Sample records for camelus bactrianus ferus

  1. A complete mitochondrial genome sequence of the wild two-humped camel (Camelus bactrianus ferus: an evolutionary history of camelidae

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    Meng He


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The family Camelidae that evolved in North America during the Eocene survived with two distinct tribes, Camelini and Lamini. To investigate the evolutionary relationship between them and to further understand the evolutionary history of this family, we determined the complete mitochondrial genome sequence of the wild two-humped camel (Camelus bactrianus ferus, the only wild survivor of the Old World camel. Results The mitochondrial genome sequence (16,680 bp from C. bactrianus ferus contains 13 protein-coding, two rRNA, and 22 tRNA genes as well as a typical control region; this basic structure is shared by all metazoan mitochondrial genomes. Its protein-coding region exhibits codon usage common to all mammals and possesses the three cryptic stop codons shared by all vertebrates. C. bactrianus ferus together with the rest of mammalian species do not share a triplet nucleotide insertion (GCC that encodes a proline residue found only in the nd1 gene of the New World camelid Lama pacos. This lineage-specific insertion in the L. pacos mtDNA occurred after the split between the Old and New World camelids suggests that it may have functional implication since a proline insertion in a protein backbone usually alters protein conformation significantly, and nd1 gene has not been seen as polymorphic as the rest of ND family genes among camelids. Our phylogenetic study based on complete mitochondrial genomes excluding the control region suggested that the divergence of the two tribes may occur in the early Miocene; it is much earlier than what was deduced from the fossil record (11 million years. An evolutionary history reconstructed for the family Camelidae based on cytb sequences suggested that the split of bactrian camel and dromedary may have occurred in North America before the tribe Camelini migrated from North America to Asia. Conclusion Molecular clock analysis of complete mitochondrial genomes from C. bactrianus ferus and L

  2. Reproductive status of Camelus bactrianus during early breeding season in India

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Vyas S; Sharma N; Sheikh FD; Singh S; Sena DS; Bissa UK


    Objective: To study the behaviour and reproductive status of the bactrian camel (Camelus bactrianus). Methods:This study was conducted at two places, Government Bactrian Camel Farm, Chusoot, Leh and Hundar village, Nubra valley, India, situated at higher than 10000 feet above sea level during the month of October, said to be initial period of breeding season. Results:The uterine horns were similar to that of dromedary i.e. between T and Y shaped. The ovaries were irregular but without follicle. The male camels were not showing any symptoms of rut or breeding season but were capable of mounting and copulating the sitting female. Conclusions:There is a need to carry out more research on reproduction in Indian Bactrian camel as they have become major attraction of tourists in Nubra valley and has become an important source of livelihood for the people who inhabit high altitude regions.

  3. Analysis of heavy and light chain sequences of conventional camelid antibodies from Camelus dromedarius and Camelus bactrianus species. (United States)

    Griffin, Laura M; Snowden, James R; Lawson, Alastair D G; Wernery, Ulrich; Kinne, Jorg; Baker, Terry S


    Camel antibodies have been widely investigated, but work has focused upon the unique heavy chain antibodies found across camelid species. These are homodimers, devoid of light chains and the first constant heavy chain domain. Camelid species also display conventional hetero-tetrameric antibodies with identical pairs of heavy and light chains; in Camelus dromedarius these constitute 25% of circulating antibodies. Few investigations have been made on this subset of antibodies and complete conventional camel IgG sequences have not been reported. Here we study the sequence diversity of functional variable and constant regions observed in 57 conventional heavy, 18 kappa and 35 lambda light chains of C. dromedarius and Camelus bactrianus. We detail sequences of the full kappa and lambda light chain, variable and CH1 region for IgG1a and IgG1b and the CH2 and CH3 region for IgG1a. The majority (60%) of IgG1 variable region sequences aligned with the human IgHV3 family (clan III) and had leader sequences beginning with MELG whereas the remaining sequences aligned with the IgHV4 (clan II) and had leader sequences beginning with MRLL. Distinct differences in CDR length were observed between the two; where CDR1 was typically 5 and 7 residues and CDR2 at 17 and 16 residues, respectively. CDR3 length of IgHV4 (range 11 to 20) was closer to that typical of VHH antibodies than that of IgHV3 (range 3 to 18 residues). Designed oligonucleotide primers have enabled identification of paired heavy and light chains of conventional camel antibodies from individual B cell clones.

  4. Levels and trends of PCDD/Fs and PCBs in camel milk (Camelus bactrianus and Camelus dromedarius) from Kazakhstan. (United States)

    Konuspayeva, Gaukhar; Faye, Bernard; De Pauw, Edwin; Focant, Jean-François


    To date, despite the fact it represents a very important part of the national dairy production, no data are available concerning the concentrations of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs), and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in camel milk from the Republic of Kazakhstan. Selected PCDDs, PCDFs, and PCBs were measured in pools of milk from camels (n=15) located in various places of Kazakhstan (Almaty, Atyrau, Aralsk, Shymkent) and sampled at two different seasons for two different species (Camelus bactrianus and Camelus dromedarius). Non-dioxin-like (NDL-)PCB concentrations (6.3±2.7 ng g(-1) fat, median 5.1 ng g(-1) fat, range 0.6-17.4 ng g(-1) fat) were far below the maximum value of 40 ng g(-1) fat proposed by the EU. Dioxin-like (DL-)PCB concentrations (1.7±0.7 ng g(-1) fat, median 1.5 ng g(-1) fat, range 0.3-4.2 ng g(-1) fat) and the NDL-PCB to DL-PCB ratio (4.3) were similar to what is reported in EU for cow-based dairy products. PCB 52 and PCB 101 appeared to be proportionally more present in Kazakh camel milk samples (>60% of the sum of the 6 indicator NDL-PCBs) than in European cow milk samples (80% of the sum of the 12 DL-PCBs). PCB 105, PCB 118 and PCB 156 were the major congeners for DL-PCBs, accounting for 92% of the sum of concentrations of DL-PCBs (88% for Belgian cows). In terms of TEQ, PCB 126 and PCB 118 are the major contributors and represent, respectively, 80% and 14% of the DL-PCB TEQWHO05 concentrations. No significant interracial or geographical trends were observed for NDL- and DL-PCB profiles. However, concentrations of all DL-PCBs appeared to be significantly higher for samples collected in Atyrau region. 2,3,7,8-TCDD level (mean 0.08±0.07 pg g(-1) fat, median 0.08 pg g(-1) fat, range 0.00-0.18 pg g(-1) fat, 60%>LOQs) were very low for all samples and 2,3,4,7,8-PeCDF was the major contributor (27%) to the PCDD/F TEQWHO05. Considering the total TEQWHO05 (sum of DL-PCBs and PCDD/Fs), DL-PCB and

  5. Taxonomy Icon Data: wild Bactrian camel [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available odactyla Camelus_ferus_L.png Camelus_ferus_NL.png Camelus_ferus_S.png Camelus_ferus_NS.png ...

  6. Interspecies embryo transfer in camelids: the birth of the first Bactrian camel calves (Camelus bactrianus) from dromedary camels (Camelus dromedarius). (United States)

    Niasari-Naslaji, A; Nikjou, D; Skidmore, J A; Moghiseh, A; Mostafaey, M; Razavi, K; Moosavi-Movahedi, A A


    Interspecies embryo transfer is a possible approach that can be used to conserve endangered species. It could provide a useful technique to preserve the Iranian and wild Bactrian camels, both of which are threatened with extinction. In the present study, one Bactrian camel was superovulated using decreasing doses of FSH (60, 40, 30, 30, 20, 20 mg, b.i.d.; Folltropin-V; Bioniche, London, ON, Canada) for 6 days, followed by a single injection of FSH (20 mg, i.m.) on Day 7. Daily ovarian ultrasonography was performed until most of the growing follicles had reached a mature size of 13-17 mm, at which time the camel was mated twice, 24 h apart, with a fertile male Bactrian camel. At the time of first mating, female camels were given 20 microg, i.v., buserelin (Receptal; Intervet, Boxmeer, The Netherlands). One day after the donor camel had been mated, the dromedary recipients (n = 8) were injected with 25 mg, i.v., porcine LH (Lutropin-V; Bioniche) to induce ovulation. Embryos were recovered on Day 8.5 after the first mating and transferred non-surgically into recipients on Day 7.5 after LH injection. Pregnancy was diagnosed 25 days after embryo transfer. Healthy Bactrian camel calves (n = 4) were born without any particular complications at the time of parturition (e.g. dystocia and neonatal diseases). The present study is the first report of the birth of Bactrian camel calves from dromedary camels, as well as the first report of interspecies embryo transfer in old world camelids.

  7. Isolation and molecular characterization of partial FSH and LH receptor genes in Arabian camels (Camelus dromedarius

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    Saber Jelokhani-Niaraki


    Full Text Available Very little is known about LHR and FSHR genes of domestic dromedary camels. The main objective of this study was to determine and analyze partial genomic regions of FSHR and LHR genes in dromedary camels for the first time. To this end, a total of 50 DNA samples belonging to dromedary camels raised in Iran were sent for sequencing (25 samples of each gene. We compared the nucleotide sequences of Camelus dromedarius with corresponding sequences of previously published FSHR and LHR genes in bactrian camels and other species. According to the data, the same nucleotide variation was identified in both regions of the two camel species. The alignment of deduced protein sequences of the two different species revealed an amino acid variation at the FSHR region. No evidence of amino acid variation was observed, however, in LHR sequences. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that both camel species had a close relationship and clustered together in a separate branch. This was further confirmed by genetic distance values illustrating significant sequence identity between Camelus dromedarius and Camelus bactrianus. Interestingly, sequence comparisons revealed heterozygote patterns in FSHR sequences isolated from dromedary camels of Iran. In comparison to other species, this camel contains three amino acid substitutions at 5, 67, and 105 positions in the FSHR coding region. These positions are found exclusively in camels and can be considered as species specific. The results of our study can be used for hormone functionality research (FSHR and LHR as well as reproduction-linked polymorphisms and breeding programs.

  8. Reproductive status of Camelus bactrianus during early breeding season in India

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    S Vyas


    Conclusions: There is a need to carry out more research on reproduction in Indian Bactrian camel as they have become major attraction of tourists in Nubra valley and has become an important source of livelihood for the people who inhabit high altitude regions.

  9. A comprehensive analysis of immunoglobulin heavy chain genes in the Bactrian camel (Camelus bactrianus

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    Zuoxiang LIANG,Tao WANG,Yi SUN,Wenlong YANG,Zhihong LIU,Jing FEI,Ying GUO,Qingwei MA,Qingjie PAN,Liming REN


    Full Text Available Heavy chain only antibodies (HCAbs represent a rare type of antibody that is devoid of light chains and the CH1 domain that have been reported in cartilaginous fish and camelids. By analyzing transcript data and genome sequences, we conducted a comprehensive analysis of Bactrian camel immunoglobulin heavy chain genes. Based on the transcript data, one μ gene, five γ genes, one α gene and one ε gene were found. Additionally, the variable region of HCAbs (VHH and the conventional antibodies (VH sequences associated with the γ3, γ1a/b and μ genes were amplified. Based on these genome sequences, seven DH, six JH, μ, γ2a, γ2c, α, and ε genes and a portion of a γ3 gene were observed. Different Kozak sequences within different VH families were found in our analysis, and the variability index differed between the VHH3 and VH3 families. Phylogenetic analysis of the constant regions of the camelid immunoglobulin genes indicates that these genes appeared before the evolutionary divergence of Bactrian camels and dromedaries.

  10. Comparison of virokine from camel pseudocowpoxvirus (PCPV) with interleukin 10 of the Dromedary camel (Camelus dromedarius). (United States)

    Nagarajan, G; Swami, Shelesh Kumar; Dahiya, Shyam Singh; Sivakumar, G; Narnaware, S D; Tuteja, F C; Patil, N V


    Cellular interleukin-10 (IL-10) gene from the peripheral blood mononuclear cells of the healthy Dromedary camel (Camelus dromedarius) and viral IL-10 (vIL-10) from the skin scabs of the Dromedary camels infected with contagious ecthyma (a parapoxviral infection in the camels) were amplified by polymerase chain reaction, cloned and characterized. Sequence analysis revealed that the open reading frame (ORF) of dromedarian camel IL-10 is 537 bp in length, encoding 178 amino acid polypeptide while open reading frame of vIL-10 from camel is 561 bp, encoding 187 amino acid polypeptide. The Dromedary camel IL-10 exhibited 62.6% and 68.5% sequence identity at the nucleotide and amino acid level, respectively, with vIL-10 from camel. Sequence analysis also revealed that the Dromedary camel IL-10 shared 99.4% and 98.3% identity at the nucleotide and amino acid level, respectively, with the Bactrian camel (Camelus bactrianus). But vIL-10 from camel shared 84.7% and 83.4% sequence identity at the nucleotide and amino acid level, respectively, with vIL-10 from reindeer (Rangifer tarandus), which is a ruminant species belonging to the order Artiodactyla. The present study was conducted to evaluate the evolutionary origin of the camel parapoxvirus with parapoxviruses of cattle and sheep and the resultant sequence analysis revealed that camel parapoxvirus is closely related to cattle parapoxvirus than sheep parapoxvirus (Orf virus).

  11. Prevalence of Cryptosporidium infection in camels (Camelus dromedarius) in a slaughterhouse in Iran. (United States)

    Razawi, S M; Oryan, A; Bahrami, S; Mohammadalipour, A; Gowhari, M


    Cryptosporidiosis is a zoonotic protozoan disease of worldwide distribution, affecting a wide range of vertebrate hosts. Most data on the biology, distribution pattern, pathology and prevalence of cryptosporidial infection in farm animals is restricted to cattle, sheep and goats. Limited data is available in other domestic herbivores including camel. Numerous camels (Camelus dromedarius) are raised in the semi-arid regions of Iran. Although camel is acknowledged as a potential source of contamination, little is known with regards to the prevalence of Cryptosporidium in this population except a case report on the occurrence of this infection in a bactrian camel (Camelus bactrianus) in China. This investigation was undertaken to determine the prevalence of Cryptosporidium infection in camels (C. dromedarius) from Najaf-Abad slaughterhouse, Isfahan Province, central part of Iran. Out of 103 faecal samples from 63 adult males and 40 adult females, 2-14 years old, 39 (37.9%) were found positive for oocysts. No significant differences were observed between males and females, and among different age groups. There was also no significant difference among infection intensity in different age groups. This is the first report of Cryptosporidium infection in camels from this country.

  12. A Geographic Assessment of the Global Scope for Rewilding with Wild-Living Horses (Equus ferus). (United States)

    Naundrup, Pernille Johansen; Svenning, Jens-Christian


    Megafaunas worldwide have been decimated during the late Quaternary. Many extirpated species were keystone species, and their loss likely has had large effects on ecosystems. Therefore, it is increasingly considered how megafaunas can be restored. The horse (Equus ferus) is highly relevant in this context as it was once extremely widespread and, despite severe range contraction, survives in the form of domestic, feral, and originally wild horses. Further, it is a functionally important species, notably due to its ability to graze coarse, abrasive grasses. Here, we used species distribution modelling to link locations of wild-living E. ferus populations to climate to estimate climatically suitable areas for wild-living E. ferus. These models were combined with habitat information and past and present distributions of equid species to identify areas suitable for rewilding with E. ferus. Mean temperature in the coldest quarter, precipitation in the coldest quarter, and precipitation in the driest quarter emerged as the best climatic predictors. The distribution models estimated the climate to be suitable in large parts of the Americas, Eurasia, Africa, and Australia and, combined with habitat mapping, revealed large areas to be suitable for rewilding with horses within its former range, including up to 1.5 million ha within five major rewilding areas in Europe. The widespread occurrence of suitable climates and habitats within E. ferus' former range together with its important functions cause it to be a key candidate for rewilding in large parts of the world. Successful re-establishment of wild-living horse populations will require handling the complexity of human-horse relations, for example, potential conflicts with ranchers and other agriculturalists or with other conservation aims, perception as a non-native invasive species in some regions, and coverage by legislation for domestic animals.

  13. A Geographic Assessment of the Global Scope for Rewilding with Wild-Living Horses (Equus ferus.

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    Pernille Johansen Naundrup

    Full Text Available Megafaunas worldwide have been decimated during the late Quaternary. Many extirpated species were keystone species, and their loss likely has had large effects on ecosystems. Therefore, it is increasingly considered how megafaunas can be restored. The horse (Equus ferus is highly relevant in this context as it was once extremely widespread and, despite severe range contraction, survives in the form of domestic, feral, and originally wild horses. Further, it is a functionally important species, notably due to its ability to graze coarse, abrasive grasses. Here, we used species distribution modelling to link locations of wild-living E. ferus populations to climate to estimate climatically suitable areas for wild-living E. ferus. These models were combined with habitat information and past and present distributions of equid species to identify areas suitable for rewilding with E. ferus. Mean temperature in the coldest quarter, precipitation in the coldest quarter, and precipitation in the driest quarter emerged as the best climatic predictors. The distribution models estimated the climate to be suitable in large parts of the Americas, Eurasia, Africa, and Australia and, combined with habitat mapping, revealed large areas to be suitable for rewilding with horses within its former range, including up to 1.5 million ha within five major rewilding areas in Europe. The widespread occurrence of suitable climates and habitats within E. ferus' former range together with its important functions cause it to be a key candidate for rewilding in large parts of the world. Successful re-establishment of wild-living horse populations will require handling the complexity of human-horse relations, for example, potential conflicts with ranchers and other agriculturalists or with other conservation aims, perception as a non-native invasive species in some regions, and coverage by legislation for domestic animals.

  14. Characterization of Asia 1 sdAb from camels bactrianus (C. bactrianus and conjugation with quantum dots for imaging FMDV in BHK-21 cells.

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    Shuanghui Yin

    Full Text Available Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD, caused by FMD virus (FMDV, is a highly contagious viral disease affecting cloven-hoofed animals. Camelids have a unique immunoglobulin profile, with the smallest functional heavy-chain antibodies (sdAb or VHH naturally devoid of light chains with antigen-binding capacity. We screened and characterized five sdAbs against FMDV by immunized library from C. bactrianus with Asia 1 virus-like particles (VLPs. Three of five recombinant sdAbs were stably expressed in E.coli, remained highly soluble, and were serotype-specific for VP1 protein of FMDV Asia 1 by ELISA. These failed to completely neutralize the Asia 1 virus. According to the KD value of binding affinity to three sdAbs, which ranged from 0.44 to 0.71 nm by SPR, sdAb-C6 was selected and conjugated with Zn/CdSe quantum dots (QDs to form a QDs-C6 probe, which was used to trace and image the subcellular location of FMDV in BHK-21 cells. The results show that FMD virions were observed from 3 h.p.i., and most of virions were distributed on one side of the nucleus in the cytoplasm. We demonstrate the utility of sdAbs as functionalized QDs are powerful tools for FMDV research.

  15. Selected Biometric Characteristics of Wild Boar (Sus Scrofa Ferus in North-East Romania

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    Alina Narcisa Postolache


    Full Text Available Our study analyzed selected biometric characteristics from 117 wild boars (Sus scrofa ferus harvested during 2008 – 2014 in the Frasin and Marginea Forest hunting ground districts of Suceava County. Hunted boars were measured individually for head-body length (cm, height at withers (cm, length of metatarsus (cm, ear length (cm, tail length (cm and body weight (kg in accordance with their age-class and gender. These characteristics give information on the growth and development of wild boars and on the quality of their habitat. It was found that the average carcass weight was: piglets – 28.4 kg, yearling – 78.1 kg, subadults – 102.9 kg. The results show a faster body growth in females during their first year, while males make up for the weight difference in their 2nd and 3rd year. Statistical differences shown that males differentiate significantly to females by weight, body length, height at withers and length of metatarsus (P < 0.05 starting with their second year of life. The results regarding growth dynamic go along with the changes in boar’s social life, when the males are forced to leave and form smaller groups.

  16. Comparative Growth and Survival of Hylurgus ligniperda (Coleoptera: Scolytinae) and Arhopalus ferus (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae) Reared on Artificial or Natural Diet at 15 or 25°C. (United States)

    Romo, C M; Bader, M K-F; Pawson, S M


    Two saproxylic forest insects, Hylurgus ligniperda (F.) (Coleoptera: Scolytinae) and Arhopalus ferus (Mulsant)(Coleoptera: Cerambycidae), were reared on artificial or natural diet at 15 or 25°C to compare larval growth rates and survival. A significant diet by temperature interaction was observed in the growth of H. ligniperda larvae,which developed faster when reared on natural diet at 15°C, but grew faster and pupated significantly earlier when reared on artificial diet at 25°C. However, H. ligniperda survival by the end of the experiment was low on both diets when reared at 25°C (10.1%, 95% CI: 5.2–15.1%), which suggests that rearing at lower temperatures may be required. A. ferus larvae gained significantly larger body size when reared on artificial diet than on natural diet at both temperatures. Survival of A. ferus reared on artificial diet was significantly lower than larvae reared on natural diet at 25°C. The significant differences between A. ferus larval development rates when reared on artificial and natural diets preclude the use of artificial diet to collect meaningful data to construct temperature development models for ecological comparisons. Artificial diet provided a suitable medium for mass production of individuals for research purposes, e.g., test mortality in response to treatments. However, additional rearing studies are needed to determine whether the larger artificially reared larvae result in adults that are healthier, more productive, and live longer.

  17. Methane emission by adult ostriches (Struthio camelus). (United States)

    Frei, Samuel; Dittmann, Marie T; Reutlinger, Christoph; Ortmann, Sylvia; Hatt, Jean-Michel; Kreuzer, Michael; Clauss, Marcus


    Ostriches (Struthio camelus) are herbivorous birds with a digestive physiology that shares several similarities with that of herbivorous mammals. Previous reports, however, claimed a very low methane emission from ostriches, which would be clearly different from mammals. If this could be confirmed, ostrich meat would represent a very attractive alternative to ruminant-and generally mammalian-meat by representing a particularly low-emission agricultural form of production. We individually measured, by chamber respirometry, the amount of oxygen consumed as well as carbon dioxide and methane emitted from six adult ostriches (body mass 108.3±8.3 kg) during a 24-hour period when fed a pelleted lucerne diet. While oxygen consumption was in the range of values previously reported for ostriches, supporting the validity of our experimental setup, methane production was, at 17.5±3.2 L d(-1), much higher than previously reported for this species, and was of the magnitude expected for similar-sized, nonruminant mammalian herbivores. These results suggest that methane emission is similar between ostriches and nonruminant mammalian herbivores and that the environmental burden of these animals is comparable. The findings furthermore indicate that it appears justified to use currently available scaling equations for methane production of nonruminant mammals in paleo-reconstructions of methane production of herbivorous dinosaurs.

  18. Ecología del lobo (Canis lupus), del poni salvaje (Equus ferus atlanticus) y del ganado vacuno semiextensivo (Bos taurus) en Galicia: interacciones depredador - presa



    La población de lobo (Canis lupus) de Galicia constituye aproximadamente un tercio de la población española. En gran parte del oeste y centro de Galicia, los lobos coexisten con ponis salvajes (Equus ferus atlanticus) y el ganado vacuno semiextensivo (Bos taurus) es otro de los principales recursos tróficos disponibles. En estas zonas se presume un importante nivel de depredación de lobo sobre ponis salvajes y ganado vacuno semiextensivo, pero estas interacciones depredador-presa no habían si...

  19. Extinct in the Wild to Endangered: the History of Przewalski’s Horse ( Equ - us ferus przewalskii and its Future Conservation

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    Sarah R. B. King


    Full Text Available This paper summarises published research on Przewalski’s horse, Equus ferus przewalskii . Biology of the species is described, as well as its history in the wild and in captivity. Reintroduction efforts at Takhiin Tal and Hustai National Park are discussed, with current population levels given, as well as some survivorship data. Ecology of the Przewalski horse at the different reintroduction sites is described, showing similarities and differences. Finally future conservation of Przewalski’s horse is discussed, with particular reference to the change in status from Extinct in the Wild to Endangered, based on the IUCN Categories and Criteria.

  20. Sex Determination in Ostrich (Struthio camelus Using PCR Technique

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    M Alipanah


    Full Text Available The important of ostrich breeding have been increased in the Iran as other country around the world. Lack of sexual dimorphism in many species of birds including Ostrich (Struthio camelus, making it difficult to differentiate between males and females, especially in young birds. This can be problematic for breeding programs. Blood samples from randomly chicks in the first days were collected and then DNA was extracted from blood. For sex typing used PCR by OSFES primer that produced a 423 fragment. Our results shown that sex determination using PCR method for chicks in the first days is useful, easy and inexpensive.

  1. Severe whipworm (Trichuris spp.) infection in the dromedary (Camelus dromedarius). (United States)

    Eo, Kyung-Yeon; Kwak, Dongmi; Kwon, Oh-Deog


    One adult (13-yr-old) and two young (3-4-yr-old) male dromedary camels (Camelus dromedarius) from the Seoul Zoo displayed anorexia and chronic diarrhea for 2 wk. Direct fecal smear examination revealed Trichuris spp. infection. After confirmation of the infection, fenbendazole was orally administered as a suspension; this was repeated two times at 3-wk intervals. A high initial dose (20 mg/kg) was followed by administration at the recommended dose (10 mg/kg). Starting on the day following the first treatment, a large number of adult whipworms were discharged with the feces over a 3-day period. Two young male dromedary camels gradually recovered. However, the adult male dromedary camel developed continuous bloody mucoid diarrhea and died 2 days after treatment. Postmortem examination revealed that numerous whipworms were attached to the mucosa throughout the large intestine.

  2. Cutaneous periocular Habronema infection in a dromedary camel (Camelus dromedarius). (United States)

    Myers, Debbie A; Smith, Chris D; Greiner, Ellis C; Wiedner, Ellen; Abbott, Jeffrey; Marsella, Rosanna; Nunnery, Catherine


    A 6-year-old castrated dromedary camel (Camelus dromedarius) presented with a non-healing, severely pruritic, ulcerative fibrotic plaque located at the medial canthus. Histological examination of surgical biopsies identified degenerating nematode larvae within eosinophilic granulomas. Treatment involved repeated debridement of the lesion, injectable ivermectin and anti-inflammatory therapies, and injectable and topical antibiotics. A specially constructed mask with goggles to prevent the camel from continuing to self-traumatize the eye and lesion was also placed. Full recovery occurred approximately 1 month after diagnosis. Because of the location of the lesion, time of year, the gross and microscopic characteristics of the lesion, the presence of a likely nematode larva and the response to treatment, a diagnosis of cutaneous habronemiasis was made.

  3. Arteries of the adrenal glands in ostriches (Struthio camelus

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    Angelita das Graças de Oliveira Honorato


    Full Text Available The growth of rational ostrich breeding and their byproducts has attracted interest from researchers to increase the studies in this animal. Thus, basic research areas, such as morphology, become necessary to provide the applied areas with knowledge. Aiming to contribute to the knowledge on the vascular arrangements of the adrenal glands, 30 ostriches (Struthio camelus were used, four days old, who had their arterial components marked with a 50% stained aqueous solution of Neoprene Latex ¨ 450 ¨ and fixed in a 10% diluted solution of formaldehyde. The coelomic cavity was exposed for identifying these glands, which are paired organs that are covered by loose connective tissue, symmetrically arranged in the two antimeres, laterally to the descending aorta, caudally to the lungs, and cranio-medially to the cranial lobes of the kidneys. The arterial blood supply, in both antimeres, is derived from the right and left adrenal arteries, the right and left cranial renal artery branches, and the right branches of the descending aorta. Regardless of the origin, the number of branches going to the adrenal glands ranged from one to two and one to three respectively, in the left and right antimeres.

  4. Proteomics of the milk fat globule membrane from Camelus dromedarius. (United States)

    Saadaoui, Besma; Henry, Céline; Khorchani, Touhami; Mars, Mohamed; Martin, Patrice; Cebo, Christelle


    Camel milk has been widely characterized with regards to casein and whey proteins. However, in camelids, almost nothing is known about the milk fat globule membrane (MFGM), the membrane surrounding fat globules in milk. The purpose of this study was thus to identify MFGM proteins from Camelus dromedarius milk. Major MFGM proteins (namely, fatty acid synthase, xanthine oxidase, butyrophilin, lactadherin, and adipophilin) already evidenced in cow milk were identified in camel milk using MS. In addition, a 1D-LC-MS/MS approach led us to identify 322 functional groups of proteins associated with the camel MFGM. Dromedary MFGM proteins were then classified into functional categories using DAVID (the Database for Annotation, Visualization, and Integrated Discovery) bioinformatics resources. More than 50% of MFGM proteins from camel milk were found to be integral membrane proteins (mostly belonging to the plasma membrane), or proteins associated to the membrane. Enriched GO terms associated with MFGM proteins from camel milk were protein transport (p-value = 1.73 × 10(-14)), translation (p-value = 1.08 × 10(-11)), lipid biosynthetic process (p-value = 6.72 × 10(-10)), hexose metabolic process (p-value = 1.89 × 10(-04)), and actin cytoskeleton organization (p-value = 2.72 × 10(-04)). These findings will help to contribute to a better characterization of camel milk. Identified MFGM proteins from camel milk may also provide new insight into lipid droplet formation in the mammary epithelial cell.

  5. Evolutionary constraints on equid domestication: Comparison of flight initiation distances of wild horses (Equus caballus ferus) and plains zebras (Equus quagga). (United States)

    Brubaker, Alexali S; Coss, Richard G


    Habituation to humans was an essential component of horse (Equus caballus ferus) domestication, with the nondomestication of zebras (Equus quagga) possibly reflecting an adaptive constraint on habituation. We present the human hunting hypothesis, arguing that ancestral humans hunted African animals, including zebras, long enough to promote a persistent wariness of humans, whereas a briefer period of hunting horses in Central Asia influenced by glacial cycles was unlikely to produce an equally persistent wariness. An alternative habituation to humans hypothesis, prompted by field observations, posits that zebras can habituate well to nonthreatening humans given sufficient exposure. If so, other factors must account for zebra nondomestication. To examine these hypotheses, we compared the flight initiation distances (FIDs) of wild horses in the United States and plains zebras in Africa to a human approaching on foot (N = 87). We compared the flight behavior of both species at sites with low and high exposure to humans (mean humans/acre = .004 and .209, respectively). Analyses revealed a significant interaction (p = .0001) between equid species and level of human exposure. The mean FIDs of horses (146 m) and zebras (105 m) with low human exposure did not differ appreciably (p = .412), but these distances were substantially longer (p human exposure that did differ significantly (p humans than horses do might reflect an adaptive response to historical hunting and partly explain their resistance to domestication.

  6. Przewalski’ s Horse ( Equus ferus przewalskii Re-intr oduction in the Great Gobi B Strictly Protected Area: from Species to Ecosystem Conservation

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    P. Kaczensky


    Full Text Available The Przewalski’s horse ( Equus ferus przewalskii Po ljakov , 1881, or “T akhi” in Mongolian, became extinct in the wild by the mid 1960’ s. The last recorded sightings of Przewalski’s horses occurred in the Dzungarian Gobi desert in SW Mo ngolia, today’s Great Gobi B Strictly Protected Area (SP A. A re - introduction program was initiated in 1992 and the fi rs t group of captive-born Przewalski’s horses was airlifted to the SPA. Given the logistical challenges associated with such a venture, the initial project focus has been on transport logistics and the well-being of the re-introduced horses. Tod ay, conservation efforts are spread over the entire protected area. Present day ef forts include other mammals, vegetation and the local people. Due to its important symbolic value in Mongolian culture, the Przewalski’ s horse became an important fl agship species for the protected area’s conservation and management.

  7. Histogenesis of rumen in one-humped camel (Camelus dromedarius

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    E. Salimi Naghani* and L. Akradi1


    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to follow several sequence histological changes that occur during the histogenesis of the rumen in one-humped camel (Camelus dromedarius. Histogenesis study was carried out on 66 fetuses of camel from 50th day of gestation until birth (390 days, according to the most relevant histo-differentiation characteristics of the rumen in fetuses, these were divided into four groups: group I (5-24 cm crown-rump length (C-RL; 50-140 days; group II (24-30 cm C-RL; 140-160 days; group III (30-60 cm C-RL; 160-250 days; group IV (60-108 cm C-RL; 250-390 days. At 50 days, the rumen consisted of four layers: the epithelial layer, propria-submucosa, tunica muscularis and serosa. The epithelium glandular region was pseudostratified and in non-glandular region was stratified. The muscularis mucosa was observed incompletely from 140 days between lamina propria and submucosa in glandular region of the rumen to the birth day. The primary lymphatic nodules appeared in lamina propria of glandular region of the rumen at 160 days of gestation. The epithelium of the glandular region in rumen was formed by a simple columnar layer at 250 days. In all groups, the tunica muscularis layer of rumen was increased with ruminal development, gradually. The non-glandular region of rumen was formed by a stratified epithelium and number of these cells increased with ruminal development. The lymphatic nodules and muscularis mucosa in non-glandular region did not observe in all groups. The study observations revealed that non-glandular region of the rumen in the fetuses of camel are less precocious than the rumen of the domestic ruminants.

  8. Genetic diversity and demographic history of the dromedary camel (Camelus dromedarius)


    Almathen, Faisal


    The dromedary camel (Camelus dromedarius) commonly referred to as ‘ship of the desert’ has played an important part in the development and expansion of trading networks across inhospitable habitats over 3000 years, linking Arabian, Asian, African and European civilisations. Caravan roads, which are part of the major trading networks, have facilitated livestock exchange across large geographic distances. Dromedary camels are known to have been extensively used as pack animals along these carav...

  9. Population dynamics of ticks infesting the one-humped camel (Camelus dromedarius) in central Tunisia. (United States)

    Gharbi, Mohamed; Moussi, Nawfel; Jedidi, Mohamed; Mhadhbi, Moez; Sassi, Limam; Darghouth, Mohamed Aziz


    A tick population was monitored on 30 camels (Camelus dromedarius) over one year in Kairouan region, Central Tunisia. A total of 1630 ticks was collected and identified resulting in an estimate of different parasitological indicators. The ticks belonged to 2 genera and 5 species: Hyalomma impeltatum (53%) and Hyalomma dromedarii (45%) were the dominant species followed by Hyalomma excavatum (1%), Hyalomma marginatum (0.5%), and Rhipicephalus turanicus (0.5%) (pTunisia.


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    Full Text Available This study was conducted to investigate the special features of topography and macrostructure of some somatic and visceral lymph nodes of the dromedary (Camelus dromedarius. The result of the study demonstrated that the arrangement and the morphometric characteristics of some lymph nodes of camel correspond to the analogical indices of cattle. At the organ level, the lymph nodes of camel congregate; they are partially fused. A pattern of spatial orientation of these nodes is not established. Lymph nodes of dromedary (Camelus dromedarius according to their topography and linear characteristics in general correspond to the similar nodes of cattle. The architecture of the lymph node dromedary (Camelus dromedarius differs from that shown in the conventional patterns of other mammalian animals, generally formed of a plurality of aggregates, the latter are surrounded by a connective tissue which extends over the whole area surface lymph node and each cluster is a node itself. Vascular distribution in these lymphoid aggregates is relatively abundant and each node receives one or two afferent lymphatic’s and is drained by four or five efferent lymphatic’s. In approximately half of nodes examined, there was extra nodal communic-ations between the lymphatic vessels (afferent and efferent, allowing to bypass the lymph node. Lymph nodes are characterized by their dromedary lobule appearance and size.

  11. Description of two equine nematodes, Parascaris equorum Goeze 1782 and Habronema microstoma Schneider 1866 from the domestic horse Equus ferus caballus (Famisly: Equidae) in Egypt. (United States)

    Morsy, Kareem; Bashtar, Abdel Rahman; Al Quraishy, Saleh; Adel, Salma


    Parasitic gastroenteritis (PGE) caused by infection of the gut with parasitic nematodes is one of the most important diseases of livestock animals from both financial and welfare perspectives. Parascaris equorum and Habronema microstoma are of the most endemic nematodes of the world which are currently the major cause of PGE of the domestic horses in Egypt. The present investigation introduced the first morphological description of these nematodes recovered from the domestic horse, Equus ferus caballus (Equidae), in Egypt by light and scanning electron microscopy. Seven P. equorum (fifth stage) and 18 adults of H. microstoma were recovered from the gastrointestinal tracts of four young domestic horses collected during the year of 2015. Microscopic examination of the isolated fifth stage P. equorum revealed that it possessed a long body with a broad anterior end equipped by large shamrock-like lips with deep transverse groove on medial surface set off from the rest of the body by a deep post-labial constriction giving the body a shouldered appearance. The total body length was 12-15 (14 ± 2) cm for males and 13-18 (16 ± 2) cm for females. Lips were three in number in the form of one dorsal and two sub-ventral surrounding the central stoma. The isolated adult worms of H. microstoma were whitish in color narrowed slightly at the anterior end. Single lateral ala in the cephalic region in both sexes was observed. The buccal vestibule was markedly thickened and equipped by two tridentate teeth. The adult worms had two bilobed lateral lips surrounding the mouth with four sub-median cephalic papillae and two amphids. The males were 14.5-18.0 (17.2 ± 0.3) mm long and 1.23-1.57 (1.42 ± 0.3) mm wide. The posterior end was spirally coiled and had wide caudal alae. The spicules were unequal. The females were 13.5-21.0 (16.2 ± 0.3) mm long and 1.55-1.75 (1.69 ± 0.3) mm wide. The anal pore had a thin upper rim and was located

  12. [First serological study of the prevalence of Anaplasma phagocytophilum in dromedary (Camelus dromedarius) in Tunisia]. (United States)

    Ben Said, M; Belkahia, H; Sayahi, L; Aloui, M; Jemli, M H; Hadj Mohamed, B; Sassi, L; Darghouth, M A; Djaïem, A A; Bayoudh, M; Messadi, L


    The aim of the study was to evaluate the seroprevalence of Anaplasma phagocytophilum in dromedary (Camelus dromedarius). Sera of 226 healthy dromedaries from three regions of Tunisia (Sidi Bouzid, Bouficha and Douz) were tested by indirect immunofluorescence (IFA). The overall infection rate was estimated at 29.2%. The study of risk factors showed that region, age, gender, presence of ticks and types of breeding had no influence on the seroprevalence of A. phagocytophilum. This study indicates for the first time in Tunisia that dromedary may be involved in the natural cycle of A. phagocytophilum.

  13. Prosopis farcta beans increase HDL cholesterol and decrease LDL cholesterol in ostriches (Struthio camelus). (United States)

    Omidi, Arash; Ansari nik, Hossein; Ghazaghi, Mahmood


    Ten blue-neck male ostriches (Struthio camelus) were fed Prosopis farcta beans throughout a 30-day experiment. Blood samples were collected from ostriches on days 0 and 30 to measure levels of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, triglyceride, total serum protein, albumin, globulin, cholesterol, calcium, inorganic phosphorus, the activity of aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, and γ-glutamyl transferase (γ-GT). From days 0 to 30, HDL cholesterol, total protein, and globulins levels increased significantly whereas LDL cholesterol, inorganic phosphorus, and γ-GT activity decreased significantly.

  14. Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis Infection (Caseous Lymphadenitis in Camels (Camelus dromedarius in Jordan

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    Azmi D. Hawari


    Full Text Available Problem statement: This study was conducted to describe & report for the first time outbreaks of natural C.pseudotuberculosis infection in adult camel herds (Camelus dromedarius in Jordan. An infectious disease syndrome was reported in three camel herds (Camelus dromedarius intensively raised at south province in Jordan. Approach: The herds included over 160 adult camels out of which about 8% were affected with multiple muscle and subcutaneous abscesses at various sites of the body. The camels were also heavily infested with ticks. Results: The infected camels did not respond favorably to several broad spectrum antibiotics. Post-mortem examination of 5 carcasses revealed emaciation and presence of external and internal multiple abscesses particularly in the lungs. The abscesses were encapsulated by fibrous tissue and contained creamy yellowish white pus. The lymph nodes were slightly congested and swollen. Conclusion: Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis type I strain or biovar ovis (the known cause of caseous lymphadenitis in sheep was isolated from pus, lymph nodes, ticks, milk, blood and liver samples. The clinical symptoms, nature and distribution of lesions of caseous lymphadenitis in camels are not as typical as in sheep. Recommendations for pseudotuberculosis control were given.

  15. One-Humped Camels (Camelus dromedaries Hard Ticks Infestation in Qeshm Island, Iran

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    Saeed Nazifi


    Full Text Available The economic importance of tick infestation on camels are important as they are important meat and milk producer animals in the less vegetation area of Iran and their health and production are greatly affected by the high tick infestation. In this investigation, tick infestations on camels (Camelus dromedarius were determined in Qeshm Island, Iran. A total number of 912 adult ticks (472 males and 440 females were collected and identified. Hyalomma dromedarii was the predominant tick specie and accounted for 61.9% of the adult ticks. Other hard ticks were H. anatolicum excavatum (22 %, H. asiaticum asiaticum (14.2 %, H. marginatum (1.9 %, H. impeltatum (0.4 % and Ripicephalus bursa (0.4 %. In conclusion, The provision of tick control programs in the Qeshm Island would seem a prerequisite for improving camel meat and milk production.

  16. Three-dimensional anatomy of the ostrich (Struthio camelus knee joint

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    Kyle P. Chadwick


    Full Text Available The three-dimensional anatomy of the ostrich (Struthio camelus knee (femorotibial, femorofibular, and femoropatellar joint has scarcely been studied, and could elucidate certain mechanobiological properties of sesamoid bones. The adult ostrich is unique in that it has double patellae, while another similar ratite bird, the emu, has none. Understanding why these patellae form and what purpose they may serve is dually important for future studies on ratites as well as for understanding the mechanobiological characteristics of sesamoid bone development. For this purpose, we present a three-dimensional anatomical study of the ostrich knee joint, detailing osteology, ligaments and menisci, and myology. We have identified seven muscles which connect to the two patellae and compare our findings to past descriptions. These descriptions can be used to further study the biomechanical loading and implications of the double patella in the ostrich.

  17. Reproduction in the one humped camel (Camelus dromedarius in semi arid Nigeria

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    M.A. Umaru


    Full Text Available This review examines the one humped camel (Camelus dromedarius a considerable number of the dromedary about 50,000 is found in the semi-arid part of Northern Nigeria. Apart from the wide use of the camel as a draught animal the camel now serve as a source of milk, meat and hide in this region, these notes examines the anatomical basis of reproduction, pregnancy, and its diagnosis, fertility, and the application of modern  techniques in camel reproduction. Different techniques and equipments are now being employed for explicit study of the reproductive processes in the camel. Transrectal ultrasaonographic scanning machine is now being used to study ovulation pattern and timing, video endoscopic hysteroscopy is another technique employed to study various aspects of the camel conceptus. Techniques like oestrous synchronization, super ovulation, semen collection artificial insemination, embryo recovery and transfer are all used in the study of camel.


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    Pavel GAVRILIN


    Full Text Available The study of somatic and visceral lymph nodes of mature dromedary (Camelus dromedarius has shown a structure of conglomerates, which are they made up of same subunits, the detailed histological study shows a wide parenchyma and lymphatic sinuses divided into distinct structural and functional areas (compartments. It was found that somatic lymph node (LN has an unequal development of the main components of the tissue (stroma of connective tissue, lymphatic sinuses, lymphoid parenchyma the relative area of each of them is about 30 to 35%. The richest areas in cells in the lymph nodes of the dromedary are the depth cortex units in the somatic lymph nodes and the medullar cords in visceral lymph nodes. The content in the two groups of follicles of the lymph nodes of the adult dromedary does not exceed 6%.

  19. Serosurvey of Coxiella burnetii (Q fever) in Dromedary Camels (Camelus dromedarius) in Laikipia County, Kenya. (United States)

    Browne, A S; Fèvre, E M; Kinnaird, M; Muloi, D M; Wang, C A; Larsen, P S; O'Brien, T; Deem, S L


    Dromedary camels (Camelus dromedarius) are an important protein source for people in semi-arid and arid regions of Africa. In Kenya, camel populations have grown dramatically in the past few decades resulting in the potential for increased disease transmission between humans and camels. An estimated four million Kenyans drink unpasteurized camel milk, which poses a disease risk. We evaluated the seroprevalence of a significant zoonotic pathogen, Coxiella burnetii (Q fever), among 334 camels from nine herds in Laikipia County, Kenya. Serum testing revealed 18.6% positive seroprevalence of Coxiella burnetii (n = 344). Increasing camel age was positively associated with C. burnetii seroprevalence (OR = 5.36). Our study confirmed that camels living in Laikipia County, Kenya, have been exposed to the zoonotic pathogen, C. burnetii. Further research to evaluate the role of camels in disease transmission to other livestock, wildlife and humans in Kenya should be conducted.

  20. Prenatal development of the eye tunics in the dromedary camel (Camelus dromedarius). (United States)

    Abdo, M; Hosaka, Y Z; Erasha, A; Nada, M; Ali, S; Uehara, M


    Studies of ocular development in the dromedary camel (Camelus dromedarius) have not been reported previously. The aim of the present investigation was therefore to document the major landmarks and the time course in the prenatal development of the eye tunics in dromedary camel and its accommodation with the surrounding hard environment of the desert. Serial histological sections of dromedary camel embryos and foetuses were used. Age estimation was made on the basis of gestational size, crown vertebral-rump length (CVRL), which ranged 1.2-110 cm. The eye of the dromedary camel developed in a similar manner to that of the human and domestic animals eyes; the principal differences were in the time of occurrence of certain developmental events, pigmented peripheral cornea near the limbus, a remarkably thickened Descemet's membrane and pigmentation in the corneo-scleral junction, which represent an adaptive modification in relation to a severe environment.

  1. Molecular genotyping of Echinococcus granulosus from dromedaries (Camelus dromedarius) in eastern Iran. (United States)

    Moghaddas, E; Borji, H; Naghibi, A; Shayan, P; Razmi, G R


    With the aim of genotyping Echinococcus granulosus cysts found in Iranian dromedaries (Camelus dromedarius), 50 cysts of E. granulosus were collected from five geographical regions in Iran. Cysts were characterized using polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) analysis of the internal transcribed spacer 1 (ITS1) gene and sequencing fragments of the genes coding for mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (cox1). Morphological criteria using rostellar hook dimensions were also undertaken. The present results have shown that 27 out of 50 E. granulosus cysts (54%) were determined as the G1 strain, and the other (46%) were determined as the G6 strain. The molecular analysis of the ITS1 region of ribosomal DNA corresponded with the morphological findings. Because of its recognized infectivity in humans, the G1 genotype is a direct threat to human health and its presence in Iranian dromedaries is of urgent public health importance.

  2. Biometric and Ultrasonographic Evaluation of the Testis of One-humped Camel (Camelus dromedarius

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    Riaz Hussain Pasha, Anas Sarwar Qureshi*, Laeeq Akbar Lodhi1 and Huma Jamil1


    Full Text Available Twenty four adult clinically healthy one-humped male camels (Camelus dromedarius were examined three times (beginning, mid and end in each season (winter, spring, summer and autumn for establishing the normal ultrasonic appearance and seasonal changes in the testicular parenchyma in the natural ecology of Punjab, Pakistan. The testes of each camel were scanned by using a B-mode real time ultrasound scanner fitted with a 7.5-MHz linear-array transducer. Scrotal biometry was done with the measuring tape during all the seasons of year. The tunics of the testes appeared as hyperechoic lines surrounding the homogenous, moderately echogenic parenchyma of the testis. The mediastinum testis was visualized as hyperechoic central line and a spot, in longitudinal and transverse sections, respectively. During winter season, the parenchyma was hyperechoic and mediastinum testis was seen as thin hyperechoic line. In spring, the echogenicity of parenchyma was moderate and mediastinum appeared relatively thick central hyperechoic line. In summer and autumn, less echoic parenchyma and thick band of mediastinum was recorded. Biometric studies showed significantly (P<0.01 higher scrotal length and width of the testis during winter and spring season as compared to summer and autumn. Present study revealed that the ultrasonic structure of camel testis resembles other mammals and season has an apparent effect on the testicular size and echogenicity of the testicular parenchyma in the one-humped camel.

  3. Sequencing, analysis, and annotation of expressed sequence tags for Camelus dromedarius.

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    Abdulaziz M Al-Swailem

    Full Text Available Despite its economical, cultural, and biological importance, there has not been a large scale sequencing project to date for Camelus dromedarius. With the goal of sequencing complete DNA of the organism, we first established and sequenced camel EST libraries, generating 70,272 reads. Following trimming, chimera check, repeat masking, cluster and assembly, we obtained 23,602 putative gene sequences, out of which over 4,500 potentially novel or fast evolving gene sequences do not carry any homology to other available genomes. Functional annotation of sequences with similarities in nucleotide and protein databases has been obtained using Gene Ontology classification. Comparison to available full length cDNA sequences and Open Reading Frame (ORF analysis of camel sequences that exhibit homology to known genes show more than 80% of the contigs with an ORF>300 bp and approximately 40% hits extending to the start codons of full length cDNAs suggesting successful characterization of camel genes. Similarity analyses are done separately for different organisms including human, mouse, bovine, and rat. Accompanying web portal, CAGBASE (, hosts a relational database containing annotated EST sequences and analysis tools with possibility to add sequences from public domain. We anticipate our results to provide a home base for genomic studies of camel and other comparative studies enabling a starting point for whole genome sequencing of the organism.

  4. Yoghurt production from camel (Camelus dramedarius milk fortified with samphire molasses and different colloids

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    Nazan Kavas


    Full Text Available In this study, yoghurt was produced from camel (Camelus dramedarius milk with whey protein isolate (3 % w/v and fortified with 3 % (w/v traditional samphire molasses (TSM (YTSM, 3 % (w/v TSM+0.1% (w/v κ-carrageenan (YTSMC or 3 % (w/v TSM+0.05 % (w/v xanthan gum (YTSMX. In yoghurt samples, physical-chemical properties, texture, color and sensory analysis were determined on the 1st, 5th, 10th and 14th days of storage, while total phenolics (TF levels were determined on the 14th, 24th, 32nd, 48th, 72nd, 120th, 240th and 336th hours of storage. In all samples during storage, hardness and viscosity increased along with the acidity increase, although the increases in YTSM and YTSMC were lower than in YTSMX. In YTSMX, in spite of the increase in acidity after the 1st day, serum separation was very low while viscosity and hardness values were higher compared to the other samples. YTSMX was found to be superior to the other samples in terms of physicochemical, textural, microbiological and sensory properties. Total phenolic contents and L*a*b* levels increased in all samples throughout storage, the highest values of which were in YTSMX. After the 5th day of the storage, Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus became the dominant microbial flora. After the 5th day of storage, Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus and Streptococcus thermophilus levels were highest in YTSMX.

  5. Assessment of the stresses imposed on adult ostriches (Struthio camelus) during handling, loading, transportation and unloading. (United States)

    Minka, N S; Ayo, J O


    The stresses imposed during the handling, loading and unloading of 250 adult ostriches (Struthio camelus) transported by road were evaluated, weighted, scored and later compared with some objective physiological indices of stress measured after the journey. During handling, the numbers of slips and falls, incidents of aggressive behaviour, the calculated behavioural points, the number of injuries recorded per ostrich and the time spent were significantly (P<0.01) greater than the values recorded during loading and unloading. During handling and loading, 45 per cent of the ostriches had a good score (1.1 to 2 points), 15.5 per cent had a fair score (2.1 to 3 points) and 39.4 per cent had a poor or bad score (more than 3 points). The behavioural scores were significantly and positively correlated with the heterophil:lymphocyte ratio, the rectal temperature and the number of injuries sustained by the ostriches. The results showed that the poorer the behavioural score, the higher the level of stress suffered by the ostriches during handling and loading.

  6. Genotyping of Clostridium perfringens isolated from healthy and diseased ostriches (Struthio camelus.

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    Jamshid Razmyar


    Full Text Available Clostridium perfringens is more prevalent type of clostridia genus isolated from the intestinal tract of ostrich (Struthio camelus. Necrotic enteritis (NE is a potentially fatal gastrointestinal (GI disease of poultry and other avian species, which produces marked destruction of intestinal lining in digestive tract caused by C. perfringens. Pathogenicity and lesions are correlated with the toxins produced, thus toxin typing of the bacterium has diagnostic and epidemiological significance. The aims of the present study were to determine the biotypes of C. perfringens among ostrich's farms either diseased and healthy ones and to screen the isolates for major toxin genes (cpa, cpb, etx, and iA, cpb2, and cpe.Thirty isolates of C. perfringens were obtained from NE-positive and NE-negative ostrich flocks in Khorasan-e-Razavi porvince and analyzed by multiplex PCR assay.All isolates were positive for alpha toxin gene (cpa and five of those were positive for beta toxin gene (cpb. The presence of cpb2 gene was detected in a high percentage of isolates originating from both healthy (93.3% and diseased flocks (80%. None of the isolate carried enterotoxin gene (cpe.The results suggest that types A and C of C. perfringens are the most prevalent types in ostrich in Iran. Due to detection of beta2 toxin gene in isolates from both healthy and diseased birds, it appears that the presence of cpb2 is not considered a risk by itself.

  7. Isospora orlovi infection in suckling dromedary camel calves (Camelus dromedarius) in Kenya. (United States)

    Bornstein, S; Gluecks, I V; Younan, M; Thebo, P; Mattsson, J G


    Outbreaks of isosporosis in young suckling dromedary camel calves (Camelus dromedarius) in Dubai, UAE and in Kenya were recently described. In the former outbreak the pathogen was shown to be Isospora orlovi by morphological features and was later characterized molecularly. In the present study, we have made a longitudinal investigation of 159 suckling dromedary calves 8 weeks of age was found to be excreting Isospora sp. The parasite was only found in calves < or =4 weeks of age in the M1 herds and in the M2 herds in calves <8 weeks of age. Of the M1 and M2 calves exhibiting diarrhoea, 20.8% and 26.3% excreted Isospora sp., respectively. Morphologically the Isospora sp. was similar to I. orlovi and sequence analysis of the SSU rRNA gene from four Kenyan isolates (unfortunately only from the pastoral herds, M2) and ITS 1 segments from three of the isolates from Kenya and one from Dubai, confirmed that the Isospora isolates belonged to the species I. orlovi, and that the sequences were similar to the Dubai isolates.

  8. Molecular diversity of the foregut bacteria community in the dromedary camel (Camelus dromedarius). (United States)

    Samsudin, Anjas A; Evans, Paul N; Wright, André-Denis G; Al Jassim, Rafat


    The molecular diversity of the foregut bacterial community in the dromedary camel (Camelus dromedarius) in Central Australia was investigated through comparative analyses of 16S rRNA gene sequences prepared from the foregut contents of 12 adult feral camels fed on native vegetation. A total of 267 full-length 16S rRNA gene clones were examined, with 151 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) identified at a 99% species-level identity cut-off criterion. The prediction of actual diversity in the foregut of the dromedary camel using the Chaol approach was 238 OTUs, while the richness and evenness of the diversity estimated using Shannon index was 4.84. The majority of bacteria in the current study were affiliated with the bacterial phylum Firmicutes (67% of total clones) and were related to the classes Clostridia, Bacilli and Mollicutes, followed by the Bacteroidetes (25%) that were mostly represented by the family Prevotellaceae. The remaining phyla were represented by Actinobacteria, Chloroflexi, Cynophyta, Lentisphaerae, Planctomycetes, Proteobacteria and Sphirochaetes. Moreover, 11 clones of cultivated bacteria were identified as Brevundimonas sp., Butyrivibrio fibrisolvens, Prevotella sp. and Ruminococcus flavefaciens. The novelty in this foregut environment is remarkable where 97% of the OTUs were distantly related to any known sequence in the public database.


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    P. Gavrylin


    Full Text Available The architecture of the lymph node dromedary (Camelus dromedarius differs from that shown in the conventional patterns of other mammalian animals, generally formed of a plurality of aggregates, the latter are surrounded by a connective tissue which extends over the whole area surface lymph node and each cluster is a node itself. Vascular distribution in these lymphoid aggregates is relatively abundant and each node receives one or two afferent lymphatic’s and is drained by four or five efferent lymphatics. In approximately half of nodes examined, there was extra nodal communications between the lymphatic vessels (afferent and efferent, allowing to bypass the lymph node. Lymph nodes are characterized by their dromedary lobule appearance and size. This lobulated appearance is acquired with age. Indeed in a camel one day we noticed that although the lymph nodes are large, but rather the lobulation is not clear. All forms are possible was lymph nodes ovoid, flattened, elongated, notched, triangular or rounded in some cases.


    Gyimesi, Zoltan S; Burns, Roy B; Erol, Erdal; Bolin, Steven R


    A 9-yr-old castrated male dromedary camel (Camelus dromedarius) presented with lethargy and partial anorexia. A diagnostic examination revealed fever, and further workup revealed a neutrophilia, hyperfibrinogenemia, renal azotemia, and a rapid onset of a high Leptospira antibody titer during the acute clinical period (Grippotyphosa serovar). The camel responded clinically to antimicrobial treatment with ceftiofur crystalline free acid injections, but renal azotemia persisted, presumably secondary to chronic renal damage. Subsequent Leptospira polymerase chain reaction testing on urine samples obtained over the following 4 mo revealed no evidence of urinary shedding, so a persistent infection was unlikely. Although often mentioned as a potential cause of reproductive loss, well-documented case reports of clinical leptospirosis in camelids are very rare. In this case, native wildlife contamination of a small watering hole is suspected to have been the source of infection. In response to this experience, the camel and two conspecifics were prescribed a vaccination regimen using an inactivated pentavalent Leptospira vaccine licensed for cattle.


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    Full Text Available This study was carried out in White Nile State, Sudan for a period of one year, and was designed to investigate the effect of seasons on the blood constituents of dromadery camel (Camelus dromedarius. One hundred and four Samples different sex and age were collected in July (Rainy Season, September (Rainy hot summer, October (Dry wet winter and April (Dry hot summer. The effect of season on some blood hematology, metabolites, enzymes and minerals profile was studied. The results showed higher significant level were: Monocytes, total protein and Glutamic- Oxaloacetic Transaminase (GPT during rainy season, while MCV, MCH, lymphocytes, Eosinophils and Basophils in rainy hot summer, whereas within dry wet winter were: glucose, albumin and k, even in dry hot summer were: MCHC, total white blood cells, neutrophils, uric acid, creatinine, Serum Glutamic-Oxaloacetic Transaminase (GOT and Ca. The results also indicate that the fluctuations of seasons were observed in red blood cells, hematocrit (PCV and E.S.R as lower level. Therefore, it could be valuable to provide that the dromedary camels adapted to tropical conditions.

  12. Bacterial enteritis in ostrich (Struthio Camelus) chicks in the Western Cape Province, South Africa. (United States)

    Keokilwe, L; Olivier, A; Burger, W P; Joubert, H; Venter, E H; Morar-Leather, D


    Ostrich (Struthio camelus) chicks less than 3 mo age are observed to experience a high mortality rate that is often associated with enteritis. This study was undertaken to investigate the infectious bacteria implicated in ostrich chick enteritis. Postmortems were performed on 122 ostrich chicks aged from 1 d to 3 mo and intestinal samples were subjected to bacterial culture. Bacterial isolates were typed by PCR and serotyping. Escherichia coli (E. coli; 49%) was the most frequently isolated from the samples followed by Clostridium perfringens (C. perfringens; 20%), Enterococcus spp. (16%), and Salmonella spp. (7%). Of the E. coli, 39% were categorized as enteropathogenic E. coli, 4% enterotoxigenic E. coli, and no enterohaemorrhagic E. coli were found. The majority (93%) of C. perfringens was Type A and only 7% was Type E. C. perfringens Types B through D were not present. The netB gene that encodes NetB toxin was identified from 16% of the C. perfringens isolated. All the C. perfringens Type E harbored the netB gene and just 10% of the C. perfringens Type A had this gene. Three Salmonella serotypes were identified: Salmonella Muenchen (S. Muenchen; 80%), S. Hayindongo (13%), and S. Othmarschen (7%). The indication is that the cause of enteritis in ostrich chicks is bacterial-involving: enteropathogenic E. coli and enterotoxigenic E. coli; C. perfringens Types A and E (with the possible influence of netB gene); and S. Muenchen, S. Hayindongo, and S. Othmarschen.

  13. Reproductive physiology and ovarian folliculogenesis examined via 1H-NMR metabolomics signatures: a comparative study of large and small follicles in three mammalian species (Bos taurus, Sus scrofa domesticus and Equus ferus caballus). (United States)

    Gérard, Nadine; Fahiminiya, Somayyeh; Grupen, Christopher G; Nadal-Desbarats, Lydie


    The aim of this study was to characterize the composition of follicular fluid (FF) collected from the small and large follicles of three mammalian species, Bos taurus, Sus scrofa domesticus, and Equus ferus caballus, that display distinct ovulatory properties. For each species, five large FF samples and five small FF samples were analyzed using 1H-NMR spectroscopy. The FF metabolic profiles of the three species were very distinct. In cows and mares, the metabolic profiles of large FF and small FF were also very distinct. The concentrations of seventeen identified metabolites differed significantly between the sample groups. In mares, fourteen metabolites were found at much greater concentrations in large FF than in small FF (p<0.05). In cows, four metabolites differed in concentration between the large FF and small FF samples (p<0.05). A common feature of the monovulatory species was that the concentrations of α- and β-glucose were much greater in large FF compared with small FF (p<0.05). Sow FF was characterized by the apparent absence of citrate (detected in cow and mare FF), and the presence of succinate (not detected in cow and mare FF). Another obvious difference between species was the concentration of lactate, which was minimal in mare FF compared with cow and sow FF (p<0.05). The findings provide valuable insights into reproductive physiology broadly, and indicate that the activities of central metabolic enzymes differ enormously between these species. Future investigations into species-specific differences in follicle metabolism would increase our understanding of the processes critical to folliculogenesis and the acquisition of oocyte developmental competence.


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    Full Text Available Tissue samples of thyroid glands of 16 healthy camels (Camelus dromedarius were investigated under two age groups i.e. group A (3-5 years and group B (6-10 years with equal number of animals, for their gross and microscopic anatomy. Gross studies revealed that thyroid glands were located near the first ring of trachea and had two lobes, connected by an isthmus. They were of reddish brown in colour. The values of weight, length and width of thyroid glands were 45.7 ± 0.35 and 50.65 ± 0.26 g, 36 ± 0.46 and 6.36 ± 0.33 cm, and 3.35 ± 0.29 and 3.53 ± 0.21 cm in groups A and B, respectively. The diameter of the glands averaged 0.97 ± 0.13 and 1.05 ± 0.14 cm in groups A and B, respectively. Histologically, thyroid gland consisted of a connective tissue capsule and trabeculae were found extending from the capsule into the substance of the gland, which divided it into lobules. Each lobule consisted of two sized follicles in variable numbers, the large and small. The large follicles were lined by low cuboidal epithelium, while the small follicles were lined by high cuboidal to columnar epithelium. The follicles had colloid material in their lumen, probably an apocrine secretion from the lining epithelial cells. The para follicular or C-cells were absent in thyroid glands of camel.

  15. Cholesterol addition aids the cryopreservation of dromedary camel (Camelus dromedarius) spermatozoa. (United States)

    Crichton, Elizabeth G; Pukazhenthi, Budhan S; Billah, M; Skidmore, Julian A


    The cryopreservation of dromedary camel (Camelus dromedarius) sperm has proved challenging with little success reported. The routine application of artificial insemination with frozen semen would assist the flow of valuable genetic material nationally and internationally. The current study sought to examine the effects of cholesterol (cholesterol-loaded cyclodextrin [CLC]) preloading on camel sperm cryosurvival. Ejaculates (n = 3 males; 3 ejaculates per male) were collected using an artificial vagina during the breeding season and extended in HEPES-buffered Tyrode's albumin lactate pyruvate (TALP) and allowed to liquefy in the presence of papain (0.1 mg/mL) before removal of the seminal plasma by centrifugation. Sperm pellets were resuspended (120 million/mL) in fresh TALP and incubated (15 minutes; 37 °C) with 0, 1.5, or 4.5 mg CLC/mL. Sperm suspensions were then centrifuged and reconstituted in INRA-96 containing 20% (v:v) egg yolk and 2.5% (v:v) methylformamide, loaded in 0.5-mL plastic straws, sealed, and cooled for 20 minutes at 4 °C. Straws were frozen over liquid nitrogen (4 cm above liquid; 15 minutes), plunged, and stored. Sperm motility, forward progressive status, and acrosomal integrity were recorded at 0 and 3 hours after thawing and compared with these same parameters before freezing. Aliquots also were stained with chlortetracycline hydrochloride to assess spontaneous sperm capacitation status before freezing and post-thaw. Pretreatment with CLC (1.5 and 4.5 mg/mL) enhanced cryosurvival. Post-thaw sperm motility was highest (P dromedary camel sperm benefit from exposure to CLC before cryopreservation; this may facilitate the routine collection and storage of sperm from this species.

  16. Molecular analysis of the bacterial microbiome in the forestomach fluid from the dromedary camel (Camelus dromedarius). (United States)

    Bhatt, Vaibhav D; Dande, Suchitra S; Patil, Nitin V; Joshi, Chaitanya G


    Rumen microorganisms play an important role in ruminant digestion and absorption of nutrients and have great potential applications in the field of rumen adjusting, food fermentation and biomass utilization etc. In order to investigate the composition of microorganisms in the rumen of camel (Camelus dromedarius), this study delves in the microbial diversity by culture-independent approach. It includes comparison of rumen samples investigated in the present study to other currently available metagenomes to reveal potential differences in rumen microbial systems. Pyrosequencing based metagenomics was applied to analyze phylogenetic and metabolic profiles by MG-RAST, a web based tool. Pyrosequencing of camel rumen sample yielded 8,979,755 nucleotides assembled to 41,905 sequence reads with an average read length of 214 nucleotides. Taxonomic analysis of metagenomic reads indicated Bacteroidetes (55.5 %), Firmicutes (22.7 %) and Proteobacteria (9.2 %) phyla as predominant camel rumen taxa. At a finer phylogenetic resolution, Bacteroides species dominated the camel rumen metagenome. Functional analysis revealed that clustering-based subsystem and carbohydrate metabolism were the most abundant SEED subsystem representing 17 and 13 % of camel metagenome, respectively. A high taxonomic and functional similarity of camel rumen was found with the cow metagenome which is not surprising given the fact that both are mammalian herbivores with similar digestive tract structures and functions. Combined pyrosequencing approach and subsystems-based annotations available in the SEED database allowed us access to understand the metabolic potential of these microbiomes. Altogether, these data suggest that agricultural and animal husbandry practices can impose significant selective pressures on the rumen microbiota regardless of rumen type. The present study provides a baseline for understanding the complexity of camel rumen microbial ecology while also highlighting striking

  17. Entrainment of the circadian clock by daily ambient temperature cycles in the camel (Camelus dromedarius). (United States)

    El Allali, Khalid; Achaâban, Mohamed R; Bothorel, Béatrice; Piro, Mohamed; Bouâouda, Hanan; El Allouchi, Morad; Ouassat, Mohammed; Malan, André; Pévet, Paul


    In mammals the light-dark (LD) cycle is known to be the major cue to synchronize the circadian clock. In arid and desert areas, the camel (Camelus dromedarius) is exposed to extreme environmental conditions. Since wide oscillations of ambient temperature (Ta) are a major factor in this environment, we wondered whether cyclic Ta fluctuations might contribute to synchronization of circadian rhythms. The rhythm of body temperature (Tb) was selected as output of the circadian clock. After having verified that Tb is synchronized by the LD and free runs in continuous darkness (DD), we submitted the animals to daily cycles of Ta in LL and in DD. In both cases, the Tb rhythm was entrained to the cycle of Ta. On a 12-h phase shift of the Ta cycle, the mean phase shift of the Tb cycle ranged from a few hours in LD (1 h by cosinor, 4 h from curve peaks) to 7-8 h in LL and 12 h in DD. These results may reflect either true synchronization of the central clock by Ta daily cycles or possibly a passive effect of Ta on Tb. To resolve the ambiguity, melatonin rhythmicity was used as another output of the clock. In DD melatonin rhythms were also entrained by the Ta cycle, proving that the daily Ta cycle is able to entrain the circadian clock of the camel similar to photoperiod. By contrast, in the presence of a LD cycle the rhythm of melatonin was modified by the Ta cycle in only 2 (or 3) of 7 camels: in these specific conditions a systematic effect of Ta on the clock could not be evidenced. In conclusion, depending on the experimental conditions (DD vs. LD), the daily Ta cycle can either act as a zeitgeber or not.

  18. The Tarsometatarsus of the Ostrich Struthio camelus: Anatomy, Bone Densities, and Structural Mechanics.

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    Meagan M Gilbert

    Full Text Available The ostrich Struthio camelus reaches the highest speeds of any extant biped, and has been an extraordinary subject for studies of soft-tissue anatomy and dynamics of locomotion. An elongate tarsometatarsus in adult ostriches contributes to their speed. The internal osteology of the tarsometatarsus, and its mechanical response to forces of running, are potentially revealing about ostrich foot function.Computed tomography (CT reveals anatomy and bone densities in tarsometatarsi of an adult and a young juvenile ostrich. A finite element (FE model for the adult was constructed with properties of compact and cancellous bone where these respective tissues predominate in the original specimen. The model was subjected to a quasi-static analysis under the midstance ground reaction and muscular forces of a fast run. Anatomy-Metatarsals are divided proximally and distally and unify around a single internal cavity in most adult tarsometatarsus shafts, but the juvenile retains an internal three-part division of metatarsals throughout the element. The juvenile has a sparsely ossified hypotarsus for insertion of the m. fibularis longus, as part of a proximally separate third metatarsal. Bone is denser in all regions of the adult tarsometatarsus, with cancellous bone concentrated at proximal and distal articulations, and highly dense compact bone throughout the shaft. Biomechanics-FE simulations show stress and strain are much greater at midshaft than at force applications, suggesting that shaft bending is the most important stressor of the tarsometatarsus. Contraction of digital flexors, inducing a posterior force at the TMT distal condyles, likely reduces buildup of tensile stresses in the bone by inducing compression at these locations, and counteracts bending loads. Safety factors are high for von Mises stress, consistent with faster running speeds known for ostriches.High safety factors suggest that bone densities and anatomy of the ostrich tarsometatarsus

  19. Bartonella dromedarii sp. nov. isolated from domesticated camels (Camelus dromedarius) in Israel. (United States)

    Rasis, Michal; Rudoler, Nir; Schwartz, David; Giladi, Michael


    Bartonella spp. are fastidious, Gram-negative bacilli that cause a wide spectrum of diseases in humans. Most Bartonella spp. have adapted to a specific host, generally a domestic or wild mammal. Dromedary camels (Camelus dromedarius) have become a focus of growing public-health interest because they have been identified as a reservoir host for the Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus. Nevertheless, data on camel zoonoses are limited. We aimed to study the occurrence of Bartonella bacteremia among dromedaries in Israel. Nine of 51 (17.6%) camels were found to be bacteremic with Bartonella spp.; bacteremia levels ranged from five to >1000 colony-forming units/mL. Phylogenetic reconstruction based on the concatenated sequences of gltA and rpoB genes demonstrated that the dromedary Bartonella isolates are closely related to other ruminant-derived Bartonella spp., with B. bovis being the nearest relative. Using electron microscopy, the novel isolates were shown to be flagellated, whereas B. bovis is nonflagellated. Sequence comparisons analysis of the housekeeping genes ftsZ, ribC, and groEL showed the highest homology to B. chomelii, B. capreoli, and B. birtlesii, respectively. Sequence analysis of the gltA and rpoB revealed ∼96% identity to B. bovis, a previously suggested cutoff value for sequence-based differentiation of Bartonella spp., suggesting that this approach does not have sufficient discriminatory power for differentiating ruminant-related Bartonella spp. A comprehensive multilocus sequence typing (MLST) analysis based on nine genetic loci (gltA, rpoB, ftsZ, internal transcribed spacer (ITS), 16S rRNA, ribC, groEL, nuoG, and SsrA) identified seven sequence types of the new dromedary isolates. This is the first description of a Bartonella sp. from camelids. On the basis of a distinct reservoir and ecological niche, sequence analyses, and expression of flagella, we designate these isolates as a novel Bartonella sp. named Bartonella dromedarii sp

  20. Gender effect on the metabolic profile of ostriches (Struthio camelus domesticus

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    Carmelo Di Meo


    Full Text Available In order to better define the effect of the sex on the metabolic profile of young ostriches (Struthio camelus domesticus, forty birds were divided into two groups by sex (20 males vs20 females. The animals were fed ad libitumnatural pasture and corn silage. The daily ration was completed by administering 1200 g/head of a commercial concentrate with the following chemical composition expressed as a percentage of dry mat- ter: crude protein 18.8, crude fibre 8.4, ether extract 3.6, ash 7.5. After about 12 h of fasting, in the mor- ning the blood was collected from the wing vein. The following biochemical parameters were determined: glu- cose, cholesterol, triglycerides, lactate (LAC, total protein (TP, uric acid, total bilirubin (Tbil, creatinine (CREA, calcium (Ca, magnesium (Mg, phosphorus (P, natrium (Na, potassium (K, chloride (Cl, iron (Fe, aspartate aminotransferase (AST, alanine aminotransferase (ALT, alkaline phosphatase (AP, choline- sterase (ChE; α-amylase (Amyl, lipase (LIPA; γ-glutamyltransferase (GGT. Sex significantly affected only some haematic parameters: in the females total protein and calcium were higher than in the males (TP, 43.3 vs38.9 g/l, respectively for females and males, P< 0.05; Ca, 2.99 vs2.59 mmol/l, respectively for females and males, P< 0.01. The other haematic parameters did not show signifi- cant differences by sex, and the average values were: glucose (9.87 mmol/l, cholesterol (1.96 mmol/l, triglycerides (1.56 mmol/l, LAC (6.60 mmol/l, uric acid (361 mmol/l, CREA (31.95 µmol/l, Na (144.8 mmol/l, K (3.27 mmol/l, Cl (109.7 mmol/l, P (1.47 mmol/l, Mg (1.10 mmol/l, Fe (9.22 µmol/l, Tbil (9.28 µmol/l, AST (341.3 U/l, ALT (11.42 U/l, AP (75.8 U/l, GGT (10.07 U/l, Amyl (6.97 U/l, LIPA (241.2 U/l, ChE (385.1 U/l. The results of our study, in agreement with previous findings, contribute to enhance the knowledge on the metabolic profile of ostriches in function of the sex.

  1. What prevents Struthio camelus and Dromaius novaehollandiae (Palaeognathae from choking? A novel anatomical mechanism in ratites, the linguo-laryngeal apparatus

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    Crole Martina R


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The avian glottis channels air from the oropharynx to the trachea and is situated on an elevated structure, the laryngeal mound. It is imperative that the glottis be protected and closed during swallowing, which in mammals is achieved by covering the glottis with the epiglottis, as well as by adduction of the arytenoid cartilages. An epiglottis, however, is reportedly absent in birds. Ratites such as Struthio camelus and Dromaius novaehollandiae possess a very wide glottis in comparison to other birds. The question therefore arises as to how these large birds avoid inhalation of ingesta through a wide glottis, with apparently little protection, particularly as their feeding method involves throwing the food over the glottis to land in the proximal esophagus. Results In S. camelus when the glottis was closed and the tongue body retracted, the smooth tongue root became highly folded and the rostral portion of the laryngeal mound was encased by the pocket in the base of the ∩ − shaped tongue body. In this position the lingual papillae also hooked over the most rostral laryngeal projections. However, in D. novaehollandiae, retraction of the tongue body over the closed glottis resulted in the prominent, triangular tongue root sliding over the rostral portion of the laryngeal mound. In both S. camelus and D. novaehollandiae these actions resulted in the rostral portion of the laryngeal mound and weakest point of the adducted glottis being enclosed and stabilised. Conclusions Only after conducting a comparative study between these two birds using fresh specimens did it become clear how specific morphological peculiarities were perfectly specialised to assist in the closure and protection of the wide glottis. We identify, describe and propose a unique anatomical mechanism in ratites, which may functionally replace an epiglottis; the linguo-laryngeal apparatus.

  2. Pregnancy-Associated Changes of IgG and Serum N-Glycosylation in Camel (Camelus dromedarius). (United States)

    Adamczyk, Barbara; Albrecht, Simone; Stöckmann, Henning; Ghoneim, Ibrahim M; Al-Eknah, Marzook; Al-Busadah, Khalid A S; Karlsson, Niclas G; Carrington, Stephen D; Rudd, Pauline M


    The dromedary camel (Camelus dromedarius) is an agriculturally important species of high economic value but of low reproductive efficiency. Serum and IgG N-glycosylation are affected by physiological and pathogenic changes and might therefore be a useful diagnostic tool in camel livestock management. This study presents the first comprehensive annotation of the N-glycome from dromedary camel serum as well as their single-domain and conventional antibodies and its subsequent application for camel pregnancy diagnostics. N-glycans were released by PNGaseF, labeled with 2-aminobenzamide (2-AB), and analyzed by hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography with fluorescent detection (HILIC-UPLC-FLD), enzymatic sequencing and mass spectrometry (MS). The use of a high-throughput robotic platform for sample preparation allowed the rapid generation of glycomics data from pregnant (n = 8) and nonpregnant (n = 8) camels of the Majaheem and Wadha breed. IgG N-glycans dominate the glycan profile of camel serum and present a mixture of core-fucosylated and noncore-fucosylated N-glycans which can contain N-glycolylneuraminic and N-acetylneuraminic acid. Significant pregnancy-associated but breed-independent increases in galactosylation, core-fucosylation, sialylation, and decreases in serum O-acetylation were observed. The monitoring of IgG and serum N-glycosylation presents an attractive complementary test for camel pregnancy diagnostics and presents an interesting tool for biomarker discovery in camel health and breeding.

  3. Molecular identification and phylogenetic analysis of Trypanosoma evansi from dromedary camels (Camelus dromedarius) in Egypt, a pilot study. (United States)

    Amer, Said; Ryu, Oishi; Tada, Chika; Fukuda, Yasuhiro; Inoue, Noboru; Nakai, Yutaka


    Animal trypanosomiasis is one of the major constraints of livestock industry in developing countries. In the present study, prevalence of Trypanosome evansi was assessed in the blood of dromedary camels (Camelus dromedarius) brought to Al Bassatein abattoir, Cairo, Egypt, by mouse inoculation test out of 84 tested camels, 4 animals (4.7%) were infected. Molecular analysis was achieved by PCR amplification and sequence analysis of part of ribosomal RNA gene including 18S, ITS1, 5.8S and ITS2 regions. Despite the conserved nature of 18S region, ITS region showed obvious heterogeneity compared to analogous sequences in database. Analysis of transferrin receptor encoding gene (ESAG6) showed variable repertoire in the studied isolates, which may indicate to a novel structure of T. evansi population from Egypt and/or a difference in host range. Furthermore, analysis of variable surface glycoprotein RoTat 1.2 gene marker revealed some heterogeneity at this gene locus. To our knowledge, this is the first molecular analysis of T. evansi in Egypt.

  4. Multicentric fibromyxoid peripheral nerve sheath tumor (multicentric schwannoma) in a dromedary camel (Camelus dromedarius): morphopathological, immunohistochemical, and electron microscopic studies. (United States)

    Khodakaram-Tafti, A; Khordadmehr, M


    During postslaughter inspection of a 4-year-old male dromedary camel (Camelus dromedarius), numerous small nodules to large masses up to 4 cm in diameter were found on the serosal surfaces of forestomachs, large intestines, mesentery, liver, and spleen. Grossly, the masses were discrete, round, smooth, and white to gray that bulged from the serosal layer. Cut surfaces of the masses were discrete, round, white, and relatively homogeneous without any necrotic foci. Histopathologically, the masses were encapsulated and composed of a mixture of round and spindle-shaped cells in loose whorls of neoplastic cells with small elongated hyperchromatic wavy nuclei and a small amount of pale eosinophilic, poorly defined cytoplasm. Masson's trichrome staining showed mild amounts of collagen fibers forming an irregular, loose stroma. In immunohistochemistry, immunoreactivity for the Schwann cell marker (S100) was diffusely positive in the neoplastic cells. The immunoreactivity for CK, c-kit, and CD34 were negative. Ultrastructural examination confirmed the tumor was entirely formed of neoplastic Schwann cells. On the basis of the histopathological, immunohistochemical, and ultrastructural findings, the tumors were diagnosed as multicentric fibromyxoid peripheral nerve sheath tumor (multicentric schwannoma). This tumor has not been previously recorded in camel worldwide.

  5. Gross Morphology and Localization of Adenohypophyseal Cells in Camel (Camelus dromedarius Using A New Combination of Stains

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    S. A. S. Jaspal, Z. U. Rahman* and A. M. Cheema


    Full Text Available Thirty normal camels (Camelus dromedarius were selected for gross morphological and modified staining of anterior pituitary. Camels were divided in three age groups viz 2-4, 5-10 and above 10 years. Pituitary weight, length, width and circumference were recorded before preservation and at midsegittal cutting. Pituitary weight increased significantly as these animals grew older. Male had heavier pituitary as compared to female. Higher pituitary weight was observed in old as compared to young camel. Sections (4m of camel pituitary gland were stained with “Phosphotungstic acid haematoxylin-Orange G-Acid fuchsin-Light green” combination of dyes. This combination of acidic and basic dyes showed affinity to their respective adenohypophyseal cells and proved a suitable combination for differentiation of adenohypophyseal cells and architectural pattern of pituitary gland. Use of Lugol’s Iodine and sodium thiosulphate solution caused mercury fixation which ultimately enhanced the staining of camel adenohypophysis. The whole pituitary presented a brilliant appearance of clarity, enabling cell counts to be performed easily, purely with reference to the colors of adenohypophyseal cell types. This method can be applied for differential staining of adenohypophysis and with good cytology results to the hypophysis of many mammals. The method also provides a sharp contrast between cellular and connective tissue components. With this staining technique, the quantitative and qualitative characteristics of different adenohypophyseal cell types at various functional and hormonal stages, under certain physiological and pathological conditions can also be studied.

  6. Effect of progesterone from induced corpus luteum on the characteristics of a dominant follicle in dromedary camels (Camelus dromedarius). (United States)

    Manjunatha, B M; David, C G; Pratap, N; Al-Bulushi, Samir; Hago, B E


    The present study was carried out to elucidate the effect of progesterone (P4) from the induced corpus luteum (CL) on the characteristics of the dominant follicle (DF) in dromedary camels (Camelus dromedarius). Ovarian follicular and induced CL dynamics were monitored by transrectal ultrasonography in eight camels during the peak breeding season. The characteristics of the DF were monitored daily from the day of emergence into a wave, until it appeared to lose its dominance and the DF of a subsequent wave grew to a diameter of 13-17 mm. At this stage ovulation was induced by hCG and the DF was monitored every 8 h for 48 h. After ovulation, CL dynamics and follicular development (emergence of a new wave, growth and mature phase of the selected DF) were monitored daily. Blood samples were collected during each ultrasound examination to study the P4 profile in these animals. The CL developed to a maximum size (22.55 ± 3.24 mm) with a peak concentration of P4 (4.60 ± 2.57 ng/ml) 7 days after ovulation. The size of the CL was positively correlated with the P4 concentration (r = 0.612) during the different stages of the CL dynamics. The presence of CL did not affect the linear growth rate, duration of growth and mature phases of the DF. The development of the DF to its maximum size during its mature phase and inter-wave interval were not affected by the P4 secreted by the induced CL. In conclusion, there is no evidence from this study to suggest that P4 from induced CL altered the characteristics of a DF in dromedary camels.

  7. Characteristics of the somatic hypermutation in the Camelus dromedarius T cell receptor gamma (TRG) and delta (TRD) variable domains. (United States)

    Ciccarese, Salvatrice; Vaccarelli, Giovanna; Lefranc, Marie-Paule; Tasco, Gianluca; Consiglio, Arianna; Casadio, Rita; Linguiti, Giovanna; Antonacci, Rachele


    In previous reports, we had shown in Camelus dromedarius that diversity in T cell receptor gamma (TRG) and delta (TRD) variable domains can be generated by somatic hypermutation (SHM). In the present paper, we further the previous finding by analyzing 85 unique spleen cDNA sequences encoding a total of 331 mutations from a single animal, and comparing the properties of the mutation profiles of dromedary TRG and TRD variable domains. The transition preference and the significant mutation frequency in the AID motifs (dgyw/wrch and wa/tw) demonstrate a strong dependence of the enzymes mediating SHM in TRG and TRD genes of dromedary similar to that of immunoglobulin genes in mammals. Overall, results reveal no asymmetry in the motifs targeting, i.e. mutations are equally distributed among g:c and a:t base pairs and replacement mutations are favored at the AID motifs, whereas neutral mutations appear to be more prone to accumulate in bases outside of the motifs. A detailed analysis of clonal lineages in TRG and TRD cDNA sequences also suggests that clonal expansion of mutated productive rearrangements may be crucial in shaping the somatic diversification in the dromedary. This is confirmed by the fact that our structural models, computed by adopting a comparative procedure, are consistent with the possibility that, irrespective of where (in the CDR-IMGT or in FR-IMGT) the diversity was generated by mutations, both clonal expansion and selection seem to be strictly related to an enhanced structural stability of the γδ subunits.

  8. Molecular detection of Rickettsia aeschlimannii in Hyalomma spp. ticks from camels (Camelus dromedarius) in Nigeria, West Africa. (United States)

    Kamani, J; Baneth, G; Apanaskevich, D A; Mumcuoglu, K Y; Harrus, S


    Several species of the spotted fever group rickettsiae have been identified as emerging pathogens throughout the world, including in Africa. In this study, 197 Hyalomma ticks (Ixodida: Ixodidae) collected from 51 camels (Camelus dromedarius) in Kano, northern Nigeria, were screened by amplification and sequencing of the citrate synthase (gltA), outer membrane protein A (ompA) and 17-kDa antigen gene fragments. Rickettsia sp. gltA fragments were detected in 43.3% (42/97) of the tick pools tested. Rickettsial ompA gene fragments (189 bp and 630 bp) were detected in 64.3% (n = 27) and 23.8% (n = 10) of the gltA-positive tick pools by real-time and conventional polymerase chain reaction (PCR), respectively. The amplicons were 99-100% identical to Rickettsia aeschlimannii TR/Orkun-H and R. aeschlimannii strain EgyRickHimp-El-Arish in GenBank. Furthermore, 17-kDa antigen gene fragments of 214 bp and 265 bp were detected in 59.5% (n = 25) and 38.1% (n = 16), respectively, of tick pools, and sequences were identical to one another and 99-100% identical to those of the R. aeschlimannii strain Ibadan A1 in GenBank. None of the Hyalomma impressum ticks collected were positive for Rickettsia sp. DNA. Rickettsia sp. gltA fragments (133 bp) were detected in 18.8% of camel blood samples, but all samples were negative for the other genes targeted. This is the first report to describe the molecular detection of R. aeschlimannii in Hyalomma spp. ticks from camels in Nigeria.

  9. Studies on the susceptibility of ostriches (Struthio camelus to the Indonesian velogenic strain of Newcastle disease virus

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    Full Text Available Susceptibility of ostriches (Struthio camelus to the Indonesian velogenic strain of Newcastle disease virus (NDV was evaluated by artificial infection . Twelve - 5 to 6 week old ostriches were divided into 3 groups each containing 4 birds . The first group was inoculated through respiratory system by dropping directly the virus solution into the nostrils, while the second group was inoculated through digestive system by dropping directly the virus solution into the oesophagus, with the dose of infection 106ELDSo (50%-embryo lethal dose per bird . Meanwhile, the third group was treated as uninfected control . All infected birds developed antibody responses, but only two inoculated birds from the first group and two inoculated birds from the second group developed clinical signs of Newcastle disease (ND, with no specific pathological alterations . Infected birds, either sicks or healthy, excreted the challenge viruses through the respiratory system and still be detected up to the end of this experiment, ie . 15 days post-inoculation . The challenge viruses can be re-isolated from the brain, trachea, lungs, heart, liver, spleen, kidneys, small intestine, cecal-tonsil, and proventriculus of the infected birds . This study concludes that: (1 the ostriches are susceptible to the infection of the Indonesian velogenic strain ofNDV; (2 all infected birds developed immune responses, but only half of them develops el jtigi aj i disease ; (3 the infected birds excreted the challenge viruses for a considerable long time which may play role as the Mginiseti.ce ofinfectron the other healthy ostriches ; and (4 the challenge viruses can be re-isolated from various organs of the birds . .

  10. First report of an outbreak of the oriental eye-fluke, Philophthalmus gralli (Mathis & Leger 1910, in commercially reared ostriches (Struthio camelus in Zimbabwe

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    S. Mukaratirwa


    Full Text Available A total of 17 commercially reared ostriches (Struthio camelus from Msengi farm, Chinhoyi, Zimbabwe, observed with swollen eyes, severe conjunctivitis and constant lacrimation accompanied by a purulent exudate, were restrained for further clinical examination. Some of the birds were semi-blind with severe loss of body condition. When examined, tiny organisms were observed attached to the nictitating membranes and the conjuctival sacs of both eyes. The organisms were identified as Philophthalmus gralli, the "oriental eye-fluke" and Melanoides tuberculata, a prosobranch snail, was confirmed as the intermediate host through natural and experimental infection. To the best of our knowledge this is the first record of the oriental eye-fluke infection in birds in Zimbabwe and Africa and extends its known geographical range.

  11. Musculoskeletal modelling of an ostrich (Struthio camelus pelvic limb: influence of limb orientation on muscular capacity during locomotion

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    John R. Hutchinson


    Full Text Available We developed a three-dimensional, biomechanical computer model of the 36 major pelvic limb muscle groups in an ostrich (Struthio camelus to investigate muscle function in this, the largest of extant birds and model organism for many studies of locomotor mechanics, body size, anatomy and evolution. Combined with experimental data, we use this model to test two main hypotheses. We first query whether ostriches use limb orientations (joint angles that optimize the moment-generating capacities of their muscles during walking or running. Next, we test whether ostriches use limb orientations at mid-stance that keep their extensor muscles near maximal, and flexor muscles near minimal, moment arms. Our two hypotheses relate to the control priorities that a large bipedal animal might evolve under biomechanical constraints to achieve more effective static weight support. We find that ostriches do not use limb orientations to optimize the moment-generating capacities or moment arms of their muscles. We infer that dynamic properties of muscles or tendons might be better candidates for locomotor optimization. Regardless, general principles explaining why species choose particular joint orientations during locomotion are lacking, raising the question of whether such general principles exist or if clades evolve different patterns (e.g., weighting of muscle force–length or force–velocity properties in selecting postures. This leaves theoretical studies of muscle moment arms estimated for extinct animals at an impasse until studies of extant taxa answer these questions. Finally, we compare our model’s results against those of two prior studies of ostrich limb muscle moment arms, finding general agreement for many muscles. Some flexor and extensor muscles exhibit self-stabilization patterns (posture-dependent switches between flexor/extensor action that ostriches may use to coordinate their locomotion. However, some conspicuous areas of disagreement in our

  12. Three-dimensional serial section computer reconstruction of the arrangement of the structural components of the parabronchus of the Ostrich, Struthio camelus lung. (United States)

    Maina, John N; Woodward, Jeremy D


    The Ostrich, Struthio camelus is the largest extant bird. The arrangement of the airway and the vascular components of the parabronchus of its lung were investigated by 3D serial section reconstruction. Modestly developed atrial muscles, shallow atria, paucity of infundibulae with preponderant origination of the air capillaries (ACs) from the atria and lack of interparabronchial septa, structural features that epitomize lungs of most highly derived metabolically active volant birds were observed. Intertwined very closely, the ACs and the blood capillaries (BCs) are not straight, blind-ended tubules that run in contact, counter and parallel to each other as has been claimed and/or modeled. Crosscurrent (perpendicular = orthogonal) orientation between the centripetal (inward) flow of the venous blood (VB) from the periphery of the parabronchus and the flow of air in the parabronchial lumen occur. Also, a countercurrent-like arrangement between the ACs which convey air centrifugally (outwards = radially) and the BCs that transport venous blood centripetally (inwards) was identified. The VB is conveyed to the parabronchus by the interparabronchial arteries and delivered to the exchange tissue by the intraparabronchial arterioles: it is then arterialized at the infinitely many points where the ACs and the BCs contact. Functionally, the crosscurrent arrangement grants a multicapillary serial arterialization arrangement which extends the time that the respiratory media, air and blood, are exposed to each other. The contribution that the countercurrent-like arrangement makes to the gas exchange process remains obscure.

  13. The Camel Rhinarium: A Study Revealing the Presence of the Nasal Plane in Dromedary Camel (Camelus dromedarius), with Special Reference to Its Epidermal Structure. (United States)

    Eshrah, E A


    The aim of this study was to prove that the nasal plane (Planum nasale) present in camel (Camelus dromedarius). Furthermore, it was the first description of the gross and primary microscopic anatomy as well as the epidermal ultrastructure of the camel nasal plane. Grossly, the camel rhinarium was formed of the glabrous grayish-black skin that extended to cover the philtrum and the medial nasal angles. It was composed of two perinasal parts and an inter-labial part. A shallow groove was passed across its middle. A dermatoglyphic pattern of epidermal ridges with primary and secondary fissures in between was revealed by scanning electron microscopy. The nasal plane was very small in relation to the camel head size. In general, the morphological appearance of the camel rhinarium was greatly similar to that of the proboscis-bearing mammals. The basic histological structure as well as the epidermal ultrastructure of the camel nasal plane was observed to resemble very closely the common type. Few differences were found, including indistinct or absent hypodermal layer, thinner stratum corneum and some basal cells have unusual sinuous bases.

  14. Milk Somatic Cell Counts and Some Hemato-Biochemical Changes in Sub-Clinical Mastitic Dromedary She-Camels (Camelus dromedarius

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    Farah Ali, Riaz Hussain, Abdul Qayyum, Shafia Tehseen Gul, Zahid Iqbal and Mohammad Farooque Hassan


    Full Text Available The dromedary camels are considered as the best livestock animals in arid, semiarid and desert areas and camel milk is known as the valuable food source in these areas. The present study was aimed to investigate milk somatic cell counts and some biochemical changes in milk due to sub-clinical mastitis in camels. For this purpose milk samples were collected from 33 lactating animals and examined for sub clinical mastitis using California Mastitis Test. The chi-square and frequency analysis did not show any significant association with age, lactation stage, parity and quarter involved. The results indicated significant (P<0.01 increase in milk electrical conductivity and milk pH while significantly lower values for milk proteins, lactose and fat contents were recorded. The results revealed that the total milk somatic cell and neutrophil counts were significantly increased while the lymphocytes and macrophages were decreased in infected animals. Moreover, milk enzymes; aspartate aminotransferase, lactate dehydrogenase, and alkaline phosphatase were significantly increased in mastitic animals as compared to the non-infected animals. The results indicated that milk electrical conductivity and some milk enzymes can be screened to investigate the sub-clinical mastitis in Camelus dromedaries.

  15. Molecular cloning and characterization of cDNA encoding a putative stress-induced heat-shock protein from Camelus dromedarius. (United States)

    Elrobh, Mohamed S; Alanazi, Mohammad S; Khan, Wajahatullah; Abduljaleel, Zainularifeen; Al-Amri, Abdullah; Bazzi, Mohammad D


    Heat shock proteins are ubiquitous, induced under a number of environmental and metabolic stresses, with highly conserved DNA sequences among mammalian species. Camelus dromedaries (the Arabian camel) domesticated under semi-desert environments, is well adapted to tolerate and survive against severe drought and high temperatures for extended periods. This is the first report of molecular cloning and characterization of full length cDNA of encoding a putative stress-induced heat shock HSPA6 protein (also called HSP70B') from Arabian camel. A full-length cDNA (2417 bp) was obtained by rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE) and cloned in pET-b expression vector. The sequence analysis of HSPA6 gene showed 1932 bp-long open reading frame encoding 643 amino acids. The complete cDNA sequence of the Arabian camel HSPA6 gene was submitted to NCBI GeneBank (accession number HQ214118.1). The BLAST analysis indicated that C. dromedaries HSPA6 gene nucleotides shared high similarity (77-91%) with heat shock gene nucleotide of other mammals. The deduced 643 amino acid sequences (accession number ADO12067.1) showed that the predicted protein has an estimated molecular weight of 70.5 kDa with a predicted isoelectric point (pI) of 6.0. The comparative analyses of camel HSPA6 protein sequences with other mammalian heat shock proteins (HSPs) showed high identity (80-94%). Predicted camel HSPA6 protein structure using Protein 3D structural analysis high similarities with human and mouse HSPs. Taken together, this study indicates that the cDNA sequences of HSPA6 gene and its amino acid and protein structure from the Arabian camel are highly conserved and have similarities with other mammalian species.

  16. The efficacy of controlled internal drug release (CIDR) in synchronizing the follicular wave in dromedary camels (Camelus dromedarius) during the breeding season. (United States)

    Swelum, Ayman Abdel-Aziz; Alowaimer, Abdullah Nasser


    The present study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of controlled internal drug release (CIDR) to synchronize the follicular wave in dromedary camels (Camelus dromedarius) during the breeding season through ovarian monitoring, evaluating sexual receptivity, and measuring progesterone (P4) and estradiol (E2) levels during and after CIDR treatment. Sixteen camels received a new CIDR containing 1.9 g of P4 for 14 days. Ultrasound ovarian monitoring was performed on the day of insertion and every 3 days until the CIDR was withdrawn. Ultrasound examinations were continued day in day out after the CIDR was withdrawn for 10 days. According to the ultrasound examinations, the percentages of camels in the breeding (follicles: 12-18 mm) and nonbreeding phases were calculated. Blood samples were collected day after day during the experimental period (24 days) from the day that the CIDR was inserted. The serum P4 and E2 concentrations were analyzed using ELISA kits. The sexual receptivity of the camels was tested daily during the course of the experiment. The results revealed that 2 and 4 days after the CIDR was withdrawn, the percentage of camels in the breeding phase (68.75% and 75.00%, respectively) was significantly (P dromedary camels. In conclusion, the treatment of dromedary camels with CIDR produced a uniform increase in serum concentrations of P4 that could completely prevent sexual receptivity but could not suppress the follicular wave. After CIDR withdrawal, the P4 levels fell and induced the emergence of a new follicular wave, and most of the camels were in the breeding (ovulatory) phase 2 to 4 days after withdrawal. Therefore, CIDR can be used to synchronize the follicular wave in dromedary camels.

  17. Evaluation of medetomidine-ketamine and medetomidine-ketamine-butorphanol for the field anesthesia of free-ranging dromedary camels (Camelus dromedarius) in Australia. (United States)

    Boardman, Wayne S J; Lethbridge, Mark R; Hampton, Jordan O; Smith, Ian; Woolnough, Andrew P; McEwen, Margaret-Mary; Miller, Graham W J; Caraguel, Charles G B


    Abstract We report the clinical course and physiologic and anesthetic data for a case series of 76 free-ranging dromedary camels (Camelus dromedarius) chemically restrained, by remote injection from a helicopter, in the rangelands of Western Australia and South Australia, 2008-11, to attach satellite-tracking collars. Fifty-five camels were successfully anesthetized using medetomidine-ketamine (MK, n=27) and medetomidine-ketamine-butorphanol (MKB, n=28); the induction of anesthesia in 21 animals was considered unsuccessful. To produce reliable anesthesia for MK, medetomidine was administered at 0.22 mg/kg (± SD=0.05) and ketamine at 2.54 mg/kg (± 0.56), and for MKB, medetomidine was administered at 0.12 mg/kg (± 0.05), ketamine at 2.3 mg/kg (± 0.39), and butorphanol at 0.05 mg/kg (± 0.02). Median time-to-recumbency for MKB (8.5 min) was 2.5 min shorter than for MK (11 min) (P=0.13). For MK, the reversal atipamezole was administered at 0.24 mg/kg (± 0.10), and for MKB, atipamezole was administered at 0.23 mg/kg (± 0.13) and naltrexone at 0.17 mg/kg (± 0.16). Median time-to-recovery was 1 min shorter for MK (5 min) than MKB (6 min; P=0.02). Physiologic parameters during recumbency were not clinically different between the two regimes. Both regimes were suitable to safely anesthetize free-ranging camels; however, further investigation is required to find the safest, most consistent, and logistically practical combination.

  18. Genotyping of Brucella melitensis strains from dromedary camels (Camelus dromedarius) from the United Arab Emirates with multiple-locus variable-number tandem repeat analysis. (United States)

    Gyuranecz, Miklós; Wernery, Ulli; Kreizinger, Zsuzsa; Juhász, Judit; Felde, Orsolya; Nagy, Péter


    Camel brucellosis is a widespread zoonotic disease in camel-rearing countries caused by Brucella melitensis and Brucella abortus. The aim of this study was the first genetic analysis of B. melitensis strains isolated from dromedary camels (Camelus dromedarius) using multiple-locus variable-number tandem repeat analysis (MLVA). MLVA 16 and its MLVA 8 and MLVA11 subsets were used to determine the genotypes of 15 B. melitensis isolates from dromedary camels (11 strains) and other host species (4 strains) from the United Arab Emirates and the results were then compared to B. melitensis MLVA genotypes from other parts of the world. Five, including two novel genotypes were identified with MLVA 8. MLVA 16 further discriminated these five genotypes to ten variants. The eleven camel isolates clustered into four main genetic groups within the East-Mediterranean and African clades and this clustering correlated with the geographic origin of the hosts (United Arab Emirates, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia and Sudan) and the date of their isolation. The camel strains were also genetically related to strains isolated from wild and domestic ruminants from their close habitat or from other parts of the world. Although limited number of strains were analysed, based on our data imported animals from foreign countries, local small ruminants and wildlife species are hypothesized to be the main sources of camel brucellosis in the United Arab Emirates. MLVA was successfully applied to determine the epidemiological links between the different camel B. melitensis infections in the United Arab Emirates and it can be a beneficial tool in future disease control programs.

  19. Biochemical characterization of a novel antioxidant and angiotensin I-converting enzyme inhibitory peptide from Struthio camelus egg white protein hydrolysis

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    Ahmad Asoodeh


    Full Text Available A peptide from ostrich (Struthio camelus egg white protein hydrolysate (OEWPH was purified, characterized, and its antioxidant and enzyme inhibitory properties were evaluated. The OEWPH was prepared using pepsin and pancreatin, and then fractionated using reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography. The antioxidant activity of the WG-9 peptide was investigated based on its scavenging capacity for 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH radical, 2,20-azinobis (3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid diammonium salt (ABTS, superoxide (O2•−, hydroxyl (OH•−, and lipid peroxidation inhibition. The angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE inhibitory activity and kinetic parameters of the peptide were determined using N-[3-(2-Furylacryloyl]-L-phenylalanyl-glycyl-glycine (FAPGG as a substrate. Tandem mass spectrometry analysis of the purified peptide revealed a sequence of WESLSRLLG (MW: 1060 Da; WG-9. This peptide inhibited linoleic acid oxidation and acted as a DPPH (IC50 = 15 ± 0.4 μg/mL, ABTS (IC50 = 130 ± 4.5 μg/mL, superoxide (IC50 = 160 ± 6.4 μg/mL, and hydroxyl (IC50 = 150 ± 6.7 μg/mL radical scavenger. The ACE-inhibitory activity and kinetic parameters of the WG-9 peptide were determined, showing an ACE inhibitory activity with IC50 of 46.7 ± 1.4 μg/mL. The parameters of peptide/ACE interactions were investigated by molecule docking. Furthermore, viability assays showed that the identified peptide had no cytotoxicity against an HFLF-PI-5 cell line. In conclusion, the WG-9 peptide showed potent antioxidant and ACE-inhibitory activity.

  20. 单峰驼凝乳酶原的原核表达和活性检测%Prokaryotic expression of dromedary (Camelus dromedarius) prochymosin and its activity detection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    普燕; 李轶杰; 张富春


    骆驼凝乳酶具有独特的凝乳特性,凝乳酶活性高.通过原核表达系统高效表达获得单峰驼(Camelus dromedarius)凝乳酶原,经酸化/中和处理后,活化的单峰驼凝乳酶能够凝固新鲜牛乳与双峰驼乳.同时单峰驼凝乳酶原的活化条件表明,酸化pH值必须低于4.5,活化时加入NaCl能显著提高单峰驼重组酶原的自剪切效率,研究结果为单峰驼凝乳酶特性的深入研究奠定了实验基础.

  1. Analyse moléculaire de la diversité génétique des dromadaires (Camelus dromedarius en Tunisie

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    Ould Ahmed, M.


    Full Text Available Analysis of molecular genetic diversity of dromedaries (Camelus dromedarius in Tunisia. The objective of this study was to investigate the genetic diversity and relationships among Tunisian camel populations in three different geographical locations (Kebili, Medenine and Tataouine from Southern arid and semi-arid regions in Tunisia. Eight selected microsatellite markers were used for a sample of 90 dromedary genotypes. A total of 34 alleles were detected in the three populations. The number of alleles per locus varied from two to seven with an average of 4.25 alleles per locus. For each population the average of alleles per locus is 3.33, 3.71 and 3.87 for Kebili, Medenine and Tataouine, respectively. The mean of the observed heterozygosity (Ho were 0.43, 0.50, 0.57 and 0.52 for Kebili, Medenine, Tataouine and total populations, respectively. These values were lower than expected with heterozygosity (He values 0.50, 0.57, 0.62 and 0.61, respectively. The average inbreeding coefficient was 15.3% in Kebili, 11.4% in Medenine and 8.3% in Tataouine. The mean estimates of F-statistics were FIT = 0.15, FIS = 0.071 and FST = 0.083. These values were significantly different from zero (p < 0.05 and suggest a moderate differentiation. An inbreeding rate of 15% was found. Estimated genetic distances revealed by the loci varied from 0 to 0.9 between dromedary individuals. The estimated genetic distances pair-wise showed 0.104 among Medenine-Tataouine, 0.280 between Kebili-Medenine and 0.290 between Kebili-Tataouine. The distance matrix was able to distinguish between two separate genetic entities: Nefzawa (Kebili including Merzougui, G'oudi and M'hari ecotypes and the Aaradh group (Medenine and Tataouine that includes Maghribi and Khaouar ecotypes. The results of this study did not confirm the present classification established by dromedary herders who divide the population into five different ecotypes, apparently based on the sociogeographical criteria

  2. Haemonchus longistipes Railliet & Henry, 1909 (Nematoda, Trichostrongylidae) from the Egyptian dromedary, Camelus dromedarius (Artiodactyla: Camelidae), first identification on the basis of light and ultrastructural data. (United States)

    Morsy, Kareem; Bashtar, Abdel-Rahman; Fol, Mona; Yehia, Salma


    Haemonchus longistipes is a gastrointestinal abomasal nematode which is one of the most prevalent and pathogenic parasites infesting the stomach of ruminants. On the basis of light and ultrastructural data, the objective of the present study was to introduce a first identification of the cameline haemonchosis caused by H. longistipes. Abomasa of 42 Egyptian camels Camelus dromedarius (Artiodactyla: Camelidae) were collected monthly from September 2013 to April 2014 from the main slaughter house of Cairo, Egypt. Adult male and female nematode worms were recovered from 26 (62%) specimens of the examined abomasa. The parasites were of yellow color; the body was filiform (slender) tapered towards the anterior end in male and towards both ends in female. Buccal capsules absent, the buccal cavity was small with a conspicuous dorsal lancet extended from dorsal wall. The cervical papillae were prominent and spine-like. The body length of the female worm was 16.6-20.5 (18.5 ± 0.3) mm. The anterior end to the cervical papillae was 3.19-4.30 (4.12 ± 0.5) mm. The vulva of the female had a linguiform process or flap, the tail is without a spine, and the anal pore at the posterior end of the body had a simple dorsal rim. The body of male was 10.4-14.7 (13.9 ± 2.0) mm in length. The male bursa had elongated lobes supported by long, slender rays. The small dorsal lobe was asymmetrical with Y-shaped dorsal rays. The spicules were long with a length of 0.52-0.54 (0.53 ± 0.05) mm, each provided with a small barb and pore near its extremity. Synlophe was bilaterally and dorsoventrally symmetrical; it extended from cephalic expansion over anterior 50% of prebursal or prevulvar body and consisted of a maximum of 42 ridges. The described species herein was compared with the three morphologically similar species Haemonchus mitchelli, Haemonchus okapiae, and H. longistipes with their synlophes consist of 42 ridges distributed over the anterior half of the body. These

  3. Comparison of effects of age and sex on serum protein electrophoretic pattern in one-humped camels (Camelus dromedarius in Semnan, Iran

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    M. Ahmadi-hamedani


    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of age and sex on the concentration of total serum protein measured by the biuret method and protein fractions determined using cellulose acetate electrophoresis in apparently healthy camels (Camelus dromedarius. Blood samples were collected from 21 camels (12 males and 9 females. The camels were further divided into two groups: 12 young camels at the age of 3 months to 2 years and 9 adult camels at the age of 3-15 years. Cellulose acetate electrophoresis of serum proteins identified five protein fractions in adult camels as young camels, these five protein fractions include albumin, α1 and α2, β and γ-globulins. In adult camels, serum levels (g/l of total protein, albumin, α1-globulins, α2-globulins, β-globulins and γ-globulins were 80.9±3.10, 42.9±3.10, 1.3±0.22, 2.2±0.30, 11.8±0.30 and 22.6±0.20, respectively. However, in young camels, these levels (g/l were 66.8±2.90, 40.2±2.40, 1.0±0.14, 2.6±0.30, 10.6±0.80 and 12.3±1.20, respectively. The albumin/globulin (A/G ratio was 2.08±0.28 in adult camels and 3.77±0.53 in young ones. The mean serum concentrations of total protein and γ-globulins were significantly (P<0.05 higher and the A/G ratio was significantly lower in adult camels compared to young camels. The mean concentrations of γ-globulins were significantly higher and the A/G ratio was significantly (P<0.05 lower in females compared to male camels. The results of the present study indicate a significant effect of age and sex on the concentrations of some of the serum protein fractions in dromedary camels.

  4. Sequence analysis of the Toll-like receptor 2 gene of old world camels

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    Shyam S. Dahiya


    Full Text Available The Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2 gene of old world camels (Camelus dromedarius and Camelus bactrianus was cloned and sequenced. The TLR2 gene of the dromedary camel had the highest nucleotide and amino acid identity with pig, i.e., 66.8% and 59.6%, respectively. Similarly, the TLR2 gene of the Bactrian camel also had the highest nucleotide and amino acid identity with pig, i.e., 85.7% and 81.4%, respectively. Dromedary and Bactrian camels shared 77.9% nucleotide and 73.6% amino acid identity with each other. Interestingly, the amidation motif is present in camel (Dromedary and Bactrian TLR2 only, and the TIR domain is absent in Dromedary camel TLR2. This is the first report of the TLR2 gene sequence of Dromedary and Bactrian camels.

  5. Sistematização, descrição e território das artérias cerebral caudal, cerebral média, cerebroetmoidal e cerebelar ventral caudal na superfície do encéfalo em avestruz (Struthio camelus)


    Manoel Brandes Nazer


    Nesta tese foi descrito e sistematizado a distribuição e território das artérias cerebrais média e caudal, artéria cerebroetmoidal e artéria cerebelar ventral caudal na superfície do encéfalo de 30 avestruz ((Struthio camelus), 17 machos e 13 fêmeas, jovens e adultos. Os 30 espécimes foram injetados com látex corado em vermelho através das artérias (Aa.) carótidas internas. As artérias carótidas do cérebro e seus ramos foram sistematicamente descritas. A artéria (a.) cerebral caudal foi, à di...

  6. The phenotypic characterization of wild boar population in Transylvania "Sus Scrofa Ferus"

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    Voichita Ana Maria Gavrila


    Full Text Available The surveys were conducted over the years 2013-2014. The biological material was represented by 43 females and 63 males, adults, with the age of over 3 years, harvested from three hunting grounds in Transylvania. Conformation measurements were made for the following characteristics: body length, height at the withers, the croup height, thorax perimeter, body weight, head length, forehead width between the ears. There were estimated average and dispersion factors for each characteristics and phenotypic correlations were estimated between concerned characteristics. There is a large variability in all studied characteristics, in both males and females, variability given by individual differences and higher performance limits for each characteristics, given by both individual variability and environmental condition and harvesting season.

  7. Investigating determinants of yawning in the domestic ( Equus caballus) and Przewalski ( Equus ferus przewalskii) horses (United States)

    Górecka-Bruzda, Aleksandra; Fureix, Carole; Ouvrard, Anne; Bourjade, Marie; Hausberger, Martine


    Yawning is rare in herbivores which therefore may be an interesting group to disentangle the potential function(s) of yawning behaviour. Horses provide the opportunity to compare not only animals living in different conditions but also wild versus domestic species. Here, we tested three hypotheses by observing both domestic and Przewalski horses living in semi-natural conditions: (i) that domestic horses may show an elevated rate of yawning as a result of the domestication process (or as a result of life conditions), (ii) that individuals experiencing a higher level of social stress would yawn more than individuals with lower social stress and (iii) that males would yawn more often than females. The study involved 19 Przewalski horses (PHs) and 16 domestic horses (DHs) of different breeds living in large outdoor enclosures. The results showed that there was no difference between the PH and DH in yawning frequency (YF). PHs exhibited much higher levels of social interactions than DHs. There was a positive correlation between yawning frequency and aggressive behaviours in PHs, especially males, supporting the idea that yawning may be associated with more excitatory/stressful social situations. A correlation was found between yawning frequency and affiliative behaviours in DHs, which supports the potential relationship between yawning and social context. Finally, the entire males, but not castrated males, showed much higher levels of yawning than females in both species. The intensity (rather than the valence) of the interaction may be important in triggering yawning, which could therefore be a displacement activity that helps reduce tension.

  8. Zygomycetes from herbivore dung in the ecological reserve of Dois Irmãos, Northeast Brazil

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    André Luiz Cabral Monteiro de Azevedo Santiago


    Full Text Available Thirty-eight taxa of Zygomycetes distributed in 15 genera were recorded from tapir (Tapirus terrestris, camel (Camelus bactrianus, horse (Equus caballus, deer (Cervus elaphus, agouti (Dasyprocta aguti, donkey (Equus asinus, llama (Llama glama and waterbuck (Kobus ellipsiprymnus dung collected at the Reserva Ecológica de Dois Irmãos located in Recife, State of Pernambuco, Northeast Brazil. The samples were collected on a monthly basis from June 2005 to May 2006, taken to the laboratory and incubated in moist chambers. Higher number of taxa was observed in the excrements of tapir, followed by deer and donkey. The highest number of species was detected for Mucor, followed by Pilobolus. Statistical analyses showed significant differences in richness of Zygomycetes taxa between the herbivore dung types. Differences of species composition, however, were weak. Seasonality influenced the Zygomycetes species composition but not its richness. Variations in taxa composition between ruminants and non-ruminants dung were non significant.

  9. Ostrich (Struthio camelus) production in Egypt. (United States)

    Cooper, R G; Mahrose, K M A; El-Shafei, M; Marai, I F M


    This review discusses the historical, developmental and practices of ostrich farming in Egypt. In the early 20th century, ostrich farming was very important for production of ostrich feathers and documents were produced to perfect the art of procuring the plumes from the birds and subsequently processing them. Pharaohs used ostrich feathers for adornment. Of 43 provinces, 12 were featured in 2003-2004 as farming ostriches: Alexandria, Al-Behera, Al-Dakahlia, Al-Wadi Al-Gadid, Aswan, Cairo, El-Sharkia, Geiza, Ismailia, Kafr-El-Sheikh, Matrouh and Nubaria. Abattoirs and tanneries specialising in ostrich handling are limited to two. Egypt has numerous strengths and opportunities to develop its ostrich sector. Rising meat prices suggest that fresh ostrich meat is unaffordable to many locals. Funds may be allocated to local advertising campaigns to promote ostrich meat; provision of incentives to farmers; and improving the capacity of abattoirs.

  10. Chondrosarcoma in a dromedary camel (Camelus dromedarius). (United States)

    Janardhan, Kyathanahalli S; Ganta, Chanran K; Andrews, Gordon A; Anderson, David E


    A 4-year 10-month-old, intact female dromedary camel had progressive left carpal joint swelling and lameness for 7 months. Radiographs showed multifocal lytic lesions in the carpal and proximal metacarpal bones. Surgical biopsy of the synovial capsule and carpal bones suggested neoplasia, and the camel was subsequently euthanized. At necropsy, a white to pale pink, firm, multilobulated, soft tissue mass was located on the palmar aspect of the left carpal joint. Two smaller masses were present on the dorsal aspect of the carpal joint. The masses infiltrated all the carpal bones and the proximal region of the metacarpal bone. The joint capsule was diffusely thickened. The articular surfaces of the carpal bones and the metacarpal bone were multifocally eroded. The lungs contained multiple, firm, raised, gray, randomly distributed nodules. The neoplastic cells stained positive for vimentin and S-100. Chondrosarcoma arising from around the carpal joint with infiltration of carpal and metacarpal bones, and pulmonary metastasis, was diagnosed based on the histopathological and immunohistochemical evaluation.

  11. Identification and isolation of stimulator of interferon genes (STING): an innate immune sensory and adaptor gene from camelids. (United States)

    Premraj, A; Aleyas, A G; Nautiyal, B; Rasool, T J


    The mechanism by which type I interferon-mediated antiviral response is mounted by hosts against invading pathogen is an intriguing one. Of late, an endoplasmic reticulum transmembrane protein encoded by a gene called stimulator of interferon genes (STING) is implicated in the innate signalling pathways and has been identified and cloned in few mammalian species including human, mouse and pig. In this article, we report the identification of STING from three different species of a highly conserved family of mammals - the camelids. cDNAs encoding the STING of Old World camels - dromedary camel (Camelus dromedarius) and bactrian camel (Camelus bactrianus) and a New World camel - llama (Llama glama) were amplified using conserved primers and RACE. The complete STING cDNA of dromedary camel is 2171 bp long with a 706-bp 5' untranslated regions (UTR), an 1137-bp open reading frame (ORF) and a 328-bp 3' UTR. Sequence and phylogenetic analysis of the ORF of STING from these three camelids indicate high level of similarity among camelids and conservation of critical amino acid residues across different species. Quantitative real-time PCR analysis revealed high levels of STING mRNA expression in blood, spleen, lymph node and lung. The identification of camelid STING will help in better understanding of the role of this molecule in the innate immunity of the camelids and other mammals.

  12. Estimating the population mutation rate from a de novo assembled Bactrian camel genome and cross-species comparison with dromedary ESTs. (United States)

    Burger, Pamela A; Palmieri, Nicola


    The Bactrian camel (Camelus bactrianus) and the dromedary (Camelus dromedarius) are among the last species that have been domesticated around 3000-6000 years ago. During domestication, strong artificial (anthropogenic) selection has shaped the livestock, creating a huge amount of phenotypes and breeds. Hence, domestic animals represent a unique resource to understand the genetic basis of phenotypic variation and adaptation. Similar to its late domestication history, the Bactrian camel is also among the last livestock animals to have its genome sequenced and deciphered. As no genomic data have been available until recently, we generated a de novo assembly by shotgun sequencing of a single male Bactrian camel. We obtained 1.6 Gb genomic sequences, which correspond to more than half of the Bactrian camel's genome. The aim of this study was to identify heterozygous single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and to estimate population parameters and nucleotide diversity based on an individual camel. With an average 6.6-fold coverage, we detected over 116 000 heterozygous SNPs and recorded a genome-wide nucleotide diversity similar to that of other domesticated ungulates. More than 20 000 (85%) dromedary expressed sequence tags successfully aligned to our genomic draft. Our results provide a template for future association studies targeting economically relevant traits and to identify changes underlying the process of camel domestication and environmental adaptation.

  13. The history of Old World camelids in the light of molecular genetics. (United States)

    Burger, Pamela Anna


    Old World camels have come into the focus as sustainable livestock species, unique in their morphological and physiological characteristics and capable of providing vital products even under extreme environmental conditions. The evolutionary history of dromedary and Bactrian camels traces back to the middle Eocene (around 40 million years ago, mya), when the ancestors of Camelus emerged on the North American continent. While the genetic status of the two domestic species has long been established, the wild two-humped camel has only recently been recognized as a separate species, Camelus ferus, based on molecular genetic data. The demographic history established from genome drafts of Old World camels shows the independent development of the three species over the last 100,000 years with severe bottlenecks occurring during the last glacial period and in the recent past. Ongoing studies involve the immune system, relevant production traits, and the global population structure and domestication of Old World camels. Based on the now available whole genome drafts, specific metabolic pathways have been described shedding new light on the camels' ability to adapt to desert environments. These new data will also be at the origin for genome-wide association studies to link economically relevant phenotypes to genotypes and to conserve the diverse genetic resources in Old World camelids.

  14. Investigation of the protein osteocalcin of Camelops hesternus: Sequence, structure and phylogenetic implications (United States)

    Humpula, James F.; Ostrom, Peggy H.; Gandhi, Hasand; Strahler, John R.; Walker, Angela K.; Stafford, Thomas W.; Smith, James J.; Voorhies, Michael R.; George Corner, R.; Andrews, Phillip C.


    Ancient DNA sequences offer an extraordinary opportunity to unravel the evolutionary history of ancient organisms. Protein sequences offer another reservoir of genetic information that has recently become tractable through the application of mass spectrometric techniques. The extent to which ancient protein sequences resolve phylogenetic relationships, however, has not been explored. We determined the osteocalcin amino acid sequence from the bone of an extinct Camelid (21 ka, Camelops hesternus) excavated from Isleta Cave, New Mexico and three bones of extant camelids: bactrian camel ( Camelus bactrianus); dromedary camel ( Camelus dromedarius) and guanaco ( Llama guanacoe) for a diagenetic and phylogenetic assessment. There was no difference in sequence among the four taxa. Structural attributes observed in both modern and ancient osteocalcin include a post-translation modification, Hyp 9, deamidation of Gln 35 and Gln 39, and oxidation of Met 36. Carbamylation of the N-terminus in ancient osteocalcin may result in blockage and explain previous difficulties in sequencing ancient proteins via Edman degradation. A phylogenetic analysis using osteocalcin sequences of 25 vertebrate taxa was conducted to explore osteocalcin protein evolution and the utility of osteocalcin sequences for delineating phylogenetic relationships. The maximum likelihood tree closely reflected generally recognized taxonomic relationships. For example, maximum likelihood analysis recovered rodents, birds and, within hominins, the Homo-Pan-Gorilla trichotomy. Within Artiodactyla, character state analysis showed that a substitution of Pro 4 for His 4 defines the Capra-Ovis clade within Artiodactyla. Homoplasy in our analysis indicated that osteocalcin evolution is not a perfect indicator of species evolution. Limited sequence availability prevented assigning functional significance to sequence changes. Our preliminary analysis of osteocalcin evolution represents an initial step towards a

  15. Camels on the Northeastern Frontier of the Roman Empire

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    Weronika Tomczyk


    Full Text Available Ample iconographic, written, and osteological evidence for the occurrence of both dromedary ('Camelus dromedarius' and Bactrian camels ('Camelus bactrianus' is known from many Roman provinces. In contrast to the western provinces, osteological material from the northeastern frontier of the Empire has not yet been discussed collectively. There is a lack of information in the literature concerning which species of camel was widely spread, for what purposes they were used, and whether the camel, as an animal introduced artificially by humans, was treated in a unique way. Camel bones have been found at Ajdovščina – Casta (Slovenia, Hrusica – Ad Pirum (Slovenia, Viminacium (Serbia, Vranj (Serbia, Novae (Bulgaria and Tanais (Russia. The earliest (1st century AD and the largest assemblages of bones derive from the easternmost sites of Tanais and Novae. Identification of species was possible at 4 out of the 6 sites. In all assemblages, the majority of the bones belonged to Bactrian camels. It is noteworthy that the dromedary species occurred only in the west of the study region; this indicates a gradual increase in the importance of Bactrian camels in the next eastern provinces. This is supported by the work of other researchers (Pigiére and Henrotay 2012. None of the bones in this study were isolated or intentionally buried. The incomplete dataset collected from these different sites did not confirm whether camels were bred there. It can be generally assumed that camels were used mainly as pack animals, probably in the army, and that they were rarely consumed.

  16. Satellite telemetry of large mammals in Mongolia: what expectations should we have for collar function?

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    Takehiko Y. Ito


    Full Text Available The rapid pace of the development of satellite wildlife tracking tools has left little time for thorough testing of new equipment and identifying possible sources of technical failures. In the Gobi and Eastern Steppe region of Mongolia we deployed 104 satellite collars, collecting animal locations using the Doppler based Argos or the global positioning system (GPS, on 45 Asiatic wild asses (Equus hemionus, 34 Mongolian gazelles (Procapra gutturosa, 15 Przewalski’s horses (Equus ferus przewalskii, eight wild Bactrian camels (Camelus ferus, and two wolves (Canis lupus. Although, we collected valuable data from little-known species in a remote environment, of 104 collars deployed, only 34 worked as good as or better than expected whereas 70 were subject to technical problems. The majority of problems had to do with a reduced performance of the Argos component (n = 13, with both the Argos and the GPS components (n = 1, or with the Argos component in combination with another unknown problem (n = 12. Further problems were caused by human error during manufacturing or deployment (n = 10, software bugs (n = 7, mechanical failures (n = 5, poor GPS performance (n = 1 and premature failures for unknown reasons (3 ≤ n ≤ 21. Although, several premature failures may have been caused by animals being poached, our failure rate remains high and indicates that managers and researchers need to be aware that there is a high risk of equipment failure when applying newly emerging satellite tracking technology. This entrains logistic and financial uncertainties which may be difficult to explain to the scientific community, the public, management and funding agencies alike. We recommend the development of a web-based platform where users and producers of telemetry products can quickly post and exchange their experiences.

  17. Tetanus in a camel (Camelus dromedarius)--a case report. (United States)

    Wernery, U; Ul-Haq, A; Joseph, M; Kinne, J


    Twenty days after an open castration, a 5-year-old dromedary was presented to the Dubai Camel Hospital with severe central nervous symptoms. The dromedary showed the following signs: off feed, stiff gait with extended neck, external swelling of the preputial sheath and groin region, and foamy saliva drooling from the mouth. The dromedary was unable to swallow. Three days after admission, the camel developed lockjaw, and on the fifth day it was unable to stand owing to paralysis of the hindquarters. Because of the severity of the disease and because it did not respond to treatment, the camel was euthanized 26 days after the operation and submitted to the Central Veterinary Research Laboratory for further investigation. Both castration wounds were closed and spermiducts were filled with necrotic masses from which Clostridium tetani was isolated. Two mice, which were injected with the filtrate of the thioglycolate broth, developed typical signs of tetanic spasm of the hind leg. Faecal samples from camel and horse paddocks that were only 50 metres apart were negative for C. tetani. However, C. tetani was isolated from two soil samples of the horse paddock. It is recommended that camels should be vaccinated against tetanus prior to castration.

  18. Ostrich (Struthio camelus Egg Embryonic Death During Artificial Incubation

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    Aisha E. Faki


    Full Text Available Intensification of ostrich farming revealed that egg hatchability was remarkably lower than the wild. This review considers the factors leading to, as pertaining to the ostrich, egg and incubator. Ostrich genotype, age, season and congenital problems affect clutch and egg sizes and egg quality- fertility to lead a successful hatch. Egg treatment prior incubation can later reduce hatchability, affected by storage conditions and duration. Most detrimental factors lie in the incubator and hatcher management. Egg correct positioning and turning in the appropriate incubator humidity and temperature are likely to yield high hatch. Variability in egg size, shell quality, pore sizes and numbers govern the water loss and exchange of gases. The hatcher management is important when chicks need intervention. Dead-in-shell embryos, early or late were likely to be affected by all of the above factors plus egg microbial contamination or be merely nutritional.

  19. Morphological aspects of atrioventricular valves in the ostrich (Struthio camelus

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    Marco A. Pereira-Sampaio


    Full Text Available Heart anatomy in the ostrich has been reported, but there are few information on the histological features of the atrioventricular valves. Hearts of young ostriches were fixed in 10% formaldehyde for 24 h and dissected to characterize their macroscopic anatomy. Samples of valves were harvested and stained with Mallory’s trichrome, Gomori’s trichrome, and Picro-Sirius red, for later analysis. The right atrioventricular valve consists of a muscle flap with two fixations. The left atrioventricular valve consists of two layers of endocardium with a layer of connective tissue between them. The free border of the tricuspid valve supports a varying number of chordae tendineae. One of the cusps is attached to the septum, while the other two cusps are attached to the opposite wall. The aortic valve, as well as the pulmonary trunk valve, consists of three cusps. The right atrioventricular valve showed up only as a muscle flap of myocardium coated with a thin layer of dense connective tissue, with two fixations. In the connective tissue, we find a predominance of type I collagen fibers and a lesser amount of type III, with a small presence of elastic fibers. The presence of Purkinje fibers were also usual in the valvular subendocardium, suggesting that they directly participate in the transmission of nervous stimulation to the muscle fibers within the valves. The left atrioventricular valve consisted of 3 cusps, a dorsal, a left, and a right.

  20. Characterization of ovarian follicular dynamics in dromedary camels (Camelus dromedarius). (United States)

    Manjunatha, B M; Pratap, N; Al-Bulushi, Samir; Hago, B E


    Ovarian follicular dynamics was monitored by transrectal ultrasonography, for a period of 60 to 90 days, and its correlation with plasma estradiol-17β (E2) and progesterone (P4) were studied in seventeen, multiparous, non-lactating, 12 to 20-year-old dromedary camels. The average number of follicles recruited (12.77 ± 0.93) in each wave between animals varied (P dromedary camels and the IWI and follicle numbers recruited per wave are variable between the animals and repeatable within an individual animal.


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    S. A. Muhammad, A. A. Farooq, M. S. Akhtar and C. S. Hayat1


    Full Text Available A 10 year old female dromedary camel was examined two days after parturition for the treatment of udder swelling that started developing two days before parturition. The animal had normal body temperature. The swelling was soft and cold and involved udder only, while no teats were involved. A marked decrease in blood haemoglobin level was noted. The animals responded to treatment and recoved within three days.


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    Z.I. Qureshi, G. Muhammad, M. Athar and L.A. Lodhi


    Full Text Available A case of acute puerperal metritis in a dromedary camel developing in the wake of dystokia corrected under unhygienic condition is described. The condition was associated with fever, foul-smelling purulent uterine discharge and pasty faeces. Pretreatment hematological examination indicated leukocytosis (22.05 x 103/mm3, owing to monocytosis (24 %. Microbiological examination of uterine discharge revealed a mixed bacterial infection with E. coli. Bacillus and streptococci which were all sensitive to nortloxacin, gentamicin, and amoxycillin, Faecal examination indicated a mixed infection with nematodes, Intrauterine administration of oxytetracycline with parenteral administration of amoxycillin, dipyrone and oral administration of oxfendazole successfully treated the case. The Principles of treatment of acute puerperal metritis have been discussed.

  3. Disseminated Rhodococcus equi infection in dromedary camels (Camelus dromedarius). (United States)

    Kinne, J; Madarame, H; Takai, S; Jose, S; Wernery, U


    Rhodococcus (R). equi, a recognized pathogen in horses, is emerging as a human opportunistic pathogen, especially in immunocompromized people. It affects also New World camelids, but there are no reports of R. equi infection in Old World camelids yet. Four cases of disseminated R. equi infection in adult breeding dromedaries occurred at one camel farm near Dubai within 16 months of each other. At necropsy the lungs were diffusely consolidated with large caseous areas. Histology revealed severe suppurative to necrotising pneumonia with multiple encapsulated abscesses. Immunohistochemistry enabled the detection of 15- to 17-kDa antigens (VapA) of R. equi in the lung sections. High numbers of R. equi were isolated from the lung lesions as well as from liver, spleen and mediastinal lymph nodes, indicative of septicaemia. The isolated strains were PCR-positive for the specific virulence plasmid (VapA-Gen) of R. equi, indicating virulent strains and containing an 85-kb type I plasmid. This is the first report of disseminated R. equi infection in Old World camelids. Since adult camels in general do not suffer from bacterial caused pneumonia (except tuberculosis), this is a new emerging disease for camels.

  4. Trypanosomiasis of camels (Camelus dromedarius in Algeria: First report

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    Omar Bennoune


    Full Text Available Camel trypanosomosis is a life-threatening disease in the camel species and responsible for severe economic losses either in milk or meat productions. This study was carried out on the south-east area of Algeria on 100 camels of various ages and either sex from two herds. Microscopic examination of blood smears revealed higher levels of trypanosomosis caused by Trypanosoma evansi, an elongated parasite with a kinetoplast and a single nucleus located in its half-length and one flagellum with great heterogeneity. This first investigation reveals higher infection rate than those observed in other countries using blood smears, the trypanosomosis attack has reached an alarming level and the occurrence of trypanosomosis at this high level on blood smears is like "the tree that hides the forest" and make up a serious and potential danger both on animal and public health. Therefore, radical preventive and offensive drastic measures must be taken against this menacing disease at the critical points to prevent the economic losses and to avoid possible human transmission.

  5. Aspergillosis and proventricular impaction in an ostrich (Struthio camelus

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    Shahrzad Azizi


    Full Text Available Aspergillosis is the most common mycotic infection in a wide variety of bird and causes significant economic losses. The present study described concurrent occurrence of aspergillosis and proventricular impaction in a 4-year-old male ostrich. The bird had respiratory problems, coughing and anorexia. Postmortem examination revealed numerous greenish-white caseous foci, 0.5 to 1 cm in diameter distributed on the surfaces of the air sacs and throughout the lungs. In histopathological study, multifocal areas of caseous necrosis that surrounded by inflammatory cells including heterophils, lymphocytes and macrophages were present. Long branching septated hyphae were visible in the necrotic areas with hematoxylin and eosin and Periodic acid-Schiff staining. Thrombi were present in the blood vessels. The proventriculus was full of gravel.

  6. Conjunctival mucinous adenocarcinoma in an ostrich (Struthio camelus)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perrin, Kathryn L; Bertelsen, Mads F; Bartholin, Henrik


    . Gross examination revealed a botryoid mass attached to the inferior palpebral conjunctiva and extending onto the palpebral aspect of the nictitating membrane. Euthanasia was selected, and the histological diagnosis of the second mass was a mixed mucinous adenocarcinoma; however, no acid-fast bacteria...

  7. Design and selection of a camelid single-chain antibody yeast two-hybrid library produced de novo for the cap protein of porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2.

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    Xiangjing Fu

    Full Text Available Nanobodies (or variable domain of the heavy chain of the heavy-chain antibodies, VHHs are single-domain antigen-binding fragments derived from camelid heavy chain antibodies. Their comparatively small size, monomeric behavior, high stability, high solubility, and ability to bind epitopes inaccessible to conventional antibodies make them especially suitable for many therapeutic and biotechnological applications. In this paper, for the first time, we created the immunized Camelus Bactrianus VHH yeast two-hybrid (Y2H library according to the Clontech Mate & Plate library construction system. The transformation efficiency and titer of the VHH Y2H library were 7.26×10(6 cfu/3 µg and 2×10(9 cfu/ml, which met the demand for Y2H library screening. Using as an example the porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2 Cap protein as bait, we screened 21 positive Cap-specific VHH sequences. Among these sequences, 7 of 9 randomly selected clones were strongly positive as indicated by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, either using PCV2 viral lysis or purified Cap protein as coated antigen. Additionally, the immunocytochemistry results further indicated that the screened VHHs could specifically detected PCV2 in the infected cells. All this suggests the feasibility of in vivo VHH throughput screening based on Y2H strategy.

  8. Intoxicação espontânea por Senna occidentalis em javalis (Sus scrofa ferus no estado de Goiás

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    Fabiano J.F. de Sant'Ana


    Full Text Available Descreve-se um surto de intoxicação por Senna occidentalis em javalis no Estado de Goiás. De um rebanho de 80 javalis, 15 adoeceram e um morreu. Os sinais clínicos observados foram apatia, prostração, ataxia, tremores musculares, incoordenação, relutância em mover-se, decúbito esternal ou lateral, paresia e paralisia espástica, principalmente dos membros pélvicos. As principais alterações macroscópicas consistiam de palidez moderada a acentuada da musculatura esquelética dos membros pélvicos e torácicos e no lombo, especialmente nos músculos da coxa. Microscopicamente, observou-se degeneração e necrose flocular, multifocal, leve a moderada, monofásica, com fragmentação de fibras na musculatura esquelética. Nos cortes transversais, havia fibras musculares tumefeitas e hipereosinofílicas. Adicionalmente, havia degeneração microvacuolar hepatocelular difusa, leve a moderada. A atividade sérica da CK estava acentuadamente elevada em dois javalis avaliados e da TGO aumentou em um javali afetado.

  9. Konik - taaselustatud tarpan / Ingrid Randlaht

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Randlaht, Ingrid


    Koniku (equus caballus ferus) tagasiaretusprojektidest 19. sajandil looduses väljasurnud ulukhobuse tarpanite (equus ferus ferus) suunal. Kinnikasvamise tõttu hävinenud elupaikade ja looduskeskkondade taastamisesst Euroopas - Lätis, Poolas, Hollandis - ulukhobuste ja ka veiste ning punahirvedega

  10. Taxonomy Icon Data: ostrich [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available amelus_NL.png Struthio_camelus_S.png Struthio_camelus_NS.png ...

  11. Sistemática, taxonomía y domesticación de alpacas y llamas: nueva evidencia cromosómica y molecular Systematics, taxonomy and domestication of alpaca and llama: new chromosomal and molecular evidence

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    Full Text Available Existen cuatro especies de camélidos sudamericanos, dos de ellos silvestres, guanaco (Lama guanicoe y vicuña (Vicugna vicugna, y dos formas domésticas, alpaca (Lama pacos y llama (Lama glama, cuyo origen ha sido objeto de debate. En el presente estudio la variación en el patrón de bandas G de los cromosomas de llamas y alpacas y la secuencia de dos genes mitocondriales han sido usados para estudiar el origen y la clasificación de llamas y alpacas. Patrones de bandas cromosómicas similares fueron observados en las cuatro especies de Lamini, incluso similares a los descritos para camello, Camelus bactrianus. Sin embargo, se encontraron finas y consistentes diferencias en los brazos cortos del cromosoma 1, permitiendo separar a camellos, guanacos y llamas, de las de vicuñas y alpacas. Este patrón fue consistente incluso en un híbrido guanaco x alpaca. Relaciones equivalentes fueron encontradas en las secuencias completas del gen para citocromo b, así como en el árbol de expansión mínima de las secuencias parciales de la región control, agrupando a guanacos con llamas y a vicuñas con alpacas. Los análisis filogenéticos mostraron a V. vicugna y a L. guanicoe como grupos recíprocamente monofHéticos. El análisis de las secuencias de ambos genes mostró dos ciados entre las vicuñas, concordantes con las subespecies reconocidas para esta especie, pero los resultados obtenidos para guanacos no reflejaron la existencia de las cuatro subespecies previamente propuestas. El análisis combinado de variaciones cromosómicas y moleculares demostraron una alta similitud genética entre alpacas y vicuñas, así como entre llamas y guanacos. Aunque se revela hibridización direccional, nuestros resultados apoyan fuertemente la hipótesis de que la llama se deriva de L. guanicoe, y la alpaca de V. vicugna, apoyando la reclasificación de la alpaca como V. pacosFour camelid species exist in South America: two wild, the guanaco (Lama guanicoe and

  12. Globalization of the cashmere market and the decline of large mammals in central Asia. (United States)

    Berger, Joel; Buuveibaatar, Bayarbaatar; Mishra, Charudutt


    As drivers of terrestrial ecosystems, humans have replaced large carnivores in most areas, and human influence not only exerts striking ecological pressures on biodiversity at local scales but also has indirect effects in distant corners of the world. We suggest that the multibillion dollar cashmere industry creates economic motivations that link western fashion preferences for cashmere to land use in Central Asia. This penchant for stylish clothing, in turn, encourages herders to increase livestock production which affects persistence of over 6 endangered large mammals in these remote, arid ecosystems. We hypothesized that global trade in cashmere has strong negative effects on native large mammals of deserts and grassland where cashmere-producing goats are raised. We used time series data, ecological snapshots of the biomass of native and domestic ungulates, and ecologically and behaviorally based fieldwork to test our hypothesis. In Mongolia increases in domestic goat production were associated with a 3-fold increase in local profits for herders coexisting with endangered saiga (Saiga tatarica).That increasing domestic grazing pressure carries fitness consequences was inferred on the basis of an approximately 4-fold difference in juvenile recruitment among blue sheep (Pseudois nayaur)in trans-Himalayan India. Across 7 study areas in Mongolia, India, and China's Tibetan Plateau, native ungulate biomass is now <5% that of domestic species. Such trends suggest ecosystem degradation and decreased capacity for the persistence of native species, including at least 8 Asian endemic species: saiga, chiru (Pantholops hodgsoni), Bactrian camel (Camelus bactrianus), snow leopard(Panthera uncia), khulan(Equus hemionus), kiang (E. kiang), takhi (E. przewalski), and wild yak (Bos mutus). Our results suggest striking yet indirect and unintended actions that link trophic-level effects to markets induced by the trade for cashmere.

  13. Mecanoreceptores da mucosa palatina de avestruz (Struthio camelus): estudo ao microscópio de luz Mechanoreceptors of the palatine mucosa of ostrich (Struthio camelus): light microscope study


    Guimarães,Juliana P.; Mari,Renata de B.; Maria Angélica Miglino; Francisco J. Hernandez-Blasquez; Ii-sei Watanabe


    Foram estudados corpúsculos de Herbst da mucosa palatina de avestruz em nível de microscopia de luz. Os corpúsculos compõem-se de uma cápsula externa, cápsula interna e axônio central. A cápsula externa apresentou numerosas lamelas, enquanto que a cápsula interna mostrou estrutura de folhas compactas. Os corpúsculos apresentaram formato ovalado ou circular e circundado por espessos feixes de fibras colágenas. Cada lamela estava composta de uma densa rede de fibras espessas. Os axônios termina...

  14. Mecanoreceptores da mucosa palatina de avestruz (Struthio camelus: estudo ao microscópio de luz Mechanoreceptors of the palatine mucosa of ostrich (Struthio camelus: light microscope study

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    Juliana P. Guimarães


    Full Text Available Foram estudados corpúsculos de Herbst da mucosa palatina de avestruz em nível de microscopia de luz. Os corpúsculos compõem-se de uma cápsula externa, cápsula interna e axônio central. A cápsula externa apresentou numerosas lamelas, enquanto que a cápsula interna mostrou estrutura de folhas compactas. Os corpúsculos apresentaram formato ovalado ou circular e circundado por espessos feixes de fibras colágenas. Cada lamela estava composta de uma densa rede de fibras espessas. Os axônios terminais estavam situados ao longo do eixo, terminando em um bulbo terminal. As fibras da cápsula externa, coradas por Picrosirius e examinadas no microscópio óptico sob luz polarizada, revelou a presença de fibras colágenas do tipo I em verde e na região periférica observou-se grande quantidade de fibras colágenas do tipo III. Os corpúsculos apresentaram-se envoltos por células planas e envoltos por fibras colágenas.Herbst corpuscles of the palatine mucosa of ostrich were studied by light microscopy. The corpuscles are composed of an outer core, inner core and central nerve terminal. The outer core presents numerous lamellae, while the inner core shows compact structure of cytoplasm sheets. The corpuscles are elongate or oval in shape and are surrounded by bundles of collagen fibers. Each lamella is composed of a dense network of thick fibrils. The terminal axons are located along the axis and form a bulb terminal. The fibers of external core stained by Picrosirius and examined by polarized light microscopy revealed to be green in color like type I collagen fibers, and at the periphery is a large amount of collagen type III. The corpuscles are surrounded by flat cells and dense collagen fibers at the periphery.

  15. Taxonomy Icon Data: Arabian camel [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NS.png ...

  16. Potential Effect of Climate Change on Distribution of 6 Desert Animals in China%气候变化对6种荒漠动物分布的潜在影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴建国; 周巧富


    -It is crucial to understand the effects of climate change on change of species distribution for the conservation of biodiversity. The effects of climate change on change of distribution of Goitred Gazelle ( Gazella subgutturosa reginae adlerberg), Goitred Gazelle (Gazella subgutturosa yarkandensis blanford ),Wild Cat (Felis silvestris schreber), Asiatic Wild Ass (Equus hemionus(pallas ), Stone Marten (Martes foina(erxleben ) and Camelus Bactrianus ( Canelus bactrianus linnaeus ) in China were analyzed by use of the CART (classification and regression tree) niche model under climate change scenarios of A2 and B2. The results show that climate change will cause decrease in the current distribution region of the animals. In 2081-2100, the decrease of current distribution region of Goitred Gazelle (Gazella subgutturosa reginae adlerberg), Wild Cat or Asiatic Wild Ass was the highest, while the decrease of current distribution region of Goitred Gazelle (gazella subgutturosa yarkandensis blanford ), Stone Marten or Camelus Bactrianus was lower than that of Goitred Gazelle, Wild Cat or Asiatic Wild Ass. The new suitable distribution region or total suitable distribution region of Goitred Gazelle ( Gazella Subgutturosa Reginae Adlerberg), Stone Marten or Camelus Bactrianus increases from 1991-2020 to 2081-2100, while that of other animals will decrease from 1991-2020 to 2081-2100. Additionally, following climate change, the western or northern or south-eastern regions of current suitable distribution of Asiatic Wild Ass would reduce, and new suitable regions would expand towards north-western Qinghai or western Tibet; and the current suitable distribution regions of Goitred Gazelle (gazella subgutturosa yarkandensis blanford ) will be fragmented greatly, and new suitable regions would expand scattered towards west or northern Xinjiang or KunLun Mountains; and south or east or west regions of current suitable distribution of Wild Cat will reduce and fragment, and new

  17. Physiological and behavioral responses to different watering intervals in lactating camels (Camelus dromedarius). (United States)

    Bekele, Tafesse; Olsson, Kerstin; Olsson, Ulf; Dahlborn, Kristina


    During drought periods camels are watered at long intervals, but effects on body fluid homeostasis of lactating camels are not known. It was hypothesized that camels store water after drinking and minimize water losses by diurnal variation in body temperature, changes in behavior, and release of vasopressin. The aim was to find a sustainable watering interval for lactating camels. Seven lactating camels were studied in a cross-over trial in which they were watered once daily (W1), every fourth day (W4), every eighth day (W8), or after 16 days (W16) with a 5-day interval between treatments. When offered water every fourth or eighth days, the camels drank sufficient amounts to cover their needs for subsequent days, but after 16 days of dehydration they did not drink enough to compensate the body weight loss. Rectal temperature fell at night and the camels searched shade during daytime minimizing evaporative fluid losses. Plasma osmolality and sodium concentration were elevated after 4 days of water deprivation and plasma protein and vasopressin concentrations after 8 days. Milk production decreased during the last week of W16. Plasma aldosterone concentration was elevated upon rehydration after W16, indicating sodium deficiency. In conclusion, lactating camels stored water after drinking and reduced water losses by staying in shade, keeping body temperature low, and releasing plasma vasopressin. However, serious dehydration was observed during W8, and after 16 days of water deprivation recovery took a long time. A watering interval between 4 and 7 days seems advisable under similar environmental conditions.

  18. Production systems and reproductive performances of Camelus dromedarius in Somali regional state, eastern Ethiopia

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    Simenew Keskes


    Full Text Available Across-sectional questionnaire survey and focused group discussions were conducted to characterize camel production systems and to evaluate reproductive performances of camels at their natural pastoralist management systems of Somali region. A total of 100 households were included in the study during the period of October 2012 to March 2013. About 98% of Somali pastoralists preferred camels as their first choice over other livestock species and mainly kept in the society for milk and meat production. The camel management dominating in the study areas of Somali region is traditional nomadic. Camel is one of the most important livestock for Somali pastoralists’ livelihood as a source of milk, meat and draught power. Mature female camels were dominant (54.87% in the camel herd. The ratio of male to female camel was 1:13. Mean age at first calving and calving interval were 62.16±10.44 and 23.28±3.36 months respectively. Age at first calving and calving interval can be minimized to 57±5.52 and 21.84±4.8 months by proper husbandry and health care. The mean lactation length was 11.51±1.91 months. Diseases and predators were reported as the main causes of calf mortality. In the herd dynamic simulation calf mortality rate can be reduced at least to 7% only by preventing predators attack. Diseases (66%, lack of pasture (59% and security (47% were the main constraints in camel production of the study areas. For the better productivity of camels, the major constraints such as disease problems, lack of pasture and tribal conflicts should be mitigated. Proper husbandry and health services can play significant roles in the long term improvement of camel production and productivity of the region.  

  19. Hormonal, biochemical, and hematological profiles in female camels (Camelus dromedarius) affected with reproductive disorders. (United States)

    Ali, A; Tharwat, M; Al-Sobayil, F A


    The aim of this study was to assess the blood profiles in female camels affected with common reproductive disorders. Estradiol-17beta (E(2)), progesterone (P(4)), thyroxin (T(4)), zinc (Zn), copper (Cu), calcium (Ca), phosphorus (P), magnesium (Mg), cholesterol, glucose, triglycerides, total protein, albumin, globulin, hematocrite, and total and differential white blood cell counts (WBC) were determined in blood of female camels affected with endometritis (n=15), vaginal adhesions (n=15), and ovarian cysts (n=15). Normal cyclic animals were used as controls (n=15). Diagnosis of reproductive disorders was based on transrectal palpation, ultrasonographic examination, and exploration of the vagina. Increased WBC counts (P=0.03) and a tendency for neutrophelia (P=0.05) were noted in female camels with vaginal adhesions. These animals were also characterized by having higher concentration of serum P(4) (P=0.0001), T(4) (P=0.001) and total protein (P=0.007), in comparison with female camels with endometritis, ovarian cysts, or controls. Animals having ovarian cysts with thin walls and homogenous hypoechogenic contents had greater serum E(2) (P=0.001) and P(4) (P=0.0001) than those having ovarian cysts with thick walls and non-homogenous echogenic contents. Animals with endometritis, vaginal adhesions, and ovarian cysts revealed lower serum Zn concentration than that of control group (P=0.003). Other blood parameters did not differ significantly compared to controls. In conclusion, this is the first report characterizing blood constituents in female camels with various reproductive disorders. These profiles may be valuable in clarifying the etio-pathogenesis of these disorders.

  20. Mecanoreceptores da mucosa palatina de avestruz (Struthio camelus): estudo ao microscópio de luz


    Guimarães,Juliana P.; Mari,Renata de B.; Miglino,Maria Angélica; Francisco J. Hernandez-Blasquez; WATANABE, Ii-sei


    Foram estudados corpúsculos de Herbst da mucosa palatina de avestruz em nível de microscopia de luz. Os corpúsculos compõem-se de uma cápsula externa, cápsula interna e axônio central. A cápsula externa apresentou numerosas lamelas, enquanto que a cápsula interna mostrou estrutura de folhas compactas. Os corpúsculos apresentaram formato ovalado ou circular e circundado por espessos feixes de fibras colágenas. Cada lamela estava composta de uma densa rede de fibras espessas. Os axônios termina...

  1. Molecular Identification of Hemoprotozoan Parasites in Camels (Camelus dromedarius of Iran

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    Alireza SAZMAND


    Full Text Available Background: Although camels represent a valuable source of food, wool and hide in many countries, in-depth information about their vector-borne pathogens is scarce compared to other animals. The aim of the current study was to characterize vector-borne protozoa in the blood of dromedaries from Iran by molecular tools.Methods: From June to July 2014, 200 peripheral blood samples were collected from asymptomatic one-humped camels in two provinces of Kerman and Sistan- va-Baloochestan in central and southeastern Iran. Microscopic examination was performed on Giemsa-stained blood smears, and drops of blood were spotted on Whatman FTA® cards for further analyses. Genomic DNA was extracted from the cards, and PCR was carried out for the detection of piroplasms and trypanosomes, followed by sequence analysis of positive samples.Results: One sample was positive Trypanosoma spp. trypomastigotes in light microscopy. PCR results revealed one positive sample each with Theileria annulata and Trypanosoma evansi.Conclusion: Camels were identified as hosts for bovine Mediterranean theileriosis in the investigated area. The presence of Tr. evansi, the causative agent of surra disease, was also confirmed in camels of Iran. Further studies are recommended in order to investigate their impact on the health and productivity of camels and other livestock in this region.

  2. Gross anatomical features of the oropharyngeal cavity of the ostrich (Struthio camelus

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    Catarina Tivane


    Full Text Available Most descriptions of the ostrich oropharynx and oesophagus are superficial and supply little meaningful morphological data. The aim of this investigation is describe the ostrich oropharingeal cavity, in order to supply the deficiency of macroscopic data about this important animal. Five heads of 12 to 14-month-old ostriches of either sex were anatomically dissected to expose the oropharynx. The ostrich oropharynx was "bell-shaped" composed by the maxillary and mandibular ramphoteca. The roof and floor presented two distinct regions different in colour of the mucosa. The rostral region was pale pink contrasting to creamy-pink coloured caudal region. The median longitudinal ridge extended rostrally from the apex of the choana to the tip of the beak in the roof and it is clearly more prominent and rigid than the homolog in the floor that appeared thin and stretched rostrally, continuing caudally surrounding the tongue and the laryngeal mound eventually merging with the oesophageal mucosa. The floor was formed by the interramal region, tongue and laryngeal mound containing shield-shaped glottis. It can be concluded that the present study, in addition to confirming the basic features of the oropharynx previously described for the ostrich, clarified the contradictory information presented in the literature and also provided new, unreported morphological data, some of which may be important when studying nutrition and health in these birds.

  3. Anatomical description of the muscles of the pelvic limb in the ostrich (Struthio camelus). (United States)

    Gangl, D; Weissengruber, G E; Egerbacher, M; Forstenpointner, G


    Dissections of 12 formalin-fixed ostriches were performed to give anatomical descriptions of the muscles and tendons of the pelvic, femoral, tibiotarsal, tarsometatarsal and digital regions. In the pelvic limb of the ostrich, 36 muscles can be determined. The ostrich lacks those muscles to the first and second toes (with exception of the M. flexor hallucis longus), which can be found in birds with four toes. The Mm. iliotrochantericus medius, plantaris, extensor proprius digiti IV and adductor digiti IV, which are present in other birds, are also absent, whereas the Mm. pectineus and femorotibialis accessorius additionally occur in the ostrich. The Pars supramedialis is a tendineous part of the M. gastrocnemius, on which the Mm. flexor cruris lateralis and flexor cruris medialis insert by means of a fascial sheet. The caudal part of the M. iliofibularis terminates within the caudal aspect of the superficial fascia cruris. The caudal heads of the Mm. flexor perforatus digiti III and flexor perforatus digiti IV as well as the M. flexor hallucis longus have a common origin on the Fossa poplitea of the femur. The lateral head of the M. flexor perforatus digiti IV and the femoral head of the M. flexor perforans et perforatus digiti III originate on the tendon of origin of the Caput laterale of the M. flexor perforatus digiti III. Furthermore, the last named tendon fuses with the tendon of insertion of the M. ambiens. The M. extensor proprius digiti III originates on a plate-like fascial sheet part of the dorsal joint capsule of the intertarsal joint.

  4. The arterial supply of the pelvic limb of the adult ostrich (Struthio camelus). (United States)

    el-Nahla, S M; el-Mahdy, T; Abbott, L C; Hassan, S A M


    Blood to the pelvic limb of the ostrich is provided by the external iliac and ischiatic arteries that arise from the descending aorta. The external iliac artery (a.) gave rise to the pubic a. that supplied the obturator muscles and continued as the femoral a. The femoral a. gave off three branches: (1) cranial coxal a. to muscles above the pre-acetabular ilium; (2) cranial femoral a. to muscles cranial to the femur, the gastrocnemius muscle, hip and stifle joints and (3) medial femoral a. to muscles caudal and medial to the femur. The ischiatic a. gave rise to the caudal coxal a. that supplied muscles caudal to the femur, muscular branches to the iliotibialis lateralis muscle and to the deep femoral a. that supplied the iliofibularis muscle, cutanea femoralis caudalis and lateralis aa., and branches to the flexors of the leg and knee joint, then terminated as the sural and popliteal arteries. The sural a. supplied most of the flexors of the foot. The popliteal a. supplied the knee joint and flexors of the leg, and then terminated as the cranial and caudal tibial arteries. The caudal tibial a. supplied flexors of the foot. The cranial tibial a. provided four branches to the knee and ankle joints and to the leg. The cranial tibial a. continued into the foot as the common dorsal metatarsal a., which gave off seven different branches to the ankle and foot. With few exceptions, the arteries of the ostrich pelvic limb are similar to those of domestic fowl.

  5. Radiographic anatomy of the thoraco-abdominal cavity of the ostrich (Struthio camelus

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    W.M. Wagner


    Full Text Available This study provides a reference for the radiographic anatomy of the thoraco-abdominal cavity of female ostriches as a representative of ratites. One ostrich cadaver, 2 adult and 2 growing ostriches were used. Right lateral radiographs produced by a 6-frame technique and 2 dorsoventral radiographs produced by an adapted 3-frame technique were selected and schematic illustrations of these were labelled to illustrate normal radiographic anatomy. Differences from other avian species and unique features of the ostrich are briefly discussed.

  6. Differences in stride between healthy ostriches (Struthio camelus and those affected by tibiotarsal rotation : research note

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    R.G. Cooper


    Full Text Available Twenty healthy ostriches (ten cocks and ten hens, and twenty birds with tibiotarsal rotation (nine cocks and 11 hens (14 months old were isolated, hooded and weighed. A run (50m x 2.5 m was divided into sections marked 5m, 10m, 15m and 20 m. Time taken for each bird to pass these points was recorded and speed computed. The degree of tibiotarsal rotation in the right foot was mean + SEM, 156 + 2.69°. Comparisons between left and right foot length in healthy birds showed no significant differences. Foot length was significantly lower in tibiotarsal rotation (P=0.03. The right foot in tibiotarsal rotation was significantly shorter than the left foot. The number of strides per each 5 m division were significantly (P < 0.05 greater in tibiotarsal rotation by comparison with healthy birds. At 20 m, healthy cocks had more strides than hens. The stride length in hens was significantly (P < 0.05 greater than cocks at 5, 10 and 15 m, respectively, but lower throughout in tibiotarsal rotation (P = 0.001. The speed of hens was significantly (P < 0.05 greater than cocks. Tibiotarsal rotation resulted in significantly (P <0.05 reduced speeds. Hens may be able to escape danger faster than cocks. The occurrence of tibiotarsal rotation necessitates consideration of genetics, management, sex, nutrition and growth rates.

  7. Caudal epidural analgesia using lidocaine alone or in combination with ketamine in dromedary camels (Camelus dromedarius

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    Omid Azari


    Full Text Available This study was performed to investigate the analgesic effect of lidocaine and a combination of lidocaine and ketamine following epidural administration in dromedary camels. Ten 12–18-month-old camels were randomly divided into two equal groups. In group L, the animals received 2% lidocaine (0.22 mg/kg and in group LK the animals received a mixture of 10% ketamine (1 mg/kg and 2% lidocaine (0.22 mg/kg administered into the first intercoccygeal (Co1–Co2 epidural space while standing. Onset time and duration of caudal analgesia, sedation level and ataxia were recorded after drug administration. Data were analysed by U Mann-Whitney tests and significance was taken as p < 0.05. The results showed that epidural lidocaine and co-administration of lidocaine and ketamine produced complete analgesia in the tail, anus and perineum. Epidural administration of the lidocaine-ketamine mixture resulted in mild to moderate sedation, whilst the animals that received epidural lidocaine alone were alert and nervous during the study. Ataxia was observed in all test subjects and was slightly more severe in camels that received the lidocaine-ketamine mixture. It was concluded that epidural administration of lidocaine plus ketamine resulted in longer caudal analgesia in standing conscious dromedary camels compared with the effect of administering lidocaine alone.

  8. Milk production, raw milk quality and fertility of dromedary camels (Camelus Dromedarius) under intensive management. (United States)

    Nagy, Péter; Thomas, Sonia; Markó, Orsolya; Juhász, Jutka


    In many arid countries, dromedaries play an important role as a milk source in rural areas. However, the milk and meat production potential of this species is not well understood and documented. A large-scale camel dairy farm was established in 2006 in the United Arab Emirates. This study summarises the most important data on milk production, raw milk quality and reproductive efficiency collected on this farm during the first three years of operation. The average daily milk production, the mean length of lactation and the mean total milk production per lactation of 174 dromedaries were 6.0 ± 0.12 kg (± SEM), 586 ± 11.0 days (± SEM) and 3314 ± 98.5 kg (± SEM), respectively. The lactation curve reached its peak during the 4th month after parturition (mean ± SEM, 8.9 ± 0.04 kg), then it declined gradually, falling to 50% of the maximum by the 16th month postpartum (mean ± SEM, 4.3 ± 0.06 kg). Milking three times a day did not increase daily milk production compared to two times milking. Mean total viable bacterial count (TVC) and mean somatic cell count (SCC, ± SEM) of bulk raw camel milk were 4,403 ± 94 CFU/cm3 and 392,602 ± 5,999 cells/cm3 for a one-year period, respectively. There was a significant difference among months (P dromedary camel, under an intensive management system.

  9. Detailed Anatomy of the Cranial Cervical Ganglion in the Dromedary Camel (Camelus dromedarius). (United States)

    Nourinezhad, Jamal; Mazaheri, Yazdan; Biglari, Zahra


    The detailed morphology and topography of the cranial cervical ganglion (CCG) with its surrounding structures were studied in 10 sides of five heads of adult one-humped camel to determine its general arrangement as well as its differences and similarities to other animals. The following detailed descriptions were obtained: (1) the bilateral CCG was constantly present caudal to cranial base at the rostroventral border of the occipital condyle over the caudolateral part of nasopharynx; (2) the CCG was always in close relations medially with the longus capitis muscle, rostrolaterally with the internal carotid artery, and caudally with the vagus nerve; and (3) the branches of the CCG were the internal carotid and external carotid nerves, jugular nerve, cervical interganglionic branch, laryngopharyngeal branch, carotid sinus branch and communicating branches to the vagus, and first spinal nerves. In conclusion, there was no variation regarding topography of dromedary CCG among the specimens, in spite of typical variations in number, and mainly in origin of nerve branches ramifying from the CCG. In comparative anatomy aspect, the close constant relations, and presence of major nerves (internal/external carotid and jugular nerves) of dromedary CCG exhibited a typical reported animal's pattern. However, the shape, structures lateral to the CCG, the origin and course pattern of external carotid and jugular nerves, the number of the major nerves branches, the communicating branches of the CCG to the spinal and cranial nerves, and the separation of most rostral parts of vagosympathetic trunk of dromedary were different from those of most reported animals.

  10. Os cordis of mature Dromedary camel heart (Camelus dromedaries with special emphasis on cartilago cordis

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    Ahmad Balah


    Full Text Available The present study was conducted to investigate the bony structure (i.e., os cordis in the heart of mature Dromedary camel. Ten hearts were collected from healthy mature camels of both sexes aging between 7-9 years. Grossly, the heart contained one large, elongated bone that was embedded inside the heart wall where the cardiac muscles were inserted and fixed. The bony structure was located at the adjacent areas between aorta and atria. Also, it was lying in the atrioventricular plane near the junction of the interatrial and interventricular septa, and was extended anteriorly into the atrioventricular valve rings. Histologically, the os cordis was composed of fibrous connective tissue, small foci and pieces of hyaline cartilage, calcified cartilage, and a large piece of spongy bone. The spongy bone contained red and white bone marrows with numerous red blood cells, adipocytes and osteocytes. This is the first detail study on os cordis of Dromedary camel heart with special reference to cartilago cordis.

  11. Cellulolytic bacteria in the foregut of the dromedary camel (Camelus dromedarius). (United States)

    Samsudin, Anjas A; Wright, André-Denis G; Al Jassim, Rafat


    Foregut digesta from five feral dromedary camels were inoculated into three different enrichment media: cotton thread, filter paper, and neutral detergent fiber. A total of 283 16S rRNA gene sequences were assigned to 33 operational taxonomic units by using 99% species-level identity. LIBSHUFF revealed significant differences in the community composition across all three libraries.

  12. Characterization of ovulatory capacity development in the dominant follicle of dromedary camels (Camelus dromedarius). (United States)

    Manjunatha, Bodhaganahalli M; Al-Bulushi, Samir; Pratap, Narayan


    The acquisition of ovulatory capacity in the growing dominant follicle (DF) of dromedary camels was examined in the current study. Ovulation occurred in response to hCG (1500 IU) in 27.3%, 58.3% or 100% of camels with follicles of 9, 10 or 11 mm diameter, respectively. A high dose of hCG (4500 IU) resulted in ovulation of 77.8% and 100% of camels with follicles of 9 and 10mm, respectively. In naturally mated animals, ovulation occurred in 36.4% and 92.8% of camels with 10 and 11 mm follicles, respectively.

  13. Exercise and Dehydration Minimized Bleeding Time in Camels (Camelus dromedarius: A Clinical Standpoint

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    E. M. Samara*, K. A. Abdoun, A. B. Okab and A. A. Al-Haidary


    Full Text Available The physiological response of hemostatic system, assessed by measuring camel's bleeding time, was determined immediately before, after and during the recovery (post 3, 6, 24 and 48 hours from 2 hours exercise and 72 hours of dehydration in 5 clinically healthy Arabian dromedary camels. It was observed that both conditions resulted in an activation of blood coagulation cascades as demonstrated by a drastic reductions (P<0.05 in the overall means of their bleeding times. Nevertheless, 3 hours post each condition were found sufficient (in exercise: P=0.22, in dehydration: P=0.38 for retrieval of bleeding time to its normal level. Based upon findings, it may be recommended that short periods of exercise and/or dehydration prior to surgical operations can be practiced to minimize bleeding during surgery. However, further investigations are required to clarify the possible role of different intensity and/or duration of these conditions on other hemostatic measurements.

  14. Pharmacokinetics and intramuscular bioavailability of difloxacin in dromedary camels (Camelus dromedarius). (United States)

    Abo-El-Sooud, K; Goudah, A


    Single-dose disposition kinetics of difloxacin (5mg/kg bodyweight) were determined in clinically normal male dromedary camels (n=6) following intravenous (IV) and intramuscular (IM) administration. Difloxacin concentrations were determined by high performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection. The concentration-time data were analysed by compartmental and non-compartmental kinetic methods. Following a single IV injection, the plasma difloxacin concentration-time curve was best described by a two-compartment open model, with a distribution half-life (t(1/2alpha)) of 0.22+/-0.02h and an elimination half-life (t(1/2beta)) of 2.97+/-0.31h. Steady-state volume of distribution (V(dss)) and total body clearance (Cl(tot)) were 1.02+/-0.21L/kg and 0.24+/-0.07L/kg/h, respectively. Following IM administration, the absorption half-life (t(1)(/)(2ab)) and the mean absorption time (MAT) were 0.44+/-0.03h and 1.53+/-0.22h, respectively. The peak plasma concentration (C(max)) of 2.84+/-0.34microg/mL was achieved at 1.42+/-0.21h. The elimination half-life (t(1/2el)) and the mean residence time (MRT) was 3.46+/-0.42h and 5.61+/-0.23h, respectively. The in vitro plasma protein binding of difloxacin ranged from 28-43% and the absolute bioavailability following IM administration was 93.51+/-11.63%. Difloxacin could be useful for the treatment of bacterial infections in camels that are sensitive to this drug.

  15. Milk composition of dromedary camels (Camelus dromedarius): nutritional effects and correlation to corresponding blood parameters. (United States)

    Abdoun, Khalid A; Amin, Alia S A; Abdelatif, Abdalla M


    This study has been conducted in order to study the possible correlations between the nutritional value of plants selected by camels during the dry and green season and the corresponding blood and milk composition of the dromedary camels. The study has been conducted on 50 indigenous Arabian camels of different age and kept under natural range in Southern Darfur. The dromedary camels selected plants with significantly (p<0.05) higher crude protein content during the dry season and kept the serum albumin concentration and milk protein content at the same levels as those observed during the green season. However, the significantly (p<0.05) higher lipogenic content (ether extract + crude fiber) of the plant selected during the dry season resulted in significantly (p<0.05) higher serum triacylglycerides concentration and significantly (p<0.05) higher milk fat content compared to that of the green season. Although, the camels selected plants with significantly (p<0.05) higher nitrogen free extract content during the dry season, the plasma glucose level and the milk lactose content were significantly (p<0.05) reduced compared to that of the green season. The significantly (p<0.05) lower ach content of the plants selected during the dry season resulted in significantly lower serum calcium + phosphorus concentration, but did not reflect on the ash content of the milk. The results indicate that despite camels selectivity and unique adaptation to arid conditions, the milk lactose-and fat content were affected by the nutritional scarcity during the dry season. Therefore, it could be beneficial to provide energy-rich feed supplemented with calcium and phosphorus to camels kept under dry tropical conditions.

  16. Optimization of a vitrification protocol for hatched blastocysts from the dromedary camel (Camelus dromedarius). (United States)

    Herrid, M; Billah, M; Malo, C; Skidmore, J A


    The objective of this study was to modify and optimize a vitrification protocol (open pulled straw) that was originally designed for human oocytes and embryos, to make it suitable for the cryopreservation of camel hatched blastocysts. The original open pulled straw protocol was a complex process with 15-minute exposure of oocytes/embryos in 7.5% ethylene glycol (EG) and 7.5% dimethyl sulfoxide (Me2SO) for equilibration, and cooling in 16% EG + 16% Me2SO + 1 M sucrose. Recognizing a need to better control the cryoprotectant (CPA) concentrations, while avoiding toxicity to the embryos, the effects on the survival rate and developmental potential of camel embryos in vitro were investigated using two different methods of loading the CPAs into the embryos (stepwise and semicontinuous increase in concentration), two different loading temperature/time (room temperature ∼24 °C/15 min and body 37 °C/3 min), and the replacement of Me2SO with EG alone or in combination with glycerol (Gly). A total of 145 in vivo-derived embryos were subjected to these processes, and after warming their morphological quality and integrity, and re-expansion was assessed after 0, 2, 24, 48, 72, and 96 hours of culture. Exposure of embryos in a stepwise method was more beneficial to the survival of embryos than was the semicontinuous process, and loading of CPAs at 37 °C with a short exposure time (3 minutes) resulted in an outcome comparable to the original processing at room temperature with a longer exposure time (15 minutes). The replacement of the Me2SO + EG mixture with EG only or a combination of EG + Gly in the vitrification medium significantly improved the outcome of all these evaluation criteria (P dromedary camel.

  17. Effect of different methods of cryopreservation on the cytoskeletal integrity of dromedary camel (Camelus dromedarius) embryos. (United States)

    Skidmore, J A; Schoevers, E; Stout, T A E


    This study examined the effect of different methods of cryopreservation on the cytoskeletal integrity of camel embryos. A total of 32 embryos were recovered on Days 6 and 7 after ovulation and measured before being frozen using either a conventional slow-cooling technique (n=12: six Day 6 and six Day 7 embryos) or vitrification (n=12: four Day 6 and eight Day 7). The remaining 8 'control' embryos (four Day 6 and four Day 7) were not cryopreserved but instead incubated in holding medium for 30 min. After thawing, warming or incubation, the embryos were stained with 4,6-diamino-2-phenylindole dihydrochloride (DAPI) to identify dead cells. Subsequently, the embryos were fixed in 4% paraformaldehyde, permeabilized and labelled with Alexa Fluor 488-Phalloidin to enable assessment of cytoskeleton integrity. Vitrified-warmed embryos contained a significantly higher percentage of dead cells than either conventionally frozen embryos or controls (P or =0.07). Whereas embryo size did not affect the number of dead cells in conventionally frozen embryos, vitrified-warmed embryos >300 microm in diameter had a significantly higher percentage of dead cells than embryos < or =300 microm (P=0.01). Cytoskeleton integrity was also affected by both freezing method and embryo diameter. All 8 control embryos had a Grade I cytoskeleton, compared with only 2/24 (8.3%) frozen or vitrified embryos. Of the 8 slow-frozen or vitrified embryos with a Grade III cytoskeleton post-thaw, 7 had been vitrified and 6 were larger (Day 7) embryos. These results indicate that while both slow-freezing and vitrification of camel embryos lead to cytoskeleton disruption and cell death, embryo quality is better preserved by slow-freezing.

  18. Chemical activation of in vitro matured dromedary camel (Camelus dromedarius) oocytes: optimization of protocols. (United States)

    Wani, N A


    Experiments were conducted to study the efficiency of sequential treatments of ionomycine and ethanol combined with phosphorylation inhibitor (6-dimethylaminopurine) or the specific maturation promoting factor inhibitor (roscovitine) in inducing artificial activation in dromedary M-II oocytes. Cumulus oocyte complexes (COCs), collected from slaughterhouse ovaries were cultured at 38.5 degrees C in an atmosphere of 5% CO2 in air for 24-48 h. In experiment 1, the COCs were either fertilized in vitro or activated with 5 microM ionomycine for 5 min or 7% ethanol for 7 min, both followed by exposure to 6-diethylaminopurine or roscovitine for 4h. After 14-15 h of in vitro culture, the oocytes were fixed and stained with 1% aceto-orcein to evaluate their nuclear status. In experiment 2, the oocytes were activated in the same manner as in experiment 1 but were cultured for 7 days to evaluate their post-parthenogenetic development. In experiment 3, oocytes were exposed to the ionomycine for 2, 3, 4 or 5 min to evaluate the better exposure time while as in experiment 4, the oocytes matured for 28-48 h were activated to see the effect of aging on post-parthenogenetic development. Higher proportion (P0.05) in the proportion of oocytes activated with ethanol when compared with in vitro fertilized group. No significant difference was seen on the proportion of morula on day 7 of culture, however the development to blastocyst stage was higher (P0.05). The proportion of blastocysts obtained was higher (Pdromedary camel oocytes with ionomycine/6-DMAP is demonstrated and optimized in the present study for further use in the development of assisted reproductive techniques in this species.

  19. Chemical composition, quality and histochemical characteristics of individual dromedary camel (Camelus dromedarius) muscles. (United States)

    Kadim, I T; Al-Karousi, A; Mahgoub, O; Al-Marzooqi, W; Khalaf, S K; Al-Maqbali, R S; Al-Sinani, S S H; Raiymbek, G


    This study characterized the chemical composition, quality and histological traits of six muscles from 10 dromedary carcasses. There were significant differences in moisture, fat, protein, mineral, saturated and unsaturated fatty acid contents between muscles. The longissimus thoracis (LT) had the highest cooking loss (33.5%) and triceps brachii (TB) the lowest (29.2%). The shear force value of semitendinosus (ST), semimembranosus (SM) and biceps femoris (BF) were significantly higher than infraspinatus (IS), TB and LT. The LT had significantly higher values for L*, a*, b* than ST. The SM had the lowest MFI (65.3), while IS had the highest value (75.8). The ST significantly had the highest and lowest proportions of Type I and Type IIA muscle fibers, respectively than other muscles. This study indicated that composition, quality, and histochemical parameters varied among camel muscles and the knowledge of this variation allows for better marketing and processing of camel meat.

  20. Prevalence of Cryptosporidium-like infection in one-humped camels (Camelus dromedarius of northwestern Iran

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    Yakhchali M.


    Full Text Available Cryptosporidium is a ubiquitous enteropathogen protozoan infection affecting livestock worldwide. The present study was carried out to determine the prevalence of Cryptosporidium infection in different age groups of dromedary camels in northwestern Iran from November 2009 to July 2010. A total number of 170 fecal samples were collected and examined using modified Ziehl-Neelsen (MZN staining under light microscope. Examination of stained fecal smears revealed that 17 camels (10% were positive for Cryptosporidium-like. The prevalence of Cryptosporidium-like was significantly higher in camel calves (< 1 years old (20% than other age groups, in which the diarrhoeic calves had the prevalence of 16%. In adult camels the prevalence was 6.5%. There was no significant difference in the prevalence of Cryptosporidium-like between male and female camels. It is concluded that Cryptosporidium infection is a problem in camel husbandry and could be of public health concern in the region.

  1. Caudal epidural analgesia using lidocaine alone or in combination with ketamine in dromedary camels Camelus dromedarius. (United States)

    Azari, Omid; Molaei, Mohammad M; Ehsani, Amir H


    This study was performed to investigate the analgesic effect of lidocaine and a combination of lidocaine and ketamine following epidural administration in dromedary camels. Ten 12-18-month-old camels were randomly divided into two equal groups. In group L, the animals received 2% lidocaine (0.22 mg/kg) and in group LK the animals received a mixture of 10% ketamine (1 mg/kg) and 2% lidocaine (0.22 mg/kg) administered into the first intercoccygeal (Co1-Co2) epidural space while standing. Onset time and duration of caudal analgesia, sedation level and ataxia were recorded after drug administration. Data were analysed by U Mann-Whitney tests and significance was taken as p dromedary camels compared with the effect of administering lidocaine alone.

  2. Passive transfer of maternal immunity in the dromedary (Camelus dromedarius), involvement of heavy chain antibodies. (United States)

    Salhi, Imed; Bessalah, Salma; Mbarek, Sonia Ben; Chniter, Mohamed; Seddik, Mabrouk-Mouldi; Khorchani, Touhami; Hammadi, Mohamed


    In many mammalian species, newborns are agammaglobulinemic; thus, colostrum and milk are the main sources of early protective antibodies. These antibodies are produced in the mother's serum and transferred to mammalian glands a few days before parturition. Here, we have studied the transfer of immunity from a she-camel immunized with human serum albumin (HSA) to her calf via colostrum and milk. Our results show that HSA-specific antibodies are produced in the mother's serum and are subsequently transferred to her colostrum. These specific antibodies are then transferred by suckling to the calf. The calf serum did not contain HSA-reactive antibodies at parturition and before the first feed, after suckling, a rise in reactivity was observed peaking at 24 h postpartum. The involvement of heavy chain antibodies (HCAbs) in the process of immunity transfer was also examined, and it was found that they were also transferred from the colostrum to the calf serum like conventional antibodies.

  3. Immunohistochemical studies on the poll gland of the dromedary camel (Camelus dromedarius) during the rutting season. (United States)

    Ebada, Safwat; Helal, Amr; Alkafafy, Mohamed


    The poll glands are subcutaneous exocrine glands located on the back of the neck behind the ears in male camels. The function of poll glands is not well known, though they are thought to play a role during the rutting season. The presence, location and degree of immunolocalization of microfilaments and intermediate filament systems: actin and cytokeratins (Cks) and also S100 protein were studied in the poll glands in sexually mature one-humped camels during the rutting season. These proteins were variably expressed between the epithelia, perialveolar, interalveolar tissue and the periductal tissue. Strong α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) immunoreactivity (IR) was displayed by the perialveolar myoepithelial cells, periductal and vascular smooth muscle cells (SMCs), but not in the epithelial cells. Cytokeratin (Ck)-IR was strong in the epithelial lining of the secretory alveoli and excretory ducts, however, the apical blebs of the secretory cells were almost negative. Weak to moderate Ck-IR was observed in the perialveolar myoepithelial cells, but not in the interalveolar tissue or endothelial cells. S100 protein was expressed variably in the epithelial lining of the secretory alveoli. S100-IR was more obvious in the supranuclear region and the apical blebs. Variable reaction was observed in the perialveolar myoepithelial cells, periductal and interductal tissue and endothelial cells.

  4. Prevalence of tick infestation in dromedary camels (Camelus dromedarius) brought for slaughter in Mashhad abattoir, Iran. (United States)

    Moshaverinia, Ali; Moghaddas, Elham


    This study was carried out to investigate the prevalence of tick infestation and identify tick species that parasitize dromedary camels. Since April 2012 through March 2013, a total of 400 camels that brought for slaughter in Mashhad abattoir were examined for tick infestation. Out of the total 400 camels examined, 237 were infested and annual prevalence of tick infestation 59.25 % (95 % CI 54-64) was calculated. The higher prevalence rates were found in the summer and spring, especially the summer that prevalence rate was the highest. A total of 1,122 ticks were collected from the infested camels and identified by stereomicroscopy. Hyalomma dromedarii was the predominant tick species and comprised 70.76 % of the collected ticks. The frequency of other species was as follows: H. excavatum (19.25 %), H. anatolicum (4.81 %), H. asiaticum (4.72 %), Rhipicephalus turanicus (0.17 %), H. detritum (0.09 %), H. impeltatum (0.09 %) and H. schulzei (0.09 %). Based on the results of present study, it is concluded that camels mostly harbor Hyalomma spp. The species of this genus are the most notorious ticks for transmission of human and animal diseases. Therefore, appropriate tick control measures need to be employed and pour-on method for acaricide application is suggested because this method is fast, easy and suitable for use by camel owners in deserts.

  5. An abattoir-based study of hydatidosis in the dromedary (Camelus dromedarius) in Mashhad, Iran. (United States)

    Borji, H; Azizzadeh, M; Afsai, A


    A 6-year retrospective study based on abattoir records was carried out to determine the prevalence of hydatidosis in dromedaries in Khorasan province in north-eastern Iran. Between 20 March 2004 and 19 March 2010, 25,255 dromedaries were slaughtered in the study area and the livers of 2791 (11.1%) and the lungs of 3289 dromedaries (13.2%) were discarded due to hydatidosis. The annual prevalence of liver condemnations due to hydatidosis decreased from 24.1% in 2004-2005 to 13.3% in 2009, and finally to 6.8% in 2010. The corresponding features for lung condemnation due to hydatidosis were relatively higher than liver, declining from 28.7% in 2004-2005 to 14.9% in 2009, and finally to 7.1% in 2010. Liver and lung condemnations due to hydatidosis were significantly higher in the spring. This could be attributed to various factors such as sources of slaughtered animals, changes in management practice and ecological factors. The present survey provides baseline data for the future monitoring of this potentially important parasitic disease in the region.

  6. Synchronisation of ovarian follicular waves in the dromedary camel (Camelus dromedarius). (United States)

    Skidmore, J A; Adams, G P; Billah, M


    This study was designed to compare the efficacy of various treatments intended to synchronise follicular wave cycles in dromedary camels by removing the existing follicle of unknown size and replacing it with a follicle capable of ovulating at a known time. Camels were randomly assigned to one of five groups and treated with either (1) 5mg oestradiol benzoate (i.m.) and 100mg progesterone (i.m.; E/P, n=15), (2) 20 icrog GnRH analogue, buserelin (i.m.; GnRH, n=15), (3) 20 microg buserelin (i.m.) on Day 0 (T=0) and 500 microg prostaglandin on Day T+7 (GnRH/PG n=15), (4) transvaginal ultrasound-guided follicle ablation of all follicles > or =0.5 cm (ABL, n=15) or (5) 5 ml saline (i.m; Controls n=15). All camels were subsequently injected with 20 microg buserelin 14 days after the first treatment was given. The ovarian response was monitored daily by transrectal ultrasonography and the intervals from treatment to follicular wave emergence and also the day on which the new dominant follicle reached 1.3 cm was recorded. Amongst the treatment groups the mean interval from treatment to new follicle wave emergence and treatment to time taken for the new dominant follicle to reach 1.3 cm in diameter was shortest in the ABL group (2.3+/-0.5 days and 8.8+/-1.1 days respectively, P=0.044) and longest in the E/P group (6.4+/-0.8 days and 12.2+/-1.0 days respectively, P or =2.0 cm or follicle regressing groups, therefore fewer of these camels ovulated (ABL n=7; E/P n=9; Control n=6) after GnRH injection on Day T+14. In conclusion, two GnRH injections 14 days apart or two GnRH injections 14 days apart and PG on Day 7 after the first GnRH were the most effective methods to synchronise ovulation rate in dromedary camels at a fixed time interval of 14 days after treatment.

  7. Preliminary assessment of somatic cell nuclear transfer in the dromedary (Camelus dromedarius). (United States)

    Khatir, H; Anouassi, A


    Somatic cloning may enable the maintenance/expansion of the population of camels with the highest potential for milk production or the best racing performances. However, there have been no reports of embryonic or somatic nuclear transfer in camels. The aim of this study was to produce dromedary embryos by nuclear transfer using in vitro matured oocytes and two somatic cells from two sources (adult fibroblasts or granulosa cells). A total of 58 adult females were superstimulated by a single dose of eCG (3500 IU). Ten days later, their ovaries were collected postmortem. Cumulus-oocytes-complexes (COCs) were aspirated from stimulated follicles and were matured in vitro for 30 h. Fibroblasts (from live adult male) and granulosa cells (from slaughtered adult females) were used as donor karyoplasts and injected into mature enucleated dromedary oocytes. The cleavage rate was significantly higher (Pdromedary embryos from the two sources of donor cells (fibroblasts; n=5 vs. granulosa cells; n=7) was examined by transferring them to synchronized recipients. Two females (fibroblasts: 1/5; 20%, granulosa cells: 1/7; 14%) were confirmed pregnant by ultrasonography at 15 and 25 days following transfer. Later, the pregnancies were followed by pregnancy empirical-symptoms. These two pregnancies were lost between 25 and 60 days following transfer, respectively. In conclusion, the present study shows for the first time that the development of dromedary NT embryos derived from either adult fibroblasts or granulosa cells can occur in vitro and the transfer of these cloned embryos to recipients can result in pregnancies.

  8. Studies on liquefaction and storage of ejaculated dromedary camel (Camelus dromedarius) semen. (United States)

    Wani, N A; Billah, M; Skidmore, J A


    The purpose of this study was to evaluate seminal liquefaction and quality of ejaculated camel semen during storage in different extenders at room (23 degrees C) and refrigeration (4 degrees C) temperature. Semen was collected using an artificial vagina and diluted immediately (1:1), using a split-sample technique, in five extenders [(1) Tris-tes egg yolk, (2) Tris-lactose egg yolk, (3) citrate egg yolk, (4) sucrose egg yolk and (5) Tris-fructose egg yolk], while one fraction was kept without an extender to act as control. The semen was transported to the lab at 37 degrees C, in a portable incubator within half an hour, and thereafter liquefaction of semen was monitored every 15 min. After complete liquefaction of the semen it was evaluated for sperm concentration and morphology and then was extended to a final ratio of 1:3. Aliquots of each semen sample were then stored at refrigeration and room temperature. The average volume of an ejaculate was 4.3+/-0.4 mL and it had a very viscous consistency. The average concentration of spermatozoa was 230.4+/-10.7 x 10(6)mL(-1) and the proportion of spermatozoa with protoplasmic droplets averaged 1.02+/-0.2, while 2.7+/-0.6 and 9.7+/-2.9% had mid-piece and tail abnormalities, respectively. All extended semen samples liquefied within 1.5h at 37 degrees C, however, there was slow liquefaction in the sample without an added extender (control). Best liquefaction was observed in Tris-lactose extender followed by Tris-fructose and citrate egg yolk diluents whereas in the other two extenders there was head-to-head agglutination of the spermatozoa. There was no difference in the initial motility of the spermatozoa in extenders 1-5 after its liquefaction, however, after 24 and 48 h of storage a higher proportion of spermatozoa were motile in extenders 1, 2 and 4 (Pdromedary semen, when added to an extender (1:1) immediately after collection, liquefies within 60-90 min at 37 degrees C. It maintains a high proportion of motile and viable spermatozoa that can survive storage up to 48 h in Tris-lactose egg yolk, Tris-tes egg yolk and sucrose egg yolk diluents. However, best liquefaction and progressive sperm motility is achieved in Tris-lactose egg yolk extender.

  9. Epidemiological study of hydatidosis in the dromedaries (Camelus dromedarius) of different regions of Iran

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    Moghaddas Elham; Borji Hassan; Naghibi Aboul Ghasem; Razmi Gholamreza; Shayan Parviz


    Objective: To determine the prevalence of hydatidosis in dromedaries.Methods:2011. The relationship between host age and the mean number of hydatid cysts, and prevalence and fertility rates was analyzed using chi-square test.Results:438 dromedaries were examined in five regions of Iran from 20 March, 2010 to 19 March, Echinococcus granulosus. Number of cysts was 700 with 72.5% lung cyst. The highest rate of infection was that 54 (40%) of camels was found in the Khorasan Razavi region (in the north-east part of Iran) while the lowest 6 (4.4%) of camels was found in Semnan province. Infection was higher in >15 years age group. The most commonly infected organs were lungs (72.5%) followed by liver (12.6%). Both liver and lungs together constituted 14.8% of infection. A comparison found that hydatid cysts of liver had a higher fertility rate (32.57%) than that of lung (19%); while most of cysts of lung were calcified (24.42%). The mean number of protoscoleces per mL in the lung fertile cysts was higher than that of liver cysts. Fertile or sterile might be due to the different species or genotypes. The mean number of cysts in infected liver and lungs was 1-5 cysts. The intensity of infection increased with age.Conclusions:The results of current study can make a background data for implementing hydatid One hundred and thirty five out of 438 (30.82%) camels harboured hydatid cysts of control programs and warrant the importance of camel in public health.


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    Full Text Available The myogenic factors (MYF 5 and 6 are integral to the initiation and development of skeletal muscles and to the maintenance of their phenotypes. Thus, they are candidate genes for growth and meat quality-related traits. The MYF5 gene is expressed during proliferation of myoblasts and comprises 3 exons: 500, 76 and 191 bp long. Genomic DNA was isolated from the camel hair using NucleoSpin Tissue kit. Two animals of each of the six breeds namely, Marecha, Dhatti, Larri, Kohi, Sakrai and Cambelpuri were used for sequencing. For PCR amplification of the gene, a primer pair was designed from homolog regions of already published sequences of farm animals from GenBank. Results showed that exon 1 comprising of 422 bp of the dromedary MYF5 gene was more homologous (94% to the cattle than the dog and human. However, phylogram showed that a small number of mutations had been experienced by dromedary camels at their MYF5 gene and was more near to human than other farm animals.

  11. Proteomics of old world camelid (Camelus dromedarius: Better understanding the interplay between homeostasis and desert environment

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    Mohamad Warda


    Full Text Available Life is the interplay between structural–functional integrity of biological systems and the influence of the external environment. To understand this interplay, it is useful to examine an animal model that competes with harsh environment. The dromedary camel is the best model that thrives under severe environment with considerable durability. The current proteomic study on dromedary organs explains a number of cellular mysteries providing functional correlates to arid living. Proteome profiling of camel organs suggests a marked increased expression of various cytoskeleton proteins that promote intracellular trafficking and communication. The comparative overexpression of α-actinin of dromedary heart when compared with rat heart suggests an adaptive peculiarity to sustain hemoconcentration–hemodilution episodes associated with alternative drought-rehydration periods. Moreover, increased expression of the small heat shock protein, α B-crystallin facilitates protein folding and cellular regenerative capacity in dromedary heart. The observed unbalanced expression of different energy related dependent mitochondrial enzymes suggests the possibility of mitochondrial uncoupling in the heart in this species. The evidence of increased expression of H+-ATPase subunit in camel brain guarantees a rapidly usable energy supply. Interestingly, the guanidinoacetate methyltransferase in camel liver has a renovation effect on high energy phosphate with possible concomitant intercession of ion homeostasis. Surprisingly, both hump fat tissue and kidney proteomes share the altered physical distribution of proteins that favor cellular acidosis. Furthermore, the study suggests a vibrant nature for adipose tissue of camel hump by the up-regulation of vimentin in adipocytes, augmenting lipoprotein translocation, blood glucose trapping, and challenging external physical extra-stress. The results obtained provide new evidence of homeostasis in the arid habitat suitable for this mammal.

  12. Effect of pregnancy and embryonic mortality on milk production in dromedary camels (Camelus dromedarius). (United States)

    Nagy, P; Faigl, V; Reiczigel, J; Juhasz, J


    The main objective of the present study was to compare milk production in pregnant versus nonpregnant dromedary camels. In addition, we described the effect of embryonic mortality on lactation and measured serum progesterone levels until d 60 to 90 of gestation. Twenty-five multiparous camels were selected in midlactation for 2 studies in consecutive years. Camels were mated naturally when the size of the dominant follicle reached 1.2 to 1.5cm. Pregnancy was diagnosed by ultrasonography and progesterone determination. In the first experiment (Exp 1), 8 of 11 animals conceived at 284±21.5d postpartum. Three pregnant dromedaries were given PGF2α to induce luteolysis and pregnancy loss on d 62 and spontaneous embryonic loss was detected in 2 camels (on d 27 and 60). Animals were allotted to 3 groups retrospectively: nonpregnant camels (group 1, n=4), pregnant camels (group 2; n=3), and camels with embryonic loss after d 55 (group 3; n=4). In the second study (Exp 2), 14 dromedaries were mated during midlactation. Seven of them failed to conceive (group 1) and 7 became pregnant (group 2). No embryonic loss was detected in Exp 2. Turning points in milk production were identified by change point analysis. In nonpregnant dromedaries (group 1), milk decreased slowly over time without significant change point. In pregnant camels (group 2), a gradual decline until 4 wk after mating was followed by a sudden drop, and the change point model resulted in one breakpoint at d 28±7 and 35±3 of gestation in Exp 1 and Exp 2, respectively. In camels with embryonic mortality (group 3, Exp 1), milk yield started to decline similarly as in pregnant animals, but milk production increased gradually after embryonic loss and reached similar levels as in their nonpregnant herdmates. Change point analysis for group 3 resulted in 2 turning points at 30±4 and 48±4d after conception. Mean length of lactation was shorter by 230 (34.2%) and by 249d (37.6%) and mean total lactation production was decreased by 1,532 (31.6%) and 2,151 kg (44.3%) in pregnant compared with nonpregnant camels in Exp 1 and Exp 2, respectively. We concluded that the calving interval can be shortened by mating during midlactation. However, pregnancy has a strong negative effect on milk production as dromedaries stop lactating by the fourth month of gestation. Following embryonic mortality within 3mo of conception, milk production is restored.

  13. Influence of introducing machine milking on biothermal parameters of lactating camels (Camelus dromedarius

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    Moez Ayadi


    Full Text Available The current study wanted to investigate the physiological suitability of using the machine milking in lactating camels by assessing several biothermal (thermophysiological and infra-red thermographical parameters. These parameters were assessed on 3 consecutive days, immediately before, immediately after, as well as 1 h after machine milking. The sample was composed of 12 multiparous dromedary camels at mid-lactation. The hypothesis of the current study was that introducing machine milking would produce noticeable effects on the physiological status of lactating camels. On the contrary, the obtained results revealed that machine milking had no effect (P>0.05 on average rectal (37.88±0.23°C and vaginal temperatures (37.94±0.14°C, as well as respiratory (16.12±0.23 breath/min and heart rates (56.78±1.89 beat/min. A significant decrease (P<0.001 in udder (-1.0°C and teat (-1.6°C surface temperatures, instead, was detected 1 h immediately after milking. Accordingly, this study provides a clear evidence that introducing machine milking has no effect on the homeothermic status of lactating camels.

  14. Seminal plasma and serum fertility biomarkers in dromedary camels (Camelus dromedarius). (United States)

    Waheed, M M; Ghoneim, I M; Alhaider, A K


    Eight healthy fertile (control) and 11 infertile male dromedaries were used to investigate whether specific seminal plasma and serum fertility biomarkers could be related to their in vivo fertility. Eight fertility biomarkers and testosterone were determined in both seminal plasma and serum of all studied camels during the rutting season using commercial kits. Results revealed a significant (P dromedaries in seminal plasma glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activity (15.04 ± 1.14 vs. 4.55 ± 0.96 nmol/min/mL, respectively) and both phospholipase A2 (sPLA2; 50.66 ± 6.28 vs. 23.56 ± 4.29 pg/mL, respectively) and testosterone concentrations (732.14 ± 57.12 vs. 396.36 ± 79.34 pg/mL, respectively). A significant (P dromedaries in serum concentrations of sPLA2, CRISP3, malonialdehyde, and insulinlike growth factor 1. In conclusion, CRISP3, sPLA2, GPx, and testosterone are fertility-associated biomarkers in both seminal plasma and serum of dromedary camels. Seminal plasma osteopontin is positively correlated and prostaglandin D synthase (lipocalcin-type) is negatively correlated with camels' fertility. Serum malonialdehyde, insulinlike growth factor 1, and clusterin are negatively correlated with fertility of male dromedary camels.

  15. Pathology and diagnosis of Mycobacterium bovis in naturally infected dromedary camels (Camelus dromedarius) in India. (United States)

    Narnaware, Shirish Dadarao; Dahiya, Shyam Singh; Tuteja, Fateh Chand; Nagarajan, Govindasamy; Nath, Kashi; Patil, Nitin Vasantrao


    The present study investigated the pathological features of tuberculosis (TB) caused by Mycobacterium bovis and its diagnosis in naturally infected dromedary camels from an organized farm in India. During the period of the 5-year study, a total of 18 (19.56 %) camels out of 92 examined showed gross lesions compatible with TB at post-mortem. The clinical signs and pathological lesions in these camels were studied, and the efficacy of different diagnostic tests was also assessed. On the basis of occurrence and distribution of gross TB lesions, the infected camels revealed two different lesional patterns as pulmonary (n = 15) and disseminated (n = 3) form. The histopathology of affected organs revealed typical granulomatous lesions wherein the giant cells and acid-fast bacilli were occasionally observed in pulmonary form whereas they frequently observed in disseminated form. The single intradermal tuberculin test (SIDT) detected TB in 10 (55.55 %) whereas the Ziehl-Neelsen (ZN) stain and IS6110 PCR from tissue lesions detected 13 (72.22 %) and 18 (100 %) of the infected camels, respectively. The study suggests that pulmonary form of the TB is more common in camels indicating respiratory route as the major source of exposure in camel herds. Moreover, very low sensitivity of SIDT was observed which highlights the difficulty for confirmation of TB in live camels.

  16. Ultrastructure of the Interstitial Tissue in the Testis of the Egyptian Dromedary Camel (Camelus dromedarius

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    M. I. Abd-Elaziz, A. M. Kassem, D. M. Zaghloul*, A. E. Derbalah and M. H. Bolefa


    Full Text Available The ultrastructural examination of the testicular interstitial tissue of Egyptian dromedary camel was performed to observe the seasonal changes. The activity of the interstitial tissue increased largely in spring. This was indicated by the large number of mature Leydig cells and two to three layers of myofibroblasts around the basal laminae of the seminiferous tubules with large blood vessels in the interstitial tissue. The testicular activity was moderate in winter as indicated by the lower number of immature Leydig cells. The lowest activity was in summer when Leydig cells became inactive with pyknotic nuclei. The cells of interstitial tissue lost their junctions with each other, leaving large intercellular spaces and myofibroblasts transformed to fibrocytes. The testicular activity began again to increase in autumn. The testicular activity of camel, however, did not stop in any season of the year, because even in non-breeding seasons a part of the interstitial tissue of the testis was active.

  17. One-Humped Camel (Camelus dromedarius Infestation withLinguatula serrata in Tabriz, Iran

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    HR Haddadzadeh


    Full Text Available "n "nBackground: Linguatula serrata is one of well known members of Pentastomida which infects both human and animals. The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of L. serrata in mesenteric lymph nodes, livers and lungs of camels slaughtered in Tabriz area, Iran. "n "nMethods: Mesenteric lymph nodes (MLNs, livers and lungs of 140 one-humped camels slaughtered in Tabriz, north-west of Iran were investigated for nymphs of L. serrata from July 2007 to June 2008. The organs were examined macroscopically and then a tissue digestion method was also done for investigation of liver and lung of the camels that had infected MLN. The liver and lung samples were mostly taken from condemned and rejected part of organs. "n "nResults: The infection rate of L. serrata nymphs in MLNs, livers and lungs was 13.5%, 1.4% and 1.4% respectively. The number of isolated nymph in infected lymph nodes varied from 2 to 18 with a mean of 4.78. Only one nymph was isolated from each infected livers and lungs. The infection rate increased with age (p<0.05. No significant difference in different sex groups and seasons was observed (p>0.05. "n "nConclusion: Considering this fact that consumption of undercooked camel liver was not common in the studied area, the zoonotic importance of this infection should be concluded.

  18. Cardiomyopathy in ostriches (Struthio camelus) due to avocado (Persea americana var. guatemalensis) intoxication. (United States)

    Burger, W P; Naudé, T W; Van Rensburg, I B; Botha, C J; Pienaar, A C


    Nine out of 120 ostriches died from congestive heart failure within 96 h of ingesting avocado leaves and immature fruit in an avocado orchard containing Hass and Fuerte cultivars. Foliage and immature fruit from both cultivars dosed to ostriches (n = 4) and domestic hens (n = 8) resulted in severe cardiomyopathy in all the ostriches. In the hens, which had received a lower dose, milder lesions occurred. Macroscopically the intoxication in ostriches resulted in a severe anasarca of the neck and ventral body. The cardiomyopathy was characterised by degeneration and necrosis of myocytes, a marked infiltration of heterophils and in one case, early fibroplasia.

  19. A proposal of linear assessment scheme for the udder of dairy camels (Camelus dromedarius L.). (United States)

    Ayadi, Moez; Aljumaah, Riyadh Saleh; Samara, Emad Mohammed; Faye, Bernard; Caja, Gerardo


    Digital images from the left side of the mammary gland of 146 multiparous lactating dromedary camels in mid lactation and managed under intensive conditions were obtained immediately before milking and used to build up a reference scheme for the morphological evaluation of camel mammary glands. A 5-point linear scoring scheme (with 0.5-point accuracy) was subsequently generated based on five mammary traits (udder, depth and floor inclination, teats, shape, length, and width). Results showed that Arabian dairy camels had voluminous udders with large-sized teats. Most common udder shape was globular (47.3 %), followed by the pear (34.3 %) and pendulous (18.4 %) shapes. Conical- or funnel-shaped teats (60.9 %) were the most frequent, followed by cylindrical- (29.5 %) and blew-up (9.6 %)-shaped teats. The observed variation in the udder and teat measurements, as well as in typology, attested that dromedary camels need especially large milking clusters to improve their machine milkability. Assessment of the previously indicated digital images according to the proposed linear scoring scheme, performed by 3 independent operators showed that the overall means were close to 3.00 points (values between 2.45 and 3.62), and the standard deviations were close to 0.76 points (values between 0.58 and 0.94). Moderate repeatability between operators (r > 0.69) was obtained for udder depth and floor inclination, indicating that training of operators, as well as improvements in the definition of traits should be considered in future studies. Further research is needed to validate the proposed linear scoring system in different stages of lactation and parities using a large number of camels.

  20. The first report of peste des petits ruminants (PPR) in camels (Camelus dromedarius) in Iran. (United States)

    Zakian, Amir; Nouri, Mohammad; Kahroba, Houman; Mohammadian, Babak; Mokhber-Dezfouli, Mohammad-Reza


    In mid-July 2013, an outbreak of peste des petits ruminants (PPR) was observed in a herd of camels after they were imported from Kuwait to the Khuzestan province in southwest of Iran. The clinical signs of the affected animals included sudden death, fever, oral erosion, and ecthyma like lesions, yellowish diarrhea, pneumonia and respiratory distress, enlargement of lymph node, severe dehydration, dermatitis, ulcerative keratitis, and conjunctivitis. Necropsy findings included keratoconjunctivitis, congestion and consolidation of the lung, paleness of the liver, and enlargement and edema of lymph nodes. Histopathological exam revealed degeneration and acute hyperemia of the lungs, fatty change and necrotic foci in the liver, tubular necrosis in the kidneys, and necrotic dermatitis. We used immunocapture enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) to confirm peste des petits ruminants virus (PPRV) and differentiate it from rinderpest virus. Then virus genome was studied by molecular analysis for detecting of strain and substrain of the virus. Immunocapture ELISA of all specimens reacted positively against PPRV antigens. Also, reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) results in the lung and lymph nodes of the dead camels consolidated the cause of disease to be PPRV. The present study is the first report of the PPRV outbreak in camels in Iran.

  1. A biometric study of the digestive tract of one-humped camel (camelus dromedarius fetuses

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    A. Bello


    Full Text Available A Biometrical study was conducted on the digestive tract of 35 foetuses of the one-humped camel collected from the Sokoto metropolitan abattoir, over a period of five months at different gestational ages. The approximate age of the foetuses was estimated from the crown vertebral rump length (CVRL and samples were categorised into first, second and third trimester. The mean body weight of the foetus at first, second third trimester ranged from 1.40 ± 0.06 kg, 6.10 ± 0.05 kg and 17.87 ± 0.6 kg respectively. The mean weights of the entire digestive system at first, second and third trimester were 0.80 ± 0.07 kg, 2.13 ± 0.04 kg and 4.86 ± 0.08 kg respectively. The mean weights of the digestive tract at first, second and third trimester were 0.53 ± 0.07 kg, 1.03 ± 0.05 and 2.43 ± 0.07 kg respectively. The small intestine at first trimester were found not to have any clear demarcation to show duodenum, jejunum and ileum; the entire small intestine was found to be 76.00 ± 3.00 cm at first trimester and showed clear demarcation at second and third trimesters.. The mean volumes of the entire stomach (rumen, reticular and abomasum ranged from 136.67 ± 8.30 cm3 at first trimester to 353.33 ± 6.50 cm3 at third trimester. It was observed that there was increase in body weight, organ weight and individual segment of the digestive tract of the fetuses with advancement in gestation period. A geometrical increase in length and diameter of the various segments of the digestive tract showed a significant difference (P≤ 0.05 with advancement in gestational period.

  2. Ultra-structure of adipocytes in the digital cushion of ostrich (Stuthio Camelus foot pad

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    Amira Eid Derbalah


    Full Text Available The ultra-structural examination of adipocytes in the digital cushion of ostrich foot pad was performed to reveal the structural adaptation of adipocytes and elastic fibers of digital cushion to accommodate with fast movement of this unique bird. Two types of adipocytes were found, the first type was typical signet ring cells which had large fat droplets whose dimension dwarfed the cell organelles. The second type was diffused form with oval shaped adipocytes. Microfibillar aggregates of elastic fibers were closely packed and appeared to bead in a regular fashion. Some of this microfibrillar was reshaping adipocytes by making invagination of their plasma membrane.

  3. Ocorrência de ectoparasitos em avestruzes (Struthio camelus criadas no semi-árido baiano Occurence of ectoparasites in ostriches (Struthio camelus reared in semi-arid region of Bahia

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    Maria Ângela O. Almeida


    Full Text Available No período de maio a agosto de 2005, foram visitados 19 planteis de avestruzes na região semi-árida do município de Irecê, Bahia, objetivando identificar os ectoparasitos. As aves, predominantemente da raça "African Black", eram criadas em sistema intensivo e distribuídas, por faixa etária, em colônias, trio, casal ou creche. Durante a inspeção das aves, as plumas colhidas aleatoriamente, de várias regiões do corpo, foram acondicionadas em sacos plásticos e as larvas, colhidas das miíases, em álcool etílico a 70%. Em 74% (14/19 e 47% (04/19 dos plantéis encontravam-se avestruzes infestadas, respectivamente, pelas espécies Struthiopterolichus bicaudatus e Struthiolipeurus rheae. Somente em um plantel (5,3% foi encontrado um animal parasitado por larvas de Cochliomyia hominivorax.In the period of May to August of 2005, 19 ostrich's farms were visited in the semi-arid area of the Irecê, Bahia, in order to describe the ectoparasites. The African Black ostriches were reared in intensive system, and distributed for age group, in colonies, trio, couple or crèche. In each farm, after visually inspection of the ostrich, the feathers were taken in several areas of the body and were kept in plastic bags. The screwworms found were collected and stored in 70% ethanol. In 74% (14/19 and 47% (04/19 of the flocks were found ostriches infested, respectively, for the Struthiopterolichus bicaudatus (acari and Struthiolipeurus rheae (mallophaga. In only one flock (5.3% it was found an animal with Cochliomyia hominivorax larvae.

  4. Diagnóstico microbiológico e histopatológico de mortalidade em avestruzes (Struthio camelus Microbiological and histological diagnosis in mortality of ostrich (Struthio camelus

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    O. Vieira-da-Motta


    Full Text Available Several young ostrich, including nestlings, with lassitude and inappetence followed by death or victim of sudden death were immediately brought to diagnosis at an Animal Health Laboratory. At necropsy, animals presented hemorrhage and altered content of the vitelline sac, and necrotic foci in the small intestine; one animal showed necrotic pleuropneumonia with psammomatosus bodies in the lung parenchyma. The cultures from different samples revealed Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Serratia marcescens, Enterobacter aglomerans, and Pseudomonas mendocina. It was suggested one case of septicemia in an animal with exclusive growth of K. pneumoniae isolated from samples of small intestine, lung, and liver.

  5. Gross and microanatomical studies on the moderator bands (septomarginal trabecula in the heart of mature Dromedary camel (Camelus dromedarius

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    Wael Ghonimi


    Full Text Available The current work was carried out to investigate the gross and microanatomical features of moderator bands (septomarginal trabecula in camel heart. Ten hearts were collected from healthy mature dromedary camels. Anatomically, the moderator bands were present in both right and left ventricles. In right ventricle, the walls had one muscular moderator band which was extended from the interventricular septum to the opposite ventricular wall especially to the papillary muscle. In left ventricle, there were two bands; one extended from the interventricular septum to the papillary muscles, and the other one was present in various places especially in the apex running as a thin thread-like band across the left ventricular wall. Histological examination revealed that the moderator band consisted of two major layers; the central (core myocardium and the peripheral endocardium, acting as band capsule. The myocardium had two bundles; the contractile cardiac muscle bundles and the Purkinje fiber bundles. The endocardium consisted of three layers; the endothelial layer of simple squamous epithelium, the subendothelial layer of loose connective tissue and the subendocardial layer, connecting the endocardium with the myocardium.


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    G. Kavas


    Full Text Available This study examined the production possibilities of kefir from fresh camel milk fermented with grain. The findings were then compared with kefir manufactured from cow’s milk. Cow’s milk was fermented with 2.5% grains. The 1% (v/w glucose enriched camel’s milk was fermented with 10% grains and left in an incubator at 25°C. Physical-chemical and sensorial analyses of the kefir sampleswere measured on day one (18 hours of storage and microbiological analyses were measured on days one, three and five. Some physical-chemical parameters were found to be higherin camel milk and its kefir than in cow milk and its kefir, some were found to be close and some were found to be lower. Addition of 1% glucose and 10% grains to the camel milk affected the titrationacidity and viscosity of kefir to significant levels. The kefir produced from camel milk was perceived as sourer, whereas its other properties were found to be close to those of cow milk. Thecholesterol levels of camel milk and its kefir were detected to be higher when compared to those of cow milk and its kefir, but the cholesterol level decreased in both examples after the productionof kefir. In terms of the composition of fatty acids, it was determined that SFA and the small, medium chain fatty acids ratio was low in camel milk and its kefir, but MUFA and the long chainfatty acids ratio was high. PUFA ratio was high in camel milk but low in its kefir. In microbiological analysis, yeast levels increased in kefir samples with the Lactobacillus ssp. strains, and theincrease in the number of yeasts was higher than in the cow milk kefir. In kefir samples, Lactobacillus ssp. strains increased on day one and three of storage, but diminished after day three.

  7. The Arabian camel Camelus dromedarius heat shock protein 90α: cDNA cloning, characterization and expression. (United States)

    Saeed, Hesham; Shalaby, Manal; Embaby, Amira; Ismael, Mohammad; Pathan, Akbar; Ataya, Farid; Alanazi, Mohammad; Bassiouny, Khalid


    Heat shock protein 90 (Hsp90) is a highly conserved ubiquitous molecular chaperone contributing to assisting folding, maintenance of structural integrity and proper regulation of a subset of cytosolic proteins. In the present study, a heat shock protein 90α full length coding cDNA was isolated and cloned from the Arabian one-humped camel by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). The full length cDNA sequence was submitted to NCBI GeneBank under the accession number KF612338. The sequence analysis of the Arabian camel Hsp90α cDNA showed 2202bp encoding a protein of 733 amino acids with estimated molecular mass of 84.827kDa and theoretical isoelectric point (pI) of 5.31. Blast search analysis revealed that the C. dromedarius Hsp90α shared high similarity with other known Hsp90α. Comparative analyses of camel Hsp90α protein sequence with other mammalian Hsp90s showed high identity (85-94%). Heterologous expression of camel Hsp90α cDNA in E. coli JM109 (DE3) gave a fusion protein band of 86.0kDa after induction with IPTG for 4h.

  8. Epidemiology of gastrointestinal parasites of one- humped camel (Camelus dromedarius slaughtered in Sokoto central abattoir, Sokoto state, Nigeria

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    S. Ukashatu


    Full Text Available A parasitological examination was conducted using a Zinc Sulphate floatation technique which employed on the faecal samples of one hundred and fifty (150 camels comprising of both male and female. The camels were managed extensively together with other livestocks. A total of 131 (87.3% samples were found to be positive for the three genera of helminthes, namely; Nematodes (77.8%, Trematodes (5.6% and Cestodes (5.6% and 19 (12.8% of the samples were found to be negative for any parasite. Out of 85 (56.7% number of male sample collected, 80 (53.3% were found to be positive and out of the 65 (43.3% of the female samples collected, 51 (34.0% was found to be positive. Sixteen (16 different types of parasites were found to be infecting the animals examined. Mixed infection with more than one genus of helminthes was also observed. The parasites encountered in this study have economic and public health significance, thus, there is a need for the enlightment of camel owners for the need to deworm their animals in respect to it’s zoonotic potentials in countries with significant population of camels.  

  9. Relationship between udder morphology traits, alveolar and cisternal milk compartments and machine milking performances of dairy camels (Camelus dromedarius

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    M. Ayadi


    Full Text Available A total of 22 dairy dromedary camels under intensive conditions in late lactation (275±24 days were used to study the relationship between external and internal udder morphology and machine milking performances. Measurements of udder and teat morphology were obtained immediately before milking and in duplicate. Individual milk yield, lag time and total milking time were recorded during milking, and milk samples were collected and analyzed for milk composition thereafter. Cisternal and alveolar milk volumes and composition were evaluated at 9 h milking interval. Results revealed that dairy camels had well developed udders and milk veins, with medium sized teats. On average, milk yield as well as milk fat and protein contents were 4.80±0.50 L d-1, 2.61±0.16% and 3.08±0.05%, respectively. The low fat values observed indicated incomplete milk letdown during machine milking. Lag time, and total milking time were 3.0±0.3, and 120.0±8.9s, on average, respectively. Positive correlations (p<0.05 were observed between milk yield and udder depth (r=0.37, distance between teats (r=0.57 and milk vein diameter (r=0.28, while a negative correlation was found with udder height (r=-0.25, p<0.05. Cisternal milk accounted for 11% of the total udder milk. Positive correlations were observed between total milk yield and volume of alveolar milk (r=0.98; p<0.001 as well as with volume of cisternal milk (r=0.63, p<0.05. Despite the low udder milk storage capacity observed in dairy camels, our study concluded that the evaluated dromedary sample had adequate udder morphology for machine milking. Finally, positive relationships were detected between milk yield and udder morphology traits of dairy camels.

  10. Haematological and biochemical alterations caused by epidural and intramuscular administration of xylazine hydrochloride in dromedary camels (Camelus dromedarius

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    Omid Azari


    Full Text Available This study was conducted in 16 healthy immature dromedary camels weighing 120-150 kg to evaluate and compare the effects of epidural and intramuscular injections of xylazine administered at 0.1 mg/kg and 0.2 mg/kg. Haematological parameters included haemoglobin, packed cell volume, total erythrocyte count and total leukocyte count. Biochemical parameters included alkaline phosphates, alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, blood urea nitrogen, creatinine and glucose. Parameters were measured at different intervals before (baseline and after the administration of drugs. Our study showed that the effect of xylazine on haematological and biochemical parameters is dose-dependant and is also related to the route of administration. The low dose of xylazine administered using both intramuscular and epidural methods showed minimal effects, whereas high doses of the drug, especially when injected intramuscularly, caused greater changes in haematological and biochemical parameters.

  11. Comparative morphometric and glycohistochemical studies on the epididymal duct in the donkey (Equus asinus) and dromedary camel (Camelus dromedarius). (United States)

    Alkafafy, Mohamed; Ebada, Safwat; Rashed, Reda; Attia, Hossam


    The present study was undertaken to compare morphometric and glycohistochemical differences in the epididymal duct of the donkey and the dromedary camel. Paraffin-embedded sections from the different regions of the duct (caput, corpus and cauda) of both species were stained conventionally for general histology and histomorphometry and also with fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC) conjugated lectins for glycohistochemical mapping. Morphometric data (means ± SE) showed that the luminal diameter was widest (1029.76 ± 15.04 μm) in the donkey cauda and narrowest (179.80 ± 3.27 μm) in the camel corpus. The thickness of the peritubular muscle coat had the highest (74.32 ± 1.85 μm) and the lowest (24.32 ± 0.74 μm) values in the donkey cauda and corpus respectively. The greatest (94.44 ± 2.08 μm) and the least (21.48 ± 0.66 μm) values of epithelial height were reported respectively in the camel caput and in the donkey cauda. The length of stereocilia of principal cells in the camel was greatest (21.88 ± 0.57 μm) and lowest (6.68 ± 0.28 μm) in the caput and cauda. Binding sites for only six out of eight lectins could be found. The distribution pattern of binding sites of different lectins showed significant variations in both a species-specific and also region-specific manner. Distinct labeling was found in the Golgi zone, apical cytoplasm and on stereocilia of principal cells in the camel (WGA and DBA) and donkey (DBA) caput region, while other lectins exhibited variable reactivity in the other regions in both species. The basal cells showed variable binding to most of the lectins, however, they displayed distinct binding to WGA and PSA throughout the duct in camel and donkey respectively. In conclusion, both morphometric and glycohistochemical findings displayed regional species-specific and potentially functional relevant characteristics.

  12. Haematological and biochemical alterations caused by epidural and intramuscular administration of xylazine hydrochloride in dromedary camels (Camelus dromedarius). (United States)

    Azari, Omid; Molaei, Mohammad Mahdi; Emadi, Ladan; Sakhaee, Ehsanollah; Sharifi, Hamid; Mehdizadeh, Sara


    This study was conducted in 16 healthy immature dromedary camels weighing 120-150 kg to evaluate and compare the effects of epidural and intramuscular injections of xylazine administered at 0.1 mg/kg and 0.2 mg/kg. Haematological parameters included haemoglobin, packed cell volume, total erythrocyte count and total leukocyte count. Biochemical parameters included alkaline phosphates, alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, blood urea nitrogen, creatinine and glucose. Parameters were measured at different intervals before (baseline) and after the administration of drugs. Our study showed that the effect of xylazine on haematological and biochemical parameters is dose-dependant and is also related to the route of administration. The low dose of xylazine administered using both intramuscular and epidural methods showed minimal effects, whereas high doses of the drug, especially when injected intramuscularly, caused greater changes in haematological and biochemical parameters.

  13. Genome-wide analysis of the emerging infection with Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis in the Arabian camels (Camelus dromedarius.

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    Pallab Ghosh

    Full Text Available Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (M. ap is the causative agent of paratuberculosis or Johne's disease (JD in herbivores with potential involvement in cases of Crohn's disease in humans. JD is spread worldwide and is economically important for both beef and dairy industries. Generally, pathogenic ovine strains (M. ap-S are mainly found in sheep while bovine strains (M. ap-C infect other ruminants (e.g. cattle, goat, deer, as well as sheep. In an effort to characterize this emerging infection in dromedary/Arabian camels, we successfully cultured M. ap from several samples collected from infected camels suffering from chronic, intermittent diarrhea suggestive of JD. Gene-based typing of isolates indicated that all isolates belong to sheep lineage of strains of M. ap (M. ap-S, suggesting a putative transmission from infected sheep herds. Screening sheep and goat herds associated with camels identified the circulation of this type in sheep but not goats. The current genome-wide analysis recognizes these camel isolates as a sub-lineage of the sheep strain with a significant number of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs between sheep and camel isolates (∼1000 SNPs. Such polymorphism could represent geographical differences among isolates or host adaptation of M. ap during camel infection. To our knowledge, this is the first attempt to examine the genomic basis of this emerging infection in camels with implications on the evolution of this important pathogen. The sequenced genomes of M. ap isolates from camels will further assist our efforts to understand JD pathogenesis and the dynamic of disease transmission across animal species.

  14. Biochemical and hormonal analysis of follicular fluid and serum of female dromedary camels (Camelus dromedarius) with different sized ovarian follicles. (United States)

    El-Bahr, S M; Ghoneim, I M; Waheed, M M


    The current study aimed to compare some biochemical and hormonal constituents in follicular fluids and serum of female dromedary camels with different sized ovarian follicles. Therefore, follicular fluids from follicles sized 1.1-1.5cm (n=10), 1.6-2.1cm (n=10) and 2.2-2.5cm (n=10) and sera were harvested from 20 female camels. The concentrations of ascorbic acid, glucose, cholesterol and activities of acid phosphatase (ACP) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) were not changed significantly neither in follicular fluids of all follicle sizes nor in sera of female camels with different sized follicles. The concentrations of estradiol-17β (E2) in the follicular fluid of follicles sized 2.2-2.5cm were significantly lower (P<0.01) than its corresponding value in follicular fluid of other follicle sizes. The concentrations of progesterone (P4), tri-iodothyronine (T3), thyroxin (T4), cortisol and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) remained comparable in follicular fluids of all examined different sized follicles. The concentrations of E2, P4, T3, T4, cortisol and IGF-1 were similar in the serum of camels with different sized follicles. Interestingly, mean concentrations of P4 and IGF-1 in follicular fluids were higher than their corresponding values in sera of camels with different sized follicles and the mean concentrations of glucose, cholesterol, ALP and cortisol in sera were higher than their corresponding values in follicular fluids of the examined camels. With the exception of E2, there were no significant differences in biochemical and hormonal constituents between follicular fluids from different sized follicles.

  15. Molecular detection of novel Anaplasmataceae closely related to Anaplasma platys and Ehrlichia canis in the dromedary camel (Camelus dromedarius). (United States)

    Bastos, Armanda D S; Mohammed, Osama B; Bennett, Nigel C; Petevinos, Charalambos; Alagaili, Abdulaziz N


    Serological surveys have confirmed Anaplasma marginale and Anaplasma phagocytophilum infections in dromedary camels, but molecular surveys and genetic characterisation of camel-associated Anaplasma species are lacking. In this study, we detected tick-borne Anaplasmataceae in 30 of 100 (30%) healthy dromedary camels screened using a combined 16S rRNA-groEL PCR-sequencing approach. Nucleotide sequencing confirmed Anaplasmataceae genome presence in 28 of the 33 16S rRNA PCR-positive samples, with two additional positive samples, for which 16S rRNA sequence data were ambiguous, being identified by groEL gene characterisation. Phylogenetic analyses of a 1289 nt segment of the 16S rRNA gene confirmed the presence of a unique Ehrlichia lineage and a discrete Anaplasma lineage, comprising three variants, occurring at an overall prevalence of 4% and 26%, respectively. Genetic characterisation of an aligned 559 nt groEL gene region revealed the camel-associated Anaplasma and Ehrlichia lineages to be novel and most closely related to Anaplasma platys and Ehrlichia canis. Based on the confirmed monophyly, minimum pairwise genetic distances between each novel lineage and its closest sister taxon, and the inability to isolate the bacteria, we propose that Candidatus status be assigned to each. This first genetic characterisation of Anaplasmataceae from naturally infected, asymptomatic dromedary camels in Saudi Arabia confirms the presence of two novel lineages that are phylogenetically linked to two pathogenic canid species of increasing zoonotic concern.

  16. Peripheral primitive neuroectodermal tumour in a lumbar vertebra and the liver of a dromedary camel (Camelus dromedarius). (United States)

    Weiss, R; Walz, P H


    A 9-year-old castrated male dromedary camel developed weakness and ataxia, progressing to sternal recumbency and hindlimb paralysis. Necropsy revealed multiple liver tumours and a mass in the 3rd lumbar vertebra, compressing the spinal cord. The hepatic and vertebral masses consisted of uniform sheets of primitive cells, with perivascular pseudorosettes and small numbers of neuroblastic Homer-Wright rosettes. Immunohistochemically, the tumour cells were uniformly positive for vimentin and variably positive for neuron-specific enolase and glial fibrillary acidic protein. The histopathological and immunohistochemical findings indicated a peripheral primitive neuroectodermal tumour (pPNET) exhibiting neuroblastic, glial and ependymomatous differentiation, probably reflecting the tumour's primitive multipotential neuroepithelial nature. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first reported case in the camel of a pPNET, presumably intraosseous in origin with hepatic metastasis, and morphologically similar to Ewing's sarcoma in man.

  17. Risk factors associated with prevalence and major bacterial causes of mastitis in dromedary camels (Camelus dromedarius) under different production systems. (United States)

    Ahmad, Sibtain; Yaqoob, Muhammad; Bilal, Muhammad Qamar; Muhammad, Ghulam; Yang, Li-Guo; Khan, Muhammad Kasib; Tariq, Muhammad


    A cross-sectional study was conducted in desert environment of Jhang (Pakistan) from November 2008 to October 2009 on she-camels kept under pastoralist conditions to determine the prevalence of mastitis, impact of risk factors, and isolate the dominant mastitis-causing bacteria on total of 150 lactating she-camels by using clinical examination and surf field mastitis test. From the 150 she-camels examined, 69 (46%) were positive for mastitis at animal level, 12 (8%) clinical, and 57 (38%) subclinical. Age, parity number, stage of lactation, breed, production system, hygiene of milking process, and presence of lesion on udder/teat were found significantly associated (p<0.05) with the prevalence of mastitis in she-camels. There was the lowest prevalence (33.33%; 15 of 45) of mastitis in she-camels of 5-7 years of age, while the highest (80%; 12 of 15) in the animals aged between 14 to 16 years. Stage of lactation significantly affected (p<0.05) and was found to be associated with the prevalence of mastitis being the highest (54.55%; 18 of 33) during the initial stage of lactation (0 to 1 month) followed by last 2 months (10-12 months) as 54.17% and mid-stages (1-3 and 3-10 months) of lactation as 28.57% (6 of 21) and 37.50% (9 of 24), respectively. According to breed of camels, it was noted that the prevalence of mastitis affected significantly (p<0.05) being the highest in crossbred (Desi × Mareecha) as 51.39% (37 of 72) followed in order by Mareecha and Desi as 43.14% and 37.04%, respectively. Staphylococcus (42.19%) and Streptococcus (15.63%) genera were the dominant isolates identified. Good hygiene in milking process, milking clinically infected she-camels at last, culling chronic mastitis carriers, treating clinically infected she-camels, and dry period therapy could reduce the prevalence of contagious mastitis in the study area.

  18. Serological Evidence of MERS-CoV Antibodies in Dromedary Camels (Camelus dromedaries) in Laikipia County, Kenya. (United States)

    Deem, Sharon L; Fèvre, Eric M; Kinnaird, Margaret; Browne, A Springer; Muloi, Dishon; Godeke, Gert-Jan; Koopmans, Marion; Reusken, Chantal B


    Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) is a recently identified virus causing severe viral respiratory illness in people. Little is known about the reservoir in the Horn of Africa. In Kenya, where no human MERS cases have been reported, our survey of 335 dromedary camels, representing nine herds in Laikipia County, showed a high seroprevalence (46.9%) to MERS-CoV antibodies. Between herd differences were present (14.3%- 82.9%), but was not related to management type or herd isolation. Further research should focus on identifying similarity between MERS-CoV viral isolates in Kenya and clinical isolates from the Middle East and elsewhere.

  19. Ultrasonographic-guided retrieval of cumulus oocyte complexes after super-stimulation in dromedary camel (Camelus dromedarius). (United States)

    Wani, N A; Skidmore, J A


    In Experiment 1, studies were conducted to apply the transvaginal ultrasound guided ovum pick-up (OPU) technique in dromedary camels after their ovarian super-stimulation and in vivo oocyte maturation. In Experiment 2, the developmental potential of two commonly used oocyte types, i.e., in vivo matured oocytes collected by OPU and abattoir derived in vitro-matured oocytes was compared after their chemical activation. In Experiment 3, developmental competence of oocytes collected from super-stimulated camels by OPU, matured either in vivo or in vitro, was compared after their chemical activation. Mature female dromedary camels super-stimulated with a combination of eCG and pFSH were given an injection of 20 microg of the GnRH analogue, buserelin 24, 26, or 28 h before the scheduled OPU. For collection of cumulus oocyte complexes (COCs) the transducer was guided through the vulva into the cranial most portion of the vagina and 17-gauge, 55 cm single-lumen needle was placed in the needle guide of the ultrasound probe and advanced through the vaginal fornix and into the follicle. Follicular fluid was aspirated using a regulated vacuum pump into tubes containing embryo-flushing media. Aspirates were searched for COCs using a stereomicroscope, and they were then denuded of cumulus cells by hyaluronidase and repeated pipetting. The oocytes were classified as mature (with a visible polar body), immature (with no visible polar body), activated (with divided or fragmented ooplasm) and others (degenerated and abnormal). Overall an average of 12.12 +/- 7.9 COCs were aspirated per animal with an oocyte recovery rate from the aspirated follicles of about 77%. The majority (> 90%) of the collected COCs by OPU were with loose and expanded cumulus cells. The proportion of matured oocytes obtained at 28-29 h (91.2 +/- 4.1) and 26-27 h (82.1 +/- 3.4) were higher (P dromedary camels 26-28 h after GnRH administration. The developmental response, to chemical activation, of in vivo matured oocytes collected by ultrasound guided transvaginal OPU is better than in vitro matured oocytes obtained from slaughterhouse ovaries. However, no difference was observed in the developmental competence of oocytes collected by OPU whether they were matured in vivo or in vitro.

  20. In vitro and in vivo developmental competence of dromedary (Camelus dromedarius) oocytes following in vitro fertilization or parthenogenetic activation. (United States)

    Khatir, H; Anouassi, A; Tibary, A


    Parthenogenetic activation of the oocyte represents an important step in the somatic cloning. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effectiveness (in term of in vitro development) of different methods of parthenogenetic activation of dromedary oocytes. Selected cumulus-oocytes-complexes (n=1264) collected by follicular aspiration from ovaries obtained postmortem were matured in vitro (IVM) for 30 h then divided randomly into seven groups and submitted to artificial activation. Two groups were preactivated with 25 microM of calcium ionophore (CaI) for 20 min then incubated for 4h with either 2mM 6-dimethylaminopurine (6-DMAP) (group 1, n=202) or with 10 microg/mL cycloheximide (CHX) (group 2, n=194). Group 3 (n=172) and group 4 (n=184), oocytes were pretreated with 5 microM ionomycin (Iono) for 5 min then incubated with either 2mM 6-DMAP or 10 microg/mL cycloheximide for 4h, respectively. Group 5 (n=161) and group 6 (n=155) oocytes were preactivated with electrical stimulation (ES) then activated with either 2mM 6-DMAP or 10 microg/mL cycloheximide for 4h, respectively. Group 7 (n=196) oocytes were submitted to in vitro fertilization (IVF) and served as a control. All groups containing oocytes were cultured in vitro following activation or IVF, at 38.5 degrees C under 5% CO(2) in air with >95% humidity. The in vitro development rates of dromedary oocytes exposed to 6-DMAP after CaI (61%), ES (74%) and the IVF group (71%) were similar and significantly greater (Pdromedary embryos was examined by transfer to synchronized recipients. An embryonic vesicle was seen by ultrasonography at 15 days post transfer in four females (CaI/6-DMAP: 1/5; 20%, IVF: 3/10; 30%). The only pseudopregnancy obtained with an activated embryo resorbed at 25 days. One of the females receiving the IVF produced embryos aborted at 2 months and the other two females carried to term and gave birth to healthy calves (one female and one male). This study shows that artificial activation of dromedary oocytes with CaI/6-DMAP or ES/6-DMAP is more effective than other treatments in terms of in vitro embryo development. This provides efficient activation conditions which may lead to the development of the somatic cell nuclear transfer procedure in dromedary.

  1. Studies on Liquefaction Time and Proteins Involved in the Improvement of Seminal Characteristics in Dromedary Camels (Camelus dromedarius

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    Gorakh Mal


    Full Text Available Semen was collected from six dromedary camels using artificial vagina during rutting season. Liquefaction of the viscous semen occurred in 23.89±1.49 h. During liquefaction, proteins with molecular masses of 24.55 kDa and 22.07 kDa appeared in conjunction with the disappearance of intact 26.00 kDa protein after 18–24 h. These proteins were identified as β-nerve growth factors (β-NGFs in liquefied camel semen. Guanidine-HCL improves the rheological characteristics of dromedary camel semen along with significant (P<0.01 increase in sperm motility. No significant differences were found in viability of spermatozoa indicating no visible detrimental effects on spermatozoa. The cause of semen viscosity, as well as proteins that are present in liquefied dromedary camel seminal plasma, is described for the first time.

  2. Identification of interleukin-26 in the dromedary camel (Camelus dromedarius): Evidence of alternative splicing and isolation of novel splice variants. (United States)

    Premraj, Avinash; Nautiyal, Binita; Aleyas, Abi G; Rasool, Thaha Jamal


    Interleukin-26 (IL-26) is a member of the IL-10 family of cytokines. Though conserved across vertebrates, the IL-26 gene is functionally inactivated in a few mammals like rat, mouse and horse. We report here the identification, isolation and cloning of the cDNA of IL-26 from the dromedary camel. The camel cDNA contains a 516 bp open reading frame encoding a 171 amino acid precursor protein, including a 21 amino acid signal peptide. Sequence analysis revealed high similarity with other mammalian IL-26 homologs and the conservation of IL-10 cytokine family domain structure including key amino acid residues. We also report the identification and cloning of four novel transcript variants produced by alternative splicing at the Exon 3-Exon 4 regions of the gene. Three of the alternative splice variants had premature termination codons and are predicted to code for truncated proteins. The transcript variant 4 (Tv4) having an insertion of an extra 120 bp nucleotides in the ORF was predicted to encode a full length protein product with 40 extra amino acid residues. The mRNA transcripts of all the variants were identified in lymph node, where as fewer variants were observed in other tissues like blood, liver and kidney. The expression of Tv2 and Tv3 were found to be up regulated in mitogen induced camel peripheral blood mononuclear cells. IL-26-Tv2 expression was also induced in camel fibroblast cells infected with Camel pox virus in-vitro. The identification of the transcript variants of IL-26 from the dromedary camel is the first report of alternative splicing for IL-26 in a species in which the gene has not been inactivated.

  3. Ultrasonographic characterization of follicle deviation in follicular waves with single dominant and codominant follicles in dromedary camels (Camelus dromedarius). (United States)

    Manjunatha, B M; Al-Bulushi, S; Pratap, N


    Follicular wave emergence was synchronized by treating camels with GnRH when a dominant follicle (DF) was present in the ovaries. Animals were scanned twice a day from day 0 (day of GnRH treatment) to day 10, to characterize emergence and deviation of follicles during the development of the follicular wave. Follicle deviation in individual animals was determined by graphical method. Single DFs were found in 16, double DFs in 9 and triple DFs in two camels. The incidence of codominant (double and triple DFs) follicles was 41%. The interval from GnRH treatment to wave emergence, wave emergence to deviation, diameter and growth rate of F1 follicle before or after deviation did not differ between the animals with single and double DFs. The size difference between future DF(s) and the largest subordinate follicle (SF) was apparent from the day of wave emergence in single and double DFs. Overall, interval from GnRH treatment to wave emergence and wave emergence to the beginning of follicle deviation was 70.6 ± 1.4 and 58.6 ± 2.7 h, respectively. Mean size of the DF and largest SF at the beginning of deviation was 7.4 ± 0.2 and 6.3 ± 0.1 mm, respectively. In conclusion, the characteristics of follicle deviation are similar between the animals that developed single or double DFs.

  4. Studies on Liquefaction Time and Proteins Involved in the Improvement of Seminal Characteristics in Dromedary Camels (Camelus dromedarius)


    Gorakh Mal; Sumant Vyas; Alagiri Srinivasan; Nitin Vasant Rao Patil; Krishan Murari Lal Pathak


    Semen was collected from six dromedary camels using artificial vagina during rutting season. Liquefaction of the viscous semen occurred in 23.89 ± 1.49 h. During liquefaction, proteins with molecular masses of 24.55 kDa and 22.07 kDa appeared in conjunction with the disappearance of intact 26.00 kDa protein after 18–24 h. These proteins were identified as β-nerve growth factors (β-NGFs) in liquefied camel semen. Guanidine-HCL improves the rheological characteristics of dromedary camel semen a...

  5. Embryo transfer in the dromedary camel (Camelus dromedarius) using non-ovulated and ovulated, asynchronous progesterone-treated recipients. (United States)

    Skidmore, J A; Billah, M


    The aim of the present study was to investigate the use of exogenous progesterone and equine chorionic gonadotrophin (eCG) in non-ovulated and ovulated, asynchronous dromedary camel recipients being prepared for an embryo transfer programme. The uteri of 12 mated donor camels were flushed non-surgically 7 days after ovulation and 42 embryos were recovered. In Experiment 1, 16 embryos were transferred non-surgically to recipients on Day 3 or 4 after ovulation (ov+3 and ov+4, respectively). Each recipient received a daily dose of 75 mg, i.m., progesterone-in-oil from 2 days before embryo transfer until 6 days after ovulation. Thereafter, the progesterone dose was reduced to 50 mg on Day 7 and finally to 25 mg day(-1) on Days 8 and 9. Nine of 16 recipients (56%; ov+3, n=4; ov+4, n=5) became pregnant compared with none of eight non-progesterone treated controls, into which embryos were transferred on Day 4 after ovulation. In Experiment 2, 18 non-ovulated recipients received 75 mg, i.m., progesterone-in-oil daily from 3 days before until 12 days after non-surgical transfer of a Day 7 blastocyst, at which time pregnancy was diagnosed by ultrasonography. All pregnant recipients continued to receive 75 mg progesterone-in-oil daily for a further 6 days, when each camel received 2000 IU, i.m., eCG. Progesterone treatment was then reduced to 50 mg day(-1) and, when a follicle(s) ≥1.3 cm in diameter were present in the ovaries, each animal received 20 μg buserelin to induce ovulation. Once the corpora lutea had developed, progesterone treatment was reduced to 25 mg day(-1) for a final 3 days. Fourteen of 18 recipients (78%) became pregnant and seven of these (50%) remained pregnant after eCG treatment. Of the seven pregnancies that were lost, two were lost before eCG treatment, two did not respond to eCG treatment and three responded to eCG treatment and ovulated, but lost their pregnancies 6-8 days after the last progesterone injection.

  6. Cloning and sequence analysis of IL-2, IL-4 and IFN-γ from Indian Dromedary camels (Camelus dromedarius). (United States)

    Nagarajan, G; Swami, Shelesh Kumar; Ghorui, S K; Pathak, K M L; Singh, R K; Patil, N V


    The cDNAs of three cytokines, viz., IL-2, IL-4 and IFN-γ from Dromedary camels were amplified by PCR using Bactrian camel sequences and subsequently cloned for sequence analysis. Relationship based on amino acid sequences revealed that Dromedary camel IL-2 shared 99.5% and 99.3% identity at the nucleotide and amino acid levels with Bactrian camel IL-2. In the case of IL-4, the identity of Dromedary camel was 99.7% and 99.2% at the nucleotide and amino acid levels, respectively with that of Bactrian camel. The Dromedary camel IFN-γ shared 100% identity both at nucleotide and amino acid levels with Bactrian camel IFN-γ. Phylogenetic analysis based on amino acid sequences indicated the close relationship in these cytokine genes between the Dromedary camel and other camelids.

  7. The relationship between serum level of thyroid hormones, trace elements and antioxidant enzymes in dromedary camel (Camelus dromedarius). (United States)

    Nazifi, S; Mansourian, M; Nikahval, B; Razavi, S M


    Thyroid hormones might be able to regulate the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase and glutathione peroxidase (GPX). The role of thyroid hormones in metabolic pathways and antioxidant enzyme activities are well known in many species. Nevertheless, there is no report describing probable relationship between thyroid hormones status, erythrocyte antioxidant enzymes and serum profiles of trace elements. This study was undertaken to investigate the relationship between these parameters in Iranian dromedary camels. Blood samples were taken from the jugular vein of 30 clinically healthy Iranian dromedary camels under aseptic conditions during 6 consecutive days of summer. The serum was analyzed for serum profile of thyroid hormones, trace elements, SOD and GPX activity. There were no significant differences in serum thyroid hormones, serum level of zinc (Zn), copper (Cu), manganese (Mn), iron (Fe), selenium and antioxidant enzymes in different days (P > 0.05). There was a significant negative correlation between SOD and Fe (P < 0.01, r = -493). There was no significant correlation between other parameters. In case of copper deficiency likewise the present study, the copper was used to produce more SOD, so there was a decrease in Fe transportation, and it might be a cause of decrease in Fe amount. On the other hand, a relatively small quantity of Fe is present in tissue myoglobin, catalase, peroxidases, and cytochromes. So it might be another cause of decrease in Fe amount. The explanation for these finding is not possible at this moment and further investigations are needed to interpret these changes.

  8. In vitro maturation of dromedary (Camelus dromedarius) oocytes: effect of different protein supplementations and epidermal growth factor*. (United States)

    Wani, Na; Wernery, U


    The present experiment was aimed to compare the effect of different protein supplementation sources, foetal calf serum (FCS), oestrous dromedary serum (EDS) and BSA, in experiment 1, and the effect of different concentrations of epidermal growth factor (EGF), in experiment 2, on in vitro nuclear maturation of the dromedary oocytes. Cumulus oocyte complexes (COCs) were harvested from the ovaries collected from a local slaughterhouse by aspirating the visible follicles in PBS supplemented with 5% FCS. Pooled COCs were randomly distributed to 4-well culture plates containing 500 μl of the maturation medium and cultured at 38.5 °C in an atmosphere of 5% CO(2) in air for 32-36 h. The basic maturation medium consisted of TCM-199 supplemented with 0.1 mg/ml L-glutamine, 0.8 mg/ml sodium bicarbonate, 0.25 mg/ml pyruvate, 50 μg/ml gentamicin, 10 μg/ml bFSH, 10 μg/ml bLH and 1 μg/ml estradiol. In experiment 1, this medium was supplemented with 10% FCS, 10% EDS or 0.4% BSA, whereas in experiment 2, it was supplemented with 0.4% BSA and 0, 10, 20 or 50 ng/ml of EGF. The oocytes were fixed, stained with 1% aceto-orcein stain and their nuclear status was evaluated. Oocytes were classified as germinal vesicle, diakinesis, metaphase-I, anaphase-I (A-I), metaphase-II (M-II) and those with degenerated, fragmented, scattered, activated or without visible chromatin as others. There was no difference (p > 0.05) observed in the proportion of oocytes reaching M-II stage between the media supplemented with FCS (71.5 ± 4.8), EDS (72.8 ± 2.9) and BSA (72.7 ± 6.2). In experiment 2, a higher proportion (p dromedary camel oocytes can be supplemented with any of the three protein sources, i.e. FCS, EDS and BSA without any significant differences on the maturation rates. Also, a supplementation of 20 ng/ml of EGF in the maturation medium seems to be optimal and improves the nuclear maturation of dromedary camel oocytes.

  9. Serological evidence of MERS-CoV antibodies in dromedary camels (camelus dromedaries) in laikipia county, Kenya

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.L. Deem (Sharon L.); E.M. Fèvre (Eric); M. Kinnaird (Margaret); A.S. Browne (A. Springer); D. Muloi (Dishon); G-J. Godeke (Gert-Jan); M.P.G. Koopmans D.V.M. (Marion); C.B.E.M. Reusken (Chantal)


    textabstractMiddle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) is a recently identified virus causing severe viral respiratory illness in people. Little is known about the reservoir in the Horn of Africa. In Kenya, where no human MERS cases have been reported, our survey of 335 dromedary camels

  10. Adaptation of Camelus dromedarius pars nervosa of the hypophysis to winter and summer living conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatma Zohra Djazouli Alim


    Full Text Available The aim of this work is to study the characteristics of the dromedary nervous lobe and determine how the seasons condition its organization. To this end, electron microscopy was performed and examined quantitatively on animals from winter and summer periods. The results show a higher number of cells in the nervous lobe in summer than in winter. The most abundant glial elements in winter are light pituicytes engulfing neurosecretory nerve fibers making neuroglial contact, and dark pituicytes containing numerous heterogeneous light bodies. In summer, the most distinctive glial cells may be pituicytes in a phagocytic state making contact with characteristic large light bodies that could represent a degenerative process of large neuropeptide storage. Granular pituicytes were also observed in contact with glial and neuronal components. However, lipid droplets, described in pituicytes of other mammals, were not observed in our samples. Quantitative analysis of neurovascular contacts revealed that the number of nerve terminals contacting the basal lamina did not differ between summer
    and winter, but the mean number of glial processes increased in winter. Our data provides evidence that the storage of neuropeptides is very marked in summer and that, associated with an autophagic and phagocytic phenomenon, this suggests an adaptation to anticipate any situation that would cause dehydration of the dromedary. Thus, in its tough environment, the animal remains permanently prepared to avoid any large water loss.

  11. Assessment of adrenocortical activity by non-invasive measurement of faecal cortisol metabolites in dromedary camels (Camelus dromedarius). (United States)

    Sid-Ahmed, Omer-Elfaroug; Sanhouri, Ahmed; Elwaseela, Badr-Eldin; Fadllalah, Imad; Mohammed, Galal-Eldin Elazhari; Möstl, Erich


    The aim of this study was to determine whether glucocorticoid production could be monitored non-invasively in dromedary camels by measuring faecal cortisol metabolites (FCMs). Five Sudanese dromedaries, two males and three females, were injected with a synthetic adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) analogue. Blood samples were collected pre- and post-ACTH injection. Faeces were sampled after spontaneous defecation for five consecutive days (2 days before and 3 days after ACTH injection). Baseline plasma cortisol values ranged from 0.6 to 10.8 ng/ml in males and from 1.1 to 16.6 ng/ml in females, while peak values after ACTH injection were 10.9-41.9 in males and 10-42.2 ng/ml in females. Peak blood cortisol values were reached between 1.5 and 2.0 h after ACTH injection. The concentration of FCMs increased after ACTH injection in the faeces of both sexes, although steroid levels peaked earlier in males [24 h; (286.7-2,559.7 ng/g faeces)] than in females [36-48 h; (1,182.6-5,169.1 ng/g faeces)], reflecting increases of 3.1-8.3- and 4.3-8-fold above baseline levels. To detect chromatographic patterns of immunoreactive FCMs, faecal samples with high FCM concentrations from both sexes were pooled and subjected to reverse phase high performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC). RP-HPLC analysis revealed sex differences in the polarity of FCMs, with females showing more polar FCMs than males. We concluded that stimulation of adrenocortical activity by ACTH injection resulted in a measurable increase in blood cortisol that was reliably paralleled by increases in FCM levels. Thus, measurement of FCMs is a powerful tool for monitoring the adrenocortical responses of dromedaries to stressors in field conditions.

  12. Studies on Liquefaction Time and Proteins Involved in the Improvement of Seminal Characteristics in Dromedary Camels (Camelus dromedarius). (United States)

    Mal, Gorakh; Vyas, Sumant; Srinivasan, Alagiri; Patil, Nitin Vasant Rao; Pathak, Krishan Murari Lal


    Semen was collected from six dromedary camels using artificial vagina during rutting season. Liquefaction of the viscous semen occurred in 23.89 ± 1.49 h. During liquefaction, proteins with molecular masses of 24.55 kDa and 22.07 kDa appeared in conjunction with the disappearance of intact 26.00 kDa protein after 18-24 h. These proteins were identified as β-nerve growth factors (β-NGFs) in liquefied camel semen. Guanidine-HCL improves the rheological characteristics of dromedary camel semen along with significant (P dromedary camel seminal plasma, is described for the first time.

  13. Serological Evidence of MERS-CoV Antibodies in Dromedary Camels (Camelus dromedaries in Laikipia County, Kenya.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharon L Deem

    Full Text Available Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV is a recently identified virus causing severe viral respiratory illness in people. Little is known about the reservoir in the Horn of Africa. In Kenya, where no human MERS cases have been reported, our survey of 335 dromedary camels, representing nine herds in Laikipia County, showed a high seroprevalence (46.9% to MERS-CoV antibodies. Between herd differences were present (14.3%- 82.9%, but was not related to management type or herd isolation. Further research should focus on identifying similarity between MERS-CoV viral isolates in Kenya and clinical isolates from the Middle East and elsewhere.

  14. Role of Production Area, Seasonality and Age of Fermented Camel (Camelus Dromedarius Milk Gariss on Mineral Contents

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    Adam Ismail Ahmed


    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to study the differences between some minerals content of gariss samples collected from two different production areas in two different production systems (i.e. traditional system Kordofan area and semi-intensive system- which, the camels are kept in an open barn and graze around the farm. The lactating female camels are supplemented with concentrates in addition to good quality ration containing groundnut cake and Sorghum biocolor and water supply upon required in Kordofan and Khartoum provinces in Sudan at the different seasons (summer, autumn and winter and their gariss samples were collected. Sodium, potassium, calcium, magnesium and phosphorus of gariss samples collected in autumn season (Kordofan area, summer season (Khartoum area, and winter season (Khartoum and Kordofan areas were determined, after that the age of gariss was noted from farmers directly when the samples were collected. Four different ages of gariss which registered were (5-8 hrs, 12 hrs, 48 hrs and more than 48 hrs. Each fermentation time (age of gariss was used for analyzing mineral contents. The results showed that gariss prepared from different production locations and in different seasons in Kordofan and Khartoum production areas were statistically different in most of the mineral contents determined. To conclude, different feeding sources or different physiological status may affect camels’ milk and consequently their gariss product, also different age of gariss had affects the mineral content of milk.

  15. Dromedaries (Camelus dromedarius) are of Low Susceptibility to Inoculation with Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus Serotype O

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alexandersen, Søren; Wernery, U.; Nagy, P.;


    Two sheep and five dromedaries were inoculated with a highdose of a cattle-passaged type O strain of foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV). The sheep developed typical FMD. The inoculated camels, which were placed in contact with five further dromedaries and four sheep, showed no visible sign...

  16. Observations on the seasonal browsing and grazing behaviour of camels (Camelus dromedarius in southern Darfur-Sudan

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    Alia S. A. Amin,


    Full Text Available The observations about camels behaviour during browsing and grazing were recorded during dry and green season in southern Darfur (Latitude 8º 30' and 13º 30' North, by using apparently healthy free ranging camels during the months of March – May (dry season and August – September (green season. Total number of 210 indigenous Arabian camels of different age was used in this study. Camels were observed to be selective browser rather than grazer during dry and green seasons; also they were able to consume whatever plants available to fulfil their needs during the dry season. Camels did not stay long on a single species of plants, but were observed to take several mouthfuls and to move to another or to the same species browsing young green stems or branches with or without thorns and together with leaves, young growing shoots, flowers and fruits during green season, however, it has been observed that camels concentrate on certain evergreen trees and bushes together with the dry grasses if found during the dry season in the dry wadi beds. Camels are selective feeders not only with regard to plants but also in respect of part of the plants they eat , on the natural range they browse and graze at any time of the day but they tend to avoid feeding during the hottest period of the day and adopt positions. Camels prefer to feed on bushes and trees due to their anatomical adaptations. These findings indicate that camels are able to adapt themselves to the seasonal pasture fluctuations without affecting the trees they browsed because of their selectivity to choose some parts not the entire plant.

  17. Systematization, description, and territory of the caudal cerebral artery in surface of the brain of the ostrich (Struthio camelus). (United States)

    Nazer, Manoel; Campos, Rui


    Brain specimens from 30 ostriches were injected with red-dyed latex via the internal carotid arteries, and the caudal cerebral arteries and their branches were systematically described. On the right side, the caudal cerebral artery was double-, triple-, quadruple-, and single-branched in 73.5%, 23.3%, 3.3%, and 3.3% of cases, respectively; on the left side, it was double-, triple-, quadruple-, and single-branched in 76.7%, 20%, 3.3%, and 3.3% of cases, respectively. The dorsal tectal mesencephalic artery appeared as a single vessel in 96.7% of cases, emerging as a collateral branch of the caudal cerebral artery. The dorsal mesencephalic tectal artery originated from the right dorsal cerebellar artery in 40% of cases and from the left side in 63.3% of cases. On the right side, there were four and three medial occipital hemispheric branches in 46.7% and 20% of cases, respectively; on the left side, there were four and three branches in 30% and 26.7% of cases. On the right side, the pineal artery was double-, single-, triple-, and quadruple-branched in 50%, 23.3%, 20%, and 6.7% of cases, respectively; on the left side, this artery was double-, single-, triple-, and quadruple-branched in 50%, 23.3%, 16.7%, and 10% of cases, respectively. The diencephalic artery was on the right side in 43.3% of cases and on the left side in 56.7% of cases. The interhemispheric artery was on the right side in 56.7% of cases and on the left side in 43.3% of cases; four, three, two, five, and one dorsal hemispheric trunks branched off of the interhemispheric artery in 40%, 40%, 10%, 6.7%, and 26.7% of cases, respectively. The caudal cerebral artery was classified as Type I in 56.7% of cases (subtype IA in 33.3% of cases and IB in 23.3% of cases), Type II in 40% of cases (subtype IIA in 20% of cases and IIB in 20% of cases), and Type III in 3.3% of cases.

  18. Effect of different management systems on rutting behavior and behavioral repertoire of housed Maghrebi male camels (Camelus dromedarius). (United States)

    Fatnassi, Meriem; Padalino, Barbara; Monaco, Davide; Aubé, Lydiane; Khorchani, Touhami; Lacalandra, Giovanni Michele; Mohamed, Hammadi


    Camel management has been changing in recent years from an extensive to a semi-intensive or intensive system, particularly for breeding bulls and dairy dromedary camels. Captivity may affect animal welfare, and low libido is the major complaint for housed breeding bulls. Since welfare status could also affect reproductive performance, the aim of this study was to evaluate different management practices on behavior, particularly on sexual behavior, and to identify some behavioral needs of male dromedary camels reared for semen collection. The effects of the following management systems on their behavior were compared: (i) traditional: housing in a single stall for 24 h (H24), (ii) housing in a single stall for 23 h with 1 h free in the paddock (H23), and (iii) housing in a single stall for 22 h and 30 min with 1 h paddock time and 30 min exposure to a female camel herd (ExF). During the trial, blood cortisol concentrations were assessed and camels were filmed daily for 30 min in the mornings and during a female passage in the evenings. Videos were analyzed in order to fill out a focal sampling ethogram and to score sexual behavior. As a result, there were no differences between the H24 and H23 systems, whereas ExF had a significant positive impact on their sexual behavior score and behavioral repertoire, further reducing cortisol levels. Overall, it seems that male dromedary camel welfare status improves when their behavioral needs for social interaction and movement are satisfied.

  19. Evaluation of sexual behavior of housed male camels (Camelus dromedarius) through female parades: correlation with climatic parameters. (United States)

    Fatnassi, Meriem; Padalino, Barbara; Monaco, Davide; Khorchani, Touhami; Lacalandra, Giovanni Michele; Hammadi, Mohamed


    Camels are seasonal breeders, and their sexual behavior is influenced by environmental conditions, but the relationship between climatic factors and sexual behavior has been poorly described in the available literature. Nowadays, the male camel living habit is shifting towards captivity; thus, this study was carried out to evaluate the sexual behavior of housed male dromedary camel through female's parades and to correlate it with climatic parameters. Four housed sires, reared for semen collection, and one dam were used and the trial lasted 8 weeks, considering the first week as control. Six days per week and during evenings, the female was brought near each males' boxes, while two observers filled a behavioral sampling ethogram and scored the male sexual behavior. After this parade, blood samples were taken from the female to evaluate the estradiol concentration. In addition, the following meteorological parameters were recorded, everyday, at 9:00 a.m. and 19:00 p.m.: pressure, wind, temperature, humidity, and H-index. The correlation between sexual behavioral score and female estradiol concentration and climate parameters was analyzed. All the behavioral parameters showed a significant upward trend; female estradiol concentration varied during the period and picked at week 5. Male sexual behavior was negatively correlated with morning H-index, wind, and temperature, and positively correlated with pressure and evening humidity, whereas it was not correlated with estrogen. In conclusion, female parade was a successful method to evaluate and stimulate the occurrence of housed male dromedary camel sexual activity that resulted to be negatively affected by hot temperature, warm wind, and lack of rain.

  20. Experimental assessment of the pathogenicity of two avian influenza A H5 viruses in ostrich chicks (Struthio camelus) and chickens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manvell, R.J.; Jørgensen, Poul Henrik; Nielsen, O.L.;


    Virus excretion, immune response, and, for chickens, deaths were recorded in 3-week-old ostriches and chickens inoculated by either the intramuscular or intranasal route with one of two influenza A viruses of subtype H5, One of the viruses, A/turkey/England/50-92/91 (H5N1) (50/92), was highly...


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    REIS, M. A.


    Full Text Available A female ostrich died suddenly was submitted to the autopsy and the gross lesions observedwere hematoma in the pericardiac cavity, concentrical hypertrophy of the left ventricle, dissecting aortic aneurysmof thoracic segment and pulmonary hemorrhage. After histopathologic studies and hepatic cooper concentration,we had consider arterial hypertension as the major factor of risk to the aortic dissection.Um avestruz fêmea, vítima de morte súbita, foi submetido à necropsia em que foram observados,macroscopicamente, hematoma na cavidade pericárdica, hipertrofia concêntrica do ventrículo esquerdo, hematomaintramural dissecante da aorta proximal e hemorragia pulmonar. Após estudos histopatológicos e dosagem daconcentração do cobre hepático, considerou-se a hipertensão arterial como principal fator de risco para a dissecçãoaórtica.

  2. Morphological studies on the seasonal changes in the epididymal duct of the one-humped camel (camelus dromedarius

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    Ahmed El-Zuhry Zayed


    Full Text Available The present work was carried out on 20 testes and epididymis of sexually mature camels to elucidate the gross anatomical, morphometerical, light microscopical and scanning electron microscopical features of the epididymis in different seasons. Anatomically, the epididymal duct of a camel consists of three parts head, body and tail. Histomorphologically, the epididymal duct is subdivided into initial, middle and terminal segments, of which the middle segment is further subdivided into proximal, intermediate and distal parts. There is a gradual decrease in the epithelial height of the epididymal duct from the initial to the terminal segments. This mechanically facilities passage of the sperms toward the terminal segment. High epithelium in the initial segment may indicate a more absorptive power of the epithelium in this segment. The seasonal reproductivety of the epididymal duct in the camel expressed by variations in the weight and volume of the epididymis, total diameter of the epididymal duct, epithelial height, length of the stereocilia, thickness of the muscular coat and cellular distributions in different segments. The spring months offer ideal circumstances for maximal reproductive activity in this species. The cellular components of the epididymal duct epithelium of the camel displays important morphological changes from season to another showing signs of increasing activity during spring in comparison to decreasing activity in other seasons. PAS positive granules are demonstrated in different segments of the epididymal duct and intraepithelial glands in different seasons. These granules are relatively more numerous in spring. The lamina propria surrounding the epididymal duct contains a layer of the elastic fibers which is very thick in winter, thick in spring and thin in other seasons. This increase in thickness of the elastic fibers predisposes for the increase in the total diameter of the epididymal duct in spring. It was conclude that the muscular coat of the middle and terminal segments is the thickest in spring that may be helpful for powerful ejaculation.

  3. Determinação da microbiota presente na cloaca e orofaringe de avestruzes (Struthio camelus clinicamente sadios

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    Melville Priscilla Anne


    Full Text Available O conhecimento da microbiota que compõe as diferentes áreas do organismo tem importância reconhecida para a compreensão de doenças infecciosas que podem acometer os avestruzes, embora se disponha de dados limitados acerca deste assunto na literatura. Foi objetivo deste estudo determinar as espécies de microrganismos (bactérias aeróbias e fungos que compõem a microbiota normal de avestruzes. Para tanto, foram coletadas amostras de cloaca (N=50 e orofaringe (N=50 de avestruzes hígidos de um criadouro. Das amostras de cloaca, foram isolados Escherichia coli (76% das amostras positivas, Bacillus spp. (60%, Streptococcus spp. (18%, Staphylococcus coagulase-negativo (16%, Pseudomonas aeruginosa (8%, Rhodotorula spp. (8%, dentre outros microrganismos isolados em cultura pura ou em associação com outras bactérias e/ou fungos. Das amostras de orofaringe, foram isolados E. coli (74% das amostras positivas, Candida albicans (44%, Bacillus spp. (38%, Staphylococcus coagulase-negativo (32%, Klebsiella pneumoniae (32%, Rhodotorula spp. (8%, Criptococcus spp. (4%, dentre outros microrganismos isolados em cultura pura ou em associação com outras bactérias e/ou fungos. Verificou-se predominância de bactérias Gram negativas em relação às Gram positivas, nas microbiotas da cloaca e orofaringe. Verificou-se freqüência de ocorrência semelhante entre bactérias Gram negativas nas microbiotas da cloaca e orofaringe, bem como de bactérias Gram positivas nestes mesmos sítios. Observou-se maior ocorrência de leveduras em amostras de orofaringe quando comparadas com as de cloaca.

  4. Histomorphometric study of the prenatal development of the kidney of one-humped camel (camelus dromedarius in north-westhern Nigeria

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    A. Bello


    Full Text Available This study aimed at investigating the prenatal development of the kidney of the camel using standard histomorphometric methods. In the experiment, fifteen foetuses obtained from Sokoto metropolitan abattoir at different gestational ages were used for the study. The fetuses were weighed and grouped and aged. In all the foetuses the kidneys were bean-shaped with smooth external surface and thick fibrous capsule which becomes thicker with advancement of gestational age. Well developed ureters and distinct renal pelvis were evident at all stages of development. In each gestational age, values of the weight, length, width and volume of the kidney were determined. In addition the periodic differentiation of the cortex and medulla; their significance in relation to the renal histodiffrentiation was discussed. Histological sections showed evidence of collecting duct system that are numerous and extensively coiled in the cortex and medulla of the third trimester kidneys. This is an indication of the ability of the kidney to concentrate urine, in accordance with the counter-current mechanism of the kidney collecting system. It was suggested that the kidney’s of the camel possesses the anatomical features for the production of hypertonic urine owing with the adaptive behavior of desert animals. Thick capsule that increases in thickness was also noticed in the kidneys.

  5. A review of the growth, and of the carcass and meat quality characteristics of the one-humped camel (Camelus dromedaries). (United States)

    Kadim, I T; Mahgoub, O; Purchas, R W


    The dromedary camel is a good source of meat especially in areas where the climate adversely affects the performance of other meat animals. This is because of its unique physiological characteristics, including a great tolerance to high temperatures, solar radiation, water scarcity, rough topography and poor vegetation. The average birth weight of camels is about 35kg, but it varies widely between regions, breeds and within the same breed. The meat producing ability of camels is limited by modest growth rates (500g/day). However, camels are mostly produced under traditional extensive systems on poor levels of nutrition and are mostly slaughtered at older ages after a career in work, racing or milk production. Camels reach live weights of about 650kg at 7-8 years of age, and produce carcass weights ranging from 125 to 400kg with dressing-out percentage values from 55% to 70%. Camel carcasses contain about 57% muscle, 26% bone and 17% fat with fore halves (cranial to rib 13) significantly heavier than the hind halves. Camel lean meat contains about 78% water, 19% protein, 3% fat, and 1.2% ash with a small amount of intramuscular fat, which renders it a healthy food for humans. Camel meat has been described as raspberry red to dark brown in colour and the fat of the camel meat is white. Camel meat is similar in taste and texture to beef. The amino acid and mineral contents of camel meat are often higher than beef, probably due to lower intramuscular fat levels. Recently, camel meat has been processed into burgers, patties, sausages and shawarma to add value. Future research efforts need to focus on exploiting the potential of the camel as a source of meat through multidisplinary research into efficient production systems, and improved meat technology and marketing.

  6. Hematological and serum biochemical aspects associated with a camel (Camelus dromedarius naturally infected by Trypanosoma evansi with severe parasitemia in Semnan, Iran

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    Mahmood Ahmadi-hamedani


    Conclusions: Results of the present study revealed that trypanosomosis was present in dromedary camels of Semnan, Iran (infection rate is 4.76% and hemato-biochemical parameters were markedly affected by camel trypanosomosis.

  7. Microbiological quality and somatic cell count in bulk milk of dromedary camels (Camelus dromedarius): descriptive statistics, correlations, and factors of variation. (United States)

    Nagy, P; Faye, B; Marko, O; Thomas, S; Wernery, U; Juhasz, J


    The objectives of the present study were to monitor the microbiological quality and somatic cell count (SCC) of bulk tank milk at the world's first large-scale camel dairy farm for a 2-yr period, to compare the results of 2 methods for the enumeration of SCC, to evaluate correlation among milk quality indicators, and to determine the effect of specific factors (year, season, stage of lactation, and level of production) on milk quality indicators. The study was conducted from January 2008 to January 2010. Total viable count (TVC), coliform count (CC), California Mastitis Test (CMT) score, and SCC were determined from daily bulk milk samples. Somatic cell count was measured by using a direct microscopic method and with an automatic cell counter. In addition, production parameters [total daily milk production (TDM, kg), number of milking camels (NMC), average milk per camel (AMC, kg)] and stage of lactation (average postpartum days, PPD) were recorded for each test day. A strong correlation (r=0.33) was found between the 2 methods for SCC enumeration; however, values derived using the microscopic method were higher. The geometric means of SCC and TVC were 394×10(3) cells/mL and 5,157 cfu/mL during the observation period, respectively. Somatic cell count was >500×10(3) cells/mL on 14.6% (106/725) and TVC was >10×10(3) cfu/mL on 4.0% (30/742) of the test days. Both milk quality indicators had a distinct seasonal pattern. For log SCC, the mean was lowest in summer and highest in autumn. The seasonal pattern of log TVC was slightly different, with the lowest values being recorded during the spring. The monthly mean TVC pattern showed a clear difference between years. Coliform count was <10 cfu/mL in most of the samples (709/742, 95.6%). A positive correlation was found between log SCC and log TVC (r=0.32), between log SCC and CMT score (r=0.26), and between log TVC and CC in yr 1 (r=0.30). All production parameters and stage of lactation showed strong seasonal variation. Log SCC was negatively correlated with TDM (r=-0.35), AMC (r=-0.37), and NMC (r=-0.15) and positively correlated with PPD (r=0.40). Log TVC had a negative correlation with AMC (r=-0.40) but a positive correlation with NMC (r=0.32), TDM (r=0.16), and PPD (r=0.45). The linear mixed model with stepwise variable selection showed that the main sources of log SCC variation were PPD, TDM, PPD × season, and season. For log TVC, the same factors and year contributed to the variation.

  8. Effect of follicular size on in vitro developmental competence of oocytes and viability of embryos after transfer in the dromedary (Camelus dromedarius). (United States)

    Khatir, H; Anouassi, A; Tibary, A


    The aim of this work was to determine the effect of follicle size on camel oocyte quality as measured by developmental competence in vitro and in vivo. Ovaries from a local slaughterhouse were dissected to obtain two classes of follicle size: small (3-6 mm) and large (>6 mm) follicles. Quality of the oocytes was assessed after in vitro maturation (IVM), in vitro fertilization (IVF) and in vitro culture (IVC) of cumulus oocyte complexes (COCs). All cultures were done in four replicates at 38.5 degrees C, under 5% CO(2) and high humidity (>95%). Only COCs with cumulus and homogenous (dark) cytoplasm were used. The COCs were matured for 28 h in TCM-199 medium supplemented with 10% heat-treated fetal calf serum (FCS), 10 ng/mL EGF, and 250 microM cysteamine. Nuclear maturation rate for each class of follicle size was determined by contrast phase microscopy in a sample of COCs (n=30) denuded, fixed and stained with aceto-orcein. In vitro fertilization was performed using fresh semen (0.5 x 10(6)spermatozoa/mL in modified TALP-solution). Fertilized oocytes were cultured in mKSOMaa, under 5% O(2) and 90% N(2). The percentage of COCs reaching metaphase II (MII) after 28 h of maturation was 87% (26/30) and 73% (22/30) for oocytes originating from large and small follicles, respectively (P>0.1). The rate of total cleavage (two cells to blastocyst stage) was greater (P6 mm) was assessed by transfer to synchronized recipients. None of the hatched blastocysts from small follicles resulted in a pregnancy whereas 68% (15/22) of the transferred hatched embryos from large follicles developed into a 25-day pregnancy. Of the resulting 15 pregnancies, 53% (n=8) aborted (five between 2 and 4 months and three between 5 and 7 months of pregnancy). The remaining seven pregnant females gave birth to normal healthy offsprings (four females and three males). The present study shows that dromedary oocytes developmental competence is acquired late during the final phase of follicular development and this developmental ability translates into greater pregnancy rates after transfer of in vitro produced hatched blastocysts.

  9. Seasonal immunohistochemical reactivity of S-100 and α-smooth muscle actin proteins in the epididymis of dromedary camel, Camelus dromedarius. (United States)

    Ibrahim, Z H; Joshi, D; Singh, S K


    The S-100 and alpha smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) proteins have been localised in epididymal tissue of several mammalian species, but there have been no data for a seasonal work in camel. The aim of this study was to investigate the immunoreactivities of S-100 and α-SMA proteins in the epididymis of dromedary camel during breeding and nonbreeding seasons. The immunopositive signals for both proteins were observed in different regions of camel epididymis. S-100-immunopositive signals were noted in both the epididymal epithelium and the intertubular connective tissue, while α-SMA signals were confined to the intertubular connective tissue, especially in the peritubular smooth muscle coat and the blood vessels. This study showed an increase in the intensity of S-100 and α-SMA immunoreactions during the breeding season in different regions of camel epididymis than that seen in the nonbreeding season. In conclusion, epididymis might be considered as a source of S-100 and α-SMA proteins in the camel and the secretion of these proteins showed distinct seasonal variations. Further, S-100 and α-SMA may affect the structural and physiological states of the epididymal duct.

  10. Synchronisation of the follicular wave with GnRH and PGF2α analogue for a timed breeding programme in dromedary camels (Camelus dromedarius). (United States)

    Manjunatha, B M; Al-Bulushi, Samir; Pratap, N


    This study was conducted to develop a hormone protocol that precisely synchronises follicular development for a timed breeding (TB) programme in dromedary camels. To examine the effect of GnRH treatment at four known stages of follicular development, animals were treated with GnRH when the largest follicle of the wave was 4-7, 8-11, 12-17 and 18-27 mm in diameter. Transrectal ultrasonography was carried out daily up to 20 days after treatment. A hormone protocol (FWsynch) for the synchronisation of follicular wave and TB consisting of GnRH-1 (GnRH) on Day 0, PG-1 (PGF2α) on Day 7, GnRH-2 on Day 10 and PG-2 on Day 17 was initiated at four known stages of follicular development. Ovarian structures were monitored by ultrasonography. The FWsynch protocol was initiated at random stages of follicle development and animals were bred by natural mating at a fixed time at the research facility and in field. The pregnancy was diagnosed by ultrasonography. GnRH treatment in animals with a dominant follicle (DF) of ≥ 11 mm in diameter resulted in synchronous new follicular wave emergence, whereas in animals with a DF ≤ 10 mm, the treatment did not alter the development of the existing follicular wave. The FWsynch protocol was effective in synchronising the follicular wave for TB irrespective of the stage of follicular development at the beginning of the protocol. TB using FWsynch protocol resulted in a pregnancy rate of 60.2% in a research facility and 53.6% and 45.6% in normal and infertile camels respectively under field conditions.

  11. Fertility after ovarian follicular wave synchronization and fixed-time natural mating compared to random natural mating in dromedary camels (Camelus dromedarius). (United States)

    Nagy, P; Juhasz, J


    The objective of the study was to compare the efficiency of two ovarian follicular wave synchronization protocols coupled with fixed-time natural mating with that of random mating in dromedary camels. Dromedaries were assigned randomly to one of the three treatment groups. Group 1 animals (RM; n = 46) were mated randomly. Group 2 camels (1×GnRH-FTM; n = 46) were given a GnRH analog (Buserelin, 20 μg/animal, i.v.; Receptal, Intervet, Holland) at random, then were mated 14 days later. In Group 3 animals (2×GnRH-FTM; n = 41), random GnRH analog was followed by repeated GnRH injection 14 days later and fixed-time natural mating on Day 28. Transrectal examination and ultrasonography were performed at weekly intervals to evaluate ovarian follicular status, diagnose ovulation and pregnancy. Blood samples were collected for progesterone determination by ELISA to confirm ovulation and pregnancy. All female dromedaries were assigned randomly to one of thirteen fertile bulls and were bred once on Days 1, 14 and 28 in Groups 1-3, respectively. Ovarian follicular status and ovulation rate was similar among groups at the start of the study. Seventy-five of the 133 dromedaries (56.4%) ovulated after random natural mating or random GnRH treatment. Mean length of mating was 386 ± 17.8 (±SEM) seconds. There was no significant difference in mating time among groups and in pregnancy rate among dromedary bulls. In Group 3 (2×GnRH-FTM), ovarian follicular status before mating (P dromedaries (1×GnRH-FTM), treatment tended to improve follicular status before mating, ovulation rate (n = 34, 73.9%) and pregnancy rate at 21 and 60 days (PR 21 days n = 21, 45.7% and PR 60 days n = 16, 34.8%), but the effect was not significant compared to random natural mating. In conclusion, this is the first study demonstrating that favorable pregnancy rate can be achieved following ovarian follicular wave synchronization with repeated GnRH analog and fixed-time natural mating at 14 days intervals in dromedary camels.

  12. The first dromedary (Camelus dromedarius) offspring obtained from in vitro matured, in vitro fertilized and in vitro cultured abattoir-derived oocytes. (United States)

    Khatir, Hadj; Anouassi, AbdelHaq


    Dromedary offspring have never been produced fully in vitro. We have previously demonstrated that embryos obtained by culture in semi-defined medium (mKSOMaa) have better in vitro development ability than those cultured with oviductal epithelial cells. The aim of the present experiment was to study the pregnancy rate after embryo transfer of in vitro-produced (IVP) dromedary embryos cultured in semi-defined modified medium (mKSOMaa). IVM/IVF procedures were conducted on six hundred and sixty four (664) cumulus oocytes complexes (COCs) aspirated from ovaries collected at a local slaughterhouse and cultured in vitro (38.5 degrees C; 5% CO2, and maximum humidity >95%). Maturation was completed by incubation in TCM-199 medium supplemented with 10% heat-treated Fetal Calf Serum (FCS), 10 ng/mL EGF, 1 microg/mL FSH, 1 microg/mL E2 and 500 microM cysteamine for 30 h. In vitro fertilization was performed using fresh semen (0.5 x 10(6) spermatozoa/mL in modified TALP-solution). Fertilized oocytes were cultured in mKSOMaa, under 38.5 degrees C, 5% CO2 and 90% N2 with maximum humidity (>95%). All IVC steps were done in seven replicates. The cleavage rate (two cells to blastocyst stage) was 64% (425/664) and the percentage of oocytes reaching the blastocyst stage was 23% (155/664). The hatching rate of blastocyst obtained after culture was 46% (71/155). Good quality hatched blastocysts (n = 66) were transferred individually to synchronized recipients. Pregnancy rates, determined by ultrasonography at 15, 60 and 90 days after embryo transfer (ET), were 38%, 32% and 27%, respectively. Out of 18 pregnant females 5 aborted between the fifth and seventh month of pregnancy and 13 females (20%) remained pregnant. After 385 days of pregnancy, the first healthy and normal male-dromedary offspring produced fully in vitro was born at a birth weight of 38 kg. More dromedary calves (n = 4) were born later on. The remaining pregnant females (n = 8) are due to calf within the next months. In conclusion, this is the first reported offspring in camelids obtained by transfer of embryos produced by IVM, IVF and IVC using abattoir-derived oocytes, fresh semen and culture in a semi-defined medium.

  13. Hematological and serum biochemical aspects associated with a camel (Camelus dromedarius) naturally infected by Trypanosoma evansi with severe parasitemia in Semnan, Iran

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mahmood Ahmadi-hamedani; Khosro Ghazvinian; Mohammad Mehdi Darvishi


    Objective: To determine the presence of Trypanosoma evansi (T. evansi) and the effect of trypanosomosis on hemato-biochemical profile of dromedary camels in Semnan, Iran, which has not been reported yet. Methods:To perform this project, blood samples were collected by venipuncture into plain and EDTA-K2-containing vacutainer tubes from 21 dromedary camels (12 males and 9 females) aged 3-18 years, from 4 different regions of Semnan. Results: Microscopic examination of stained thin blood smears revealed the presence of T. evansi in one of the samples. However, it should be noted that this sample showed a very high parasitemia (more than 5 trypomastigote were visible per microscopic field with MGG, 1 000×). This heavy parasitemia was associated with an 18-year-old female camel that showed symptoms of corneal opacity, intense emaciation and pale mucous membranes. Comparison of hematologyical and serum biochemical profiles between the camel infected by T. evansi and uninfected camels indicated anemia, leukocytosis, hyperproteinemia, hypoalbuminemia, hyperglobulinemia, reduction A/G ratio, increasedα1,βand globulins and decreased ofα2 globulins and increased the concentration of gamma-glutamyl transferase enzyme. Conclusions: Results of the present study revealed that trypanosomosis was present in dromedary camels of Semnan, Iran (infection rate is 4.76%) and hemato-biochemical parameters were markedly affected by camel trypanosomosis.

  14. Serum concentrations of thyroid hormones, cholesterol and triglyceride, and their correlations together in clinically healthy camels (Camelus dromedarius: Effects of season, sex and age

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    Javad Tajik


    Full Text Available To evaluate the effects of season, sex and age on serum concentrations of thyroid hormones, cholesterol and triglyceride, and their correlations together in dromedarian camels, these parameters were measured in 180 clinically healthy dromedary camels. No significant difference was detected for the measured serum parameters between the two sexes and among the different age groups of camels and none of them had significant correlation with the age of the animals. There was a significant correlation between serum T4 and triglyceride (r = -0.243, p = 0.002. There were significant differences between summer and winter seasons in the serum concentrations of T4 (p < 0.001, T3 (p = 0.01 and triglyceride (p < 0.001. In winter, the serum concentration of triglyceride had a significant correlation with the age of the sampled camels (r = -0.235, p = 0.026. In male camels,T4had a marginally significant correlation with cholesterol (r= -0.158, p = 0.06.The effects of season, sex and age on the serum concentrations and relationships between thyroid hormones, cholesterol and triglyceride in dromedary camels can be proposed as the probable causes of the controversial findings in the previous studies.

  15. Quality and developmental ability of dromedary (Camelus dromedarius) embryos obtained by IVM/IVF, in vivo matured/IVF or in vivo matured/fertilized oocytes. (United States)

    Khatir, H; Anouassi, A; Tibary, A


    The effect of source of cumulus-oocytes-complexes (COCs), maturation and fertilization conditions on developmental competence of dromedary embryos was examined. Thirty-six adult females were superovulated with equine Chorionic Gonadotropin (eCG) injection (3500 IU, IM) and divided in three groups of 12 females each. Group 1 provided 138 COC's collected from follicles >or= 5 mm 10 days after stimulation prior hCG treatment and matured in vitro for 30 h. Group 2 provided 120 in vivo matured oocytes which were aspirated from their follicles 20 h after hCG (3000 IU, IV) given on day 10 follow eCG injection. Group 3 provided 65 in vivo matured/fertilized oocytes. Females in Group 3 received hCG on day 10 following eCG treatment and then were mated 24 h later. Fertilized oocytes were collected from the oviducts of females 48-h post-mating. Quality of the oocytes was assessed after in vitro maturation (IVM), in vitro fertilization (IVF) and in vitro culture (IVC) of COCs. All cultures were performed in three replicates (n = 3) at 38.5 degrees C, under 5% CO(2) and high humidity (>95%). Only COCs with cumulus and homogenous (dark) cytoplasm were used. Nuclear maturation rate for Groups 1 and 2 was determined by epifluorescence microscopy in a sample of COCs (n = 30) denuded, fixed and stained with Hoechst 33342. To study the viability of obtained embryos, hatched blastocysts from each group were transferred to recipients followed by pregnancy diagnosis using ultrasonography at 15, 60 and 90 days. The percentage of COCs reaching metaphase II (MII) after 30 h of maturation was slightly but not significantly higher for in vivo matured oocytes (28/30; 93%) than those in vitro matured (25/30; 84%). The total rate of cleavage (2 cells to blastocyst stage) was not different for the three groups. However, significantly (p dromedary embryos may be directly related to the intrinsic quality (cytoplasmic maturation) of oocytes.

  16. Hematological and serum biochemical aspects associated with a camel(Camelus dromedarius)naturally infected by Trypanosoma evansi with severe parasitemia in Semnan,Iran

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mahmood; Ahmadi-hamedani; Khosro; Ghazvinian; Mohammad; Mehdi; Darvishi


    Objective:To determine the presence of Trypanosoma eransi(T.evansi) and the effect of trypanosomosis on hemato-biochemical profile of dromedary camels in Semnan,Iran,which has not been reported yet.Methods:To perform this project,blood samples were collected by venipuncture into plain and EDTA-K2-containing vacutainer tubes from 21 dromedary camels(12 males and 9 females) aged3—18 years,from 4 different regions of Semnan.Results:Microscopic examination of stained thin blood smears revealed the presence of T.evansi in one of the samples.However,it should be noted that this sample showed a very high parasitemia(more than 5 trypomastigote were visible per microscopic field with MGG,1000×.This heavy parasitemia was associated with an 18-year-old female camel that showed symptoms of corneal opacity,intense emaciation and pale mucous membranes.Comparison of hematological and serum biochemical profiles between the camel infected by T.eransi and uninfected camels indicated anemia,leukocytosis,hyperproteinemia.hypoalbuminemia,hyperglobulinemia,reduction A/G ratio,increased a,,p and globulins and decreased of a,globulins and increased the concentration of gumma-glutamyl transferase enzyme.Conclusions:Results of the present study revealed that trypanosomosis was present in dromedary camels of Semnan,Iran(infection rate is 4.76%) and hemato-biochemical parameters were markedly affected by camel trypanosomosis.

  17. The ship of the desert. The dromedary camel (Camelus dromedarius, a domesticated animal species well adapted to extreme conditions of aridness and heat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Bornstein


    Full Text Available The dromedary camel (Camel dromedarius is extremely well adapted to life in hot and arid lands. In terms of physiological adaptation to heat and water deprivation it surpasses by far every other large animal of which data have been collected. None of the adaptive mechanisms to cope with the environmental stresses are unique to the Arabian camel, but the efficiency of its adaptation is superior. At high ambient temperatures the camels adapt to the scarcity of water by reducing their faecal, urinary and evaporative water losses. During dehydration, the kidneys reduce water losses both by decreasing the glomerual filtration rate and by increasing the tubular reabsorption of water. Also their ability of regulating their body temperature from 34.5-40.7 °C conserves a lot of water, when most needed.

  18. The influence of high dietary protein, energy and mineral intake on deficient young camel (Camelus dromedarius)--II. Changes in mineral status. (United States)

    Faye, B; Saint-Martin, G; Cherrier, R; Ruffa, A


    1. Mangrove Avicennia marina is poor in some trace elements such as copper, zinc and manganese. In a trial we used 32 young camels divided into four groups. 2. Groups 1 and 3 were supplemented with copper and zinc in drinking water after 1 month of mangrove feeding. 3. Groups 2 and 3 received concentrate rich in protein and energy. The supplementation was stopped after 2 months. 4. All the camels were deficient in trace elements at the beginning of mineral supplementation. 5. The plasma concentration of copper increased significantly up to normal levels (less than 70 micrograms/100 ml) in energy protein supplemented groups, but the quantity supplied (100 mg of copper sulphate/day) was not sufficient to maintain this level after the end of supplementation. 6. The original zinc deficiency was too severe to observe a significant effect of the mineral supplementation. 7. Calcium, magnesium and phosphorus levels were improved during the supplementation period in protein-energy supplemented groups. 8. A high interaction between mineral absorption and quality of the diet was observed. A well-balanced diet seems essential to avoid deficient mineral status.

  19. Molecular cloning and phylogenetic analysis of integrins alpha v beta 1 and alpha v beta 6 of one-humped camel (Camelus dromedarius)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Du, Junzheng; Larska, Magdalena Larska; Chang, Huiyun;


    into the Artiodactyla group, together with those of Bactrian camel, pig, sheep, and cattle that are susceptible to FMDV infection. Compared with the Bactrian camel integrins, 4, 10, and 8 amino acid changes were found in the dromedary camel alpha v, beta 1, and beta 6 subunits, respectively. This study...

  20. Molecular epidemiology of Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus detected from ticks of one humped camels (Camelus dromedarius) population in northeastern Iran. (United States)

    Champour, Mohsen; Chinikar, Sadegh; Mohammadi, Gholamreza; Razmi, Gholamreza; Shah-Hosseini, Nariman; Khakifirouz, Sahar; Mostafavi, Ehsan; Jalali, Tahmineh


    A comprehensive study was conducted on camel ticks to assess the epidemiological aspects of the infection in camels. From May 2012 to January 2013, 11 cities and towns from the Khorasan provinces, northeastern Iran, were randomly selected as a "cluster" and at least 14 camels were sampled from each cluster. A total of 200 camels were examined in this study, reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction was used for the detection of the Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus (CCHFV) genome. Tick infestation was observed in 171 of the 200 camels, 480 ixodid ticks were collected, and one genus was identified as Hyalomma. Four species were reported to be the major tick species infesting camels. Among these, Hyalomma dromedarii was the most predominant tick species (90.7 %), followed by H. anatolicum (6 %), H. marginatum (2.9 %), and H. asiaticum (0.4 %). The genome of the CCHFV was detected in 49 (10.2 %) of the 480 ticks. The CCHFV RNA was detected in two of the four tick species, and the viral genome was detected from tick samples in three South Khorasan cities. The positivity rate of ticks was as follows: Boshroyeh, 25 out of 480 (5.2 %); Birjand, 17 out of 480 (3.5 %); and Nehbandan, 7 out of 480 (1.5 %). We recommend the use of acaricides to prevent disease transmission to humans and to reduce the tick population in camels. Care should be taken by abattoir workers and by those who work closely with camels.

  1. Identification by FT-ICR-MS of Camelus dromedarius α-lactalbumin variants as the result of nonenzymatic deamidation of Asn-16 and Asn-45. (United States)

    Si Ahmed Zennia, Saliha; Mati, Abderrahmane; Saulnier, Franck; Verdier, Yann; Chiappetta, Giovanni; Mulliert, Guillermo; Miclo, Laurent; Vinh, Joëlle; Girardet, Jean-Michel


    Nonenzymatic deamidation of asparaginyl residues can occur spontaneously under physiological conditions principally when a glycyl residue is at the carboxyl side of Asn and leads to formation of aspartyl and isoaspartyl residues. This modification can change the biological activity of proteins or peptides and trigger an auto-immune response. The α-lactalbumins of members of the Camelidae family are the only of described α-lactalbumins that carry two AsnGly sequences. In the present study, high-resolution mass spectrometry, which enables accurate mass measurement has shown that Asn(16) and Asn(45) underwent a nonenzymatic deamidation, the sequence Asn(45)-Gly(46) being deamidated spontaneously at near-neutral and basic pH and Asn(16)-Gly(17) rather at basic pH. The 16-17 sequence was probably stabilized at near-neutral pH by hydrogen bonds according to the molecular modelisation performed with the camel protein.

  2. Lactoferrin from Camelus dromedarius inhibits nuclear transcription Factor-kappa B activation, cyclooxygenase-2 expression and prostaglandin E2 production in stimulated human chondrocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naila Rasheed


    Full Text Available Background: Osteoarthritis (OA is a progressive joint disorder, which remains the leading cause of chronic disability in aged people. Nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB is a major cellular event in OA and its activation by interleukin-1β (IL-1β plays a critical role in cartilage breakdown in these patients. Objective: In this study, we examined the effect of lactoferrin on NF-κB activation, cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2 expression and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2 production in stimulated human articular chondrocytes. Materials and Methods: Human chondrocytes were derived from OA articular cartilage and treated with camel lactoferrin and then stimulated with IL-1β. Gene expression was determined by TaqMan assays and protein expression was studied by Western immunoblotting. NF-κB activity and PGE2levels were determined by ELISA based assays. NF-κB activity was also determined by treatment of chondrocytes with NF-κB specific inhibitor Bay 11–7082. Results: Lactoferrin inhibited IL-1β-induced activation and nuclear translocation of NF-κB p65 in human OA chondrocytes. Lactoferrin also inhibited mRNA/protein expression of COX-2 and production of PGE2. Moreover, Bay 11–7082 also inhibited IL-1β-induced expression of COX-2 and production of PGE2. The inhibitory effect of lactoferrin on the IL-1β induced expression of COX-2 or production of PGE2was mediated at least in part via suppression of NF-κB activation. Conclusions: Our data determine camel lactoferrin as a novel inhibitor of IL-1β-induced activation of NF-κB signaling events and production of cartilage-degrading molecule PGE2via inhibition of COX-2 expressions. These results may have important implications for the development of novel therapeutic strategies for the prevention/treatment of OA and other degenerative/inflammatory diseases.

  3. Isolation and characterization of avian paramyxovirus type 1 (Newcastle disease) viruses from a flock of ostriches (Struthio camelus) and emus (Dromaius novaehollandiae) in Europe with inconsistent serology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Poul Henrik; Herczeg, J.; Lomniczi, B.


    During a 95-day study period in 1995 in Denmark, 18 ostriches in a flock of 77 ostriches and four emus held in quarantine died, Clinical and pathological observations did not indicate the presence of transmissible infectious disease in the hock. Management failures and indoor housing were believed...... tests in day-old chicks values for the three APMV-1 isolates were in the range 1.63-1.69. Characterization by means of mouse monoclonal antibodies and by restriction site analysis revealed that the three isolates were indistinguishable and similar to APMV-1 viruses present in a simultaneous epizootic...

  4. A comparison of the efficacy of doramectin, closantel and levamisole in the treatment of the 'oriental eye fluke', Philophthalmus gralli, in commercially reared ostriches (Struthio camelus : short communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Mukaratirwa


    Full Text Available Commercially reared ostriches at Msengi farm situated in the Chinhoyi area of Mashonaland West province in Zimbabwe were found to be infected with the 'oriental eye fluke', Philopthalmus gralli, in 2001. This was the 1st record of the fluke in Zimbabwe. Trials were conducted to identify a suitable drug for the treatment of this fluke. A total of 12 ostriches confirmed to be infected with the fluke through clinical examination of the eyes and identification of the fluke were randomly divided into 3 equal groups, with each group receiving a different treatment protocol. The 3 drugs used were doramectin, levamisole and closantel. Each of the drugs was used in combination with chloramphenicol as an eye ointment. Levamisole was administered topically into the eye whereas doramectin and closantel were administered parenterally as an intramuscular injection. The results indicated a positive response in levamisole-treated birds but there were no noticeable responses to doramectin and closantel treatments.

  5. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U12466-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available sicae, tobacc... 42 0.043 2 ( AB254867 ) Struthio camelus CHD mRNA for chromodomain helica... 52 0.053 1 ( Kluyveromyces lactis strain NRRL... 129 2e-28 AF059276_1( AF059276 |pid:none) Struthio camelus chro

  6. 78 FR 73877 - Endangered Species; Marine Mammals; Receipt of Applications for Permit (United States)


    ... Felidae [includes cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus); but does not include the genus Panthera or margay (Leopardus... Crotalus willardi) Species: Bactrian wapiti (Cervus elaphus bactrianus) Amur leopard (Panthera pardus... mortem wild Amur tigers (Panthera tigris altaica) to the United Kingdom for the purpose of enhancement...

  7. Anatomia do sistema porta renal e suas implicações no emprego de agentes anestésicos na contenção de avestruzes (Struthio camelus Anatomy of the renal portal system and its implications for the use of anesthetic agents in the restraint of ostriches (Struthio camelus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haley Silva de Carvalho


    Full Text Available Objetivou-se com este estudo caracterizar a anatomia do sistema porta renal e verificar sua influência sobre o protocolo anestésico xilazina, tiletamina e zolazepam na contenção de avestruzes, por comparação da administração dos fármacos nos músculos da perna ou da asa. Em cinco animais foi injetado látex nas veias femorais no sentido de drenagem e, posteriormente, as aves foram fixadas em formol a 10%, por 72 horas. Em uma ave, procedeu-se à localização, colheita e fixação das valvas portais renais em formol a 10%. O sistema porta renal apresentou-se constituído por duas veias portais renais craniais, duas veias portais renais caudais e seis valvas portais renais. Na contenção química, seis avestruzes foram pré-tratados com xilazina (1mg kg-1 e, decorridos 10 minutos, receberam tiletamina/zolazepam (6mg kg-1. Os animais foram manipulados em duas ocasiões diferentes, sendo que na primeira anestesia o protocolo foi administrado nos músculos da base das asas (GI e, após 15 dias, os mesmos animais receberam o protocolo nos músculos das pernas (GII. Os períodos de latência, hábil e de recuperação não foram diferentes entre os grupos (P>0,05. A freqüência cardíaca permaneceu abaixo dos valores basais durante a anestesia (PThis study was aimed at characterizing the anatomy of the renal portal system, and determining its influence on the anesthetic protocol xylazine, tiletamine and zolazepam, in the restraint of ostriches, compared with the administration of drugs into the leg or wing muscles. Latex was injected into the femoral veins of five animals, for drainage purposes, and the birds were then fixed in 10% formaldehyde, for 72 hours. In one bird, the renal portal valves were located, collected and fixed in 10% formaldehyde. The renal portal system consisted of two cranial renal portal veins, two caudal renal portal veins, and six renal portal valves. In the chemical restraint, six ostriches were anesthetized with xylazine (1mg kg-1 and after 10 minutes, tiletamine/zolazepam (6mg kg-1. The animals were handled on two different occasions: in the first anesthesia, the protocol was administered into the muscles at the base of the wings (GI and after 15 days, the same animals received the protocol in the leg muscles (GII. The periods for the onset and duration of the anesthesia, and recovery, showed no difference between the groups (P>0.05. The heart rate remained below the basal values during the anesthesia (P<0.05, in both groups. The cloacal temperature increased in both groups, particularly in GII, leading to an increased respiratory rate to facilitate heat loss. Since the chemical restraint was adapted for procedures of short duration in the field in the ostriches of both groups, it was not possible to demonstrate the influence of the renal portal system.

  8. Struthiolipeurus rheae Harrison, 1916 (Phthiraptera: Philopteridae infestando avestruzes (Struthio camelus em uma criação no Município de Três Rios, RJ Struthiolipeurus rheae Harrison, 1916 (Phthiraptera: Philopteridae infesting ostriches (Struthio camelus in one farming in the Municipality of Três Rios, RJ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thais F. Fagundes


    Full Text Available No Brasil, a criação de avestruzes foi iniciada no final do Século XX, para suprir o mercado internacional de carne, plumas e couro. As plumas têm importância econômica nos setores industrial e artesanal. Os piolhos podem causar prurido intenso, que, dependendo da intensidade de infestação, pode levar à depreciação das plumas. No Estado do Rio de Janeiro, são desconhecidas as espécies de piolhos que infestam avestruzes. Assim, o objetivo deste trabalho foi identificar os piolhos que ocorrem nas aves pertencentes a um criatório comercial no Município de Três Rios. Nos anos de 2003 a 2006, mensalmente, as avestruzes foram examinadas, para verificar a presença de ectoparasitos. Quando constatada a infestação, algumas plumas foram retiradas, colocadas em sacos plásticos e enviadas ao laboratório para exame. Após serem coletados das plumas, os ectoparasitos foram examinados ao microscópio estereoscópio, clarificados em hidróxido de potássio a 10%, desidratados em álcool etílico e montados em lâmina com balsamo do Canadá natural, para observação em microscópio óptico. Baseando-se na observação das características, foi possível determinar os espécimes coletados como pertencentes à espécie Struthiolipeurus rheae.In Brazil ostriches farming began at the end of 20th Century, to supply the international market of meat, feathers and leather. Feathers are economically important to industry and artisanal sectors. Lice can cause intense pruritus that depending on the intensity of infestation can lead to depreciation of feathers. In Rio de Janeiro there are unknown species of lice infesting ostriches. Thus the objective of this study was to identify the lice that happen in birds from commercial farms in the Municipality of Três Rios. From 2003 to 2006 ostriches were monthly examined for the presence of ectoparasites. When infestations were detected some feathers were removed, placed into plastic bags and sent to the laboratory for further analysis. After removed from feathers, ectoparasites were examined using a stereoscope, followed by clarification in 10% potassium hydroxide and dehydrated in ethanol. Permanent slides were mounted in natural Canada balsam for observation in optical microscope. Based on observed characteristics, it was possible to determine that collected specimens belong to the species Struthiolipeurus rheae.

  9. Wolf Predation Among Reintroduced Przewalski Horses in Hustai National Park, Mongolia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duyne, van C.; Ras, E.; Vos, de A.E.W.; Boer, de W.F.; Henkens, R.J.H.G.; Usukhjargal, D.


    Depredation by wolves (Canis lupus) could threaten survival of reintroduced wild Przewalski horses (Equus ferus przewalskii) in Hustai National Park (HNP), Mongolia. We conducted scat analysis, spatial analyses of kills, and interviews to study prey species selection and temporal and spatial factors

  10. Muscle pH and temperature changes in hot- and cold-deboned ostrich (Struthio camelus var. domesticus) Muscularis gastrocnemius, pars interna and Muscularis iliofibularis during the first 23h post-mortem. (United States)

    Hoffman, L C; Botha, Suné St C; Britz, T J


    Cold-shortening is the response when muscles are exposed to temperatures below 10°C with a pH>6.20. The course of pH within hot-deboned and intact ostrich M. gastrocnemius, pars interna and M. iliofibularis were followed for the first 23-24h post-mortem to investigate the changes in pH as well as to determine the point of minimum pH for ostrich muscles post-mortem. The hot-deboned muscles took longer to reach the point of minimum pH than the intact muscles. There was no significant (P=0.4508) difference in the minimum pH (5.91±0.26) between the hot-deboned and the intact muscles. It was concluded that both the M. gastrocnemius, pars interna and the M. iliofibularis reached a pHmuscle temperatures above 10°C; and therefore showed no risk of cold-shortening if these muscles were to be hot-deboned 2-4h post-mortem.

  11. Relationship between the size of the dominant follicle, vaginal electrical resistance, serum concentrations of oestradiol and progesterone and sexual receptivity during the follicular phase of the dromedary camel (Camelus dromedarius). (United States)

    Ghoneim, I M; Waheed, M M; Adam, Mohammed I; Al-Eknah, M M


    Thirteen dromedaries were used to study the relationship between the size of the dominant follicle, vaginal electrical resistance (VER), sexual receptivity, and serum concentrations of oestradiol-17β (E2) and progesterone (P4) throughout the follicular phase. On a daily basis, the animals experienced teasing with a vasectomised camel, trans-rectal ultrasound examination of the ovaries, and measurement of VER and blood collection for serum E2 and P4. Results revealed no significant differences between the mean VER in the animals that had a follicle of 5-10mm (group I, n=11), 11-15mm (group II, n=12) and 16-20mm (group III, n=13). The VER did not correlate with the follicular size. The E2 concentrations in the animals in groups II (60.14pg/ml) and III (66.52pg/ml) were significantly (Pdromedary camels.

  12. Plasma steroid hormone concentrations and blood flow of the ovarian structures of the female dromedary (Camelus dromedarius) during growth, dominance, spontaneous ovulation, luteinization and regression of the follicular wave. (United States)

    Rawy, M S; Derar, R I; El-Sherry, T M; Megahed, G A


    The objectives of this study were to investigate the ovarian follicular waves and their corresponding hormonal changes in she-camels and to elucidate blood perfusion of the ovarian structures. Three reproductively sound, non-pregnant female camels were examined daily using B-mode and color Doppler to detect changes in their ovarian structures and blood vasculature for 22 follicular waves. Blood area (BA) and percentage (BA%) were determined for the ovarian structures. Three phases of follicular development, those of growth, maturation, and regression, were observed during each follicular wave. Deviation occurred on Day 6.1±1.08. Estradiol increased from basal levels of 27.4±0.4pg/ml to peak concentrations of 134.4±47.5pg/ml as the follicle reached a diameter of 13.2mm. Peripheral progesterone concentrations remained low (dromedaries consists of individually variable periods of growth, maturation and regression. Deviation occurs 6.1±1.08d from emergence. Transrectal color-Doppler sonography is a useful technique for noninvasive evaluation of follicular vascularity in camels during various stages of the follicular wave. It provides additional information to assess the developmental stage and activity of the ovarian structures.

  13. [Occurrence of Cryptosporidium spp. oocysts (Apicomplexa, Cryptosporidiidae) in ostriches, Struthio camelus L., 1758 (Aves, Struthionidae) reared in North and Lowered Coastline regions of the state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil]. (United States)

    Oliveira, Francisco Carlos R; Ederli, Nicole B; Ederli, Bianca B; Albuquerque, Marcia C; Dos Santos, Michelle Daniele


    The aim of this research was to determine the prevalence of Cryptosporidium spp. in ostriches reared in the state of Rio de Janeiro. The diagnosis of oocysts of Cryptosporidium spp. in the feces of 77 ostriches was done by modified Ziehl-Neelsen technique. The occurrence was observed in 44.4% of the examined animals. However, in a property 100% of the ostriches shed oocysts in their feces. Oocysts was subspherical in shape with 6.33 +/- 1.27 (4.31-9.63) by 5.90 +/- 1.18 (4.07-9.42) mm and shape index of 1.07 +/- 0.05 (1.00-1.29). Was verified a high occurrence of oocysts elimination. In spite was observed a uniform distribution of the oocysts measurements in the regression line (R2 = 0.9438) accentuated difference was evidenced in the morphometry of the oocysts, that suggests that more of a species of Cryptosporidium are parasitizing these birds.

  14. Effets de la déshydratation sur le métabolisme énergétique et sur l'état corporel du dromadaire, Camelus dromedarius


    Grech-Angelini, Sébastien


    Le dromadaire est le seul animal domestique capable de valoriser, par ses productions (lait, viande, poils, travail), les espaces arides et semi-arides de l'Afrique et de l'Asie. Son exceptionnelle capacité à résister à la chaleur et à la privation d'eau a fait de lui un élément capital de la vie socio-économique des populations habitant ces zones à l'environnement hostile. Pour cette étude, 12 chamelles issues du sud marocain ont été utilisées. Deux lots homogènes de 6 dromadaires ont été co...

  15. 牦牛HSP27基因的克隆及其在雌性生殖器官中的表达%Cloning of Bos Grunniens HSP27 Gene and Its Expression in the Female Yak Reproductive Organs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何翃闳; 崔燕; 潘阳阳; 樊江峰; 胡威; 张译夫; 刘鹏刚; 李秦; 余四九


    Objective]The objective of this study was carried out to study differences of the expression of Heat Shock Protein 27(HSP27) gene in the main reproductive organs of the female yak under normal physiological conditions by cloning the HSP27 gene and analyzing its biological characteristics.[Method] Samples from the tissues of ipsilateral Ovary, oviduct and uterus during follicular anaphase, luteal anaphase and early pregnancy phase were collected and cDNA were isolated from each of the collected tissues. RT-PCR was used to clone the HSP27 gene, and purified PCR products were cloned on pMDTM18-T Vector to detect the sequence. The genetic characteristics of HSP27 gene were then analyzed utilizing bioinformation software to predict its product protein structure and potential functions. Next, RT-qPCR was employed to reveal the relative expression of HSP27 gene in the main reproductive organ during the reproductive cycle of the yak. Statistical analysis was performed using the software program SPSS (version 19.0, SPSS).[Result]HSP27 gene sequence containing a complete coding sequence, with the coding region length of 450bp (GenBank accession No: KP716832), This length could encode 149 amino acids of which Leucine (10.7%) was the most, and Tryptophan (0.7%) the least abundant. We determined that the atom number, molecular formula, calculated molecular weight and theoretical isoelectric point of the encoded protein were 2366, C747H1189N205O220S5, 16.722 kD, and 5.33 respectively. The HSP27 encoded protein of HSP27 was predicted to be a type of soluble and non-transmembrane protein. Nucleotide sequence analysis revealed that the HSP27 gene nucleotide sequence of yak was similar to those ofBos taurus(99.8%),Bubalus bubalis(98.4%),Ovis aries(97.8%),Pantholops hodgsonii(97.6%),Orcinus orca(90.3%),Camelus ferus(89.7%),Sus scrofa(89.7%),Equus caballus (86.7%),Canis lupus(86.7%),Homo sapiens(85.5%) andGorilla gorilla(85.3%). The similarity of resulting amino acid sequence of HSP27

  16. Olfactory Cues, Visual Cues, and Semiochemical Diversity Interact During Host Location by Invasive Forest Beetles. (United States)

    Kerr, Jessica L; Kelly, Dave; Bader, Martin K-F; Brockerhoff, Eckehard G


    Plant-feeding insects use visual and olfactory cues (shape, color, plant volatiles) for host location, but the relative importance of different cues and interactions with non-host-plant volatiles in ecosystems of varying plant biodiversity is unclear for most species. We studied invasive bark beetles and wood borers associated with pine trees to characterize interactions among color, host and non-host volatiles, by employing traps that mimic tree trunks. Cross-vane flight intercept traps (black, green, red, white, yellow, clear) and black funnel traps were used with and without attractants (α-pinene + ethanol), repellents (non-host green leaf volatiles, 'GLV'), and attractant/repellent combinations in four pine forests in New Zealand. We trapped 274,594 Hylurgus ligniperda, 7842 Hylastes ater, and 16,301 Arhopalus ferus. Trap color, attractant, and color × attractant effects were highly significant. Overall, black and red traps had the highest catches, irrespective of the presence of attractants. Alpha-pinene plus ethanol increased trap catch of H. ligniperda 200-fold but only 6-fold for H. ater and 2-fold for A. ferus. Green leaf volatiles had a substantial repellent effect on trap catch of H. ligniperda but less on H. ater and A. ferus. Attack by H. ligniperda was halved when logs were treated with GLV, and a similar effect was observed when logs were placed among broadleaved understory shrubs emitting GLV. Overall, H. ligniperda was most strongly affected by the olfactory cues used, whereas H. ater and A. ferus were more strongly affected by visual cues. Collectively, the results support the semiochemical diversity hypothesis, indicating that non-host plant volatiles from diverse plant communities or artificial dispensers can contribute to resistance against herbivores by partly disrupting host location.

  17. Beak and skull shapes of human commensal and non-commensal house sparrows Passer domesticus (United States)


    Background The granivorous house sparrow Passer domesticus is thought to have developed its commensal relationship with humans with the rise of agriculture in the Middle East some 10,000 years ago, and to have expanded with the spread of agriculture in Eurasia during the last few thousand years. One subspecies, P. d. bactrianus, residing in Central Asia, has apparently maintained the ancestral ecology, however. This subspecies is not associated with human settlements; it is migratory and lives in natural grass- and wetland habitats feeding on wild grass seeds. It is well documented that the agricultural revolution was associated with an increase in grain size and changes in seed structure in cultivated cereals, the preferred food source of commensal house sparrow. Accordingly, we hypothesize that correlated changes may have occurred in beak and skull morphology as adaptive responses to the change in diet. Here, we test this hypothesis by comparing the skull shapes of 101 house sparrows from Iran, belonging to five different subspecies, including the non-commensal P. d. bactrianus, using geometric morphometrics. Results The various commensal house sparrow subspecies share subtle but consistent skeletal features that differ significantly from those of the non-commensal P. d. bactrianus. Although there is a marked overall size allometry in the data set, the shape difference between the ecologically differentiated sparrows cannot be explained by differences in size alone. Relative to the size allometry commensal house sparrows exhibit a skull shape consistent with accelerated development (heterochrony), resulting in a more robust facial cranium and a larger, more pointed beak. Conclusion The difference in skull shape and robustness of the beak between commensal and non-commensal house sparrows is consistent with adaptations to process the larger and rachis encapsulated seeds of domesticated cereals among human associated populations. PMID:24044497

  18. -


    Ratna Winata, Lucia


    - Peer Review IMMUNOHISTOCHEMICHAL ANALYSIS ON THE DISTRIBUTION OF ADENOHYPOPHYSIAL CELLS IN THE PITUITARY PARS DISTALIS OF THE OSTRICH (STRUTHIO CAMELUS), Proceeding Internasional Seminar "Strategi to manage Bio-Eco-Health system for stabilizing animal health and Productivity to support public health, Surabaya Indonesia 19- 20 Juni 2012 JW Marriot Hotel Surabaya, Faculty of veterinary Medicine- Universitas Airlangga

  19. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U12230-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ( EU159113 |pid:none) Camelus dromedarius mitochondrion... 35 8.0 Y19184_11( Y19184 |pid:none) Lama pacos co...nspo... 35 8.0 AJ566364_11( AJ566364 |pid:none) Lama pacos complete mitochondrial... 35 8.0 >AC105378_11( AC

  20. First report of the genus Retortamonas (Sarcomastigophora: Retortamonadidae in birds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael A Martínez-Díaz


    Full Text Available In studies carried out on the parasites infecting ostriches (Struthio camelus in Spain, trophozoites of Retortamonas sp. have been found in the intestinal contents of 28 out of 146 slaughtered ostriches. The species infecting ostriches could not be determined from the morphological data available. However, these findings are important as they constitute the first report of the genus Retortamonas in birds.

  1. Dynamic Conservation of Date Palms: The Future of a Genetic Resource at the Nexus of Climate Change, Desertification and Salinity Stress in Oasis Ecosystems (United States)

    The date palm (Phoenix dactylifera) is the only indigenous, wild desert plant definitely domesticated in its native harsh environment, and along with the camel (Camelus dromedarius), was responsible for opening the vast desert territories for human activity and the development of oasis ecosystems, w...

  2. Recalibrating Equus evolution using the genome sequence of an early Middle Pleistocene horse

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Orlando, Ludovic Antoine Alexandre; Ginolhac, Aurélien; Zhang, Guojie


    determined so far by almost an order of magnitude. For comparison, we sequenced the genome of a Late Pleistocene horse (43 kyr bp), and modern genomes of five domestic horse breeds (Equus ferus caballus), a Przewalski's horse (E. f. przewalskii) and a donkey (E. asinus). Our analyses suggest that the Equus...... lineage giving rise to all contemporary horses, zebras and donkeys originated 4.0-4.5 million years before present (Myr bp), twice the conventionally accepted time to the most recent common ancestor of the genus Equus. We also find that horse population size fluctuated multiple times over the past 2 Myr...

  3. Influence of Age and Adding Boron on the Sex Hormone in Serum of Male Young Ostrich%年龄和添加硼对雄性雏鸵鸟血清性激素水平的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    位兰; 李健; 司丽芳; 刘宁; 彭克美


    本研究以不同发育阶段的雄性雏鸵鸟(Struthio camelus)为试验动物,在其饮水中添加不同剂量的硼,采用放射免疫分析法(radioimmunoassay,RIA)检测不同硼水平和不同发育阶段雏鸵鸟血清中卵泡刺激素(follicle stimulating hormone,FSH)、黄体生成素(luteinizing hormone,LH)、睾酮(testosterone,T)、雌二醇(estradiol,E2)的含量,旨在探明硼对雏鸵鸟血清性激素水平的影响.研究结果表明,雄性雏鸵鸟血清FSH和E2含量均随硼添加量的增加而增加;LH和T的含量随硼添加量的变化表现出一定的相关性,且均表现为低硼水平其含量升高,中硼和高硼水平其含量降低;LH和T的含量随年龄增大而增加,E2逐渐减小,而FSH则先升高后下降.该结果提示,硼对鸵鸟内分泌与生殖具有一定的调节作用,且年龄对雏鸵鸟血清性激素水平有一定影响.%Taking different age of male young struthio camelus as its experimental animal, this research added different doses of boron into its drinking water, and adopted the method of radioimmunoassay (RIA) to detect the contents of follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH), testosterone (T), and estradiol (E2) in serum under different levels of boron and at different age. It aimed to explore the influence of boron on the levels of serum hormone of young struthio camelus. The results indicated that the contents of FSH and E2 of male struthio camelus increase with that of boron, with the change of the boron doses the contents of LH and T showed a certain relevancy, their contents rised with low boron while reduced with medium and high boron, the contents of LH and T rised with the age increasing and E2 gradually reducing, while FSH firstly increased then reduced. The results demonstrated that boron had a certain function in regulating Struthio camelus' endocrine and reproduction, and age exerted certain influence on Struthio camelus'serum sex hormone.

  4. Late and middle Pleistocene ungulates dietary diversity in Western Europe indicate variations of Neanderthal paleoenvironments through time and space (United States)

    Rivals, Florent; Schulz, Ellen; Kaiser, Thomas M.


    Mesowear and microwear on enamel from 763 teeth of middle and late Pleistocene ungulates were analysed to infer the potential of dental wear analysis of faunal remains as a paleoenvironmental and paleoclimatic proxy in relation to climatic changes and diversity of vegetation available in the environment. Fossil localities including levels belonging to two glacial and two interglacial stages were selected in Germany, France, and Spain. At a temporal scale, results indicate that the dietary diversity in ungulates is higher during interglacial phases (MIS 5 and 3) than during pleniglacial phases (MIS 8 and 4). Dietary diversity is concluded to be related to climate-driven vegetation changes which during interglacials lead to increased variety of potential food items available to ungulates. At the geographical scale, during interglacials, changes in diet composition are evident along geographical gradients. The corresponding dietary gradients are proposed to be related to climate and vegetation gradients reflecting more arid climates in the Mediterranean area compared to North-Western Europe. Species consistently represented at all localities investigated are Cervus elaphus (Cervidae, Artiodactyla) and Equus ferus (Equidae, Perissodactyla). C. elaphus populations are found to consistently have less abrasive diets than E. ferus populations but dietary traits of both species varied largely, revealing a significant plasticity in the feeding adaptation of both species. Those traits are concluded to be related to differences in vegetation structure at each locality and complement the evidence that ungulates have broader dietary habits than what is usually assumed.

  5. Reconstructing the origin and spread of horse domestication in the Eurasian steppe. (United States)

    Warmuth, Vera; Eriksson, Anders; Bower, Mim Ann; Barker, Graeme; Barrett, Elizabeth; Hanks, Bryan Kent; Li, Shuicheng; Lomitashvili, David; Ochir-Goryaeva, Maria; Sizonov, Grigory V; Soyonov, Vasiliy; Manica, Andrea


    Despite decades of research across multiple disciplines, the early history of horse domestication remains poorly understood. On the basis of current evidence from archaeology, mitochondrial DNA, and Y-chromosomal sequencing, a number of different domestication scenarios have been proposed, ranging from the spread of domestic horses out of a restricted primary area of domestication to the domestication of numerous distinct wild horse populations. In this paper, we reconstruct both the population genetic structure of the extinct wild progenitor of domestic horses, Equus ferus, and the origin and spread of horse domestication in the Eurasian steppes by fitting a spatially explicit stepping-stone model to genotype data from >300 horses sampled across northern Eurasia. We find strong evidence for an expansion of E. ferus out of eastern Eurasia about 160 kya, likely reflecting the colonization of Eurasia by this species. Our best-fitting scenario further suggests that horse domestication originated in the western part of the Eurasian steppe and that domestic herds were repeatedly restocked with local wild horses as they spread out of this area. By showing that horse domestication was initiated in the western Eurasian steppe and that the spread of domestic herds across Eurasia involved extensive introgression from the wild, the scenario of horse domestication proposed here unites evidence from archaeology, mitochondrial DNA, and Y-chromosomal DNA.

  6. Peer Review




    - Peer Review IMMUNOHISTOCHEMICHAL ANALYSIS ON THE DISTRIBUTION OF ADENOHYPOPHYSIAL CELLS IN THE PITUITARY PARS DISTALIS OF THE OSTRICH (STRUTHIO CAMELUS), Proceeding International Seminar "Strategy to manage Bio-Eco-Health system for stabilizing animal health and productivity to support public health, Surabaya- Indonesia, 19- 20 June 2012 JW Marriot Hotel Surabaya, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine- Universitas Airlangga, Centre Publishing and Printing of Airlangga University (AUP)

  7. A new species of Lamelligomphus Fraser, 1922 (Odonata: Gomphidae) from southern Yunnan, China. (United States)

    Zhang, Hao-Miao; Yang, Guo-Hui; Cai, Qing-Hua


    Lamelligomphus annakarlorum sp. nov. is described based on specimens collected from southern Yunnan Province, China (holotype male: Xishuangbanna National Nature Reserve, 21°57'59''N, 101°12'37''E, Xishuangbanna Dai Autonomous Prefecture, Yunnan Province, China). All type specimens of the new species have been deposited in the Collection of Aquatic Animals, Institute of Hydrobiology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan City, Hubei Province, China. It is compared with Lamelligomphus camelus (Martin, 1904), which shares some similar characters.

  8. Do dark matter halos explain lensing peaks? (United States)

    Zorrilla Matilla, José Manuel; Haiman, Zoltán; Hsu, Daniel; Gupta, Arushi; Petri, Andrea


    We have investigated a recently proposed halo-based model, Camelus, for predicting weak-lensing peak counts, and compared its results over a collection of 162 cosmologies with those from N-body simulations. While counts from both models agree for peaks with S /N >1 (where S /N is the ratio of the peak height to the r.m.s. shape noise), we find ≈50 % fewer counts for peaks near S /N =0 and significantly higher counts in the negative S /N tail. Adding shape noise reduces the differences to within 20% for all cosmologies. We also found larger covariances that are more sensitive to cosmological parameters. As a result, credibility regions in the {Ωm,σ8} are ≈30 % larger. Even though the credible contours are commensurate, each model draws its predictive power from different types of peaks. Low peaks, especially those with 2 important cosmological information in N-body data, as shown in previous studies, but Camelus constrains cosmology almost exclusively from high significance peaks (S /N >3 ). Our results confirm the importance of using a cosmology-dependent covariance with at least a 14% improvement in parameter constraints. We identified the covariance estimation as the main driver behind differences in inference, and suggest possible ways to make Camelus even more useful as a highly accurate peak count emulator.

  9. The Black of Strei – a Swine Population on the Verge of Extinction in Banat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcel Matiuti


    Full Text Available The Black of Strei swine was declared to be extinct in 1974, but research conducted in 2008-2010 proved that there are still 61 specimens (Black of Strei proper and hybrids in the Hatzeg county and in the Lugoj area. Body measurements have been made in the case of those specimens and they showed that the specimens are a morphoproductive type. The local people appreciate the Black of Strei especially for its fat and bard which are very dry and used in order to obtain the traditional food products in the area. Prolificacy of sows farrowing is an 8 piglets per gestation. This breed is best kept in organic farms. The Black of Strei females are usually cross-bred with wildboar (Sus scrofa ferus males, the hybrids’ meat being very appreciated.

  10. Gasterophilus (Diptera, Gasterophilidae infestation of equids in the Kalamaili Nature Reserve, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huang Heqing


    Full Text Available We investigated infections with Gasterophilus spp. in three equids within the Kalamaili Nature Reserve (northern China. We conducted necropsies on 6 Przewalski’s horses (Equus ferus przewalskii and 6 Mongolian wild asses (Equus hemionus and administered ivermectin to 10 overwintering domestic horses to expel parasites during winter periods. All 22 equids studied (100% were infested with Gasterophilus spp. and a total of 17,225 larvae were collected. These included six species: G. haemorrhoidalis, G. inermis, G. intestinalis, G. nasalis, G. nigricornis, and G. pecorum. The mean intensity of Gasterophilus spp. larvae was 1904 in Przewalski’s horses, 780 in Mongolian wild asses, and 113 in domestic horses. Gasterophilus pecorum was the most abundant species in all three equids. Przewalski’s horses, a reintroduced species, had a significantly higher intensity of Gasterophilus spp. than the Mongolian wild ass, indicating greater susceptibility to parasites in its ancestral home.

  11. Blood acid-base and plasma electrolyte values in healthy ostriches: the effect of age and sex. (United States)

    Bouda, J; Núñez-Ochoa, L; Avila-González, E; Doubek, J; Fuente-Martínez, B; Aguilar-Bobadilla, J


    The effect of age and sex on blood acid-base and plasma electrolyte values was determined in venous blood samples from 45 clinically healthy ostriches (Struthio camelus) from 26 days to 6 years of age. Animals were divided by age into four groups and the group of adults was divided by sex into two subgroups. Blood samples were collected without sedation. There was a significant (Pvalues of base excess (BE), plasma HCO(3)(-), total CO(2) (TCO(2)), Na(+), K(+), Cl(-) and anion gap (AG). The highest plasma concentrations of Na(+), Cl(-) and value of AG were found in adult ostriches with a steady decrease to chicks. A significant (Psex difference in adult animals with higher blood pH, lower blood values of pCO(2), BE, plasma concentrations of HCO(3)(-), TCO(2) and K(+) was found in females. We concluded that blood acid-base values and plasma electrolyte concentrations in ostriches are affected by age and sex.

  12. Notes on chromosome numbers and C-banding patterns in karyotypes of some weevils from central Europe (Coleoptera, Curculionoidea: Apionidae, Nanophyidae, Curculionidae). (United States)

    Lachowska, Dorota; Holecová, Milada; Rozek, Maria


    Chromosome numbers and C-banding patterns of sixteen weevil species are presented. The obtained results confirm the existence of two groups of species with either a small or large amount of heterochromatin in the karyotype. The first group comprises twelve species (Apionidae: Oxystoma cerdo, Eutrichapion melancholicum, Ceratapion penetrans, Ceratapion austriacum, Squamapion flavimanum, Rhopalapion longirostre; Nanophyidae: Nanophyes marmoratus; Curculionidae: Centricnemus (=Peritelus) leucogrammus, Sitona humeralis, Sitona lineatus, Sitona macularis, Sitona suturalis). In weevils with a small amount of heterochromatin, tiny grains on the nucleus during interphase are visible, afterwards appearing as dark dots during mitotic and meiotic prophase. The second group comprises four species from the curculionid subfamily Cryptorhynchinae (Acalles camelus, Acalles commutatus, Acalles echinatus, Ruteria hypocrita) which possess much larger heteropycnotic chromosome parts visible during all nuclear divisions. The species examined have pericentromeric C-bands on autosomes and on the X chromosome.

  13. The Therapeutic Effects of Camel Milk: A Systematic Review of Animal and Human Trials. (United States)

    Mihic, Tamara; Rainkie, Daniel; Wilby, Kyle John; Pawluk, Shane Ashley


    The clinical effectiveness and value of camel milk as a therapeutic agent is currently unclear. MEDLINE (1946 to March 2016), EMBASE (1974 to March 2016), and Google Scholar were searched using the following terms: milk, bodily secretions, camels, camelus, camelini, camelidae, dromedary, bactrian camel, body fluid, and bodily secretions. Articles identified were reviewed if the study was investigating the use of camel milk for the potential treatment of diseases affecting humans. Of 430 studies, 24 were included after assessment. Identified studies highlighted treatment with camel milk of diseases, including diabetes, autism, cancer, various infections, heavy metal toxicity, colitis, and alcohol-induced toxicity. Although most studies using both the human and animal model do show a clinical benefit with an intervention and camel milk, limitations of these studies must be taken into consideration before widespread use. Based on the evidence, camel milk should not replace standard therapies for any indication in humans.

  14. Effect of α-Amylase, Papain, and Spermfluid treatments on viscosity and semen parameters of dromedary camel ejaculates. (United States)

    Monaco, Davide; Fatnassi, Meriem; Padalino, Barbara; Hammadi, Mohamed; Khorchani, Touhami; Lacalandra, Giovanni Michele


    Ejaculates from five clinically healthy dromedary camels (Camelus dromedarius) were used to evaluate the effects of different enzymatic treatments (Amylase, Papain, Spermfluid) on liquefaction and seminal parameters. After collection, ejaculates were divided into 5 aliquots: (1) kept undiluted (control); or diluted 1:1 with: (2) Tris-Citrate-Fructose (TCF), (3) TCF containing Amylase, (4) TCF containing Papain or (5) Spermfluid containing Bromelain. At 120 min after dilution, each aliquot was evaluated, at 20-min intervals, for viscosity, motility, viability and agglutination. Only the aliquots diluted with TCF containing Papain underwent complete liquefaction. Sperm motility decreased significantly during the observation times, except for the samples diluted with Spermfluid (P=0.005). Diluted samples showed different levels of agglutination, with the lowest being observed in the control and the highest in the Papain-treated samples. The viscosity of dromedary camel ejaculates could be effectively reduced by using the proteolytic enzyme Papain.

  15. Isolation of influenza A virus, subtype H5N2, and avian paramyxovirus type 1 from a flock of ostriches in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Poul Henrik; Nielsen, O.L.; Hansen, C.;


    A total of 146 of 506 ostriches (Struthio camelus) introduced into a quarantine in Denmark died within the first 23 days. The majority of deaths were in young birds up to 10 kg body weight. Avian influenza A viruses (AIVs) were isolated from 14 pools of organ tissues representing seven groups each......-Q-R-E-T-R*G-L-F- at the cleavage site of the haemagglutinin protein, typical of non-pathogenic AIVs. In addition, an avirulent avian paramyxovirus type 1 virus was isolated from one pool of kidney tissues. Bacteriological examination gave no significant results. The most characteristic pathological findings were impaction...... of the proventriculus and gizzard, enteritis with stasis and multi-focal necrotic hepatitis....

  16. Perceptions and problems of disease in the one-humped camel in southern Africa in the late 19th and early 20th centuries : historical review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.T. Wilson


    Full Text Available The one-humped camel (Camelus dromedarius was first introduced to German South West Africa (Namibia for military purposes in 1889. Introductions to the Cape of Good Hope (South Africa in 1897 and Rhodesia (Zimbabwe in 1903 were initially with a view to replacing oxen that died of rinderpest. Disease risks attendant on these introductions were recognised and to some extent guarded against. There were, however, relatively few problems. One camel was diagnosed as having foot-and-mouth disease. Mange in camels from India caused some concern as did trypanosomosis from Sudan. Trypanosomosis was introduced into both the Cape of Good Hope and Transvaal. Antibodies to some common livestock disease were found in later years.

  17. Rickettsia africae in Hyalomma dromedarii ticks from sub-Saharan Algeria. (United States)

    Kernif, Tahar; Djerbouh, Amel; Mediannikov, Oleg; Ayach, Bouhous; Rolain, Jean-Marc; Raoult, Didier; Parola, Philippe; Bitam, Idir


    Spotted fever group (SFG) rickettsioses are caused by obligate, intracellular Gram-negative bacteria of the genus Rickettsia. In recent years, several species and subspecies of rickettsias have been identified as emerging pathogens throughout the world, including sub-Saharan Africa. We report here the detection of Rickettsia africae, the agent responsible for African tick-bite fever, by amplification of fragments of gltA and ompA genes and multi-spacer typing from Hyalomma dromedarii ticks collected from the camel Camelus dromedarius in the Adrar and Béchar region (sub-Saharan Algeria). To date, R. africae has been associated mainly with Amblyomma spp. The role of H. dromedarii in the epidemiology of R. africae requires further investigation.

  18. Age-related Changes in some Blood Parameters of Ostrich (Short Communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khodaei Motlagh M


    Full Text Available The aim of this study was investigating some blood parameters of blue-neck male ostriches (Struthio camelus with 4 months old after feeding a diet containing 3% sunflower oil for two months. In the morning, after about 12 h of fasting, some blood samples were collected from the wing vein of ostriches at the beginning and 60 days of study in department of animal sceince Arak university . The plasma was harvested and analyzed to measure cholesterol, triglyceride, high-density lipoprotein-Cholesrerol (HDL-C, low-density lipoprotein-Cholesterol (LDL-C, Very low density lipoproyein-Cholesterol (VLDL_C, total protein, albumin, total immunoglobulin, the activity of AST and ALT. From days 0 to 60, HDL-C concentration decreased (P

  19. From carcass to cave: large mammal exploitation during the Aurignacian at Vogelherd, Germany. (United States)

    Niven, Laura


    Recent results from the zooarchaeological analysis of faunal remains from Vogelherd Cave, southwestern Germany, provide new insight into the subsistence behavior of early modern human groups during the Aurignacian. The results presented here represent the first comprehensive study of the archaeofauna from this site. Several episodes of occupation are inferred at this site, taking place primarily between 31 and 32 ka. Although a wide spectrum of Pleistocene mammals is represented in the Aurignacian at Vogelherd, reindeer (Rangifer tarandus) and horse (Equus ferus) were the primary prey taxa, and they are the most appropriate data sets with which to understand human subsistence on an intrasite level. Hunting of both taxa took place during the late summer and fall, coinciding with reindeer migrations and local abundance of horses. Complete or nearly complete prey carcasses were then transported from the kill locations to the cave for processing. This study shows that Vogelherd was a preferred locale of Aurignacian groups for a broad range of activities, including the time- and labor-intensive exploitation of ungulate prey for meat, marrow, and fat resources, as well as the production and maintenance of artifacts such as figurative artwork, personal ornaments, bone and ivory armatures, and lithic tools. With its rich faunal and artifact assemblages, the Aurignacian deposit at Vogelherd provides a wealth of information on this critical period of the early Upper Paleolithic, when cultural innovations were flourishing.

  20. Alberta 1905-2005 turning on the taps : the 100 year boom and bust saga of Alberta and its oil industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    This commemorative Alberta centennial edition presents a series of articles exploring the history of the oil and gas industry in Alberta. The infancy of the oil and gas business was highlighted, with reference to the Turner Valley Conservation Act, which helped to build the framework for the creation of the Alberta Petroleum and Natural Gas Conservation Board, the predecessor of today's Energy and Utilities Board. A timeline of events linking world history with industry events was presented throughout the edition. Articles included: stories about oil and gas booms; exploration; the effects of World War 1 and 2; the first oil sands refineries; and the Great Depression. Political figures and business figures were also featured, as well as the early successes of businesses such as the Lloydminster Gas Company. Events of historic importance to the oil and gas industry, such as the Leduc discovery were also highlighted. The National Energy Program, low prices and economic recession were examined. Policy and regional reaction to Federal directives were also featured. Some companies advertised their services in this document, namely: Precision Drilling Corp; Halliburton; Wellco Energy Services Inc.; Gibson Energy Ltd.; National Oilwell; Lufkin; Ferus Gas Industries Trust; Rigstar; Safety Boss Inc.; and Esso. refs., tabs., figs.

  1. Rove beetles of medical importance in Brazil (Coleoptera, Staphylinidae, Paederinae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana S. Vieira


    Full Text Available Rove beetles of medical importance in Brazil (Coleoptera, Staphylinidae, Paederinae. The rove beetles of the genus Paederus Fabricius, 1775 are the most important group within Coleoptera causing dermatitis around the world. The medical importance of Paederus depends on its toxic hemolymph released when these beetles are crushed on human skin. The effects are mainly dermatitis linearis and some sporadic cases of conjunctivitis. In Brazil seven species of Paederus are known to cause dermatitis: P. amazonicus Sharp, 1876, P. brasiliensis Erichson, 1840, P. columbinus Laporte, 1835, P. ferus Erichson, 1840, P. mutans Sharp, 1876, P. protensus Sharp, 1876 stat. rev., and Paederus rutilicornis Erichson, 1840. Paederus mutans and P. protensus are for the first time recorded as of medical importance, whereas the record of P. rutilicornis in Brazil is doubtful. All seven species are redescribed and a dichotomous key is provided. The geographic distributions of all species are documented. The results provided here include the most recent and relevant taxonomic revision of Paederus of the Neotropical region, the first identification key for Brazilian species and the increase of recorded species of medical importance in the world.

  2. Virtual Screening of Acetylcholinesterase Inhibitors Using the Lipinski’s Rule of Five and ZINC Databank

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Andrei Nogara


    Full Text Available Alzheimer’s disease (AD is a progressive and neurodegenerative pathology that can affect people over 65 years of age. It causes several complications, such as behavioral changes, language deficits, depression, and memory impairments. One of the methods used to treat AD is the increase of acetylcholine (ACh in the brain by using acetylcholinesterase inhibitors (AChEIs. In this study, we used the ZINC databank and the Lipinski’s rule of five to perform a virtual screening and a molecular docking (using Auto Dock Vina 1.1.1 aiming to select possible compounds that have quaternary ammonium atom able to inhibit acetylcholinesterase (AChE activity. The molecules were obtained by screening and further in vitro assays were performed to analyze the most potent inhibitors through the IC50 value and also to describe the interaction models between inhibitors and enzyme by molecular docking. The results showed that compound D inhibited AChE activity from different vertebrate sources and butyrylcholinesterase (BChE from Equus ferus (EfBChE, with IC50 ranging from 1.69 ± 0.46 to 5.64 ± 2.47 µM. Compound D interacted with the peripheral anionic subsite in both enzymes, blocking substrate entrance to the active site. In contrast, compound C had higher specificity as inhibitor of EfBChE. In conclusion, the screening was effective in finding inhibitors of AChE and BuChE from different organisms.

  3. Seasonal changes in adrenocortical responses to acute stress in Eurasian tree sparrow (Passer montanus) on the Tibetan Plateau: comparison with house sparrow (P. domesticus) in North America and with the migratory P. domesticus in Qinghai Province. (United States)

    Li, Dongming; Wang, Gang; Wingfield, John C; Zhang, Zhi; Ding, Changqing; Lei, Fumin


    Seasonal modulation of the adrenocortical response to stress appears to be ubiquitous in arctic-breeding and temperate-zone-breeding birds, but has not been well investigated in alpine-breeding species at mid-latitude. We examined the adrenocortical response to acute stress (capture, handling and restraint) in populations of Eurasian tree sparrow (Passer montanus) among seasons and migratory house sparrow (P. domesticus bactrianus) in pre-breeding on the Qinghai-Xizang Plateau (the Tibetan Plateau). A population of house sparrow (Passer domesticus domesticus) was also sampled in lowland Phoenix, Arizona during breeding and wintering stages. In Eurasian tree sparrows, baseline corticosterone (CORT) does not differ among life history stages, but stress-induced CORT level (maximal CORT, total and corrected integrated CORT) is significantly higher in late breeding stage than those in early breeding and prebasic molt stages. In house sparrows, stress-induced CORT level does not differ between sites and life history stages, but baseline CORT is significantly lower in pre-breeding from Qinghai compared with those in breeding and wintering stages from Phoenix. Interestingly, both baseline CORT and maximal CORT do not differ between the populations of Eurasian tree sparrow and house sparrow in early/pre-breeding stage although tree sparrow is resident species whereas house sparrow is migratory in Qinghai. Our results suggest that the extreme environment of the Tibetan Plateau does not have significant effects on adrenocortical responses to acute stress in Eurasian tree sparrows and house sparrows, which may be a result of masking by human activities. These invasive human commensals may have a unique HPA axis response to different environments because they can take advantage of human food sources and shelter (i.e. buildings).

  4. 超声在21-三体综合征产前筛查中的应用分析%Aanalysis of prenatal ultrasonography in screening for fetal trisomy 21

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩璐; 荆春丽; 王彦; 冯丽云; 顾颜


    目的 探讨超声在21-三体综合征产前筛查中的应用价值.方法 2009年1月至2014年6月在大连市妇幼保健院被确诊为21-三体综合征的胎儿共77例,其中55例行超声筛查,分析其超声表现与21-三体综合征的关系.结果 55例接受产前超声筛查的21-三体综合征病例中,10例进行了孕早期超声筛查,8例(80%)发现异常;45例进行了孕中晚期超声筛查,37例(82.2%)发现超声异常.孕早期常见的异常为NT增厚(80%)、鼻骨缺失(40%)和静脉导管α波倒置(30%).孕中晚期常见的软指标异常为鼻骨缺失或发育不良(40.0%)、颈后皮肤皱褶增厚(26.7%)、肱骨或股骨短(17.8%)等;胎儿结构畸形主要为心血管畸形(33.3%)和十二指肠闭锁(13.3%)等.此外,21-三体综合征胎儿中晚期超声还可表现为羊水多(17.8%)和脐动脉血流异常(8.9%).结论 超声在21-三体综合征产前筛查中具有重要作用.%Objective:To investigate the clinical value of ultrasound in screening for fetal trisomy 21.Methods:From Jan.2009 to Jun.2014,77 fetuses was diagnosed as trisomy 21 in the Dalian Matemal and Child Health Hospital.In all cases,55 cases underwent prenatal ultrasound screening.The relationship between trisomy 21 and ultrasonic manifestations was analyzed.Results:In the 55 cases,10 cases were screened in early pregnancy.Sonographic anomalies were detected in 8 feruses (80%),including thickened nuehal translucency (80%),nasal bone hypoplasia (40%),reverse of a-wave of ductus venosus (30%) and so on.45 cases were screened in middle and late pregnancy.Sonographic anomalies were detected in 37 feruses (82.2%).The most common ultrasound markers were nasal bone hypoplasia (40%),thickened nuchal fold (26.7%) and short femurs and humerus (17.8%),the common structural malformations include cardiac defects (33.3%) and digestive system (13.3%).Furthermore,much amniotic fluid (17.8%) and abnormal umbilical artery

  5. Research Regarding the Hybrids Resulted from the Domestic Pig and the Wild Boar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcel Matiuti


    Full Text Available Research was conducted between 2005-2009 in Barzava, Arad county. The villagers breed pigs traditionally, the animals having the freedom to roam the outskirts of the villages. Over the years the domestic sows (Sus scrofa domesticus which had been let by their owners to roam the forests for mast and acorn, have mated with wild boars (Sus scrofa ferus, thus obtaining crossbreeds in various colours – either resembling the female or the male. In Bazava the total number of swine is 1820 specimens out of which 546 is formed by hybrids or crossbreeds in 2009. In the case of these hybrids the length of the head together with that of the trunk can reach 150-170 cm. An adult male can have a weight of 150-200 kg and the female 100-150 kg. These specimens are easily recognizable by the fact that they have the trunk covered in thick, long, spiky hairs. There are also other external characteristics of these crossbreeds. Data has been gathered on what concerns the colour and the length of the hair, external features, maintenance and feeding. Behavioural observations have been made also. The local people appreciate a lot these hybrids because of their qualitative meat, out of which they obtain traditional dishes, combining this meat with that from domestic pigs and veal. Moreover, the maintenance of these hybrids is very low-cost, the only conditions which have to be met being simple shelters during the night and during the winter. The demand for such animals is great. These hybrids are being bought by the Zoos or are used for repopulating the areas in which the wild boars are on the verge of extinction because of excessive poaching. Foreign buyers are also interested in these hybrids, wanting to breed them in special parks and then to organize hunting outings.

  6. Adipose tissue macrophages in non-rodent mammals: a comparative study. (United States)

    Ampem, Grace; Azegrouz, Hind; Bacsadi, Árpád; Balogh, Lajos; Schmidt, Susanne; Thuróczy, Julianna; Röszer, Tamás


    The stromal vascular fraction (SVF) of adipose tissue in rodents and primates contains mesenchymal stem cells and immune cells. SVF cells have complex metabolic, immune and endocrine functions with biomedical impact. However, in other mammals, the amount of data on SVF stem cells is negligible and whether the SVF hosts immune cells is unknown. In this study, we show that the SVF is rich in immune cells, with a dominance of adipose tissue macrophages (ATMs) in cattle (Bos primigenius taurus), domestic goat (Capra aegagrus hircus), domestic sheep (Ovis aries), domestic cat (Felis catus) and domestic dog (Canis familiaris). ATMs of these species are granulated lysosome-rich cells with lamellipodial protrusions and express the lysosome markers acid phosphatase 5 (ACP-5) and Mac-3/Lamp-2. Using ACP-5 and Mac-3/Lamp-2 as markers, we additionally detected ATMs in other species, such as the domestic horse (Equus ferus caballus), wild boar (Sus scrofa) and red fox (Vulpes vulpes). Feline and canine ATMs also express the murine macrophage marker F4/80 antigen. In the lean condition, the alternative macrophage activation marker CD206 is expressed by feline and canine ATMs and arginase-1 by feline ATMs. Obesity is associated with interleukin-6 and interferon gamma expression and with overt tyrosine nitration in both feline and canine ATMs. This resembles the obesity-induced phenotype switch of murine and human ATMs. Thus, we show, for the first time, that the presence of ATMs is a general trait of mammals. The interaction between the adipose cells and SVF immune cells might be evolutionarily conserved among mammals.

  7. The danger of having all your eggs in one basket--winter crash of the re-introduced Przewalski's horses in the Mongolian Gobi.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petra Kaczensky

    Full Text Available Large mammals re-introduced into harsh and unpredictable environments are vulnerable to stochastic effects, particularly in times of global climate change. The Mongolian Gobi is home to several rare large ungulates such as re-introduced Przewalski's horses (Equus ferus przewalskii and Asiatic wild asses (Equus hemionus, but also to a millennium-old semi-nomadic livestock herding culture.The Gobi is prone to large inter-annual environmental fluctuations, but the winter 2009/2010 was particularly severe. Millions of livestock died and the Przewalski's horse population in the Gobi crashed. We used spatially explicit livestock loss statistics, ranger survey data and GPS telemetry to provide insight into the effect of a catastrophic climate event on the two sympatric wild equid species and the livestock population in light of their different space use strategies.Herders in and around the Great Gobi B Strictly Protected Area lost on average 67% of their livestock. Snow depth varied locally, resulting in livestock losses following an east-west gradient. Herders had few possibilities for evasion, as competition for available winter camps was high. Przewalski's horses used three different winter ranges, two in the east and one in the west. Losses averaged 60%, but differed hugely between east and west. Space use of Przewalski's horses was extremely conservative, as groups did not attempt to venture beyond their known home ranges. Asiatic wild asses seemed to have suffered few losses by shifting their range westwards.The catastrophic winter 2009/2010 provided a textbook example for how vulnerable small and spatially confined populations are in an environment prone to environmental fluctuations and catastrophes. This highlights the need for disaster planning by local herders, multiple re-introduction sites with spatially dispersed populations for re-introduced Przewalski's horses, and a landscape-level approach beyond protected area boundaries to allow for

  8. Recalibrating Equus evolution using the genome sequence of an early Middle Pleistocene horse. (United States)

    Orlando, Ludovic; Ginolhac, Aurélien; Zhang, Guojie; Froese, Duane; Albrechtsen, Anders; Stiller, Mathias; Schubert, Mikkel; Cappellini, Enrico; Petersen, Bent; Moltke, Ida; Johnson, Philip L F; Fumagalli, Matteo; Vilstrup, Julia T; Raghavan, Maanasa; Korneliussen, Thorfinn; Malaspinas, Anna-Sapfo; Vogt, Josef; Szklarczyk, Damian; Kelstrup, Christian D; Vinther, Jakob; Dolocan, Andrei; Stenderup, Jesper; Velazquez, Amhed M V; Cahill, James; Rasmussen, Morten; Wang, Xiaoli; Min, Jiumeng; Zazula, Grant D; Seguin-Orlando, Andaine; Mortensen, Cecilie; Magnussen, Kim; Thompson, John F; Weinstock, Jacobo; Gregersen, Kristian; Røed, Knut H; Eisenmann, Véra; Rubin, Carl J; Miller, Donald C; Antczak, Douglas F; Bertelsen, Mads F; Brunak, Søren; Al-Rasheid, Khaled A S; Ryder, Oliver; Andersson, Leif; Mundy, John; Krogh, Anders; Gilbert, M Thomas P; Kjær, Kurt; Sicheritz-Ponten, Thomas; Jensen, Lars Juhl; Olsen, Jesper V; Hofreiter, Michael; Nielsen, Rasmus; Shapiro, Beth; Wang, Jun; Willerslev, Eske


    The rich fossil record of equids has made them a model for evolutionary processes. Here we present a 1.12-times coverage draft genome from a horse bone recovered from permafrost dated to approximately 560-780 thousand years before present (kyr BP). Our data represent the oldest full genome sequence determined so far by almost an order of magnitude. For comparison, we sequenced the genome of a Late Pleistocene horse (43 kyr BP), and modern genomes of five domestic horse breeds (Equus ferus caballus), a Przewalski's horse (E. f. przewalskii) and a donkey (E. asinus). Our analyses suggest that the Equus lineage giving rise to all contemporary horses, zebras and donkeys originated 4.0-4.5 million years before present (Myr BP), twice the conventionally accepted time to the most recent common ancestor of the genus Equus. We also find that horse population size fluctuated multiple times over the past 2 Myr, particularly during periods of severe climatic changes. We estimate that the Przewalski's and domestic horse populations diverged 38-72 kyr BP, and find no evidence of recent admixture between the domestic horse breeds and the Przewalski's horse investigated. This supports the contention that Przewalski's horses represent the last surviving wild horse population. We find similar levels of genetic variation among Przewalski's and domestic populations, indicating that the former are genetically viable and worthy of conservation efforts. We also find evidence for continuous selection on the immune system and olfaction throughout horse evolution. Finally, we identify 29 genomic regions among horse breeds that deviate from neutrality and show low levels of genetic variation compared to the Przewalski's horse. Such regions could correspond to loci selected early during domestication.

  9. Evolutionary Genomics and Conservation of the Endangered Przewalski's Horse. (United States)

    Der Sarkissian, Clio; Ermini, Luca; Schubert, Mikkel; Yang, Melinda A; Librado, Pablo; Fumagalli, Matteo; Jónsson, Hákon; Bar-Gal, Gila Kahila; Albrechtsen, Anders; Vieira, Filipe G; Petersen, Bent; Ginolhac, Aurélien; Seguin-Orlando, Andaine; Magnussen, Kim; Fages, Antoine; Gamba, Cristina; Lorente-Galdos, Belen; Polani, Sagi; Steiner, Cynthia; Neuditschko, Markus; Jagannathan, Vidhya; Feh, Claudia; Greenblatt, Charles L; Ludwig, Arne; Abramson, Natalia I; Zimmermann, Waltraut; Schafberg, Renate; Tikhonov, Alexei; Sicheritz-Ponten, Thomas; Willerslev, Eske; Marques-Bonet, Tomas; Ryder, Oliver A; McCue, Molly; Rieder, Stefan; Leeb, Tosso; Slatkin, Montgomery; Orlando, Ludovic


    Przewalski's horses (PHs, Equus ferus ssp. przewalskii) were discovered in the Asian steppes in the 1870s and represent the last remaining true wild horses. PHs became extinct in the wild in the 1960s but survived in captivity, thanks to major conservation efforts. The current population is still endangered, with just 2,109 individuals, one-quarter of which are in Chinese and Mongolian reintroduction reserves [1]. These horses descend from a founding population of 12 wild-caught PHs and possibly up to four domesticated individuals [2-4]. With a stocky build, an erect mane, and stripped and short legs, they are phenotypically and behaviorally distinct from domesticated horses (DHs, Equus caballus). Here, we sequenced the complete genomes of 11 PHs, representing all founding lineages, and five historical specimens dated to 1878-1929 CE, including the Holotype. These were compared to the hitherto-most-extensive genome dataset characterized for horses, comprising 21 new genomes. We found that loci showing the most genetic differentiation with DHs were enriched in genes involved in metabolism, cardiac disorders, muscle contraction, reproduction, behavior, and signaling pathways. We also show that DH and PH populations split ∼45,000 years ago and have remained connected by gene-flow thereafter. Finally, we monitor the genomic impact of ∼110 years of captivity, revealing reduced heterozygosity, increased inbreeding, and variable introgression of domestic alleles, ranging from non-detectable to as much as 31.1%. This, together with the identification of ancestry informative markers and corrections to the International Studbook, establishes a framework for evaluating the persistence of genetic variation in future reintroduced populations.

  10. Cosmological constraints with weak lensing peak counts and second-order statistics in a large-field survey (United States)

    Peel, Austin; Lin, Chieh-An; Lanusse, Francois; Leonard, Adrienne; Starck, Jean-Luc; Kilbinger, Martin


    Peak statistics in weak lensing maps access the non-Gaussian information contained in the large-scale distribution of matter in the Universe. They are therefore a promising complementary probe to two-point and higher-order statistics to constrain our cosmological models. To prepare for the high precision afforded by next-generation weak lensing surveys, we assess the constraining power of peak counts in a simulated Euclid-like survey on the cosmological parameters Ωm, σ8, and w0de. In particular, we study how CAMELUS---a fast stochastic model for predicting peaks---can be applied to such large surveys. The algorithm avoids the need for time-costly N-body simulations, and its stochastic approach provides full PDF information of observables. We measure the abundance histogram of peaks in a mock shear catalogue of approximately 5,000 deg2 using a multiscale mass map filtering technique, and we then constrain the parameters of the mock survey using CAMELUS combined with approximate Bayesian computation, a robust likelihood-free inference algorithm. We find that peak statistics yield a tight but significantly biased constraint in the σ8-Ωm plane, indicating the need to better understand and control the model's systematics before applying it to a real survey of this size or larger. We perform a calibration of the model to remove the bias and compare results to those from the two-point correlation functions (2PCF) measured on the same field. In this case, we find the derived parameter Σ8 = σ8(Ωm/0.27)α = 0.76 (-0.03 +0.02) with α = 0.65 for peaks, while for 2PCF the values are Σ8 = 0.76 (-0.01 +0.02) and α = 0.70. We conclude that the constraining power can therefore be comparable between the two weak lensing observables in large-field surveys. Furthermore, the tilt in the σ8-Ωm degeneracy direction for peaks with respect to that of 2PCF suggests that a combined analysis would yield tighter constraints than either measure alone. As expected, w0de cannot be

  11. An Investigation of Cellulose Digesting Bacteria in the Camel Feces Microbiome (United States)

    Man, V.; Leung, F. C.


    Research Question: Is there a bacteria in camel feces that digests cellulose material and can be used for waste to energy projects? Fossil fuels are the current main resource of energy in the modern world. However, as the demand for fuel increases, biofuels have been proposed as an alternative energy source that is a more sustainable form of liquid fuel generation from living things or waste, commonly known as biofuels and ethanol. The Camelus dromedarius', also known as Arabian camel, diet consist of grass, grains, wheat and oats as well desert vegetation in their natural habitat. However, as the Arabian camel lacks the enzymes to degrade cellulose, it is hypothesized that cellulose digestion is performed by microbial symbionts in camel microbiota. Fecal samples were collected from the Camelus dromedarius in United Arab Emirates and diluted 10-7 times. The diluted sample was then streaked onto a Sodium Carboxymethyl Cellulose plate, and inoculated onto CMC and Azure-B plates. Afterwards, Congo Red was used for staining in order to identify clearance zones of single colonies that may potentially be used as a qualitative assays for cellulose digestion. Then the colonies undergo polymerase chain reaction amplification to produce amplified RNA fragments. The 16S ribosomal RNA gene is identified based on BLAST result using Sanger Sequencing. Amongst the three identified microbes: Bacillus, Staphylococcus and Escherichia coli, both Bacillus and Staphylococcus are cellulose-digesting microbes, and through the fermentation of lignocellulosic, biomasses can be converted into cellulosic ethanol (Biofuel). According to the Improvements in Life Cycle Energy Efficiency and Greenhouse Gas Emissions of Corn-Ethanol by Adam J. Liska, ""Ethanol reduces greenhouse gas emissions by 40-50% when compared directly to gasoline." The determination of bacterial communities that are capable of efficiently and effectively digesting cellulose materials requires that the bacteria be first

  12. Bovine calves as ideal bio-indicators for fluoridated drinking water and endemic osteo-dental fluorosis. (United States)

    Choubisa, S L


    Relative susceptibility to fluoride (F) toxicosis in the form of osteo-dental fluorosis was observed in an observational survey of 2,747 mature and 887 immature domestic animals of diverse species living in areas with naturally fluoridated (>1.5 ppm F) drinking water. These animals included buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis), cattle (Bos taurus), camels (Camelus dromedarius), donkeys (Equus asinus), horses (Equus caballus), goats (Capra hircus), and sheep (Ovis aries). Of these mature and immature animals, 899 (32.7 %) and 322 (36.3 %) showed evidence of dental fluorosis with varying grades, respectively. Their incisor teeth were stained with light to deep brownish color. On clinical examination, 31.2 % mature and 10.7 % immature animals revealed periosteal exostoses, intermittent lameness, and stiffness of tendons in the legs as signs of skeletal fluorosis. The maximum susceptibility to fluoride toxicosis was found in bovines (buffaloes and cattle) followed by equines (donkeys and horses), flocks (goats and sheep), and camelids (camels). The bovine calves were found to be more sensitive and highly susceptible to F toxicosis and revealed the maximum prevalence (92.2 %) of dental fluorosis. This indicates that bovine calves are less tolerant and give early sign of F poisoning (dental fluorosis) and therefore, they can be considered as bio-indicators for fluoridated water as well as for endemicity of osteo-dental fluorosis. Causes for variation in susceptibility to F toxicosis (fluorosis) in various species of domestic animal are also discussed.

  13. Do dark matter halos explain lensing peaks?

    CERN Document Server

    Matilla, José Manuel Zorrilla; Hsu, Daniel; Gupta, Arushi; Petri, Andrea


    We have investigated a recently proposed halo-based model, Camelus, for predicting weak-lensing peak counts, and compared its results over a collection of 162 cosmologies with those from N-body simulations. While counts from both models agree for peaks with $\\mathcal{S/N}>1$ (where $\\mathcal{S/N}$ is the ratio of the peak height to the r.m.s. shape noise), we find $\\approx 50\\%$ fewer counts for peaks near $\\mathcal{S/N}=0$ and significantly higher counts in the negative $\\mathcal{S/N}$ tail. Adding shape noise reduces the differences to within $20\\%$ for all cosmologies. We also found larger covariances that are more sensitive to cosmological parameters. As a result, credibility regions in the $\\{\\Omega_m, \\sigma_8\\}$ are $\\approx 30\\%$ larger. Even though the credible contours are commensurate, each model draws its predictive power from different types of peaks. Low peaks, especially those with $23)$. Our results confirm the importance of using a cosmology-dependent covariance with at least a 14\\% improveme...

  14. Inferring muscle functional roles of the ostrich pelvic limb during walking and running using computer optimization. (United States)

    Rankin, Jeffery W; Rubenson, Jonas; Hutchinson, John R


    Owing to their cursorial background, ostriches (Struthio camelus) walk and run with high metabolic economy, can reach very fast running speeds and quickly execute cutting manoeuvres. These capabilities are believed to be a result of their ability to coordinate muscles to take advantage of specialized passive limb structures. This study aimed to infer the functional roles of ostrich pelvic limb muscles during gait. Existing gait data were combined with a newly developed musculoskeletal model to generate simulations of ostrich walking and running that predict muscle excitations, force and mechanical work. Consistent with previous avian electromyography studies, predicted excitation patterns showed that individual muscles tended to be excited primarily during only stance or swing. Work and force estimates show that ostrich gaits are partially hip-driven with the bi-articular hip-knee muscles driving stance mechanics. Conversely, the knee extensors acted as brakes, absorbing energy. The digital extensors generated large amounts of both negative and positive mechanical work, with increased magnitudes during running, providing further evidence that ostriches make extensive use of tendinous elastic energy storage to improve economy. The simulations also highlight the need to carefully consider non-muscular soft tissues that may play a role in ostrich gait.

  15. Inter-vertebral flexibility of the ostrich neck: implications for estimating sauropod neck flexibility.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew J Cobley

    Full Text Available The flexibility and posture of the neck in sauropod dinosaurs has long been contentious. Improved constraints on sauropod neck function will have major implications for what we know of their foraging strategies, ecology and overall biology. Several hypotheses have been proposed, based primarily on osteological data, suggesting different degrees of neck flexibility. This study attempts to assess the effects of reconstructed soft tissues on sauropod neck flexibility through systematic removal of muscle groups and measures of flexibility of the neck in a living analogue, the ostrich (Struthio camelus. The possible effect of cartilage on flexibility is also examined, as this was previously overlooked in osteological estimates of sauropod neck function. These comparisons show that soft tissues are likely to have limited the flexibility of the neck beyond the limits suggested by osteology alone. In addition, the inferred presence of cartilage, and varying the inter-vertebral spacing within the synovial capsule, also affect neck flexibility. One hypothesis proposed that flexibility is constrained by requiring a minimum overlap between successive zygapophyses equivalent to 50% of zygapophyseal articular surface length (ONP50. This assumption is tested by comparing the maximum flexibility of the articulated cervical column in ONP50 and the flexibility of the complete neck with all tissues intact. It is found that this model does not adequately convey the pattern of flexibility in the ostrich neck, suggesting that the ONP50 model may not be useful in determining neck function if considered in isolation from myological and other soft tissue data.

  16. [Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS): bats or dromedary, which of them is responsible?]. (United States)

    Chastel, C


    In 2012 a new viral emergent human disease appeared in the Middle East. This entity was named MERS for' Middle East respiratory syndrome'. By January 9, 2014, the disease had already struck 178 persons of whom 75 died from respiratory failure and diarrhoea. As the new disease was very similar to the deadly SARS (2002-2003) and since it was provoked by a Betacoronavirus, chiroptera were first suspected to be at the origin of this infection. Morever, recent studies performed in Saudi Arabia showed that one individual of the bat Taphozous perforatus harbored a short nucleotide segment identical to the homologous segment present in the viral strain isolated from the index-case of the epidemic. In addition, many strains of Betacoronavirus more or less related to those responsible for the MERS disease in man have been isolated from bats in Africa, Asia and Europe. However, another hypothesis was simultaneously proposed incriminating dromedary (Camelus dromedarius L.) as a likely actor in the transmission to human beings of the disease.We then reviewed data relative to other viral zoonosis in which dromedary was possibly implicated. This led to the provisional conclusion that this large mammal might play a role in the dissemination of the MERS-COV, the etiologic agent of the disease. This is based on epidemiological data and results of several serological surveys in animals.

  17. Synovial Fluid Antioxidant Vitamins and Trace Elements in Clinically Healthy and Arthritic Joints of Dromedary Camels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aliasghar CHALMEH


    Full Text Available Forty six male dromedary camels (Camelus dromedarius, 5 to 10 years of age were entered in this study. Before slaughtering, the animals were visually examined for abnormalities in musculoskeletal system. 33 out of 46 camels did not have any clinical articular abnormalities, whereas 13 ones had gross problems such as lameness and swollen tarsal joints. Based on clinical signs and disease history, these animals were suspected to arthritis. After slaughtering, synovial fluid specimens were taken from tarsal joints of all animals, aseptically and concentrations of zinc, copper, selenium, iron and vitamin A, E and C were assayed. Concentrations of selenium and vitamin C in arthritic joints were significantly lower than clinically healthy camels (P<0.05. Zinc concentration of arthritic synovial fluid was significantly higher than normal joints. These data showed that the arthritis could change the synovial fluid vitamins and trace elements in dromedary camels. In conclusion, the results of the current research showed that arthritic joints are in an oxidative stress situation and information regarding the changing patterns of vitamins and trace elements in synovial fluids can be considered as prognostic and diagnostic criteria for articular inflammatory processes.

  18. Use of salivary cortisol to evaluate the influence of rides in dromedary camels. (United States)

    Majchrzak, Yasmine N; Mastromonaco, Gabriela F; Korver, Wendy; Burness, Gary


    Animals in captivity and in the wild face numerous challenges, including the risk of enduring acute or chronic stress. In captivity, facilities attempt to alleviate the risk of chronic stress by providing environmental enrichment, shown to minimize behavioral disorders and stress in several species. One potential form of enrichment in zoos is training animals to provide rides for guests, however, the effect of this activity on the welfare of individual animals has never been examined. We validated the use of saliva for assessing stress in dromedary camels (Camelus dromedarius), an animal commonly used for rides. We then measured variation in salivary cortisol in four male camels while providing rides of differing frequency for guests at the Toronto Zoo. The camels were sampled during the ride season (June to September) using four treatments: (1) in their pasture, (2) at the ride area when not performing rides, (3) while providing a low number of rides (n=50/day) and (4) while providing a high number of rides (n=150/day). Furthermore, samples were taken before and after the ride season for comparison. There was a significant difference between the post-ride season treatment and the three treatments involving guest presence during the ride season (ride area, low rides, high rides). In general, cortisol concentrations were lower during the ride season and higher during the non-ride season. Based on the metrics we used, performing rides is not a stressful experience for these dromedary camels and suggests that rides may be a form of enrichment.

  19. A transversal study on antibodies against selected pathogens in dromedary camels in the Canary Islands, Spain. (United States)

    Mentaberre, Gregorio; Gutiérrez, Carlos; Rodríguez, Noé F; Joseph, Sunitha; González-Barrio, David; Cabezón, Oscar; de la Fuente, José; Gortazar, Christian; Boadella, Mariana


    The Canary Islands contain the most important dromedary camel (Camelus dromedarius) population in the European Union and are the main export point of dromedaries to continental Europe and Latin America. We investigated the presence of antibodies against relevant disease agents in 100 Canarian camel sera. Selected blood samples of the same animals were also tested by PCR. Sera were tested for antibodies against Bluetongue virus (BTV; 0%), Bovine Viral Diarrhoea virus (BVDV; 0%), Camelpox virus (CPV; 8% by serum neutralization, 16% by ELISA), Peste des Petits Ruminants virus (PPRV, 0%), Rift Valley Fever virus (RVFV; 0%) and West Nile Fever virus (WNV; 3%), the bacterial pathogens Anaplasma sp. (3%), Brucella sp. (1%), Coxiella burnetii (19%), Mycobacterium avium paratuberculosis (MAP; 22%), Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTC; 10%) and Rickettsia sp. (83%), and the parasites Toxoplasma gondii (36%) and Neospora caninum (86%). The most remarkable findings were the detection of antibodies against CPV and the high antibody prevalence against C. burnetii, Rickettsia sp., T. gondii and N. caninum. By PCR, we found no C. burnetii, N. caninum and Anaplasma sp. DNA in the tested samples. However, Rickettsia sp. DNA was detected in six antibody positive tested samples. These results should be taken into consideration in order to implement adequate control measures and avoid a potential dissemination of infections to other territories.

  20. cDNA cloning and sequencing of ostrich Growth hormone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doosti Abbas


    Full Text Available In recent years, industrial breeding of ostrich (Struthio camelus has been widely developed in Iran. Growth hormone (GH is a peptide hormone that stimulates growth and cell reproduction in different animals. The aim of this study was to clone and sequence the ostrich growth hormone gene in E. coli, done for the first time in Iran. The cDNA that encodes ostrich growth hormone was isolated from total mRNA of the pituitary gland and amplified by RT-PCR using GH specific PCR primers. Then GH cDNA was cloned by T/A cloning technique and the construct was transformed into E. coli. Finally, GH cDNA sequence was submitted to the GenBank (Accession number: JN559394. The results of present study showed that GH cDNA was successfully cloned in E. coli. Sequencing confirmed that GH cDNA was cloned and that the length of ostrich GH cDNA was 672 bp; BLAST search showed that the sequence of growth hormone cDNA of the ostrich from Iran has 100% homology with other records existing in GenBank.

  1. A study on the status of inflammatory systems in camels naturally infected with Toxoplasma gondii. (United States)

    Azma, Fatemeh; Razavi, Seyed Mostafa; Nazifi, Saeed; Rakhshandehroo, Ehsan; Sanati, Ahmad Reza


    Toxoplasma gondii is a unique intracellular parasite with a worldwide distribution. This parasite infects a variety of cells in a wide range of animal species such as dromedary camels (Camelus dromedarius). In order to evaluate the pattern of possible changes in the blood level of some inflammatory mediators and antioxidant enzymes in camels infected with T. gondii, blood samples were taken from a total of 493 dromedary camels and serum concentrations of inflammatory mediators, acute phase proteins and antioxidant enzymes were measured. According to serological data, no seropositivity was found for anti-T. gondii IgM in serum samples; however, 49 camels (9.93 %) showed positive titrations for anti-Toxoplasma IgG. The analyses of data in seropositive animals showed significant increases (P < 0.05) in the serum level of IL-1β and adenosine deaminase activity; however, IFN-γ and TNF-α demonstrated no significant changes in serum samples of the infected camels. In addition, while major acute phase proteins (haptoglobin (Hp) and serum amyloid A (SAA)) were markedly elevated in infected camels, the activity of antioxidant enzymes (SOD and GPX) was remarkably decreased in the blood samples of infected animals. Thus, during the chronic infection in camels, T. gondii can promote significant rises in concentrations of some cytokines (such as IL-1β), acute phase proteins and adenosine deaminase.

  2. Colorimetric and sensory characteristics of fermented cured sausage with Brazilian ostrich meat addition

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    Carlos Pasqualin Cavalheiro


    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the colorimetric and sensory characteristics of a fermented cured sausage containing ostrich meat (Struthio camelus and pork meat. Four treatments were performed: one with no ostrich meat (TC and the others containing 19.08 (T1, 38.34 (T2, and 57.60% (T3 of ostrich meat and pork meat. Colorimetric analyses were measuring L*, a*, b*, C*, and hº. Sensory analysis was conducted assessing color, aroma, flavor, and texture at the end of the sausages' processing. The sausages containing ostrich meat were statistically different from the control in the instrumental colorimetric analysis. In the sensory analysis, no significant differences were observed between the treatments for aroma, flavor, and texture. However, significant differences were found in the color of the sausages due to the high myoglobin content present in the ostrich meat, which resulted in a very dark color in the treatment with the highest percentage of this type of meat.

  3. Microscopic and Molecular Detection of Camel Piroplasmosis in Gadarif State, Sudan (United States)

    Nyingilili, Hamisi Said


    The socioeconomic importance of camels (Camelus dromedarius) could not be neglected in the Sudan. The present study was planned to confirm the presence of piroplasmosis in camels from the Eastern region of the Sudan (Gedarif State) using microscopical (blood film) and molecular technique (PCR). A total of 55 camels of different sexes (34 females and 21 males) were sampled from four localities of the state between January 2011 and January 2012. The prevalence rates using parasitological and molecular examinations were 43.6% and 74.5%, respectively. The prevalence rates significantly vary between the localities (p = 0.011) but not between the different sexes (p = 0.515). PCR technique showed higher sensitivity than microscopy. The present paper was to be the first report investigating camel piroplasmosis using both parasitological and molecular methods in the Eastern region of the Sudan. Further studies in the phylogenetic sequencing are to be continued for parasite speciation. Moreover, studies on the clinical and economic consequences of camel piroplasmosis are recommended. PMID:28293445


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lumturi Sena


    Full Text Available The research was carried out in the “ANOC” ostrich farm in Patos/Albania, in order to determine the effects of storage period on the hatchability of 197 ostrich (Struthio camelus eggs. One egg setting was monitored, through dividing the eggs into three groups according to their age, as following: 20-30, 10-20 and 1-10 days old, containing respectively 49, 80 and 68 eggs/group. During the hatching process, the respective parameters, such as: fecundity, embryonic mortality, weight egg loss and hatchability were recorded and monitored. After two weeks, the average weight loss of the all eggs resulted to be 0.5% more than the standard, referred as such, the instructions given by the Dutch company PAS REFORM, producer of the ostrich eggs incubation and hatching machines. The reason of the high embryonic mortality (40.7% mainly relates with the long pre-incubation storage time. Higher sterility (42.6% might especially relate with the high temperature stress in the farm, considering the fact that the animals were just transferred from the Netherlands to Albania. The hatching rate (29.9%, compared to the total number of the set eggs is comparable with the same parameter achieved in the UK. Out of these results, it is concluded that: the shorter the egg storage time before the setting the better will the hatching results be.

  5. Purification and Characterization of Cytosolic Glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate Dehydrogenase from the Dromedary Camel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Latifa FOURRAT; Abdelghani IDDAR; Abdelaziz SOUKRI


    Glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) (EC, a key enzyme of carbon metabolism, was purified and characterized to homogeneity from skeletal muscle of Camelus dromedarius. The protein was purified approximately 26.8 folds by conventional ammonium sulphate fractionation followed by Blue Sepharose CL-6B chromatography, and its physical and kinetic properties were investigated. The native protein is a homotetramer with an apparent molecular weight of approximately 146 kDa. Isoelectric focusing analysis showed the presence of only one GAPDH isoform with an isoelectric point of 7.2. The optimum pH of the purified enzyme was 7.8. Studies on the effect of temperature on enzyme activity revealed an optimal value of approximately 28-32 ℃ with activation energy of 4.9 kcal/mol.The apparent Km values for NAD+ and DL-glyceraldehyde-3-phophate were estimated to be 0.025±0.040 mM and 0.21±0.08 mM, respectively. The Vmax of the purified protein was estimated to be 52.7±5.9 U/mg.These kinetic parameter values were different from those described previously, reflecting protein differences between species.

  6. Large scale sex typing of ostriches using DNA extracted from feathers

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    Medaglia Adriana


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ostrich (Struthio camelus breeds have been gaining increasing significance around the world. The large-scale sex determination of chicks is an important task in the development of these breeds. To date, two PCR-based methods have been established for ostrich sex typing, neither of them intended for large-scale analyses. Here, we report on a protocol adapted to carry out large-scale gender scoring using DNA obtained from chick feathers. Results The DNA was extracted using a fast and simple alkaline extraction protocol that provided sufficient template for an early diagnosis. Tests with several primer sets enabled us to determine the best internal control primers associated with the sex-specific primers, avoiding spurious bands. Using DNA extracted from a single bulb and the best set of primers, we applied this protocol to simultaneously sex-type 96 individuals accurately. Conclusion We have established a fast, safe, accurate and inexpensive procedure for large-scale sex typing of ostriches using DNA extracted from feathers. This procedure is useful for the gender identification of chicks in the first days of nestling life.

  7. A Possible Long-tailed Bird with a Pygostyle from the Late Mesozoic Yixian Formation,Western Liaoning,China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    L(U) Junchang; HOU Lianhai


    An incomplete caudal vertebral series (IVPP V11309) from the Yixian Formation of late Mesozoic,Jianshangou area of B eipiao, western Liaoning Province, may represent a new bird. The tail is composed of at least 12 free caudal vertebrae and the most distal 5 caudal vertebrae co-ossified into a pygostyle. The pygostyle is plate-like and slightly curved dorsally. The anterior free caudals are amphiplatyan. The anterior caudal surfaces of the last three free caudals are concave, but their posterior articular surfaces are convex. The pygostyle is regarded as the first appeared flight apparatus during the evolutionary process from Archaeopteryx to neornithes. The pygostyle appeared in most early fossil birds and almost all the modern birds. Although their morphologies are different, they are basically formed by at least four last caudal vertebrae. The specimen V11309 is regarded as a bird rather than a non-avian theropod dinosaur based on the following characters: short caudal vertebrae, numerous pits present on the surfaces of the centra and, a foramen present between the basal part of the fused neural spines, which is similar to that of Struthio camelus. The discoveries of pygostyles from the therizinosauroids and oviraptorosaurs may provide strong evidence for supporting the origin of birds from small theropod dinosaurs. The structure of the pygostyle in specimen V11309 is different from those of Beipiaosaurus (Therizinosauroid) and Nomingia (oviraptorosaur). The most parsimonious interpretation is that these pygostyle-like structures are independently acquired by Beipiaosaurus and Nomingia during their evolutionary process.

  8. Glycated hemoglobin in camel: Minimal correlation with blood glucose level

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    Bazzi Mohammad D.


    Full Text Available Glucose and glycated hemoglobin (Hb in the blood of camel (Camelus dromedarius and cow (Bos taurus were analyzed and compared with human values. Camel displayed high blood glucose concentration (9.7±2.8 mM but a low level of glycated-Hb (3.4± 0.23%.Cow blood samples did not show sufficient variations in glucose concentrations (5.7±0.73 mM or glycated Hb levels (3.2± 0.11% compared to human values. The low glycation of camel Hb at higher glucose concentrations suggest that certain factors protect the Hb from glycation at high glucose concentrations. Camel Hb also exhibited a higher electrophoretic mobility than normal hemoglobin of human or cow. Camel Hb migrated at a rate corresponding to that of human Hb-C. Bioinformatics tools were used to explore the biochemical basis for the difference in camel Hb migratory position and its apparent resistance to glycation.

  9. De novo sequence analysis of cytochrome P450 1-3 genes expressed in ostrich liver with highest expression of CYP2G19. (United States)

    Kawai, Yusuke K; Watanabe, Kensuke P; Ishii, Akihiro; Ohnuma, Aiko; Sawa, Hirofumi; Ikenaka, Yoshinori; Ishizuka, Mayumi


    The cytochrome P450 (CYP) 1-3 families are involved in xenobiotic metabolism, and are expressed primarily in the liver. Ostriches (Struthio camelus) are members of Palaeognathae with the earliest divergence from other bird lineages. An understanding of genes coding for ostrich xenobiotic metabolizing enzyme contributes to knowledge regarding the xenobiotic metabolisms of other Palaeognathae birds. We investigated CYP1-3 genes expressed in female ostrich liver using a next-generation sequencer. We detected 10 CYP genes: CYP1A5, CYP2C23, CYP2C45, CYP2D49, CYP2G19, CYP2W2, CYP2AC1, CYP2AC2, CYP2AF1, and CYP3A37. We compared the gene expression levels of CYP1A5, CYP2C23, CYP2C45, CYP2D49, CYP2G19, CYP2AF1, and CYP3A37 in ostrich liver and determined that CYP2G19 exhibited the highest expression level. The mRNA expression level of CYP2G19 was approximately 2-10 times higher than those of other CYP genes. The other CYP genes displayed similar expression levels. Our results suggest that CYP2G19, which has not been a focus of previous bird studies, has an important role in ostrich xenobiotic metabolism.

  10. Microscopic and Molecular Detection of Camel Piroplasmosis in Gadarif State, Sudan

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    Abdalla Mohamed Ibrahim


    Full Text Available The socioeconomic importance of camels (Camelus dromedarius could not be neglected in the Sudan. The present study was planned to confirm the presence of piroplasmosis in camels from the Eastern region of the Sudan (Gedarif State using microscopical (blood film and molecular technique (PCR. A total of 55 camels of different sexes (34 females and 21 males were sampled from four localities of the state between January 2011 and January 2012. The prevalence rates using parasitological and molecular examinations were 43.6% and 74.5%, respectively. The prevalence rates significantly vary between the localities (p=0.011 but not between the different sexes (p=0.515. PCR technique showed higher sensitivity than microscopy. The present paper was to be the first report investigating camel piroplasmosis using both parasitological and molecular methods in the Eastern region of the Sudan. Further studies in the phylogenetic sequencing are to be continued for parasite speciation. Moreover, studies on the clinical and economic consequences of camel piroplasmosis are recommended.

  11. Effect of halophyte Salicornia bigelovii Torr and graded levels of dietary crude protein on feed performance and carcass traits of camels

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    Ahmed H. Mahmoud

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of source of roughage and crude protein level on feeding performance and carcass traits of Majaheem camels (Camelus dromedarius. Forty-eight male calf-camels weighing 203.3±5.1 kg were equally assigned to a 2 × 3 factorial arrangement of two sources of roughage (Rhodes grass hay and dry salicornia biomass and three dietary crude protein levels (12, 14.5, and 17%; the feeding trial lasted for 18 weeks. The results showed that slaughter and hot carcass weights, average daily gain, dry matter intake, feed efficiency, and separable fat from 9th-11th rib joint increased as the crude protein in the diets increased from 12 to 14.5%, whereas increasing crude protein to 17% resulted in no further changes. Slaughter weight, average daily gain, hot carcass weight, rib eye area, and separable lean did not differ between Rhodes grass and salicornia diets, but salicornia-fed camels had higher dry matter intake and produced heavier kidney fat and separable fat weights than camels fed Rhodes grass diets. It is suggested that the inclusion of salicornia biomass as a roughage ingredient up to 25% in the diet containing not greater than 14.5% crude protein can be utilized without adverse effect on feeding performance of calf-camels.

  12. Genetic characterization and phylogenetic analysis of Trypanosoma evansi in Iranian dromedary camels. (United States)

    Pourjafar, Mehrdad; Badiei, Khalil; Sharifiyazdi, Hassan; Chalmeh, Aliasghar; Naghib, Mojtaba; Babazadeh, Marzieh; Mootabi Alavi, Amir; Hosseini Joshani-Zadeh, Narges


    Whole blood samples were collected from 117 male clinically healthy Camelus dromedarius aged between 6 months to 18 years from several farms in Yazd Province of Iran. Trypanosoma evansi-affected camels were detected by Giemsa-stained blood smears, and the positive blood samples (4 out of 117) were submitted to PCR examination and phylogenetic analysis. Basic Local Alignment Search Tool data of the obtained complete internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequences revealed that they corresponded to those of T. evansi, Thailand cattle isolate (AY912276) with the homology of 99 %. Both phylogenetic trees generated by ITS1 and complete ITS were unable to clearly show inter- and intraspecific genetic diversity of Trypanosoma spp. isolates. The phylogenetic tree inferred from the ITS2 nucleotide sequences (569 bp) clearly showed the genetic diversity of the parasites. Phylogenetic and molecular analyses of this region showed that two distinct genotypes of T. evansi in Iranian dromedary camels are present. In contrast to the ITS1 and ITS2 regions, multiple alignment of the nucleotide sequence of the 5.8S rRNA showed a high degree of sequence conservation during evolution in various Trypanosoma spp.

  13. Molecular characterization of Cryptosporidium spp. from fecal samples of birds kept in captivity in Brazil. (United States)

    Nakamura, Alex Akira; Simões, Daniel Castendo; Antunes, Rômulo Godik; da Silva, Deuvânia Carvalho; Meireles, Marcelo Vasconcelos


    The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of Cryptosporidium species and genotypes in birds kept in captivity in Brazil. A total of 966 samples from 18 families of birds was collected and stored in 5% potassium dichromate solution at 4 degrees C until processing. Oocysts were purified in Sheather sugar solution following extraction of genomic DNA. Molecular analyses were performed using nested-PCR for amplification of fragments of the 18S subunit of rRNA gene and of the actin gene. Amplification of Cryptosporidium DNA fragments was obtained in 47 (4.86%) samples. Sequencing of amplified fragments and phylogenetic analyses allowed the identification of Cryptosporidium baileyi in a black vulture (Coragyps atratus), a domestic chicken (Gallus gallus domesticus) and a saffron finch (Sicalis flaveola); Cryptosporidium galli in canaries (Serinus canaria), a cockatiel (Nymphicus hollandicus) and lesser seed-finches (Oryzoborus angolensis); Cryptosporidium meleagridis in a domestic chicken (G. g. domesticus); Cryptosporidium parvum in a cockatiel (N. hollandicus); Cryptosporidium avian genotype I in a canary (S. canaria) and an Indian peafowl (Pavo cristatus); Cryptosporidium avian genotype II in ostriches (Struthio camelus) and Cryptosporidium avian genotype III in a cockatiel (N. hollandicus) and a peach-faced lovebird (Agapornis roseicolis).

  14. A Global Scale Scenario for Prebiotic Chemistry: Silica-Based Self-Assembled Mineral Structures and Formamide (United States)


    The pathway from simple abiotically made organic compounds to the molecular bricks of life, as we know it, is unknown. The most efficient geological abiotic route to organic compounds results from the aqueous dissolution of olivine, a reaction known as serpentinization (Sleep, N.H., et al. (2004) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 101, 12818–12822). In addition to molecular hydrogen and a reducing environment, serpentinization reactions lead to high-pH alkaline brines that can become easily enriched in silica. Under these chemical conditions, the formation of self-assembled nanocrystalline mineral composites, namely silica/carbonate biomorphs and metal silicate hydrate (MSH) tubular membranes (silica gardens), is unavoidable (Kellermeier, M., et al. In Methods in Enzymology, Research Methods in Biomineralization Science (De Yoreo, J., Ed.) Vol. 532, pp 225–256, Academic Press, Burlington, MA). The osmotically driven membranous structures have remarkable catalytic properties that could be operating in the reducing organic-rich chemical pot in which they form. Among one-carbon compounds, formamide (NH2CHO) has been shown to trigger the formation of complex prebiotic molecules under mineral-driven catalytic conditions (Saladino, R., et al. (2001) Biorganic & Medicinal Chemistry, 9, 1249–1253), proton irradiation (Saladino, R., et al. (2015) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 112, 2746–2755), and laser-induced dielectric breakdown (Ferus, M., et al. (2015) Proc Natl Acad Sci USA, 112, 657–662). Here, we show that MSH membranes are catalysts for the condensation of NH2CHO, yielding prebiotically relevant compounds, including carboxylic acids, amino acids, and nucleobases. Membranes formed by the reaction of alkaline (pH 12) sodium silicate solutions with MgSO4 and Fe2(SO4)3·9H2O show the highest efficiency, while reactions with CuCl2·2H2O, ZnCl2, FeCl2·4H2O, and MnCl2·4H2O showed lower reactivities. The collections of compounds forming inside and outside the tubular

  15. Stable isotopes suggest differences in diet between historic and reintroduced Przewalskís horses in the Gobi desert (United States)

    Burnik Šturm, Martina; Spasskaya, Natalia N.; Sablin, Mikhail V.; Voigt, Christian C.; Kaczensky, Petra


    In historic times, two wild equid species, the Przewalski᾽s horse (PH; Equus ferus przewalskii) and the Asiatic wild ass (khulan, KH; Equus hemionus), roamed the Eurasian steppes. By the end of the 1960s, PHs had been driven to extinction in the wild and the range of KHs became severely restricted to the least productive habitats. However, PHs survived in captivity and reintroductions since the 1990s have brought the species back to parts of its native range in Mongolia and northern China where they again overlap with KHs. Ecological research on PHs and KHs has increased in recent years, but very little information is available on the ecology of the original PHs prior to extinction in the wild. We applied stable isotope analysis (13C, 15N, and 2H) of segmentally cut tail hair of PHs and KHs, collected during expeditions in NW China and SW Mongolia in 1889-1899, to draw inferences about the species feeding ecology. We compared tail hair isotope patterns of historic individuals to those of their extant counterparts from the Mongolian Gobi. A previous study of isotopic tail hair signatures of extant PHs (N=6) and KHs (N=6) suggested species specific differences in diet, with PHs being year-round grazers, but KHs switching between being grazers in summer and mixed feeders in winter (Burnik Šturm et al., in prep.). The comparison of isotope patterns of extant with historic samples confirms diet seasonality in historic KHs (N=3), but detects the same seasonality in five out of six PHs, suggesting that historic PHs had a different isotopic dietary niche than extant PHs. While we are still unable to fully understand the underlying reasons for this change in PHs, our results clearly suggest that the isotopic dietary niche of PHs was wider in the past, suggesting a higher diet flexibility, and overlapped with that of KHs, suggesting a high competition potential over Gobi pastures between the two equid species in historic times. Reference: Burnik Šturm, M., Ganbaatar, O

  16. Revision of the Ceratocapsine Renodaeus group: Marinonicoris, Pilophoropsis, Renodaeus, and Zanchisme, with descriptions of four new genera (Heteroptera, Miridae, Orthotylinae

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    Thomas Henry


    ., from Michoacan, Mexico; P. touchetae sp. n., from Mexico (Puebla; P. truncata sp. n., from Mexico (Guerrero; P. tuberculata sp. n., from Mexico (Guerrero; and Ceratocapsus barberi Knight, comb. n., Ceratocapsus camelus Knight, comb. n. (as the type species of the genus, and Ceratocapsus fascipennis Knight, comb. n. Pilophoropsita gen. n. is described to accommodate P. schaffneri sp. n. from Costa Rica and Mexico (Jalisco, Nayarit, Oaxaca. The genus Renodaeus Distant is redescribed and the new species R. mimeticus sp. n. from Ecuador is described. The genus Zanchisme Kirkaldy is reviewed and the four known species are redescribed. Zanchismeopsidea gen. n. is described to accommodate Z. diegoi sp. n. from Argentina (Santiago del Estero. Provided are habitus illustrations for certain adults (Pilophoropsidea camelus, Pilophoropsis brachyptera Poppius, Renodaeus mimeticus, and Zanchisme mexicanus Carvalho & Schaffner, male and female (when available color digital images and figures of male genitalia of all species, electron photomicrographs of diagnostic characters for selected species, and keys to the genera and their included species. The taxa treated in this paper are arranged alphabetically by genus and species.

  17. Revision of the Ceratocapsine Renodaeus group: Marinonicoris, Pilophoropsis, Renodaeus, and Zanchisme, with descriptions of four new genera (Heteroptera, Miridae, Orthotylinae) (United States)

    Henry, Thomas J.


    and Arizona and New Mexico, USA; Pilophoropsidea keltoni sp. n., from Durango, Mexico; Pilophoropsidea maxima sp. n., from Durango, Mexico; Pilophoropsidea pueblaensis sp. n., from Puebla, Mexico; Pilophoropsidea schaffneri sp. n., from Neuvo León and San Luis Potosi, Mexico; Pilophoropsidea serrata sp. n., from Michoacan, Mexico; Pilophoropsidea touchetae sp. n., from Mexico (Puebla); Pilophoropsidea truncata sp. n., from Mexico (Guerrero); Pilophoropsidea tuberculata sp. n., from Mexico (Guerrero); and Ceratocapsus barberi Knight, comb. n., Ceratocapsus camelus Knight, comb. n. (as the type species of the genus), and Ceratocapsus fascipennis Knight, comb. n. Pilophoropsita gen. n. is described to accommodate Pilophoropsidea schaffneri sp. n. from Costa Rica and Mexico (Jalisco, Nayarit, Oaxaca). The genus Renodaeus Distant is redescribed and the new species Renodaeus mimeticus sp. n. from Ecuador is described. The genus Zanchisme Kirkaldy is reviewed and the four known species are redescribed. Zanchismeopsidea gen. n. is described to accommodate Zanchismeopsidea diegoi sp. n. from Argentina (Santiago del Estero). Provided are habitus illustrations for certain adults (Pilophoropsidea camelus, Pilophoropsis brachyptera Poppius, Renodaeus mimeticus, and Zanchisme mexicanus Carvalho & Schaffner), male and female (when available) color digital images and figures of male genitalia of all species, electron photomicrographs of diagnostic characters for selected species, and keys to the genera and their included species. The taxa treated in this paper are arranged alphabetically by genus and species. PMID:25878535

  18. Cosmological constraints with weak-lensing peak counts and second-order statistics in a large-field survey (United States)

    Peel, Austin; Lin, Chieh-An; Lanusse, François; Leonard, Adrienne; Starck, Jean-Luc; Kilbinger, Martin


    Peak statistics in weak-lensing maps access the non-Gaussian information contained in the large-scale distribution of matter in the Universe. They are therefore a promising complementary probe to two-point and higher-order statistics to constrain our cosmological models. Next-generation galaxy surveys, with their advanced optics and large areas, will measure the cosmic weak-lensing signal with unprecedented precision. To prepare for these anticipated data sets, we assess the constraining power of peak counts in a simulated Euclid-like survey on the cosmological parameters Ωm, σ8, and w0de. In particular, we study how Camelus, a fast stochastic model for predicting peaks, can be applied to such large surveys. The algorithm avoids the need for time-costly N-body simulations, and its stochastic approach provides full PDF information of observables. Considering peaks with a signal-to-noise ratio ≥ 1, we measure the abundance histogram in a mock shear catalogue of approximately 5000 deg2 using a multiscale mass-map filtering technique. We constrain the parameters of the mock survey using Camelus combined with approximate Bayesian computation, a robust likelihood-free inference algorithm. Peak statistics yield a tight but significantly biased constraint in the σ8-Ωm plane, as measured by the width ΔΣ8 of the 1σ contour. We find Σ8 = σ8(Ωm/ 0.27)α = 0.77-0.05+0.06 with α = 0.75 for a flat ΛCDM model. The strong bias indicates the need to better understand and control the model systematics before applying it to a real survey of this size or larger. We perform a calibration of the model and compare results to those from the two-point correlation functions ξ± measured on the same field. We calibrate the ξ± result as well, since its contours are also biased, although not as severely as for peaks. In this case, we find for peaks Σ8 = 0.76-0.03+0.02 with α = 0.65, while for the combined ξ+ and ξ- statistics the values are Σ8 = 0.76-0.01+0.02 and α = 0

  19. Características físico-químicas de embutido curado fermentado com adição de carne de avestruz associada à de suíno Physico-chemical characteristics of fermented cured sausage with the addition of ostrich meat associated to pork meat

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    Carlos Pasqualin Cavalheiro


    Full Text Available Os objetivos deste trabalho foram desenvolver e determinar as características físico-químicas e a composição centesimal de um embutido curado fermentado contendo carne de avestruz (Struthio camelus e carne suína. Para isso, utilizaram-se quatro formulações, e em uma não foi utilizada carne de avestruz (controle e nas outras foram utilizados 19, 38,3 e 57,6% dessa carne, em associação com a carne suína. Os produtos foram avaliados durante o processamento diariamente, na primeira semana e nos dias 14, 21 e 28, para análise de pH; nos dias zero, três, sete, 14, 21 e 28 foram avaliados quanto à atividade de água; e, após concluída a fabricação, foram avaliados quanto à quebra de peso e à composição centesimal (28 dias. Os resultados mostraram que os embutidos apresentaram um pH mais ácido do que o ideal. Peças com maior quantidade de carne de avestruz apresentaram uma maior perda de peso ao final do processamento, sendo a diferença entre o tratamento 3 e o tratamento controle de 8,2%. O teor de carne de avestruz alterou significativamente as peças em relação ao teor de umidade final. Com exceção do nível de gordura, todos os outros quesitos avaliados atendem ao Regulamento Técnico de Identidade e Qualidade do Ministério da Agricultura.The aim of this research was to develop and to determine the physic-chemical characteristics and centesimal composition of a fermented cured sausage containing ostrich meat (Struthio camelus and pork meat. Four different formulations were developed: one with no ostrich meat (control and others with levels of 19, 38.3 and 57.8%, respectively, in association with pork meat. The products were evaluated daily in the first week and in days 14, 21 and 28 for pH analysis and days zero, three, seven, 14, 21 and 28 for water activity analysis. After manufacturing was completed, weight loss and centesimal composition (28 days were evaluated. The results showed that the sausages presented p

  20. The One-humped Camel in the Canary Islands: History and Present Status

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    Wilson, RT.


    Full Text Available The one-humped camel (Camelus dromedarius L. is not indigenous to the Canary Islands but based on historical references was introduced at the very beginning of the fifteenth century. The camel thrived in the subtropical dry environment. A long period of isolation from other animals of the same species meant that the animals were virtually disease free. This made the Islands an ideal base for exporting camels to new areas such that camels from the Canaries went to Peru in the sixteenth century, to Brazil in the eighteenth century, Venezuela and Bolivia in the early part of the nineteenth century and Australia in 1840. Camels went to several Caribbean islands in the middle of the nineteenth century. More recently (late twentieth and early twenty-first centuries some animals were exported from the islands to mainland Europe, notably France, Spain and the Netherlands, and to South America. Camels have been used in military operations, as transport and draught animals in support of agriculture and have found a role in the tourist industry. In early 2013 there were some 1,300 camels distributed over four of the larger islands of the archipelago in herds varying in size from a single animal to herds of as many as 150 head: a large group of about 400 heads kept in a Safari Park on the island of Fuerteventura is considered as the national conservation herd. The "Canary" camel has recently been shown to be genetically distinct from most other populations and it has been proposed that it should be designated as a distinct breed.

  1. Comparative study of glucose transporters GLUT-2 and GLUT-5 in ostriches gastrointestinal tract

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    Piret Hussar


    Full Text Available The knowledge about transport of sugars in animals and birds gastrointestinal tract is very important for science as carbohydrates are the main energy source of food. Since until now there is few information about the localization of glucose transporters - integral membrane proteins that mediate the transport of glucose and related substances across the cellular membranes - in birds gastrointestinal tract, the aim of the present study was to localize glucose transporters-2 and -5 (GLUT-2 and -5 in three parts of the ostriches gastrointestinal tract – proventriculus, duodenum and ileum - comparatively in ostrich chicken in their early ontogenesis period. Material from the superficial gland zone of the proventriculus, duodenum and terminal zone of the ileum were collected from eight female ostriches (Struthio camelus var. Domesticus: two chickens after hatching, three 7 and three 30-days old ostriches. The material was fixed with 10% formalin, embedded into paraffin, slices 7 μm thick were cut followed by immunohistochemical staining with polyclonal primary antibodies Rabbit anti-GLUT-2 and Rabbit anti-GLUT-5, carried out according to the manufacturers guidelines (IHC kit, Abcam, UK. The results showed that the staining for both antibodies was weaker in all parts of the gastrointestinal tract of ostriches after hatching compared to 7 and 30 days old ostriches showing that the gastrointestinal tract of ostriches immediately after hatching is not entirely capable of transportation of carbohydrates. The results of our study may indicate the possibility of a close relationship between feeding and the ability to transport sugars in the gastrointestinal tract.

  2. Reference genes for quantitative gene expression studies in multiple avian species.

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    Philipp Olias

    Full Text Available Quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR rapidly and reliably quantifies gene expression levels across different experimental conditions. Selection of suitable reference genes is essential for meaningful normalization and thus correct interpretation of data. In recent years, an increasing number of avian species other than the chicken has been investigated molecularly, highlighting the need for an experimentally validated pan-avian primer set for reference genes. Here we report testing a set for 14 candidate reference genes (18S, ABL, GAPDH, GUSB, HMBS, HPRT, PGK1, RPL13, RPL19, RPS7, SDHA, TFRC, VIM, YWHAZ on different tissues of the mallard (Anas platyrhynchos, domestic chicken (Gallus gallus domesticus, common crane (Grus grus, white-tailed eagle (Haliaeetus albicilla, domestic turkey (Meleagris gallopavo f. domestica, cockatiel (Nymphicus hollandicus, Humboldt penguin (Sphenicus humboldti, ostrich (Struthio camelus and zebra finch (Taeniopygia guttata, spanning a broad range of the phylogenetic tree of birds. Primer pairs for six to 11 genes were successfully established for each of the nine species. As a proof of principle, we analyzed expression levels of 10 candidate reference genes as well as FOXP2 and the immediate early genes, EGR1 and CFOS, known to be rapidly induced by singing in the avian basal ganglia. We extracted RNA from microbiopsies of the striatal song nucleus Area X of adult male zebra finches after they had sang or remained silent. Using three different statistical algorithms, we identified five genes (18S, PGK1, RPS7, TFRC, YWHAZ that were stably expressed within each group and also between the singing and silent conditions, establishing them as suitable reference genes. In conclusion, the newly developed pan-avian primer set allows accurate normalization and quantification of gene expression levels in multiple avian species.

  3. Structural basis of heparin binding to camel peptidoglycan recognition protein-S (United States)

    Sharma, Pradeep; Dube, Divya; Sinha, Mau; Dey, Sharmistha; Kaur, Punit; Sharma, Sujata; Singh, Tej P.


    Short peptidoglycan recognition protein (PGRP-S) is a member of the innate immunity system in mammals. PGRP-S from Camelus dromedarius (CPGRP-S) is found to be highly potent against bacterial infections. It is capable of binding to a wide range of pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) including lipopolysaccharide (LPS), lipoteichoic acid (LTA) and peptidoglycan (PGN). The heparin-like polysaccharides have also been observed in some bacteria such as the capsule of K5 Escherichia coli thus making them relevant for determining the nature of their interactions with CPGRP-S. The binding studies of CPGRP-S with heparin disaccharide in solution using surface plasmon resonance gave a value 3.3×10-7 M for the dissociation constant (Kd). The structure of the heparin bound CPGRP-S determined at 2.8Å resolution revealed the presence of a bound heparin molecule in the binding pocket of CPGRP-S. It was found anchored tightly to the protein with the help of several ionic and hydrogen bonded interactions. Three sulphate groups of heparin S1, S2 and S3 have been found to interact with residues, Arg-31, Lys-90, Thr- 97, Asn-99 Asn-140, Gln-150 and Arg-170 of CPGRP-S. The binding site includes two subsites, S-I and S-II with cleft-like structures. Heparin disaccharide is bound in subsite S-I. Previously determined structures of the complexes of CPGRP-S with LPS, LTA and PGN also showed that their glycan moieties were also held in subsite S-I indicating that heparin disaccharide also represents an important element for the recognition by CPGRP-S. PMID:22509483

  4. A repeated-measures analysis of the effects of soft tissues on wrist range of motion in the extant phylogenetic bracket of dinosaurs: Implications for the functional origins of an automatic wrist folding mechanism in Crocodilia. (United States)

    Hutson, Joel David; Hutson, Kelda Nadine


    A recent study hypothesized that avian-like wrist folding in quadrupedal dinosaurs could have aided their distinctive style of locomotion with semi-pronated and therefore medially facing palms. However, soft tissues that automatically guide avian wrist folding rarely fossilize, and automatic wrist folding of unknown function in extant crocodilians has not been used to test this hypothesis. Therefore, an investigation of the relative contributions of soft tissues to wrist range of motion (ROM) in the extant phylogenetic bracket of dinosaurs, and the quadrupedal function of crocodilian wrist folding, could inform these questions. Here, we repeatedly measured wrist ROM in degrees through fully fleshed, skinned, minus muscles/tendons, minus ligaments, and skeletonized stages in the American alligator Alligator mississippiensis and the ostrich Struthio camelus. The effects of dissection treatment and observer were statistically significant for alligator wrist folding and ostrich wrist flexion, but not ostrich wrist folding. Final skeletonized wrist folding ROM was higher than (ostrich) or equivalent to (alligator) initial fully fleshed ROM, while final ROM was lower than initial ROM for ostrich wrist flexion. These findings suggest that, unlike the hinge/ball and socket-type elbow and shoulder joints in these archosaurs, ROM within gliding/planar diarthrotic joints is more restricted to the extent of articular surfaces. The alligator data indicate that the crocodilian wrist mechanism functions to automatically lock their semi-pronated palms into a rigid column, which supports the hypothesis that this palmar orientation necessitated soft tissue stiffening mechanisms in certain dinosaurs, although ROM-restricted articulations argue against the presence of an extensive automatic mechanism. Anat Rec, 297:1228-1249, 2014. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Activity of heat shock genes' promoters in thermally contrasting animal species. (United States)

    Astakhova, Lyubov N; Zatsepina, Olga G; Funikov, Sergei Yu; Zelentsova, Elena S; Schostak, Natalia G; Orishchenko, Konstantin E; Evgen'ev, Michael B; Garbuz, David G


    Heat shock gene promoters represent a highly conserved and universal system for the rapid induction of transcription after various stressful stimuli. We chose pairs of mammalian and insect species that significantly differ in their thermoresistance and constitutive levels of Hsp70 to compare hsp promoter strength under normal conditions and after heat shock (HS). The first pair includes the HSPA1 gene promoter of camel (Camelus dromedarius) and humans. It was demonstrated that the camel HSPA1A and HSPA1L promoters function normally in vitro in human cell cultures and exceed the strength of orthologous human promoters under basal conditions. We used the same in vitro assay for Drosophila melanogaster Schneider-2 (S2) cells to compare the activity of the hsp70 and hsp83 promoters of the second species pair represented by Diptera, i.e., Stratiomys singularior and D. melanogaster, which dramatically differ in thermoresistance and the pattern of Hsp70 accumulation. Promoter strength was also monitored in vivo in D. melanogaster strains transformed with constructs containing the S. singularior hsp70 ORF driven either by its own promoter or an orthologous promoter from the D. melanogaster hsp70Aa gene. Analysis revealed low S. singularior hsp70 promoter activity in vitro and in vivo under basal conditions and after HS in comparison with the endogenous promoter in D. melanogaster cells, which correlates with the absence of canonical GAGA elements in the promoters of the former species. Indeed, the insertion of GAGA elements into the S. singularior hsp70 regulatory region resulted in a dramatic increase in promoter activity in vitro but only modestly enhanced the promoter strength in the larvae of the transformed strains. In contrast with hsp70 promoters, hsp83 promoters from both of the studied Diptera species demonstrated high conservation and universality.

  6. The de novo genome assembly and annotation of a female domestic dromedary of North African origin. (United States)

    Fitak, Robert R; Mohandesan, Elmira; Corander, Jukka; Burger, Pamela A


    The single-humped dromedary (Camelus dromedarius) is the most numerous and widespread of domestic camel species and is a significant source of meat, milk, wool, transportation and sport for millions of people. Dromedaries are particularly well adapted to hot, desert conditions and harbour a variety of biological and physiological characteristics with evolutionary, economic and medical importance. To understand the genetic basis of these traits, an extensive resource of genomic variation is required. In this study, we assembled at 65× coverage, a 2.06 Gb draft genome of a female dromedary whose ancestry can be traced to an isolated population from the Canary Islands. We annotated 21,167 protein-coding genes and estimated ~33.7% of the genome to be repetitive. A comparison with the recently published draft genome of an Arabian dromedary resulted in 1.91 Gb of aligned sequence with a divergence of 0.095%. An evaluation of our genome with the reference revealed that our assembly contains more error-free bases (91.2%) and fewer scaffolding errors. We identified ~1.4 million single-nucleotide polymorphisms with a mean density of 0.71 × 10(-3) per base. An analysis of demographic history indicated that changes in effective population size corresponded with recent glacial epochs. Our de novo assembly provides a useful resource of genomic variation for future studies of the camel's adaptations to arid environments and economically important traits. Furthermore, these results suggest that draft genome assemblies constructed with only two differently sized sequencing libraries can be comparable to those sequenced using additional library sizes, highlighting that additional resources might be better placed in technologies alternative to short-read sequencing to physically anchor scaffolds to genome maps.

  7. The Staurotypus turtles and aves share the same origin of sex chromosomes but evolved different types of heterogametic sex determination. (United States)

    Kawagoshi, Taiki; Uno, Yoshinobu; Nishida, Chizuko; Matsuda, Yoichi


    Reptiles have a wide diversity of sex-determining mechanisms and types of sex chromosomes. Turtles exhibit temperature-dependent sex determination and genotypic sex determination, with male heterogametic (XX/XY) and female heterogametic (ZZ/ZW) sex chromosomes. Identification of sex chromosomes in many turtle species and their comparative genomic analysis are of great significance to understand the evolutionary processes of sex determination and sex chromosome differentiation in Testudines. The Mexican giant musk turtle (Staurotypus triporcatus, Kinosternidae, Testudines) and the giant musk turtle (Staurotypus salvinii) have heteromorphic XY sex chromosomes with a low degree of morphological differentiation; however, their origin and linkage group are still unknown. Cross-species chromosome painting with chromosome-specific DNA from Chinese soft-shelled turtle (Pelodiscus sinensis) revealed that the X and Y chromosomes of S. triporcatus have homology with P. sinensis chromosome 6, which corresponds to the chicken Z chromosome. We cloned cDNA fragments of S. triporcatus homologs of 16 chicken Z-linked genes and mapped them to S. triporcatus and S. salvinii chromosomes using fluorescence in situ hybridization. Sixteen genes were localized to the X and Y long arms in the same order in both species. The orders were also almost the same as those of the ostrich (Struthio camelus) Z chromosome, which retains the primitive state of the avian ancestral Z chromosome. These results strongly suggest that the X and Y chromosomes of Staurotypus turtles are at a very early stage of sex chromosome differentiation, and that these chromosomes and the avian ZW chromosomes share the same origin. Nonetheless, the turtles and birds acquired different systems of heterogametic sex determination during their evolution.

  8. The Staurotypus turtles and aves share the same origin of sex chromosomes but evolved different types of heterogametic sex determination.

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    Taiki Kawagoshi

    Full Text Available Reptiles have a wide diversity of sex-determining mechanisms and types of sex chromosomes. Turtles exhibit temperature-dependent sex determination and genotypic sex determination, with male heterogametic (XX/XY and female heterogametic (ZZ/ZW sex chromosomes. Identification of sex chromosomes in many turtle species and their comparative genomic analysis are of great significance to understand the evolutionary processes of sex determination and sex chromosome differentiation in Testudines. The Mexican giant musk turtle (Staurotypus triporcatus, Kinosternidae, Testudines and the giant musk turtle (Staurotypus salvinii have heteromorphic XY sex chromosomes with a low degree of morphological differentiation; however, their origin and linkage group are still unknown. Cross-species chromosome painting with chromosome-specific DNA from Chinese soft-shelled turtle (Pelodiscus sinensis revealed that the X and Y chromosomes of S. triporcatus have homology with P. sinensis chromosome 6, which corresponds to the chicken Z chromosome. We cloned cDNA fragments of S. triporcatus homologs of 16 chicken Z-linked genes and mapped them to S. triporcatus and S. salvinii chromosomes using fluorescence in situ hybridization. Sixteen genes were localized to the X and Y long arms in the same order in both species. The orders were also almost the same as those of the ostrich (Struthio camelus Z chromosome, which retains the primitive state of the avian ancestral Z chromosome. These results strongly suggest that the X and Y chromosomes of Staurotypus turtles are at a very early stage of sex chromosome differentiation, and that these chromosomes and the avian ZW chromosomes share the same origin. Nonetheless, the turtles and birds acquired different systems of heterogametic sex determination during their evolution.

  9. Preferred gait and walk-run transition speeds in ostriches measured using GPS-IMU sensors. (United States)

    Daley, Monica A; Channon, Anthony J; Nolan, Grant S; Hall, Jade


    The ostrich (Struthio camelus) is widely appreciated as a fast and agile bipedal athlete, and is a useful comparative bipedal model for human locomotion. Here, we used GPS-IMU sensors to measure naturally selected gait dynamics of ostriches roaming freely over a wide range of speeds in an open field and developed a quantitative method for distinguishing walking and running using accelerometry. We compared freely selected gait-speed distributions with previous laboratory measures of gait dynamics and energetics. We also measured the walk-run and run-walk transition speeds and compared them with those reported for humans. We found that ostriches prefer to walk remarkably slowly, with a narrow walking speed distribution consistent with minimizing cost of transport (CoT) according to a rigid-legged walking model. The dimensionless speeds of the walk-run and run-walk transitions are slower than those observed in humans. Unlike humans, ostriches transition to a run well below the mechanical limit necessitating an aerial phase, as predicted by a compass-gait walking model. When running, ostriches use a broad speed distribution, consistent with previous observations that ostriches are relatively economical runners and have a flat curve for CoT against speed. In contrast, horses exhibit U-shaped curves for CoT against speed, with a narrow speed range within each gait for minimizing CoT. Overall, the gait dynamics of ostriches moving freely over natural terrain are consistent with previous lab-based measures of locomotion. Nonetheless, ostriches, like humans, exhibit a gait-transition hysteresis that is not explained by steady-state locomotor dynamics and energetics. Further study is required to understand the dynamics of gait transitions.

  10. Reference genes for quantitative gene expression studies in multiple avian species. (United States)

    Olias, Philipp; Adam, Iris; Meyer, Anne; Scharff, Constance; Gruber, Achim D


    Quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) rapidly and reliably quantifies gene expression levels across different experimental conditions. Selection of suitable reference genes is essential for meaningful normalization and thus correct interpretation of data. In recent years, an increasing number of avian species other than the chicken has been investigated molecularly, highlighting the need for an experimentally validated pan-avian primer set for reference genes. Here we report testing a set for 14 candidate reference genes (18S, ABL, GAPDH, GUSB, HMBS, HPRT, PGK1, RPL13, RPL19, RPS7, SDHA, TFRC, VIM, YWHAZ) on different tissues of the mallard (Anas platyrhynchos), domestic chicken (Gallus gallus domesticus), common crane (Grus grus), white-tailed eagle (Haliaeetus albicilla), domestic turkey (Meleagris gallopavo f. domestica), cockatiel (Nymphicus hollandicus), Humboldt penguin (Sphenicus humboldti), ostrich (Struthio camelus) and zebra finch (Taeniopygia guttata), spanning a broad range of the phylogenetic tree of birds. Primer pairs for six to 11 genes were successfully established for each of the nine species. As a proof of principle, we analyzed expression levels of 10 candidate reference genes as well as FOXP2 and the immediate early genes, EGR1 and CFOS, known to be rapidly induced by singing in the avian basal ganglia. We extracted RNA from microbiopsies of the striatal song nucleus Area X of adult male zebra finches after they had sang or remained silent. Using three different statistical algorithms, we identified five genes (18S, PGK1, RPS7, TFRC, YWHAZ) that were stably expressed within each group and also between the singing and silent conditions, establishing them as suitable reference genes. In conclusion, the newly developed pan-avian primer set allows accurate normalization and quantification of gene expression levels in multiple avian species.

  11. The activity of mixed function oxidases, estimated by in vivo antipyrine clearance, is similar in horses and camels. (United States)

    Wasfi, I A; Zorob, O M; Boni, N S; Hadi, A A; Agha, B A; Elghazali, M


    The activity of hepatic mixed function oxidases was compared in horses and camels (Camelus dromedarius) by studying the pharmacokinetics of antipyrine in seven camels and five horses following intravenous administration of a single dose of antipyrine (25 mg/kg). The data obtained (mean +/- SEM and median in brackets) in camels and horses, respectively, were as follows: the elimination half-lives were 3.25 +/- 0.23 (3.19) and 3.09 +/- 0.25 (2.90) hr; the apparent volumes of distribution (area method) were 0.691 +/- 0.045 (0.648) and 0.642 +/- 0.034 (0.676) l/kg; the volumes of distribution at steady state were 0.659 +/- 0.040 (0.607) and 0.620 +/- 0.030 (0.653) l/kg; the volume of the central compartment of the two-compartment pharmacokinetic model were 0.386 +/- 0.0523 (0.349) and 0.298 +/- 0.05 (0.308) l/kg; total body clearances were 0.148 +/- 0.008 (0.158) and 0.145 +/- 0.007 (0.147) l/kg/hr; the areas under the curves to infinity were 171.0 +/- 9 (165) and 175 +/- 8.0 (170) There was no statistical significance in any parameter between camels and horses which suggests that the activity of hepatic mixed function oxidases is similar in horses and camels.

  12. Effect of diet supplementation on growth and reproduction in camels under arid range conditions

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    Abdouli H.


    Full Text Available Eighteen pregnant dromedary females (Camelus dromedarius were used to determine the effect of concentrate supplement on growth and reproductive performances in peri-partum period. The females were divided into supplemented (n = 9; S and unsupplemented (n = 9; C experimental groups. All animals grazed, with one mature male, 7 to 8 hours per day on salty pasture rangelands. During night, they were kept in pen, where each female of group S received 4 kg per day of concentrate supplement during the last 3 months of gestation and 5 kg per day during the first 3 months post-partum. During the last 90 days of gestation daily body weight gain (DBG was at least tenfold more important in group S than in group C (775 g vs. 72 g respectively. Supplementation affected birth weight of offspring (30.3 kg vs. 23.4 kg and its DBG (806 g vs. 430 g in group S and group C respectively. During the post-partum period, females in group S gained in weight (116 g per day whereas females in group C lost more than 200 g per day. The mean post-partum interval to the first heat and the percentage of females in heat were 29.5 day and 44.4/ vs. 41.2 day and 71.4/ for the C and S groups, respectively. We conclude that under range conditions, dietary supplementation of dromedary during late pregnancy stage and post-partum period improves productive and reproductive parameters.

  13. On the identity of some weevil species described by Johann Christian Fabricius (1745–1808 in the Museum of Zoology of Copenhagen (Coleoptera, Cucujoidea, Curculionoidea, Tenebrionoidea

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    Miguel Alonso-Zarazaga


    Full Text Available The types of thirty-two nominal weevil species described by Johann Christian Fabricius are reviewed and lecto- and paralectotypes are designated for twenty-two of them. A neotype is designated for Curculio sticticus Fabricius, 1777. Protapion varipes (Germar, 1817 is declared a nomen protectum over Curculio flavipes Fabricius, 1775. Based on a study of syntypes, Rhinomacer curculioides Fabricius, 1781 is confirmed as a member of Mycterus (Mycteridae, Bruchus undatus Fabricius, 1787 is tentatively transferred to Erotylidae, Curculio fulvirostris Fabricius, 1787 and Anthribus roboris Fabricius, 1798 are confirmed as members of Salpingus (Salpingidae, and Brachycerus cristatus Fabricius, 1798 is transferred to Tenebrionidae. Based on lectotype designation, Curculio caninus Fabricius, 1792 is confirmed as a synonym of Sitona lineatus (Linnaeus, 1758 and Curculio innocuus Fabricius, 1802 as a synonym of Cneorhinus barcelonicus (Herbst, 1797. Bruchus rufipes Fabricius, 1792 is not considered an available species name, but a later use of Bruchus rufipes Olivier, 1790. Cossonus incisus Pascoe, 1885 is reinstated as valid from synonymy under Cossonus illigeri Champion, 1909 and Cossonus vulneratus Illiger, 1805 from synonymy under Cossonus canaliculatus (Fabricius, 1792 (a primary homonym of Curculio canaliculatus Olivier, 1791. Cossonus canaliculatus Fabricius, 1802 is a secondary homonym of the former and is replaced with Cossonus incisus. Salpingus fulvirostris (Fabricius, 1787 is reinstated as valid from synonymy under Salpingus planirostris (Fabricius, 1787, a primary homonym of Curculio planirostris Piller & Mitterpacher, 1783. The following new combinations are proposed: Brachysomus erinaceus (Fabricius, 1802 (from Curculio, Bronchus ferus (Gyllenhal, 1840 (from Hipporhinus, Bronchus glandifer (Fabricius, 1792 (from Curculio, Bronchus nivosus (Sparrman, 1785 (from Curculio, Bronchus sparrmani (Gyllenhal, 1833 (from Hipporhinus, Coelocephalapion

  14. Prenatal diagnosis of fetal chromosomal karyotype in 6389 cases of high-risk pregnant women in the second trimester of pregnancy%6389例孕中期高危孕妇胎儿染色体核型产前诊断结果分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    古丽娜孜·米吉提; 丁娟; 丁桂凤; 刘璇; 马光娟; 代文成


    目的 通过对6389例孕中期不同产前诊断指征高危孕妇的胎儿羊水染色体核型分析,探讨胎儿染色体异常核型的类型及发生频率,为有效开展产前诊断提供基础数据.方法 经腹羊膜腔穿刺抽取6389例高危孕妇羊水20ml,进行细胞培养,制备染色体标本,分析胎儿染色体核型.结果 6389例孕妇中,羊水细胞培养成功6348例,成功率为99.36%.检出异常染色体核型243例,异常检出率为3.80,%.不同产前诊断指征分组中的异常检出率不同,以高龄孕妇组异常率最高,为4.47%.结论 羊水细胞染色体核型分析是产前诊断的重要手段,高龄孕妇、母血清筛查高风险及超声显示的胎儿异常是产前诊断的重要指征.综合应用多种筛查及诊断方法,对于预防和控制出生缺陷意义重大.%Objective:To effectively provide basic data for prenatal diagnosis through analyzing fetal amniotic chromosome for prenatal diagnosis in 6389 cases of pregnant women with different indications during the second trimester of pregnancy.Methods:The 6389 specimens of amniotic cell obtained by amniocentesis were cultured and analyzed retrospectively.Results:Amniocentesis was successfully performed on all cases finally,the success rate of amniotic fluid cells culture was 99.36% (6348/6389).243 fetuses were found chromosome abnormalities,the rate was3.80%.The chromosome abnormality rates were different in different groups with different prenatal diagnosis indications,in which the chromosome abnormality rates were the highest among the elderly pregnant women.Conclusion:Chromosomal karyotype analysis on high risk population in the midtrimester of pregnancy is an important prenatal diagnosis method.Advanced maternal age,serum screening and B ultrasound screening are important measures to find ferus with chromosomal diseases.The birth defects can be prevented and controlled effectively by use different screening and diagnosis methods.

  15. Molecular diagnosis of spinal muscular atrophy by multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification%MLPA方法在脊髓性肌肉萎缩症分子诊断中的应用

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    曾健; 柯龙凤; 邓小军; 蔡美英; 涂向东; 兰风华


    of the parents was significantly higher than that of the healthy individuals (P<0.01).Two of the 10 feruses had homozygous deletion of SMN1.Conclusion The MLPA technique has proved to be an accurate and reliable tool for the molecular diagnosis of SMA.both in patients and in healthy carriers.

  16. Animal-based remedies as complementary medicines in Santa Cruz do Capibaribe, Brazil

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    Barboza Raynner RD


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The use of animal products in healing is an ancient and widespread cross-cultural practice. In northeastern Brazil, especially in the semi-arid region, animals and plants are widely used in traditional medicine and play significant roles in healing practices. Zootherapies form an integral part of these cultures, and information about animals is passed from generation to generation through oral folklore. Nevertheless, studies on medicinal animals are still scarce in northeastern Brazil, especially when compared to those focusing on medicinal plants. This paper examines the use and commercialization of animals for medicinal purposes in Brazil's semi-arid caatinga region. Methods Data was obtained through field surveys conducted in the public markets in the city of Santa Cruz do Capibaribe, Pernambuco State, Brazil. We interviewed 16 merchants (9 men and 7 women who provided information regarding folk remedies based on animal products. Results A total of 37 animal species (29 families, distributed among 7 taxonomic categories were found to be used to treat 51 different ailments. The most frequently cited treatments focused on the respiratory system, and were mainly related to problems with asthma. Zootherapeutic products are prescribed as single drugs or are mixed with other ingredients. Mixtures may include several to many more valuable medicinal animals added to other larger doses of more common medicinal animals and plants. The uses of certain medicinal animals are associated with popular local beliefs known as 'simpatias'. We identified 2 medicinal species (Struthio camelus and Nasutitermes macrocephalus not previously documented for Brazil. The use of animals as remedies in the area surveyed is associated with socio economic and cultural factors. Some of the medicinal animal species encountered in this study are included in lists of endangered species. Conclusion Our results demonstrate that a large variety of animals are

  17. Mathematical model establishment of irregular plantar surface of ostrich didactyl foot%鸵鸟足底非规则曲面形貌数学模型构建

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张锐; 杨明明; 潘润铎; 刘海宝; 曾桂银; 李建桥


    鸵鸟足底曲面形貌是影响鸵鸟足优越越沙性能的关键因素之一,研究鸵鸟足底曲面特征将有助于将其这一优越特性应用到越沙车轮上,以改善目前常规越沙车轮在松软地面上通过性低的难题。该文选取健康成年鸵鸟足,经过三维激光扫描仪扫描得到鸵鸟足的点云数据,并导入Geomagic Studio软件中进行封装、表面处理,最后把鸵鸟足第Ⅲ趾底曲面划分为3个典型区域:前掌缓曲面、中间凹槽面和足跟凸冠面。利用Catia软件中的Digitized Shape Editor模块,对3个典型曲面的密集点云选取合理的过滤方式过滤,保留典型曲面形貌的特征点,并导出3个典型区域特征点云三维数据。运用Matlab软件中的surface fitting自动拟合功能,拟合前掌缓曲面和中间凹槽面的2个曲面,分别得到2个曲面的拟合方程和决定系数R2;基于足跟凸冠面外形类似于一个典型椭球面,利用SAS软件中非线性回归模块以椭球面模型进行曲面拟合。从拟合结果可以看出,3个曲面的决定系数R2分别为0.95、0.96、0.95,实现了鸵鸟足底曲面由生物模型到数学模型的转化。该研究为将鸵鸟足底曲面形貌进行工程仿生学应用奠定了理论基础,并为利用工程仿生学技术研究松软路面行驶车辆提供研究方向和参考依据。%African ostrich (Struthio camelus) is the fastest long-distance runner with two feet in the desert. Plantar surface morphology of ostrich foot is one of the key effect factors on the superior travelling performance of ostrich didactyl foot on sand. The research of the ostrich plantar surface characteristics, will help to apply the superior characteristics to the wheels which travell on the soft grounds, and will help to improve the passing ability of current conventional sand wheel on soft grounds. Ostrich didactyl foot has two toes, the third toe and the fourth toe. During ostrich

  18. Influenza Aviária: Uma Revisão dos Últimos Dez Anos Avian Influenza: A Review of the Last Ten Years

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    NRS Martins


    Full Text Available A influenza aviária é doença exótica no Brasil. O sistema de vigilância implementado pelo Programa Nacional de Sanidade Avícola (PNSA mantém monitoração permanente das aves das principais espécies domésticas, tanto do material genético importado para a indústria avícola, por exemplo, da espécie das galinhas (Gallus gallus formadomestica, perus (Meleagris gallopavo formadomestica, codornas (Coturnix coturnix japonica, patos (Anas, primários (elite, bisavós e avós para postura ou corte, como aves de espécies de exploração mais recente, exóticas, por exemplo avestruzes (Struthio camelus ou nativas, por exemplo emas (Rhea americana. Os plantéis de reprodutores em produção são também acompanhados por amostragens periódicas, conforme previsto no PNSA, além da monitoração das respostas aos programas de vacinação, por exemplo, contra bronquite infecciosa e doença infecciosa bursal. O PNSA estabelece as normas de atuação para o controle e erradicação da doença de Newcastle (ND e Influenza Aviária (AI (Projeto de Vigilância, 2001, a saber: I - Notificação de focos da doença (e confirmação laboratorial no LARA-Campinas; II - Assistência a focos; III - Medidas de desinfecção; IV - Sacrifício sanitário; V - Vazio sanitário; VI - Vacinação dos plantéis ou esquemas emergenciais; VII - Controle e fiscalização dos animais susceptíveis; VIII - Outras medidas sanitárias; A vigilância e atenção ao foco exige o diagnóstico laboratorial e diferencial de AI e ND, que segue as normas do PNSA, conforme o sumário abaixo: 1- Interdição e coleta de materiais para exame laboratorial oficial; 2- Registro das aves: espécie(s, categoria(s, número(s, manutenção de aves; utensílios e produtos no local; proibição de trânsito de e para a(s propriedade(s em um raio de 10 km; controle de todos os animais e materiais possíveis fontes de propagação; desinfecção de vias de entradas e saídas à(s propriedade