ratio in bacteria determined in experiment 5, we predicted the net microbial outflow from the rumen. In experiment 4, with increasing food intake, the rate of PD excretion in the urine increased linearly by about 11.1 mmol PD/kg digestible organic matter intake (DOMI), equivalent to 95 g microbial protein/kg DOMI.

  3. Molecular detection of Rickettsia aeschlimannii in Hyalomma spp. ticks from camels (Camelus dromedarius) in Nigeria, West Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamani, J; Baneth, G; Apanaskevich, D A; Mumcuoglu, K Y; Harrus, S

    2015-06-01

    Several species of the spotted fever group rickettsiae have been identified as emerging pathogens throughout the world, including in Africa. In this study, 197 Hyalomma ticks (Ixodida: Ixodidae) collected from 51 camels (Camelus dromedarius) in Kano, northern Nigeria, were screened by amplification and sequencing of the citrate synthase (gltA), outer membrane protein A (ompA) and 17-kDa antigen gene fragments. Rickettsia sp. gltA fragments were detected in 43.3% (42/97) of the tick pools tested. Rickettsial ompA gene fragments (189 bp and 630 bp) were detected in 64.3% (n = 27) and 23.8% (n = 10) of the gltA-positive tick pools by real-time and conventional polymerase chain reaction (PCR), respectively. The amplicons were 99-100% identical to Rickettsia aeschlimannii TR/Orkun-H and R. aeschlimannii strain EgyRickHimp-El-Arish in GenBank. Furthermore, 17-kDa antigen gene fragments of 214 bp and 265 bp were detected in 59.5% (n = 25) and 38.1% (n = 16), respectively, of tick pools, and sequences were identical to one another and 99-100% identical to those of the R. aeschlimannii strain Ibadan A1 in GenBank. None of the Hyalomma impressum ticks collected were positive for Rickettsia sp. DNA. Rickettsia sp. gltA fragments (133 bp) were detected in 18.8% of camel blood samples, but all samples were negative for the other genes targeted. This is the first report to describe the molecular detection of R. aeschlimannii in Hyalomma spp. ticks from camels in Nigeria. © 2015 The Royal Entomological Society.

  4. Composition, Quality and Health Aspects of the Dromedary (Camelus dromedarius and Bactrian (Camelus bacterianus Camel Meats: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isam T. Kadim

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The dromedary and bactrian camels are good sources of high quality protein especially in areas where the climate adversely affects the survival of other livestock. The camel has unique physiological characteristics, including a great tolerance to high and low temperatures, solar radiation, water scarcity, rough topography and poor vegetation. Camels are mostly produced under traditional systems on poor levels of nutrition and are mostly slaughtered at old ages after completing a career in work, racing or milk production. In general, camel carcasses contain about 57% muscle, 26% bone and 17% fat with fore-quarters (cranial to rib 13 significantly heavier than the hind halves. Camel lean meat contains about 78% water, 19% protein, 3% fat, and 1.2% ash with a small amount of intramuscular fat, which renders it a healthy food for growing human populations. The amino acid and mineral contents of camel meat are often higher than other meat animals, probably due to lower intramuscular fat levels. Camel meat has been processed into burgers, patties, sausages and shawarma to add value. Future research efforts need to focus on exploiting the potential of the camel as a source of meat through multidisciplinary research into efficient production systems and improved meat technology and marketing.

  5. Proteomic Profiling Comparing the Effects of Different Heat Treatments on Camel (Camelus dromedarius) Milk Whey Proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benabdelkamel, Hicham; Masood, Afshan; Alanazi, Ibrahim O; Alzahrani, Dunia A; Alrabiah, Deema K; AlYahya, Sami A; Alfadda, Assim A

    2017-03-28

    Camel milk is consumed in the Middle East because of its high nutritional value. Traditional heating methods and the duration of heating affect the protein content and nutritional quality of the milk. We examined the denaturation of whey proteins in camel milk by assessing the effects of temperature on the whey protein profile at room temperature (RT), moderate heating at 63 °C, and at 98 °C, for 1 h. The qualitative and quantitative variations in the whey proteins before and after heat treatments were determined using quantitative 2D-difference in gel electrophoresis (DIGE)-mass spectrometry. Qualitative gel image analysis revealed a similar spot distribution between samples at RT and those heated at 63 °C, while the spot distribution between RT and samples heated at 98 °C differed. One hundred sixteen protein spots were determined to be significantly different ( p protein spots were decreased in common in both the heat-treated samples and an additional 25 spots were further decreased in the 98 °C sample. The proteins with decreased abundance included serum albumin, lactadherin, fibrinogen β and γ chain, lactotransferrin, active receptor type-2A, arginase-1, glutathione peroxidase-1 and, thiopurine S, etc. Eight protein spots were increased in common to both the samples when compared to RT and included α-lactalbumin, a glycosylation-dependent cell adhesion molecule. Whey proteins present in camel milk were less affected by heating at 63 °C than at 98 °C. This experimental study showed that denaturation increased significantly as the temperature increased from 63 to 98 °C.

  6. Role of Production Area, Seasonality and Age of Fermented Camel (Camelus Dromedarius Milk Gariss on Mineral Contents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Ismail Ahmed

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to study the differences between some minerals content of gariss samples collected from two different production areas in two different production systems (i.e. traditional system Kordofan area and semi-intensive system- which, the camels are kept in an open barn and graze around the farm. The lactating female camels are supplemented with concentrates in addition to good quality ration containing groundnut cake and Sorghum biocolor and water supply upon required in Kordofan and Khartoum provinces in Sudan at the different seasons (summer, autumn and winter and their gariss samples were collected. Sodium, potassium, calcium, magnesium and phosphorus of gariss samples collected in autumn season (Kordofan area, summer season (Khartoum area, and winter season (Khartoum and Kordofan areas were determined, after that the age of gariss was noted from farmers directly when the samples were collected. Four different ages of gariss which registered were (5-8 hrs, 12 hrs, 48 hrs and more than 48 hrs. Each fermentation time (age of gariss was used for analyzing mineral contents. The results showed that gariss prepared from different production locations and in different seasons in Kordofan and Khartoum production areas were statistically different in most of the mineral contents determined. To conclude, different feeding sources or different physiological status may affect camels’ milk and consequently their gariss product, also different age of gariss had affects the mineral content of milk.

  7. The association between glutamine repeats in the androgen receptor gene and personality traits in dromedary camel (Camelus dromedarius).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramadan, Sherif; Nowier, Amira M; Hori, Yusuke; Inoue-Murayama, Miho

    2018-01-01

    Temperament traits such as fearfulness are important as they define an animal's responses to its environment and handling. The increasing automation of daily tasks and growing population limits contact between camels and humans. Such limitations contribute to fear of humans and changes in physical environment. Monoamine oxidase A (MAOA) and androgen receptor (AR) genes are important candidates associated with mammal personality. In our analysis, MAOA exon 15 showed no polymorphism but a novel polymorphism was seen in the camel AR exon 1; 16, 17, 18, and 19 glutamine repeats were detected. We genotyped 138 camels belonging to four Egyptian breeds: Maghrabi (n = 90), Sudani (n = 15), Somali (n = 23), and Baladi (n = 10) for AR. Out of the 90 genotyped Maghrabi camels, we evaluated responses of 33 and 32 mature females to a novel object and exposure to an unfamiliar person, respectively. AR gene showed a significant association based on the principal component (PC) score, which indicated the fear of human touch, and the PC score indicates fear during interaction with novel objects. Individuals carrying a shorter genotype in homozygote (S/S) were found to be more fearful. Furthermore, we found that Sudani and Somali breeds had a higher frequency of shorter genotype (S/S), which was associated with increased fearfulness. These findings reflect the behavioral tendency and consequently, affect the use of this breed. This is the first report showing the role of AR glutamine repeats influencing a behavioral trait in dromedary camels and leading to inter-breed differences. Fear-related traits reported here are important because camels cope with various types of stresses and fear, resulting from the demands of intensive production systems and racing events. However, further studies, employing functional genomics and linkage analysis are necessary for confirming the relationship between fearfulness and genetic variation.

  8. The association between glutamine repeats in the androgen receptor gene and personality traits in dromedary camel (Camelus dromedarius.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sherif Ramadan

    Full Text Available Temperament traits such as fearfulness are important as they define an animal's responses to its environment and handling. The increasing automation of daily tasks and growing population limits contact between camels and humans. Such limitations contribute to fear of humans and changes in physical environment. Monoamine oxidase A (MAOA and androgen receptor (AR genes are important candidates associated with mammal personality. In our analysis, MAOA exon 15 showed no polymorphism but a novel polymorphism was seen in the camel AR exon 1; 16, 17, 18, and 19 glutamine repeats were detected. We genotyped 138 camels belonging to four Egyptian breeds: Maghrabi (n = 90, Sudani (n = 15, Somali (n = 23, and Baladi (n = 10 for AR. Out of the 90 genotyped Maghrabi camels, we evaluated responses of 33 and 32 mature females to a novel object and exposure to an unfamiliar person, respectively. AR gene showed a significant association based on the principal component (PC score, which indicated the fear of human touch, and the PC score indicates fear during interaction with novel objects. Individuals carrying a shorter genotype in homozygote (S/S were found to be more fearful. Furthermore, we found that Sudani and Somali breeds had a higher frequency of shorter genotype (S/S, which was associated with increased fearfulness. These findings reflect the behavioral tendency and consequently, affect the use of this breed. This is the first report showing the role of AR glutamine repeats influencing a behavioral trait in dromedary camels and leading to inter-breed differences. Fear-related traits reported here are important because camels cope with various types of stresses and fear, resulting from the demands of intensive production systems and racing events. However, further studies, employing functional genomics and linkage analysis are necessary for confirming the relationship between fearfulness and genetic variation.

  9. Milk Somatic Cell Counts and Some Hemato-Biochemical Changes in Sub-Clinical Mastitic Dromedary She-Camels (Camelus dromedarius

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farah Ali, Riaz Hussain, Abdul Qayyum, Shafia Tehseen Gul, Zahid Iqbal and Mohammad Farooque Hassan

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The dromedary camels are considered as the best livestock animals in arid, semiarid and desert areas and camel milk is known as the valuable food source in these areas. The present study was aimed to investigate milk somatic cell counts and some biochemical changes in milk due to sub-clinical mastitis in camels. For this purpose milk samples were collected from 33 lactating animals and examined for sub clinical mastitis using California Mastitis Test. The chi-square and frequency analysis did not show any significant association with age, lactation stage, parity and quarter involved. The results indicated significant (P<0.01 increase in milk electrical conductivity and milk pH while significantly lower values for milk proteins, lactose and fat contents were recorded. The results revealed that the total milk somatic cell and neutrophil counts were significantly increased while the lymphocytes and macrophages were decreased in infected animals. Moreover, milk enzymes; aspartate aminotransferase, lactate dehydrogenase, and alkaline phosphatase were significantly increased in mastitic animals as compared to the non-infected animals. The results indicated that milk electrical conductivity and some milk enzymes can be screened to investigate the sub-clinical mastitis in Camelus dromedaries.

  10. The effect of fibre source on the numbers of some fibre-degrading bacteria of Arabian camel's (Camelus dromedarius) foregut origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samsudin, Anjas Asmara; Wright, André-Denis; Al Jassim, Rafat

    2014-10-01

    The total bacterial community of Fibrobacter succinogenes and Ruminococcus flavefaciens in fibre-enriched culture of the foregut contents of 12 adult feral camels (Camelus dromedaries) fed on native vegetation in Australia was investigated using quantitative PCR. Foregut contents were collected postmortem, pooled and filtered before divided into two fractions. One fraction was used for extraction of DNA, while the other fraction was inoculated straight away into BM 10 contained filter paper (FP), cotton thread (CT) or neutral detergent fibre (NDF) as the sole carbohydrate sources in Hungate tubes. The tubes were incubated anaerobically at 39 °C for 1 week. After a near complete degradation of the FP and CT and extensive turbidity in the NDF, media subculturing was carried out into fresh media tubes. This was repeated twice before genomic DNA was extracted and used for quantification of bacteria. Using an absolute quantification method, the numbers of cells in 1 ml of each sample ranged from 4.07 × 10(6) to 2.73 × 10(9) for total bacteria, 1.34 × 10(3) to 2.17 × 10(5) for F. succinogenes and 5.78 × 10(1) to 3.53 × 10(4) for R. flavefaciens. The mean cell number of F. succinogenes was highest in the FP enrichment medium at approximately 107-fold, whereas for the R. flavefaciens targeted primer, the NDF enrichment media had the highest mean cell number at approximately 4-fold when compared to the rumen content. The data presented here provide evidence of fibre type preference by the two main fibre-degrading bacteria and would help us understand the interaction between fibre type and fibre-degrading microorganisms, which has ramification on camel nutrition at different seasons and environments.

  11. Hematological and serum biochemical aspects associated with a camel (Camelus dromedarius naturally infected by Trypanosoma evansi with severe parasitemia in Semnan, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmood Ahmadi-hamedani

    2014-09-01

    Conclusions: Results of the present study revealed that trypanosomosis was present in dromedary camels of Semnan, Iran (infection rate is 4.76% and hemato-biochemical parameters were markedly affected by camel trypanosomosis.

  12. One-Humped Camels (Camelus dromedaries Hard Ticks Infestation in Qeshm Island, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeed Nazifi

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The economic importance of tick infestation on camels are important as they are important meat and milk producer animals in the less vegetation area of Iran and their health and production are greatly affected by the high tick infestation. In this investigation, tick infestations on camels (Camelus dromedarius were determined in Qeshm Island, Iran. A total number of 912 adult ticks (472 males and 440 females were collected and identified. Hyalomma dromedarii was the predominant tick specie and accounted for 61.9% of the adult ticks. Other hard ticks were H. anatolicum excavatum (22 %, H. asiaticum asiaticum (14.2 %, H. marginatum (1.9 %, H. impeltatum (0.4 % and Ripicephalus bursa (0.4 %. In conclusion, The provision of tick control programs in the Qeshm Island would seem a prerequisite for improving camel meat and milk production.

  13. Trypanosomosis of The Dromedary Camel ( Camelus dromedarius ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    caught more arthropod vectors than similarly baited black/grey biconical and black/grey NITSE traps. From the foregoing, the results showed that mixed trypanosome infections occur commonly among camels in the arid zone of northeastern Nigeria. Secondly, haematophagus arthropods vectors may be involved in the ...

  14. Bioinformatics and Phylogenetic Analysis of Mitochondrial COX3 Gene in Iranian Camelus Dromedaries and Camelus Bactrianus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tooba Abbassi-Daloii

    2016-11-01

    (BLAST were used in order to find the homology of sequences. Further analysis of the sequences were carried out, by using the other software’s such as Chromas Lite (http://www.technelysium.com.au, Bio Edit (http://www.mbio.ncsu.edu/bioedit/bioedit.html and the obtained sequences, were aligned with other COX3 gene of camel and other species, using CLC Main workbench 5.5 software (http://www.clcbio.com. The sequences were conducted using the maximum composite likelihood method by MEGA software (www.megasoftware.net, version v.5.2. Phylogenetic tree was constructed using the Neighbor-Joining method by the same software. Results and discussion The results shown that there are no differences between COX3 sequences in both samples from Iranian Camelus dromedaries and Camelus bactrianus and also their sequences have 100 percent homology with Camelus dromedarius (Arabian camel and Iranian Camelus dromedaries Camelus bactrianus (Bactrian camel, respectively. Comparison of nucleotide and amino acid sequences and also three-dimensional structure of COX3 in Iranian camel species demonstrated that these two species have close genetic distance. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that these two species have the most genetic distance with Lama guanicoe among the CAMELIDAE FAMILY. The content of nucleotide sequences showed that the estimated frequencies of A + T and C + G were in the range of 52.4 and 47.6 percents for Iranian Camelus dromedaries and 53.2 and 46.8 percents for Iranian Camelus bactrianus, respectively. Conclusion COX3 sequence analysis shown that Iranian Dromedarius and Bactrianus camels had high level homology in sequence and nucleotide content.

  15. Brucellosis in camels (Camelus dromedarius) in Darfur, Western Sudan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musa, M T; Eisa, M Z M; El Sanousi, E M; Abdel Wahab, M B; Perrett, L

    2008-01-01

    In a field outbreak of brucellosis in 21 camels mixed with cattle, sheep and goats, five camels, three of which showed clinical signs, were serologically positive. In a subsequent abattoir survey of apparently healthy camels, six animals were seropositive, albeit with titres that tended to be lower than those found in the field outbreak. Of the six seropositive slaughtered camels, five were shown to have lymph nodes (prescapular and supramammary) infected with brucellae (Brucella melitensis biovar 3, two camels; Brucella abortus biovar 6, three camels). Infection of camels with B. abortus biovar 6 had not previously been reported. Infection of the supramammary lymph nodes presents a potential hazard to those who consume raw camels' milk, a common practice in nomadic camel owners.

  16. Assessment Of Hygienic Quality Of Camel ( Camelus dromedarius ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A total of 112 individual camel milk samples were collected during the period from. December 2004 to June 2005 to evaluate the hygienic quality of raw camel milk in two locations of Khartoum State, Sudan. To achieve this the following microbiological counts were done: total bacterial counts, mesophilic counts, ...

  17. ACUTE PUERPERAL METRITIS IN A DROMEDARY CAMEL (CAMELUS DROMEDARIUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z.I. Qureshi, G. Muhammad, M. Athar and L.A. Lodhi

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available A case of acute puerperal metritis in a dromedary camel developing in the wake of dystokia corrected under unhygienic condition is described. The condition was associated with fever, foul-smelling purulent uterine discharge and pasty faeces. Pretreatment hematological examination indicated leukocytosis (22.05 x 103/mm3, owing to monocytosis (24 %. Microbiological examination of uterine discharge revealed a mixed bacterial infection with E. coli. Bacillus and streptococci which were all sensitive to nortloxacin, gentamicin, and amoxycillin, Faecal examination indicated a mixed infection with nematodes, Intrauterine administration of oxytetracycline with parenteral administration of amoxycillin, dipyrone and oral administration of oxfendazole successfully treated the case. The Principles of treatment of acute puerperal metritis have been discussed.

  18. Trypanosomiasis of camels (Camelus dromedarius in Algeria: First report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omar Bennoune

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Camel trypanosomosis is a life-threatening disease in the camel species and responsible for severe economic losses either in milk or meat productions. This study was carried out on the south-east area of Algeria on 100 camels of various ages and either sex from two herds. Microscopic examination of blood smears revealed higher levels of trypanosomosis caused by Trypanosoma evansi, an elongated parasite with a kinetoplast and a single nucleus located in its half-length and one flagellum with great heterogeneity. This first investigation reveals higher infection rate than those observed in other countries using blood smears, the trypanosomosis attack has reached an alarming level and the occurrence of trypanosomosis at this high level on blood smears is like "the tree that hides the forest" and make up a serious and potential danger both on animal and public health. Therefore, radical preventive and offensive drastic measures must be taken against this menacing disease at the critical points to prevent the economic losses and to avoid possible human transmission.

  19. Scrotal granulomatous aspergillosis in a dromedary camel (Camelus dromedarius)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scaglione, Frine Eleonora; Peano, Andrea; Piga, Sara

    2017-01-01

    a firm consistency and was painful at palpation. Histopathology revealed dermal granulomatous inflammation with a necrotic centre, surrounded by plasma cells, macrophages, neutrophils, and sparse fungal hyphae characterised by parallel cell walls, distinct septa, and dichotomous branching. Fungal culture...... was not performed, but a panel of mono- and polyclonal antibodies specific for different fungal genera identified the hyphae as Aspergillus sp. Conclusions The occurrence of subcutaneous lesions is a rare manifestation of aspergillosis in animals, and this appears to be the first case reported in the dromedary...

  20. Production and characterization of biodiesel from Camelus dromedarius (Hachi) fat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sbihi, Hassen Mohamed; Nehdi, Imededdine Arbi; Tan, Chin Ping; Al-Resayes, Saud Ibrahim

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Transesterification reaction with methanol in the presence of NaOH as a catalyst. • Optimization of key reaction parameters were performed. • Some fuel properties of biodiesel were measured and compared with biodiesel standards. • Ten of the properties that were evaluated for the diesel conform to the ASTM and EN standards values. - Abstract: Recently, biodiesel has been gaining market share against fossil-origin diesel due to its ecological benefits and because it can be directly substituted for traditional diesel oils. However, the high cost of the raw materials required to produce biodiesel make it more expensive than fossil diesel. Therefore, low-priced raw materials, such as waste cooking oil and animal fats, are of interest because they can be used to drive down the cost of biodiesel. We have produced biodiesel from camel fat using a transesterification reaction with methanol in the presence of NaOH. The experimental variables investigated in this study were the temperature (30–75 °C), reaction time (20–160 min), catalyst concentration (0.25–1.5%), and methanol/fat molar ratio (4:1–9:1). A maximum biodiesel yield of 98.6% was obtained. The fuel properties of biodiesel, such as iodine value, saponification value, density, kinematic viscosity, cetane number, flash point, sulfur content, carbon residue, water and sediment, high heating value, refractive index, cloud point, pour point, and distillation characteristics, were measured. The properties were compared with EN 14214 and ASTM 6751 biodiesel standards, and an acceptable level of agreement was obtained

  1. ( Camelus dromedarius ) of North east sahel region of Nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The values for red blood cell count, haemoglobin concentration, packed cell volume and erythrocyte indices were similar to those obtained from camels in Sokoto (North West Region) Nigeria; and also in accord with values published in the literature for Indian camels. Total leucocyte counts were relatively higher but within ...

  2. Taxonomy Icon Data: Arabian camel [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Arabian camel Camelus dromedarius Chordata/Vertebrata/Mammalia/Theria/Eutheria/Artiodactyla Camel...us_dromedarius_L.png Camelus_dromedarius_NL.png Camelus_dromedarius_S.png Camelus_dromedarius_...NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Camelus+dromedarius&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxo...nomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Camelus+dromedarius&t=NL http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Camel...us+dromedarius&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Camelus+dromedarius&t=NS ...

  3. Nicotiana glauca poisoning in ostriches (Struthio camelus)

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Botha, CJ

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Putative Nicotiana glauca (wild tobacco) poisoning was diagnosed in a flock of ostriches near Oudtshoorn, South Africa. Post mortem examinations (n = 7) were performed on ostriches (Struthio camelus) that had died. Suspicious leaf remnants (weighing...

  4. Milk production, raw milk quality and fertility of dromedary camels (Camelus Dromedarius) under intensive management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagy, Péter; Thomas, Sonia; Markó, Orsolya; Juhász, Jutka

    2013-03-01

    In many arid countries, dromedaries play an important role as a milk source in rural areas. However, the milk and meat production potential of this species is not well understood and documented. A large-scale camel dairy farm was established in 2006 in the United Arab Emirates. This study summarises the most important data on milk production, raw milk quality and reproductive efficiency collected on this farm during the first three years of operation. The average daily milk production, the mean length of lactation and the mean total milk production per lactation of 174 dromedaries were 6.0 ± 0.12 kg (± SEM), 586 ± 11.0 days (± SEM) and 3314 ± 98.5 kg (± SEM), respectively. The lactation curve reached its peak during the 4th month after parturition (mean ± SEM, 8.9 ± 0.04 kg), then it declined gradually, falling to 50% of the maximum by the 16th month postpartum (mean ± SEM, 4.3 ± 0.06 kg). Milking three times a day did not increase daily milk production compared to two times milking. Mean total viable bacterial count (TVC) and mean somatic cell count (SCC, ± SEM) of bulk raw camel milk were 4,403 ± 94 CFU/cm3 and 392,602 ± 5,999 cells/cm3 for a one-year period, respectively. There was a significant difference among months (P fat, protein, lactose, total solids (TS) and solid-non-fat (SNF) concentrations of individual milk samples were 2.51 ± 0.03%, 2.60 ± 0.01%, 4.03 ± 0.03%, 9.98 ± 0.03% and 7.56 ± 0.03%, respectively. Lactation period, average daily milk production and morning vs. evening milking significantly influenced milk chemical composition. For the 470 camels in the breeding programme, end-of-season pregnancy rate and birth rate were 87.0% and 82.6%, respectively, after natural mating. We have demonstrated that sustainable milk production is possible from a traditional species, the dromedary camel, under an intensive management system.

  5. COMPARATIVE GROSS ANATOMICAL STUDIES OF THE SKULL OF ONE-HUMPED CAMEL (CAMELUS DROMEDARIUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. U. Shahid and R. Kausar

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available The skull of camel when viewed from above was irregularly pentagonal in outline. It was widest in the frontal region and contained the orbits laterally. The occipital bone formed the entire nuchal surface and encroached upon the dorsal surface about 1.75 to 2 inches. It joined the parietal bone at transverse suture. A rough transverse ridge separated the parietal and nuchal surfaces. The mastoid foramen was very large and situated in a deep fossa in the occipital bone in contrast to ox, where it lay at the junction of occipital and temporal bones. The cornual processes were absent. The supraorbital foramen was in the form of a deep fissure, at the rostrolateral margin of the orbit. There was no maxillary tuberosity and facial crest. The pre maxilla had a dorsomedially concave and narrow pointed body. The nasal bones were notched rostromedially and nasal apertures were oval in outline. The body of mandible was long, narrow and concave dorsomedially. The intermandibular space was “V” shaped. The vertical ramus of mandible was thin and convex caudally and the angles were not pronounced, while the rostral border was thick and wide. The coronoid process was almost straight with caudal end slightly pointed. The condyliod process was large and its dorsal surface contained the extensive articular surfaces, which were convex. There was a shallow mandibular notch. The mandibular foramen was in the middle of the medial surface of the ramus of mandible.

  6. A biometric study of the digestive tract of one-humped camel (camelus dromedarius) fetuses

    OpenAIRE

    A. Bello; B.I. Onyeanusi; M.L. Sonfada; J.B. Adeyanju; M.A. Umaru

    2012-01-01

    A Biometrical study was conducted on the digestive tract of 35 foetuses of the one-humped camel collected from the Sokoto metropolitan abattoir, over a period of five months at different gestational ages. The approximate age of the foetuses was estimated from the crown vertebral rump length (CVRL) and samples were categorised into first, second and third trimester. The mean body weight of the foetus at first, second third trimester ranged from 1.40 ± 0.06 kg, 6.10 ± 0.05 kg and 17.87 ± 0.6 kg...

  7. Observations on the clinical examination of the camel (Camelus dromedarius) in the field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tefera, M

    2004-07-01

    Camels usually inhabit remote areas, where diagnostic facilities and laboratories are very scarce. The species differences between the camel and other domestic animals necessitate some specific examination techniques. The objective of this study was to describe the clinical examination methods and sources of common errors that require special consideration in the camel. Young camels are examined in the standing position, while adults require restraint. Restraining procedures, both standing and in sternal recumbency, are described. New equipment and a crush were designed. The body temperature of the camels examined fluctuated from 35.7 to 38.9 degrees C, being lowest in the morning and highest in the afternoon; high temperature in the morning is indicative of fever, while high afternoon temperatures could be hyperthermia. It was difficult to take the pulse rate for routine procedures. The heart rate ranged from 35 to 50 per min; there was no difference between the heart rate in the morning and in the afternoon. The mean respiratory rate was 11 per min and respiration was of thoracol-lumbar type. The mucous membranes of the eye were an important site for appreciating signs of discoloration, while those of the mouth, rectum and vagina were unsuitable. The left flank was the best site for determining the rate of rumen contractions, which was 3+/-1.2 every 5 min, as determined by auscultation; counting the contractions by the application of the fist was difficult. The palpable external lymph nodes were the parotid, maxillary, prescapular, inferior cervical, thoracic, cubital, ilial and popiteal; they are large and can be seen on inspection in healthy animals, so that was not indicative of disease. A list of diagnostic indicators for the rapid diagnosis of ten endemic camel diseases was generated from the empirical signs.

  8. SEQUENCING AND SEQUENCE ANALYSIS OF MYOSTATIN GENE IN THE EXON 1 OF THE CAMEL (CAMELUS DROMEDARIUS

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    M. G. SHAH, A. S. QURESHI1, M. REISSMANN2 AND H. J. SCHWARTZ3

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Myostatin, also called growth differentiation factor-8 (GDF-8, is a member of the mammalian growth transforming family (TGF-beta superfamily, which is expressed specifically in developing an adult skeletal muscle. Muscular hypertrophy allele (mh allele in the double muscle breeds involved mutation within the myostatin gene. Genomic DNA was isolated from the camel hair using NucleoSpin Tissue kit. Two animals of each of the six breeds namely, Marecha, Dhatti, Larri, Kohi, Sakrai and Cambelpuri were used for sequencing. For PCR amplification of the gene, a primer pair was designed from homolog regions of already published sequences of farm animals from GenBank. Results showed that camel myostatin possessed more than 90% homology with that of cattle, sheep and pig. Camel formed separate cluster from the pig in spite of having high homology (98% and showed 94% homology with cattle and sheep as reported in literature. Sequence analysis of the PCR amplified part of exon 1 (256 bp of the camel myostatin was identical among six camel breeds.

  9. Ultrastructure of the Interstitial Tissue in the Testis of the Egyptian Dromedary Camel (Camelus dromedarius

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    M. I. Abd-Elaziz, A. M. Kassem, D. M. Zaghloul*, A. E. Derbalah and M. H. Bolefa

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The ultrastructural examination of the testicular interstitial tissue of Egyptian dromedary camel was performed to observe the seasonal changes. The activity of the interstitial tissue increased largely in spring. This was indicated by the large number of mature Leydig cells and two to three layers of myofibroblasts around the basal laminae of the seminiferous tubules with large blood vessels in the interstitial tissue. The testicular activity was moderate in winter as indicated by the lower number of immature Leydig cells. The lowest activity was in summer when Leydig cells became inactive with pyknotic nuclei. The cells of interstitial tissue lost their junctions with each other, leaving large intercellular spaces and myofibroblasts transformed to fibrocytes. The testicular activity began again to increase in autumn. The testicular activity of camel, however, did not stop in any season of the year, because even in non-breeding seasons a part of the interstitial tissue of the testis was active.

  10. Innocuity and immune response to Brucella melitensis Rev.1 vaccine in camels (Camelus dromedarius

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    A. Benkirane

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available A field trial was conducted in a camel brucellosis-free herd to evaluate antibody response to the Brucella melitensis Rev.1 vaccine in camels and assess shedding of the vaccine strain in milk. Twenty eight camels were divided into four groups according to their age and vaccination route. Groups A (n=3 and B (n=3 consisted of non-pregnant lactating female camels, vaccinated through subcutaneous and conjunctival routes, respectively. Groups C (n=10 consisted of 8-11 months old calves vaccinated through conjunctival route. The rest of the herd (n=12 composed of female and young camels were not vaccinated and were considered as the control group. Each animal from groups A, B and C was given the recommended dose of 2 x 109 colony forming units of Rev.1 vaccine irrespective of age or route of vaccination. Blood samples were collected from all the animals at the time of vaccination and at weekly, bi-weekly and monthly interval until 32 weeks post vaccination and from controls at weeks 8 and 24. The serological tests used were modified Rose Bengal Test, sero-agglutination test, and an indirect Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay. Milk samples were collected from all vaccinated female camels and tested for the presence of Rev.1 vaccine strain. Most vaccinated animals started to show an antibody response at week 2 and remained positive until week 16. By week 20 post-vaccination all animals in the three groups were tested negative for Brucella antibodies. Bacteriological analysis of milk samples did not allow any isolation of Brucella melitensis. All samples were found Brucella negative in PCR analysis. The results of this study indicate that the Rev.1 vaccine induces seroconversion in camels. Rev.1 vaccine strain is not excreted in the milk of camels. These findings are promising as to the safe use of the Rev.1 vaccine in camels.

  11. Production systems and reproductive performances of Camelus dromedarius in Somali regional state, eastern Ethiopia

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    Simenew Keskes

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Across-sectional questionnaire survey and focused group discussions were conducted to characterize camel production systems and to evaluate reproductive performances of camels at their natural pastoralist management systems of Somali region. A total of 100 households were included in the study during the period of October 2012 to March 2013. About 98% of Somali pastoralists preferred camels as their first choice over other livestock species and mainly kept in the society for milk and meat production. The camel management dominating in the study areas of Somali region is traditional nomadic. Camel is one of the most important livestock for Somali pastoralists’ livelihood as a source of milk, meat and draught power. Mature female camels were dominant (54.87% in the camel herd. The ratio of male to female camel was 1:13. Mean age at first calving and calving interval were 62.16±10.44 and 23.28±3.36 months respectively. Age at first calving and calving interval can be minimized to 57±5.52 and 21.84±4.8 months by proper husbandry and health care. The mean lactation length was 11.51±1.91 months. Diseases and predators were reported as the main causes of calf mortality. In the herd dynamic simulation calf mortality rate can be reduced at least to 7% only by preventing predators attack. Diseases (66%, lack of pasture (59% and security (47% were the main constraints in camel production of the study areas. For the better productivity of camels, the major constraints such as disease problems, lack of pasture and tribal conflicts should be mitigated. Proper husbandry and health services can play significant roles in the long term improvement of camel production and productivity of the region.  

  12. One-Humped Camel (Camelus dromedarius Infestation withLinguatula serrata in Tabriz, Iran

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    HR Haddadzadeh

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available "n "nBackground: Linguatula serrata is one of well known members of Pentastomida which infects both human and animals. The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of L. serrata in mesenteric lymph nodes, livers and lungs of camels slaughtered in Tabriz area, Iran. "n "nMethods: Mesenteric lymph nodes (MLNs, livers and lungs of 140 one-humped camels slaughtered in Tabriz, north-west of Iran were investigated for nymphs of L. serrata from July 2007 to June 2008. The organs were examined macroscopically and then a tissue digestion method was also done for investigation of liver and lung of the camels that had infected MLN. The liver and lung samples were mostly taken from condemned and rejected part of organs. "n "nResults: The infection rate of L. serrata nymphs in MLNs, livers and lungs was 13.5%, 1.4% and 1.4% respectively. The number of isolated nymph in infected lymph nodes varied from 2 to 18 with a mean of 4.78. Only one nymph was isolated from each infected livers and lungs. The infection rate increased with age (p<0.05. No significant difference in different sex groups and seasons was observed (p>0.05. "n "nConclusion: Considering this fact that consumption of undercooked camel liver was not common in the studied area, the zoonotic importance of this infection should be concluded.

  13. Detailed Anatomy of the Cranial Cervical Ganglion in the Dromedary Camel (Camelus dromedarius).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nourinezhad, Jamal; Mazaheri, Yazdan; Biglari, Zahra

    2015-08-01

    The detailed morphology and topography of the cranial cervical ganglion (CCG) with its surrounding structures were studied in 10 sides of five heads of adult one-humped camel to determine its general arrangement as well as its differences and similarities to other animals. The following detailed descriptions were obtained: (1) the bilateral CCG was constantly present caudal to cranial base at the rostroventral border of the occipital condyle over the caudolateral part of nasopharynx; (2) the CCG was always in close relations medially with the longus capitis muscle, rostrolaterally with the internal carotid artery, and caudally with the vagus nerve; and (3) the branches of the CCG were the internal carotid and external carotid nerves, jugular nerve, cervical interganglionic branch, laryngopharyngeal branch, carotid sinus branch and communicating branches to the vagus, and first spinal nerves. In conclusion, there was no variation regarding topography of dromedary CCG among the specimens, in spite of typical variations in number, and mainly in origin of nerve branches ramifying from the CCG. In comparative anatomy aspect, the close constant relations, and presence of major nerves (internal/external carotid and jugular nerves) of dromedary CCG exhibited a typical reported animal's pattern. However, the shape, structures lateral to the CCG, the origin and course pattern of external carotid and jugular nerves, the number of the major nerves branches, the communicating branches of the CCG to the spinal and cranial nerves, and the separation of most rostral parts of vagosympathetic trunk of dromedary were different from those of most reported animals. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Molecular Identification of Hemoprotozoan Parasites in Camels (Camelus dromedarius of Iran

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    Alireza SAZMAND

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Although camels represent a valuable source of food, wool and hide in many countries, in-depth information about their vector-borne pathogens is scarce compared to other animals. The aim of the current study was to characterize vector-borne protozoa in the blood of dromedaries from Iran by molecular tools.Methods: From June to July 2014, 200 peripheral blood samples were collected from asymptomatic one-humped camels in two provinces of Kerman and Sistan- va-Baloochestan in central and southeastern Iran. Microscopic examination was performed on Giemsa-stained blood smears, and drops of blood were spotted on Whatman FTA® cards for further analyses. Genomic DNA was extracted from the cards, and PCR was carried out for the detection of piroplasms and trypanosomes, followed by sequence analysis of positive samples.Results: One sample was positive Trypanosoma spp. trypomastigotes in light microscopy. PCR results revealed one positive sample each with Theileria annulata and Trypanosoma evansi.Conclusion: Camels were identified as hosts for bovine Mediterranean theileriosis in the investigated area. The presence of Tr. evansi, the causative agent of surra disease, was also confirmed in camels of Iran. Further studies are recommended in order to investigate their impact on the health and productivity of camels and other livestock in this region.

  15. Detection of Candida species by nested PCR method in one-humped camels (Camelus dromedarius).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parin, Ugur; Erbas, Goksel; Kirkan, Sukru; Savasan, Serap; Tugba Yuksel, H; Balat, Gamze

    2018-02-01

    Systemic fungal diseases are the infections caused by false treatment protocols and generally are not taken into consideration especially in the veterinary field. One-humped camels are found in the western side of the Aegean region of our country and bred for wrestling. The aim of this study is the application of diagnosing systemic fungi infection from camel blood samples by the PCR method. In this study, specific primers for DNA topoisomerase II gene sequences were used. As a result, a systemic fungal infection was detected by the nested PCR method from 10 (20%) out of 50 DNA samples taken from camels located on the western side of the Aegean region. In this study, 3 (30%) samples were identified as Candida albicans, 3 (30%) samples were identified as C. glabrata, and 4 (40%) samples were identified as C. parapsilosis. In conclusion, the 20% positive systemic fungal infection rate in one-humped camels observed in the present study showed that the systemic fungal infections are not taken into considerations in veterinary medicine. Further studies are suggested in order to obtain and to maintain extensive data for systemic fungal diseases in our country for one-humped camels.

  16. Molecular Identification of Hemoprotozoan Parasites in Camels (Camelus dromedarius) of Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sazmand, Alireza; Eigner, Barbara; Mirzaei, Mohammad; Hekmatimoghaddam, Seyed Hossein; Harl, Josef; Duscher, Georg Gerhard; Fuehrer, Hans-Peter; Joachim, Anja

    2016-01-01

    Although camels represent a valuable source of food, wool and hide in many countries, in-depth information about their vector-borne pathogens is scarce compared to other animals. The aim of the current study was to characterize vector-borne protozoa in the blood of dromedaries from Iran by molecular tools. From June to July 2014, 200 peripheral blood samples were collected from asymptomatic one-humped camels in two provinces of Kerman and Sistan- va-Baloochestan in central and southeastern Iran. Microscopic examination was performed on Giemsa-stained blood smears, and drops of blood were spotted on Whatman FTA ® cards for further analyses. Genomic DNA was extracted from the cards, and PCR was carried out for the detection of piroplasms and trypanosomes, followed by sequence analysis of positive samples. One sample was positive Trypanosoma spp. trypomastigotes in light microscopy. PCR results revealed one positive sample each with Theileria annulata and Trypanosoma evansi . Camels were identified as hosts for bovine Mediterranean theileriosis in the investigated area. The presence of Tr. evansi , the causative agent of surra disease, was also confirmed in camels of Iran. Further studies are recommended in order to investigate their impact on the health and productivity of camels and other livestock in this region.

  17. Proteomics of old world camelid (Camelus dromedarius: Better understanding the interplay between homeostasis and desert environment

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    Mohamad Warda

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Life is the interplay between structural–functional integrity of biological systems and the influence of the external environment. To understand this interplay, it is useful to examine an animal model that competes with harsh environment. The dromedary camel is the best model that thrives under severe environment with considerable durability. The current proteomic study on dromedary organs explains a number of cellular mysteries providing functional correlates to arid living. Proteome profiling of camel organs suggests a marked increased expression of various cytoskeleton proteins that promote intracellular trafficking and communication. The comparative overexpression of α-actinin of dromedary heart when compared with rat heart suggests an adaptive peculiarity to sustain hemoconcentration–hemodilution episodes associated with alternative drought-rehydration periods. Moreover, increased expression of the small heat shock protein, α B-crystallin facilitates protein folding and cellular regenerative capacity in dromedary heart. The observed unbalanced expression of different energy related dependent mitochondrial enzymes suggests the possibility of mitochondrial uncoupling in the heart in this species. The evidence of increased expression of H+-ATPase subunit in camel brain guarantees a rapidly usable energy supply. Interestingly, the guanidinoacetate methyltransferase in camel liver has a renovation effect on high energy phosphate with possible concomitant intercession of ion homeostasis. Surprisingly, both hump fat tissue and kidney proteomes share the altered physical distribution of proteins that favor cellular acidosis. Furthermore, the study suggests a vibrant nature for adipose tissue of camel hump by the up-regulation of vimentin in adipocytes, augmenting lipoprotein translocation, blood glucose trapping, and challenging external physical extra-stress. The results obtained provide new evidence of homeostasis in the arid habitat suitable for this mammal.

  18. Methane emission by adult ostriches (Struthio camelus)

    OpenAIRE

    Frei S; Dittmann MT; Reutlinger C; Ortmann S; Hatt J-M; Kreuzer M; Clauss M

    2015-01-01

    Ostriches (Struthio camelus) are herbivorous birds with a digestive physiology that shares several similarities with that of herbivorous mammals. Previous reports however claimed a very low methane emission from ostricheswhichwould be clearly different from mammals. If this could be confirmed ostrich meatwould represent a very attractive alternative to ruminant—and generally mammalian—meat by representing a particularly low emission agricultural form of production. We individually measured by...

  19. Relationship between udder morphology traits, alveolar and cisternal milk compartments and machine milking performances of dairy camels (Camelus dromedarius

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    M. Ayadi

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available A total of 22 dairy dromedary camels under intensive conditions in late lactation (275±24 days were used to study the relationship between external and internal udder morphology and machine milking performances. Measurements of udder and teat morphology were obtained immediately before milking and in duplicate. Individual milk yield, lag time and total milking time were recorded during milking, and milk samples were collected and analyzed for milk composition thereafter. Cisternal and alveolar milk volumes and composition were evaluated at 9 h milking interval. Results revealed that dairy camels had well developed udders and milk veins, with medium sized teats. On average, milk yield as well as milk fat and protein contents were 4.80±0.50 L d-1, 2.61±0.16% and 3.08±0.05%, respectively. The low fat values observed indicated incomplete milk letdown during machine milking. Lag time, and total milking time were 3.0±0.3, and 120.0±8.9s, on average, respectively. Positive correlations (p<0.05 were observed between milk yield and udder depth (r=0.37, distance between teats (r=0.57 and milk vein diameter (r=0.28, while a negative correlation was found with udder height (r=-0.25, p<0.05. Cisternal milk accounted for 11% of the total udder milk. Positive correlations were observed between total milk yield and volume of alveolar milk (r=0.98; p<0.001 as well as with volume of cisternal milk (r=0.63, p<0.05. Despite the low udder milk storage capacity observed in dairy camels, our study concluded that the evaluated dromedary sample had adequate udder morphology for machine milking. Finally, positive relationships were detected between milk yield and udder morphology traits of dairy camels.

  20. Identification of interleukin-26 in the dromedary camel (Camelus dromedarius): Evidence of alternative splicing and isolation of novel splice variants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Premraj, Avinash; Nautiyal, Binita; Aleyas, Abi G; Rasool, Thaha Jamal

    2015-10-01

    Interleukin-26 (IL-26) is a member of the IL-10 family of cytokines. Though conserved across vertebrates, the IL-26 gene is functionally inactivated in a few mammals like rat, mouse and horse. We report here the identification, isolation and cloning of the cDNA of IL-26 from the dromedary camel. The camel cDNA contains a 516 bp open reading frame encoding a 171 amino acid precursor protein, including a 21 amino acid signal peptide. Sequence analysis revealed high similarity with other mammalian IL-26 homologs and the conservation of IL-10 cytokine family domain structure including key amino acid residues. We also report the identification and cloning of four novel transcript variants produced by alternative splicing at the Exon 3-Exon 4 regions of the gene. Three of the alternative splice variants had premature termination codons and are predicted to code for truncated proteins. The transcript variant 4 (Tv4) having an insertion of an extra 120 bp nucleotides in the ORF was predicted to encode a full length protein product with 40 extra amino acid residues. The mRNA transcripts of all the variants were identified in lymph node, where as fewer variants were observed in other tissues like blood, liver and kidney. The expression of Tv2 and Tv3 were found to be up regulated in mitogen induced camel peripheral blood mononuclear cells. IL-26-Tv2 expression was also induced in camel fibroblast cells infected with Camel pox virus in-vitro. The identification of the transcript variants of IL-26 from the dromedary camel is the first report of alternative splicing for IL-26 in a species in which the gene has not been inactivated. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Haematological and biochemical alterations caused by epidural and intramuscular administration of xylazine hydrochloride in dromedary camels (Camelus dromedarius

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    Omid Azari

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted in 16 healthy immature dromedary camels weighing 120-150 kg to evaluate and compare the effects of epidural and intramuscular injections of xylazine administered at 0.1 mg/kg and 0.2 mg/kg. Haematological parameters included haemoglobin, packed cell volume, total erythrocyte count and total leukocyte count. Biochemical parameters included alkaline phosphates, alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, blood urea nitrogen, creatinine and glucose. Parameters were measured at different intervals before (baseline and after the administration of drugs. Our study showed that the effect of xylazine on haematological and biochemical parameters is dose-dependant and is also related to the route of administration. The low dose of xylazine administered using both intramuscular and epidural methods showed minimal effects, whereas high doses of the drug, especially when injected intramuscularly, caused greater changes in haematological and biochemical parameters.

  2. Morphological studies on the seasonal changes in the epididymal duct of the one-humped camel (camelus dromedarius

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    Ahmed El-Zuhry Zayed

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The present work was carried out on 20 testes and epididymis of sexually mature camels to elucidate the gross anatomical, morphometerical, light microscopical and scanning electron microscopical features of the epididymis in different seasons. Anatomically, the epididymal duct of a camel consists of three parts head, body and tail. Histomorphologically, the epididymal duct is subdivided into initial, middle and terminal segments, of which the middle segment is further subdivided into proximal, intermediate and distal parts. There is a gradual decrease in the epithelial height of the epididymal duct from the initial to the terminal segments. This mechanically facilities passage of the sperms toward the terminal segment. High epithelium in the initial segment may indicate a more absorptive power of the epithelium in this segment. The seasonal reproductivety of the epididymal duct in the camel expressed by variations in the weight and volume of the epididymis, total diameter of the epididymal duct, epithelial height, length of the stereocilia, thickness of the muscular coat and cellular distributions in different segments. The spring months offer ideal circumstances for maximal reproductive activity in this species. The cellular components of the epididymal duct epithelium of the camel displays important morphological changes from season to another showing signs of increasing activity during spring in comparison to decreasing activity in other seasons. PAS positive granules are demonstrated in different segments of the epididymal duct and intraepithelial glands in different seasons. These granules are relatively more numerous in spring. The lamina propria surrounding the epididymal duct contains a layer of the elastic fibers which is very thick in winter, thick in spring and thin in other seasons. This increase in thickness of the elastic fibers predisposes for the increase in the total diameter of the epididymal duct in spring. It was conclude that the muscular coat of the middle and terminal segments is the thickest in spring that may be helpful for powerful ejaculation.

  3. Dromedaries (Camelus dromedarius) are of Low Susceptibility to Inoculation with Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus Serotype O

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alexandersen, Søren; Wernery, U.; Nagy, P.

    2008-01-01

    Two sheep and five dromedaries were inoculated with a highdose of a cattle-passaged type O strain of foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV). The sheep developed typical FMD. The inoculated camels, which were placed in contact with five further dromedaries and four sheep, showed no visible sign......,,; of illness or vesicular lesions. However, one of them had a raised body temperature at 3 days post-inoculation (pi) and a viraemia from days 2 to 10; probang samples from this animal were negative for infections virus, but a low level of FMDV RNA was detected in a sample taken on day 6 pi, five other samples...... taken front days 3 to 28 being negative. Examination of mouth swabs indicated a low level of FMDV RNA at days 1-5 pi in four of the five inoculated camels, but no infectious FMDN7 or FMDV RNA was detected in serum, probang or month swab samples front contact-exposed animals (camels and sheep). All...

  4. Transabdominal ultrasonographic appearance of the gastrointestinal viscera of healthy camels (Camelus dromedaries).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tharwat, Mohamed; Al-Sobayil, Fahd; Ali, Ahmed; Buczinski, Sébastien

    2012-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe the ultrasonographic picture of the gastrointestinal tract in healthy camels (Camelus dromedarius). For this purpose, 22 camels were examined. The rumen and its glandular sacs were filling most of the left side of the abdomen. The rumen wall was smooth and echogenic. The ventral part of the reticulum could be best imaged in 17 (77%) camels from the left and right paramedian region just behind to the sternal pad. The reticulum in these animals had a thick wall (1.17±0.27 cm) that appeared as a half-moon-shaped structure with a biphasic contraction. The omasum was best viewed through the right 8th to 6th intercostal spaces in 18 (82%) camels. In the remaining 4 (18%), it was visualized through four consecutive intercostal spaces (right 9th to 6th). It had a wall thickness of 1.1±0.7 cm and a transverse diameter of 8.74±3.4 cm. The abomasum could be best visualized from the right 9th and 8th intercostal spaces in 14 (64%) camels, while it was observed in the 9th intercostal space in 3 (14%) animals and in the 8th and 7th intercostal space in 5 (22%) camels. Small intestinal structures were best seen low in the right paralumbar fossa. It was thin-walled (0.43±0.14 cm) and had a diameter of 2.62±0.47 cm. The cecum was imaged chiefly in the caudal right flank. It was thin-walled (0.37±0.05 cm), had a diameter of 13.8±1.6 cm. The proximal loop of the large colon appeared as thick, echogenic, continuous and slightly curved lines. It was thin-walled (0.51±0.08 cm) and had a diameter of 3.5±0.8 cm. The spiral colon was confined in all camels to the caudal ventral half of the abdomen. It appeared as structures with thick echoic lateral walls with a number of echogenic arched lines next to each other. Free peritoneal fluid pockets were imaged in two locations in 19 (86%) camels. Ultrasound-guided abdominocentesis was successful in 15 (68%) of the examined camels. This study provides the ultrasonographic appearance of the

  5. Methane emission by adult ostriches (Struthio camelus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frei, Samuel; Dittmann, Marie T; Reutlinger, Christoph; Ortmann, Sylvia; Hatt, Jean-Michel; Kreuzer, Michael; Clauss, Marcus

    2015-02-01

    Ostriches (Struthio camelus) are herbivorous birds with a digestive physiology that shares several similarities with that of herbivorous mammals. Previous reports, however, claimed a very low methane emission from ostriches, which would be clearly different from mammals. If this could be confirmed, ostrich meat would represent a very attractive alternative to ruminant-and generally mammalian-meat by representing a particularly low-emission agricultural form of production. We individually measured, by chamber respirometry, the amount of oxygen consumed as well as carbon dioxide and methane emitted from six adult ostriches (body mass 108.3±8.3 kg) during a 24-hour period when fed a pelleted lucerne diet. While oxygen consumption was in the range of values previously reported for ostriches, supporting the validity of our experimental setup, methane production was, at 17.5±3.2 L d(-1), much higher than previously reported for this species, and was of the magnitude expected for similar-sized, nonruminant mammalian herbivores. These results suggest that methane emission is similar between ostriches and nonruminant mammalian herbivores and that the environmental burden of these animals is comparable. The findings furthermore indicate that it appears justified to use currently available scaling equations for methane production of nonruminant mammals in paleo-reconstructions of methane production of herbivorous dinosaurs. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  6. First cloned Bactrian camel (Camelus bactrianus) calf produced by interspecies somatic cell nuclear transfer: A step towards preserving the critically endangered wild Bactrian camels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vettical, Binoy S.; Hong, Seung B.

    2017-01-01

    Studies were conducted to explore the possibility of employing dromedary camel (Camelus dromedarius) oocytes as recipient cytoplasts for the development of interspecies somatic cell nuclear transfer (iSCNT) embryos using skin fibroblast cells of an adult Bactrian camel (Camelus bactrianus) and Llama (Llama glama) as donor nuclei. Also, the embryos reconstructed with Bactrian cells were transferred into the uterus of synchronized dromedary camel recipients to explore the possibility of using them as surrogate mothers. Serum-starved skin fibroblast cells were injected into the perivitelline space of enucleated mature oocytes, collected from super-stimulated dromedary camels, and fused using an Eppendorf electroporator. After activation with 5μM ionomycin and 6-dimethylaminopurine, they were cultured at 38.5°C in an atmosphere of 5% CO2, 5% O2, and 90% N2 in air. In experiment 1, Day 7 blastocysts were stained with Hoechst to count their cell numbers, while in experiment 2, they were transferred to synchronized dromedary recipients. A lower number (P < 0.05) of blastocysts were obtained from reconstructs utilizing fibroblast cells from Llama when compared with those reconstructed with dromedary and Bactrian fibroblast cells. However, no difference was observed in their cell numbers. In experiment 2, a higher (P < 0.05) proportion of blastocysts were obtained from the cleaved embryos reconstructed with Bactrian fibroblast cells when compared to those reconstructed with dromedary cells. Twenty-six Day 7 blastocysts reconstructed with Bactrian cells were transferred to 23 synchronized dromedary recipients with 5 pregnancies established on Day 30, however, only one of the pregnancies developed to term and a healthy calf weighing 33 kgs was born after completing 392 days of gestation. Unfortunately, the calf died on day 7 due to acute septicemia. In conclusion, the present study reports, for the first time, birth of a cloned Bactrian calf by iSCNT using dromedary camel

  7. First cloned Bactrian camel (Camelus bactrianus calf produced by interspecies somatic cell nuclear transfer: A step towards preserving the critically endangered wild Bactrian camels.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nisar Ahmad Wani

    Full Text Available Studies were conducted to explore the possibility of employing dromedary camel (Camelus dromedarius oocytes as recipient cytoplasts for the development of interspecies somatic cell nuclear transfer (iSCNT embryos using skin fibroblast cells of an adult Bactrian camel (Camelus bactrianus and Llama (Llama glama as donor nuclei. Also, the embryos reconstructed with Bactrian cells were transferred into the uterus of synchronized dromedary camel recipients to explore the possibility of using them as surrogate mothers. Serum-starved skin fibroblast cells were injected into the perivitelline space of enucleated mature oocytes, collected from super-stimulated dromedary camels, and fused using an Eppendorf electroporator. After activation with 5μM ionomycin and 6-dimethylaminopurine, they were cultured at 38.5°C in an atmosphere of 5% CO2, 5% O2, and 90% N2 in air. In experiment 1, Day 7 blastocysts were stained with Hoechst to count their cell numbers, while in experiment 2, they were transferred to synchronized dromedary recipients. A lower number (P < 0.05 of blastocysts were obtained from reconstructs utilizing fibroblast cells from Llama when compared with those reconstructed with dromedary and Bactrian fibroblast cells. However, no difference was observed in their cell numbers. In experiment 2, a higher (P < 0.05 proportion of blastocysts were obtained from the cleaved embryos reconstructed with Bactrian fibroblast cells when compared to those reconstructed with dromedary cells. Twenty-six Day 7 blastocysts reconstructed with Bactrian cells were transferred to 23 synchronized dromedary recipients with 5 pregnancies established on Day 30, however, only one of the pregnancies developed to term and a healthy calf weighing 33 kgs was born after completing 392 days of gestation. Unfortunately, the calf died on day 7 due to acute septicemia. In conclusion, the present study reports, for the first time, birth of a cloned Bactrian calf by iSCNT using

  8. Entamoeba struthionis n.sp. (Sarcomastigophora: Endamoebidae) from ostriches (Struthio camelus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponce Gordo, F; Martínez Díaz, R A; Herrera, S

    2004-02-06

    In the present work we identify the species of Entamoeba from ostriches (Struthio camelus). The complete sequence of the small subunit ribosomal RNA gene from this organism has been compared with those published for other species of the genus and clear differences have been found. These results confirm previous data which showed differences on parasite morphology and class of host with the other Entamoeba species. Taking all these data together, it can be concluded that the organism from ostriches is a new species whose proposed name is Entamoeba struthionis n.sp. This species probably infects rheas (Rhea americana), but genetic analysis of isolates from this host should be performed to confirm morphological data. Also, comparison of gene sequences with data from other authors on cysts recovered from human stool samples showed the possibility that this amoeba may affect humans. Further studies are needed to determine the risk of transmission of this new species to humans.

  9. Entamoeba sp. (Sarcomastigophora: Endamoebidae) from ostriches (Struthio camelus) (Aves: Struthionidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Díaz, R A; Herrera, S; Castro, A; Ponce, F

    2000-10-01

    The first case of Entamoeba of the 1-nucleate mature cyst group in birds is described. Trophozoites and cysts of Entamoeba have been found in ostriches (Struthio camelus) from farms located all over Spain. The cysts are large (13.47microm mean diameter); they possess one nucleus when mature, with a large endosome and peripheral chromatine arranged in small granules; chromatoid bodies, when present, are large and elongated. Trophozoites are large (19. 88microm mean diameter), with a clear differentiation between ecto- and endoplasm, this containing numerous vacuoles; the nucleus is large and diffuse. The characteristics of this amoeba resembles but do not completely fulfill those of E. suis and E. chattoni; also, these species are from mammals.

  10. Seroprevalence and risk factors for Coxiella burnetii, the causative agent of Q fever in the dromedary camel (Camelus dromedarius population in Algeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed H. Benaissa

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Query (Q fever is a globally distributed zoonotic disease caused by Coxiella burnetii, a bacterial agent for which ruminants are the most prevalent natural reservoir. Data regarding Q fever infection in camels in Algeria are limited. Therefore, a survey to detect seroprevalence of C. burnetii antibodies was conducted among healthy camel populations in a vast area in southeastern Algeria to determine distribution of the Q fever causative organism and to identify risk factors associated with infection. Between January and March 2016, blood samples were collected from 184 camels and serum samples were subsequently analysed using a commercial Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA kit. At the time of blood collection, a questionnaire investigating 13 potential predisposing factors associated with C. burnetii seropositivity was completed for every dromedary camel and herd. Results were analysed by a chi-square (χ2 test and multivariate logistic regression. The seroprevalence of C. burnetii at the animal level was 71.2% (95% CI: 65.2–78.3 and 85.3% (95% CI: 72.8–97.8 at the herd level. At the animal level, differences in seroprevalence were observed because of herd size, animal age, animal sex, presence of ticks and contact with other herds. A multivariable logistic regression model identified three main risk factors associated with individual seropositivity: (1 age class > 11 years (OR = 8.81, 95% CI: 2.55–30.41, (2 herd size > 50 head (OR = 4.46, 95% CI: 1.01–19.59 and (3 infestation with ticks (OR 2.2; 95% CI: 1.1–4.5. This study of seroprevalence of C. burnetii infection in camels in Algeria revealed a high seroprevalence of Q fever in camel populations in southeastern Algeria and provided strong evidence that Q fever represents an economic, public health and veterinary concern. Appropriate measures should be taken to prevent the spread of C. burnetii and to reduce the risk of Q fever in farm animals and humans in this agro-ecologically and strategically important region of North Africa.

  11. Computed tomography and cross-sectional anatomy of the metatarsus and digits of the one-humped camel (Camelus dromedarius) and buffalo ( Bos bubalis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Shafey, A; Kassab, A

    2013-04-01

    The purpose of the present study was to provide a detailed computed tomography (CT) and cross-sectional anatomic reference of the normal metatarsus and digits for the camel and buffalo, as well as to compare between metatarsus and digits in these animals to outstand a basis for diagnosis of their diseases. Advantages, including depiction of detailed cross-sectional anatomy, improved contrast resolution and computer reformatting, make it a potentially valuable diagnostic technique. The hind limbs of 12 healthy adult camel and buffalo were used. Clinically relevant anatomic structures were identified and labelled at each level in the corresponding images (CT and anatomic slices). CT images were used to identify the bony and soft tissue structures of the metatarsus and digits. The knowledge of normal anatomy of the camel and buffalo metatarsus and digits would serve as initial reference to the evaluation of CT images in these species. © 2012 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  12. Molecular cloning and phylogenetic analysis of integrins alpha v beta 1 and alpha v beta 6 of one-humped camel (Camelus dromedarius)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Du, Junzheng; Larska, Magdalena Larska; Chang, Huiyun

    2010-01-01

    Bactrian camels can relatively easily be infected with FMDV, but dromedary camels remain resistant even to high doses of the virus. To understand the different susceptibility between the two camel species from the standpoint of viral receptors, this work reports the sequences of the dromedary camel...... into the Artiodactyla group, together with those of Bactrian camel, pig, sheep, and cattle that are susceptible to FMDV infection. Compared with the Bactrian camel integrins, 4, 10, and 8 amino acid changes were found in the dromedary camel alpha v, beta 1, and beta 6 subunits, respectively. This study...... will be of importance in understanding the differences of integrins as FMDV receptors among dromedary camel and other species. Crown...

  13. Cloning, Phylogenetic Analysis and 3D Modeling of a Putative Lysosomal Acid Lipase from the Camel, Camelus dromedarius

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farid Shokry Ataya

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Acid lipase belongs to a family of enzymes that is mainly present in lysosomes of different organs and the stomach. It is characterized by its capacity to withstand acidic conditions while maintaining high lipolytic activity. We cloned for the first time the full coding sequence of camel’s lysosomal acid lipase, cLIPA using RT-PCR technique (Genbank accession numbers JF803951 and AEG75815, for the nucleotide and aminoacid sequences respectively. The cDNA sequencing revealed an open reading frame of 1,197 nucleotides that encodes a protein of 399 aminoacids which was similar to that from other related mammalian species. Bioinformatic analysis was used to determine the aminoacid sequence, 3D structure and phylogeny of cLIPA. Bioinformatics analysis suggested the molecular weight of the translated protein to be 45.57 kDa, which could be decreased to 43.16 kDa after the removal of a signal peptide comprising the first 21 aminoacids. The deduced cLIPA sequences exhibited high identity with Equus caballus (86%, Numascus leucogenys (85%, Homo sapiens (84%, Sus scrofa (84%, Bos taurus (82% and Ovis aries (81%. cLIPA shows high aminoacid sequence identity with human and dog-gastric lipases (58%, and 59% respectively which makes it relevant to build a 3D structure model for cLIPA. The comparison confirms the presence of the catalytic triad and the oxyanion hole in cLIPA. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that camel cLIPA is grouped with monkey, human, pig, cow and goat. The level of expression of cLIPA in five camel tissues was examined using Real Time-PCR. The highest level of cLIPA transcript was found in the camel testis (162%, followed by spleen (129%, liver (100%, kidney (20.5% and lung (17.4%.

  14. Synchronisation of the follicular wave with GnRH and PGF2α analogue for a timed breeding programme in dromedary camels (Camelus dromedarius).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manjunatha, B M; Al-Bulushi, Samir; Pratap, N

    2015-09-01

    This study was conducted to develop a hormone protocol that precisely synchronises follicular development for a timed breeding (TB) programme in dromedary camels. To examine the effect of GnRH treatment at four known stages of follicular development, animals were treated with GnRH when the largest follicle of the wave was 4-7, 8-11, 12-17 and 18-27 mm in diameter. Transrectal ultrasonography was carried out daily up to 20 days after treatment. A hormone protocol (FWsynch) for the synchronisation of follicular wave and TB consisting of GnRH-1 (GnRH) on Day 0, PG-1 (PGF2α) on Day 7, GnRH-2 on Day 10 and PG-2 on Day 17 was initiated at four known stages of follicular development. Ovarian structures were monitored by ultrasonography. The FWsynch protocol was initiated at random stages of follicle development and animals were bred by natural mating at a fixed time at the research facility and in field. The pregnancy was diagnosed by ultrasonography. GnRH treatment in animals with a dominant follicle (DF) of ≥ 11 mm in diameter resulted in synchronous new follicular wave emergence, whereas in animals with a DF ≤ 10 mm, the treatment did not alter the development of the existing follicular wave. The FWsynch protocol was effective in synchronising the follicular wave for TB irrespective of the stage of follicular development at the beginning of the protocol. TB using FWsynch protocol resulted in a pregnancy rate of 60.2% in a research facility and 53.6% and 45.6% in normal and infertile camels respectively under field conditions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Image collection: 158 [Togo Picture Gallery[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 158 Camelus_dromedarius_NL.png ヒトコブラクダ Dromedary Camelus dromedarius 9838 生物アイコン,脊索動物門,脊椎動物亜門,哺乳綱,獣亜綱,真獣下綱,ウシ目

  16. Arteries of the adrenal glands in ostriches (Struthio camelus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelita das Graças de Oliveira Honorato

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The growth of rational ostrich breeding and their byproducts has attracted interest from researchers to increase the studies in this animal. Thus, basic research areas, such as morphology, become necessary to provide the applied areas with knowledge. Aiming to contribute to the knowledge on the vascular arrangements of the adrenal glands, 30 ostriches (Struthio camelus were used, four days old, who had their arterial components marked with a 50% stained aqueous solution of Neoprene Latex ¨ 450 ¨ and fixed in a 10% diluted solution of formaldehyde. The coelomic cavity was exposed for identifying these glands, which are paired organs that are covered by loose connective tissue, symmetrically arranged in the two antimeres, laterally to the descending aorta, caudally to the lungs, and cranio-medially to the cranial lobes of the kidneys. The arterial blood supply, in both antimeres, is derived from the right and left adrenal arteries, the right and left cranial renal artery branches, and the right branches of the descending aorta. Regardless of the origin, the number of branches going to the adrenal glands ranged from one to two and one to three respectively, in the left and right antimeres.

  17. Distribution and developmental changes of ghrelin-immunopositive cells in the pancreas of African ostrich chicks (Struthio camelus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, J X; Li, P; Zhang, X T; Ye, L X

    2017-09-01

    Ghrelin, the endogenous ligand for the growth hormone secretagogue receptor (GHS-R), is produced by multiple cell types and affects feeding behavior, metabolic regulation, and energy balance. In the mammalian pancreas, the types of endocrine cells that are immunoreactive to ghrelin vary. However, little was known about its distribution and developmental changes in the pancreas of African ostrich chicks (Struthio camelus). In the present study, the distribution, morphological characteristics, and developmental changes of ghrelin-immunopositive (ghrelin-ip) cells in the pancreas of African ostrich chicks were investigated using immunohistochemistry. Ghrelin-ip cells were found in both the pancreatic islets and acinar cell regions. The greatest number of ghrelin-ip cells were found in the pancreatic islets, and were primarily observed at the periphery of the islets; some ghrelin-ip cells were also located in the central portion of the pancreatic islets. Interestingly, from postnatal d 1 to d 90, there was a steady decrease in the number of ghrelin-ip cells in the pancreatic islets and acinar cell regions. These results clearly demonstrated that ghrelin-ip cells exist and decreased with age in the African ostrich pancreas from postnatal d 1 to d90. Thus, these findings indicated that ghrelin may be involved in the development of the pancreas in the African ostrich. © 2017 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  18. Histologia do intestino do avestruz (Struthio camelus, Linnaeus 1758

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gisele Saviani

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available A despeito de o avestruz (Struthio camelus compartilhar muitas adaptações evolucionárias presentes em outras aves, estes animais apresentam algumas características anatômicas peculiares, como é o caso do seu tubo digestivo em que o cólon é maior que o ceco. Há algum tempo, essa ave tem sido explorada econômicamente e principalmente como fonte alternativa de proteína animal na alimentação humana. O presente trabalho analisou os aspectos histológicos do intestino de avestruzes produzidos em boas condições de manejo ambiental e nutricional. Foram utilizados 13 avestruzes, com 18 a 30 meses de idade, provenientes da empresa Brasil Ostrich, e encaminhados para o abate no Abatedouro Escola da Universidade de São Paulo, Campus Administrativo de Pirassununga. Os animais foram abatidos com pistola pneumática e, após a sangria e evisceração, foram colhidas amostras de diferentes segmentos do intestino: duodeno, jejuno, íleo e ceco duplo. Os materiais foram processados, corados pela técnica de hematoxilina-eosina (H-E e examinados em microscopia de campo claro. Os resultados obtidos revelaram que as vilosidades estão presentes no duodeno, porém, não existem no ceco. Dos quatro segmentos intestinais examinados, o ceco foi o que apresentou maior número de células caliciformes. Os nódulos linfáticos e os linfócitos foram observados em todos os segmentos examinados. No ceco, os nódulos linfáticos se agregam para constituir a placa de Peyer. O plano histológico dos segmentos intestinais examinados seguiu o padrão observado nos mamíferos domésticos e em outras aves. O conhecimento da histologia dos intestinos desses animais pode oferecer subsídios para a avaliação comparativa de procedimentos de manejo ambiental e nutricional que possam aumentar os níveis de produção e produtividade dessa atividade pecuária.

  19. Water turnover rate and total body water affected by different physiological factors under Egyptian environmental conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamal, T.H.

    1982-01-01

    The tritiated water dilution technique was used to determine the total body water (TBW) and water turnover rate (WTR), which is assumed to be similar to water intake, in water buffalo, Red Danish cattle, fat-tailed Osemi sheep and crossed Nubian-Bedouin goats and camels (Camelus dromedarius). There was a significant (P < 0.05) effect of species on TBW and WTR. The combined data of buffalo, cattle and sheep revealed a significant (P < 0.05) effect of pregnancy on TBW, but not on WTR. The combined data of buffalo and cattle showed a significantly lower TBW (P < 0.01) and a higher WTR (P < 0.05) in lactating animals than in heifers. In buffalo WTR was on average 81% higher in summer grazing (SG) than in spring. It was also 118 and 20% higher in summer non-grazing (SNG), than in either spring or SG, respectively. The differences between treatments in heifers, pregnant and lactating, were significant (P<0.01), except between spring and SG in heifers. The TBW was on average 12% higher in SG than in spring. It was also 18 and 5% higher in SNG than in either spring or SG, respectively. The differences between treatments in heifers, pregnant and lactating, were significant, except between SG and SNG in heifers and lactating cows and between spring and SG in lactating cows. (author)

  20. Molecular cloning and characterization of a putative OGG_N domain ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Molecular cloning and characterization of a putative OGG_N domain from the camel, Camelus dromedarius. Farid Shokry Ataya, Mohammad Saud Alanazi, Dalia Fouad, Hehsam Mahmoud Saeed, Mohammad Bazzi ...

  1. Affect

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cetinic, M.; Diamanti, J.; Szeman, I.; Blacker, S.; Sully, J.

    2017-01-01

    This chapter historicizes four divergent but historically contemporaneous genres of affect theory – romantic, realist, speculative, and materialist. While critics credited with the turn to affect in the 1990s wrote largely in the wake of poststructuralism from the perspective of gender and queer

  2. Anatomical subdivisions of the stomach of the Bactrian camel (Camelus bactrianus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, J L; Lan, G; Wang, G X; Li, H Y; Xie, Z M

    2000-08-01

    Twenty stomachs of Bactrian camels (Camelus bactrianus) were studied by gross dissection. Based on the configuration of the stomach and the structure of the mucous membrane, the stomach was divided into three ventricles that differ from the arrangement described for ox and sheep. The first and second ventricles of the proventriculus of camel form one stomach rather than two different stomachs. These ventricles of the proventriculus do not correspond to the rumen and reticulum of ox and sheep. The third ventricle appears to be the abomasum. One part of the abomasum has reticular mucosal folds that indicate it is not the reticulum. A second part of the abomasum has longitudinal mucosal folds suggesting it is not the omasum. Three glandular sac areas associated with the preventriculus and abomasum are also described. Copyright 2000 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  3. Purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis of haemoglobin from ostrich (Struthio camelus)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sundaresan, S. S.; Ramesh, P.; Sivakumar, K.; Ponnuswamy, M. N.

    2009-01-01

    Purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis of haemoglobin from ostrich (Struthio camelus) has been carried out under 293 K temperature conditions. The ostrich is a large flightless bird which contains inositol tetrakisphosphate in erythrocytes and its whole blood oxygen affinity is higher. Efforts have been made to explore the structure–function relationship of ostrich heamoglobin. Haemoglobin is a tetrameric protein that carries oxygen from the lungs to tissues and carbon dioxide from tissues back to the lungs. The oxygen-binding properties of haemoglobin are regulated through the binding of allosteric effectors. The respiratory system of avian species is unique and complex in nature when compared with that of mammals. In avian species, inositol pentaphosphate (inositol-P 5 ) is present in the erythrocytes of the adult and is thought to be the major factor responsible for the relatively high oxygen affinity of the whole blood. The ostrich (Struthio camelus) is a large flightless bird which contains inositol tetrakisphosphate (inositol-P 4 ) in its erythrocytes and its whole blood oxygen affinity is higher. Efforts have been made to explore the structure–function relationship of ostrich haemoglobin. Ostrich haemoglobin was purified using ion-exchange chromatography. Haemoglobin crystals were grown by the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method using PEG 3350 as the precipitant in 50 mM phosphate buffer pH 7.2. Data were collected using a MAR345 image-plate detector system. The crystals of ostrich haemoglobin diffracted to 2.2 Å resolution. They belonged to the orthorhombic space group P2 1 2 1 2 1 with one whole biological molecule in the asymmetric unit; the unit-cell parameters were a = 80.93, b = 81.68, c = 102.05 Å

  4. First report on circulation of Echinococcus ortleppi in the one humped camel (Camelus dromedaries), Sudan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Mohamed E; Eltom, Kamal H; Musa, Nasreen O; Ali, Ibtisam A; Elamin, Fatima M; Grobusch, Martin P; Aradaib, Imadeldin E

    2013-06-25

    Echinococcus granulosus (EG) complex, the cause of cystic echinococcosis (CE), infects humans and several other animal species worldwide and hence the disease is of public health importance. Ten genetic variants, or genotypes designated as (G1-G10), are distributed worldwide based on genetic diversity. The objective of this study was to provide some sequence data and phylogeny of EG isolates recovered from the Sudanese one-humped camel (Camelus dromedaries). Fifty samples of hydatid cysts were collected from the one- humped camels (Camelus dromedaries) at Taboul slaughter house, central Sudan. DNAs were extracted from protoscolices and/or associated germinal layers of hydatid cysts using a commercial kit. The mitochondrial NADH dehydrogenase subunit 1 (NADH1) gene and the cytochrome C oxidase subunit 1 (cox1) gene were used as targets for polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification. The PCR products were purified and partial sequences were generated. Sequences were further examined by sequence analysis and subsequent phylogeny to compare these sequences to those from known strains of EG circulating globally. The identity of the PCR products were confirmed as NADH1 and cox1 nucleotide sequences using the Basic Local Alignment Search Tool (BLAST) of NCBI (National Center for Biotechnology Information, Bethesda, MD). The phylogenetic analysis showed that 98% (n = 49) of the isolates clustered with Echinococcus canadensis genotype 6 (G6), whereas only one isolate (2%) clustered with Echinococcus ortleppi (G5). This investigation expands on the existing sequence data generated from EG isolates recovered from camel in the Sudan. The circulation of the cattle genotype (G5) in the one-humped camel is reported here for the first time.

  5. Investigation on papillomavirus infection in dromedary camels in Al-Ahsa, Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdelmalik Ibrahim Khalafalla

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available We investigated two outbreaks of papillomatosis between 2013 and 2015 in Al Ahsa region of eastern Saudi Arabia involving fourteen dromedary camels. The disease affected both young and adult animals and occurred in coincidence with demodectic mange infestation. Diagnosis was made based on gross and histopathological characteristics of the wart lesion and was confirmed by PCR. Rolling circle amplification followed by degenerate primer PCR and sequencing of the amplicons revealed the presence of both Camelus dromedarius papillomavirus types 1 and 2, previously identified in infected dromedaries in Sudan.

  6. Evidence of a true pharyngeal tonsil in birds: a novel lymphoid organ in Dromaius novaehollandiae and Struthio camelus (Palaeognathae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Crole Martina R

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Tonsils are secondary lymphoid organs located in the naso- and oropharynx of most mammalian species. Most tonsils are characterised by crypts surrounded by dense lymphoid tissue. However, tonsils without crypts have also been recognised. Gut-associated lymphoid tissue (GALT, although not well-organised and lacking tonsillar crypts, is abundant in the avian oropharynx and has been referred to as the “pharyngeal tonsil”. In this context the pharyngeal folds present in the oropharynx of ratites have erroneously been named the pharyngeal tonsils. This study distinguishes between the different types and arrangements of lymphoid tissue in the pharyngeal region of D. novaehollandiae and S. camelus and demonstrates that both species possess a true pharyngeal tonsil which fits the classical definition of tonsils in mammals. Results The pharyngeal tonsil (Tonsilla pharyngea of D. novaehollandiae was located on the dorsal free surface of the pharyngeal folds and covered by a small caudo-lateral extension of the folds whereas in S. camelus the tonsil was similarly located on the dorsal surface of the pharyngeal folds but was positioned retropharyngeally and encapsulated by loose connective tissue. The pharyngeal tonsil in both species was composed of lymph nodules, inter-nodular lymphoid tissue, mucus glands, crypts and intervening connective tissue septa. In S. camelus a shallow tonsillar sinus was present. Aggregated lymph nodules and inter-nodular lymphoid tissue was associated with the mucus glands on the ventral surface of the pharyngeal folds in both species and represented the Lymphonoduli pharyngeales. Similar lymphoid tissue, but more densely packed and situated directly below the epithelium, was present on the dorsal, free surface of the pharyngeal folds and represented a small, non-follicular tonsil. Conclusions The follicular pharyngeal tonsils in D. novaehollandiae and S. camelus are distinct from the pharyngeal folds in

  7. Yoghurt production from camel (Camelus dramedarius milk fortified with samphire molasses and different colloids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nazan Kavas

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, yoghurt was produced from camel (Camelus dramedarius milk with whey protein isolate (3 % w/v and fortified with 3 % (w/v traditional samphire molasses (TSM (YTSM, 3 % (w/v TSM+0.1% (w/v κ-carrageenan (YTSMC or 3 % (w/v TSM+0.05 % (w/v xanthan gum (YTSMX. In yoghurt samples, physical-chemical properties, texture, color and sensory analysis were determined on the 1st, 5th, 10th and 14th days of storage, while total phenolics (TF levels were determined on the 14th, 24th, 32nd, 48th, 72nd, 120th, 240th and 336th hours of storage. In all samples during storage, hardness and viscosity increased along with the acidity increase, although the increases in YTSM and YTSMC were lower than in YTSMX. In YTSMX, in spite of the increase in acidity after the 1st day, serum separation was very low while viscosity and hardness values were higher compared to the other samples. YTSMX was found to be superior to the other samples in terms of physicochemical, textural, microbiological and sensory properties. Total phenolic contents and L*a*b* levels increased in all samples throughout storage, the highest values of which were in YTSMX. After the 5th day of the storage, Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus became the dominant microbial flora. After the 5th day of storage, Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus and Streptococcus thermophilus levels were highest in YTSMX.

  8. Management of tendon haemangiosarcoma in a Bactrian camel (Camelus bactrianus – a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavel Kvapil

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available An 18-year old intact female Bactrian camel (Camelus bactrianus was suffering from lameness due to a mass on the right dorsal metacarpal region that caused acute swelling and local skin necrosis. Histology examination and immunohistochemistry of the biopsy material of a mass revealed haemangiosarcoma of the extensor tendons. Three weeks after the biopsy, the tumour was enlarged to 6 cm in diameter and the animal became disabled. The tumour with its associated tendon were resected and the tendon’s edges were bridged with a synthetic polytape graft. The camel was fully weight-bearing after the surgery. Two weeks later, the graft was removed due to widespread necrosis. Since the wound was positive for Corynebacterium sp., Acinetobacter iwoffii, Micrococcus sp., Escherichia coli, and Staphylococcus sp., the post-operative antibiotic treatment was prolonged for 28 days. Four months later, the wound healed using daily irrigation and bandaging and the camel walked normally. Nine months after diagnosis, the camel suddenly died without any clinical signs. Metastases of the haemangiosarcoma were found in the liver, lungs, kidneys, brain, meninges, and mediastinum. Exsanguination due to rupture of a liver metastasis was determined as the cause of the death. Haemangiosarcoma is a malignant neoplasm that arises from endothelial cells of blood vessels and tends to be very aggressive. To the author’s knowledge, this is the first case report of a metastasizing haemangiosarcoma arising from the lateral extensor tendon in a Bactrian camel.

  9. Analysis of immunoglobulin transcripts in the ostrich Struthio camelus, a primitive avian species.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tian Huang

    Full Text Available Previous studies on the immunoglobulin (Ig genes in avian species are limited (mainly to galliformes and anseriformes but have revealed several interesting features, including the absence of the IgD and Igκ encoding genes, inversion of the IgA encoding gene and the use of gene conversion as the primary mechanism to generate an antibody repertoire. To better understand the Ig genes and their evolutionary development in birds, we analyzed the Ig genes in the ostrich (Struthio camelus, which is one of the most primitive birds. Similar to the chicken and duck, the ostrich expressed only three IgH chain isotypes (IgM, IgA and IgY and λ light chains. The IgM and IgY constant domains are similar to their counterparts described in other vertebrates. Although conventional IgM, IgA and IgY cDNAs were identified in the ostrich, we also detected a transcript encoding a short membrane-bound form of IgA (lacking the last two C(H exons that was undetectable at the protein level. No IgD or κ encoding genes were identified. The presence of a single leader peptide in the expressed heavy chain and light chain V regions indicates that gene conversion also plays a major role in the generation of antibody diversity in the ostrich. Because the ostrich is one of the most primitive living aves, this study suggests that the distinct features of the bird Ig genes appeared very early during the divergence of the avian species and are thus shared by most, if not all, avian species.

  10. Crimean Congo hemorrhagic fever among the one-humped camel (Camelus dromedaries) in Central Sudan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suliman, Hajer M; Adam, Ibrahim A; Saeed, Shamseldin I; Abdelaziz, Sanaa A; Haroun, Eltahir M; Aradaib, Imadeldin E

    2017-08-03

    Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF) is a tick-borne viral zoonotic disease caused by Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus (CCHFV), a member of the genus Nairovirus in the family Bunyaviridae. CCHF is typically asymptomatic in animals but can be highly fatal in humans approaching case fatality rate of approximately 30%. In the present investigation, a cross sectional study was conducted to determine the prevalence of CCHF and to identify the potential risk factors associated with CCHFV seropositivity among the one-humped camel (Camelus dromedaries) in Central Sudan. A total of 361 camels selected randomly from six localities were employed in the study. Sera sampled were tested for the presence of CCHFV-specific immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibodies using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). CCHFV seropositivity was recorded in 77 out of 361 animals accounting for a prevalence rate of 21.3%. Age (OR = 3.6, CI = 1.72-7.79, p-value = 0.026); locality (OR = 5.85, CI = 1.81-18.83, p- value = 0.003), tick number (OR = 4.6, CI = 1.37-9.81, P-value 0.04); tick control (OR = 2.2, CI, 1.11-4.35, P-value = 0.023) and breed (OR = 6.60, CI = 2.38-18.36, P-value = 0.001) were recorded as potential risk factors for contracting CCHF. The prevalence of CCHF is significantly high among camels in Khartoum State, Sudan. Age, breed, locality and tick control are considered as potential risk factors for contracting CCHF. This study would be expected to reduce the impact on the livelihood of pastoral communities and ultimately avoid disease spread in human.

  11. Artérias das glândulas adrenais em avestruzes (Struthio camelus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelita das Graças de Oliveira Honorato

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/2175-7925.2012v25n1p125 O crescimento da criação racional de avestruz e seus subprodutos têm despertado interesse dos pesquisadores em ampliar os estudos com esse animal. Assim, áreas de pesquisa básicas, como a morfologia, tornam-se necessárias para dar subsídios às áreas aplicadas. Com o intuito de contribuir com o conhecimento referente aos arranjos vasculares das glândulas adrenais, utilizaram-se 30 avestruzes (Struthio camelus, de quatro dias de vida, tendo seus contingentes arteriais marcados com solução aquosa corada de Neoprene Látex “450” a 50% e fixados em solução diluída de formol a 10%. A cavidade celomática foi exposta para a identificação das referidas glândulas, que são órgãos pares e encontram-se recobertas por tecido conjuntivo frouxo, disposto simetricamente nos dois antímeros, lateralmente à aorta descendente, caudalmente aos pulmões e cranio-medialmente aos lobos craniais dos rins. O aporte sanguíneo arterial, em ambos os antímeros, é proveniente das artérias adrenais direita e esquerda, dos ramos das artérias renais craniais direita e esquerda e dos ramos diretos da aorta descendente. Independentemente da origem, os números de ramos destinados às glândulas adrenais variaram de um a dois e de um a três respectivamente para os antímeros esquerdo e direito.

  12. Occurrence of antibodies to Toxoplasma gondii in rheas (Rhea americana and ostriches (Struthio camelus from farms of different Brazilian regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda Brentano Almeida

    Full Text Available This study aimed to verify the occurrence of antibodies againstToxoplasma gondii in rheas (Rhea americana and ostriches (Struthio camelus commercially breeding in Brazil. Blood samples from 20 rheas and 46 ostriches (young and adults were serologically tested using a technique known as modified agglutination test (MAT at an initial titration of 1:16 for ostriches and 1:25 for rheas. Antibodies against T. gondii were found in 50% (10/20 of the rheas, with titers ranging from 1:25 to 1:6,400. The incidence of antibodies against T. gondii in ostriches was 17.4% (8/46 with titers ranging from 1:16 to 1:256. Birds showing titers higher than 1:200 forT. gondii were mainly the young ones. Therefore, rheas and ostriches may be parasitized by T. gondii, showing high levels of antibodies against this parasite.

  13. Histologia do fígado de avestruz (Struthio camelus, Linnaeus 1758

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gisele Saviani

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available A criação de avestruz (Struthio camelus, Linnaeus 1758 é uma atividade de grande potencial, porém não existem padrões definidos sobre a histologia do seu fígado, que é um órgão de grande importância no metabolismo. O conhecimento de sua histologia pode contribuir para a detecção de doenças e deficiências nutricionais no animal. Para este estudo foram utilizados 24 avestruzes com idades entre 12 e 18 meses (com peso médio em torno de 80 a 100 kg, provenientes do abatedouro Don Pig, em Botucatu no estado de São Paulo. Os animais foram abatidos com pistola pneumática e, após a sangria, as amostras do fígado foram processadas e observadas em microscopia de luz e microscopia eletrônica de transmissão (MET. A hematoxilina e eosina (H.E, picrossírius, Gordon e Sweets, Sudan black e o ácido peródico de Schiff (PAS são colorações usadas respectivamente para observar a morfologia do fígado, colágeno, fibras reticulares, gordura e glicogênio. Foram encontrados os espaços portahepáticos.O glicogênio mostrou média de 5,68%, o conteúdo lipídico, média de 9,83%, o colágeno média de 14,71% e as fibras reticulares média de 5,96%. Quanto à MET notou-se no citoplasma dos hepatócitos, numerosas mitocôndrias, glicogênio, muitas gotas de gordura, alguns lisossomos, retículo endoplasmático granular ao redor das mitocôndrias, algumas células estreladas, célula em degeneração e o canalículo biliar ao centro. Provavelmente o quadro sugestivo de esteatose é resultante do estado nutricional dos animais. Estes resultados demonstraram que os hepatócitos dos avestruzes são muito similares às outras aves, como também muito semelhantes à estrutura e ultraestrutura das células do fígado de mamíferos.

  14. Análise histológica do trato gastrintestinal de avestruzes jovens (Struthio camelus Linnaeus, 1758

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Maria Rodrigues Monteiro

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/2175-7925.2009v22n3p149 Aspectos histológicos do trato gastrintestinal do avestruz (Struthio camelus são pouco estudados, portanto, é de interesse desta pesquisa ampliar tais estudos. Para isso foram obtidas amostras de diferentes segmentos do tubo digestório de cinco avestruzes jovens, com idade entre 20 a 30 dias. Com base nos resultados obtidos pudemos concluir que os diferentes segmentos do tubo digestório do avestruz jovem apresenta a mesma estrutura geral de outras aves e mamíferos domésticos, com pequenas diferenças, como ausência de inglúvio e vesícula biliar, intestino grosso maior que o intestino delgado e ceco com propriedades fisiológicas semelhantes ao estômago de ruminantes.  Estas variações são inerentes à espécie ou podem ser decorrentes da idade e hábito alimentar. Esperamos que esta análise contribua para uma melhor compreensão dos processos fisiológicos relacionados à nutrição e ao manejo do avestruz durante seu crescimento.

  15. Camel Calves as Opportunistic Milk Thefts? The First Description of Allosuckling in Domestic Bactrian Camel (Camelus bactrianus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandlová, Karolína; Bartoš, Luděk; Haberová, Tamara

    2013-01-01

    Allosuckling is a situation when a female nurses a non-filial offspring. It was described in various ungulate species; however for camels this is the first description of this behaviour. The aim of the study was to assess the occurrence of allosuckling in captive camels (Camelus bactrianus) and to test whether it can be explained as a ‘milk-theft’ (opportunistic behaviour of calves) or alternatively as an altruistic behaviour of females. During 2005 and 2007, nine camel females and ten calves in four zoological gardens in the Czech Republic were observed. In total, 373 sucking bouts were recorded, from which 32 were non-filial (the calf sucked from the non-maternal female). Allosuckling regularly appeared in captive camel herds. As predicted for the milk-theft explanation, the non-filial calves sucked more often in the lateral position and even did not suck in the antiparallel position at all. The non-filial calves preferably joined the filial calf when sucking but in five cases (15.6% of non-filial sucking bouts) the calves sucked from non-maternal dam without the presence of filial calf. We then expected the differences in terminations of sucking bouts by females but did not find any difference in sucking terminations for filial and non-filial calves. As the calves were getting older, the incidence of allosucking increased. This was probably because skills of the calf to outwit the non-maternal dam increased and/or the older calves might be more motivated for allosucking due to the weaning process. Finally, duration of a sucking bout was shorter with non-filial than filial calves. The results of the study support the hypothesis of ‘milk theft’, being mostly performed by calves behaving as opportunistic parasites, but we cannot reject certain level of altruism from the allonursing females or their increased degree of tolerance to non-filial calves. PMID:23326378

  16. Camel calves as opportunistic milk thefts? The first description of allosuckling in domestic bactrian camel (Camelus bactrianus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karolína Brandlová

    Full Text Available Allosuckling is a situation when a female nurses a non-filial offspring. It was described in various ungulate species; however for camels this is the first description of this behaviour. The aim of the study was to assess the occurrence of allosuckling in captive camels (Camelus bactrianus and to test whether it can be explained as a 'milk-theft' (opportunistic behaviour of calves or alternatively as an altruistic behaviour of females. During 2005 and 2007, nine camel females and ten calves in four zoological gardens in the Czech Republic were observed. In total, 373 sucking bouts were recorded, from which 32 were non-filial (the calf sucked from the non-maternal female. Allosuckling regularly appeared in captive camel herds. As predicted for the milk-theft explanation, the non-filial calves sucked more often in the lateral position and even did not suck in the antiparallel position at all. The non-filial calves preferably joined the filial calf when sucking but in five cases (15.6% of non-filial sucking bouts the calves sucked from non-maternal dam without the presence of filial calf. We then expected the differences in terminations of sucking bouts by females but did not find any difference in sucking terminations for filial and non-filial calves. As the calves were getting older, the incidence of allosucking increased. This was probably because skills of the calf to outwit the non-maternal dam increased and/or the older calves might be more motivated for allosucking due to the weaning process. Finally, duration of a sucking bout was shorter with non-filial than filial calves. The results of the study support the hypothesis of 'milk theft', being mostly performed by calves behaving as opportunistic parasites, but we cannot reject certain level of altruism from the allonursing females or their increased degree of tolerance to non-filial calves.

  17. Studies on the susceptibility of ostriches (Struthio camelus to the Indonesian velogenic strain of Newcastle disease virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darminto

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available Susceptibility of ostriches (Struthio camelus to the Indonesian velogenic strain of Newcastle disease virus (NDV was evaluated by artificial infection . Twelve - 5 to 6 week old ostriches were divided into 3 groups each containing 4 birds . The first group was inoculated through respiratory system by dropping directly the virus solution into the nostrils, while the second group was inoculated through digestive system by dropping directly the virus solution into the oesophagus, with the dose of infection 106ELDSo (50%-embryo lethal dose per bird . Meanwhile, the third group was treated as uninfected control . All infected birds developed antibody responses, but only two inoculated birds from the first group and two inoculated birds from the second group developed clinical signs of Newcastle disease (ND, with no specific pathological alterations . Infected birds, either sicks or healthy, excreted the challenge viruses through the respiratory system and still be detected up to the end of this experiment, ie . 15 days post-inoculation . The challenge viruses can be re-isolated from the brain, trachea, lungs, heart, liver, spleen, kidneys, small intestine, cecal-tonsil, and proventriculus of the infected birds . This study concludes that: (1 the ostriches are susceptible to the infection of the Indonesian velogenic strain ofNDV; (2 all infected birds developed immune responses, but only half of them develops el jtigi aj i disease ; (3 the infected birds excreted the challenge viruses for a considerable long time which may play role as the Mginiseti.ce ofinfectron the other healthy ostriches ; and (4 the challenge viruses can be re-isolated from various organs of the birds . .

  18. Dynamic Conservation of Date Palms: The Future of a Genetic Resource at the Nexus of Climate Change, Desertification and Salinity Stress in Oasis Ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    The date palm (Phoenix dactylifera) is the only indigenous, wild desert plant definitely domesticated in its native harsh environment, and along with the camel (Camelus dromedarius), was responsible for opening the vast desert territories for human activity and the development of oasis ecosystems, w...

  19. Effect of subclinical mastitis caused by ss-haemolytic streptococci on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mastitis is a major constraint to milk production in camels. We conducted a survey in Marsabit and Isiolo counties of Kenya to quantify losses in milk yield associated with subclinical mastitis caused by ß-haemolytic Streptococci in the one-humped camel (Camelus dromedarius). Four hundred and twenty (420) pair wise ...

  20. DSC of Milk Fats from Various Animals with High Levels of Medium ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    NICO

    fatty acid on milk fat crystallization, than is possible with dietary changes, other species as well as non-ruminant species may be studied. Apart from the commercially exploited mammals, we were only able to locate work on crystallization of camel. (Camelus dromedarius) milk fat.20 It was found that the camel milk.

  1. Bulletin of Animal Health and Production in Africa - Vol 55, No 2 (2007)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Assessment Of Hygienic Quality Of Camel (Camelus dromedarius) Milk In Khartoum State, Sudan · EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. ES Shuiep, IE El Zubeir, OA El Owni, HH Mussa, 112-117. http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/bahpa.v55i2.32797 ...

  2. Author Details

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mussa, HH. Vol 55, No 2 (2007) - Articles Assessment Of Hygienic Quality Of Camel (Camelus dromedarius) Milk In Khartoum State, Sudan Abstract. ISSN: 0378-9721. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's · More about AJOL · AJOL's Partners · Terms and ...

  3. Radiographic studies of developing calvaria at prenatal stages in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Radiographic studies on the fetal heads of 32 one-humped camels (Camelus dromedarius) with 11 fetuses at the first trimester, 12 at the second trimester and 9 at the third trimester levels were conducted in Sokoto Metropolis. The study involved the radiographic evaluation of calvaria of different fetuses at first, second and ...

  4. Molecular cloning and characterization of a putative OGG_N domain ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    2012-04-17

    Apr 17, 2012 ... lesion, if left unrepaired, causes the transversion of G:C pair to T:A following replication. 8-oxoG is targeted by ... Camelus dromedarius) is the most important animal in the Arabian ..... Molar extinction coefficient. 27910 ± 5%.

  5. A complete mitochondrial genome sequence of the wild two-humped camel (Camelus bactrianus ferus: an evolutionary history of camelidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meng He

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The family Camelidae that evolved in North America during the Eocene survived with two distinct tribes, Camelini and Lamini. To investigate the evolutionary relationship between them and to further understand the evolutionary history of this family, we determined the complete mitochondrial genome sequence of the wild two-humped camel (Camelus bactrianus ferus, the only wild survivor of the Old World camel. Results The mitochondrial genome sequence (16,680 bp from C. bactrianus ferus contains 13 protein-coding, two rRNA, and 22 tRNA genes as well as a typical control region; this basic structure is shared by all metazoan mitochondrial genomes. Its protein-coding region exhibits codon usage common to all mammals and possesses the three cryptic stop codons shared by all vertebrates. C. bactrianus ferus together with the rest of mammalian species do not share a triplet nucleotide insertion (GCC that encodes a proline residue found only in the nd1 gene of the New World camelid Lama pacos. This lineage-specific insertion in the L. pacos mtDNA occurred after the split between the Old and New World camelids suggests that it may have functional implication since a proline insertion in a protein backbone usually alters protein conformation significantly, and nd1 gene has not been seen as polymorphic as the rest of ND family genes among camelids. Our phylogenetic study based on complete mitochondrial genomes excluding the control region suggested that the divergence of the two tribes may occur in the early Miocene; it is much earlier than what was deduced from the fossil record (11 million years. An evolutionary history reconstructed for the family Camelidae based on cytb sequences suggested that the split of bactrian camel and dromedary may have occurred in North America before the tribe Camelini migrated from North America to Asia. Conclusion Molecular clock analysis of complete mitochondrial genomes from C. bactrianus ferus and L

  6. Musculoskeletal modelling of an ostrich (Struthio camelus pelvic limb: influence of limb orientation on muscular capacity during locomotion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John R. Hutchinson

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available We developed a three-dimensional, biomechanical computer model of the 36 major pelvic limb muscle groups in an ostrich (Struthio camelus to investigate muscle function in this, the largest of extant birds and model organism for many studies of locomotor mechanics, body size, anatomy and evolution. Combined with experimental data, we use this model to test two main hypotheses. We first query whether ostriches use limb orientations (joint angles that optimize the moment-generating capacities of their muscles during walking or running. Next, we test whether ostriches use limb orientations at mid-stance that keep their extensor muscles near maximal, and flexor muscles near minimal, moment arms. Our two hypotheses relate to the control priorities that a large bipedal animal might evolve under biomechanical constraints to achieve more effective static weight support. We find that ostriches do not use limb orientations to optimize the moment-generating capacities or moment arms of their muscles. We infer that dynamic properties of muscles or tendons might be better candidates for locomotor optimization. Regardless, general principles explaining why species choose particular joint orientations during locomotion are lacking, raising the question of whether such general principles exist or if clades evolve different patterns (e.g., weighting of muscle force–length or force–velocity properties in selecting postures. This leaves theoretical studies of muscle moment arms estimated for extinct animals at an impasse until studies of extant taxa answer these questions. Finally, we compare our model’s results against those of two prior studies of ostrich limb muscle moment arms, finding general agreement for many muscles. Some flexor and extensor muscles exhibit self-stabilization patterns (posture-dependent switches between flexor/extensor action that ostriches may use to coordinate their locomotion. However, some conspicuous areas of disagreement in our

  7. Effect of diet on the metabolic profile of ostriches (Struthio camelus var. domesticus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bovera, F; Moniello, G; De Riu, N; Di Meo, C; Pinna, W; Nizza, A

    2007-05-01

    In order to study the metabolic profile of ostriches in relation to diet, 40 animals of both sexes were divided equally into two groups and fed two diets ad libitum consisting, on a dry matter basis, of the same commercial concentrate (60%) for the two groups and of corn silage (group A) or alfalfa hay (group B). In the morning, after about 12 h of fasting, blood was collected from the wing vein. The following haematological parameters were determined with an automatic system (Ektachem 250 analyser, Kodak): glucose, cholesterol, triglycerides, lactate (LAC), total protein (TP), uric acid, total bilirubin (Tbil), creatinine (CREA), calcium (Ca), magnesium (Mg), phosphorus (P), sodium (Na), potassium (K), chloride (Cl-), iron (Fe), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase (AP), cholinesterase (ChE), alpha-amylase (Amyl), lipase (LIP) and gamma-glutamyltrasferase (GGT). Diet significantly affected some parameters of the metabolic profile. Indeed, owing to the presence of alfalfa hay in the diet, group B showed, in comparison to group A, significantly higher values of uric acid (222.5 vs 387.5 mmol/L, p < 0.01), GGT (8.50 vs 11.3 U/L, p < 0.05), Tbil (8.50 vs 10.7 mmol/L, p < 0.05), Ca (2.41 vs 2.83 micromol/L, p < 0.01), Mg (1.01 vs 1.18 micromol/L, p < 0.05) and K (2.71 vs 3.16 micromol/L, p < 0.01). The levels of creatinine (27.3 vs 32.6 mmol/L, p < 0.05) and AST (344.9 vs 461.4 U/l, p < 0.01) were also higher for group B.

  8. Prevalência de anticorpos anti - Toxoplasma gondii em avestruzes (Struthio camelus de criatórios comerciais no estado de São Paulo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Paula Angelucci Contente

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available A toxoplasmose é uma zoonose cosmopolita causada pelo protozoário Toxoplasma gondii, podendo acometer mamíferos e aves. O presente estudo teve como objetivo estimar a prevalência do Toxoplasma gondii em avestruzes (Struthio camelus de criatórios comerciais do estado de São Paulo, como forma de auxiliar no conhecimento do comportamento e importância do parasito nesta espécie animal. Foram colhidas 195 amostras de soro de avestruzes, provenientes de Sorocaba, Campinas, São Carlos, Araçatuba, São Paulo, Vale do Ribeira, Botucatu e São José do Rio Preto, estado de São Paulo. As amostras foram analisadas pela Técnica de Aglutinação Direta Modificada (MAT, para a pesquisa de anticorpos anti - Toxoplasma gondii. Os exames sorológicos revelaram 14,36% de animais sororreagentes ao T. gondii. A titulação mínima considerada foi a diluição maior ou igual a 1:16, e a maior diluição encontrada foi 1:16384. Não foi constatada diferença significativa entre os sexos. Apenas duas regiões (São Paulo e São José do Rio Preto não apresentaram animais sororreagentes. Esses resultados salientam a importância de um estudo mais aprofundado sobre a infecção em avestruzes, e também sobre as práticas de manejo que venham a minimizar o risco de transmissão da toxoplasmose para essas aves e, por conseqüência, para o consumidor final.

  9. Affects and Affect Consciousness

    Science.gov (United States)

    MONSEN, JON T.; EILERTSEN, DAG ERIK; MELGÅRD, TROND; ØDEGÅRD, PÅL

    1996-01-01

    Affect consciousness (AC) was operationalized as degrees of awareness, tolerance, nonverbal expression, and conceptual expression of nine specific affects. A semistructured interview (ACI) and separate scales were developed to assess these aspects of affect integration. Their psychometric properties were preliminarily explored by having 20 former psychiatric outpatients complete the interview. Concurrent validity was assessed by using DSM-III-R Axis I and II diagnoses, the Health-Sickness Rating Scale, SCL-90-R, and several indexes from the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory. Satisfactory interrater reliability and high levels of internal consistency supported the construct validity of the measure. Results suggest the most meaningful use of this instrument is in measuring specific affect and overall AC. Clinically, the ACI has provided highly specific and relevant qualitative data for use in planning psychotherapeutic interventions. PMID:22700292

  10. KEFIRS MANUFACTURED FROM CAMEL (CAMELUS DRAMEDARIUS MILK AND COW MILK: COMPARISON OF SOME CHEMICAL AND MICROBIAL PROPERTIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Kavas

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the production possibilities of kefir from fresh camel milk fermented with grain. The findings were then compared with kefir manufactured from cow’s milk. Cow’s milk was fermented with 2.5% grains. The 1% (v/w glucose enriched camel’s milk was fermented with 10% grains and left in an incubator at 25°C. Physical-chemical and sensorial analyses of the kefir sampleswere measured on day one (18 hours of storage and microbiological analyses were measured on days one, three and five. Some physical-chemical parameters were found to be higherin camel milk and its kefir than in cow milk and its kefir, some were found to be close and some were found to be lower. Addition of 1% glucose and 10% grains to the camel milk affected the titrationacidity and viscosity of kefir to significant levels. The kefir produced from camel milk was perceived as sourer, whereas its other properties were found to be close to those of cow milk. Thecholesterol levels of camel milk and its kefir were detected to be higher when compared to those of cow milk and its kefir, but the cholesterol level decreased in both examples after the productionof kefir. In terms of the composition of fatty acids, it was determined that SFA and the small, medium chain fatty acids ratio was low in camel milk and its kefir, but MUFA and the long chainfatty acids ratio was high. PUFA ratio was high in camel milk but low in its kefir. In microbiological analysis, yeast levels increased in kefir samples with the Lactobacillus ssp. strains, and theincrease in the number of yeasts was higher than in the cow milk kefir. In kefir samples, Lactobacillus ssp. strains increased on day one and three of storage, but diminished after day three.

  11. Affective Urbanism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Samson, Kristine

    Urban design and architecture are increasingly used as material and affective strategies for setting the scene, for manipulation and the production of urban life: The orchestration of atmospheres, the framing and staging of urban actions, the programming for contemplation, involvement, play......, experience and consumption are all strategic design tools applied by planners and architects. Whereas urban design in former modernist planning served merely functional or political means, urban design has increasingly become an aesthetical mediator of ideologies embedded in the urban field of life forces....... Under these circumstances affective aesthetics operate strategically within the urban field of interests, capital flows and desires of the social. This ‘affective urbanism’ (Anderson & Holden 2008) is linked to a society influenced by new kinds of information flows, where culture is mediated and enacted...

  12. Affect Regulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Signe Holm; Poulsen, Stig Bernt; Lunn, Susanne

    2014-01-01

    Gergely and colleagues’ state that their Social Biofeedback Theory of Parental Affect Mirroring” can be seen as a kind of operationalization of the classical psychoanalytic concepts of holding, containing and mirroring. This article examines to what extent the social biofeedback theory of parenta...

  13. Affective Maps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salovaara-Moring, Inka

    . In particular, mapping environmental damage, endangered species, and human made disasters has become one of the focal point of affective knowledge production. These ‘more-than-humangeographies’ practices include notions of species, space and territory, and movement towards a new political ecology. This type...... of digital cartographies has been highlighted as the ‘processual turn’ in critical cartography, whereas in related computational journalism it can be seen as an interactive and iterative process of mapping complex and fragile ecological developments. This paper looks at computer-assisted cartography as part...

  14. [Affective dependency].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scantamburlo, G; Pitchot, W; Ansseau, M

    2013-01-01

    Affective dependency is characterized by emotional distress (insecure attachment) and dependency to another person with a low self-esteem and reassurance need. The paper proposes a reflection on the definition of emotional dependency and the confusion caused by various denominations. Overprotective and authoritarian parenting, cultural and socio-environmental factors may contribute to the development of dependent personality. Psychological epigenetic factors, such as early socio-emotional trauma could on neuronal circuits in prefronto-limbic regions that are essential for emotional behaviour.We also focus on the interrelations between dependent personality, domestic violence and addictions. The objective for the clinician is to propose a restoration of self-esteem and therapeutic strategies focused on autonomy.

  15. Monensin poisoning in dromedary camels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mousa, H M; Elsheikh, H A

    1992-11-01

    Four female fistulated camels (Camelus dromedarius), 4-5 years of age, were each given two grams of 10% monensin intraruminally daily for six days to study the effect of monensin on the rumen fermentation pattern. Signs of toxicity appeared on the sixth day, and included depression, anorexia, muscular weakness, inability to stand, salivation and regurgitation of ruminal contents. On the eighth day, two animals died. The ruminal contents were replaced in the survivors, but they died on the tenth and eleventh day from the start of the experiment.

  16. Camelid genomes reveal evolution and adaptation to desert environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Huiguang; Guang, Xuanmin; Al-Fageeh, Mohamed B; Cao, Junwei; Pan, Shengkai; Zhou, Huanmin; Zhang, Li; Abutarboush, Mohammed H; Xing, Yanping; Xie, Zhiyuan; Alshanqeeti, Ali S; Zhang, Yanru; Yao, Qiulin; Al-Shomrani, Badr M; Zhang, Dong; Li, Jiang; Manee, Manee M; Yang, Zili; Yang, Linfeng; Liu, Yiyi; Zhang, Jilin; Altammami, Musaad A; Wang, Shenyuan; Yu, Lili; Zhang, Wenbin; Liu, Sanyang; Ba, La; Liu, Chunxia; Yang, Xukui; Meng, Fanhua; Wang, Shaowei; Li, Lu; Li, Erli; Li, Xueqiong; Wu, Kaifeng; Zhang, Shu; Wang, Junyi; Yin, Ye; Yang, Huanming; Al-Swailem, Abdulaziz M; Wang, Jun

    2014-10-21

    Bactrian camel (Camelus bactrianus), dromedary (Camelus dromedarius) and alpaca (Vicugna pacos) are economically important livestock. Although the Bactrian camel and dromedary are large, typically arid-desert-adapted mammals, alpacas are adapted to plateaus. Here we present high-quality genome sequences of these three species. Our analysis reveals the demographic history of these species since the Tortonian Stage of the Miocene and uncovers a striking correlation between large fluctuations in population size and geological time boundaries. Comparative genomic analysis reveals complex features related to desert adaptations, including fat and water metabolism, stress responses to heat, aridity, intense ultraviolet radiation and choking dust. Transcriptomic analysis of Bactrian camels further reveals unique osmoregulation, osmoprotection and compensatory mechanisms for water reservation underpinned by high blood glucose levels. We hypothesize that these physiological mechanisms represent kidney evolutionary adaptations to the desert environment. This study advances our understanding of camelid evolution and the adaptation of camels to arid-desert environments.

  17. How does real affect affect affect recognition in speech?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Truong, Khiet Phuong

    2009-01-01

    The automatic analysis of affect is a relatively new and challenging multidisciplinary research area that has gained a lot of interest over the past few years. The research and development of affect recognition systems has opened many opportunities for improving the interaction between man and

  18. Pterins and affective disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Hoekstra (Rocco)

    2007-01-01

    textabstractThe pathophysiology of affective disorders is largely unknown. In patients with various affective disorders the activity of pterins and related amino acids were investigated before and after clinical treatment. In particular the bipolar affective disorder could be

  19. Declawing ostrich ( Struthio camelus domesticus ) chicks to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Leather is one of the main products derived from ostrich farming. Current rearing practices lead to a high incidence of skin damage, which decreases the value of ostrich skins. In the emu and poultry industry, declawing is commonly practiced to reduce skin damage and injuries. We consequently investigated declawing of ...

  20. Fertility of female ostriches (Struthio camelus)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Irek Malecki

    Fertilisation rate in ostrich eggs is high because most eggs contain excessive ... The ostrich breeding system is complex and a “breeding unit” can range from a .... commercial ostrich farm in Western Australia and brought to the Field Station at ...

  1. Effect of diet supplementation on growth and reproduction in camels under arid range conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdouli H.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Eighteen pregnant dromedary females (Camelus dromedarius were used to determine the effect of concentrate supplement on growth and reproductive performances in peri-partum period. The females were divided into supplemented (n = 9; S and unsupplemented (n = 9; C experimental groups. All animals grazed, with one mature male, 7 to 8 hours per day on salty pasture rangelands. During night, they were kept in pen, where each female of group S received 4 kg per day of concentrate supplement during the last 3 months of gestation and 5 kg per day during the first 3 months post-partum. During the last 90 days of gestation daily body weight gain (DBG was at least tenfold more important in group S than in group C (775 g vs. 72 g respectively. Supplementation affected birth weight of offspring (30.3 kg vs. 23.4 kg and its DBG (806 g vs. 430 g in group S and group C respectively. During the post-partum period, females in group S gained in weight (116 g per day whereas females in group C lost more than 200 g per day. The mean post-partum interval to the first heat and the percentage of females in heat were 29.5 day and 44.4/ vs. 41.2 day and 71.4/ for the C and S groups, respectively. We conclude that under range conditions, dietary supplementation of dromedary during late pregnancy stage and post-partum period improves productive and reproductive parameters.

  2. Mediatised affective activism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reestorff, Camilla Møhring

    2014-01-01

    bodies by addressing affective registers. The mediatised ‘affective environment’ (Massumi, 2009) cues bodies and generates spreadability, yet it also produces disconnections. These disconnections might redistribute the ‘economy of recognizability’ (Butler and Athanasiou, 2013); however, the Femen...

  3. Affectivity in the Liminal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomassen, Bjørn

    In this paper I propose a return to the work of Arnold van Gennep, in order to briefly discuss how the terms of liminality and affectivity were always already connected. By linking the concept of liminality that van Gennep made famous to affectivity, we are actually not proposing new...... at the threshold. The paper contains three sections: a) liminality and affectivity in van Gennep’s life; b) liminality and affectivity as a theme in his work; c) liminality and affectivity as developed in the early reception of his work....

  4. Engaging in Affective Practices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Galløe, Lotte Rannveig

    schools, the paper develops an affective-power approach drawing on Foucault’s notion of power and Whetherell’s conceptualisation of affect. The approach captures the affective dimension of governing and resistance in interactional practice that engages teachers and pupils. This enables a research focus......The paper presents how the merging of the theoretical concepts ‘Affect’ and ‘Power’ faces methodological and ethical challenges when entangled in teachers’ and pupils’ practice. Based on a study of pedagogical methods aiming to shape certain affective relations and avoid conflicts in Danish primary....... Witnessing tense conflict situations taking place I as a researcher get affected as well, and in turn affect the practice myself. Because, both the teacher, pupil, and I are well aware of my research focus on power and affect, being observed in conflictual situations contributes to pervasive shame...

  5. Affected in the nightclub

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Demant, Jakob Johan

    2013-01-01

    simultaneously with the affects of love, joy, sympathy and so on. Alcohol, illicit drugs, bouncers, music and other human or non-human actants are part of the place. It is within this heterogeneous assemblage that affects become embodied. The data consists of 273 cases from a large Copenhagen nightclub where...

  6. Affectivity and race

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    on the role of feelings in the formation of subjectivities, how race and whiteness are affectively circulated in public life and the ways in which emotions contribute to regimes of inclusion and exclusion. As such it will appeal to scholars across the social sciences, with interests in sociology, anthropology...... of the Nordic countries, Affectivity and Race draws on a variety of sources, including television programmes, news media, fictional literature, interviews, ethnographic observations, teaching curricula and policy documents, to explore the ways in which ideas about affectivity and emotion afford new insights...

  7. Dementia in affective disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kessing, L V; Olsen, E W; Mortensen, P B

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to investigate whether patients with affective disorder have increased risk of developing dementia compared to other groups of psychiatric patients and compared to the general population. METHOD: In the Danish psychiatric central register, 3363 patients...... with unipolar affective disorder, 518 patients with bipolar affective disorder, 1025 schizophrenic and 8946 neurotic patients were identified according to the diagnosis at the first ever discharge from psychiatric hospital during the period from 1970 to 1974. The rate of discharge diagnosis of dementia...... on readmission was estimated during 21 years of follow-up. In addition, the rates were compared with the rates for admission to psychiatric hospitals with a discharge diagnosis of dementia for the total Danish population. RESULTS: Patients with unipolar and with bipolar affective disorder had a greater risk...

  8. Recurrence in affective disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kessing, L V; Olsen, E W; Andersen, P K

    1999-01-01

    The risk of recurrence in affective disorder is influenced by the number of prior episodes and by a person's tendency toward recurrence. Newly developed frailty models were used to estimate the effect of the number of episodes on the rate of recurrence, taking into account individual frailty toward...... recurrence. The study base was the Danish psychiatric case register of all hospital admissions for primary affective disorder in Denmark during 1971-1993. A total of 20,350 first-admission patients were discharged with a diagnosis of major affective disorder. For women with unipolar disorder and for all...... kinds of patients with bipolar disorder, the rate of recurrence was affected by the number of prior episodes even when the effect was adjusted for individual frailty toward recurrence. No effect of episodes but a large effect of the frailty parameter was found for unipolar men. The authors concluded...

  9. Seasonal Affective Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... cravings and weight gain Thoughts of death or suicide SAD is more common in women, young people, ... of serotonin, a brain chemical that affects your mood. Their bodies also make too ... with light therapy. NIH: National Institute of Mental Health

  10. Affectivity and race

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vitus, Kathrine; Andreassen, Rikke

    into the experience of racial difference and the unfolding of political discourses on race in various social spheres. Organised around the themes of the politicisation of race through affect, the way that race produces affect and the affective experience of race, this interdisciplinary collection sheds light...... on the role of feelings in the formation of subjectivities, how race and whiteness are affectively circulated in public life and the ways in which emotions contribute to regimes of inclusion and exclusion. As such it will appeal to scholars across the social sciences, with interests in sociology, anthropology......This book presents new empirical studies of social difference in the Nordic welfare states, in order to advance novel theoretical perspectives on the everyday practices and macro-politics of race and gender in multi-ethnic societies. With attention to the specific political and cultural landscapes...

  11. How culture affects management?

    OpenAIRE

    Billi, Lorena

    2012-01-01

    The study is about how culture affects management. Culture can have many different meanings. Management has also many different ways to be approached. While doing research about cultures, the study will try to analyze how the culture affects the management. The study starts with a full explanation of the meaning of culture. Some previous analysis and studies are added to illustrate my study on the subject. The effect culture has on management is studied at different levels. The study does not...

  12. Radon affected areas: Scotland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miles, J.C.H.; Green, B.M.R.; Lomas, P.R.

    1993-01-01

    Board advice on radon in homes issued in 1990 specifies that areas of the UK where 1% or more of homes exceed the Action Level of 200 becquerels per cubic metre of air should be regarded as Affected Areas. Results of radon measurements in homes in the districts of Kincardine and Deeside and Gordon in Grampian Region and Caithness and Sutherland in Highland Region are mapped and used to delineate Affected Areas in these areas where required. The Scottish Office is advised to consider the desirability of developing guidance on precautions against radon in future homes. (author)

  13. Affects and assemblages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Samson, Kristine

    the paper raises the questions where to locate aesthetics when planners and architects wishes to design for aesthetical experiences and sensations rather than formal objects. The paper will proceed through a brief outline of the recent notion of assemblage and affect in urban studies, planning theory...... happens to aesthetics and how does it change the existing social and geographical understanding of urban space? The paper sets out to reintroduce aesthetical aspects of affects and assemblages in relation to urban space and urban planning. It presupposes urban space as a continuous state of becoming where...

  14. Factors affecting nuclear development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stevens, G.H.; Girouard, P.

    1995-01-01

    Among the factors affecting nuclear development, some depend more or less on public authorities, but many are out of public authorities control (foreign policies, market and deregulation, socials and environmental impacts, public opinion). As far as possible, the following study tries to identify those factors. (D.L.). 2 photos

  15. Dynamic Synchronization of Teacher-Students Affection in Affective Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wenhai; Lu, Jiamei

    2011-01-01

    Based on Bower's affective network theory, the article links the dynamic analysis of affective factors in affective instruction, and presents affective instruction strategic of dynamic synchronization between teacher and students to implement the best ideal mood that promotes students' cognition and affection together. In the process of teaching,…

  16. The Affective Turn

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carnera, Alexander

    2012-01-01

    This paper confronts biopolitics with modern labour addressing questions of ‘governmentality’, ‘self-management’ and ‘social innovation’. It argues that the new modes of production within immaterial labour involve a new complex relation between on the one hand the ‘Art of Governance...... of biopolitics that surpasses that of governmentality. The affective self-relation is used as a research tool to analyse the creation of social and economic values in our new modes of productions, for instance, within free labour of the cultural industry. The movie The Five Obstructions is used to show how...... organizing good affective encounters based on limitations enhance and facilitate the performative dimension of self-management. Finally, the paper addresses the problem of critique confronting self-relation with Spinoza's ethics as an ethical difference of powe...

  17. Factors Affecting Wound Healing

    OpenAIRE

    Guo, S.; DiPietro, L.A.

    2010-01-01

    Wound healing, as a normal biological process in the human body, is achieved through four precisely and highly programmed phases: hemostasis, inflammation, proliferation, and remodeling. For a wound to heal successfully, all four phases must occur in the proper sequence and time frame. Many factors can interfere with one or more phases of this process, thus causing improper or impaired wound healing. This article reviews the recent literature on the most significant factors that affect cutane...

  18. Dromedary camels and the transmission of Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus (MERS-CoV)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemida, Maged G; Elmoslemany, Ahmed; Al-Hizab, Fahad; Alnaeem, Abdulmohsen; Almathen, Faisal; Faye, Bernard; Chu, Daniel KW; Perera, Ranawaka A; Peiris, Malik

    2015-01-01

    Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) is an existential threat to global public health. The virus has been repeatedly detected in dromedary camels (Camelus dromedarius). Adult animals in many countries in the Middle East as well as in North and East Africa showed high (>90%) sero-prevalence to the virus. MERS-CoV isolated from dromedaries is genetically and phenotypically similar to viruses from humans. We summarise current understanding of the ecology of MERS-CoV in animals and transmission at the animal-human interface. We review aspects of husbandry, animal movements and trade and the use and consumption of camel dairy and meat products in the Middle East that may be relevant to the epidemiology of MERS. We also highlight the gaps in understanding the transmission of this virus in animals and from animals to humans. PMID:26256102

  19. Social and Affective Robotics Tutorial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pantic, Maja; Evers, Vanessa; Deisenroth, Marc; Merino, Luis; Schuller, Björn

    2016-01-01

    Social and Affective Robotics is a growing multidisciplinary field encompassing computer science, engineering, psychology, education, and many other disciplines. It explores how social and affective factors influence interactions between humans and robots, and how affect and social signals can be

  20. Ultrasonic variables affecting inspection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lautzenheiser, C.E.; Whiting, A.R.; McElroy, J.T.

    1977-01-01

    There are many variables which affect the detection of the effects and reproducibility of results when utilizing ultrasonic techniques. The most important variable is the procedure, as this document specifies, to a great extent, the controls that are exercised over the other variables. The most important variable is personnel with regards to training, qualification, integrity, data recording, and data analysis. Although the data is very limited, these data indicate that, if the procedure is carefully controlled, reliability of defect detection and reproducibility of results are both approximately 90 percent for reliability of detection, this applies to relatively small defects as reliability increases substantially as defect size increases above the recording limit. (author)

  1. Risk, Affect and Emotion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jens O. Zinn

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available For a long time theorising has underestimated the importance of affect and emotion in decision making and the management of risk and uncertainty. In relatively one-sided interpretations emotions were often interpreted as threats for rational decision making, and could be triggered by uncertainties, which would go along with social change. Recent interdisciplinary research has shown the importance to acknowledge the more complex link between reasoning and emotions. The article outlines different perspectives on emotion in risk research of economics, psychology and sociology and argues for further research. URN: urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs0601293

  2. Multisensory Perception of Affect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatrice de Gelder

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Multisensory integration must stand out among the fields of research that have witnessed a most impressive explosion of interest this last decade. One of these new areas of multisensory research concerns emotion. Since our first exploration of this phenomenon (de Gelder et al., 1999 a number of studies have appeared and they have used a wide variety of behavioral, neuropsychological and neuroscientifc methods. The goal of this presentation is threefold. First, we review the research on audiovisual perception of emotional signals from the face and the voice followed by a report or more recent studies on integrating emotional information provided by the voice and whole body expressions. We will also include some recent work on multisensory music perception. In the next section we discuss some methodological and theoretical issues. Finally, we will discuss findings about abnormal affective audiovisual integration in schizophrenia and in autism.

  3. Material and Affective Movements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Lisa Rosén

    2014-01-01

    . The chapter traces the former pupil’s memories of physical and affective movements within the larger context of school and discovers surprisingly diverse modes of knowing, relating, and attending to things, teachers and classmates among and between the three generations. It thus taps into the rich realms...... of individual experiences of school and everyday school life as it unfolds in and beyond the formal teaching situations. The chapter follows in the wake of a growing attention to the aspects of everyday life and lived life at school in the history of education. It also develops tools for and demonstrates how...... the use of spoken memories is a rewarding source for the writing about school from the pupils’ perspective....

  4. Factors Affecting Wound Healing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, S.; DiPietro, L.A.

    2010-01-01

    Wound healing, as a normal biological process in the human body, is achieved through four precisely and highly programmed phases: hemostasis, inflammation, proliferation, and remodeling. For a wound to heal successfully, all four phases must occur in the proper sequence and time frame. Many factors can interfere with one or more phases of this process, thus causing improper or impaired wound healing. This article reviews the recent literature on the most significant factors that affect cutaneous wound healing and the potential cellular and/or molecular mechanisms involved. The factors discussed include oxygenation, infection, age and sex hormones, stress, diabetes, obesity, medications, alcoholism, smoking, and nutrition. A better understanding of the influence of these factors on repair may lead to therapeutics that improve wound healing and resolve impaired wounds. PMID:20139336

  5. Security affects us all!

    CERN Multimedia

    SMB Department

    2016-01-01

    In the hope of minimising the number of thefts of the Organization’s property, which can lead to months of work going to waste on certain projects, you are reminded of the importance that CERN attaches to the rules concerning the protection of equipment for which we are responsible. If you see any unusual behaviour or if you are the victim of a theft, don’t hesitate to report it by submitting a ticket through the CERN Portal or calling the CSA. Security affects us all!   CERN is attractive in more ways than one, and it remains as attractive as ever to thieves. With the nice weather and with the holiday season in full swing, the number of thefts recorded at CERN is on the rise. Items stolen include money, computers, electronic equipment, cable drums and copper antennae.   There are a few basic precautions that you should take to protect both your own and the Organization’s property: lock your door, don’t leave valuable items in your office, st...

  6. Affective World Literature

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vilslev, Annette Thorsen

    The PhD dissertation compares the literary theory and novels of modern Japanese writer Natsume Sōseki. It reads Sōseki’s Theory of Literature (2009, Bungakuron, 1907) as an inherently comparative and interdisciplinary approach to theorizing feelings in world literature. More broadly, the disserta......The PhD dissertation compares the literary theory and novels of modern Japanese writer Natsume Sōseki. It reads Sōseki’s Theory of Literature (2009, Bungakuron, 1907) as an inherently comparative and interdisciplinary approach to theorizing feelings in world literature. More broadly......, the dissertation investigates the critical negotiation of the novel as a travelling genre in Japan in the beginning of the 20th century, and, more specifically, Sōseki’s work in relation to world literature and affect theory. Sōseki’s work is highly influential in Japan and East Asia, and his novels widely...... circulated beyond Japan. Using Sōseki’s theory as an example, and by comparing it to other theories, the dissertation argues that comparative literature needs to include not only more non-Western literature but also more non-Western literary theories in the ongoing debate of world literature. Close...

  7. Affective match: Leader emotions, follower positive affect, and follower performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Damen, F.; van Knippenberg, B.M.; van Knippenberg, D.

    2008-01-01

    Leader emotions may play an important role in leadership effectiveness. Extending earlier research on leader emotional displays and leadership effectiveness, we propose that the affective match between follower positive affect (PA) and leaders' emotional displays moderates the effectiveness of

  8. Introduction: Affective Ecologies and Conservation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neera M Singh

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Engaging the affective and materialist turn in the social sciences, this special section elaborates on how analytical attention on affect and affective relations is central to understanding human-nature relations and to conservation interventions. The contributors to this section use conceptual resources from affect theory, new materialism, and indigenous ontologies to illustrate the practical significance of paying attention to affect in understanding nature-society relations. This introduction reviews these conceptual resources to make a case for affective political ecology.

  9. Encountering Science Education's Capacity to Affect and Be Affected

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alsop, Steve

    2016-01-01

    What might science education learn from the recent affective turn in the humanities and social sciences? Framed as a response to Michalinos Zembylas's article, this essay draws from selected theorizing in affect theory, science education and science and technology studies, in pursuit of diverse and productive ways to talk of affect within science…

  10. Foods That Can Affect Fertility

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... That Can Affect Fertility Print Email Foods That Can Affect Fertility By Caroline Kaufman, MS, RDN Published ... the American Society for Reproductive Medicine. While couples can't control all of the causes of infertility, ...

  11. Affective monitoring: A generic mechanism for affect elicitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hans ePhaf

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we sketch a new framework for affect elicitation, which is based on previous evolutionary and connectionist modeling and experimental work from our group. Affective monitoring is considered a local match-mismatch process within a module of the neural network. Negative affect is raised instantly by mismatches, incongruency, disfluency, novelty, incoherence, and dissonance, whereas positive affect follows from matches, congruency, fluency, familiarity, coherence, and resonance, at least when an initial mismatch can be solved quickly. Affective monitoring is considered an evolutionary-early conflict and change detection process operating at the same level as, for instance, attentional selection. It runs in parallel and imparts affective flavour to emotional behavior systems, which involve evolutionary-prepared stimuli and action tendencies related to for instance defensive, exploratory, attachment, or appetitive behavior. Positive affect is represented in the networks by high-frequency oscillations, presumably in the gamma band. Negative affect corresponds to more incoherent lower-frequency oscillations, presumably in the theta band. For affect to become conscious, large-scale synchronization of the oscillations over the network and the construction of emotional experiences are required. These constructions involve perceptions of bodily states and action tendencies, but also appraisals as well as efforts to regulate the emotion. Importantly, affective monitoring accompanies every kind of information processing, but conscious emotions, which result from the later integration of affect in a cognitive context, are much rarer events.

  12. Affective Productions of Mathematical Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walshaw, Margaret; Brown, Tony

    2012-01-01

    In underscoring the affective elements of mathematics experience, we work with contemporary readings of the work of Spinoza on the politics of affect, to understand what is included in the cognitive repertoire of the Subject. We draw on those resources to tell a pedagogical tale about the relation between cognition and affect in settings of…

  13. Identification and isolation of stimulator of interferon genes (STING): an innate immune sensory and adaptor gene from camelids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Premraj, A; Aleyas, A G; Nautiyal, B; Rasool, T J

    2013-10-01

    The mechanism by which type I interferon-mediated antiviral response is mounted by hosts against invading pathogen is an intriguing one. Of late, an endoplasmic reticulum transmembrane protein encoded by a gene called stimulator of interferon genes (STING) is implicated in the innate signalling pathways and has been identified and cloned in few mammalian species including human, mouse and pig. In this article, we report the identification of STING from three different species of a highly conserved family of mammals - the camelids. cDNAs encoding the STING of Old World camels - dromedary camel (Camelus dromedarius) and bactrian camel (Camelus bactrianus) and a New World camel - llama (Llama glama) were amplified using conserved primers and RACE. The complete STING cDNA of dromedary camel is 2171 bp long with a 706-bp 5' untranslated regions (UTR), an 1137-bp open reading frame (ORF) and a 328-bp 3' UTR. Sequence and phylogenetic analysis of the ORF of STING from these three camelids indicate high level of similarity among camelids and conservation of critical amino acid residues across different species. Quantitative real-time PCR analysis revealed high levels of STING mRNA expression in blood, spleen, lymph node and lung. The identification of camelid STING will help in better understanding of the role of this molecule in the innate immunity of the camelids and other mammals. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Parasitic diseases of camels in Iran (1931–2017 – a literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sazmand Alireza

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Parasitic diseases of camels are major causes of impaired milk and meat production, decreases in performance or even death. Some camel parasites also represent a threat to human health. About 171,500 one-humped camels (Camelus dromedarius and 100–300 two-humped camels (Camelus bactrianus live in Iran. Knowledge of the biodiversity of their parasites is still limited. The present review covers all information about camel parasitic diseases in Iran published as dissertations and in both Iranian and international journals from 1931 to February 2017. Ten genera of Protozoa (Trypanosoma, Eimeria, Cryptosporidium, Toxoplasma, Neospora, Sarcocystis, Besnoitia, Theileria, Babesia and Balantidium, 48 helminth species detected in the digestive system, including three species of Trematoda, four species of Cestoda, and 41 species of Nematoda, as well as helminths from other organs – Echinococcus spp., Dictyocaulus filaria, Thelazia leesei, Dipetalonema evansi and Onchocerca fasciata – have so far been described in Iranian camels. Furthermore, 13 species of hard ticks, mange mites, the myiasis flies Cephalopina titillator and Wohlfahrtia magnifica, and immature stages of the Pentastomida Linguatula serrata have also been reported from camels of Iran. Camel parasitic diseases are a major issue in Iran in terms of economics and public health. The present review offers information for an integrated control programme against economically relevant parasites of camels.

  15. Testing the Grandchildren's Received Affection Scale using Affection Exchange Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansson, Daniel H

    2013-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to test the Grandchildren's Received Affection Scale (GRAS) using Affection Exchange Theory (Floyd, 2006). In accordance with Affection Exchange Theory, it was hypothesized that grandchildren's scores on the Trait Affection Received Scale (i.e., the extent to which individuals by nature receive affection) would be related significantly and positively to their reports of received affection from their grandparents (i.e., their scores on the GRAS). Additionally, a research question was asked to explore if grandchildren's received affection from their grandparents is dependent on their grandparent's biological sex or lineage (i.e., maternal vs paternal). Thus, young adult grandchildren (N = 422) completed the GRAS and the Trait Affection Received Scale. The results of zero-order Pearson correlational analyses provided support for the hypothesis, whereas the results of MANOVAs tests only partially support extant grandparent-grandchild theory and research. These findings broaden the scope of Affection Exchange Theory and also bolster the GRAS's utility in future grandparent-grandchild affectionate communication research.

  16. Affective disorders in neurological diseases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nilsson, F M; Kessing, L V; Sørensen, T M

    2003-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the temporal relationships between a range of neurological diseases and affective disorders. METHOD: Data derived from linkage of the Danish Psychiatric Central Register and the Danish National Hospital Register. Seven cohorts with neurological index diagnoses and two...... of affective disorder was lower than the incidence in the control groups. CONCLUSION: In neurological diseases there seems to be an increased incidence of affective disorders. The elevated incidence was found to be particularly high for dementia and Parkinson's disease (neurodegenerative diseases)....

  17. The Relationship of Teacher Affective Behavior to Pupil Affective Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kameen, Marilyn C.; Brown, Jeannette A.

    The study investigated the relationship of teacher affective behavior changes to pupil affective behavior changes in the presence of elementary school guidance services for both populations. Specifically, the study asked: Is teacher change in Intimacy and Esprit related to pupil change in Self Perception and Peer Acceptance? Activities were…

  18. Misremembering Past Affect Predicts Adolescents’ Future Affective Experience during Exercise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karnaze, Melissa M.; Levine, Linda J.; Schneider, Margaret

    2018-01-01

    Purpose Increasing physical activity among adolescents is a public health priority. Because people are motivated to engage in activities that make them feel good, this study examined predictors of adolescents’ feelings during exercise. Method During the first semester of the school year, we assessed sixth grade students’ (N = 136) cognitive appraisals of the importance of exercise. Participants also reported their affect during a cardiovascular fitness test, and recalled their affect during the fitness test later that semester. During the second semester, the same participants rated their affect during a moderate-intensity exercise task. Results Affect reported during the moderate-intensity exercise task was predicted by cognitive appraisals of the importance of exercise, and by misremembering affect during the fitness test as more positive than it actually was. This memory bias mediated the association between appraising exercise as important and experiencing a positive change in affect during the moderate-intensity exercise task. Conclusion These findings highlight the roles of both cognitive appraisals and memory as factors that may influence affect during exercise. Future work should explore whether affect during exercise can be modified by targeting appraisals and memories related to exercise experiences. PMID:28494196

  19. Misremembering Past Affect Predicts Adolescents' Future Affective Experience During Exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karnaze, Melissa M; Levine, Linda J; Schneider, Margaret

    2017-09-01

    Increasing physical activity among adolescents is a public health priority. Because people are motivated to engage in activities that make them feel good, this study examined predictors of adolescents' feelings during exercise. During the 1st semester of the school year, we assessed 6th-grade students' (N = 136) cognitive appraisals of the importance of exercise. Participants also reported their affect during a cardiovascular fitness test and recalled their affect during the fitness test later that semester. During the 2nd semester, the same participants rated their affect during a moderate-intensity exercise task. Affect reported during the moderate-intensity exercise task was predicted by cognitive appraisals of the importance of exercise and by misremembering affect during the fitness test as more positive than it actually was. This memory bias mediated the association between appraising exercise as important and experiencing a positive change in affect during the moderate-intensity exercise task. These findings highlight the roles of both cognitive appraisals and memory as factors that may influence affect during exercise. Future work should explore whether affect during exercise can be modified by targeting appraisals and memories related to exercise experiences.

  20. Phentermine, sibutramine and affective disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Hoyoung; Sohn, Hyunjoo; Chung, Seockhoon

    2013-04-01

    A safe and effective way to control weight in patients with affective disorders is needed, and phentermine is a possible candidate. We performed a PubMed search of articles pertaining to phentermine, sibutramine, and affective disorders. We compared the studies of phentermine with those of sibutramine. The search yielded a small number of reports. Reports concerning phentermine and affective disorders reported that i) its potency in the central nervous system may be comparatively low, and ii) it may induce depression in some patients. We were unable to find more studies on the subject; thus, it is unclear presently whether phentermine use is safe in affective disorder patients. Reports regarding the association of sibutramine and affective disorders were slightly more abundant. A recent study that suggested that sibutramine may have deleterious effects in patients with a psychiatric history may provide a clue for future phentermine research. Three explanations are possible concerning the association between phentermine and affective disorders: i) phentermine, like sibutramine, may have a depression-inducing effect that affects a specific subgroup of patients, ii) phentermine may have a dose-dependent depression-inducing effect, or iii) phentermine may simply not be associated with depression. Large-scale studies with affective disorder patients focusing on these questions are needed to clarify this matter before investigation of its efficacy may be carried out and it can be used in patients with affective disorders.

  1. Family psychoeducation for affective disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Timmerby, Nina; Austin, Stephen; Bech, Per

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this article was to examine the evidence of family psychoeducation (FPE) for affective disorders. Evidence indicates that FPE can be an effective supplement to the standard treatment of patients with affective disorders. FPE can effectively reduce the patients' risk of relapse and redu...

  2. How decision reversibility affects motivation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bullens, L.; van Harreveld, F.; Förster, J.; Higgins, T.E.

    2014-01-01

    The present research examined how decision reversibility can affect motivation. On the basis of extant findings, it was suggested that 1 way it could affect motivation would be to strengthen different regulatory foci, with reversible decision making, compared to irreversible decision making,

  3. Human Technology and Human Affects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fausing, Bent

    2009-01-01

    Human Technology and Human Affects  This year Samsung introduced a mobile phone with "Soul". It was made with a human touch and included itself a magical touch. Which function does technology and affects get in everyday aesthetics like this, its images and interactions included this presentation...... will ask and try to answer. The mobile phone and its devices are depicted as being able to make a unique human presence, interaction, and affect. The medium, the technology is a necessary helper to get towards this very special and lost humanity. Without the technology, no special humanity - soul....... The paper will investigate how technology, humanity, affects, and synaesthesia are presented and combined with examples from everyday aesthetics, e.g. early computer tv-commercial, net-commercial for mobile phones. Technology and affects point, is the conclusion, towards a forgotten pre-human and not he...

  4. Flow, affect and visual creativity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cseh, Genevieve M; Phillips, Louise H; Pearson, David G

    2015-01-01

    Flow (being in the zone) is purported to have positive consequences in terms of affect and performance; however, there is no empirical evidence about these links in visual creativity. Positive affect often--but inconsistently--facilitates creativity, and both may be linked to experiencing flow. This study aimed to determine relationships between these variables within visual creativity. Participants performed the creative mental synthesis task to simulate the creative process. Affect change (pre- vs. post-task) and flow were measured via questionnaires. The creativity of synthesis drawings was rated objectively and subjectively by judges. Findings empirically demonstrate that flow is related to affect improvement during visual creativity. Affect change was linked to productivity and self-rated creativity, but no other objective or subjective performance measures. Flow was unrelated to all external performance measures but was highly correlated with self-rated creativity; flow may therefore motivate perseverance towards eventual excellence rather than provide direct cognitive enhancement.

  5. Affective reading and strategic hermeneutics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riccardo Frangi

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals mainly with three issues: how people interact with linguistically codified messages in everyday life? How this affects people’s behaviour? And how does this thing relates to practicing philosophy? These three issues are faced with the help two concepts: “affective reading” regards the first two of them, while “strategic hermeneutics” regards the last one. This paper thus starts with the analysis of the meaning of affective reading and tries to show how this way of reading is practiced on everyday basis to organize our actions. Then the focus turns to philosophical applications of the affective reading to show how much it affects our discipline. Strategic hermeneutics takes here its place on the stage. Indeed, this concept is the application of affective reading as a philosophical tool and method. Hence, it’s shown how to use this kind of tool with a theoretical analysis and an example given. At the end of the paper I’ve tried to display how this philosophical method affects the foundation and development of the philosopher’s ego under the prospective of Lacan’s theory of Oedipus’ complex.

  6. Comparison of chemical restraint techniques in ostrich (Struthio camelus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Ciboto

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Chemical restraint in ostriches is usually required for short-time interventions. Thus, this study established and evaluated intravenous anesthetics formulated from commonly used drugs in order to accomplish total restraint on this species and allow painful procedures to be performed. Thirty male and female ostriches weighing from 40 to 90 kg were randomly distributed into five groups. Animals in Groups I, II and III were given acepromazine (0.25 mg/kg i.m. and those in Groups IV and V were given xylazine (1.0 mg/kg i.m.. The following drugs were administered intravenously 15 to 20 min later: Group I - propofol (4.0 mg/kg, Groups II and IV - ketamine (5.0 mg/kg and diazepam (0.25 mg/kg, Groups III and V - tiletamine-zolazepam (3.0 mg/kg. All protocols have produced satisfactory results regarding total containment, muscular relaxation and maintenance of the evaluated parameters within a normal range.

  7. Survey of Hard Ticks (Ixodidae) Infesting Camels ( Camelus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    To determine the prevalence and abundance of hard ticks infesting camels, 414 nomadic one - humped camels in Kano State, northwestern Nigeria were selected by random sampling and examined for the presence of ticks on their bodies between January and December 2007. Three species of ticks, Amblyomma ...

  8. Declawing ostrich chicks (Struthio camelus) to minimize skin damage

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Anel

    Abstract. Preliminary genetic parameters for nodule traits of ostrich skins were estimated to examine whether genetic improvement of skin quality is feasible. Average nodule size and density per dm² were determined on five localities on each of 439 ostrich skins. An animal model with random animal and skin permanent.

  9. Phalangeal joints kinematics during ostrich (Struthio camelus locomotion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui Zhang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The ostrich is a highly cursorial bipedal land animal with a permanently elevated metatarsophalangeal joint supported by only two toes. Although locomotor kinematics in walking and running ostriches have been examined, these studies have been largely limited to above the metatarsophalangeal joint. In this study, kinematic data of all major toe joints were collected from gaits with double support (slow walking to running during stance period in a semi-natural setup with two selected cooperative ostriches. Statistical analyses were conducted to investigate the effect of locomotor gait on toe joint kinematics. The MTP3 and MTP4 joints exhibit the largest range of motion whereas the first phalangeal joint of the 4th toe shows the largest motion variability. The interphalangeal joints of the 3rd and 4th toes present very similar motion patterns over stance phases of slow walking and running. However, the motion patterns of the MTP3 and MTP4 joints and the vertical displacement of the metatarsophalangeal joint are significantly different during running and slow walking. Because of the biomechanical requirements, osctriches are likely to select the inverted pendulum gait at low speeds and the bouncing gait at high speeds to improve movement performance and energy economy. Interestingly, the motions of the MTP3 and MTP4 joints are highly synchronized from slow to fast locomotion. This strongly suggests that the 3rd and 4th toes really work as an “integrated system” with the 3rd toe as the main load bearing element whilst the 4th toe as the complementary load sharing element with a primary role to ensure the lateral stability of the permanently elevated metatarsophalangeal joint.

  10. Fatty acid composition of ostrich (Struthio camelus abdominal adipose tissue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Belichovska

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Fatty acid composition of foods has a great impact on nutrition and health. Therefore, thе determination and knowledge of the fatty acid composition of food is very important for nutrition. Due to the high nutritional characteristics of ostrich meat and its products, the research determining their quality is of topical interest. The aim of the present investigation was the determination of fatty acid composition of ostrich adipose tissue. The content of fatty acids was determined according to AOAC Official Methods of Analysis and determination was performed using a gas chromatograph with a flame-ionization detector (GC-FID. The results are expressed as a percentage of the total content of fatty acids. The method was validated and whereupon the following parameters were determined: linearity, precision, recovery, limit of detection and limit of quantification. The repeatability was within of 0.99 to 2.15%, reproducibility from 2.01 to 4.57%, while recovery ranged from 94.89 to 101.03%. According to these results, this method is accurate and precise and can be used for analysis of fatty acids in foods. It was concluded that the content of saturated fatty acids (SFA accounted 34.75%, of monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA 38.37%, of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA 26.88%, of total unsaturated fatty acids (UFA 65.25% and of desirable fatty acids (DFA (total unsaturated + stearic acid 70.37% of the analysed samples. The ratio polyunsaturated/saturated fatty acids accounted 0.77. The most present fatty acid is the oleic (C18:1n9c with 28.31%, followed by palmitic (C16:0 with 27.12% and linoleic (C18:2n6c acid with 25.08%. Other fatty acids are contained in significantly lower quantities.

  11. Conjunctival mucinous adenocarcinoma in an ostrich (Struthio camelus)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perrin, Kathryn L.; Bertelsen, Mads F.; Bartholin, Henrik

    2017-01-01

    . Gross examination revealed a botryoid mass attached to the inferior palpebral conjunctiva and extending onto the palpebral aspect of the nictitating membrane. Euthanasia was selected, and the histological diagnosis of the second mass was a mixed mucinous adenocarcinoma; however, no acid-fast bacteria...

  12. Characterization of partially purified catalase from camel ( Camelus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The liver of camel has high level of catalase (32,225 units/g tissue) as commercially used bovine liver catalase. For the establishment of the enzyme, the rate of catalase activity was linearly increased with increase of the catalase concentration and incubation time. The procedure of partial purification of catalase from camel ...

  13. Fermentative digestion in the ostrich (Struthio camelus var ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Analytical. VFA concentrations in the samples were determined by gas ... Column temperature was programmed ... hindgut of the ostriches was calculated assuming combustion ... (270 mCi/mmol) and [U_14C]-acetate (57.9 mCi/mmol) were.

  14. Variation of the platelet indices of dromedary camel ( Camelus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hematological parameters showed breed, age and intersex differences in mean corpuscular volume and mean corpuscular hemoglobin. Sex and agerelated differences were also found in red cell distribution width in addition to age-related differences in hematocrit and mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration. Platelet ...

  15. Emotion modelling towards affective pathogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bas, James Le

    2009-12-01

    Objective: There is a need in psychiatry for models that integrate pathological states with normal systems. The interaction of arousal and emotion is the focus of an exploration of affective pathogenesis. Method: Given that the explicit causes of affective disorder remain nascent, methods of linking emotion and disorder are evaluated. Results: A network model of emotional families is presented, in which emotions exist as quantal gradients. Morbid emotional states are seen as the activation of distal emotion sites. The phenomenology of affective disorders is described with reference to this model. Recourse is made to non-linear dynamic theory. Conclusions: Metaphoric emotion models have face validity and may prove a useful heuristic.

  16. Affective Computing and Intelligent Interaction

    CERN Document Server

    2012-01-01

    2012 International Conference on Affective Computing and Intelligent Interaction (ICACII 2012) was the most comprehensive conference focused on the various aspects of advances in Affective Computing and Intelligent Interaction. The conference provided a rare opportunity to bring together worldwide academic researchers and practitioners for exchanging the latest developments and applications in this field such as Intelligent Computing, Affective Computing, Machine Learning, Business Intelligence and HCI.   This volume is a collection of 119 papers selected from 410 submissions from universities and industries all over the world, based on their quality and relevancy to the conference. All of the papers have been peer-reviewed by selected experts.  

  17. Interfacial modulation of urban affect

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Samson, Kristine

    Urban culture can increasingly be understood as interface culture (Munster) in which urban design, cultural institutions and architecture increasingly operate as affective interfaces distributing and mediating human perception, consumption and social encounters. As noted by Amin and Thrift (2002......, Massey 2006), they also exclude in depth social and human interaction. Through analysis of three examples of urban affective interfaces (The High Line in New York, Superkilen in Copenhagen and Stålsat By, Frederiksværk, the paper examines how affective urban interfaces modulate and mediate urban...... environments as bodily and sensorial experiences. It asks what is mediated through the interface – whether the. It also asks, what is excluded when urban environments become affective interfaces in the global networked city. Whereas urban interface collect and distribute the bodily and sensible in relational...

  18. Categorization in the Affective Domain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sauciuc, Gabriela-Alina

    2011-01-01

    Data collected in Romance and Scandinavian languages (N=474) in a superordinate category name production task indicate that a multiple-strategy approach would be more suitable for accounting of categorization in the affective domain instead of a prototype approach as suggested by previous studies....... This paper will highlight performance aspects which appear to be consistent with such an interpretation, as well as an important layman- expert knowledge asymmetry in affective categorization....

  19. A touch of affect: mediated social touch and affect

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huisman, Gijs

    2012-01-01

    This position paper outlines the first stages in an ongoing PhD project on mediated social touch, and the effects mediated touch can have on someone's affective state. It is argued that touch is a profound communication channel for humans, and that communication through touch can, to some extent,

  20. Test expectancy affects metacomprehension accuracy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiede, Keith W; Wiley, Jennifer; Griffin, Thomas D

    2011-06-01

    Theory suggests that the accuracy of metacognitive monitoring is affected by the cues used to judge learning. Researchers have improved monitoring accuracy by directing attention to more appropriate cues; however, this is the first study to more directly point students to more appropriate cues using instructions regarding tests and practice tests. The purpose of the present study was to examine whether the accuracy metacognitive monitoring was affected by the nature of the test expected. Students (N= 59) were randomly assigned to one of two test expectancy groups (memory vs. inference). Then after reading texts, judging learning, completed both memory and inference tests. Test performance and monitoring accuracy were superior when students received the kind of test they had been led to expect rather than the unexpected test. Tests influence students' perceptions of what constitutes learning. Our findings suggest that this could affect how students prepare for tests and how they monitoring their own learning. ©2010 The British Psychological Society.

  1. Do recruitment ties affect wages?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Anna Folke; Rand, John; Torm, Nina Elisabeth

    This paper examines the extent to which recruitment ties affect individual wage outcomes in small and medium scale manufacturing firms. Based on a unique matched employer-employee dataset from Vietnam we find that there is a significant positive wage premium associated with obtaining a job through...... an informal contact, when controlling for standard determinants of wage compensation. Moreover, we show that the mechanism through which informal contacts affect wages depends on the type of recruitment tie used. The findings are robust across location, firm size categories and different worker types....

  2. Industrial applications of affective engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Shiizuka, Hisao; Lee, Kun-Pyo; Otani, Tsuyoshi; Lim, Chee-Peng

    2014-01-01

    This book examines the industrial applications of affective engineering. The contributors cover new analytical methods such as fluctuation, fuzzy logic, fractals, and complex systems. These chapters also include interdisciplinary research that traverses a wide range of fields, including information engineering, human engineering, cognitive science, psychology, and design studies. The text is split into two parts: theory and applications. This work is a collection of the best papers from ISAE2013 (International Symposium of Affective Engineering) held at Kitakyushu, Japan and Japan Kansei Engineering Meeting on March 6-8, 2013.

  3. Affective Computing and Sentiment Analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Ahmad, Khurshid

    2011-01-01

    This volume maps the watershed areas between two 'holy grails' of computer science: the identification and interpretation of affect -- including sentiment and mood. The expression of sentiment and mood involves the use of metaphors, especially in emotive situations. Affect computing is rooted in hermeneutics, philosophy, political science and sociology, and is now a key area of research in computer science. The 24/7 news sites and blogs facilitate the expression and shaping of opinion locally and globally. Sentiment analysis, based on text and data mining, is being used in the looking at news

  4. Come, See and Experience Affective Interactive Art

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijholt, Antinus; Bialoskorski, Leticia S.S.; Westerink, Joyce H.D.M.; Reidsma, Dennis; van den Broek, Egon; Hondorp, G.H.W.

    2009-01-01

    The progress in the field of affective computing enables the realization of affective consumer products, affective games, and affective art. This paper describes the affective interactive art system Mood Swings, which interprets and visualizes affect expressed by a person. Mood Swings is founded on

  5. Perceptual Processing Affects Conceptual Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Dantzig, Saskia; Pecher, Diane; Zeelenberg, Rene; Barsalou, Lawrence W.

    2008-01-01

    According to the Perceptual Symbols Theory of cognition (Barsalou, 1999), modality-specific simulations underlie the representation of concepts. A strong prediction of this view is that perceptual processing affects conceptual processing. In this study, participants performed a perceptual detection task and a conceptual property-verification task…

  6. On the Primacy of Affect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zajonc, R. B.

    1984-01-01

    Reasserts view that there can be emotional or affective arousal without prior cognitive appraisal. Criticizes Lazarus's rejection of this view on the grounds that it presents no empirical evidence, is based on an arbitrary definition of emotion, and obliterates all distinctions between cognition, sensation, and perception. (CMG)

  7. Affective Politics and Colonial Heritage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Britta Timm; Andersen, Casper

    2017-01-01

    The article analyses the spatial entanglement of colonial heritage struggles through a study of the Rhodes Must Fall student movement at the University of Cape Town and the University of Oxford. We explore affective politics and the role heritage can play in the landscape of body politics. We aim...

  8. Reclaiming hope: Affect, temporality, politics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Taş, B.

    2016-01-01

    The critical task I take up in this research is to reconceptualize hope as an affective orientation in time, which requires remaining open to the risks that the unknowability of the future entails. I consider this opening a political contestation that is necessary to critique the current

  9. Aesthetics, Affect, and Educational Politics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Means, Alex

    2011-01-01

    This essay explores aesthetics, affect, and educational politics through the thought of Gilles Deleuze and Jacques Ranciere. It contextualizes and contrasts the theoretical valences of their ethical and democratic projects through their shared critique of Kant. It then puts Ranciere's notion of dissensus to work by exploring it in relation to a…

  10. Test Expectancy Affects Metacomprehension Accuracy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiede, Keith W.; Wiley, Jennifer; Griffin, Thomas D.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Theory suggests that the accuracy of metacognitive monitoring is affected by the cues used to judge learning. Researchers have improved monitoring accuracy by directing attention to more appropriate cues; however, this is the first study to more directly point students to more appropriate cues using instructions regarding tests and…

  11. Memory colours affect colour appearance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witzel, Christoph; Olkkonen, Maria; Gegenfurtner, Karl R

    2016-01-01

    Memory colour effects show that colour perception is affected by memory and prior knowledge and hence by cognition. None of Firestone & Scholl's (F&S's) potential pitfalls apply to our work on memory colours. We present a Bayesian model of colour appearance to illustrate that an interaction between perception and memory is plausible from the perspective of vision science.

  12. Bodily action penetrates affective perception

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rigutti, Sara; Gerbino, Walter

    2016-01-01

    Fantoni & Gerbino (2014) showed that subtle postural shifts associated with reaching can have a strong hedonic impact and affect how actors experience facial expressions of emotion. Using a novel Motor Action Mood Induction Procedure (MAMIP), they found consistent congruency effects in participants who performed a facial emotion identification task after a sequence of visually-guided reaches: a face perceived as neutral in a baseline condition appeared slightly happy after comfortable actions and slightly angry after uncomfortable actions. However, skeptics about the penetrability of perception (Zeimbekis & Raftopoulos, 2015) would consider such evidence insufficient to demonstrate that observer’s internal states induced by action comfort/discomfort affect perception in a top-down fashion. The action-modulated mood might have produced a back-end memory effect capable of affecting post-perceptual and decision processing, but not front-end perception. Here, we present evidence that performing a facial emotion detection (not identification) task after MAMIP exhibits systematic mood-congruent sensitivity changes, rather than response bias changes attributable to cognitive set shifts; i.e., we show that observer’s internal states induced by bodily action can modulate affective perception. The detection threshold for happiness was lower after fifty comfortable than uncomfortable reaches; while the detection threshold for anger was lower after fifty uncomfortable than comfortable reaches. Action valence induced an overall sensitivity improvement in detecting subtle variations of congruent facial expressions (happiness after positive comfortable actions, anger after negative uncomfortable actions), in the absence of significant response bias shifts. Notably, both comfortable and uncomfortable reaches impact sensitivity in an approximately symmetric way relative to a baseline inaction condition. All of these constitute compelling evidence of a genuine top-down effect on

  13. Bodily action penetrates affective perception

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlo Fantoni

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Fantoni & Gerbino (2014 showed that subtle postural shifts associated with reaching can have a strong hedonic impact and affect how actors experience facial expressions of emotion. Using a novel Motor Action Mood Induction Procedure (MAMIP, they found consistent congruency effects in participants who performed a facial emotion identification task after a sequence of visually-guided reaches: a face perceived as neutral in a baseline condition appeared slightly happy after comfortable actions and slightly angry after uncomfortable actions. However, skeptics about the penetrability of perception (Zeimbekis & Raftopoulos, 2015 would consider such evidence insufficient to demonstrate that observer’s internal states induced by action comfort/discomfort affect perception in a top-down fashion. The action-modulated mood might have produced a back-end memory effect capable of affecting post-perceptual and decision processing, but not front-end perception. Here, we present evidence that performing a facial emotion detection (not identification task after MAMIP exhibits systematic mood-congruent sensitivity changes, rather than response bias changes attributable to cognitive set shifts; i.e., we show that observer’s internal states induced by bodily action can modulate affective perception. The detection threshold for happiness was lower after fifty comfortable than uncomfortable reaches; while the detection threshold for anger was lower after fifty uncomfortable than comfortable reaches. Action valence induced an overall sensitivity improvement in detecting subtle variations of congruent facial expressions (happiness after positive comfortable actions, anger after negative uncomfortable actions, in the absence of significant response bias shifts. Notably, both comfortable and uncomfortable reaches impact sensitivity in an approximately symmetric way relative to a baseline inaction condition. All of these constitute compelling evidence of a genuine top

  14. Food aroma affects bite size

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de Wijk René A

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To evaluate the effect of food aroma on bite size, a semisolid vanilla custard dessert was delivered repeatedly into the mouth of test subjects using a pump while various concentrations of cream aroma were presented retronasally to the nose. Termination of the pump, which determined bite size, was controlled by the subject via a push button. Over 30 trials with 10 subjects, the custard was presented randomly either without an aroma, or with aromas presented below or near the detection threshold. Results Results for ten subjects (four females and six males, aged between 26 and 50 years, indicated that aroma intensity affected the size of the corresponding bite as well as that of subsequent bites. Higher aroma intensities resulted in significantly smaller sizes. Conclusions These results suggest that bite size control during eating is a highly dynamic process affected by the sensations experienced during the current and previous bites.

  15. Psychological factors affecting equine performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McBride Sebastian D

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract For optimal individual performance within any equestrian discipline horses must be in peak physical condition and have the correct psychological state. This review discusses the psychological factors that affect the performance of the horse and, in turn, identifies areas within the competition horse industry where current behavioral research and established behavioral modification techniques could be applied to further enhance the performance of animals. In particular, the role of affective processes underpinning temperament, mood and emotional reaction in determining discipline-specific performance is discussed. A comparison is then made between the training and the competition environment and the review completes with a discussion on how behavioral modification techniques and general husbandry can be used advantageously from a performance perspective.

  16. Global Media, Biopolitics and Affect

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Britta Timm; Stage, Carsten

    Global Media, Biopolitics and Affect shows how mediations of bodily vulnerability have become a strong political force in contemporary societies. In discussions and struggles concerning war involvement, healthcare issues, charity, democracy movements, contested national pasts, and climate change...... culture. Likewise, it presents a range of close empirical case studies in the areas of illness blogging, global protests after the killing of Neda Agda Soltan in Iran, charity communication, green media activism, online war commemoration and digital witnessing related to conflicts in Sarajevo and Ukraine......., performances of bodily vulnerability is increasingly used by citizens to raise awareness, create sympathy, encourage political action, and to circulate information in global media networks. The book thus argues that bodily vulnerability can serve as a catalyst for affectively charging and disseminating...

  17. Factors Affecting Medical Service Quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosadeghrad, Ali Mohammad

    2014-02-01

    A better understanding of factors influencing quality of medical service can pinpoint better strategies for quality assurance in medical services. This study aimed to identify factors affecting the quality of medical services provided by Iranian physicians. Exploratory in-depth individual interviews were conducted with sixty-four physicians working in various medical institutions in Iran. Individual, organizational and environmental factors enhance or inhibit the quality of medical services. Quality of medical services depends on the personal factors of the physician and patient, and factors pertaining to the healthcare setting and the broader environment. Differences in internal and external factors such as availability of resources, patient cooperation and collaboration among providers affect the quality of medical services and patient outcomes. Supportive leadership, proper planning, education and training and effective management of resources and processes improve the quality of medical services. This article contributes to healthcare theory and practice by developing a conceptual framework for understanding factors that influence medical services quality.

  18. The Affections of My Life

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang; Yan; Shi; Xiao; jing

    2013-01-01

    <正>When I look back over the 90 years of my life, through all the tumultuous events, highs and lows, joys and sorrows, I see that one bright, shining emotion has always warmed my heart: affection. The pillar supporting me throughout has been family love: the care of my parents, the love of my wife and children, and the close feelings between myself and my

  19. Gender affects body language reading

    OpenAIRE

    Arseny A Sokolov; Arseny A Sokolov; Samuel eKrüger; Paul eEnck; Ingeborg eKrägeloh-Mann; Marina A Pavlova; Marina A Pavlova

    2011-01-01

    Body motion is a rich source of information for social cognition. However, gender effects in body language reading are largely unknown. Here we investigated whether, and, if so, how recognition of emotional expressions revealed by body motion is gender dependent. To this end, females and males were presented with point-light displays portraying knocking at a door performed with different emotional expressions. The findings show that gender affects accuracy rather than speed of body language r...

  20. Gender Affects Body Language Reading

    OpenAIRE

    Sokolov, Arseny A.; Krüger, Samuel; Enck, Paul; Krägeloh-Mann, Ingeborg; Pavlova, Marina A.

    2011-01-01

    Body motion is a rich source of information for social cognition. However, gender effects in body language reading are largely unknown. Here we investigated whether, and, if so, how recognition of emotional expressions revealed by body motion is gender dependent. To this end, females and males were presented with point-light displays portraying knocking at a door performed with different emotional expressions. The findings show that gender affects accuracy rather than speed of body language r...

  1. Does Birth Spacing Affect Personality?

    OpenAIRE

    Golsteyn, Bart H.H.; Magnée, Cécile A. J.

    2017-01-01

    This paper studies the causal effect of birth spacing (i.e., the age difference between siblings) on personality traits. We use longitudinal data from a large British cohort which has been followed from birth until age 42. Following earlier studies, we employ miscarriages between the first and second child as an instrument for birth spacing. The results show that a larger age gap between siblings negatively affects personality traits of the youngest child in two-child households. This result ...

  2. Environmental issues affecting CCT development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reidy, M. [U.S. House of Representatives, Washington, DC (United States)

    1997-12-31

    While no final legislative schedule has been set for the new Congress, two issues with strong environmental ramifications which are likely to affect the coal industry seem to top the list of closely watched debates in Washington -- the Environmental Protection Agency`s proposed new ozone and particulate matter standards and utility restructuring. The paper discusses the background of the proposed standards, public comment, the Congressional review of regulations, other legislative options, and utility restructuring.

  3. Affective color palettes in visualization

    OpenAIRE

    Patra, Abhisekh

    2017-01-01

    The communication of affect, a feeling or emotion, has a central role in creating engaging visual experiences. Prior work on the psychology of color has focused on its effect on emotions, color preferences and reactions to color. Studies have attempted to solve problems related to improving aesthetics and emotions of images by improving color themes and templates. However, we have little understanding of how designers manipulate color properties for effective visual communication in informati...

  4. Psychological factors affecting equine performance

    OpenAIRE

    McBride, Sebastian D; Mills, Daniel S

    2012-01-01

    Abstract For optimal individual performance within any equestrian discipline horses must be in peak physical condition and have the correct psychological state. This review discusses the psychological factors that affect the performance of the horse and, in turn, identifies areas within the competition horse industry where current behavioral research and established behavioral modification techniques could be applied to further enhance the performance of animals. In particular, the role of af...

  5. Affective cycling in thyroid disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tapp, A.

    1988-01-01

    Depression in an elderly man with primary recurrent unipolar depression responded to radioactive iodine treatment of a thyrotoxic nodule, without the addition of psychotropic medications. Two months later, manic symptoms developed concomitant with the termination of the hyperthyroid state secondary to the radioactive iodine treatment. Clinical implications of these findings in relation to the possible mechanism of action of thyroid hormones on affective cycling are discussed

  6. Political Dynamics Affected by Turncoats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Salvo, Rosa; Gorgone, Matteo; Oliveri, Francesco

    2017-11-01

    An operatorial theoretical model based on raising and lowering fermionic operators for the description of the dynamics of a political system consisting of macro-groups affected by turncoat-like behaviors is presented. The analysis of the party system dynamics is carried on by combining the action of a suitable quadratic Hamiltonian operator with specific rules (depending on the variations of the mean values of the observables) able to adjust periodically the conservative model to the political environment.

  7. [Dissociative disorders and affective disorders].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montant, J; Adida, M; Belzeaux, R; Cermolacce, M; Pringuey, D; Da Fonseca, D; Azorin, J-M

    2014-12-01

    The phenomenology of dissociative disorders may be complex and sometimes confusing. We describe here two cases who were initially misdiagnosed. The first case concerned a 61 year-old woman, who was initially diagnosed as an isolated dissociative fugue and was actually suffering from severe major depressive episode. The second case concerned a 55 year-old man, who was suffering from type I bipolar disorder and polyvascular disease, and was initially diagnosed as dissociative fugue in a mooddestabilization context, while it was finally a stroke. Yet dissociative disorders as affective disorder comorbidity are relatively unknown. We made a review on this topic. Dissociative disorders are often studied through psycho-trauma issues. Litterature is rare on affective illness comorbid with dissociative disorders, but highlight the link between bipolar and dissociative disorders. The later comorbidity often refers to an early onset subtype with also comorbid panic and depersonalization-derealization disorder. Besides, unipolar patients suffering from dissociative symptoms have more often cyclothymic affective temperament. Despite the limits of such studies dissociative symptoms-BD association seems to correspond to a clinical reality and further works on this topic may be warranted. Copyright © 2014 L’Encéphale. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.. All rights reserved.

  8. Rheumatoid Arthritis: Can It Affect the Eyes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rheumatoid arthritis: Can it affect the eyes? Can rheumatoid arthritis affect the eyes? Answers from April Chang-Miller, M.D. Rheumatoid arthritis is a chronic inflammatory disease that primarily affects the ...

  9. Can the Weather Affect My Child's Asthma?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... English Español Can the Weather Affect My Child's Asthma? KidsHealth / For Parents / Can the Weather Affect My ... Asthma? Print Can the Weather Affect My Child's Asthma? Yes. Weather conditions can bring on asthma symptoms. ...

  10. affective variables of language learning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李文敬

    2011-01-01

    why people enjoy different degrees of success in second language learning,given similar opportunities.in the presence of overly negative emotions such as anxiety,fear,stress,anger or depression,our optimal learning potential maybe compromised.the affective domain refers to the emotional domain that has to do with the emotional behavior of human beings.it includes such factors as self-confidence,extroversion,anxiety,attitudes and motivation.three major factors are introduced here:self-confidence,anxiety and motivation.

  11. Emotion Eliciting in Affective Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lai, Yoke Chin

    2014-01-01

    A successful product needs the designer’s conceptual model congruent with the user’s mental model. The fundamental affective design principle also applies to assistive product design. Eliciting effectively the user’s mental model has been a big challenge for most novice designers. This paper outl...... with 3D digital prototype as emotion stimulus. To form a closed loop reflective model, the emotion response from the user is assessed with an emotion assessment tool. Emotion ontology is established to form the backbone of the emotion assessment tool....

  12. Mood Swings: An Affective Interactive Art System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bialoskorski, Leticia S. S.; Westerink, Joyce H. D. M.; van den Broek, Egon L.

    The progress in the field of affective computing enables the realization of affective consumer products, affective games, and affective art. This paper describes the affective interactive art system Mood Swings, which interprets and visualizes affect expressed by a person. Mood Swings is founded on the integration of a framework for affective movements and a color model. This enables Mood Swings to recognize affective movement characteristics as expressed by a person and display a color that matches the expressed emotion. With that, a unique interactive system is introduced, which can be considered as art, a game, or a combination of both.

  13. Insight in seasonal affective disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghaemi, S N; Sachs, G S; Baldassano, C F; Truman, C J

    1997-01-01

    Lack of insight complicates the evaluation and treatment of patients with psychotic and affective disorders. No studies of insight in seasonal affective disorder (SAD) have been reported. Thirty patients with SAD diagnosed by the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-III-R but no other axis I conditions were treated short-term with light-therapy. Insight was measured with the Scale to Assess Unawareness of Mental Disorder (SUMD) as modified by the authors to assess the self-report of insight into depressive symptoms. Increasing scores (1 to 5) indicated increasing unawareness of illness (i.e., less insight). SAD patients displayed a moderate amount of insight when depressed (mean SUMD score, 2.5). When recovered, they showed no significant change in insight into past depressive symptoms (mean SUMD score, 2.8). Greater insight into current depressive symptoms correlated with more depressive symptoms on the Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression score ([HRSD] r = .35, P depressive symptoms that does not change after recovery, a result in agreement with studies of insight in psychosis and mania. Further, in SAD, increased severity of illness may be associated with increased insight into depressive symptoms, consistent with the hypothesis of depressive realism.

  14. How decision reversibility affects motivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bullens, Lottie; van Harreveld, Frenk; Förster, Jens; Higgins, Tory E

    2014-04-01

    The present research examined how decision reversibility can affect motivation. On the basis of extant findings, it was suggested that 1 way it could affect motivation would be to strengthen different regulatory foci, with reversible decision making, compared to irreversible decision making, strengthening prevention-related motivation relatively more than promotion-related motivation. If so, then decision reversibility should have effects associated with the relative differences between prevention and promotion motivation. In 5 studies, we manipulated the reversibility of a decision and used different indicators of regulatory focus motivation to test these predictions. Specifically, Study 1 tested for differences in participants' preference for approach versus avoidance strategies toward a desired end state. In Study 2, we used speed and accuracy performance as indicators of participants' regulatory motivation, and in Study 3, we measured global versus local reaction time performance. In Study 4, we approached the research question in a different way, making use of the value-from-fit hypothesis (Higgins, 2000, 2002). We tested whether a fit between chronic regulatory focus and focus induced by the reversibility of the decision increased participants' subjective positive feelings about the decision outcome. Finally, in Study 5, we tested whether regulatory motivation, induced by decision reversibility, also influenced participants' preference in specific product features. The results generally support our hypothesis showing that, compared to irreversible decisions, reversible decisions strengthen a prevention focus more than a promotion focus. Implications for research on decision making are discussed.

  15. Pseudobulbar affect: prevalence and management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed A

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Aiesha Ahmed, Zachary SimmonsDepartment of Neurology, Penn State Hershey Medical Center, Hershey, PA, USAAbstract: Pseudobulbar affect (PBA may occur in association with a variety of neurological diseases, and so may be encountered in the setting of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, extrapyramidal and cerebellar disorders, multiple sclerosis, traumatic brain injury, Alzheimer's disease, stroke, and brain tumors. The psychological consequences and the impact on social interactions may be substantial. Although it is most commonly misidentified as a mood disorder, particularly depression or a bipolar disorder, there are characteristic features that can be recognized clinically or assessed by validated scales, resulting in accurate identification of PBA, and thus permitting proper management and treatment. Mechanistically, PBA is a disinhibition syndrome in which pathways involving serotonin and glutamate are disrupted. This knowledge has permitted effective treatment for many years with antidepressants, particularly tricyclic antidepressants and selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors. A recent therapeutic breakthrough occurred with the approval by the Food and Drug Administration of a dextromethorphan/quinidine combination as being safe and effective for treatment of PBA. Side effect profiles and contraindications differ for the various treatment options, and the clinician must be familiar with these when choosing the best therapy for an individual, particularly elderly patients and those with multiple comorbidities and concomitant medications.Keywords: pseudobulbar affect, emotional lability, depression, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, multiple sclerosis

  16. Rheumatoid arthritis affecting temporomandibular joint

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amandeep Sodhi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Rheumatoid arthritis (RA is a chronic, systemic, autoimmune inflammatory disorder that is characterized by joint inflammation, erosive properties and symmetric multiple joint involvement. Temporomandibular joint (TMJ is very rare to be affected in the early phase of the disease, thus posing diagnostic challenges for the dentist. Conventional radiographs fail to show the early lesions due to its limitations. More recently cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT has been found to diagnose the early degenerative changes of TMJ and hence aid in the diagnosis of the lesions more accurately. Our case highlights the involvement of TMJ in RA and the role of advanced imaging (CBCT in diagnosing the bony changes in the early phase of the disease.

  17. Gender affects body language reading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arseny A Sokolov

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Body motion is a rich source of information for social cognition. However, gender effects in body language reading are largely unknown. Here we investigated whether, and, if so, how recognition of emotional expressions revealed by body motion is gender dependent. To this end, females and males were presented with point-light displays portraying knocking at a door performed with different emotional expressions. The findings show that gender affects accuracy rather than speed of body language reading. This effect, however, is modulated by emotional content of actions: males surpass in recognition accuracy of happy actions, whereas females tend to excel in recognition of hostile angry knocking. Advantage of women in recognition accuracy of neutral actions suggests that females are better tuned to the lack of emotional content in body actions. The study provides novel insights into understanding of gender effects in body language reading, and helps to shed light on gender vulnerability to neuropsychiatric impairments in visual social cognition.

  18. Bipolar Affective Disorder and Migraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Birk Engmann

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper consists of a case history and an overview of the relationship, aetiology, and treatment of comorbid bipolar disorder migraine patients. A MEDLINE literature search was used. Terms for the search were bipolar disorder bipolar depression, mania, migraine, mood stabilizer. Bipolar disorder and migraine cooccur at a relatively high rate. Bipolar II patients seem to have a higher risk of comorbid migraine than bipolar I patients have. The literature on the common roots of migraine and bipolar disorder, including both genetic and neuropathological approaches, is broadly discussed. Moreover, bipolar disorder and migraine are often combined with a variety of other affective disorders, and, furthermore, behavioural factors also play a role in the origin and course of the diseases. Approach to treatment options is also difficult. Several papers point out possible remedies, for example, valproate, topiramate, which acts on both diseases, but no first-choice treatments have been agreed upon yet.

  19. Urban Interaction and Affective Experience

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fritsch, Jonas; Brynskov, Martin

    2008-01-01

    As interactive digital technologies become a still more integrated and complex part of the everyday physical, social and cultural spaces we inhabit, research into these spaces’ dynamics and struc-tures needs to formulate adequate methods of analysis and dis-course. In this position paper we argue...... in favor of three points in that direction: First we argue that interaction – and the definition of interaction – is central to unfold the potential of digital urban media, from big, shared screens and media facades to small pri-vate, networked mobile and embedded platforms. Then we argue that an affective...... approach holds potential to address important aspects of the design of such blended digital spaces, extending beyond traditional interaction design. And finally we argue for the importance of construction, i.e. actual interventions of consider-able scale....

  20. Affective dimensions of intergroup humiliation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernhard Leidner

    Full Text Available Despite the wealth of theoretical claims about the emotion of humiliation and its effect on human relations, there has been a lack of empirical research investigating what it means to experience humiliation. We studied the affective characteristics of humiliation, comparing the emotional experience of intergroup humiliation to two other emotions humiliation is often confused with: anger and shame. The defining characteristics of humiliation were low levels of guilt and high levels of other-directed outrage (like anger and unlike shame, and high levels of powerlessness (like shame and unlike anger. Reasons for the similarities and differences of humiliation with anger and shame are discussed in terms of perceptions of undeserved treatment and injustice. Implications for understanding the behavioral consequences of humiliation and future work investigating the role of humiliation in social life are discussed.

  1. The affective shift model of work engagement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bledow, Ronald; Schmitt, Antje; Frese, Michael; Kühnel, Jana

    2011-11-01

    On the basis of self-regulation theories, the authors develop an affective shift model of work engagement according to which work engagement emerges from the dynamic interplay of positive and negative affect. The affective shift model posits that negative affect is positively related to work engagement if negative affect is followed by positive affect. The authors applied experience sampling methodology to test the model. Data on affective events, mood, and work engagement was collected twice a day over 9 working days among 55 software developers. In support of the affective shift model, negative mood and negative events experienced in the morning of a working day were positively related to work engagement in the afternoon if positive mood in the time interval between morning and afternoon was high. Individual differences in positive affectivity moderated within-person relationships. The authors discuss how work engagement can be fostered through affect regulation. (c) 2011 APA, all rights reserved.

  2. Ash in fire affected ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Paulo; Jordan, Antonio; Cerda, Artemi; Martin, Deborah

    2015-04-01

    Ash in fire affected ecosystems Ash lefts an important footprint in the ecosystems and has a key role in the immediate period after the fire (Bodi et al., 2014; Pereira et al., 2015). It is an important source of nutrients for plant recover (Pereira et al., 2014a), protects soil from erosion and controls soil hydrological process as runoff, infiltration and water repellency (Cerda and Doerr, 2008; Bodi et al., 2012, Pereira et al., 2014b). Despite the recognition of ash impact and contribution to ecosystems recuperation, it is assumed that we still have little knowledge about the implications of ash in fire affected areas. Regarding this situation we wanted to improve our knowledge in this field and understand the state of the research about fire ash around world. The special issue about "The role of ash in fire affected ecosystems" currently in publication in CATENA born from the necessity of joint efforts, identify research gaps, and discuss future cooperation in this interdisciplinary field. This is the first special issue about fire ash in the international literature. In total it will be published 10 papers focused in different aspects of the impacts of ash in fire affected ecosystems from several parts of the world: • Fire reconstruction using charcoal particles (Burjachs and Espositio, in press) • Ash slurries impact on rheological properties of Runoff (Burns and Gabet, in press) • Methods to analyse ash conductivity and sorbtivity in the laboratory and in the field (Balfour et al., in press) • Termogravimetric and hydrological properties of ash (Dlapa et al. in press) • Effects of ash cover in water infiltration (Leon et al., in press) • Impact of ash in volcanic soils (Dorta Almenar et al., in press; Escuday et al., in press) • Ash PAH and Chemical extracts (Silva et al., in press) • Microbiology (Barreiro et al., in press; Lombao et al., in press) We believe that this special issue will contribute importantly to the better understanding of

  3. Twitter, Journalism and Affective Labour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugenia Siapera

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The rise of the network aspects of journalism in the context of social mediasuch as Twitter, and the increased importance accorded to community building and maintenance as well as to reciprocity, point to the need to take into account the affective part of journalistic labour. This refers to these aspects of journalistic work that are linked to the creation of networks and communities, to interactions with readers and the forming of bonds between journalists and their readers. An analysis of the affective labour of journalists on Twitter, we argue, is necessary in order to understand the potential and ambiguities of this part of their labour. Based on a set of in-depth interviews with Twitter journalists, this article found three main repertoires of affective labour: the organic relations repertoire, which points to the increasing importance of authenticity as a means of establishing credibility on Twitter; the temporal repertoire; and the repertoire of responsibility. The importance of the affective labour of journalism is found in its biopolitical productivity. The development of an organic relationship with followers, the emergence of stronger bonds between core groups that then become communities, the extension of care and help to the network, are all evidence of the importance of this biopolitical productivity and point to the construction of a new and potentially more radical sociopolitical role for journalism. However, this potential is ambiguous insofar as these elements contain unresolved tensions and ambiguities. These include the trade in selves and the associated commodification; the re-formulation of time, especially its diachronic dimension, as accumulation of social capital; the role of reciprocity and responsibility in reproducing inequalities; and care as care for only those deemed deserving. These ambiguities severely undermine and limit the potentials of affective labour, pointing to the need to develop a purposeful political

  4. Spatial layout affects speed discrimination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verghese, P.; Stone, L. S.

    1997-01-01

    We address a surprising result in a previous study of speed discrimination with multiple moving gratings: discrimination thresholds decreased when the number of stimuli was increased, but remained unchanged when the area of a single stimulus was increased [Verghese & Stone (1995). Vision Research, 35, 2811-2823]. In this study, we manipulated the spatial- and phase relationship between multiple grating patches to determine their effect on speed discrimination thresholds. In a fusion experiment, we merged multiple stimulus patches, in stages, into a single patch. Thresholds increased as the patches were brought closer and their phase relationship was adjusted to be consistent with a single patch. Thresholds increased further still as these patches were fused into a single patch. In a fission experiment, we divided a single large patch into multiple patches by superimposing a cross with luminance equal to that of the background. Thresholds decreased as the large patch was divided into quadrants and decreased further as the quadrants were maximally separated. However, when the cross luminance was darker than the background, it was perceived as an occluder and thresholds, on average, were unchanged from that for the single large patch. A control experiment shows that the observed trend in discrimination thresholds is not due to the differences in perceived speed of the stimuli. These results suggest that the parsing of the visual image into entities affects the combination of speed information across space, and that each discrete entity effectively provides a single independent estimate of speed.

  5. Factors That Affect Software Testability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voas, Jeffrey M.

    1991-01-01

    Software faults that infrequently affect software's output are dangerous. When a software fault causes frequent software failures, testing is likely to reveal the fault before the software is releases; when the fault remains undetected during testing, it can cause disaster after the software is installed. A technique for predicting whether a particular piece of software is likely to reveal faults within itself during testing is found in [Voas91b]. A piece of software that is likely to reveal faults within itself during testing is said to have high testability. A piece of software that is not likely to reveal faults within itself during testing is said to have low testability. It is preferable to design software with higher testabilities from the outset, i.e., create software with as high of a degree of testability as possible to avoid the problems of having undetected faults that are associated with low testability. Information loss is a phenomenon that occurs during program execution that increases the likelihood that a fault will remain undetected. In this paper, I identify two brad classes of information loss, define them, and suggest ways of predicting the potential for information loss to occur. We do this in order to decrease the likelihood that faults will remain undetected during testing.

  6. Achievement goals affect metacognitive judgments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikeda, Kenji; Yue, Carole L.; Murayama, Kou; Castel, Alan D.

    2017-01-01

    The present study examined the effect of achievement goals on metacognitive judgments, such as judgments of learning (JOLs) and metacomprehension judgments, and actual recall performance. We conducted five experiments manipulating the instruction of achievement goals. In each experiment, participants were instructed to adopt mastery-approach goals (i.e., develop their own mental ability through a memory task) or performance-approach goals (i.e., demonstrate their strong memory ability through getting a high score on a memory task). The results of Experiments 1 and 2 showed that JOLs of word pairs in the performance-approach goal condition tended to be higher than those in the mastery-approach goal condition. In contrast, cued recall performance did not differ between the two goal conditions. Experiment 3 also demonstrated that metacomprehension judgments of text passages were higher in the performance-approach goal condition than in the mastery-approach goals condition, whereas test performance did not differ between conditions. These findings suggest that achievement motivation affects metacognitive judgments during learning, even when achievement motivation does not influence actual performance. PMID:28983496

  7. How feeling betrayed affects cooperation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramazi, Pouria; Hessel, Jop; Cao, Ming

    2015-01-01

    For a population of interacting self-interested agents, we study how the average cooperation level is affected by some individuals' feelings of being betrayed and guilt. We quantify these feelings as adjusted payoffs in asymmetric games, where for different emotions, the payoff matrix takes the structure of that of either a prisoner's dilemma or a snowdrift game. Then we analyze the evolution of cooperation in a well-mixed population of agents, each of whom is associated with such a payoff matrix. At each time-step, an agent is randomly chosen from the population to update her strategy based on the myopic best-response update rule. According to the simulations, decreasing the feeling of being betrayed in a portion of agents does not necessarily increase the level of cooperation in the population. However, this resistance of the population against low-betrayal-level agents is effective only up to some extend that is explicitly determined by the payoff matrices and the number of agents associated with these matrices. Two other models are also considered where the betrayal factor of an agent fluctuates as a function of the number of cooperators and defectors that she encounters. Unstable behaviors are observed for the level of cooperation in these cases; however, we show that one can tune the parameters in the function to make the whole population become cooperative or defective.

  8. How feeling betrayed affects cooperation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pouria Ramazi

    Full Text Available For a population of interacting self-interested agents, we study how the average cooperation level is affected by some individuals' feelings of being betrayed and guilt. We quantify these feelings as adjusted payoffs in asymmetric games, where for different emotions, the payoff matrix takes the structure of that of either a prisoner's dilemma or a snowdrift game. Then we analyze the evolution of cooperation in a well-mixed population of agents, each of whom is associated with such a payoff matrix. At each time-step, an agent is randomly chosen from the population to update her strategy based on the myopic best-response update rule. According to the simulations, decreasing the feeling of being betrayed in a portion of agents does not necessarily increase the level of cooperation in the population. However, this resistance of the population against low-betrayal-level agents is effective only up to some extend that is explicitly determined by the payoff matrices and the number of agents associated with these matrices. Two other models are also considered where the betrayal factor of an agent fluctuates as a function of the number of cooperators and defectors that she encounters. Unstable behaviors are observed for the level of cooperation in these cases; however, we show that one can tune the parameters in the function to make the whole population become cooperative or defective.

  9. Anatomic variables affecting interdental papilla

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swapna A. Mahale

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of this study is to evaluate the anatomic variables affecting the interdental papilla. Materials and Methods: Thirty adult patients were evaluated. Papilla score (PS, tooth form/shape, gingival thickness, crest bone height and keratinized gingiva/attached gingiva were recorded for 150 inter proximal sites. Data were analyzed using SPSS software package (version 7.0 and the significance level was set at 95% confidence interval. Pearson′s correlation was applied to correlate the relationship between the factors and the appearance of the papilla. Results: Competent papillae (complete fill interdentally were associated with: (1 Crown width (CW: length ≥0.87; (2 bone crest-contact point ≤5 mm; and (3 inter proximal gingival tissue thickness ≥1.5 mm. Gingival thickness correlated negatively with PS (r = −0.37 to −0.54 and positively with tissue height (r = 0.23-0.43. Tooth form (i.e., CW to length ratio correlated negatively with PS (r = −0.37 to −0.61. Conclusion: Gingival papilla appearance was associated significantly with tooth form/shape, crestal bone height and interproximal gingival thickness.

  10. Does health affect portfolio choice?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Love, David A; Smith, Paul A

    2010-12-01

    A number of recent studies find that poor health is empirically associated with a safer portfolio allocation. It is difficult to say, however, whether this relationship is truly causal. Both health status and portfolio choice are influenced by unobserved characteristics such as risk attitudes, impatience, information, and motivation, and these unobserved factors, if not adequately controlled for, can induce significant bias in the estimates of asset demand equations. Using the 1992-2006 waves of the Health and Retirement Study, we investigate how much of the connection between health and portfolio choice is causal and how much is due to the effects of unobserved heterogeneity. Accounting for unobserved heterogeneity with fixed effects and correlated random effects models, we find that health does not appear to significantly affect portfolio choice among single households. For married households, we find a small effect (about 2-3 percentage points) from being in the lowest of five self-reported health categories. Copyright © 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  11. Southwest ballot measures affecting healthcare

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robbins RA

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available No abstract available. Article truncated after 150 words. Modern Healthcare (1 has published an article summarizing ballot measures affecting healthcare. Those from the Southwest are listed below: States: Arizona: 1. Recreational marijuana. Proposition 205: Legalizes recreational marijuana use for people 21 and older. Opponents of the measure include the Arizona Health and Hospital Association and Insys Therapeutics, a company that makes a cannabis-based pain medication. California : 1. Medi-Cal hospital fee program. Proposition 52: Requires the legislature to get voter approval to use fee revenue for purposes other than generating federal matching funds and funding enhanced Medicaid payments and grants for hospitals. The initiative, which was written by the California Hospital Association and is supported by most state lawmakers, would also make the program permanent, requiring a supermajority in the legislature to end it. 2. Tobacco tax. Proposition 56: Increases the state's cigarette tax by $2 a pack and impose an "equivalent increase on other tobacco products and ...

  12. Factors affecting dental service quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahadori, Mohammadkarim; Raadabadi, Mehdi; Ravangard, Ramin; Baldacchino, Donia

    2015-01-01

    Measuring dental clinic service quality is the first and most important factor in improving care. The quality provided plays an important role in patient satisfaction. The purpose of this paper is to identify factors affecting dental service quality from the patients' viewpoint. This cross-sectional, descriptive-analytical study was conducted in a dental clinic in Tehran between January and June 2014. A sample of 385 patients was selected from two work shifts using stratified sampling proportional to size and simple random sampling methods. The data were collected, a self-administered questionnaire designed for the purpose of the study, based on the Parasuraman and Zeithaml's model of service quality which consisted of two parts: the patients' demographic characteristics and a 30-item questionnaire to measure the five dimensions of the service quality. The collected data were analysed using SPSS 21.0 and Amos 18.0 through some descriptive statistics such as mean, standard deviation, as well as analytical methods, including confirmatory factor. Results showed that the correlation coefficients for all dimensions were higher than 0.5. In this model, assurance (regression weight=0.99) and tangibility (regression weight=0.86) had, respectively, the highest and lowest effects on dental service quality. The Parasuraman and Zeithaml's model is suitable to measure quality in dental services. The variables related to dental services quality have been made according to the model. This is a pioneering study that uses Parasuraman and Zeithaml's model and CFA in a dental setting. This study provides useful insights and guidance for dental service quality assurance.

  13. Does methamphetamine affect bone metabolism?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomita, Masafumi; Katsuyama, Hironobu; Watanabe, Yoko; Okuyama, Toshiko; Fushimi, Shigeko; Ishikawa, Takaki; Nata, Masayuki; Miyamoto, Osamu

    2014-01-01

    There is a close relationship between the central nervous system activity and bone metabolism. Therefore, methamphetamine (METH), which stimulates the central nervous system, is expected to affect bone turnover. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of METH in bone metabolism. Mice were divided into 3 groups, the control group receiving saline injections, and the 5 and 10 mg/kg METH groups (n = 6 in each group). All groups received an injection of saline or METH every other day for 8 weeks. Bone mineral density (BMD) was assessed by X-ray computed tomography. We examined biochemical markers and histomorphometric changes in the second cancellous bone of the left femoral distal end. The animals that were administered 5 mg/kg METH showed an increased locomotor activity, whereas those receiving 10 mg/kg displayed an abnormal and stereotyped behavior. Serum calcium and phosphorus concentrations were normal compared to the controls, whereas the serum protein concentration was lower in the METH groups. BMD was unchanged in all groups. Bone formation markers such as alkaline phosphatase and osteocalcin significantly increased in the 5 mg/kg METH group, but not in the 10 mg/kg METH group. In contrast, bone resorption markers such as C-terminal telopeptides of type I collagen and tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase 5b did not change in any of the METH groups. Histomorphometric analyses were consistent with the biochemical markers data. A significant increase in osteoblasts, especially in type III osteoblasts, was observed in the 5 mg/kg METH group, whereas other parameters of bone resorption and mineralization remained unchanged. These results indicate that bone remodeling in this group was unbalanced. In contrast, in the 10 mg/kg METH group, some parameters of bone formation were significantly or slightly decreased, suggesting a low turnover metabolism. Taken together, our results suggest that METH had distinct dose-dependent effects on bone turnover and that

  14. [Harmful practices affecting women's health].

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-07-01

    The harmful practices discussed in this article are based on case histories form the Central Maternity in Niamey, yet these practices universally affect women throughout Africa. Nutritional taboos are aimed at certain diseases such as measles, diarrhea, dysentery, malnutrition and anemia and consumption of foods rich in proteins and lipids are forbidden. Children are forbidden from eating eggs; pregnant women are forbidden from eating fruits and vegetables because of the fear of hemorrhaging from the sugar content in the fruit; camel meat is forbidden for fear of extending the pregnancy. Female circumcision, a dangerous practice, especially during childbirth, causes many medical problems that remain permanent. Adolescent pregnancy and marriages are practiced to avoid delinquency among children; yet such practices take place because of arranged marriages for a dowry to young men or to older rich men and these forced marriages to adolescents are the causes of increases in divorce, prostitution and desertion. These young marriages have serious consequences on the health status of the mother and the infant, often leading to maternal and infant death. The high level of fertility in Niger is a response to the social structure of the family. It is a patrilineal system that encourages women to have many children, especially sons. In Niger, pregnancy is surrounded by supernatural and mysterious forces, where a child is the intervention for ancestral spirits. In Islam a child is considered a "Gift of God". A woman is expected to work until the delivery of her baby otherwise she is jeered by her neighbors. During delivery women are not expected to cry or show any pain for fear of dishonoring her family irregardless of any medical compilations she faces. Women in Africa are exploited as free labor, deteriorate and age rapidly, are generally illiterate and are not protected under any laws.

  15. An Investigation of Cellulose Digesting Bacteria in the Camel Feces Microbiome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Man, V.; Leung, F. C.

    2015-12-01

    Research Question: Is there a bacteria in camel feces that digests cellulose material and can be used for waste to energy projects? Fossil fuels are the current main resource of energy in the modern world. However, as the demand for fuel increases, biofuels have been proposed as an alternative energy source that is a more sustainable form of liquid fuel generation from living things or waste, commonly known as biofuels and ethanol. The Camelus dromedarius', also known as Arabian camel, diet consist of grass, grains, wheat and oats as well desert vegetation in their natural habitat. However, as the Arabian camel lacks the enzymes to degrade cellulose, it is hypothesized that cellulose digestion is performed by microbial symbionts in camel microbiota. Fecal samples were collected from the Camelus dromedarius in United Arab Emirates and diluted 10-7 times. The diluted sample was then streaked onto a Sodium Carboxymethyl Cellulose plate, and inoculated onto CMC and Azure-B plates. Afterwards, Congo Red was used for staining in order to identify clearance zones of single colonies that may potentially be used as a qualitative assays for cellulose digestion. Then the colonies undergo polymerase chain reaction amplification to produce amplified RNA fragments. The 16S ribosomal RNA gene is identified based on BLAST result using Sanger Sequencing. Amongst the three identified microbes: Bacillus, Staphylococcus and Escherichia coli, both Bacillus and Staphylococcus are cellulose-digesting microbes, and through the fermentation of lignocellulosic, biomasses can be converted into cellulosic ethanol (Biofuel). According to the Improvements in Life Cycle Energy Efficiency and Greenhouse Gas Emissions of Corn-Ethanol by Adam J. Liska, ""Ethanol reduces greenhouse gas emissions by 40-50% when compared directly to gasoline." The determination of bacterial communities that are capable of efficiently and effectively digesting cellulose materials requires that the bacteria be first

  16. Does methamphetamine affect bone metabolism?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomita, Masafumi; Katsuyama, Hironobu; Watanabe, Yoko; Okuyama, Toshiko; Fushimi, Shigeko; Ishikawa, Takaki; Nata, Masayuki; Miyamoto, Osamu

    2014-05-07

    There is a close relationship between the central nervous system activity and bone metabolism. Therefore, methamphetamine (METH), which stimulates the central nervous system, is expected to affect bone turnover. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of METH in bone metabolism. Mice were divided into 3 groups, the control group receiving saline injections, and the 5 and 10mg/kg METH groups (n=6 in each group). All groups received an injection of saline or METH every other day for 8 weeks. Bone mineral density (BMD) was assessed by X-ray computed tomography. We examined biochemical markers and histomorphometric changes in the second cancellous bone of the left femoral distal end. The animals that were administered 5mg/kg METH showed an increased locomotor activity, whereas those receiving 10mg/kg displayed an abnormal and stereotyped behavior. Serum calcium and phosphorus concentrations were normal compared to the controls, whereas the serum protein concentration was lower in the METH groups. BMD was unchanged in all groups. Bone formation markers such as alkaline phosphatase and osteocalcin significantly increased in the 5mg/kg METH group, but not in the 10mg/kg METH group. In contrast, bone resorption markers such as C-terminal telopeptides of type I collagen and tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase 5b did not change in any of the METH groups. Histomorphometric analyses were consistent with the biochemical markers data. A significant increase in osteoblasts, especially in type III osteoblasts, was observed in the 5mg/kg METH group, whereas other parameters of bone resorption and mineralization remained unchanged. These results indicate that bone remodeling in this group was unbalanced. In contrast, in the 10mg/kg METH group, some parameters of bone formation were significantly or slightly decreased, suggesting a low turnover metabolism. Taken together, our results suggest that METH had distinct dose-dependent effects on bone turnover and that METH might

  17. Factors Affecting Aerosol Radiative Forcing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, J.; Lin, J.; Ni, R.

    2016-12-01

    Rapid industrial and economic growth has meant large amount of aerosols in the atmosphere with strong radiative forcing (RF) upon the climate system. Over parts of the globe, the negative forcing of aerosols has overcompensated for the positive forcing of greenhouse gases. Aerosol RF is determined by emissions and various chemical-transport-radiative processes in the atmosphere, a multi-factor problem whose individual contributors have not been well quantified. In this study, we analyze the major factors affecting RF of secondary inorganic aerosols (SIOAs, including sulfate, nitrate and ammonium), primary organic aerosol (POA), and black carbon (BC). We analyze the RFof aerosols produced by 11 major regions across the globe, including but not limited to East Asia, Southeast Asia, South Asia, North America, and Western Europe. Factors analyzed include population size, per capita gross domestic production (GDP), emission intensity (i.e., emissionsper unit GDP), chemical efficiency (i.e., mass per unit emissions) and radiative efficiency (i.e., RF per unit mass). We find that among the 11 regions, East Asia produces the largest emissions and aerosol RF, due to relatively high emission intensity and a tremendous population size.South Asia produce the second largest RF of SIOA and BC and the highest RF of POA, in part due to its highest chemical efficiency among all regions. Although Southeast Asia also has large emissions,its aerosol RF is alleviated by its lowest chemical efficiency.The chemical efficiency and radiative efficiency of BC produced by the Middle East-North Africa are the highest across the regions, whereas its RF is loweredbyasmall per capita GDP.Both North America and Western Europe have low emission intensity, compensating for the effects on RF of large population sizes and per capita GDP. There has been a momentum to transfer industries to Southeast Asia and South Asia, and such transition is expected to continue in the coming years. The resulting

  18. Alcohol: Does It Affect Blood Pressure?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcohol: Does it affect blood pressure? Does drinking alcohol affect your blood pressure? Answers from Sheldon G. Sheps, M.D. Drinking too much alcohol can raise blood pressure to unhealthy levels. Having ...

  19. Light Therapy Boxes for Seasonal Affective Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seasonal affective disorder treatment: Choosing a light therapy box Light therapy boxes can offer an effective treatment for seasonal affective disorder. Features such as light intensity, safety, cost and ...

  20. Rheumatoid Arthritis: Can It Affect the Lungs?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rheumatoid arthritis: Can it affect the lungs? Can rheumatoid arthritis affect your lungs? Answers from April Chang-Miller, ... know. Arthritis Foundation. http://www.arthritis.org/about-arthritis/types/rheumatoid-arthritis/articles/lung-disease-rheumatoid-arthritis.php. Accessed ...

  1. Toward a definition of affective instability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renaud, Suzane M; Zacchia, Camillo

    2012-01-01

    Affective instability is a psychophysiological symptom observed in some psychopathologies. It is a complex construct that encompasses (1) primary emotions, or affects, and secondary emotions, with each category having its own characteristics, amplitude, and duration, (2) rapid shifting from neutral or valenced affect to intense affect, and (3) dysfunctional modulation of emotions. Affective instability is often confused with mood lability, as in bipolar disorders, as well as with other terms. To clarify the concept, we searched databases for the term affective instability and read related articles on the topic. In this article we situate the term within the current affective nomenclature and human emotional experience, explore its psychophysiological features, and place it within the context of psychopathology. We explain why the term can potentially be confused with mood pathology and then define affective instability as an inherited temperamental trait modulated by developmental experience.

  2. Antecedents and Consequences of Affective Commitment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bloemer, J.M.M.; Odekerken-Schröder, G.J.

    2003-01-01

    The primary objective of this study is to assess the impact of three psychological antecedents (position involvement, volitional choice and informational complexity) on affective commitment in a financial service setting. Furthermore, this study addresses the consequences of affective commitment on

  3. Affective Decision Making and the Ellsberg Paradox

    OpenAIRE

    Anat Bracha; Donald J. Brown

    2008-01-01

    Affective decision-making is a strategic model of choice under risk and uncertainty where we posit two cognitive processes -- the "rational" and the "emotional" process. Observed choice is the result of equilibrium in this intrapersonal game. As an example, we present applications of affective decision-making in insurance markets, where the risk perceptions of consumers are endogenous. We derive the axiomatic foundation of affective decision making, and show that affective decision making is ...

  4. Identifying subgroups of CERME affect research papers

    OpenAIRE

    Hannula, Markku S.; Garcia Moreno-Esteva, Enrique

    2017-01-01

    Research in mathematics related affect uses a variety of theoretical frameworks. Three different dimensions have been suggested as significant to characterize concepts in this area: (1) emotional, motivational, and cognitive aspects of affect, (2) state and trait aspects of affect, and (3) physiological, psychological, and sociological level of theorizing affect. In this study, we used the information in reference lists and graph theory to identify Graph Communities (coherent clusters) of res...

  5. Hold it! memory affects attentional dwell time

    OpenAIRE

    Parks, Emily L.; Hopfinger, Joseph B.

    2008-01-01

    The allocation of attention, including the initial orienting and the subsequent dwell time, is affected by several bottom-up and top-down factors. How item memory affects these processes, however, remains unclear. Here, we investigated whether item memory affects attentional dwell time by using a modified version of the attentional blink (AB) paradigm. Across four experiments, our results revealed that the AB was significantly affected by memory status (novel vs. old), but critically, this ef...

  6. 40 CFR 1508.3 - Affecting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Affecting. 1508.3 Section 1508.3 Protection of Environment COUNCIL ON ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY TERMINOLOGY AND INDEX § 1508.3 Affecting. Affecting means will or may have an effect on. ...

  7. Enhancing teaching and assessment practices in affective ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The results of the study indicate that social studies tutors in the TTCs seldom teach in the affective domain because they have little knowledge about the taxonomic levels of internalisation of the affective domain. Similarly, the tutors hardly assess the affective outcomes and ineffectively too because of lack of adequate ...

  8. Science 101: Can Electromagnetic Waves Affect Emotions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Bill

    2017-01-01

    The answer to this month's question, "Can electromagnetic waves affect emotions," is yes. Wherever there are electromagnetic (EM) waves (basically everywhere!), there is the potential for them directly or indirectly to affect the emotions. But what about the likely motivation behind the originally-posed question? Can EM waves affect your…

  9. Alexithymia Components Are Differentially Related to Explicit Negative Affect But Not Associated with Explicit Positive Affect or Implicit Affectivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suslow, Thomas; Donges, Uta-Susan

    2017-01-01

    Alexithymia represents a multifaceted personality construct defined by difficulties in recognizing and verbalizing emotions and externally oriented thinking. According to clinical observations, experience of negative affects is exacerbated and experience of positive affects is decreased in alexithymia. Findings from research based on self-report indicate that all alexithymia facets are negatively associated with the experience of positive affects, whereas difficulties identifying and describing feelings are related to heightened negative affect. Implicit affectivity, which can be measured using indirect assessment methods, relates to processes of the impulsive system. The aim of the present study was to examine, for the first time, the relations between alexithymia components and implicit and explicit positive and negative affectivity in healthy adults. The 20-item Toronto Alexithymia Scale, the Implicit Positive and Negative Affect Test and the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule (PANAS) were administered to two hundred and forty-one healthy individuals along with measures of depression and trait anxiety. Difficulties identifying feelings were correlated with explicit negative trait affect, depressive mood and trait anxiety. Difficulties describing feelings showed smaller but also significant correlations with depressive mood and trait anxiety but were not correlated with explicit state or trait affect as assessed by the PANAS. Externally oriented thinking was not significantly correlated with any of the implicit and explicit affect measures. According to our findings, an externally oriented, concrete way of thinking appears to be generally unrelated to dispositions to develop positive or negative affects. Difficulties identifying feelings seem to be associated with increased conscious negative affects but not with a heightened disposition to develop negative affects at an automatic response level.

  10. Alexithymia Components Are Differentially Related to Explicit Negative Affect But Not Associated with Explicit Positive Affect or Implicit Affectivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Suslow

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Alexithymia represents a multifaceted personality construct defined by difficulties in recognizing and verbalizing emotions and externally oriented thinking. According to clinical observations, experience of negative affects is exacerbated and experience of positive affects is decreased in alexithymia. Findings from research based on self-report indicate that all alexithymia facets are negatively associated with the experience of positive affects, whereas difficulties identifying and describing feelings are related to heightened negative affect. Implicit affectivity, which can be measured using indirect assessment methods, relates to processes of the impulsive system. The aim of the present study was to examine, for the first time, the relations between alexithymia components and implicit and explicit positive and negative affectivity in healthy adults. The 20-item Toronto Alexithymia Scale, the Implicit Positive and Negative Affect Test and the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule (PANAS were administered to two hundred and forty-one healthy individuals along with measures of depression and trait anxiety. Difficulties identifying feelings were correlated with explicit negative trait affect, depressive mood and trait anxiety. Difficulties describing feelings showed smaller but also significant correlations with depressive mood and trait anxiety but were not correlated with explicit state or trait affect as assessed by the PANAS. Externally oriented thinking was not significantly correlated with any of the implicit and explicit affect measures. According to our findings, an externally oriented, concrete way of thinking appears to be generally unrelated to dispositions to develop positive or negative affects. Difficulties identifying feelings seem to be associated with increased conscious negative affects but not with a heightened disposition to develop negative affects at an automatic response level.

  11. Dynamic artificial neural networks with affective systems.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine D Schuman

    Full Text Available Artificial neural networks (ANNs are processors that are trained to perform particular tasks. We couple a computational ANN with a simulated affective system in order to explore the interaction between the two. In particular, we design a simple affective system that adjusts the threshold values in the neurons of our ANN. The aim of this paper is to demonstrate that this simple affective system can control the firing rate of the ensemble of neurons in the ANN, as well as to explore the coupling between the affective system and the processes of long term potentiation (LTP and long term depression (LTD, and the effect of the parameters of the affective system on its performance. We apply our networks with affective systems to a simple pole balancing example and briefly discuss the effect of affective systems on network performance.

  12. Ideal affect in daily life: implications for affective experience, health, and social behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Jeanne L

    2017-10-01

    Over the last decade, researchers have increasingly demonstrated that ideal affect-the affective states that people value and ideally want to feel-shapes different aspects of daily life. Here I briefly review Affect Valuation Theory (AVT), which integrates ideal affect into existing models of affect and emotion by identifying the causes and consequences of variation in ideal affect. I then describe recent research that applies AVT to the valuation of negative states as well as more complex states, examines how ideal affect shapes momentary affective experience, suggests that ideal affect has both direct and indirect effects on health, and illustrates that people's ideal affect shapes how they judge and respond to others. Finally, I discuss the implications of cultural and individual differences in ideal affect for clinical, educational, work, and leisure settings. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Evolutionary Influences on Attribution and Affect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennie Brown

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Evolutionary theory was applied to Reeder and Brewer's schematic theory and Trafimow's affect theory to extend this area of research with five new predictions involving affect and ability attributions, comparing morality and ability attributions, gender differences, and reaction times for affect and attribution ratings. The design included a 2 (Trait Dimension Type: HR, PR × 2 (Behavior Type: morality, ability × 2 (Valence: positive, negative × 2 (Replication: original, replication × 2 (Sex: female or male actor × 2 (Gender: female or male participant × 2 (Order: attribution portion first, affect portion first mixed design. All factors were within participants except the order and participant gender. Participants were presented with 32 different scenarios in which an actor engaged in a concrete behavior after which they made attributions and rated their affect in response to the behavior. Reaction times were measured during attribution and affect ratings. In general, the findings from the experiment supported the new predictions. Affect was related to attributions for both morality and ability related behaviors. Morality related behaviors received more extreme attribution and affect ratings than ability related behaviors. Female actors received stronger attribution and affect ratings for diagnostic morality behaviors compared to male actors. Male and female actors received similar attribution and affect ratings for diagnostic ability behaviors. Diagnostic behaviors were associated with lower reaction times than non-diagnostic behaviors. These findings demonstrate the utility of evolutionary theory in creating new hypotheses and empirical findings in the domain of attribution.

  14. Water requirement and total body water estimation as affected by species, pregnancy and lactation using tritiated water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamal, T.H.; El Banna, I.M.; Ayad, M.A.; Kotby, E.A.

    1978-01-01

    Radiotracer dilution technique was used to determine total body water (TBW) and the water turnover rate (WTR) estimate of water requirements in water buffaloe, Red Dannish cattle, fat tailed Osemi sheep and Camellus Dromedarius. Water buffaloes were found to have highest TBW, followed by camels, sheep and cattle in a descending order. The WTR ranking was highest for sheep followed by water buffaloe endurance to heat was found inseperable to high water usage, while in camels, an intericate water retention mechanism help animals to thrive in deserts. Fat tailled Osemi sheep and cattle failed to cope with high environmental temperature resulting in temporary dehydration. TBW was 17% and 6% higher in pregnant cattle and sheep than non-pregnant animals respectively, while there was no observed change in pregnant buffaloes. Water retention of pregnant cattle was associated with an appriciable increase in WTR, which was not noticable in buffaloe or sheep. Lactating buffaloe have had a higher TBW and WTR than lactating cattle. Milk yield per day during the period of measurement was higher in buffalo than cattle. Wallowing of buffalo in water pools during grazing, represents a behavioural adaptation for life in hot regions, aside of tendency for higher WTR with concomitant water retention

  15. Reliability Generalization: An Examination of the Positive Affect and Negative Affect Schedule

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leue, Anja; Lange, Sebastian

    2011-01-01

    The assessment of positive affect (PA) and negative affect (NA) by means of the Positive Affect and Negative Affect Schedule has received a remarkable popularity in the social sciences. Using a meta-analytic tool--namely, reliability generalization (RG)--population reliability scores of both scales have been investigated on the basis of a random…

  16. Factors Affecting University Library Website Design

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Yongi-Mi; University of Oklahoma

    2011-01-01

    Existing studies have extensively explored factors that affect users’ intentions to use university library website resources (ULWR); yet little attention has been given to factors affecting university library website design. This paper investigates factors that affect university library website design and assesses the success of the university library website from both designers’ and users’ perspectives. The findings show that when planning a website, university web designers consider univers...

  17. Affect and Metaphor Sensing in Virtual Drama

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Zhang

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available We report our developments on metaphor and affect sensing for several metaphorical language phenomena including affects as external entities metaphor, food metaphor, animal metaphor, size metaphor, and anger metaphor. The metaphor and affect sensing component has been embedded in a conversational intelligent agent interacting with human users under loose scenarios. Evaluation for the detection of several metaphorical language phenomena and affect is provided. Our paper contributes to the journal themes on believable virtual characters in real-time narrative environment, narrative in digital games and storytelling and educational gaming with social software.

  18. Acute lesions that impair affective empathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oishi, Kenichi; Hsu, John; Lindquist, Martin; Gottesman, Rebecca F.; Jarso, Samson; Crainiceanu, Ciprian; Mori, Susumu

    2013-01-01

    Functional imaging studies of healthy participants and previous lesion studies have provided evidence that empathy involves dissociable cognitive functions that rely on at least partially distinct neural networks that can be individually impaired by brain damage. These studies converge in support of the proposal that affective empathy—making inferences about how another person feels—engages at least the following areas: prefrontal cortex, orbitofrontal gyrus, anterior insula, anterior cingulate cortex, temporal pole, amygdala and temporoparietal junction. We hypothesized that right-sided lesions to any one of these structures, except temporoparietal junction, would cause impaired affective empathy (whereas bilateral damage to temporoparietal junction would be required to disrupt empathy). We studied 27 patients with acute right hemisphere ischaemic stroke and 24 neurologically intact inpatients on a test of affective empathy. Acute impairment of affective empathy was associated with infarcts in the hypothesized network, particularly temporal pole and anterior insula. All patients with impaired affective empathy were also impaired in comprehension of affective prosody, but many patients with impairments in prosodic comprehension had spared affective empathy. Patients with impaired affective empathy were older, but showed no difference in performance on tests of hemispatial neglect, volume of infarct or sex distribution compared with patients with intact affective empathy. PMID:23824490

  19. Personality and Stressor-Related Affect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leger, Kate A.; Charles, Susan T.; Turiano, Nicholas A.; Almeida, David M.

    2015-01-01

    Greater increases in negative affect and greater decreases in positive affect on days stressors occur portend poorer mental and physical health years later. Although personality traits influence stressor-related affect, only neuroticism and extraversion among the Big Five personality traits have been examined in any detail. Moreover, personality traits may shape how people appraise daily stressors, yet few studies have examined how stressor-related appraisals may account for associations between personality and stressor-related affect. Two studies used participants (N=2022, age 30–84) from the National Study of Daily Experiences II (NSDE II) to examine the associations between Big Five personality traits and stressor-related affect, in addition to how appraisals may account for these relationships. Results from Study 1 indicate that higher levels of extraversion, conscientiousness, and openness to experience, and lower levels of neuroticism, are related to less stressor-related negative affect. Only agreeableness was associated with stressor-related positive affect, such that higher levels were related to greater decreases in positive affect on days stressors occur. The second study found that stressor-related appraisals partially accounted for the significant associations between stressor-related negative affect and personality. Implications for these findings in relation to how personality may influence physical and emotional health are discussed. PMID:26796984

  20. Depressive affect in incident hemodialysis patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larkin, John W; Wingard, Rebecca L; Jiao, Yue; Rosen, Sophia; Ma, Lin; Usvyat, Len A; Maddux, Franklin W

    2018-01-01

    Abstract Background The prevalence of depressive affect is not well defined in the incident hemodialysis (HD) population. We investigated the prevalence of and associated risk factors and hospitalization rates for depressive affect in incident HD patients. Methods We performed a prospective investigation using the Patient Health Questionnaire 2 (PHQ2) depressive affect assessment. From January to July of 2013 at 108 in-center clinics randomly selected across tertiles of baseline quality measures, we contacted 577 and 543 patients by telephone for depressive affect screening. PHQ2 test scores range from 0 to 6 (scores  ≥3 suggest the presence of depressive affect). The prevalence of depressive affect was measured at 1–30 and 121–150 days after initiating HD; depressive affect risk factors and hospitalization rates by depressive affect status at 1–30 days after starting HD were computed. Results Of 1120 contacted patients, 340 completed the PHQ2. In patients screened at 1–30 or 121–150 days after starting HD, depressive affect prevalence was 20.2% and 18.5%, respectively (unpaired t-test, P = 0.7). In 35 patients screened at both time points, there were trends for lower prevalence of depressive affect at the end of incident HD, with 20.0% and 5.7% of patients positive for depressive affect at 1–30 and 121–150 days, respectively (paired t-test, P = 0.1). Hospitalization rates were higher in patients with depressive affect during the first 30 days, exhibiting 1.5 more admissions (P < 0.001) and 10.5 additional hospital days (P = 0.008) per patient-year. Females were at higher risk for depressive affect at 1–30 days (P = 0.01). Conclusions The prevalence of depressive affect in HD patients is high throughout the incident period. Rates of hospital admissions and hospital days are increased in incident HD patients with depressive affect. PMID:29423211

  1. Chromosome analysis of arsenic affected cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Shekhar

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim was to study the chromosome analysis of arsenic affected cattle. Materials and Methods: 27 female cattle (21 arsenic affected and 6 normal were selected for cytogenetical study. The blood samples were collected, incubated, and cultured using appropriate media and specific methods. The samples were analyzed for chromosome number and morphology, relative length of the chromosome, arm ratio, and centromere index of X chromosome and chromosomal abnormalities in arsenic affected cattle to that of normal ones. Results: The diploid number of metaphase chromosomes in arsenic affected cattle as well as in normal cattle were all 2n=60, 58 being autosomes and 2 being sex chromosomes. From the centromeric position, karyotyping studies revealed that all the 29 pair of autosomes was found to be acrocentric or telocentric, and the sex chromosomes (XX were submetacentric in both normal and arsenic affected cattle. The relative length of all the autosome pairs and sex chrosomosome pair was found to be higher in normal than that of arsenic affected cattle. The mean arm ratio of X-chromosome was higher in normal than that of arsenic affected cattle, but it is reverse in case of centromere index value of X-chromosome. There was no significant difference of arm ratio and centromere index of X-chromosomes between arsenic affected and normal cattle. No chromosomal abnormalities were found in arsenic affected cattle. Conclusion: The chromosome analysis of arsenic affected cattle in West Bengal reported for the first time in this present study which may serve as a guideline for future studies in other species. These reference values will also help in comparison of cytological studies of arsenic affected cattle to that of various toxicants.

  2. Factor affecting Agrobacterium -mediated transformation of rice ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Potato is a very important food crop and is adversely affected by fungus. Agrobacterium-mediated transformation can play an important role in the improvement of potato. The present study was conducted to optimize the different factors affecting Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of chitinase gene. Nodes were used as ...

  3. 40 CFR 1502.15 - Affected environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Affected environment. 1502.15 Section 1502.15 Protection of Environment COUNCIL ON ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT STATEMENT § 1502.15 Affected environment. The environmental impact statement shall succinctly describe the...

  4. The affect heuristic in occupational safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savadori, Lucia; Caovilla, Jessica; Zaniboni, Sara; Fraccaroli, Franco

    2015-07-08

    The affect heuristic is a rule of thumb according to which, in the process of making a judgment or decision, people use affect as a cue. If a stimulus elicits positive affect then risks associated to that stimulus are viewed as low and benefits as high; conversely, if the stimulus elicits negative affect, then risks are perceived as high and benefits as low. The basic tenet of this study is that affect heuristic guides worker's judgment and decision making in a risk situation. The more the worker likes her/his organization the less she/he will perceive the risks as high. A sample of 115 employers and 65 employees working in small family agricultural businesses completed a questionnaire measuring perceived safety costs, psychological safety climate, affective commitment and safety compliance. A multi-sample structural analysis supported the thesis that safety compliance can be explained through an affect-based heuristic reasoning, but only for employers. Positive affective commitment towards their family business reduced employers' compliance with safety procedures by increasing the perceived cost of implementing them.

  5. Nonverbal synchrony and affect in dyadic interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wolfgang eTschacher

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available In an experiment on dyadic social interaction, we invited participants to verbal interactions in cooperative, competitive, and 'fun task' conditions. We focused on the link between interactants' affectivity and their nonverbal synchrony, and explored which further variables contributed to affectivity: interactants' personality traits, sex, and the prescribed interaction tasks. Nonverbal synchrony was quantified by the coordination of interactants' body movement, using an automated video-analysis algorithm (Motion Energy Analysis, MEA. Traits were assessed with standard questionnaires of personality, attachment, interactional style, psychopathology and interpersonal reactivity. We included 168 previously unacquainted individuals who were randomly allocated to same-sex dyads (84 females, 84 males, mean age 27.3 years. Dyads discussed four topics of general interest drawn from an urn of eight topics, and finally engaged in a fun interaction. Each interaction lasted five minutes. In between interactions, participants repeatedly assessed their affect. Using hierarchical linear modeling, we found moderate to strong effect sizes for synchrony to occur, especially in competitive and fun task conditions. Positive affect was associated positively with synchrony, negative affect was associated negatively. As for causal direction, data supported the interpretation that synchrony entailed affect rather than vice versa. The link between nonverbal synchrony and affect was strongest in female dyads. The findings extend previous reports of synchrony and mimicry associated with emotion in relationships and suggest a possible mechanism of the synchrony-affect correlation.

  6. The Affective Regulation of Social Interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clore, Gerald L.; Pappas, Jesse

    2007-01-01

    The recent publication of David Heise's "Expressive Order" (2007) provides an occasion for discussing some of the key ideas in Affect Control Theory. The theory proposes that a few dimensions of affective meaning provide a common basis for interrelating personal identities and social actions. It holds that during interpersonal interactions, social…

  7. Affective Learning: Environmental Ethics and Human Ecology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gough, Noel P.

    1977-01-01

    This discussion of home economics as a discipline which should focus on its affective foundations, covers the following areas: Affective context of home economics education, the adequacy of the home economics value complex for coping with environmental problems, and toward an acceptable environmental ethic. (SH)

  8. Mental health in war-affected populations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scholte, W.F.

    2013-01-01

    This book addresses mental health problems in populations in nonwestern war-affected regions, and methods to mitigate these problems through interventions focusing on social reintegration. It describes a number of studies among war-affected populations in widely different areas: refugees from the

  9. Dispositional affectivity and work outcomes of expatriates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Selmer, Jan; Lauring, Jakob

    2013-01-01

    affectivity appears to be a promising construct to explain and predict many attitudinal and behavioral outcomes in the workplace, few studies have empirically investigated dispositional affectivity and the work of expatriates. Hence, data from a net-based survey including 350 expatriates in Denmark were used...

  10. Contextual investigation of factors affecting sludge accumulation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Pit latrines in slums areas of Uganda fill up faster than might be expected from some estimates owing to inappropriate use and failure to consider critical factors affecting sludge accumulation rates at the planning, design and construction stages. This study sought to investigate factors affecting filling rates of lined pit latrines ...

  11. Affective Consequences of Teachers' Psychological Investment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephenson, Don

    1990-01-01

    Relationships between teachers' (N=740) psychological condition (burned-out, worn-out, or healthy) and their affective reactions to student success or failure were examined. Findings indicated that affects of anger, guilt, pride, and disappointment varied with and could be predicted from knowledge of teachers' psychological conditions. (IAH)

  12. Mental and physical effort affect vigilance differently

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smit, A.S.; Eling, P.A.T.M.; Hopman, M.T.E.; Coenen, A.M.L.

    2005-01-01

    Both physical and mental effort are thought to affect vigilance. Mental effort is known for its vigilance declining effects, but the effects of physical effort are less clear. This study investigated whether these two forms of effort affect the EEG and subjective alertness differently. Participants

  13. Mental and physical effort affect vigilance differently.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smit, A.S.; Eling, P.A.T.M.; Hopman, M.T.E.; Coenen, A.M.L.

    2005-01-01

    Both physical and mental effort are thought to affect vigilance. Mental effort is known for its vigilance declining effects, but the effects of physical effort are less clear. This study investigated whether these two forms of effort affect the EEG and subjective alertness differently. Participants

  14. Factors affecting endoglucanase production by Trichoderma reesei ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2011-08-22

    Aug 22, 2011 ... from the ANOVA analysis have a significant value of Pmodel>F= 0.0008 and R2 .... there are various environmental and nutritional factors ... reported to affect cellulase production from wheat straw ... many factors affecting simultaneously the fermentation ..... and control its stability (Kalra and Sandhu, 1986).

  15. Clinical definitions of sensitisation in affective disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kessing, L V; Mortensen, P B; Bolwig, T G

    1998-01-01

    The observation of a progressive recurrence in affective disorder has been interpreted as a process of sensitisation. The clinical applicability of such a theoretical model was investigated using the Danish case register, which includes all hospital admissions with primary affective disorder...

  16. Affective Commitment among Student Affairs Professionals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boehman, Joseph

    2007-01-01

    Student affairs professionals in the United States were surveyed to determine the predictive value of overall job satisfaction, organizational support, organizational politics, and work/nonwork interaction on affective organizational commitment. Results indicate that a supportive work environment leads to increased affective attachment to the…

  17. AFFECTIVE ASSESSMENT IN ENGLISH LANGUAGE TEACHING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siti Mariam

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Affective aspect plays important role in man’s life, mainly in making decision, perception, interaction, communication and intelligence. A second behavior domain is the affective domain. The affective domain involves feelings, attitude, interests, preferences, values, and emotions. Emotional stability, motivation, trustworthiness, self-control, and personality are all examples of affective characteristics. Although affective behaviors are rarely assessed formally in schools and classrooms, teachers constantly assess affective behaviors informally, especially when sizing up students. Teachers need to know who can be trusted to work unsupervised and who cannot, who can maintain self-control when the teacher has to leave the classroom and who cannot, who needs to be encouraged to speak in class and who does not, who is interested in science but not in social studies, and who needs to be prodded to start class work and who does not. Most classroom teachers can describe their students’ affective characteristics based on their informal observations and interactions with the students. Statement of the Problem. a Exploration Phase. (1 Can affective aspects improve students’ achievement of English subject for university students of non-English Departments ? (2 Which affective aspects are potentially be used to improve students’ achievement of English subject for university students of non-English Department ? (3 To what extent is the affective assessment of English subject needed by English teachers of non-English Departments ? b Prototype Development Phase. (4 How should the affective assessment model of English subject for university students of non-English Departments be constructed ? (5 How high is the effectiveness of affective assessment model of English subject for university students of non – English Departments ? c Field Assessment Phase. (6 To what extent can the model of affective assessment draft be used to enhance students

  18. Manipulating affective state influences conditioned appetitive responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnaudova, Inna; Krypotos, Angelos-Miltiadis; Effting, Marieke; Kindt, Merel; Beckers, Tom

    2017-10-06

    Affective states influence how individuals process information and behave. Some theories predict emotional congruency effects (e.g. preferential processing of negative information in negative affective states). Emotional congruency should theoretically obstruct the learning of reward associations (appetitive learning) and their ability to guide behaviour under negative mood. Two studies tested the effects of the induction of a negative affective state on appetitive Pavlovian learning, in which neutral stimuli were associated with chocolate (Experiment 1) or alcohol (Experiment 2) rewards. In both experiments, participants showed enhanced approach tendencies towards predictors of reward after a negative relative to a positive performance feedback manipulation. This increase was related to a reduction in positive affect in Experiment 1 only. No effects of the manipulation on conditioned reward expectancies, craving, or consumption were observed. Overall, our findings support the idea of counter-regulation, rather than emotional congruency effects. Negative affective states might therefore serve as a vulnerability factor for addiction, through increasing conditioned approach tendencies.

  19. Affective processes in human-automation interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merritt, Stephanie M

    2011-08-01

    This study contributes to the literature on automation reliance by illuminating the influences of user moods and emotions on reliance on automated systems. Past work has focused predominantly on cognitive and attitudinal variables, such as perceived machine reliability and trust. However, recent work on human decision making suggests that affective variables (i.e., moods and emotions) are also important. Drawing from the affect infusion model, significant effects of affect are hypothesized. Furthermore, a new affectively laden attitude termed liking is introduced. Participants watched video clips selected to induce positive or negative moods, then interacted with a fictitious automated system on an X-ray screening task At five time points, important variables were assessed including trust, liking, perceived machine accuracy, user self-perceived accuracy, and reliance.These variables, along with propensity to trust machines and state affect, were integrated in a structural equation model. Happiness significantly increased trust and liking for the system throughout the task. Liking was the only variable that significantly predicted reliance early in the task. Trust predicted reliance later in the task, whereas perceived machine accuracy and user self-perceived accuracy had no significant direct effects on reliance at any time. Affective influences on automation reliance are demonstrated, suggesting that this decision-making process may be less rational and more emotional than previously acknowledged. Liking for a new system may be key to appropriate reliance, particularly early in the task. Positive affect can be easily induced and may be a lever for increasing liking.

  20. Ventricular enlargement in patients with affective disorders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murashita, Jun; Kato, Tadafumi; Shioiri, Toshiki; Hamakawa, Inubushi, Toshiro; Hiroshi; Takahashi, Saburo

    1994-01-01

    Ventricular enlargement was determined using linear measurement on MR images in a total of 71 patients with affective disorders, including bipolar affective disorder (41) and depression (30). Fourty-one healthy persons served as controls. Evans ratio, Huckman number and minimum distance of caudate nuclei (MDCN) were used as indices for ventricular enlargment. No significant difference in Evans ratio was observed between both the group of bipolar affective disorder and the group of depression and the control group. Nor did it correlate with age in any of the groups. Huckman number was significantly higher in the group of bipolar affective disorder than the other two groups. It positively correlated with age in the group of depression. MDCN was significantly increased in the group of bipolar affective disorder, as compared with the control group; and there was a positive correlation between MDCN and age in both the group of dipolar affective disorder and the group of depression. In conclusion, ventricular enlargement was dependent upon aging in affetive disorder patients. This tendency was more noticeable in the group of depression. In addition, atrophy of the caudate nuclei was likely to be severer in the group of dipolar affective disorder than the group of depression. (N.K.)

  1. Affect and Public Support for Military Action

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dukhong Kim

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the effects of affect on public opinion on foreign policy. It extends the existing studies which show a significant role that affect, as measured by feelings toward a country, plays in shaping public opinion on military action. According to the existing theory, the mass public, which does not have high levels of political information and knowledge, can rely on affect to make reasonable decisions and opinions. This is possible because affect works as an information shortcut or heuristic that can help those individuals who lack cognitive capacity to engage in a systematic search for information and a decision-making process. The research finding confirms this theory. More importantly, this study extends the existing studies by elaborating the conditions under which affect works in accounting for individuals’ support for military intervention. The effect of affect is conditioned by the level of political knowledge, which shows that knowledgeable individuals are more adept at using affect as a heuristic tool.

  2. Embodied affectivity: On moving and being moved

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas eFuchs

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available There is a growing body of research indicating that bodily sensation and behaviour strongly influences one’s emotional reaction towards certain situations or objects. On this background, a framework model of embodied affectivity is suggested: we regard emotions as resulting from the circular interaction between affective qualities or affordances in the environment and the subject’s bodily resonance, be it in the form of sensations, postures, expressive movements or movement tendencies. Motion and emotion are thus intrinsically connected: one is moved by movement (perception; impression; affection and moved to move (action; expression; e-motion. Through its resonance, the body functions as a medium of emotional perception: it colours or charges self-experience and the environment with affective valences while it remains itself in the background of one’s own awareness. This model is then applied to emotional social understanding or interaffectivity which is regarded as an intertwinement of two cycles of embodied affectivity, thus continuously modifying each partner’s affective affordances and bodily resonance. We conclude with considerations of how embodied affectivity is altered in psychopathology and can be addressed in psychotherapy of the embodied self.

  3. Examining the Factors Affecting Student Dropout

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fethi Ahmet INAN

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the factors affecting student dropouts in an online certificate program. In this research, a combination of quantitative and qualitative methods was used. Online Course Dropout Survey was developed and used to determine which factors affect student attrition from the program. The dropout survey was sent by e-mail to 98 students who had dropped the program. Twenty-six students returned the survey. The findings show that the most important factor affecting student retention is finding sufficient time to study. Having personal problems and affordability of the program took second and third place.

  4. Introduction: Analysing Emotion and Theorising Affect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peta Tait

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This discussion introduces ideas of emotion and affect for a volume of articles demonstrating the scope of approaches used in their study within the humanities and creative arts. The volume offers multiple perspectives on emotion and affect within 20th-century and 21st-century texts, arts and organisations and their histories. The discussion explains how emotion encompasses the emotions, emotional feeling, sensation and mood and how these can be analysed particularly in relation to literature, art and performance. It briefly summarises concepts of affect theory within recent approaches before introducing the articles.

  5. Genetic search feature selection for affective modeling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martínez, Héctor P.; Yannakakis, Georgios N.

    2010-01-01

    Automatic feature selection is a critical step towards the generation of successful computational models of affect. This paper presents a genetic search-based feature selection method which is developed as a global-search algorithm for improving the accuracy of the affective models built....... The method is tested and compared against sequential forward feature selection and random search in a dataset derived from a game survey experiment which contains bimodal input features (physiological and gameplay) and expressed pairwise preferences of affect. Results suggest that the proposed method...

  6. Affect as Information in Persuasion: A Model of Affect Identification and Discounting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albarracín, Dolores; Kumkale, G. Tarcan

    2016-01-01

    Three studies examined the implications of a model of affect as information in persuasion. According to this model, extraneous affect may have an influence when message recipients exert moderate amounts of thought, because they identify their affective reactions as potential criteria but fail to discount them as irrelevant. However, message recipients may not use affect as information when they deem affect irrelevant or when they do not identify their affective reactions at all. Consistent with this curvilinear prediction, recipients of a message that either favored or opposed comprehensive exams used affect as a basis for attitudes in situations that elicited moderate thought. Affect, however, had no influence on attitudes in conditions that elicited either large or small amounts of thought. PMID:12635909

  7. Leader Affect and Leadership Effectiveness: How leader affective displays influence follower outcomes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    V.A. Visser (Victoria)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractThe aim of this dissertation is to uncover the relationship between leader affective displays and leadership effectiveness. Five empirical studies were conducted to test the influence of several leader affective displays on different follower outcomes that indicate leadership

  8. Taxonomy Icon Data: wild Bactrian camel [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available wild Bactrian camel Camelus ferus Chordata/Vertebrata/Mammalia/Theria/Eutheria/Artiodactyla Camel...us_ferus_L.png Camelus_ferus_NL.png Camelus_ferus_S.png Camelus_ferus_NS.png http://bioscience...dbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Camelus+ferus&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Camelus+f...erus&t=NL http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Camelus+ferus&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Camelus+ferus&t=NS ...

  9. Parental Sensitivity, Infant Affect, and Affect Regulation: Predictors of Later Attachment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braungart-Rieker, Julia M.; Garwood, Molly M.; Powers, Bruce P.; Wang, Xiaoyu

    2001-01-01

    Examined extent to which parent sensitivity, infant affect, and affect regulation at 4 months predicted mother- and father-infant attachment classifications at 1 year. Found that affect regulation and maternal sensitivity discriminated infant-mother attachment groups. The association between maternal sensitivity and infant-mother attachment was…

  10. Hot Temperatures, Hostile Affect, Hostile Cognition, and Arousal: Tests of a General Model of Affective Aggression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Craig A.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Used a general model of affective aggression to generate predictions concerning hot temperatures. Results indicated that hot temperatures produced increases in hostile affect, hostile cognition, and physiological arousal. Concluded that hostile affect, hostile cognitions, and excitation transfer processes may all increase the likelihood of biased…

  11. Factors Affecting Tocopherol Concentrations in Soybean Seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrera, Constanza S; Seguin, Philippe

    2016-12-21

    Soybean seeds contain several health-beneficial compounds, including tocopherols, which are used by the nutraceutical and functional food industries. Soybean tocopherol concentrations are, however, highly variable. Large differences observed in tocopherol concentrations among soybean genotypes together with the relatively simple biosynthetic pathway involving few genes support the feasibility of selecting for high-tocopherol soybean. Tocopherol concentrations are also highly influenced by environmental factors and field management. Temperature during seed filling and soil moisture appear to be the main factors affecting tocopherol concentrations; other factors such as soil fertility and solar radiation also affect concentrations and composition. Field management decisions including seeding date, row spacing, irrigation, and fertilization also affect tocopherols. Knowledge of factors affecting soybean tocopherols is essential to develop management strategies that will lead to the production of seeds with consistent target concentrations that will meet the needs of the nutraceutical and functional food industries.

  12. 7339 BASELINE SURVEY ON FACTORS AFFECTING SORGHUM ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    muuicathy

    2013-01-01

    Jan 1, 2013 ... factors affecting sorghum production and the sorghum farming ... The informal seed system includes methods such as retaining seed on-farm from ..... Jaetzold R and H Schmidt Farm Management Handbook of Kenya, Ministry.

  13. Embedding Affective Learning Outcomes in Library Instruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ellysa Stern Cahoy

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available While information literacy in higher education has long been focused on cognitive learning outcomes, attention must be paid to students’ affective, emotional needs throughout the research process. This article identifies models for embedding affective learning outcomes within information literacy instruction, and provides strategies to help librarians discover, articulate, and address students’ self-efficacy, motivation, emotions and attitudes. Worksheets to assist in creating affective learning outcomes are included to bring structure to an area of learning that is often challenging to articulate and measure. Also included in the article are the results of a recent survey of instruction librarians’ familiarity and inclusion of affective learning outcomes within teaching and learning initiatives.

  14. Affective disorders in childhood and adolescence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marija Burgić-Radmanović

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Affective disorders in childhood have been more intensively studied in the last three decades. They can be recognized among the children of all ages, but are more frequent among the older children. The main characteristics of mood disorders are similar among children, adolescents and adults, although development factors affect their clinical features. Development factors affect the manifestation of all symptoms. Two main criteria for these disorders in childhood are mood disorders, such as reduced or elevated mood and irritability. These symptoms may result in social or academic damage. Depression among children is a wide-spread, family and recurrent condition, which continues episodically in adulthood. Depression is frequently associated with other psychiatric disorders, increasing the risk of suicidal behaviour, misuse of psychoactive substances and behavioural disorders. Depression in childhood brings about worse psychosocial, academic and family functioning. Family, social and environmental factors have a significant role in affective disorders of children and young people.

  15. SOCIO-ECONOMIC FACTORS AFFECTING APPLE PRODUCTION ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ACSS

    Research Organisation scientists working directly with apple farmers ... be productive up to 40 years, it was more realistic to consider .... to determine the factors that affect apple production. ..... profit maximising model using flexible production ...

  16. Prenatal and pubertal testosterone affect brain lateralization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beking, T; Geuze, R H; van Faassen, M; Kema, I P; Kreukels, B P C; Groothuis, T G G

    After decades of research, the influence of prenatal testosterone on brain lateralization is still elusive, whereas the influence of pubertal testosterone on functional brain lateralization has not been investigated, although there is increasing evidence that testosterone affects the brain in

  17. How Can Spirituality Affect Your Family's Health?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español How Can Spirituality Affect Your Family's Health? KidsHealth / For Parents / ... found among those who strictly practiced their religion. Can Spiritual Beliefs Enhance Parenting? Attending organized religious services ...

  18. Affective Atmospheres in the House of Usher

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brink, Dennis Meyhoff

    2016-01-01

    Emotional intensities do not only pertain to the ‘inner life’ of individuals; they are also to be found, as the saying goes, ‘in the air,’ i.e. as shared atmospheres that envelope and affect us. Such affective atmospheres are omnipresent in Edgar Allan Poe’s short story “The Fall of the House...... of Usher” (1839). The house in the story is not only enshrouded in an atmosphere of its own; the entire plot is focused on the ways in which this atmosphere affects the characters. Informed by these recent theories on affect, the essay analyzes Poe’s short story and proposes a number of new concepts...

  19. Heart Disease Affects Women of All Ages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skip Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Heart Disease Affects Women of All Ages Past Issues / Winter ... weeks of a heart attack. For Women with Heart Disease: About 6 million American women have coronary heart ...

  20. Affective Assessment Is Necessary and Possible.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Lorin W.; Anderson, Jo Craig

    1982-01-01

    Presents information that teachers need when undertaking affective assessment: why such assessment should be done, what should be assessed, what instruments are available, how to determine the quality of the instrument, and how to interpret scores. (Author/JM)

  1. Echothymia: environmental dependency in the affective domain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marin, Robert S; Gorovoy, Ian R

    2014-01-01

    Echothymia is stimulus-bound affective behavior, an echophenomenon in the domain of affect. Like echolalia and echopraxia, it is a concomitant of the environmental dependency associated with dysfunction of the frontal-striatal systems that mediate so-called frontal lobe functions. The authors introduce the definition and phenomenology of echothymia, overview its differential diagnosis and clinical significance, and suggest ways in which understanding echothymia may contribute to clinical management.

  2. Affective Decision Making in Insurance Markets

    OpenAIRE

    Anat Bracha

    2004-01-01

    This paper suggests incorporating affective considerations into decision making theory and insurance decision in particular. I describe a decision maker with two internal accounts - the rational account and the mental account. The rational account decides on insurance to maximize expected (perceived) utility, while the mental account chooses risk perceptions which then affect the perceived expected utility. The two accounts interact to reach a decision which is composed of both risk perceptio...

  3. Affect and person specificity in mood regulation

    OpenAIRE

    Corby, Emma Kate

    2007-01-01

    489 university students in three countries completed questionnaires in a study investigating affect and person specificity in the use of mood regulation strategies. The major aims of the study were to (1) describe the relationship between specific affective states and the strategies utilised, (2) explore the role that individual differences variables played in the tendency to use particular strategies, and (3) measure the impact that the use of different strategies had upon subjective well-b...

  4. Go Naked: Diapers Affect Infant Walking

    OpenAIRE

    Cole, Whitney G.; Lingeman, Jesse M.; Adolph, Karen E.

    2012-01-01

    In light of cross-cultural and experimental research highlighting effects of childrearing practices on infant motor skill, we asked whether wearing diapers, a seemingly innocuous childrearing practice, affects infant walking. Diapers introduce bulk between the legs, potentially exacerbating infants’ poor balance and wide stance. We show that walking is adversely affected by old-fashioned cloth diapers, and that even modern disposable diapers—habitually worn by most infants in the sample—incur...

  5. Affective Value in the Predictive Mind

    OpenAIRE

    Van de Cruys, Sander

    2017-01-01

    Although affective value is fundamental in explanations of behavior, it is still a somewhat alien concept in cognitive science. It implies a normativity or directionality that mere information processing models cannot seem to provide. In this paper we trace how affective value can emerge from information processing in the brain, as described by predictive processing. We explain the grounding of predictive processing in homeostasis, and articulate the implications this has for the concept of r...

  6. Affect asymmetry and comfort food consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubé, Laurette; LeBel, Jordan L; Lu, Ji

    2005-11-15

    It is proposed that the emotional triggers of comfort food consumption can reliably be predicted by factors tied to affect asymmetry whereby negative affects dominate one's experience, decision making and behaviors in some instances while positive emotions prevail in others. Specifically, we relate three of these factors (age, gender, and culture) to differences in the emotional triggers of comfort food consumption and we further explore the possibility that the type of food eaten during comfort-seeking episodes can also be tied to affect asymmetry. Two hundred and seventy-seven participants completed a web-based survey conducted to assess the emotional antecedents and consequences of comfort food consumption. Consistent with expectations, results indicate that men's comfort food consumption was motivated by positive emotions whereas women's consumption was triggered by negative affects. Consumption of comfort foods alleviated women's negative emotions but also produced guilt. Positive affect was a particularly powerful trigger of comfort food consumption for older participants and for participants with French cultural background. Younger participants and participants with English background reported more intense negative emotions prior to consuming comfort foods. Foods high in sugar and fat content were more efficient in alleviating negative affects whereas low-calorie foods were more efficient in increasing positive emotions.

  7. Manipulating affective state using extended picture presentations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutton, S K; Davidson, R J; Donzella, B; Irwin, W; Dottl, D A

    1997-03-01

    Separate, extended series of positive, negative, and neutral pictures were presented to 24 (12 men, 12 women) undergraduates. Each series was presented on a different day, with full counterbalancing of presentation orders. Affective state was measured using (a) orbicularis oculi activity in response to acoustic startle probes during picture presentation, (b) corrugator supercilii activity between and during picture presentation, and (c) changes in self-reports of positive and negative affect. Participants exhibited larger eyeblink reflex magnitudes when viewing negative than when viewing positive pictures. Corrugator activity was also greater during the negative than during the positive picture set, during both picture presentation and the period between pictures. Self-reports of negative affect increased in response to the negative picture set, and self-reports of positive affect were greatest following the positive picture set. These findings suggest that extended picture presentation is an effective method of manipulating affective state and further highlight the utility of startle probe and facial electromyographic measures in providing on-line readouts of affective state.

  8. Stability of Facial Affective Expressions in Schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Fatouros-Bergman

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Thirty-two videorecorded interviews were conducted by two interviewers with eight patients diagnosed with schizophrenia. Each patient was interviewed four times: three weekly interviews by the first interviewer and one additional interview by the second interviewer. 64 selected sequences where the patients were speaking about psychotic experiences were scored for facial affective behaviour with Emotion Facial Action Coding System (EMFACS. In accordance with previous research, the results show that patients diagnosed with schizophrenia express negative facial affectivity. Facial affective behaviour seems not to be dependent on temporality, since within-subjects ANOVA revealed no substantial changes in the amount of affects displayed across the weekly interview occasions. Whereas previous findings found contempt to be the most frequent affect in patients, in the present material disgust was as common, but depended on the interviewer. The results suggest that facial affectivity in these patients is primarily dominated by the negative emotions of disgust and, to a lesser extent, contempt and implies that this seems to be a fairly stable feature.

  9. Microscopic and Molecular Detection of Camel Piroplasmosis in Gadarif State, Sudan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdalla Mohamed Ibrahim

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The socioeconomic importance of camels (Camelus dromedarius could not be neglected in the Sudan. The present study was planned to confirm the presence of piroplasmosis in camels from the Eastern region of the Sudan (Gedarif State using microscopical (blood film and molecular technique (PCR. A total of 55 camels of different sexes (34 females and 21 males were sampled from four localities of the state between January 2011 and January 2012. The prevalence rates using parasitological and molecular examinations were 43.6% and 74.5%, respectively. The prevalence rates significantly vary between the localities (p=0.011 but not between the different sexes (p=0.515. PCR technique showed higher sensitivity than microscopy. The present paper was to be the first report investigating camel piroplasmosis using both parasitological and molecular methods in the Eastern region of the Sudan. Further studies in the phylogenetic sequencing are to be continued for parasite speciation. Moreover, studies on the clinical and economic consequences of camel piroplasmosis are recommended.

  10. High-resolution diffraction from crystals of a membrane-protein complex: bacterial outer membrane protein OmpC complexed with the antibacterial eukaryotic protein lactoferrin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sundara Baalaji, N.; Acharya, K. Ravi; Singh, T. P.; Krishnaswamy, S.

    2005-01-01

    Crystals of the complex formed between the bacterial membrane protein OmpC and the antibacterial protein lactoferrin suitable for high-resolution structure determination have been obtained. The crystals belong to the hexagonal space group P6, with unit-cell parameters a = b = 116.3, c = 152.4 Å. Crystals of the complex formed between the outer membrane protein OmpC from Escherichia coli and the eukaryotic antibacterial protein lactoferrin from Camelus dromedarius (camel) have been obtained using a detergent environment. Initial data processing suggests that the crystals belong to the hexagonal space group P6, with unit-cell parameters a = b = 116.3, c = 152.4 Å, α = β = 90, γ = 120°. This indicated a Matthews coefficient (V M ) of 3.3 Å 3 Da −1 , corresponding to a possible molecular complex involving four molecules of lactoferrin and two porin trimers in the unit cell (4832 amino acids; 533.8 kDa) with 63% solvent content. A complete set of diffraction data was collected to 3 Å resolution at 100 K. Structure determination by molecular replacement is in progress. Structural study of this first surface-exposed membrane-protein complex with an antibacterial protein will provide insights into the mechanism of action of OmpC as well as lactoferrin

  11. Measurement of purine derivatives in the urine of some ruminant species

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moscardini, S.; Stefanon, B.; Susmel, P.; Haddi, M.L.

    1999-01-01

    The application of published high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) methods for the determination of PD in urine of cattle, sheep, buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis) and arabian camels (Camelus dromedarius) was investigated. Urine was taken from two water buffaloes, two camels, three cows and four sheep, all fed at maintenance level. Total nitrogen content in urine was determined using a micro-Kjeldahl procedure. Allantoin, uric acid and creatinine levels were determined colorimetrically while xanthine and hypoxanthine concentrations were determined by HPLC. Relative proportion of allantoin ranged from 74 ± 7 to 91 ± 1% in camels and cattle, respectively. Uric acid proportion was very low in camel urine (1.7 ± 1) but ranged from 3.7 ± 3 to 9.2 ± 1% in sheep and cows, respectively. Xanthine + hypoxanthine ranged from 11 ± 3 to 25 ± 7% in buffalo and camels, respectively. Total PD:Creatinine ratio (mol/mol W 0.75 ) was 118 ± 15, 46 ± 17, 37 ± 9 and 33 ± 5 for cattle, camels, buffaloes and sheep respectively. The adoption of a single method for the simultaneous detection of all derivatives proved difficult due to elution of polar coextractives at the same retention times as the peaks of allantoin, uric acid and creatinine. (author)

  12. A transversal study on antibodies against selected pathogens in dromedary camels in the Canary Islands, Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mentaberre, Gregorio; Gutiérrez, Carlos; Rodríguez, Noé F; Joseph, Sunitha; González-Barrio, David; Cabezón, Oscar; de la Fuente, José; Gortazar, Christian; Boadella, Mariana

    2013-12-27

    The Canary Islands contain the most important dromedary camel (Camelus dromedarius) population in the European Union and are the main export point of dromedaries to continental Europe and Latin America. We investigated the presence of antibodies against relevant disease agents in 100 Canarian camel sera. Selected blood samples of the same animals were also tested by PCR. Sera were tested for antibodies against Bluetongue virus (BTV; 0%), Bovine Viral Diarrhoea virus (BVDV; 0%), Camelpox virus (CPV; 8% by serum neutralization, 16% by ELISA), Peste des Petits Ruminants virus (PPRV, 0%), Rift Valley Fever virus (RVFV; 0%) and West Nile Fever virus (WNV; 3%), the bacterial pathogens Anaplasma sp. (3%), Brucella sp. (1%), Coxiella burnetii (19%), Mycobacterium avium paratuberculosis (MAP; 22%), Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTC; 10%) and Rickettsia sp. (83%), and the parasites Toxoplasma gondii (36%) and Neospora caninum (86%). The most remarkable findings were the detection of antibodies against CPV and the high antibody prevalence against C. burnetii, Rickettsia sp., T. gondii and N. caninum. By PCR, we found no C. burnetii, N. caninum and Anaplasma sp. DNA in the tested samples. However, Rickettsia sp. DNA was detected in six antibody positive tested samples. These results should be taken into consideration in order to implement adequate control measures and avoid a potential dissemination of infections to other territories. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Taxonomy and phylogeny of Trichuris globulosa Von Linstow, 1901 from camels. A review of Trichuris species parasitizing herbivorous.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callejón, R; Gutiérrez-Avilés, L; Halajian, A; Zurita, A; de Rojas, M; Cutillas, C

    2015-08-01

    At the present work, we carried out a morph-biometrical and molecular study of Trichuris species isolated from Camelus dromedarius from Iran and from Ovis aries from South Africa comparatively with other species of Trichuris from different herbivorous hosts and geographical regions. The population from camels from Iran was identified as Trichuris globulosa. Two different morphometrically populations of Trichuris sp. from sheep from South Africa were identified: Trichuris ovis and Trichuris skrjabini. Ribosomal data did not reveal significate differences in the ITS2 sequences between T. ovis and T. globulosa to assess a specific determination. The mitochondrial data suggest that T. globulosa constitute a different genetic lineage to T. ovis. Cytochrome c-oxidase and cytochrome b partial gene sequences corroborated the existence of a different genetic lineage of T. ovis from sheep of South Africa that would be closely related to the populations of T. globulosa from camels from Iran. The cytochrome c-oxidase and cytochrome b partial gene sequences of T. globulosa have been reported for the first time. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Affective Biases in Humans and Animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, E S J; Roiser, J P

    Depression is one of the most common but poorly understood psychiatric conditions. Although drug treatments and psychological therapies are effective in some patients, many do not achieve full remission and some patients receive no apparent benefit. Developing new improved treatments requires a better understanding of the aetiology of symptoms and evaluation of novel therapeutic targets in pre-clinical studies. Recent developments in our understanding of the basic cognitive processes that may contribute to the development of depression and its treatment offer new opportunities for both clinical and pre-clinical research. This chapter discusses the clinical evidence supporting a cognitive neuropsychological model of depression and antidepressant efficacy, and how this information may be usefully translated to pre-clinical investigation. Studies using neuropsychological tests in depressed patients and at risk populations have revealed basic negative emotional biases and disrupted reward and punishment processing, which may also impact on non-affective cognition. These affective biases are sensitive to antidepressant treatments with early onset effects observed, suggesting an important role in recovery. This clinical work into affective biases has also facilitated back-translation to animals and the development of assays to study affective biases in rodents. These animal studies suggest that, similar to humans, rodents in putative negative affective states exhibit negative affective biases on decision-making and memory tasks. Antidepressant treatments also induce positive biases in these rodent tasks, supporting the translational validity of this approach. Although still in the early stages of development and validation, affective biases in depression have the potential to offer new insights into the clinical condition, as well as facilitating the development of more translational approaches for pre-clinical studies.

  15. Recent developments in affective recommender systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katarya, Rahul; Verma, Om Prakash

    2016-11-01

    Recommender systems (RSs) are playing a significant role since 1990s as they provide relevant, personalized information to the users over the internet. Lots of work have been done in information filtering, utilization, and application related to RS. However, an important area recently draws our attention which is affective recommender system. Affective recommender system (ARS) is latest trending area of research, as publication in this domain are few and recently published. ARS is associated with human behaviour, human factors, mood, senses, emotions, facial expressions, body gesture and physiological with human-computer interaction (HCI). Due to this assortment and various interests, more explanation is required, as it is in premature phase and growing as compared to other fields. So we have done literature review (LR) in the affective recommender systems by doing classification, incorporate reputed articles published from the year 2003 to February 2016. We include articles which highlight, analyse, and perform a study on affective recommender systems. This article categorizes, synthesizes, and discusses the research and development in ARS. We have classified and managed ARS papers according to different perspectives: research gaps, nature, algorithm or method adopted, datasets, the platform on executed, types of information and evaluation techniques applied. The researchers and professionals will positively support this survey article for understanding the current position, research in affective recommender systems and will guide future trends, opportunity and research focus in ARS.

  16. Affect intensity and processing fluency of deterrents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holman, Andrei

    2013-01-01

    The theory of emotional intensity (Brehm, 1999) suggests that the intensity of affective states depends on the magnitude of their current deterrents. Our study investigated the role that fluency--the subjective experience of ease of information processing--plays in the emotional intensity modulations as reactions to deterrents. Following an induction phase of good mood, we manipulated both the magnitude of deterrents (using sets of photographs with pre-tested potential to instigate an emotion incompatible with the pre-existent affective state--pity) and their processing fluency (normal vs. enhanced through subliminal priming). Current affective state and perception of deterrents were then measured. In the normal processing conditions, the results revealed the cubic effect predicted by the emotional intensity theory, with the initial affective state being replaced by the one appropriate to the deterrent only in participants exposed to the high magnitude deterrence. In the enhanced fluency conditions the emotional intensity pattern was drastically altered; also, the replacement of the initial affective state occurred at a lower level of deterrence magnitude (moderate instead of high), suggesting the strengthening of deterrence emotional impact by enhanced fluency.

  17. Dynamic Musical Communication of Core Affect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole eFlaig

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Is there something special about the way music communicates feelings? Theorists since Meyer (1956 have attempted to explain how music could stimulate varied and subtle affective experiences by violating learned expectancies, or by mimicking other forms of social interaction. Our proposal is that music speaks to the brain in its own language; it need not imitate any other form of communication. We review recent theoretical and empirical literature, which suggests that all conscious processes consist of dynamic neural events, produced by spatially dispersed processes in the physical brain. Intentional thought and affective experience arise as dynamical aspects of neural events taking place in multiple brain areas simultaneously. At any given moment, this content comprises a unified scene that is integrated into a dynamic core through synchrony of neuronal oscillations. We propose that 1 neurodynamic synchrony with musical stimuli gives rise to musical qualia including tonal and temporal expectancies, and that 2 music-synchronous responses couple into core neurodynamics, enabling music to directly modulate core affect. Expressive music performance, for example, may recruit rhythm-synchronous neural responses to support affective communication. We suggest that the dynamic relationship between musical expression and the experience of affect presents a unique opportunity for the study of emotional experience. This may help elucidate the neural mechanisms underlying arousal and valence, and offer a new approach to exploring the complex dynamics of the how and why of emotional experience.

  18. Continuous Analysis of Affect from Voice and Face

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gunes, Hatice; Nicolaou, Mihalis A.; Pantic, Maja; Salah, Albert Ali; Gevers, Theo

    2011-01-01

    Human affective behavior is multimodal, continuous and complex. Despite major advances within the affective computing research field, modeling, analyzing, interpreting and responding to human affective behavior still remains a challenge for automated systems as affect and emotions are complex

  19. Do recreational activities affect coastal biodiversity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riera, Rodrigo; Menci, Cristiano; Sanabria-Fernández, José Antonio; Becerro, Mikel A.

    2016-09-01

    Human activities are largely affecting coastal communities worldwide. Recreational perturbations have been overlooked in comparison to other perturbations, yet they are potential threats to marine biodiversity. They affect coastal communities in different ways, underpinning consistent shifts in fish and invertebrates assemblages. Several sites were sampled subjected to varying effects by recreational fishermen (low and high pressure) and scuba divers (low and high) in an overpopulated Atlantic island. Non-consistent differences in ecological, trophic and functional diversity were found in coastal communities, considering both factors (;diving; and ;fishing;). Multivariate analyses only showed significant differences in benthic invertebrates between intensively-dived and non-dived sites. The lack of clear trends may be explained by the depletion of coastal resources in the study area, an extensively-affected island by overfishing.

  20. Designing Affective Atmospheres on the Move

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wind, Simon; Lanng, Ditte Bendix

    travelling “unfolds affects as much as reasons” (Jensen, 2013, p.99). Practices, embodiment, technologies and materialities interconnect in non-quantifiable experiences of mobilities, which may fruitfully be unfolded by means of the concept of “atmosphere”. According to Böhme, atmosphere cannot be reduced...... to properties or qualities of neither human nor non-human bodies but they are “manifestations of the co-presence of subject and object” (Böhme, 1998, p.114). When travelling in and through spaces of mobilities in everyday life we are co-constituents in an on-flow of aesthetic atmospheres shaping emotional...... an analytical tool for capturing atmospheres as well as an interventionist tool for orchestrating atmospheres in everyday urban spaces of mobilities. References Anderson, B. (2009) ´Affective Atmospheres´, in: Emotion, Space and Society, pp. 77–81 Bissel, D. (2010) ´Passenger mobilities: affective atmospheres...

  1. Affective Body Movements (for Robots) Across Cultures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rehm, Matthias

    2018-01-01

    Humans are very good in expressing and interpreting emotions from a variety of different sources like voice, facial expression, or body movements. In this article, we concentrate on body movements and show that those are not only a source of affective information but might also have a different i...... with a study on creating an affective knocking movement for a humanoid robot and give details about a co-creation experiment for collecting a cross-cultural database on affective body movements and about the probabilistic model derived from this data....... interpretation in different cultures. To cope with these multiple viewpoints in generating and interpreting body movements in robots, we suggest a methodological approach that takes the cultural background of the developer and the user into account during the development process. We exemplify this approach...

  2. Does temperament affect learning in calves?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Webb, Laura E.; van Reenen, Cornelis G.; Jensen, Margit Bak

    2015-01-01

    challenge tests, may affect learning an operant conditioning task in calves. Understanding how temperament affects learning in calves can help with the training of calves on novel automated feeding apparatuses or on novel feed components, and can thus help improve calf health and welfare.......The aim of the study was to investigate how temperament affects learning ability in calves. Nine two-month-old Holstein-Friesian bull calves were subjected to four challenge tests: novel object (NOT), novel environment (NET), social isolation (SIT), and social isolation with a novel environmental...... cue (SI/E). During these tests, hypothesised temperament variables were recorded. Hypothesised learning variables were recorded during training on an operant task. Principal component analysis (PCA) was conducted on temperament variables and learning variables separately. Principal components (PCs...

  3. Factors Affecting University Library Website Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongi-Mi Kim

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Existing studies have extensively explored factors that affect users’ intentions to use university library website resources (ULWR; yet little attention has been given to factors affecting university library website design. This paper investigates factors that affect university library website design and assesses the success of the university library website from both designers’ and users’ perspectives. The findings show that when planning a website, university web designers consider university guidelines, review other websites, and consult with experts and other divisions within the library; however, resources and training for the design process are lacking. While website designers assess their websites as highly successful, user evaluations are somewhat lower. Accordingly, use is low, and users rely heavily on commercial websites. Suggestions for enhancing the usage of ULWR are provided.

  4. Noise affects resource assessment in an invertebrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Erin P; Arnott, Gareth; Kunc, Hansjoerg P

    2017-04-01

    Anthropogenic noise is a global pollutant, affecting animals across taxa. However, how noise pollution affects resource acquisition is unknown. Hermit crabs ( Pagurus bernhardus ) engage in detailed assessment and decision-making when selecting a critical resource, their shell; this is crucial as individuals in poor shells suffer lower reproductive success and higher mortality. We experimentally exposed hermit crabs to anthropogenic noise during shell selection. When exposed to noise, crabs approached the shell faster, spent less time investigating it, and entered it faster. Our results demonstrate that changes in the acoustic environment affect the behaviour of hermit crabs by modifying the selection process of a vital resource. This is all the more remarkable given that the known cues used in shell selection involve chemical, visual and tactile sensory channels. Thus, our study provides rare evidence for a cross-modal impact of noise pollution. © 2017 The Author(s).

  5. Early Adolescent Affect Predicts Later Life Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kansky, Jessica; Allen, Joseph P; Diener, Ed

    2016-07-01

    Subjective well-being as a predictor for later behavior and health has highlighted its relationship to health, work performance, and social relationships. However, the majority of such studies neglect the developmental nature of well-being in contributing to important changes across the transition to adulthood. To examine the potential role of subjective well-being as a long-term predictor of critical life outcomes, we examined indicators of positive and negative affect at age 14 as predictors of relationship, adjustment, self-worth, and career outcomes a decade later at ages 23 to 25, controlling for family income and gender. We utilised multi-informant methods including reports from the target participant, close friends, and romantic partners in a demographically diverse community sample of 184 participants. Early adolescent positive affect predicted fewer relationship problems (less self-reported and partner-reported conflict, and greater friendship attachment as rated by close peers) and healthy adjustment to adulthood (lower levels of depression, anxiety, and loneliness). It also predicted positive work functioning (higher levels of career satisfaction and job competence) and increased self-worth. Negative affect did not significantly predict any of these important life outcomes. In addition to predicting desirable mean levels of later outcomes, early positive affect predicted beneficial changes across time in many outcomes. The findings extend early research on the beneficial outcomes of subjective well-being by having an earlier assessment of well-being, including informant reports in measuring a large variety of outcome variables, and by extending the findings to a lower socioeconomic group of a diverse and younger sample. The results highlight the importance of considering positive affect as an important component of subjective well-being distinct from negative affect. © 2016 The International Association of Applied Psychology.

  6. Affective processing in bilingual speakers: disembodied cognition?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlenko, Aneta

    2012-01-01

    A recent study by Keysar, Hayakawa, and An (2012) suggests that "thinking in a foreign language" may reduce decision biases because a foreign language provides a greater emotional distance than a native tongue. The possibility of such "disembodied" cognition is of great interest for theories of affect and cognition and for many other areas of psychological theory and practice, from clinical and forensic psychology to marketing, but first this claim needs to be properly evaluated. The purpose of this review is to examine the findings of clinical, introspective, cognitive, psychophysiological, and neuroimaging studies of affective processing in bilingual speakers in order to identify converging patterns of results, to evaluate the claim about "disembodied cognition," and to outline directions for future inquiry. The findings to date reveal two interrelated processing effects. First-language (L1) advantage refers to increased automaticity of affective processing in the L1 and heightened electrodermal reactivity to L1 emotion-laden words. Second-language (L2) advantage refers to decreased automaticity of affective processing in the L2, which reduces interference effects and lowers electrodermal reactivity to negative emotional stimuli. The differences in L1 and L2 affective processing suggest that in some bilingual speakers, in particular late bilinguals and foreign language users, respective languages may be differentially embodied, with the later learned language processed semantically but not affectively. This difference accounts for the reduction of framing biases in L2 processing in the study by Keysar et al. (2012). The follow-up discussion identifies the limits of the findings to date in terms of participant populations, levels of processing, and types of stimuli, puts forth alternative explanations of the documented effects, and articulates predictions to be tested in future research.

  7. Affective privilege: Asymmetric interference by emotional distracters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Crystal eReeck

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Numerous theories posit that affectively salient stimuli are privileged in their capacity to capture attention and disrupt ongoing cognition. Two underlying assumptions in this theoretical position are that the potency of affective stimuli transcends task boundaries (i.e., emotional distracters do not have to belong to a current task-set to disrupt processing and that there is an asymmetry between emotional and cognitive processing (i.e., emotional distracters disrupt cognitive processing, but not vice versa. These assumptions have remained largely untested, as common experimental probes of emotion-cognition interaction rarely manipulate task-relevance and only examine one side of the presumed asymmetry of interference. To test these propositions directly, a face-word Stroop protocol was adapted to independently manipulate (a the congruency between target and distracter stimulus features, (b the affective salience of distracter features, and (c the task-relevance of emotional compared to non-emotional target features. A three-way interaction revealed interdependent effects of distracter relevance, congruence, and affective salience. Compared to task-irrelevant distracters, task-relevant congruent distracters facilitated performance and task-relevant incongruent distracters impaired performance, but the latter effect depended on the nature of the target feature and task. Specifically, task-irrelevant emotional distracters resulted in equivalent performance costs as task-relevant non-emotional distracters, whereas task-irrelevant non-emotional distracters did not produce performance costs comparable to those generated by task-relevant emotional distracters. These results document asymmetric cross-task interference effects for affectively salient stimuli, supporting the notion of affective prioritization in human information processing.

  8. Theories of willpower affect sustained learning.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric M Miller

    Full Text Available Building cognitive abilities often requires sustained engagement with effortful tasks. We demonstrate that beliefs about willpower-whether willpower is viewed as a limited or non-limited resource-impact sustained learning on a strenuous mental task. As predicted, beliefs about willpower did not affect accuracy or improvement during the initial phases of learning; however, participants who were led to view willpower as non-limited showed greater sustained learning over the full duration of the task. These findings highlight the interactive nature of motivational and cognitive processes: motivational factors can substantially affect people's ability to recruit their cognitive resources to sustain learning over time.

  9. How Does Social Trust Affect Economic Growth?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørnskov, Christian

    This paper connects two strands of the literature on social trust by estimating the effects of trust on growth through a set of potential transmission mechanisms directly. It does so by modelling the process using a three-stage least squares estimator on a sample of countries for which a full data...... set is available. The results indicate that trust affects schooling and the rule of law directly. These variables in turn affect the investment rate (schooling) and provide a direct effect (rule of law) on the growth rate. The paper closes with a short discussion of the relevance of the findings....

  10. On the affective force of "nasty love".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinbock, Eliza

    2014-01-01

    Tackling the mimetic logic of sex-gender that limits the transsexual subject's sexuality into seeming a poor representation, the author argues that trans pornography and autoethnographic accounts from trans scholars emphasize the affective dimension of trans sex, a material remainder absent from mimetic theories of sexuality. Developing concepts from Alfred North Whitehead's process philosophy, in tandem with Morty Diamond's film Trans Entities: The Nasty Love of Papí and Wil (2007) and a selection of trans theorists, this article elaborates on the horizon of affective potential opened by transgender, brown, kinky, and pornographic "nastiness." The event of "nasty love" solicits a differential becoming, growing the edge of self.

  11. Affective subjectivation in the precarious neoliberal academia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duenas, Paola Ximena Valero; Jørgensen, Kenneth Mølbjerg; Brunila, Kristiina

    2018-01-01

    as an organisation and the relationship between managers and academics; the governing through affect in the constant ambivalence between anxiety and self-development; and the power effects of these two together in creating neoliberal academic subjects. Both the strategy of working with fictional stories...... and the analytical stance allows opening up the public secrets of the ways in which neoliberal precarious conditions govern the lives and bodies of academics nowadays. Disclosing those secrets is a form of resistance against the violence of current affective subjectivation....

  12. How does concurrent sourcing affect performance?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mols, Niels Peter

    2010-01-01

    be modelled. The propositions and discussion offer researchers a starting-point for further research. Practical implications – The propositions that are developed suggest that managers should consider using concurrent sourcing when they face problems caused by volume uncertainty, technological uncertainty....../methodology/approach – Based on transaction cost, agency, neoclassical economic, knowledge-based, and resource-based theory, it is proposed to show how concurrent sourcing affects performance. Findings – The paper argues that concurrent sourcing improves performance when firms face a combination of volume uncertainty...... how concurrent sourcing affects performance of the market and the hierarchy....

  13. Theories of willpower affect sustained learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Eric M; Walton, Gregory M; Dweck, Carol S; Job, Veronika; Trzesniewski, Kali H; McClure, Samuel M

    2012-01-01

    Building cognitive abilities often requires sustained engagement with effortful tasks. We demonstrate that beliefs about willpower-whether willpower is viewed as a limited or non-limited resource-impact sustained learning on a strenuous mental task. As predicted, beliefs about willpower did not affect accuracy or improvement during the initial phases of learning; however, participants who were led to view willpower as non-limited showed greater sustained learning over the full duration of the task. These findings highlight the interactive nature of motivational and cognitive processes: motivational factors can substantially affect people's ability to recruit their cognitive resources to sustain learning over time.

  14. Loss aversion is an affective forecasting error.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kermer, Deborah A; Driver-Linn, Erin; Wilson, Timothy D; Gilbert, Daniel T

    2006-08-01

    Loss aversion occurs because people expect losses to have greater hedonic impact than gains of equal magnitude. In two studies, people predicted that losses in a gambling task would have greater hedonic impact than would gains of equal magnitude, but when people actually gambled, losses did not have as much of an emotional impact as they predicted. People overestimated the hedonic impact of losses because they underestimated their tendency to rationalize losses and overestimated their tendency to dwell on losses. The asymmetrical impact of losses and gains was thus more a property of affective forecasts than a property of affective experience.

  15. Does Political Ideology Affect Economic Growth?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørnskov, Christian

    2005-01-01

    This paper asks the question whether political ideology affects economic growth. Voters may demand inefficient levels of redistribution and government intervention, and they may care too little for aspects that really matter for the economy. Their norms and perceptions of society might, via...... their political ideology, affect economic performance. The paper presents evidence suggesting that rightwing societies have grown faster in the last decades than other democratic societies. Further analysis suggests that these societies develop better legal systems and less government intervention, which in turn...

  16. Positive affect, negative affect, stress, and social support as mediators of the forgiveness-health relationship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Michelle; Decourville, Nancy; Sadava, Stanley

    2012-01-01

    Structural equation modeling was used to test a model in which positive affect, negative affect, perceived stress, and social support were hypothesized to mediate the relationship between forgiveness and mental and physical health. Six hundred and twenty-three undergraduates completed a battery of self-report measures. Results of the analyses indicated that the forgiveness-health relation was mediated by positive affect, negative affect, stress, and the interrelationship between negative affect and stress. There was limited support for social support and the interrelationship between positive affect and social support as mediators. The results suggested that the relationship between forgiveness and health is mediated rather than direct. Implications and directions for future research are discussed.

  17. Mood swings: design and evaluation of affective interactive art

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bialoskorski, Leticia S.S.; Westerink, Joyce H.D.M.; van den Broek, Egon

    2009-01-01

    The field of affective computing is concerned with developing emphatic products, such as affective consumer products, affective games, and affective art. This paper describes Mood Swings, an affective interactive art system, which interprets and visualizes affect expressed by a person. Mood Swings

  18. Affective State Influences Perception by Affecting Decision Parameters Underlying Bias and Sensitivity

    OpenAIRE

    Lynn, Spencer K.; Zhang, Xuan; Barrett, Lisa Feldman

    2012-01-01

    Studies of the effect of affect on perception often show consistent directional effects of a person’s affective state on perception. Unpleasant emotions have been associated with a “locally focused” style of stimulus evaluation, and positive emotions with a “globally focused” style. Typically, however, studies of affect and perception have not been conducted under the conditions of perceptual uncertainty and behavioral risk inherent to perceptual judgments outside the laboratory. We investiga...

  19. Questions of time and affect: a person's affectivity profile, time perspective, and well-being.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Danilo; Sailer, Uta; Nima, Ali Al; Archer, Trevor

    2016-01-01

    Background. A "balanced" time perspective has been suggested to have a positive influence on well-being: a sentimental and positive view of the past (high Past Positive), a less pessimistic attitude toward the past (low Past Negative), the desire of experiencing pleasure with slight concern for future consequences (high Present Hedonistic), a less fatalistic and hopeless view of the future (low Present Fatalistic), and the ability to find reward in achieving specific long-term goals (high Future). We used the affective profiles model (i.e., combinations of individuals' experience of high/low positive/negative affectivity) to investigate differences between individuals in time perspective dimensions and to investigate if the influence of time perspective dimensions on well-being was moderated by the individual's type of profile. Method. Participants (N = 720) answered to the Positive Affect Negative Affect Schedule, the Zimbardo Time Perspective Inventory and two measures of well-being: the Temporal Satisfaction with Life Scale and Ryff's Scales of Psychological Well-Being-short version. A Multivariate Analysis of Variance (MANOVA) was conducted to identify differences in time perspective dimensions and well-being among individuals with distinct affective profiles. Four structural equation models (SEM) were used to investigate which time perspective dimensions predicted well-being for individuals in each profile. Results. Comparisons between individuals at the extreme of the affective profiles model suggested that individuals with a self-fulfilling profile (high positive/low negative affect) were characterized by a "balanced" time perspective and higher well-being compared to individuals with a self-destructive profile (low positive/high negative affect). However, a different pattern emerged when individuals who differed in one affect dimension but matched in the other were compared to each other. For instance, decreases in the past negative time perspective

  20. Fish farmers' perceptions of constraints affecting aquaculture ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study focused on fish farmers' perceptions of constraints affecting aquaculture development in Akwa-Ibom State of Nigeria. Random sampling procedure was used to select 120 respondents from whom primary data was collected. Data analysis was with the aid of descriptive statistics. Results show that fish farming ...

  1. Spirituality: An Affective Facet for Curriculum Consideration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickmann, Leonore W.

    1980-01-01

    The current age has been characterized as an Age of Materialism in which personal goals are material aims and pleasures. The need for getting back to a spiritual culture is considered foundational. It is the duty of educators to provide for the spiritual or affective domain of a learner's development. To neglect this aspect of a person's being is…

  2. Identifying pathways affected by cancer mutations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iengar, Prathima

    2017-12-16

    Mutations in 15 cancers, sourced from the COSMIC Whole Genomes database, and 297 human pathways, arranged into pathway groups based on the processes they orchestrate, and sourced from the KEGG pathway database, have together been used to identify pathways affected by cancer mutations. Genes studied in ≥15, and mutated in ≥10 samples of a cancer have been considered recurrently mutated, and pathways with recurrently mutated genes have been considered affected in the cancer. Novel doughnut plots have been presented which enable visualization of the extent to which pathways and genes, in each pathway group, are targeted, in each cancer. The 'organismal systems' pathway group (including organism-level pathways; e.g., nervous system) is the most targeted, more than even the well-recognized signal transduction, cell-cycle and apoptosis, and DNA repair pathway groups. The important, yet poorly-recognized, role played by the group merits attention. Pathways affected in ≥7 cancers yielded insights into processes affected. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. How Going to School Affects the Family

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Landersø, Rasmus; Nielsen, Helena Skyt; Simonsen, Marianne

    in school starting age induced by date of birth, we find that the timing of these transitions affect parental outcomes. At child age seven, for example, being one year older at school start increases maternal employment with four percentage points. At child age 15, similarly, being one year older at school...

  4. New Orleans bounce music, sexuality, and affect

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schoux Casey, Christina

    2018-01-01

    This article explores how language, sexuality, and affect are circuited in New Orleans bounce music. Bounce features lyrics that characterize the performers as queer, describe sex explicitly, celebrate sex between male-bodied people, and expose the hypocrisy of straight-acting men. Bounce lyrics...

  5. 47 CFR 1.2003 - Applications affected.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Abuse Act of 1988 § 1.2003 Applications affected. The certification required by § 1.2002 must be filed... and/or Response Station(s) and Low Power Relay Station(s) License; FCC 340Application for Construction... a Low Power Television Station; FCC 346Application for Authority to Construct or Make Changes in a...

  6. Facial Affect Reciprocity in Dyadic Interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-01

    regulators of social interaction. In the developmental literature, this concept has been investigated under the rubric of social referencing...The communication of affects in monkeys: Cooperative reward conditioning. Journal of Genetic Psychology, 108, 121– 134. Miller, R. E., Banks, J

  7. Is fitness affected by ring colour?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tinbergen, J.M.; Tinbergen, Jan; Ubels, R.

    2014-01-01

    Many ecologists mark their free living study animals with the aim to collect knowledge on individual life histories. Yet, marking animals may affect life histories and it is important to quantify such effects. Literature on this subject is relatively rare, especially when it concerns the effect of

  8. Doxorubicin and vincristine affect undifferentiated rat spermatogonia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beaud, Hermance; van Pelt, Ans; Delbes, Geraldine

    2017-01-01

    Anticancer drugs, such as alkylating agents, can affect male fertility by targeting the DNA of proliferative spermatogonial stem cells (SSC). Therefore, to reduce such side effects, other chemotherapeutics are used. However, less is known about their potential genotoxicity on SSC. Moreover, DNA

  9. Factors Affecting Faculty Web Portal Usability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bringula, Rex P.; Basa, Roselle S.

    2011-01-01

    The study investigated the factors that might significantly affect web portal usability. Results of the study were intended to serve as inputs for faculty web portal development of the University of the East-Manila. Descriptive statistics utilized questionnaire data from 82 faculty members. The data showed that most of the respondents were…

  10. Towards Biometric Assessment of Audience Affect

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lyng Wieland, Jakob; Larsen, Lars Bo; Laursen, Jeanette Kølbæk

    2016-01-01

    This paper investigates how reliable affective responses can be obtained using objective biometric measures for media audience research. We use Galvanic Skin Response (GSR) to detect sixteen respondents’ arousal levels and as an objective measure to show how self- reporting disrupts the experience...

  11. Affect in Human-Robot Interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Werry, I., Rae, J., Dickerson, P., Stribling, P., & Ogden, B. (2002). Robotic Playmates: Analysing Interactive Competencies of Children with Autism ...WE-4RII. IEEE International Conference on Intelligent Robots and Systems, Edmonton, Canada. 35. Moravec, H. (1988). Mind Children : The Future of...and if so when and where? • What approaches, theories , representations, and experimental methods inform affective HRI research? Report Documentation

  12. ORIGINAL ARTICLES Factors affecting career preferences of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    College of Medicine prefer to work as doctors, and (ii) what factors may affect their long-term retention in their home country? Methods. We designed ... from rural areas and small towns, and whose parents were 'non- professionals', were .... needs – 5; city life can be difficult – 3; one is closer to family – 2; there is a sense of ...

  13. Working night shifts affects surgeons' biological rhythm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Amirian, Ilda; Andersen, Lærke T; Rosenberg, Jacob

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Chronic sleep deprivation combined with work during the night is known to affect performance and compromise residents' own safety. The aim of this study was to examine markers of circadian rhythm and the sleep-wake cycle in surgeons working night shifts. METHODS: Surgeons were monitor...

  14. Age Learning Factors Affecting Pilot Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torbert, Brison

    This document, intended for pilot education and flight safety specialists, consists chiefly of a review of the literature on physiological factors that affect pilot education and an examination of environmental factors that should be scrutinized in order to improve the effectiveness of aviation learning facilities. The physiological factors…

  15. The Affective Experience of Novice Computer Programmers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosch, Nigel; D'Mello, Sidney

    2017-01-01

    Novice students (N = 99) participated in a lab study in which they learned the fundamentals of computer programming in Python using a self-paced computerized learning environment involving a 25-min scaffolded learning phase and a 10-min unscaffolded fadeout phase. Students provided affect judgments at approximately 100 points (every 15 s) over the…

  16. Material Culture of Multilingualism and Affectivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aronin, Larissa

    2012-01-01

    Affectivity is an important dimension in humans' social and individual lives. It is either a stimulating or hindering aspect of language learning. This article aims to draw attention to material culture as a powerful, but mostly neglected source of data on the use and acquisition of languages, and demonstrates the close and intricate links between…

  17. Alexithymia and Affect Intensity of Fine Artists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botella, Marion; Zenasni, Franck; Lubart, Todd

    2015-01-01

    Research on creative artists has examined mainly their personality traits or cognitive abilities. However, it seems important to explore also their emotional traits to complete the profile. This study examines two emotional characteristics: alexithymia and affect intensity. Even if most research suggests that artists are less alexithymic and…

  18. Ophthalmic implications of seasonal affective disorder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paramore, J.E.; King, V.M.

    1989-01-01

    A review of seasonal affective disorder (SAD) is presented with a discussion of its standard treatment of phototherapy. A number of ophthalmic implications related to SAD are proposed. These implications relate to both the condition and the phototherapy used in its treatment, especially the use of full spectrum light which contains ultraviolet and near ultraviolet radiation. 12 references

  19. Environmental issues affecting clean coal technology deployment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, M.J. [Electric Power Research Inst., Palo Alto, CA (United States)

    1997-12-31

    The author outlines what he considers to be the key environmental issues affecting Clean Coal Technology (CCT) deployment both in the US and internationally. Since the international issues are difficult to characterize given different environmental drivers in various countries and regions, the primary focus of his remarks is on US deployment. However, he makes some general remarks, particularly regarding the environmental issues in developing vs. developed countries and how these issues may affect CCT deployment. Further, how environment affects deployment depends on which particular type of clean coal technology one is addressing. It is not the author`s intention to mention many specific technologies other than to use them for the purposes of example. He generally categorizes CCTs into four groups since environment is likely to affect deployment for each category somewhat differently. These four categories are: Precombustion technologies such as coal cleaning; Combustion technologies such as low NOx burners; Postcombustion technologies such as FGD systems and postcombustion NOx control; and New generation technologies such as gasification and fluidized bed combustion.

  20. Infrasound from Wind Turbines Could Affect Humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salt, Alec N.; Kaltenbach, James A.

    2011-01-01

    Wind turbines generate low-frequency sounds that affect the ear. The ear is superficially similar to a microphone, converting mechanical sound waves into electrical signals, but does this by complex physiologic processes. Serious misconceptions about low-frequency sound and the ear have resulted from a failure to consider in detail how the ear…

  1. Economic and Cultural Factors Affecting University Excellence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jabnoun, Naceur

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The ranking of top universities in the world has generated increased interest in the factors that enhance university performance. The purpose of this paper is to identify economic and cultural factors that affect the number of top ranking universities in each country. Design/methodology/approach: This paper first identifies the number of…

  2. Workplace, Biographical and Motivation Factors Affecting ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper presents the findings of a survey on how workplace, biographical and motivational factors affect the organisational commitment of records officers in federal universities in Nigeria. Single stage random sampling, with equal allocation method, was used to administer questionnaire on 300 sampled participants from ...

  3. Stability and Change in Affect among Centenarians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Peter; da Rosa, Grace; Margrett, Jennifer A.; Garasky, Steven; Franke, Warren

    2012-01-01

    Much information is available about physical and functional health among very old adults, but little knowledge exists about the mental health and mental health changes in very late life. This study reports findings concerning positive and negative affect changes among centenarians. Nineteen centenarians from a Midwestern state participated in four…

  4. How gluten properties are affected by pentosans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, M.; Vliet, T. van; Hamer, R.J.

    2004-01-01

    During the wet separation of starch and gluten, both water extractable pentosans (WEP) and water unextractable solids (WUS) have a negative effect on gluten yield. Gluten properties are also affected: the gluten becomes less extensible. In comparison to the control, addition of WUS or WEP resulted

  5. Affect and Learning : a computational analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broekens, Douwe Joost

    2007-01-01

    In this thesis we have studied the influence of emotion on learning. We have used computational modelling techniques to do so, more specifically, the reinforcement learning paradigm. Emotion is modelled as artificial affect, a measure that denotes the positiveness versus negativeness of a situation

  6. Affective Learning and the Classroom Debate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jagger, Suzy

    2013-01-01

    A commonly used teaching method to promote student engagement is the classroom debate. This study evaluates how affective characteristics, as defined in Bloom's taxonomy, were stimulated during debates that took place on a professional ethics module for first year computing undergraduates. The debates led to lively interactive group discussions…

  7. Affective Temporality: Towards a Fourth Wave

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamberlain, Prudence

    2016-01-01

    This article considers the way in which the wave has been constructed as a negative means by which to understand feminism, making a case for reconceptualising the wave as an "affective temporality". Focusing on both feeling and historically specific forms of activism, the article suggests that the wave should not be considered as…

  8. Physical conditions affecting pyrethroid toxicity in arthropods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jagers op Akkerhuis, G.

    1993-01-01

    The aim of this thesis was to obtain mechanistic information about how the toxicity of pesticides in the field is affected by physical factors, pesticide bioavailability and arthropod behaviour. The pyrethroid insecticide deltamethrin and linyphiid spiders were selected as pesticide-effect

  9. How luck and performance affect stealing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gravert, Christina Annette

    2013-01-01

    This paper investigates how the way of earning payoff affects the probability of stealing. The participants who earned their payoff according to performance were three times more likely to take the (undeserved) maximum payoff than participants with randomly allocated payoff. Conditional on steali...

  10. Environmental Factors Affecting Preschoolers' Motor Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venetsanou, Fotini; Kambas, Antonis

    2010-01-01

    The process of development occurs according to the pattern established by the genetic potential and also by the influence of environmental factors. The aim of the present study was to focus on the main environmental factors affecting motor development. The review of the literature revealed that family features, such as socioeconomic status,…

  11. Affective Education for Visually Impaired Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Locke, Don C.; Gerler, Edwin R., Jr.

    1981-01-01

    Evaluated the effectiveness of the Human Development Program (HDP) and the Developing Understanding of Self and Others (DUSO) program used with visually impaired children. Although HDP and DUSO affected the behavior of visually impaired children, they did not have any effect on children's attitudes toward school. (RC)

  12. Factors affecting IUCD discontinuation in Nepal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thapa, Subash; Paudel, Ishwari Sharma; Bhattarai, Sailesh

    2015-01-01

    Information related to contraception discontinuation, especially in the context of Nepal is very limited. A nested case-control study was carried out to determine the factors affecting discontinuation of intrauterine contraceptive devices (IUCDs). A total of 115 cases (IUCD discontinuers) and 115...

  13. INTERNATIONAL DIFFERENCES IN FACTORS AFFECTING LABOUR MOBILITY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    SELLIER, F.; ZARKA, C.

    THE GEOGRAPHICAL, OCCUPATIONAL, AND INTERFIRM MOBILITY, AND THE FACTORS AFFECTING THESE MOVEMENTS FOR WORKERS IN FRANCE, ITALY, GERMANY, AND SWEDEN IN THE PERIOD SINCE THE SECOND WORLD WAR ARE STUDIED. DATA OBTAINED FROM INDUSTRIAL SURVEYS AND GENERAL CENSUSES WERE USED TO COMPARE THE FOUR COUNTRIES WITH EACH OTHER AND WITH THE UNITED STATES.…

  14. Realistic Affective Forecasting: The Role of Personality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoerger, Michael; Chapman, Ben; Duberstein, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Affective forecasting often drives decision making. Although affective forecasting research has often focused on identifying sources of error at the event level, the present investigation draws upon the ‘realistic paradigm’ in seeking to identify factors that similarly influence predicted and actual emotions, explaining their concordance across individuals. We hypothesized that the personality traits neuroticism and extraversion would account for variation in both predicted and actual emotional reactions to a wide array of stimuli and events (football games, an election, Valentine’s Day, birthdays, happy/sad film clips, and an intrusive interview). As hypothesized, individuals who were more introverted and neurotic anticipated, correctly, that they would experience relatively more unpleasant emotional reactions, and those who were more extraverted and less neurotic anticipated, correctly, that they would experience relatively more pleasant emotional reactions. Personality explained 30% of the concordance between predicted and actual emotional reactions. Findings suggest three purported personality processes implicated in affective forecasting, highlight the importance of individual-differences research in this domain, and call for more research on realistic affective forecasts. PMID:26212463

  15. Solar activity affects avian timing of reproduction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, M.E.; Sanz, J.J.

    2009-01-01

    Avian timing of reproduction is strongly affected by ambient temperature. Here we show that there is an additional effect of sunspots on laying date, from five long-term population studies of great and blue tits (Parus major and Cyanistes caeruleus), demonstrating for the first time that solar

  16. Go Naked: Diapers Affect Infant Walking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Whitney G.; Lingeman, Jesse M.; Adolph, Karen E.

    2012-01-01

    In light of cross-cultural and experimental research highlighting effects of childrearing practices on infant motor skill, we asked whether wearing diapers, a seemingly innocuous childrearing practice, affects infant walking. Diapers introduce bulk between the legs, potentially exacerbating infants' poor balance and wide stance. We show that…

  17. From affective blindsight to emotional consciousness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Celeghin, Alessia; de Gelder, Beatrice; Tamietto, Marco

    2015-01-01

    Following destruction or denervation of the primary visual cortex (V1) cortical blindness ensues. Affective blindsight refers to the uncanny ability of such patients to respond correctly, or above chance level, to visual emotional expressions presented to their blind fields. Fifteen years after its

  18. Protection of pipelines affected by surface subsidence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luo, Y.; Peng, S.S.; Chen, H.J.

    1998-01-01

    Surface subsidence resulting from underground coal mining can cause problems for buried pipelines. A technique for assessing the level of stress on a subsidence-affected pipeline is introduced. The main contributors to the stress are identified, and mitigation techniques for reducing the stress are proposed. The proposed mitigation techniques were then successfully tested. 13 refs., 8 figs., 2 tabs

  19. Personal factors affecting organizational commitment of records ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study investigated personal factors affecting organizational commitment among records management personnel in the state universities in Nigeria. Simple cluster sampling with equal allocation method was used to select 180 records management personnel from the study population. A five item organizational ...

  20. Affective loop experiences: designing for interactional embodiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Höök, Kristina

    2009-12-12

    Involving our corporeal bodies in interaction can create strong affective experiences. Systems that both can be influenced by and influence users corporeally exhibit a use quality we name an affective loop experience. In an affective loop experience, (i) emotions are seen as processes, constructed in the interaction, starting from everyday bodily, cognitive or social experiences; (ii) the system responds in ways that pull the user into the interaction, touching upon end users' physical experiences; and (iii) throughout the interaction the user is an active, meaning-making individual choosing how to express themselves-the interpretation responsibility does not lie with the system. We have built several systems that attempt to create affective loop experiences with more or less successful results. For example, eMoto lets users send text messages between mobile phones, but in addition to text, the messages also have colourful and animated shapes in the background chosen through emotion-gestures with a sensor-enabled stylus pen. Affective Diary is a digital diary with which users can scribble their notes, but it also allows for bodily memorabilia to be recorded from body sensors mapping to users' movement and arousal and placed along a timeline. Users can see patterns in their bodily reactions and relate them to various events going on in their lives. The experiences of building and deploying these systems gave us insights into design requirements for addressing affective loop experiences, such as how to design for turn-taking between user and system, how to create for 'open' surfaces in the design that can carry users' own meaning-making processes, how to combine modalities to create for a 'unity' of expression, and the importance of mirroring user experience in familiar ways that touch upon their everyday social and corporeal experiences. But a more important lesson gained from deploying the systems is how emotion processes are co-constructed and experienced

  1. Exercise, Affect, and Adherence: An Evolutionary Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harold Lee

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The low rates of regular exercise and overall physical activity (PA in the general population represent a significant public health challenge. Previous research suggests that, for many people, exercise leads to a negative affective response and, in turn, reduced likelihood of future exercise. The purpose of this paper is to examine this exercise-affect-adherence relationship from an evolutionary perspective. Specifically, we argue that low rates of physical exercise in the general population are a function of the evolved human tendency to avoid unnecessary physical exertion. This innate tendency evolved because it allowed our evolutionary ancestors to conserve energy for physical activities that had immediate adaptive utility such as pursuing prey, escaping predators, and engaging in social and reproductive behaviors. The commonly observed negative affective response to exercise is an evolved proximate psychological mechanism through which humans avoid unnecessary energy expenditure. The fact that the human tendencies toward negative affective response to and avoidance of unnecessary physical activities are innate does not mean that they are unchangeable. Indeed, it is only because of human-engineered changes in our environmental conditions (i.e., it is no longer necessary for us to work for our food that our predisposition to avoid unnecessary physical exertion has become a liability. Thus, it is well within our capabilities to reengineer our environments to once again make PA necessary or, at least, to serve an immediate functional purpose. We propose a two-pronged approach to PA promotion based on this evolutionary functional perspective: First, to promote exercise and other physical activities that are perceived to have an immediate purpose, and second, to instill greater perceived purpose for a wider range of physical activities. We posit that these strategies are more likely to result in more positive (or at least less negative affective

  2. The structure of affective action representations: temporal binding of affective response codes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eder, Andreas B; Müsseler, Jochen; Hommel, Bernhard

    2012-01-01

    Two experiments examined the hypothesis that preparing an action with a specific affective connotation involves the binding of this action to an affective code reflecting this connotation. This integration into an action plan should lead to a temporary occupation of the affective code, which should impair the concurrent representation of affectively congruent events, such as the planning of another action with the same valence. This hypothesis was tested with a dual-task setup that required a speeded choice between approach- and avoidance-type lever movements after having planned and before having executed an evaluative button press. In line with the code-occupation hypothesis, slower lever movements were observed when the lever movement was affectively compatible with the prepared evaluative button press than when the two actions were affectively incompatible. Lever movements related to approach and avoidance and evaluative button presses thus seem to share a code that represents affective meaning. A model of affective action control that is based on the theory of event coding is discussed.

  3. Network position and related power : how they affect and are affected by network management and outcomes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oukes, Tamara

    2018-01-01

    In network position and related power you learn more about how network position and related power affect and are affected by network management and outcomes. First, I expand our present understanding of how startups with a fragile network position manage business relationships by taking an

  4. Perfectionism, Performance, and State Positive Affect and Negative Affect after a Classroom Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flett, Gordon L.; Blankstein, Kirk R.; Hewitt, Paul L.

    2009-01-01

    The current study examined the associations among trait dimensions of perfectionism, test performance, and levels of positive and negative affect after taking a test. A sample of 92 female university students completed the Multidimensional Perfectionism Scale one week prior to an actual class test. Measures of positive affect and negative affect…

  5. Affect, Reason, and Persuasion: Advertising Strategies That Predict Affective and Analytic-Cognitive Responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudhuri, Arjun; Buck, Ross

    1995-01-01

    Develops and tests hypotheses concerning the relationship of specific advertising strategies to affective and analytic cognitive responses of the audience. Analyses undergraduate students' responses to 240 advertisements. Demonstrates that advertising strategy variables accounted substantially for the variance in affective and analytic cognition.…

  6. Seasonal affective disorder and non-seasonal affective disorders : Results from the NESDA study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Winthorst, Wim H; Roest, Annelieke M; Bos, Elisabeth H; Meesters, Ybe; Penninx, Brenda W J H; Nolen, Willem A; de Jonge, Peter

    BACKGROUND: Seasonal affective disorder (SAD) is considered to be a subtype of depression. AIMS: To compare the clinical picture of SAD to non-seasonal affective disorders (non-SADs). METHOD: Diagnoses according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV) were established

  7. Affective Development in Advanced Old Age: Analyses of Terminal Change in Positive and Negative Affect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schilling, Oliver K.; Wahl, Hans-Werner; Wiegering, Sarah

    2013-01-01

    Late-life development of affect may unfold terminal changes that are driven more by end-of-life processes and not so much by time since birth. This study aimed to explore time-to-death-related effects in measures of affect in a sample of the very old. We used longitudinal data (2 measurement occasions: 2002 and 2003) from 140 deceased…

  8. Circadian polymorphisms associated with affective disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shekhtman Tatyana

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Clinical symptoms of affective disorders, their response to light treatment, and sensitivity to other circadian interventions indicate that the circadian system has a role in mood disorders. Possibly the mechanisms involve circadian seasonal and photoperiodic mechanisms. Since genetic susceptibilities contribute a strong component to affective disorders, we explored whether circadian gene polymorphisms were associated with affective disorders in four complementary studies. Methods Four groups of subjects were recruited from several sources: 1 bipolar proband-parent trios or sib-pair-parent nuclear families, 2 unrelated bipolar participants who had completed the BALM morningness-eveningness questionnaire, 3 sib pairs from the GenRed Project having at least one sib with early-onset recurrent unipolar depression, and 4 a sleep clinic patient group who frequently suffered from depression. Working mainly with the SNPlex assay system, from 2 to 198 polymorphisms in genes related to circadian function were genotyped in the participant groups. Associations with affective disorders were examined with TDT statistics for within-family comparisons. Quantitative trait associations were examined within the unrelated samples. Results In NR1D1, rs2314339 was associated with bipolar disorder (P = 0.0005. Among the unrelated bipolar participants, 3 SNPs in PER3 and CSNK1E were associated with the BALM score. A PPARGC1B coding SNP, rs7732671, was associated with affective disorder with nominal significance in bipolar family groups and independently in unipolar sib pairs. In TEF, rs738499 was associated with unipolar depression; in a replication study, rs738499 was also associated with the QIDS-SR depression scale in the sleep clinic patient sample. Conclusion Along with anti-manic effects of lithium and the antidepressant effects of bright light, these findings suggest that perturbations of the circadian gene network at several levels may

  9. Affect and craving: positive and negative affect are differentially associated with approach and avoidance inclinations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlauch, Robert C; Gwynn-Shapiro, Daniel; Stasiewicz, Paul R; Molnar, Danielle S; Lang, Alan R

    2013-04-01

    Research on reactivity to alcohol and drug cues has either ignored affective state altogether or has focused rather narrowly on the role of negative affect in craving. Moreover, until recently, the relevant analyses of affect and craving have rarely addressed the ambivalence often associated with craving itself. The current study investigated how both negative and positive affect moderate approach and avoidance inclinations associated with cue-elicited craving in a clinical sample diagnosed with substance use disorders. One hundred forty-four patients (age range of 18-65, mean 42.0; n=92 males) were recruited from an inpatient detoxification unit for substance abuse. Participants completed a baseline assessment of both positive and negative affect prior to completing a cue-reactivity paradigm for which they provided self-report ratings of inclinations to approach (use) and avoid (not use) alcohol, cigarettes, and non-psychoactive control substances (food and beverages). Participants with elevated negative affect reported significantly higher approach ratings for cigarette and alcohol cues, whereas those high in positive affect showed significantly higher levels of avoidance inclinations for both alcohol and cigarette cues and also significantly lower approach ratings for alcohol cues, all relative to control cues. Results for negative affect are consistent with previous cue reactivity research, whereas results for positive affect are unique and call attention to its clinical potential for attenuating approach inclinations to substance use cues. Further, positive affect was related to both approach and avoidance inclinations, underscoring the utility of a multidimensional conceptualization of craving in the analysis. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. The Affective Negotiation of Slum Tourism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holst, Tore Elias Harsløf Mukherjee

    , India. Slum tours are typically framed as both tourist performances , bought as commodities for a price on the market, and as appeals for aid that tourists encounter within an altruistic discourse of charity. This book enriches the tourism debate by interpreting tourist performances as affective...... economies, identifying tour guides as emotional labourers and raising questions on the long-term impacts of economically unbalanced encounters with representatives of the Global North, including the researcher. This book studies the ‘feeling rules’ governing a slum tour and how they shape interactions. When...... the space of comfortable affective negotiation constituted by the guides? This book will be essential reading for undergraduates, postgraduates and researchers working within the fields of human geography, slum tourism research, subaltern studies and development studies....

  11. Similarity, trust in institutions, affect, and populism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scholderer, Joachim; Finucane, Melissa L.

    -based evaluations are fundamental to human information processing, they can contribute significantly to other judgments (such as the risk, cost-effectiveness, trustworthiness) of the same stimulus object. Although deliberation and analysis are certainly important in some decision-making circumstances, reliance...... on affect is a quicker, easier, and a more efficient way of navigating in a complex and uncertain world. Hence, many theorists give affect a direct and primary role in motivating behavior. Taken together, the results provide uncannily strong support for the value-similarity hypothesis, strengthening...... types of information about gene technology. The materials were attributed to different institutions. The results indicated that participants' trust in an institution was a function of the similarity between the position advocated in the materials and participants' own attitudes towards gene technology...

  12. ANALYSIS OF THE FACTORS AFFECTING THE AVERAGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen BOGHEAN

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Productivity in agriculture most relevantly and concisely expresses the economic efficiency of using the factors of production. Labour productivity is affected by a considerable number of variables (including the relationship system and interdependence between factors, which differ in each economic sector and influence it, giving rise to a series of technical, economic and organizational idiosyncrasies. The purpose of this paper is to analyse the underlying factors of the average work productivity in agriculture, forestry and fishing. The analysis will take into account the data concerning the economically active population and the gross added value in agriculture, forestry and fishing in Romania during 2008-2011. The distribution of the average work productivity per factors affecting it is conducted by means of the u-substitution method.

  13. How Psychological Stress Affects Emotional Prosody.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulmann, Silke; Furnes, Desire; Bøkenes, Anne Ming; Cozzolino, Philip J

    2016-01-01

    We explored how experimentally induced psychological stress affects the production and recognition of vocal emotions. In Study 1a, we demonstrate that sentences spoken by stressed speakers are judged by naïve listeners as sounding more stressed than sentences uttered by non-stressed speakers. In Study 1b, negative emotions produced by stressed speakers are generally less well recognized than the same emotions produced by non-stressed speakers. Multiple mediation analyses suggest this poorer recognition of negative stimuli was due to a mismatch between the variation of volume voiced by speakers and the range of volume expected by listeners. Together, this suggests that the stress level of the speaker affects judgments made by the receiver. In Study 2, we demonstrate that participants who were induced with a feeling of stress before carrying out an emotional prosody recognition task performed worse than non-stressed participants. Overall, findings suggest detrimental effects of induced stress on interpersonal sensitivity.

  14. How Psychological Stress Affects Emotional Prosody

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulmann, Silke; Furnes, Desire; Bøkenes, Anne Ming; Cozzolino, Philip J.

    2016-01-01

    We explored how experimentally induced psychological stress affects the production and recognition of vocal emotions. In Study 1a, we demonstrate that sentences spoken by stressed speakers are judged by naïve listeners as sounding more stressed than sentences uttered by non-stressed speakers. In Study 1b, negative emotions produced by stressed speakers are generally less well recognized than the same emotions produced by non-stressed speakers. Multiple mediation analyses suggest this poorer recognition of negative stimuli was due to a mismatch between the variation of volume voiced by speakers and the range of volume expected by listeners. Together, this suggests that the stress level of the speaker affects judgments made by the receiver. In Study 2, we demonstrate that participants who were induced with a feeling of stress before carrying out an emotional prosody recognition task performed worse than non-stressed participants. Overall, findings suggest detrimental effects of induced stress on interpersonal sensitivity. PMID:27802287

  15. Material culture of multilingualism and affectivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larissa Aronin

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Affectivity is an important dimension in humans’ social and individual lives. It is either a stimulating or hindering aspect of language learning. This article aims to draw attention to material culture as a powerful, but mostly neglected source of data on the use and acquisition of languages, and demonstrates the close and intricate links between affectivity and material culture. It is hoped that revealing these interrelationships will assist in understanding and managing language diversity. It will allow practitioners and teachers to carry out social and private encounters, events and language teaching with more care, understanding and expertise. Researchers will be encouraged to join the investigation of yet one more important facet of multilingualism – material culture.

  16. Affectivity and Liminality in Ritualized Protest

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomassen, Bjørn; Scott Georgsen, Mie

    2017-01-01

    This article takes departure from recent events in Kiev, Ukraine. The empirical material builds on interviews and informal talks with young protesters, made online or on location during spring 2014. We argue that the uprisings – some call it a revolution – involve all essential features of limina......This article takes departure from recent events in Kiev, Ukraine. The empirical material builds on interviews and informal talks with young protesters, made online or on location during spring 2014. We argue that the uprisings – some call it a revolution – involve all essential features...... in ritualized action, unified by confronting the same essential dangers. Engaging this social drama we further wish to discuss how affectivity plays a central role in the ritualization of protest – and that subjectivity and affectivity, as relatively unformed potentials, bring qualities of heightened...

  17. How do humans affect wildlife nematodes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinstein, Sara B.; Lafferty, Kevin D.

    2015-01-01

    Human actions can affect wildlife and their nematode parasites. Species introductions and human-facilitated range expansions can create new host–parasite interactions. Novel hosts can introduce parasites and have the potential to both amplify and dilute nematode transmission. Furthermore, humans can alter existing nematode dynamics by changing host densities and the abiotic conditions that affect larval parasite survival. Human impacts on wildlife might impair parasites by reducing the abundance of their hosts; however, domestic animal production and complex life cycles can maintain transmission even when wildlife becomes rare. Although wildlife nematodes have many possible responses to human actions, understanding host and parasite natural history, and the mechanisms behind the changing disease dynamics might improve disease control in the few cases where nematode parasitism impacts wildlife.

  18. Object orientation affects spatial language comprehension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burigo, Michele; Sacchi, Simona

    2013-01-01

    Typical spatial descriptions, such as "The car is in front of the house," describe the position of a located object (LO; e.g., the car) in space relative to a reference object (RO) whose location is known (e.g., the house). The orientation of the RO affects spatial language comprehension via the reference frame selection process. However, the effects of the LO's orientation on spatial language have not received great attention. This study explores whether the pure geometric information of the LO (e.g., its orientation) affects spatial language comprehension using placing and production tasks. Our results suggest that the orientation of the LO influences spatial language comprehension even in the absence of functional relationships. Copyright © 2013 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.

  19. Factors Affecting the Productivity of Government Workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerry P. Haenisch

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available While there have been a variety of studies concerning government worker motivation and productivity, few, if any, studies have focused specifically on state government workers’ perceptions about what factors affect their productivity. With more than 5 million workers employed by state governments in the United States, any improvement in state workplace productivity could have significant financial and service impact for society. In this study, state government workers identified those factors perceived as most affecting their workplace productivity. Data were collected through a survey offered to state government workers in the state of Wyoming. Factor analysis was used to derive key productivity factors from survey responses. The results indicate that state government workers appreciate having freedom and autonomy, like their jobs and the sense of achievement, and welcome teamwork, but feel limited by poor supervision and management, poor communications, and insufficient budgets and staffing. To improve productivity, the workers would eliminate bureaucracy, supervise better, and improve communication.

  20. Human activities affecting trace gases and climate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Braatz, B.; Ebert, C.

    1990-01-01

    The Earth's climate has been in a constant state of change throughout geologic time due to natural perturbations in the global geobiosphere. However, various human activities have the potential to cause future global warming over a relatively short amount of time. These activities, which affect the Earth's climate by altering the concentrations of trace gases in the atmosphere, include energy consumption, particularly fossil-fuel consumption; industrial processes (production and use of chlorofluorocarbons, halons, and chlorocarbons, landfilling of wastes, and cement manufacture); changes in land use patterns, particularly deforestation and biomass burning; and agricultural practices (waste burning, fertilizer usage, rice production, and animal husbandry). Population growth is an important underlying factor affecting the level of growth in each activity. This paper describes how the human activities listed above contribute to atmospheric change, the current pattern of each activity, and how levels of each activity have changed since the early part of this century

  1. Interactive affective sharing versus non-interactive affective sharing in work groups : Comparative effects of group affect on work group performance and dynamics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klep, Annefloor; Wisse, Barbara; Van Der Flier, Henk

    This study explores whether the dynamic path to group affect, which is characterized by interactive affective sharing processes, yields different effects on task performance and group dynamics than the static path to group affect, which arises from non-interactive affective sharing. The results of

  2. Interactive affective sharing versus non-interactive affective sharing in work groups: Comparative effects of group affect on work group performance and dynamics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klep, A.H.M.; Wisse, B.M.; van der Flier, H.

    2011-01-01

    This study explores whether the dynamic path to group affect, which is characterized by interactive affective sharing processes, yields different effects on task performance and group dynamics than the static path to group affect, which arises from non-interactive affective sharing. The results of

  3. Eating disorder symptoms in affective disorder.

    OpenAIRE

    Wold, P N

    1991-01-01

    Patients with Major Affective Disorder (MAD), Secondary Depression, Panic Disorder, and bulimia with and without MAD, were given the Eating Disorder Inventory, the Beck Depression Inventory, and the General Behavior Inventory at presentation. It was found that patients with MAD have a triad of eating disorder symptoms: a disturbance in interoceptive awareness, the sense of ineffectiveness, and a tendency toward bulimia. The data supported the concept that the sense of ineffectiveness is secon...

  4. Analysis of Economic Factors Affecting Stock Market

    OpenAIRE

    Xie, Linyin

    2010-01-01

    This dissertation concentrates on analysis of economic factors affecting Chinese stock market through examining relationship between stock market index and economic factors. Six economic variables are examined: industrial production, money supply 1, money supply 2, exchange rate, long-term government bond yield and real estate total value. Stock market comprises fixed interest stocks and equities shares. In this dissertation, stock market is restricted to equity market. The stock price in thi...

  5. Multiscale Study of Currents Affected by Topography

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-30

    1 DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A. Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. Multiscale Study of Currents Affected by Topography ...the effects of topography on the ocean general and regional circulation with a focus on the wide range of scales of interactions. The small-scale...details of the topography and the waves, eddies, drag, and turbulence it generates (at spatial scales ranging from meters to mesoscale) interact in the

  6. From Mediatized Emotion to Digital Affect Cultures

    OpenAIRE

    Döveling, Katrin; Harju, Anu Annika; Sommer, Denise

    2018-01-01

    Research on the processes of mediatization aims to explore the mutual shaping of media and social life and how new media technologies influence and infiltrate social practices and cultural life. We extend this discussion of media’s role in transforming the everyday by including in the discussion the mediatization of emotion and discuss what we conceptualize as digital affect culture(s). We understand these as relational, contextual, globally emergent spaces in the digital environment where af...

  7. How does political instability affect economic growth?

    OpenAIRE

    Aisen, Ari; Veiga, Francisco José

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to empirically determine the effects of political instability on economic growth. Using the system-GMM estimator for linear dynamic panel data models on a sample covering up to 169 countries, and 5-year periods from 1960 to 2004, we find that higher degrees of political instability are associated with lower growth rates of GDP per capita. Regarding the channels of transmission, we find that political instability adversely affects growth by lowering the rates of pr...

  8. Adopting neuroscience : parenting and affective indeterminacy

    OpenAIRE

    MacKenzie, Adrian Bruce; Roberts, Celia Mary

    2017-01-01

    What happens when neuroscientific knowledges move from laboratories and clinics into therapeutic settings concerned with the care of children? ‘Brain-based parenting’ is a set of discourses and practices emerging at the confluence of attachment theory, neuroscience, psychotherapy and social work. The neuroscientific knowledges involved understand affective states such as fear, anger and intimacy as dynamic patterns of coordination between brain localities, as well as flows of biochemical sign...

  9. Factors affecting the effects of diuresis renography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Deshan

    2006-01-01

    Diuresis renography is one of the classic methods for diagnosing upper urinary tract obstruction in both children and adults. However, in clinical practice, the results of diuresis renography were often influenced by many factors including diuretics, timing of diuretics injection, the status of renal function and hydration, the volume and compliance of collecting system, bladder fullness and so on. It is important to consider all the factors affecting diuresis renography during performing and interpreting diuresis renography. (authors)

  10. Affective Norms for 362 Persian Words

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahdi Bagheri

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: During the past two decades, a great deal of research has been conducted on developing affective norms for words in various languages, showing that there is an urgent need to create such norms in Persian language, too. The present study intended to develop a set of 362 Persian words rated according to their emotional valence, arousal, imageability, and familiarity so as to prepare the ground for further research on emotional word processing. This was the first attempt to set affective norms for Persian words in the realm of emotion.  Methods: Prior to the study, a multitude of words were selected from Persian dictionary and academic books in Persian literature. Secondly, three independent proficient experts in the Persian literature were asked to extract the suitable words from the list and to choose the best (defined as grammatically correct and most often used. The database normalization process was based on the ratings by a total of 88 participants using a 9-point Likert scale. Each participant evaluated about 120 words on four different scales.  Results: There were significant relationships between affective dimensions and some psycholinguistic variables. Also, further analyses were carried out to investigate the possible relationship between different features of valences (positive, negative, and neutral and other variables included in the dataset.  Conclusion: These affective norms for Persian words create a useful and valid dataset which will provide researchers with applying standard verbal materials as well as materials applied in other languages, e.g. English, German, French, Spanish, Portuguese, Dutch, etc.

  11. Intake of Mediterranean foods associated with positive affect and low negative affect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, Patricia A; Jaceldo-Siegl, Karen; Lee, Jerry W; Youngberg, Wes; Tonstad, Serena

    2013-02-01

    To examine associations between consumption of foods typical of Mediterranean versus Western diets with positive and negative affect. Nutrients influence mental states yet few studies have examined whether foods protective or deleterious for cardiovascular disease affect mood. Participants were 9255 Adventist church attendees in North America who completed a validated food frequency questionnaire in 2002-6. Scores for affect were obtained from the positive and negative affect schedule questionnaire in 2006-7. Multiple linear regression models controlled for age, gender, ethnicity, BMI, education, sleep, sleep squared (to account for high or low amounts), exercise, total caloric intake, alcohol and time between the questionnaires. Intake of vegetables (β=0.124 [95% CI 0.101, 0.147]), fruit (β=0.066 [95% CI 0.046, 0.085]), olive oil (β=0.070 [95% CI 0.029, 0.111]), nuts (β=0.054 [95% CI 0.026, 0.082]), and legumes (β=0.055 [95% CI 0.032, 0.077]) were associated with positive affect while sweets/desserts (β=-0.066 [95% CI -0.086, -0.046]), soda (β=-0.025 [95% CI -0.037, -0.013]) and fast food frequency (β=-0.046 [95% CI -0.062, -0.030]) were inversely associated with positive affect. Intake of sweets/desserts (β=0.058 [95% CI 0.037, 0.078]) and fast food frequency (β=0.052 [95% CI 0.036, 0.068]) were associated with negative affect while intake of vegetables (β=-0.076 [95% CI -0.099, -0.052]), fruit (β=-0.033 [95% CI -0.053, -0.014]) and nuts (β=-0.088 [95% CI -0.116, -0.060]) were inversely associated with negative affect. Gender interacted with red meat intake (Pnegative affect in females only. Foods typical of Mediterranean diets were associated with positive affect as well as lower negative affect while Western foods were associated with low positive affect in general and negative affect in women. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Affective and motivational influences in person perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuzmanovic, Bojana; Jefferson, Anneli; Bente, Gary; Vogeley, Kai

    2013-01-01

    Interpersonal impression formation is highly consequential for social interactions in private and public domains. These perceptions of others rely on different sources of information and processing mechanisms, all of which have been investigated in independent research fields. In social psychology, inferences about states and traits of others as well as activations of semantic categories and corresponding stereotypes have attracted great interest. On the other hand, research on emotion and reward demonstrated affective and motivational influences of social cues on the observer, which in turn modulate attention, categorization, evaluation, and decision processes. While inferential and categorical social processes have been shown to recruit a network of cortical brain regions associated with mentalizing and evaluation, the affective influence of social cues has been linked to subcortical areas that play a central role in detection of salient sensory input and reward processing. In order to extend existing integrative approaches to person perception, both the inferential-categorical processing of information about others, and affective and motivational influences of this information on the beholder should be taken into account.

  13. Affective cognition: Exploring lay theories of emotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ong, Desmond C; Zaki, Jamil; Goodman, Noah D

    2015-10-01

    Humans skillfully reason about others' emotions, a phenomenon we term affective cognition. Despite its importance, few formal, quantitative theories have described the mechanisms supporting this phenomenon. We propose that affective cognition involves applying domain-general reasoning processes to domain-specific content knowledge. Observers' knowledge about emotions is represented in rich and coherent lay theories, which comprise consistent relationships between situations, emotions, and behaviors. Observers utilize this knowledge in deciphering social agents' behavior and signals (e.g., facial expressions), in a manner similar to rational inference in other domains. We construct a computational model of a lay theory of emotion, drawing on tools from Bayesian statistics, and test this model across four experiments in which observers drew inferences about others' emotions in a simple gambling paradigm. This work makes two main contributions. First, the model accurately captures observers' flexible but consistent reasoning about the ways that events and others' emotional responses to those events relate to each other. Second, our work models the problem of emotional cue integration-reasoning about others' emotion from multiple emotional cues-as rational inference via Bayes' rule, and we show that this model tightly tracks human observers' empirical judgments. Our results reveal a deep structural relationship between affective cognition and other forms of inference, and suggest wide-ranging applications to basic psychological theory and psychiatry. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Soil Resources Area Affects Herbivore Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chad M. Dacus

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Soil productivity effects nutritive quality of food plants, growth of humans and animals, and reproductive health of domestic animals. Game-range surveys sometimes poorly explained variations in wildlife populations, but classification of survey data by major soil types improved effectiveness. Our study evaluates possible health effects of lower condition and reproductive rates for wild populations of Odocoileus virginianus Zimmerman (white-tailed deer in some physiographic regions of Mississippi. We analyzed condition and reproductive data for 2400 female deer from the Mississippi Department of Wildlife, Fisheries, and Parks herd health evaluations from 1991–1998. We evaluated age, body mass (Mass, kidney mass, kidney fat mass, number of corpora lutea (CL and fetuses, as well as fetal ages. Region affected kidney fat index (KFI, which is a body condition index, and numbers of fetuses of adults (P ≤ 0.001. Region affected numbers of CL of adults (P ≤ 0.002. Mass and conception date (CD were affected (P ≤ 0.001 by region which interacted significantly with age for Mass (P ≤ 0.001 and CD (P < 0.04. Soil region appears to be a major factor influencing physical characteristics of female deer.

  15. Factors affecting the rural domestic waste generation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.R. Darban Astane

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The current study was carried out to evaluate the quantity and quality of rural domestic waste generation and to identify the factors affecting it in rural areas of Khodabandeh county in Zanjan Province, Iran. Waste samplings consisted of 318 rural households in 11 villages. In order to evaluate the quality and quantity of the rural domestic waste, waste production was classified into 12 groups and 2 main groups of organic waste and solid waste. Moreover, kriging interpolation technique in ARC-GIS software was used to evaluate the spatial distribution of the generated domestic waste and ultimately multiple regression analysis was used to evaluate the factors affecting the generation of domestic waste. The results of this study showed that the average waste generated by each person was 0.588 kilograms per day. with the share of organic waste generated by each person being 0.409 kilograms per day and the share of solid waste generated by each person being 0.179 kilograms per day. The results from spatial distribution of waste generation showed a certain pattern in three groups and a higher rate of waste generation in the northern and northwestern parts, especially in the subdistrict. The results of multiple regression analysis showed that the households’ income, assets, age, and personal attitude are respectively the most important variables affecting waste generation. The housholds’ attitude and indigenous knowledge on efficient use of materials are also the key factors which can help reducing waste generation.

  16. General characteristics affective disorders in arterial hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Tolmachov

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The author analyzes researches on the study of affective disorders in arterial hypertension (AH. It is noted that AH at the present stage is considered as one of the factors of cognitive dysfunction. The article emphasizes that the analysis of comorbid relations of depression and hypertension is hardly possible without the study of affective and cardiovascular disorders at the clinical level, taking into account their dynamic characteristics and key features of the course of depressive states in general. The author considers the features of the current: post-stroke depressions, nosogenic depressions of anxious and anxious-hypochondriacally types, anxiety-phobic disorders, comorbid panic disorders, protracted depression with traits of endoreactive dysthymia, hypochondriacal disorders, panic attacks, and the like in patients with arterial hypertension. Some features of affective disorders are revealed in patients with cardiovascular disorders. It is emphasized that the increase in the effectiveness of treatment of mental disorders in patients with hypertensive encephalopathy can be solved by improving the methods of early diagnosis, developing additional screening and monitoring diagnostic tools using it in an interdisciplinary approach.

  17. Affective control and life satisfaction in thalassemics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmela Mento

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Thalassemia is a chronic disease that can lead to an impact on psychological functioning and social behavior of patients. However, still little is known about the specific psychological aspects of the disease, such as the degree of tension, life satisfaction and affective control, especially in adult patients. Aim. The purpose of this study is to investigate whether patients with thalassemia have specific psychological pattern relating to the dimensions of tension, satisfaction and quality of life, management of affection. Method. We evaluated 31 patients with thalassemia major and intermedia (19 women and 12 men aged between 18 and 50 years (M = 34 + 16, belonging to the Complex Unit of Medical Genetics. For the evaluation were used the Profile of Mood States (POMS, the Quality of Life Enjoyment and Satisfaction Questionnaire (Q-LES-Q and the Rorschach test. Results. The findings show an inverse relationship between the levels of self-reported tension and the affective control indicators at Rorschach. Life satisfaction, instead, seems to vary according to the severity of the disease - major vs. intermediate - and the type of therapy. Conclusions. An understanding of the psychological mechanisms involved in thalassemia, both self-reported and projective, can contribute to a wider patient takeover, by considering the subjective aspects related to the psychological and socioemotional well-being, fundamental in the care compliance.

  18. Factors affecting patient dose in diagnostic radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poletti, J.L.

    1994-03-01

    The report, Factors Affecting Patient Dose in Diagnostic Radiology is divided into three main sections. Part one is introductory and covers the basic principles of x-ray production and image formation. It includes discussion of x-ray generators and x-ray tubes, radiation properties and units, specification and measurement of x-ray beams, methods of patient dose measurement, radiation effects, radiation protection philosophy and finally the essentials of imaging systems. Part two examines factors affecting the x-ray output of x-ray machines and the characteristics of x-ray beams. These include the influence of heat ratings, kVp, waveform, exposure timer, filtration, focus-film distance, beam intensity distribution, x-ray tube age and focal spot size. Part three examines x-ray machine, equipment and patient factors which affect the dose received by individual patients. The factors considered include justification of examinations, choice of examination method, film/screen combinations, kVp, mAs, focus-film distance, collimation and field size, exposure time, projection, scatter, generator calibration errors, waveform, filtration, film processing and patient size. The patient dose implications of fluoroscopy systems, CT scanners, special procedures and mammography are also discussed. The report concludes with a brief discussion of patient dose levels in New Zealand and dose optimisation. 104 refs., 32 figs., 27 tabs

  19. Nutrients affecting brain composition and behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wurtman, R. J.

    1987-01-01

    This review examines the changes in brain composition and in various brain functions, including behavior, that can follow the ingestion of particular foods or nutrients. It details those that are best understood: the increases in serotonin, catecholamine, or acetylcholine synthesis that can occur subsequent to food-induced increases in brain levels of tryptophan, tyrosine, or choline; it also discusses the various processes that must intervene between the mouth and the synapse, so to speak, in order for a nutrient to affect neurotransmission, and it speculates as to additional brain chemicals that may ultimately be found to be affected by changes in the availability of their nutrient precursors. Because the brain chemicals best known to be nutrient dependent overlap with those thought to underlie the actions of most of the drugs used to treat psychiatric diseases, knowledge of this dependence may help the psychiatrist to understand some of the pathologic processes occurring in his/her patients, particularly those with appetitive symptoms. At the very least, such knowledge should provide the psychiatrist with objective criteria for judging when to take seriously assertions that particular foods or nutrients do indeed affect behavior (e.g., in hyperactive children). If the food can be shown to alter neurotransmitter release, it may be behaviorally-active; however, if it lacks a discernible neurochemical effect, the likelihood that it really alters behavior is small.

  20. Relationship between Affective Dimension and Math Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronny Gamboa Araya

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Math has become an obstacle to achieve educational goals for a large number of students; thus it has transcended the academic world and has become a cognitive and emotional impairment.  What students feel, perceive, believe, and how they act directly influences this.  In addition, what teachers feel and perceive, their expectations, beliefs and attitudes towards the discipline also play an important role in how they teach and in the affective dimension of their students.  Based on theoretical aspects from various authors, this paper is aimed at addressing some elements regarding the affective dimension, and at showing elements pertaining to teachers and students, and their relationship with math learning and teaching.  It was concluded that the role of the affective dimension in math learning must be addressed by math educators in order to understand the process from the perspective of the actors associated with it, both students and teachers, as well as to achieve a change in the discipline by improving the beliefs and attitudes of students and teachers.

  1. Affective Priming in Major Depressive Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joelle eLeMoult

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Research on cognitive biases in depression has provided considerable evidence for the impact of emotion on cognition. Individuals with depression tend to preferentially process mood-congruent material and to show deficits in the processing of positive material leading to biases in attention, memory, and judgments. More research is needed, however, to fully understand which cognitive processes are affected. The current study further examines the impact of emotion on cognition using a priming design with facial expressions of emotion. Specifically, this study tested whether the presentation of facial expressions of emotion affects subsequent processing of affective material in participants with major depressive disorder (MDD and healthy controls (CTL. Facial expressions displaying happy, sad, angry, disgusted, or neutral expressions were presented as primes for 500ms, and participants’ speed to identify a subsequent target’s emotional expression was assessed. All participants displayed greater interference from emotional versus neutral primes, marked by slower response times to judge the emotion of the target face when it was preceded by an emotional prime. Importantly, the CTL group showed the strongest interference when happy emotional expressions served as primes whereas the MDD group failed to show this bias. These results add to a growing literature that shows that depression is associated with difficulties in the processing of positive material.

  2. Stress modulation of cognitive and affective processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    CAMPEAU, SERGE; LIBERZON, ISRAEL; MORILAK, DAVID; RESSLER, KERRY

    2012-01-01

    This review summarizes the major discussion points of a symposium on stress modulation of cognitive and affective processes, which was held during the 2010 workshop on the neurobiology of stress (Boulder, CO, USA). The four discussants addressed a number of specific cognitive and affective factors that are modulated by exposure to acute or repeated stress. Dr David Morilak discussed the effects of various repeated stress situations on cognitive flexibility, as assessed with a rodent model of attentional set-shifting task, and how performance on slightly different aspects of this test is modulated by different prefrontal regions through monoaminergic neurotransmission. Dr Serge Campeau summarized the findings of several studies exploring a number of factors and brain regions that regulate habituation of various autonomic and neuroendocrine responses to repeated audiogenic stress exposures. Dr Kerry Ressler discussed a body of work exploring the modulation and extinction of fear memories in rodents and humans, especially focusing on the role of key neurotransmitter systems including excitatory amino acids and brain-derived neurotrophic factor. Dr Israel Liberzon presented recent results on human decision-making processes in response to exogenous glucocorticoid hormone administration. Overall, these discussions are casting a wider framework on the cognitive/affective processes that are distinctly regulated by the experience of stress and some of the brain regions and neurotransmitter systems associated with these effects. PMID:21790481

  3. Interval Size and Affect: An Ethnomusicological Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarha Moore

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available This commentary addresses Huron and Davis's question of whether "The Harmonic Minor Provides an Optimum Way of Reducing Average Melodic Interval Size, Consistent with Sad Affect Cues" within any non-Western musical cultures. The harmonic minor scale and other semitone-heavy scales, such as Bhairav raga and Hicaz makam, are featured widely in the musical cultures of North India and the Middle East. Do melodies from these genres also have a preponderance of semitone intervals and low incidence of the augmented second interval, as in Huron and Davis's sample? Does the presence of more semitone intervals in a melody affect its emotional connotations in different cultural settings? Are all semitone intervals equal in their effect? My own ethnographic research within these cultures reveals comparable connotations in melodies that linger on semitone intervals, centered on concepts of tension and metaphors of falling. However, across different musical cultures there may also be neutral or lively interpretations of these same pitch sets, dependent on context, manner of performance, and tradition. Small pitch movement may also be associated with social functions such as prayer or lullabies, and may not be described as "sad." "Sad," moreover may not connote the same affect cross-culturally.

  4. Affective and motivational influences in person perception

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bojana eKuzmanovic

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Interpersonal impression formation is highly consequential for social interactions in private and public domains. These perceptions of others rely on different sources of information and processing mechanisms, all of which have been investigated in independent research fields. In social psychology, inferences about states and traits of others as well as activations of semantic categories and corresponding stereotypes have attracted great interest. On the other hand, research on emotion and reward demonstrated affective and motivational influences of social cues on the observer, which in turn modulate attention, categorization, evaluation and decision processes. While inferential and categorical social processes have been shown to recruit a network of cortical brain regions associated with mentalizing and evaluation, the affective influence of social cues has been linked to subcortical areas that play a central role in detection of salient sensory input and reward processing. In order to extend existing integrative approaches to person perception, both the inferential-categorical processing of information about others, and affective and motivational influences of this information on the beholder should be taken into account.

  5. Don't Classify Ratings of Affect; Rank Them!

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martinez, H. P.; Yannakakis, G. N.; Hallam, John

    2014-01-01

    How should affect be appropriately annotated and how should machine learning best be employed to map manifestations of affect to affect annotations? What is the use of ratings of affect for the study of affective computing and how should we treat them? These are the key questions this paper attem...

  6. Affective health bias in older adults: Considering positive and negative affect in a general health context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitehead, Brenda R; Bergeman, C S

    2016-09-01

    Because subjective health reports are a primary source of health information in a number of medical and research-based contexts, much research has been devoted to establishing the extent to which these self-reports of health correspond to health information from more objective sources. One of the key factors considered in this area is trait affect, with most studies emphasizing the impact of negative affect (negative emotions) over positive affect (positive emotions), and focusing on high-arousal affect (e.g., anger, excitement) over moderate- or low-arousal affect (e.g., relaxed, depressed). The present study examines the impact of both Positive and Negative Affect (PA/NA)-measured by items of both high and low arousal-on the correspondence between objective health information and subjective health reports. Another limitation of existing literature in the area is the focus on samples suffering from a particular diagnosis or on specific symptom reports; here, these effects are investigated in a sample of community-dwelling older adults representing a broader spectrum of health. 153 older adults (Mage = 71.2) took surveys assessing Perceived Health and Affect and underwent an objective physical health assessment. Structural equation modeling was used to investigate the extent to which the relationship between Objective Health and Perceived Health was moderated by PA or NA, which would indicate the presence of affective health bias. Results reveal a significant moderation effect for NA, but not for PA; PA appeared to serve a more mediational function, indicating that NA and PA operate on health perceptions in distinct ways. These findings provide evidence that in our high-functioning, community-dwelling sample of older adults, a) affective health bias is present within a general health context, and not only within specific symptom or diagnostic categories; and b) that both PA and NA play important roles in the process. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights

  7. Factors affecting outcome in ocular myasthenia gravis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzoli, Marco; Ariatti, Alessandra; Valzania, Franco; Kaleci, Shaniko; Tondelli, Manuela; Nichelli, Paolo F; Galassi, Giuliana

    2018-01-01

    50%-60% of patients with ocular myasthenia gravis (OMG) progress to generalized myasthenia gravis (GMG) within two years. The aim of our study was to explore factors affecting prognosis of OMG and to test the predictive role of several independent clinical variables. We reviewed a cohort of 168 Caucasian patients followed from September 2000 to January 2016. Several independent variables were considered as prognostic factors: gender, age of onset, results on electrophysiological tests, presence and level of antibodies against acetylcholine receptors (AChR Abs), treatments, thymic abnormalities. The primary outcome was the progression to GMG and/or the presence of bulbar symptoms. Secondary outcomes were either achievement of sustained minimal manifestation status or worsening in ocular quantitative MG subscore (O-QMGS) or worsening in total QMG score (T-QMGS), assessed by Myasthenia Gravis Foundation of America (MGFA) quantitative scores. Changes in mental and physical subscores of health-related quality of life (HRQoL) were assessed with SF-36 questionnaire. Variance analysis was used to interpret the differences between AChR Ab titers at different times of follow up among the generalized and non-generalized patients. Conversion to GMG occurred in 18.4% of patients; it was significantly associated with sex, later onset of disease and anti-AChR Ab positivity. Antibody titer above the mean value of 25.8 pmol/mL showed no significant effect on generalization. Sex and late onset of disease significantly affected T-QMGS worsening. None of the other independent variables significantly affected O-QMGS and HRQoL. Sex, later onset and anti-AChR Ab positivity were significantly associated with clinical worsening.

  8. Leader Affect and Leadership Effectiveness: How leader affective displays influence follower outcomes

    OpenAIRE

    Visser, Victoria

    2013-01-01

    textabstractThe aim of this dissertation is to uncover the relationship between leader affective displays and leadership effectiveness. Five empirical studies were conducted to test the influence of several leader affective displays on different follower outcomes that indicate leadership effectiveness. The results showed that leader happy displays enhance followers’ creative performance, whereas leader sad displays enhance followers’ analytical performance. In addition, a leader displaying ha...

  9. Turbulent forces within river plumes affect spread

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharya, Atreyee

    2012-08-01

    When rivers drain into oceans through narrow mouths, hydraulic forces squeeze the river water into buoyant plumes that are clearly visible in satellite images. Worldwide, river plumes not only disperse freshwater, sediments, and nutrients but also spread pollutants and organisms from estuaries into the open ocean. In the United States, the Columbia River—the largest river by volume draining into the Pacific Ocean from North America—generates a plume at its mouth that transports juvenile salmon and other fish into the ocean. Clearly, the behavior and spread of river plumes, such as the Columbia River plume, affect the nation's fishing industry as well as the global economy.

  10. Neuroimaging of affect processing in schizophrenia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Habel, U.; Kircher, T.; Schneider, F.

    2005-01-01

    Functional imaging of normal and dysfunctional emotional processes is an important tool for a better understanding of the pathophysiology of affective symptoms in schizophrenia patients. These symptoms are still poorly characterized with respect to their neural correlates. Comparisons of cerebral activation during emotional paradigms offered the possibility for a better characterization of cerebral dysfunctions during emotional processing in schizophrenia. Abnormal activation patterns reveal a complex dysfunctional subcortical-cortical network. This is modulated by respective genotypes as well as psycho- and pharmacotherapy. (orig.) [de

  11. Does Labour Diversity affect Firm Productivity?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parrotta, Pierpaolo; Pozzoli, Dario; Pytlikova, Mariola

    Using a matched employer-employee dataset, we analyze how workforce diversity in cultural background, education and demographic characteristics affects productivity of firms in Denmark. Implementing a structural estimation of the firms' production function (Ackerberg et al., 2006) we find...... diverse workforce, seem to outweigh the positive effects coming from creativity and knowledge spillovers....... that labor diversity in education significantly enhances a firm's value added. Conversely, diversity in ethnicity and demographics induces negative effects on firm productivity. Hence, the negative effects, coming from communication and integration costs connected to a more culturally and demographically...

  12. Factors Affecting Entrepreneurship and Business Sustainability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Tur-Porcar

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Sustainability is becoming increasingly important for society, and the creation of business ventures is one area where sustainability is critical. We examined the factors affecting actions that are designed to foster business sustainability. These factors are related to the environment, behavior, human relations, and business activity. Based on questionnaire responses from experts, the Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP method was used to rank sustainable business criteria according to their importance for entrepreneurs starting sustainable businesses. The results indicate that the most important drivers of sustainable entrepreneurship are behavioral factors and business factors. Ethical principles and values, together with competitive intelligence, are crucial for undertaking actions that lead to sustainability.

  13. Exporting licensing regulations affecting US geothermal firms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1988-08-01

    This document presents a brief introduction and overview of the Department of Commerce's Export Administration Regulations which might affect potential US geothermal goods exporters. It is intended to make US geothermal firms officials aware of the existence of such regulations and to provide them with references, contacts and phone numbers where they can obtain specific and detailed information and assistance. It must be stressed however, that the ultimate responsibility for complying with the above mentioned regulations lies with the exporter who must consult the complete version of the regulations.

  14. Do Immigrants Affect Firm-Specific Wages?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malchow-Møller, Nikolaj; Munch, Jakob R.; Skaksen, Jan Rose

    2012-01-01

    We propose and test a novel effect of immigration on wages. Existing studies have focused on the wage effects that result from changes in the aggregate labour supply in a competitive labour market. We argue that if labour markets are not fully competitive, immigrants might also affect wage...... formation at the most disaggregate level – the workplace. Using linked employer-employee data, we find that an increased use of low-skilled immigrant workers has a significantly negative effect on the wages of native workers at the workplace – also when controlling for potential endogeneity of the immigrant...

  15. How Does Social Trust Affect Economic Growth?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørnskov, Christian

    Social capital in the form of generalized trust has been shown to be a determinant of economic growth in a number of studies. Other studies have explored other consequences of trust, such as its effects on governance, corruption, education and investment. This paper connects the two strands...... of literature by estimating the effects of trust on growth through a set of potential transmission mechanisms directly. It does so by modelling the process using a three-stage least squares estimator on a sample of countries for which a full data set is available. The results indicate that trust affects...

  16. When can preheating affect the CMB?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsujikawa, Shinji; Bassett, Bruce A.

    2002-05-01

    We discuss the principles governing the selection of inflationary models for which preheating can affect the CMB. This is a (fairly small) subset of those models which have nonnegligible entropy/isocurvature perturbations on large scales during inflation. We study new models which belong to this class-two-field inflation with negative nonminimal coupling and hybrid/double/supernatural inflation models where the tachyonic growth of entropy perturbations can lead to the variation of the curvature perturbation, /R, on super-Hubble scales. Finally, we present evidence against recent claims for the variation of /R in the absence of substantial super-Hubble entropy perturbations.

  17. Conditions and processes affecting radionuclide transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmons, Ardyth M.; Neymark, Leonid A.

    2012-01-01

    Characteristics of host rocks, secondary minerals, and fluids would affect the transport of radionuclides from a previously proposed repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. Minerals in the Yucca Mountain tuffs that are important for retarding radionuclides include clinoptilolite and mordenite (zeolites), clay minerals, and iron and manganese oxides and hydroxides. Water compositions along flow paths beneath Yucca Mountain are controlled by dissolution reactions, silica and calcite precipitation, and ion-exchange reactions. Radionuclide concentrations along flow paths from a repository could be limited by (1) low waste-form dissolution rates, (2) low radionuclide solubility, and (3) radionuclide sorption onto geological media.

  18. Clinical consequences of sensitisation in affective disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kessing, L V; Mortensen, P B; Bolwig, T G

    1998-01-01

    in relation to the subsequent risk of alcoholism, dementia, death and suicidal attempts/suicide in a case register study including all hospital admissions with primary affective disorder in Denmark from 1971 to 1993. A total of 8737 patients with more than one episode were included in the analyses. A short...... period between initial episodes of the illness, reflecting a great intensity of illness, predicted increased risk of subsequent development of dementia, and for unipolar patients, decreased risk of subsequent alcoholism. Surprisingly, a progressive course, with decreasing intervals between initial...

  19. Institutional issues affecting transportation of nuclear materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reese, R.T.; Luna, R.E.

    1980-01-01

    The institutional issues affecting transportation of nuclear materials in the United States represent significant barriers to meeting future needs in the transport of radioactive waste materials to their ultimate repository. While technological problems which must be overcome to perform such movements seem to be within the state-of-the-art, the timely resolution of these institutional issues seems less assured. However, the definition of these issues, as attempted in this paper, together with systematic analysis of cause and possible solutions are the essential elements of the Transportation Technology Center's Institutional Issues Program

  20. Clinical consequences of sensitisation in affective disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kessing, L V; Mortensen, P B; Bolwig, T G

    1998-01-01

    Clinically derived measures of the initial course of episodes might reflect a process of sensitisation in affective disorder. However, the clinical consequences of such measures have not been investigated. The predictive effect of measures of the initial course of episodes was investigated...... period between initial episodes of the illness, reflecting a great intensity of illness, predicted increased risk of subsequent development of dementia, and for unipolar patients, decreased risk of subsequent alcoholism. Surprisingly, a progressive course, with decreasing intervals between initial...... episodes of the illness, had no predictive effect. Similarly, no predictive effects on the risk of death or suicidal acts could be demonstrated with any measure of the initial course of episodes....

  1. Generating Reliable and Affective Choreography through Engineering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jochum, Elizabeth

    How do we define graceful motion? Is grace exclusively the province of living, sentient beings, or is it possible to automate graceful motion? The GRACE project (Generating Reliable and Affective Choreography through Engineering) uses these two questions to investigate what makes movement graceful....... The principal objective is to measure the role of kinesics on human-robot interactions through the development of an automated performance. If it is possible to create an automated program using autonomous, artificial agents that emulate aspects of human gracefulness, then we can apply this understanding more...... widely to contemporary robotics research and human-robot interaction (HRI)....

  2. Does Peacetime Military Service Affect Crime?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Albæk, Karsten; Leth-Petersen, Søren; le Maire, Daniel

    2017-01-01

    Draft lottery data combined with Danish longitudinal administrative records show that military service can reduce criminal activity for youth offenders. For this group, property crime is reduced, and our results indicate that the effect is unlikely to be the result of incapacitation only. We find...... no effect of military service on violent crime, on educational attainment, or on employment and earnings, either in the short run or in the long run. These results suggest that military service does not upgrade productive human capital directly, but rather affects criminal activity through other channels (e...

  3. Identification parameters and criteria affecting airphoto lineations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Etr, H.A.

    1989-01-01

    In areas where bedrock exposures are predominant, linear features can be seen easily on aerial photographs as expressions of joints, faults, fractures, folds, bedding, etc. In case of limited bedrock exposures, because of surficial blanketing by unconsolidated material and/or vegetation, bedrock lineations may be faintly expressed in different fashions (e.g. subtle vegetation alignments, soil tonal differences, etc.) depending on the nature, thickness, and water content of the unconsolidated cover and the kind and homogenity of vegetation. The most important variables affecting airphoto linear features are: structure, lithology, topography, drainage, erosion, vegetation, climate, tone, scale of photographs, and use of supplementary information. (author). 31 refs

  4. Incidental nuclear medicine findings affecting patient management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hector, B. M.

    2009-01-01

    Full text:A 62-year-old female patient presenting with flank pain and severe renal failure. Initial imaging modalities were unable to diagnose the cause, however, following a 18F fluorodeoxyglucose (18F-FDG) Positron Emission Tomography (PET) scan the patient was diagnosed and staged with Stage III cervical cancer. Stage III cervical cancer is usually treated by a combination of chemotherapy and radiotherapy. An incidental finding of a retroperitoneal urine leak on the PET scan and subsequent MAG-3 renal scan contraindicated the use of chemotherapy as a treatment and therefore severely affected patient management.

  5. Arachnoid granulation affected by subarachnoid hemorrhage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.P. Chopard

    1993-11-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate using light microscopy the fibro-cellular components of arachnoid granulations affected by mild and severe subarachnoid hemorrage. The erythrocytes were in the channels delimitated by collagenous and elastic bundles and arachnoid cells, showing their tortuous and intercommunicating row from the pedicle to the fibrous capsule. The core portion of the pedicle and the center represented a principal route to the bulk outflow of cerebrospinal fluid and erythrocytes. In the severe hemorrhage, the fibrocellular components are desorganized, increasing the extracellular channels. We could see arachnoid granulations without erythrocytes, which cells showed big round nucleous suggesting their transformation into phagocytic cells.

  6. Understanding GINA and How GINA Affects Nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delk, Kayla L

    2015-11-01

    The Genetic Information Nondiscrimination Act (GINA) is a federal law that became fully effective in 2009 and is intended to prevent employers and health insurers from discriminating against individuals based on their genetic or family history. The article discusses the sections of GINA, what information constitutes genetic information, who enforces GINA, and scenarios in which GINA does not apply. Also discussed are the instances in which an employer may request genetic information from employees, including wellness or genetic monitoring programs. Finally, the article offers a look at how GINA affects nurses who are administering wellness or genetic monitoring programs on behalf of employers. © 2015 The Author(s).

  7. Affective state influences perception by affecting decision parameters underlying bias and sensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynn, Spencer K; Zhang, Xuan; Barrett, Lisa Feldman

    2012-08-01

    Studies of the effect of affect on perception often show consistent directional effects of a person's affective state on perception. Unpleasant emotions have been associated with a "locally focused" style of stimulus evaluation, and positive emotions with a "globally focused" style. Typically, however, studies of affect and perception have not been conducted under the conditions of perceptual uncertainty and behavioral risk inherent to perceptual judgments outside the laboratory. We investigated the influence of perceivers' experienced affect (valence and arousal) on the utility of social threat perception by combining signal detection theory and behavioral economics. We compared 3 perceptual decision environments that systematically differed with respect to factors that underlie uncertainty and risk: the base rate of threat, the costs of incorrect identification threat, and the perceptual similarity of threats and nonthreats. We found that no single affective state yielded the best performance on the threat perception task across the 3 environments. Unpleasant valence promoted calibration of response bias to base rate and costs, high arousal promoted calibration of perceptual sensitivity to perceptual similarity, and low arousal was associated with an optimal adjustment of bias to sensitivity. However, the strength of these associations was conditional upon the difficulty of attaining optimal bias and high sensitivity, such that the effect of the perceiver's affective state on perception differed with the cause and/or level of uncertainty and risk.

  8. Affect Consciousness in children with internalizing problems: Assessment of affect integration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taarvig, Eva; Solbakken, Ole André; Grova, Bjørg; Monsen, Jon T

    2015-10-01

    Affect integration was operationalized through the Affect Consciousness (AC) construct as degrees of awareness, tolerance, nonverbal expression and conceptual expression of 11 affects. These aspects are assessed through a semi-structured Affect Consciousness Interview (ACI) and separate rating scales (Affect Consciousness Scales (ACSs)) developed for use in research and clinical work with adults with psychopathological disorders. Age-adjusted changes were made in the interview and rating system. This study explored the applicability of the adjusted ACI to a sample of 11-year-old children with internalizing problems through examining inter-rater reliability of the adjusted ACI, along with relationships between the AC aspects and aspects of mental health as symptoms of depression, symptoms of anxiety, social competence, besides general intelligence. Satisfactory inter-rater reliability was found, as well as consistent relationships between the AC aspects and the various aspects of mental health, a finding which coincides with previous research. The finding indicates that the attainment of the capacity to deal adaptively with affect is probably an important contributor to the development of adequate social competence and maybe in the prevention of psychopathology in children. The results indicate that the adjusted ACI and rating scales are useful tools in treatment planning with children at least from the age of 11 years. © The Author(s) 2014.

  9. Factors Affecting the Thickness of Thermal Aureoles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine Annen

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Intrusions of magma induce thermal aureoles in the country rock. Analytical solutions predict that the thickness of an aureole is proportional to the thickness of the intrusion. However, in the field, thermal aureoles are often significantly thinner or wider than predicted by simple thermal models. Numerical models show that thermal aureoles are wider if the heat transfer in the magma is faster than in the country rock due to contrasts in thermal diffusivities or the effect of magma convection. Large thermal aureoles can also be caused by repeated injection close to the contact. Aureoles are thin when heat transfer in the country rock is faster than heat transfer within the magma or in case of incrementally, slowly emplaced magma. Absorption of latent heat due to metamorphic reactions or water volatilization also affects thermal aureoles but to a lesser extent. The way these parameters affect the thickness of a thermal aureole depends on the isotherm under consideration, hence on which metamorphic phase is used to draw the limit of the aureole. Thermal aureoles provide insight on the dynamics of intrusions emplacement. Although available examples are limited, asymmetric aureoles point to magma emplacement by over-accretion for mafic cases and by under-accretion for felsic cases, consistent with geochronological data.

  10. Identification of factors affecting individual industries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Sadat Mirzadeh

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available High knowledge and technology are rapidly becoming a competitive advantage in today’s world. Individual industries are considered one of the key sectors in the country’s industry. Ranking the factors that affect these industries makes us more familiar with their effectiveness and helps us take actions to improve such factors in knowledge-based companies. Consequently, based on previous research studies on Individual Industries, field observations, and a questionnaire prepared by the researchers, the current study explores and classifies the factors affecting the establishment of these industries. Regarding its purpose, this is an applied research, and regarding data collection, it is a descriptive survey. Using purposive sampling, 60 questionnaires were collected and effective factors were classified applying the SPSS software and the TOPSIS technique. This study suggests that content factors are ranked first place, while contextual and structural factors are ranked second and third, respectively. Therefore, executives and managers in single industries are recommended to strengthen joint enterprise norms and dominant values and beliefs in knowledge-based companies in order to help the growth and development of single industries.

  11. Factors affecting reproductive performance of dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, D A; Thayne, W V; Dailey, R A

    1985-07-01

    We conducted two studies to determine how herd management practices and traits of individual cows affect performance of the herd and of the cow within a herd. Management practices, reproductive performance of the herd, and relationships between management and reproductive performance were characterized on 83 dairy farms with 7596 cows. Data included 21 management variables (e.g., facilities, herd health program, estrous detection program) and 8 performance variables obtained from Dairy Herd Improvement or unofficial records (e.g., size of herd, production, days open). Although varying among herds, annual average herd incidences of reproductive disorders and reproductive performance were similar to those reported. Managerial practices influenced incidences of retained placenta and uterine infection, days open of cows not bred and of all cows, services per conception, and percentages of herd open more than 100 days and culled for low production. Veterinarian was the most consistent variable influencing herd reproductive performance. Data also were collected from production and lifetime records of 2532 cows in 19 herds. Reproductive performance was affected by season of calving, production, maturity, and reproductive disorders. Several cows with extremely poor reproductive records were maintained.

  12. Factors affecting construction performance: exploratory factor analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soewin, E.; Chinda, T.

    2018-04-01

    The present work attempts to develop a multidimensional performance evaluation framework for a construction company by considering all relevant measures of performance. Based on the previous studies, this study hypothesizes nine key factors, with a total of 57 associated items. The hypothesized factors, with their associated items, are then used to develop questionnaire survey to gather data. The exploratory factor analysis (EFA) was applied to the collected data which gave rise 10 factors with 57 items affecting construction performance. The findings further reveal that the items constituting ten key performance factors (KPIs) namely; 1) Time, 2) Cost, 3) Quality, 4) Safety & Health, 5) Internal Stakeholder, 6) External Stakeholder, 7) Client Satisfaction, 8) Financial Performance, 9) Environment, and 10) Information, Technology & Innovation. The analysis helps to develop multi-dimensional performance evaluation framework for an effective measurement of the construction performance. The 10 key performance factors can be broadly categorized into economic aspect, social aspect, environmental aspect, and technology aspects. It is important to understand a multi-dimension performance evaluation framework by including all key factors affecting the construction performance of a company, so that the management level can effectively plan to implement an effective performance development plan to match with the mission and vision of the company.

  13. False memories for affective information in Schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beth Fairfield

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Studies have shown a direct link between memory for emotionally salient experiences and false memories. In particular, emotionally arousing material of negative and positive valence enhanced reality monitoring compared to neutral material since emotional stimuli can be encoded with more contextual details and thereby facilitate the distinction between presented and imagined stimuli. Individuals with schizophrenia appear to be impaired in both reality monitoring and memory for emotional experiences. However, the relationship between the emotionality of the-to-be-remembered material and false memory occurrence has not yet been studied. In this study, twenty-four patients and twenty-four healthy adults completed a false memory task with everyday episodes composed of 12 photographs that depicted positive, negative or neutral outcomes. Results showed how patients with schizophrenia made a higher number of false memories than normal controls (p0.05 resulting from erroneous inferences but did interact with plausible, script consistent errors in patients (i.e. neutral episodes yielded a higher degree of errors than positive and negative episodes. Affective information reduces the probability of generating causal errors in healthy adults but not in patients suggesting that emotional memory impairments may contribute to deficits in reality monitoring in schizophrenia when affective information is involved.

  14. False Memories for Affective Information in Schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fairfield, Beth; Altamura, Mario; Padalino, Flavia A; Balzotti, Angela; Di Domenico, Alberto; Mammarella, Nicola

    2016-01-01

    Studies have shown a direct link between memory for emotionally salient experiences and false memories. In particular, emotionally arousing material of negative and positive valence enhanced reality monitoring compared to neutral material since emotional stimuli can be encoded with more contextual details and thereby facilitate the distinction between presented and imagined stimuli. Individuals with schizophrenia appear to be impaired in both reality monitoring and memory for emotional experiences. However, the relationship between the emotionality of the to-be-remembered material and false memory occurrence has not yet been studied. In this study, 24 patients and 24 healthy adults completed a false memory task with everyday episodes composed of 12 photographs that depicted positive, negative, or neutral outcomes. Results showed how patients with schizophrenia made a higher number of false memories than normal controls ( p  false memories ( p  > 0.05) resulting from erroneous inferences but did interact with plausible, script consistent errors in patients (i.e., neutral episodes yielded a higher degree of errors than positive and negative episodes). Affective information reduces the probability of generating causal errors in healthy adults but not in patients suggesting that emotional memory impairments may contribute to deficits in reality monitoring in schizophrenia when affective information is involved.

  15. Does patient satisfaction affect patient loyalty?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kessler, Daniel P; Mylod, Deirdre

    2011-01-01

    This paper aims to investigate how patient satisfaction affects propensity to return, i.e. loyalty. Data from 678 hospitals were matched using three sources. Patient satisfaction data were obtained from Press Ganey Associates, a leading survey firm; process-based quality measures and hospital characteristics (such as ownership and teaching status) and geographic areas were obtained from the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services. The frequency with which end-of-life patients return to seek treatment at the same hospital was obtained from the Dartmouth Atlas. The study uses regression analysis to estimate satisfaction's effects on patient loyalty, while holding process-based quality measures and hospital and market characteristics constant. There is a statistically significant link between satisfaction and loyalty. Although satisfaction's effect overall is relatively small, contentment with certain hospitalization experience may be important. The link between satisfaction and loyalty is weaker for high-satisfaction hospitals, consistent with other studies in the marketing literature. RESEARCH LIMITATION/IMPLICATIONS: The US hospitals analyzed are not a random sample; the results are most applicable to large, non-profit teaching hospitals in competitive markets. Satisfaction ratings have business implications for healthcare providers and may be useful as a management tool for private and public purchasers. The paper is the first to show that patient satisfaction affects actual hospital choices in a large sample. Because patient satisfaction ratings are also correlated with other quality measures, the findings suggest a pathway through which individuals naturally gravitate toward higher-quality care.

  16. Neural correlates of affective influence on choice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piech, Richard M; Lewis, Jade; Parkinson, Caroline H; Owen, Adrian M; Roberts, Angela C; Downing, Paul E; Parkinson, John A

    2010-03-01

    Making the right choice depends crucially on the accurate valuation of the available options in the light of current needs and goals of an individual. Thus, the valuation of identical options can vary considerably with motivational context. The present study investigated the neural structures underlying context dependent evaluation. We instructed participants to choose from food menu items based on different criteria: on their anticipated taste or on ease of preparation. The aim of the manipulation was to assess which neural sites were activated during choice guided by incentive value, and which during choice based on a value-irrelevant criterion. To assess the impact of increased motivation, affect-guided choice and cognition-guided choice was compared during the sated and hungry states. During affective choice, we identified increased activity in structures representing primarily valuation and taste (medial prefrontal cortex, insula). During cognitive choice, structures showing increased activity included those implicated in suppression and conflict monitoring (lateral orbitofrontal cortex, anterior cingulate). Hunger influenced choice-related activity in the ventrolateral prefrontal cortex. Our results show that choice is associated with the use of distinct neural structures for the pursuit of different goals. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  17. Personality Polygenes, Positive Affect, and Life Satisfaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Alexander; Baselmans, Bart M. L.; Hofer, Edith; Yang, Jingyun; Okbay, Aysu; Lind, Penelope A.; Miller, Mike B.; Nolte, Ilja M.; Zhao, Wei; Hagenaars, Saskia P.; Hottenga, Jouke-Jan; Matteson, Lindsay K.; Snieder, Harold; Faul, Jessica D.; Hartman, Catharina A.; Boyle, Patricia A.; Tiemeier, Henning; Mosing, Miriam A.; Pattie, Alison; Davies, Gail; Liewald, David C.; Schmidt, Reinhold; De Jager, Philip L.; Heath, Andrew C.; Jokela, Markus; Starr, John M.; Oldehinkel, Albertine J.; Johannesson, Magnus; Cesarini, David; Hofman, Albert; Harris, Sarah E.; Smith, Jennifer A.; Keltikangas-Järvinen, Liisa; Pulkki-Råback, Laura; Schmidt, Helena; Smith, Jacqui; Iacono, William G.; McGue, Matt; Bennett, David A.; Pedersen, Nancy L.; Magnusson, Patrik K. E.; Deary, Ian J.; Martin, Nicholas G.; Boomsma, Dorret I.; Bartels, Meike; Luciano, Michelle

    2016-01-01

    Approximately half of the variation in wellbeing measures overlaps with variation in personality traits. Studies of non-human primate pedigrees and human twins suggest that this is due to common genetic influences. We tested whether personality polygenic scores for the NEO Five-Factor Inventory (NEO-FFI) domains and for item response theory (IRT) derived extraversion and neuroticism scores predict variance in wellbeing measures. Polygenic scores were based on published genome-wide association (GWA) results in over 17,000 individuals for the NEO-FFI and in over 63,000 for the IRT extraversion and neuroticism traits. The NEO-FFI polygenic scores were used to predict life satisfaction in 7 cohorts, positive affect in 12 cohorts, and general wellbeing in 1 cohort (maximal N = 46,508). Meta-analysis of these results showed no significant association between NEO-FFI personality polygenic scores and the wellbeing measures. IRT extraversion and neuroticism polygenic scores were used to predict life satisfaction and positive affect in almost 37,000 individuals from UK Biobank. Significant positive associations (effect sizes personality domains. PMID:27546527

  18. Regulatory focus affects physician risk tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veazie, Peter J; McIntosh, Scott; Chapman, Benjamin P; Dolan, James G

    2014-01-01

    Risk tolerance is a source of variation in physician decision-making. This variation, if independent of clinical concerns, can result in mistaken utilization of health services. To address such problems, it will be helpful to identify nonclinical factors of risk tolerance, particularly those amendable to intervention-regulatory focus theory suggests such a factor. This study tested whether regulatory focus affects risk tolerance among primary care physicians. Twenty-seven primary care physicians were assigned to promotion-focused or prevention-focused manipulations and compared on the Risk Taking Attitudes in Medical Decision Making scale using a randomization test. Results provide evidence that physicians assigned to the promotion-focus manipulation adopted an attitude of greater risk tolerance than the physicians assigned to the prevention-focused manipulation (p = 0.01). The Cohen's d statistic was conventionally large at 0.92. Results imply that situational regulatory focus in primary care physicians affects risk tolerance and may thereby be a nonclinical source of practice variation. Results also provide marginal evidence that chronic regulatory focus is associated with risk tolerance (p = 0.05), but the mechanism remains unclear. Research and intervention targeting physician risk tolerance may benefit by considering situational regulatory focus as an explanatory factor.

  19. Utility poles not affected by CCA decision

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Venzio, H. [Arch Wood Protection Canada, Mississauga, ON (Canada)

    2002-08-01

    A voluntary decision by industry to move non-industrial use of treated lumber products away from pressure-treated wood containing chromated copper arsenate (CCA) preservative was announced by the Environmental Protection Agency on February 12, 2002. Although new alternative wood preservatives would be used, this decision does not affect utility poles, which will continue to be sold and installed. The author provides a brief historical outline concerning the creation of CCA in 1933 and its subsequent uses. CCA has many advantages, including clean surface of the poles, ground line treatment that is not required thus eliminating the requirement to rotate the poles during extended storage periods. Conductivity is low, as is corrosivity without affecting the bending characteristics of the wood. The injection of a refined hydrocarbon oil emulsion in the outer layer of the pole after the treatment with CCA is offered by some pole producers to facilitate gaff penetration. Sawing, drilling and nailing are also made easier. Water repellents can be added to the treating solution to improve climbability, slowing down the absorption and release of moisture. Warranties, extending for 50-year periods, are offered by some companies against wood-destroying organisms. The North American Wood Pole Coalition (NAWPC) was formed in 1998 to promote the use of wood poles, and publishes brochures and technical bulletins to that effect.

  20. Rubber hand illusion affects joint angle perception.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin V Butz

    Full Text Available The Rubber Hand Illusion (RHI is a well-established experimental paradigm. It has been shown that the RHI can affect hand location estimates, arm and hand motion towards goals, the subjective visual appearance of the own hand, and the feeling of body ownership. Several studies also indicate that the peri-hand space is partially remapped around the rubber hand. Nonetheless, the question remains if and to what extent the RHI can affect the perception of other body parts. In this study we ask if the RHI can alter the perception of the elbow joint. Participants had to adjust an angular representation on a screen according to their proprioceptive perception of their own elbow joint angle. The results show that the RHI does indeed alter the elbow joint estimation, increasing the agreement with the position and orientation of the artificial hand. Thus, the results show that the brain does not only adjust the perception of the hand in body-relative space, but it also modifies the perception of other body parts. In conclusion, we propose that the brain continuously strives to maintain a consistent internal body image and that this image can be influenced by the available sensory information sources, which are mediated and mapped onto each other by means of a postural, kinematic body model.

  1. Factors affecting hydrocarbon removal by air stripping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McFarland, W.E.

    1992-01-01

    This paper includes an overview of the theory of air stripping design considerations and the factors affecting stripper performance. Effects of temperature, contaminant characteristics, stripping tower geometry and air/water ratios on removal performance are discussed. The discussion includes treatment of groundwater contaminated with petroleum hydrocarbons and chlorinated solvents such as TCE and PCE. Control of VOC emissions from air strippers has become a major concern in recent years, due to more stringent restrictions on air quality in many areas. This paper includes an overview of available technology to control air emissions (including activated carbon adsorption, catalytic oxidation and steam stripping) and the effects of air emission control on overall efficiency of the treatment process. The paper includes an overview of the relative performance of various packing materials for air strippers and explains the relative advantages and disadvantages of comparative packing materials. Field conditions affecting selection of packing materials are also discussed. Practical guidelines for the design of air stripping systems are presented, as well as actual case studies of full-scale air stripping projects

  2. Lateral head turning affects temporal memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vicario, Carmelo Mario; Martino, Davide; Pavone, Enea Francesco; Fuggetta, Giorgio

    2011-08-01

    Spatial attention is a key factor in the exploration and processing of the surrounding environment, and plays a role in linking magnitudes such as space, time, and numbers. The present work evaluates whether shifting the coordinates of spatial attention through rotational head movements may affect the ability to estimate the duration of different time intervals. A computer-based implicit timing task was employed, in which participants were asked to concentrate and report verbally on colour changes of sequential stimuli displayed on a computer screen; subsequently, they were required to reproduce the temporal duration (ranging between 5 and 80 sec.) of the perceived stimuli using the computer keyboard. There was statistically significant overestimation of the 80-sec. intervals exclusively on the rightward rotation head posture, whereas head posture did not affect timing performances on shorter intervals. These findings support the hypothesis that the coordinates of spatial attention influence the ability to process time, consistent with the existence of common cortical metrics of space and time in healthy humans.

  3. False Memories for Affective Information in Schizophrenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fairfield, Beth; Altamura, Mario; Padalino, Flavia A.; Balzotti, Angela; Di Domenico, Alberto; Mammarella, Nicola

    2016-01-01

    Studies have shown a direct link between memory for emotionally salient experiences and false memories. In particular, emotionally arousing material of negative and positive valence enhanced reality monitoring compared to neutral material since emotional stimuli can be encoded with more contextual details and thereby facilitate the distinction between presented and imagined stimuli. Individuals with schizophrenia appear to be impaired in both reality monitoring and memory for emotional experiences. However, the relationship between the emotionality of the to-be-remembered material and false memory occurrence has not yet been studied. In this study, 24 patients and 24 healthy adults completed a false memory task with everyday episodes composed of 12 photographs that depicted positive, negative, or neutral outcomes. Results showed how patients with schizophrenia made a higher number of false memories than normal controls (p false memories (p > 0.05) resulting from erroneous inferences but did interact with plausible, script consistent errors in patients (i.e., neutral episodes yielded a higher degree of errors than positive and negative episodes). Affective information reduces the probability of generating causal errors in healthy adults but not in patients suggesting that emotional memory impairments may contribute to deficits in reality monitoring in schizophrenia when affective information is involved. PMID:27965600

  4. Do alterations in mesofauna community affect earthworms?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uvarov, Alexei V; Karaban, Kamil

    2015-11-01

    Interactions between the saprotrophic animal groups that strongly control soil microbial activities and the functioning of detrital food webs, such as earthworms and mesofauna, are not well understood. Earthworm trophic and engineering activities strongly affect mesofauna abundance and diversity through various direct and indirect pathways. In contrast, mesofauna effects on earthworm populations are less evident; however, their importance may be high, considering the keystone significance of earthworms for the functioning of the soil system. We studied effects of a diverse mesofauna community of a deciduous forest on two earthworm species representing epigeic (Lumbricus rubellus) and endogeic (Aporrectodea caliginosa) ecological groups. In microcosms, the density of total mesofauna or its separate groups (enchytraeids, collembolans, gamasid mites) was manipulated (increased) and responses of earthworms and soil systems were recorded. A rise in mesofauna density resulted in a decrease of biomass and an increased mortality in L. rubellus, presumably due to competition with mesofauna for litter resources. In contrast, similar mesofauna manipulations promoted reproduction of A. caliginosa, suggesting a facilitated exploitation of litter resources due to increased mesofauna activities. Changes of microcosm respiration rates, litter organic matter content and microbial activities across the manipulation treatments indicate that mesofauna modify responses of soil systems in the presence of earthworms. However, similar mesofauna manipulations could induce different responses in soil systems with either epigeic or endogeic lumbricids, which suggests that earthworm/mesofauna interactions are species-specific. Thus, mesofauna impacts should be treated as a factor affecting the engineering activities of epigeic and endogeic earthworms in the soil.

  5. Metrics of hope: disciplining affect in oncology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Nik

    2015-03-01

    This article explores the emergence of a 'regime of hope' in the context of oncology care, practice and research. More specifically, my focus is the emergence, since the 1970s or so, of hope scales and indexes used to metricise the emotional states of cancer patients. These usually take the form of psychometric tests designed and deployed in order to subject affective life to calculative and rational scrutiny. This article locates this within the tensions of a 'turn' towards the emotions in critical social science literature. Scholarship has, for instance, been anxious not to deny the embodied reality of affectivity and the emotions. But it has been equally important to recognise the extent to which emotions are discursively ordered and structured as objects and effects of power. This article charts the emergence of hope scales historically alongside wider historical forces in the metrification of life and health and more specifically the emotions. It locates hope scales in a post-war climate of individual resilience and perseverant enterprise and the significance of hope as a naturalised vitalistic attribute of biopolitical life. © The Author(s) 2014.

  6. The Scope of Our Affective Influences: When and How Naturally Occurring Positive, Negative, and Neutral Affects Alter Judgment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasper, Karen; Danube, Cinnamon L

    2016-03-01

    To determine how naturally arising affect alters judgment, we examined whether (a) affective states exert a specific, rather than a general, influence on valenced-specific judgments; (b) neutral affect is associated with increased neutral judgments, independent of positive, negative, and ambivalent affects, and whether neutral judgments are associated with behavioral disengagement; and (c) the informational value of naturally arising states may be difficult to alter via salience and relevance manipulations. The results support several conclusions: (a) Affective states exerted a judgment-specific effect-positive affect was most strongly associated with positive judgments, negative affect with negative judgments, and neutral affect with neutral judgments. (b) Neutral affect influenced judgments, taking into account positive, negative, and ambivalent affects; and neutral judgments predicted behavioral disengagement. (c) With the exception of negative affect, naturally arising affective states typically influenced judgments regardless of their salience and relevance. © 2016 by the Society for Personality and Social Psychology, Inc.

  7. Daily Emotional Labor, Negative Affect State, and Emotional Exhaustion: Cross-Level Moderators of Affective Commitment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyewon Kong

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Employees’ emotional-labor strategies, experienced affects, and emotional exhaustion in the workplace may vary over time within individuals, even within the same day. However, previous studies on these relationships have not highlighted their dynamic properties of these relationships. In addition, although the effects of surface and deep acting on emotional exhaustion have been investigated in emotional-labor research, empirical studies on these relationships still report mixed results. Thus, we suggest that moderators may affect the relationship between emotional labor and emotional exhaustion. Also, this study examines the relationship between emotional labor and emotional exhaustion within individuals by repeated measurements, and verifies the mediating effect of a negative affect state. Finally, our study confirms the moderating effects that affective commitment has on the relationship between emotional labor and emotional exhaustion. Data was collected from tellers who had a high degree of interaction with clients at banks based in South Korea. A total of 56 tellers participated in the survey and responded for five working days. A total of 616 data entries were collected from the 56 respondents. We used a hierarchical linear model (HLM to examine our hypothesis. The results showed that surface-acting emotional labor increases emotional exhaustion; furthermore, the relationship between surface acting emotional labor and emotional exhaustion is mediated by a negative affect state within individuals. In addition, this study verified that affective commitment buffers the negative effects that surface acting emotional labor has on emotional exhaustion. These results suggest that emotional labor is a dynamic process within individuals, and that emotional exhaustion caused by emotional labor differs among individuals, and is dependent upon factors such as the individual’s level of affective commitment.

  8. Design and Validation of Affective Warning Pictorial on Cigarette Labels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chanduen Pat-Arin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of present study were to design and validate affective warning pictorials for cigarette label in Thailand. Brainstorming and survey techniques were used to collect the idea of possible warning pictorials. All ideas were grouped for finding candidated pictorials. Then, primary sixty warning pictorials were collected and equally classified into three affective warning pictorial groups as positive, neutral, and negative. Sixty Thai male engineering students participated in affective validation of warning pictorials using SAM rating. The International Affective Picture System (IAPS was used to manipulate the affective state of participants to neutral affective state before the experiments. The results revealed that all affective warning pictorials were successfully evoked target affective states on participants. After refining, thirty affective warning pictorials were provided as positive, neutral, and negative affective warning pictorials for using on cigarette labels. Implications on the affective warning pictorials design and validation.

  9. Rethinking infiltration in wildfire-affected soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebel, Brian A.; Moody, John A.

    2013-01-01

    Wildfires frequently result in natural hazards such as flash floods (Yates et al., 2001) and debris flows (Cannon et al., 2001a,b; Gabet and Sternberg, 2008). One of the principal causes of the increased risk of post-wildfire hydrologically driven hazards is reduced in filtration rates (e.g. Scott and van Wyk, 1990; Cerdà, 1998; Robichaud, 2000; Martin and Moody, 2001). Beyond the reduction in peak infiltration rate, there is mounting evidence that the fundamental physics of infiltration in wild fire-affected soils is different from unburned soils (e.g. Imeson et al., 1992; Moody et al., 2009; Moody and Ebel, 2012).Understanding post-wildfire hydrology is critical given the increasing wildfire incidence in the western USA (Westerling et al., 2006) and elsewhere in the world (Kasischke and Turetsky, 2006; Holz and Veblen, 2011; Pausas and Fernández-Muñoz, 2012). Wildfire is a disturbance event with global distribution (Bowman et al., 2009; Krawchuk et al., 2009; Pechony and Shindell, 2010; Moritz et al., 2012), and with increasing populations moving into fire-prone areas, understanding post-wildfire infiltration is of increasing importance for predicting post-wildfire consequences. Runoff is generally controlled by the infiltration-excess mechanism in fire-affected soils (e.g. Mayor et al., 2007; Onda et al., 2008; Kinner and Moody, 2010). It is essential that the fire community have conceptual models, physical equations and tools (i.e. numerical models) to predict infiltration and thus excess rainfall (after Horton, 1933), which can provide estimates of peak discharge, start of runoff, time to peak and total runoff for hydroclimatic scenarios after wildfires. Reductions in saturated hydraulic conductivity Ksat [LT-1] are common for fire-affected soils, and the relatively low values observed explain the elevated flash flood hazards (e.g. Ksat of 1–100 mm h-1 , Robichaud, 2000; Yates et al., 2000; Martin and Moody, 2001; Robichaud et al

  10. Factors affecting academic leadership in dermatology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martires, Kathryn J; Aquino, Lisa L; Wu, Jashin J

    2015-02-01

    Although prior studies have examined methods by which to recruit and retain academic dermatologists, few have examined factors that are important for developing academic leaders in dermatology. This study sought to examine characteristics of dermatology residency programs that affect the odds of producing department or division chairs/chiefs and program directors (PDs). Data regarding program size, faculty, grants, alumni residency program attended, lectures, and publications for all accredited US dermatology residency programs were collected. Of the 103 programs examined, 46% had graduated at least 1 chair/chief, and 53% had graduated at least 1 PD. Results emphasize that faculty guidance and research may represent modifiable factors by which a dermatology residency program can increase its graduation of academic leaders.

  11. Climatic factors and bipolar affective disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Ellen Margrethe; Larsen, Jens Knud; Gjerris, Annette

    2008-01-01

    In bipolar disorder, the factors provoking a new episode are unknown. As a seasonal variation has been noticed, it has been suggested that weather conditions may play a role. The aim of the study was to elucidate whether meteorological parameters influence the development of new bipolar phases....... A group of patients with at least three previous hospitalizations for bipolar disorder was examined every 3 months for up to 3 years. At each examination an evaluation of the affective phase was made according to the Hamilton Depression Scale (HAM-D(17)), and the Bech-Rafaelsen Mania Rating Scale (MAS......). In the same period, daily recordings from the Danish Meteorological Institute were received. We found no correlations between onset of bipolar episodes [defined as MAS score of 11 or more (mania) and as HAM-D(17) score of 12 or more (depression)] and any meteorological parameters. We found a statistical...

  12. Exposure to inequality affects support for redistribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sands, Melissa L

    2017-01-24

    The distribution of wealth in the United States and countries around the world is highly skewed. How does visible economic inequality affect well-off individuals' support for redistribution? Using a placebo-controlled field experiment, I randomize the presence of poverty-stricken people in public spaces frequented by the affluent. Passersby were asked to sign a petition calling for greater redistribution through a "millionaire's tax." Results from 2,591 solicitations show that in a real-world-setting exposure to inequality decreases affluent individuals' willingness to redistribute. The finding that exposure to inequality begets inequality has fundamental implications for policymakers and informs our understanding of the effects of poverty, inequality, and economic segregation. Confederate race and socioeconomic status, both of which were randomized, are shown to interact such that treatment effects vary according to the race, as well as gender, of the subject.

  13. Word selection affects perceptions of synthetic biology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tonidandel Scott

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Members of the synthetic biology community have discussed the significance of word selection when describing synthetic biology to the general public. In particular, many leaders proposed the word "create" was laden with negative connotations. We found that word choice and framing does affect public perception of synthetic biology. In a controlled experiment, participants perceived synthetic biology more negatively when "create" was used to describe the field compared to "construct" (p = 0.008. Contrary to popular opinion among synthetic biologists, however, low religiosity individuals were more influenced negatively by the framing manipulation than high religiosity people. Our results suggest that synthetic biologists directly influence public perception of their field through avoidance of the word "create".

  14. Exposure to inequality affects support for redistribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sands, Melissa L.

    2017-01-01

    The distribution of wealth in the United States and countries around the world is highly skewed. How does visible economic inequality affect well-off individuals’ support for redistribution? Using a placebo-controlled field experiment, I randomize the presence of poverty-stricken people in public spaces frequented by the affluent. Passersby were asked to sign a petition calling for greater redistribution through a “millionaire’s tax.” Results from 2,591 solicitations show that in a real-world-setting exposure to inequality decreases affluent individuals’ willingness to redistribute. The finding that exposure to inequality begets inequality has fundamental implications for policymakers and informs our understanding of the effects of poverty, inequality, and economic segregation. Confederate race and socioeconomic status, both of which were randomized, are shown to interact such that treatment effects vary according to the race, as well as gender, of the subject. PMID:28069960

  15. Colour-grapheme synaesthesia affects binocular vision

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chris L.E. Paffen

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available In colour-grapheme synaesthesia, non-coloured graphemes are perceived as being inherently coloured. In recent years, it has become evident that synaesthesia-inducing graphemes can affect visual processing in a manner comparable to real, physical colours. Here, we exploit the phenomenon of binocular rivalry in which incompatible images presented dichoptically compete for conscious expression. Importantly, the competition only arises if the two images are sufficiently different; if the difference between the images is small, the images will fuse into a single mixed percept. We show that achromatic graphemes that induce synaesthetic colour percepts evoke binocular rivalry, while without the synaesthetic percept, they do not. That is, compared to achromatically perceived graphemes, synaesthesia-inducing graphemes increase the predominance of binocular rivalry over binocular fusion. This finding shows that the synaesthetic colour experience can provide the conditions for evoking binocular rivalry, much like stimulus features that induce rivalry in normal vision.

  16. Affecting the value chain through supplier kaizen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forman, C R; Vargas, D H

    1999-02-01

    In the aerospace industry, typically 60 percent of a product's cost and 70 percent of the lead time are due to purchased material. To affect price and customer responsiveness, improvement initiatives must be extended into the supply chain. Many companies have developed supply base management systems that include long-term agreements with suppliers, partnering with suppliers in risk taking and product design, information sharing, and quality and delivery rating systems. The premise is that suppliers are an extension of the factory. But to take full advantage of customer-supplier relationships, the suppliers must be "developed" in the same manner as a manufacturing unit. Supplier kaizen is a method of bringing suppliers to the same level of operations as the parent company, through training and improvement projects, to ensure superior performance and nurture the trust that is required for strong partnerships. This article describes Sikorsky Aircraft's use of kaizen to improve its supply base management.

  17. Gynaecological issues affecting the obese adolescent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Paul L; Bauman, Dvora

    2015-05-01

    The implications of obesity in childhood and adolescence resonate into adulthood and have implications at different levels that include psychosocial and health issues that impact beyond reproductive performance. This chapter explores the various facets and consequences on gynaecological issues of increased Body Mass Index in childhood, including the link with puberty, pubertal menorrhagia (also affecting children with complex needs) and the all too common problems surrounding hyperandrogenism, insulin resistance and the polycystic ovarian syndrome in particular which need to be seen in the specific context of the adolescent years. The wider ramifications of obesity on the psychosocial welfare of adolescents merits special attention. Finally management strategies are considered in the context of the needs of adolescents. Crown Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Bridging the Linguistic and Affective Gaps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Westbrook, Peter Nils; Henriksen, Birgit

    2011-01-01

    feedback sessions. The study also includes a structured, in-depth interview with the informant, which yields very specific and rich data about how one lecturer feels about teaching in English, the informant’s own learning focus and the outcomes of a short language course. The aims of the study are fourfold......This paper reports on a small-scale case study which follows an experienced Danish university lecturer during a tailor-made, one-to-one language course to improve her English language skills for lecturing, consisting of a five-week cycle of observed English-medium lectures and subsequent language......, namely: 1) to describe the informant’s motivation for taking an English course; 2) to compare her affective and perceived linguistic needs with her objective needs; 3) to follow her own language focus areas during the course; and 4) to identify any subjective or objective gains she achieved from...

  19. Affective disorders among women during post partum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Juliana Orejarena Serrano

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available Women, in general, present a high rate of prevalence of affective disorders, mainly depressive ones, during their lives. This is even more evident during their puerperal time, were depression is quite common. This is, probably, due to the fact of a highest physical and emotional needs during this difficult period, for both the mother and the family,as well. This clinical condition will increase both the mobility and mortality rates among puerperal women and will increase the risk for new episodes of depression on future pregnancies. Since we all know that during puerperium, both mother and child are usually attended by the Health System, this is a good time to detect these disorders. Therefore, we will try to review the pertinent medical literature regarding this probem, in order to provide the psychiatrist and another physicians with new, effective tools, that will allow them to recognize earlier, patients with this disorder, handle them properly to avoid all negative consequences.

  20. AMPK Activation Affects Glutamate Metabolism in Astrocytes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Voss, Caroline Marie; Pajęcka, Kamilla; Stridh, Malin H

    2015-01-01

    acid (TCA) cycle was studied using high-performance liquid chromatography analysis supplemented with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry technology. It was found that AMPK activation had profound effects on the pathways involved in glutamate metabolism since the entrance of the glutamate carbon...... on glutamate metabolism in astrocytes was studied using primary cultures of these cells from mouse cerebral cortex during incubation in media containing 2.5 mM glucose and 100 µM [U-(13)C]glutamate. The metabolism of glutamate including a detailed analysis of its metabolic pathways involving the tricarboxylic...... skeleton into the TCA cycle was reduced. On the other hand, glutamate uptake into the astrocytes as well as its conversion to glutamine catalyzed by glutamine synthetase was not affected by AMPK activation. Interestingly, synthesis and release of citrate, which are hallmarks of astrocytic function, were...

  1. Factors affecting assertiveness among student nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Sanaa Abd El Azim

    2011-05-01

    This study aimed to investigate the factors affecting assertiveness among student nurses. The study was carried out at Faculty of Nursing, Port-Said University, on 207 student nurses from four different grades. Rathus Assertiveness Schedule, consisted of 30 items, was used to measure the students' assertiveness level and a 12-item scale developed by Spreitzer was used to measure students' psychological empowerment. The study results showed that 60.4% of the students were assertive, while about half of the students were empowered. A positive relation between student assertiveness and psychological empowerment was detected. Moreover, positive relations regarding family income and students' assertiveness and psychological empowerment were determined. The study recommended introduction of specific courses aiming at enhancing the acquisition of assertiveness skills, in addition, nurse educators must motivate their students to express their opinion and personal rights and also they must pay attention for students' empowerment and enhance students' autonomy. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. How the Organizational Goals Affect Knowledge Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei-Shong Lin

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available How to enhance customer satisfaction and technology innovation have been topics of discussion for some time; however, few studies have explored the two issues by applying the knowledge creation theory, and analyzed their differences in knowledge creation activities. The present study aims to explore how the firm’s organizational goal affects its knowledge creation process. Based on Nonaka’s knowledge creation theory, questionnaires were developed and sent to Taiwanese firms in various industries, including the manufacturing and service industries. These questionnaires were collected either by mail or interview. Our findings suggest that externalization and combination activities should be emphasized when the organizational goal is innovation, whereas internalization activity should be emphasized when the organizational goal is customer satisfaction.

  3. Negative Affect, Decision Making, and Attentional Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega, Ana Raquel; Ramírez, Encarnación; Colmenero, José María; García-Viedma, Ma Del Rosario

    2017-02-01

    This study focuses on whether risk avoidance in decision making depends on negative affect or it is specific to anxious individuals. The Balloon Analogue Risk Task was used to obtain an objective measure in a risk situation with anxious, depressive, and control individuals. The role of attentional networks was also studied using the Attentional Network Test-Interaction (ANT-I) task with neutral stimuli. A significant difference was observed between anxious and depressive individuals in assumed risk in decision making. We found no differences between anxious and normal individuals in the alert, orientation, and congruency effects obtained in the ANT-I task. The results showed that there was no significant relationship between the risk avoidance and the indexes of alertness, orienting, and control. Future research shall determine whether emotionally relevant stimulation leads to attentional control deficit or whether differences between anxious and no anxious individuals are due to the type of strategy followed in choice tasks.

  4. Does selenium supplementation affect thyroid function?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winther, Kristian Hillert; Bonnema, Steen Joop; Cold, Frederik

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Selenium is present in the active site of proteins important for thyroid hormone synthesis and metabolism. The objective of this study is to investigate the effect of selenium supplementation in different doses on thyroid function, under conditions of suboptimal dietary selenium intake....... DESIGN: The Danish PREvention of Cancer by Intervention with SElenium pilot study (DK-PRECISE) is a randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled trial. A total of 491 males and females aged 60-74 years were randomized to 100 μg (n=124), 200 μg (n=122), or 300 μg (n=119) selenium-enriched yeast......=0.015), respectively, per 100 μg/day increase, with insignificant differences between 6 months and 5 years. No significant effects were found for FT3 and FT3:FT4 ratio. CONCLUSIONS: In euthyroid subjects, selenium supplementation minutely and dose-dependently affects thyroid function, when compared...

  5. Reappraising factors affecting mourning dove perch coos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayre, M.W.; Atkinson, R.D.; Baskett, T.S.; Haas, G.H.

    1978-01-01

    Results confirmed pairing as the primary factor influencing perch-cooing rates of wild mourning doves (Zenaida macroura). Marked unmated males cooed at substantially higher rates (6.2x) than mated males, had greater probability of cooing (2.3x) during 3-minute periods, and continued cooing longer each morning than mated males. Population density was not a major factor affecting cooing. Unmated males cooed more frequently in the presence of other cooing doves (P < 0.05) than when alone, but the number of additional doves above 1 was unimportant. Cooing rates of both mated and unmated males on areas with dissimilar dove densities were not significantly different. Within limits of standard call-count procedure, weather exerted no detectable influence on cooing.

  6. The marketing implications of affective product design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seva, Rosemary R; Duh, Henry Been-Lirn; Helander, Martin G

    2007-11-01

    Emotions are compelling human experiences and product designers can take advantage of this by conceptualizing emotion-engendering products that sell well in the market. This study hypothesized that product attributes influence users' emotions and that the relationship is moderated by the adherence of these product attributes to purchase criteria. It was further hypothesized that the emotional experience of the user influences purchase intention. A laboratory study was conducted to validate the hypotheses using mobile phones as test products. Sixty-two participants were asked to assess eight phones from a display of 10 phones and indicate their emotional experiences after assessment. Results suggest that some product attributes can cause intense emotional experience. The attributes relate to the phone's dimensions and the relationship between these dimensions. The study validated the notion of integrating affect in designing products that convey users' personalities.

  7. The radiotherapy affects the cognitive processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2009-01-01

    Researchers from the medical center of the free university of Amsterdam report that the radiotherapy can hinder the cognitive functions of patients affected by cerebral tumors treated after a surgery. Even low dose radiation could contribute in their opinion, to the progressive cognitive decline of patients suffering of low grade gliomas, the most commune cerebral tumor. To get these conclusions, 65 patients, whom half of them received a radiotherapy, had a neurological and psychological evaluation twelve years after their treatment. Results: 53% of patients treated by radiotherapy present disorders of attention, memory, execution and speed of information treatment against 27% of these ones that received an only surgery. The researchers conclude to the necessity to take into account this risk in the choice of treatment, or even to avoid radiotherapy in this precise case. (N.C.)

  8. Issues affecting the acceptance of hydrogen fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schulte, I.; Hart, D.; Vorst, R. van der

    2004-01-01

    While the topic of hydrogen as an alternative vehicle fuel is gaining increasing attention internationally, one significant aspect of its introduction has been given less attention than others: the public acceptance of such a new technology and fuel. After reviewing the existing literature on acceptance, risk perception and customer satisfaction, this paper describes the development of a model that illustrates important aspects in influencing a person's attitude towards a new product. 'Values', 'wants' and 'perception' are the three components found to influence acceptance, they themselves are affected by 'social background' and 'experience'. Suggestions are then given on how to use marketing methods, education projects and product exposure in order to maximise the likelihood of a successful introduction of hydrogen as an alternative fuel. (author)

  9. Regulatory challenges affecting ICT development in Ukraine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kretova, Olga A.

    2017-01-01

    in the region in terms of network readiness (64th place out of 139 economies) and global competitiveness (79th place out of 140 economies) in 2016. The significance of ICT policies is broadly understood at the highest political level in Ukraine, however their implementation has always posed a challenge....... And the chapter is organized as follows. Section 2.1 is the introduction; section 2.2 presents an overview of policies and regulations influencing ICTs in Ukraine; section 2.3 presents a snapshot of the national ICT sector which is dominated by the mobile market and the Broadband Access Technology market; Section...... 2.4 provides an insight into the various ICT regulations, how it affected the markets and the challenges in implementing these policies; section 2.5 highlights the role , successes and challenges of implementing regulations aimed at implementing e-government; and section 2.7 concludes this chapter...

  10. Teat order affects postweaning behaviour in piglets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberta Sommavilla

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to investigate if piglets that suck anterior teats differ from the others in the litter in birth weight, if they have higher growth rate during lactation, and if this affects behaviour and post-weaning weight gain, when piglets change to a solid diet. For this, the teat order of 24 litters was determined during suckling. Piglets were weaned on the 28thday of age, and 24 groups were formed, composed of one piglet that sucked on the first two pairs of teats (AT and three piglets that sucked on the other teats (OT. Even though weight at birth did not vary according to teat order, weight gain at weaning differed between the groups (AT: 6.64, S.E. 0.20kg, OT: 5.73, S.E. 0.13kg; P

  11. Factors Affecting Fertility Desires in the Philippines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clarissa C. David

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Factors affecting fertility desires in the Philippines were examined using data from a national survey and from individual and group qualitative interviews involving 143 respondents. Fertility goals usually range from two to three children, but evidence suggests that they are dynamic and may change over a person’s lifetime. Qualitative interviews reveal that when negotiating about family size, it is the partner who wants more children that will be followed. A strong demand for gender balance among offspring creates a willingness to have more children than originally desired. Fertility goals increase over time among women. While those who start childbirth at a very young age successfully space their children, they tend to want larger families than those who start late. Initial fertility goals among women are generally low but may increase because of higher fertility desires among men, a demand for gender balance in children, and the desire for babies once their children have grown.

  12. Affective topic model for social emotion detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Yanghui; Li, Qing; Wenyin, Liu; Wu, Qingyuan; Quan, Xiaojun

    2014-10-01

    The rapid development of social media services has been a great boon for the communication of emotions through blogs, microblogs/tweets, instant-messaging tools, news portals, and so forth. This paper is concerned with the detection of emotions evoked in a reader by social media. Compared to classical sentiment analysis conducted from the writer's perspective, analysis from the reader's perspective can be more meaningful when applied to social media. We propose an affective topic model with the intention to bridge the gap between social media materials and a reader's emotions by introducing an intermediate layer. The proposed model can be used to classify the social emotions of unlabeled documents and to generate a social emotion lexicon. Extensive evaluations using real-world data validate the effectiveness of the proposed model for both these applications. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Factors Affecting Gastrointestinal Microbiome Development in Neonates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clara Yieh Lin Chong

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The gut microbiome is established in the newborn period and is recognised to interact with the host to influence metabolism. Different environmental factors that are encountered during this critical period may influence the gut microbial composition, potentially impacting upon later disease risk, such as asthma, metabolic disorder, and inflammatory bowel disease. The sterility dogma of the foetus in utero is challenged by studies that identified bacteria, bacterial DNA, or bacterial products in meconium, amniotic fluid, and the placenta; indicating the initiation of maternal-to-offspring microbial colonisation in utero. This narrative review aims to provide a better understanding of factors that affect the development of the gastrointestinal (GI microbiome during prenatal, perinatal to postnatal life, and their reciprocal relationship with GI tract development in neonates.

  14. Policy factors affecting broadband development in Poland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henten, Anders; Windekilde, Iwona Maria

    2014-01-01

    of telecommunications network development in Poland than other countries in the European Union is the reason that the circumstances and also the effects of the implementation of some solutions of the EU regulation model are different in Poland than in the most developed EU countries. The aim of the paper is to examine...... and discuss broadband access development in Poland and the policy factors influencing this development as well as to examine national strategies used to stimulate service and infrastructure competition in Poland. There are, indeed, many other factors affecting broadband development such as the income level....../distribution in the country and the infrastructural point of departure. The paper, therefore, analyses the implications of the policy initiatives in light of these basic conditions and the broader context of factors influencing broadband development. In the paper, different kinds of policy initiatives are examined...

  15. Factors affecting passive monitoring of radon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asano, Tomohiro; Kahn, B.

    1989-09-01

    In recent years, increasing cancer has been expressed as a possible health hazards associated with long-term exposures to a large population at a low level of radon in the environment. Because radon is ubiquitous nuclide, nation-wide monitoring is necessary to determine lung cancer risk. For such purpose, passive sampling methods with track etch detector or charcoal adsorption collector may have the advantage in lower cost and convenience. The charcoal adsorption collector is considered in this study. Various factors may significantly affect the charcoal adsorption mechanism on its practical application. Moisture effects are discussed here as having major impact on radon collection by charcoal. Set of equations are presented in this report to describe adsorption of radon including moisture effects. (author) 61 refs

  16. Emergency Nurses' Perspectives: Factors Affecting Caring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enns, Carol L; Sawatzky, Jo-Ann V

    2016-05-01

    Caring is a universal phenomenon. However, as a result of higher patient acuity and staff shortages within the chaotic ED environment, caring behaviors may be in peril. The purpose of this study was to gain insight into the meaning of caring from the perspective of emergency nurses. Exploring nurses' perspectives of caring is central to improving staffing and retention issues in this unique work environment. As part of a larger study, a subsample of emergency nurses who work in public hospitals in Manitoba, Canada (n = 17) were interviewed. A qualitative descriptive design was used to gain insight into the caring perspectives of nurses by asking them, "What does caring meaning to you?" and "What affects caring in your practice in the emergency department?" Emerging themes were extracted through analysis of audio tapes and transcripts. Advocacy and holistic care emerged as major themes in the meaning of caring for emergency nurses. Caring was affected by a number of factors, including workload, lack of time, staffing issues, shift work, and lack of self-care. However, lack of management support was the most consistent hindrance to caring identified by study participants. Caring continues to be a unifying concept in nursing; however, influencing factors continue to undermine caring for emergency nurses. Caring is not subsidiary to nursing; it is the central core of nursing. Therefore, fostering a caring working environment is essential for nurses to practice holistic nursing care. It is also imperative to job satisfaction and the retention of emergency nurses. Copyright © 2016 Emergency Nurses Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Do landscape factors affect brownfield carabid assemblages?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Small, Emma; Sadler, Jon P.; Telfer, Mark

    2006-01-01

    The carabid fauna of 28 derelict sites in the West Midlands (England) were sampled over the course of one growing season (April-October, 1999). The study aimed to investigate the relationship between carabid assemblages and five measures of landscape structure pertinent to derelict habitat. At each site measurements of landscape features pertinent to derelict habitat were made: (i) the proximity of habitat corridors; (ii) the density of surrounding derelict land; (iii) the distance between the site and the rural fringe; and (iv) the size of the site. Concurrent surveys of the soil characteristics, vegetation type, and land use history were conducted. The data were analysed using a combination of ordination (DCA, RDA), variance partitioning (using pRDA) and binary linear regression. The results suggest that:1.There is very little evidence that the carabid assemblages of derelict sites were affected by landscape structure, with assemblages instead being principally related to within-site habitat variables, such as site age (since last disturbance), substrate type and vegetation community. 2.No evidence was found to support the hypothesis that sites away from railway corridors are more impoverished in their carabid fauna than sites on corridors. 3.There are some suggestions from this study that rarer and non-flying specialist species may be affected by isolation, taking longer to reach sites. We infer from this that older sites with retarded succession, and sites in higher densities of surrounding derelict land may eventually become more species rich and that these sites may be important for maintaining populations of rarer and flightless species. 4.Conservation efforts to maintain populations of these species should focus principally on habitat quality issues, such as maintaining early successional habitats that have a diversity of seed producing annuals and perennial plants and enhancing substrate variability rather than landscape issues

  18. Factors affecting medication-order processing time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaman, M A; Kotzan, J A

    1982-11-01

    The factors affecting medication-order processing time at one hospital were studied. The order processing time was determined by directly observing the time to process randomly selected new drug orders on all three work shifts during two one-week periods. An order could list more than one drug for an individual patient. The observer recorded the nature, location, and cost of the drugs ordered, as well as the time to process the order. The time and type of interruptions also were noted. The time to process a drug order was classified as six dependent variables: (1) total time, (2) work time, (3) check time, (4) waiting time I--time from arrival on the dumbwaiter until work was initiated, (5) waiting time II--time between completion of the work and initiation of checking, and (6) waiting time III--time after the check was completed until the order left on the dumbwaiter. The significant predictors of each of the six dependent variables were determined using stepwise multiple regression. The total time to process a prescription order was 58.33 +/- 48.72 minutes; the urgency status of the order was the only significant determinant of total time. Urgency status also significantly predicted the three waiting-time variables. Interruptions and the number of drugs on the order were significant determinants of work time and check time. Each telephone interruption increased the work time by 1.72 minutes. While the results of this study cannot be generalized to other institutions, pharmacy managers can use the method of determining factors that affect medication-order processing time to identify problem areas in their institutions.

  19. Does ovulation affect performance in tennis players?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otaka, Machiko; Chen, Shu-Man; Zhu, Yong; Tsai, Yung-Shen; Tseng, Ching-Yu; Fogt, Donovan L; Lim, Boon-Hooi; Huang, Chih-Yang; Kuo, Chia-Hua

    2018-01-01

    Scientific data on the performance of collegiate female tennis players during the menstrual phases are scarce. Double-blind, counter-balanced, crossover trials were conducted to examine whether tennis performance was affected during menstruation, with and without dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEA-S) supplementation. Ten Division 1 collegiate tennis players (aged 18-22 years) were evenly assigned into placebo-supplemented and DHEA-supplemented (25 mg/day) trials. Treatments were exchanged among the participants after a 28-day washout. Tennis serve performance was assessed on the first day of menstrual bleeding (day 0/28) and on days 7, 14 and 21. Mood state was unaltered during the menstrual cycles in both trials. The lowest tennis serve performance score (speed times accuracy) occurred on day 14 (P=0.06 vs day 0; P=0.01 vs day 21) in both placebo and DHEA trials. Decreased performance on day 14 was explained by decreased accuracy (P=0.03 vs day 0/28; P=0.01 vs day 21), but not velocity itself. Isometric hip strength, but not quadriceps strength, was moderately lower on day 14 (P=0.08). Increasing plasma DHEA-S (by ~65%) during the DHEA-supplemented trial had no effects on mood state, sleep quality or tennis serve performance. We have shown that menses does not affect serve performance of collegiate tennis players. However, the observed decrement in the accuracy of serve speed near ovulation warrants further investigation.

  20. Ethical and affective evaluation of environmental risks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bohm, G.; Pfister, H.R.

    1998-01-01

    Full text of publication follows: the present paper will be concerned with environmental risk perception, with special emphasis on those environmental risks that pertain to global change phenomena, such as climate change and ozone depletion. Two determinants of risk judgments are investigated that seem particularly relevant to environmental risks: ethical and affective evaluations. It is assumed that the focus of risk evaluation can be on one of two aspects: a) on an evaluation of potential losses, or b) on ethical considerations. We assume that both, potential loss and violation of ethical principles elicit emotional evaluations, but that these two judgmental aspects are associated with different specific emotions. Following cognitive emotion theories, we distinguish loss-based emotions, such as worry and fear, from ethical emotions, e.g., guilt and anger. A study is presented that investigates the role of ethical and affective evaluations in risk judgments. Various environmental risks were presented to subjects, e.g., air pollution, ozone depletion, climate change and destruction of ecological balance. For each environmental risk, subjects indicated in free-response format as well as on rating scales the extent to which ethical principles were violated, and the intensity of both loss-based and ethical emotions. The correlational structure of the emotion ratings confirms the distinction between loss-based and ethical emotions. Risk judgments co-vary with the strength of ethical evaluation and with the intensity of loss-based emotions, but are independent of ethical emotions. The implications of these findings for the risk appraisal process are discussed. (authors)