WorldWideScience

Sample records for camelus bactrianus ferus

  1. A complete mitochondrial genome sequence of the wild two-humped camel (Camelus bactrianus ferus: an evolutionary history of camelidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meng He

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The family Camelidae that evolved in North America during the Eocene survived with two distinct tribes, Camelini and Lamini. To investigate the evolutionary relationship between them and to further understand the evolutionary history of this family, we determined the complete mitochondrial genome sequence of the wild two-humped camel (Camelus bactrianus ferus, the only wild survivor of the Old World camel. Results The mitochondrial genome sequence (16,680 bp from C. bactrianus ferus contains 13 protein-coding, two rRNA, and 22 tRNA genes as well as a typical control region; this basic structure is shared by all metazoan mitochondrial genomes. Its protein-coding region exhibits codon usage common to all mammals and possesses the three cryptic stop codons shared by all vertebrates. C. bactrianus ferus together with the rest of mammalian species do not share a triplet nucleotide insertion (GCC that encodes a proline residue found only in the nd1 gene of the New World camelid Lama pacos. This lineage-specific insertion in the L. pacos mtDNA occurred after the split between the Old and New World camelids suggests that it may have functional implication since a proline insertion in a protein backbone usually alters protein conformation significantly, and nd1 gene has not been seen as polymorphic as the rest of ND family genes among camelids. Our phylogenetic study based on complete mitochondrial genomes excluding the control region suggested that the divergence of the two tribes may occur in the early Miocene; it is much earlier than what was deduced from the fossil record (11 million years. An evolutionary history reconstructed for the family Camelidae based on cytb sequences suggested that the split of bactrian camel and dromedary may have occurred in North America before the tribe Camelini migrated from North America to Asia. Conclusion Molecular clock analysis of complete mitochondrial genomes from C. bactrianus ferus and L

  2. Reproductive status of Camelus bactrianus during early breeding season in India

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Vyas S; Sharma N; Sheikh FD; Singh S; Sena DS; Bissa UK

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To study the behaviour and reproductive status of the bactrian camel (Camelus bactrianus). Methods:This study was conducted at two places, Government Bactrian Camel Farm, Chusoot, Leh and Hundar village, Nubra valley, India, situated at higher than 10000 feet above sea level during the month of October, said to be initial period of breeding season. Results:The uterine horns were similar to that of dromedary i.e. between T and Y shaped. The ovaries were irregular but without follicle. The male camels were not showing any symptoms of rut or breeding season but were capable of mounting and copulating the sitting female. Conclusions:There is a need to carry out more research on reproduction in Indian Bactrian camel as they have become major attraction of tourists in Nubra valley and has become an important source of livelihood for the people who inhabit high altitude regions.

  3. Cytokine responses in camels (Camelus bactrianus) vaccinated with Brucella abortus strain 19 vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odbileg, Raadan; Purevtseren, Byambaa; Gantsetseg, Dorj; Boldbaatar, Bazartseren; Buyannemekh, Tumurjav; Galmandakh, Zagd; Erdenebaatar, Janchivdorj; Konnai, Satoru; Onuma, Misao; Ohashi, Kazuhiko

    2008-02-01

    In the present study, we determined the levels of cytokines produced by camel (Camelus bactrianus) peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) in response to live attenuated Brucella abortus (B. abortus) S19 vaccine. Seven camels were vaccinated with commercial B. abortus S19 vaccine, and their cytokine responses were determined using a real-time PCR assay. Cytokine responses to B. abortus S19 were examined at 6 hr, 48 hr and 1, 2 and 3 weeks post-vaccination. Serological tests were performed to further confirm these immune responses. The results revealed that IFN-gamma and IL-6 were upregulated during the first week post-vaccination. Low level expressions of IL-1alpha, IL-1beta, TNFalpha and IL-10 and no expression of IL-2 and IL-4 were observed compared with the control camels. The findings showed that B. abortus stimulates cell-mediated immunity by directly activating camel Th1 cells to secrete IFN-gamma. This quantification of cytokine expression in camels is essential for understanding of Camelidae disease development and protective immune responses. This is the first report of in vivo camel cytokine quantification after vaccination. PMID:18319583

  4. Recruitment Guidelines for Ferus Bestia Oy

    OpenAIRE

    Nguyen, Luong

    2014-01-01

    For a startup, recruitment and selection can feel like a daunting and confusing process for anyone involved. The same is true when Ferus Bestia, the case company, is growing at an exponential rate. Ferus Bestia is a startup company in its early stage of development. Getting new people is one of their biggest concerns at the moment. This report is a product-oriented thesis, in the form of guidelines, designed to help the Ferus Bestia management team “win” the recruitment game. Recruitmen...

  5. Taxonomy Icon Data: wild Bactrian camel [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available odactyla Camelus_ferus_L.png Camelus_ferus_NL.png Camelus_ferus_S.png Camelus_ferus_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy..._icon/icon.cgi?i=Camelus+ferus&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Camelus+f...erus&t=NL http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Camelus+ferus&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Camelus+ferus&t=NS ...

  6. Mycobacterium pinnipedii: Transmission from South American sea lion (Otaria byronia) to Bactrian camel (Camelus bactrianus bactrianus) and Malayan tapirs (Tapirus indicus)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moser, I.; Prodinger, W.M.; Hotzel, H.; Greenwald, R.; Lyashchenko, K.P.; Bakker, D.; Gomis, D.; Seidler, T.; Ellenberger, C.; Hetzel, U.; Wuennemann, K.; Moisson, P.

    2008-01-01

    Tuberculosis infections caused by Mycobacterium (M.) pinnipedii in a South American sea lion, Bactrian camel, and Malayan tapirs kept in two zoological gardens spanning a time period of 5 years are reported. The zoos were linked by the transfer of one tapir. Conventional bacteriological and molecula

  7. Characterization of Asia 1 sdAb from Camels Bactrianus (C. bactrianus) and Conjugation with Quantum Dots for Imaging FMDV in BHK-21 Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Shuanghui Yin; Shunli Yang; Youjun Shang; Shiqi Sun; Guangqing Zhou; Ye Jin; Hong Tian; Jinyan Wu; Xiangtao Liu

    2013-01-01

    Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD), caused by FMD virus (FMDV), is a highly contagious viral disease affecting cloven-hoofed animals. Camelids have a unique immunoglobulin profile, with the smallest functional heavy-chain antibodies (sdAb or VHH) naturally devoid of light chains with antigen-binding capacity. We screened and characterized five sdAbs against FMDV by immunized library from C. bactrianus with Asia 1 virus-like particles (VLPs). Three of five recombinant sdAbs were stably expressed in ...

  8. A Geographic Assessment of the Global Scope for Rewilding with Wild-Living Horses (Equus ferus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naundrup, Pernille Johansen; Svenning, Jens-Christian

    2015-01-01

    Megafaunas worldwide have been decimated during the late Quaternary. Many extirpated species were keystone species, and their loss likely has had large effects on ecosystems. Therefore, it is increasingly considered how megafaunas can be restored. The horse (Equus ferus) is highly relevant in this context as it was once extremely widespread and, despite severe range contraction, survives in the form of domestic, feral, and originally wild horses. Further, it is a functionally important species, notably due to its ability to graze coarse, abrasive grasses. Here, we used species distribution modelling to link locations of wild-living E. ferus populations to climate to estimate climatically suitable areas for wild-living E. ferus. These models were combined with habitat information and past and present distributions of equid species to identify areas suitable for rewilding with E. ferus. Mean temperature in the coldest quarter, precipitation in the coldest quarter, and precipitation in the driest quarter emerged as the best climatic predictors. The distribution models estimated the climate to be suitable in large parts of the Americas, Eurasia, Africa, and Australia and, combined with habitat mapping, revealed large areas to be suitable for rewilding with horses within its former range, including up to 1.5 million ha within five major rewilding areas in Europe. The widespread occurrence of suitable climates and habitats within E. ferus' former range together with its important functions cause it to be a key candidate for rewilding in large parts of the world. Successful re-establishment of wild-living horse populations will require handling the complexity of human-horse relations, for example, potential conflicts with ranchers and other agriculturalists or with other conservation aims, perception as a non-native invasive species in some regions, and coverage by legislation for domestic animals. PMID:26177104

  9. Characterization of Asia 1 sdAb from camels bactrianus (C. bactrianus and conjugation with quantum dots for imaging FMDV in BHK-21 cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuanghui Yin

    Full Text Available Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD, caused by FMD virus (FMDV, is a highly contagious viral disease affecting cloven-hoofed animals. Camelids have a unique immunoglobulin profile, with the smallest functional heavy-chain antibodies (sdAb or VHH naturally devoid of light chains with antigen-binding capacity. We screened and characterized five sdAbs against FMDV by immunized library from C. bactrianus with Asia 1 virus-like particles (VLPs. Three of five recombinant sdAbs were stably expressed in E.coli, remained highly soluble, and were serotype-specific for VP1 protein of FMDV Asia 1 by ELISA. These failed to completely neutralize the Asia 1 virus. According to the KD value of binding affinity to three sdAbs, which ranged from 0.44 to 0.71 nm by SPR, sdAb-C6 was selected and conjugated with Zn/CdSe quantum dots (QDs to form a QDs-C6 probe, which was used to trace and image the subcellular location of FMDV in BHK-21 cells. The results show that FMD virions were observed from 3 h.p.i., and most of virions were distributed on one side of the nucleus in the cytoplasm. We demonstrate the utility of sdAbs as functionalized QDs are powerful tools for FMDV research.

  10. Phylogenetic and Structural Analysis of the Pluripotency Factor Sex-Determining Region Y box2 Gene of Camelus dromedarius (cSox2)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alawad, Abdullah; Alharbi, Sultan; Alhazzaa, Othman; Alagrafi, Faisal; Alkhrayef, Mohammed; Alhamdan, Ziyad; Alenazi, Abdullah; Al-Johi, Hasan; Alanazi, Ibrahim O.; Hammad, Mohamed

    2016-01-01

    Although the sequencing information of Sox2 cDNA for many mammalian is available, the Sox2 cDNA of Camelus dromedaries has not yet been characterized. The objective of this study was to sequence and characterize Sox2 cDNA from the brain of C. dromedarius (also known as Arabian camel). A full coding sequence of the Sox2 gene from the brain of C. dromedarius was amplified by reverse transcription PCRjmc and then sequenced using the 3730XL series platform Sequencer (Applied Biosystem) for the first time. The cDNA sequence displayed an open reading frame of 822 nucleotides, encoding a protein of 273 amino acids. The molecular weight and the isoelectric point of the translated protein were calculated as 29.825 kDa and 10.11, respectively, using bioinformatics analysis. The predicted cSox2 protein sequence exhibited high identity: 99% for Homo sapiens, Mus musculus, Bos taurus, and Vicugna pacos; 98% for Sus scrofa and 93% for Camelus ferus. A 3D structure was built based on the available crystal structure of the HMG-box domain of human stem cell transcription factor Sox2 (PDB: 2 LE4) with 81 residues and predicting bioinformatics software for 273 amino acid residues. The comparison confirms the presence of the HMG-box domain in the cSox2 protein. The orthologous phylogenetic analysis showed that the Sox2 isoform from C. dromedarius was grouped with humans, alpacas, cattle, and pigs. We believe that this genetic and structural information will be a helpful source for the annotation. Furthermore, Sox2 is one of the transcription factors that contributes to the generation-induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs), which in turn will probably help generate camel induced pluripotent stem cells (CiPSCs). PMID:27486314

  11. Selected Biometric Characteristics of Wild Boar (Sus Scrofa Ferus in North-East Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alina Narcisa Postolache

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Our study analyzed selected biometric characteristics from 117 wild boars (Sus scrofa ferus harvested during 2008 – 2014 in the Frasin and Marginea Forest hunting ground districts of Suceava County. Hunted boars were measured individually for head-body length (cm, height at withers (cm, length of metatarsus (cm, ear length (cm, tail length (cm and body weight (kg in accordance with their age-class and gender. These characteristics give information on the growth and development of wild boars and on the quality of their habitat. It was found that the average carcass weight was: piglets – 28.4 kg, yearling – 78.1 kg, subadults – 102.9 kg. The results show a faster body growth in females during their first year, while males make up for the weight difference in their 2nd and 3rd year. Statistical differences shown that males differentiate significantly to females by weight, body length, height at withers and length of metatarsus (P < 0.05 starting with their second year of life. The results regarding growth dynamic go along with the changes in boar’s social life, when the males are forced to leave and form smaller groups.

  12. Methane emission by adult ostriches (Struthio camelus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frei, Samuel; Dittmann, Marie T; Reutlinger, Christoph; Ortmann, Sylvia; Hatt, Jean-Michel; Kreuzer, Michael; Clauss, Marcus

    2015-02-01

    Ostriches (Struthio camelus) are herbivorous birds with a digestive physiology that shares several similarities with that of herbivorous mammals. Previous reports, however, claimed a very low methane emission from ostriches, which would be clearly different from mammals. If this could be confirmed, ostrich meat would represent a very attractive alternative to ruminant-and generally mammalian-meat by representing a particularly low-emission agricultural form of production. We individually measured, by chamber respirometry, the amount of oxygen consumed as well as carbon dioxide and methane emitted from six adult ostriches (body mass 108.3±8.3 kg) during a 24-hour period when fed a pelleted lucerne diet. While oxygen consumption was in the range of values previously reported for ostriches, supporting the validity of our experimental setup, methane production was, at 17.5±3.2 L d(-1), much higher than previously reported for this species, and was of the magnitude expected for similar-sized, nonruminant mammalian herbivores. These results suggest that methane emission is similar between ostriches and nonruminant mammalian herbivores and that the environmental burden of these animals is comparable. The findings furthermore indicate that it appears justified to use currently available scaling equations for methane production of nonruminant mammals in paleo-reconstructions of methane production of herbivorous dinosaurs. PMID:25446146

  13. Isolation and characterization of serum albumin from Camelus dromedarius

    OpenAIRE

    Malik, Ajamaluddin; Al-Senaidy, Abdulrahman; SKRZYPCZAK-JANKUN, EWA; JANKUN, JERZY

    2013-01-01

    Serum albumin constitutes 35–50 mg/ml of plasma proteins and performs various physiological activities including the regulation of osmotic pressure on blood, maintaining buffering of the blood pH, carrying different fatty acids and other small molecules, such as bilirubin, hormones, drugs and metal ions, as well as participating in immunological responses. Serum albumin is an extensively used protein in biotechnological and pharmaceutical industries. The camel (Camelus dromedarius) is well ta...

  14. Construction and Identification of a Naive Single-domain Recombinant Antibodies Library Derived from Xinjiang Camelus bactrianus%新疆双峰驼天然单域抗体库的构建及初步鉴定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张清华; 夏雪琴; 克力比努尔·热合曼; 李江伟

    2011-01-01

    旨在构建新疆双峰驼天然单域抗体库,及从中快速筛选VHH抗体.采用两种不同的抗原(溶菌酶和cAb-HEWL23)用天然文库进行筛选,成功筛选到了相应的抗体,并融溶菌酶筛选的VHH抗体(A3-1,A4-1和A10-1)进行表达和初步的ELISA检测.结果显示,A3-1和A10-1具有结合溶菌酶的能力.该方法简单方便、省时省力,可以快速从天然单城抗体库中筛选VHH抗体.

  15. Genome Sequences of Two Pathogenic Streptococcus agalactiae Isolates from the One-Humped Camel Camelus dromedarius

    OpenAIRE

    Zubair, Saima; de Villiers, Etienne P.; Younan, Mario; Andersson, Göran; Tettelin, Herve; Riley, David R; Jores, Joerg; Bongcam-Rudloff, Erik; Bishop, Richard P.

    2013-01-01

    Streptococcus agalactiae causes a range of clinical syndromes in camels (Camelus dromedarius). We report the genome sequences of two S. agalactiae isolates that induce abscesses in Kenyan camels. These genomes provide novel data on the composition of the S. agalactiae “pan genome” and reveal the presence of multiple genomic islands.

  16. Moult of wing and tail-feathers in the Ostrich, Struthio camelus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brom, Tim G.; Dekker, René W.R.J.

    1990-01-01

    Structure and moult of wing and tail of a full-grown Ostrich, Struthio camelus, are described. In the wing, at least three feather generations could be recognized. The pattern of moult is more or less symmetrical in both wings and the sequence of feather replacement is not random. The tail consisted

  17. Arteries of the adrenal glands in ostriches (Struthio camelus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelita das Graças de Oliveira Honorato

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The growth of rational ostrich breeding and their byproducts has attracted interest from researchers to increase the studies in this animal. Thus, basic research areas, such as morphology, become necessary to provide the applied areas with knowledge. Aiming to contribute to the knowledge on the vascular arrangements of the adrenal glands, 30 ostriches (Struthio camelus were used, four days old, who had their arterial components marked with a 50% stained aqueous solution of Neoprene Latex ¨ 450 ¨ and fixed in a 10% diluted solution of formaldehyde. The coelomic cavity was exposed for identifying these glands, which are paired organs that are covered by loose connective tissue, symmetrically arranged in the two antimeres, laterally to the descending aorta, caudally to the lungs, and cranio-medially to the cranial lobes of the kidneys. The arterial blood supply, in both antimeres, is derived from the right and left adrenal arteries, the right and left cranial renal artery branches, and the right branches of the descending aorta. Regardless of the origin, the number of branches going to the adrenal glands ranged from one to two and one to three respectively, in the left and right antimeres.

  18. Histologische, histochemische und ultrastrukturelle Untersuchungen am Eileiter des Straußes (Struthio camelus)

    OpenAIRE

    Freudenstein, Gertrud Maria

    2014-01-01

    Meine Arbeit befasst sich mit der histologischen, histochemischen und elektronenmikroskopischen Analyse des Eileiters des Straußes (Struthio camelus). Als Untersuchungsmaterial dienten die Eileiter von acht geschlechtsreifen und zwei nicht geschlechtsreifen Blauhals-Schwarzhals-Hybriden aus der Straußenfarm Donaumoos in Leipheim. Die Histomorphologie wurde mittels konventioneller Färbungen (H.E.-Färbung, van Gieson-Resorcinfuchsin-Färbung, Trichromfärbung nach Masson und Goldner, Alcianbla...

  19. The use of microsatellite polymorphism in genetic mapping of the ostrich (Struthio camelus)

    OpenAIRE

    Kawka, M; Parada, R.; Jaszczak, K.; J. O. Horbańczuk

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine microsatellite polymorphism in ostriches and using it in creation the genetic map of the ostrich. The polymorphism analysis covered 30 microsatellite markers characteristic of ostrich, for the CAU (China Agricultural University) group. The material consisted of 150 ostriches (Struthio camelus). The 30 microsatellite loci was examined and a total of 343 alleles was identified. The number of alleles at a single locus ranged from 5 at locus CAU78 to 34 at l...

  20. Anovel defensin from the mucus of the wood wasp Xiphydria camelus

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Monincová, Lenka; Fučík, Vladimír; Voburka, Zdeněk; Cvačka, Josef; Čeřovský, Václav; Šrůtka, P.

    Praha : Institute of Organic Chemistry and Biochemistry AS CR, v. v. i, 2011 - (Slaninová, J.), s. 86-89 ISBN 978-80-86241-44-9. - (Collection Symposium Series. 13). [Biologically Active Peptides /12./. Praha (CZ), 27.04.2011-29.04.2011] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA203/08/0536 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40550506 Keywords : insect defensin * Xiphydria camelus * antimicrobial activity * mass spectrometry * sequencing Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry

  1. Purification and functional characterization of pancreatic insulin from camel (Camelus dromedarius)

    OpenAIRE

    Elamin, Babiker A.; Al-Maleki, Abdulmajeed; Ismael, Mohammad A.; Ayoub, Mohammed Akli

    2014-01-01

    Large-scale production of insulin still represents the key step in helping diabetic patients throughout the world. Many species and approaches have been used for the production of insulin. In this study, we purified and characterized for the first time pancreatic insulin from the Arabian camel (Camelus dromedarius) using a modified acid-alcohol extraction method. After extraction insulin was purified using a one-step gel filtration on a Sephadex G-50 column leading to a purification yield of ...

  2. TOPOGRAPHIC CHARACTERISTICS OF THE LYMPH NODES OF THE DROMEDARY (Camelus dromedarius)

    OpenAIRE

    P GAVRYLIN; D.E. Rahmoun; M LIESHCHOVA

    2016-01-01

    The architecture of the lymph node dromedary (Camelus dromedarius) differs from that shown in the conventional patterns of other mammalian animals, generally formed of a plurality of aggregates, the latter are surrounded by a connective tissue which extends over the whole area surface lymph node and each cluster is a node itself. Vascular distribution in these lymphoid aggregates is relatively abundant and each node receives one or two afferent lymphatic’s and is drained by four or five effer...

  3. Moult of wing and tail-feathers in the Ostrich, Struthio camelus

    OpenAIRE

    Brom, Tim G.; Dekker, René W. R. J.

    1990-01-01

    Structure and moult of wing and tail of a full-grown Ostrich, Struthio camelus, are described. In the wing, at least three feather generations could be recognized. The pattern of moult is more or less symmetrical in both wings and the sequence of feather replacement is not random. The tail consisted of 93 feathers of two different generations. Moult in the tail proceeds asymmetrically and seems to be fully irregular. The phylogenetic significance of these findings is discussed.

  4. Absence of population asymmetry in the American Quarter Horse (Equus ferus caballus) performing skilled left and right manoeuvres in reining competition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whishaw, Ian Q

    2015-01-01

    Use of the right hand by humans for speech-related hand gestures, writing and throwing exemplifies motoric asymmetry. There are reports of asymmetry in many other animal species, including reports of left preference in emotional responsivity, spontaneous behaviour and the trained performance of the horse, Equus ferus caballus. The present study used the novel approach of using judges' scores to examine asymmetry in an equestrian event. The study analysed the scores of five judges evaluating the reining performance of 482, three-year-old American Quarter Horses competing in a major competition. Reining requires that the horses perform the manoeuvres of spin, circle and stop directed to either the left or right and symmetrical performance is featured in the judging criteria. The scores were sensitive to performance level, sex and manoeuvre, but there was no evidence of a population asymmetry in the left vs. right direction of the manoeuvres. The results are discussed in relation to need of using a large number of subjects in measuring asymmetry, the expression of individual vs. population asymmetry as a function of morphological and behavioural measures, and the influence of behavioural training on asymmetry. PMID:25861972

  5. Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis Infection (Caseous Lymphadenitis in Camels (Camelus dromedarius in Jordan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azmi D. Hawari

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: This study was conducted to describe & report for the first time outbreaks of natural C.pseudotuberculosis infection in adult camel herds (Camelus dromedarius in Jordan. An infectious disease syndrome was reported in three camel herds (Camelus dromedarius intensively raised at south province in Jordan. Approach: The herds included over 160 adult camels out of which about 8% were affected with multiple muscle and subcutaneous abscesses at various sites of the body. The camels were also heavily infested with ticks. Results: The infected camels did not respond favorably to several broad spectrum antibiotics. Post-mortem examination of 5 carcasses revealed emaciation and presence of external and internal multiple abscesses particularly in the lungs. The abscesses were encapsulated by fibrous tissue and contained creamy yellowish white pus. The lymph nodes were slightly congested and swollen. Conclusion: Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis type I strain or biovar ovis (the known cause of caseous lymphadenitis in sheep was isolated from pus, lymph nodes, ticks, milk, blood and liver samples. The clinical symptoms, nature and distribution of lesions of caseous lymphadenitis in camels are not as typical as in sheep. Recommendations for pseudotuberculosis control were given.

  6. Musculoskeletal modelling of an ostrich (Struthio camelus) pelvic limb: influence of limb orientation on muscular capacity during locomotion

    OpenAIRE

    Hutchinson, John R.; Rankin, Jeffery W.; Jonas Rubenson; Kate H. Rosenbluth; Siston, Robert A.; Scott L. Delp

    2015-01-01

    We developed a three-dimensional, biomechanical computer model of the 36 major pelvic limb muscle groups in an ostrich (Struthio camelus) to investigate muscle function in this, the largest of extant birds and model organism for many studies of locomotor mechanics, body size, anatomy and evolution. Combined with experimental data, we use this model to test two main hypotheses. We first query whether ostriches use limb orientations (joint angles) that optimize the moment-generating capacities ...

  7. Reference serum protein and lipoprotein fractions of ostriches (Struthio camelus in Turkey : research communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    U. Polat

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine for reference purposes the values of serum albumin, a1-globulin, a2-globulin, b-globulin, g-globulin, and a-lipoprotein (high density lipoprotein, pre-b-lipoprotein (very low density lipoprotein and b-lipoprotein (low density lipoprotein fractions of normal ostriches (Struthio camelus in Turkey. Five male and five female ostriches, 18 months old, were used. All the ostriches were fed on a diet that contained 15.14 % crude protein and 2 950 Kcal/kg of metabolizable energy. The serum protein and lipoprotein fractions were measured using agarose gel electrophoresis. The fractions were found to be 60.96 % albumin, 0.24% a1-globulin, 15.91 % a2-globulin, 13.34 % b-globulin, 9.55 % g-globulin, 53.77 % HDL, 0.60 % VLDL and 48.09 % LDL.

  8. One-Humped Camels (Camelus dromedaries Hard Ticks Infestation in Qeshm Island, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeed Nazifi

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The economic importance of tick infestation on camels are important as they are important meat and milk producer animals in the less vegetation area of Iran and their health and production are greatly affected by the high tick infestation. In this investigation, tick infestations on camels (Camelus dromedarius were determined in Qeshm Island, Iran. A total number of 912 adult ticks (472 males and 440 females were collected and identified. Hyalomma dromedarii was the predominant tick specie and accounted for 61.9% of the adult ticks. Other hard ticks were H. anatolicum excavatum (22 %, H. asiaticum asiaticum (14.2 %, H. marginatum (1.9 %, H. impeltatum (0.4 % and Ripicephalus bursa (0.4 %. In conclusion, The provision of tick control programs in the Qeshm Island would seem a prerequisite for improving camel meat and milk production.

  9. Construction and Characterization of a Naive Camelus Bactrianus Variable Domain of Heavy Chain of Heavy-Chain Antibody(VHH)Yeast Two-Hybrid Library%双峰驼天然重链抗体可变区酵母双杂交文库的构建与鉴定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡湘云; 高小龙; 付向晶; 刘丹丹; 范文涛; 王燕平; 杜恩岐; 王兴龙; 党如意

    2015-01-01

    构建双峰驼天然重链抗体可变区(VHH)酵母双杂交文库,并对文库质量进行鉴定.采集未经免疫的6月龄雌性双峰驼外周血、骨髓、脾和淋巴结,并从外周血中分离淋巴细胞.抽提总RNA,反转录为cDNA,用2对引物经过2轮PCR扩增得到400 bp左右的双峰驼VHH片段.根据Clontech公司Mate&PlateTM library construction system使用手册,将带有同源臂的VHH片段与线性化的pGADT7-Rec质粒共转化Y187酵母感受态细胞,转化产物涂布SD/-Leu平板,30℃倒置培养3~5 d后,收集平板上的所有克隆,即为双峰驼天然重链抗体可变区酵母双杂交文库.对文库的滴度、重组效率及多样性进行鉴定.结果显示,本研究构建的双峰驼天然重链抗体可变区酵母双杂交文库库容为2.07×107,滴度为7.6×108 cfu·mL-1.随机挑取47个独立克隆进行菌落PCR鉴定,43个含有VHH片段,重组率为91.5%;选取其中19个测序,均为独立克隆,且多样性好.该研究成功构建双峰驼天然重链抗体可变区酵母双杂交文库,且文库质量满足要求,为进一步获得特定抗原的VHH奠定了基础.

  10. Structural and thermodynamic properties of kappa class glutathione transferase from Camelus dromedarius.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malik, Ajamaluddin; Fouad, Dalia; Labrou, Nikolaos E; Al-Senaidy, Abdulrahman M; Ismael, Mohamed A; Saeed, Hesham M; Ataya, Farid S

    2016-07-01

    The Arabian camel, Camelus dromedarius is naturally adapted to extreme desert climate and has evolved protective mechanisms to limit oxidative stress. The mitochondrial kappa class glutathione transferase enzyme is a member of GST supergene family that represents an important enzyme group in cellular Phase II detoxification machinery and is involved in the protection against oxidative stress and xenobiotics. In the present study, C. dromedarius kappa class glutathione transferase (CdGSTK1-1) was cloned, expressed in E. coli BL21, purified and its structural, thermodynamic and unfolding pathway was investigated. The results showed that CdGSTK1-1 has unique trimeric structure, exhibits low thermostability and a complex equilibrium unfolding profile. It unfolds through three folding states with formation of thinly populated intermediate species. The melting points (Tm) of the first unfolding transition was 40.3±0.2°C and Tm of the second unfolding transition was 49.1±0.1°C. The van't Hoff enthalpy of the first and second transition were 298.7±13.2 and 616.5±2.4kJ/mol, respectively. Moreover, intrinsic fluorescence and near-UV CD studies indicates that substrate binding does not leads to major conformational changes in CdGSTK1-1. PMID:27044344

  11. Minerals and nutritional composition of camel (camelus dromedarius) meat in Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The quality of camel meat has received little attention so far in Pakistan. It is nutritionally as good as that of the major sources of red or white meat. Camel is a desert animal but is not less than other red meat animals (beef, lamb and goat) in its composition. The proximate composition, fatty acid profile and mineral contents of the local camel (Camelus dromedarius) meat have been investigated. It contained 72.03 +- 0.014% water, 4.45 +- 0.011% ash, 5.79 +- 0.012% fat and 66.42 +- 0.534% protein. It has been found that camel meat has relatively more moisture, less fat, less ash and similar protein content than that of beef, lamb and goat [1]. It has similar mineral composition (Na, K, Ca, Fe, Zn, P, Mg, Cd, Cr, Co, Mo, Ni, and Pb) to beef except for sodium. Fatty acid profile for camel meat oil showed high content of palmitic acid and oleic acid. These two fatty acids are essential in human nutrition. In view of the above, it is possible that camel meat could make a greater contribution to the growing need for meat in developing countries like Pakistan. (author)

  12. Biometric and Ultrasonographic Evaluation of the Testis of One-humped Camel (Camelus dromedarius

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riaz Hussain Pasha, Anas Sarwar Qureshi*, Laeeq Akbar Lodhi1 and Huma Jamil1

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Twenty four adult clinically healthy one-humped male camels (Camelus dromedarius were examined three times (beginning, mid and end in each season (winter, spring, summer and autumn for establishing the normal ultrasonic appearance and seasonal changes in the testicular parenchyma in the natural ecology of Punjab, Pakistan. The testes of each camel were scanned by using a B-mode real time ultrasound scanner fitted with a 7.5-MHz linear-array transducer. Scrotal biometry was done with the measuring tape during all the seasons of year. The tunics of the testes appeared as hyperechoic lines surrounding the homogenous, moderately echogenic parenchyma of the testis. The mediastinum testis was visualized as hyperechoic central line and a spot, in longitudinal and transverse sections, respectively. During winter season, the parenchyma was hyperechoic and mediastinum testis was seen as thin hyperechoic line. In spring, the echogenicity of parenchyma was moderate and mediastinum appeared relatively thick central hyperechoic line. In summer and autumn, less echoic parenchyma and thick band of mediastinum was recorded. Biometric studies showed significantly (P<0.01 higher scrotal length and width of the testis during winter and spring season as compared to summer and autumn. Present study revealed that the ultrasonic structure of camel testis resembles other mammals and season has an apparent effect on the testicular size and echogenicity of the testicular parenchyma in the one-humped camel.

  13. The structure of the atrioventricular node in the heart of the female laying ostrich (Struthio camelus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parto, P

    2012-02-01

    The electrical impulse for cardiac contraction is generated in the Sinoatrial node (SA node), subsequently spreads to the Atrioventricular node (AV node) and continues in the Atrioventricular bundle (AV bundle). The AV node may not always be present in different avian species and seems to differ in location and contents between species. In this study, the anatomy and histology of the AV node were studied five female adult ostriches (Struthio camelus). Routine paraffin sectioning and transmission electron microscopic method were performed. The study showed that in the ostrich, the AV node is located in the endocardium of the atrial surface of the right atrioventricular valve adjacent to the fibrous ring. The parenchyma of the AV node is formed by small specialized muscle fibres that are spread within a loose connective tissue network. The AV node is not covered by a connective tissue sheath and some arterioles are present. Nerve fibres are seen related to the node. Ultrastructurally, they stain lighter and contain fewer organized myofibrils than usual myocardial cells. The myofibril bundles run parallel to one another and have interspersed mitochondria, which display distinct cristae. The cells have a large euchromatic nucleus with a clear perinuclear area, and they connected by desmosomes. The ostrich is, thus, one of the birds that have the AV node, whose position varies from the other birds. PMID:21943125

  14. ACUTE CLINICAL LEPTOSPIROSIS (GRIPPOTYPHOSA SEROVAR) IN AN ADULT DROMEDARY CAMEL (CAMELUS DROMEDARIUS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gyimesi, Zoltan S; Burns, Roy B; Erol, Erdal; Bolin, Steven R

    2015-09-01

    A 9-yr-old castrated male dromedary camel (Camelus dromedarius) presented with lethargy and partial anorexia. A diagnostic examination revealed fever, and further workup revealed a neutrophilia, hyperfibrinogenemia, renal azotemia, and a rapid onset of a high Leptospira antibody titer during the acute clinical period (Grippotyphosa serovar). The camel responded clinically to antimicrobial treatment with ceftiofur crystalline free acid injections, but renal azotemia persisted, presumably secondary to chronic renal damage. Subsequent Leptospira polymerase chain reaction testing on urine samples obtained over the following 4 mo revealed no evidence of urinary shedding, so a persistent infection was unlikely. Although often mentioned as a potential cause of reproductive loss, well-documented case reports of clinical leptospirosis in camelids are very rare. In this case, native wildlife contamination of a small watering hole is suspected to have been the source of infection. In response to this experience, the camel and two conspecifics were prescribed a vaccination regimen using an inactivated pentavalent Leptospira vaccine licensed for cattle. PMID:26352970

  15. Structure of vomeronasal organ (Jacobson organ) in male Camelus Domesticus Var. dromedaris persica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karimi, H; Mansoori Ale Hashem, R; Ardalani, G; Sadrkhanloo, R; Hayatgheibi, H

    2014-12-01

    The vomeronasal organ (VNO) is a tubular structure in the roof of nasal cavity. The important role of this organ is olfaction of sexual odour. In this study, position, anatomical structure and histology of VNO in Iranian camels (camelus domesticus var. dromedaris persica) were determined. Fourteen healthy male camel heads were collected from an industrial slaughterhouse in Tehran, Iran, for anatomical and histological studies (seven each). The length of VNO and width of dental pad and the number and width of palatine crests were measured. For anatomical studies, the mandible was removed, and maxilla and nasal cavity was cut longitudinally and transversely. For histological studies, the mandible was removed, and first 0.5 cm of initial part of VNO was cut. Then, nasal cavity was cut in some segments with 2 cm thickness. The width of VNO was 3.85 ± 0.31 cm and 1.57 ± 0.18 cm in front and distal parts, respectively. The length of VNO was 15.61 ± 0.59 cm. In histological examinations, VNO was surrounded by J-shape hyaline cartilage. The lining epithelium of lateral wall of VNO was originated from respiratory epithelium, while it had an olfactory epithelium origin in the medial wall. Lamina propria and tunica submucosa were a cavernous connective tissue with seromucous gland with abundant of serous secretory units. The lumen of VNO opens into nasal cavity. The presence of olfactory epithelium found in our study indicates an important role for VNO in pheromone perception and beginning of sexual behaviour. PMID:24611976

  16. GROSS AND MICROSCOPIC ANATOMY OF THYROID GLAND OF ONE-HUMPED CAMEL (CAMELUS DROMEDARIUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. KAUSAR AND R. U. SHAHID

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Tissue samples of thyroid glands of 16 healthy camels (Camelus dromedarius were investigated under two age groups i.e. group A (3-5 years and group B (6-10 years with equal number of animals, for their gross and microscopic anatomy. Gross studies revealed that thyroid glands were located near the first ring of trachea and had two lobes, connected by an isthmus. They were of reddish brown in colour. The values of weight, length and width of thyroid glands were 45.7 ± 0.35 and 50.65 ± 0.26 g, 36 ± 0.46 and 6.36 ± 0.33 cm, and 3.35 ± 0.29 and 3.53 ± 0.21 cm in groups A and B, respectively. The diameter of the glands averaged 0.97 ± 0.13 and 1.05 ± 0.14 cm in groups A and B, respectively. Histologically, thyroid gland consisted of a connective tissue capsule and trabeculae were found extending from the capsule into the substance of the gland, which divided it into lobules. Each lobule consisted of two sized follicles in variable numbers, the large and small. The large follicles were lined by low cuboidal epithelium, while the small follicles were lined by high cuboidal to columnar epithelium. The follicles had colloid material in their lumen, probably an apocrine secretion from the lining epithelial cells. The para follicular or C-cells were absent in thyroid glands of camel.

  17. The Tarsometatarsus of the Ostrich Struthio camelus: Anatomy, Bone Densities, and Structural Mechanics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, Meagan M.; Snively, Eric; Cotton, John

    2016-01-01

    Background The ostrich Struthio camelus reaches the highest speeds of any extant biped, and has been an extraordinary subject for studies of soft-tissue anatomy and dynamics of locomotion. An elongate tarsometatarsus in adult ostriches contributes to their speed. The internal osteology of the tarsometatarsus, and its mechanical response to forces of running, are potentially revealing about ostrich foot function. Methods/Principal Findings Computed tomography (CT) reveals anatomy and bone densities in tarsometatarsi of an adult and a young juvenile ostrich. A finite element (FE) model for the adult was constructed with properties of compact and cancellous bone where these respective tissues predominate in the original specimen. The model was subjected to a quasi-static analysis under the midstance ground reaction and muscular forces of a fast run. Anatomy–Metatarsals are divided proximally and distally and unify around a single internal cavity in most adult tarsometatarsus shafts, but the juvenile retains an internal three-part division of metatarsals throughout the element. The juvenile has a sparsely ossified hypotarsus for insertion of the m. fibularis longus, as part of a proximally separate third metatarsal. Bone is denser in all regions of the adult tarsometatarsus, with cancellous bone concentrated at proximal and distal articulations, and highly dense compact bone throughout the shaft. Biomechanics–FE simulations show stress and strain are much greater at midshaft than at force applications, suggesting that shaft bending is the most important stressor of the tarsometatarsus. Contraction of digital flexors, inducing a posterior force at the TMT distal condyles, likely reduces buildup of tensile stresses in the bone by inducing compression at these locations, and counteracts bending loads. Safety factors are high for von Mises stress, consistent with faster running speeds known for ostriches. Conclusions/Significance High safety factors suggest that bone

  18. What prevents Struthio camelus and Dromaius novaehollandiae (Palaeognathae from choking? A novel anatomical mechanism in ratites, the linguo-laryngeal apparatus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Crole Martina R

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The avian glottis channels air from the oropharynx to the trachea and is situated on an elevated structure, the laryngeal mound. It is imperative that the glottis be protected and closed during swallowing, which in mammals is achieved by covering the glottis with the epiglottis, as well as by adduction of the arytenoid cartilages. An epiglottis, however, is reportedly absent in birds. Ratites such as Struthio camelus and Dromaius novaehollandiae possess a very wide glottis in comparison to other birds. The question therefore arises as to how these large birds avoid inhalation of ingesta through a wide glottis, with apparently little protection, particularly as their feeding method involves throwing the food over the glottis to land in the proximal esophagus. Results In S. camelus when the glottis was closed and the tongue body retracted, the smooth tongue root became highly folded and the rostral portion of the laryngeal mound was encased by the pocket in the base of the ∩ − shaped tongue body. In this position the lingual papillae also hooked over the most rostral laryngeal projections. However, in D. novaehollandiae, retraction of the tongue body over the closed glottis resulted in the prominent, triangular tongue root sliding over the rostral portion of the laryngeal mound. In both S. camelus and D. novaehollandiae these actions resulted in the rostral portion of the laryngeal mound and weakest point of the adducted glottis being enclosed and stabilised. Conclusions Only after conducting a comparative study between these two birds using fresh specimens did it become clear how specific morphological peculiarities were perfectly specialised to assist in the closure and protection of the wide glottis. We identify, describe and propose a unique anatomical mechanism in ratites, which may functionally replace an epiglottis; the linguo-laryngeal apparatus.

  19. Gross Morphology and Localization of Adenohypophyseal Cells in Camel (Camelus dromedarius Using A New Combination of Stains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. A. S. Jaspal, Z. U. Rahman* and A. M. Cheema

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Thirty normal camels (Camelus dromedarius were selected for gross morphological and modified staining of anterior pituitary. Camels were divided in three age groups viz 2-4, 5-10 and above 10 years. Pituitary weight, length, width and circumference were recorded before preservation and at midsegittal cutting. Pituitary weight increased significantly as these animals grew older. Male had heavier pituitary as compared to female. Higher pituitary weight was observed in old as compared to young camel. Sections (4m of camel pituitary gland were stained with “Phosphotungstic acid haematoxylin-Orange G-Acid fuchsin-Light green” combination of dyes. This combination of acidic and basic dyes showed affinity to their respective adenohypophyseal cells and proved a suitable combination for differentiation of adenohypophyseal cells and architectural pattern of pituitary gland. Use of Lugol’s Iodine and sodium thiosulphate solution caused mercury fixation which ultimately enhanced the staining of camel adenohypophysis. The whole pituitary presented a brilliant appearance of clarity, enabling cell counts to be performed easily, purely with reference to the colors of adenohypophyseal cell types. This method can be applied for differential staining of adenohypophysis and with good cytology results to the hypophysis of many mammals. The method also provides a sharp contrast between cellular and connective tissue components. With this staining technique, the quantitative and qualitative characteristics of different adenohypophyseal cell types at various functional and hormonal stages, under certain physiological and pathological conditions can also be studied.

  20. Molecular cloning, sequence analysis and expression in Escherichia coli of Camelus dromedarius glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase cDNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saeed, Hesham Mahmoud; Alanazi, Mohammad Saud; Abduljaleel, Zainularifeen; Al-Amri, Abdullah; Khan, Zahid

    2012-06-01

    This study determined the full length sequence of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase cDNA (G6PD) from the Arabian camel Camelus dromedarius using reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. The C. dromedarius G6PD has an open reading frame of 1545 bp, and the cDNA encodes a protein of 515 amino acid residues with a molecular weight of 59.0 KDa. The amino acid sequence showed the highest identity with Equus caballus (92%) and Homo sapiens (92%). The G6PD cDNA was cloned and expressed into Escherichia coli as a fusion protein and was purified in a single chromatographic step using nickel affinity gel column. The purity and the molecular weight of the enzyme were checked on SDS-PAGE and the purified enzyme showed a single band on the gel with a molecular weight of 63.0 KDa. The specific activity of G6PD was determined to be 289.6 EU/mg protein with a fold purification of 95.45 and yield of 56.8%. PMID:22538316

  1. A new anaerobic fungus (Oontomyces anksri gen. nov., sp. nov.) from the digestive tract of the Indian camel (Camelus dromedarius).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dagar, Sumit S; Kumar, Sanjay; Griffith, Gareth W; Edwards, Joan E; Callaghan, Tony M; Singh, Rameshwar; Nagpal, Ashok K; Puniya, Anil K

    2015-08-01

    Two cultures of anaerobic fungi were isolated from the forestomach of an Indian camel (Camelus dromedarius). Phylogenetic analysis using both the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) and large-subunit (LSU) regions of the rRNA locus demonstrated that these isolates were identical and formed a distinct clade within the anaerobic fungi (phylum Neocallimastigomycota). Morphological examination showed that these fungi formed monocentric thalli with filamentous rhizoids and uniflagellate zoospores, broadly similar to members of the genus Piromyces. However, distinctive morphological features were observed, notably the pinching of the cytoplasm in the sporangiophore and the formation of intercalary rhizoidal swellings. Since genetic analyses demonstrated this fungus was only distantly related to Piromyces spp. and closer to the polycentric Anaeromyces clade, we have assigned it to a new genus and species Oontomyces anksri gen. nov., sp. nov. Interrogation of the GenBank database identified several closely related ITS sequences, which were all environmental sequences obtained from camels, raising the possibility that this fungus may be specific to camelids. PMID:26228561

  2. Serological survey for Brucella antibodies in one-humped camel (Camelus dromedarius herds in North-Eastern Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuaibu Gidado Adamu

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To determine the Brucella antibodies in one-humped camel (Camelus dromedarius herds in Yobe State, North-eastern Nigeria. Materials and Methods: Blood samples were aseptically collected from four hundred (400 camels comprising 168 males and 232 females from the five agricultural zones of Yobe State. The sera obtained from the blood samples were screened by C-ELISA. In addition, a structured questionnaire was administered to the herdsmen to obtained information on pastoralist personal data such as age, educational background, family size, and type of labour employed. Other information includes herd size, herd medical history, and patronage of veterinary services. Results: 66 (16.5% of the 400 screened camels were found seropositive for Brucella. This was comprised of 26 (6.5% male and 40 (10.0% female camels. Out of the 66 seropositive camels, 2(0.5% and 64 (16.0% were young and adult camels, respectively. Geidam agricultural zone of the state had the highest specific sero-prevalence of 24 (6.0%, followed by Gashua 19 (4.75%, Nguru 11 (2.75%, Potiskum 8 (2.0%, and Damaturu 4 (1.0%. There was a significant statistical association between the age of camel and serological reaction to C-ELISA (P>0.05, with the adult camels more significantly associated with Brucella infection OR = 7.881 (1.880 – 33.039; P>0.05 than the young camels. There was no significant statistical association (P>0.05 between sexes of camels and positive serological reaction to C-ELISA. Low level of education, low patronage of veterinary services, and lack of vaccination against brucellosis were observed among the herdsmen. Conclusion: A high seroprevalence of brucellosis among the camels of all the agricultural zones of the state indicates that the disease is endemic and camel is one of the animals that perpetuate and sustain the disease.

  3. Studies on the susceptibility of ostriches (Struthio camelus to the Indonesian velogenic strain of Newcastle disease virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darminto

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available Susceptibility of ostriches (Struthio camelus to the Indonesian velogenic strain of Newcastle disease virus (NDV was evaluated by artificial infection . Twelve - 5 to 6 week old ostriches were divided into 3 groups each containing 4 birds . The first group was inoculated through respiratory system by dropping directly the virus solution into the nostrils, while the second group was inoculated through digestive system by dropping directly the virus solution into the oesophagus, with the dose of infection 106ELDSo (50%-embryo lethal dose per bird . Meanwhile, the third group was treated as uninfected control . All infected birds developed antibody responses, but only two inoculated birds from the first group and two inoculated birds from the second group developed clinical signs of Newcastle disease (ND, with no specific pathological alterations . Infected birds, either sicks or healthy, excreted the challenge viruses through the respiratory system and still be detected up to the end of this experiment, ie . 15 days post-inoculation . The challenge viruses can be re-isolated from the brain, trachea, lungs, heart, liver, spleen, kidneys, small intestine, cecal-tonsil, and proventriculus of the infected birds . This study concludes that: (1 the ostriches are susceptible to the infection of the Indonesian velogenic strain ofNDV; (2 all infected birds developed immune responses, but only half of them develops el jtigi aj i disease ; (3 the infected birds excreted the challenge viruses for a considerable long time which may play role as the Mginiseti.ce ofinfectron the other healthy ostriches ; and (4 the challenge viruses can be re-isolated from various organs of the birds . .

  4. Poblaciones bacterianas utilizadoras de hidrógeno presentes en el tracto gastrointestinal del avestruz (Struthio camelus Var. Domesticus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. M. Miramontes-Carrillo

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Tres grupos de bacterias compiten por hidrógeno en diferentes ecosistemas anaerobios, y junto con CO 2 , producen metano, sulfuro dehidrógeno y acetato. Estas reacciones representan ganancia de energía al animal. Motivo por el cual, el presente trabajo pretende evaluar la presencia y tamaño de poblaciones de bacterias utilizadoras de hidrógeno en el tracto gastrointestinaldel avestruz. Para ello se utilizaron medios AC11 para acetogénicas, Potgate para sulfato-reductoras y Fosfato buffer para metanogénicas. Las poblaciones se determinaron por el método del número más probable (NMP. El diseño fue completamente al azar, con arreglo factorial, A = porciones del tracto digestivo y B = microorganismo. El NMP, de acetogénicas y metanogénicas fue cero. Las bacterias sulfato-reductoras están presentes en todo el tracto gastrointestinal. Las poblaciones fueron 544.00; 532.00; 157.20; 155.32 y 76.48 x 10/ 6 para el intestino grueso, ciegos, intestino delgado, proventrículo y ventrículo, respectivamente. Los resultados confirman presencia y predominio de las sulfato-reductoras en todas las porciones del tracto gastrointestinal del Struthio camelus. La producción de AGV en el tracto gastrointestinal del avestruz, es producto del metabolismo y reutilización del hidrógeno por bacterias sulfato-reductoras.

  5. Characteristics of the somatic hypermutation in the Camelus dromedarius T cell receptor gamma (TRG) and delta (TRD) variable domains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciccarese, Salvatrice; Vaccarelli, Giovanna; Lefranc, Marie-Paule; Tasco, Gianluca; Consiglio, Arianna; Casadio, Rita; Linguiti, Giovanna; Antonacci, Rachele

    2014-10-01

    In previous reports, we had shown in Camelus dromedarius that diversity in T cell receptor gamma (TRG) and delta (TRD) variable domains can be generated by somatic hypermutation (SHM). In the present paper, we further the previous finding by analyzing 85 unique spleen cDNA sequences encoding a total of 331 mutations from a single animal, and comparing the properties of the mutation profiles of dromedary TRG and TRD variable domains. The transition preference and the significant mutation frequency in the AID motifs (dgyw/wrch and wa/tw) demonstrate a strong dependence of the enzymes mediating SHM in TRG and TRD genes of dromedary similar to that of immunoglobulin genes in mammals. Overall, results reveal no asymmetry in the motifs targeting, i.e. mutations are equally distributed among g:c and a:t base pairs and replacement mutations are favored at the AID motifs, whereas neutral mutations appear to be more prone to accumulate in bases outside of the motifs. A detailed analysis of clonal lineages in TRG and TRD cDNA sequences also suggests that clonal expansion of mutated productive rearrangements may be crucial in shaping the somatic diversification in the dromedary. This is confirmed by the fact that our structural models, computed by adopting a comparative procedure, are consistent with the possibility that, irrespective of where (in the CDR-IMGT or in FR-IMGT) the diversity was generated by mutations, both clonal expansion and selection seem to be strictly related to an enhanced structural stability of the γδ subunits. PMID:24836674

  6. Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever in the One-Humped Camel (Camelus dromedarius in East and Northeast of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohsen Champour

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: This comprehensive study was conducted on multi-purpose one-humped camel (Camelus dromedarius sera and ticks to assess the epidemiological aspects of the Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus (CCHFV in northeast Iran.Methods: From May 2012 to January 2013, eleven cities were randomly selected in the Khorasan Provinces of Iran as “clusters,” and at least 14 one-humped camels were sampled from each area. Reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction was used for the detection of the CCHFV genome in ticks. Sera were analyzed using specific enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay tests.Results: Four hundred and eighty ixodid ticks were collected, and the genome of the CCHFV was detected in 49 (10.2% out of 480 ticks. The CCHFV genome was detected in two out of four tick species, and in tick samples from three cities in Khorassan-e-Jonoobi. All three provinces, and six out of eleven cities, were CCHFV-specific IgG-positive. In total, nine (5.3% out of 170 one-humped camels were IgG-positive. The highest rate of IgG-positive samples was found in Nehbandan (16.67%.Conclusion: Continued surveillance and strictly enforced importation and quarantine practices should be imple­mented to prevent human exposure and the on-going dispersal of infected ticks and livestock in these regions. It is recommended that acaricides be used to prevent CCHF transmission to humans, and to reduce the tick population. In addition, care should be taken by abattoirs workers and people who work with one-humped camels.

  7. Alpha S1-casein polymorphisms in camel (Camelus dromedarius) and descriptions of biological active peptides and allergenic epitopes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erhardt, Georg; Shuiep, El Tahir Salih; Lisson, Maria; Weimann, Christina; Wang, Zhaoxin; El Zubeir, Ibtisam El Yas Mohamed; Pauciullo, Alfredo

    2016-06-01

    Milk samples of 193 camels (Camelus dromedarius) from different regions of Sudan were screened for casein variability by isoelectric focusing. Kappa-casein and beta-casein were monomorphic, whereas three protein patterns named αs1-casein A, C, and D were identified. The major allele A revealed frequencies of 0.79 (Lahaoi), 0.75 (Shanbali), 0.90 (Arabi Khali), and 0.88 (Arabi Gharbawi) in the different ecotypes. CSN1S1*C shows a single G > T nucleotide substitution in the exon 5, leading to a non-synonymous amino acid exchange (p.Glu30 > Asp30) in comparison to CSN1S1*A and D. At cDNA level, no further single nucleotide polymorphisms could be identified in CSN1S1* A, C, and D, whereas the variants CSN1S1*A and CSN1S1*C are characterized by missing of exon 18 compared to the already described CSN1S1*B, as consequence of DNA insertion of 11 bp at intron 17 which alter the pre-mRNA spliceosome machinery. A polymerase chain-restriction fragment length polymorphism method (PCR-RFLP) was established to type for G > T nucleotide substitution at genomic DNA level. The occurrence and differences of IgE-binding epitopes and bioactive peptides between αs1-casein A, C, and D after digestion were analyzed in silico. The amino acid substitutions and deletion affected the arising peptide pattern and thus modifications between IgE-binding epitopes and bioactive peptides of the variants were found. The allergenic potential of these different peptides will be investigated by microarray immunoassay using sera from milk-sensitized individuals, as it was already demonstrated for bovine αs1-casein variants. PMID:26922739

  8. Musculoskeletal modelling of an ostrich (Struthio camelus) pelvic limb: influence of limb orientation on muscular capacity during locomotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchinson, John R; Rankin, Jeffery W; Rubenson, Jonas; Rosenbluth, Kate H; Siston, Robert A; Delp, Scott L

    2015-01-01

    We developed a three-dimensional, biomechanical computer model of the 36 major pelvic limb muscle groups in an ostrich (Struthio camelus) to investigate muscle function in this, the largest of extant birds and model organism for many studies of locomotor mechanics, body size, anatomy and evolution. Combined with experimental data, we use this model to test two main hypotheses. We first query whether ostriches use limb orientations (joint angles) that optimize the moment-generating capacities of their muscles during walking or running. Next, we test whether ostriches use limb orientations at mid-stance that keep their extensor muscles near maximal, and flexor muscles near minimal, moment arms. Our two hypotheses relate to the control priorities that a large bipedal animal might evolve under biomechanical constraints to achieve more effective static weight support. We find that ostriches do not use limb orientations to optimize the moment-generating capacities or moment arms of their muscles. We infer that dynamic properties of muscles or tendons might be better candidates for locomotor optimization. Regardless, general principles explaining why species choose particular joint orientations during locomotion are lacking, raising the question of whether such general principles exist or if clades evolve different patterns (e.g., weighting of muscle force-length or force-velocity properties in selecting postures). This leaves theoretical studies of muscle moment arms estimated for extinct animals at an impasse until studies of extant taxa answer these questions. Finally, we compare our model's results against those of two prior studies of ostrich limb muscle moment arms, finding general agreement for many muscles. Some flexor and extensor muscles exhibit self-stabilization patterns (posture-dependent switches between flexor/extensor action) that ostriches may use to coordinate their locomotion. However, some conspicuous areas of disagreement in our results illustrate

  9. Design and Selection of a Camelid Single-Chain Antibody Yeast Two-Hybrid Library Produced De Novo for the Cap Protein of Porcine Circovirus Type 2 (PCV2)

    OpenAIRE

    Xiangjing Fu; Xiaolong Gao; Shengfang He; Di Huang; Peng Zhang; Xinglong Wang; Shuxia Zhang; Ruyi Dang; Shuanghui Yin; Enqi Du; Zengqi Yang

    2013-01-01

    Nanobodies (or variable domain of the heavy chain of the heavy-chain antibodies, VHHs) are single-domain antigen-binding fragments derived from camelid heavy chain antibodies. Their comparatively small size, monomeric behavior, high stability, high solubility, and ability to bind epitopes inaccessible to conventional antibodies make them especially suitable for many therapeutic and biotechnological applications. In this paper, for the first time, we created the immunized Camelus Bactrianus VH...

  10. Musculoskeletal modelling of an ostrich (Struthio camelus pelvic limb: influence of limb orientation on muscular capacity during locomotion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John R. Hutchinson

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available We developed a three-dimensional, biomechanical computer model of the 36 major pelvic limb muscle groups in an ostrich (Struthio camelus to investigate muscle function in this, the largest of extant birds and model organism for many studies of locomotor mechanics, body size, anatomy and evolution. Combined with experimental data, we use this model to test two main hypotheses. We first query whether ostriches use limb orientations (joint angles that optimize the moment-generating capacities of their muscles during walking or running. Next, we test whether ostriches use limb orientations at mid-stance that keep their extensor muscles near maximal, and flexor muscles near minimal, moment arms. Our two hypotheses relate to the control priorities that a large bipedal animal might evolve under biomechanical constraints to achieve more effective static weight support. We find that ostriches do not use limb orientations to optimize the moment-generating capacities or moment arms of their muscles. We infer that dynamic properties of muscles or tendons might be better candidates for locomotor optimization. Regardless, general principles explaining why species choose particular joint orientations during locomotion are lacking, raising the question of whether such general principles exist or if clades evolve different patterns (e.g., weighting of muscle force–length or force–velocity properties in selecting postures. This leaves theoretical studies of muscle moment arms estimated for extinct animals at an impasse until studies of extant taxa answer these questions. Finally, we compare our model’s results against those of two prior studies of ostrich limb muscle moment arms, finding general agreement for many muscles. Some flexor and extensor muscles exhibit self-stabilization patterns (posture-dependent switches between flexor/extensor action that ostriches may use to coordinate their locomotion. However, some conspicuous areas of disagreement in our

  11. Sex-related differences of morphometric, densitometric, and geometric parameters of tibia and tarsometatarsal bone in 14-month-old ostriches (Struthio camelus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charuta, A; Dzierzecka, M; Pierzchala, M; Cooper, R G; Polawska, E; Horbanczuk, J O

    2013-11-01

    The aim of the current study was to investigate basic morphometric, geometric, and densitometric parameters of tibia and tarsometatarsus in 14-mo-old male and female ostriches, and interrelationships between these parameters. The study was conducted on 20 tibiae and 20 tarsometatarsal bones of the left pelvic limb derived from 20 healthy 14-mo-old ostriches (Struthio camelus): 10 males and 10 females. The following parameters were determined using peripheral quantitative computed tomography: bone mineral content (BMC), volumetric bone mineral density (vBMD), cortical content (CRT_CNT), cortical density (CRT_DEN), trabecular content, trabecular density (TRAB_DEN), bone area (TOT_A), trabecular area (TRAB_A), cortical area (CRT_A), cortical thickness (CRT_THK_C), periosteal circumference (PERI_C), endocortical circumference (ENDO_C), and strength-strain index (SSI) in the metaphysis and diaphysis of the bones. Statistical evaluation of the obtained results was performed using Student's t-test, and the Pearson correlation coefficient between the investigated parameters was determined. The obtained results have shown significant differences in proximal metaphysis between males and females when evaluating such parameters as CRT_DEN, TOT_A, TRAB_A, PERI_C, SSI in tibia (P correlations between BW and bone weight were found (P correlations of morphometric, geometric, and densitometric parameters of metaphysis and diaphysis of the tibia and tarsometatarsus were stated (P correleations observed between the investigated parameters have shown that ostrich tibia and tarsometatarsus may present a valuable model for further studies on bone tissue metabolism regulation in breeding birds. PMID:24135601

  12. Genotyping of Brucella melitensis strains from dromedary camels (Camelus dromedarius) from the United Arab Emirates with multiple-locus variable-number tandem repeat analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gyuranecz, Miklós; Wernery, Ulli; Kreizinger, Zsuzsa; Juhász, Judit; Felde, Orsolya; Nagy, Péter

    2016-04-15

    Camel brucellosis is a widespread zoonotic disease in camel-rearing countries caused by Brucella melitensis and Brucella abortus. The aim of this study was the first genetic analysis of B. melitensis strains isolated from dromedary camels (Camelus dromedarius) using multiple-locus variable-number tandem repeat analysis (MLVA). MLVA 16 and its MLVA 8 and MLVA11 subsets were used to determine the genotypes of 15 B. melitensis isolates from dromedary camels (11 strains) and other host species (4 strains) from the United Arab Emirates and the results were then compared to B. melitensis MLVA genotypes from other parts of the world. Five, including two novel genotypes were identified with MLVA 8. MLVA 16 further discriminated these five genotypes to ten variants. The eleven camel isolates clustered into four main genetic groups within the East-Mediterranean and African clades and this clustering correlated with the geographic origin of the hosts (United Arab Emirates, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia and Sudan) and the date of their isolation. The camel strains were also genetically related to strains isolated from wild and domestic ruminants from their close habitat or from other parts of the world. Although limited number of strains were analysed, based on our data imported animals from foreign countries, local small ruminants and wildlife species are hypothesized to be the main sources of camel brucellosis in the United Arab Emirates. MLVA was successfully applied to determine the epidemiological links between the different camel B. melitensis infections in the United Arab Emirates and it can be a beneficial tool in future disease control programs. PMID:27016751

  13. Haemonchus longistipes Railliet & Henry, 1909 (Nematoda, Trichostrongylidae) from the Egyptian dromedary, Camelus dromedarius (Artiodactyla: Camelidae), first identification on the basis of light and ultrastructural data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morsy, Kareem; Bashtar, Abdel-Rahman; Fol, Mona; Yehia, Salma

    2014-12-01

    Haemonchus longistipes is a gastrointestinal abomasal nematode which is one of the most prevalent and pathogenic parasites infesting the stomach of ruminants. On the basis of light and ultrastructural data, the objective of the present study was to introduce a first identification of the cameline haemonchosis caused by H. longistipes. Abomasa of 42 Egyptian camels Camelus dromedarius (Artiodactyla: Camelidae) were collected monthly from September 2013 to April 2014 from the main slaughter house of Cairo, Egypt. Adult male and female nematode worms were recovered from 26 (62%) specimens of the examined abomasa. The parasites were of yellow color; the body was filiform (slender) tapered towards the anterior end in male and towards both ends in female. Buccal capsules absent, the buccal cavity was small with a conspicuous dorsal lancet extended from dorsal wall. The cervical papillae were prominent and spine-like. The body length of the female worm was 16.6-20.5 (18.5 ± 0.3) mm. The anterior end to the cervical papillae was 3.19-4.30 (4.12 ± 0.5) mm. The vulva of the female had a linguiform process or flap, the tail is without a spine, and the anal pore at the posterior end of the body had a simple dorsal rim. The body of male was 10.4-14.7 (13.9 ± 2.0) mm in length. The male bursa had elongated lobes supported by long, slender rays. The small dorsal lobe was asymmetrical with Y-shaped dorsal rays. The spicules were long with a length of 0.52-0.54 (0.53 ± 0.05) mm, each provided with a small barb and pore near its extremity. Synlophe was bilaterally and dorsoventrally symmetrical; it extended from cephalic expansion over anterior 50% of prebursal or prevulvar body and consisted of a maximum of 42 ridges. The described species herein was compared with the three morphologically similar species Haemonchus mitchelli, Haemonchus okapiae, and H. longistipes with their synlophes consist of 42 ridges distributed over the anterior half of the body. These

  14. Analyse moléculaire de la diversité génétique des dromadaires (Camelus dromedarius en Tunisie

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ould Ahmed, M.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Analysis of molecular genetic diversity of dromedaries (Camelus dromedarius in Tunisia. The objective of this study was to investigate the genetic diversity and relationships among Tunisian camel populations in three different geographical locations (Kebili, Medenine and Tataouine from Southern arid and semi-arid regions in Tunisia. Eight selected microsatellite markers were used for a sample of 90 dromedary genotypes. A total of 34 alleles were detected in the three populations. The number of alleles per locus varied from two to seven with an average of 4.25 alleles per locus. For each population the average of alleles per locus is 3.33, 3.71 and 3.87 for Kebili, Medenine and Tataouine, respectively. The mean of the observed heterozygosity (Ho were 0.43, 0.50, 0.57 and 0.52 for Kebili, Medenine, Tataouine and total populations, respectively. These values were lower than expected with heterozygosity (He values 0.50, 0.57, 0.62 and 0.61, respectively. The average inbreeding coefficient was 15.3% in Kebili, 11.4% in Medenine and 8.3% in Tataouine. The mean estimates of F-statistics were FIT = 0.15, FIS = 0.071 and FST = 0.083. These values were significantly different from zero (p < 0.05 and suggest a moderate differentiation. An inbreeding rate of 15% was found. Estimated genetic distances revealed by the loci varied from 0 to 0.9 between dromedary individuals. The estimated genetic distances pair-wise showed 0.104 among Medenine-Tataouine, 0.280 between Kebili-Medenine and 0.290 between Kebili-Tataouine. The distance matrix was able to distinguish between two separate genetic entities: Nefzawa (Kebili including Merzougui, G'oudi and M'hari ecotypes and the Aaradh group (Medenine and Tataouine that includes Maghribi and Khaouar ecotypes. The results of this study did not confirm the present classification established by dromedary herders who divide the population into five different ecotypes, apparently based on the sociogeographical criteria

  15. A review of sarcocystosis in camels and redescription of Sarcocystis cameli and Sarcocystis ippeni sarcocysts from the one-humped camel (Camelus dromedarius).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubey, J P; Hilali, M; Van Wilpe, E; Calero-Bernal, R; Verma, S K; Abbas, I E

    2015-10-01

    There is considerable confusion concerning Sarcocystis species in camels. Five species: Sarcocystis cameli, Sarcocystis ippeni, Sarcocystis camelicanis, Sarcocystis camelocanis and Sarcocystis miescheri were named with inadequate descriptions and no type specimens. Here, we review literature on sarcocystosis in camels worldwide and redescribe structure of S. cameli and S. ippeni sarcocysts by light- and transmission electron microscopy (LM and TEM). Eight sarcocysts from the oesophagi of two camels (Camelus dromedarius) from Egypt were studied. By LM, all sarcocysts were thin-walled with barely visible projections on the cyst walls. By TEM, two structurally distinct sarcocysts were recognized by unique villar protrusions (vp) not found in sarcocysts from any other host. Sarcocysts of S. cameli had vp of type 9 j. The sarcocyst wall had upright slender vp, up to 3.0 µM long and 0.5 µM wide; the total thickness of the sarcocyst wall with ground substance (gs) layer was 3.5 µM. On each vp, there were rows of knob-like protrusions that appeared to be interconnected. The vp had microtubules that originated at midpoint of the gs and continued up to the tip; microtubules were smooth, without any granules or dense areas. Bradyzoites were approximately 14-15 × 3-4 µM in size with typical organelles. Sarcocystis ippeni sarcocysts had type 32 sarcocyst wall characterized by conical vp with an electron dense knob. The total thickness of the sarcocyst wall (from the base of gs to vp tip) was 2.3-3.0 µM. The vp were up to 1.2 µM wide at the base and 0.25 µM at the tip. Microtubules in vp originated at midpoint of gs and continued up to tip; microtubules were criss-crossed, smooth and without granules or dense areas. Bradyzoites were 12.0-13.5 × 2.0-3.0 µM in size. Sarcocystis camelicanis, S. camelocanis and S. miescheri are considered invalid. PMID:26416197

  16. Investigating determinants of yawning in the domestic (Equus caballus) and Przewalski (Equus ferus przewalskii) horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Górecka-Bruzda, Aleksandra; Fureix, Carole; Ouvrard, Anne; Bourjade, Marie; Hausberger, Martine

    2016-10-01

    Yawning is rare in herbivores which therefore may be an interesting group to disentangle the potential function(s) of yawning behaviour. Horses provide the opportunity to compare not only animals living in different conditions but also wild versus domestic species. Here, we tested three hypotheses by observing both domestic and Przewalski horses living in semi-natural conditions: (i) that domestic horses may show an elevated rate of yawning as a result of the domestication process (or as a result of life conditions), (ii) that individuals experiencing a higher level of social stress would yawn more than individuals with lower social stress and (iii) that males would yawn more often than females. The study involved 19 Przewalski horses (PHs) and 16 domestic horses (DHs) of different breeds living in large outdoor enclosures. The results showed that there was no difference between the PH and DH in yawning frequency (YF). PHs exhibited much higher levels of social interactions than DHs. There was a positive correlation between yawning frequency and aggressive behaviours in PHs, especially males, supporting the idea that yawning may be associated with more excitatory/stressful social situations. A correlation was found between yawning frequency and affiliative behaviours in DHs, which supports the potential relationship between yawning and social context. Finally, the entire males, but not castrated males, showed much higher levels of yawning than females in both species. The intensity (rather than the valence) of the interaction may be important in triggering yawning, which could therefore be a displacement activity that helps reduce tension. PMID:27542092

  17. ACUTE PHASE PROTEINS AS A MARKER OF RESPIRATORY INFLAMMATION IN PRZEWALSKI'S HORSE (EQUUS FERUS PRZEWALSKII).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sander, Samantha J; Joyner, Priscilla H; Cray, Carolyn; Rotstein, David S; Aitken-Palmer, Copper

    2016-06-01

    Acute phase proteins are sensitive markers of inflammation, which are highly conserved across taxa. Although the utility of these proteins are becoming well defined in human and domestic animal medical fields, their role in nondomestic species remains unclear. In this communication, a 20-yr-old Przewalski's horse was presented for unresolving aspiration pneumonia, which cultured a unique Actinomyces-like bacteria. Despite waxing and waning clinical signs and minimal changes on baseline hematologic analysis, protein electrophoresis, serum amyloid A, and surfactant protein D serum concentrations showed changes that more accurately reflected the clinical severity of this case. PMID:27468045

  18. Zygomycetes from herbivore dung in the ecological reserve of Dois Irmãos, Northeast Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Luiz Cabral Monteiro de Azevedo Santiago

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Thirty-eight taxa of Zygomycetes distributed in 15 genera were recorded from tapir (Tapirus terrestris, camel (Camelus bactrianus, horse (Equus caballus, deer (Cervus elaphus, agouti (Dasyprocta aguti, donkey (Equus asinus, llama (Llama glama and waterbuck (Kobus ellipsiprymnus dung collected at the Reserva Ecológica de Dois Irmãos located in Recife, State of Pernambuco, Northeast Brazil. The samples were collected on a monthly basis from June 2005 to May 2006, taken to the laboratory and incubated in moist chambers. Higher number of taxa was observed in the excrements of tapir, followed by deer and donkey. The highest number of species was detected for Mucor, followed by Pilobolus. Statistical analyses showed significant differences in richness of Zygomycetes taxa between the herbivore dung types. Differences of species composition, however, were weak. Seasonality influenced the Zygomycetes species composition but not its richness. Variations in taxa composition between ruminants and non-ruminants dung were non significant.

  19. The history of Old World camelids in the light of molecular genetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burger, Pamela Anna

    2016-06-01

    Old World camels have come into the focus as sustainable livestock species, unique in their morphological and physiological characteristics and capable of providing vital products even under extreme environmental conditions. The evolutionary history of dromedary and Bactrian camels traces back to the middle Eocene (around 40 million years ago, mya), when the ancestors of Camelus emerged on the North American continent. While the genetic status of the two domestic species has long been established, the wild two-humped camel has only recently been recognized as a separate species, Camelus ferus, based on molecular genetic data. The demographic history established from genome drafts of Old World camels shows the independent development of the three species over the last 100,000 years with severe bottlenecks occurring during the last glacial period and in the recent past. Ongoing studies involve the immune system, relevant production traits, and the global population structure and domestication of Old World camels. Based on the now available whole genome drafts, specific metabolic pathways have been described shedding new light on the camels' ability to adapt to desert environments. These new data will also be at the origin for genome-wide association studies to link economically relevant phenotypes to genotypes and to conserve the diverse genetic resources in Old World camelids. PMID:27048619

  20. Ultrastructure of ostrich (Struthio camelus) spermatozoa: I. Transmission electron microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soley, J T

    1993-06-01

    The origin and relationships of the tinamous (Order Tinamiformes), ratites (Order Struthioniformes, Rheiformes, Casuariiformes, Apterygiformes) and birds of the order Galliformes and Anseriformes is the subject of much debate and it has been suggested that the ultrastructural analysis of a wide variety of avian sperm may provide information relevant to this problem. This paper describes the fine structure of ostrich sperm and compares the results with published information for other non-passerine birds. Ostrich sperm display a short, conical acrosome which covers the tapered tip of the long, cylindrical nucleus. A nuclear invagination housing an acrosomal rod extends deep within the karyoplasm. A centriolar complex is situated beneath the head and consists of a short proximal centriole and a long (3.0 microns) distal centriole which extends the complete length of the midpiece. The central cavity of the distal centriole contains a pair of microtubules embedded in a rod of electron-dense material. The midpiece is surrounded by a mitochondrial sheath. Concentrations of fine granular material are present between the mitochondria. The principal-piece of the tail is demarcated from the midpiece by a distinct annulus and characterized by a ribbed fibrous sheath enclosing a typical axoneme. Rudimentary coarse fibres are observed between the fibrous sheath and the doublet microtubules of the axoneme in the proximal region of the principal-piece. The end-piece contains a disorganized collection of axonemal microtubules. Ostrich sperm differ in a number of respects from that of other non-passerine birds (the absence of a typical perforatorium; the presence of a ribbed fibrous sheath; a deep nuclear invagination; the structure and length of the distal centriole) but show a close similarity to sperm of the rhea and crested tinamou, both representatives of primitive avian families. These observations add further support to the theory that the ratites and tinamous constitute a monophyletic group. The evidence presented also reinforces the hypothesis that the ratites were the first group to branch off from the main avian stem, to be followed by the Galliformes & Anseriformes. Although it was impossible to determine whether the sperm of the tinamou are more "primitive" than those of the ostrich or rhea, it is clear that ostrich and rhea sperm are closely allied and distinct from tinamou sperm. PMID:8332322

  1. Comparison of chemical restraint techniques in ostrich (Struthio camelus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Ciboto

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Chemical restraint in ostriches is usually required for short-time interventions. Thus, this study established and evaluated intravenous anesthetics formulated from commonly used drugs in order to accomplish total restraint on this species and allow painful procedures to be performed. Thirty male and female ostriches weighing from 40 to 90 kg were randomly distributed into five groups. Animals in Groups I, II and III were given acepromazine (0.25 mg/kg i.m. and those in Groups IV and V were given xylazine (1.0 mg/kg i.m.. The following drugs were administered intravenously 15 to 20 min later: Group I - propofol (4.0 mg/kg, Groups II and IV - ketamine (5.0 mg/kg and diazepam (0.25 mg/kg, Groups III and V - tiletamine-zolazepam (3.0 mg/kg. All protocols have produced satisfactory results regarding total containment, muscular relaxation and maintenance of the evaluated parameters within a normal range.

  2. Aspergillosis and proventricular impaction in an ostrich (Struthio camelus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahrzad Azizi

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Aspergillosis is the most common mycotic infection in a wide variety of bird and causes significant economic losses. The present study described concurrent occurrence of aspergillosis and proventricular impaction in a 4-year-old male ostrich. The bird had respiratory problems, coughing and anorexia. Postmortem examination revealed numerous greenish-white caseous foci, 0.5 to 1 cm in diameter distributed on the surfaces of the air sacs and throughout the lungs. In histopathological study, multifocal areas of caseous necrosis that surrounded by inflammatory cells including heterophils, lymphocytes and macrophages were present. Long branching septated hyphae were visible in the necrotic areas with hematoxylin and eosin and Periodic acid-Schiff staining. Thrombi were present in the blood vessels. The proventriculus was full of gravel.

  3. Fatty acid composition of ostrich (Struthio camelus abdominal adipose tissue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Belichovska

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Fatty acid composition of foods has a great impact on nutrition and health. Therefore, thе determination and knowledge of the fatty acid composition of food is very important for nutrition. Due to the high nutritional characteristics of ostrich meat and its products, the research determining their quality is of topical interest. The aim of the present investigation was the determination of fatty acid composition of ostrich adipose tissue. The content of fatty acids was determined according to AOAC Official Methods of Analysis and determination was performed using a gas chromatograph with a flame-ionization detector (GC-FID. The results are expressed as a percentage of the total content of fatty acids. The method was validated and whereupon the following parameters were determined: linearity, precision, recovery, limit of detection and limit of quantification. The repeatability was within of 0.99 to 2.15%, reproducibility from 2.01 to 4.57%, while recovery ranged from 94.89 to 101.03%. According to these results, this method is accurate and precise and can be used for analysis of fatty acids in foods. It was concluded that the content of saturated fatty acids (SFA accounted 34.75%, of monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA 38.37%, of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA 26.88%, of total unsaturated fatty acids (UFA 65.25% and of desirable fatty acids (DFA (total unsaturated + stearic acid 70.37% of the analysed samples. The ratio polyunsaturated/saturated fatty acids accounted 0.77. The most present fatty acid is the oleic (C18:1n9c with 28.31%, followed by palmitic (C16:0 with 27.12% and linoleic (C18:2n6c acid with 25.08%. Other fatty acids are contained in significantly lower quantities.

  4. Trypanosomiasis of camels (Camelus dromedarius) in Algeria: First report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennoune, Omar; Adili, Nezar; Amri, Khaled; Bennecib, Lakhdar; Ayachi, Ammar

    2013-01-01

    Camel trypanosomosis is a life-threatening disease in the camel species and responsible for severe economic losses either in milk or meat productions. This study was carried out on the south-east area of Algeria on 100 camels of various ages and either sex from two herds. Microscopic examination of blood smears revealed higher levels of trypanosomosis caused by Trypanosoma evansi, an elongated parasite with a kinetoplast and a single nucleus located in its half-length and one flagellum with great heterogeneity. This first investigation reveals higher infection rate than those observed in other countries using blood smears, the trypanosomosis attack has reached an alarming level and the occurrence of trypanosomosis at this high level on blood smears is like "the tree that hides the forest" and make up a serious and potential danger both on animal and public health. Therefore, radical preventive and offensive drastic measures must be taken against this menacing disease at the critical points to prevent the economic losses and to avoid possible human transmission. PMID:25568684

  5. Trypanosomiasis of camels (Camelus dromedarius in Algeria: First report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omar Bennoune

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Camel trypanosomosis is a life-threatening disease in the camel species and responsible for severe economic losses either in milk or meat productions. This study was carried out on the south-east area of Algeria on 100 camels of various ages and either sex from two herds. Microscopic examination of blood smears revealed higher levels of trypanosomosis caused by Trypanosoma evansi, an elongated parasite with a kinetoplast and a single nucleus located in its half-length and one flagellum with great heterogeneity. This first investigation reveals higher infection rate than those observed in other countries using blood smears, the trypanosomosis attack has reached an alarming level and the occurrence of trypanosomosis at this high level on blood smears is like "the tree that hides the forest" and make up a serious and potential danger both on animal and public health. Therefore, radical preventive and offensive drastic measures must be taken against this menacing disease at the critical points to prevent the economic losses and to avoid possible human transmission.

  6. ACUTE PUERPERAL METRITIS IN A DROMEDARY CAMEL (CAMELUS DROMEDARIUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z.I. Qureshi, G. Muhammad, M. Athar and L.A. Lodhi

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available A case of acute puerperal metritis in a dromedary camel developing in the wake of dystokia corrected under unhygienic condition is described. The condition was associated with fever, foul-smelling purulent uterine discharge and pasty faeces. Pretreatment hematological examination indicated leukocytosis (22.05 x 103/mm3, owing to monocytosis (24 %. Microbiological examination of uterine discharge revealed a mixed bacterial infection with E. coli. Bacillus and streptococci which were all sensitive to nortloxacin, gentamicin, and amoxycillin, Faecal examination indicated a mixed infection with nematodes, Intrauterine administration of oxytetracycline with parenteral administration of amoxycillin, dipyrone and oral administration of oxfendazole successfully treated the case. The Principles of treatment of acute puerperal metritis have been discussed.

  7. Substantielle Qualitätsparameter bei Kamelfleisch (Camelus dromedarius)

    OpenAIRE

    Finke, Céline Patricia

    2005-01-01

    In the course of globalization in combination with long-haul tourism and the emergence of foreign products on the European market, the possibility of marketing dromedary meat in Germany is to be considered. In comparison with other domestic animals the literature data on qualitative properties of meat of this species is scarce. The object of this survey was to work out preliminary guidelines concerning the substantial meat quality parameters prior to the eventual introduction of dromedary mea...

  8. Morphological aspects of atrioventricular valves in the ostrich (Struthio camelus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco A. Pereira-Sampaio

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Heart anatomy in the ostrich has been reported, but there are few information on the histological features of the atrioventricular valves. Hearts of young ostriches were fixed in 10% formaldehyde for 24 h and dissected to characterize their macroscopic anatomy. Samples of valves were harvested and stained with Mallory’s trichrome, Gomori’s trichrome, and Picro-Sirius red, for later analysis. The right atrioventricular valve consists of a muscle flap with two fixations. The left atrioventricular valve consists of two layers of endocardium with a layer of connective tissue between them. The free border of the tricuspid valve supports a varying number of chordae tendineae. One of the cusps is attached to the septum, while the other two cusps are attached to the opposite wall. The aortic valve, as well as the pulmonary trunk valve, consists of three cusps. The right atrioventricular valve showed up only as a muscle flap of myocardium coated with a thin layer of dense connective tissue, with two fixations. In the connective tissue, we find a predominance of type I collagen fibers and a lesser amount of type III, with a small presence of elastic fibers. The presence of Purkinje fibers were also usual in the valvular subendocardium, suggesting that they directly participate in the transmission of nervous stimulation to the muscle fibers within the valves. The left atrioventricular valve consisted of 3 cusps, a dorsal, a left, and a right.

  9. Production and characterization of biodiesel from Camelus dromedarius (Hachi) fat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Transesterification reaction with methanol in the presence of NaOH as a catalyst. • Optimization of key reaction parameters were performed. • Some fuel properties of biodiesel were measured and compared with biodiesel standards. • Ten of the properties that were evaluated for the diesel conform to the ASTM and EN standards values. - Abstract: Recently, biodiesel has been gaining market share against fossil-origin diesel due to its ecological benefits and because it can be directly substituted for traditional diesel oils. However, the high cost of the raw materials required to produce biodiesel make it more expensive than fossil diesel. Therefore, low-priced raw materials, such as waste cooking oil and animal fats, are of interest because they can be used to drive down the cost of biodiesel. We have produced biodiesel from camel fat using a transesterification reaction with methanol in the presence of NaOH. The experimental variables investigated in this study were the temperature (30–75 °C), reaction time (20–160 min), catalyst concentration (0.25–1.5%), and methanol/fat molar ratio (4:1–9:1). A maximum biodiesel yield of 98.6% was obtained. The fuel properties of biodiesel, such as iodine value, saponification value, density, kinematic viscosity, cetane number, flash point, sulfur content, carbon residue, water and sediment, high heating value, refractive index, cloud point, pour point, and distillation characteristics, were measured. The properties were compared with EN 14214 and ASTM 6751 biodiesel standards, and an acceptable level of agreement was obtained

  10. Design and selection of a camelid single-chain antibody yeast two-hybrid library produced de novo for the cap protein of porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiangjing Fu

    Full Text Available Nanobodies (or variable domain of the heavy chain of the heavy-chain antibodies, VHHs are single-domain antigen-binding fragments derived from camelid heavy chain antibodies. Their comparatively small size, monomeric behavior, high stability, high solubility, and ability to bind epitopes inaccessible to conventional antibodies make them especially suitable for many therapeutic and biotechnological applications. In this paper, for the first time, we created the immunized Camelus Bactrianus VHH yeast two-hybrid (Y2H library according to the Clontech Mate & Plate library construction system. The transformation efficiency and titer of the VHH Y2H library were 7.26×10(6 cfu/3 µg and 2×10(9 cfu/ml, which met the demand for Y2H library screening. Using as an example the porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2 Cap protein as bait, we screened 21 positive Cap-specific VHH sequences. Among these sequences, 7 of 9 randomly selected clones were strongly positive as indicated by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, either using PCV2 viral lysis or purified Cap protein as coated antigen. Additionally, the immunocytochemistry results further indicated that the screened VHHs could specifically detected PCV2 in the infected cells. All this suggests the feasibility of in vivo VHH throughput screening based on Y2H strategy.

  11. Design and selection of a camelid single-chain antibody yeast two-hybrid library produced de novo for the cap protein of porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Xiangjing; Gao, Xiaolong; He, Shengfang; Huang, Di; Zhang, Peng; Wang, Xinglong; Zhang, Shuxia; Dang, Ruyi; Yin, Shuanghui; Du, Enqi; Yang, Zengqi

    2013-01-01

    Nanobodies (or variable domain of the heavy chain of the heavy-chain antibodies, VHHs) are single-domain antigen-binding fragments derived from camelid heavy chain antibodies. Their comparatively small size, monomeric behavior, high stability, high solubility, and ability to bind epitopes inaccessible to conventional antibodies make them especially suitable for many therapeutic and biotechnological applications. In this paper, for the first time, we created the immunized Camelus Bactrianus VHH yeast two-hybrid (Y2H) library according to the Clontech Mate & Plate library construction system. The transformation efficiency and titer of the VHH Y2H library were 7.26×10(6) cfu/3 µg and 2×10(9) cfu/ml, which met the demand for Y2H library screening. Using as an example the porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) Cap protein as bait, we screened 21 positive Cap-specific VHH sequences. Among these sequences, 7 of 9 randomly selected clones were strongly positive as indicated by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, either using PCV2 viral lysis or purified Cap protein as coated antigen. Additionally, the immunocytochemistry results further indicated that the screened VHHs could specifically detected PCV2 in the infected cells. All this suggests the feasibility of in vivo VHH throughput screening based on Y2H strategy. PMID:23469171

  12. Satellite telemetry of large mammals in Mongolia: what expectations should we have for collar function?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takehiko Y. Ito

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The rapid pace of the development of satellite wildlife tracking tools has left little time for thorough testing of new equipment and identifying possible sources of technical failures. In the Gobi and Eastern Steppe region of Mongolia we deployed 104 satellite collars, collecting animal locations using the Doppler based Argos or the global positioning system (GPS, on 45 Asiatic wild asses (Equus hemionus, 34 Mongolian gazelles (Procapra gutturosa, 15 Przewalski’s horses (Equus ferus przewalskii, eight wild Bactrian camels (Camelus ferus, and two wolves (Canis lupus. Although, we collected valuable data from little-known species in a remote environment, of 104 collars deployed, only 34 worked as good as or better than expected whereas 70 were subject to technical problems. The majority of problems had to do with a reduced performance of the Argos component (n = 13, with both the Argos and the GPS components (n = 1, or with the Argos component in combination with another unknown problem (n = 12. Further problems were caused by human error during manufacturing or deployment (n = 10, software bugs (n = 7, mechanical failures (n = 5, poor GPS performance (n = 1 and premature failures for unknown reasons (3 ≤ n ≤ 21. Although, several premature failures may have been caused by animals being poached, our failure rate remains high and indicates that managers and researchers need to be aware that there is a high risk of equipment failure when applying newly emerging satellite tracking technology. This entrains logistic and financial uncertainties which may be difficult to explain to the scientific community, the public, management and funding agencies alike. We recommend the development of a web-based platform where users and producers of telemetry products can quickly post and exchange their experiences.

  13. Taxonomy Icon Data: ostrich [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available amelus_NL.png Struthio_camelus_S.png Struthio_camelus_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?...i=Struthio+camelus&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Struthio+camelus&t=NL http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy..._icon/icon.cgi?i=Struthio+camelus&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Struthio+camelus&t=NS ...

  14. Mecanoreceptores da mucosa palatina de avestruz (Struthio camelus: estudo ao microscópio de luz Mechanoreceptors of the palatine mucosa of ostrich (Struthio camelus: light microscope study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana P. Guimarães

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Foram estudados corpúsculos de Herbst da mucosa palatina de avestruz em nível de microscopia de luz. Os corpúsculos compõem-se de uma cápsula externa, cápsula interna e axônio central. A cápsula externa apresentou numerosas lamelas, enquanto que a cápsula interna mostrou estrutura de folhas compactas. Os corpúsculos apresentaram formato ovalado ou circular e circundado por espessos feixes de fibras colágenas. Cada lamela estava composta de uma densa rede de fibras espessas. Os axônios terminais estavam situados ao longo do eixo, terminando em um bulbo terminal. As fibras da cápsula externa, coradas por Picrosirius e examinadas no microscópio óptico sob luz polarizada, revelou a presença de fibras colágenas do tipo I em verde e na região periférica observou-se grande quantidade de fibras colágenas do tipo III. Os corpúsculos apresentaram-se envoltos por células planas e envoltos por fibras colágenas.Herbst corpuscles of the palatine mucosa of ostrich were studied by light microscopy. The corpuscles are composed of an outer core, inner core and central nerve terminal. The outer core presents numerous lamellae, while the inner core shows compact structure of cytoplasm sheets. The corpuscles are elongate or oval in shape and are surrounded by bundles of collagen fibers. Each lamella is composed of a dense network of thick fibrils. The terminal axons are located along the axis and form a bulb terminal. The fibers of external core stained by Picrosirius and examined by polarized light microscopy revealed to be green in color like type I collagen fibers, and at the periphery is a large amount of collagen type III. The corpuscles are surrounded by flat cells and dense collagen fibers at the periphery.

  15. Sistemática, taxonomía y domesticación de alpacas y llamas: nueva evidencia cromosómica y molecular Systematics, taxonomy and domestication of alpaca and llama: new chromosomal and molecular evidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JUAN C MARÍN

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Existen cuatro especies de camélidos sudamericanos, dos de ellos silvestres, guanaco (Lama guanicoe y vicuña (Vicugna vicugna, y dos formas domésticas, alpaca (Lama pacos y llama (Lama glama, cuyo origen ha sido objeto de debate. En el presente estudio la variación en el patrón de bandas G de los cromosomas de llamas y alpacas y la secuencia de dos genes mitocondriales han sido usados para estudiar el origen y la clasificación de llamas y alpacas. Patrones de bandas cromosómicas similares fueron observados en las cuatro especies de Lamini, incluso similares a los descritos para camello, Camelus bactrianus. Sin embargo, se encontraron finas y consistentes diferencias en los brazos cortos del cromosoma 1, permitiendo separar a camellos, guanacos y llamas, de las de vicuñas y alpacas. Este patrón fue consistente incluso en un híbrido guanaco x alpaca. Relaciones equivalentes fueron encontradas en las secuencias completas del gen para citocromo b, así como en el árbol de expansión mínima de las secuencias parciales de la región control, agrupando a guanacos con llamas y a vicuñas con alpacas. Los análisis filogenéticos mostraron a V. vicugna y a L. guanicoe como grupos recíprocamente monofHéticos. El análisis de las secuencias de ambos genes mostró dos ciados entre las vicuñas, concordantes con las subespecies reconocidas para esta especie, pero los resultados obtenidos para guanacos no reflejaron la existencia de las cuatro subespecies previamente propuestas. El análisis combinado de variaciones cromosómicas y moleculares demostraron una alta similitud genética entre alpacas y vicuñas, así como entre llamas y guanacos. Aunque se revela hibridización direccional, nuestros resultados apoyan fuertemente la hipótesis de que la llama se deriva de L. guanicoe, y la alpaca de V. vicugna, apoyando la reclasificación de la alpaca como V. pacosFour camelid species exist in South America: two wild, the guanaco (Lama guanicoe and

  16. Konik - taaselustatud tarpan / Ingrid Randlaht

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Randlaht, Ingrid

    2011-01-01

    Koniku (equus caballus ferus) tagasiaretusprojektidest 19. sajandil looduses väljasurnud ulukhobuse tarpanite (equus ferus ferus) suunal. Kinnikasvamise tõttu hävinenud elupaikade ja looduskeskkondade taastamisesst Euroopas - Lätis, Poolas, Hollandis - ulukhobuste ja ka veiste ning punahirvedega

  17. Digesta retention patterns of solute and different-sized particles in camelids compared with ruminants and other foregut fermenters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dittmann, Marie T; Runge, Ullrich; Ortmann, Sylvia; Lang, Richard A; Moser, Dario; Galeffi, Cordula; Schwarm, Angela; Kreuzer, Michael; Clauss, Marcus

    2015-07-01

    The mean retention times (MRT) of solute or particles in the gastrointestinal tract and the forestomach (FS) are crucial determinants of digestive physiology in herbivores. Besides ruminants, camelids are the only herbivores that have evolved rumination as an obligatory physiological process consisting of repeated mastication of large food particles, which requires a particle sorting mechanism in the FS. Differences between camelids and ruminants have hardly been investigated so far. In this study we measured MRTs of solute and differently sized particles (2, 10, and 20 mm) and the ratio of large-to-small particle MRT, i.e. the selectivity factors (SF(10/2mm), SF(20/2mm), SF(20/10mm)), in three camelid species: alpacas (Vicugna pacos), llamas (Llama glama), and Bactrian camels (Camelus bactrianus). The camelid data were compared with literature data from ruminants and non-ruminant foregut fermenters (NRFF). Camelids and ruminants both had higher SF(10/2mm)FS than NRFF, suggesting convergence in the function of the FS sorting mechanism in contrast to NRFF, in which such a sorting mechanism is absent. The SF(20/10mm)FS did not differ between ruminants and camelids, indicating that there is a particle size threshold of about 1 cm in both suborders above which particle retention is not increased. Camelids did not differ from ruminants in MRT(2mm)FS, MRTsoluteFS, and the ratio MRT(2mm)FS/MRTsoluteFS, but they were more similar to 'cattle-' than to 'moose-type' ruminants. Camelids had higher SF(10/2mm)FS and higher SF(20/2mm)FS than ruminants, indicating a potentially slower particle sorting in camelids than in ruminants, with larger particles being retained longer in relation to small particles. PMID:25921796

  18. Globalization of the cashmere market and the decline of large mammals in central Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, Joel; Buuveibaatar, Bayarbaatar; Mishra, Charudutt

    2013-08-01

    As drivers of terrestrial ecosystems, humans have replaced large carnivores in most areas, and human influence not only exerts striking ecological pressures on biodiversity at local scales but also has indirect effects in distant corners of the world. We suggest that the multibillion dollar cashmere industry creates economic motivations that link western fashion preferences for cashmere to land use in Central Asia. This penchant for stylish clothing, in turn, encourages herders to increase livestock production which affects persistence of over 6 endangered large mammals in these remote, arid ecosystems. We hypothesized that global trade in cashmere has strong negative effects on native large mammals of deserts and grassland where cashmere-producing goats are raised. We used time series data, ecological snapshots of the biomass of native and domestic ungulates, and ecologically and behaviorally based fieldwork to test our hypothesis. In Mongolia increases in domestic goat production were associated with a 3-fold increase in local profits for herders coexisting with endangered saiga (Saiga tatarica).That increasing domestic grazing pressure carries fitness consequences was inferred on the basis of an approximately 4-fold difference in juvenile recruitment among blue sheep (Pseudois nayaur)in trans-Himalayan India. Across 7 study areas in Mongolia, India, and China's Tibetan Plateau, native ungulate biomass is now <5% that of domestic species. Such trends suggest ecosystem degradation and decreased capacity for the persistence of native species, including at least 8 Asian endemic species: saiga, chiru (Pantholops hodgsoni), Bactrian camel (Camelus bactrianus), snow leopard(Panthera uncia), khulan(Equus hemionus), kiang (E. kiang), takhi (E. przewalski), and wild yak (Bos mutus). Our results suggest striking yet indirect and unintended actions that link trophic-level effects to markets induced by the trade for cashmere. PMID:23866036

  19. Methane emission by camelids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dittmann, Marie T; Runge, Ullrich; Lang, Richard A; Moser, Dario; Galeffi, Cordula; Kreuzer, Michael; Clauss, Marcus

    2014-01-01

    Methane emissions from ruminant livestock have been intensively studied in order to reduce contribution to the greenhouse effect. Ruminants were found to produce more enteric methane than other mammalian herbivores. As camelids share some features of their digestive anatomy and physiology with ruminants, it has been proposed that they produce similar amounts of methane per unit of body mass. This is of special relevance for countrywide greenhouse gas budgets of countries that harbor large populations of camelids like Australia. However, hardly any quantitative methane emission measurements have been performed in camelids. In order to fill this gap, we carried out respiration chamber measurements with three camelid species (Vicugna pacos, Lama glama, Camelus bactrianus; n = 16 in total), all kept on a diet consisting of food produced from alfalfa only. The camelids produced less methane expressed on the basis of body mass (0.32±0.11 L kg⁻¹ d⁻¹) when compared to literature data on domestic ruminants fed on roughage diets (0.58±0.16 L kg⁻¹ d⁻¹). However, there was no significant difference between the two suborders when methane emission was expressed on the basis of digestible neutral detergent fiber intake (92.7±33.9 L kg⁻¹ in camelids vs. 86.2±12.1 L kg⁻¹ in ruminants). This implies that the pathways of methanogenesis forming part of the microbial digestion of fiber in the foregut are similar between the groups, and that the lower methane emission of camelids can be explained by their generally lower relative food intake. Our results suggest that the methane emission of Australia's feral camels corresponds only to 1 to 2% of the methane amount produced by the countries' domestic ruminants and that calculations of greenhouse gas budgets of countries with large camelid populations based on equations developed for ruminants are generally overestimating the actual levels. PMID:24718604

  20. Taxonomy Icon Data: Arabian camel [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Camelus+dromedarius&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy..._icon/icon.cgi?i=Camelus+dromedarius&t=NL http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_ic...on/icon.cgi?i=Camelus+dromedarius&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Camelus+dromedarius&t=NS ...

  1. REPRODUCTIVE PERFORMANCE OF Camelus dromedarius IN THE EL-OUED REGION, ALGERIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. MAYOUF

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available A questionnaire survey and group discussions were conducted to characterize the reproductive performances of camels at their natural pastoralist management systems in El Oued region, southern east of Algeria. A total of 60 breeders were included in the study. The results about the level of education among camel herders in El Oued region revealed that the majority of older herders were illiterate 80% while 15% had primary school education. The camel management dominating in the study areas is traditional nomadic. Mature female camels were dominant (64.68% in the camel herd. The ratio of male to female camel was 1:60.7. Mean age at first calving and calving interval were 4.66±0.07 years and 22.9±0.25 months, respectively. The mean lactation length was 11.4±0.08 months. Mean age at first mating of male and female was 4.82±0.12 years and 3.43±0.16, respectively. Reproductive performances of camels in the study area is low which could be attributed to the late age of puberty, long gestation period, poor management system, environmental factors and pathological reasons. Therefore, improvement of management systems and the use of controlled breeding techniques contribute to improve of camel.

  2. Milk production potential, quality of raw milk and reproductive efficiency of dromedary camels (Camelus Dromedarius)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Old world camelids (Dromedary and Bactrian camels) are important source of milk in rural areas of many arid countries. However, extensive production system cannot guarantee constant quality and quantity raw milk for the market. Development of the world first large scale-camel milking farm in Dubai draws attention to camels as potential source for high quality milk and meat in developing countries. This presentation summarizes the development and results of the project. Animals: Intensive management and production require concentration of camels. Camels arrived to the farm from different countries of the region with variable age, condition and lactation stage resulting in great range in individual milk production. In practice, history of the purchased animals (health status, previous production) is not available. Despite the negative preconception, camels can be trained successfully to adopt the machine milking technology. Training takes 1-4 weeks depending on the background of the animal. So far we have trained more than 1400 camels for machine milking. Infectious disease control, general and udder health: Due to lack of history, it is extremely important to establish and maintain strict quarantine. Infectious diseases (Brucellosis, Tuberculosis, Surra, FMD etc.) are monitored with serological tests. The main problem is that most of the tests are not validated for camels and kits from different manufacturers may give controversial results. The prevalence of Brucellosis exceeded 30% in purchased animals from certain regions. Udder health is also monitored carefully. In previously hand milked, multiparous camels, teats are frequently enlarged/deformed or the udder is infected with pathogen bacteria (Str. agalactiae, Str. bovis, Corynebacterium amycolatum, Staph. aureus, etc.). In a recent survey, 21.8% (54 camels) of 248 new lactating animals were infected. These camels should be either rejected or treated before starting machine milking. Adaptation of milking technology, milk production, husbandry and management: first, milking parlour had to be designed that is comfortable and suitable for different sizes of camels. We have developed a 2 x 24 herringbone parlour. Commercially available, standard milking equipments is used but adapted to the physiology of dromedaries. Milking liners and claw were selected carefully or developed because of the anatomical features of camel udder. There is a great variation in size of teats between individuals (length: 7.1 ± 2.22 cm, mean ± SD, 2.93-16.0 cm). In addition, teats undergo significant increase in size (length by 50%) and volume (by 170%) during milk letdown. Camels have limited cistern volume so initiation of milk letdown reflex is crucial. Traditionally it is induced by the suckling effect of the calf, but this is impossible to do in the parlour. This fact highlights the importance of well-trained milkers who can carry out efficient manual udder and teat stimulation for a long time (mean ± SD: 123.2 ± 84.4 sec) and fast and also precise milking (mean ± SD: 126.9 ± 41.1 sec). At present, the average daily milk production per camel is 7.2 ± 0.14 kg (± SEM), mean length of lactation is 340 ± 7.9 d (± SEM) and mean total production per lactation is 2,467 ± 79.4 kg (± SEM). So far, the highest and lowest production were: lactation average 14.8 kg and 2.9 kg milk/d; total production 8002 kg and 919 kg; length of lactation 541 and 312 d, respectively. Dams and calves are kept in adjacent paddocks throughout lactation and are allowed together after each milking. Every day they go for a one-hour walk. Staff is trained to take care of the animals in a gentle way to provide low-stress environment. In return, camels are tame, easy to handle and cooperate well during all procedures (milking, nail cutting, rectal examination, blood collection, etc.). Food safety management system and quality of raw camel milk: In the UAE, all food producing establishment must implement minimum the HACCP system. We aimed to develop ISO 22000:2005 Food Safety Management System, which is in the fina

  3. Some immuno-suppressive trends: Effects Of Endotoxin on Camels (Camelus dromedarius)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Intravenous administration of a bolus of 0.05 micron g/kg body weight endotoxin lipopolysaccharide (LPS) to camels has resulted in leukopenia, lymphopenia, neutropenia, proteinaemia, albunaemia , globulinaemia and reduced lysozomal enzyme activity. It is suggested that endotoxin at the dose of 0.05micron g/kg body weight may produce immunosuppressive effects in camels. (author)

  4. A proposal of linear assessment scheme for the udder of dairy camels (Camelus dromedarius L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayadi, Moez; Aljumaah, Riyadh Saleh; Samara, Emad Mohammed; Faye, Bernard; Caja, Gerardo

    2016-06-01

    Digital images from the left side of the mammary gland of 146 multiparous lactating dromedary camels in mid lactation and managed under intensive conditions were obtained immediately before milking and used to build up a reference scheme for the morphological evaluation of camel mammary glands. A 5-point linear scoring scheme (with 0.5-point accuracy) was subsequently generated based on five mammary traits (udder, depth and floor inclination, teats, shape, length, and width). Results showed that Arabian dairy camels had voluminous udders with large-sized teats. Most common udder shape was globular (47.3 %), followed by the pear (34.3 %) and pendulous (18.4 %) shapes. Conical- or funnel-shaped teats (60.9 %) were the most frequent, followed by cylindrical- (29.5 %) and blew-up (9.6 %)-shaped teats. The observed variation in the udder and teat measurements, as well as in typology, attested that dromedary camels need especially large milking clusters to improve their machine milkability. Assessment of the previously indicated digital images according to the proposed linear scoring scheme, performed by 3 independent operators showed that the overall means were close to 3.00 points (values between 2.45 and 3.62), and the standard deviations were close to 0.76 points (values between 0.58 and 0.94). Moderate repeatability between operators (r > 0.69) was obtained for udder depth and floor inclination, indicating that training of operators, as well as improvements in the definition of traits should be considered in future studies. Further research is needed to validate the proposed linear scoring system in different stages of lactation and parities using a large number of camels. PMID:27038610

  5. Ankyloglossia and its surgical correction by frenuloplasty in a she-camel calf (Camelus dromedarius)

    OpenAIRE

    Anwar, S.; Purohit, G.N.

    2012-01-01

    A rare case of ankyloglossia in a one-humped camel and its successful surgical correction by horizontal to vertical frenuloplasty is reported. Seven-month-old she-camel calf, with a history of excessive salivation and inability to chew and swallow hay, was referred to Al Qattara veterinary hospital. Solid food was regurgitated, whereas milkand water could be swallowed. On examination; the animal could not protrude its tongue which was attached by a thin tissue band between the ventral surfac...

  6. Brucellosis in Camels (Camelus dromedorius in the south province of Jordan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hawari A. Dawood

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available A study of the prevalence of camel brucellosis has been carried out in the south province of Jordan during the years 2006 and 2007. Six hundred forty camel sera from 44 herds were randomly collected and analyzed. Rose Bengal plate test was used to screen all serum samples. The positive samples were subjected to confirmation by complement fixation test. The true prevalence of Brucella seropositive was 15.8%. Brucella melitensis biotype 3 was isolated from 2 aborted fetuses and from 2 milk samples. 64.8% of the positive camels were adult > than 4 years old and the remaining 35.2% were young ranging from 6 months to 4 years old. Recommendations for brucellosis control were given.

  7. Protection of farmed camels (Camelus Dromedarius): Welfare problems and legislative perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Previti, Annalisa; Guercio, Bartolomeo; Passantino, Annamaria

    2016-02-01

    In the last years animal welfare has assumed an increasing interest in our society, influencing legislation to enact many provisions aimed at the protection of animals. Along with increased consumer awareness of the need to maintain ethically acceptable conditions of raised animals, scientists too have begun to investigate the conditions of animal welfare, the tools for its evaluation and for its improvement. Although there are many advances in knowledge, much remains to be investigated concerning many species considered "minor", that is, camels and dromedaries. Dromedaries, recently, have attracted the interest of some breeders following the results of studies concerning the nutritional and therapeutic properties of their products - milk in particular - that make them ideal for some particular categories of consumers, such as diabetics, obesity sufferers, lactose-intolerant subjects, menopausal women and so on. Considering their use in dairy husbandry, dromedaries are reared under intensive and/or semi-intensive systems with the resulting emergence of specific needs, which should be fulfilled in order to have appropriate welfare. This paper's purpose is to give practical elements in order to find out dromedary welfare standards, promoting a comprehensive set of regulations on welfare, care and protection of this animal. PMID:26260977

  8. Radiographic anatomy of the thoraco-abdominal cavity of the ostrich (Struthio camelus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W.M. Wagner

    2001-07-01

    Full Text Available This study provides a reference for the radiographic anatomy of the thoraco-abdominal cavity of female ostriches as a representative of ratites. One ostrich cadaver, 2 adult and 2 growing ostriches were used. Right lateral radiographs produced by a 6-frame technique and 2 dorsoventral radiographs produced by an adapted 3-frame technique were selected and schematic illustrations of these were labelled to illustrate normal radiographic anatomy. Differences from other avian species and unique features of the ostrich are briefly discussed.

  9. A biometric study of the digestive tract of one-humped camel (camelus dromedarius fetuses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Bello

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available A Biometrical study was conducted on the digestive tract of 35 foetuses of the one-humped camel collected from the Sokoto metropolitan abattoir, over a period of five months at different gestational ages. The approximate age of the foetuses was estimated from the crown vertebral rump length (CVRL and samples were categorised into first, second and third trimester. The mean body weight of the foetus at first, second third trimester ranged from 1.40 ± 0.06 kg, 6.10 ± 0.05 kg and 17.87 ± 0.6 kg respectively. The mean weights of the entire digestive system at first, second and third trimester were 0.80 ± 0.07 kg, 2.13 ± 0.04 kg and 4.86 ± 0.08 kg respectively. The mean weights of the digestive tract at first, second and third trimester were 0.53 ± 0.07 kg, 1.03 ± 0.05 and 2.43 ± 0.07 kg respectively. The small intestine at first trimester were found not to have any clear demarcation to show duodenum, jejunum and ileum; the entire small intestine was found to be 76.00 ± 3.00 cm at first trimester and showed clear demarcation at second and third trimesters.. The mean volumes of the entire stomach (rumen, reticular and abomasum ranged from 136.67 ± 8.30 cm3 at first trimester to 353.33 ± 6.50 cm3 at third trimester. It was observed that there was increase in body weight, organ weight and individual segment of the digestive tract of the fetuses with advancement in gestation period. A geometrical increase in length and diameter of the various segments of the digestive tract showed a significant difference (P≤ 0.05 with advancement in gestational period.

  10. Ultra-structure of adipocytes in the digital cushion of ostrich (Stuthio Camelus) foot pad

    OpenAIRE

    Amira Eid Derbalah

    2012-01-01

    The ultra-structural examination of adipocytes in the digital cushion of ostrich foot pad was performed to reveal the structural adaptation of adipocytes and elastic fibers of digital cushion to accommodate with fast movement of this unique bird. Two types of adipocytes were found, the first type was typical signet ring cells which had large fat droplets whose dimension dwarfed the cell organelles. The second type was diffused form with oval shaped adipocytes...

  11. Proteomics of old world camelid (Camelus dromedarius: Better understanding the interplay between homeostasis and desert environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamad Warda

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Life is the interplay between structural–functional integrity of biological systems and the influence of the external environment. To understand this interplay, it is useful to examine an animal model that competes with harsh environment. The dromedary camel is the best model that thrives under severe environment with considerable durability. The current proteomic study on dromedary organs explains a number of cellular mysteries providing functional correlates to arid living. Proteome profiling of camel organs suggests a marked increased expression of various cytoskeleton proteins that promote intracellular trafficking and communication. The comparative overexpression of α-actinin of dromedary heart when compared with rat heart suggests an adaptive peculiarity to sustain hemoconcentration–hemodilution episodes associated with alternative drought-rehydration periods. Moreover, increased expression of the small heat shock protein, α B-crystallin facilitates protein folding and cellular regenerative capacity in dromedary heart. The observed unbalanced expression of different energy related dependent mitochondrial enzymes suggests the possibility of mitochondrial uncoupling in the heart in this species. The evidence of increased expression of H+-ATPase subunit in camel brain guarantees a rapidly usable energy supply. Interestingly, the guanidinoacetate methyltransferase in camel liver has a renovation effect on high energy phosphate with possible concomitant intercession of ion homeostasis. Surprisingly, both hump fat tissue and kidney proteomes share the altered physical distribution of proteins that favor cellular acidosis. Furthermore, the study suggests a vibrant nature for adipose tissue of camel hump by the up-regulation of vimentin in adipocytes, augmenting lipoprotein translocation, blood glucose trapping, and challenging external physical extra-stress. The results obtained provide new evidence of homeostasis in the arid habitat suitable for this mammal.

  12. Pharmacokinetics and intramuscular bioavailability of difloxacin in dromedary camels (Camelus dromedarius).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abo-El-Sooud, K; Goudah, A

    2009-02-01

    Single-dose disposition kinetics of difloxacin (5mg/kg bodyweight) were determined in clinically normal male dromedary camels (n=6) following intravenous (IV) and intramuscular (IM) administration. Difloxacin concentrations were determined by high performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection. The concentration-time data were analysed by compartmental and non-compartmental kinetic methods. Following a single IV injection, the plasma difloxacin concentration-time curve was best described by a two-compartment open model, with a distribution half-life (t(1/2alpha)) of 0.22+/-0.02h and an elimination half-life (t(1/2beta)) of 2.97+/-0.31h. Steady-state volume of distribution (V(dss)) and total body clearance (Cl(tot)) were 1.02+/-0.21L/kg and 0.24+/-0.07L/kg/h, respectively. Following IM administration, the absorption half-life (t(1)(/)(2ab)) and the mean absorption time (MAT) were 0.44+/-0.03h and 1.53+/-0.22h, respectively. The peak plasma concentration (C(max)) of 2.84+/-0.34microg/mL was achieved at 1.42+/-0.21h. The elimination half-life (t(1/2el)) and the mean residence time (MRT) was 3.46+/-0.42h and 5.61+/-0.23h, respectively. The in vitro plasma protein binding of difloxacin ranged from 28-43% and the absolute bioavailability following IM administration was 93.51+/-11.63%. Difloxacin could be useful for the treatment of bacterial infections in camels that are sensitive to this drug. PMID:18603456

  13. Macroscopic features of the venous drainage of the reproductive system of the male ostrich (Struthio camelus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.Z.J. Elias

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available The macroscopic features of the venous drainage of the reproductive system of the male ostrich were studied in six pre-pubertal and three sexually mature and active birds. Each testis was drained by one to four testicular veins. The right testicular veins drained the right testis and epididymis and its appendix to the caudal vena cava and to the right common iliac vein, whereas the left testicular veins drained the left testis and epididymis and its appendix exclusively to the left common iliac vein. A number of variations in the drainage pattern based on the point of entry and number of testicular veins were observed. The cranial aspect of the testis was also linked to the caudal vena cava or common iliac vein via the adrenal veins. The cranial, middle and caudal segments of the ductus deferens (and ureter were drained by the cranial, middle and caudal ureterodeferential veins respectively, to the caudal testicular veins, the caudal renal veins and pudendal / caudal part of the internal iliac veins. In some specimens, the caudal ureterodeferential veins also drained into the caudal mesenteric vein. The surface of the phallus was drained by tributaries of the pudendal vein. The basic pattern of venous drainage of the reproductive organs of the male ostrich was generally similar to that described for the domestic fowl. However, important differences, including the partial fusion of the caudal renal veins, drainage of the cranial aspect of the testes via the adrenal veins, drainage of the caudal ureterodeferential veins into the caudal mesenteric vein and the presence of veins draining the surface of the phallus, were observed. Although significant, these differences may simply reflect variations in the normal pattern of venous drainage of the reproductive tract of birds which could be verified by studying more specimens and more species.

  14. Caudal epidural analgesia using lidocaine alone or in combination with ketamine in dromedary camels (Camelus dromedarius

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omid Azari

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available This study was performed to investigate the analgesic effect of lidocaine and a combination of lidocaine and ketamine following epidural administration in dromedary camels. Ten 12–18-month-old camels were randomly divided into two equal groups. In group L, the animals received 2% lidocaine (0.22 mg/kg and in group LK the animals received a mixture of 10% ketamine (1 mg/kg and 2% lidocaine (0.22 mg/kg administered into the first intercoccygeal (Co1–Co2 epidural space while standing. Onset time and duration of caudal analgesia, sedation level and ataxia were recorded after drug administration. Data were analysed by U Mann-Whitney tests and significance was taken as p < 0.05. The results showed that epidural lidocaine and co-administration of lidocaine and ketamine produced complete analgesia in the tail, anus and perineum. Epidural administration of the lidocaine-ketamine mixture resulted in mild to moderate sedation, whilst the animals that received epidural lidocaine alone were alert and nervous during the study. Ataxia was observed in all test subjects and was slightly more severe in camels that received the lidocaine-ketamine mixture. It was concluded that epidural administration of lidocaine plus ketamine resulted in longer caudal analgesia in standing conscious dromedary camels compared with the effect of administering lidocaine alone.

  15. Endocardiosis and congestive heart failure in a captive ostrich (Struthio camelus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.A.G. Kubba

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available A seven-year-old blue-necked male ostrich was found dead after a few days of illness. The animal was living in an open yard of 25 square meters along with three other females. They were given concentrate-rich ration with free access to green leaves and water. Autopsy revealed cardiac enlargement due to left ventricular hypertrophy and right ventricular dilatation. The left aterioventricular valves were irregularly thickened and contracted. The lungs were engorged with blood and the liver had nutmeg appearance. The small intestine showed segmental sub-serosal petechial hemorrhages. Histological examination revealed myxomatous degeneration of the left aterioventricular valves, pulmonary congestion and edema, congestion of periacinar hepatic zone and fatty degeneration of outer zones, renal glomerulosclerosis and arteriosclerosis. The affected parts of the small intestine showed villous atrophy with lacteal distention. The venules in the affected intestinal segment were severely dilated while the arterioles had narrow lumen and irregular wall thickening with hyaline deposition. The current article reports an endocardiosis in ostrich and discusses other vascular disorders.

  16. One-Humped Camel (Camelus dromedarius Infestation withLinguatula serrata in Tabriz, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HR Haddadzadeh

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available "n "nBackground: Linguatula serrata is one of well known members of Pentastomida which infects both human and animals. The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of L. serrata in mesenteric lymph nodes, livers and lungs of camels slaughtered in Tabriz area, Iran. "n "nMethods: Mesenteric lymph nodes (MLNs, livers and lungs of 140 one-humped camels slaughtered in Tabriz, north-west of Iran were investigated for nymphs of L. serrata from July 2007 to June 2008. The organs were examined macroscopically and then a tissue digestion method was also done for investigation of liver and lung of the camels that had infected MLN. The liver and lung samples were mostly taken from condemned and rejected part of organs. "n "nResults: The infection rate of L. serrata nymphs in MLNs, livers and lungs was 13.5%, 1.4% and 1.4% respectively. The number of isolated nymph in infected lymph nodes varied from 2 to 18 with a mean of 4.78. Only one nymph was isolated from each infected livers and lungs. The infection rate increased with age (p<0.05. No significant difference in different sex groups and seasons was observed (p>0.05. "n "nConclusion: Considering this fact that consumption of undercooked camel liver was not common in the studied area, the zoonotic importance of this infection should be concluded.

  17. Serosurvey of selected avian pathogens in brazilian commercial Rheas (Rhea americana) and Ostriches (Struthio camelus)

    OpenAIRE

    OC Freitas Neto; AOT Carrasco; TF Raso; RLM Sousa; A Berchieri Júnior; AA Pinto

    2009-01-01

    Ratite farming of has expanded worldwide. Due to the intensive farming methods used by ratite producers, preventive medicine practices should be established. In this context, the surveillance and control of some avian pathogens are essential for the success of the ratite industry; however, little is known on the health status of ratites in Brazil. Therefore, the prevalence of antibodies against Newcastle Disease virus, Chlamydophila psittaci, Mycoplasma gallisepticum, Mycoplasma synoviae, and...

  18. Serosurvey of selected avian pathogens in brazilian commercial Rheas (Rhea americana and Ostriches (Struthio camelus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    OC de Freitas Neto

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Ratite farming of has expanded worldwide. Due to the intensive farming methods used by ratite producers, preventive medicine practices should be established. In this context, the surveillance and control of some avian pathogens are essential for the success of the ratite industry; however, little is known on the health status of ratites in Brazil. Therefore, the prevalence of antibodies against Newcastle Disease virus, Chlamydophila psittaci, Mycoplasma gallisepticum, Mycoplasma synoviae, and Salmonella Pullorum were evaluated in 100 serum samples collected from commercial ostriches and in 80 serum samples from commercial rheas reared in Brazil. All sampled animals were clinically healthy. The results showed that all ostriches and rheas were serologically negative to Newcastle disease virus, Chlamydophila psittaci, Mycoplasma gallisepticum, and Mycoplasma synoviae. Positive antibody responses against Salmonella Pullorum antigen were not detected in ostrich sera, but were detected in two rhea serum samples. These results can be considered as a warning as to the presence of Salmonella spp. in ratite farms. Therefore, the implementation of good health management and surveillance programs in ratite farms may contribute to improve not only animal production, but also public health conditions.

  19. Production systems and reproductive performances of Camelus dromedarius in Somali regional state, eastern Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simenew Keskes

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Across-sectional questionnaire survey and focused group discussions were conducted to characterize camel production systems and to evaluate reproductive performances of camels at their natural pastoralist management systems of Somali region. A total of 100 households were included in the study during the period of October 2012 to March 2013. About 98% of Somali pastoralists preferred camels as their first choice over other livestock species and mainly kept in the society for milk and meat production. The camel management dominating in the study areas of Somali region is traditional nomadic. Camel is one of the most important livestock for Somali pastoralists’ livelihood as a source of milk, meat and draught power. Mature female camels were dominant (54.87% in the camel herd. The ratio of male to female camel was 1:13. Mean age at first calving and calving interval were 62.16±10.44 and 23.28±3.36 months respectively. Age at first calving and calving interval can be minimized to 57±5.52 and 21.84±4.8 months by proper husbandry and health care. The mean lactation length was 11.51±1.91 months. Diseases and predators were reported as the main causes of calf mortality. In the herd dynamic simulation calf mortality rate can be reduced at least to 7% only by preventing predators attack. Diseases (66%, lack of pasture (59% and security (47% were the main constraints in camel production of the study areas. For the better productivity of camels, the major constraints such as disease problems, lack of pasture and tribal conflicts should be mitigated. Proper husbandry and health services can play significant roles in the long term improvement of camel production and productivity of the region.  

  20. SEQUENCING AND SEQUENCE ANALYSIS OF MYOSTATIN GENE IN THE EXON 1 OF THE CAMEL (CAMELUS DROMEDARIUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. G. SHAH, A. S. QURESHI1, M. REISSMANN2 AND H. J. SCHWARTZ3

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Myostatin, also called growth differentiation factor-8 (GDF-8, is a member of the mammalian growth transforming family (TGF-beta superfamily, which is expressed specifically in developing an adult skeletal muscle. Muscular hypertrophy allele (mh allele in the double muscle breeds involved mutation within the myostatin gene. Genomic DNA was isolated from the camel hair using NucleoSpin Tissue kit. Two animals of each of the six breeds namely, Marecha, Dhatti, Larri, Kohi, Sakrai and Cambelpuri were used for sequencing. For PCR amplification of the gene, a primer pair was designed from homolog regions of already published sequences of farm animals from GenBank. Results showed that camel myostatin possessed more than 90% homology with that of cattle, sheep and pig. Camel formed separate cluster from the pig in spite of having high homology (98% and showed 94% homology with cattle and sheep as reported in literature. Sequence analysis of the PCR amplified part of exon 1 (256 bp of the camel myostatin was identical among six camel breeds.

  1. Running in ostriches (Struthio camelus): three-dimensional joint axes alignment and joint kinematics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubenson, Jonas; Lloyd, David G; Besier, Thor F; Heliams, Denham B; Fournier, Paul A

    2007-07-01

    Although locomotor kinematics in walking and running birds have been examined in studies exploring many biological aspects of bipedalism, these studies have been largely limited to two-dimensional analyses. Incorporating a five-segment, 17 degree-of-freedom (d.f.) kinematic model of the ostrich hind limb developed from anatomical specimens, we quantified the three-dimensional (3-D) joint axis alignment and joint kinematics during running (at approximately 3.3 m s(-1)) in the largest avian biped, the ostrich. Our analysis revealed that the majority of the segment motion during running in the ostrich occurs in flexion/extension. Importantly, however, the alignment of the average flexion/extension helical axes of the knee and ankle are rotated externally to the direction of travel (37 degrees and 21 degrees , respectively) so that pure flexion and extension at the knee will act to adduct and adbuct the tibiotarsus relative to the plane of movement, and pure flexion and extension at the ankle will act to abduct and adduct the tarsometatarsus relative to the plane of movement. This feature of the limb anatomy appears to provide the major lateral (non-sagittal) displacement of the lower limb necessary for steering the swinging limb clear of the stance limb and replaces what would otherwise require greater adduction/abduction and/or internal/external rotation, allowing for less complex joints, musculoskeletal geometry and neuromuscular control. Significant rotation about the joints' non-flexion/extension axes nevertheless occurs over the running stride. In particular, hip abduction and knee internal/external and varus/valgus motion may further facilitate limb clearance during the swing phase, and substantial non-flexion/extension movement at the knee is also observed during stance. Measurement of 3-D segment and joint motion in birds will be aided by the use of functionally determined axes of rotation rather than assumed axes, proving important when interpreting the biomechanics and motor control of avian bipedalism. PMID:17601959

  2. Mechanical and energetic scaling relationships of running gait through ontogeny in the ostrich (Struthio camelus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Nicola C; Wilson, Alan M

    2013-03-01

    It is unclear whether small animals, with their high stride frequency and crouched posture, or large animals, with more tendinous limbs, are more reliant on storage and return of elastic energy during locomotion. The ostrich has a limb structure that appears to be adapted for high-speed running with long tendons and short muscle fibres. Here we investigate biomechanics of ostrich gait through growth and, with consideration of anatomical data, identify scaling relationships with increasing body size, relating to forces acting on the musculoskeletal structures, effective mechanical advantage (EMA) and mechanical work. Kinematic and kinetic data were collected through growth from running ostriches. Joint moments scaled in a similar way to the pelvic limb segments as a result of consistent posture through growth, such that EMA was independent of body mass. Because no postural change was observed, relative loads applied to musculoskeletal tissues would be predicted to increase during growth, with greater muscle, and hence tendon, load allowing increased potential for elastic energy storage with increasing size. Mass-specific mechanical work per unit distance was independent of body mass, resulting in a small but significant increase in the contribution of elastic energy storage to locomotor economy in larger ostriches. PMID:23155079

  3. Survey of hydatidosis infection in slaughtered camel (Camelus dromedarius) in Tabriz area, Northwest Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirzaei, Mohammad; Rezaei, Hadi; Nematollahi, Ahmad; Ashrafihelan, Javad

    2016-06-01

    Hydatid Disease is the name given to the condition caused by the zoonotic tapeworm Echinococcus granulosus. The tapeworm spends most of its adult life in the intestine of its definitive host, namely canids and in particular the dog. The tapeworm eggs become voided in the canids' faeces and as a result of ingesting the eggs, infection passes to the intermediate host, commonly herbivores while grazing. However, humans can become accidentally infected and hydatid cysts may develop throughout the body. During April 2010-February 2014, a total 198 camels, which had been sent to the abattoir, the daily number of hydatid infected livers and lungs of camels slaughtered at Tabriz abattoir were recorded. To be sure about the validity of recorded data, observed data were collected daily. Approximately 29 (14.64 %) of camels were infected according to this survey. Age wise, the prevalence of infection in young animals (under the age of 5 years) was 4 (2.02 %), whereas in animals between 5 and 10 years and over, the prevalence of infection was 11 (5.55 %) and 14 (7.07 %) respectively. Sex wise, female animals had a higher prevalence with 17 (19.76 %) cases in camels, whereas in the males, there were 12 (10.71 %) cases in camels. There was a notable difference found in our study between male and female animals (P < 0.05). Infections were recorded in two visceral organs with the Lungs having the highest prevalence in camels, and the liver had low infected in camels. The results of this study suggest that infection of camels with hydatid cyst is common in Tabriz, Iran and that this may constitute economic and health problems in the meat industry. PMID:27413318

  4. Innocuity and immune response to Brucella melitensis Rev.1 vaccine in camels (Camelus dromedarius)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benkirane, A.; Idrissi, A.H. El; Doumbia, A.; de Balogh, K.

    2014-01-01

    A field trial was conducted in a camel brucellosis-free herd to evaluate antibody response to the Brucella melitensis Rev.1 vaccine in camels and assess shedding of the vaccine strain in milk. Twenty eight camels were divided into four groups according to their age and vaccination route. Groups A (n=3) and B (n=3) consisted of non-pregnant lactating female camels, vaccinated through subcutaneous and conjunctival routes, respectively. Groups C (n=10) consisted of 8-11 months old calves vaccinated through conjunctival route. The rest of the herd (n=12) composed of female and young camels were not vaccinated and were considered as the control group. Each animal from groups A, B and C was given the recommended dose of 2 × 109 colony forming units of Rev.1 vaccine irrespective of age or route of vaccination. Blood samples were collected from all the animals at the time of vaccination and at weekly, bi-weekly and monthly interval until 32 weeks post vaccination and from controls at weeks 8 and 24. The serological tests used were modified Rose Bengal Test, sero-agglutination test, and an indirect Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay. Milk samples were collected from all vaccinated female camels and tested for the presence of Rev.1 vaccine strain. Most vaccinated animals started to show an antibody response at week 2 and remained positive until week 16. By week 20 post-vaccination all animals in the three groups were tested negative for Brucella antibodies. Bacteriological analysis of milk samples did not allow any isolation of Brucella melitensis. All samples were found Brucella negative in PCR analysis. The results of this study indicate that the Rev.1 vaccine induces seroconversion in camels. Rev.1 vaccine strain is not excreted in the milk of camels. These findings are promising as to the safe use of the Rev.1 vaccine in camels. PMID:26623347

  5. A preliminary study on normal electrocardiographic parameters of ostriches (Struthio camelus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Rezakhani

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Electrocardiograms were taken from 100 normal healthy male and female ostriches which were 1 to 15 months old using a base apex lead. The heart rate of those less than 3 months old ranged from 107 to 250 beats per minute with a mean of 171.47+9.03 and that of ostriches of more than 3 months old ranged from 43 to 167 with a mean of 90.52+2.64 beats / minute. The P-waves were positive in all cases except in 1 ostrich which it was isoelectric. The ORS complexes were mainly negative and either monophasic (QS or biphasic (rS or RS. The T-wave showed more variation than other waves. The durations of P, P-R, QRS, Q-T and T-waves of chicks and of those more than 3 months of age (4-15-month-old were 0.04 + 0.00, 0.06+0.00; 0.14+0.04, 0.16+0.00; 0.04+0.00, 0.06+0.00; 0.18+0.00, 0.27+0.00 and 0.06+0.00, 0.09+0.01 s, respectively, and amplitudes of the main direction of P-, QRS and T- waves of 2 groups were 0.29 + 0.02, 0.26 + 0.01; 1.87 + 0.17, 2.21 + 0.08; and 0.34 + 0.06, 0.37 + 0.02 mV, respectively. Ten cases showed cardiac dysrhythmias of which 9 showed sinus arrhythmia and 1 showed premature atrial contractions (PAC. This study showed that the base apex lead can be a suitable monitoring lead for electrocardiographic examination of ostriches.

  6. A preliminary study on normal electrocardiographic parameters of ostriches (Struthio camelus)

    OpenAIRE

    Rezakhani, A; H. Komali; M.R. Mokhber-Dezfoul; M. Zarifi; M. Ghabi; N Alidadi; M.G. Nadalian

    2007-01-01

    Electrocardiograms were taken from 100 normal healthy male and female ostriches which were 1 to 15 months old using a base apex lead. The heart rate of those less than 3 months old ranged from 107 to 250 beats per minute with a mean of 171.47+9.03 and that of ostriches of more than 3 months old ranged from 43 to 167 with a mean of 90.52+2.64 beats / minute. The P-waves were positive in all cases except in 1 ostrich which it was isoelectric. The ORS complexes were mainly negative and either mo...

  7. Potential Effect of Climate Change on Distribution of 6 Desert Animals in China%气候变化对6种荒漠动物分布的潜在影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴建国; 周巧富

    2011-01-01

    -It is crucial to understand the effects of climate change on change of species distribution for the conservation of biodiversity. The effects of climate change on change of distribution of Goitred Gazelle ( Gazella subgutturosa reginae adlerberg), Goitred Gazelle (Gazella subgutturosa yarkandensis blanford ),Wild Cat (Felis silvestris schreber), Asiatic Wild Ass (Equus hemionus(pallas ), Stone Marten (Martes foina(erxleben ) and Camelus Bactrianus ( Canelus bactrianus linnaeus ) in China were analyzed by use of the CART (classification and regression tree) niche model under climate change scenarios of A2 and B2. The results show that climate change will cause decrease in the current distribution region of the animals. In 2081-2100, the decrease of current distribution region of Goitred Gazelle (Gazella subgutturosa reginae adlerberg), Wild Cat or Asiatic Wild Ass was the highest, while the decrease of current distribution region of Goitred Gazelle (gazella subgutturosa yarkandensis blanford ), Stone Marten or Camelus Bactrianus was lower than that of Goitred Gazelle, Wild Cat or Asiatic Wild Ass. The new suitable distribution region or total suitable distribution region of Goitred Gazelle ( Gazella Subgutturosa Reginae Adlerberg), Stone Marten or Camelus Bactrianus increases from 1991-2020 to 2081-2100, while that of other animals will decrease from 1991-2020 to 2081-2100. Additionally, following climate change, the western or northern or south-eastern regions of current suitable distribution of Asiatic Wild Ass would reduce, and new suitable regions would expand towards north-western Qinghai or western Tibet; and the current suitable distribution regions of Goitred Gazelle (gazella subgutturosa yarkandensis blanford ) will be fragmented greatly, and new suitable regions would expand scattered towards west or northern Xinjiang or KunLun Mountains; and south or east or west regions of current suitable distribution of Wild Cat will reduce and fragment, and new

  8. New polymorpic microsatellite loci for analysis of genetic diversity in camel species

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: In this study, new microsatellite loci were screened and sequenced on the basis of the genomic DNA of a male Camelus bactrianus (bactrian). The DNA was restricted with Sau3AI, and the restriction fragments were enriched using magnetic beads (Dynabeads, DYNAL) coated with the biotinylated oligonucleotides (CA)10/(GT)10 and (ATCC)7. The enriched fragments were cloned and then sequenced. Primers were defined for PCR and applied to genomic DNA from 20 bactrians from the Russian Altai region, 220 dromedaries from four Kenyan breeds, and 7 bactrians, 6 llamas and 4 alpacas from German zoos. Locus specific allelic fragment sizes were analysed on an automated DNA sequencer. Basic statistical tests were conducted using the software package BIOSYS-1.7. The between breed diversity was measured using the bootstrapping procedure of PHYLIP and the standard Nei's distance. Among 32 sequenced microsatellite loci, specific PCR products were generated for the 23 loci in bactrian as well as in dromedary. Amongst them, 19 loci could be amplified in llama and 20 in alpaca. Different repeat motifs were found, which were not always complementary to the oligonucleotides used for screening. Fragment lengths per locus were more similar between llama and alpaca and between dromedary and bactrian than between New and Old World Camelides. The loci were largely different with regard to their polymorphism. No significant (p<0.05) deviation from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium was observed for all animal groups. Five of the investigated loci were monomorphic and had identical fragment sizes in all investigated species. One locus was monomorphic in bactrian and dromedary and could not be amplified in the other species. Three loci were monomorphic in each of the species, but had different fragment sizes in individual species. More than one allele within a species were observed in 13 loci for bactrian, 12 loci for dromedary, 11 loci for llama and 12 loci for alpaca. Seven (50%) of the

  9. Diagnóstico microbiológico e histopatológico de mortalidade em avestruzes (Struthio camelus Microbiological and histological diagnosis in mortality of ostrich (Struthio camelus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Vieira-da-Motta

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Several young ostrich, including nestlings, with lassitude and inappetence followed by death or victim of sudden death were immediately brought to diagnosis at an Animal Health Laboratory. At necropsy, animals presented hemorrhage and altered content of the vitelline sac, and necrotic foci in the small intestine; one animal showed necrotic pleuropneumonia with psammomatosus bodies in the lung parenchyma. The cultures from different samples revealed Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Serratia marcescens, Enterobacter aglomerans, and Pseudomonas mendocina. It was suggested one case of septicemia in an animal with exclusive growth of K. pneumoniae isolated from samples of small intestine, lung, and liver.

  10. Changes in cumulus-oocyte complexes of pregnant and non-pregnant camels (Camelus dromedarius) during maturation in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torner, H; Heleil, B; Alm, H; Ghoneim, I M; Srsen, V; Kanitz, W; Tuchscherer, A; Fattouh, E M

    2003-09-15

    The aim of the present study was to examine the cumulus morphology and the oocyte chromatin quality of camel cumulus-oocyte complexes (COCs) at the time of recovery, and to monitor changes in oocyte chromatin configuration and apoptosis in cumulus cells from camel COCs during in vitro maturation (IVM) (0, 12, 24, 32, 36, 42, and 48 p.IVM) depending on pregnancy of donors. A total of 1023 COCs were isolated from sliced ovaries after slaughtering of 47 pregnant and 43 non-pregnant camels in an abattoir. The mean number of COCs per donor was 10.3 in pregnant and 12.5 in non-pregnant donors. The cumulus morphology of COCs was independent of the type of donor and was divided in COCs with compact (26.9 and 28%), dispersed (39.3 and 46%), corona radiata cumulus investment (27.9 and 21.7%) and without cumulus (6 and 4.2%), respectively for pregnant and non-pregnant donors. The highest proportion of COCs exhibited dispersed cumulus (P50% were found only in compact (55 and 56.5%) and in dispersed COCs (58.4 and 60%), respectively for pregnant and non-pregnant donors. During IVM (0-48h) the first significant onset of specific meiotic stages were different in oocytes from pregnant donors: metaphase 1 (24-32h), metaphase 2 (36-42h), versus oocytes from non-pregnant donors: metaphase 1 (24h), metaphase 2 (32-48h) (P50% metaphase 2 stage in comparison to oocytes from non-pregnant donors where 32h are sufficient. The earlier onset of apoptosis in the COCs derived from non-pregnant donors possibly determines the faster progression of the oocytes through the final stages of meiosis. PMID:12935874

  11. The antigenicity-allergenicity of camel milk proteins (camelus dromedarus) in BALB/c mice after oral sensitization

    OpenAIRE

    Dalal, R.; N. Youcef; Mezemaze, F; Saidi, D; KHEROUA, O.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: When the breastfeeding is not possible or not wished, it is usually replaced by cow's milk or by some conventional cow’s milk-based infant formulas. However these proteins can involve at certain subjects pathological manifestations like the cow's milk allergy (CMA). The substitution of cow's milk by other treated milk, called "hypoallergenic", is currently the only alternative. The using of the camel milk, species taxonomically far away from the cow can be considered...

  12. Haematological and biochemical alterations caused by epidural and intramuscular administration of xylazine hydrochloride in dromedary camels (Camelus dromedarius)

    OpenAIRE

    Omid Azari; Mohammad Mahdi Molaei; Ladan Emadi; Ehsanollah Sakhaee; Hamid Sharifi; Sara Mehdizadeh

    2012-01-01

    This study was conducted in 16 healthy immature dromedary camels weighing 120-150 kg to evaluate and compare the effects of epidural and intramuscular injections of xylazine administered at 0.1 mg/kg and 0.2 mg/kg. Haematological parameters included haemoglobin, packed cell volume, total erythrocyte count and total leukocyte count. Biochemical parameters included alkaline phosphates, alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, blood urea nitrogen, creatinine and glucose. Parameters ...

  13. Haematological and biochemical alterations caused by epidural and intramuscular administration of xylazine hydrochloride in dromedary camels (Camelus dromedarius

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omid Azari

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted in 16 healthy immature dromedary camels weighing 120-150 kg to evaluate and compare the effects of epidural and intramuscular injections of xylazine administered at 0.1 mg/kg and 0.2 mg/kg. Haematological parameters included haemoglobin, packed cell volume, total erythrocyte count and total leukocyte count. Biochemical parameters included alkaline phosphates, alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, blood urea nitrogen, creatinine and glucose. Parameters were measured at different intervals before (baseline and after the administration of drugs. Our study showed that the effect of xylazine on haematological and biochemical parameters is dose-dependant and is also related to the route of administration. The low dose of xylazine administered using both intramuscular and epidural methods showed minimal effects, whereas high doses of the drug, especially when injected intramuscularly, caused greater changes in haematological and biochemical parameters.

  14. Adaptation of Camelus dromedarius pars nervosa of the hypophysis to winter and summer living conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatma Zohra Djazouli Alim

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work is to study the characteristics of the dromedary nervous lobe and determine how the seasons condition its organization. To this end, electron microscopy was performed and examined quantitatively on animals from winter and summer periods. The results show a higher number of cells in the nervous lobe in summer than in winter. The most abundant glial elements in winter are light pituicytes engulfing neurosecretory nerve fibers making neuroglial contact, and dark pituicytes containing numerous heterogeneous light bodies. In summer, the most distinctive glial cells may be pituicytes in a phagocytic state making contact with characteristic large light bodies that could represent a degenerative process of large neuropeptide storage. Granular pituicytes were also observed in contact with glial and neuronal components. However, lipid droplets, described in pituicytes of other mammals, were not observed in our samples. Quantitative analysis of neurovascular contacts revealed that the number of nerve terminals contacting the basal lamina did not differ between summer
    and winter, but the mean number of glial processes increased in winter. Our data provides evidence that the storage of neuropeptides is very marked in summer and that, associated with an autophagic and phagocytic phenomenon, this suggests an adaptation to anticipate any situation that would cause dehydration of the dromedary. Thus, in its tough environment, the animal remains permanently prepared to avoid any large water loss.

  15. Description of an outbreak of highly pathogenic avian influenza in domestic ostriches (Struthio camelus) in South Africa in 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Helden, L S; Sinclair, M; Koen, P; Grewar, J D

    2016-06-01

    In 2011, the commercial ostrich production industry of South Africa experienced an outbreak of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI), subtype H5N2. Surveillance using antibody and antigen detection revealed 42 infected farms with a between-farm prevalence in the affected area of 16%. The outbreak was controlled using depopulation of infected farms, resulting in the direct loss of 10% of the country's domestic ostrich population. Various factors in the ostrich production system were observed that could have contributed to the spread of the virus between farms, including the large number of legal movements of ostriches between farms, access of wild birds to ostrich camps and delays in depopulation of infected farms. Negative effects on the ostrich industry and the local economy of the ostrich-producing area were observed as a result of the outbreak and the disease control measures applied. Prevention and control measures applied as a result of avian influenza in South Africa were informed by this large outbreak and the insights into epidemiology of avian influenza in ostriches that it provided, resulting in stricter biosecurity measures required on every registered ostrich farm in the country. PMID:27237385

  16. Ostrich ( Struthio camelus ) Infected with H5N8 Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza Virus in South Korea in 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hye-Ryoung; Kwon, Yong-Kuk; Lee, Youn-Jeong; Kang, Hyun-Mi; Lee, Eun-Kyoung; Song, Byung-Min; Jung, Suk-Chan; Lee, Kyung-Hyun; Lee, Hyun-Kyoung; Baek, Kang-Hyun; Bae, You-Chan

    2016-06-01

    Highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) virus of the H5N8 subtype was isolated from a young ostrich in South Korea in March 2014. Clinical signs characterized by anorexia, depression, and signs of nervousness were observed. The isolated A/ostrich/Korea/H829/2014 (H5N8) virus had a cleavage site motif containing multiple basic amino acids, typical of HPAI virus. The phylogenetic tree of the hemagglutinin gene of the H5 HPAI virus showed that this ostrich H5N8 virus belongs to clade 2.3.4.4 viruses together with H5N8 strains isolated from ducks and wild birds in South Korea in 2014. Pathologically, redness of pancreas, enlargement and hemorrhage of spleen, friability of brain, and hydropericardium were prominently found. Histologic legions were observed in pancreas, spleen, liver, lung, heart, and brain, and influenza A nucleoproteins were detected in the same organs by immunohistochemistry. Other ostriches farmed together in open camps were not infected with HPAI virus based on the serologic and virologic tests. The findings indicate that ostriches are susceptible to H5N8 HPAI virus, but this virus does not spread efficiently among ratites. PMID:27309301

  17. Lipid profile and thyroid hormone status in the last trimester of pregnancy in single-humped camels (Camelus dromedarius).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omidi, Arash; Sajedi, Zhila; Montazer Torbati, Mohammad Bagher; Ansari Nik, Hossein

    2014-04-01

    Changes in lipid metabolism have been shown to occur during pregnancy. The thyroid hormones affect lipid metabolism. The present study was carried out to find out whether the last trimester of pregnancy affects thyroid hormones, thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), lipid, and lipoprotein profile in healthy dromedary camels. Twenty clinical healthy dromedary camels aged between 4-5 years were divided into two equal groups: (1) pregnant camels in their last trimester of pregnancy and (2) non-pregnant age-matched controls. Thyroid function tests were carried out by measuring serum levels of TSH, free thyroxin (fT4), total thyroxin (T4), free triiodothyronine (fT3), and total triiodothyronine (T3) by commercially available radio immunoassay kits. Total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG), and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol were analyzed using enzymatic/spectrophotometric methods while low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL), and total lipid (TL) were calculated using Friedewald's and Raylander's formula, respectively. Serum levels of TSH and thyroid hormones except fT4 did not show any significant difference between pregnant and non-pregnant camels. fT4 level was lower in the pregnant camels (P lipid, LDL cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, and VLDL did not show significant difference between pregnant and non-pregnant camels. All of these variables in pregnant camels were higher than non-pregnant. Based on the results of this study, the fetus load may not alter the thyroid status of the camel and the concentrations of thyroid hormones were not correlated with TSH and lipid profile levels in the healthy pregnant camels. PMID:24429808

  18. Dromedaries (Camelus dromedarius) are of Low Susceptibility to Inoculation with Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus Serotype O

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alexandersen, Søren; Wernery, U.; Nagy, P.;

    2008-01-01

    Two sheep and five dromedaries were inoculated with a highdose of a cattle-passaged type O strain of foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV). The sheep developed typical FMD. The inoculated camels, which were placed in contact with five further dromedaries and four sheep, showed no visible sign......,,; of illness or vesicular lesions. However, one of them had a raised body temperature at 3 days post-inoculation (pi) and a viraemia from days 2 to 10; probang samples from this animal were negative for infections virus, but a low level of FMDV RNA was detected in a sample taken on day 6 pi, five other samples...... taken front days 3 to 28 being negative. Examination of mouth swabs indicated a low level of FMDV RNA at days 1-5 pi in four of the five inoculated camels, but no infectious FMDN7 or FMDV RNA was detected in serum, probang or month swab samples front contact-exposed animals (camels and sheep). All...

  19. Isolation and characterization of avian paramyxovirus type 3b from farmed Namibian ostriches (Struthio camelus f. dom.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaleta, Erhard F; Werner, Ortrud; Hemberger, Yvonne

    2010-01-01

    Meat and skin from farmed ostriches are valuable products for European consumers. The EU regulations require that ostrich products deamed for export need to come from ostriches that are free of antibodies against Newcastle disease virus (avian paramxovirus type 1, aPMV-1). After the detection of antibodies against aPMV-1 in one of five ostrich farms in Namibia, attempts were made to isolate the causative virus. No aPMV-1 but an avian paramyxovirus type 3 (aPMV-3) was isolated from five pharyngeal/cloacal swabs of clinically healthy farmed Namibian ostriches. Subtype determination proved that all isolates are members of the subtype aPMV-3 of psittacine bird origin and were designated as aPMV-3b. In the haemagglutination inhibition test, the aPMV-3b isolates cross-reacted with aPMV-1. This allows the conclusion that the antibodies originally detected in sera of the ostriches are due to the cross-reaction with aPMV-3b, rather than to an infection with aPMV-1.To our knowledge, this is the first description of the occurrence of aPMV-3b in farmed ostriches. PMID:20329642

  20. Studies on Liquefaction Time and Proteins Involved in the Improvement of Seminal Characteristics in Dromedary Camels (Camelus dromedarius

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gorakh Mal

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Semen was collected from six dromedary camels using artificial vagina during rutting season. Liquefaction of the viscous semen occurred in 23.89±1.49 h. During liquefaction, proteins with molecular masses of 24.55 kDa and 22.07 kDa appeared in conjunction with the disappearance of intact 26.00 kDa protein after 18–24 h. These proteins were identified as β-nerve growth factors (β-NGFs in liquefied camel semen. Guanidine-HCL improves the rheological characteristics of dromedary camel semen along with significant (P<0.01 increase in sperm motility. No significant differences were found in viability of spermatozoa indicating no visible detrimental effects on spermatozoa. The cause of semen viscosity, as well as proteins that are present in liquefied dromedary camel seminal plasma, is described for the first time.

  1. Studies on Liquefaction Time and Proteins Involved in the Improvement of Seminal Characteristics in Dromedary Camels (Camelus dromedarius)

    OpenAIRE

    Gorakh Mal; Sumant Vyas; Alagiri Srinivasan; Nitin Vasant Rao Patil; Krishan Murari Lal Pathak

    2016-01-01

    Semen was collected from six dromedary camels using artificial vagina during rutting season. Liquefaction of the viscous semen occurred in 23.89 ± 1.49 h. During liquefaction, proteins with molecular masses of 24.55 kDa and 22.07 kDa appeared in conjunction with the disappearance of intact 26.00 kDa protein after 18–24 h. These proteins were identified as β-nerve growth factors (β-NGFs) in liquefied camel semen. Guanidine-HCL improves the rheological characteristics of dromedary camel semen a...

  2. Studies on Liquefaction Time and Proteins Involved in the Improvement of Seminal Characteristics in Dromedary Camels (Camelus dromedarius).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mal, Gorakh; Vyas, Sumant; Srinivasan, Alagiri; Patil, Nitin Vasant Rao; Pathak, Krishan Murari Lal

    2016-01-01

    Semen was collected from six dromedary camels using artificial vagina during rutting season. Liquefaction of the viscous semen occurred in 23.89 ± 1.49 h. During liquefaction, proteins with molecular masses of 24.55 kDa and 22.07 kDa appeared in conjunction with the disappearance of intact 26.00 kDa protein after 18-24 h. These proteins were identified as β-nerve growth factors (β-NGFs) in liquefied camel semen. Guanidine-HCL improves the rheological characteristics of dromedary camel semen along with significant (P semen viscosity, as well as proteins that are present in liquefied dromedary camel seminal plasma, is described for the first time. PMID:27022505

  3. Gross and microanatomical studies on the moderator bands (septomarginal trabecula in the heart of mature Dromedary camel (Camelus dromedarius

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wael Ghonimi

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The current work was carried out to investigate the gross and microanatomical features of moderator bands (septomarginal trabecula in camel heart. Ten hearts were collected from healthy mature dromedary camels. Anatomically, the moderator bands were present in both right and left ventricles. In right ventricle, the walls had one muscular moderator band which was extended from the interventricular septum to the opposite ventricular wall especially to the papillary muscle. In left ventricle, there were two bands; one extended from the interventricular septum to the papillary muscles, and the other one was present in various places especially in the apex running as a thin thread-like band across the left ventricular wall. Histological examination revealed that the moderator band consisted of two major layers; the central (core myocardium and the peripheral endocardium, acting as band capsule. The myocardium had two bundles; the contractile cardiac muscle bundles and the Purkinje fiber bundles. The endocardium consisted of three layers; the endothelial layer of simple squamous epithelium, the subendothelial layer of loose connective tissue and the subendocardial layer, connecting the endocardium with the myocardium.

  4. Feasibility of utilising an infrared-thermographic technique for early detection of subclinical mastitis in dairy camels (Camelus dromedarius).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samara, Emad M; Ayadi, Moez; Aljumaah, Riyadh S

    2014-02-01

    Despite the proven ability of infrared thermography (IRT) technology for early detection of subclinical mastitis in dairy cows/sheep/goats, studies on its diagnostic feasibility in dairy camels are lacking. Sixty-five lactating camels in mid lactation, machine milked twice-daily and managed under intensive conditions were screened to evaluate the feasibility of utilising IRT compared with other routine indicators in detecting subclinical mastitis. Immediately before the morning milking, a portable infrared camera was used to obtain thermograms in duplicate for the front and rear left quarters to determine the udder surface temperature (UST). Thereafter, milk samples from quarters were collected, and processed for California mastitis test (CMT) score and somatic cell count (SCC). In the present study, CMT score was used to define subclinical mastitis and the feasibility of IRT to detect subclinical mastitis was compared with CMT and SCC. According to CMT score, subclinical mastitic udders had an average UST of 1·42 °C greater (PCMT was found to be highly correlated (r=0·77; PCMT increased [UST (°C)=34·86+0·66×CMT score; R 2=0·65; Pmastitis was defined according to CMT score, and were 35·70 °C, 0·89, 0·96 and 0·94, respectively, when categorised according to the obtained SCC threshold (SCC=432 000 cells/ml). In conclusion, IRT, as an indirect non-invasive screening method, was highly feasible for distinguishing subclinical mastitic udders in dairy camels, which is crucial to treat mastitis early and efficiently. PMID:24331516

  5. Relationship between udder morphology traits, alveolar and cisternal milk compartments and machine milking performances of dairy camels (Camelus dromedarius

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Ayadi

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available A total of 22 dairy dromedary camels under intensive conditions in late lactation (275±24 days were used to study the relationship between external and internal udder morphology and machine milking performances. Measurements of udder and teat morphology were obtained immediately before milking and in duplicate. Individual milk yield, lag time and total milking time were recorded during milking, and milk samples were collected and analyzed for milk composition thereafter. Cisternal and alveolar milk volumes and composition were evaluated at 9 h milking interval. Results revealed that dairy camels had well developed udders and milk veins, with medium sized teats. On average, milk yield as well as milk fat and protein contents were 4.80±0.50 L d-1, 2.61±0.16% and 3.08±0.05%, respectively. The low fat values observed indicated incomplete milk letdown during machine milking. Lag time, and total milking time were 3.0±0.3, and 120.0±8.9s, on average, respectively. Positive correlations (p<0.05 were observed between milk yield and udder depth (r=0.37, distance between teats (r=0.57 and milk vein diameter (r=0.28, while a negative correlation was found with udder height (r=-0.25, p<0.05. Cisternal milk accounted for 11% of the total udder milk. Positive correlations were observed between total milk yield and volume of alveolar milk (r=0.98; p<0.001 as well as with volume of cisternal milk (r=0.63, p<0.05. Despite the low udder milk storage capacity observed in dairy camels, our study concluded that the evaluated dromedary sample had adequate udder morphology for machine milking. Finally, positive relationships were detected between milk yield and udder morphology traits of dairy camels.

  6. Morphological studies on the seasonal changes in the epididymal duct of the one-humped camel (camelus dromedarius

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed El-Zuhry Zayed

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The present work was carried out on 20 testes and epididymis of sexually mature camels to elucidate the gross anatomical, morphometerical, light microscopical and scanning electron microscopical features of the epididymis in different seasons. Anatomically, the epididymal duct of a camel consists of three parts head, body and tail. Histomorphologically, the epididymal duct is subdivided into initial, middle and terminal segments, of which the middle segment is further subdivided into proximal, intermediate and distal parts. There is a gradual decrease in the epithelial height of the epididymal duct from the initial to the terminal segments. This mechanically facilities passage of the sperms toward the terminal segment. High epithelium in the initial segment may indicate a more absorptive power of the epithelium in this segment. The seasonal reproductivety of the epididymal duct in the camel expressed by variations in the weight and volume of the epididymis, total diameter of the epididymal duct, epithelial height, length of the stereocilia, thickness of the muscular coat and cellular distributions in different segments. The spring months offer ideal circumstances for maximal reproductive activity in this species. The cellular components of the epididymal duct epithelium of the camel displays important morphological changes from season to another showing signs of increasing activity during spring in comparison to decreasing activity in other seasons. PAS positive granules are demonstrated in different segments of the epididymal duct and intraepithelial glands in different seasons. These granules are relatively more numerous in spring. The lamina propria surrounding the epididymal duct contains a layer of the elastic fibers which is very thick in winter, thick in spring and thin in other seasons. This increase in thickness of the elastic fibers predisposes for the increase in the total diameter of the epididymal duct in spring. It was conclude that the muscular coat of the middle and terminal segments is the thickest in spring that may be helpful for powerful ejaculation.

  7. Risk factors and molecular typing of Toxoplasma gondii isolated from ostriches (Struthio camelus) from a Brazilian slaughterhouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Rodrigo Costa; Langoni, Helio

    2016-07-30

    Toxoplasma gondii has a worldwide distribution with different genotypes reported in animals and humans. The parasite is of great importance to food production and public health, highlighted by the high diversity of hosts, i.e. ostriches. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of T. gondii infection in ostriches from a Brazilian slaughterhouse, the genotype, and the associated risk factors. T. gondii antibodies were detected in 38/344 (11.05%) serum samples using the modified agglutination test using formalin-fixed tachyzoites (MAT-HS); the parasite was isolated from 14/38 (36.84%) ostrich brain samples using the mouse bioassay; and the DNA was detected from 25/38 (65.79%), using PCR. In farms, the water tank was considered the main risk factor (OR=141.87; p-valueanimals were slaughtered (1st sampling), and 40% (8/20) one-year after (2nd sampling) using microscopy and PCR. Non-ostrich fecal samples on the ground resulted negative. Bioassay isolation was confirmed by PCR. All PCR positive samples were sequenced and resulted in 100% homology to Toxoplasma gondii repetitive DNA sequence (GenBank access number EF648168-1). These samples were also typed through RFLP-PCR using 11 markers: SAG1, SAG2 (5'-3'SAG2 and alt.SAG2), SAG3, BTUB, GRA6, L358, c22-8, c29-6, PK1, Apico and CS3. Two isolates had a complete genotype, typed from the ostrich tissue. In ostrich samples, the parasite load ranged from 19,043 (TgOsBr1, avirulent) to 54,829 parasitesmL(-1) (TgOsBr2, virulent) using qPCR, whereas soil samples ranged from 11 to 2,275 parasitesmL(-1). Both typed isolates resulted on atypical clones, one previously reported to cause congenital toxoplasmosis in Brazilian patients (TgOsBr1, ToxoDB #206). Thus, these findings support the occurrence of T. gondii in slaughtered ostriches from Brazil, ostriches as sentinel for environmental contamination with T. gondii, the genotypic variability in Brazilian isolates, and the first isolation and genotyping of T. gondii from Brazilian slaughtered ostriches. PMID:27369578

  8. KEFIRS MANUFACTURED FROM CAMEL (CAMELUS DRAMEDARIUS) MILK AND COW MILK: COMPARISON OF SOME CHEMICAL AND MICROBIAL PROPERTIES

    OpenAIRE

    G. Kavas

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the production possibilities of kefir from fresh camel milk fermented with grain. The findings were then compared with kefir manufactured from cow’s milk. Cow’s milk was fermented with 2.5% grains. The 1% (v/w) glucose enriched camel’s milk was fermented with 10% grains and left in an incubator at 25°C. Physical-chemical and sensorial analyses of the kefir sampleswere measured on day one (18 hours) of storage and microbiological analyses were measured on days one, three an...

  9. Učinak EDTA, heparina i pohrane na osmotsku krhkost eritrocita, osmolalnost plazme i hematokrit u odraslih nojeva (Struthio camelus).

    OpenAIRE

    Mafuvadze, Benford; Erlwanger, Kennedy Honey

    2007-01-01

    Istražen je učinak dvaju naširoko rabljenih antikoagulanata i pohrana eritrocita na njihovu in vitro osmotsku krhkost, hematokrit i osmolalnost plazme u nojeva. Krv je bila uzeta iz vene osam nojeva (90-110 kg) u epruvetu s vakuumom koja je sadržavala ili EDTA (k3) ili litij-heparin. Osmotska krhkost eritrocita bila je određena mjerenjem oslobođenoga hemoglobina iz krvi dodane u epruvete sa serijski razrijeđenom fosfat-puferiranom fiziološkom otopinom (PBS, pH 7,4). Hematokrit je bio određen ...

  10. Experimental assessment of the pathogenicity of two avian influenza A H5 viruses in ostrich chicks (Struthio camelus) and chickens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manvell, R.J.; Jørgensen, Poul Henrik; Nielsen, O.L.; Alexander, D.J.

    1998-01-01

    Virus excretion, immune response, and, for chickens, deaths were recorded in 3-week-old ostriches and chickens inoculated by either the intramuscular or intranasal route with one of two influenza A viruses of subtype H5, One of the viruses, A/turkey/England/50-92/91 (H5N1) (50/92), was highly...

  11. KEFIRS MANUFACTURED FROM CAMEL (CAMELUS DRAMEDARIUS MILK AND COW MILK: COMPARISON OF SOME CHEMICAL AND MICROBIAL PROPERTIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Kavas

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the production possibilities of kefir from fresh camel milk fermented with grain. The findings were then compared with kefir manufactured from cow’s milk. Cow’s milk was fermented with 2.5% grains. The 1% (v/w glucose enriched camel’s milk was fermented with 10% grains and left in an incubator at 25°C. Physical-chemical and sensorial analyses of the kefir sampleswere measured on day one (18 hours of storage and microbiological analyses were measured on days one, three and five. Some physical-chemical parameters were found to be higherin camel milk and its kefir than in cow milk and its kefir, some were found to be close and some were found to be lower. Addition of 1% glucose and 10% grains to the camel milk affected the titrationacidity and viscosity of kefir to significant levels. The kefir produced from camel milk was perceived as sourer, whereas its other properties were found to be close to those of cow milk. Thecholesterol levels of camel milk and its kefir were detected to be higher when compared to those of cow milk and its kefir, but the cholesterol level decreased in both examples after the productionof kefir. In terms of the composition of fatty acids, it was determined that SFA and the small, medium chain fatty acids ratio was low in camel milk and its kefir, but MUFA and the long chainfatty acids ratio was high. PUFA ratio was high in camel milk but low in its kefir. In microbiological analysis, yeast levels increased in kefir samples with the Lactobacillus ssp. strains, and theincrease in the number of yeasts was higher than in the cow milk kefir. In kefir samples, Lactobacillus ssp. strains increased on day one and three of storage, but diminished after day three.

  12. Molecular cloning and phylogenetic analysis of integrins alpha v beta 1 and alpha v beta 6 of one-humped camel (Camelus dromedarius)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Du, Junzheng; Larska, Magdalena Larska; Chang, Huiyun;

    2010-01-01

    Bactrian camels can relatively easily be infected with FMDV, but dromedary camels remain resistant even to high doses of the virus. To understand the different susceptibility between the two camel species from the standpoint of viral receptors, this work reports the sequences of the dromedary camel...... into the Artiodactyla group, together with those of Bactrian camel, pig, sheep, and cattle that are susceptible to FMDV infection. Compared with the Bactrian camel integrins, 4, 10, and 8 amino acid changes were found in the dromedary camel alpha v, beta 1, and beta 6 subunits, respectively. This study...... will be of importance in understanding the differences of integrins as FMDV receptors among dromedary camel and other species. Crown...

  13. Molecular epidemiology of Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus detected from ticks of one humped camels (Camelus dromedarius) population in northeastern Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Champour, Mohsen; Chinikar, Sadegh; Mohammadi, Gholamreza; Razmi, Gholamreza; Shah-Hosseini, Nariman; Khakifirouz, Sahar; Mostafavi, Ehsan; Jalali, Tahmineh

    2016-03-01

    A comprehensive study was conducted on camel ticks to assess the epidemiological aspects of the infection in camels. From May 2012 to January 2013, 11 cities and towns from the Khorasan provinces, northeastern Iran, were randomly selected as a "cluster" and at least 14 camels were sampled from each cluster. A total of 200 camels were examined in this study, reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction was used for the detection of the Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus (CCHFV) genome. Tick infestation was observed in 171 of the 200 camels, 480 ixodid ticks were collected, and one genus was identified as Hyalomma. Four species were reported to be the major tick species infesting camels. Among these, Hyalomma dromedarii was the most predominant tick species (90.7 %), followed by H. anatolicum (6 %), H. marginatum (2.9 %), and H. asiaticum (0.4 %). The genome of the CCHFV was detected in 49 (10.2 %) of the 480 ticks. The CCHFV RNA was detected in two of the four tick species, and the viral genome was detected from tick samples in three South Khorasan cities. The positivity rate of ticks was as follows: Boshroyeh, 25 out of 480 (5.2 %); Birjand, 17 out of 480 (3.5 %); and Nehbandan, 7 out of 480 (1.5 %). We recommend the use of acaricides to prevent disease transmission to humans and to reduce the tick population in camels. Care should be taken by abattoir workers and by those who work closely with camels. PMID:27065608

  14. Isolation and characterization of avian paramyxovirus type 1 (Newcastle disease) viruses from a flock of ostriches (Struthio camelus) and emus (Dromaius novaehollandiae) in Europe with inconsistent serology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Poul Henrik; Herczeg, J.; Lomniczi, B.;

    1998-01-01

    During a 95-day study period in 1995 in Denmark, 18 ostriches in a flock of 77 ostriches and four emus held in quarantine died, Clinical and pathological observations did not indicate the presence of transmissible infectious disease in the hock. Management failures and indoor housing were believed...... epizootic of Newcastle disease in back yard poultry ire Denmark. Blood samples were taken from all live birds in the flock after 25 and 95 days of quarantine and all were negative for antibodies to APMV-1 in haemagglutination inhibition tests. All samples taken after 95 days of quarantine were also negative...

  15. Microbiological quality and somatic cell count in bulk milk of dromedary camels (Camelus dromedarius): descriptive statistics, correlations, and factors of variation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagy, P; Faye, B; Marko, O; Thomas, S; Wernery, U; Juhasz, J

    2013-09-01

    The objectives of the present study were to monitor the microbiological quality and somatic cell count (SCC) of bulk tank milk at the world's first large-scale camel dairy farm for a 2-yr period, to compare the results of 2 methods for the enumeration of SCC, to evaluate correlation among milk quality indicators, and to determine the effect of specific factors (year, season, stage of lactation, and level of production) on milk quality indicators. The study was conducted from January 2008 to January 2010. Total viable count (TVC), coliform count (CC), California Mastitis Test (CMT) score, and SCC were determined from daily bulk milk samples. Somatic cell count was measured by using a direct microscopic method and with an automatic cell counter. In addition, production parameters [total daily milk production (TDM, kg), number of milking camels (NMC), average milk per camel (AMC, kg)] and stage of lactation (average postpartum days, PPD) were recorded for each test day. A strong correlation (r=0.33) was found between the 2 methods for SCC enumeration; however, values derived using the microscopic method were higher. The geometric means of SCC and TVC were 394×10(3) cells/mL and 5,157 cfu/mL during the observation period, respectively. Somatic cell count was >500×10(3) cells/mL on 14.6% (106/725) and TVC was >10×10(3) cfu/mL on 4.0% (30/742) of the test days. Both milk quality indicators had a distinct seasonal pattern. For log SCC, the mean was lowest in summer and highest in autumn. The seasonal pattern of log TVC was slightly different, with the lowest values being recorded during the spring. The monthly mean TVC pattern showed a clear difference between years. Coliform count was CMT score (r=0.26), and between log TVC and CC in yr 1 (r=0.30). All production parameters and stage of lactation showed strong seasonal variation. Log SCC was negatively correlated with TDM (r=-0.35), AMC (r=-0.37), and NMC (r=-0.15) and positively correlated with PPD (r=0.40). Log TVC had a negative correlation with AMC (r=-0.40) but a positive correlation with NMC (r=0.32), TDM (r=0.16), and PPD (r=0.45). The linear mixed model with stepwise variable selection showed that the main sources of log SCC variation were PPD, TDM, PPD × season, and season. For log TVC, the same factors and year contributed to the variation. PMID:23849636

  16. Comparison of California Mastitis Test (CMT), Somatic Cell Counts (SCC) and bacteriological examinations for detection of camel (Camelus dromedarius) mastitis in Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel Gadir Atif, E; Hildebrandt, Goetz; Kleer, Josef N; Molla, Bayleyegn; Kyule, Moses N; Baumann, Maximilian P O

    2006-01-01

    A total of 956 quarter milk samples from 253 traditionally managed lactating camels were collected aseptically from Negele (Borena Region), Dire Dawa, and Gewane (Afar Region), Ethiopia, according to multi-stage sampling. The quarter milk samples were subjected to California Mastitis Test (CMT), Somatic Cell Counts (SCC) and bacteriological examinations. Five hundred and seventy one (59.7%) quarter milk samples had microorganisms. Of these, 428 (75.0%) had isolates that were identified as major pathogens (MAP) and 143 (25.0%) as minor pathogens (MIP). A positive correlation was found between CMT scores and bacteriological classes (MAP, MIP) (p-value = 0.00). Strong correlation (p-value = 0.00) between CMT scores and SCC was recorded. The differences among the median log SCC of bacteriological classes (MAP, MIP) were not significant (p-value = 0.24). Similarly, the application of the cut-off level of 2.5 x 10(5) ml(-1) indicated less agreement (p-value = 0.32) for bacteriological classes MAP and MIP. PMID:16450708

  17. Histomorphometric study of the prenatal development of the kidney of one-humped camel (camelus dromedarius in north-westhern Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Bello

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed at investigating the prenatal development of the kidney of the camel using standard histomorphometric methods. In the experiment, fifteen foetuses obtained from Sokoto metropolitan abattoir at different gestational ages were used for the study. The fetuses were weighed and grouped and aged. In all the foetuses the kidneys were bean-shaped with smooth external surface and thick fibrous capsule which becomes thicker with advancement of gestational age. Well developed ureters and distinct renal pelvis were evident at all stages of development. In each gestational age, values of the weight, length, width and volume of the kidney were determined. In addition the periodic differentiation of the cortex and medulla; their significance in relation to the renal histodiffrentiation was discussed. Histological sections showed evidence of collecting duct system that are numerous and extensively coiled in the cortex and medulla of the third trimester kidneys. This is an indication of the ability of the kidney to concentrate urine, in accordance with the counter-current mechanism of the kidney collecting system. It was suggested that the kidney’s of the camel possesses the anatomical features for the production of hypertonic urine owing with the adaptive behavior of desert animals. Thick capsule that increases in thickness was also noticed in the kidneys.

  18. The prevalence of Linguatula serrata nymphs in mesenteric and mediastinal lymph nodes in one-humped camels (Camelus dromedarius) slaughtered in Rafsanjan slaughterhouse, Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Bamorovat, Mehdi; Zarandi, Mehdi Borhani; Mostafavi, Mahshid; Kheirandish, Reza; Sharifi, Iraj; Radfar, Mohammad Hossein

    2013-01-01

    Linguatula serrata is a well-known zoonotic parasite belonging to the order of Pentastomida which infects both human and animals. Human can be infected by both the nymph stage, causing a disease condition called nasopharyngeal linguatulosis or halzoun syndrome and the egg, a condition called visceral linguatulosis. The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of nymphal stages of L. serrata in mesenteric and mediastinal lymph nodes of one-humped camels slaughtered in Rafsanjan slaught...

  19. Gross anatomical and histomorphological observations on the terminal rectum and the cloaca in the Ostrich Struthio camelus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Warui, C.N.; Erlwanger, K.H.; Skadhauge, Erik

    2009-01-01

    rectum had an unusual tunica muscularis externa (TME) and was clearly demarcated from the caudal part of the rectum proper by a semilunar fold, an abrupt thickening of the gut wall and an increase in the calibre of the gut. The cloaca had a distinct rectocoprodeal fold at the terminal rectum......-cloaca junction with a well-formed sphincter muscle. The cloaca had a proximal coprodeum, a middle urodeum and a caudal proctodeum. The mucosa of the cloaca was folded and lined by simple columnar epithelium except in the urodeum and the floor and ventral walls of the proctodeum. The coprodeal wall had a thick...

  20. Struthiolipeurus rheae Harrison, 1916 (Phthiraptera: Philopteridae infestando avestruzes (Struthio camelus em uma criação no Município de Três Rios, RJ Struthiolipeurus rheae Harrison, 1916 (Phthiraptera: Philopteridae infesting ostriches (Struthio camelus in one farming in the Municipality of Três Rios, RJ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thais F. Fagundes

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available No Brasil, a criação de avestruzes foi iniciada no final do Século XX, para suprir o mercado internacional de carne, plumas e couro. As plumas têm importância econômica nos setores industrial e artesanal. Os piolhos podem causar prurido intenso, que, dependendo da intensidade de infestação, pode levar à depreciação das plumas. No Estado do Rio de Janeiro, são desconhecidas as espécies de piolhos que infestam avestruzes. Assim, o objetivo deste trabalho foi identificar os piolhos que ocorrem nas aves pertencentes a um criatório comercial no Município de Três Rios. Nos anos de 2003 a 2006, mensalmente, as avestruzes foram examinadas, para verificar a presença de ectoparasitos. Quando constatada a infestação, algumas plumas foram retiradas, colocadas em sacos plásticos e enviadas ao laboratório para exame. Após serem coletados das plumas, os ectoparasitos foram examinados ao microscópio estereoscópio, clarificados em hidróxido de potássio a 10%, desidratados em álcool etílico e montados em lâmina com balsamo do Canadá natural, para observação em microscópio óptico. Baseando-se na observação das características, foi possível determinar os espécimes coletados como pertencentes à espécie Struthiolipeurus rheae.In Brazil ostriches farming began at the end of 20th Century, to supply the international market of meat, feathers and leather. Feathers are economically important to industry and artisanal sectors. Lice can cause intense pruritus that depending on the intensity of infestation can lead to depreciation of feathers. In Rio de Janeiro there are unknown species of lice infesting ostriches. Thus the objective of this study was to identify the lice that happen in birds from commercial farms in the Municipality of Três Rios. From 2003 to 2006 ostriches were monthly examined for the presence of ectoparasites. When infestations were detected some feathers were removed, placed into plastic bags and sent to the laboratory for further analysis. After removed from feathers, ectoparasites were examined using a stereoscope, followed by clarification in 10% potassium hydroxide and dehydrated in ethanol. Permanent slides were mounted in natural Canada balsam for observation in optical microscope. Based on observed characteristics, it was possible to determine that collected specimens belong to the species Struthiolipeurus rheae.

  1. Anatomia do sistema porta renal e suas implicações no emprego de agentes anestésicos na contenção de avestruzes (Struthio camelus Anatomy of the renal portal system and its implications for the use of anesthetic agents in the restraint of ostriches (Struthio camelus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haley Silva de Carvalho

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se com este estudo caracterizar a anatomia do sistema porta renal e verificar sua influência sobre o protocolo anestésico xilazina, tiletamina e zolazepam na contenção de avestruzes, por comparação da administração dos fármacos nos músculos da perna ou da asa. Em cinco animais foi injetado látex nas veias femorais no sentido de drenagem e, posteriormente, as aves foram fixadas em formol a 10%, por 72 horas. Em uma ave, procedeu-se à localização, colheita e fixação das valvas portais renais em formol a 10%. O sistema porta renal apresentou-se constituído por duas veias portais renais craniais, duas veias portais renais caudais e seis valvas portais renais. Na contenção química, seis avestruzes foram pré-tratados com xilazina (1mg kg-1 e, decorridos 10 minutos, receberam tiletamina/zolazepam (6mg kg-1. Os animais foram manipulados em duas ocasiões diferentes, sendo que na primeira anestesia o protocolo foi administrado nos músculos da base das asas (GI e, após 15 dias, os mesmos animais receberam o protocolo nos músculos das pernas (GII. Os períodos de latência, hábil e de recuperação não foram diferentes entre os grupos (P>0,05. A freqüência cardíaca permaneceu abaixo dos valores basais durante a anestesia (PThis study was aimed at characterizing the anatomy of the renal portal system, and determining its influence on the anesthetic protocol xylazine, tiletamine and zolazepam, in the restraint of ostriches, compared with the administration of drugs into the leg or wing muscles. Latex was injected into the femoral veins of five animals, for drainage purposes, and the birds were then fixed in 10% formaldehyde, for 72 hours. In one bird, the renal portal valves were located, collected and fixed in 10% formaldehyde. The renal portal system consisted of two cranial renal portal veins, two caudal renal portal veins, and six renal portal valves. In the chemical restraint, six ostriches were anesthetized with xylazine (1mg kg-1 and after 10 minutes, tiletamine/zolazepam (6mg kg-1. The animals were handled on two different occasions: in the first anesthesia, the protocol was administered into the muscles at the base of the wings (GI and after 15 days, the same animals received the protocol in the leg muscles (GII. The periods for the onset and duration of the anesthesia, and recovery, showed no difference between the groups (P>0.05. The heart rate remained below the basal values during the anesthesia (P<0.05, in both groups. The cloacal temperature increased in both groups, particularly in GII, leading to an increased respiratory rate to facilitate heat loss. Since the chemical restraint was adapted for procedures of short duration in the field in the ostriches of both groups, it was not possible to demonstrate the influence of the renal portal system.

  2. 牦牛HSP27基因的克隆及其在雌性生殖器官中的表达%Cloning of Bos Grunniens HSP27 Gene and Its Expression in the Female Yak Reproductive Organs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何翃闳; 崔燕; 潘阳阳; 樊江峰; 胡威; 张译夫; 刘鹏刚; 李秦; 余四九

    2015-01-01

    determined that the atom number, molecular formula, calculated molecular weight and theoretical isoelectric point of the encoded protein were 2366, C747H1189N205O220S5, 16.722 kD, and 5.33 respectively. The HSP27 encoded protein of HSP27 was predicted to be a type of soluble and non-transmembrane protein. Nucleotide sequence analysis revealed that the HSP27 gene nucleotide sequence of yak was similar to those ofBos taurus(99.8%),Bubalus bubalis(98.4%),Ovis aries(97.8%),Pantholops hodgsonii(97.6%),Orcinus orca(90.3%),Camelus ferus(89.7%),Sus scrofa(89.7%),Equus caballus (86.7%),Canis lupus(86.7%),Homo sapiens(85.5%) andGorilla gorilla(85.3%). The similarity of resulting amino acid sequence of HSP27 gene between yak andbos taurus, bubalus bubalis, ovis aries pantholops hodgsonii, orcinus orca, camelus ferus sus scrofa, equus caballus, canis lupus, homo sapiensand gorilla gorilla were 100%、100%、100%、100%、96.3%、100%、96.8%、100%、100%、96.3% and 96.3%, respectively. The phylogenetic tree indicated that HSP27 gene of yak was close to bos taurus, bubalus bubalis, ovis aries and pantholops hodgsonii, but far from canis lupus, gorilla gorillaand homo sapiens. Moreover, the RT-qPCR indicated that HSP27 gene expressed universally in ovary, oviduct and uterus tissues during all reproductive periods, including follicular, luteal and pregnancy phases. The gene had its highest expression level in the follicle at follicle phase and its lowest expression in uterus in the luteal phase. In addition, the expression level of HSP27 gene in ovary was significantly higher than in the uterus during each of the different stages of the reproductive cycle. Its expression in ovaries, fallopian tubes and uterus changed dramatically because of pregnancy.[Conclusion]It is concluded from the present study that HSP27 gene in the yak is highly conservative in mammalian evolution according to the comparative nucleotide sequence analysis.. Analyzing HSP27 gene expression in central reproductive

  3. The Modes of Evolutionary Emergence of Primal and Late Pandemic Influenza Virus Strains from Viral Reservoir in Animals: An Interdisciplinary Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    Based on a wealth of recent findings, in conjunction with earliest chronologies pertaining to evolutionary emergences of ancestral RNA viruses, ducks, Influenzavirus A (assumingly within ducks), and hominids, as well as to the initial domestication of mallard duck (Anas platyrhynchos), jungle fowl (Gallus gallus), wild turkey (Meleagris gallopavo), wild boar (Sus scrofa), and wild horse (Equus ferus), presumed genesis modes of primordial pandemic influenza strains have multidisciplinarily bee...

  4. Satellite telemetry of large mammals in Mongolia: what expectations should we have for collar function?

    OpenAIRE

    Ito, Takehiko Y.; Peta Kaczensky

    2010-01-01

    The rapid pace of the development of satellite wildlife tracking tools has left little time for thorough testing of new equipment and identifying possible sources of technical failures. In the Gobi and Eastern Steppe region of Mongolia we deployed 104 satellite collars, collecting animal locations using the Doppler based Argos or the global positioning system (GPS), on 45 Asiatic wild asses (Equus hemionus), 34 Mongolian gazelles (Procapra gutturosa), 15 Przewalski’s horses (Equus ferus przew...

  5. Isolation of influenza A virus, subtype H5N2, and avian paramyxovirus type 1 from a flock of ostriches in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Poul Henrik; Nielsen, O.L.; Hansen, C.;

    1998-01-01

    A total of 146 of 506 ostriches (Struthio camelus) introduced into a quarantine in Denmark died within the first 23 days. The majority of deaths were in young birds up to 10 kg body weight. Avian influenza A viruses (AIVs) were isolated from 14 pools of organ tissues representing seven groups eac...

  6. Pox in ostriches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perelman, B; Gur-Lavie, A; Samberg, Y

    1988-01-01

    Clinical signs suggesting pox were observed in a flock of ostrich chicks (Struthio camelus), 10 to 60 days old. The disease was confirmed by isolation of the agent from affected ostriches and reproduction of typical pox lesions in turkeys. Further infection of young ostriches was prevented by vaccination with fowl pox vaccine. PMID:18766730

  7. Quest for the piroplasms in camels: Identification of Theileria equi and Babesia caballi in Jordanian dromedaries by PCR

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Qablan, M.; Sloboda, M.; Jirků, Milan; Oborník, Miroslav; Dwairi, S.; Amr, Z. S.; Hořín, P.; Lukeš, Julius; Modrý, David

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 186, 3/4 (2012), s. 456-460. ISSN 0304-4017 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA206/09/0927 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60220518 Keywords : Babesia * Theileria * Camelus * Jordan * Host specificity * Diagnosis Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 2.381, year: 2012

  8. A note on feeding habits, Ectoparasites and measurements of the Black-Backed Jackal Canis Mesomelas from Addo Elephant National Park

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.J Hall-Martin

    1980-01-01

    Full Text Available DsitSi from a small sample of black-backed jackals confined to the National Park indicated that they were opportunistic feeders taking various insects, molluscs, reptiles, birds, mammals and fruits as available. Raiding of ostrich Struthio camelus nests and the probable technique of egg-breaking is also recorded. Body measurements of these jackals fall with the range reported for this species in the Cape Province of South Africa. Observations on age indicate spring or early summer births.

  9. A note on feeding habits, Ectoparasites and measurements of the Black-Backed Jackal Canis Mesomelas from Addo Elephant National Park

    OpenAIRE

    A.J. Hall-Martin; B. P Botha

    1980-01-01

    DsitSi from a small sample of black-backed jackals confined to the National Park indicated that they were opportunistic feeders taking various insects, molluscs, reptiles, birds, mammals and fruits as available. Raiding of ostrich Struthio camelus nests and the probable technique of egg-breaking is also recorded. Body measurements of these jackals fall with the range reported for this species in the Cape Province of South Africa. Observations on age indicate spring or early summer births.

  10. Vitamin C status in Sudanese camels

    OpenAIRE

    Elkhidir, Hassab Elrasoul Hussein Mohamed

    2002-01-01

    Vitamin C (ascorbic acid), which is a potent antioxidant, recently has received a great deal of attention because of its positive action on the immune response and disease resistance of animals. Brief reviews are presented on ascorbic acid metabolism in animals and its relation with stressful conditions. The original research in this thesis is concerned mainly with the identification of various factors that are related with vitamin C status in Sudanese camels (Camelus dromedarius) kept under ...

  11. A new species of Lamelligomphus Fraser, 1922 (Odonata: Gomphidae) from southern Yunnan, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hao-Miao; Yang, Guo-Hui; Cai, Qing-Hua

    2016-01-01

    Lamelligomphus annakarlorum sp. nov. is described based on specimens collected from southern Yunnan Province, China (holotype male: Xishuangbanna National Nature Reserve, 21°57'59''N, 101°12'37''E, Xishuangbanna Dai Autonomous Prefecture, Yunnan Province, China). All type specimens of the new species have been deposited in the Collection of Aquatic Animals, Institute of Hydrobiology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan City, Hubei Province, China. It is compared with Lamelligomphus camelus (Martin, 1904), which shares some similar characters. PMID:27394602

  12. Fossil struthionid eggshells from Laetoli, Tanzania: Taxonomic and biostratigraphic significance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Terry; Msuya, Charles P.

    2005-04-01

    Recent paleontological investigations at Laetoli and neighboring localities in northern Tanzania have produced a large collection of fossil ostrich eggshells from the Pliocene-aged Laetolil Beds (˜3.5-4.5 Ma) and Ndolanya Beds (˜2.6-2.7 Ma). A detailed analysis of the morphology of the eggshells and their taxonomic affinities indicates that two different species of Struthio are represented. In the Lower Laetolil Beds and in the Upper Laetolil Beds below Tuff 3 a new species is recognized— Struthio kakesiensis. This is replaced in the Upper Laetolil Beds by Struthio camelus, the modern species of ostrich. Since radiometric age determinations are available for the stratigraphic sequence at Laetoli, it is possible to precisely date the first appearance of S. camelus at ˜3.6-3.8 Ma. Comparisons of the Laetoli material with specimens from the well-dated sequences at Lothagam and Kanapoi in northern Kenya, allow the taxonomic and biochronological analysis to be extended back in time to the late Miocene. At about 6.5 Ma, Diamantornis and elephant birds were replaced in East Africa by ostriches belonging to the genus Struthio. Three time-successive species of ostriches are identified in the fossil record of East Africa, beginning with Struthio. cf. karingarabensis (˜6.5-4.2 Ma), followed by S. kakesiensis (˜4.5-3.6 Ma) and then S. camelus (˜3.8 Ma onwards). A similar sequence of taxa has previously been recorded from localities in Namibia, but at these sites there is no possibility to precisely calibrate the ages of the different species using radiometric dating. Nevertheless, the broadly similar evolutionary sequence and the close correspondence in inferred ages for the succession of species in East Africa and Namibia suggest that ostrich eggshells are a very useful tool for biochronological correlation of paleontological sites in sub-Saharan Africa.

  13. AVALIAÇÃO DA SOLUBILIDADE DAS PROTEÍNAS MIOFIBRILARES, CAPACIDADE DE EMULSIFICAÇÃO E PERDA POR COCÇÃO, EVAPORAÇÃO E GOTEJAMENTO DAS CARNES DE EMA, AVESTRUZ E FRANGO

    OpenAIRE

    Letícia Cristina Costa e SILVA; Julyanna Andrade SILVA; Roger DARROS-BARBOSA; Pedro Fernando ROMANELLI

    2012-01-01

    Esse estudo determinou a solubilidade das proteínas miofibrilares, capacidade de emulsificação das proteínas totais e perda por cocção, evaporação e gotejamento das carnes de ema (Rhea americana), avestruz (Struthio camelus) e frango (Gallus domesticus). Foram utilizadas 30 aves (machos), sendo 10 emas, 10 avestruzes e 10 frangos. Quatro amostras de cada espécie foram obtidas do músculo iliotibialis lateralis para realização das análises. A análise de solubilidade das ...

  14. Evolutionary Genomics and Conservation of the Endangered Przewalski’s Horse

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Der Sarkissian, Clio; Ermini, Luca; Schubert, Mikkel;

    2015-01-01

    short legs, they are phenotypically and behaviorally distinct from domesticated horses (DHs, Equus caballus). Here, we sequenced the complete genomes of 11 PHs, representing all founding lineages, and five historical specimens dated to 1878–1929 CE, including the Holotype. These were compared to the...... hitherto-most-extensive genome dataset characterized for horses, comprising 21 new genomes. We found that loci showing the most genetic differentiation with DHs were enriched in genes involved in metabolism, cardiac disorders, muscle contraction, reproduction, behavior, and signaling pathways. We also show......Przewalski’s horses (PHs, Equus ferus ssp. przewalskii) were discovered in the Asian steppes in the 1870s and represent the last remaining true wild horses. PHs became extinct in the wild in the 1960s but survived in captivity, thanks to major conservation efforts. The current population is still...

  15. The Black of Strei – a Swine Population on the Verge of Extinction in Banat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcel Matiuti

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The Black of Strei swine was declared to be extinct in 1974, but research conducted in 2008-2010 proved that there are still 61 specimens (Black of Strei proper and hybrids in the Hatzeg county and in the Lugoj area. Body measurements have been made in the case of those specimens and they showed that the specimens are a morphoproductive type. The local people appreciate the Black of Strei especially for its fat and bard which are very dry and used in order to obtain the traditional food products in the area. Prolificacy of sows farrowing is an 8 piglets per gestation. This breed is best kept in organic farms. The Black of Strei females are usually cross-bred with wildboar (Sus scrofa ferus males, the hybrids’ meat being very appreciated.

  16. The ASAI View on our Chemical Origins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez-Sepulcre, Ana; Mendoza, Edgar; Lefloch, Bertrand; Bachiller, Rafael; Ceccarelli, Cecilia; Codella, Claudio; Boechat-Roberty, Heloisa M.; vastel, charlotte; Cernicharo, Jose

    2015-08-01

    The Large Program ASAI carried out at the IRAM 30m telescope joins the efforts of several groups in Astrochemistry, in Spain and France, to address the question of our “chemical origins”. Its goal is to obtain a complete census of the gas chemical composition, its evolution along the main stages of the star formation process, from prestellar cores and protostars to protoplanetary disks, in order to understand the processes which govern the emergence of molecular complexity, and the formation of pre-biotic molecules. This is achieved through highly sensitive and systematic spectral line surveys of a sample of sources illustrative of the various stages of protostellar evolution. The resulting data set is aimed to serve as a reference database for the astrochemical community: astronomers, chemists, and theoreticiansFormamide (NH2CHO) is a crucial molecule in this respect as it is one of the simplest molecules of pre-biotic interest. Recently, it has been proposed as a precursor of both metabolic and genetic material, suggesting a common chemical origin for the two mechanisms, and could have played an important role in the emergence of life (Saladino et al 2012; Ferus et al. 2014). We have conducted with ASAI the first comprehensive study of formamide towards solar-type environments, revealing new discoveries of NH2CHO (Kahane et al. 2013; Lopez-Sepulcre et al. 2015), including its detection, for the first time, in outflow shock spots (Mendoza et al. 2014). The presence of formamide in such a variety of star-forming environments, as well as on a Solar System comet, suggests that it could have been exogenously delivered onto a young Earth in the past.We will present the results of this study of formamide and will discuss their implication for the formation route of this molecule and other related pre-biotic species in solar-type protostellar environments.References:Ferus M. et al. 2014, PNAS, 115, 657Kahane C. et al. 2013, ApJ, 763, L38Lopez-Sepulcre et al. 2015

  17. Effect of α-Amylase, Papain, and Spermfluid treatments on viscosity and semen parameters of dromedary camel ejaculates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monaco, Davide; Fatnassi, Meriem; Padalino, Barbara; Hammadi, Mohamed; Khorchani, Touhami; Lacalandra, Giovanni Michele

    2016-04-01

    Ejaculates from five clinically healthy dromedary camels (Camelus dromedarius) were used to evaluate the effects of different enzymatic treatments (Amylase, Papain, Spermfluid) on liquefaction and seminal parameters. After collection, ejaculates were divided into 5 aliquots: (1) kept undiluted (control); or diluted 1:1 with: (2) Tris-Citrate-Fructose (TCF), (3) TCF containing Amylase, (4) TCF containing Papain or (5) Spermfluid containing Bromelain. At 120 min after dilution, each aliquot was evaluated, at 20-min intervals, for viscosity, motility, viability and agglutination. Only the aliquots diluted with TCF containing Papain underwent complete liquefaction. Sperm motility decreased significantly during the observation times, except for the samples diluted with Spermfluid (P=0.005). Diluted samples showed different levels of agglutination, with the lowest being observed in the control and the highest in the Papain-treated samples. The viscosity of dromedary camel ejaculates could be effectively reduced by using the proteolytic enzyme Papain. PMID:27033899

  18. Serological and bacteriological study of brucellosis in camels in central Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radwan, A I; Bekairi, S I; Prasad, P V

    1992-09-01

    Sera from 2,630 apparently normal adult camels (Camelus dromedarius) raised in central Saudi Arabia (Riyadh and Al-Kharj cities) were examined serologically by the Rose Bengal and standard United States of America Brucella plate agglutination tests. The overall seroprevalence of brucellosis in the restricted populations of tested camels was 8%. The seroprevalence of brucellosis among camels raised in small numbers in the backyards of 24 houses in Riyadh and those intensively raised on one large camel farm near Al-Kharj were 4.3% and 8.6% respectively. Fresh milk samples from 100 brucellosis seropositive camels from Riyadh and Al-Kharj were cultured on Brucella-selective media. Brucella melitensis biovars 1 and 2 were isolated and identified from 26 camels. Epidemiologically, brucellosis in camels in central Saudi Arabia appeared to be connected with B. melitensis infection of sheep and goats, and also represents a serious public health risk. PMID:1472730

  19. [A case of Echinococcus granulosus hydatid cyst in a zoo born dromedary in the Berlin-Fridrichsfelde zoo].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Priemer, J; Jakob, W

    1998-03-01

    In Germany, the threat to human health by the small fox tapeworm (Echinococcus multilocularis) has been increasingly discussed in the last few years. On the other hand, the hydatid worm of the dog (Echinococcus granulosus) became more and more rare in Germany and was often declared to be eradicated. This paper presents a case of hydatid infection of the lung in an adult dromedary (Camelus dromedarius), which was born and kept all its life at Tierpark Berlin-Friedrichsfelde. Questions connected with E. granulosus infection are discussed from an ecological point of view: history, urbanisation, biology, clinical signs, potential threat to man, prophylaxis and treatment. In view of the extensive and sometimes uncontrolled dog keeping in urban households it must be stressed that careful documentation and surveillance of this life-threatening zoonosis, which was the main reason for its decline in the past, has not yet lost its importance. PMID:9542809

  20. Perceptions and problems of disease in the one-humped camel in southern Africa in the late 19th and early 20th centuries : historical review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.T. Wilson

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available The one-humped camel (Camelus dromedarius was first introduced to German South West Africa (Namibia for military purposes in 1889. Introductions to the Cape of Good Hope (South Africa in 1897 and Rhodesia (Zimbabwe in 1903 were initially with a view to replacing oxen that died of rinderpest. Disease risks attendant on these introductions were recognised and to some extent guarded against. There were, however, relatively few problems. One camel was diagnosed as having foot-and-mouth disease. Mange in camels from India caused some concern as did trypanosomosis from Sudan. Trypanosomosis was introduced into both the Cape of Good Hope and Transvaal. Antibodies to some common livestock disease were found in later years.

  1. Two-dimensional electron flow in pulsed power transmission lines and plasma opening switches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The operation of magnetically insulated transmission lines (MITL) and the interruption of current in a plasma opening switch (POS) are determined by the physics of the electrons emitted by the cathode surface. A mathematical model describes the self-consistent two-dimensional flow of an electron fluid. A finite element code, FERUS, has been developed to solve the two equations which describe Poisson's and Ampere's law in two dimensions. The solutions from this code are obtained for parameters where the electron orbits are considerably modified by the self-magnetic field of the current. Next, the self-insulated electron flow in a MITL with a step change in cross-section is studied using a conventional two-dimensional fully electromagnetic particle-in-cell code, MASK. The equations governing two-dimensional quasi-static electron flow are solved numerically by a third technique which is suitable for predicting current interruption in a POS. The object of the study is to determine the critical load impedance, ZCL, required for current interruption for a given applied voltage, cathode voltage and plasma length. (author). 9 refs, 5 figs

  2. The modes of evolutionary emergence of primal and late pandemic influenza virus strains from viral reservoir in animals: an interdisciplinary analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoham, Dany

    2011-01-01

    Based on a wealth of recent findings, in conjunction with earliest chronologies pertaining to evolutionary emergences of ancestral RNA viruses, ducks, Influenzavirus A (assumingly within ducks), and hominids, as well as to the initial domestication of mallard duck (Anas platyrhynchos), jungle fowl (Gallus gallus), wild turkey (Meleagris gallopavo), wild boar (Sus scrofa), and wild horse (Equus ferus), presumed genesis modes of primordial pandemic influenza strains have multidisciplinarily been configured. The virological fundamentality of domestication and farming of those various avian and mammalian species has thereby been demonstrated and broadly elucidated, within distinctive coevolutionary paradigms. The mentioned viral genesis modes were then analyzed, compatibly with common denominators and flexibility that mark the geographic profile of the last 18 pandemic strains, which reputedly emerged since 1510, the antigenic profile of the last 10 pandemic strains since 1847, and the genomic profile of the last 5 pandemic strains since 1918, until present. Related ecophylogenetic and biogeographic aspects have been enlightened, alongside with the crucial role of spatial virus gene dissemination by avian hosts. A fairly coherent picture of primary and late evolutionary and genomic courses of pandemic strains has thus been attained, tentatively. Specific patterns underlying complexes prone to generate past and future pandemic strains from viral reservoir in animals are consequentially derived. PMID:23074663

  3. Context-dependent third-party intervention in agonistic encounters of male Przewalski horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krueger, Konstanze; Schneider, Gudrun; Flauger, Birgit; Heinze, Jürgen

    2015-12-01

    One mechanism to resolve conflict among group members is third party intervention, for which several functions, such as kin protection, alliance formation, and the promotion of group cohesion have been proposed. Still, empirical research on the function of intervention behaviour is rare. We studied 40 cases of intervention behaviour in a field study on 13 semi-wild bachelor horses (Equus ferus przewalskii) in (a) standard social situations, and (b) when new horses joined the group (i.e. introductions). Only interventions in agonistic encounters were analysed. Eight of 13 animals directed intervention behaviour toward threatening animal in agonistic encounters of group members. One stallion was particularly active. The stallions did not intervene to support former group mates or kin and interventions were not reciprocated. In introduction situations and in standard social situations, the interveners supported animals which were lower in rank, but targeted, threatening animals of comparable social rank. After introductions, stallions received more affiliative behaviour from animals they supported and thus appeared to intervene for alliance formation. In standard social situations, interveners did not receive more affiliative behaviour from animals they supported and may primarily have intervened to promote group cohesion and to reduce social disruption within the group. PMID:26478251

  4. Virtual Screening of Acetylcholinesterase Inhibitors Using the Lipinski’s Rule of Five and ZINC Databank

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Andrei Nogara

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Alzheimer’s disease (AD is a progressive and neurodegenerative pathology that can affect people over 65 years of age. It causes several complications, such as behavioral changes, language deficits, depression, and memory impairments. One of the methods used to treat AD is the increase of acetylcholine (ACh in the brain by using acetylcholinesterase inhibitors (AChEIs. In this study, we used the ZINC databank and the Lipinski’s rule of five to perform a virtual screening and a molecular docking (using Auto Dock Vina 1.1.1 aiming to select possible compounds that have quaternary ammonium atom able to inhibit acetylcholinesterase (AChE activity. The molecules were obtained by screening and further in vitro assays were performed to analyze the most potent inhibitors through the IC50 value and also to describe the interaction models between inhibitors and enzyme by molecular docking. The results showed that compound D inhibited AChE activity from different vertebrate sources and butyrylcholinesterase (BChE from Equus ferus (EfBChE, with IC50 ranging from 1.69 ± 0.46 to 5.64 ± 2.47 µM. Compound D interacted with the peripheral anionic subsite in both enzymes, blocking substrate entrance to the active site. In contrast, compound C had higher specificity as inhibitor of EfBChE. In conclusion, the screening was effective in finding inhibitors of AChE and BuChE from different organisms.

  5. Coalbed methane/natural gas coal chart

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    2005-10-01

    This map of coal and coalbed gas in Alberta also listed Canadian coal and coalbed gas resources by region, basin or coalfield; major coal-bearing formations or groups; coal rank; estimated in-place coal resources per billion tons; and estimated coalbed gas in-place resources. The major coalfields of British Columbia were shown to be grouped into Rocky Mountains, Insular and Intermontane coalfields. The insular belt includes the coalfields and deposits on Vancouver Island and small deposits on the Queen Charlotte Islands. Saskatchewan resources were also presented, along with resource potential in the east coast of Canada, the Alberta plains, the Upper and Lower Cretaceous regions and the Alberta foothills. A stratigraphic chart of coal bearing formations in the Western Canada Sedimentary Basin was presented, as well as a schematic cross-section showing major coal zones in Alberta. An inset map of North American coal basins was also provided. The following advertisers listed their services: Schlumberger, Weatherford, Kudu Industries Inc., Calfrac Well Services, Ferus Gas Industries Trust, Baker Hughes, MGV Energy Inc., Pembina Controls Inc., R and M Energy Systems Inc., Trident Exploration Corp., Enviro Noise Control, Toromont Energy Systems, Canyon Technical Services, Sproule, Enerflex, Computer Modelling Group Ltd., Norwest Corp., Fekete, Wellco Energy Services, Sanjel, Smithbits, Colt Engineering, Perspective Consultants Inc. and Concept Compression Corp.

  6. Acute phase protein and protein electrophoresis values for captive Grant's zebra (Equus burchelli).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cray, Carolyn; Hammond, Elizabeth; Haefele, Holly

    2013-12-01

    Grant's zebra (Equus burchelli) are commonly kept in zoos and are subject to routine health monitoring and research studies. Recently, assays for acute phase proteins (APP) have been described in many wildlife species, and specific assays for serum amyloid A (SAA) have been well validated and studied in horses (Equus ferus caballus), in which it serves as a major APP. In the present study, serum samples from 26 Grant's zebra were subject to analysis by using assays for SAA, haptoglobin (HP), and protein electrophoresis. Reference intervals were calculated by using the robust method: SAA 1.8-31.4 mg/L and HP 0.37-1.58 mg/ml. Significant differences in SAA and HP were observed in clinically abnormal zebra; in some cases, these differences were marked and were noted in the absence of abnormal values for protein electrophoretic fractions. These data indicate that APP may be a valuable and sensitive tool in monitoring inflammation in this species. PMID:24450080

  7. Testing storage methods of faecal samples for subsequent measurement of helminth egg numbers in the domestic horse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawley, Jennie A H; Chapman, Simon N; Lummaa, Virpi; Lynsdale, Carly L

    2016-05-15

    Parasite infection status, intensity and resistance have traditionally been quantified via flotation techniques, but the need for immediate analysis following defecation imposes limitations and has led to the use of several faecal storage techniques. However, their effect on nematode egg counts has not been systematically validated and is often generalised across taxa despite evidence of differences between species. Here, we take the domestic horse Equus ferus caballus as a model to examine the impact of commonly used storage techniques on egg recovery: 1) high and low concentrations of ethanol and formalin fixative solutions for up to four weeks and 2) refrigeration (3-5°C) over a two-week period. We found a significant decline in faecal egg counts (FEC) following storage in high and low concentrations of both fixative solutions after two weeks, which stabilised after four weeks, and this pattern was uniform across replicates. FECs remained relatively stable over a week of refrigeration, but declined when refrigeration exceeded 8 days. Prior to FEC analysis, we recommend sample refrigeration for no more than one week. Storage in either fixative solution is sub-optimal for the preservation of nematode eggs, although the uniformity of the decline across samples could hold potential for projective calculation of parasite egg shedding when storage time is effectively controlled for. PMID:27084484

  8. Rove beetles of medical importance in Brazil (Coleoptera, Staphylinidae, Paederinae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana S. Vieira

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Rove beetles of medical importance in Brazil (Coleoptera, Staphylinidae, Paederinae. The rove beetles of the genus Paederus Fabricius, 1775 are the most important group within Coleoptera causing dermatitis around the world. The medical importance of Paederus depends on its toxic hemolymph released when these beetles are crushed on human skin. The effects are mainly dermatitis linearis and some sporadic cases of conjunctivitis. In Brazil seven species of Paederus are known to cause dermatitis: P. amazonicus Sharp, 1876, P. brasiliensis Erichson, 1840, P. columbinus Laporte, 1835, P. ferus Erichson, 1840, P. mutans Sharp, 1876, P. protensus Sharp, 1876 stat. rev., and Paederus rutilicornis Erichson, 1840. Paederus mutans and P. protensus are for the first time recorded as of medical importance, whereas the record of P. rutilicornis in Brazil is doubtful. All seven species are redescribed and a dichotomous key is provided. The geographic distributions of all species are documented. The results provided here include the most recent and relevant taxonomic revision of Paederus of the Neotropical region, the first identification key for Brazilian species and the increase of recorded species of medical importance in the world.

  9. An Investigation of Cellulose Digesting Bacteria in the Camel Feces Microbiome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Man, V.; Leung, F. C.

    2015-12-01

    Research Question: Is there a bacteria in camel feces that digests cellulose material and can be used for waste to energy projects? Fossil fuels are the current main resource of energy in the modern world. However, as the demand for fuel increases, biofuels have been proposed as an alternative energy source that is a more sustainable form of liquid fuel generation from living things or waste, commonly known as biofuels and ethanol. The Camelus dromedarius', also known as Arabian camel, diet consist of grass, grains, wheat and oats as well desert vegetation in their natural habitat. However, as the Arabian camel lacks the enzymes to degrade cellulose, it is hypothesized that cellulose digestion is performed by microbial symbionts in camel microbiota. Fecal samples were collected from the Camelus dromedarius in United Arab Emirates and diluted 10-7 times. The diluted sample was then streaked onto a Sodium Carboxymethyl Cellulose plate, and inoculated onto CMC and Azure-B plates. Afterwards, Congo Red was used for staining in order to identify clearance zones of single colonies that may potentially be used as a qualitative assays for cellulose digestion. Then the colonies undergo polymerase chain reaction amplification to produce amplified RNA fragments. The 16S ribosomal RNA gene is identified based on BLAST result using Sanger Sequencing. Amongst the three identified microbes: Bacillus, Staphylococcus and Escherichia coli, both Bacillus and Staphylococcus are cellulose-digesting microbes, and through the fermentation of lignocellulosic, biomasses can be converted into cellulosic ethanol (Biofuel). According to the Improvements in Life Cycle Energy Efficiency and Greenhouse Gas Emissions of Corn-Ethanol by Adam J. Liska, ""Ethanol reduces greenhouse gas emissions by 40-50% when compared directly to gasoline." The determination of bacterial communities that are capable of efficiently and effectively digesting cellulose materials requires that the bacteria be first

  10. The danger of having all your eggs in one basket--winter crash of the re-introduced Przewalski's horses in the Mongolian Gobi.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petra Kaczensky

    Full Text Available Large mammals re-introduced into harsh and unpredictable environments are vulnerable to stochastic effects, particularly in times of global climate change. The Mongolian Gobi is home to several rare large ungulates such as re-introduced Przewalski's horses (Equus ferus przewalskii and Asiatic wild asses (Equus hemionus, but also to a millennium-old semi-nomadic livestock herding culture.The Gobi is prone to large inter-annual environmental fluctuations, but the winter 2009/2010 was particularly severe. Millions of livestock died and the Przewalski's horse population in the Gobi crashed. We used spatially explicit livestock loss statistics, ranger survey data and GPS telemetry to provide insight into the effect of a catastrophic climate event on the two sympatric wild equid species and the livestock population in light of their different space use strategies.Herders in and around the Great Gobi B Strictly Protected Area lost on average 67% of their livestock. Snow depth varied locally, resulting in livestock losses following an east-west gradient. Herders had few possibilities for evasion, as competition for available winter camps was high. Przewalski's horses used three different winter ranges, two in the east and one in the west. Losses averaged 60%, but differed hugely between east and west. Space use of Przewalski's horses was extremely conservative, as groups did not attempt to venture beyond their known home ranges. Asiatic wild asses seemed to have suffered few losses by shifting their range westwards.The catastrophic winter 2009/2010 provided a textbook example for how vulnerable small and spatially confined populations are in an environment prone to environmental fluctuations and catastrophes. This highlights the need for disaster planning by local herders, multiple re-introduction sites with spatially dispersed populations for re-introduced Przewalski's horses, and a landscape-level approach beyond protected area boundaries to allow for

  11. The Influence of Adult Attachment on Patient Self-Management in Primary Care--The Need for a Personalized Approach and Patient-Centred Care.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katja Brenk-Franz

    Full Text Available Self-management strategies are essential elements of evidence-based treatment in patients with chronic conditions in primary care. Our objective was to analyse different self-management skills and behaviours and their association to adult attachment in primary care patients with multiple chronic conditions.In the apricare study (Adult Attachment in Primary Care we used a prospective longitudinal design to examine the association between adult attachment and self-management in primary care patients with multimorbidity. The attachment dimensions avoidance and anxiety were measured using the ECR-RD. Self-management skills were measured by the FERUS (motivation to change, coping, self-efficacy, hope, social support and self-management-behaviour by the DSMQ (glucose management, dietary control, physical activity, health-care use. Clinical diagnosis and severity of disease were assessed by the patients' GPs. Multivariate analyses (GLM were used to assess the relationship between the dimensions of adult attachment and patient self-management.219 patients in primary care with multiple chronic conditions (type II diabetes, hypertension and at least one other chronic condition between the ages of 50 and 85 were included in the study. The attachment dimension anxiety was positively associated with motivation to change and negatively associated with coping, self-efficacy and hope, dietary control and physical activity. Avoidance was negatively associated with coping, self-efficacy, social support and health care use.The two attachment dimensions anxiety and avoidance are associated with different components of self-management. A personalized, attachment-based view on patients with chronic diseases could be the key to effective, individual self-management approaches in primary care.

  12. Conference on wind power development in the face of landscape and local project acceptability challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The French-German office for Renewable energies (OFAEnR) organised a conference on n wind power development in the face of landscape and local project acceptability challenges. In the framework of this French-German exchange of experience, participants addressed the following points: the conciliation between landscape protection and wind power development, the definition of landscape environmental quality criteria, the needs and usages of the departments in charge of the treatment of landscape studies in France, the socio-psychological approach of the local acceptability of wind farm projects, the re-powering tool for the improvement of the wind farm integration in the landscape, and the conciliation between the monuments maintenance and wind power development. This document brings together the available presentations (slides) made during this event: 1 - Conciliating landscape protection and wind power development goals in France (Marie Villot); 2 - Wind turbines: Conflicts between development goals, landscape and acceptance - Perception and criteria (Guenter Ratzbor); 3 - Bayern's wind power atlas: a planning tool which takes into account the landscape aspects (Christian Tausch); 4 - Landscape assessment in wind farms projects: what and how to do in French administrative procedures? (Bertrand Cagneaux); 5 - Methods for evaluation of landscape for wind farms projects - A French project developer's feedback (Agathe Jouneau); 6 - Landscape Assessment: Methods from German Landscape Practice (Boris Stemmer); 7 - Acceptance of Wind Turbines - Social Psychological Research (Gundula Huebner); 8 - Local consultation: who to involve, when and how? (Paola Orozco-Souel); 9 - Local acceptability: what dialogue concepts and strategies, and how to manage wind energy objection (Charles Lhermitte); 10 - Re-powering and landscape: chances and limits (Elisabeth Ferus); 11 - Wind power and cultural heritage: consultation and dialogue to succeed (Philippe Benezech); 12

  13. Research Regarding the Hybrids Resulted from the Domestic Pig and the Wild Boar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcel Matiuti

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Research was conducted between 2005-2009 in Barzava, Arad county. The villagers breed pigs traditionally, the animals having the freedom to roam the outskirts of the villages. Over the years the domestic sows (Sus scrofa domesticus which had been let by their owners to roam the forests for mast and acorn, have mated with wild boars (Sus scrofa ferus, thus obtaining crossbreeds in various colours – either resembling the female or the male. In Bazava the total number of swine is 1820 specimens out of which 546 is formed by hybrids or crossbreeds in 2009. In the case of these hybrids the length of the head together with that of the trunk can reach 150-170 cm. An adult male can have a weight of 150-200 kg and the female 100-150 kg. These specimens are easily recognizable by the fact that they have the trunk covered in thick, long, spiky hairs. There are also other external characteristics of these crossbreeds. Data has been gathered on what concerns the colour and the length of the hair, external features, maintenance and feeding. Behavioural observations have been made also. The local people appreciate a lot these hybrids because of their qualitative meat, out of which they obtain traditional dishes, combining this meat with that from domestic pigs and veal. Moreover, the maintenance of these hybrids is very low-cost, the only conditions which have to be met being simple shelters during the night and during the winter. The demand for such animals is great. These hybrids are being bought by the Zoos or are used for repopulating the areas in which the wild boars are on the verge of extinction because of excessive poaching. Foreign buyers are also interested in these hybrids, wanting to breed them in special parks and then to organize hunting outings.

  14. Evolutionary Genomics and Conservation of the Endangered Przewalski's Horse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Der Sarkissian, Clio; Ermini, Luca; Schubert, Mikkel; Yang, Melinda A; Librado, Pablo; Fumagalli, Matteo; Jónsson, Hákon; Bar-Gal, Gila Kahila; Albrechtsen, Anders; Vieira, Filipe G; Petersen, Bent; Ginolhac, Aurélien; Seguin-Orlando, Andaine; Magnussen, Kim; Fages, Antoine; Gamba, Cristina; Lorente-Galdos, Belen; Polani, Sagi; Steiner, Cynthia; Neuditschko, Markus; Jagannathan, Vidhya; Feh, Claudia; Greenblatt, Charles L; Ludwig, Arne; Abramson, Natalia I; Zimmermann, Waltraut; Schafberg, Renate; Tikhonov, Alexei; Sicheritz-Ponten, Thomas; Willerslev, Eske; Marques-Bonet, Tomas; Ryder, Oliver A; McCue, Molly; Rieder, Stefan; Leeb, Tosso; Slatkin, Montgomery; Orlando, Ludovic

    2015-10-01

    Przewalski's horses (PHs, Equus ferus ssp. przewalskii) were discovered in the Asian steppes in the 1870s and represent the last remaining true wild horses. PHs became extinct in the wild in the 1960s but survived in captivity, thanks to major conservation efforts. The current population is still endangered, with just 2,109 individuals, one-quarter of which are in Chinese and Mongolian reintroduction reserves [1]. These horses descend from a founding population of 12 wild-caught PHs and possibly up to four domesticated individuals [2-4]. With a stocky build, an erect mane, and stripped and short legs, they are phenotypically and behaviorally distinct from domesticated horses (DHs, Equus caballus). Here, we sequenced the complete genomes of 11 PHs, representing all founding lineages, and five historical specimens dated to 1878-1929 CE, including the Holotype. These were compared to the hitherto-most-extensive genome dataset characterized for horses, comprising 21 new genomes. We found that loci showing the most genetic differentiation with DHs were enriched in genes involved in metabolism, cardiac disorders, muscle contraction, reproduction, behavior, and signaling pathways. We also show that DH and PH populations split ∼45,000 years ago and have remained connected by gene-flow thereafter. Finally, we monitor the genomic impact of ∼110 years of captivity, revealing reduced heterozygosity, increased inbreeding, and variable introgression of domestic alleles, ranging from non-detectable to as much as 31.1%. This, together with the identification of ancestry informative markers and corrections to the International Studbook, establishes a framework for evaluating the persistence of genetic variation in future reintroduced populations. PMID:26412128

  15. Adipose tissue macrophages in non-rodent mammals: a comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ampem, Grace; Azegrouz, Hind; Bacsadi, Árpád; Balogh, Lajos; Schmidt, Susanne; Thuróczy, Julianna; Röszer, Tamás

    2016-02-01

    The stromal vascular fraction (SVF) of adipose tissue in rodents and primates contains mesenchymal stem cells and immune cells. SVF cells have complex metabolic, immune and endocrine functions with biomedical impact. However, in other mammals, the amount of data on SVF stem cells is negligible and whether the SVF hosts immune cells is unknown. In this study, we show that the SVF is rich in immune cells, with a dominance of adipose tissue macrophages (ATMs) in cattle (Bos primigenius taurus), domestic goat (Capra aegagrus hircus), domestic sheep (Ovis aries), domestic cat (Felis catus) and domestic dog (Canis familiaris). ATMs of these species are granulated lysosome-rich cells with lamellipodial protrusions and express the lysosome markers acid phosphatase 5 (ACP-5) and Mac-3/Lamp-2. Using ACP-5 and Mac-3/Lamp-2 as markers, we additionally detected ATMs in other species, such as the domestic horse (Equus ferus caballus), wild boar (Sus scrofa) and red fox (Vulpes vulpes). Feline and canine ATMs also express the murine macrophage marker F4/80 antigen. In the lean condition, the alternative macrophage activation marker CD206 is expressed by feline and canine ATMs and arginase-1 by feline ATMs. Obesity is associated with interleukin-6 and interferon gamma expression and with overt tyrosine nitration in both feline and canine ATMs. This resembles the obesity-induced phenotype switch of murine and human ATMs. Thus, we show, for the first time, that the presence of ATMs is a general trait of mammals. The interaction between the adipose cells and SVF immune cells might be evolutionarily conserved among mammals. PMID:26239911

  16. Measurement of purine derivatives in the urine of some ruminant species

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The application of published high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) methods for the determination of PD in urine of cattle, sheep, buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis) and arabian camels (Camelus dromedarius) was investigated. Urine was taken from two water buffaloes, two camels, three cows and four sheep, all fed at maintenance level. Total nitrogen content in urine was determined using a micro-Kjeldahl procedure. Allantoin, uric acid and creatinine levels were determined colorimetrically while xanthine and hypoxanthine concentrations were determined by HPLC. Relative proportion of allantoin ranged from 74 ± 7 to 91 ± 1% in camels and cattle, respectively. Uric acid proportion was very low in camel urine (1.7 ± 1) but ranged from 3.7 ± 3 to 9.2 ± 1% in sheep and cows, respectively. Xanthine + hypoxanthine ranged from 11 ± 3 to 25 ± 7% in buffalo and camels, respectively. Total PD:Creatinine ratio (mol/mol W0.75) was 118 ± 15, 46 ± 17, 37 ± 9 and 33 ± 5 for cattle, camels, buffaloes and sheep respectively. The adoption of a single method for the simultaneous detection of all derivatives proved difficult due to elution of polar coextractives at the same retention times as the peaks of allantoin, uric acid and creatinine. (author)

  17. Use of salivary cortisol to evaluate the influence of rides in dromedary camels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majchrzak, Yasmine N; Mastromonaco, Gabriela F; Korver, Wendy; Burness, Gary

    2015-01-15

    Animals in captivity and in the wild face numerous challenges, including the risk of enduring acute or chronic stress. In captivity, facilities attempt to alleviate the risk of chronic stress by providing environmental enrichment, shown to minimize behavioral disorders and stress in several species. One potential form of enrichment in zoos is training animals to provide rides for guests, however, the effect of this activity on the welfare of individual animals has never been examined. We validated the use of saliva for assessing stress in dromedary camels (Camelus dromedarius), an animal commonly used for rides. We then measured variation in salivary cortisol in four male camels while providing rides of differing frequency for guests at the Toronto Zoo. The camels were sampled during the ride season (June to September) using four treatments: (1) in their pasture, (2) at the ride area when not performing rides, (3) while providing a low number of rides (n=50/day) and (4) while providing a high number of rides (n=150/day). Furthermore, samples were taken before and after the ride season for comparison. There was a significant difference between the post-ride season treatment and the three treatments involving guest presence during the ride season (ride area, low rides, high rides). In general, cortisol concentrations were lower during the ride season and higher during the non-ride season. Based on the metrics we used, performing rides is not a stressful experience for these dromedary camels and suggests that rides may be a form of enrichment. PMID:25452030

  18. Water turnover rate and total body water affected by different physiological factors under Egyptian environmental conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The tritiated water dilution technique was used to determine the total body water (TBW) and water turnover rate (WTR), which is assumed to be similar to water intake, in water buffalo, Red Danish cattle, fat-tailed Osemi sheep and crossed Nubian-Bedouin goats and camels (Camelus dromedarius). There was a significant (P < 0.05) effect of species on TBW and WTR. The combined data of buffalo, cattle and sheep revealed a significant (P < 0.05) effect of pregnancy on TBW, but not on WTR. The combined data of buffalo and cattle showed a significantly lower TBW (P < 0.01) and a higher WTR (P < 0.05) in lactating animals than in heifers. In buffalo WTR was on average 81% higher in summer grazing (SG) than in spring. It was also 118 and 20% higher in summer non-grazing (SNG), than in either spring or SG, respectively. The differences between treatments in heifers, pregnant and lactating, were significant (P<0.01), except between spring and SG in heifers. The TBW was on average 12% higher in SG than in spring. It was also 18 and 5% higher in SNG than in either spring or SG, respectively. The differences between treatments in heifers, pregnant and lactating, were significant, except between SG and SNG in heifers and lactating cows and between spring and SG in lactating cows. (author)

  19. cDNA cloning and sequencing of ostrich Growth hormone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doosti Abbas

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, industrial breeding of ostrich (Struthio camelus has been widely developed in Iran. Growth hormone (GH is a peptide hormone that stimulates growth and cell reproduction in different animals. The aim of this study was to clone and sequence the ostrich growth hormone gene in E. coli, done for the first time in Iran. The cDNA that encodes ostrich growth hormone was isolated from total mRNA of the pituitary gland and amplified by RT-PCR using GH specific PCR primers. Then GH cDNA was cloned by T/A cloning technique and the construct was transformed into E. coli. Finally, GH cDNA sequence was submitted to the GenBank (Accession number: JN559394. The results of present study showed that GH cDNA was successfully cloned in E. coli. Sequencing confirmed that GH cDNA was cloned and that the length of ostrich GH cDNA was 672 bp; BLAST search showed that the sequence of growth hormone cDNA of the ostrich from Iran has 100% homology with other records existing in GenBank.

  20. Set a thief to catch a thief: brown-necked raven ( Corvus ruficollis) cooperatively kleptoparasitize Egyptian vulture ( Neophron percnopterus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yosef, Reuven; Kabesa, Shai; Yosef, Nufar

    2011-05-01

    Our study describes how brown-necked ravens ( Corvus ruficollis) are able to take advantage of an ordinarily inaccessible, high-quality food source by relying upon their innovative and manipulative thinking capabilities to exploit methods used by Egyptian vulture ( Neophron percnopterus) to overcome the problem. In five observed interactions, the ravens were first seen in the vicinity of an abandoned clutch of ostrich eggs ( Struthio camelus). The area was frequented by a pair of Egyptian vultures that bred on the cliffs across the road from the nature reserve. The Egyptian vulture exhibits tool use in birds, and is able to crack the hard shells of ostrich eggs by lifting a rock in the beak and pounding at the egg till it breaks open or cracks. If the egg is only cracked, the vulture inserts its narrow bill into the fissure and widens it by opening the mandibles. Pieces of eggshell are removed from around the crack in order to further open the egg. This is the point at which the pair of ravens attacked the vulture and harassed it till it abandoned the egg and left the area. The ravens then jointly enjoyed the contents of the egg which was otherwise inaccessible to them because of the strong egg shell.

  1. A New Model to Predict Weak Lensing Peak Counts I. Comparison with $N$-body Simulations

    CERN Document Server

    Lin, Chieh-An

    2014-01-01

    Weak-lensing peak counts has been shown to be a powerful tool for cosmology. It provides non-Gaussian information of large scale structures, complementary to second order statistics. We propose a new flexible method to predict weak lensing peak counts, which can be adapted to realistic scenarios, such as a real source distribution, intrinsic galaxy alignment, mask effects, photo-$z$ errors from surveys, etc. The new model is also suitable for applying the tomography technique and non-linear filters. A probabilistic approach to model peak counts is presented. First, we sample halos from a mass function. Second, we assign them NFW profiles. Third, we place those halos randomly on the field of view. The creation of these "fast simulations" requires much less computing time compared to $N$-body runs. Then, we perform ray-tracing through these fast simulation boxes and select peaks from weak-lensing maps to predict peak number counts. The computation is achieved by our CAMELUS algorithm, which we make available at...

  2. Radiographic studies of developing calvaria at prenatal stages in one-humped camel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SA Hena

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Radiographic studies on the fetal heads of 32 one-humped camels (Camelus dromedarius with 11 fetuses at the first trimester, 12 at the second trimester and 9 at the third trimester levels were conducted in Sokoto Metropolis. The study involved the radiographic evaluation of calvaria of different fetuses at first, second and third trimester stages of the gestational ages. Radiographic observations made in this study revealed that the onset of mineralization was recognizable even at the first trimester stage through the radio-opaque appearances of the calvaria appearing whiter on radiographs. This tendency however increased with increase in gestational age of the fetuses showing that because of their highly calcified calvaria, the fetuses at the third trimester were more radio-opaque to X-ray energy thus appearing whiter on the radiographs. Sutural demarcations were not clear on the radiographs made in this study, but however, clear evidences of fontanels were seen as localised radio-lucent areas on the calvaria more especially at the first trimester stage. The findings in this research would help in understanding the radiographical anatomy of the developing calvaria in this animal species.

  3. In situ measurements for calculating evapotranspiration values using neutron moisture meter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Field experiment was conducted at the Wadi Sudr area, south Sinai, Egypt. Two types of residual animal farm (i.e., goat and camel)used wheat crop, beside control (no manure). The neutron scattering method and tensiometers were used to calculate the components of soil moisture depletion, evapotranspiration (ET) and drainage rate (DR). Evapotranspiration (ET) was determined by four methods, i.e, soil moisture depletion (SMD), Active rooting depth (ARD) at 80% SMD, active rooting depth (ARD) at zero hydraulic potential gradient (dh/dz = 0) and Blaney - Criddle formula (climatically data) using published crop coefficient (Kc) ET values for goat and camel residuals and control treatments were found to be 5.59, 5.54 and 6.80; 4.48, 4.43 and 5.44; 5.01, 4.11 and 11.66 and 4.5 mm day 1 for all treatments using the previous four methods respectively. The data obtained also showed that ET values under organic manure treatments were lower than control treatment, while the dry weight of wheat crop was higher in the manure-treated plots relative to the control. These less irrigation water requirements are needed to be applied to manure-treated plots and this should reduce the opportunity of soil deterioration if saline water is used

  4. Colorimetric and sensory characteristics of fermented cured sausage with Brazilian ostrich meat addition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Pasqualin Cavalheiro

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the colorimetric and sensory characteristics of a fermented cured sausage containing ostrich meat (Struthio camelus and pork meat. Four treatments were performed: one with no ostrich meat (TC and the others containing 19.08 (T1, 38.34 (T2, and 57.60% (T3 of ostrich meat and pork meat. Colorimetric analyses were measuring L*, a*, b*, C*, and hº. Sensory analysis was conducted assessing color, aroma, flavor, and texture at the end of the sausages' processing. The sausages containing ostrich meat were statistically different from the control in the instrumental colorimetric analysis. In the sensory analysis, no significant differences were observed between the treatments for aroma, flavor, and texture. However, significant differences were found in the color of the sausages due to the high myoglobin content present in the ostrich meat, which resulted in a very dark color in the treatment with the highest percentage of this type of meat.

  5. Evidence for increased olfactory receptor gene repertoire size in two nocturnal bird species with well-developed olfactory ability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steiger Silke S

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In vertebrates, the molecular basis of the sense of smell is encoded by members of a large gene family, namely olfactory receptor (OR genes. Both the total number of OR genes and the proportion of intact OR genes in a genome may indicate the importance of the sense of smell for an animal. There is behavioral, physiological, and anatomical evidence that some bird species, in particular nocturnal birds, have a well developed sense of smell. Therefore, we hypothesized that nocturnal birds with good olfactory abilities have evolved (i more OR genes and (ii more intact OR genes than closely related and presumably less 'olfaction-dependent' day-active avian taxa. Results We used both non-radioactive Southern hybridization and PCR with degenerate primers to investigate whether two nocturnal bird species that are known to rely on olfactory cues, the brown kiwi (Apteryx australis and the kakapo (Strigops habroptilus, have evolved a larger OR gene repertoire than their day-active, closest living relatives (for kiwi the emu Dromaius novaehollandiae, rhea Rhea americana, and ostrich Struthio camelus and for kakapo the kaka Nestor meridionalis and kea Nestor notabilis. We show that the nocturnal birds did not have a significantly higher proportion of intact OR genes. However, the estimated total number of OR genes was larger in the two nocturnal birds than in their relatives. Conclusion Our results suggest that ecological niche adaptations such as daily activity patterns may have shaped avian OR gene repertoires.

  6. Purification and Characterization of Cytosolic Glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate Dehydrogenase from the Dromedary Camel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Latifa FOURRAT; Abdelghani IDDAR; Abdelaziz SOUKRI

    2007-01-01

    Glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) (EC 1.2.1.12), a key enzyme of carbon metabolism, was purified and characterized to homogeneity from skeletal muscle of Camelus dromedarius. The protein was purified approximately 26.8 folds by conventional ammonium sulphate fractionation followed by Blue Sepharose CL-6B chromatography, and its physical and kinetic properties were investigated. The native protein is a homotetramer with an apparent molecular weight of approximately 146 kDa. Isoelectric focusing analysis showed the presence of only one GAPDH isoform with an isoelectric point of 7.2. The optimum pH of the purified enzyme was 7.8. Studies on the effect of temperature on enzyme activity revealed an optimal value of approximately 28-32 ℃ with activation energy of 4.9 kcal/mol.The apparent Km values for NAD+ and DL-glyceraldehyde-3-phophate were estimated to be 0.025±0.040 mM and 0.21±0.08 mM, respectively. The Vmax of the purified protein was estimated to be 52.7±5.9 U/mg.These kinetic parameter values were different from those described previously, reflecting protein differences between species.

  7. Inferring muscle functional roles of the ostrich pelvic limb during walking and running using computer optimization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rankin, Jeffery W; Rubenson, Jonas; Hutchinson, John R

    2016-05-01

    Owing to their cursorial background, ostriches (Struthio camelus) walk and run with high metabolic economy, can reach very fast running speeds and quickly execute cutting manoeuvres. These capabilities are believed to be a result of their ability to coordinate muscles to take advantage of specialized passive limb structures. This study aimed to infer the functional roles of ostrich pelvic limb muscles during gait. Existing gait data were combined with a newly developed musculoskeletal model to generate simulations of ostrich walking and running that predict muscle excitations, force and mechanical work. Consistent with previous avian electromyography studies, predicted excitation patterns showed that individual muscles tended to be excited primarily during only stance or swing. Work and force estimates show that ostrich gaits are partially hip-driven with the bi-articular hip-knee muscles driving stance mechanics. Conversely, the knee extensors acted as brakes, absorbing energy. The digital extensors generated large amounts of both negative and positive mechanical work, with increased magnitudes during running, providing further evidence that ostriches make extensive use of tendinous elastic energy storage to improve economy. The simulations also highlight the need to carefully consider non-muscular soft tissues that may play a role in ostrich gait. PMID:27146688

  8. Do dark matter halos explain lensing peaks?

    CERN Document Server

    Matilla, José Manuel Zorrilla; Hsu, Daniel; Gupta, Arushi; Petri, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    We have investigated a recently proposed halo-based model, Camelus, for predicting weak-lensing peak counts, and compared its results over a collection of 162 cosmologies with those from N-body simulations. While counts from both models agree for peaks with $\\mathcal{S/N}>1$ (where $\\mathcal{S/N}$ is the ratio of the peak height to the r.m.s. shape noise), we find $\\approx 50\\%$ fewer counts for peaks near $\\mathcal{S/N}=0$ and significantly higher counts in the negative $\\mathcal{S/N}$ tail. Adding shape noise reduces the differences to within $20\\%$ for all cosmologies. We also found larger covariances that are more sensitive to cosmological parameters. As a result, credibility regions in the $\\{\\Omega_m, \\sigma_8\\}$ are $\\approx 30\\%$ larger. Even though the credible contours are commensurate, each model draws its predictive power from different types of peaks. Low peaks, especially those with $23)$. Our results confirm the importance of using a cosmology-dependent covariance with at least a 14\\% improveme...

  9. A Possible Long-tailed Bird with a Pygostyle from the Late Mesozoic Yixian Formation,Western Liaoning,China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    L(U) Junchang; HOU Lianhai

    2005-01-01

    An incomplete caudal vertebral series (IVPP V11309) from the Yixian Formation of late Mesozoic,Jianshangou area of B eipiao, western Liaoning Province, may represent a new bird. The tail is composed of at least 12 free caudal vertebrae and the most distal 5 caudal vertebrae co-ossified into a pygostyle. The pygostyle is plate-like and slightly curved dorsally. The anterior free caudals are amphiplatyan. The anterior caudal surfaces of the last three free caudals are concave, but their posterior articular surfaces are convex. The pygostyle is regarded as the first appeared flight apparatus during the evolutionary process from Archaeopteryx to neornithes. The pygostyle appeared in most early fossil birds and almost all the modern birds. Although their morphologies are different, they are basically formed by at least four last caudal vertebrae. The specimen V11309 is regarded as a bird rather than a non-avian theropod dinosaur based on the following characters: short caudal vertebrae, numerous pits present on the surfaces of the centra and, a foramen present between the basal part of the fused neural spines, which is similar to that of Struthio camelus. The discoveries of pygostyles from the therizinosauroids and oviraptorosaurs may provide strong evidence for supporting the origin of birds from small theropod dinosaurs. The structure of the pygostyle in specimen V11309 is different from those of Beipiaosaurus (Therizinosauroid) and Nomingia (oviraptorosaur). The most parsimonious interpretation is that these pygostyle-like structures are independently acquired by Beipiaosaurus and Nomingia during their evolutionary process.

  10. Morphological and histochemical observations of the organic components of ostrich eggshell

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.D.G. Richards

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available The organic component of the avian eggshell can be divided into 3 portions, the shell membranes, the matrix and the cuticle. These have been well characterised in the chicken but little has been published with regard to the ostrich (Struthio camelus. A number of recent studies have indicated that the cause of intra-shell embryonic deaths in the ostrich is similar to intra-shell embryonic deaths that occur in the chicken. These deaths in the chicken are associated with the loss of or damage to the waxy cuticle and other organic components of the eggshell, which is reported to be absent in the ostrich eggshell. In this study, preliminary morphological and histochemical analyses, at the level of the light and electron microscope, have characterised the various organic components of the ostrich eggshell. The results of the histochemical and electron microscopical analyses suggest that there mayonly be 1 shell membrane in this species, which could play a major role in the limitation of bacterial penetration to the embryonic chamber. The shell membrane has a distinct elemental profile as determined by EDSanalysis. The matrix is shown to decrease in mesh size from the mammillary layer to the vertical crystal layer. The closer packing of the mesh may indicate the presence of a morphologically discernible termination signal to calcification or the remnants of an evolutionary calcified cuticle. The matrix of the pores may also forma defensive barrier against bacterial invasion, which could be damaged as a result of dipping the eggs before incubation.

  11. Estimated abundance of wild burros surveyed on Bureau of Land Management Lands in 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffin, Paul C.

    2015-01-01

    The Bureau of Land Management (BLM) requires accurate estimates of the numbers of wild horses (Equus ferus caballus) and burros (Equus asinus) living on the lands it manages. For over ten years, BLM in Arizona has used the simultaneous double-observer method of recording wild burros during aerial surveys and has reported population estimates for those surveys that come from two formulations of a Lincoln-Petersen type of analysis (Graham and Bell, 1989). In this report, I provide those same two types of burro population analysis for 2014 aerial survey data from six herd management areas (HMAs) in Arizona, California, Nevada, and Utah. I also provide burro population estimates based on a different form of simultaneous double-observer analysis, now in widespread use for wild horse surveys that takes into account the potential effects on detection probability of sighting covariates including group size, distance, vegetative cover, and other factors (Huggins, 1989, 1991). The true number of burros present in the six areas surveyed was not known, so population estimates made with these three types of analyses cannot be directly tested for accuracy in this report. I discuss theoretical reasons why the Huggins (1989, 1991) type of analysis should provide less biased estimates of population size than the Lincoln-Petersen analyses and why estimates from all forms of double-observer analyses are likely to be lower than the true number of animals present in the surveyed areas. I note reasons why I suggest using burro observations made at all available distances in analyses, not only those within 200 meters of the flight path. For all analytical methods, small sample sizes of observed groups can be problematic, but that sample size can be increased over time for Huggins (1989, 1991) analyses by pooling observations. I note ways by which burro population estimates could be tested for accuracy when there are radio-collared animals in the population or when there are simultaneous

  12. A Global Scale Scenario for Prebiotic Chemistry: Silica-Based Self-Assembled Mineral Structures and Formamide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saladino, Raffaele; Botta, Giorgia; Bizzarri, Bruno Mattia; Di Mauro, Ernesto; Garcia Ruiz, Juan Manuel

    2016-05-17

    The pathway from simple abiotically made organic compounds to the molecular bricks of life, as we know it, is unknown. The most efficient geological abiotic route to organic compounds results from the aqueous dissolution of olivine, a reaction known as serpentinization (Sleep, N.H., et al. (2004) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 101, 12818-12822). In addition to molecular hydrogen and a reducing environment, serpentinization reactions lead to high-pH alkaline brines that can become easily enriched in silica. Under these chemical conditions, the formation of self-assembled nanocrystalline mineral composites, namely silica/carbonate biomorphs and metal silicate hydrate (MSH) tubular membranes (silica gardens), is unavoidable (Kellermeier, M., et al. In Methods in Enzymology, Research Methods in Biomineralization Science (De Yoreo, J., Ed.) Vol. 532, pp 225-256, Academic Press, Burlington, MA). The osmotically driven membranous structures have remarkable catalytic properties that could be operating in the reducing organic-rich chemical pot in which they form. Among one-carbon compounds, formamide (NH2CHO) has been shown to trigger the formation of complex prebiotic molecules under mineral-driven catalytic conditions (Saladino, R., et al. (2001) Biorganic & Medicinal Chemistry, 9, 1249-1253), proton irradiation (Saladino, R., et al. (2015) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 112, 2746-2755), and laser-induced dielectric breakdown (Ferus, M., et al. (2015) Proc Natl Acad Sci USA, 112, 657-662). Here, we show that MSH membranes are catalysts for the condensation of NH2CHO, yielding prebiotically relevant compounds, including carboxylic acids, amino acids, and nucleobases. Membranes formed by the reaction of alkaline (pH 12) sodium silicate solutions with MgSO4 and Fe2(SO4)3·9H2O show the highest efficiency, while reactions with CuCl2·2H2O, ZnCl2, FeCl2·4H2O, and MnCl2·4H2O showed lower reactivities. The collections of compounds forming inside and outside the tubular membrane are

  13. Contribution of stable isotopes (C,N,S) in collagen of late Pleistocene large mammal trophic ecology and landscape use: a case study in Goyet and Scladina cave (30-40,000 years BP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bocherens, Hervé; Germonpré, Mietje

    2010-05-01

    Two Belgian caves yielded very rich large mammal associations dating around 30 to 40,000 years ago: Goyet and Scladina cave (layer 1A). These sites are only 5 km apart but the cave entrances open on different valleys, in a quite diverse landscape ranging between open, unprotected uplands, steep cliffs and sheltered sun-exposed gorges, with the larger Meuse valley nearby. This mosaic scenery permitted during the Last Glacial a rich diversity of fossil flora and fauna. The faunal association includes a large diversity of taxa including Aurochs Bos primigenius, steppe bison Bison priscus, reindeer Rangifer tarandus, giant deer Megaloceros giganteus, horse Equus ferus, woolly rhinoceros Coelodonta antiquitatis, woolly mammoth Mammuthus primigenius, cave bear Ursus spelaeus, brown bear Ursus arctos, wolf Canis lupus, cave lion Panthera leo spelaea, and cave hyaena Crocuta crocuta spelaea. All the 90 studied bones and teeth yielded collagen with excellent collagen preservation, allowing reliable investigations of carbon, nitrogen and sulfur isotopic biogeochemistry. The combination of three different isotopic tracers allows to deciphering the effects of food selection and landscape use by different herbivorous and carnivorous taxa. This is the first study to include sulfur isotopic signatures in the study of late Quaternary large mammal palaeobiology. This new tracer yields evidence on mobility and differences in pasture areas, as different geological bedrock may exhibit various sulfur isotopic signatures that will pass on the herbivores and further on their predators. Using this feature in addition to the trophic information provided by carbon and nitrogen isotopic signatures, it appears that for some species present in both sites, such as horse and woolly rhinoceros, the individuals found in each site probably did not use the same pasture areas. This seems to also the case for the overwhelmingly vegetarian cave bears. In addition, individuals from the same species

  14. Ecological differences in three autochthonous equid species in Mongolian Gobi inferred from stable isotopes in tail hair

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burnik Šturm, Martina; Voigt, Christian C.; Oyunsaikhan, Ganbaatar; Kaczensky, Petra

    2014-05-01

    In the Dzungarian Gobi of Mongolia three equid species, Asiatic wild ass (Equus hemionus), domestic horse (Equus caballus), and re-introduced Przewalski's horse (Equus ferus przewalskii) share the same habitat and thus provide a unique opportunity for comparative ecological studies. In our project we use the stable isotope analysis of tail hair as a tool to study feeding ecology, water use and movement pattern of the three extant sympatric equid species to reveal species specific differences and thus strengthen our understanding of the ecological adaptations of the three species to the harsh environment of the Gobi desert. Since tail hair grow continuously and is isotopically inert after formation, when sampled and analysed longitudinally, provides temporary explicit information on dietary regime and movement pattern. We use the carbon isotopes in the tail hair to determine the quantitative dependence of each animal on isotopically distinct C3 (grasses) and C4 (multitude of annuals and perennials) diet. Nitrogen isotopes reflect the isotopic composition of the diet and hydrogen isotopes reflect the isotopic composition of the water that animals utilize, while both elements have been reported to also give information on the physical status of the animal. Combined isotope data will be used to describe the movement patterns and habitat use of the three equid species. We will present the methodology and first preliminary results of carbon and nitrogen isotope analysis of potential forage plants of the study area and of the tail hair analysis. Among the analysed plants, collected in the pilot sampling campaign in 2012 (n = 192), we identified 14 C3 and two C4species and found no general trend that could explain the effect of altitude on carbon isotopic composition in C3 plants and no correlation between carbon isotopic composition and longitude or latitude. We performed additional, more detailed plant sampling in 2013. The first results obtained from the tail hair

  15. A Global Scale Scenario for Prebiotic Chemistry: Silica-Based Self-Assembled Mineral Structures and Formamide

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    The pathway from simple abiotically made organic compounds to the molecular bricks of life, as we know it, is unknown. The most efficient geological abiotic route to organic compounds results from the aqueous dissolution of olivine, a reaction known as serpentinization (Sleep, N.H., et al. (2004) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 101, 12818–12822). In addition to molecular hydrogen and a reducing environment, serpentinization reactions lead to high-pH alkaline brines that can become easily enriched in silica. Under these chemical conditions, the formation of self-assembled nanocrystalline mineral composites, namely silica/carbonate biomorphs and metal silicate hydrate (MSH) tubular membranes (silica gardens), is unavoidable (Kellermeier, M., et al. In Methods in Enzymology, Research Methods in Biomineralization Science (De Yoreo, J., Ed.) Vol. 532, pp 225–256, Academic Press, Burlington, MA). The osmotically driven membranous structures have remarkable catalytic properties that could be operating in the reducing organic-rich chemical pot in which they form. Among one-carbon compounds, formamide (NH2CHO) has been shown to trigger the formation of complex prebiotic molecules under mineral-driven catalytic conditions (Saladino, R., et al. (2001) Biorganic & Medicinal Chemistry, 9, 1249–1253), proton irradiation (Saladino, R., et al. (2015) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 112, 2746–2755), and laser-induced dielectric breakdown (Ferus, M., et al. (2015) Proc Natl Acad Sci USA, 112, 657–662). Here, we show that MSH membranes are catalysts for the condensation of NH2CHO, yielding prebiotically relevant compounds, including carboxylic acids, amino acids, and nucleobases. Membranes formed by the reaction of alkaline (pH 12) sodium silicate solutions with MgSO4 and Fe2(SO4)3·9H2O show the highest efficiency, while reactions with CuCl2·2H2O, ZnCl2, FeCl2·4H2O, and MnCl2·4H2O showed lower reactivities. The collections of compounds forming inside and outside the tubular

  16. Stable isotopes suggest differences in diet between historic and reintroduced Przewalskís horses in the Gobi desert

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burnik Šturm, Martina; Spasskaya, Natalia N.; Sablin, Mikhail V.; Voigt, Christian C.; Kaczensky, Petra

    2016-04-01

    In historic times, two wild equid species, the Przewalski᾽s horse (PH; Equus ferus przewalskii) and the Asiatic wild ass (khulan, KH; Equus hemionus), roamed the Eurasian steppes. By the end of the 1960s, PHs had been driven to extinction in the wild and the range of KHs became severely restricted to the least productive habitats. However, PHs survived in captivity and reintroductions since the 1990s have brought the species back to parts of its native range in Mongolia and northern China where they again overlap with KHs. Ecological research on PHs and KHs has increased in recent years, but very little information is available on the ecology of the original PHs prior to extinction in the wild. We applied stable isotope analysis (13C, 15N, and 2H) of segmentally cut tail hair of PHs and KHs, collected during expeditions in NW China and SW Mongolia in 1889-1899, to draw inferences about the species feeding ecology. We compared tail hair isotope patterns of historic individuals to those of their extant counterparts from the Mongolian Gobi. A previous study of isotopic tail hair signatures of extant PHs (N=6) and KHs (N=6) suggested species specific differences in diet, with PHs being year-round grazers, but KHs switching between being grazers in summer and mixed feeders in winter (Burnik Šturm et al., in prep.). The comparison of isotope patterns of extant with historic samples confirms diet seasonality in historic KHs (N=3), but detects the same seasonality in five out of six PHs, suggesting that historic PHs had a different isotopic dietary niche than extant PHs. While we are still unable to fully understand the underlying reasons for this change in PHs, our results clearly suggest that the isotopic dietary niche of PHs was wider in the past, suggesting a higher diet flexibility, and overlapped with that of KHs, suggesting a high competition potential over Gobi pastures between the two equid species in historic times. Reference: Burnik Šturm, M., Ganbaatar, O

  17. Características físico-químicas de embutido curado fermentado com adição de carne de avestruz associada à de suíno Physico-chemical characteristics of fermented cured sausage with the addition of ostrich meat associated to pork meat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Pasqualin Cavalheiro

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Os objetivos deste trabalho foram desenvolver e determinar as características físico-químicas e a composição centesimal de um embutido curado fermentado contendo carne de avestruz (Struthio camelus e carne suína. Para isso, utilizaram-se quatro formulações, e em uma não foi utilizada carne de avestruz (controle e nas outras foram utilizados 19, 38,3 e 57,6% dessa carne, em associação com a carne suína. Os produtos foram avaliados durante o processamento diariamente, na primeira semana e nos dias 14, 21 e 28, para análise de pH; nos dias zero, três, sete, 14, 21 e 28 foram avaliados quanto à atividade de água; e, após concluída a fabricação, foram avaliados quanto à quebra de peso e à composição centesimal (28 dias. Os resultados mostraram que os embutidos apresentaram um pH mais ácido do que o ideal. Peças com maior quantidade de carne de avestruz apresentaram uma maior perda de peso ao final do processamento, sendo a diferença entre o tratamento 3 e o tratamento controle de 8,2%. O teor de carne de avestruz alterou significativamente as peças em relação ao teor de umidade final. Com exceção do nível de gordura, todos os outros quesitos avaliados atendem ao Regulamento Técnico de Identidade e Qualidade do Ministério da Agricultura.The aim of this research was to develop and to determine the physic-chemical characteristics and centesimal composition of a fermented cured sausage containing ostrich meat (Struthio camelus and pork meat. Four different formulations were developed: one with no ostrich meat (control and others with levels of 19, 38.3 and 57.8%, respectively, in association with pork meat. The products were evaluated daily in the first week and in days 14, 21 and 28 for pH analysis and days zero, three, seven, 14, 21 and 28 for water activity analysis. After manufacturing was completed, weight loss and centesimal composition (28 days were evaluated. The results showed that the sausages presented p

  18. Ostriches sleep like platypuses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John A Lesku

    Full Text Available Mammals and birds engage in two distinct states of sleep, slow wave sleep (SWS and rapid eye movement (REM sleep. SWS is characterized by slow, high amplitude brain waves, while REM sleep is characterized by fast, low amplitude waves, known as activation, occurring with rapid eye movements and reduced muscle tone. However, monotremes (platypuses and echidnas, the most basal (or 'ancient' group of living mammals, show only a single sleep state that combines elements of SWS and REM sleep, suggesting that these states became temporally segregated in the common ancestor to marsupial and eutherian mammals. Whether sleep in basal birds resembles that of monotremes or other mammals and birds is unknown. Here, we provide the first description of brain activity during sleep in ostriches (Struthio camelus, a member of the most basal group of living birds. We found that the brain activity of sleeping ostriches is unique. Episodes of REM sleep were delineated by rapid eye movements, reduced muscle tone, and head movements, similar to those observed in other birds and mammals engaged in REM sleep; however, during REM sleep in ostriches, forebrain activity would flip between REM sleep-like activation and SWS-like slow waves, the latter reminiscent of sleep in the platypus. Moreover, the amount of REM sleep in ostriches is greater than in any other bird, just as in platypuses, which have more REM sleep than other mammals. These findings reveal a recurring sequence of steps in the evolution of sleep in which SWS and REM sleep arose from a single heterogeneous state that became temporally segregated into two distinct states. This common trajectory suggests that forebrain activation during REM sleep is an evolutionarily new feature, presumably involved in performing new sleep functions not found in more basal animals.

  19. Reference genes for quantitative gene expression studies in multiple avian species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olias, Philipp; Adam, Iris; Meyer, Anne; Scharff, Constance; Gruber, Achim D

    2014-01-01

    Quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) rapidly and reliably quantifies gene expression levels across different experimental conditions. Selection of suitable reference genes is essential for meaningful normalization and thus correct interpretation of data. In recent years, an increasing number of avian species other than the chicken has been investigated molecularly, highlighting the need for an experimentally validated pan-avian primer set for reference genes. Here we report testing a set for 14 candidate reference genes (18S, ABL, GAPDH, GUSB, HMBS, HPRT, PGK1, RPL13, RPL19, RPS7, SDHA, TFRC, VIM, YWHAZ) on different tissues of the mallard (Anas platyrhynchos), domestic chicken (Gallus gallus domesticus), common crane (Grus grus), white-tailed eagle (Haliaeetus albicilla), domestic turkey (Meleagris gallopavo f. domestica), cockatiel (Nymphicus hollandicus), Humboldt penguin (Sphenicus humboldti), ostrich (Struthio camelus) and zebra finch (Taeniopygia guttata), spanning a broad range of the phylogenetic tree of birds. Primer pairs for six to 11 genes were successfully established for each of the nine species. As a proof of principle, we analyzed expression levels of 10 candidate reference genes as well as FOXP2 and the immediate early genes, EGR1 and CFOS, known to be rapidly induced by singing in the avian basal ganglia. We extracted RNA from microbiopsies of the striatal song nucleus Area X of adult male zebra finches after they had sang or remained silent. Using three different statistical algorithms, we identified five genes (18S, PGK1, RPS7, TFRC, YWHAZ) that were stably expressed within each group and also between the singing and silent conditions, establishing them as suitable reference genes. In conclusion, the newly developed pan-avian primer set allows accurate normalization and quantification of gene expression levels in multiple avian species. PMID:24926893

  20. Reference genes for quantitative gene expression studies in multiple avian species.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philipp Olias

    Full Text Available Quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR rapidly and reliably quantifies gene expression levels across different experimental conditions. Selection of suitable reference genes is essential for meaningful normalization and thus correct interpretation of data. In recent years, an increasing number of avian species other than the chicken has been investigated molecularly, highlighting the need for an experimentally validated pan-avian primer set for reference genes. Here we report testing a set for 14 candidate reference genes (18S, ABL, GAPDH, GUSB, HMBS, HPRT, PGK1, RPL13, RPL19, RPS7, SDHA, TFRC, VIM, YWHAZ on different tissues of the mallard (Anas platyrhynchos, domestic chicken (Gallus gallus domesticus, common crane (Grus grus, white-tailed eagle (Haliaeetus albicilla, domestic turkey (Meleagris gallopavo f. domestica, cockatiel (Nymphicus hollandicus, Humboldt penguin (Sphenicus humboldti, ostrich (Struthio camelus and zebra finch (Taeniopygia guttata, spanning a broad range of the phylogenetic tree of birds. Primer pairs for six to 11 genes were successfully established for each of the nine species. As a proof of principle, we analyzed expression levels of 10 candidate reference genes as well as FOXP2 and the immediate early genes, EGR1 and CFOS, known to be rapidly induced by singing in the avian basal ganglia. We extracted RNA from microbiopsies of the striatal song nucleus Area X of adult male zebra finches after they had sang or remained silent. Using three different statistical algorithms, we identified five genes (18S, PGK1, RPS7, TFRC, YWHAZ that were stably expressed within each group and also between the singing and silent conditions, establishing them as suitable reference genes. In conclusion, the newly developed pan-avian primer set allows accurate normalization and quantification of gene expression levels in multiple avian species.

  1. GROSS AND MICROSCOPIC ANATOMY OF MAMMARY GLAND OF DROMEDARIES UNDER DIFFERENT PHYSIOLOGICAL CONDITIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Kausar, A. Sarwar and C.S. Hayat

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available Samples of 24 mammary glands from healthy one-humped camel (Camelus dromedarius cows were investigated under different physiological conditions for their gross and light microscopic anatomy. Different groups included equal number of immature heifers, mature heifers, lactating and non-lactating animals. Tissues fixed in 10% NBF were processed as per routine and stained with hematoxylin and eosin (H&E and Massons trichome. Morphometry was done with the help of stage and ocular micrometer. Gross studies revealed that the camel's udder consists of four quarters. The udder and teat showed light brown to solid black tinge in colour. The tips of teats sloped to a point both in immature and mature animals, however, the conformation of teats turned rounded at the tips in lactating camels. Each teat possessed two teat canals. The dimensions of teat and streak canal varied markedly among four different groups. Number of Furestenberg's rosettes ranged from 11.6 to 13.6. Microscopic studies revealed that streak canal was lined by stratified squamous keratinized epithelium that was partially extremely thin in some parts. Cutaneous layer of teat was devoid of hair follicles except at the base of teat. Follicles were associated with sebaceous glands. Sweat glands were less coiled and showed a wide acinous element forming the part of excretory duct. Glomus organs occurred in the stratum profundum of the corium as well as in the subcutis of the skin of mammary gland. They also revealed great variation in structure and size. Epithelial lining of the alveoli varied from flattened to columnar according to physiological state. Number and size of alveoli per lobule decreased and the parenchyma was replaced by loose connective tissue during non-lactating phase. These results suggested that age and lactation considerably influenced gross and microscopic anatomy of mammary gland in camels.

  2. Heterochronic shift between early organogenesis and migration of cephalic neural crest cells in two divergent evolutionary phenotypes of archosaurs: crocodile and ostrich.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kundrát, Martin

    2009-01-01

    Living archosaurs (crocodiles and birds) represent an intriguing evo-devo model system. Although close in phylogenetic relationship, the two lineages show considerable divergence in trends of phenotypic evolution. The head anatomy of recent crocodilians has changed little in comparison with that of their crocodylomorph ancestors. The head phenotype of the avians (birds), as well as some non-avian theropods, shows numerous evolutionary innovations that differ considerably from the crocodylomorph pattern. Most of the novel head structures, such as features of the craniofacial skeleton, cranial nerves, head muscles, and integument are derived from the same cellular source common to all archosaurs, the cephalic neural crest (CNC). Therefore, other factors must be involved in the developmental disparity of homologous structures in the aforementioned lineages. The present study analyzes the earliest developmental events that are associated with the appearance of the neural crest cells in the two archosaur models: Crocodylus niloticus and Struthio camelus. I found that both models share unique developmental features, the presence of an unpaired, rostrally migrating population of CNC cells, showing that the two are closely related to each other. On the other hand, the crocodile and the ostrich differ substantially in (1) timing, (2) duration, and (3) expression patterns of the CNC. Compared with the crocodile, the CNC cells in the ostrich (1) migrate much later into the embryonic head, (2) but relocate to their terminal positions faster, and (3) take specifically directed migratory routes in the mandibular/oral region and head/trunk-interface regions. I suggest that accelerated relocation of CNC cells combined with delayed head organogenesis may represent important innovative conditions in the developmental evolution of a new archosaur head phenotype. PMID:19754710

  3. Effect of diet supplementation on growth and reproduction in camels under arid range conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdouli H.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Eighteen pregnant dromedary females (Camelus dromedarius were used to determine the effect of concentrate supplement on growth and reproductive performances in peri-partum period. The females were divided into supplemented (n = 9; S and unsupplemented (n = 9; C experimental groups. All animals grazed, with one mature male, 7 to 8 hours per day on salty pasture rangelands. During night, they were kept in pen, where each female of group S received 4 kg per day of concentrate supplement during the last 3 months of gestation and 5 kg per day during the first 3 months post-partum. During the last 90 days of gestation daily body weight gain (DBG was at least tenfold more important in group S than in group C (775 g vs. 72 g respectively. Supplementation affected birth weight of offspring (30.3 kg vs. 23.4 kg and its DBG (806 g vs. 430 g in group S and group C respectively. During the post-partum period, females in group S gained in weight (116 g per day whereas females in group C lost more than 200 g per day. The mean post-partum interval to the first heat and the percentage of females in heat were 29.5 day and 44.4/ vs. 41.2 day and 71.4/ for the C and S groups, respectively. We conclude that under range conditions, dietary supplementation of dromedary during late pregnancy stage and post-partum period improves productive and reproductive parameters.

  4. Multiple IgH Isotypes Including IgD, Subclasses of IgM, and IgY Are Expressed in the Common Ancestors of Modern Birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Binyue; Yuan, Hui; Wang, Tao; Li, Bo; Ma, Li; Yu, Shuyang; Huang, Tian; Li, Yan; Fang, Dongming; Chen, Xiaoli; Wang, Yongsi; Qiu, Si; Guo, Ying; Fei, Jing; Ren, Liming; Pan-Hammarström, Qiang; Hammarström, Lennart; Wang, Jun; Wang, Jian; Hou, Yong; Pan, Qingjie; Xu, Xun; Zhao, Yaofeng

    2016-06-15

    Although evolutionarily just as ancient as IgM, it has been thought for many years that IgD is not present in birds. Based on the recently sequenced genomes of 48 bird species as well as high-throughput transcriptome sequencing of immune-related tissues, we demonstrate in this work that the ostrich (Struthio camelus) possesses a functional δ gene that encodes a membrane-bound IgD H chain with seven CH domains. Furthermore, δ sequences were clearly identified in many other bird species, demonstrating that the δ gene is widely distributed among birds and is only absent in certain bird species. We also show that the ostrich possesses two μ genes (μ1, μ2) and two υ genes (υ1, υ2), in addition to the δ and α genes. Phylogenetic analyses suggest that subclass diversification of both the μ and υ genes occurred during the early stages of bird evolution, after their divergence from nonavian reptiles. Although the positions of the two υ genes are unknown, physical mapping showed that the remaining genes are organized in the order μ1-δ-α-μ2, with the α gene being inverted relative to the others. Together with previous studies, our data suggest that birds and nonavian reptile species most likely shared a common ancestral IgH gene locus containing a δ gene and an inverted α gene. The δ gene was then evolutionarily lost in selected birds, whereas the α gene lost in selected nonavian reptiles. The data obtained in this study provide significant insights into the understanding of IgH gene evolution in tetrapods. PMID:27183632

  5. The de novo genome assembly and annotation of a female domestic dromedary of North African origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitak, Robert R; Mohandesan, Elmira; Corander, Jukka; Burger, Pamela A

    2016-01-01

    The single-humped dromedary (Camelus dromedarius) is the most numerous and widespread of domestic camel species and is a significant source of meat, milk, wool, transportation and sport for millions of people. Dromedaries are particularly well adapted to hot, desert conditions and harbour a variety of biological and physiological characteristics with evolutionary, economic and medical importance. To understand the genetic basis of these traits, an extensive resource of genomic variation is required. In this study, we assembled at 65× coverage, a 2.06 Gb draft genome of a female dromedary whose ancestry can be traced to an isolated population from the Canary Islands. We annotated 21 167 protein-coding genes and estimated ~33.7% of the genome to be repetitive. A comparison with the recently published draft genome of an Arabian dromedary resulted in 1.91 Gb of aligned sequence with a divergence of 0.095%. An evaluation of our genome with the reference revealed that our assembly contains more error-free bases (91.2%) and fewer scaffolding errors. We identified ~1.4 million single-nucleotide polymorphisms with a mean density of 0.71 × 10(-3) per base. An analysis of demographic history indicated that changes in effective population size corresponded with recent glacial epochs. Our de novo assembly provides a useful resource of genomic variation for future studies of the camel's adaptations to arid environments and economically important traits. Furthermore, these results suggest that draft genome assemblies constructed with only two differently sized sequencing libraries can be comparable to those sequenced using additional library sizes, highlighting that additional resources might be better placed in technologies alternative to short-read sequencing to physically anchor scaffolds to genome maps. PMID:26178449

  6. The Staurotypus turtles and aves share the same origin of sex chromosomes but evolved different types of heterogametic sex determination.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taiki Kawagoshi

    Full Text Available Reptiles have a wide diversity of sex-determining mechanisms and types of sex chromosomes. Turtles exhibit temperature-dependent sex determination and genotypic sex determination, with male heterogametic (XX/XY and female heterogametic (ZZ/ZW sex chromosomes. Identification of sex chromosomes in many turtle species and their comparative genomic analysis are of great significance to understand the evolutionary processes of sex determination and sex chromosome differentiation in Testudines. The Mexican giant musk turtle (Staurotypus triporcatus, Kinosternidae, Testudines and the giant musk turtle (Staurotypus salvinii have heteromorphic XY sex chromosomes with a low degree of morphological differentiation; however, their origin and linkage group are still unknown. Cross-species chromosome painting with chromosome-specific DNA from Chinese soft-shelled turtle (Pelodiscus sinensis revealed that the X and Y chromosomes of S. triporcatus have homology with P. sinensis chromosome 6, which corresponds to the chicken Z chromosome. We cloned cDNA fragments of S. triporcatus homologs of 16 chicken Z-linked genes and mapped them to S. triporcatus and S. salvinii chromosomes using fluorescence in situ hybridization. Sixteen genes were localized to the X and Y long arms in the same order in both species. The orders were also almost the same as those of the ostrich (Struthio camelus Z chromosome, which retains the primitive state of the avian ancestral Z chromosome. These results strongly suggest that the X and Y chromosomes of Staurotypus turtles are at a very early stage of sex chromosome differentiation, and that these chromosomes and the avian ZW chromosomes share the same origin. Nonetheless, the turtles and birds acquired different systems of heterogametic sex determination during their evolution.

  7. The One-humped Camel in the Canary Islands: History and Present Status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilson, RT.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The one-humped camel (Camelus dromedarius L. is not indigenous to the Canary Islands but based on historical references was introduced at the very beginning of the fifteenth century. The camel thrived in the subtropical dry environment. A long period of isolation from other animals of the same species meant that the animals were virtually disease free. This made the Islands an ideal base for exporting camels to new areas such that camels from the Canaries went to Peru in the sixteenth century, to Brazil in the eighteenth century, Venezuela and Bolivia in the early part of the nineteenth century and Australia in 1840. Camels went to several Caribbean islands in the middle of the nineteenth century. More recently (late twentieth and early twenty-first centuries some animals were exported from the islands to mainland Europe, notably France, Spain and the Netherlands, and to South America. Camels have been used in military operations, as transport and draught animals in support of agriculture and have found a role in the tourist industry. In early 2013 there were some 1,300 camels distributed over four of the larger islands of the archipelago in herds varying in size from a single animal to herds of as many as 150 head: a large group of about 400 heads kept in a Safari Park on the island of Fuerteventura is considered as the national conservation herd. The "Canary" camel has recently been shown to be genetically distinct from most other populations and it has been proposed that it should be designated as a distinct breed.

  8. Diatom assemblage in a tropical lake of northeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lilian Rodrigues do Nascimento

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The composition and spatial variation of diatom assemblage in surface sediments of Caçó Lake (shallow, mesotrophic and weakly acid lake - Maranhão State, Brazil were analyzed in order to know the distribution pattern of the species along the lake during rainy season (April 1999. Four zones were established in the lake based on 21 diatoms species and habitat affinities. The first three zones (prime three meters deep to six meters deep were marked by the occurrence of Pinnularia gigas, Frustulia rhomboides, Encyonopsis krasskei, Eunotia camelus, E. femoriformis and E. monodon. Zone IV (seven to nine meters deep was inhabited mainly by Surirella biseriata and Fragilariforma floridana. During the beginning of the rainy season, the diatom assemblage in Caçó Lake was composed mainly by benthic and epiphytic forms that reflected the low lake levels and the abundance of littoral vegetation present in this lake.Com o objetivo de se conhecer a dinâmica espacial e a distribuição das diatomáceas contidas no sedimento superficial do lago Caçó, durante o período de chuvas (abril de 1999 foram realizadas coletas em um "transect" horizontal. A partir da observação destas coletas efetuadas a cada 1 metro pode-se observar que a distribuição das diatomáceas esteve fortemente ligada a ocorrência do banco de macrófitas da sua margem, com a ocorrência maciça das espécies epifíticas e bentônicas. A análise de agrupamento de dados permitiu uma melhor visualização, da sua distribuição a cada profundidade e também das associações específicas em cada zona. Os resultados deste estudo permitiram concluir que a ocorrência e distribuição das diatomáceas do Lago Caçó está fortemente ligada ao banco de macrófitas localizado em suas margens, definindo assim zonas características dentro do lago.

  9. Circulating oxidative stress status in dromedary camels infested with sarcoptic mange.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saleh, Mostafa A; Mahran, Osman M; Bassam Al-Salahy, M

    2011-01-01

    Oxidative stress is an imbalance between radical-generating and radical-scavenging activity, resulting in oxidation products and tissue damage. This study was aimed to evaluate the status of oxidative stress indices in blood of camels naturally infested with S. scabiei. Forty-seven male camels (Camelus dromedaries) were divided according to the extent of the infested area with Sarcoptes scabiei into four groups, mild (MID, n = 12), moderate (MOD, n = 10), severely infested (SEV, n = 10) and healthy control group (n = 15). Blood was used for determination of red cell count (RBC), hemoglobin (Hb), packed cell volume (PCV), serum nitric oxide (NO(•), a free radical), ascorbate and albumin concentrations, and erythrocytic values of malondialdehyde (MDA, a marker of lipid peroxidation), protein carbonyls (PC, an indicator of protein oxidation), glutathione (GSH) superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT). Decreased levels (P < 0.05) of RBC, Hb, PCV, albumin and ascorbate were noticed in MOD and SEV compared to controls with the lowest values (P < 0.05) in SEV except for ascorbate, where MOD did not differ from SEV. Compared to controls, NO(•) gradually increased (P < 0.05) in MID followed by MOD and SEV, whereas MDA and PC were higher (P < 0.05) in MOD and SEV. PC was higher (P < 0.05) in MOD than SEV. In addition, the antioxidants GSH, SOD and CAT were higher (P < 0.05) in MID and lower (P < 0.05) in MOD and SEV compared to controls. GSH was lower (P < 0.05) in SEV compared to MOD. Besides, Hb was negatively correlated with NO(•) (r = -0.68, P < 0.001), MDA (r = -0.53, P < 0.001) and PC (r = -0.73, P < 0.001). In conclusion, dromedary sarcoptosis is accompanied by a state of oxidative stress process, which increased by increasing the area of infestation, and may contribute to the pathogenesis of the disease. PMID:21082344

  10. 黑腹胃蝇三龄幼虫形态学和成虫行为方式研究%Gasterophilus pecorum third instar larvae morphology and adult behavior mode

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘善辉; 胡德夫; 初红军; 曹杰; 曹玉成; 李凯

    2012-01-01

    2008―2010年,对寄生于新疆卡拉麦里与普氏野马同域生活的家马体内的黑腹胃蝇(Gasterophilus pecorum)进行了实验室培养和野外行为观察。将收集到的920只3龄幼虫进行室内培养,结果成功化蛹35个(3.80%),化蛹期为13~27d,巅峰期为18~20d(42.86%);17个(48.57%)个体羽化,羽化期为15~27d,巅峰期为21~22d(22.86%)。在这些羽化的成蝇当中雄性占11.76%,雌性占88.24%,雄雌比为0.13;其存活期为2~8d,较大存活率发生在第4-6天(58.82%)。3龄幼虫体长(13.2±7.0)mm,体宽(5.1±4.0)mm,体质量(241±30)mg。相关性分析表明,幼虫的体长、体宽和体质量与成蝇的性别无相关性。交尾行为没有在野外或者靠近的马体的周围环境中发现,羽化初期有梳理和寻求寄主行为。黑腹胃蝇的卵在马的体表和植物茎叶上也均未发现。%Objectives of this study were to analyze morphological characteristics of third instar larva of Gasterophilus pecorum and behavior of adult flies by laboratory culture and field observation from 2008 to 2010. G. pecorurn larva parasitize inside bodies of local domestic horses that live sympatricly in the strictly protected area with reintroduced Przewalski horses (gquus ferus przewalskii) in Kalamaili of Xinjiang. A total of 920 third instar larva were collected and cultured, of which 35 (2.9%) individuals pupated suc- cessfully and pupal period of G. pecorum varied from 13 to 27 days with a peck between 18th and 20 th days (42.86%). 17 (48.57%) individuals emerged and emergence period varied from 15 to 27 clays with a peck between 21 th and 22 th days (22.86%), of which 11. 76% were males and 88.24% were females with a sexual ratio of 0. 13. Their longevity varied from 2 to 8 days, but the higher frequency was found from 4 to 6 days (58.82%). It was observed that length, width and weight of larvae bodies were (13.2± 7.0) mm, (5. 1±4.0

  11. Effect of weaning stress, housing system and probiotics supplementation on cortisol, thyroid activity and productive performance of sucker camel calves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The weaning process has been identified as associated with potential psychological, nutritional and physiological stressors on both dam and her young. These stressors are often stressful for the young. Ten sucker camel calves were weaned using calf-dam on and suckling off weaning system (calves were kept with their dams at all times during weaning process and prevented from suckling) under two housing systems, 6 calves in group housing system (G) and 4 calves in individually housing system (I). Half of calves in each housing system were supplemented with probiotics (treated, P), while the other was not-supplemented with probiotics (control, C). This study was carried out at Maryout Research Station of the Desert Research Center, 35 km to southwest of Alexandria, Egypt. Calves were weaned at 280 days of age with initial live body weight (LBW) of 236.76±0.224 kg. The duration of the study was 35 days and divided into five weeks; one week served as pre-weaning followed by four weeks served as post-weaning period (calves were in treatments). Calves and their dams were used to estimate the effects of weaning stress, housing systems (group, G vs. individually, I) and probiotics supplementation on the productive performance, cortisol (COR) and thyroid hormones (T3 and T4) concentrations of camel calves (Camelus dromedaries). No measurements were done on the dams. The results indicated that, regardless the effect of housing system and Abdel-Fattah et al., J. Rad. Res. Appl. Sci., Vol. 4, No. 4(B) (2011) 1292 probiotics supplementation, weaning stress declined LBW -0.89% at d7 post weaning. Concerned housing system effect, group-housed calves and individually-housed calves lost -0.36 and -1.43% of their body weights, respectively on d7 post-weaning and they recovered their weaning weight (d0) on d14 post-weaning period (2.45 and 0.57%). Neither group housing system nor probiotics supplementation prevented the weight lost resulted by weaning stress during the first week

  12. Influenza Aviária: Uma Revisão dos Últimos Dez Anos Avian Influenza: A Review of the Last Ten Years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NRS Martins

    2001-05-01

    Full Text Available A influenza aviária é doença exótica no Brasil. O sistema de vigilância implementado pelo Programa Nacional de Sanidade Avícola (PNSA mantém monitoração permanente das aves das principais espécies domésticas, tanto do material genético importado para a indústria avícola, por exemplo, da espécie das galinhas (Gallus gallus formadomestica, perus (Meleagris gallopavo formadomestica, codornas (Coturnix coturnix japonica, patos (Anas, primários (elite, bisavós e avós para postura ou corte, como aves de espécies de exploração mais recente, exóticas, por exemplo avestruzes (Struthio camelus ou nativas, por exemplo emas (Rhea americana. Os plantéis de reprodutores em produção são também acompanhados por amostragens periódicas, conforme previsto no PNSA, além da monitoração das respostas aos programas de vacinação, por exemplo, contra bronquite infecciosa e doença infecciosa bursal. O PNSA estabelece as normas de atuação para o controle e erradicação da doença de Newcastle (ND e Influenza Aviária (AI (Projeto de Vigilância, 2001, a saber: I - Notificação de focos da doença (e confirmação laboratorial no LARA-Campinas; II - Assistência a focos; III - Medidas de desinfecção; IV - Sacrifício sanitário; V - Vazio sanitário; VI - Vacinação dos plantéis ou esquemas emergenciais; VII - Controle e fiscalização dos animais susceptíveis; VIII - Outras medidas sanitárias; A vigilância e atenção ao foco exige o diagnóstico laboratorial e diferencial de AI e ND, que segue as normas do PNSA, conforme o sumário abaixo: 1- Interdição e coleta de materiais para exame laboratorial oficial; 2- Registro das aves: espécie(s, categoria(s, número(s, manutenção de aves; utensílios e produtos no local; proibição de trânsito de e para a(s propriedade(s em um raio de 10 km; controle de todos os animais e materiais possíveis fontes de propagação; desinfecção de vias de entradas e saídas à(s propriedade