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Sample records for camelus bactrianus ferus

  1. A complete mitochondrial genome sequence of the wild two-humped camel (Camelus bactrianus ferus: an evolutionary history of camelidae

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    Meng He

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The family Camelidae that evolved in North America during the Eocene survived with two distinct tribes, Camelini and Lamini. To investigate the evolutionary relationship between them and to further understand the evolutionary history of this family, we determined the complete mitochondrial genome sequence of the wild two-humped camel (Camelus bactrianus ferus, the only wild survivor of the Old World camel. Results The mitochondrial genome sequence (16,680 bp from C. bactrianus ferus contains 13 protein-coding, two rRNA, and 22 tRNA genes as well as a typical control region; this basic structure is shared by all metazoan mitochondrial genomes. Its protein-coding region exhibits codon usage common to all mammals and possesses the three cryptic stop codons shared by all vertebrates. C. bactrianus ferus together with the rest of mammalian species do not share a triplet nucleotide insertion (GCC that encodes a proline residue found only in the nd1 gene of the New World camelid Lama pacos. This lineage-specific insertion in the L. pacos mtDNA occurred after the split between the Old and New World camelids suggests that it may have functional implication since a proline insertion in a protein backbone usually alters protein conformation significantly, and nd1 gene has not been seen as polymorphic as the rest of ND family genes among camelids. Our phylogenetic study based on complete mitochondrial genomes excluding the control region suggested that the divergence of the two tribes may occur in the early Miocene; it is much earlier than what was deduced from the fossil record (11 million years. An evolutionary history reconstructed for the family Camelidae based on cytb sequences suggested that the split of bactrian camel and dromedary may have occurred in North America before the tribe Camelini migrated from North America to Asia. Conclusion Molecular clock analysis of complete mitochondrial genomes from C. bactrianus ferus and L

  2. Reproductive status of Camelus bactrianus during early breeding season in India

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Vyas S; Sharma N; Sheikh FD; Singh S; Sena DS; Bissa UK

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To study the behaviour and reproductive status of the bactrian camel (Camelus bactrianus). Methods:This study was conducted at two places, Government Bactrian Camel Farm, Chusoot, Leh and Hundar village, Nubra valley, India, situated at higher than 10000 feet above sea level during the month of October, said to be initial period of breeding season. Results:The uterine horns were similar to that of dromedary i.e. between T and Y shaped. The ovaries were irregular but without follicle. The male camels were not showing any symptoms of rut or breeding season but were capable of mounting and copulating the sitting female. Conclusions:There is a need to carry out more research on reproduction in Indian Bactrian camel as they have become major attraction of tourists in Nubra valley and has become an important source of livelihood for the people who inhabit high altitude regions.

  3. Cytokine responses in camels (Camelus bactrianus) vaccinated with Brucella abortus strain 19 vaccine.

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    Odbileg, Raadan; Purevtseren, Byambaa; Gantsetseg, Dorj; Boldbaatar, Bazartseren; Buyannemekh, Tumurjav; Galmandakh, Zagd; Erdenebaatar, Janchivdorj; Konnai, Satoru; Onuma, Misao; Ohashi, Kazuhiko

    2008-02-01

    In the present study, we determined the levels of cytokines produced by camel (Camelus bactrianus) peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) in response to live attenuated Brucella abortus (B. abortus) S19 vaccine. Seven camels were vaccinated with commercial B. abortus S19 vaccine, and their cytokine responses were determined using a real-time PCR assay. Cytokine responses to B. abortus S19 were examined at 6 hr, 48 hr and 1, 2 and 3 weeks post-vaccination. Serological tests were performed to further confirm these immune responses. The results revealed that IFN-gamma and IL-6 were upregulated during the first week post-vaccination. Low level expressions of IL-1alpha, IL-1beta, TNFalpha and IL-10 and no expression of IL-2 and IL-4 were observed compared with the control camels. The findings showed that B. abortus stimulates cell-mediated immunity by directly activating camel Th1 cells to secrete IFN-gamma. This quantification of cytokine expression in camels is essential for understanding of Camelidae disease development and protective immune responses. This is the first report of in vivo camel cytokine quantification after vaccination. PMID:18319583

  4. Taxonomy Icon Data: wild Bactrian camel [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available odactyla Camelus_ferus_L.png Camelus_ferus_NL.png Camelus_ferus_S.png Camelus_ferus_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy..._icon/icon.cgi?i=Camelus+ferus&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Camelus+f...erus&t=NL http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Camelus+ferus&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Camelus+ferus&t=NS ...

  5. A comprehensive analysis of immunoglobulin heavy chain genes in the Bactrian camel (Camelus bactrianus

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    Zuoxiang LIANG,Tao WANG,Yi SUN,Wenlong YANG,Zhihong LIU,Jing FEI,Ying GUO,Qingwei MA,Qingjie PAN,Liming REN

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Heavy chain only antibodies (HCAbs represent a rare type of antibody that is devoid of light chains and the CH1 domain that have been reported in cartilaginous fish and camelids. By analyzing transcript data and genome sequences, we conducted a comprehensive analysis of Bactrian camel immunoglobulin heavy chain genes. Based on the transcript data, one μ gene, five γ genes, one α gene and one ε gene were found. Additionally, the variable region of HCAbs (VHH and the conventional antibodies (VH sequences associated with the γ3, γ1a/b and μ genes were amplified. Based on these genome sequences, seven DH, six JH, μ, γ2a, γ2c, α, and ε genes and a portion of a γ3 gene were observed. Different Kozak sequences within different VH families were found in our analysis, and the variability index differed between the VHH3 and VH3 families. Phylogenetic analysis of the constant regions of the camelid immunoglobulin genes indicates that these genes appeared before the evolutionary divergence of Bactrian camels and dromedaries.

  6. Mycobacterium pinnipedii: Transmission from South American sea lion (Otaria byronia) to Bactrian camel (Camelus bactrianus bactrianus) and Malayan tapirs (Tapirus indicus)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moser, I.; Prodinger, W.M.; Hotzel, H.; Greenwald, R.; Lyashchenko, K.P.; Bakker, D.; Gomis, D.; Seidler, T.; Ellenberger, C.; Hetzel, U.; Wuennemann, K.; Moisson, P.

    2008-01-01

    Tuberculosis infections caused by Mycobacterium (M.) pinnipedii in a South American sea lion, Bactrian camel, and Malayan tapirs kept in two zoological gardens spanning a time period of 5 years are reported. The zoos were linked by the transfer of one tapir. Conventional bacteriological and molecula

  7. Prevalence of Cryptosporidium infection in camels (Camelus dromedarius) in a slaughterhouse in Iran.

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    Razawi, S M; Oryan, A; Bahrami, S; Mohammadalipour, A; Gowhari, M

    2009-12-01

    Cryptosporidiosis is a zoonotic protozoan disease of worldwide distribution, affecting a wide range of vertebrate hosts. Most data on the biology, distribution pattern, pathology and prevalence of cryptosporidial infection in farm animals is restricted to cattle, sheep and goats. Limited data is available in other domestic herbivores including camel. Numerous camels (Camelus dromedarius) are raised in the semi-arid regions of Iran. Although camel is acknowledged as a potential source of contamination, little is known with regards to the prevalence of Cryptosporidium in this population except a case report on the occurrence of this infection in a bactrian camel (Camelus bactrianus) in China. This investigation was undertaken to determine the prevalence of Cryptosporidium infection in camels (C. dromedarius) from Najaf-Abad slaughterhouse, Isfahan Province, central part of Iran. Out of 103 faecal samples from 63 adult males and 40 adult females, 2-14 years old, 39 (37.9%) were found positive for oocysts. No significant differences were observed between males and females, and among different age groups. There was also no significant difference among infection intensity in different age groups. This is the first report of Cryptosporidium infection in camels from this country.

  8. Permanent Genetic Resources added to Molecular Ecology Resources Database 1 June 2010 - 31 July 2010.

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    Andris, Malvina; Aradottir, Gudbjorg I; Arnau, G; Audzijonyte, Asta; Bess, Emilie C; Bonadonna, Francesco; Bourdel, G; Bried, Joël; Bugbee, Gregory J; Burger, P A; Chair, H; Charruau, P C; Ciampi, A Y; Costet, L; Debarro, Paul J; Delatte, H; Dubois, Marie-Pierre; Eldridge, Mark D B; England, Phillip R; Enkhbileg, D; Fartek, B; Gardner, Michael G; Gray, Karen-Ann; Gunasekera, Rasanthi M; Hanley, Steven J; Havil, Nathan; Hereward, James P; Hirase, Shotaro; Hong, Yan; Jarne, Philippe; Jianfei, Qi; Johnson, Rebecca N; Kanno, Manami; Kijima, Akihiro; Kim, Hyun C; Kim, Kwan S; Kim, Woo-Jin; Larue, Elizabeth; Lee, Jang W; Lee, Jeong-Ho; Li, Chunhong; Liao, Minghui; Lo, Nathan; Lowe, Andrew J; Malausa, Thibaut; Malé, Pierre-Jean G; Marko, Michelle D; Martin, Jean-François; Messing, Russell; Miller, Karen J; Min, Byeong-Wha; Myeong, Jeong-In; Nibouche, S; Noack, Ann E; Noh, Jae K; Orivel, Jérôme; Park, Choul-Ji; Petro, D; Prapayotin-Riveros, Kittipath; Quilichini, Angélique; Reynaud, B; Riginos, Cynthia; Risterucci, A M; Rose, Harley A; Sampaio, I; Silbermayr, K; Silva, M B; Tero, N; Thum, Ryan A; Vinson, C C; Vorsino, Adam; Vossbrinck, Charles R; Walzer, C; White, Jason C; Wieczorek, Ania; Wright, Mark

    2010-11-01

    This article documents the addition of 205 microsatellite marker loci to the Molecular Ecology Resources Database. Loci were developed for the following species: Bagassa guianensis, Bulweria bulwerii, Camelus bactrianus, Chaenogobius annularis, Creontiades dilutus, Diachasmimorpha tryoni, Dioscorea alata, Euhrychiopsis lecontei, Gmelina arborea, Haliotis discus hannai, Hirtella physophora, Melanaphis sacchari, Munida isos, Thaumastocoris peregrinus and Tuberolachnus salignus. These loci were cross-tested on the following species: Halobaena caerulea, Procellaria aequinoctialis, Oceanodroma monteiroi, Camelus ferus, Creontiades pacificus, Dioscorea rotundata, Dioscorea praehensilis, Dioscorea abyssinica, Dioscorea nummularia, Dioscorea transversa, Dioscorea esculenta, Dioscorea pentaphylla, Dioscorea trifida, Hirtella bicornis, Hirtella glandulosa, Licania alba, Licania canescens, Licania membranaceae, Couepia guianensis and 7 undescribed Thaumastocoris species. PMID:21565125

  9. Morphological characterization of gland cells of the glandular sac area in the complex stomach of the Bactrian camel (Camelus bactrianus).

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    Eerdunchaolu; Takehana, K; Kobayashi, A; Baiyin; Cao, G F; Andrén, A; Iwasa, K; Abe, M

    1999-07-01

    The morphology of the gland cells in the glandular sac area of the Bactrian camel and the composition of secretory substances were examined by histochemical methods. It was found that the gland cells of the glandular sac area were of the same type and size as those of the cardiac glands. The composition of secretory substances from the glandular sac area was the same as that of secretory substances from the cardiac glands. Moreover, secretory substances from the gland cells of the glandular sac area contained a great deal of acid glycoconjugates, such as sialic acid, in addition to neutral saccharides (fucose, mannose, glucose, N-acetyl-D-glucosamin, galactose and N-acetyl-galactosamin). Furthermore, immunohistochemical examination showed that progastricsin was present in the gland cells of the glandular sac area and the cardiac gland. In this study, histological analysis suggested that the stomach of the Bactrian camel is a single cavity stomach, formed as a result of multiple differentiation and growth of cardiac glands through the process of evolution.

  10. Characterization of Asia 1 sdAb from Camels Bactrianus (C. bactrianus) and Conjugation with Quantum Dots for Imaging FMDV in BHK-21 Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Shuanghui Yin; Shunli Yang; Youjun Shang; Shiqi Sun; Guangqing Zhou; Ye Jin; Hong Tian; Jinyan Wu; Xiangtao Liu

    2013-01-01

    Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD), caused by FMD virus (FMDV), is a highly contagious viral disease affecting cloven-hoofed animals. Camelids have a unique immunoglobulin profile, with the smallest functional heavy-chain antibodies (sdAb or VHH) naturally devoid of light chains with antigen-binding capacity. We screened and characterized five sdAbs against FMDV by immunized library from C. bactrianus with Asia 1 virus-like particles (VLPs). Three of five recombinant sdAbs were stably expressed in ...

  11. Characterization of Asia 1 sdAb from camels bactrianus (C. bactrianus and conjugation with quantum dots for imaging FMDV in BHK-21 cells.

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    Shuanghui Yin

    Full Text Available Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD, caused by FMD virus (FMDV, is a highly contagious viral disease affecting cloven-hoofed animals. Camelids have a unique immunoglobulin profile, with the smallest functional heavy-chain antibodies (sdAb or VHH naturally devoid of light chains with antigen-binding capacity. We screened and characterized five sdAbs against FMDV by immunized library from C. bactrianus with Asia 1 virus-like particles (VLPs. Three of five recombinant sdAbs were stably expressed in E.coli, remained highly soluble, and were serotype-specific for VP1 protein of FMDV Asia 1 by ELISA. These failed to completely neutralize the Asia 1 virus. According to the KD value of binding affinity to three sdAbs, which ranged from 0.44 to 0.71 nm by SPR, sdAb-C6 was selected and conjugated with Zn/CdSe quantum dots (QDs to form a QDs-C6 probe, which was used to trace and image the subcellular location of FMDV in BHK-21 cells. The results show that FMD virions were observed from 3 h.p.i., and most of virions were distributed on one side of the nucleus in the cytoplasm. We demonstrate the utility of sdAbs as functionalized QDs are powerful tools for FMDV research.

  12. Phylogenetic and Structural Analysis of the Pluripotency Factor Sex-Determining Region Y box2 Gene of Camelus dromedarius (cSox2)

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    Alawad, Abdullah; Alharbi, Sultan; Alhazzaa, Othman; Alagrafi, Faisal; Alkhrayef, Mohammed; Alhamdan, Ziyad; Alenazi, Abdullah; Al-Johi, Hasan; Alanazi, Ibrahim O.; Hammad, Mohamed

    2016-01-01

    Although the sequencing information of Sox2 cDNA for many mammalian is available, the Sox2 cDNA of Camelus dromedaries has not yet been characterized. The objective of this study was to sequence and characterize Sox2 cDNA from the brain of C. dromedarius (also known as Arabian camel). A full coding sequence of the Sox2 gene from the brain of C. dromedarius was amplified by reverse transcription PCRjmc and then sequenced using the 3730XL series platform Sequencer (Applied Biosystem) for the first time. The cDNA sequence displayed an open reading frame of 822 nucleotides, encoding a protein of 273 amino acids. The molecular weight and the isoelectric point of the translated protein were calculated as 29.825 kDa and 10.11, respectively, using bioinformatics analysis. The predicted cSox2 protein sequence exhibited high identity: 99% for Homo sapiens, Mus musculus, Bos taurus, and Vicugna pacos; 98% for Sus scrofa and 93% for Camelus ferus. A 3D structure was built based on the available crystal structure of the HMG-box domain of human stem cell transcription factor Sox2 (PDB: 2 LE4) with 81 residues and predicting bioinformatics software for 273 amino acid residues. The comparison confirms the presence of the HMG-box domain in the cSox2 protein. The orthologous phylogenetic analysis showed that the Sox2 isoform from C. dromedarius was grouped with humans, alpacas, cattle, and pigs. We believe that this genetic and structural information will be a helpful source for the annotation. Furthermore, Sox2 is one of the transcription factors that contributes to the generation-induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs), which in turn will probably help generate camel induced pluripotent stem cells (CiPSCs). PMID:27486314

  13. Selected Biometric Characteristics of Wild Boar (Sus Scrofa Ferus in North-East Romania

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    Alina Narcisa Postolache

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Our study analyzed selected biometric characteristics from 117 wild boars (Sus scrofa ferus harvested during 2008 – 2014 in the Frasin and Marginea Forest hunting ground districts of Suceava County. Hunted boars were measured individually for head-body length (cm, height at withers (cm, length of metatarsus (cm, ear length (cm, tail length (cm and body weight (kg in accordance with their age-class and gender. These characteristics give information on the growth and development of wild boars and on the quality of their habitat. It was found that the average carcass weight was: piglets – 28.4 kg, yearling – 78.1 kg, subadults – 102.9 kg. The results show a faster body growth in females during their first year, while males make up for the weight difference in their 2nd and 3rd year. Statistical differences shown that males differentiate significantly to females by weight, body length, height at withers and length of metatarsus (P < 0.05 starting with their second year of life. The results regarding growth dynamic go along with the changes in boar’s social life, when the males are forced to leave and form smaller groups.

  14. Methane emission by adult ostriches (Struthio camelus).

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    Frei, Samuel; Dittmann, Marie T; Reutlinger, Christoph; Ortmann, Sylvia; Hatt, Jean-Michel; Kreuzer, Michael; Clauss, Marcus

    2015-02-01

    Ostriches (Struthio camelus) are herbivorous birds with a digestive physiology that shares several similarities with that of herbivorous mammals. Previous reports, however, claimed a very low methane emission from ostriches, which would be clearly different from mammals. If this could be confirmed, ostrich meat would represent a very attractive alternative to ruminant-and generally mammalian-meat by representing a particularly low-emission agricultural form of production. We individually measured, by chamber respirometry, the amount of oxygen consumed as well as carbon dioxide and methane emitted from six adult ostriches (body mass 108.3±8.3 kg) during a 24-hour period when fed a pelleted lucerne diet. While oxygen consumption was in the range of values previously reported for ostriches, supporting the validity of our experimental setup, methane production was, at 17.5±3.2 L d(-1), much higher than previously reported for this species, and was of the magnitude expected for similar-sized, nonruminant mammalian herbivores. These results suggest that methane emission is similar between ostriches and nonruminant mammalian herbivores and that the environmental burden of these animals is comparable. The findings furthermore indicate that it appears justified to use currently available scaling equations for methane production of nonruminant mammals in paleo-reconstructions of methane production of herbivorous dinosaurs. PMID:25446146

  15. Methane emission by adult ostriches (Struthio camelus).

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    Frei, Samuel; Dittmann, Marie T; Reutlinger, Christoph; Ortmann, Sylvia; Hatt, Jean-Michel; Kreuzer, Michael; Clauss, Marcus

    2015-02-01

    Ostriches (Struthio camelus) are herbivorous birds with a digestive physiology that shares several similarities with that of herbivorous mammals. Previous reports, however, claimed a very low methane emission from ostriches, which would be clearly different from mammals. If this could be confirmed, ostrich meat would represent a very attractive alternative to ruminant-and generally mammalian-meat by representing a particularly low-emission agricultural form of production. We individually measured, by chamber respirometry, the amount of oxygen consumed as well as carbon dioxide and methane emitted from six adult ostriches (body mass 108.3±8.3 kg) during a 24-hour period when fed a pelleted lucerne diet. While oxygen consumption was in the range of values previously reported for ostriches, supporting the validity of our experimental setup, methane production was, at 17.5±3.2 L d(-1), much higher than previously reported for this species, and was of the magnitude expected for similar-sized, nonruminant mammalian herbivores. These results suggest that methane emission is similar between ostriches and nonruminant mammalian herbivores and that the environmental burden of these animals is comparable. The findings furthermore indicate that it appears justified to use currently available scaling equations for methane production of nonruminant mammals in paleo-reconstructions of methane production of herbivorous dinosaurs.

  16. Nicotiana glauca poisoning in ostriches (Struthio camelus

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    C. J. Botha

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Putative Nicotiana glauca (wild tobacco poisoning was diagnosed in a flock of ostriches near Oudtshoorn, South Africa. Post mortem examinations (n = 7 were performed on ostriches (Struthio camelus that had died. Suspicious leaf remnants (weighing 80–770 g, packed in a layer on top of other plant material, were carefully separated from the proventricular content and submitted for chemical determination of anabasine, the major toxic principle contained by this plant. A standard solid phase extraction method was used followed by an optimised liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry procedure. Anabasine was detected in the leaf remnants (114–177 μg/g dry weight removed from the proventriculus of the ostriches that succumbed as well as in control N. glauca leaves (193 μg/g dry weight. The analytical methods used in this study revealed the presence of anabasine in the suspicious leaf remnants, indicating that the birds had been exposed to N. glauca and had died of this poisoning.

  17. Comparative Growth and Survival of Hylurgus ligniperda (Coleoptera: Scolytinae) and Arhopalus ferus (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae) Reared on Artificial or Natural Diet at 15 or 25°C.

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    Romo, C M; Bader, M K-F; Pawson, S M

    2016-02-01

    Two saproxylic forest insects, Hylurgus ligniperda (F.) (Coleoptera: Scolytinae) and Arhopalus ferus (Mulsant)(Coleoptera: Cerambycidae), were reared on artificial or natural diet at 15 or 25°C to compare larval growth rates and survival. A significant diet by temperature interaction was observed in the growth of H. ligniperda larvae,which developed faster when reared on natural diet at 15°C, but grew faster and pupated significantly earlier when reared on artificial diet at 25°C. However, H. ligniperda survival by the end of the experiment was low on both diets when reared at 25°C (10.1%, 95% CI: 5.2–15.1%), which suggests that rearing at lower temperatures may be required. A. ferus larvae gained significantly larger body size when reared on artificial diet than on natural diet at both temperatures. Survival of A. ferus reared on artificial diet was significantly lower than larvae reared on natural diet at 25°C. The significant differences between A. ferus larval development rates when reared on artificial and natural diets preclude the use of artificial diet to collect meaningful data to construct temperature development models for ecological comparisons. Artificial diet provided a suitable medium for mass production of individuals for research purposes, e.g., test mortality in response to treatments. However, additional rearing studies are needed to determine whether the larger artificially reared larvae result in adults that are healthier, more productive, and live longer.

  18. Construction and Identification of a Naive Single-domain Recombinant Antibodies Library Derived from Xinjiang Camelus bactrianus%新疆双峰驼天然单域抗体库的构建及初步鉴定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张清华; 夏雪琴; 克力比努尔·热合曼; 李江伟

    2011-01-01

    旨在构建新疆双峰驼天然单域抗体库,及从中快速筛选VHH抗体.采用两种不同的抗原(溶菌酶和cAb-HEWL23)用天然文库进行筛选,成功筛选到了相应的抗体,并融溶菌酶筛选的VHH抗体(A3-1,A4-1和A10-1)进行表达和初步的ELISA检测.结果显示,A3-1和A10-1具有结合溶菌酶的能力.该方法简单方便、省时省力,可以快速从天然单城抗体库中筛选VHH抗体.

  19. Severe whipworm (Trichuris spp.) infection in the dromedary (Camelus dromedarius).

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    Eo, Kyung-Yeon; Kwak, Dongmi; Kwon, Oh-Deog

    2014-03-01

    One adult (13-yr-old) and two young (3-4-yr-old) male dromedary camels (Camelus dromedarius) from the Seoul Zoo displayed anorexia and chronic diarrhea for 2 wk. Direct fecal smear examination revealed Trichuris spp. infection. After confirmation of the infection, fenbendazole was orally administered as a suspension; this was repeated two times at 3-wk intervals. A high initial dose (20 mg/kg) was followed by administration at the recommended dose (10 mg/kg). Starting on the day following the first treatment, a large number of adult whipworms were discharged with the feces over a 3-day period. Two young male dromedary camels gradually recovered. However, the adult male dromedary camel developed continuous bloody mucoid diarrhea and died 2 days after treatment. Postmortem examination revealed that numerous whipworms were attached to the mucosa throughout the large intestine.

  20. Purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis of struthiocalcin 1 from ostrich (Struthio camelus) eggshell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reyes-Grajeda, Juan Pablo [Unidad de Proteómica Médica, Instituto Nacional de Medicina Genómica, Mexico City (Mexico); Marín-García, Liliana [Instituto de Química, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México (Mexico); Stojanoff, Vivian [Brookhaven National Laboratories, NSLS, Upton, New York (United States); Moreno, Abel, E-mail: carcamo@servidor.unam.mx [Instituto de Química, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México (Mexico); Unidad de Proteómica Médica, Instituto Nacional de Medicina Genómica, Mexico City (Mexico)

    2007-11-01

    The purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction data of the protein struthiocalcin 1 isolated from ostrich eggshell are reported. The purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis of struthiocalcin 1 (SCA-1), a protein obtained from the intramineral part of ostrich (Struthio camelus) eggshell, is reported.

  1. Moult of wing and tail-feathers in the Ostrich, Struthio camelus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brom, Tim G.; Dekker, René W.R.J.

    1990-01-01

    Structure and moult of wing and tail of a full-grown Ostrich, Struthio camelus, are described. In the wing, at least three feather generations could be recognized. The pattern of moult is more or less symmetrical in both wings and the sequence of feather replacement is not random. The tail consisted

  2. Genome Sequences of Two Pathogenic Streptococcus agalactiae Isolates from the One-Humped Camel Camelus dromedarius

    OpenAIRE

    Zubair, Saima; de Villiers, Etienne P.; Younan, Mario; Andersson, Göran; Tettelin, Herve; Riley, David R; Jores, Joerg; Bongcam-Rudloff, Erik; Bishop, Richard P.

    2013-01-01

    Streptococcus agalactiae causes a range of clinical syndromes in camels (Camelus dromedarius). We report the genome sequences of two S. agalactiae isolates that induce abscesses in Kenyan camels. These genomes provide novel data on the composition of the S. agalactiae “pan genome” and reveal the presence of multiple genomic islands.

  3. Proteomics of the milk fat globule membrane from Camelus dromedarius.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saadaoui, Besma; Henry, Céline; Khorchani, Touhami; Mars, Mohamed; Martin, Patrice; Cebo, Christelle

    2013-04-01

    Camel milk has been widely characterized with regards to casein and whey proteins. However, in camelids, almost nothing is known about the milk fat globule membrane (MFGM), the membrane surrounding fat globules in milk. The purpose of this study was thus to identify MFGM proteins from Camelus dromedarius milk. Major MFGM proteins (namely, fatty acid synthase, xanthine oxidase, butyrophilin, lactadherin, and adipophilin) already evidenced in cow milk were identified in camel milk using MS. In addition, a 1D-LC-MS/MS approach led us to identify 322 functional groups of proteins associated with the camel MFGM. Dromedary MFGM proteins were then classified into functional categories using DAVID (the Database for Annotation, Visualization, and Integrated Discovery) bioinformatics resources. More than 50% of MFGM proteins from camel milk were found to be integral membrane proteins (mostly belonging to the plasma membrane), or proteins associated to the membrane. Enriched GO terms associated with MFGM proteins from camel milk were protein transport (p-value = 1.73 × 10(-14)), translation (p-value = 1.08 × 10(-11)), lipid biosynthetic process (p-value = 6.72 × 10(-10)), hexose metabolic process (p-value = 1.89 × 10(-04)), and actin cytoskeleton organization (p-value = 2.72 × 10(-04)). These findings will help to contribute to a better characterization of camel milk. Identified MFGM proteins from camel milk may also provide new insight into lipid droplet formation in the mammary epithelial cell.

  4. Arteries of the adrenal glands in ostriches (Struthio camelus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelita das Graças de Oliveira Honorato

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The growth of rational ostrich breeding and their byproducts has attracted interest from researchers to increase the studies in this animal. Thus, basic research areas, such as morphology, become necessary to provide the applied areas with knowledge. Aiming to contribute to the knowledge on the vascular arrangements of the adrenal glands, 30 ostriches (Struthio camelus were used, four days old, who had their arterial components marked with a 50% stained aqueous solution of Neoprene Latex ¨ 450 ¨ and fixed in a 10% diluted solution of formaldehyde. The coelomic cavity was exposed for identifying these glands, which are paired organs that are covered by loose connective tissue, symmetrically arranged in the two antimeres, laterally to the descending aorta, caudally to the lungs, and cranio-medially to the cranial lobes of the kidneys. The arterial blood supply, in both antimeres, is derived from the right and left adrenal arteries, the right and left cranial renal artery branches, and the right branches of the descending aorta. Regardless of the origin, the number of branches going to the adrenal glands ranged from one to two and one to three respectively, in the left and right antimeres.

  5. Anatomical description of the ostrich (Struthio camelus skeleton: case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Greice Borba Leite

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Ostrich (Struthio camelus is a bird characterized by its large size, it can achieve 2.8m in height and weight over 150kg. It has an Egyptian origin and then spread throughout Africa. Commercial breeding began about 150 years ago, with the domestication of native animals from South Africa, country which holds the first position in meat supply. Several musculoskeletal diseases were observed in fast-growing birds, such as ostrich. High body weight, associated to a developing bone structure, is indicated as the main cause of disorders of the locomotor system. In this study, an adult male specimen was used, from an ostrich production farm located at the town of Paranatama, Pernambuco, Brazil. After removing soft tissues, bone measurements were performed with caliper and tape measure, and each bone was photographed for documentation and described. This study aims to contribute to increase knowledge on the ostrich skeletal system, as well as provide a basis for muscle development, one of the main targets of commercial exploitation with regard to this species.

  6. Moult of wing and tail-feathers in the Ostrich, Struthio camelus

    OpenAIRE

    Brom, Tim G.; Dekker, René W. R. J.

    1990-01-01

    Structure and moult of wing and tail of a full-grown Ostrich, Struthio camelus, are described. In the wing, at least three feather generations could be recognized. The pattern of moult is more or less symmetrical in both wings and the sequence of feather replacement is not random. The tail consisted of 93 feathers of two different generations. Moult in the tail proceeds asymmetrically and seems to be fully irregular. The phylogenetic significance of these findings is discussed.

  7. Histologische, histochemische und ultrastrukturelle Untersuchungen am Eileiter des Straußes (Struthio camelus)

    OpenAIRE

    Freudenstein, Gertrud Maria

    2014-01-01

    Meine Arbeit befasst sich mit der histologischen, histochemischen und elektronenmikroskopischen Analyse des Eileiters des Straußes (Struthio camelus). Als Untersuchungsmaterial dienten die Eileiter von acht geschlechtsreifen und zwei nicht geschlechtsreifen Blauhals-Schwarzhals-Hybriden aus der Straußenfarm Donaumoos in Leipheim. Die Histomorphologie wurde mittels konventioneller Färbungen (H.E.-Färbung, van Gieson-Resorcinfuchsin-Färbung, Trichromfärbung nach Masson und Goldner, Alcianbla...

  8. The use of microsatellite polymorphism in genetic mapping of the ostrich (Struthio camelus)

    OpenAIRE

    Kawka, M; Parada, R.; Jaszczak, K.; J. O. Horbańczuk

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine microsatellite polymorphism in ostriches and using it in creation the genetic map of the ostrich. The polymorphism analysis covered 30 microsatellite markers characteristic of ostrich, for the CAU (China Agricultural University) group. The material consisted of 150 ostriches (Struthio camelus). The 30 microsatellite loci was examined and a total of 343 alleles was identified. The number of alleles at a single locus ranged from 5 at locus CAU78 to 34 at l...

  9. Purification and functional characterization of pancreatic insulin from camel (Camelus dromedarius)

    OpenAIRE

    Elamin, Babiker A.; Al-Maleki, Abdulmajeed; Ismael, Mohammad A.; Ayoub, Mohammed Akli

    2014-01-01

    Large-scale production of insulin still represents the key step in helping diabetic patients throughout the world. Many species and approaches have been used for the production of insulin. In this study, we purified and characterized for the first time pancreatic insulin from the Arabian camel (Camelus dromedarius) using a modified acid-alcohol extraction method. After extraction insulin was purified using a one-step gel filtration on a Sephadex G-50 column leading to a purification yield of ...

  10. Evolutionary constraints on equid domestication: Comparison of flight initiation distances of wild horses (Equus caballus ferus) and plains zebras (Equus quagga).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brubaker, Alexali S; Coss, Richard G

    2015-11-01

    Habituation to humans was an essential component of horse (Equus caballus ferus) domestication, with the nondomestication of zebras (Equus quagga) possibly reflecting an adaptive constraint on habituation. We present the human hunting hypothesis, arguing that ancestral humans hunted African animals, including zebras, long enough to promote a persistent wariness of humans, whereas a briefer period of hunting horses in Central Asia influenced by glacial cycles was unlikely to produce an equally persistent wariness. An alternative habituation to humans hypothesis, prompted by field observations, posits that zebras can habituate well to nonthreatening humans given sufficient exposure. If so, other factors must account for zebra nondomestication. To examine these hypotheses, we compared the flight initiation distances (FIDs) of wild horses in the United States and plains zebras in Africa to a human approaching on foot (N = 87). We compared the flight behavior of both species at sites with low and high exposure to humans (mean humans/acre = .004 and .209, respectively). Analyses revealed a significant interaction (p = .0001) between equid species and level of human exposure. The mean FIDs of horses (146 m) and zebras (105 m) with low human exposure did not differ appreciably (p = .412), but these distances were substantially longer (p human exposure that did differ significantly (p humans than horses do might reflect an adaptive response to historical hunting and partly explain their resistance to domestication.

  11. Gross anatomical and histomorphological observations on the terminal rectum and the cloaca in the Ostrich Struthio camelus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Warui, C.N.; Erlwanger, K.H.; Skadhauge, Erik

    2009-01-01

    In birds, the ability to void urine separate from faeces is unique to ostriches. To further explore this characteristic, the anatomy of the terminal rectum and cloaca of the Ostrich Struthio camelus was studied in four ostriches by gross anatomical dissection and light microscopy. The terminal...... that for birds is unique to ostriches....

  12. Prosopis farcta beans increase HDL cholesterol and decrease LDL cholesterol in ostriches (Struthio camelus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omidi, Arash; Ansari nik, Hossein; Ghazaghi, Mahmood

    2013-02-01

    Ten blue-neck male ostriches (Struthio camelus) were fed Prosopis farcta beans throughout a 30-day experiment. Blood samples were collected from ostriches on days 0 and 30 to measure levels of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, triglyceride, total serum protein, albumin, globulin, cholesterol, calcium, inorganic phosphorus, the activity of aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, and γ-glutamyl transferase (γ-GT). From days 0 to 30, HDL cholesterol, total protein, and globulins levels increased significantly whereas LDL cholesterol, inorganic phosphorus, and γ-GT activity decreased significantly.

  13. Biochemical composition of urine from farmed ostriches (Struthio camelus in Botswana : short communication

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    E.Z. Mushi

    2001-07-01

    Full Text Available Biochemical and qualitative evaluation of the supernatant of urine from hydrated farmed ostriches (Struthio camelus indicated that the urine was comparable to that described by other workers. The disparities obtained between the biochemical constituents in the present and previous studies were partly attributed to the state of hydration influenced by climatic factors. Results of the cytological examination of the supernatant and the sediment concurred with the observations of other workers. It was therefore concluded that parameters from both the quantitative and qualitative analyses could be used as a guideline to monitor the health status of farmed ostriches in Botswana.

  14. Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis Infection (Caseous Lymphadenitis in Camels (Camelus dromedarius in Jordan

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    Azmi D. Hawari

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: This study was conducted to describe & report for the first time outbreaks of natural C.pseudotuberculosis infection in adult camel herds (Camelus dromedarius in Jordan. An infectious disease syndrome was reported in three camel herds (Camelus dromedarius intensively raised at south province in Jordan. Approach: The herds included over 160 adult camels out of which about 8% were affected with multiple muscle and subcutaneous abscesses at various sites of the body. The camels were also heavily infested with ticks. Results: The infected camels did not respond favorably to several broad spectrum antibiotics. Post-mortem examination of 5 carcasses revealed emaciation and presence of external and internal multiple abscesses particularly in the lungs. The abscesses were encapsulated by fibrous tissue and contained creamy yellowish white pus. The lymph nodes were slightly congested and swollen. Conclusion: Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis type I strain or biovar ovis (the known cause of caseous lymphadenitis in sheep was isolated from pus, lymph nodes, ticks, milk, blood and liver samples. The clinical symptoms, nature and distribution of lesions of caseous lymphadenitis in camels are not as typical as in sheep. Recommendations for pseudotuberculosis control were given.

  15. One-Humped Camels (Camelus dromedaries Hard Ticks Infestation in Qeshm Island, Iran

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    Saeed Nazifi

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The economic importance of tick infestation on camels are important as they are important meat and milk producer animals in the less vegetation area of Iran and their health and production are greatly affected by the high tick infestation. In this investigation, tick infestations on camels (Camelus dromedarius were determined in Qeshm Island, Iran. A total number of 912 adult ticks (472 males and 440 females were collected and identified. Hyalomma dromedarii was the predominant tick specie and accounted for 61.9% of the adult ticks. Other hard ticks were H. anatolicum excavatum (22 %, H. asiaticum asiaticum (14.2 %, H. marginatum (1.9 %, H. impeltatum (0.4 % and Ripicephalus bursa (0.4 %. In conclusion, The provision of tick control programs in the Qeshm Island would seem a prerequisite for improving camel meat and milk production.

  16. Three-dimensional anatomy of the ostrich (Struthio camelus knee joint

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    Kyle P. Chadwick

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The three-dimensional anatomy of the ostrich (Struthio camelus knee (femorotibial, femorofibular, and femoropatellar joint has scarcely been studied, and could elucidate certain mechanobiological properties of sesamoid bones. The adult ostrich is unique in that it has double patellae, while another similar ratite bird, the emu, has none. Understanding why these patellae form and what purpose they may serve is dually important for future studies on ratites as well as for understanding the mechanobiological characteristics of sesamoid bone development. For this purpose, we present a three-dimensional anatomical study of the ostrich knee joint, detailing osteology, ligaments and menisci, and myology. We have identified seven muscles which connect to the two patellae and compare our findings to past descriptions. These descriptions can be used to further study the biomechanical loading and implications of the double patella in the ostrich.

  17. Molecular genotyping of Echinococcus granulosus from dromedaries (Camelus dromedarius) in eastern Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moghaddas, E; Borji, H; Naghibi, A; Shayan, P; Razmi, G R

    2015-01-01

    With the aim of genotyping Echinococcus granulosus cysts found in Iranian dromedaries (Camelus dromedarius), 50 cysts of E. granulosus were collected from five geographical regions in Iran. Cysts were characterized using polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) analysis of the internal transcribed spacer 1 (ITS1) gene and sequencing fragments of the genes coding for mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (cox1). Morphological criteria using rostellar hook dimensions were also undertaken. The present results have shown that 27 out of 50 E. granulosus cysts (54%) were determined as the G1 strain, and the other (46%) were determined as the G6 strain. The molecular analysis of the ITS1 region of ribosomal DNA corresponded with the morphological findings. Because of its recognized infectivity in humans, the G1 genotype is a direct threat to human health and its presence in Iranian dromedaries is of urgent public health importance.

  18. Histological analysis of the gastrointestinal tracts of young ostriches (Struthio camelus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Maria Rodrigues Monteiro

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The histological aspects of the gastrointestinal tract of the ostrich (Struthio camelus have been little studied, so this research is focused on such analysis. To this end, samples were obtained from different segments of the digestive tubes of five young ostriches aged 20 to 30 days. Based on the results, the authors conclude that the different segments of the digestive tube of the young ostrich presents the same general structure as that of other domestic birds and mammals, with some differences that may be due to age, the species involved, or feeding habits. It is hopes that this analysis will contribute to a better understanding of the physiological processes related to the nutrition and management of ostriches during their growth.

  19. Reference serum protein and lipoprotein fractions of ostriches (Struthio camelus in Turkey : research communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    U. Polat

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine for reference purposes the values of serum albumin, a1-globulin, a2-globulin, b-globulin, g-globulin, and a-lipoprotein (high density lipoprotein, pre-b-lipoprotein (very low density lipoprotein and b-lipoprotein (low density lipoprotein fractions of normal ostriches (Struthio camelus in Turkey. Five male and five female ostriches, 18 months old, were used. All the ostriches were fed on a diet that contained 15.14 % crude protein and 2 950 Kcal/kg of metabolizable energy. The serum protein and lipoprotein fractions were measured using agarose gel electrophoresis. The fractions were found to be 60.96 % albumin, 0.24% a1-globulin, 15.91 % a2-globulin, 13.34 % b-globulin, 9.55 % g-globulin, 53.77 % HDL, 0.60 % VLDL and 48.09 % LDL.

  20. Construction and Characterization of a Naive Camelus Bactrianus Variable Domain of Heavy Chain of Heavy-Chain Antibody(VHH)Yeast Two-Hybrid Library%双峰驼天然重链抗体可变区酵母双杂交文库的构建与鉴定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡湘云; 高小龙; 付向晶; 刘丹丹; 范文涛; 王燕平; 杜恩岐; 王兴龙; 党如意

    2015-01-01

    构建双峰驼天然重链抗体可变区(VHH)酵母双杂交文库,并对文库质量进行鉴定.采集未经免疫的6月龄雌性双峰驼外周血、骨髓、脾和淋巴结,并从外周血中分离淋巴细胞.抽提总RNA,反转录为cDNA,用2对引物经过2轮PCR扩增得到400 bp左右的双峰驼VHH片段.根据Clontech公司Mate&PlateTM library construction system使用手册,将带有同源臂的VHH片段与线性化的pGADT7-Rec质粒共转化Y187酵母感受态细胞,转化产物涂布SD/-Leu平板,30℃倒置培养3~5 d后,收集平板上的所有克隆,即为双峰驼天然重链抗体可变区酵母双杂交文库.对文库的滴度、重组效率及多样性进行鉴定.结果显示,本研究构建的双峰驼天然重链抗体可变区酵母双杂交文库库容为2.07×107,滴度为7.6×108 cfu·mL-1.随机挑取47个独立克隆进行菌落PCR鉴定,43个含有VHH片段,重组率为91.5%;选取其中19个测序,均为独立克隆,且多样性好.该研究成功构建双峰驼天然重链抗体可变区酵母双杂交文库,且文库质量满足要求,为进一步获得特定抗原的VHH奠定了基础.

  1. The structure of the atrioventricular node in the heart of the female laying ostrich (Struthio camelus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parto, P

    2012-02-01

    The electrical impulse for cardiac contraction is generated in the Sinoatrial node (SA node), subsequently spreads to the Atrioventricular node (AV node) and continues in the Atrioventricular bundle (AV bundle). The AV node may not always be present in different avian species and seems to differ in location and contents between species. In this study, the anatomy and histology of the AV node were studied five female adult ostriches (Struthio camelus). Routine paraffin sectioning and transmission electron microscopic method were performed. The study showed that in the ostrich, the AV node is located in the endocardium of the atrial surface of the right atrioventricular valve adjacent to the fibrous ring. The parenchyma of the AV node is formed by small specialized muscle fibres that are spread within a loose connective tissue network. The AV node is not covered by a connective tissue sheath and some arterioles are present. Nerve fibres are seen related to the node. Ultrastructurally, they stain lighter and contain fewer organized myofibrils than usual myocardial cells. The myofibril bundles run parallel to one another and have interspersed mitochondria, which display distinct cristae. The cells have a large euchromatic nucleus with a clear perinuclear area, and they connected by desmosomes. The ostrich is, thus, one of the birds that have the AV node, whose position varies from the other birds. PMID:21943125

  2. Biometric and Ultrasonographic Evaluation of the Testis of One-humped Camel (Camelus dromedarius

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riaz Hussain Pasha, Anas Sarwar Qureshi*, Laeeq Akbar Lodhi1 and Huma Jamil1

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Twenty four adult clinically healthy one-humped male camels (Camelus dromedarius were examined three times (beginning, mid and end in each season (winter, spring, summer and autumn for establishing the normal ultrasonic appearance and seasonal changes in the testicular parenchyma in the natural ecology of Punjab, Pakistan. The testes of each camel were scanned by using a B-mode real time ultrasound scanner fitted with a 7.5-MHz linear-array transducer. Scrotal biometry was done with the measuring tape during all the seasons of year. The tunics of the testes appeared as hyperechoic lines surrounding the homogenous, moderately echogenic parenchyma of the testis. The mediastinum testis was visualized as hyperechoic central line and a spot, in longitudinal and transverse sections, respectively. During winter season, the parenchyma was hyperechoic and mediastinum testis was seen as thin hyperechoic line. In spring, the echogenicity of parenchyma was moderate and mediastinum appeared relatively thick central hyperechoic line. In summer and autumn, less echoic parenchyma and thick band of mediastinum was recorded. Biometric studies showed significantly (P<0.01 higher scrotal length and width of the testis during winter and spring season as compared to summer and autumn. Present study revealed that the ultrasonic structure of camel testis resembles other mammals and season has an apparent effect on the testicular size and echogenicity of the testicular parenchyma in the one-humped camel.

  3. Sequencing, analysis, and annotation of expressed sequence tags for Camelus dromedarius.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulaziz M Al-Swailem

    Full Text Available Despite its economical, cultural, and biological importance, there has not been a large scale sequencing project to date for Camelus dromedarius. With the goal of sequencing complete DNA of the organism, we first established and sequenced camel EST libraries, generating 70,272 reads. Following trimming, chimera check, repeat masking, cluster and assembly, we obtained 23,602 putative gene sequences, out of which over 4,500 potentially novel or fast evolving gene sequences do not carry any homology to other available genomes. Functional annotation of sequences with similarities in nucleotide and protein databases has been obtained using Gene Ontology classification. Comparison to available full length cDNA sequences and Open Reading Frame (ORF analysis of camel sequences that exhibit homology to known genes show more than 80% of the contigs with an ORF>300 bp and approximately 40% hits extending to the start codons of full length cDNAs suggesting successful characterization of camel genes. Similarity analyses are done separately for different organisms including human, mouse, bovine, and rat. Accompanying web portal, CAGBASE (http://camel.kacst.edu.sa/, hosts a relational database containing annotated EST sequences and analysis tools with possibility to add sequences from public domain. We anticipate our results to provide a home base for genomic studies of camel and other comparative studies enabling a starting point for whole genome sequencing of the organism.

  4. Assessment of the stresses imposed on adult ostriches (Struthio camelus) during handling, loading, transportation and unloading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minka, N S; Ayo, J O

    2008-06-28

    The stresses imposed during the handling, loading and unloading of 250 adult ostriches (Struthio camelus) transported by road were evaluated, weighted, scored and later compared with some objective physiological indices of stress measured after the journey. During handling, the numbers of slips and falls, incidents of aggressive behaviour, the calculated behavioural points, the number of injuries recorded per ostrich and the time spent were significantly (P<0.01) greater than the values recorded during loading and unloading. During handling and loading, 45 per cent of the ostriches had a good score (1.1 to 2 points), 15.5 per cent had a fair score (2.1 to 3 points) and 39.4 per cent had a poor or bad score (more than 3 points). The behavioural scores were significantly and positively correlated with the heterophil:lymphocyte ratio, the rectal temperature and the number of injuries sustained by the ostriches. The results showed that the poorer the behavioural score, the higher the level of stress suffered by the ostriches during handling and loading.

  5. Genotyping of Clostridium perfringens isolated from healthy and diseased ostriches (Struthio camelus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamshid Razmyar

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Clostridium perfringens is more prevalent type of clostridia genus isolated from the intestinal tract of ostrich (Struthio camelus. Necrotic enteritis (NE is a potentially fatal gastrointestinal (GI disease of poultry and other avian species, which produces marked destruction of intestinal lining in digestive tract caused by C. perfringens. Pathogenicity and lesions are correlated with the toxins produced, thus toxin typing of the bacterium has diagnostic and epidemiological significance. The aims of the present study were to determine the biotypes of C. perfringens among ostrich's farms either diseased and healthy ones and to screen the isolates for major toxin genes (cpa, cpb, etx, and iA, cpb2, and cpe.Thirty isolates of C. perfringens were obtained from NE-positive and NE-negative ostrich flocks in Khorasan-e-Razavi porvince and analyzed by multiplex PCR assay.All isolates were positive for alpha toxin gene (cpa and five of those were positive for beta toxin gene (cpb. The presence of cpb2 gene was detected in a high percentage of isolates originating from both healthy (93.3% and diseased flocks (80%. None of the isolate carried enterotoxin gene (cpe.The results suggest that types A and C of C. perfringens are the most prevalent types in ostrich in Iran. Due to detection of beta2 toxin gene in isolates from both healthy and diseased birds, it appears that the presence of cpb2 is not considered a risk by itself.

  6. Immunohistochemical localization of androgen and progesterone receptors in the uterus of the camel (Camelus dromedarius).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emam, Mahmoud Abdelghaffar

    2014-10-01

    Ten adult, cyclic female camels (Camelus dromedarius) were used to describe the distribution of androgen (AR) and progesterone (PR) receptors in the uterus using immunohistochemistry. Both AR and PR were distributed throughout the different compartments of the uterus with nuclear staining for AR and PR seen in the cells of epithelia (luminal and glandular), stroma and myometrial smooth muscles. AR immunostaining was not uniform in distribution and intensity; the surface epithelium and the glandular epithelium in the adluminal region of the endometrium showed lower AR immunoreactivity than other compartments of the uterus. PR immunostaining showed uniformity in both distribution and intensity strong PR immunostaining intensity in almost all cells of the different uterine compartments. The intensity and distribution of PR immunostaining in epithelia of lumen and glands in the adluminal regions of endometrium was higher (P<0.05) than that of AR. In conclusion, immunohistochemical localization of AR and PR in the uterus of the cyclic dromedary camel indicates the important roles of androgen and progesterone in controlling the uterine activity during the follicular phase. PMID:25081941

  7. Minerals and nutritional composition of camel (camelus dromedarius) meat in Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The quality of camel meat has received little attention so far in Pakistan. It is nutritionally as good as that of the major sources of red or white meat. Camel is a desert animal but is not less than other red meat animals (beef, lamb and goat) in its composition. The proximate composition, fatty acid profile and mineral contents of the local camel (Camelus dromedarius) meat have been investigated. It contained 72.03 +- 0.014% water, 4.45 +- 0.011% ash, 5.79 +- 0.012% fat and 66.42 +- 0.534% protein. It has been found that camel meat has relatively more moisture, less fat, less ash and similar protein content than that of beef, lamb and goat [1]. It has similar mineral composition (Na, K, Ca, Fe, Zn, P, Mg, Cd, Cr, Co, Mo, Ni, and Pb) to beef except for sodium. Fatty acid profile for camel meat oil showed high content of palmitic acid and oleic acid. These two fatty acids are essential in human nutrition. In view of the above, it is possible that camel meat could make a greater contribution to the growing need for meat in developing countries like Pakistan. (author)

  8. Bacterial enteritis in ostrich (Struthio Camelus) chicks in the Western Cape Province, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keokilwe, L; Olivier, A; Burger, W P; Joubert, H; Venter, E H; Morar-Leather, D

    2015-06-01

    Ostrich (Struthio camelus) chicks less than 3 mo age are observed to experience a high mortality rate that is often associated with enteritis. This study was undertaken to investigate the infectious bacteria implicated in ostrich chick enteritis. Postmortems were performed on 122 ostrich chicks aged from 1 d to 3 mo and intestinal samples were subjected to bacterial culture. Bacterial isolates were typed by PCR and serotyping. Escherichia coli (E. coli; 49%) was the most frequently isolated from the samples followed by Clostridium perfringens (C. perfringens; 20%), Enterococcus spp. (16%), and Salmonella spp. (7%). Of the E. coli, 39% were categorized as enteropathogenic E. coli, 4% enterotoxigenic E. coli, and no enterohaemorrhagic E. coli were found. The majority (93%) of C. perfringens was Type A and only 7% was Type E. C. perfringens Types B through D were not present. The netB gene that encodes NetB toxin was identified from 16% of the C. perfringens isolated. All the C. perfringens Type E harbored the netB gene and just 10% of the C. perfringens Type A had this gene. Three Salmonella serotypes were identified: Salmonella Muenchen (S. Muenchen; 80%), S. Hayindongo (13%), and S. Othmarschen (7%). The indication is that the cause of enteritis in ostrich chicks is bacterial-involving: enteropathogenic E. coli and enterotoxigenic E. coli; C. perfringens Types A and E (with the possible influence of netB gene); and S. Muenchen, S. Hayindongo, and S. Othmarschen.

  9. THE INFLUENCE OF SEASONS ON BLOOD CONSTITUENTS OF DROMEDARY CAMEL (CAMELUS DROMEDARIUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.A. BABEKER

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out in White Nile State, Sudan for a period of one year, and was designed to investigate the effect of seasons on the blood constituents of dromadery camel (Camelus dromedarius. One hundred and four Samples different sex and age were collected in July (Rainy Season, September (Rainy hot summer, October (Dry wet winter and April (Dry hot summer. The effect of season on some blood hematology, metabolites, enzymes and minerals profile was studied. The results showed higher significant level were: Monocytes, total protein and Glutamic- Oxaloacetic Transaminase (GPT during rainy season, while MCV, MCH, lymphocytes, Eosinophils and Basophils in rainy hot summer, whereas within dry wet winter were: glucose, albumin and k, even in dry hot summer were: MCHC, total white blood cells, neutrophils, uric acid, creatinine, Serum Glutamic-Oxaloacetic Transaminase (GOT and Ca. The results also indicate that the fluctuations of seasons were observed in red blood cells, hematocrit (PCV and E.S.R as lower level. Therefore, it could be valuable to provide that the dromedary camels adapted to tropical conditions.

  10. GROSS AND MICROSCOPIC ANATOMY OF THYROID GLAND OF ONE-HUMPED CAMEL (CAMELUS DROMEDARIUS

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    R. KAUSAR AND R. U. SHAHID

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Tissue samples of thyroid glands of 16 healthy camels (Camelus dromedarius were investigated under two age groups i.e. group A (3-5 years and group B (6-10 years with equal number of animals, for their gross and microscopic anatomy. Gross studies revealed that thyroid glands were located near the first ring of trachea and had two lobes, connected by an isthmus. They were of reddish brown in colour. The values of weight, length and width of thyroid glands were 45.7 ± 0.35 and 50.65 ± 0.26 g, 36 ± 0.46 and 6.36 ± 0.33 cm, and 3.35 ± 0.29 and 3.53 ± 0.21 cm in groups A and B, respectively. The diameter of the glands averaged 0.97 ± 0.13 and 1.05 ± 0.14 cm in groups A and B, respectively. Histologically, thyroid gland consisted of a connective tissue capsule and trabeculae were found extending from the capsule into the substance of the gland, which divided it into lobules. Each lobule consisted of two sized follicles in variable numbers, the large and small. The large follicles were lined by low cuboidal epithelium, while the small follicles were lined by high cuboidal to columnar epithelium. The follicles had colloid material in their lumen, probably an apocrine secretion from the lining epithelial cells. The para follicular or C-cells were absent in thyroid glands of camel.

  11. Molecular analysis of the bacterial microbiome in the forestomach fluid from the dromedary camel (Camelus dromedarius).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatt, Vaibhav D; Dande, Suchitra S; Patil, Nitin V; Joshi, Chaitanya G

    2013-04-01

    Rumen microorganisms play an important role in ruminant digestion and absorption of nutrients and have great potential applications in the field of rumen adjusting, food fermentation and biomass utilization etc. In order to investigate the composition of microorganisms in the rumen of camel (Camelus dromedarius), this study delves in the microbial diversity by culture-independent approach. It includes comparison of rumen samples investigated in the present study to other currently available metagenomes to reveal potential differences in rumen microbial systems. Pyrosequencing based metagenomics was applied to analyze phylogenetic and metabolic profiles by MG-RAST, a web based tool. Pyrosequencing of camel rumen sample yielded 8,979,755 nucleotides assembled to 41,905 sequence reads with an average read length of 214 nucleotides. Taxonomic analysis of metagenomic reads indicated Bacteroidetes (55.5 %), Firmicutes (22.7 %) and Proteobacteria (9.2 %) phyla as predominant camel rumen taxa. At a finer phylogenetic resolution, Bacteroides species dominated the camel rumen metagenome. Functional analysis revealed that clustering-based subsystem and carbohydrate metabolism were the most abundant SEED subsystem representing 17 and 13 % of camel metagenome, respectively. A high taxonomic and functional similarity of camel rumen was found with the cow metagenome which is not surprising given the fact that both are mammalian herbivores with similar digestive tract structures and functions. Combined pyrosequencing approach and subsystems-based annotations available in the SEED database allowed us access to understand the metabolic potential of these microbiomes. Altogether, these data suggest that agricultural and animal husbandry practices can impose significant selective pressures on the rumen microbiota regardless of rumen type. The present study provides a baseline for understanding the complexity of camel rumen microbial ecology while also highlighting striking

  12. Structure of vomeronasal organ (Jacobson organ) in male Camelus Domesticus Var. dromedaris persica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karimi, H; Mansoori Ale Hashem, R; Ardalani, G; Sadrkhanloo, R; Hayatgheibi, H

    2014-12-01

    The vomeronasal organ (VNO) is a tubular structure in the roof of nasal cavity. The important role of this organ is olfaction of sexual odour. In this study, position, anatomical structure and histology of VNO in Iranian camels (camelus domesticus var. dromedaris persica) were determined. Fourteen healthy male camel heads were collected from an industrial slaughterhouse in Tehran, Iran, for anatomical and histological studies (seven each). The length of VNO and width of dental pad and the number and width of palatine crests were measured. For anatomical studies, the mandible was removed, and maxilla and nasal cavity was cut longitudinally and transversely. For histological studies, the mandible was removed, and first 0.5 cm of initial part of VNO was cut. Then, nasal cavity was cut in some segments with 2 cm thickness. The width of VNO was 3.85 ± 0.31 cm and 1.57 ± 0.18 cm in front and distal parts, respectively. The length of VNO was 15.61 ± 0.59 cm. In histological examinations, VNO was surrounded by J-shape hyaline cartilage. The lining epithelium of lateral wall of VNO was originated from respiratory epithelium, while it had an olfactory epithelium origin in the medial wall. Lamina propria and tunica submucosa were a cavernous connective tissue with seromucous gland with abundant of serous secretory units. The lumen of VNO opens into nasal cavity. The presence of olfactory epithelium found in our study indicates an important role for VNO in pheromone perception and beginning of sexual behaviour. PMID:24611976

  13. Analysis of immunoglobulin transcripts in the ostrich Struthio camelus, a primitive avian species.

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    Tian Huang

    Full Text Available Previous studies on the immunoglobulin (Ig genes in avian species are limited (mainly to galliformes and anseriformes but have revealed several interesting features, including the absence of the IgD and Igκ encoding genes, inversion of the IgA encoding gene and the use of gene conversion as the primary mechanism to generate an antibody repertoire. To better understand the Ig genes and their evolutionary development in birds, we analyzed the Ig genes in the ostrich (Struthio camelus, which is one of the most primitive birds. Similar to the chicken and duck, the ostrich expressed only three IgH chain isotypes (IgM, IgA and IgY and λ light chains. The IgM and IgY constant domains are similar to their counterparts described in other vertebrates. Although conventional IgM, IgA and IgY cDNAs were identified in the ostrich, we also detected a transcript encoding a short membrane-bound form of IgA (lacking the last two C(H exons that was undetectable at the protein level. No IgD or κ encoding genes were identified. The presence of a single leader peptide in the expressed heavy chain and light chain V regions indicates that gene conversion also plays a major role in the generation of antibody diversity in the ostrich. Because the ostrich is one of the most primitive living aves, this study suggests that the distinct features of the bird Ig genes appeared very early during the divergence of the avian species and are thus shared by most, if not all, avian species.

  14. Microstructure and thermal change of texture of calcite crystals in ostrich eggshell Struthio camelus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heredia, A. [Instituto de Ciencias Nucleares, UNAM. Circuito Exterior, Ciudad Universitaria, Coyoacan C.P. 04510 Mexico D.F. (Mexico) and Instituto de Fisica, UNAM. Apartado Postal 20-364, 01000 Mexico D.F. (Mexico)]. E-mail: heredia@fisica.unam.mx; Rodriguez-Hernandez, A.G. [Instituto de Fisica, UNAM. Apartado Postal 20-364, 01000 Mexico D.F. (Mexico); Lozano, L.F. [Instituto de Fisica, UNAM. Apartado Postal 20-364, 01000 Mexico D.F. (Mexico); Pena-Rico, M.A. [Instituto de Fisica, UNAM. Apartado Postal 20-364, 01000 Mexico D.F. (Mexico); Velazquez, R. [Instituto de Fisica, UNAM. Apartado Postal 20-364, 01000 Mexico D.F. (Mexico); Basiuk, V.A. [Instituto de Ciencias Nucleares, UNAM. Circuito Exterior, Ciudad Universitaria, Coyoacan C.P. 04510 Mexico D.F. (Mexico); Bucio, L. [Instituto de Fisica, UNAM. Apartado Postal 20-364, 01000 Mexico D.F. (Mexico)

    2005-01-01

    Eggshell from ostrich Struthio camelus, pristine and thermally treated in the range from room temperature to 550 deg. C, was investigated with low vacuum scanning electron microscopy (LVSEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and X-ray powder diffractometry (XRD). Different zones of the eggshell were analysed, including the protein-related, non-crystalline, inner organic membrane. After the high-temperature treatment (>500 deg. C), only crystallised calcite phase was found showing two main textures depending on the shell zone and the treatment temperature. In the crystal layer of the untreated samples, nanosized calcite crystals are organized with their c crystallographic axes highly aligned normal to eggshell surface (a very sharp gaussian angular distribution, {sigma}=0.14, was obtained by using the Rietveld method to model the preferred orientation function in the X-ray powder diffraction pattern). Elemental analysis revealed more Mg{sup 2+} in the crystal layer than in cone layer of the eggshell. A high nitrogen content in the organic membrane is associated to a proteinaceous phase. The cone and palisade layers are composed of needle-shaped calcite crystals, which are more crystallized than in the crystal layer and in average with their c crystallographic axes oriented in all directions except for the one perpendicular to the eggshell surface. Due to the complex structure and the amorphous/crystal phase interactions, the heating at about 500 deg. C texturizes the crystals orienting them mainly along the c-axes normal to the inner eggshell surface.

  15. Gender effect on the metabolic profile of ostriches (Struthio camelus domesticus

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    Carmelo Di Meo

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to better define the effect of the sex on the metabolic profile of young ostriches (Struthio camelus domesticus, forty birds were divided into two groups by sex (20 males vs20 females. The animals were fed ad libitumnatural pasture and corn silage. The daily ration was completed by administering 1200 g/head of a commercial concentrate with the following chemical composition expressed as a percentage of dry mat- ter: crude protein 18.8, crude fibre 8.4, ether extract 3.6, ash 7.5. After about 12 h of fasting, in the mor- ning the blood was collected from the wing vein. The following biochemical parameters were determined: glu- cose, cholesterol, triglycerides, lactate (LAC, total protein (TP, uric acid, total bilirubin (Tbil, creatinine (CREA, calcium (Ca, magnesium (Mg, phosphorus (P, natrium (Na, potassium (K, chloride (Cl, iron (Fe, aspartate aminotransferase (AST, alanine aminotransferase (ALT, alkaline phosphatase (AP, choline- sterase (ChE; α-amylase (Amyl, lipase (LIPA; γ-glutamyltransferase (GGT. Sex significantly affected only some haematic parameters: in the females total protein and calcium were higher than in the males (TP, 43.3 vs38.9 g/l, respectively for females and males, P< 0.05; Ca, 2.99 vs2.59 mmol/l, respectively for females and males, P< 0.01. The other haematic parameters did not show signifi- cant differences by sex, and the average values were: glucose (9.87 mmol/l, cholesterol (1.96 mmol/l, triglycerides (1.56 mmol/l, LAC (6.60 mmol/l, uric acid (361 mmol/l, CREA (31.95 µmol/l, Na (144.8 mmol/l, K (3.27 mmol/l, Cl (109.7 mmol/l, P (1.47 mmol/l, Mg (1.10 mmol/l, Fe (9.22 µmol/l, Tbil (9.28 µmol/l, AST (341.3 U/l, ALT (11.42 U/l, AP (75.8 U/l, GGT (10.07 U/l, Amyl (6.97 U/l, LIPA (241.2 U/l, ChE (385.1 U/l. The results of our study, in agreement with previous findings, contribute to enhance the knowledge on the metabolic profile of ostriches in function of the sex.

  16. The Tarsometatarsus of the Ostrich Struthio camelus: Anatomy, Bone Densities, and Structural Mechanics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meagan M Gilbert

    Full Text Available The ostrich Struthio camelus reaches the highest speeds of any extant biped, and has been an extraordinary subject for studies of soft-tissue anatomy and dynamics of locomotion. An elongate tarsometatarsus in adult ostriches contributes to their speed. The internal osteology of the tarsometatarsus, and its mechanical response to forces of running, are potentially revealing about ostrich foot function.Computed tomography (CT reveals anatomy and bone densities in tarsometatarsi of an adult and a young juvenile ostrich. A finite element (FE model for the adult was constructed with properties of compact and cancellous bone where these respective tissues predominate in the original specimen. The model was subjected to a quasi-static analysis under the midstance ground reaction and muscular forces of a fast run. Anatomy-Metatarsals are divided proximally and distally and unify around a single internal cavity in most adult tarsometatarsus shafts, but the juvenile retains an internal three-part division of metatarsals throughout the element. The juvenile has a sparsely ossified hypotarsus for insertion of the m. fibularis longus, as part of a proximally separate third metatarsal. Bone is denser in all regions of the adult tarsometatarsus, with cancellous bone concentrated at proximal and distal articulations, and highly dense compact bone throughout the shaft. Biomechanics-FE simulations show stress and strain are much greater at midshaft than at force applications, suggesting that shaft bending is the most important stressor of the tarsometatarsus. Contraction of digital flexors, inducing a posterior force at the TMT distal condyles, likely reduces buildup of tensile stresses in the bone by inducing compression at these locations, and counteracts bending loads. Safety factors are high for von Mises stress, consistent with faster running speeds known for ostriches.High safety factors suggest that bone densities and anatomy of the ostrich tarsometatarsus

  17. A new anaerobic fungus (Oontomyces anksri gen. nov., sp. nov.) from the digestive tract of the Indian camel (Camelus dromedarius).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dagar, Sumit S; Kumar, Sanjay; Griffith, Gareth W; Edwards, Joan E; Callaghan, Tony M; Singh, Rameshwar; Nagpal, Ashok K; Puniya, Anil K

    2015-08-01

    Two cultures of anaerobic fungi were isolated from the forestomach of an Indian camel (Camelus dromedarius). Phylogenetic analysis using both the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) and large-subunit (LSU) regions of the rRNA locus demonstrated that these isolates were identical and formed a distinct clade within the anaerobic fungi (phylum Neocallimastigomycota). Morphological examination showed that these fungi formed monocentric thalli with filamentous rhizoids and uniflagellate zoospores, broadly similar to members of the genus Piromyces. However, distinctive morphological features were observed, notably the pinching of the cytoplasm in the sporangiophore and the formation of intercalary rhizoidal swellings. Since genetic analyses demonstrated this fungus was only distantly related to Piromyces spp. and closer to the polycentric Anaeromyces clade, we have assigned it to a new genus and species Oontomyces anksri gen. nov., sp. nov. Interrogation of the GenBank database identified several closely related ITS sequences, which were all environmental sequences obtained from camels, raising the possibility that this fungus may be specific to camelids. PMID:26228561

  18. Pregnancy-Associated Changes of IgG and Serum N-Glycosylation in Camel (Camelus dromedarius).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamczyk, Barbara; Albrecht, Simone; Stöckmann, Henning; Ghoneim, Ibrahim M; Al-Eknah, Marzook; Al-Busadah, Khalid A S; Karlsson, Niclas G; Carrington, Stephen D; Rudd, Pauline M

    2016-09-01

    The dromedary camel (Camelus dromedarius) is an agriculturally important species of high economic value but of low reproductive efficiency. Serum and IgG N-glycosylation are affected by physiological and pathogenic changes and might therefore be a useful diagnostic tool in camel livestock management. This study presents the first comprehensive annotation of the N-glycome from dromedary camel serum as well as their single-domain and conventional antibodies and its subsequent application for camel pregnancy diagnostics. N-glycans were released by PNGaseF, labeled with 2-aminobenzamide (2-AB), and analyzed by hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography with fluorescent detection (HILIC-UPLC-FLD), enzymatic sequencing and mass spectrometry (MS). The use of a high-throughput robotic platform for sample preparation allowed the rapid generation of glycomics data from pregnant (n = 8) and nonpregnant (n = 8) camels of the Majaheem and Wadha breed. IgG N-glycans dominate the glycan profile of camel serum and present a mixture of core-fucosylated and noncore-fucosylated N-glycans which can contain N-glycolylneuraminic and N-acetylneuraminic acid. Significant pregnancy-associated but breed-independent increases in galactosylation, core-fucosylation, sialylation, and decreases in serum O-acetylation were observed. The monitoring of IgG and serum N-glycosylation presents an attractive complementary test for camel pregnancy diagnostics and presents an interesting tool for biomarker discovery in camel health and breeding.

  19. Molecular cloning, sequence analysis and expression in Escherichia coli of Camelus dromedarius glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase cDNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saeed, Hesham Mahmoud; Alanazi, Mohammad Saud; Abduljaleel, Zainularifeen; Al-Amri, Abdullah; Khan, Zahid

    2012-06-01

    This study determined the full length sequence of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase cDNA (G6PD) from the Arabian camel Camelus dromedarius using reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. The C. dromedarius G6PD has an open reading frame of 1545 bp, and the cDNA encodes a protein of 515 amino acid residues with a molecular weight of 59.0 KDa. The amino acid sequence showed the highest identity with Equus caballus (92%) and Homo sapiens (92%). The G6PD cDNA was cloned and expressed into Escherichia coli as a fusion protein and was purified in a single chromatographic step using nickel affinity gel column. The purity and the molecular weight of the enzyme were checked on SDS-PAGE and the purified enzyme showed a single band on the gel with a molecular weight of 63.0 KDa. The specific activity of G6PD was determined to be 289.6 EU/mg protein with a fold purification of 95.45 and yield of 56.8%. PMID:22538316

  20. Alpha S1-casein polymorphisms in camel (Camelus dromedarius) and descriptions of biological active peptides and allergenic epitopes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erhardt, Georg; Shuiep, El Tahir Salih; Lisson, Maria; Weimann, Christina; Wang, Zhaoxin; El Zubeir, Ibtisam El Yas Mohamed; Pauciullo, Alfredo

    2016-06-01

    Milk samples of 193 camels (Camelus dromedarius) from different regions of Sudan were screened for casein variability by isoelectric focusing. Kappa-casein and beta-casein were monomorphic, whereas three protein patterns named αs1-casein A, C, and D were identified. The major allele A revealed frequencies of 0.79 (Lahaoi), 0.75 (Shanbali), 0.90 (Arabi Khali), and 0.88 (Arabi Gharbawi) in the different ecotypes. CSN1S1*C shows a single G > T nucleotide substitution in the exon 5, leading to a non-synonymous amino acid exchange (p.Glu30 > Asp30) in comparison to CSN1S1*A and D. At cDNA level, no further single nucleotide polymorphisms could be identified in CSN1S1* A, C, and D, whereas the variants CSN1S1*A and CSN1S1*C are characterized by missing of exon 18 compared to the already described CSN1S1*B, as consequence of DNA insertion of 11 bp at intron 17 which alter the pre-mRNA spliceosome machinery. A polymerase chain-restriction fragment length polymorphism method (PCR-RFLP) was established to type for G > T nucleotide substitution at genomic DNA level. The occurrence and differences of IgE-binding epitopes and bioactive peptides between αs1-casein A, C, and D after digestion were analyzed in silico. The amino acid substitutions and deletion affected the arising peptide pattern and thus modifications between IgE-binding epitopes and bioactive peptides of the variants were found. The allergenic potential of these different peptides will be investigated by microarray immunoassay using sera from milk-sensitized individuals, as it was already demonstrated for bovine αs1-casein variants. PMID:26922739

  1. Molecular detection of Rickettsia aeschlimannii in Hyalomma spp. ticks from camels (Camelus dromedarius) in Nigeria, West Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamani, J; Baneth, G; Apanaskevich, D A; Mumcuoglu, K Y; Harrus, S

    2015-06-01

    Several species of the spotted fever group rickettsiae have been identified as emerging pathogens throughout the world, including in Africa. In this study, 197 Hyalomma ticks (Ixodida: Ixodidae) collected from 51 camels (Camelus dromedarius) in Kano, northern Nigeria, were screened by amplification and sequencing of the citrate synthase (gltA), outer membrane protein A (ompA) and 17-kDa antigen gene fragments. Rickettsia sp. gltA fragments were detected in 43.3% (42/97) of the tick pools tested. Rickettsial ompA gene fragments (189 bp and 630 bp) were detected in 64.3% (n = 27) and 23.8% (n = 10) of the gltA-positive tick pools by real-time and conventional polymerase chain reaction (PCR), respectively. The amplicons were 99-100% identical to Rickettsia aeschlimannii TR/Orkun-H and R. aeschlimannii strain EgyRickHimp-El-Arish in GenBank. Furthermore, 17-kDa antigen gene fragments of 214 bp and 265 bp were detected in 59.5% (n = 25) and 38.1% (n = 16), respectively, of tick pools, and sequences were identical to one another and 99-100% identical to those of the R. aeschlimannii strain Ibadan A1 in GenBank. None of the Hyalomma impressum ticks collected were positive for Rickettsia sp. DNA. Rickettsia sp. gltA fragments (133 bp) were detected in 18.8% of camel blood samples, but all samples were negative for the other genes targeted. This is the first report to describe the molecular detection of R. aeschlimannii in Hyalomma spp. ticks from camels in Nigeria.

  2. Functional anatomy of the lacrimal gland in African black ostrich Struthio camelus domesticus in the embryonic and postnatal period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Klećkowska-Nawrot

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was morphological and histochemical analysis of the lacrimalgland (LG in African black ostrich Struthio camelus domesticus in the embryonic and postnatalperiod. Studies were conducted on 50 ostriches aged between the 28th day of incubation until7 months old. Tissue sections were stained with haematoxylin and eosin, Azan trichrome,periodic acid-Schiff, Alcian blue pH 2.5, aldehyde fuchsin and Hale’s dialysed iron. The LGin ostrich was classified as a tubulo-acinar type. The primordia of the lobes were determinedin the LG structure on the 28th day of incubation, whilst the weakly visible lobes with aciniand tubules were observed on the 40th day of incubation. Morphometric studies of the LGshowed steady growth, characterised by an increase in both length and width. Histometricmeasurements of lobe size showed little difference between the first, second and third agegroups, whilst in the fourth age group a marked increase in size of lobes was observed.The study showed that, apart from morphological changes, during the growth of the LGthe character of acid mucopolysaccharides changed. Sulphated acid mucopolysaccharideswere indicated, particularly with aldehyde fuchsin (AF staining in the fourth age group.The Hale’s dialysed iron (HDI staining showed a low concentration of carboxylated acidmucopolysaccharides in the first and second age groups and a higher concentration in thethird and fourth age groups. Periodic acid-Schiff staining (PAS-positive cells were observedin each age group, but only a small number of cells with a weakly PAS-positive reaction weredemonstrated in the first age group.

  3. Studies on the susceptibility of ostriches (Struthio camelus to the Indonesian velogenic strain of Newcastle disease virus

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    Darminto

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available Susceptibility of ostriches (Struthio camelus to the Indonesian velogenic strain of Newcastle disease virus (NDV was evaluated by artificial infection . Twelve - 5 to 6 week old ostriches were divided into 3 groups each containing 4 birds . The first group was inoculated through respiratory system by dropping directly the virus solution into the nostrils, while the second group was inoculated through digestive system by dropping directly the virus solution into the oesophagus, with the dose of infection 106ELDSo (50%-embryo lethal dose per bird . Meanwhile, the third group was treated as uninfected control . All infected birds developed antibody responses, but only two inoculated birds from the first group and two inoculated birds from the second group developed clinical signs of Newcastle disease (ND, with no specific pathological alterations . Infected birds, either sicks or healthy, excreted the challenge viruses through the respiratory system and still be detected up to the end of this experiment, ie . 15 days post-inoculation . The challenge viruses can be re-isolated from the brain, trachea, lungs, heart, liver, spleen, kidneys, small intestine, cecal-tonsil, and proventriculus of the infected birds . This study concludes that: (1 the ostriches are susceptible to the infection of the Indonesian velogenic strain ofNDV; (2 all infected birds developed immune responses, but only half of them develops el jtigi aj i disease ; (3 the infected birds excreted the challenge viruses for a considerable long time which may play role as the Mginiseti.ce ofinfectron the other healthy ostriches ; and (4 the challenge viruses can be re-isolated from various organs of the birds . .

  4. First report of an outbreak of the oriental eye-fluke, Philophthalmus gralli (Mathis & Leger 1910, in commercially reared ostriches (Struthio camelus in Zimbabwe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Mukaratirwa

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available A total of 17 commercially reared ostriches (Struthio camelus from Msengi farm, Chinhoyi, Zimbabwe, observed with swollen eyes, severe conjunctivitis and constant lacrimation accompanied by a purulent exudate, were restrained for further clinical examination. Some of the birds were semi-blind with severe loss of body condition. When examined, tiny organisms were observed attached to the nictitating membranes and the conjuctival sacs of both eyes. The organisms were identified as Philophthalmus gralli, the "oriental eye-fluke" and Melanoides tuberculata, a prosobranch snail, was confirmed as the intermediate host through natural and experimental infection. To the best of our knowledge this is the first record of the oriental eye-fluke infection in birds in Zimbabwe and Africa and extends its known geographical range.

  5. Design and Selection of a Camelid Single-Chain Antibody Yeast Two-Hybrid Library Produced De Novo for the Cap Protein of Porcine Circovirus Type 2 (PCV2)

    OpenAIRE

    Xiangjing Fu; Xiaolong Gao; Shengfang He; Di Huang; Peng Zhang; Xinglong Wang; Shuxia Zhang; Ruyi Dang; Shuanghui Yin; Enqi Du; Zengqi Yang

    2013-01-01

    Nanobodies (or variable domain of the heavy chain of the heavy-chain antibodies, VHHs) are single-domain antigen-binding fragments derived from camelid heavy chain antibodies. Their comparatively small size, monomeric behavior, high stability, high solubility, and ability to bind epitopes inaccessible to conventional antibodies make them especially suitable for many therapeutic and biotechnological applications. In this paper, for the first time, we created the immunized Camelus Bactrianus VH...

  6. Musculoskeletal modelling of an ostrich (Struthio camelus pelvic limb: influence of limb orientation on muscular capacity during locomotion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John R. Hutchinson

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available We developed a three-dimensional, biomechanical computer model of the 36 major pelvic limb muscle groups in an ostrich (Struthio camelus to investigate muscle function in this, the largest of extant birds and model organism for many studies of locomotor mechanics, body size, anatomy and evolution. Combined with experimental data, we use this model to test two main hypotheses. We first query whether ostriches use limb orientations (joint angles that optimize the moment-generating capacities of their muscles during walking or running. Next, we test whether ostriches use limb orientations at mid-stance that keep their extensor muscles near maximal, and flexor muscles near minimal, moment arms. Our two hypotheses relate to the control priorities that a large bipedal animal might evolve under biomechanical constraints to achieve more effective static weight support. We find that ostriches do not use limb orientations to optimize the moment-generating capacities or moment arms of their muscles. We infer that dynamic properties of muscles or tendons might be better candidates for locomotor optimization. Regardless, general principles explaining why species choose particular joint orientations during locomotion are lacking, raising the question of whether such general principles exist or if clades evolve different patterns (e.g., weighting of muscle force–length or force–velocity properties in selecting postures. This leaves theoretical studies of muscle moment arms estimated for extinct animals at an impasse until studies of extant taxa answer these questions. Finally, we compare our model’s results against those of two prior studies of ostrich limb muscle moment arms, finding general agreement for many muscles. Some flexor and extensor muscles exhibit self-stabilization patterns (posture-dependent switches between flexor/extensor action that ostriches may use to coordinate their locomotion. However, some conspicuous areas of disagreement in our

  7. Genotyping of Brucella melitensis strains from dromedary camels (Camelus dromedarius) from the United Arab Emirates with multiple-locus variable-number tandem repeat analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gyuranecz, Miklós; Wernery, Ulli; Kreizinger, Zsuzsa; Juhász, Judit; Felde, Orsolya; Nagy, Péter

    2016-04-15

    Camel brucellosis is a widespread zoonotic disease in camel-rearing countries caused by Brucella melitensis and Brucella abortus. The aim of this study was the first genetic analysis of B. melitensis strains isolated from dromedary camels (Camelus dromedarius) using multiple-locus variable-number tandem repeat analysis (MLVA). MLVA 16 and its MLVA 8 and MLVA11 subsets were used to determine the genotypes of 15 B. melitensis isolates from dromedary camels (11 strains) and other host species (4 strains) from the United Arab Emirates and the results were then compared to B. melitensis MLVA genotypes from other parts of the world. Five, including two novel genotypes were identified with MLVA 8. MLVA 16 further discriminated these five genotypes to ten variants. The eleven camel isolates clustered into four main genetic groups within the East-Mediterranean and African clades and this clustering correlated with the geographic origin of the hosts (United Arab Emirates, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia and Sudan) and the date of their isolation. The camel strains were also genetically related to strains isolated from wild and domestic ruminants from their close habitat or from other parts of the world. Although limited number of strains were analysed, based on our data imported animals from foreign countries, local small ruminants and wildlife species are hypothesized to be the main sources of camel brucellosis in the United Arab Emirates. MLVA was successfully applied to determine the epidemiological links between the different camel B. melitensis infections in the United Arab Emirates and it can be a beneficial tool in future disease control programs.

  8. Haemonchus longistipes Railliet & Henry, 1909 (Nematoda, Trichostrongylidae) from the Egyptian dromedary, Camelus dromedarius (Artiodactyla: Camelidae), first identification on the basis of light and ultrastructural data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morsy, Kareem; Bashtar, Abdel-Rahman; Fol, Mona; Yehia, Salma

    2014-12-01

    Haemonchus longistipes is a gastrointestinal abomasal nematode which is one of the most prevalent and pathogenic parasites infesting the stomach of ruminants. On the basis of light and ultrastructural data, the objective of the present study was to introduce a first identification of the cameline haemonchosis caused by H. longistipes. Abomasa of 42 Egyptian camels Camelus dromedarius (Artiodactyla: Camelidae) were collected monthly from September 2013 to April 2014 from the main slaughter house of Cairo, Egypt. Adult male and female nematode worms were recovered from 26 (62%) specimens of the examined abomasa. The parasites were of yellow color; the body was filiform (slender) tapered towards the anterior end in male and towards both ends in female. Buccal capsules absent, the buccal cavity was small with a conspicuous dorsal lancet extended from dorsal wall. The cervical papillae were prominent and spine-like. The body length of the female worm was 16.6-20.5 (18.5 ± 0.3) mm. The anterior end to the cervical papillae was 3.19-4.30 (4.12 ± 0.5) mm. The vulva of the female had a linguiform process or flap, the tail is without a spine, and the anal pore at the posterior end of the body had a simple dorsal rim. The body of male was 10.4-14.7 (13.9 ± 2.0) mm in length. The male bursa had elongated lobes supported by long, slender rays. The small dorsal lobe was asymmetrical with Y-shaped dorsal rays. The spicules were long with a length of 0.52-0.54 (0.53 ± 0.05) mm, each provided with a small barb and pore near its extremity. Synlophe was bilaterally and dorsoventrally symmetrical; it extended from cephalic expansion over anterior 50% of prebursal or prevulvar body and consisted of a maximum of 42 ridges. The described species herein was compared with the three morphologically similar species Haemonchus mitchelli, Haemonchus okapiae, and H. longistipes with their synlophes consist of 42 ridges distributed over the anterior half of the body. These

  9. Tentative identification of the species of Balantidium from ostriches (Struthio camelus) as Balantidium coli-like by analysis of polymorphic DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponce-Gordo, F; Jimenez-Ruiz, E; Martínez-Díaz, R A

    2008-10-20

    The characteristics of Balantidium from ostriches (Struthio camelus) are similar to those of Balantidium coli; however, the species Balantidium struthionis was proposed on the basis of the host species (ostriches) and the shape of the macronucleus (with a deep depression in one side). In the present work, we have performed morphological and genetic comparisons between isolates of Balantidium from ostriches and B. coli from pigs to determine the specific status of B. struthionis. The morphological characteristics of the trophozoites of Balantidium from ostriches were reviewed in 100 trophozoites from two isolates. The macronucleus' shape of the ostrich Balantidium was highly variable, thus the use of this criterion for diagnostic purposes is not reliable. Besides, very few trophozoites showed a deep depression in their macronucleus and almost all the trophozoites conform to the description of B. coli. The complete sequence of the DNA coding for the 18s-rRNA-ITS1-5.8s-rRNA-ITS2 regions were obtained by PCR from five pig and five ostrich isolates. The sequences corresponding to the 18s and 5.8s-rRNA genes were identical for the ostrich and pig isolates. Two clearly different genotypes were found in the analysis of the ITS1 and ITS2 regions of the pig isolates; the genotype A was identified in all isolates, while the genotype B was found in only two of them. Their sequences show clear differences from that published corresponding to a B. coli gorilla isolate, which we will consider as a different genotype, C. In our opinion, these different B. coli genotypes reflect the genetic variability of this organism, but further studies would be necessary to determine if it could have practical importance. The polymorphism of the ITS regions have been also found in the ostrich isolates. The same genotypes A and B have been identified, although not as mixed infections. The morphological characteristics and the genetic results suggest that the species name B. struthionis is a

  10. Enterobacteria isolation in ostrich eggs (Struthio Camelus

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    T Knöbl

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to determine the presence of enterobacteria in the eggs of ostriches reared on a farm with a history of reproductive failure. Ninety samples from twenty eggs were submitted to bacteriological tests. The results showed Enterobacteria growth in 100% of the eggs. The microorganisms isolated were Hafnia alvei in 50% (10/20, Serratia spp. in 20% (4/20, Escherichia coli in 15% (3/20, and Citrobacter freundii in 15% (3/20. All eggs presented poor eggshell quality, which favored enterobacteria contamination. Hafnia alvei was present only in the internal egg structures (albumen and yolk sac, suggesting the possibility of vertical infection.

  11. Zygomycetes from herbivore dung in the ecological reserve of Dois Irmãos, Northeast Brazil

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    André Luiz Cabral Monteiro de Azevedo Santiago

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Thirty-eight taxa of Zygomycetes distributed in 15 genera were recorded from tapir (Tapirus terrestris, camel (Camelus bactrianus, horse (Equus caballus, deer (Cervus elaphus, agouti (Dasyprocta aguti, donkey (Equus asinus, llama (Llama glama and waterbuck (Kobus ellipsiprymnus dung collected at the Reserva Ecológica de Dois Irmãos located in Recife, State of Pernambuco, Northeast Brazil. The samples were collected on a monthly basis from June 2005 to May 2006, taken to the laboratory and incubated in moist chambers. Higher number of taxa was observed in the excrements of tapir, followed by deer and donkey. The highest number of species was detected for Mucor, followed by Pilobolus. Statistical analyses showed significant differences in richness of Zygomycetes taxa between the herbivore dung types. Differences of species composition, however, were weak. Seasonality influenced the Zygomycetes species composition but not its richness. Variations in taxa composition between ruminants and non-ruminants dung were non significant.

  12. Investigating determinants of yawning in the domestic (Equus caballus) and Przewalski (Equus ferus przewalskii) horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Górecka-Bruzda, Aleksandra; Fureix, Carole; Ouvrard, Anne; Bourjade, Marie; Hausberger, Martine

    2016-10-01

    Yawning is rare in herbivores which therefore may be an interesting group to disentangle the potential function(s) of yawning behaviour. Horses provide the opportunity to compare not only animals living in different conditions but also wild versus domestic species. Here, we tested three hypotheses by observing both domestic and Przewalski horses living in semi-natural conditions: (i) that domestic horses may show an elevated rate of yawning as a result of the domestication process (or as a result of life conditions), (ii) that individuals experiencing a higher level of social stress would yawn more than individuals with lower social stress and (iii) that males would yawn more often than females. The study involved 19 Przewalski horses (PHs) and 16 domestic horses (DHs) of different breeds living in large outdoor enclosures. The results showed that there was no difference between the PH and DH in yawning frequency (YF). PHs exhibited much higher levels of social interactions than DHs. There was a positive correlation between yawning frequency and aggressive behaviours in PHs, especially males, supporting the idea that yawning may be associated with more excitatory/stressful social situations. A correlation was found between yawning frequency and affiliative behaviours in DHs, which supports the potential relationship between yawning and social context. Finally, the entire males, but not castrated males, showed much higher levels of yawning than females in both species. The intensity (rather than the valence) of the interaction may be important in triggering yawning, which could therefore be a displacement activity that helps reduce tension. PMID:27542092

  13. ACUTE PHASE PROTEINS AS A MARKER OF RESPIRATORY INFLAMMATION IN PRZEWALSKI'S HORSE (EQUUS FERUS PRZEWALSKII).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sander, Samantha J; Joyner, Priscilla H; Cray, Carolyn; Rotstein, David S; Aitken-Palmer, Copper

    2016-06-01

    Acute phase proteins are sensitive markers of inflammation, which are highly conserved across taxa. Although the utility of these proteins are becoming well defined in human and domestic animal medical fields, their role in nondomestic species remains unclear. In this communication, a 20-yr-old Przewalski's horse was presented for unresolving aspiration pneumonia, which cultured a unique Actinomyces-like bacteria. Despite waxing and waning clinical signs and minimal changes on baseline hematologic analysis, protein electrophoresis, serum amyloid A, and surfactant protein D serum concentrations showed changes that more accurately reflected the clinical severity of this case. PMID:27468045

  14. Investigating determinants of yawning in the domestic ( Equus caballus) and Przewalski ( Equus ferus przewalskii) horses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Górecka-Bruzda, Aleksandra; Fureix, Carole; Ouvrard, Anne; Bourjade, Marie; Hausberger, Martine

    2016-10-01

    Yawning is rare in herbivores which therefore may be an interesting group to disentangle the potential function(s) of yawning behaviour. Horses provide the opportunity to compare not only animals living in different conditions but also wild versus domestic species. Here, we tested three hypotheses by observing both domestic and Przewalski horses living in semi-natural conditions: (i) that domestic horses may show an elevated rate of yawning as a result of the domestication process (or as a result of life conditions), (ii) that individuals experiencing a higher level of social stress would yawn more than individuals with lower social stress and (iii) that males would yawn more often than females. The study involved 19 Przewalski horses (PHs) and 16 domestic horses (DHs) of different breeds living in large outdoor enclosures. The results showed that there was no difference between the PH and DH in yawning frequency (YF). PHs exhibited much higher levels of social interactions than DHs. There was a positive correlation between yawning frequency and aggressive behaviours in PHs, especially males, supporting the idea that yawning may be associated with more excitatory/stressful social situations. A correlation was found between yawning frequency and affiliative behaviours in DHs, which supports the potential relationship between yawning and social context. Finally, the entire males, but not castrated males, showed much higher levels of yawning than females in both species. The intensity (rather than the valence) of the interaction may be important in triggering yawning, which could therefore be a displacement activity that helps reduce tension.

  15. Aspergilose em avestruz (Struthio camelus no Brasil Aspergillosis in an ostrich (Struthio camelus in Brazil

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    Tatiane Alves da Paixão

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Criatórios de avestruz têm se tornado comuns no Brasil, mas por se tratar de espécie exótica, as informações sobre as doenças desses animais no nosso ambiente são escassas. Um avestruz de cinco meses de idade apresentou tosse, anorexia, perda de peso, dispnéia discreta, temperatura corporal normal e morreu oito dias após o início dos sinais clínicos. Macroscopicamente foram observados nódulos múltiplos no pulmão e nos sacos aéreos. Histolopatogicamente, observou-se pneumonia granulomatosa e necrosante multifocal com hifas ramificadas e septadas intralesionais com características morfológicas de Aspergillus sp. Nos sacos aéreos, além das hifas e processo inflamatório adjacente haviam vários micélios com conidióforos na superfície interna. Foi isolado Aspergillus fumigatus dos tecidos afetados. De acordo com os achados histopatológicos e micológicos firmou-se o diagnóstico de pneumonia e aerossaculite micótica severa causada por Aspergillus fumigatus. Com base nas informações disponíveis na literatura, esse é o primeiro caso de aspergilose em avestruz documentado no Brasil.Farms raising ostriches are becoming popular in Brazil lately, but as an exotic species, there is little information regarding diseases that affect these animals in our environment. A five-month-old ostrich had cough, anorexia, weight loss, mild dispneia, normal body temperature, and died within 8 days from the beginning of the clinical signs. Grossly, there were multiple nodules in the lung and air sacs. Histopathologically, a multifocal necrotizing and granulomatous pneumonia with intralesional radiating septated and branching hyphae with morphological features of Aspergillus sp. was observed. In the air sacs, in addition to the hyphae and adjacent inflammatory reaction, there were multiple mycelia with conidiophores on the inner surface. Aspergillus fumigatus was isolated from the affected tissues. Based on the histopathological and mycological findings, a severe mycotic pneumonia and air sacculitis caused by Aspergillus fumigatus was diagnosed. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first reported case of aspergillosis in an ostrich in Brazil.

  16. Ultrastructure of ostrich (Struthio camelus) spermatozoa: I. Transmission electron microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soley, J T

    1993-06-01

    The origin and relationships of the tinamous (Order Tinamiformes), ratites (Order Struthioniformes, Rheiformes, Casuariiformes, Apterygiformes) and birds of the order Galliformes and Anseriformes is the subject of much debate and it has been suggested that the ultrastructural analysis of a wide variety of avian sperm may provide information relevant to this problem. This paper describes the fine structure of ostrich sperm and compares the results with published information for other non-passerine birds. Ostrich sperm display a short, conical acrosome which covers the tapered tip of the long, cylindrical nucleus. A nuclear invagination housing an acrosomal rod extends deep within the karyoplasm. A centriolar complex is situated beneath the head and consists of a short proximal centriole and a long (3.0 microns) distal centriole which extends the complete length of the midpiece. The central cavity of the distal centriole contains a pair of microtubules embedded in a rod of electron-dense material. The midpiece is surrounded by a mitochondrial sheath. Concentrations of fine granular material are present between the mitochondria. The principal-piece of the tail is demarcated from the midpiece by a distinct annulus and characterized by a ribbed fibrous sheath enclosing a typical axoneme. Rudimentary coarse fibres are observed between the fibrous sheath and the doublet microtubules of the axoneme in the proximal region of the principal-piece. The end-piece contains a disorganized collection of axonemal microtubules. Ostrich sperm differ in a number of respects from that of other non-passerine birds (the absence of a typical perforatorium; the presence of a ribbed fibrous sheath; a deep nuclear invagination; the structure and length of the distal centriole) but show a close similarity to sperm of the rhea and crested tinamou, both representatives of primitive avian families. These observations add further support to the theory that the ratites and tinamous constitute a monophyletic group. The evidence presented also reinforces the hypothesis that the ratites were the first group to branch off from the main avian stem, to be followed by the Galliformes & Anseriformes. Although it was impossible to determine whether the sperm of the tinamou are more "primitive" than those of the ostrich or rhea, it is clear that ostrich and rhea sperm are closely allied and distinct from tinamou sperm. PMID:8332322

  17. Morphological aspects of atrioventricular valves in the ostrich (Struthio camelus

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    Marco A. Pereira-Sampaio

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Heart anatomy in the ostrich has been reported, but there are few information on the histological features of the atrioventricular valves. Hearts of young ostriches were fixed in 10% formaldehyde for 24 h and dissected to characterize their macroscopic anatomy. Samples of valves were harvested and stained with Mallory’s trichrome, Gomori’s trichrome, and Picro-Sirius red, for later analysis. The right atrioventricular valve consists of a muscle flap with two fixations. The left atrioventricular valve consists of two layers of endocardium with a layer of connective tissue between them. The free border of the tricuspid valve supports a varying number of chordae tendineae. One of the cusps is attached to the septum, while the other two cusps are attached to the opposite wall. The aortic valve, as well as the pulmonary trunk valve, consists of three cusps. The right atrioventricular valve showed up only as a muscle flap of myocardium coated with a thin layer of dense connective tissue, with two fixations. In the connective tissue, we find a predominance of type I collagen fibers and a lesser amount of type III, with a small presence of elastic fibers. The presence of Purkinje fibers were also usual in the valvular subendocardium, suggesting that they directly participate in the transmission of nervous stimulation to the muscle fibers within the valves. The left atrioventricular valve consisted of 3 cusps, a dorsal, a left, and a right.

  18. Production and characterization of biodiesel from Camelus dromedarius (Hachi) fat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Transesterification reaction with methanol in the presence of NaOH as a catalyst. • Optimization of key reaction parameters were performed. • Some fuel properties of biodiesel were measured and compared with biodiesel standards. • Ten of the properties that were evaluated for the diesel conform to the ASTM and EN standards values. - Abstract: Recently, biodiesel has been gaining market share against fossil-origin diesel due to its ecological benefits and because it can be directly substituted for traditional diesel oils. However, the high cost of the raw materials required to produce biodiesel make it more expensive than fossil diesel. Therefore, low-priced raw materials, such as waste cooking oil and animal fats, are of interest because they can be used to drive down the cost of biodiesel. We have produced biodiesel from camel fat using a transesterification reaction with methanol in the presence of NaOH. The experimental variables investigated in this study were the temperature (30–75 °C), reaction time (20–160 min), catalyst concentration (0.25–1.5%), and methanol/fat molar ratio (4:1–9:1). A maximum biodiesel yield of 98.6% was obtained. The fuel properties of biodiesel, such as iodine value, saponification value, density, kinematic viscosity, cetane number, flash point, sulfur content, carbon residue, water and sediment, high heating value, refractive index, cloud point, pour point, and distillation characteristics, were measured. The properties were compared with EN 14214 and ASTM 6751 biodiesel standards, and an acceptable level of agreement was obtained

  19. ACUTE PUERPERAL METRITIS IN A DROMEDARY CAMEL (CAMELUS DROMEDARIUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z.I. Qureshi, G. Muhammad, M. Athar and L.A. Lodhi

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available A case of acute puerperal metritis in a dromedary camel developing in the wake of dystokia corrected under unhygienic condition is described. The condition was associated with fever, foul-smelling purulent uterine discharge and pasty faeces. Pretreatment hematological examination indicated leukocytosis (22.05 x 103/mm3, owing to monocytosis (24 %. Microbiological examination of uterine discharge revealed a mixed bacterial infection with E. coli. Bacillus and streptococci which were all sensitive to nortloxacin, gentamicin, and amoxycillin, Faecal examination indicated a mixed infection with nematodes, Intrauterine administration of oxytetracycline with parenteral administration of amoxycillin, dipyrone and oral administration of oxfendazole successfully treated the case. The Principles of treatment of acute puerperal metritis have been discussed.

  20. Comparison of chemical restraint techniques in ostrich (Struthio camelus

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    R Ciboto

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Chemical restraint in ostriches is usually required for short-time interventions. Thus, this study established and evaluated intravenous anesthetics formulated from commonly used drugs in order to accomplish total restraint on this species and allow painful procedures to be performed. Thirty male and female ostriches weighing from 40 to 90 kg were randomly distributed into five groups. Animals in Groups I, II and III were given acepromazine (0.25 mg/kg i.m. and those in Groups IV and V were given xylazine (1.0 mg/kg i.m.. The following drugs were administered intravenously 15 to 20 min later: Group I - propofol (4.0 mg/kg, Groups II and IV - ketamine (5.0 mg/kg and diazepam (0.25 mg/kg, Groups III and V - tiletamine-zolazepam (3.0 mg/kg. All protocols have produced satisfactory results regarding total containment, muscular relaxation and maintenance of the evaluated parameters within a normal range.

  1. Fatty acid composition of ostrich (Struthio camelus abdominal adipose tissue

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    Daniela Belichovska

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Fatty acid composition of foods has a great impact on nutrition and health. Therefore, thе determination and knowledge of the fatty acid composition of food is very important for nutrition. Due to the high nutritional characteristics of ostrich meat and its products, the research determining their quality is of topical interest. The aim of the present investigation was the determination of fatty acid composition of ostrich adipose tissue. The content of fatty acids was determined according to AOAC Official Methods of Analysis and determination was performed using a gas chromatograph with a flame-ionization detector (GC-FID. The results are expressed as a percentage of the total content of fatty acids. The method was validated and whereupon the following parameters were determined: linearity, precision, recovery, limit of detection and limit of quantification. The repeatability was within of 0.99 to 2.15%, reproducibility from 2.01 to 4.57%, while recovery ranged from 94.89 to 101.03%. According to these results, this method is accurate and precise and can be used for analysis of fatty acids in foods. It was concluded that the content of saturated fatty acids (SFA accounted 34.75%, of monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA 38.37%, of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA 26.88%, of total unsaturated fatty acids (UFA 65.25% and of desirable fatty acids (DFA (total unsaturated + stearic acid 70.37% of the analysed samples. The ratio polyunsaturated/saturated fatty acids accounted 0.77. The most present fatty acid is the oleic (C18:1n9c with 28.31%, followed by palmitic (C16:0 with 27.12% and linoleic (C18:2n6c acid with 25.08%. Other fatty acids are contained in significantly lower quantities.

  2. Tetanus in a camel (Camelus dromedarius)--a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wernery, U; Ul-Haq, A; Joseph, M; Kinne, J

    2004-04-01

    Twenty days after an open castration, a 5-year-old dromedary was presented to the Dubai Camel Hospital with severe central nervous symptoms. The dromedary showed the following signs: off feed, stiff gait with extended neck, external swelling of the preputial sheath and groin region, and foamy saliva drooling from the mouth. The dromedary was unable to swallow. Three days after admission, the camel developed lockjaw, and on the fifth day it was unable to stand owing to paralysis of the hindquarters. Because of the severity of the disease and because it did not respond to treatment, the camel was euthanized 26 days after the operation and submitted to the Central Veterinary Research Laboratory for further investigation. Both castration wounds were closed and spermiducts were filled with necrotic masses from which Clostridium tetani was isolated. Two mice, which were injected with the filtrate of the thioglycolate broth, developed typical signs of tetanic spasm of the hind leg. Faecal samples from camel and horse paddocks that were only 50 metres apart were negative for C. tetani. However, C. tetani was isolated from two soil samples of the horse paddock. It is recommended that camels should be vaccinated against tetanus prior to castration.

  3. Ostrich (Struthio camelus Egg Embryonic Death During Artificial Incubation

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    Aisha E. Faki

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Intensification of ostrich farming revealed that egg hatchability was remarkably lower than the wild. This review considers the factors leading to, as pertaining to the ostrich, egg and incubator. Ostrich genotype, age, season and congenital problems affect clutch and egg sizes and egg quality- fertility to lead a successful hatch. Egg treatment prior incubation can later reduce hatchability, affected by storage conditions and duration. Most detrimental factors lie in the incubator and hatcher management. Egg correct positioning and turning in the appropriate incubator humidity and temperature are likely to yield high hatch. Variability in egg size, shell quality, pore sizes and numbers govern the water loss and exchange of gases. The hatcher management is important when chicks need intervention. Dead-in-shell embryos, early or late were likely to be affected by all of the above factors plus egg microbial contamination or be merely nutritional.

  4. Morphology and biometry of the thymus in ostrich (Sthruthio camelus

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    Cheston Cesar Honorato Pereira

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This work studied the anatomy of the thymus in 30 young ostriches (13 males and 17 females, 10 to 20 days old that were fixed in an aqueous solution of 10% formaldehyde. Chains of thymic lobes, arranged linearly and parallel, were located in the third distal part of the ventral region of the neck from the eleventh to the fifteenth cervical vertebra, which relates to the vagus nerve and jugular vein. The number of lobes varied from 1 to 3 and 1 to 2 in the right and left antimeres, respectively. In the right antimere, the average dimensions of the lobes were 2.09 × 0.71 × 0.41 cm for the cranial lobe, 0.69 × 0.38 × 0.27 cm for the middle lobe and 55 × 0.33 × 0.29 cm for the caudal lobe. In the left antimere, the average dimensions were 2.14 × 0.71 × 0.37 cm for the cranial lobe and 0.60 × 0.31 × 0.22 cm for the caudal lobe. The morphology and thymus biometrics showed well-defined traits, having common attributes, such as holotopy, skelotopy, syntopy and idiotopy, which characterized the species of this study.

  5. Protective antibody titre against Newcastle disease in ostriches (Struthio camelus

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    Darminto

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to define an estimated antibody titre which was considered to be protective against Newcastle disease (ND virus infection in ostriches. Eighteen young ostriches of 4 days of age were divided into two groups each containing 9 birds. The first group was unvaccinated and the second group was vaccinated against ND virus twice at 4 and 14 days of age. Antibody titres were monitored at 1, 14, 28, 42, 56, 70 and 85 days of age by haemagglutination inhibition (HI test. All birds were then challenged with a velogenic strain of ND virus, Ita strain, at 42 days of age. The excretion of the challenge virus were monitored daily after challenge up to the end of this experiment. Several organs such as brain, trachea, lungs and spleen were collected from died birds for re-isolation of the challenged virus. Results indicated that all unvaccinated birds succumbed to the challenged virus, except one bird that survived challenged. In contrast to the unvaccinated birds, all vaccinated birds survived challenged, except two birds with low antibody titres succumbed challenged. All birds with antibody titres of 4 (HI-log2 or greater survived challenged. All challenged birds excreted the challenged virus through out their oropharyngs. Moreover, challenged virus can be successfully re-isolated from most organs of the died birds. This study concludes that : (a the estimated protective titre against ND in ostriches is 4 (HI-log2, (b the immune status for ostrich with antibody titre less the 4 (HI-log2 could not be defined, and (c vaccination against Newcastle disease in ostriches could successfully prevent birds from sick and died of ND, but unable to prevent virus infection and unable to stop carrier status after infection.

  6. Aspergillosis and proventricular impaction in an ostrich (Struthio camelus

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    Shahrzad Azizi

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Aspergillosis is the most common mycotic infection in a wide variety of bird and causes significant economic losses. The present study described concurrent occurrence of aspergillosis and proventricular impaction in a 4-year-old male ostrich. The bird had respiratory problems, coughing and anorexia. Postmortem examination revealed numerous greenish-white caseous foci, 0.5 to 1 cm in diameter distributed on the surfaces of the air sacs and throughout the lungs. In histopathological study, multifocal areas of caseous necrosis that surrounded by inflammatory cells including heterophils, lymphocytes and macrophages were present. Long branching septated hyphae were visible in the necrotic areas with hematoxylin and eosin and Periodic acid-Schiff staining. Thrombi were present in the blood vessels. The proventriculus was full of gravel.

  7. Ostrich (Strutio camelus meat protein quality and digestibility

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    LS Reis

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the study was to evaluate ostrich meat protein quality, as its consumption has significantly increased in the last few years in Brazil. Male Wistar rats were distributed in groupe of six elements. The standard group received a casein-based diet, the control group received a protein-free diet, and the experimental group received ostrich meat diet as protein source. The evaluated biological parameters were protein efficiency ratio (PER, net protein ratio (NPR, net protein utilization (NPU, and true digestibility (TD. There were differences (p<0.05 among treatment groups for all evaluated biological parameters. Mean true digestibility values were 92.12% and 75.77% for casein and ostrich meat, respectively.

  8. Design and selection of a camelid single-chain antibody yeast two-hybrid library produced de novo for the cap protein of porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiangjing Fu

    Full Text Available Nanobodies (or variable domain of the heavy chain of the heavy-chain antibodies, VHHs are single-domain antigen-binding fragments derived from camelid heavy chain antibodies. Their comparatively small size, monomeric behavior, high stability, high solubility, and ability to bind epitopes inaccessible to conventional antibodies make them especially suitable for many therapeutic and biotechnological applications. In this paper, for the first time, we created the immunized Camelus Bactrianus VHH yeast two-hybrid (Y2H library according to the Clontech Mate & Plate library construction system. The transformation efficiency and titer of the VHH Y2H library were 7.26×10(6 cfu/3 µg and 2×10(9 cfu/ml, which met the demand for Y2H library screening. Using as an example the porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2 Cap protein as bait, we screened 21 positive Cap-specific VHH sequences. Among these sequences, 7 of 9 randomly selected clones were strongly positive as indicated by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, either using PCV2 viral lysis or purified Cap protein as coated antigen. Additionally, the immunocytochemistry results further indicated that the screened VHHs could specifically detected PCV2 in the infected cells. All this suggests the feasibility of in vivo VHH throughput screening based on Y2H strategy.

  9. Design and selection of a camelid single-chain antibody yeast two-hybrid library produced de novo for the cap protein of porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Xiangjing; Gao, Xiaolong; He, Shengfang; Huang, Di; Zhang, Peng; Wang, Xinglong; Zhang, Shuxia; Dang, Ruyi; Yin, Shuanghui; Du, Enqi; Yang, Zengqi

    2013-01-01

    Nanobodies (or variable domain of the heavy chain of the heavy-chain antibodies, VHHs) are single-domain antigen-binding fragments derived from camelid heavy chain antibodies. Their comparatively small size, monomeric behavior, high stability, high solubility, and ability to bind epitopes inaccessible to conventional antibodies make them especially suitable for many therapeutic and biotechnological applications. In this paper, for the first time, we created the immunized Camelus Bactrianus VHH yeast two-hybrid (Y2H) library according to the Clontech Mate & Plate library construction system. The transformation efficiency and titer of the VHH Y2H library were 7.26×10(6) cfu/3 µg and 2×10(9) cfu/ml, which met the demand for Y2H library screening. Using as an example the porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) Cap protein as bait, we screened 21 positive Cap-specific VHH sequences. Among these sequences, 7 of 9 randomly selected clones were strongly positive as indicated by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, either using PCV2 viral lysis or purified Cap protein as coated antigen. Additionally, the immunocytochemistry results further indicated that the screened VHHs could specifically detected PCV2 in the infected cells. All this suggests the feasibility of in vivo VHH throughput screening based on Y2H strategy. PMID:23469171

  10. Satellite telemetry of large mammals in Mongolia: what expectations should we have for collar function?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takehiko Y. Ito

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The rapid pace of the development of satellite wildlife tracking tools has left little time for thorough testing of new equipment and identifying possible sources of technical failures. In the Gobi and Eastern Steppe region of Mongolia we deployed 104 satellite collars, collecting animal locations using the Doppler based Argos or the global positioning system (GPS, on 45 Asiatic wild asses (Equus hemionus, 34 Mongolian gazelles (Procapra gutturosa, 15 Przewalski’s horses (Equus ferus przewalskii, eight wild Bactrian camels (Camelus ferus, and two wolves (Canis lupus. Although, we collected valuable data from little-known species in a remote environment, of 104 collars deployed, only 34 worked as good as or better than expected whereas 70 were subject to technical problems. The majority of problems had to do with a reduced performance of the Argos component (n = 13, with both the Argos and the GPS components (n = 1, or with the Argos component in combination with another unknown problem (n = 12. Further problems were caused by human error during manufacturing or deployment (n = 10, software bugs (n = 7, mechanical failures (n = 5, poor GPS performance (n = 1 and premature failures for unknown reasons (3 ≤ n ≤ 21. Although, several premature failures may have been caused by animals being poached, our failure rate remains high and indicates that managers and researchers need to be aware that there is a high risk of equipment failure when applying newly emerging satellite tracking technology. This entrains logistic and financial uncertainties which may be difficult to explain to the scientific community, the public, management and funding agencies alike. We recommend the development of a web-based platform where users and producers of telemetry products can quickly post and exchange their experiences.

  11. Potential Effect of Climate Change on Distribution of 6 Desert Animals in China%气候变化对6种荒漠动物分布的潜在影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴建国; 周巧富

    2011-01-01

    -It is crucial to understand the effects of climate change on change of species distribution for the conservation of biodiversity. The effects of climate change on change of distribution of Goitred Gazelle ( Gazella subgutturosa reginae adlerberg), Goitred Gazelle (Gazella subgutturosa yarkandensis blanford ),Wild Cat (Felis silvestris schreber), Asiatic Wild Ass (Equus hemionus(pallas ), Stone Marten (Martes foina(erxleben ) and Camelus Bactrianus ( Canelus bactrianus linnaeus ) in China were analyzed by use of the CART (classification and regression tree) niche model under climate change scenarios of A2 and B2. The results show that climate change will cause decrease in the current distribution region of the animals. In 2081-2100, the decrease of current distribution region of Goitred Gazelle (Gazella subgutturosa reginae adlerberg), Wild Cat or Asiatic Wild Ass was the highest, while the decrease of current distribution region of Goitred Gazelle (gazella subgutturosa yarkandensis blanford ), Stone Marten or Camelus Bactrianus was lower than that of Goitred Gazelle, Wild Cat or Asiatic Wild Ass. The new suitable distribution region or total suitable distribution region of Goitred Gazelle ( Gazella Subgutturosa Reginae Adlerberg), Stone Marten or Camelus Bactrianus increases from 1991-2020 to 2081-2100, while that of other animals will decrease from 1991-2020 to 2081-2100. Additionally, following climate change, the western or northern or south-eastern regions of current suitable distribution of Asiatic Wild Ass would reduce, and new suitable regions would expand towards north-western Qinghai or western Tibet; and the current suitable distribution regions of Goitred Gazelle (gazella subgutturosa yarkandensis blanford ) will be fragmented greatly, and new suitable regions would expand scattered towards west or northern Xinjiang or KunLun Mountains; and south or east or west regions of current suitable distribution of Wild Cat will reduce and fragment, and new

  12. Intoxicação espontânea por Senna occidentalis em javalis (Sus scrofa ferus no estado de Goiás

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiano J.F. de Sant'Ana

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Descreve-se um surto de intoxicação por Senna occidentalis em javalis no Estado de Goiás. De um rebanho de 80 javalis, 15 adoeceram e um morreu. Os sinais clínicos observados foram apatia, prostração, ataxia, tremores musculares, incoordenação, relutância em mover-se, decúbito esternal ou lateral, paresia e paralisia espástica, principalmente dos membros pélvicos. As principais alterações macroscópicas consistiam de palidez moderada a acentuada da musculatura esquelética dos membros pélvicos e torácicos e no lombo, especialmente nos músculos da coxa. Microscopicamente, observou-se degeneração e necrose flocular, multifocal, leve a moderada, monofásica, com fragmentação de fibras na musculatura esquelética. Nos cortes transversais, havia fibras musculares tumefeitas e hipereosinofílicas. Adicionalmente, havia degeneração microvacuolar hepatocelular difusa, leve a moderada. A atividade sérica da CK estava acentuadamente elevada em dois javalis avaliados e da TGO aumentou em um javali afetado.

  13. Taxonomy Icon Data: ostrich [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available amelus_NL.png Struthio_camelus_S.png Struthio_camelus_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?...i=Struthio+camelus&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Struthio+camelus&t=NL http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy..._icon/icon.cgi?i=Struthio+camelus&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Struthio+camelus&t=NS ...

  14. Mecanoreceptores da mucosa palatina de avestruz (Struthio camelus: estudo ao microscópio de luz Mechanoreceptors of the palatine mucosa of ostrich (Struthio camelus: light microscope study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana P. Guimarães

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Foram estudados corpúsculos de Herbst da mucosa palatina de avestruz em nível de microscopia de luz. Os corpúsculos compõem-se de uma cápsula externa, cápsula interna e axônio central. A cápsula externa apresentou numerosas lamelas, enquanto que a cápsula interna mostrou estrutura de folhas compactas. Os corpúsculos apresentaram formato ovalado ou circular e circundado por espessos feixes de fibras colágenas. Cada lamela estava composta de uma densa rede de fibras espessas. Os axônios terminais estavam situados ao longo do eixo, terminando em um bulbo terminal. As fibras da cápsula externa, coradas por Picrosirius e examinadas no microscópio óptico sob luz polarizada, revelou a presença de fibras colágenas do tipo I em verde e na região periférica observou-se grande quantidade de fibras colágenas do tipo III. Os corpúsculos apresentaram-se envoltos por células planas e envoltos por fibras colágenas.Herbst corpuscles of the palatine mucosa of ostrich were studied by light microscopy. The corpuscles are composed of an outer core, inner core and central nerve terminal. The outer core presents numerous lamellae, while the inner core shows compact structure of cytoplasm sheets. The corpuscles are elongate or oval in shape and are surrounded by bundles of collagen fibers. Each lamella is composed of a dense network of thick fibrils. The terminal axons are located along the axis and form a bulb terminal. The fibers of external core stained by Picrosirius and examined by polarized light microscopy revealed to be green in color like type I collagen fibers, and at the periphery is a large amount of collagen type III. The corpuscles are surrounded by flat cells and dense collagen fibers at the periphery.

  15. Serum biochemistry of 4-day-old ostriches (Struthio camelus Bioquímica sérica de avestruzes (Struthio camelus com quatro dias de idade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata L. Miranda

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available An analysis was made of 30 four-day-old ostriches to evaluate their protein, metabolite, mineral, and serum enzyme profiles, to correlate them with the birds' sex. The values obtained were: Total proteins 3.59±0.72g/dL, albumin 1.04±0.14g/dL, globulins 2.51±0.56g/dL, A:G ratio 0.43± 0.07, total cholesterol 615.10±101.15mg/dL, high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C 132.72±20.33mg/dL, low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C 454.93±90.81mg/dL, very low density lipoprotein cholesterol (VLDL-C 27.45±9.96mg/dL, triglycerides 137.23±49.78mg/dL, uric acid 6.24±2.15mg/dL, urea 18.27±12.33mg/dL, creatinine 0.30±0.04mg/dL, total calcium 9.38± 0.76mg/dL, ionized calcium 7.17±0.64mg/dL, phosphorus 6.96±0.91mg/dL, Ca:P ratio 1.37±0.21, iron 24.74±13.02µg/dL, sodium 142.03±6.17mEq/L, chlorides 109.59± 4.99mEq/L, aspartate aminotransferase (AST 200.67±31.42 U/L, alanine aminotransferase (ALT 3.90±1.92 U/L, γ-glutamyltransferase (GGT 1.18±0.73 U/L, alkaline phosphatase (ALP 597.30± 231.36 U/L, and creatine kinase (CK 2348.30±755.60 U/L. Males and females showed significant differences in total proteins, globulins, alkaline phosphatase, A:G ratio, and uric acid.A fim de avaliar o perfil de proteínas séricas, metabólitos, minerais e enzimas séricas e correlacionar com o sexo das aves, este estudo analisou 30 avestruzes de quatro dias de idade. Os valores obtidos foram: proteínas totais 3,59±0,72g/dL; albumina 1,04±0,14g/dL; globulinas 2,51±0,56g/dL; relação A:G 0,43± 0,07; colesterol total 615,10±101,15mg/dL; lipoproteína de alta densidade colesterol (HDL-C 132,72±20,33mg/dL; lipoproteína de baixa densidade colesterol (LDL-C 454,93±90,81mg/dL; lipoproteína de muito baixa densidade colesterol (VLDL-C 27,45±9,96 mg/dL; triglicérides 137,23±49,78mg/dL; ácido úrico 6,24±2,15mg/dL; uréia 18,27±12,33mg/dL; creatinina 0,30±0,04mg/dL; cálcio total 9,38±0,76mg/dL; cálcio ionizado 7,17±0,64mg/dL; fósforo 6,96±0,91mg/dL; relação Ca:P 1,37±0,21; ferro 24,74±13,02µg/dL; sódio 142,03±6,17mEq/L; cloretos 109,59±4,99mEq/L; aspartato aminotransferase (AST 200,67±31,42 U/L; alanina aminotransferase (ALT 3,90±1,92 U/L; γ-glutamiltransferase (GGT 1,18±0,73 U/L; fosfatase alcalina (ALP 597,30± 231,36 U/L; e creatina quinase (CK 2348,30±755,60 U/L. Diferenças significativas existiram para proteínas totais, globulinas, fosfatase alcalina, relação A:G e ácido úrico entre machos e fêmeas.

  16. Globalization of the cashmere market and the decline of large mammals in central Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, Joel; Buuveibaatar, Bayarbaatar; Mishra, Charudutt

    2013-08-01

    As drivers of terrestrial ecosystems, humans have replaced large carnivores in most areas, and human influence not only exerts striking ecological pressures on biodiversity at local scales but also has indirect effects in distant corners of the world. We suggest that the multibillion dollar cashmere industry creates economic motivations that link western fashion preferences for cashmere to land use in Central Asia. This penchant for stylish clothing, in turn, encourages herders to increase livestock production which affects persistence of over 6 endangered large mammals in these remote, arid ecosystems. We hypothesized that global trade in cashmere has strong negative effects on native large mammals of deserts and grassland where cashmere-producing goats are raised. We used time series data, ecological snapshots of the biomass of native and domestic ungulates, and ecologically and behaviorally based fieldwork to test our hypothesis. In Mongolia increases in domestic goat production were associated with a 3-fold increase in local profits for herders coexisting with endangered saiga (Saiga tatarica).That increasing domestic grazing pressure carries fitness consequences was inferred on the basis of an approximately 4-fold difference in juvenile recruitment among blue sheep (Pseudois nayaur)in trans-Himalayan India. Across 7 study areas in Mongolia, India, and China's Tibetan Plateau, native ungulate biomass is now <5% that of domestic species. Such trends suggest ecosystem degradation and decreased capacity for the persistence of native species, including at least 8 Asian endemic species: saiga, chiru (Pantholops hodgsoni), Bactrian camel (Camelus bactrianus), snow leopard(Panthera uncia), khulan(Equus hemionus), kiang (E. kiang), takhi (E. przewalski), and wild yak (Bos mutus). Our results suggest striking yet indirect and unintended actions that link trophic-level effects to markets induced by the trade for cashmere.

  17. Taxonomy Icon Data: Arabian camel [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Camelus+dromedarius&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy..._icon/icon.cgi?i=Camelus+dromedarius&t=NL http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_ic...on/icon.cgi?i=Camelus+dromedarius&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Camelus+dromedarius&t=NS ...

  18. Survey of hydatidosis infection in slaughtered camel (Camelus dromedarius) in Tabriz area, Northwest Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirzaei, Mohammad; Rezaei, Hadi; Nematollahi, Ahmad; Ashrafihelan, Javad

    2016-06-01

    Hydatid Disease is the name given to the condition caused by the zoonotic tapeworm Echinococcus granulosus. The tapeworm spends most of its adult life in the intestine of its definitive host, namely canids and in particular the dog. The tapeworm eggs become voided in the canids' faeces and as a result of ingesting the eggs, infection passes to the intermediate host, commonly herbivores while grazing. However, humans can become accidentally infected and hydatid cysts may develop throughout the body. During April 2010-February 2014, a total 198 camels, which had been sent to the abattoir, the daily number of hydatid infected livers and lungs of camels slaughtered at Tabriz abattoir were recorded. To be sure about the validity of recorded data, observed data were collected daily. Approximately 29 (14.64 %) of camels were infected according to this survey. Age wise, the prevalence of infection in young animals (under the age of 5 years) was 4 (2.02 %), whereas in animals between 5 and 10 years and over, the prevalence of infection was 11 (5.55 %) and 14 (7.07 %) respectively. Sex wise, female animals had a higher prevalence with 17 (19.76 %) cases in camels, whereas in the males, there were 12 (10.71 %) cases in camels. There was a notable difference found in our study between male and female animals (P industry. PMID:27413318

  19. Milk production potential, quality of raw milk and reproductive efficiency of dromedary camels (Camelus Dromedarius)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Old world camelids (Dromedary and Bactrian camels) are important source of milk in rural areas of many arid countries. However, extensive production system cannot guarantee constant quality and quantity raw milk for the market. Development of the world first large scale-camel milking farm in Dubai draws attention to camels as potential source for high quality milk and meat in developing countries. This presentation summarizes the development and results of the project. Animals: Intensive management and production require concentration of camels. Camels arrived to the farm from different countries of the region with variable age, condition and lactation stage resulting in great range in individual milk production. In practice, history of the purchased animals (health status, previous production) is not available. Despite the negative preconception, camels can be trained successfully to adopt the machine milking technology. Training takes 1-4 weeks depending on the background of the animal. So far we have trained more than 1400 camels for machine milking. Infectious disease control, general and udder health: Due to lack of history, it is extremely important to establish and maintain strict quarantine. Infectious diseases (Brucellosis, Tuberculosis, Surra, FMD etc.) are monitored with serological tests. The main problem is that most of the tests are not validated for camels and kits from different manufacturers may give controversial results. The prevalence of Brucellosis exceeded 30% in purchased animals from certain regions. Udder health is also monitored carefully. In previously hand milked, multiparous camels, teats are frequently enlarged/deformed or the udder is infected with pathogen bacteria (Str. agalactiae, Str. bovis, Corynebacterium amycolatum, Staph. aureus, etc.). In a recent survey, 21.8% (54 camels) of 248 new lactating animals were infected. These camels should be either rejected or treated before starting machine milking. Adaptation of milking technology, milk production, husbandry and management: first, milking parlour had to be designed that is comfortable and suitable for different sizes of camels. We have developed a 2 x 24 herringbone parlour. Commercially available, standard milking equipments is used but adapted to the physiology of dromedaries. Milking liners and claw were selected carefully or developed because of the anatomical features of camel udder. There is a great variation in size of teats between individuals (length: 7.1 ± 2.22 cm, mean ± SD, 2.93-16.0 cm). In addition, teats undergo significant increase in size (length by 50%) and volume (by 170%) during milk letdown. Camels have limited cistern volume so initiation of milk letdown reflex is crucial. Traditionally it is induced by the suckling effect of the calf, but this is impossible to do in the parlour. This fact highlights the importance of well-trained milkers who can carry out efficient manual udder and teat stimulation for a long time (mean ± SD: 123.2 ± 84.4 sec) and fast and also precise milking (mean ± SD: 126.9 ± 41.1 sec). At present, the average daily milk production per camel is 7.2 ± 0.14 kg (± SEM), mean length of lactation is 340 ± 7.9 d (± SEM) and mean total production per lactation is 2,467 ± 79.4 kg (± SEM). So far, the highest and lowest production were: lactation average 14.8 kg and 2.9 kg milk/d; total production 8002 kg and 919 kg; length of lactation 541 and 312 d, respectively. Dams and calves are kept in adjacent paddocks throughout lactation and are allowed together after each milking. Every day they go for a one-hour walk. Staff is trained to take care of the animals in a gentle way to provide low-stress environment. In return, camels are tame, easy to handle and cooperate well during all procedures (milking, nail cutting, rectal examination, blood collection, etc.). Food safety management system and quality of raw camel milk: In the UAE, all food producing establishment must implement minimum the HACCP system. We aimed to develop ISO 22000:2005 Food Safety Management System, which is in the fina

  20. Balantidium sp. in ostriches (Struthio camelus L., 1758) in the State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Nicole B Ederli Francisco Carlos R

    2008-09-01

    The aim of this work was report for the first time the occurrence of Balantidium sp. in ostriches reared in Rio de Janeiro state, Brazil. Feces samples from 82 ostriches were examined by the Ziehl-Neelsen technique and morphometric analyses were made of the cysts. The data were compared by a simple linear regression analysis. The cysts found ranged in size from 60.39 by 34.62 mm and 59.13 by 33.92 m in diameters. The spherical shape was confirmed by observing the shape index of 1.05 and r = 0.9630, which suggested there were cysts of different sizes with similar shapes. In spite of polymorphism, cysts measurements were uniform in their distribution, evidencing the possibility of a single species (R2 = 0.9274). The cysts were morphologically indistinguishable from the Balantidium sp. cysts already reported in ostrich feces or B. coli. This is the first report of parasitism by Balantidium sp. in ostriches in Brazil. In spite of the high Balantidium sp. frequency, no clinical sign was observed. PMID:20059871

  1. Production systems and reproductive performances of Camelus dromedarius in Somali regional state, eastern Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simenew Keskes

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Across-sectional questionnaire survey and focused group discussions were conducted to characterize camel production systems and to evaluate reproductive performances of camels at their natural pastoralist management systems of Somali region. A total of 100 households were included in the study during the period of October 2012 to March 2013. About 98% of Somali pastoralists preferred camels as their first choice over other livestock species and mainly kept in the society for milk and meat production. The camel management dominating in the study areas of Somali region is traditional nomadic. Camel is one of the most important livestock for Somali pastoralists’ livelihood as a source of milk, meat and draught power. Mature female camels were dominant (54.87% in the camel herd. The ratio of male to female camel was 1:13. Mean age at first calving and calving interval were 62.16±10.44 and 23.28±3.36 months respectively. Age at first calving and calving interval can be minimized to 57±5.52 and 21.84±4.8 months by proper husbandry and health care. The mean lactation length was 11.51±1.91 months. Diseases and predators were reported as the main causes of calf mortality. In the herd dynamic simulation calf mortality rate can be reduced at least to 7% only by preventing predators attack. Diseases (66%, lack of pasture (59% and security (47% were the main constraints in camel production of the study areas. For the better productivity of camels, the major constraints such as disease problems, lack of pasture and tribal conflicts should be mitigated. Proper husbandry and health services can play significant roles in the long term improvement of camel production and productivity of the region.  

  2. Acoustic input impedance of the avian inner ear measured in ostrich (Struthio camelus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muyshondt, Pieter G G; Aerts, Peter; Dirckx, Joris J J

    2016-09-01

    In both mammals and birds, the mechanical behavior of the middle ear structures is affected by the mechanical impedance of the inner ear. In this study, the aim was to quantify the acoustic impedance of the avian inner ear in the ostrich, which allows us to determine the effect on columellar vibrations and middle ear power flow in future studies. To determine the inner ear impedance, vibrations of the columella were measured for both the quasi-static and acoustic stimulus frequencies. In the frequency range of 0.3-4 kHz, we used electromagnetic stimulation of the ossicle and a laser Doppler vibrometer to measure the vibration response. At low frequencies, harmonic displacements were imposed on the columella using piezo stimulation and the resulting force response was measured with a force sensor. From these measurement data, the acoustic impedance of the inner ear could be determined. A simple RLC model in series of the impedance measurements resulted in a stiffness reactance of KIE = 0.20·10(12) Pa/m³, an inertial impedance of MIE = 0.652·10(6) Pa s(2)/m³, and a resistance of RIE = 1.57·10(9) Pa s/m. We found that values of the inner ear impedance in the ostrich are one to two orders in magnitude smaller than what is found in mammal ears. PMID:27473506

  3. The first report of peste des petits ruminants (PPR) in camels (Camelus dromedarius) in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakian, Amir; Nouri, Mohammad; Kahroba, Houman; Mohammadian, Babak; Mokhber-Dezfouli, Mohammad-Reza

    2016-08-01

    In mid-July 2013, an outbreak of peste des petits ruminants (PPR) was observed in a herd of camels after they were imported from Kuwait to the Khuzestan province in southwest of Iran. The clinical signs of the affected animals included sudden death, fever, oral erosion, and ecthyma like lesions, yellowish diarrhea, pneumonia and respiratory distress, enlargement of lymph node, severe dehydration, dermatitis, ulcerative keratitis, and conjunctivitis. Necropsy findings included keratoconjunctivitis, congestion and consolidation of the lung, paleness of the liver, and enlargement and edema of lymph nodes. Histopathological exam revealed degeneration and acute hyperemia of the lungs, fatty change and necrotic foci in the liver, tubular necrosis in the kidneys, and necrotic dermatitis. We used immunocapture enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) to confirm peste des petits ruminants virus (PPRV) and differentiate it from rinderpest virus. Then virus genome was studied by molecular analysis for detecting of strain and substrain of the virus. Immunocapture ELISA of all specimens reacted positively against PPRV antigens. Also, reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) results in the lung and lymph nodes of the dead camels consolidated the cause of disease to be PPRV. The present study is the first report of the PPRV outbreak in camels in Iran. PMID:27155951

  4. Differences in stride between healthy ostriches (Struthio camelus and those affected by tibiotarsal rotation : research note

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.G. Cooper

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Twenty healthy ostriches (ten cocks and ten hens, and twenty birds with tibiotarsal rotation (nine cocks and 11 hens (14 months old were isolated, hooded and weighed. A run (50m x 2.5 m was divided into sections marked 5m, 10m, 15m and 20 m. Time taken for each bird to pass these points was recorded and speed computed. The degree of tibiotarsal rotation in the right foot was mean + SEM, 156 + 2.69°. Comparisons between left and right foot length in healthy birds showed no significant differences. Foot length was significantly lower in tibiotarsal rotation (P=0.03. The right foot in tibiotarsal rotation was significantly shorter than the left foot. The number of strides per each 5 m division were significantly (P < 0.05 greater in tibiotarsal rotation by comparison with healthy birds. At 20 m, healthy cocks had more strides than hens. The stride length in hens was significantly (P < 0.05 greater than cocks at 5, 10 and 15 m, respectively, but lower throughout in tibiotarsal rotation (P = 0.001. The speed of hens was significantly (P < 0.05 greater than cocks. Tibiotarsal rotation resulted in significantly (P <0.05 reduced speeds. Hens may be able to escape danger faster than cocks. The occurrence of tibiotarsal rotation necessitates consideration of genetics, management, sex, nutrition and growth rates.

  5. Radiographic anatomy of the thoraco-abdominal cavity of the ostrich (Struthio camelus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W.M. Wagner

    2001-07-01

    Full Text Available This study provides a reference for the radiographic anatomy of the thoraco-abdominal cavity of female ostriches as a representative of ratites. One ostrich cadaver, 2 adult and 2 growing ostriches were used. Right lateral radiographs produced by a 6-frame technique and 2 dorsoventral radiographs produced by an adapted 3-frame technique were selected and schematic illustrations of these were labelled to illustrate normal radiographic anatomy. Differences from other avian species and unique features of the ostrich are briefly discussed.

  6. Some immuno-suppressive trends: Effects Of Endotoxin on Camels (Camelus dromedarius)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Intravenous administration of a bolus of 0.05 micron g/kg body weight endotoxin lipopolysaccharide (LPS) to camels has resulted in leukopenia, lymphopenia, neutropenia, proteinaemia, albunaemia , globulinaemia and reduced lysozomal enzyme activity. It is suggested that endotoxin at the dose of 0.05micron g/kg body weight may produce immunosuppressive effects in camels. (author)

  7. Ankyloglossia and its surgical correction by frenuloplasty in a she-camel calf (Camelus dromedarius)

    OpenAIRE

    Anwar, S.; Purohit, G.N.

    2012-01-01

    A rare case of ankyloglossia in a one-humped camel and its successful surgical correction by horizontal to vertical frenuloplasty is reported. Seven-month-old she-camel calf, with a history of excessive salivation and inability to chew and swallow hay, was referred to Al Qattara veterinary hospital. Solid food was regurgitated, whereas milkand water could be swallowed. On examination; the animal could not protrude its tongue which was attached by a thin tissue band between the ventral surfac...

  8. Caudal epidural analgesia using lidocaine alone or in combination with ketamine in dromedary camels (Camelus dromedarius

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omid Azari

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available This study was performed to investigate the analgesic effect of lidocaine and a combination of lidocaine and ketamine following epidural administration in dromedary camels. Ten 12–18-month-old camels were randomly divided into two equal groups. In group L, the animals received 2% lidocaine (0.22 mg/kg and in group LK the animals received a mixture of 10% ketamine (1 mg/kg and 2% lidocaine (0.22 mg/kg administered into the first intercoccygeal (Co1–Co2 epidural space while standing. Onset time and duration of caudal analgesia, sedation level and ataxia were recorded after drug administration. Data were analysed by U Mann-Whitney tests and significance was taken as p < 0.05. The results showed that epidural lidocaine and co-administration of lidocaine and ketamine produced complete analgesia in the tail, anus and perineum. Epidural administration of the lidocaine-ketamine mixture resulted in mild to moderate sedation, whilst the animals that received epidural lidocaine alone were alert and nervous during the study. Ataxia was observed in all test subjects and was slightly more severe in camels that received the lidocaine-ketamine mixture. It was concluded that epidural administration of lidocaine plus ketamine resulted in longer caudal analgesia in standing conscious dromedary camels compared with the effect of administering lidocaine alone.

  9. Endocardiosis and congestive heart failure in a captive ostrich (Struthio camelus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.A.G. Kubba

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available A seven-year-old blue-necked male ostrich was found dead after a few days of illness. The animal was living in an open yard of 25 square meters along with three other females. They were given concentrate-rich ration with free access to green leaves and water. Autopsy revealed cardiac enlargement due to left ventricular hypertrophy and right ventricular dilatation. The left aterioventricular valves were irregularly thickened and contracted. The lungs were engorged with blood and the liver had nutmeg appearance. The small intestine showed segmental sub-serosal petechial hemorrhages. Histological examination revealed myxomatous degeneration of the left aterioventricular valves, pulmonary congestion and edema, congestion of periacinar hepatic zone and fatty degeneration of outer zones, renal glomerulosclerosis and arteriosclerosis. The affected parts of the small intestine showed villous atrophy with lacteal distention. The venules in the affected intestinal segment were severely dilated while the arterioles had narrow lumen and irregular wall thickening with hyaline deposition. The current article reports an endocardiosis in ostrich and discusses other vascular disorders.

  10. Ankyloglossia and its surgical correction by frenuloplasty in a she-camel calf (Camelus dromedarius

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    S. Anwar

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available A rare case of ankyloglossia in a one-humped camel and its successful surgical correction by horizontal to vertical frenuloplasty is reported. Seven-month-old she-camel calf, with a history of excessive salivation and inability to chew and swallow hay, was referred to Al Qattara veterinary hospital. Solid food was regurgitated, whereas milkand water could be swallowed. On examination; the animal could not protrude its tongue which was attached by a thin tissue band between the ventral surface of the tongue and the floor of the oral cavity. The tissue band was corrected by frenuloplasty and the incisions were sutured. The animal recovered well as the salivation and regurgitation stopped and the animal became able to chew and swallow solid food including hay. It was concluded that ankyloglossia can occur in one-humped camel in which a horizontal to vertical frenuloplasty may improve fullfunction of tongue movement.

  11. Cryptosporidium infection in ostriches (Struthio camelus in Brazil: clinical, morphological and molecular studies

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    MMAB Santos

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Avian cryptosporidiosis has been reported in more than 30 species of birds. To date, the species infecting birds are C. baileyi, C. galli and C. meleagridis. In this study, the morphological, clinical and molecular characteristics of a Brazilian ostrich isolate of Cryptosporidium are described. The oocysts of this Brazilian isolate are larger and more elongated than those of Cryptosporidium previously reported in ostriches, which were morphologically similar to C. meleagridis. Morphological, biological and molecular analyses demonstrated similarity of this ostrich isolate with C. baileyi, suggesting that there are at least two Cryptosporidium species infecting ostriches; one with molecular, biological and morphological characteristics related to C. baileyi, and another morphologically similar to C. meleagridis.

  12. Serosurvey of selected avian pathogens in brazilian commercial Rheas (Rhea americana and Ostriches (Struthio camelus

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    OC de Freitas Neto

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Ratite farming of has expanded worldwide. Due to the intensive farming methods used by ratite producers, preventive medicine practices should be established. In this context, the surveillance and control of some avian pathogens are essential for the success of the ratite industry; however, little is known on the health status of ratites in Brazil. Therefore, the prevalence of antibodies against Newcastle Disease virus, Chlamydophila psittaci, Mycoplasma gallisepticum, Mycoplasma synoviae, and Salmonella Pullorum were evaluated in 100 serum samples collected from commercial ostriches and in 80 serum samples from commercial rheas reared in Brazil. All sampled animals were clinically healthy. The results showed that all ostriches and rheas were serologically negative to Newcastle disease virus, Chlamydophila psittaci, Mycoplasma gallisepticum, and Mycoplasma synoviae. Positive antibody responses against Salmonella Pullorum antigen were not detected in ostrich sera, but were detected in two rhea serum samples. These results can be considered as a warning as to the presence of Salmonella spp. in ratite farms. Therefore, the implementation of good health management and surveillance programs in ratite farms may contribute to improve not only animal production, but also public health conditions.

  13. Effect of egg weight on ostrich (Struthio camelus chick weight and growth

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    Gianluca Picco

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to evaluate the effects of the age of ostriches and month of laying on egg production and chickgrowth. On a small ostrich farm egg production, egg incubation and chick growth from hatching to 56 days of age wererecorded from 2000, when the breeders were 5 years old, until 2002. Ostriches were kept in groups and fed commercialfeed. In all, 568 eggs were laid and weighed at laying and during incubation (at 15th and 30th day of incubation, while353 chicks were weighed at hatching, 7, 14, 28 and 56 days of age.The female’s productivity was calculated assuming a laying of 3.5 eggs per week and ranged between 45% and 48%.The fertility was around 70% with a peak of 74% recorded in 2001. The hatchability of all eggs was higher than 62%with a peak of 72% in 2001, while the hatchability of fertile eggs was higher than 90%. In each year the number of eggslaid increased from March to July, productivity showed a positive trend from May to June, while the fertility and hatchabilityof all eggs, as well as fertile eggs, was unaffected by year and month. As the hens aged, the egg mass grew constantlywith an increase of about 8%. During the first 30 days of incubation the egg weight decreased with the percentagesof weight loss around 10.0%. At hatching, the weight of chick ranged between 765 g and 847 g, respectively, in2000 and 2002. Egg weight influenced the hatching weight showing a linear relationship (R2=0.84. The effect of eggweight on the chick weight decreased as the chick grew. At 56 days of age, only the effect of year is significant. Themonth of laying did not demonstrate any effect on chicken weight.

  14. A preliminary study on normal electrocardiographic parameters of ostriches (Struthio camelus

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    A. Rezakhani

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Electrocardiograms were taken from 100 normal healthy male and female ostriches which were 1 to 15 months old using a base apex lead. The heart rate of those less than 3 months old ranged from 107 to 250 beats per minute with a mean of 171.47+9.03 and that of ostriches of more than 3 months old ranged from 43 to 167 with a mean of 90.52+2.64 beats / minute. The P-waves were positive in all cases except in 1 ostrich which it was isoelectric. The ORS complexes were mainly negative and either monophasic (QS or biphasic (rS or RS. The T-wave showed more variation than other waves. The durations of P, P-R, QRS, Q-T and T-waves of chicks and of those more than 3 months of age (4-15-month-old were 0.04 + 0.00, 0.06+0.00; 0.14+0.04, 0.16+0.00; 0.04+0.00, 0.06+0.00; 0.18+0.00, 0.27+0.00 and 0.06+0.00, 0.09+0.01 s, respectively, and amplitudes of the main direction of P-, QRS and T- waves of 2 groups were 0.29 + 0.02, 0.26 + 0.01; 1.87 + 0.17, 2.21 + 0.08; and 0.34 + 0.06, 0.37 + 0.02 mV, respectively. Ten cases showed cardiac dysrhythmias of which 9 showed sinus arrhythmia and 1 showed premature atrial contractions (PAC. This study showed that the base apex lead can be a suitable monitoring lead for electrocardiographic examination of ostriches.

  15. Ultra-structure of adipocytes in the digital cushion of ostrich (Stuthio Camelus foot pad

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    Amira Eid Derbalah

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The ultra-structural examination of adipocytes in the digital cushion of ostrich foot pad was performed to reveal the structural adaptation of adipocytes and elastic fibers of digital cushion to accommodate with fast movement of this unique bird. Two types of adipocytes were found, the first type was typical signet ring cells which had large fat droplets whose dimension dwarfed the cell organelles. The second type was diffused form with oval shaped adipocytes. Microfibillar aggregates of elastic fibers were closely packed and appeared to bead in a regular fashion. Some of this microfibrillar was reshaping adipocytes by making invagination of their plasma membrane.

  16. Histological Analysis Of Selected Muscles In Ostrich ( Struthio camelus var.dom.

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    Svätoslav Hluchý

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available We found that the percentage of individual muscle components show statistically significant differences in all analyzed muscles. More α-red fibers were found in m. iliotibialis lateralis and m. femorotibialis externus, while abundance of white (α-white muscle fibers was very low. Unlike other species of birds (turkey, chicken, geese in all studied muscles, proportion of all red fibers (a-red and b-red greatly exceeded the proportion of white muscle fibers (a-white . Adipose tissue content in individual muscles ranged from 0.0% (m. iliotibialis lateralis to 1.67% (m gastrocnemius.

  17. Cardiomyopathy in ostriches (Struthio camelus) due to avocado (Persea americana var. guatemalensis) intoxication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burger, W P; Naudé, T W; Van Rensburg, I B; Botha, C J; Pienaar, A C

    1994-09-01

    Nine out of 120 ostriches died from congestive heart failure within 96 h of ingesting avocado leaves and immature fruit in an avocado orchard containing Hass and Fuerte cultivars. Foliage and immature fruit from both cultivars dosed to ostriches (n = 4) and domestic hens (n = 8) resulted in severe cardiomyopathy in all the ostriches. In the hens, which had received a lower dose, milder lesions occurred. Macroscopically the intoxication in ostriches resulted in a severe anasarca of the neck and ventral body. The cardiomyopathy was characterised by degeneration and necrosis of myocytes, a marked infiltration of heterophils and in one case, early fibroplasia.

  18. Gross anatomical features of the oropharyngeal cavity of the ostrich (Struthio camelus

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    Catarina Tivane

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Most descriptions of the ostrich oropharynx and oesophagus are superficial and supply little meaningful morphological data. The aim of this investigation is describe the ostrich oropharingeal cavity, in order to supply the deficiency of macroscopic data about this important animal. Five heads of 12 to 14-month-old ostriches of either sex were anatomically dissected to expose the oropharynx. The ostrich oropharynx was "bell-shaped" composed by the maxillary and mandibular ramphoteca. The roof and floor presented two distinct regions different in colour of the mucosa. The rostral region was pale pink contrasting to creamy-pink coloured caudal region. The median longitudinal ridge extended rostrally from the apex of the choana to the tip of the beak in the roof and it is clearly more prominent and rigid than the homolog in the floor that appeared thin and stretched rostrally, continuing caudally surrounding the tongue and the laryngeal mound eventually merging with the oesophageal mucosa. The floor was formed by the interramal region, tongue and laryngeal mound containing shield-shaped glottis. It can be concluded that the present study, in addition to confirming the basic features of the oropharynx previously described for the ostrich, clarified the contradictory information presented in the literature and also provided new, unreported morphological data, some of which may be important when studying nutrition and health in these birds.

  19. One-Humped Camel (Camelus dromedarius Infestation withLinguatula serrata in Tabriz, Iran

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    HR Haddadzadeh

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available "n "nBackground: Linguatula serrata is one of well known members of Pentastomida which infects both human and animals. The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of L. serrata in mesenteric lymph nodes, livers and lungs of camels slaughtered in Tabriz area, Iran. "n "nMethods: Mesenteric lymph nodes (MLNs, livers and lungs of 140 one-humped camels slaughtered in Tabriz, north-west of Iran were investigated for nymphs of L. serrata from July 2007 to June 2008. The organs were examined macroscopically and then a tissue digestion method was also done for investigation of liver and lung of the camels that had infected MLN. The liver and lung samples were mostly taken from condemned and rejected part of organs. "n "nResults: The infection rate of L. serrata nymphs in MLNs, livers and lungs was 13.5%, 1.4% and 1.4% respectively. The number of isolated nymph in infected lymph nodes varied from 2 to 18 with a mean of 4.78. Only one nymph was isolated from each infected livers and lungs. The infection rate increased with age (p<0.05. No significant difference in different sex groups and seasons was observed (p>0.05. "n "nConclusion: Considering this fact that consumption of undercooked camel liver was not common in the studied area, the zoonotic importance of this infection should be concluded.

  20. Epidemiological study of hydatidosis in the dromedaries (Camelus dromedarius) of different regions of Iran

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Moghaddas Elham; Borji Hassan; Naghibi Aboul Ghasem; Razmi Gholamreza; Shayan Parviz

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To determine the prevalence of hydatidosis in dromedaries.Methods:2011. The relationship between host age and the mean number of hydatid cysts, and prevalence and fertility rates was analyzed using chi-square test.Results:438 dromedaries were examined in five regions of Iran from 20 March, 2010 to 19 March, Echinococcus granulosus. Number of cysts was 700 with 72.5% lung cyst. The highest rate of infection was that 54 (40%) of camels was found in the Khorasan Razavi region (in the north-east part of Iran) while the lowest 6 (4.4%) of camels was found in Semnan province. Infection was higher in >15 years age group. The most commonly infected organs were lungs (72.5%) followed by liver (12.6%). Both liver and lungs together constituted 14.8% of infection. A comparison found that hydatid cysts of liver had a higher fertility rate (32.57%) than that of lung (19%); while most of cysts of lung were calcified (24.42%). The mean number of protoscoleces per mL in the lung fertile cysts was higher than that of liver cysts. Fertile or sterile might be due to the different species or genotypes. The mean number of cysts in infected liver and lungs was 1-5 cysts. The intensity of infection increased with age.Conclusions:The results of current study can make a background data for implementing hydatid One hundred and thirty five out of 438 (30.82%) camels harboured hydatid cysts of control programs and warrant the importance of camel in public health.

  1. A preliminary study on normal electrocardiographic parameters of ostriches (Struthio camelus)

    OpenAIRE

    Rezakhani, A; H. Komali; M.R. Mokhber-Dezfoul; M. Zarifi; M. Ghabi; N Alidadi; M.G. Nadalian

    2007-01-01

    Electrocardiograms were taken from 100 normal healthy male and female ostriches which were 1 to 15 months old using a base apex lead. The heart rate of those less than 3 months old ranged from 107 to 250 beats per minute with a mean of 171.47+9.03 and that of ostriches of more than 3 months old ranged from 43 to 167 with a mean of 90.52+2.64 beats / minute. The P-waves were positive in all cases except in 1 ostrich which it was isoelectric. The ORS complexes were mainly negative and either mo...

  2. Ocorrência de ectoparasitos em avestruzes (Struthio camelus criadas no semi-árido baiano Occurence of ectoparasites in ostriches (Struthio camelus reared in semi-arid region of Bahia

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    Maria Ângela O. Almeida

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available No período de maio a agosto de 2005, foram visitados 19 planteis de avestruzes na região semi-árida do município de Irecê, Bahia, objetivando identificar os ectoparasitos. As aves, predominantemente da raça "African Black", eram criadas em sistema intensivo e distribuídas, por faixa etária, em colônias, trio, casal ou creche. Durante a inspeção das aves, as plumas colhidas aleatoriamente, de várias regiões do corpo, foram acondicionadas em sacos plásticos e as larvas, colhidas das miíases, em álcool etílico a 70%. Em 74% (14/19 e 47% (04/19 dos plantéis encontravam-se avestruzes infestadas, respectivamente, pelas espécies Struthiopterolichus bicaudatus e Struthiolipeurus rheae. Somente em um plantel (5,3% foi encontrado um animal parasitado por larvas de Cochliomyia hominivorax.In the period of May to August of 2005, 19 ostrich's farms were visited in the semi-arid area of the Irecê, Bahia, in order to describe the ectoparasites. The African Black ostriches were reared in intensive system, and distributed for age group, in colonies, trio, couple or crèche. In each farm, after visually inspection of the ostrich, the feathers were taken in several areas of the body and were kept in plastic bags. The screwworms found were collected and stored in 70% ethanol. In 74% (14/19 and 47% (04/19 of the flocks were found ostriches infested, respectively, for the Struthiopterolichus bicaudatus (acari and Struthiolipeurus rheae (mallophaga. In only one flock (5.3% it was found an animal with Cochliomyia hominivorax larvae.

  3. Diagnóstico microbiológico e histopatológico de mortalidade em avestruzes (Struthio camelus Microbiological and histological diagnosis in mortality of ostrich (Struthio camelus

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    O. Vieira-da-Motta

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Several young ostrich, including nestlings, with lassitude and inappetence followed by death or victim of sudden death were immediately brought to diagnosis at an Animal Health Laboratory. At necropsy, animals presented hemorrhage and altered content of the vitelline sac, and necrotic foci in the small intestine; one animal showed necrotic pleuropneumonia with psammomatosus bodies in the lung parenchyma. The cultures from different samples revealed Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Serratia marcescens, Enterobacter aglomerans, and Pseudomonas mendocina. It was suggested one case of septicemia in an animal with exclusive growth of K. pneumoniae isolated from samples of small intestine, lung, and liver.

  4. Registro de Struthiopterolichus sculpturatus e Struthiolipeurus rheae em Struthio camelus no Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil Record of Struthiopterolichus sculpturatus and Struthiolipeurus rheae in Struthio camelus in the Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil

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    Tatiana Cheuiche Pesenti

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Avestruzes são ratitas originárias da África, sendo encontradas no Brasil, principalmente, em criatórios comerciais, os quais vêm se expandido no país devido ao potencial reprodutivo e alto valor comercial de seus produtos como carne, couro, gordura, plumas e ovos. Porém, as parasitoses são causas de grandes prejuízos econômicos e morte nesses criatórios. Em consequência disso, objetivou-se identificar os ectoparasitos que acometem avestruzes de criatórios comerciais no Rio Grande do Sul. Para tanto, foram coletadas, ao acaso, amostras de plumas e cabeças de 34 avestruzes, durante o abate, no frigorífico de Júlio de Castilhos, Rio Grande do Sul (RS. As amostras de plumas, as cabeças e as fossas nasais foram lavadas, individualmente, com água contendo detergente. Em seguida, o material foi tamisado em malha 150µm e examinado ao estereomicroscópio para coleta dos ectoparasitos. Nas plumas, foram encontrados piolhos e ácaros, os quais foram clarificados em salicilato de metila e lactofenol, respectivamente, e identificados como Struthiolipeurus rheae e Struthiopterolichus sculpturatus. Este é o primeiro registro de ocorrência desses ectoparasitos em avestruzes no Rio Grande do Sul.Ostriches are originated from Africa, and in Brazil they are mostly found in commercial farms which are developing in Brazil due to the great reproductive potential and the great economic value of its products that include meat, leather, feathers and eggs. However, parasitosis causes death of the birds and economic failure. Therefore, the aim of this research was to identify these ectoparasites that infect ostriches from commercial farms in the Rio Grande do Sul state, Brazil. Feathers and heads were collected randomly from 34 ostriches slaughtered in the city of Julio de Castilhos, RS. The feathers, heads and nasal cavity were individually cleaned in water with detergent. Following this, the material was sieved in a 150µm sieve and examined by stereomicroscope to search for ectoparasites search. Lice and mites were found in the feathers. The lices were clarified using metil salicilate and the mites by lactophenol. The lices were identified as Struthiolipeurus rheae and the mites as Struthiopterolichus sculpturatus. This is the first description of these arthropods in ostriches in Rio Grande do Sul.

  5. The antigenicity-allergenicity of camel milk proteins (camelus dromedarus) in BALB/c mice after oral sensitization

    OpenAIRE

    Dalal, R.; N. Youcef; Mezemaze, F; Saidi, D; KHEROUA, O.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: When the breastfeeding is not possible or not wished, it is usually replaced by cow's milk or by some conventional cow’s milk-based infant formulas. However these proteins can involve at certain subjects pathological manifestations like the cow's milk allergy (CMA). The substitution of cow's milk by other treated milk, called "hypoallergenic", is currently the only alternative. The using of the camel milk, species taxonomically far away from the cow can be considered...

  6. Changes in cumulus-oocyte complexes of pregnant and non-pregnant camels (Camelus dromedarius) during maturation in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torner, H; Heleil, B; Alm, H; Ghoneim, I M; Srsen, V; Kanitz, W; Tuchscherer, A; Fattouh, E M

    2003-09-15

    The aim of the present study was to examine the cumulus morphology and the oocyte chromatin quality of camel cumulus-oocyte complexes (COCs) at the time of recovery, and to monitor changes in oocyte chromatin configuration and apoptosis in cumulus cells from camel COCs during in vitro maturation (IVM) (0, 12, 24, 32, 36, 42, and 48 p.IVM) depending on pregnancy of donors. A total of 1023 COCs were isolated from sliced ovaries after slaughtering of 47 pregnant and 43 non-pregnant camels in an abattoir. The mean number of COCs per donor was 10.3 in pregnant and 12.5 in non-pregnant donors. The cumulus morphology of COCs was independent of the type of donor and was divided in COCs with compact (26.9 and 28%), dispersed (39.3 and 46%), corona radiata cumulus investment (27.9 and 21.7%) and without cumulus (6 and 4.2%), respectively for pregnant and non-pregnant donors. The highest proportion of COCs exhibited dispersed cumulus (P50% were found only in compact (55 and 56.5%) and in dispersed COCs (58.4 and 60%), respectively for pregnant and non-pregnant donors. During IVM (0-48h) the first significant onset of specific meiotic stages were different in oocytes from pregnant donors: metaphase 1 (24-32h), metaphase 2 (36-42h), versus oocytes from non-pregnant donors: metaphase 1 (24h), metaphase 2 (32-48h) (P50% metaphase 2 stage in comparison to oocytes from non-pregnant donors where 32h are sufficient. The earlier onset of apoptosis in the COCs derived from non-pregnant donors possibly determines the faster progression of the oocytes through the final stages of meiosis. PMID:12935874

  7. Serological evidence of MERS-CoV antibodies in dromedary camels (camelus dromedaries) in laikipia county, Kenya

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.L. Deem (Sharon L.); E.M. Fèvre (Eric); M. Kinnaird (Margaret); A.S. Browne (A. Springer); D. Muloi (Dishon); G-J. Godeke (Gert-Jan); M.P.G. Koopmans D.V.M. (Marion); C.B.E.M. Reusken (Chantal)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractMiddle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) is a recently identified virus causing severe viral respiratory illness in people. Little is known about the reservoir in the Horn of Africa. In Kenya, where no human MERS cases have been reported, our survey of 335 dromedary camels

  8. KEFIRS MANUFACTURED FROM CAMEL (CAMELUS DRAMEDARIUS MILK AND COW MILK: COMPARISON OF SOME CHEMICAL AND MICROBIAL PROPERTIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Kavas

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the production possibilities of kefir from fresh camel milk fermented with grain. The findings were then compared with kefir manufactured from cow’s milk. Cow’s milk was fermented with 2.5% grains. The 1% (v/w glucose enriched camel’s milk was fermented with 10% grains and left in an incubator at 25°C. Physical-chemical and sensorial analyses of the kefir sampleswere measured on day one (18 hours of storage and microbiological analyses were measured on days one, three and five. Some physical-chemical parameters were found to be higherin camel milk and its kefir than in cow milk and its kefir, some were found to be close and some were found to be lower. Addition of 1% glucose and 10% grains to the camel milk affected the titrationacidity and viscosity of kefir to significant levels. The kefir produced from camel milk was perceived as sourer, whereas its other properties were found to be close to those of cow milk. Thecholesterol levels of camel milk and its kefir were detected to be higher when compared to those of cow milk and its kefir, but the cholesterol level decreased in both examples after the productionof kefir. In terms of the composition of fatty acids, it was determined that SFA and the small, medium chain fatty acids ratio was low in camel milk and its kefir, but MUFA and the long chainfatty acids ratio was high. PUFA ratio was high in camel milk but low in its kefir. In microbiological analysis, yeast levels increased in kefir samples with the Lactobacillus ssp. strains, and theincrease in the number of yeasts was higher than in the cow milk kefir. In kefir samples, Lactobacillus ssp. strains increased on day one and three of storage, but diminished after day three.

  9. Ostrich ( Struthio camelus ) Infected with H5N8 Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza Virus in South Korea in 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hye-Ryoung; Kwon, Yong-Kuk; Lee, Youn-Jeong; Kang, Hyun-Mi; Lee, Eun-Kyoung; Song, Byung-Min; Jung, Suk-Chan; Lee, Kyung-Hyun; Lee, Hyun-Kyoung; Baek, Kang-Hyun; Bae, You-Chan

    2016-06-01

    Highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) virus of the H5N8 subtype was isolated from a young ostrich in South Korea in March 2014. Clinical signs characterized by anorexia, depression, and signs of nervousness were observed. The isolated A/ostrich/Korea/H829/2014 (H5N8) virus had a cleavage site motif containing multiple basic amino acids, typical of HPAI virus. The phylogenetic tree of the hemagglutinin gene of the H5 HPAI virus showed that this ostrich H5N8 virus belongs to clade 2.3.4.4 viruses together with H5N8 strains isolated from ducks and wild birds in South Korea in 2014. Pathologically, redness of pancreas, enlargement and hemorrhage of spleen, friability of brain, and hydropericardium were prominently found. Histologic legions were observed in pancreas, spleen, liver, lung, heart, and brain, and influenza A nucleoproteins were detected in the same organs by immunohistochemistry. Other ostriches farmed together in open camps were not infected with HPAI virus based on the serologic and virologic tests. The findings indicate that ostriches are susceptible to H5N8 HPAI virus, but this virus does not spread efficiently among ratites. PMID:27309301

  10. Risk factors and molecular typing of Toxoplasma gondii isolated from ostriches (Struthio camelus) from a Brazilian slaughterhouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Rodrigo Costa; Langoni, Helio

    2016-07-30

    Toxoplasma gondii has a worldwide distribution with different genotypes reported in animals and humans. The parasite is of great importance to food production and public health, highlighted by the high diversity of hosts, i.e. ostriches. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of T. gondii infection in ostriches from a Brazilian slaughterhouse, the genotype, and the associated risk factors. T. gondii antibodies were detected in 38/344 (11.05%) serum samples using the modified agglutination test using formalin-fixed tachyzoites (MAT-HS); the parasite was isolated from 14/38 (36.84%) ostrich brain samples using the mouse bioassay; and the DNA was detected from 25/38 (65.79%), using PCR. In farms, the water tank was considered the main risk factor (OR=141.87; p-valueoocysts were detected in 30% (6/20) in soil of paddocks before animals were slaughtered (1st sampling), and 40% (8/20) one-year after (2nd sampling) using microscopy and PCR. Non-ostrich fecal samples on the ground resulted negative. Bioassay isolation was confirmed by PCR. All PCR positive samples were sequenced and resulted in 100% homology to Toxoplasma gondii repetitive DNA sequence (GenBank access number EF648168-1). These samples were also typed through RFLP-PCR using 11 markers: SAG1, SAG2 (5'-3'SAG2 and alt.SAG2), SAG3, BTUB, GRA6, L358, c22-8, c29-6, PK1, Apico and CS3. Two isolates had a complete genotype, typed from the ostrich tissue. In ostrich samples, the parasite load ranged from 19,043 (TgOsBr1, avirulent) to 54,829 parasitesmL(-1) (TgOsBr2, virulent) using qPCR, whereas soil samples ranged from 11 to 2,275 parasitesmL(-1). Both typed isolates resulted on atypical clones, one previously reported to cause congenital toxoplasmosis in Brazilian patients (TgOsBr1, ToxoDB #206). Thus, these findings support the occurrence of T. gondii in slaughtered ostriches from Brazil, ostriches as sentinel for environmental contamination with T. gondii, the genotypic variability in Brazilian isolates, and the first isolation and genotyping of T. gondii from Brazilian slaughtered ostriches. PMID:27369578

  11. Morphological studies on the seasonal changes in the epididymal duct of the one-humped camel (camelus dromedarius

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed El-Zuhry Zayed

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The present work was carried out on 20 testes and epididymis of sexually mature camels to elucidate the gross anatomical, morphometerical, light microscopical and scanning electron microscopical features of the epididymis in different seasons. Anatomically, the epididymal duct of a camel consists of three parts head, body and tail. Histomorphologically, the epididymal duct is subdivided into initial, middle and terminal segments, of which the middle segment is further subdivided into proximal, intermediate and distal parts. There is a gradual decrease in the epithelial height of the epididymal duct from the initial to the terminal segments. This mechanically facilities passage of the sperms toward the terminal segment. High epithelium in the initial segment may indicate a more absorptive power of the epithelium in this segment. The seasonal reproductivety of the epididymal duct in the camel expressed by variations in the weight and volume of the epididymis, total diameter of the epididymal duct, epithelial height, length of the stereocilia, thickness of the muscular coat and cellular distributions in different segments. The spring months offer ideal circumstances for maximal reproductive activity in this species. The cellular components of the epididymal duct epithelium of the camel displays important morphological changes from season to another showing signs of increasing activity during spring in comparison to decreasing activity in other seasons. PAS positive granules are demonstrated in different segments of the epididymal duct and intraepithelial glands in different seasons. These granules are relatively more numerous in spring. The lamina propria surrounding the epididymal duct contains a layer of the elastic fibers which is very thick in winter, thick in spring and thin in other seasons. This increase in thickness of the elastic fibers predisposes for the increase in the total diameter of the epididymal duct in spring. It was conclude that the muscular coat of the middle and terminal segments is the thickest in spring that may be helpful for powerful ejaculation.

  12. Description of an outbreak of highly pathogenic avian influenza in domestic ostriches (Struthio camelus) in South Africa in 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Helden, L S; Sinclair, M; Koen, P; Grewar, J D

    2016-06-01

    In 2011, the commercial ostrich production industry of South Africa experienced an outbreak of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI), subtype H5N2. Surveillance using antibody and antigen detection revealed 42 infected farms with a between-farm prevalence in the affected area of 16%. The outbreak was controlled using depopulation of infected farms, resulting in the direct loss of 10% of the country's domestic ostrich population. Various factors in the ostrich production system were observed that could have contributed to the spread of the virus between farms, including the large number of legal movements of ostriches between farms, access of wild birds to ostrich camps and delays in depopulation of infected farms. Negative effects on the ostrich industry and the local economy of the ostrich-producing area were observed as a result of the outbreak and the disease control measures applied. Prevention and control measures applied as a result of avian influenza in South Africa were informed by this large outbreak and the insights into epidemiology of avian influenza in ostriches that it provided, resulting in stricter biosecurity measures required on every registered ostrich farm in the country. PMID:27237385

  13. Feasibility of utilising an infrared-thermographic technique for early detection of subclinical mastitis in dairy camels (Camelus dromedarius).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samara, Emad M; Ayadi, Moez; Aljumaah, Riyadh S

    2014-02-01

    Despite the proven ability of infrared thermography (IRT) technology for early detection of subclinical mastitis in dairy cows/sheep/goats, studies on its diagnostic feasibility in dairy camels are lacking. Sixty-five lactating camels in mid lactation, machine milked twice-daily and managed under intensive conditions were screened to evaluate the feasibility of utilising IRT compared with other routine indicators in detecting subclinical mastitis. Immediately before the morning milking, a portable infrared camera was used to obtain thermograms in duplicate for the front and rear left quarters to determine the udder surface temperature (UST). Thereafter, milk samples from quarters were collected, and processed for California mastitis test (CMT) score and somatic cell count (SCC). In the present study, CMT score was used to define subclinical mastitis and the feasibility of IRT to detect subclinical mastitis was compared with CMT and SCC. According to CMT score, subclinical mastitic udders had an average UST of 1·42 °C greater (P<0·0001) than healthy udders. The relationship between UST and CMT was found to be highly correlated (r=0·77; P<0·001), and UST was linearly increased as the CMT increased [UST (°C)=34·86+0·66×CMT score; R 2=0·65; P<0·001]. Additionally, high correlations were obtained between UST and SCC score (r=0·75; P<0·001) and the relationship between UST and SCC was fitted best to a logarithmic equation [UST, °C=33·39+0·88×Log (SCC, ×103 cells/ml), R 2=0·61, P<0·001]. The cut-off value, sensitivity, specificity and area under the receiver operating characteristics (ROC) curve for UST were 35·15 °C, 0·90, 0·98, and 0·95, respectively, when subclinical mastitis was defined according to CMT score, and were 35·70 °C, 0·89, 0·96 and 0·94, respectively, when categorised according to the obtained SCC threshold (SCC=432 000 cells/ml). In conclusion, IRT, as an indirect non-invasive screening method, was highly feasible for distinguishing subclinical mastitic udders in dairy camels, which is crucial to treat mastitis early and efficiently. PMID:24331516

  14. Systematization, description, and territory of the caudal cerebral artery in surface of the brain of the ostrich (Struthio camelus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nazer, Manoel; Campos, Rui

    2014-08-01

    Brain specimens from 30 ostriches were injected with red-dyed latex via the internal carotid arteries, and the caudal cerebral arteries and their branches were systematically described. On the right side, the caudal cerebral artery was double-, triple-, quadruple-, and single-branched in 73.5%, 23.3%, 3.3%, and 3.3% of cases, respectively; on the left side, it was double-, triple-, quadruple-, and single-branched in 76.7%, 20%, 3.3%, and 3.3% of cases, respectively. The dorsal tectal mesencephalic artery appeared as a single vessel in 96.7% of cases, emerging as a collateral branch of the caudal cerebral artery. The dorsal mesencephalic tectal artery originated from the right dorsal cerebellar artery in 40% of cases and from the left side in 63.3% of cases. On the right side, there were four and three medial occipital hemispheric branches in 46.7% and 20% of cases, respectively; on the left side, there were four and three branches in 30% and 26.7% of cases. On the right side, the pineal artery was double-, single-, triple-, and quadruple-branched in 50%, 23.3%, 20%, and 6.7% of cases, respectively; on the left side, this artery was double-, single-, triple-, and quadruple-branched in 50%, 23.3%, 16.7%, and 10% of cases, respectively. The diencephalic artery was on the right side in 43.3% of cases and on the left side in 56.7% of cases. The interhemispheric artery was on the right side in 56.7% of cases and on the left side in 43.3% of cases; four, three, two, five, and one dorsal hemispheric trunks branched off of the interhemispheric artery in 40%, 40%, 10%, 6.7%, and 26.7% of cases, respectively. The caudal cerebral artery was classified as Type I in 56.7% of cases (subtype IA in 33.3% of cases and IB in 23.3% of cases), Type II in 40% of cases (subtype IIA in 20% of cases and IIB in 20% of cases), and Type III in 3.3% of cases.

  15. Dromedaries (Camelus dromedarius) are of Low Susceptibility to Inoculation with Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus Serotype O

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alexandersen, Søren; Wernery, U.; Nagy, P.;

    2008-01-01

    ,,; of illness or vesicular lesions. However, one of them had a raised body temperature at 3 days post-inoculation (pi) and a viraemia from days 2 to 10; probang samples from this animal were negative for infections virus, but a low level of FMDV RNA was detected in a sample taken on day 6 pi, five other samples......Two sheep and five dromedaries were inoculated with a highdose of a cattle-passaged type O strain of foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV). The sheep developed typical FMD. The inoculated camels, which were placed in contact with five further dromedaries and four sheep, showed no visible sign...... taken front days 3 to 28 being negative. Examination of mouth swabs indicated a low level of FMDV RNA at days 1-5 pi in four of the five inoculated camels, but no infectious FMDN7 or FMDV RNA was detected in serum, probang or month swab samples front contact-exposed animals (camels and sheep). All...

  16. Experimental assessment of the pathogenicity of two avian influenza A H5 viruses in ostrich chicks (Struthio camelus) and chickens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manvell, R.J.; Jørgensen, Poul Henrik; Nielsen, O.L.;

    1998-01-01

    Virus excretion, immune response, and, for chickens, deaths were recorded in 3-week-old ostriches and chickens inoculated by either the intramuscular or intranasal route with one of two influenza A viruses of subtype H5, One of the viruses, A/turkey/England/50-92/91 (H5N1) (50/92), was highly....... No significant clinical signs mere seen in any of the ostriches infected with either of the viruses by either route of infection. Both viruses were recoverable from both species up to 12 days post-infection, and low serological responses were detected in surviving infected ostriches and chickens at 21 days after...... pathogenic for chickens causing 5/5 deaths by each route of inoculation, The other virus, A/ostrich/Denmark-Q/72420/96 (H5N2) (72420/96), isolated from ostriches in quarantine in Denmark during 1996, was of low pathogenicity for chickens, causing no clinical signs by either route of inoculation...

  17. Studies on Liquefaction Time and Proteins Involved in the Improvement of Seminal Characteristics in Dromedary Camels (Camelus dromedarius

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    Gorakh Mal

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Semen was collected from six dromedary camels using artificial vagina during rutting season. Liquefaction of the viscous semen occurred in 23.89±1.49 h. During liquefaction, proteins with molecular masses of 24.55 kDa and 22.07 kDa appeared in conjunction with the disappearance of intact 26.00 kDa protein after 18–24 h. These proteins were identified as β-nerve growth factors (β-NGFs in liquefied camel semen. Guanidine-HCL improves the rheological characteristics of dromedary camel semen along with significant (P<0.01 increase in sperm motility. No significant differences were found in viability of spermatozoa indicating no visible detrimental effects on spermatozoa. The cause of semen viscosity, as well as proteins that are present in liquefied dromedary camel seminal plasma, is described for the first time.

  18. Studies on Liquefaction Time and Proteins Involved in the Improvement of Seminal Characteristics in Dromedary Camels (Camelus dromedarius)

    OpenAIRE

    Gorakh Mal; Sumant Vyas; Alagiri Srinivasan; Nitin Vasant Rao Patil; Krishan Murari Lal Pathak

    2016-01-01

    Semen was collected from six dromedary camels using artificial vagina during rutting season. Liquefaction of the viscous semen occurred in 23.89 ± 1.49 h. During liquefaction, proteins with molecular masses of 24.55 kDa and 22.07 kDa appeared in conjunction with the disappearance of intact 26.00 kDa protein after 18–24 h. These proteins were identified as β-nerve growth factors (β-NGFs) in liquefied camel semen. Guanidine-HCL improves the rheological characteristics of dromedary camel semen a...

  19. Studies on Liquefaction Time and Proteins Involved in the Improvement of Seminal Characteristics in Dromedary Camels (Camelus dromedarius).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mal, Gorakh; Vyas, Sumant; Srinivasan, Alagiri; Patil, Nitin Vasant Rao; Pathak, Krishan Murari Lal

    2016-01-01

    Semen was collected from six dromedary camels using artificial vagina during rutting season. Liquefaction of the viscous semen occurred in 23.89 ± 1.49 h. During liquefaction, proteins with molecular masses of 24.55 kDa and 22.07 kDa appeared in conjunction with the disappearance of intact 26.00 kDa protein after 18-24 h. These proteins were identified as β-nerve growth factors (β-NGFs) in liquefied camel semen. Guanidine-HCL improves the rheological characteristics of dromedary camel semen along with significant (P semen viscosity, as well as proteins that are present in liquefied dromedary camel seminal plasma, is described for the first time. PMID:27022505

  20. The Arabian camel Camelus dromedarius heat shock protein 90α: cDNA cloning, characterization and expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saeed, Hesham; Shalaby, Manal; Embaby, Amira; Ismael, Mohammad; Pathan, Akbar; Ataya, Farid; Alanazi, Mohammad; Bassiouny, Khalid

    2015-11-01

    Heat shock protein 90 (Hsp90) is a highly conserved ubiquitous molecular chaperone contributing to assisting folding, maintenance of structural integrity and proper regulation of a subset of cytosolic proteins. In the present study, a heat shock protein 90α full length coding cDNA was isolated and cloned from the Arabian one-humped camel by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). The full length cDNA sequence was submitted to NCBI GeneBank under the accession number KF612338. The sequence analysis of the Arabian camel Hsp90α cDNA showed 2202bp encoding a protein of 733 amino acids with estimated molecular mass of 84.827kDa and theoretical isoelectric point (pI) of 5.31. Blast search analysis revealed that the C. dromedarius Hsp90α shared high similarity with other known Hsp90α. Comparative analyses of camel Hsp90α protein sequence with other mammalian Hsp90s showed high identity (85-94%). Heterologous expression of camel Hsp90α cDNA in E. coli JM109 (DE3) gave a fusion protein band of 86.0kDa after induction with IPTG for 4h.

  1. Relationship between udder morphology traits, alveolar and cisternal milk compartments and machine milking performances of dairy camels (Camelus dromedarius

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Ayadi

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available A total of 22 dairy dromedary camels under intensive conditions in late lactation (275±24 days were used to study the relationship between external and internal udder morphology and machine milking performances. Measurements of udder and teat morphology were obtained immediately before milking and in duplicate. Individual milk yield, lag time and total milking time were recorded during milking, and milk samples were collected and analyzed for milk composition thereafter. Cisternal and alveolar milk volumes and composition were evaluated at 9 h milking interval. Results revealed that dairy camels had well developed udders and milk veins, with medium sized teats. On average, milk yield as well as milk fat and protein contents were 4.80±0.50 L d-1, 2.61±0.16% and 3.08±0.05%, respectively. The low fat values observed indicated incomplete milk letdown during machine milking. Lag time, and total milking time were 3.0±0.3, and 120.0±8.9s, on average, respectively. Positive correlations (p<0.05 were observed between milk yield and udder depth (r=0.37, distance between teats (r=0.57 and milk vein diameter (r=0.28, while a negative correlation was found with udder height (r=-0.25, p<0.05. Cisternal milk accounted for 11% of the total udder milk. Positive correlations were observed between total milk yield and volume of alveolar milk (r=0.98; p<0.001 as well as with volume of cisternal milk (r=0.63, p<0.05. Despite the low udder milk storage capacity observed in dairy camels, our study concluded that the evaluated dromedary sample had adequate udder morphology for machine milking. Finally, positive relationships were detected between milk yield and udder morphology traits of dairy camels.

  2. Adaptation of Camelus dromedarius pars nervosa of the hypophysis to winter and summer living conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatma Zohra Djazouli Alim

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work is to study the characteristics of the dromedary nervous lobe and determine how the seasons condition its organization. To this end, electron microscopy was performed and examined quantitatively on animals from winter and summer periods. The results show a higher number of cells in the nervous lobe in summer than in winter. The most abundant glial elements in winter are light pituicytes engulfing neurosecretory nerve fibers making neuroglial contact, and dark pituicytes containing numerous heterogeneous light bodies. In summer, the most distinctive glial cells may be pituicytes in a phagocytic state making contact with characteristic large light bodies that could represent a degenerative process of large neuropeptide storage. Granular pituicytes were also observed in contact with glial and neuronal components. However, lipid droplets, described in pituicytes of other mammals, were not observed in our samples. Quantitative analysis of neurovascular contacts revealed that the number of nerve terminals contacting the basal lamina did not differ between summer
    and winter, but the mean number of glial processes increased in winter. Our data provides evidence that the storage of neuropeptides is very marked in summer and that, associated with an autophagic and phagocytic phenomenon, this suggests an adaptation to anticipate any situation that would cause dehydration of the dromedary. Thus, in its tough environment, the animal remains permanently prepared to avoid any large water loss.

  3. Sero-Virological studies on Newcastle Disease and Avian Influenza in Farmed Ostriches (Struthio camelus in Saudi Arabia

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    Salah Shaban Abdelrhman

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Two hundred and sixteen samples (80 Tracheal swabs and 136 blood serum were collected from four commercial ostrich farms in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia for isolation of Newcastle disease (ND and Avian Influenza (AI viruses or detection of their antigens and antibodies by RT-PCR and Enzyme Linked Immune Sorbant Assay (ELISA respectively. Neither AI and ND viruses nor their antigens were isolated or detected in any of the collected swabs samples. Also, Antibodies to avian influenza virus were not detected in the collected serum samples. Antibodies to ND virus were detected in 0.0%, 80.0%, 74.1%, and 80.0% in serum samples from farms 1, 2, 3 and 4, respectively. Mean ND ELISA antibody titer were 0.0, 646.3, 1068.5 and 1440.5 in farms 1, 2, 3 and 4, respectively. Ostriches vaccinated with live ND vaccine by drinking water were negative for ND antibodies, while ostriches vaccinated with live ND vaccine by spray method and boosted by inactivated oil emulsion ND vaccine gave the highest immune response. Ostriches vaccinated with inactivated oil emulsion ND vaccine (4x chicken dose/ostrich elicited effective immune response and transferred maternal antibodies to ostrich chicks at the rate of 85.7% and 66.7% with mean ELISA antibody titer of 1450.5 and 1350.15 at 7 and 21 day old, respectively

  4. ORIGEM E DISTRIBUIÇÃO DA ARTÉRIA CELÍACA DE AVESTRUZES (Struthio camelus

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    Bruno Gomes Vasconcelos

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The exploration of ostriches aims at trading meat, feathers, leather and grease. The digestive system is intimately related to productivity, and the celiac artery is amongst the major vessels responsible for its nutrition. The artery´s origin and distribution was studied here. In 30 specimens, the left ischiatic artery was cannulated for the injection of a blood vessels marker solution and then fixed in formalin solution 10% via deep intramuscular, subcutaneous and intracavitary applications. We concluded that this artery originated from the descending aorta, its first branch is ventral and it headed for the right side sending branches to: esophagus, proventriculus, ventriculus, spleen, liver, gallbladder, pancreas, duodenum, ileum, left and right cecum.

  5. A note on endoparasites of wild ostriches (Struthio camelus in the Mokolodi Nature Reserve, Gaborone, Botswana : short communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.Z. Mushi

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available A study was undertaken to investigate the prevalence of endoparasites of wild ostriches at Mokolodi Nature Reserve, Gaborone, over a 7-month period. Large numbers of strongyle eggs were recovered from faecal material in April and September and a decline in the strongyle egg counts was evident during June and July. Noteworthy was the absence of helminth eggs in faecal samples collected from chicks and coccidia oocysts from any of the ostriches.

  6. Induction of sexual activity in male and female farmed ostriches (Struthio camelus with GnRH implant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni M. Lacalandra

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The annual photoperiodic changes are the most important factor controlling the reproductive activity in birds. A single subcutaneous implant of a slow-release GnRH analogue induced the seasonal reproductive activity in both sex of farmed ostriches. Significant increase in annual egg production and clutch number compared with control group were observed.

  7. Ultrastructural features of the uterus in the sexually immature ostrich (Struthio camelus during periods of ovarian inactivity and activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M-C. Madekurozwa

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available The ultrastructure of the surface epithelium and tubular glands of the uterus in the immature ostrich is described. In ostriches with inactive ovaries the uterus is lined by a non-ciliated simple columnar epithelium, with basally located heterochromatic nuclei. Scanning electron microscopy revealed that these non-ciliated cells have a dense microvillous cover. A simple columnar to pseudostratified columnar epithelium, comprised of non-ciliated and ciliated cells, lines the uterus in birds with active ovaries. The ciliated cells possess a wide luminal region, which contains a nucleus and various organelles. An accumulation of secretory granules was observed in the apical regions of the non-ciliated cells, as well as in a few ciliated cells. In addition to non-ciliated and ciliated cells, a cell type with rarefied cytoplasm was also identified. These cells appear to correspond to calcium secreting cells identified in other avian species. The results of this study indicate that, although uterine differentiation is present in immature ostriches with active ovaries, the production of secretory product appears to occur mainly in non-ciliated epithelial cells.

  8. Distribution and Structure of Purkinje Fibers in the Heart of Ostrich (Struthio camelus with the Special References on the Ultrastructure

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    Paria Parto

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Purkinje fibers or Purkinje cardiomyocytes are part of the whole complex of the cardiac conduction system, which is today classified as specific heart muscle tissue responsible for the generation of the heart impulses. From the point of view of their distribution, structure and ultrastructural composition of the cardiac conduction system in the ostrich heart were studied by light and electron microscopy. These cells were distributed in cardiac conducting system including SA node, AV node, His bundle and branches as well as endocardium, pericardium, myocardium around the coronary arteries, moderator bands, white fibrous sheet in right atrium, and left septal attachment of AV valve. The great part of the Purkinje fiber is composed of clear, structure less sarcoplasm, and the myofibrils tend to be confined to a thin ring around the periphery of the cells. They have one or more large nuclei centrally located within the fiber. Ultrastructurally, they are easily distinguished. The main distinction feature is the lack of electron density and having a light appearance, due to the absence of organized myofibrils. P-cells usually have two nuclei with a mass of short, delicate microfilaments scattered randomly in the cytoplasm; they contain short sarcomeres and myofibrillar insertion plaque. They do not have T-tubules.

  9. RELATO DE CASO: DISSECÇÃO AÓRTICA PROXIMAL EM AVESTRUZ (Struthio cameluS

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    REIS, M. A.

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available A female ostrich died suddenly was submitted to the autopsy and the gross lesions observedwere hematoma in the pericardiac cavity, concentrical hypertrophy of the left ventricle, dissecting aortic aneurysmof thoracic segment and pulmonary hemorrhage. After histopathologic studies and hepatic cooper concentration,we had consider arterial hypertension as the major factor of risk to the aortic dissection.Um avestruz fêmea, vítima de morte súbita, foi submetido à necropsia em que foram observados,macroscopicamente, hematoma na cavidade pericárdica, hipertrofia concêntrica do ventrículo esquerdo, hematomaintramural dissecante da aorta proximal e hemorragia pulmonar. Após estudos histopatológicos e dosagem daconcentração do cobre hepático, considerou-se a hipertensão arterial como principal fator de risco para a dissecçãoaórtica.

  10. Hematological and serum biochemical aspects associated with a camel(Camelus dromedarius)naturally infected by Trypanosoma evansi with severe parasitemia in Semnan,Iran

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mahmood; Ahmadi-hamedani; Khosro; Ghazvinian; Mohammad; Mehdi; Darvishi

    2014-01-01

    Objective:To determine the presence of Trypanosoma eransi(T.evansi) and the effect of trypanosomosis on hemato-biochemical profile of dromedary camels in Semnan,Iran,which has not been reported yet.Methods:To perform this project,blood samples were collected by venipuncture into plain and EDTA-K2-containing vacutainer tubes from 21 dromedary camels(12 males and 9 females) aged3—18 years,from 4 different regions of Semnan.Results:Microscopic examination of stained thin blood smears revealed the presence of T.evansi in one of the samples.However,it should be noted that this sample showed a very high parasitemia(more than 5 trypomastigote were visible per microscopic field with MGG,1000×.This heavy parasitemia was associated with an 18-year-old female camel that showed symptoms of corneal opacity,intense emaciation and pale mucous membranes.Comparison of hematological and serum biochemical profiles between the camel infected by T.eransi and uninfected camels indicated anemia,leukocytosis,hyperproteinemia.hypoalbuminemia,hyperglobulinemia,reduction A/G ratio,increased a,,p and globulins and decreased of a,globulins and increased the concentration of gumma-glutamyl transferase enzyme.Conclusions:Results of the present study revealed that trypanosomosis was present in dromedary camels of Semnan,Iran(infection rate is 4.76%) and hemato-biochemical parameters were markedly affected by camel trypanosomosis.

  11. The influence of high dietary protein, energy and mineral intake on deficient young camel (Camelus dromedarius)--II. Changes in mineral status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faye, B; Saint-Martin, G; Cherrier, R; Ruffa, A

    1992-06-01

    1. Mangrove Avicennia marina is poor in some trace elements such as copper, zinc and manganese. In a trial we used 32 young camels divided into four groups. 2. Groups 1 and 3 were supplemented with copper and zinc in drinking water after 1 month of mangrove feeding. 3. Groups 2 and 3 received concentrate rich in protein and energy. The supplementation was stopped after 2 months. 4. All the camels were deficient in trace elements at the beginning of mineral supplementation. 5. The plasma concentration of copper increased significantly up to normal levels (less than 70 micrograms/100 ml) in energy protein supplemented groups, but the quantity supplied (100 mg of copper sulphate/day) was not sufficient to maintain this level after the end of supplementation. 6. The original zinc deficiency was too severe to observe a significant effect of the mineral supplementation. 7. Calcium, magnesium and phosphorus levels were improved during the supplementation period in protein-energy supplemented groups. 8. A high interaction between mineral absorption and quality of the diet was observed. A well-balanced diet seems essential to avoid deficient mineral status.

  12. Molecular cloning and phylogenetic analysis of integrins alpha v beta 1 and alpha v beta 6 of one-humped camel (Camelus dromedarius)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Du, Junzheng; Larska, Magdalena Larska; Chang, Huiyun;

    2010-01-01

    , and 787 amino acids, respectively. The dromedary camel integrin alpha v, beta 1, and beta 6 subunit shares common structural and functional elements with their counterparts from the other species. Phylogenetic trees showed that the dromedary camel alpha v, beta 1, and beta 6 were clustered...

  13. Hematological and serum biochemical aspects associated with a camel (Camelus dromedarius) naturally infected by Trypanosoma evansi with severe parasitemia in Semnan, Iran

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mahmood Ahmadi-hamedani; Khosro Ghazvinian; Mohammad Mehdi Darvishi

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To determine the presence of Trypanosoma evansi (T. evansi) and the effect of trypanosomosis on hemato-biochemical profile of dromedary camels in Semnan, Iran, which has not been reported yet. Methods:To perform this project, blood samples were collected by venipuncture into plain and EDTA-K2-containing vacutainer tubes from 21 dromedary camels (12 males and 9 females) aged 3-18 years, from 4 different regions of Semnan. Results: Microscopic examination of stained thin blood smears revealed the presence of T. evansi in one of the samples. However, it should be noted that this sample showed a very high parasitemia (more than 5 trypomastigote were visible per microscopic field with MGG, 1 000×). This heavy parasitemia was associated with an 18-year-old female camel that showed symptoms of corneal opacity, intense emaciation and pale mucous membranes. Comparison of hematologyical and serum biochemical profiles between the camel infected by T. evansi and uninfected camels indicated anemia, leukocytosis, hyperproteinemia, hypoalbuminemia, hyperglobulinemia, reduction A/G ratio, increasedα1,βand globulins and decreased ofα2 globulins and increased the concentration of gamma-glutamyl transferase enzyme. Conclusions: Results of the present study revealed that trypanosomosis was present in dromedary camels of Semnan, Iran (infection rate is 4.76%) and hemato-biochemical parameters were markedly affected by camel trypanosomosis.

  14. The prevalence of Linguatula serrata nymphs in mesenteric and mediastinal lymph nodes in one-humped camels (Camelus dromedarius) slaughtered in Rafsanjan slaughterhouse, Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Bamorovat, Mehdi; Zarandi, Mehdi Borhani; Mostafavi, Mahshid; Kheirandish, Reza; Sharifi, Iraj; Radfar, Mohammad Hossein

    2013-01-01

    Linguatula serrata is a well-known zoonotic parasite belonging to the order of Pentastomida which infects both human and animals. Human can be infected by both the nymph stage, causing a disease condition called nasopharyngeal linguatulosis or halzoun syndrome and the egg, a condition called visceral linguatulosis. The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of nymphal stages of L. serrata in mesenteric and mediastinal lymph nodes of one-humped camels slaughtered in Rafsanjan slaught...

  15. Isolation and characterization of avian paramyxovirus type 1 (Newcastle disease) viruses from a flock of ostriches (Struthio camelus) and emus (Dromaius novaehollandiae) in Europe with inconsistent serology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Poul Henrik; Herczeg, J.; Lomniczi, B.;

    1998-01-01

    of Newcastle disease in back yard poultry ire Denmark. Blood samples were taken from all live birds in the flock after 25 and 95 days of quarantine and all were negative for antibodies to APMV-1 in haemagglutination inhibition tests. All samples taken after 95 days of quarantine were also negative...

  16. Microbiological quality and somatic cell count in bulk milk of dromedary camels (Camelus dromedarius): descriptive statistics, correlations, and factors of variation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagy, P; Faye, B; Marko, O; Thomas, S; Wernery, U; Juhasz, J

    2013-09-01

    The objectives of the present study were to monitor the microbiological quality and somatic cell count (SCC) of bulk tank milk at the world's first large-scale camel dairy farm for a 2-yr period, to compare the results of 2 methods for the enumeration of SCC, to evaluate correlation among milk quality indicators, and to determine the effect of specific factors (year, season, stage of lactation, and level of production) on milk quality indicators. The study was conducted from January 2008 to January 2010. Total viable count (TVC), coliform count (CC), California Mastitis Test (CMT) score, and SCC were determined from daily bulk milk samples. Somatic cell count was measured by using a direct microscopic method and with an automatic cell counter. In addition, production parameters [total daily milk production (TDM, kg), number of milking camels (NMC), average milk per camel (AMC, kg)] and stage of lactation (average postpartum days, PPD) were recorded for each test day. A strong correlation (r=0.33) was found between the 2 methods for SCC enumeration; however, values derived using the microscopic method were higher. The geometric means of SCC and TVC were 394×10(3) cells/mL and 5,157 cfu/mL during the observation period, respectively. Somatic cell count was >500×10(3) cells/mL on 14.6% (106/725) and TVC was >10×10(3) cfu/mL on 4.0% (30/742) of the test days. Both milk quality indicators had a distinct seasonal pattern. For log SCC, the mean was lowest in summer and highest in autumn. The seasonal pattern of log TVC was slightly different, with the lowest values being recorded during the spring. The monthly mean TVC pattern showed a clear difference between years. Coliform count was CMT score (r=0.26), and between log TVC and CC in yr 1 (r=0.30). All production parameters and stage of lactation showed strong seasonal variation. Log SCC was negatively correlated with TDM (r=-0.35), AMC (r=-0.37), and NMC (r=-0.15) and positively correlated with PPD (r=0.40). Log TVC had a negative correlation with AMC (r=-0.40) but a positive correlation with NMC (r=0.32), TDM (r=0.16), and PPD (r=0.45). The linear mixed model with stepwise variable selection showed that the main sources of log SCC variation were PPD, TDM, PPD × season, and season. For log TVC, the same factors and year contributed to the variation. PMID:23849636

  17. Comparison of California Mastitis Test (CMT), Somatic Cell Counts (SCC) and bacteriological examinations for detection of camel (Camelus dromedarius) mastitis in Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel Gadir Atif, E; Hildebrandt, Goetz; Kleer, Josef N; Molla, Bayleyegn; Kyule, Moses N; Baumann, Maximilian P O

    2006-01-01

    A total of 956 quarter milk samples from 253 traditionally managed lactating camels were collected aseptically from Negele (Borena Region), Dire Dawa, and Gewane (Afar Region), Ethiopia, according to multi-stage sampling. The quarter milk samples were subjected to California Mastitis Test (CMT), Somatic Cell Counts (SCC) and bacteriological examinations. Five hundred and seventy one (59.7%) quarter milk samples had microorganisms. Of these, 428 (75.0%) had isolates that were identified as major pathogens (MAP) and 143 (25.0%) as minor pathogens (MIP). A positive correlation was found between CMT scores and bacteriological classes (MAP, MIP) (p-value = 0.00). Strong correlation (p-value = 0.00) between CMT scores and SCC was recorded. The differences among the median log SCC of bacteriological classes (MAP, MIP) were not significant (p-value = 0.24). Similarly, the application of the cut-off level of 2.5 x 10(5) ml(-1) indicated less agreement (p-value = 0.32) for bacteriological classes MAP and MIP. PMID:16450708

  18. Comparative studies on genital infections and antimicrobial susceptibility patterns of isolates from camels (Camelus dromedarius) and cows (Bos indicus) in Maiduguri, north-eastern Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mshelia, Gideon Dauda; Okpaje, Godfrey; Voltaire, Yepmo Andre Casimir; Egwu, Godwin Onyeamaechi

    2014-01-01

    A total of 160 genitalia of Camels and cows were investigated in Maiduguri, north-eastern Nigeria to compare bacterial isolates and the antibacterial susceptibilities of some of the isolates. Streptococcus (Str.) pyogenes (31%), Escherichia (E.) coli (24%) and Staphylococcus (S.) aureus (20%) were the most common vaginal bacterial isolates in camels; while E. coli (73%), Str. pyogenes (18%) and S. aureus (11%) were the most frequent isolates in the cows. Of the 78 uterine isolates recovered in this study, E. coli was the most prominent in camels (8%) and cows (54%). The overall weight of genital infection in all camels and cows examined was highest (P  0.05) between vaginal and uterine bacterial isolates from camels and cows in this study. The Relative Risk (RR) for an infection of the vagina with E coli (3.04, 95% Confidence Interval (CI): 2.104 to 4.398, P < 0.0001) is more in cows compared to the camel, but the RR for vaginal infection with S. aureus and Str. pyogenes were lower in cows compared to Camels. The E. coli and S. aureus isolates were highly susceptible to the antimicrobial agents tested. Therefore effective management of reproductive disorders associated with these pathogens can be achieved with proper use of these antimicrobial agents in these animal species. PMID:24570857

  19. Histomorphometric study of the prenatal development of the kidney of one-humped camel (camelus dromedarius in north-westhern Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Bello

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed at investigating the prenatal development of the kidney of the camel using standard histomorphometric methods. In the experiment, fifteen foetuses obtained from Sokoto metropolitan abattoir at different gestational ages were used for the study. The fetuses were weighed and grouped and aged. In all the foetuses the kidneys were bean-shaped with smooth external surface and thick fibrous capsule which becomes thicker with advancement of gestational age. Well developed ureters and distinct renal pelvis were evident at all stages of development. In each gestational age, values of the weight, length, width and volume of the kidney were determined. In addition the periodic differentiation of the cortex and medulla; their significance in relation to the renal histodiffrentiation was discussed. Histological sections showed evidence of collecting duct system that are numerous and extensively coiled in the cortex and medulla of the third trimester kidneys. This is an indication of the ability of the kidney to concentrate urine, in accordance with the counter-current mechanism of the kidney collecting system. It was suggested that the kidney’s of the camel possesses the anatomical features for the production of hypertonic urine owing with the adaptive behavior of desert animals. Thick capsule that increases in thickness was also noticed in the kidneys.

  20. A comparison of the efficacy of doramectin, closantel and levamisole in the treatment of the 'oriental eye fluke', Philophthalmus gralli, in commercially reared ostriches (Struthio camelus : short communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Mukaratirwa

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Commercially reared ostriches at Msengi farm situated in the Chinhoyi area of Mashonaland West province in Zimbabwe were found to be infected with the 'oriental eye fluke', Philopthalmus gralli, in 2001. This was the 1st record of the fluke in Zimbabwe. Trials were conducted to identify a suitable drug for the treatment of this fluke. A total of 12 ostriches confirmed to be infected with the fluke through clinical examination of the eyes and identification of the fluke were randomly divided into 3 equal groups, with each group receiving a different treatment protocol. The 3 drugs used were doramectin, levamisole and closantel. Each of the drugs was used in combination with chloramphenicol as an eye ointment. Levamisole was administered topically into the eye whereas doramectin and closantel were administered parenterally as an intramuscular injection. The results indicated a positive response in levamisole-treated birds but there were no noticeable responses to doramectin and closantel treatments.

  1. Atividade folicular ovariana em avestruz (Struthio camelus avaliada por ultrassonografia e sua relação com fotoperíodo e postura

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.C. Pezoa Poblete

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the experiment was to verify, through ultrasonography, the follicular activity of ostriches in different seasons of the year, correlating them with photoperiod, number of rainy days in each month and egg laying. Eight females were evaluated monthly, during 12 consecutive months in an ostrich farm located in the Center-West of Minas Gerais, Brazil. It was found that the time of the year for egg laying lasts for eight months, from June to January. The egg laying was positively correlated (r = 0.48; P<0.01 with photoperiod. However, there was no correlation between the egg laying and the follicular activity with the amount of rain. Considering the technique adopted, the right antimere offered better ultrasonographic access. The method was efficient for ovary follicular evaluation in the ostrich, offering adequate subsidies for the evaluation of the reproductive activity of the female.

  2. Preliminary results on the use of diagnostic ultrasonography as a management tool to quantify egg production potential in breeding ostrich (Struthio camelus australis females

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Lambrechts

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available An ostrich breeding flock, joined as individual breeding pairs (n = 136 pairs, was used to investigate the possibility of diagnostic ultrasonography as a method to predict the reproductive performance of ostrich females during a breeding season. Follicular activity was easily detected and quantified by using diagnostic ultrasonography. One to 8 follicles were recorded in 25 % of females scanned at the beginning of the 9-month breeding season. At the end of the breeding season, 1-3 follicles were observed in 28.7 % females. Females in which follicular activity was observed came into production earlier than those in which no follicles were observed, with the mean (±SE number of days to the production of the 1st egg being 22.3 ± 12.5 and 87.4 ± 7.2 days, respectively. Females in which follicular activity was observed at the beginning of the breeding season, produced on average 181 % more eggs during the 1st month of the breeding season (P < 0.01 than females in which no follicular activity was observed (6.67 ± 0.70 vs 2.37 ± 0.41 eggs. Egg production over the first 2 months of breeding and over the entire breeding season were similarly affected (P <0.01, with the mean number of eggs produced over the first 2 months of the breeding season being 14.7 ± 1.5 for females with observed follicular activity and 7.4 ± 0.9 eggs for females with no observed follicular activity. Females in which follicular activity was observed at the end of the breeding season produced on average 108 % more eggs (P<0.01 during the last month of the breeding season than females in which no follicular activity was observed (2.77 ± 0.43 vs. 1.33 ± 0.27 eggs. There was a tendency (P = 0.06 for egg production over the last 2 months to be similarly affected (6.10 ± 0.85 vs 4.19 ± 0.54 eggs. No relationship with egg production over the entire breeding season was found for the end-of-the-breeding-season observations. Diagnostic ultrasonography can thus be used as a management tool to identify reproductively healthy ostrich females and also females with a higher egg production potential over a period of 2 months after or prior to assessment. Future studies should focus on the development of the technique to predict reproductive performance over entire breeding seasons for selection purposes.

  3. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U12466-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available sicae, tobacc... 42 0.043 2 ( AB254867 ) Struthio camelus CHD mRNA for chromodomain helica... 52 0.053 1 ( M...id:none) Kluyveromyces lactis strain NRRL... 129 2e-28 AF059276_1( AF059276 |pid:none) Struthio camelus chro

  4. Struthiolipeurus rheae Harrison, 1916 (Phthiraptera: Philopteridae infestando avestruzes (Struthio camelus em uma criação no Município de Três Rios, RJ Struthiolipeurus rheae Harrison, 1916 (Phthiraptera: Philopteridae infesting ostriches (Struthio camelus in one farming in the Municipality of Três Rios, RJ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thais F. Fagundes

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available No Brasil, a criação de avestruzes foi iniciada no final do Século XX, para suprir o mercado internacional de carne, plumas e couro. As plumas têm importância econômica nos setores industrial e artesanal. Os piolhos podem causar prurido intenso, que, dependendo da intensidade de infestação, pode levar à depreciação das plumas. No Estado do Rio de Janeiro, são desconhecidas as espécies de piolhos que infestam avestruzes. Assim, o objetivo deste trabalho foi identificar os piolhos que ocorrem nas aves pertencentes a um criatório comercial no Município de Três Rios. Nos anos de 2003 a 2006, mensalmente, as avestruzes foram examinadas, para verificar a presença de ectoparasitos. Quando constatada a infestação, algumas plumas foram retiradas, colocadas em sacos plásticos e enviadas ao laboratório para exame. Após serem coletados das plumas, os ectoparasitos foram examinados ao microscópio estereoscópio, clarificados em hidróxido de potássio a 10%, desidratados em álcool etílico e montados em lâmina com balsamo do Canadá natural, para observação em microscópio óptico. Baseando-se na observação das características, foi possível determinar os espécimes coletados como pertencentes à espécie Struthiolipeurus rheae.In Brazil ostriches farming began at the end of 20th Century, to supply the international market of meat, feathers and leather. Feathers are economically important to industry and artisanal sectors. Lice can cause intense pruritus that depending on the intensity of infestation can lead to depreciation of feathers. In Rio de Janeiro there are unknown species of lice infesting ostriches. Thus the objective of this study was to identify the lice that happen in birds from commercial farms in the Municipality of Três Rios. From 2003 to 2006 ostriches were monthly examined for the presence of ectoparasites. When infestations were detected some feathers were removed, placed into plastic bags and sent to the laboratory for further analysis. After removed from feathers, ectoparasites were examined using a stereoscope, followed by clarification in 10% potassium hydroxide and dehydrated in ethanol. Permanent slides were mounted in natural Canada balsam for observation in optical microscope. Based on observed characteristics, it was possible to determine that collected specimens belong to the species Struthiolipeurus rheae.

  5. O tamanho do ovo não prediz o desenvolvimento físico de avestruzes (Struthio camelus aos quinze dias de idade The size of the egg does not predict the physical development of ostriches (Struthio camelus at fifteen days old

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriano Braga Brasileiro de Alvarenga

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available O tamanho dos ovos está relacionado com a sobrevivência e o crescimento de filhotes de aves precociais. A inter-relação entre ovo e filhote pode ser importante para a produção animal, fornecendo subsídios para decisões estratégicas de economia, manejo e bem-estar animal. Este estudo analisou a relação entre o peso dos ovos antes da incubação e o desenvolvimento de filhotes de avestruzes (N=48 aos quinze dias de idade. Os filhotes foram criados em grupos, em berçários, com alimentação comercial e sem cuidado parental. Nos filhotes, mensurou-se o peso, a altura da cernelha e o comprimento do tarso-metatarso. Houve uma significativa diferença nos pesos dos ovos, mas as medidas corporais equivalentes dos filhotes não foram estatisticamente diferentes. Em concordância com estudos em outras espécies de aves, o peso do ovo não parece influenciar o crescimento dos filhotes de avestruzes até os 15 dias de vida, em avestruzes.The size of the eggs is related to survival and chick growth in precocial birds. The interrelationship between egg and chick development can be important for the animal production, supplying data for strategic decisions of economy, handling and animal welfare. This study analyzed the relation between the weight of the eggs and the development of ostrich chicks (N=48 at age of fifteen days old. The chicks were kept in indoor nurseries, in groups, without parental care, and fed commercial feed. It was recorded the weight, the back height and the length of the tarsus-metatarsus. There was a significant difference in the weight of the eggs, but the correspondent body chicken measures were not statistically different. In agreement to the studies in other species of birds, the weight of the egg does not seem to influence the growth of the ostriches at fifteen days old.

  6. Anatomia do sistema porta renal e suas implicações no emprego de agentes anestésicos na contenção de avestruzes (Struthio camelus Anatomy of the renal portal system and its implications for the use of anesthetic agents in the restraint of ostriches (Struthio camelus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haley Silva de Carvalho

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se com este estudo caracterizar a anatomia do sistema porta renal e verificar sua influência sobre o protocolo anestésico xilazina, tiletamina e zolazepam na contenção de avestruzes, por comparação da administração dos fármacos nos músculos da perna ou da asa. Em cinco animais foi injetado látex nas veias femorais no sentido de drenagem e, posteriormente, as aves foram fixadas em formol a 10%, por 72 horas. Em uma ave, procedeu-se à localização, colheita e fixação das valvas portais renais em formol a 10%. O sistema porta renal apresentou-se constituído por duas veias portais renais craniais, duas veias portais renais caudais e seis valvas portais renais. Na contenção química, seis avestruzes foram pré-tratados com xilazina (1mg kg-1 e, decorridos 10 minutos, receberam tiletamina/zolazepam (6mg kg-1. Os animais foram manipulados em duas ocasiões diferentes, sendo que na primeira anestesia o protocolo foi administrado nos músculos da base das asas (GI e, após 15 dias, os mesmos animais receberam o protocolo nos músculos das pernas (GII. Os períodos de latência, hábil e de recuperação não foram diferentes entre os grupos (P>0,05. A freqüência cardíaca permaneceu abaixo dos valores basais durante a anestesia (PThis study was aimed at characterizing the anatomy of the renal portal system, and determining its influence on the anesthetic protocol xylazine, tiletamine and zolazepam, in the restraint of ostriches, compared with the administration of drugs into the leg or wing muscles. Latex was injected into the femoral veins of five animals, for drainage purposes, and the birds were then fixed in 10% formaldehyde, for 72 hours. In one bird, the renal portal valves were located, collected and fixed in 10% formaldehyde. The renal portal system consisted of two cranial renal portal veins, two caudal renal portal veins, and six renal portal valves. In the chemical restraint, six ostriches were anesthetized with xylazine (1mg kg-1 and after 10 minutes, tiletamine/zolazepam (6mg kg-1. The animals were handled on two different occasions: in the first anesthesia, the protocol was administered into the muscles at the base of the wings (GI and after 15 days, the same animals received the protocol in the leg muscles (GII. The periods for the onset and duration of the anesthesia, and recovery, showed no difference between the groups (P>0.05. The heart rate remained below the basal values during the anesthesia (P<0.05, in both groups. The cloacal temperature increased in both groups, particularly in GII, leading to an increased respiratory rate to facilitate heat loss. Since the chemical restraint was adapted for procedures of short duration in the field in the ostriches of both groups, it was not possible to demonstrate the influence of the renal portal system.

  7. Comparação do efeito do ácido etilenodiaminotetracético (EDTA) e da heparina sobre os eritrócitos de avestruzes (Struthio camelus L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Antonio José Sabino; Silvia Cellone Trevelin; Paulo César Ciarlini

    2010-01-01

    Anticoagulantes com diferentes formas de ação têm sido utilizados na hematologia aviária. Entretanto, poucos estudos foram publicados sobre seu efeito e sobre os parâmetros hematológicos dos avestruzes. Visando a preencher essa lacuna, realizou-se um estudo em que foi comparado o efeito de dois anticoagulantes de rotina (EDTA - 2 mg/mL sangue e da Heparina -10U/mL sangue) sobre os eritrócitos de avestruzes. Para tanto, foram avaliados a integridade, o volume globular e a morfometria dos eritr...

  8. Avaliação de diversidade genética em subespécies e cruzamento de avestruzes (Struthio camelus com o uso de marcadores RAPD - DOI: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v27i2.1222 Evaluation of genetic diversity in subspecies and crossing of ostriches (Struthio camelus with the use of RAPD markers- DOI: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v27i2.1222

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rejane Machado Cardozo

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Na estrutiocultura as ligações entre características físicas e desempenho precisam de investigação adicional e as informações sobre diversidade genética são mínimas. Portanto, o presente trabalho representa um importante passo em estudos de genética de avestruzes. Foram coletadas amostras de sangue de 30 animais, machos e fêmeas, das subespécies Blue Neck, African Black e do cruzamento Red Blue (Red Neck X Blue Neck, para extração de DNA. Após amplificação, os produtos foram analisados e interpretados pela técnica RAPD, fornecendo dados de similaridade genética entre os indivíduos com a utilização do coeficiente de Jaccard e dados de distância genética entre as subespécies e diversidade genética dentro de subespécies através do coeficiente de Nei. Os resultados alcançados demonstraram baixa similaridade e alta diversidade genética entre os indivíduos analisados de cada subespécie, porém as distâncias genéticas entre as subespécies não foram significativas, indicando que não houve diferenciação genética entre subespécies. Os valores de diferenciação genética entre a subespécie Blue Neck e o cruzamento Red Blue ficaram próximos da significância, sugerindo uma maior diversidade genética entre elasConcerning Strutioculture, the links between physical characteristics and performance need additional study, and, the pieces of information on genetic variability are minima. Therefore, the current work represents an important step in studies of ostrich genetics. Blood samples of 30 animals were collected, males and females, of the sub species Blue Neck, African Black and the crossing Red Blue (Red Neck X Blue Neck, to DNA extraction. After amplification, the products were analyzed and interpreted through the RAPD technique, providing data of genetic similarity among the individuals with the use of Jaccard coefficient, and data of genetic distance among sub species and genetic diversity within the sub species through the Nei coefficient. The obtained results demonstrated low similarity and high genetic diversity among analyzed individuals of each sub specie, however the genetic distances among the sub species were not significant, indicating that there was no genetic differentiation among the subspecies. The values of genetic differentiation between the sub specie Blue Neck and the crossing Red Blue were next to the significance, suggesting a bigger genetic diversity between these sub species

  9. 牦牛HSP27基因的克隆及其在雌性生殖器官中的表达%Cloning of Bos Grunniens HSP27 Gene and Its Expression in the Female Yak Reproductive Organs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何翃闳; 崔燕; 潘阳阳; 樊江峰; 胡威; 张译夫; 刘鹏刚; 李秦; 余四九

    2015-01-01

    determined that the atom number, molecular formula, calculated molecular weight and theoretical isoelectric point of the encoded protein were 2366, C747H1189N205O220S5, 16.722 kD, and 5.33 respectively. The HSP27 encoded protein of HSP27 was predicted to be a type of soluble and non-transmembrane protein. Nucleotide sequence analysis revealed that the HSP27 gene nucleotide sequence of yak was similar to those ofBos taurus(99.8%),Bubalus bubalis(98.4%),Ovis aries(97.8%),Pantholops hodgsonii(97.6%),Orcinus orca(90.3%),Camelus ferus(89.7%),Sus scrofa(89.7%),Equus caballus (86.7%),Canis lupus(86.7%),Homo sapiens(85.5%) andGorilla gorilla(85.3%). The similarity of resulting amino acid sequence of HSP27 gene between yak andbos taurus, bubalus bubalis, ovis aries pantholops hodgsonii, orcinus orca, camelus ferus sus scrofa, equus caballus, canis lupus, homo sapiensand gorilla gorilla were 100%、100%、100%、100%、96.3%、100%、96.8%、100%、100%、96.3% and 96.3%, respectively. The phylogenetic tree indicated that HSP27 gene of yak was close to bos taurus, bubalus bubalis, ovis aries and pantholops hodgsonii, but far from canis lupus, gorilla gorillaand homo sapiens. Moreover, the RT-qPCR indicated that HSP27 gene expressed universally in ovary, oviduct and uterus tissues during all reproductive periods, including follicular, luteal and pregnancy phases. The gene had its highest expression level in the follicle at follicle phase and its lowest expression in uterus in the luteal phase. In addition, the expression level of HSP27 gene in ovary was significantly higher than in the uterus during each of the different stages of the reproductive cycle. Its expression in ovaries, fallopian tubes and uterus changed dramatically because of pregnancy.[Conclusion]It is concluded from the present study that HSP27 gene in the yak is highly conservative in mammalian evolution according to the comparative nucleotide sequence analysis.. Analyzing HSP27 gene expression in central reproductive

  10. Satellite telemetry of large mammals in Mongolia: what expectations should we have for collar function?

    OpenAIRE

    Ito, Takehiko Y.; Peta Kaczensky

    2010-01-01

    The rapid pace of the development of satellite wildlife tracking tools has left little time for thorough testing of new equipment and identifying possible sources of technical failures. In the Gobi and Eastern Steppe region of Mongolia we deployed 104 satellite collars, collecting animal locations using the Doppler based Argos or the global positioning system (GPS), on 45 Asiatic wild asses (Equus hemionus), 34 Mongolian gazelles (Procapra gutturosa), 15 Przewalski’s horses (Equus ferus przew...

  11. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U12230-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ( EU159113 |pid:none) Camelus dromedarius mitochondrion... 35 8.0 Y19184_11( Y19184 |pid:none) Lama pacos co...nspo... 35 8.0 AJ566364_11( AJ566364 |pid:none) Lama pacos complete mitochondrial... 35 8.0 >AC105378_11( AC

  12. First report of the genus Retortamonas (Sarcomastigophora: Retortamonadidae in birds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael A Martínez-Díaz

    2001-10-01

    Full Text Available In studies carried out on the parasites infecting ostriches (Struthio camelus in Spain, trophozoites of Retortamonas sp. have been found in the intestinal contents of 28 out of 146 slaughtered ostriches. The species infecting ostriches could not be determined from the morphological data available. However, these findings are important as they constitute the first report of the genus Retortamonas in birds.

  13. A note on feeding habits, Ectoparasites and measurements of the Black-Backed Jackal Canis Mesomelas from Addo Elephant National Park

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.J Hall-Martin

    1980-01-01

    Full Text Available DsitSi from a small sample of black-backed jackals confined to the National Park indicated that they were opportunistic feeders taking various insects, molluscs, reptiles, birds, mammals and fruits as available. Raiding of ostrich Struthio camelus nests and the probable technique of egg-breaking is also recorded. Body measurements of these jackals fall with the range reported for this species in the Cape Province of South Africa. Observations on age indicate spring or early summer births.

  14. A note on feeding habits, Ectoparasites and measurements of the Black-Backed Jackal Canis Mesomelas from Addo Elephant National Park

    OpenAIRE

    A.J. Hall-Martin; B. P Botha

    1980-01-01

    DsitSi from a small sample of black-backed jackals confined to the National Park indicated that they were opportunistic feeders taking various insects, molluscs, reptiles, birds, mammals and fruits as available. Raiding of ostrich Struthio camelus nests and the probable technique of egg-breaking is also recorded. Body measurements of these jackals fall with the range reported for this species in the Cape Province of South Africa. Observations on age indicate spring or early summer births.

  15. A new species of Lamelligomphus Fraser, 1922 (Odonata: Gomphidae) from southern Yunnan, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hao-Miao; Yang, Guo-Hui; Cai, Qing-Hua

    2016-01-01

    Lamelligomphus annakarlorum sp. nov. is described based on specimens collected from southern Yunnan Province, China (holotype male: Xishuangbanna National Nature Reserve, 21°57'59''N, 101°12'37''E, Xishuangbanna Dai Autonomous Prefecture, Yunnan Province, China). All type specimens of the new species have been deposited in the Collection of Aquatic Animals, Institute of Hydrobiology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan City, Hubei Province, China. It is compared with Lamelligomphus camelus (Martin, 1904), which shares some similar characters. PMID:27394602

  16. GROSS AND MICROSCOPIC ANATOMY OF MAMMARY GLAND OF DROMEDARIES UNDER DIFFERENT PHYSIOLOGICAL CONDITIONS

    OpenAIRE

    R. Kausar, A. Sarwar and C.S. Hayat

    2001-01-01

    Samples of 24 mammary glands from healthy one-humped camel (Camelus dromedarius) cows were investigated under different physiological conditions for their gross and light microscopic anatomy. Different groups included equal number of immature heifers, mature heifers, lactating and non-lactating animals. Tissues fixed in 10% NBF were processed as per routine and stained with hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) and Massons trichome. Morphometry was done with the help of stage and ocular micrometer. Gro...

  17. Reconstructing the origin and spread of horse domestication in the Eurasian steppe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warmuth, Vera; Eriksson, Anders; Bower, Mim Ann; Barker, Graeme; Barrett, Elizabeth; Hanks, Bryan Kent; Li, Shuicheng; Lomitashvili, David; Ochir-Goryaeva, Maria; Sizonov, Grigory V; Soyonov, Vasiliy; Manica, Andrea

    2012-05-22

    Despite decades of research across multiple disciplines, the early history of horse domestication remains poorly understood. On the basis of current evidence from archaeology, mitochondrial DNA, and Y-chromosomal sequencing, a number of different domestication scenarios have been proposed, ranging from the spread of domestic horses out of a restricted primary area of domestication to the domestication of numerous distinct wild horse populations. In this paper, we reconstruct both the population genetic structure of the extinct wild progenitor of domestic horses, Equus ferus, and the origin and spread of horse domestication in the Eurasian steppes by fitting a spatially explicit stepping-stone model to genotype data from >300 horses sampled across northern Eurasia. We find strong evidence for an expansion of E. ferus out of eastern Eurasia about 160 kya, likely reflecting the colonization of Eurasia by this species. Our best-fitting scenario further suggests that horse domestication originated in the western part of the Eurasian steppe and that domestic herds were repeatedly restocked with local wild horses as they spread out of this area. By showing that horse domestication was initiated in the western Eurasian steppe and that the spread of domestic herds across Eurasia involved extensive introgression from the wild, the scenario of horse domestication proposed here unites evidence from archaeology, mitochondrial DNA, and Y-chromosomal DNA.

  18. Fossil struthionid eggshells from Laetoli, Tanzania: Taxonomic and biostratigraphic significance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Terry; Msuya, Charles P.

    2005-04-01

    Recent paleontological investigations at Laetoli and neighboring localities in northern Tanzania have produced a large collection of fossil ostrich eggshells from the Pliocene-aged Laetolil Beds (˜3.5-4.5 Ma) and Ndolanya Beds (˜2.6-2.7 Ma). A detailed analysis of the morphology of the eggshells and their taxonomic affinities indicates that two different species of Struthio are represented. In the Lower Laetolil Beds and in the Upper Laetolil Beds below Tuff 3 a new species is recognized— Struthio kakesiensis. This is replaced in the Upper Laetolil Beds by Struthio camelus, the modern species of ostrich. Since radiometric age determinations are available for the stratigraphic sequence at Laetoli, it is possible to precisely date the first appearance of S. camelus at ˜3.6-3.8 Ma. Comparisons of the Laetoli material with specimens from the well-dated sequences at Lothagam and Kanapoi in northern Kenya, allow the taxonomic and biochronological analysis to be extended back in time to the late Miocene. At about 6.5 Ma, Diamantornis and elephant birds were replaced in East Africa by ostriches belonging to the genus Struthio. Three time-successive species of ostriches are identified in the fossil record of East Africa, beginning with Struthio. cf. karingarabensis (˜6.5-4.2 Ma), followed by S. kakesiensis (˜4.5-3.6 Ma) and then S. camelus (˜3.8 Ma onwards). A similar sequence of taxa has previously been recorded from localities in Namibia, but at these sites there is no possibility to precisely calibrate the ages of the different species using radiometric dating. Nevertheless, the broadly similar evolutionary sequence and the close correspondence in inferred ages for the succession of species in East Africa and Namibia suggest that ostrich eggshells are a very useful tool for biochronological correlation of paleontological sites in sub-Saharan Africa.

  19. Isolation of influenza A virus, subtype H5N2, and avian paramyxovirus type 1 from a flock of ostriches in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Poul Henrik; Nielsen, O.L.; Hansen, C.;

    1998-01-01

    -Q-R-E-T-R*G-L-F- at the cleavage site of the haemagglutinin protein, typical of non-pathogenic AIVs. In addition, an avirulent avian paramyxovirus type 1 virus was isolated from one pool of kidney tissues. Bacteriological examination gave no significant results. The most characteristic pathological findings were impaction......A total of 146 of 506 ostriches (Struthio camelus) introduced into a quarantine in Denmark died within the first 23 days. The majority of deaths were in young birds up to 10 kg body weight. Avian influenza A viruses (AIVs) were isolated from 14 pools of organ tissues representing seven groups each...

  20. Evolutionary Genomics and Conservation of the Endangered Przewalski’s Horse

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Der Sarkissian, Clio; Ermini, Luca; Schubert, Mikkel;

    2015-01-01

    Przewalski’s horses (PHs, Equus ferus ssp. przewalskii) were discovered in the Asian steppes in the 1870s and represent the last remaining true wild horses. PHs became extinct in the wild in the 1960s but survived in captivity, thanks to major conservation efforts. The current population is still...... endangered, with just 2,109 individuals, one-quarter of which are in Chinese and Mongolian reintroduction reserves [ 1]. These horses descend from a founding population of 12 wild-caught PHs and possibly up to four domesticated individuals [ 2, 3 and 4]. With a stocky build, an erect mane, and stripped...... and short legs, they are phenotypically and behaviorally distinct from domesticated horses (DHs, Equus caballus). Here, we sequenced the complete genomes of 11 PHs, representing all founding lineages, and five historical specimens dated to 1878–1929 CE, including the Holotype. These were compared...

  1. Gasterophilus (Diptera, Gasterophilidae infestation of equids in the Kalamaili Nature Reserve, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huang Heqing

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigated infections with Gasterophilus spp. in three equids within the Kalamaili Nature Reserve (northern China. We conducted necropsies on 6 Przewalski’s horses (Equus ferus przewalskii and 6 Mongolian wild asses (Equus hemionus and administered ivermectin to 10 overwintering domestic horses to expel parasites during winter periods. All 22 equids studied (100% were infested with Gasterophilus spp. and a total of 17,225 larvae were collected. These included six species: G. haemorrhoidalis, G. inermis, G. intestinalis, G. nasalis, G. nigricornis, and G. pecorum. The mean intensity of Gasterophilus spp. larvae was 1904 in Przewalski’s horses, 780 in Mongolian wild asses, and 113 in domestic horses. Gasterophilus pecorum was the most abundant species in all three equids. Przewalski’s horses, a reintroduced species, had a significantly higher intensity of Gasterophilus spp. than the Mongolian wild ass, indicating greater susceptibility to parasites in its ancestral home.

  2. The Black of Strei – a Swine Population on the Verge of Extinction in Banat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcel Matiuti

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The Black of Strei swine was declared to be extinct in 1974, but research conducted in 2008-2010 proved that there are still 61 specimens (Black of Strei proper and hybrids in the Hatzeg county and in the Lugoj area. Body measurements have been made in the case of those specimens and they showed that the specimens are a morphoproductive type. The local people appreciate the Black of Strei especially for its fat and bard which are very dry and used in order to obtain the traditional food products in the area. Prolificacy of sows farrowing is an 8 piglets per gestation. This breed is best kept in organic farms. The Black of Strei females are usually cross-bred with wildboar (Sus scrofa ferus males, the hybrids’ meat being very appreciated.

  3. Do dark matter halos explain lensing peaks?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zorrilla Matilla, José Manuel; Haiman, Zoltán; Hsu, Daniel; Gupta, Arushi; Petri, Andrea

    2016-10-01

    We have investigated a recently proposed halo-based model, Camelus, for predicting weak-lensing peak counts, and compared its results over a collection of 162 cosmologies with those from N-body simulations. While counts from both models agree for peaks with S /N >1 (where S /N is the ratio of the peak height to the r.m.s. shape noise), we find ≈50 % fewer counts for peaks near S /N =0 and significantly higher counts in the negative S /N tail. Adding shape noise reduces the differences to within 20% for all cosmologies. We also found larger covariances that are more sensitive to cosmological parameters. As a result, credibility regions in the {Ωm,σ8} are ≈30 % larger. Even though the credible contours are commensurate, each model draws its predictive power from different types of peaks. Low peaks, especially those with 2 3 ). Our results confirm the importance of using a cosmology-dependent covariance with at least a 14% improvement in parameter constraints. We identified the covariance estimation as the main driver behind differences in inference, and suggest possible ways to make Camelus even more useful as a highly accurate peak count emulator.

  4. Effect of α-Amylase, Papain, and Spermfluid treatments on viscosity and semen parameters of dromedary camel ejaculates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monaco, Davide; Fatnassi, Meriem; Padalino, Barbara; Hammadi, Mohamed; Khorchani, Touhami; Lacalandra, Giovanni Michele

    2016-04-01

    Ejaculates from five clinically healthy dromedary camels (Camelus dromedarius) were used to evaluate the effects of different enzymatic treatments (Amylase, Papain, Spermfluid) on liquefaction and seminal parameters. After collection, ejaculates were divided into 5 aliquots: (1) kept undiluted (control); or diluted 1:1 with: (2) Tris-Citrate-Fructose (TCF), (3) TCF containing Amylase, (4) TCF containing Papain or (5) Spermfluid containing Bromelain. At 120 min after dilution, each aliquot was evaluated, at 20-min intervals, for viscosity, motility, viability and agglutination. Only the aliquots diluted with TCF containing Papain underwent complete liquefaction. Sperm motility decreased significantly during the observation times, except for the samples diluted with Spermfluid (P=0.005). Diluted samples showed different levels of agglutination, with the lowest being observed in the control and the highest in the Papain-treated samples. The viscosity of dromedary camel ejaculates could be effectively reduced by using the proteolytic enzyme Papain. PMID:27033899

  5. Rickettsia africae in Hyalomma dromedarii ticks from sub-Saharan Algeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kernif, Tahar; Djerbouh, Amel; Mediannikov, Oleg; Ayach, Bouhous; Rolain, Jean-Marc; Raoult, Didier; Parola, Philippe; Bitam, Idir

    2012-12-01

    Spotted fever group (SFG) rickettsioses are caused by obligate, intracellular Gram-negative bacteria of the genus Rickettsia. In recent years, several species and subspecies of rickettsias have been identified as emerging pathogens throughout the world, including sub-Saharan Africa. We report here the detection of Rickettsia africae, the agent responsible for African tick-bite fever, by amplification of fragments of gltA and ompA genes and multi-spacer typing from Hyalomma dromedarii ticks collected from the camel Camelus dromedarius in the Adrar and Béchar region (sub-Saharan Algeria). To date, R. africae has been associated mainly with Amblyomma spp. The role of H. dromedarii in the epidemiology of R. africae requires further investigation.

  6. Perceptions and problems of disease in the one-humped camel in southern Africa in the late 19th and early 20th centuries : historical review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.T. Wilson

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available The one-humped camel (Camelus dromedarius was first introduced to German South West Africa (Namibia for military purposes in 1889. Introductions to the Cape of Good Hope (South Africa in 1897 and Rhodesia (Zimbabwe in 1903 were initially with a view to replacing oxen that died of rinderpest. Disease risks attendant on these introductions were recognised and to some extent guarded against. There were, however, relatively few problems. One camel was diagnosed as having foot-and-mouth disease. Mange in camels from India caused some concern as did trypanosomosis from Sudan. Trypanosomosis was introduced into both the Cape of Good Hope and Transvaal. Antibodies to some common livestock disease were found in later years.

  7. Craniocervical myology and functional morphology of the small-headed therizinosaurian theropods Falcarius utahensis and Nothronychus mckinleyi.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David K Smith

    Full Text Available Therizinosaurs represent a highly unusual clade of herbivorous theropods from the Cretaceous of North America and Asia. Following descriptions of the basicrania of the North American therizinosaurs Falcarius utahenisis and Nothronychus mckinleyi, the craniocervical musculature in both taxa is reconstructed using Tyrannosaurus, Allosaurus, and some extant birds as models. These muscles are subdivided into functional groups as dorsiflexors, lateroflexors, and ventroflexors. Lateroflexors and dorsiflexors in Nothronychus, but not Falcarius, are reduced, from the plesiomorphic theropod condition, but are still well developed. Attachments in both genera are favorable for an increase in ventroflexion in feeding, convergent with Allosaurus fragilis. Falcarius and Nothronychus are both characterized by a flat occipital condyle, followed by centra with shallow articular facets suggesting neck function very similar to that of an ostrich Struthio camelus. Neck movement was a combined result of minimal movement between the individual cervical vertebrae.

  8. Features of habitat selection by larger herbivorous mammals and the Ostrich in the Southern Kalahari conservation areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. T van der Walt

    1984-12-01

    Full Text Available A Chi-squares contingency table was used to extensively analise animal/habitat interactions in the southern Kalahari conservation areas between 1978 and 1982. The effect of changing environmental con- ditions on the distribution of five large mammalian species (eland Taurotragus oryx, gemsbok Oryx gazella, blue wildebeest Connochaetes taurinus, red hartebeest Alcelaphus buselaphus, springbok Antidorcas marsupialis and the ostrich Struthio camelus is indicated by definite seasonal preferences. A general habitat-use pattern, whereby each habitat type was utilised at some stage during the year by one or more species, as well as a response by the different species to other environmental attributes was found revealing an ecological balance which will be maintained only if the present physical size of the conservation areas in question is maintained indefinitely.

  9. Soroepidemiologia da doença de Newcastle em plantéis de avestruzes dos Estados da Bahia e de São Paulo Serologic occurrence of Newcastle disease in ostriches raised in Bahia and São Paulo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lia Muniz Barretto Fernandes

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Estudos sorológicos em Avestruzes (Struthio camelus são ferramentas úteis para analisar os riscos relacionados à Doença de Newcastle nesses plantéis e à avicultura nacional. No presente estudo, amostras de sangue foram obtidas de avestruzes de ambos os sexos, de diferentes faixas etárias e sem apresentação de sintomatologia clínica, criadas nos Estados da Bahia e de São Paulo com o objetivo de avaliar a presença de anticorpos contra o vírus da Doença de Newcastle por meio de ELISA indireto. Foram testadas 339 amostras provenientes do Estado da Bahia e 105 amostras do Estado de São Paulo. Apesar de os proprietários afirmarem que não foi utilizada vacina em seus animais, foi verificada positividade na Bahia de 17,9% e de 4,7% em São Paulo, em avestruzes, sugerindo contato com vírus vacinal ou de campo.Serological studies in ostriches (Struthio camelus are important tools to assess the risk of Newcastle disease in these herds and to the national poultry industry. In the present study blood samples were obtained from male and female ostriches without symptoms of the disease, raised in Bahia and São Paulo in order to evaluate the presence of antibodies against Newcastle disease virus using an indirect ELISA. There were collected 339 samples in Bahia and 105 samples in São Paulo. Although the owners guarantee that animals were not vaccinated, it was verified the presence 17,9% positives in Bahia and 4,7% in São Paulo, suggesting contact with vaccinal or field strain.

  10. Two-dimensional electron flow in pulsed power transmission lines and plasma opening switches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The operation of magnetically insulated transmission lines (MITL) and the interruption of current in a plasma opening switch (POS) are determined by the physics of the electrons emitted by the cathode surface. A mathematical model describes the self-consistent two-dimensional flow of an electron fluid. A finite element code, FERUS, has been developed to solve the two equations which describe Poisson's and Ampere's law in two dimensions. The solutions from this code are obtained for parameters where the electron orbits are considerably modified by the self-magnetic field of the current. Next, the self-insulated electron flow in a MITL with a step change in cross-section is studied using a conventional two-dimensional fully electromagnetic particle-in-cell code, MASK. The equations governing two-dimensional quasi-static electron flow are solved numerically by a third technique which is suitable for predicting current interruption in a POS. The object of the study is to determine the critical load impedance, ZCL, required for current interruption for a given applied voltage, cathode voltage and plasma length. (author). 9 refs, 5 figs

  11. From carcass to cave: large mammal exploitation during the Aurignacian at Vogelherd, Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niven, Laura

    2007-10-01

    Recent results from the zooarchaeological analysis of faunal remains from Vogelherd Cave, southwestern Germany, provide new insight into the subsistence behavior of early modern human groups during the Aurignacian. The results presented here represent the first comprehensive study of the archaeofauna from this site. Several episodes of occupation are inferred at this site, taking place primarily between 31 and 32 ka. Although a wide spectrum of Pleistocene mammals is represented in the Aurignacian at Vogelherd, reindeer (Rangifer tarandus) and horse (Equus ferus) were the primary prey taxa, and they are the most appropriate data sets with which to understand human subsistence on an intrasite level. Hunting of both taxa took place during the late summer and fall, coinciding with reindeer migrations and local abundance of horses. Complete or nearly complete prey carcasses were then transported from the kill locations to the cave for processing. This study shows that Vogelherd was a preferred locale of Aurignacian groups for a broad range of activities, including the time- and labor-intensive exploitation of ungulate prey for meat, marrow, and fat resources, as well as the production and maintenance of artifacts such as figurative artwork, personal ornaments, bone and ivory armatures, and lithic tools. With its rich faunal and artifact assemblages, the Aurignacian deposit at Vogelherd provides a wealth of information on this critical period of the early Upper Paleolithic, when cultural innovations were flourishing.

  12. Alberta 1905-2005 turning on the taps : the 100 year boom and bust saga of Alberta and its oil industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-02-15

    This commemorative Alberta centennial edition presents a series of articles exploring the history of the oil and gas industry in Alberta. The infancy of the oil and gas business was highlighted, with reference to the Turner Valley Conservation Act, which helped to build the framework for the creation of the Alberta Petroleum and Natural Gas Conservation Board, the predecessor of today's Energy and Utilities Board. A timeline of events linking world history with industry events was presented throughout the edition. Articles included: stories about oil and gas booms; exploration; the effects of World War 1 and 2; the first oil sands refineries; and the Great Depression. Political figures and business figures were also featured, as well as the early successes of businesses such as the Lloydminster Gas Company. Events of historic importance to the oil and gas industry, such as the Leduc discovery were also highlighted. The National Energy Program, low prices and economic recession were examined. Policy and regional reaction to Federal directives were also featured. Some companies advertised their services in this document, namely: Precision Drilling Corp; Halliburton; Wellco Energy Services Inc.; Gibson Energy Ltd.; National Oilwell; Lufkin; Ferus Gas Industries Trust; Rigstar; Safety Boss Inc.; and Esso. refs., tabs., figs.

  13. Context-dependent third-party intervention in agonistic encounters of male Przewalski horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krueger, Konstanze; Schneider, Gudrun; Flauger, Birgit; Heinze, Jürgen

    2015-12-01

    One mechanism to resolve conflict among group members is third party intervention, for which several functions, such as kin protection, alliance formation, and the promotion of group cohesion have been proposed. Still, empirical research on the function of intervention behaviour is rare. We studied 40 cases of intervention behaviour in a field study on 13 semi-wild bachelor horses (Equus ferus przewalskii) in (a) standard social situations, and (b) when new horses joined the group (i.e. introductions). Only interventions in agonistic encounters were analysed. Eight of 13 animals directed intervention behaviour toward threatening animal in agonistic encounters of group members. One stallion was particularly active. The stallions did not intervene to support former group mates or kin and interventions were not reciprocated. In introduction situations and in standard social situations, the interveners supported animals which were lower in rank, but targeted, threatening animals of comparable social rank. After introductions, stallions received more affiliative behaviour from animals they supported and thus appeared to intervene for alliance formation. In standard social situations, interveners did not receive more affiliative behaviour from animals they supported and may primarily have intervened to promote group cohesion and to reduce social disruption within the group. PMID:26478251

  14. An Investigation of Cellulose Digesting Bacteria in the Camel Feces Microbiome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Man, V.; Leung, F. C.

    2015-12-01

    Research Question: Is there a bacteria in camel feces that digests cellulose material and can be used for waste to energy projects? Fossil fuels are the current main resource of energy in the modern world. However, as the demand for fuel increases, biofuels have been proposed as an alternative energy source that is a more sustainable form of liquid fuel generation from living things or waste, commonly known as biofuels and ethanol. The Camelus dromedarius', also known as Arabian camel, diet consist of grass, grains, wheat and oats as well desert vegetation in their natural habitat. However, as the Arabian camel lacks the enzymes to degrade cellulose, it is hypothesized that cellulose digestion is performed by microbial symbionts in camel microbiota. Fecal samples were collected from the Camelus dromedarius in United Arab Emirates and diluted 10-7 times. The diluted sample was then streaked onto a Sodium Carboxymethyl Cellulose plate, and inoculated onto CMC and Azure-B plates. Afterwards, Congo Red was used for staining in order to identify clearance zones of single colonies that may potentially be used as a qualitative assays for cellulose digestion. Then the colonies undergo polymerase chain reaction amplification to produce amplified RNA fragments. The 16S ribosomal RNA gene is identified based on BLAST result using Sanger Sequencing. Amongst the three identified microbes: Bacillus, Staphylococcus and Escherichia coli, both Bacillus and Staphylococcus are cellulose-digesting microbes, and through the fermentation of lignocellulosic, biomasses can be converted into cellulosic ethanol (Biofuel). According to the Improvements in Life Cycle Energy Efficiency and Greenhouse Gas Emissions of Corn-Ethanol by Adam J. Liska, ""Ethanol reduces greenhouse gas emissions by 40-50% when compared directly to gasoline." The determination of bacterial communities that are capable of efficiently and effectively digesting cellulose materials requires that the bacteria be first

  15. Scanning electron microscopy of the corneal endothelium of ostrich Microscopia eletrônica de varredura do endotélio da córnea de avestruz

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Antonio Tadeu Pigatto

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to examine the endothelial surface morphology and perform a morphometric analysis of the corneal endothelial cells of ostrich (Struthio camelus using scanning electron microscopy. Polygonality, mean cell area, cell density and coefficient of variation of mean cell area were analyzed. The normal corneal endothelium consisted of polygonal cells of uniform size and shape with few interdigitations of the cell borders. Microvilli appeared as protusions on the cellular surface. The average cell area was 269±18µm² and the endothelial cell density was 3717±240cells mm-2. The coefficient of variation of the cell area was 0.06, and the percentage of hexagonal cells was 75%. The parameters evaluated did not differ significantly between the right and the left eye from the same ostrich. The results of this study showed that the ostrich corneal endothelial cells appear quite similar to those of the other vertebrates.Objetivou-se examinar a superfície posterior do endotélio corneano e realizar análise morfométrica das células endoteliais da córnea de avestruz (Struthio camelus valendo-se da microscopia eletrônica de varredura. Avaliaram-se o número de lados, a área celular média, a densidade celular e o coeficiente de variação da área celular. O endotélio corneano de avestruz constitui-se de células poligonais uniformes em tamanho e forma, e com poucas interdigitações das bordas celulares. Visibilizaram-se microvilosidades na superfície celular. A área celular média foi de 269±18µm² e a densidade celular foi de 3717±240 células mm-2. O coeficiente de variação foi de 0,06 e o percentual de células hexagonais de 75%. Não foram observadas diferenças significativas entre os parâmetros avaliados entre os olhos esquerdo e direito. Este estudo demonstrou que o endotélio corneano de avestruz é semelhante ao descrito em outros vertebrados.

  16. 超声在21-三体综合征产前筛查中的应用分析%Aanalysis of prenatal ultrasonography in screening for fetal trisomy 21

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩璐; 荆春丽; 王彦; 冯丽云; 顾颜

    2016-01-01

    目的 探讨超声在21-三体综合征产前筛查中的应用价值.方法 2009年1月至2014年6月在大连市妇幼保健院被确诊为21-三体综合征的胎儿共77例,其中55例行超声筛查,分析其超声表现与21-三体综合征的关系.结果 55例接受产前超声筛查的21-三体综合征病例中,10例进行了孕早期超声筛查,8例(80%)发现异常;45例进行了孕中晚期超声筛查,37例(82.2%)发现超声异常.孕早期常见的异常为NT增厚(80%)、鼻骨缺失(40%)和静脉导管α波倒置(30%).孕中晚期常见的软指标异常为鼻骨缺失或发育不良(40.0%)、颈后皮肤皱褶增厚(26.7%)、肱骨或股骨短(17.8%)等;胎儿结构畸形主要为心血管畸形(33.3%)和十二指肠闭锁(13.3%)等.此外,21-三体综合征胎儿中晚期超声还可表现为羊水多(17.8%)和脐动脉血流异常(8.9%).结论 超声在21-三体综合征产前筛查中具有重要作用.%Objective:To investigate the clinical value of ultrasound in screening for fetal trisomy 21.Methods:From Jan.2009 to Jun.2014,77 fetuses was diagnosed as trisomy 21 in the Dalian Matemal and Child Health Hospital.In all cases,55 cases underwent prenatal ultrasound screening.The relationship between trisomy 21 and ultrasonic manifestations was analyzed.Results:In the 55 cases,10 cases were screened in early pregnancy.Sonographic anomalies were detected in 8 feruses (80%),including thickened nuehal translucency (80%),nasal bone hypoplasia (40%),reverse of a-wave of ductus venosus (30%) and so on.45 cases were screened in middle and late pregnancy.Sonographic anomalies were detected in 37 feruses (82.2%).The most common ultrasound markers were nasal bone hypoplasia (40%),thickened nuchal fold (26.7%) and short femurs and humerus (17.8%),the common structural malformations include cardiac defects (33.3%) and digestive system (13.3%).Furthermore,much amniotic fluid (17.8%) and abnormal umbilical artery

  17. Recalibrating Equus evolution using the genome sequence of an early Middle Pleistocene horse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orlando, Ludovic; Ginolhac, Aurélien; Zhang, Guojie; Froese, Duane; Albrechtsen, Anders; Stiller, Mathias; Schubert, Mikkel; Cappellini, Enrico; Petersen, Bent; Moltke, Ida; Johnson, Philip L F; Fumagalli, Matteo; Vilstrup, Julia T; Raghavan, Maanasa; Korneliussen, Thorfinn; Malaspinas, Anna-Sapfo; Vogt, Josef; Szklarczyk, Damian; Kelstrup, Christian D; Vinther, Jakob; Dolocan, Andrei; Stenderup, Jesper; Velazquez, Amhed M V; Cahill, James; Rasmussen, Morten; Wang, Xiaoli; Min, Jiumeng; Zazula, Grant D; Seguin-Orlando, Andaine; Mortensen, Cecilie; Magnussen, Kim; Thompson, John F; Weinstock, Jacobo; Gregersen, Kristian; Røed, Knut H; Eisenmann, Véra; Rubin, Carl J; Miller, Donald C; Antczak, Douglas F; Bertelsen, Mads F; Brunak, Søren; Al-Rasheid, Khaled A S; Ryder, Oliver; Andersson, Leif; Mundy, John; Krogh, Anders; Gilbert, M Thomas P; Kjær, Kurt; Sicheritz-Ponten, Thomas; Jensen, Lars Juhl; Olsen, Jesper V; Hofreiter, Michael; Nielsen, Rasmus; Shapiro, Beth; Wang, Jun; Willerslev, Eske

    2013-07-01

    The rich fossil record of equids has made them a model for evolutionary processes. Here we present a 1.12-times coverage draft genome from a horse bone recovered from permafrost dated to approximately 560-780 thousand years before present (kyr BP). Our data represent the oldest full genome sequence determined so far by almost an order of magnitude. For comparison, we sequenced the genome of a Late Pleistocene horse (43 kyr BP), and modern genomes of five domestic horse breeds (Equus ferus caballus), a Przewalski's horse (E. f. przewalskii) and a donkey (E. asinus). Our analyses suggest that the Equus lineage giving rise to all contemporary horses, zebras and donkeys originated 4.0-4.5 million years before present (Myr BP), twice the conventionally accepted time to the most recent common ancestor of the genus Equus. We also find that horse population size fluctuated multiple times over the past 2 Myr, particularly during periods of severe climatic changes. We estimate that the Przewalski's and domestic horse populations diverged 38-72 kyr BP, and find no evidence of recent admixture between the domestic horse breeds and the Przewalski's horse investigated. This supports the contention that Przewalski's horses represent the last surviving wild horse population. We find similar levels of genetic variation among Przewalski's and domestic populations, indicating that the former are genetically viable and worthy of conservation efforts. We also find evidence for continuous selection on the immune system and olfaction throughout horse evolution. Finally, we identify 29 genomic regions among horse breeds that deviate from neutrality and show low levels of genetic variation compared to the Przewalski's horse. Such regions could correspond to loci selected early during domestication.

  18. Research Regarding the Hybrids Resulted from the Domestic Pig and the Wild Boar

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    Marcel Matiuti

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Research was conducted between 2005-2009 in Barzava, Arad county. The villagers breed pigs traditionally, the animals having the freedom to roam the outskirts of the villages. Over the years the domestic sows (Sus scrofa domesticus which had been let by their owners to roam the forests for mast and acorn, have mated with wild boars (Sus scrofa ferus, thus obtaining crossbreeds in various colours – either resembling the female or the male. In Bazava the total number of swine is 1820 specimens out of which 546 is formed by hybrids or crossbreeds in 2009. In the case of these hybrids the length of the head together with that of the trunk can reach 150-170 cm. An adult male can have a weight of 150-200 kg and the female 100-150 kg. These specimens are easily recognizable by the fact that they have the trunk covered in thick, long, spiky hairs. There are also other external characteristics of these crossbreeds. Data has been gathered on what concerns the colour and the length of the hair, external features, maintenance and feeding. Behavioural observations have been made also. The local people appreciate a lot these hybrids because of their qualitative meat, out of which they obtain traditional dishes, combining this meat with that from domestic pigs and veal. Moreover, the maintenance of these hybrids is very low-cost, the only conditions which have to be met being simple shelters during the night and during the winter. The demand for such animals is great. These hybrids are being bought by the Zoos or are used for repopulating the areas in which the wild boars are on the verge of extinction because of excessive poaching. Foreign buyers are also interested in these hybrids, wanting to breed them in special parks and then to organize hunting outings.

  19. The danger of having all your eggs in one basket--winter crash of the re-introduced Przewalski's horses in the Mongolian Gobi.

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    Petra Kaczensky

    Full Text Available Large mammals re-introduced into harsh and unpredictable environments are vulnerable to stochastic effects, particularly in times of global climate change. The Mongolian Gobi is home to several rare large ungulates such as re-introduced Przewalski's horses (Equus ferus przewalskii and Asiatic wild asses (Equus hemionus, but also to a millennium-old semi-nomadic livestock herding culture.The Gobi is prone to large inter-annual environmental fluctuations, but the winter 2009/2010 was particularly severe. Millions of livestock died and the Przewalski's horse population in the Gobi crashed. We used spatially explicit livestock loss statistics, ranger survey data and GPS telemetry to provide insight into the effect of a catastrophic climate event on the two sympatric wild equid species and the livestock population in light of their different space use strategies.Herders in and around the Great Gobi B Strictly Protected Area lost on average 67% of their livestock. Snow depth varied locally, resulting in livestock losses following an east-west gradient. Herders had few possibilities for evasion, as competition for available winter camps was high. Przewalski's horses used three different winter ranges, two in the east and one in the west. Losses averaged 60%, but differed hugely between east and west. Space use of Przewalski's horses was extremely conservative, as groups did not attempt to venture beyond their known home ranges. Asiatic wild asses seemed to have suffered few losses by shifting their range westwards.The catastrophic winter 2009/2010 provided a textbook example for how vulnerable small and spatially confined populations are in an environment prone to environmental fluctuations and catastrophes. This highlights the need for disaster planning by local herders, multiple re-introduction sites with spatially dispersed populations for re-introduced Przewalski's horses, and a landscape-level approach beyond protected area boundaries to allow for

  20. Conference on wind power development in the face of landscape and local project acceptability challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The French-German office for Renewable energies (OFAEnR) organised a conference on n wind power development in the face of landscape and local project acceptability challenges. In the framework of this French-German exchange of experience, participants addressed the following points: the conciliation between landscape protection and wind power development, the definition of landscape environmental quality criteria, the needs and usages of the departments in charge of the treatment of landscape studies in France, the socio-psychological approach of the local acceptability of wind farm projects, the re-powering tool for the improvement of the wind farm integration in the landscape, and the conciliation between the monuments maintenance and wind power development. This document brings together the available presentations (slides) made during this event: 1 - Conciliating landscape protection and wind power development goals in France (Marie Villot); 2 - Wind turbines: Conflicts between development goals, landscape and acceptance - Perception and criteria (Guenter Ratzbor); 3 - Bayern's wind power atlas: a planning tool which takes into account the landscape aspects (Christian Tausch); 4 - Landscape assessment in wind farms projects: what and how to do in French administrative procedures? (Bertrand Cagneaux); 5 - Methods for evaluation of landscape for wind farms projects - A French project developer's feedback (Agathe Jouneau); 6 - Landscape Assessment: Methods from German Landscape Practice (Boris Stemmer); 7 - Acceptance of Wind Turbines - Social Psychological Research (Gundula Huebner); 8 - Local consultation: who to involve, when and how? (Paola Orozco-Souel); 9 - Local acceptability: what dialogue concepts and strategies, and how to manage wind energy objection (Charles Lhermitte); 10 - Re-powering and landscape: chances and limits (Elisabeth Ferus); 11 - Wind power and cultural heritage: consultation and dialogue to succeed (Philippe Benezech); 12

  1. Evolutionary Genomics and Conservation of the Endangered Przewalski's Horse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Der Sarkissian, Clio; Ermini, Luca; Schubert, Mikkel; Yang, Melinda A; Librado, Pablo; Fumagalli, Matteo; Jónsson, Hákon; Bar-Gal, Gila Kahila; Albrechtsen, Anders; Vieira, Filipe G; Petersen, Bent; Ginolhac, Aurélien; Seguin-Orlando, Andaine; Magnussen, Kim; Fages, Antoine; Gamba, Cristina; Lorente-Galdos, Belen; Polani, Sagi; Steiner, Cynthia; Neuditschko, Markus; Jagannathan, Vidhya; Feh, Claudia; Greenblatt, Charles L; Ludwig, Arne; Abramson, Natalia I; Zimmermann, Waltraut; Schafberg, Renate; Tikhonov, Alexei; Sicheritz-Ponten, Thomas; Willerslev, Eske; Marques-Bonet, Tomas; Ryder, Oliver A; McCue, Molly; Rieder, Stefan; Leeb, Tosso; Slatkin, Montgomery; Orlando, Ludovic

    2015-10-01

    Przewalski's horses (PHs, Equus ferus ssp. przewalskii) were discovered in the Asian steppes in the 1870s and represent the last remaining true wild horses. PHs became extinct in the wild in the 1960s but survived in captivity, thanks to major conservation efforts. The current population is still endangered, with just 2,109 individuals, one-quarter of which are in Chinese and Mongolian reintroduction reserves [1]. These horses descend from a founding population of 12 wild-caught PHs and possibly up to four domesticated individuals [2-4]. With a stocky build, an erect mane, and stripped and short legs, they are phenotypically and behaviorally distinct from domesticated horses (DHs, Equus caballus). Here, we sequenced the complete genomes of 11 PHs, representing all founding lineages, and five historical specimens dated to 1878-1929 CE, including the Holotype. These were compared to the hitherto-most-extensive genome dataset characterized for horses, comprising 21 new genomes. We found that loci showing the most genetic differentiation with DHs were enriched in genes involved in metabolism, cardiac disorders, muscle contraction, reproduction, behavior, and signaling pathways. We also show that DH and PH populations split ∼45,000 years ago and have remained connected by gene-flow thereafter. Finally, we monitor the genomic impact of ∼110 years of captivity, revealing reduced heterozygosity, increased inbreeding, and variable introgression of domestic alleles, ranging from non-detectable to as much as 31.1%. This, together with the identification of ancestry informative markers and corrections to the International Studbook, establishes a framework for evaluating the persistence of genetic variation in future reintroduced populations. PMID:26412128

  2. Adipose tissue macrophages in non-rodent mammals: a comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ampem, Grace; Azegrouz, Hind; Bacsadi, Árpád; Balogh, Lajos; Schmidt, Susanne; Thuróczy, Julianna; Röszer, Tamás

    2016-02-01

    The stromal vascular fraction (SVF) of adipose tissue in rodents and primates contains mesenchymal stem cells and immune cells. SVF cells have complex metabolic, immune and endocrine functions with biomedical impact. However, in other mammals, the amount of data on SVF stem cells is negligible and whether the SVF hosts immune cells is unknown. In this study, we show that the SVF is rich in immune cells, with a dominance of adipose tissue macrophages (ATMs) in cattle (Bos primigenius taurus), domestic goat (Capra aegagrus hircus), domestic sheep (Ovis aries), domestic cat (Felis catus) and domestic dog (Canis familiaris). ATMs of these species are granulated lysosome-rich cells with lamellipodial protrusions and express the lysosome markers acid phosphatase 5 (ACP-5) and Mac-3/Lamp-2. Using ACP-5 and Mac-3/Lamp-2 as markers, we additionally detected ATMs in other species, such as the domestic horse (Equus ferus caballus), wild boar (Sus scrofa) and red fox (Vulpes vulpes). Feline and canine ATMs also express the murine macrophage marker F4/80 antigen. In the lean condition, the alternative macrophage activation marker CD206 is expressed by feline and canine ATMs and arginase-1 by feline ATMs. Obesity is associated with interleukin-6 and interferon gamma expression and with overt tyrosine nitration in both feline and canine ATMs. This resembles the obesity-induced phenotype switch of murine and human ATMs. Thus, we show, for the first time, that the presence of ATMs is a general trait of mammals. The interaction between the adipose cells and SVF immune cells might be evolutionarily conserved among mammals. PMID:26239911

  3. The Influence of Adult Attachment on Patient Self-Management in Primary Care--The Need for a Personalized Approach and Patient-Centred Care.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katja Brenk-Franz

    Full Text Available Self-management strategies are essential elements of evidence-based treatment in patients with chronic conditions in primary care. Our objective was to analyse different self-management skills and behaviours and their association to adult attachment in primary care patients with multiple chronic conditions.In the apricare study (Adult Attachment in Primary Care we used a prospective longitudinal design to examine the association between adult attachment and self-management in primary care patients with multimorbidity. The attachment dimensions avoidance and anxiety were measured using the ECR-RD. Self-management skills were measured by the FERUS (motivation to change, coping, self-efficacy, hope, social support and self-management-behaviour by the DSMQ (glucose management, dietary control, physical activity, health-care use. Clinical diagnosis and severity of disease were assessed by the patients' GPs. Multivariate analyses (GLM were used to assess the relationship between the dimensions of adult attachment and patient self-management.219 patients in primary care with multiple chronic conditions (type II diabetes, hypertension and at least one other chronic condition between the ages of 50 and 85 were included in the study. The attachment dimension anxiety was positively associated with motivation to change and negatively associated with coping, self-efficacy and hope, dietary control and physical activity. Avoidance was negatively associated with coping, self-efficacy, social support and health care use.The two attachment dimensions anxiety and avoidance are associated with different components of self-management. A personalized, attachment-based view on patients with chronic diseases could be the key to effective, individual self-management approaches in primary care.

  4. Measurement of purine derivatives in the urine of some ruminant species

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The application of published high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) methods for the determination of PD in urine of cattle, sheep, buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis) and arabian camels (Camelus dromedarius) was investigated. Urine was taken from two water buffaloes, two camels, three cows and four sheep, all fed at maintenance level. Total nitrogen content in urine was determined using a micro-Kjeldahl procedure. Allantoin, uric acid and creatinine levels were determined colorimetrically while xanthine and hypoxanthine concentrations were determined by HPLC. Relative proportion of allantoin ranged from 74 ± 7 to 91 ± 1% in camels and cattle, respectively. Uric acid proportion was very low in camel urine (1.7 ± 1) but ranged from 3.7 ± 3 to 9.2 ± 1% in sheep and cows, respectively. Xanthine + hypoxanthine ranged from 11 ± 3 to 25 ± 7% in buffalo and camels, respectively. Total PD:Creatinine ratio (mol/mol W0.75) was 118 ± 15, 46 ± 17, 37 ± 9 and 33 ± 5 for cattle, camels, buffaloes and sheep respectively. The adoption of a single method for the simultaneous detection of all derivatives proved difficult due to elution of polar coextractives at the same retention times as the peaks of allantoin, uric acid and creatinine. (author)

  5. Do dark matter halos explain lensing peaks?

    CERN Document Server

    Matilla, José Manuel Zorrilla; Hsu, Daniel; Gupta, Arushi; Petri, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    We have investigated a recently proposed halo-based model, Camelus, for predicting weak-lensing peak counts, and compared its results over a collection of 162 cosmologies with those from N-body simulations. While counts from both models agree for peaks with $\\mathcal{S/N}>1$ (where $\\mathcal{S/N}$ is the ratio of the peak height to the r.m.s. shape noise), we find $\\approx 50\\%$ fewer counts for peaks near $\\mathcal{S/N}=0$ and significantly higher counts in the negative $\\mathcal{S/N}$ tail. Adding shape noise reduces the differences to within $20\\%$ for all cosmologies. We also found larger covariances that are more sensitive to cosmological parameters. As a result, credibility regions in the $\\{\\Omega_m, \\sigma_8\\}$ are $\\approx 30\\%$ larger. Even though the credible contours are commensurate, each model draws its predictive power from different types of peaks. Low peaks, especially those with $23)$. Our results confirm the importance of using a cosmology-dependent covariance with at least a 14\\% improveme...

  6. Use of salivary cortisol to evaluate the influence of rides in dromedary camels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majchrzak, Yasmine N; Mastromonaco, Gabriela F; Korver, Wendy; Burness, Gary

    2015-01-15

    Animals in captivity and in the wild face numerous challenges, including the risk of enduring acute or chronic stress. In captivity, facilities attempt to alleviate the risk of chronic stress by providing environmental enrichment, shown to minimize behavioral disorders and stress in several species. One potential form of enrichment in zoos is training animals to provide rides for guests, however, the effect of this activity on the welfare of individual animals has never been examined. We validated the use of saliva for assessing stress in dromedary camels (Camelus dromedarius), an animal commonly used for rides. We then measured variation in salivary cortisol in four male camels while providing rides of differing frequency for guests at the Toronto Zoo. The camels were sampled during the ride season (June to September) using four treatments: (1) in their pasture, (2) at the ride area when not performing rides, (3) while providing a low number of rides (n=50/day) and (4) while providing a high number of rides (n=150/day). Furthermore, samples were taken before and after the ride season for comparison. There was a significant difference between the post-ride season treatment and the three treatments involving guest presence during the ride season (ride area, low rides, high rides). In general, cortisol concentrations were lower during the ride season and higher during the non-ride season. Based on the metrics we used, performing rides is not a stressful experience for these dromedary camels and suggests that rides may be a form of enrichment. PMID:25452030

  7. Evidence for increased olfactory receptor gene repertoire size in two nocturnal bird species with well-developed olfactory ability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steiger Silke S

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In vertebrates, the molecular basis of the sense of smell is encoded by members of a large gene family, namely olfactory receptor (OR genes. Both the total number of OR genes and the proportion of intact OR genes in a genome may indicate the importance of the sense of smell for an animal. There is behavioral, physiological, and anatomical evidence that some bird species, in particular nocturnal birds, have a well developed sense of smell. Therefore, we hypothesized that nocturnal birds with good olfactory abilities have evolved (i more OR genes and (ii more intact OR genes than closely related and presumably less 'olfaction-dependent' day-active avian taxa. Results We used both non-radioactive Southern hybridization and PCR with degenerate primers to investigate whether two nocturnal bird species that are known to rely on olfactory cues, the brown kiwi (Apteryx australis and the kakapo (Strigops habroptilus, have evolved a larger OR gene repertoire than their day-active, closest living relatives (for kiwi the emu Dromaius novaehollandiae, rhea Rhea americana, and ostrich Struthio camelus and for kakapo the kaka Nestor meridionalis and kea Nestor notabilis. We show that the nocturnal birds did not have a significantly higher proportion of intact OR genes. However, the estimated total number of OR genes was larger in the two nocturnal birds than in their relatives. Conclusion Our results suggest that ecological niche adaptations such as daily activity patterns may have shaped avian OR gene repertoires.

  8. Reproduction in Camel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.V. Khanvilkar

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available The word camel is derived from the Greek word “kremal”. Camel is an important component of the desert ecosystem from time immemorial and is recognized as the “Ship of the desert”. Humans depend on this animal not just for meat, milk and hide but also as one of the most important mode of transport in the desert which has increased to 10,30,000 million according to FAO census, which is almost 6-8% of the total camel population of the world. The genus Camelus has two species, one humped camel found in Africa, Arabia, Iran, Afghanistan and India and two-humped camel found in Central Asia reaching up to Mongolia and Western part of China. Camels have 70 chromosomes. Camels do not have sweat glands and can tolerate heat up to 49 oC to 50oC during the day time and 30oC during night time. [Vet. World 2009; 2(2.000: 72-73

  9. Colorimetric and sensory characteristics of fermented cured sausage with Brazilian ostrich meat addition

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    Carlos Pasqualin Cavalheiro

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the colorimetric and sensory characteristics of a fermented cured sausage containing ostrich meat (Struthio camelus and pork meat. Four treatments were performed: one with no ostrich meat (TC and the others containing 19.08 (T1, 38.34 (T2, and 57.60% (T3 of ostrich meat and pork meat. Colorimetric analyses were measuring L*, a*, b*, C*, and hº. Sensory analysis was conducted assessing color, aroma, flavor, and texture at the end of the sausages' processing. The sausages containing ostrich meat were statistically different from the control in the instrumental colorimetric analysis. In the sensory analysis, no significant differences were observed between the treatments for aroma, flavor, and texture. However, significant differences were found in the color of the sausages due to the high myoglobin content present in the ostrich meat, which resulted in a very dark color in the treatment with the highest percentage of this type of meat.

  10. A Possible Long-tailed Bird with a Pygostyle from the Late Mesozoic Yixian Formation,Western Liaoning,China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    L(U) Junchang; HOU Lianhai

    2005-01-01

    An incomplete caudal vertebral series (IVPP V11309) from the Yixian Formation of late Mesozoic,Jianshangou area of B eipiao, western Liaoning Province, may represent a new bird. The tail is composed of at least 12 free caudal vertebrae and the most distal 5 caudal vertebrae co-ossified into a pygostyle. The pygostyle is plate-like and slightly curved dorsally. The anterior free caudals are amphiplatyan. The anterior caudal surfaces of the last three free caudals are concave, but their posterior articular surfaces are convex. The pygostyle is regarded as the first appeared flight apparatus during the evolutionary process from Archaeopteryx to neornithes. The pygostyle appeared in most early fossil birds and almost all the modern birds. Although their morphologies are different, they are basically formed by at least four last caudal vertebrae. The specimen V11309 is regarded as a bird rather than a non-avian theropod dinosaur based on the following characters: short caudal vertebrae, numerous pits present on the surfaces of the centra and, a foramen present between the basal part of the fused neural spines, which is similar to that of Struthio camelus. The discoveries of pygostyles from the therizinosauroids and oviraptorosaurs may provide strong evidence for supporting the origin of birds from small theropod dinosaurs. The structure of the pygostyle in specimen V11309 is different from those of Beipiaosaurus (Therizinosauroid) and Nomingia (oviraptorosaur). The most parsimonious interpretation is that these pygostyle-like structures are independently acquired by Beipiaosaurus and Nomingia during their evolutionary process.

  11. Bovine calves as ideal bio-indicators for fluoridated drinking water and endemic osteo-dental fluorosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choubisa, S L

    2014-07-01

    Relative susceptibility to fluoride (F) toxicosis in the form of osteo-dental fluorosis was observed in an observational survey of 2,747 mature and 887 immature domestic animals of diverse species living in areas with naturally fluoridated (>1.5 ppm F) drinking water. These animals included buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis), cattle (Bos taurus), camels (Camelus dromedarius), donkeys (Equus asinus), horses (Equus caballus), goats (Capra hircus), and sheep (Ovis aries). Of these mature and immature animals, 899 (32.7 %) and 322 (36.3 %) showed evidence of dental fluorosis with varying grades, respectively. Their incisor teeth were stained with light to deep brownish color. On clinical examination, 31.2 % mature and 10.7 % immature animals revealed periosteal exostoses, intermittent lameness, and stiffness of tendons in the legs as signs of skeletal fluorosis. The maximum susceptibility to fluoride toxicosis was found in bovines (buffaloes and cattle) followed by equines (donkeys and horses), flocks (goats and sheep), and camelids (camels). The bovine calves were found to be more sensitive and highly susceptible to F toxicosis and revealed the maximum prevalence (92.2 %) of dental fluorosis. This indicates that bovine calves are less tolerant and give early sign of F poisoning (dental fluorosis) and therefore, they can be considered as bio-indicators for fluoridated water as well as for endemicity of osteo-dental fluorosis. Causes for variation in susceptibility to F toxicosis (fluorosis) in various species of domestic animal are also discussed.

  12. EFFECTS OF PRE-INCUBATION STORAGE TIME OF OSTRICH EGGS ON THEIR INCUBATION AND HATCHING RESULTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lumturi Sena

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The research was carried out in the “ANOC” ostrich farm in Patos/Albania, in order to determine the effects of storage period on the hatchability of 197 ostrich (Struthio camelus eggs. One egg setting was monitored, through dividing the eggs into three groups according to their age, as following: 20-30, 10-20 and 1-10 days old, containing respectively 49, 80 and 68 eggs/group. During the hatching process, the respective parameters, such as: fecundity, embryonic mortality, weight egg loss and hatchability were recorded and monitored. After two weeks, the average weight loss of the all eggs resulted to be 0.5% more than the standard, referred as such, the instructions given by the Dutch company PAS REFORM, producer of the ostrich eggs incubation and hatching machines. The reason of the high embryonic mortality (40.7% mainly relates with the long pre-incubation storage time. Higher sterility (42.6% might especially relate with the high temperature stress in the farm, considering the fact that the animals were just transferred from the Netherlands to Albania. The hatching rate (29.9%, compared to the total number of the set eggs is comparable with the same parameter achieved in the UK. Out of these results, it is concluded that: the shorter the egg storage time before the setting the better will the hatching results be.

  13. Set a thief to catch a thief: brown-necked raven ( Corvus ruficollis) cooperatively kleptoparasitize Egyptian vulture ( Neophron percnopterus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yosef, Reuven; Kabesa, Shai; Yosef, Nufar

    2011-05-01

    Our study describes how brown-necked ravens ( Corvus ruficollis) are able to take advantage of an ordinarily inaccessible, high-quality food source by relying upon their innovative and manipulative thinking capabilities to exploit methods used by Egyptian vulture ( Neophron percnopterus) to overcome the problem. In five observed interactions, the ravens were first seen in the vicinity of an abandoned clutch of ostrich eggs ( Struthio camelus). The area was frequented by a pair of Egyptian vultures that bred on the cliffs across the road from the nature reserve. The Egyptian vulture exhibits tool use in birds, and is able to crack the hard shells of ostrich eggs by lifting a rock in the beak and pounding at the egg till it breaks open or cracks. If the egg is only cracked, the vulture inserts its narrow bill into the fissure and widens it by opening the mandibles. Pieces of eggshell are removed from around the crack in order to further open the egg. This is the point at which the pair of ravens attacked the vulture and harassed it till it abandoned the egg and left the area. The ravens then jointly enjoyed the contents of the egg which was otherwise inaccessible to them because of the strong egg shell.

  14. Inter-vertebral flexibility of the ostrich neck: implications for estimating sauropod neck flexibility.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew J Cobley

    Full Text Available The flexibility and posture of the neck in sauropod dinosaurs has long been contentious. Improved constraints on sauropod neck function will have major implications for what we know of their foraging strategies, ecology and overall biology. Several hypotheses have been proposed, based primarily on osteological data, suggesting different degrees of neck flexibility. This study attempts to assess the effects of reconstructed soft tissues on sauropod neck flexibility through systematic removal of muscle groups and measures of flexibility of the neck in a living analogue, the ostrich (Struthio camelus. The possible effect of cartilage on flexibility is also examined, as this was previously overlooked in osteological estimates of sauropod neck function. These comparisons show that soft tissues are likely to have limited the flexibility of the neck beyond the limits suggested by osteology alone. In addition, the inferred presence of cartilage, and varying the inter-vertebral spacing within the synovial capsule, also affect neck flexibility. One hypothesis proposed that flexibility is constrained by requiring a minimum overlap between successive zygapophyses equivalent to 50% of zygapophyseal articular surface length (ONP50. This assumption is tested by comparing the maximum flexibility of the articulated cervical column in ONP50 and the flexibility of the complete neck with all tissues intact. It is found that this model does not adequately convey the pattern of flexibility in the ostrich neck, suggesting that the ONP50 model may not be useful in determining neck function if considered in isolation from myological and other soft tissue data.

  15. Purification and Characterization of Cytosolic Glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate Dehydrogenase from the Dromedary Camel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Latifa FOURRAT; Abdelghani IDDAR; Abdelaziz SOUKRI

    2007-01-01

    Glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) (EC 1.2.1.12), a key enzyme of carbon metabolism, was purified and characterized to homogeneity from skeletal muscle of Camelus dromedarius. The protein was purified approximately 26.8 folds by conventional ammonium sulphate fractionation followed by Blue Sepharose CL-6B chromatography, and its physical and kinetic properties were investigated. The native protein is a homotetramer with an apparent molecular weight of approximately 146 kDa. Isoelectric focusing analysis showed the presence of only one GAPDH isoform with an isoelectric point of 7.2. The optimum pH of the purified enzyme was 7.8. Studies on the effect of temperature on enzyme activity revealed an optimal value of approximately 28-32 ℃ with activation energy of 4.9 kcal/mol.The apparent Km values for NAD+ and DL-glyceraldehyde-3-phophate were estimated to be 0.025±0.040 mM and 0.21±0.08 mM, respectively. The Vmax of the purified protein was estimated to be 52.7±5.9 U/mg.These kinetic parameter values were different from those described previously, reflecting protein differences between species.

  16. Large scale sex typing of ostriches using DNA extracted from feathers

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    Medaglia Adriana

    2002-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ostrich (Struthio camelus breeds have been gaining increasing significance around the world. The large-scale sex determination of chicks is an important task in the development of these breeds. To date, two PCR-based methods have been established for ostrich sex typing, neither of them intended for large-scale analyses. Here, we report on a protocol adapted to carry out large-scale gender scoring using DNA obtained from chick feathers. Results The DNA was extracted using a fast and simple alkaline extraction protocol that provided sufficient template for an early diagnosis. Tests with several primer sets enabled us to determine the best internal control primers associated with the sex-specific primers, avoiding spurious bands. Using DNA extracted from a single bulb and the best set of primers, we applied this protocol to simultaneously sex-type 96 individuals accurately. Conclusion We have established a fast, safe, accurate and inexpensive procedure for large-scale sex typing of ostriches using DNA extracted from feathers. This procedure is useful for the gender identification of chicks in the first days of nestling life.

  17. HAEMATOLOGICAL INDICES OF CAPTIVE BLACK NECK OSTRICHES

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    F.A.MOHAMED AHMED

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted at Sudan University of Science and Technology College of Veterinary Medicine and Animal Production Department of fisheries science and wildlife in June 20 11 to determine hematological values of Black Neck Ostrich Struthio Camelus massaicus collected from El Safa farm North Khartoum. Values of some hematological parameters of 14 Black Neck Ostrich 7 male and 7 female age from 3-4 year, and 70–75 kg in weight were examined to determine the mean values obtained for White Blood cells Count (WBC, Erythrocytes Count (RBC, Hemoglobin Concentration Rates (Hb, Packed Cell Volume (PCV, Mean Corpuscular Volume (MCV/cl and Erythrocytes Sedimentation Rate (ESR. The result of this study show that there are no significant different in all blood values between samples collected from male and female at p (P<0.05, expect in Red Blood Cells (RBC there is significant different at (P<0.05. The main target of this study is to comparison between hematological values of Black Neck Ostrich in both male and female.

  18. HAEMATOLOGICAL INDICES OF CAPTIVE BLACK NECK OSTRICHES

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    F.A. MOHAMED AHMED

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted at Sudan University of Science and Technology College of Veterinary Medicine and Animal Production Department of fisheries science and wildlife in June 2011 to determine hematological values of Black Neck Ostrich Struthio Camelus massaicus collected from El Safa farm North Khartoum. Values of some hematological parameters of 14 Black Neck Ostrich 7 male and 7 female age from 3-4 year, and 70–75 kg in weight were examined to determine the mean values obtained for White Blood cells Count (WBC, Erythrocytes Count (RBC, Hemoglobin Concentration Rates (Hb, Packed Cell Volume (PCV, Mean Corpuscular Volume (MCV/cl and Erythrocytes Sedimentation Rate (ESR. The result of this study show that there are no significant different in all blood values between samples collected from male and female at p (P<0.0٥, expect in Red Blood Cells (RBC there is significant different at (P<0.05. The main target of this study is to comparison between hematological values of Black Neck Ostrich in both male and female.

  19. Development of loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP assay for rapid and sensitive identification of ostrich meat.

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    Amir Abdulmawjood

    Full Text Available Animal species identification is one of the primary duties of official food control. Since ostrich meat is difficult to be differentiated macroscopically from beef, therefore new analytical methods are needed. To enforce labeling regulations for the authentication of ostrich meat, it might be of importance to develop and evaluate a rapid and reliable assay. In the present study, a loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP assay based on the cytochrome b gene of the mitochondrial DNA of the species Struthio camelus was developed. The LAMP assay was used in combination with a real-time fluorometer. The developed system allowed the detection of 0.01% ostrich meat products. In parallel, a direct swab method without nucleic acid extraction using the HYPLEX LPTV buffer was also evaluated. This rapid processing method allowed detection of ostrich meat without major incubation steps. In summary, the LAMP assay had excellent sensitivity and specificity for detecting ostrich meat and could provide a sampling-to-result identification-time of 15 to 20 minutes.

  20. Evaluation of microbiology and nutritive quality of exotic meats

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    Ricardo Antonio Pilegi Sfaciotte

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Vacuum-packed and frozen of ostrich (Struthio camelus, alligator (Caiman latirostris and wild boar (Sus scrofa meat samples were obtained in an authorized commercial store in Maringá/Paraná. Of each kind meat were analyzed 6 samples, where were studied counts of mesophilic aerobic bacteria, aerobic bacteria psichrophilic, coliforms, Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus spp., and protein and fat analysis. The results of aerobic mesophilic bacteria ranged between <1.0 a 3.6 log CFU/g, being the biggest counting in ostrich meat. The meat that had the biggest counting of micro-organisms psychrotrophs was also the ostrich, but even so, it was not considered high, ranging between 2.3 and 2.7 log CFU/g. There were no counting for coliforms and E. coli on wild boar and alligator meats (except sample 4 of wild boar meat that had a count of 1.0 log CFU/g of coliforms but, all ostrich meat had count, ranged between 1.3 a 2.7 log CFU/g. In generally, the literature shows that wild animals meats have higher protein values (19.5 to 22.8% CP than domestic animals, this values agree with the values found in this work, 19.9 to 29.9% CP.

  1. Morphological and histochemical observations of the organic components of ostrich eggshell

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    P.D.G. Richards

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available The organic component of the avian eggshell can be divided into 3 portions, the shell membranes, the matrix and the cuticle. These have been well characterised in the chicken but little has been published with regard to the ostrich (Struthio camelus. A number of recent studies have indicated that the cause of intra-shell embryonic deaths in the ostrich is similar to intra-shell embryonic deaths that occur in the chicken. These deaths in the chicken are associated with the loss of or damage to the waxy cuticle and other organic components of the eggshell, which is reported to be absent in the ostrich eggshell. In this study, preliminary morphological and histochemical analyses, at the level of the light and electron microscope, have characterised the various organic components of the ostrich eggshell. The results of the histochemical and electron microscopical analyses suggest that there mayonly be 1 shell membrane in this species, which could play a major role in the limitation of bacterial penetration to the embryonic chamber. The shell membrane has a distinct elemental profile as determined by EDSanalysis. The matrix is shown to decrease in mesh size from the mammillary layer to the vertical crystal layer. The closer packing of the mesh may indicate the presence of a morphologically discernible termination signal to calcification or the remnants of an evolutionary calcified cuticle. The matrix of the pores may also forma defensive barrier against bacterial invasion, which could be damaged as a result of dipping the eggs before incubation.

  2. cDNA cloning and sequencing of ostrich Growth hormone

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    Doosti Abbas

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, industrial breeding of ostrich (Struthio camelus has been widely developed in Iran. Growth hormone (GH is a peptide hormone that stimulates growth and cell reproduction in different animals. The aim of this study was to clone and sequence the ostrich growth hormone gene in E. coli, done for the first time in Iran. The cDNA that encodes ostrich growth hormone was isolated from total mRNA of the pituitary gland and amplified by RT-PCR using GH specific PCR primers. Then GH cDNA was cloned by T/A cloning technique and the construct was transformed into E. coli. Finally, GH cDNA sequence was submitted to the GenBank (Accession number: JN559394. The results of present study showed that GH cDNA was successfully cloned in E. coli. Sequencing confirmed that GH cDNA was cloned and that the length of ostrich GH cDNA was 672 bp; BLAST search showed that the sequence of growth hormone cDNA of the ostrich from Iran has 100% homology with other records existing in GenBank.

  3. Stable isotopes suggest differences in diet between historic and reintroduced Przewalskís horses in the Gobi desert

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burnik Šturm, Martina; Spasskaya, Natalia N.; Sablin, Mikhail V.; Voigt, Christian C.; Kaczensky, Petra

    2016-04-01

    In historic times, two wild equid species, the Przewalski᾽s horse (PH; Equus ferus przewalskii) and the Asiatic wild ass (khulan, KH; Equus hemionus), roamed the Eurasian steppes. By the end of the 1960s, PHs had been driven to extinction in the wild and the range of KHs became severely restricted to the least productive habitats. However, PHs survived in captivity and reintroductions since the 1990s have brought the species back to parts of its native range in Mongolia and northern China where they again overlap with KHs. Ecological research on PHs and KHs has increased in recent years, but very little information is available on the ecology of the original PHs prior to extinction in the wild. We applied stable isotope analysis (13C, 15N, and 2H) of segmentally cut tail hair of PHs and KHs, collected during expeditions in NW China and SW Mongolia in 1889-1899, to draw inferences about the species feeding ecology. We compared tail hair isotope patterns of historic individuals to those of their extant counterparts from the Mongolian Gobi. A previous study of isotopic tail hair signatures of extant PHs (N=6) and KHs (N=6) suggested species specific differences in diet, with PHs being year-round grazers, but KHs switching between being grazers in summer and mixed feeders in winter (Burnik Šturm et al., in prep.). The comparison of isotope patterns of extant with historic samples confirms diet seasonality in historic KHs (N=3), but detects the same seasonality in five out of six PHs, suggesting that historic PHs had a different isotopic dietary niche than extant PHs. While we are still unable to fully understand the underlying reasons for this change in PHs, our results clearly suggest that the isotopic dietary niche of PHs was wider in the past, suggesting a higher diet flexibility, and overlapped with that of KHs, suggesting a high competition potential over Gobi pastures between the two equid species in historic times. Reference: Burnik Šturm, M., Ganbaatar, O

  4. A Global Scale Scenario for Prebiotic Chemistry: Silica-Based Self-Assembled Mineral Structures and Formamide.

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    Saladino, Raffaele; Botta, Giorgia; Bizzarri, Bruno Mattia; Di Mauro, Ernesto; Garcia Ruiz, Juan Manuel

    2016-05-17

    The pathway from simple abiotically made organic compounds to the molecular bricks of life, as we know it, is unknown. The most efficient geological abiotic route to organic compounds results from the aqueous dissolution of olivine, a reaction known as serpentinization (Sleep, N.H., et al. (2004) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 101, 12818-12822). In addition to molecular hydrogen and a reducing environment, serpentinization reactions lead to high-pH alkaline brines that can become easily enriched in silica. Under these chemical conditions, the formation of self-assembled nanocrystalline mineral composites, namely silica/carbonate biomorphs and metal silicate hydrate (MSH) tubular membranes (silica gardens), is unavoidable (Kellermeier, M., et al. In Methods in Enzymology, Research Methods in Biomineralization Science (De Yoreo, J., Ed.) Vol. 532, pp 225-256, Academic Press, Burlington, MA). The osmotically driven membranous structures have remarkable catalytic properties that could be operating in the reducing organic-rich chemical pot in which they form. Among one-carbon compounds, formamide (NH2CHO) has been shown to trigger the formation of complex prebiotic molecules under mineral-driven catalytic conditions (Saladino, R., et al. (2001) Biorganic & Medicinal Chemistry, 9, 1249-1253), proton irradiation (Saladino, R., et al. (2015) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 112, 2746-2755), and laser-induced dielectric breakdown (Ferus, M., et al. (2015) Proc Natl Acad Sci USA, 112, 657-662). Here, we show that MSH membranes are catalysts for the condensation of NH2CHO, yielding prebiotically relevant compounds, including carboxylic acids, amino acids, and nucleobases. Membranes formed by the reaction of alkaline (pH 12) sodium silicate solutions with MgSO4 and Fe2(SO4)3·9H2O show the highest efficiency, while reactions with CuCl2·2H2O, ZnCl2, FeCl2·4H2O, and MnCl2·4H2O showed lower reactivities. The collections of compounds forming inside and outside the tubular membrane are

  5. A Global Scale Scenario for Prebiotic Chemistry: Silica-Based Self-Assembled Mineral Structures and Formamide

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    The pathway from simple abiotically made organic compounds to the molecular bricks of life, as we know it, is unknown. The most efficient geological abiotic route to organic compounds results from the aqueous dissolution of olivine, a reaction known as serpentinization (Sleep, N.H., et al. (2004) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 101, 12818–12822). In addition to molecular hydrogen and a reducing environment, serpentinization reactions lead to high-pH alkaline brines that can become easily enriched in silica. Under these chemical conditions, the formation of self-assembled nanocrystalline mineral composites, namely silica/carbonate biomorphs and metal silicate hydrate (MSH) tubular membranes (silica gardens), is unavoidable (Kellermeier, M., et al. In Methods in Enzymology, Research Methods in Biomineralization Science (De Yoreo, J., Ed.) Vol. 532, pp 225–256, Academic Press, Burlington, MA). The osmotically driven membranous structures have remarkable catalytic properties that could be operating in the reducing organic-rich chemical pot in which they form. Among one-carbon compounds, formamide (NH2CHO) has been shown to trigger the formation of complex prebiotic molecules under mineral-driven catalytic conditions (Saladino, R., et al. (2001) Biorganic & Medicinal Chemistry, 9, 1249–1253), proton irradiation (Saladino, R., et al. (2015) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 112, 2746–2755), and laser-induced dielectric breakdown (Ferus, M., et al. (2015) Proc Natl Acad Sci USA, 112, 657–662). Here, we show that MSH membranes are catalysts for the condensation of NH2CHO, yielding prebiotically relevant compounds, including carboxylic acids, amino acids, and nucleobases. Membranes formed by the reaction of alkaline (pH 12) sodium silicate solutions with MgSO4 and Fe2(SO4)3·9H2O show the highest efficiency, while reactions with CuCl2·2H2O, ZnCl2, FeCl2·4H2O, and MnCl2·4H2O showed lower reactivities. The collections of compounds forming inside and outside the tubular

  6. Contribution of stable isotopes (C,N,S) in collagen of late Pleistocene large mammal trophic ecology and landscape use: a case study in Goyet and Scladina cave (30-40,000 years BP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bocherens, Hervé; Germonpré, Mietje

    2010-05-01

    Two Belgian caves yielded very rich large mammal associations dating around 30 to 40,000 years ago: Goyet and Scladina cave (layer 1A). These sites are only 5 km apart but the cave entrances open on different valleys, in a quite diverse landscape ranging between open, unprotected uplands, steep cliffs and sheltered sun-exposed gorges, with the larger Meuse valley nearby. This mosaic scenery permitted during the Last Glacial a rich diversity of fossil flora and fauna. The faunal association includes a large diversity of taxa including Aurochs Bos primigenius, steppe bison Bison priscus, reindeer Rangifer tarandus, giant deer Megaloceros giganteus, horse Equus ferus, woolly rhinoceros Coelodonta antiquitatis, woolly mammoth Mammuthus primigenius, cave bear Ursus spelaeus, brown bear Ursus arctos, wolf Canis lupus, cave lion Panthera leo spelaea, and cave hyaena Crocuta crocuta spelaea. All the 90 studied bones and teeth yielded collagen with excellent collagen preservation, allowing reliable investigations of carbon, nitrogen and sulfur isotopic biogeochemistry. The combination of three different isotopic tracers allows to deciphering the effects of food selection and landscape use by different herbivorous and carnivorous taxa. This is the first study to include sulfur isotopic signatures in the study of late Quaternary large mammal palaeobiology. This new tracer yields evidence on mobility and differences in pasture areas, as different geological bedrock may exhibit various sulfur isotopic signatures that will pass on the herbivores and further on their predators. Using this feature in addition to the trophic information provided by carbon and nitrogen isotopic signatures, it appears that for some species present in both sites, such as horse and woolly rhinoceros, the individuals found in each site probably did not use the same pasture areas. This seems to also the case for the overwhelmingly vegetarian cave bears. In addition, individuals from the same species

  7. Estimated abundance of wild burros surveyed on Bureau of Land Management Lands in 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffin, Paul C.

    2015-01-01

    The Bureau of Land Management (BLM) requires accurate estimates of the numbers of wild horses (Equus ferus caballus) and burros (Equus asinus) living on the lands it manages. For over ten years, BLM in Arizona has used the simultaneous double-observer method of recording wild burros during aerial surveys and has reported population estimates for those surveys that come from two formulations of a Lincoln-Petersen type of analysis (Graham and Bell, 1989). In this report, I provide those same two types of burro population analysis for 2014 aerial survey data from six herd management areas (HMAs) in Arizona, California, Nevada, and Utah. I also provide burro population estimates based on a different form of simultaneous double-observer analysis, now in widespread use for wild horse surveys that takes into account the potential effects on detection probability of sighting covariates including group size, distance, vegetative cover, and other factors (Huggins, 1989, 1991). The true number of burros present in the six areas surveyed was not known, so population estimates made with these three types of analyses cannot be directly tested for accuracy in this report. I discuss theoretical reasons why the Huggins (1989, 1991) type of analysis should provide less biased estimates of population size than the Lincoln-Petersen analyses and why estimates from all forms of double-observer analyses are likely to be lower than the true number of animals present in the surveyed areas. I note reasons why I suggest using burro observations made at all available distances in analyses, not only those within 200 meters of the flight path. For all analytical methods, small sample sizes of observed groups can be problematic, but that sample size can be increased over time for Huggins (1989, 1991) analyses by pooling observations. I note ways by which burro population estimates could be tested for accuracy when there are radio-collared animals in the population or when there are simultaneous

  8. Ecological differences in three autochthonous equid species in Mongolian Gobi inferred from stable isotopes in tail hair

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burnik Šturm, Martina; Voigt, Christian C.; Oyunsaikhan, Ganbaatar; Kaczensky, Petra

    2014-05-01

    In the Dzungarian Gobi of Mongolia three equid species, Asiatic wild ass (Equus hemionus), domestic horse (Equus caballus), and re-introduced Przewalski's horse (Equus ferus przewalskii) share the same habitat and thus provide a unique opportunity for comparative ecological studies. In our project we use the stable isotope analysis of tail hair as a tool to study feeding ecology, water use and movement pattern of the three extant sympatric equid species to reveal species specific differences and thus strengthen our understanding of the ecological adaptations of the three species to the harsh environment of the Gobi desert. Since tail hair grow continuously and is isotopically inert after formation, when sampled and analysed longitudinally, provides temporary explicit information on dietary regime and movement pattern. We use the carbon isotopes in the tail hair to determine the quantitative dependence of each animal on isotopically distinct C3 (grasses) and C4 (multitude of annuals and perennials) diet. Nitrogen isotopes reflect the isotopic composition of the diet and hydrogen isotopes reflect the isotopic composition of the water that animals utilize, while both elements have been reported to also give information on the physical status of the animal. Combined isotope data will be used to describe the movement patterns and habitat use of the three equid species. We will present the methodology and first preliminary results of carbon and nitrogen isotope analysis of potential forage plants of the study area and of the tail hair analysis. Among the analysed plants, collected in the pilot sampling campaign in 2012 (n = 192), we identified 14 C3 and two C4species and found no general trend that could explain the effect of altitude on carbon isotopic composition in C3 plants and no correlation between carbon isotopic composition and longitude or latitude. We performed additional, more detailed plant sampling in 2013. The first results obtained from the tail hair

  9. Revision of the Ceratocapsine Renodaeus group: Marinonicoris, Pilophoropsis, Renodaeus, and Zanchisme, with descriptions of four new genera (Heteroptera, Miridae, Orthotylinae

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    Thomas Henry

    2015-03-01

    ., from Michoacan, Mexico; P. touchetae sp. n., from Mexico (Puebla; P. truncata sp. n., from Mexico (Guerrero; P. tuberculata sp. n., from Mexico (Guerrero; and Ceratocapsus barberi Knight, comb. n., Ceratocapsus camelus Knight, comb. n. (as the type species of the genus, and Ceratocapsus fascipennis Knight, comb. n. Pilophoropsita gen. n. is described to accommodate P. schaffneri sp. n. from Costa Rica and Mexico (Jalisco, Nayarit, Oaxaca. The genus Renodaeus Distant is redescribed and the new species R. mimeticus sp. n. from Ecuador is described. The genus Zanchisme Kirkaldy is reviewed and the four known species are redescribed. Zanchismeopsidea gen. n. is described to accommodate Z. diegoi sp. n. from Argentina (Santiago del Estero. Provided are habitus illustrations for certain adults (Pilophoropsidea camelus, Pilophoropsis brachyptera Poppius, Renodaeus mimeticus, and Zanchisme mexicanus Carvalho & Schaffner, male and female (when available color digital images and figures of male genitalia of all species, electron photomicrographs of diagnostic characters for selected species, and keys to the genera and their included species. The taxa treated in this paper are arranged alphabetically by genus and species.

  10. Activity of heat shock genes' promoters in thermally contrasting animal species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astakhova, Lyubov N; Zatsepina, Olga G; Funikov, Sergei Yu; Zelentsova, Elena S; Schostak, Natalia G; Orishchenko, Konstantin E; Evgen'ev, Michael B; Garbuz, David G

    2015-01-01

    Heat shock gene promoters represent a highly conserved and universal system for the rapid induction of transcription after various stressful stimuli. We chose pairs of mammalian and insect species that significantly differ in their thermoresistance and constitutive levels of Hsp70 to compare hsp promoter strength under normal conditions and after heat shock (HS). The first pair includes the HSPA1 gene promoter of camel (Camelus dromedarius) and humans. It was demonstrated that the camel HSPA1A and HSPA1L promoters function normally in vitro in human cell cultures and exceed the strength of orthologous human promoters under basal conditions. We used the same in vitro assay for Drosophila melanogaster Schneider-2 (S2) cells to compare the activity of the hsp70 and hsp83 promoters of the second species pair represented by Diptera, i.e., Stratiomys singularior and D. melanogaster, which dramatically differ in thermoresistance and the pattern of Hsp70 accumulation. Promoter strength was also monitored in vivo in D. melanogaster strains transformed with constructs containing the S. singularior hsp70 ORF driven either by its own promoter or an orthologous promoter from the D. melanogaster hsp70Aa gene. Analysis revealed low S. singularior hsp70 promoter activity in vitro and in vivo under basal conditions and after HS in comparison with the endogenous promoter in D. melanogaster cells, which correlates with the absence of canonical GAGA elements in the promoters of the former species. Indeed, the insertion of GAGA elements into the S. singularior hsp70 regulatory region resulted in a dramatic increase in promoter activity in vitro but only modestly enhanced the promoter strength in the larvae of the transformed strains. In contrast with hsp70 promoters, hsp83 promoters from both of the studied Diptera species demonstrated high conservation and universality.

  11. Gastrointestinal parasites in greater rheas (Rhea americana) and lesser rheas (Rhea pennata) from Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Díaz, Rafael A; Martella, Mónica Beatriz; Navarro, Joaquín Luis; Ponce-Gordo, Francisco

    2013-05-01

    Few data exist on the parasites of ratites, especially from regions within their natural range. It is only recently that extensive studies on the parasites of ostriches (Struthio camelus) have been published, mainly from European countries where commercial farming has expanded. Two species of ratites are native in South America: the lesser rhea also known as Darwin's rhea (Rhea pennata) and the greater rhea (Rhea americana). Both species are considered near threatened by the IUCN and are included in the CITES' Appendices I and II, respectively. Parasitological studies have conservation implications, as they allow us to assess the risk of transmission of pathogens from farmed ratites to wild populations. In this study 92 faecal samples from greater rheas and 55 faecal samples from lesser rheas from different localities in Argentine were analyzed to determine their gastrointestinal parasites. In greater rheas the protozoa (Balantidium coli-like and Entamoeba spp.) and helminths (Fasciola hepatica and Deletrocephalus spp.). The protozoa had not previously been cited as parasites of greater rheas in South America. Cysts and/or trophozoites of B. coli-like were found in 16.3% of the samples, while the prevalence of the remaining parasites was below 10%. Lesser rheas harbored the protozoa B. coli-like, Entamoeba spp. and Chilomastix spp. as well as F. hepatica and nematode eggs and larvae. B. coli-like cysts were found in 20.0% of the samples, while the prevalence of the other parasites remained below 5%. Some of them had not been cited as infecting lesser rheas yet. PMID:23305970

  12. Multiple IgH Isotypes Including IgD, Subclasses of IgM, and IgY Are Expressed in the Common Ancestors of Modern Birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Binyue; Yuan, Hui; Wang, Tao; Li, Bo; Ma, Li; Yu, Shuyang; Huang, Tian; Li, Yan; Fang, Dongming; Chen, Xiaoli; Wang, Yongsi; Qiu, Si; Guo, Ying; Fei, Jing; Ren, Liming; Pan-Hammarström, Qiang; Hammarström, Lennart; Wang, Jun; Wang, Jian; Hou, Yong; Pan, Qingjie; Xu, Xun; Zhao, Yaofeng

    2016-06-15

    Although evolutionarily just as ancient as IgM, it has been thought for many years that IgD is not present in birds. Based on the recently sequenced genomes of 48 bird species as well as high-throughput transcriptome sequencing of immune-related tissues, we demonstrate in this work that the ostrich (Struthio camelus) possesses a functional δ gene that encodes a membrane-bound IgD H chain with seven CH domains. Furthermore, δ sequences were clearly identified in many other bird species, demonstrating that the δ gene is widely distributed among birds and is only absent in certain bird species. We also show that the ostrich possesses two μ genes (μ1, μ2) and two υ genes (υ1, υ2), in addition to the δ and α genes. Phylogenetic analyses suggest that subclass diversification of both the μ and υ genes occurred during the early stages of bird evolution, after their divergence from nonavian reptiles. Although the positions of the two υ genes are unknown, physical mapping showed that the remaining genes are organized in the order μ1-δ-α-μ2, with the α gene being inverted relative to the others. Together with previous studies, our data suggest that birds and nonavian reptile species most likely shared a common ancestral IgH gene locus containing a δ gene and an inverted α gene. The δ gene was then evolutionarily lost in selected birds, whereas the α gene lost in selected nonavian reptiles. The data obtained in this study provide significant insights into the understanding of IgH gene evolution in tetrapods. PMID:27183632

  13. Reference genes for quantitative gene expression studies in multiple avian species.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philipp Olias

    Full Text Available Quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR rapidly and reliably quantifies gene expression levels across different experimental conditions. Selection of suitable reference genes is essential for meaningful normalization and thus correct interpretation of data. In recent years, an increasing number of avian species other than the chicken has been investigated molecularly, highlighting the need for an experimentally validated pan-avian primer set for reference genes. Here we report testing a set for 14 candidate reference genes (18S, ABL, GAPDH, GUSB, HMBS, HPRT, PGK1, RPL13, RPL19, RPS7, SDHA, TFRC, VIM, YWHAZ on different tissues of the mallard (Anas platyrhynchos, domestic chicken (Gallus gallus domesticus, common crane (Grus grus, white-tailed eagle (Haliaeetus albicilla, domestic turkey (Meleagris gallopavo f. domestica, cockatiel (Nymphicus hollandicus, Humboldt penguin (Sphenicus humboldti, ostrich (Struthio camelus and zebra finch (Taeniopygia guttata, spanning a broad range of the phylogenetic tree of birds. Primer pairs for six to 11 genes were successfully established for each of the nine species. As a proof of principle, we analyzed expression levels of 10 candidate reference genes as well as FOXP2 and the immediate early genes, EGR1 and CFOS, known to be rapidly induced by singing in the avian basal ganglia. We extracted RNA from microbiopsies of the striatal song nucleus Area X of adult male zebra finches after they had sang or remained silent. Using three different statistical algorithms, we identified five genes (18S, PGK1, RPS7, TFRC, YWHAZ that were stably expressed within each group and also between the singing and silent conditions, establishing them as suitable reference genes. In conclusion, the newly developed pan-avian primer set allows accurate normalization and quantification of gene expression levels in multiple avian species.

  14. The One-humped Camel in the Canary Islands: History and Present Status

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    Wilson, RT.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The one-humped camel (Camelus dromedarius L. is not indigenous to the Canary Islands but based on historical references was introduced at the very beginning of the fifteenth century. The camel thrived in the subtropical dry environment. A long period of isolation from other animals of the same species meant that the animals were virtually disease free. This made the Islands an ideal base for exporting camels to new areas such that camels from the Canaries went to Peru in the sixteenth century, to Brazil in the eighteenth century, Venezuela and Bolivia in the early part of the nineteenth century and Australia in 1840. Camels went to several Caribbean islands in the middle of the nineteenth century. More recently (late twentieth and early twenty-first centuries some animals were exported from the islands to mainland Europe, notably France, Spain and the Netherlands, and to South America. Camels have been used in military operations, as transport and draught animals in support of agriculture and have found a role in the tourist industry. In early 2013 there were some 1,300 camels distributed over four of the larger islands of the archipelago in herds varying in size from a single animal to herds of as many as 150 head: a large group of about 400 heads kept in a Safari Park on the island of Fuerteventura is considered as the national conservation herd. The "Canary" camel has recently been shown to be genetically distinct from most other populations and it has been proposed that it should be designated as a distinct breed.

  15. The Staurotypus turtles and aves share the same origin of sex chromosomes but evolved different types of heterogametic sex determination.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taiki Kawagoshi

    Full Text Available Reptiles have a wide diversity of sex-determining mechanisms and types of sex chromosomes. Turtles exhibit temperature-dependent sex determination and genotypic sex determination, with male heterogametic (XX/XY and female heterogametic (ZZ/ZW sex chromosomes. Identification of sex chromosomes in many turtle species and their comparative genomic analysis are of great significance to understand the evolutionary processes of sex determination and sex chromosome differentiation in Testudines. The Mexican giant musk turtle (Staurotypus triporcatus, Kinosternidae, Testudines and the giant musk turtle (Staurotypus salvinii have heteromorphic XY sex chromosomes with a low degree of morphological differentiation; however, their origin and linkage group are still unknown. Cross-species chromosome painting with chromosome-specific DNA from Chinese soft-shelled turtle (Pelodiscus sinensis revealed that the X and Y chromosomes of S. triporcatus have homology with P. sinensis chromosome 6, which corresponds to the chicken Z chromosome. We cloned cDNA fragments of S. triporcatus homologs of 16 chicken Z-linked genes and mapped them to S. triporcatus and S. salvinii chromosomes using fluorescence in situ hybridization. Sixteen genes were localized to the X and Y long arms in the same order in both species. The orders were also almost the same as those of the ostrich (Struthio camelus Z chromosome, which retains the primitive state of the avian ancestral Z chromosome. These results strongly suggest that the X and Y chromosomes of Staurotypus turtles are at a very early stage of sex chromosome differentiation, and that these chromosomes and the avian ZW chromosomes share the same origin. Nonetheless, the turtles and birds acquired different systems of heterogametic sex determination during their evolution.

  16. Effect of diet supplementation on growth and reproduction in camels under arid range conditions

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    Abdouli H.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Eighteen pregnant dromedary females (Camelus dromedarius were used to determine the effect of concentrate supplement on growth and reproductive performances in peri-partum period. The females were divided into supplemented (n = 9; S and unsupplemented (n = 9; C experimental groups. All animals grazed, with one mature male, 7 to 8 hours per day on salty pasture rangelands. During night, they were kept in pen, where each female of group S received 4 kg per day of concentrate supplement during the last 3 months of gestation and 5 kg per day during the first 3 months post-partum. During the last 90 days of gestation daily body weight gain (DBG was at least tenfold more important in group S than in group C (775 g vs. 72 g respectively. Supplementation affected birth weight of offspring (30.3 kg vs. 23.4 kg and its DBG (806 g vs. 430 g in group S and group C respectively. During the post-partum period, females in group S gained in weight (116 g per day whereas females in group C lost more than 200 g per day. The mean post-partum interval to the first heat and the percentage of females in heat were 29.5 day and 44.4/ vs. 41.2 day and 71.4/ for the C and S groups, respectively. We conclude that under range conditions, dietary supplementation of dromedary during late pregnancy stage and post-partum period improves productive and reproductive parameters.

  17. GROSS AND MICROSCOPIC ANATOMY OF MAMMARY GLAND OF DROMEDARIES UNDER DIFFERENT PHYSIOLOGICAL CONDITIONS

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    R. Kausar, A. Sarwar and C.S. Hayat

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available Samples of 24 mammary glands from healthy one-humped camel (Camelus dromedarius cows were investigated under different physiological conditions for their gross and light microscopic anatomy. Different groups included equal number of immature heifers, mature heifers, lactating and non-lactating animals. Tissues fixed in 10% NBF were processed as per routine and stained with hematoxylin and eosin (H&E and Massons trichome. Morphometry was done with the help of stage and ocular micrometer. Gross studies revealed that the camel's udder consists of four quarters. The udder and teat showed light brown to solid black tinge in colour. The tips of teats sloped to a point both in immature and mature animals, however, the conformation of teats turned rounded at the tips in lactating camels. Each teat possessed two teat canals. The dimensions of teat and streak canal varied markedly among four different groups. Number of Furestenberg's rosettes ranged from 11.6 to 13.6. Microscopic studies revealed that streak canal was lined by stratified squamous keratinized epithelium that was partially extremely thin in some parts. Cutaneous layer of teat was devoid of hair follicles except at the base of teat. Follicles were associated with sebaceous glands. Sweat glands were less coiled and showed a wide acinous element forming the part of excretory duct. Glomus organs occurred in the stratum profundum of the corium as well as in the subcutis of the skin of mammary gland. They also revealed great variation in structure and size. Epithelial lining of the alveoli varied from flattened to columnar according to physiological state. Number and size of alveoli per lobule decreased and the parenchyma was replaced by loose connective tissue during non-lactating phase. These results suggested that age and lactation considerably influenced gross and microscopic anatomy of mammary gland in camels.

  18. Ostriches sleep like platypuses.

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    John A Lesku

    Full Text Available Mammals and birds engage in two distinct states of sleep, slow wave sleep (SWS and rapid eye movement (REM sleep. SWS is characterized by slow, high amplitude brain waves, while REM sleep is characterized by fast, low amplitude waves, known as activation, occurring with rapid eye movements and reduced muscle tone. However, monotremes (platypuses and echidnas, the most basal (or 'ancient' group of living mammals, show only a single sleep state that combines elements of SWS and REM sleep, suggesting that these states became temporally segregated in the common ancestor to marsupial and eutherian mammals. Whether sleep in basal birds resembles that of monotremes or other mammals and birds is unknown. Here, we provide the first description of brain activity during sleep in ostriches (Struthio camelus, a member of the most basal group of living birds. We found that the brain activity of sleeping ostriches is unique. Episodes of REM sleep were delineated by rapid eye movements, reduced muscle tone, and head movements, similar to those observed in other birds and mammals engaged in REM sleep; however, during REM sleep in ostriches, forebrain activity would flip between REM sleep-like activation and SWS-like slow waves, the latter reminiscent of sleep in the platypus. Moreover, the amount of REM sleep in ostriches is greater than in any other bird, just as in platypuses, which have more REM sleep than other mammals. These findings reveal a recurring sequence of steps in the evolution of sleep in which SWS and REM sleep arose from a single heterogeneous state that became temporally segregated into two distinct states. This common trajectory suggests that forebrain activation during REM sleep is an evolutionarily new feature, presumably involved in performing new sleep functions not found in more basal animals.

  19. Pharmacokinetics and metabolism study of firocoxib in camels after intravenous administration by using high-resolution bench-top orbitrap mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasfi, Ibrahim A; Saeed, Hanan M; Agha, B A; Kamel, Asmaa M; Al Biriki, Nasreen A; Al Neaimi, Khaled M; Al Ali, Waleed A; Sultan, Saeed Mahmoud

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we developed a high-resolution liquid chromatography mass spectrometry method for the pharmacokinetic study of firocoxib followed by full method validation. Following a solid-phase extraction, the firocoxib and internal standard (celecoxib) were separated on an Agilent Zorbax ZDB C18 column (50 mm × 2.1 mm i.d., 3.5 μm) with a gradient elution using methanol and 0.1% aqueous formic acid. Data acquisition was performed at 25,000 resolution with the automatic gain set to 1,000,000 and the maximum injection time of 100 ms. Data were acquired in full-scan mode over a mass range of 100-550 Da in positive electrospray mode. Linear calibration curves were obtained over the concentration ranges of 0.5-200 ng/mL and no interfering peaks were detected at the retention time of firocoxib and internal standard in blank camel plasma samples. The mean extraction recoveries of firocoxib at three concentrations of 5, 25 and 75 ng/mL ranged from 92 to 104%. Coefficient of variation of intra-day and inter-day precision were both firocoxib in camels (Camelus dromedarus) (n=5) following intravenous (i.v.) administration of a dose of 0.1 mgkg/body weight. The results obtained (mean ± SD) were as follows: the terminal elimination half-life (t₁/₂β) was 5.75 ± 2.26 h, and total body clearance (ClT) was 354.1 ± 82.6 mL/kg/h. The volume of distribution at steady state (VSS) was 2344.4 ± 238.7 mL/kg. One metabolite of firocoxib was tentatively identified as desalkyl firocoxib (m/z 283). Firocoxib could be detected in plasma 3-5 days following i.v. administration in camels using a sensitive liquid chromatography high-resolution orbitrap mass spectrometry method. PMID:25463193

  20. 黑腹胃蝇三龄幼虫形态学和成虫行为方式研究%Gasterophilus pecorum third instar larvae morphology and adult behavior mode

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘善辉; 胡德夫; 初红军; 曹杰; 曹玉成; 李凯

    2012-01-01

    2008―2010年,对寄生于新疆卡拉麦里与普氏野马同域生活的家马体内的黑腹胃蝇(Gasterophilus pecorum)进行了实验室培养和野外行为观察。将收集到的920只3龄幼虫进行室内培养,结果成功化蛹35个(3.80%),化蛹期为13~27d,巅峰期为18~20d(42.86%);17个(48.57%)个体羽化,羽化期为15~27d,巅峰期为21~22d(22.86%)。在这些羽化的成蝇当中雄性占11.76%,雌性占88.24%,雄雌比为0.13;其存活期为2~8d,较大存活率发生在第4-6天(58.82%)。3龄幼虫体长(13.2±7.0)mm,体宽(5.1±4.0)mm,体质量(241±30)mg。相关性分析表明,幼虫的体长、体宽和体质量与成蝇的性别无相关性。交尾行为没有在野外或者靠近的马体的周围环境中发现,羽化初期有梳理和寻求寄主行为。黑腹胃蝇的卵在马的体表和植物茎叶上也均未发现。%Objectives of this study were to analyze morphological characteristics of third instar larva of Gasterophilus pecorum and behavior of adult flies by laboratory culture and field observation from 2008 to 2010. G. pecorurn larva parasitize inside bodies of local domestic horses that live sympatricly in the strictly protected area with reintroduced Przewalski horses (gquus ferus przewalskii) in Kalamaili of Xinjiang. A total of 920 third instar larva were collected and cultured, of which 35 (2.9%) individuals pupated suc- cessfully and pupal period of G. pecorum varied from 13 to 27 days with a peck between 18th and 20 th days (42.86%). 17 (48.57%) individuals emerged and emergence period varied from 15 to 27 clays with a peck between 21 th and 22 th days (22.86%), of which 11. 76% were males and 88.24% were females with a sexual ratio of 0. 13. Their longevity varied from 2 to 8 days, but the higher frequency was found from 4 to 6 days (58.82%). It was observed that length, width and weight of larvae bodies were (13.2± 7.0) mm, (5. 1±4.0

  1. Molecular diagnosis of spinal muscular atrophy by multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification%MLPA方法在脊髓性肌肉萎缩症分子诊断中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曾健; 柯龙凤; 邓小军; 蔡美英; 涂向东; 兰风华

    2008-01-01

    of the parents was significantly higher than that of the healthy individuals (P<0.01).Two of the 10 feruses had homozygous deletion of SMN1.Conclusion The MLPA technique has proved to be an accurate and reliable tool for the molecular diagnosis of SMA.both in patients and in healthy carriers.

  2. Macrorhabdus ornithogaster in ostrich, rhea, canary, zebra finch, free range chicken, turkey, guinea-fowl, columbina pigeon, toucan, chuckar partridge and experimental infection in chicken, japanese quail and mice Macrorhabdus ornithogaster em avestruzes, ema, canário, mandarim, galinha, peru, galinha da Angola, pombo doméstico, rolinha, tucano, perdiz de chuckar e infecção experimental em galinha, codorna e camundongo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.R.S. Martins

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Since 2000, Macrorhabdus ornithogaster "megabacteriosis" has been diagnosed in the avian diseases laboratory in a diversity of avian species and varied spectrum of disease. The disease in some species (chickens, turkeys, guinea fowls was clinically characterized by emaciation, prostration, loss of appetite, cachexia and death, with a typically chronic course. A more acute disease was observed in finches (canary-Serinus and zebra-Taeniopygia and budgerigars (Melopsittacus undulatus. The large rod shaped organism, visible from 100 times magnification, with and without staining, could be detected in sick and also in reasonably normal individuals of some species, such as chickens, turkeys, quails and pigeons. In rheas (Rhea americana, ostriches (Struthio camelus, canaries, zebra-finches, guinea-fowl (Numida meleagris and budgerigars. The disease was severe, causing to up to 100% mortality. The infection could be detected in some species along with other infectious or disease problems, such as endoparasites (helminths, coccidia and ectoparasitism (order Mallophaga or/and order Acarina. The cultivation of M. ornithogaster was successfully achieved in solid and liquid media, originated from chickens (four isolates, guinea fowl (1 isolate, chuckar partridge (1 isolate and canary (1 isolate. A very interesting finding at microscopy was motility of M. ornithogaster, as detected both in cultures obtained on agar for pathogenic fungi and passaged into thioglycolate broth, as well as on samples observed in wet preparations from in vivo. Differences in colony aspects were noted among the isolates. Experimental infections were attempted in chicken and japanese quail, using a chicken isolate, allowing the detection of the organism in the proventriculus and liver in apparently normal birds. One chicken isolate was injected intraperitoneally in Balb/c mice and resulted in 100% mortality.Desde 2000, diversos casos de infecção e doença por Macrorhabdus

  3. Effect of weaning stress, housing system and probiotics supplementation on cortisol, thyroid activity and productive performance of sucker camel calves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The weaning process has been identified as associated with potential psychological, nutritional and physiological stressors on both dam and her young. These stressors are often stressful for the young. Ten sucker camel calves were weaned using calf-dam on and suckling off weaning system (calves were kept with their dams at all times during weaning process and prevented from suckling) under two housing systems, 6 calves in group housing system (G) and 4 calves in individually housing system (I). Half of calves in each housing system were supplemented with probiotics (treated, P), while the other was not-supplemented with probiotics (control, C). This study was carried out at Maryout Research Station of the Desert Research Center, 35 km to southwest of Alexandria, Egypt. Calves were weaned at 280 days of age with initial live body weight (LBW) of 236.76±0.224 kg. The duration of the study was 35 days and divided into five weeks; one week served as pre-weaning followed by four weeks served as post-weaning period (calves were in treatments). Calves and their dams were used to estimate the effects of weaning stress, housing systems (group, G vs. individually, I) and probiotics supplementation on the productive performance, cortisol (COR) and thyroid hormones (T3 and T4) concentrations of camel calves (Camelus dromedaries). No measurements were done on the dams. The results indicated that, regardless the effect of housing system and Abdel-Fattah et al., J. Rad. Res. Appl. Sci., Vol. 4, No. 4(B) (2011) 1292 probiotics supplementation, weaning stress declined LBW -0.89% at d7 post weaning. Concerned housing system effect, group-housed calves and individually-housed calves lost -0.36 and -1.43% of their body weights, respectively on d7 post-weaning and they recovered their weaning weight (d0) on d14 post-weaning period (2.45 and 0.57%). Neither group housing system nor probiotics supplementation prevented the weight lost resulted by weaning stress during the first week

  4. Mathematical model establishment of irregular plantar surface of ostrich didactyl foot%鸵鸟足底非规则曲面形貌数学模型构建

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张锐; 杨明明; 潘润铎; 刘海宝; 曾桂银; 李建桥

    2015-01-01

    鸵鸟足底曲面形貌是影响鸵鸟足优越越沙性能的关键因素之一,研究鸵鸟足底曲面特征将有助于将其这一优越特性应用到越沙车轮上,以改善目前常规越沙车轮在松软地面上通过性低的难题。该文选取健康成年鸵鸟足,经过三维激光扫描仪扫描得到鸵鸟足的点云数据,并导入Geomagic Studio软件中进行封装、表面处理,最后把鸵鸟足第Ⅲ趾底曲面划分为3个典型区域:前掌缓曲面、中间凹槽面和足跟凸冠面。利用Catia软件中的Digitized Shape Editor模块,对3个典型曲面的密集点云选取合理的过滤方式过滤,保留典型曲面形貌的特征点,并导出3个典型区域特征点云三维数据。运用Matlab软件中的surface fitting自动拟合功能,拟合前掌缓曲面和中间凹槽面的2个曲面,分别得到2个曲面的拟合方程和决定系数R2;基于足跟凸冠面外形类似于一个典型椭球面,利用SAS软件中非线性回归模块以椭球面模型进行曲面拟合。从拟合结果可以看出,3个曲面的决定系数R2分别为0.95、0.96、0.95,实现了鸵鸟足底曲面由生物模型到数学模型的转化。该研究为将鸵鸟足底曲面形貌进行工程仿生学应用奠定了理论基础,并为利用工程仿生学技术研究松软路面行驶车辆提供研究方向和参考依据。%African ostrich (Struthio camelus) is the fastest long-distance runner with two feet in the desert. Plantar surface morphology of ostrich foot is one of the key effect factors on the superior travelling performance of ostrich didactyl foot on sand. The research of the ostrich plantar surface characteristics, will help to apply the superior characteristics to the wheels which travell on the soft grounds, and will help to improve the passing ability of current conventional sand wheel on soft grounds. Ostrich didactyl foot has two toes, the third toe and the fourth toe. During ostrich

  5. Influenza Aviária: Uma Revisão dos Últimos Dez Anos Avian Influenza: A Review of the Last Ten Years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NRS Martins

    2001-05-01

    Full Text Available A influenza aviária é doença exótica no Brasil. O sistema de vigilância implementado pelo Programa Nacional de Sanidade Avícola (PNSA mantém monitoração permanente das aves das principais espécies domésticas, tanto do material genético importado para a indústria avícola, por exemplo, da espécie das galinhas (Gallus gallus formadomestica, perus (Meleagris gallopavo formadomestica, codornas (Coturnix coturnix japonica, patos (Anas, primários (elite, bisavós e avós para postura ou corte, como aves de espécies de exploração mais recente, exóticas, por exemplo avestruzes (Struthio camelus ou nativas, por exemplo emas (Rhea americana. Os plantéis de reprodutores em produção são também acompanhados por amostragens periódicas, conforme previsto no PNSA, além da monitoração das respostas aos programas de vacinação, por exemplo, contra bronquite infecciosa e doença infecciosa bursal. O PNSA estabelece as normas de atuação para o controle e erradicação da doença de Newcastle (ND e Influenza Aviária (AI (Projeto de Vigilância, 2001, a saber: I - Notificação de focos da doença (e confirmação laboratorial no LARA-Campinas; II - Assistência a focos; III - Medidas de desinfecção; IV - Sacrifício sanitário; V - Vazio sanitário; VI - Vacinação dos plantéis ou esquemas emergenciais; VII - Controle e fiscalização dos animais susceptíveis; VIII - Outras medidas sanitárias; A vigilância e atenção ao foco exige o diagnóstico laboratorial e diferencial de AI e ND, que segue as normas do PNSA, conforme o sumário abaixo: 1- Interdição e coleta de materiais para exame laboratorial oficial; 2- Registro das aves: espécie(s, categoria(s, número(s, manutenção de aves; utensílios e produtos no local; proibição de trânsito de e para a(s propriedade(s em um raio de 10 km; controle de todos os animais e materiais possíveis fontes de propagação; desinfecção de vias de entradas e saídas à(s propriedade