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Sample records for camels

  1. Camel and bovine chymosin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jesper Langholm; Mølgaard, Anne; Poulsen, Jens-Christian Navarro;

    2013-01-01

    Bovine and camel chymosin are aspartic peptidases that are used industrially in cheese production. They cleave the Phe105-Met106 bond of the milk protein κ-casein, releasing its predominantly negatively charged C-terminus, which leads to the separation of the milk into curds and whey. Despite...... having 85% sequence identity, camel chymosin shows a 70% higher milk-clotting activity than bovine chymosin towards bovine milk. The activities, structures, thermal stabilities and glycosylation patterns of bovine and camel chymosin obtained by fermentation in Aspergillus niger have been examined...... differential scanning calorimetry revealed a slightly higher thermal stability of camel chymosin compared with bovine chymosin. The crystal structure of a doubly glycosylated variant of camel chymosin was determined at a resolution of 1.6 Å and the crystal structure of unglycosylated bovine chymosin...

  2. Reproduction in Camel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.V. Khanvilkar

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available The word camel is derived from the Greek word “kremal”. Camel is an important component of the desert ecosystem from time immemorial and is recognized as the “Ship of the desert”. Humans depend on this animal not just for meat, milk and hide but also as one of the most important mode of transport in the desert which has increased to 10,30,000 million according to FAO census, which is almost 6-8% of the total camel population of the world. The genus Camelus has two species, one humped camel found in Africa, Arabia, Iran, Afghanistan and India and two-humped camel found in Central Asia reaching up to Mongolia and Western part of China. Camels have 70 chromosomes. Camels do not have sweat glands and can tolerate heat up to 49 oC to 50oC during the day time and 30oC during night time. [Vet. World 2009; 2(2.000: 72-73

  3. Camel enterprise integration cookbook

    CERN Document Server

    Cranton, Scott

    2013-01-01

    This book is written in a Cookbook style with short recipes showing developers how to effectively implement EIP without breaking everything in the process. It is concise and to the point, and it helps developers get their data flowing between different components without the need to read through page upon page of theory, while also enabling the reader to learn how to create exciting new projects.Camel Enterprise Integration Cookbook is intended for developers who have some familiarity with Apache Camel and who want a quick lookup reference to practical, proven tips on how to perform common tas

  4. Camel and bovine chymosin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jesper Langholm; Mølgaard, Anne; Poulsen, Jens-Christian Navarro;

    2013-01-01

    Bovine and camel chymosin are aspartic peptidases that are used industrially in cheese production. They cleave the Phe105-Met106 bond of the milk protein κ-casein, releasing its predominantly negatively charged C-terminus, which leads to the separation of the milk into curds and whey. Despite...... chymosin. Both enzymes possess local positively charged patches on their surface that can play a role in interactions with the overall negatively charged C-terminus of κ-casein. Camel chymosin contains two additional positive patches that favour interaction with the substrate. The improved electrostatic...

  5. Balantidiasis in a dromedarian camel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tajik, Javad; Fard, Saeid R Nourollahi; paidar, Amin; Anousheh, Samaneh; Dehghani, Elahe

    2013-01-01

    A 3 years old male dromedarian camel was examined because of anorexia and diarrhea. The affected camel was depressed, tachycardic, eupnic, and had a body temperature of 38.8 °C. Mucous membranes were hyperemic and faeces was soft and mucous coated but of normal colour and odour. Faecal examination revealed a large number of Balantidium coli trophozoites and cysts (15 000/g) and no other parasite could be detected in faecal sample. Seven days after the onset of treatment using intramuscular antibiotic (ampicillin) and anti inflammatory agent (flunixin meglumine), the food consumption, clinical signs and faecal consistency were normal, and faecal examination revealed no parasite. Presence of no other pathogen in faecal samples, and concurrent disappearance of clinical signs and absence of the parasite in the faeces confirmed a diagnosis of balantidiasis. There are only two previous reports about the balantidiasis in camel and the current report is the first report of camel balantidiasis in Iran and supports the proposed role of camels as a reservoir host for Balantidium coli in Iran.

  6. Instant Apache Camel message routing

    CERN Document Server

    Ibryam, Bilgin

    2013-01-01

    Filled with practical, step-by-step instructions and clear explanations for the most important and useful tasks. This short, instruction-based guide shows you how to perform application integration using the industry standard Enterprise Integration Patterns.This book is intended for Java developers who are new to Apache Camel and message- oriented applications.

  7. Instant Apache Camel messaging system

    CERN Document Server

    Sharapov, Evgeniy

    2013-01-01

    Get to grips with a new technology, understand what it is and what it can do for you, and then get to work with the most important features and tasks. A beginner's guide to Apache Camel that walks you through basic operations like installation and setup right through to developing simple applications.This book is a good starting point for Java developers who have to work on an application dealing with various systems and interfaces but who haven't yet started using Enterprise System Buses or Java Business Integration frameworks.

  8. Gastrointestinal helminths in migratory Camel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S G Rewatkar

    Full Text Available Survey of gastrointestinal helminth parasites in camel migrated from U.P., M.P., and Rajasthan at Nagpur region was carried out in early summer, 2008. Total 28 samples (12 males and 16 females were collected from different places of Nagpur region. They revealed parasites as Trichuris sp.(50%, Strongyloides sp.(32.14%, Trichostrongylus sp.(10.71%, Nematodirus sp.(10.71%, Haemonchus sp.(14.28%, Eurytrema sp.(21.42% ,Eimeria sp.(25%, Entamoeba sp.(17.85% and Balantidium sp.(7.14%.All were found positive for mixed helminthic infection. [Vet World 2009; 2(7.000: 258-258

  9. Digital angiography of camel foot

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this study, angiography of normal digits of camel has been accomplished, and the vessels of digits and its distribution have been evaluated to be compared with abnormal digits in the future studies. The thoracic and pelvic limb of 16 camels were collected immediately following slaughter. The palmar and plantar arteries were isolated and catheterised by 18-gauge angiocatheter needle; perfused by 40Ð’–50 ml of iodinated compound injected into each vessel. Angiograms were obtained using dorsopalmer, dorsoplanter and latero-medial projections. In the pelvic limb, above the fetlock joint, the deep palmar arch communicates with the median artery via the anastomotic branch, forming the superfcial palmar arch, from which two branches were clear, 1-palmar common digital artery IV that divides into palmar proper digital arteries IV and V, close to the lateral accessory (ffth) digit. 2-Palmar common digital artery III, produces the first branch and continues distally near the middle of the proximal phalanx, it gives off two palmar branches of the proximal phalanx. Vascular distribution of the pelvic limb was similar to thoracic limb, carrying the name of plantar instead of palmar

  10. CAMEL REARING IN CHOLISTAN DESERT OF PAKISTAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. ALI, M. SHAFIQ CHAUDHRY1 AND U. FAROOQ

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available The camel is one of the typical and the best adopted animals of the desert, capable of enduring thirst and hunger for days and is the most patient of land animals. For desert nomads of Pakistani Cholistan, it is a beloved companion, a source of milk and meat, transport facility provider and a racing/dancing animal, thus, playing an important role in the socioeconomic uplift of the local community. Camels of Marrecha or Mahra breed are mainly used for riding and load carrying but may be trained for dancing or racing. Berella is another heavy and milch breed of camel famous for milk production and can produce upto 10-15 liters of milk per day. This breed is also suitable for draught purpose, though comparatively slow due to heavy body. The present paper also describes the traditional camel rearing system used by nomads of Cholistan desert. Some aspects of camel health, production, feeding, socio-economic values, marketing and some constraints and suggestions are also given so that the policy makers may consider them for the welfare of this animal.

  11. Unique strategies to control reproduction in camels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skidmore, J A; Morton, K M; Billah, M

    2010-01-01

    The reproductive efficiency of camels is low under natural pastural conditions and so the use of artifical insemination and embryo transfer are becoming increasingly important to improve their breeding potential. Methods to control their reproductive cycle are therefore essential. This review describes characteristics of the ovarian follicular wave pattern in camels and exogenous hormonal control of ovulation. It also summarizes the difficulties involved with artifical insemination and analyzing the highly gelatinous semen, and reports on the latest methods used to try and reduce the viscosity and liquefy camel semen. In addition an account is given of different hormonal and physical methods used to synchronise follicular waves, and various hormone treatments used to broaden the availability of ovulated, asynchronous and non-ovulated recipients are discussed. PMID:21755692

  12. EFFECT OF CAMEL MILK ON ALLOXAN-INDUCED DIABETIC RATS

    OpenAIRE

    Eman G. E. Helal*, Samia M. Abd-Elwahab **, Tarek A. Atia*** and Anwaar Alkamel Mohammad

    2012-01-01

    Back ground: Diabetes is a chronic metabolic disease which affects large number of population all over the world. Such disease is associated with many complications which may leads finally to patient's mortality. Camel milk supplementation reduces the insulin requirement in Type I diabetic patients. So this study was planned to evaluate the effect of camel milk as hypoglycemic agent.Material and method: Thirty male adult albino rats were used to investigate the effect of camel milk (CM) treat...

  13. [General overview of camel parasites and the situation in Turkey].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azrug, Abdalla Fadlalla; Burgu, Ayşe

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this review is overview the main protozoan, arthropoda and helminthic parasites seen in camels and to evaluate the publications related to camel parasites in Turkey. In different parts of the world, trichostrongylose, mange, nasal myiasis and trypanosomiasis are the most common parasitic diseases found in camels. Hydatic cyst larval stage of E. granulosus is important both economically and in terms of public health. It is also emphasized that the records concerning parasites of the Turkish camel population, which is decreasing significantly, are extremely limited. PMID:21618196

  14. Agnostic cosmology in the CAMEL framework

    CERN Document Server

    Henrot-Versillé, S; Plaszczynski, S; d'Orfeuil, B Rouillé; Spinelli, M; Tristram, M

    2016-01-01

    Cosmological parameter estimation is traditionally performed in the Bayesian context. By adopting an "agnostic" statistical point of view, we show the interest of confronting the Bayesian results to a frequentist approach based on profile-likelihoods. To this purpose, we have developed the Cosmological Analysis with a Minuit Exploration of the Likelihood ("CAMEL") software. Written from scratch in pure C++, emphasis was put in building a clean and carefully-designed project where new data and/or cosmological computations can be easily included. CAMEL incorporates the latest cosmological likelihoods and gives access from the very same input file to several estimation methods: (i) A high quality Maximum Likelihood Estimate (a.k.a "best fit") using MINUIT ; (ii) profile likelihoods, (iii) a new implementation of an Adaptive Metropolis MCMC algorithm that relieves the burden of reconstructing the proposal distribution. We present here those various statistical techniques and roll out a full use-case that can then...

  15. Fermilab site-fillers as CAMEL prototypes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    At Snowmass, beam energies greater than about 10 TeV dominated the intellectual efforts related to hadron-hadron colliders. The anticipated cost and scope of these machines spurred the search for cost-cutting innovations and for a suitable site, perhaps in the southwestern desert. (Given its probable location and method of design, CAMEL seems an appropriate acronym for such a facility.) A prototype of more modest time-scale, cost, and energy is needed to bridge the physics gap until completion of CAMEL and to establish the feasibility of various proposed technologies. Building a prototype at Fermilab would reduce its cost, speed its completion, and improve its performance by taking advantage of existing real estate and expertise and by exploiting fully the potential capabilities of existing facilities (injectors, antiproton accumulator, etc.). The design and expected performance of various Fermilab site-filling (R = 2.4 km) antiproton-proton colliders are discussed. Other options are also described

  16. The CAMbridge Emission Line Surveyor (CAMELS)

    CERN Document Server

    Thomas, C N; Maiolino, R; Goldie, D J; Acedo, E de Lera; Wagg, J; Blundell, R; Paine, S; Zeng, L

    2014-01-01

    The CAMbridge Emission Line Surveyor (CAMELS) is a pathfinder program to demonstrate on-chip spectrometry at millimetre wavelengths. CAMELS will observe at frequencies from 103-114.7 GHz, providing 512 channels with a spectral resolution of R = 3000. In this paper we describe the science goals of CAMELS, the current system level design for the instrument and the work we are doing on the detailed designs of the individual components. In addition, we will discuss our efforts to understand the impact that the design and calibration of the filter bank on astronomical performance. The shape of the filter channels, the degree of overlap and the nature of the noise all effect how well the parameters of a spectral line can be recovered. We have developed a new and rigorous method for analysing performance, based on the concept of Fisher information. This can in be turn coupled to a detailed model of the science case, allowing design trade-offs to be properly investigated.

  17. Radionuclide transfer from feed to camel milk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The transfer of 137Cs, 85Sr, 131I, 210Po, 210Pb and 238U from feed to camel's milk was investigated in a pilot experiment with three lactating camels. For a period of 60 days, the animals were fed on spiked feed containing the studied radionuclides. They were subsequently returned to a contamination-free diet and monitored for another 90 days. The activity concentrations of 137Cs, 85Sr and 131I in milk decreased with time and reached background levels after 20 days. Equilibrium transfer coefficients and biological half-lives were estimated and transfer coefficients were calculated as (8.1 ± 3.6) × 10−4, (4.4 ± 1.6) × 10−2, (7.8 ± 3.9) × 10−4, (2.7 ± 3.5) × 10−4, (1.8 ± 1.5) × 10−4 and (7.0 ± 3.6) × 10−3 d L−1 for 85Sr, 131I, 137Cs, 210Po, 210Pb and 238U, respectively. The biological half-lives were estimated to be 6.4, 4.2, 8.9, and 53.3 days for 85Sr, 131I, 137Cs, and 238U, respectively. Estimates of the half-lives were based on a one component model: it was found that the half-life values measured for artificial radionuclides were slightly shorter than those for natural radionuclides. The data obtained in the study are the first published experimental data on radionuclide transfer to camel milk. - Highlights: • Estimated Fm values for Sr, Cs, Pb, Po tend to be lower compared to other milk producing domestic animals. • The Fm values would help to predict ingestion dose to the general public due to intake of radionuclides through camel. • Estimated half-lives for artificial radionuclides were shorter than those for natural radionuclides. • The data obtained in the study can be considered as the first published data on radionuclide transfer to camel milk

  18. Evaluation of cis and trans fatty acid profiles in a Camel\\\\\\'s hump and meat consumed in Birjand and Nehbandan cities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyyed Javad Hosseini-Vashan

    2013-08-01

    Conclusion: Although there is no difference in the total amount of saturated and unsaturated fatty acids derived from the camel meat or hump in the two areas, the amount was less in the hump of the camel and also lower in Birjand. Therefore, it is probable that the camel's products in Birjand have a better quality regarding the incidence of atherosclerosis.

  19. COMPARATIVE PHARMACOKINETIC STUDIES ON OXYTETRACYCLINE IN CAMELS, SHEEP AND GOATS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed H. Al-Nazawi

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Kinetics of long-acting oxytetracycline (OTC injected intravenously (IV at a dose of 5 mg/kg was determined in each of eight camels, sheep and goats. The disposition of OTC was described by two-compartment open model. Two elimination half-lives were recorded for the camel (81 min and 46.1 h, whereas in sheep and goats these were 3.2 and 3.4 h, respectively. The peak plasma concentration was 10.2, 850 and 780 g/ml at 5 minutes in camel, sheep and goats, respectively. The values of volume of distribution were 1.4, 13.4 and 12.1 litre/kg for the camels, sheep and goats, respectively. In sheep and goats, values of t1/2, Vd and clearance were found similar but different from camel, indicating exclusive distribution and substantial storage which were consistent with oxytetracycline lipophilicity and the large fat content of camel body.

  20. Constraints of camel pastoralists in Gedarif state, eastern Sudan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. M. Abdalatif,

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available This field study was conducted between Oct 2005 and Aug 2008 in Gedarif state, eastern Sudan. The objective was to provide knowledge on constraints faced by camel herders, and to identify the solutions as an essential step towards the development of camel herding in this state. A set of detailed structured questionnaires were used to collect information from camel herders. The results showed that, nomadic tribes in the study area (58.8% represented by Lahaween and Rofaah tribes and their dwelling type is tents made from (Hair & wool. Semi nomadic tribes (30.9% represented by Kenana and Rashaida tribes and their dwelling type is cottage made from branches of trees and sorghum stalk and the sedentary tribe (10.3% represented by Shokria tribes and their dwelling type are buildings made from either mud or bricks with cement. There was a high percent of family members who are illiterate. It was clear that the level of provision of most services needed by the herders and owners is relatively very low. The camel owners annually need to sell 5 to 6 camels to feed 100 camels on sorghum stalks in the dry season. The serious livelihood constraints were education, electricity, water supply and veterinary services. More care from the government and non government organizations is recommended.

  1. Nutritional and Therapeutic Characteristics of Camel Milk in Children: A Systematic Review

    OpenAIRE

    Zibaee, Said; Hosseini, Syed Musa al-reza; Yousefi, Mahdi; Taghipour, Ali; Kiani, Mohammad Ali; Noras, Mohammad Reza

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Camel milk is the closest to a human mother’s milk. Camel milk is different from other milks, however, having low sugar and cholesterol, high minerals (sodium, potassium, iron, copper, zinc and magnesium, and vitamin C). The milk is considered have medicinal characteristics as well. This systematic review is aimed at determining and reporting nutritional values and medicinal characteristics of camel milk in children. Methods The search strategy of the current review is “(camel AN...

  2. Efficacy of closantel plus albendazole liquid suspension against natural infection of gastrointestinal parasites in camels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Qudah, K M; Sharif, L A; Al-Rawashdeh, O F; Al-Ani, F K

    1999-03-31

    Oral administration of closantel in a dose of 10 mg/kg plus albendazole in a dose of 5 mg/kg liquid suspension was studied in 75 camels naturally infected with various types of gastrointestinal parasites. The camels involved were 15 pregnant she-camels, 20 non-pregnant she-camels and 40 male camels of various ages. Each camel received a single oral dose of closantel (10 mg/kg) plus albendazole (5 mg/kg) orally. Two weeks later, 20 camels of this group were re-dosed again with the same dose of the anthelmintic. Fecal samples were collected per rectum from all camels at the time of treatment and again 14 and 42 days post treatment. Fecal egg counts and generic determination of third stage larvae was performed. Results indicated that six different species of gastrointestinal tract parasites were identified in camels. Single treatment of closantel plus albendazole mixture reduced egg counts in camels by 100%, 100%, 98% and 77% for Haemonchus longistipes, Ascaris spp., Monezia expansa and Fasciola hepatica, respectively. However, administration of the drug twice on the base of 2 weeks apart significantly raised the efficacy of the drug for clearance of the parasites from 92.5% to 100% in camels infected with various parasites. Camels were not adversely affected by treatment. PMID:10321589

  3. Tetanus in a camel (Camelus dromedarius)--a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wernery, U; Ul-Haq, A; Joseph, M; Kinne, J

    2004-04-01

    Twenty days after an open castration, a 5-year-old dromedary was presented to the Dubai Camel Hospital with severe central nervous symptoms. The dromedary showed the following signs: off feed, stiff gait with extended neck, external swelling of the preputial sheath and groin region, and foamy saliva drooling from the mouth. The dromedary was unable to swallow. Three days after admission, the camel developed lockjaw, and on the fifth day it was unable to stand owing to paralysis of the hindquarters. Because of the severity of the disease and because it did not respond to treatment, the camel was euthanized 26 days after the operation and submitted to the Central Veterinary Research Laboratory for further investigation. Both castration wounds were closed and spermiducts were filled with necrotic masses from which Clostridium tetani was isolated. Two mice, which were injected with the filtrate of the thioglycolate broth, developed typical signs of tetanic spasm of the hind leg. Faecal samples from camel and horse paddocks that were only 50 metres apart were negative for C. tetani. However, C. tetani was isolated from two soil samples of the horse paddock. It is recommended that camels should be vaccinated against tetanus prior to castration.

  4. GaInAs CAMEL DIODES GROWN BY MBE

    OpenAIRE

    Marso, M.; Chin, A.; Bhattacharya, P.; Beneking, H.

    1988-01-01

    In this paper we present a camel diode in GaInAs on a InP-substrate with an ideality factor of 1.6 - 1.7. The barrier height is 0.44 eV. Switching measurements show no storage time and a fall time of 660 - 740 ps for a 50 µm * 50 µm device.

  5. Multiple ovulation and embryo transfer (MOET in camels: An overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Binoy S. Vettical

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Unlike in other domestic animal species like cattle, reproductive biotechnologies like Artificial Insemination (AI and Embryo Transfer (ET are not well developed and thus are not being used as routine breeding procedures in camels. One of the important objectives of this manuscript is to focus on analyzing the present status of Multiple Ovulation and Embryo Transfer (MOET in camels and its future perspectives. Camels are induced ovulators, thus require hormonal treatment to induce ovulation and control the follicular cycles, which is the main reason why protocols used in other domestic animal species cannot be directly used in this species. The review suggests that the best method for super stimulation of ovaries in camels is use of a combination of Equine Chorionic Gonadotropin (eCG and Follicle Stimulating Hormone (FSH at any stage after elimination of dominant follicle if any or at the early stage of the follicular wave and ovulation of the developed multiple follicles can be achieved by mating donors. The review highlights that a better pregnancy rate is achieved with recipients who ovulate 24 h after the donor.

  6. MERS and the dromedary camel trade between Africa and the Middle East.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Younan, M; Bornstein, S; Gluecks, I V

    2016-08-01

    Dromedary camels are the most likely source for the coronavirus that sporadically causes Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS) in humans. Serological results from archived camel sera provide evidence for circulation of MERS coronavirus (MERS-CoV) among dromedary camels in the Greater Horn of Africa as far back as 1983 and in Saudi Arabia as far back as 1992. High seroprevalences of MERS-CoV antibodies and the high virus prevalence in Saudi Arabian dromedary camels indicate an endemicity of the virus in the Arabian Peninsula, which predates the 2012 human MERS index case. Saudi Arabian dromedary camels show significantly higher MERS-CoV carrier rates than dromedary camels imported from Africa. Two MERS-CoV lineages identified in Nigerian camels were found to be genetically distinct from those found in camels and humans in the Middle East. This supports the hypothesis that camel imports from Africa are not of significance for circulation of the virus in camel populations of the Arabian Peninsula. PMID:27324244

  7. Effect of gamma irradiation on microbial load and quality characteristics of minced camel meat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of gamma irradiation on microbial load, chemical and sensory characteristics of camel meat has been evaluated. Camel meat were irradiated at doses of 0, 2, 4 and 6 kGy of gamma irradiation. Irradiated and unirradiated meat were kept in a refrigerator (1-4 Centigrade). Immediately after irradiation, general composition and sensory evaluation of camel meat were done. Microbiological and chemical analyses of camel meat were evaluated at 0, 2, 4 and 6 weeks of storage. The results indicated that all doses of gamma irradiation reduced the total counts of mesophilic aerobic bacteria and total coli form of camel meat. Thus the microbiological shelf-life of camel meat was significantly extended from less than 2 weeks (control) to more than 6 weeks (samples irradiated with 2, 4 or 6 kGy). No significant differences in moisture, protein, fat, Thiobarbituric acid (TBA) value, total acidity, pH vale and fatty acids (C14: 0; C16: 0; C18:0) of camel meat were observed due to irradiation. Both total volatile basic nitrogen (VBN) and lipid oxidation value in camel meat were effected by gamma irradiation. Immediately after treatment, VBN of irradiated camel meat increased and lipid oxidation values decreased. Sensory evaluation showed no significant differences between irradiated and unirradiated camel meats. (author)

  8. Improvement of the antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of camel and bovine whey proteins by limited proteolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salami, Maryam; Moosavi-Movahedi, Ali Akbar; Ehsani, Mohammad Reza; Yousefi, Reza; Haertlé, Thomas; Chobert, Jean-Marc; Razavi, Seyed Hadi; Henrich, Robert; Balalaie, Saeed; Ebadi, Seyed Ahmad; Pourtakdoost, Samineh; Niasari-Naslaji, Amir

    2010-03-24

    The compositions and structures of bovine and camel milk proteins are different, which define their functional and biological properties. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of enzymatic hydrolysis of camel and bovine whey proteins (WPs) on their antioxidant and antimicrobial properties. After enzymatic treatment, both the antioxidant and the antimicrobial activities of bovine and camel WPs were improved. The significantly higher antioxidant activity of camel WPs and their hydrolysates as compared with that of bovine WPs and their hydrolysates may result from the differences in amounts and/or in accessibilities of antioxidant amino acid residues present in their primary structures and from the prevalence of alpha-lactalbumin and beta-lactoglobulin as proteolytic substrates in camel and bovine whey, respectively. The results of this study reveal differences in antimicrobial and antioxidant activities between WP hydrolysates of bovine and camel milk and the effects of limited proteolysis on these activities.

  9. Differences in the susceptibility of dromedary and Bactrian camels to foot-and-mouth disease virus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larska, M.; Wernery, U.; Kinne, J.;

    2009-01-01

    In this study, two sheep, eight dromedary camels and two Bactrian camels were inoculated with foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) type A SAU 22/92. Five naive dromedary camels and four sheep were kept in direct or indirect contact with the inoculated camels. The inoculated sheep, which served...... as positive controls, displayed typical moderate clinical signs of FMD and developed viraemia and high antibody titres. The presence of the virus was also detected in probang and mouth-swab samples for several days after inoculation. In contrast, the inoculated dromedary camels were not susceptible to FMDV...... type A infection. None of them showed clinical signs of FMD or developed viraemia or specific anti-FMDV antibodies despite the high dose of virus inoculated. All the contact sheep and contact dromedaries that were kept together with the inoculated camels remained virus-negative and did not seroconvert...

  10. Prevalence of trypanosomiasis in pastoral camels in the Butana plains, mid-eastern Sudan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A total of 1758 camels were examined for the presence of trypanosomal infections using conventional parasitological diagnostic techniques and an Ag-ELISA for the detection of circulating trypanosomal antigens. The survey was conducted mostly during the dry season from July 1989 to June 1990. Experimental studies using camels and goats indicated that trypanosomal antigens were present in the serum of infected animals 2 to 4 days after infection in camels and 2 to 7 days in goats. Following treatment, antigen disappeared within 7-14 days. In pastoral camels, patent parasitaemias were detected in 106 (6%) camels, with most of the infections occurring during the latter part of the dry season. Circulating trypanosomal antigens were present in 79 of the camels with active infections, hence the sensitivity based on the presence of a patent parasitaemia was 74.5%. In the 1652 camels in which there was no evidence of patent infection, circulating trypanosomal antigen was present in 679. The overall prevalence rate in all camels sampled was 43%. Over the period September to May there was an increase in the proportion of camels with demonstrable parasitaemia but during the same period the proportion of animals with circulating trypanosomal antigen remained at approximately 35%. (author). 16 refs, 6 figs 1 tab

  11. Structure and Function of Bovine and Camel Chymosin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jesper Langholm

    The central step in cheese making is the separation of milk into curd and whey. This can be done enzymatically by hydrolysis of the Phe105-Met106 bond or nearby bonds in bovine κ-casein, which releases its hydrophilic C-terminal leading to coagulation of the milk. The preferred enzyme...... and characterised, and turned out to have an even higher activity and specificity towards the Phe105-Met106 bond than bovine chymosin. The sequences of bovine and camel chymosin are 85% identical, and yet they have significantly different cheese making properties. The aim of the project was to explain...... this difference through the study of the structures of bovine and camel chymosin, and preparation of catalytically inactive enzymes in complex with substrate. Their milk-clotting activities was determined using the traditional assay on skimmed milk, and a fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) assay...

  12. New Conception of Waving Machine CamEl Drive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bílkovský, A.; Marek, O.; Jirásko, P.; Volanský, Z.

    New mechatronic conception of waving machine CamEl drive is realized by two electronic cams Yaskawa and planetary gears. The first servo motor is used to slay and shedding motion in position mode and the second servo motor is used in automatic weaving mode. Moment of inertia of kinematic chain was reduced that it was possible used a smaller servo motor of electronic cam Yaskawa.

  13. The Size Distribution of Casein Micelles in Camel Milk

    OpenAIRE

    Farah, Z.; Ruegg, M. W.

    1989-01-01

    The size distribution of casein micelles in camel milk has been determined by electron microscopy. Individual and pooled samples were cryo-fixed by rapid freezing and freeze-fractured. Electron micrographs of the freeze-fracture replica revealed a relatively broad size distribution, with an average micelle dimeter around 280 nm in the volume distribution curve. The distribution was significantly broader than that of the particles of cow's or human milk and showed a greater number of large ...

  14. The eLIDA CAMEL: designed for learning by community

    OpenAIRE

    Jameson, Jill

    2008-01-01

    This article, invited by the ALT Editor for the international ALT-N newsletter, reports on the work of the eLIDA CAMEL JISC-funded Design for Learning (D4L) competitively selected e-learning project. A Design for Learning project that grows an intentional e-learning community of practice (CoP) in Higher and Further Education (HE and FE) can stimulate challenging, illuminative processes to foster shared understandings about learning technology innovations, promoting authentic dialogue betwe...

  15. Frequency and type of toenail tumors in the dromedary camel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.I. Siddiqui

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available A total of 275 dromedary camels (16 males and 259 females of local “Arabiyat” breed suffering from different types and degrees of severity of toenail tumors were surgically treated. Histopathological examination of the tissue samples removed from 50 tumor-like growths (2 males and 48 females revealed three types of tumors; squamous cell carcinoma (70%, spiny keratoderma (22% and fibroma (8%. An increased incidence of tumors was recorded in the medial when compared to the lateral toenails in both sexes. In females, the incidence in the medial toenails was 90/259 (34.75% and 71/259 (27.41% in the right and left forelimbs respectively when compared to the lateral toenails which was 25/259 (9.65% and 5/259 (1.93% for the respective right and left forelimbs. In the hind limbs, this ratio was 29/259 (11.20% and 20/259 (7.72% for right and left medial toenails respectively, whereas it was 17/259 (6.56% and 2/259 (0.77% for the right and left lateral toenails respectively. Similar to the observations in female camels, male camels also showed a higher incidence of these tumors in the medial when compared to the lateral toenails in both fore and hind limbs. Based on these findings, we conclude that in the dromedary camels, the medial toenails of the fore limbs are most commonly affected with tumors; with the most common tumor being the squamous cell carcinoma.

  16. MERS Coronavirus Neutralizing Antibodies in Camels, Eastern Africa, 1983-1997

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Müller, Marcel A; Corman, Victor Max; Jores, Joerg; Meyer, Benjamin; Younan, Mario; Liljander, Anne; Bosch, Berend-Jan; Lattwein, Erik; Hilali, Mosaad; Musa, Bakri E; Bornstein, Set; Drosten, Christian

    2014-01-01

    To analyze the distribution of Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV)-seropositive dromedary camels in eastern Africa, we tested 189 archived serum samples accumulated during the past 30 years. We identified MERS-CoV neutralizing antibodies in 81.0% of samples from the main camel-ex

  17. Human Infection with MERS coronavirus after exposure to infected camels, Saudi Arabia, 2013

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Memish, Ziad A.; Cotten, Matthew; Meyer, Benjamin; Watson, Simon J.; Alsahafi, Abdullah J.; Al Rabeeah, Abdullah A.; Corman, Victor Max; Sieberg, Andrea; Makhdoom, Hatem Q.; Assiri, Abdullah; Al Masri, Malaki; Aldabbagh, Souhaib; Bosch, Berend Jan; Beer, Martin; Müller, Marcel A.; Kellam, Paul; Drosten, Christian

    2014-01-01

    We investigated a case of human infection with Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) after exposure to infected camels. Analysis of the whole human-derived virus and 15% of the camel-derived virus sequence yielded nucleotide polymorphism signatures suggestive of cross-species trans

  18. Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus in dromedary camels: An outbreak investigation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    B.L. Haagmans (Bart); S.H.S. Al Dhahiry (Said); C.B.E.M. Reusken (Chantal); V.S. Raj (Stalin); M. Galiano (Monica); R.H. Myers (Richard); G-J. Godeke (Gert-Jan); M. Jonges (Marcel); E. Farag (Elmoubasher); A. Diab (Ayman); H. Ghobashy (Hazem); F. Alhajri (Farhoud); M. Al-Thani (Mohamed); S.A. Al-Marri (Salih); H.E. Al Romaihi (Hamad); A. Al Khal (Abdullatif); A. Bermingham (Alison); A.D.M.E. Osterhaus (Albert); M.M. AlHajri (Mohd); M.P.G. Koopmans D.V.M. (Marion)

    2014-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) causes severe lower respiratory tract infection in people. Previous studies suggested dromedary camels were a reservoir for this virus. We tested for the presence of MERS-CoV in dromedary camels from a farm in Qatar link

  19. Seroprevalence of Chlamydia abortus in camel in the western region of Libya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rabia Elzlitne

    2016-06-01

    Conclusion: The present findings signify the C. abortus as a potential agent to cause abortion in Libyan camel (C. dromedarius. Besides, the persons who handle camels in Libya are at risk of infecting with C. abortus. [J Adv Vet Anim Res 2016; 3(2.000: 178-183

  20. Some immuno-suppressive trends: Effects Of Endotoxin on Camels (Camelus dromedarius)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Intravenous administration of a bolus of 0.05 micron g/kg body weight endotoxin lipopolysaccharide (LPS) to camels has resulted in leukopenia, lymphopenia, neutropenia, proteinaemia, albunaemia , globulinaemia and reduced lysozomal enzyme activity. It is suggested that endotoxin at the dose of 0.05micron g/kg body weight may produce immunosuppressive effects in camels. (author)

  1. Effect of gamma irradiation on microbial load and quality characteristics of minced camel meat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of gamma irradiation on microbial load, chemical and sensory characteristics of camel meat has been evaluated. Camel meat was irradiated at doses of 0, 2, 4 and 6 kGy of gamma irradiation. Irradiated and non-irradiated meat was kept in a refrigerator (1-4 C). General composition and sensory evaluation of camel meat was done two days after irradiation, whereas, microbiological and chemical analysis was done immediately after irradiation and throughout the storage periods. The results indicated that all doses of gamma irradiation reduced the total mesophilic aerobic plate counts (TPCs) and total coliforms of camel meat. Thus, the microbiological shelf-life of camel meat was significantly extended from less than 2 weeks (control) to more than 6 weeks (samples irradiated with 2, 4 or 6 kGy). No significant differences in moisture, protein, fat, thiobarbituric acid (TBA) values, total acidity and fatty acids of camel meat were observed due to irradiation. There were slight effects of gamma irradiation in both total volatile basic nitrogen (VBN) and lipid oxidation values in camel meat. Sensory evaluation showed no significant differences between irradiated and non-irradiated camel meats. (author)

  2. Genome Sequences of Two Pathogenic Streptococcus agalactiae Isolates from the One-Humped Camel Camelus dromedarius

    OpenAIRE

    Zubair, Saima; de Villiers, Etienne P.; Younan, Mario; Andersson, Göran; Tettelin, Herve; Riley, David R; Jores, Joerg; Bongcam-Rudloff, Erik; Bishop, Richard P.

    2013-01-01

    Streptococcus agalactiae causes a range of clinical syndromes in camels (Camelus dromedarius). We report the genome sequences of two S. agalactiae isolates that induce abscesses in Kenyan camels. These genomes provide novel data on the composition of the S. agalactiae “pan genome” and reveal the presence of multiple genomic islands.

  3. Camel and bovine chymosin: the relationship between their structures and cheese-making properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Langholm Jensen, Jesper [University of Copenhagen, (Denmark); Chr. Hansen A/S, Bøge Allé 10-12, DK-2970 Hørsholm (Denmark); Mølgaard, Anne; Navarro Poulsen, Jens-Christian [University of Copenhagen, (Denmark); Harboe, Marianne Kirsten [Chr. Hansen A/S, Bøge Allé 10-12, DK-2970 Hørsholm (Denmark); Simonsen, Jens Bæk [University of Copenhagen, (Denmark); Lorentzen, Andrea Maria; Hjernø, Karin [University of Southern Denmark, (Denmark); Brink, Johannes M. van den; Qvist, Karsten Bruun [Chr. Hansen A/S, Bøge Allé 10-12, DK-2970 Hørsholm (Denmark); Larsen, Sine, E-mail: sine@chem.ku.dk [University of Copenhagen, (Denmark)

    2013-05-01

    Analysis of the crystal structures of the two milk-clotting enzymes bovine and camel chymosin has revealed that the better milk-clotting activity towards bovine milk of camel chymosin compared with bovine chymosin is related to variations in their surface charges and their substrate-binding clefts. Bovine and camel chymosin are aspartic peptidases that are used industrially in cheese production. They cleave the Phe105-Met106 bond of the milk protein κ-casein, releasing its predominantly negatively charged C-terminus, which leads to the separation of the milk into curds and whey. Despite having 85% sequence identity, camel chymosin shows a 70% higher milk-clotting activity than bovine chymosin towards bovine milk. The activities, structures, thermal stabilities and glycosylation patterns of bovine and camel chymosin obtained by fermentation in Aspergillus niger have been examined. Different variants of the enzymes were isolated by hydrophobic interaction chromatography and showed variations in their glycosylation, N-terminal sequences and activities. Glycosylation at Asn291 and the loss of the first three residues of camel chymosin significantly decreased its activity. Thermal differential scanning calorimetry revealed a slightly higher thermal stability of camel chymosin compared with bovine chymosin. The crystal structure of a doubly glycosylated variant of camel chymosin was determined at a resolution of 1.6 Å and the crystal structure of unglycosylated bovine chymosin was redetermined at a slightly higher resolution (1.8 Å) than previously determined structures. Camel and bovine chymosin share the same overall fold, except for the antiparallel central β-sheet that connects the N-terminal and C-terminal domains. In bovine chymosin the N-terminus forms one of the strands which is lacking in camel chymosin. This difference leads to an increase in the flexibility of the relative orientation of the two domains in the camel enzyme. Variations in the amino acids

  4. The prevalence of Linguatula serrata nymphs in camels slaughtered in Mashhad slaughterhouse, Northeast, Iran

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Saeid R Nourollahi Fard; Nima Ghalekhani; Reza Kheirandish; Saeid Fathi; Ehsan Norouzi Asl

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the prevalence of nymphal stages of L. serrata in mesenteric lymph nodes of camels slaughtered in Mashhad slaughterhouse, Northeast of Iran. Methods: For this purpose, mesenteric lymph nodes of 400 camels of different sex and age were examined. The lymph nodes were examined macroscopically and a digestion method was also applied for investigation of samples which was negative macroscopically. Results:The mesenteric lymph nodes of 73 camels out of 400 (18.25%) were infected by L. serrata nymphs.Conclusions:Prevalence of L. serrata nymphs in males and females and different age was not significantly different (P>0.05), but difference was observed between the prevalence in different seasons (P< 0.05). The potential importance of these findings to human health is discussed. This is the first report of infection withL. serrate of camels in camels slaughtered at northeast of Iran.

  5. Camel Diseases and Conditions in a Non-traditional Camel Keeping Area: A case study of Kajiado District With Special Emphasis on Trypanosomiasis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Camels in Kenya are raised in the lowlands of Semi-arid to arid areas of Northern Kenya. Some NGO's (PHI and Farm Africa) introduced some camels into the wetter Southern rangelands of Kenya, specifically in Kajiado in 1989. There is no information so far on the productivity of these animals in this new environment. The objective of this study was to collect data on disease and conditions in Kajiado district with special emphasis on trypanosomosis. Twenty-four herds of camels in three divisions of Kajiado, comprising of 324 animals, were clinically examined and blood as well as faecal samples collected for laboratory examination for haemoparasites, anaemia and helminths as well as other infections and ectoparasites. The mean trypanosome point prevalence was 7.2% although Magadi had the biggest prevalence of 26.4%, while the central division had the least, 1.3% PCV values were proportion to magnitude of infection. T. brucei/T. evansi were shown to be present in varying degrees. Tick infestation comprised of Boophilus, Rhipicephalus and Hyalomma in about 53% of the camels. Helminth infection was observed in about 51% of the camels comprising mainly Haemonchus, Trichosrongylus, Strongyloides and Oesophagostomum. There were also cases of Abscesses, diarrhoea, mange eye infections, wounds and mastitis. It was concluded that new management strategies for the camel in southern rangelands is desirable to counter possible new diseases as well as other challenges of productivity

  6. EFFECT OF CAMEL MILK ON ALLOXAN-INDUCED DIABETIC RATS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eman G. E. Helal*, Samia M. Abd-Elwahab**, and Anwaar Alkamel Mohammad

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Back ground: Diabetes is a chronic metabolic disease which affects large number of population all over the world. Such disease is associated with many complications which may leads finally to patient's mortality. Camel milk supplementation reduces the insulin requirement in Type I diabetic patients. So this study was planned to evaluate the effect of camel milk as hypoglycemic agent.Material and method: Thirty male adult albino rats were used to investigate the effect of camel milk (CM treating diabetic rats. Rats were divided into three equal groups, control, diabetic non treated and diabetic CM treated groups. After thirty days of treatment all rats of each group were sacrificed. The body weight of each rat was determined at the beginning and the end of each period. Blood glucose, serum insulin, lipid and protein profiles, liver and kidney functions, blood picture and liver glycogen were determined for each rat at the end of each period. Pancreatic samples were obtained and processed for microscopic and quantitative evaluation after staining the prepared sections with both Heamatoxylin and eosin as well as special stain for demonstration of the different pancreatic cells in the Islet of Langerhans. Results: The obtained results showed that the induced diabetes was diagnosed by laboratory assessment to body weight loss, hyperglycemia, and hypoinsulinemia, significant increase in liver and kidney functions, lipid and protein profiles and decreased liver glycogen content. While, CM treatment led to a significant improvement in all these parameter except liver function. Microscopically there was definite vaculation, degeneration, karyolysis and pyknosis of beta pancreatic cells in diabetic group while the other pancreatic cells were not affected (alpha and delta cells. The use of CM treatment of this study greatly improves such cellular changes.Conclusion: it was recommended that the use of the CM as a hypoglycemic agent may be of good results

  7. Proteomic profiling of camel and cow milk proteins under heat treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felfoul, Imène; Jardin, Julien; Gaucheron, Frédéric; Attia, Hamadi; Ayadi, M A

    2017-02-01

    Cow and camel milk proteins before and after heat treatment at 80°C for 60min were identified using LC/MS and LC-MS/MS following monodimensional electrophoresis. The database used for the identification of camel and cow proteins was set from http://www.uniprot.org/. The obtained results showed that, after heating, camel milk at 80°C for 60min, camel α-lactalbumin (α-la) and peptidoglycan recognition protein (PGRP) were not detected while camel serum albumin (CSA) was significantly diminished. When heating cow milk at 80°C for 60min, α-lactalbumin (α-la) and β-lactoglobulin (β-lg) were not significantly detected. Moreover, 19 protein bands from SDS-PAGE were analyzed and a total of 45 different proteins were identified by LC-MS/MS. Casein fractions were kept intact under a heat treatment of 80°C during 60min of both camel and cow milks. Camel and bovine whey proteins were affected by a heat treatment of 80°C for 60min. PMID:27596405

  8. Effect of Camel's Milk on Cisplatin-Induced Nephrotoxicity in Swiss Albino Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed M.E. Afifi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Nephrotoxicity is a major complication and a dose limiting factor for cisplatin therapy. Cisplatin mediated nephrotoxicity is remarkably documented by reactive oxygen species. Camel's milk has good nutritive value, antigenotoxic and anticytotoxic effects. The aim of the present study was to assess the protective effect of camel's milk against Cisplatin-induced renal oxidative stress in mice. Approach: Forty mal Swiss albino mice were randomly divided into four groups (n = 10. Group I, control group. Group II was received cisplatin (12 mg kg-1 for 5 alternate days. Group III was received camel's milk (33 mL kg-1 for consecutive 30 days. Group IV was received camel's milk (33 mL kg-1 for consecutive 30 days before administration of Cisplatin. Results: Cisplatin-induced oxidative stress was indicated by increased level of tissue Malondialdehyde (MDA, serum creatinine and urea, decreased the concentration of reduced Glutathione (GSH, Vitamin C (Vit. C and Vitamin E (Vit. E and decreased both activities and gene expression of Superoxid Dismutase (SOD, Catalase (CAT, Glutathione Raductase (GR and Glutathione Peroxidase (GPx. Camel's milk reduced these biochemical changes and counteracted the deleterious effects of cisplatin Conclusion: The present study demonstrated the renoprotective potential of camel's milk against cisplatin-induced oxidative stress and renal dysfunction in mice. Hence, camel's milk has a potential to be used as therapeutic adjuvant in cisplatin nephrotoxicity.

  9. Serological evidence of camel exposure to peste des petits ruminants virus (PPRV) in Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woma, Timothy Yusufu; Kalla, Demo Joab Usman; Ekong, Pius Stephen; Ularamu, Hussaini Gulak; Chollom, Solomon Chuwang; Lamurde, Iliya Iliyasu; Bajehson, Dogonyaro Benjamin; Tom, Nenfa Danjuma; Aaron, Gideon Bature; Shamaki, David; Bailey, Dalan; Diallo, Adama; Quan, Melvyn

    2015-03-01

    Peste des petits ruminants (PPR), a viral disease of sheep and goats, is endemic in Nigeria. There are reports indicating the involvement of peste des petits ruminants virus (PPRV), the causative agent of PPR, in a camel respiratory syndrome in Africa. Considering that camels share the same grazing land and drinking points with other ruminants, this study was undertaken to determine the seroprevalence and extent of PPRV antibodies in Nigerian camels. A total of 1517 camel sera samples were collected from four states (Borno, Kano, Kastina and Sokoto). The seroprevalence was determined by the H-protein-based competitive ELISA. The overall prevalence was 3.36% (51/1517, 95% confidence interval of 2.51-4.39%). There was no significant differences in prevalence between states (p = 0.8921) and between male and female camels (p = 0.7424). The prevalence differed significantly (p 5 years (p = 0.0042). These results show occasional transient PPRV infection of camels in Nigeria, and there is the need to include camels among species to be studied in elucidating the epidemiology of the disease in sheep and goats. PMID:25547805

  10. Aetiology and Pathogenesis Studies on Osteoporosis in Bactrian Camel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Zong-ping; QU Ya-ling; MA Xiao-jun; ZHANG You-jia; CAO Sui-zhong; YANG De-bing; CHI Bin; HU Qian-de

    2003-01-01

    A disease characterized by emaciation, pica, lameness and liability to fracture in bactrian camelfrom gravel desert pasture was described. Analyses of mineral elements in soil, water and forage from the af-fected and normal areas as well as in blood, hair and parts of tissues from normal and diseased camel, togetherwith a pathological study were carried out to define the nature and major causes of the disease. The relatedblood indices were also measured. The result indicated that copper and phosphorus in the soil and forage fromthe affected area were significantly lower than those of the normal area (P<0.01). The levels of phosphorusin the blood, hair and rib reduced significantly in affected camels. The concentrations of PTH, T3, T4, creat-inine(Crt) and the activities of alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) in serum rosemarkedly (P<0.01). Bone injury was characterized by osteoporosis. The degenerative and necrotic lesions ofliver and kidney were common. In addition, slight demylination of brains and spinal cords were showed byhistopathological and ultrastructural studies. It is concluded that the disease is caused mainly by phosphorusdeficiency in the food chain.

  11. Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus Antibody Reactors Among Camels in Dubai, United Arab Emirates, in 2005

    OpenAIRE

    Alexandersen, S; Kobinger, G P; Soule, G; Wernery, U

    2014-01-01

    We tested, using a low starting dilution, sequential serum samples from dromedary camels, sheep and horses collected in Dubai from February/April to October of 2005 and from dromedary camels for export/import testing between Canada and USA in 2000–2001. Using a standard Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) neutralization test, serial sera from three sheep and three horses were all negative while sera from 9 of 11 dromedary camels from Dubai were positive for antibodies supp...

  12. Influence of pH on retention of camel chymosin in curd

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Børsting, Mette Winther; Qvist, Karsten B.; Ardö, Ylva Margareta

    2014-01-01

    Retained coagulant in cheese initiates casein breakdown and influences cheese structure and flavour formation. This study investigated the influence of milk pH on retention of camel chymosin in curd and compared it with bovine chymosin. Milk at five different pH levels was coagulated with same...... coagulation activity. The retention of camel chymosin in curd was rather constant at ∼20% between pH 6.65 and 6.00, while it increased almost linear from 2 to 21% for bovine chymosin. The lower pH dependence for retention of camel chymosin than of bovine chymosin may be explained by a lower negative charge...

  13. Eosinophilic Meningitis in a Middle Aged Man After Consumption of Camel Meat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K Ummer

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available We report the case of a middle aged male who presented with headache and vomiting and later diagnosed to have eosinophilic meningitis as a complication after consumption of camel meat.

  14. Effect of Camel Milk on Oxidative Stresses in Experimentally Induced Diabetic Rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esraa Tantawy

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Camel milk has an importance in the treatment of diabetes. It has been shown that the patients who drink camel milk daily, their need to insulin decrease. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the effect of camel milk in comparison with insulin treatment in experimentally-induced diabetes. This study was carried out on forty male New Zealand rabbits, divided into four groups with ten rabbits in each. The first group G1 was considered as control non-diabetic group and received only normal saline solution. The other animals were injected intravenously with alloxan for induction of diabetes mellitus and then divided into three groups' ten rabbits each as the follows: G2 considered as control diabetic and left untreated, G3 was considered as diabetic and treated with insulin, and G4 was considered as diabetic and received camel milk. At the end of the experiment (4 weeks, blood (whole blood & serum and tissue samples (liver, kidney and pancreas were collected from all the animals for analysis of: enzymatic SOD and catalase, non-enzymatic GSH antioxidant enzyme activities. Serum malondialdeyde, glucose, insulin and lipid profile also were analyzed. The results showed that the camel milk was effective in the treatment of diabetes in comparison to insulin treatment alone. In addition to its hypoglycemic effect, camel milk improved the diabetes-induced oxidative stress. The histopathological evaluations demonstrated that there was a regeneration in β cells and the islets of Langerhans among the pancreatic acini in rabbits receiving camel milk. Our findings suggested that the camel milk administration in case of insulin dependant diabetes mellitus might be recommended as an oral anti-diabetic remedy.

  15. Ankyloglossia and its surgical correction by frenuloplasty in a she-camel calf (Camelus dromedarius)

    OpenAIRE

    Anwar, S.; Purohit, G.N.

    2012-01-01

    A rare case of ankyloglossia in a one-humped camel and its successful surgical correction by horizontal to vertical frenuloplasty is reported. Seven-month-old she-camel calf, with a history of excessive salivation and inability to chew and swallow hay, was referred to Al Qattara veterinary hospital. Solid food was regurgitated, whereas milkand water could be swallowed. On examination; the animal could not protrude its tongue which was attached by a thin tissue band between the ventral surfac...

  16. The One-humped Camel in the Canary Islands: History and Present Status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilson, RT.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The one-humped camel (Camelus dromedarius L. is not indigenous to the Canary Islands but based on historical references was introduced at the very beginning of the fifteenth century. The camel thrived in the subtropical dry environment. A long period of isolation from other animals of the same species meant that the animals were virtually disease free. This made the Islands an ideal base for exporting camels to new areas such that camels from the Canaries went to Peru in the sixteenth century, to Brazil in the eighteenth century, Venezuela and Bolivia in the early part of the nineteenth century and Australia in 1840. Camels went to several Caribbean islands in the middle of the nineteenth century. More recently (late twentieth and early twenty-first centuries some animals were exported from the islands to mainland Europe, notably France, Spain and the Netherlands, and to South America. Camels have been used in military operations, as transport and draught animals in support of agriculture and have found a role in the tourist industry. In early 2013 there were some 1,300 camels distributed over four of the larger islands of the archipelago in herds varying in size from a single animal to herds of as many as 150 head: a large group of about 400 heads kept in a Safari Park on the island of Fuerteventura is considered as the national conservation herd. The "Canary" camel has recently been shown to be genetically distinct from most other populations and it has been proposed that it should be designated as a distinct breed.

  17. USING PCU-CAMEL, A WEB-BASED LEARNING ENVIRONMENT, IN EVALUATING TEACHING-LEARNING PROCESS

    OpenAIRE

    Arlinah Imam Rahardjo

    2008-01-01

    PCU-CAMEL (Petra Christian University-Computer Aided Mechanical Engineering Department Learning Environment) has been developed to integrate the use of this web-based learning environment into the traditional, face-to-face setting of class activities. This integrated learning method is designed as an effort to enrich and improve the teaching-learning process at Petra Christian University. A study was conducted to introduce the use of PCU-CAMEL as a tool in evaluating teaching learning process...

  18. CAMEL ACTIVE9月重装亮相上海淮海路

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴昕潞

    2009-01-01

    近日,从CAMEL ACTIVE中国总部获悉,时下最受都市男士欢迎的休闲服饰品牌CAMEL ACTIVE在上海淮海路的专卖店目前即将升级改造完毕,将于9月中旬盛装开业,这将成为时尚大都会上海的又

  19. Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis Infection (Caseous Lymphadenitis in Camels (Camelus dromedarius in Jordan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azmi D. Hawari

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: This study was conducted to describe & report for the first time outbreaks of natural C.pseudotuberculosis infection in adult camel herds (Camelus dromedarius in Jordan. An infectious disease syndrome was reported in three camel herds (Camelus dromedarius intensively raised at south province in Jordan. Approach: The herds included over 160 adult camels out of which about 8% were affected with multiple muscle and subcutaneous abscesses at various sites of the body. The camels were also heavily infested with ticks. Results: The infected camels did not respond favorably to several broad spectrum antibiotics. Post-mortem examination of 5 carcasses revealed emaciation and presence of external and internal multiple abscesses particularly in the lungs. The abscesses were encapsulated by fibrous tissue and contained creamy yellowish white pus. The lymph nodes were slightly congested and swollen. Conclusion: Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis type I strain or biovar ovis (the known cause of caseous lymphadenitis in sheep was isolated from pus, lymph nodes, ticks, milk, blood and liver samples. The clinical symptoms, nature and distribution of lesions of caseous lymphadenitis in camels are not as typical as in sheep. Recommendations for pseudotuberculosis control were given.

  20. Prevalence of Cryptosporidium infection in camels (Camelus dromedarius) in a slaughterhouse in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razawi, S M; Oryan, A; Bahrami, S; Mohammadalipour, A; Gowhari, M

    2009-12-01

    Cryptosporidiosis is a zoonotic protozoan disease of worldwide distribution, affecting a wide range of vertebrate hosts. Most data on the biology, distribution pattern, pathology and prevalence of cryptosporidial infection in farm animals is restricted to cattle, sheep and goats. Limited data is available in other domestic herbivores including camel. Numerous camels (Camelus dromedarius) are raised in the semi-arid regions of Iran. Although camel is acknowledged as a potential source of contamination, little is known with regards to the prevalence of Cryptosporidium in this population except a case report on the occurrence of this infection in a bactrian camel (Camelus bactrianus) in China. This investigation was undertaken to determine the prevalence of Cryptosporidium infection in camels (C. dromedarius) from Najaf-Abad slaughterhouse, Isfahan Province, central part of Iran. Out of 103 faecal samples from 63 adult males and 40 adult females, 2-14 years old, 39 (37.9%) were found positive for oocysts. No significant differences were observed between males and females, and among different age groups. There was also no significant difference among infection intensity in different age groups. This is the first report of Cryptosporidium infection in camels from this country.

  1. Minerals and nutritional composition of camel (camelus dromedarius) meat in Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The quality of camel meat has received little attention so far in Pakistan. It is nutritionally as good as that of the major sources of red or white meat. Camel is a desert animal but is not less than other red meat animals (beef, lamb and goat) in its composition. The proximate composition, fatty acid profile and mineral contents of the local camel (Camelus dromedarius) meat have been investigated. It contained 72.03 +- 0.014% water, 4.45 +- 0.011% ash, 5.79 +- 0.012% fat and 66.42 +- 0.534% protein. It has been found that camel meat has relatively more moisture, less fat, less ash and similar protein content than that of beef, lamb and goat [1]. It has similar mineral composition (Na, K, Ca, Fe, Zn, P, Mg, Cd, Cr, Co, Mo, Ni, and Pb) to beef except for sodium. Fatty acid profile for camel meat oil showed high content of palmitic acid and oleic acid. These two fatty acids are essential in human nutrition. In view of the above, it is possible that camel meat could make a greater contribution to the growing need for meat in developing countries like Pakistan. (author)

  2. Cytokine responses in camels (Camelus bactrianus) vaccinated with Brucella abortus strain 19 vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odbileg, Raadan; Purevtseren, Byambaa; Gantsetseg, Dorj; Boldbaatar, Bazartseren; Buyannemekh, Tumurjav; Galmandakh, Zagd; Erdenebaatar, Janchivdorj; Konnai, Satoru; Onuma, Misao; Ohashi, Kazuhiko

    2008-02-01

    In the present study, we determined the levels of cytokines produced by camel (Camelus bactrianus) peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) in response to live attenuated Brucella abortus (B. abortus) S19 vaccine. Seven camels were vaccinated with commercial B. abortus S19 vaccine, and their cytokine responses were determined using a real-time PCR assay. Cytokine responses to B. abortus S19 were examined at 6 hr, 48 hr and 1, 2 and 3 weeks post-vaccination. Serological tests were performed to further confirm these immune responses. The results revealed that IFN-gamma and IL-6 were upregulated during the first week post-vaccination. Low level expressions of IL-1alpha, IL-1beta, TNFalpha and IL-10 and no expression of IL-2 and IL-4 were observed compared with the control camels. The findings showed that B. abortus stimulates cell-mediated immunity by directly activating camel Th1 cells to secrete IFN-gamma. This quantification of cytokine expression in camels is essential for understanding of Camelidae disease development and protective immune responses. This is the first report of in vivo camel cytokine quantification after vaccination. PMID:18319583

  3. ACUTE PUERPERAL METRITIS IN A DROMEDARY CAMEL (CAMELUS DROMEDARIUS

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    Z.I. Qureshi, G. Muhammad, M. Athar and L.A. Lodhi

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available A case of acute puerperal metritis in a dromedary camel developing in the wake of dystokia corrected under unhygienic condition is described. The condition was associated with fever, foul-smelling purulent uterine discharge and pasty faeces. Pretreatment hematological examination indicated leukocytosis (22.05 x 103/mm3, owing to monocytosis (24 %. Microbiological examination of uterine discharge revealed a mixed bacterial infection with E. coli. Bacillus and streptococci which were all sensitive to nortloxacin, gentamicin, and amoxycillin, Faecal examination indicated a mixed infection with nematodes, Intrauterine administration of oxytetracycline with parenteral administration of amoxycillin, dipyrone and oral administration of oxfendazole successfully treated the case. The Principles of treatment of acute puerperal metritis have been discussed.

  4. Reactions of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) of camels with monoclonal antibodies against ruminant leukocytes.

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    Ungar-Waron, H; Yagil, R; Brenner, J; Paz, R; Partosh, N; Van Creveld, C; Lubashevsky, E; Trainin, Z

    2003-03-01

    The particular immune system of the camel has been but little investigated. In this work circulating camel peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) were studied by flow cytometry. Monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) raised against ruminant leukocytes were used for the detection of cell surface antigens. Monoclonals to T-cell markers, CD4 (CACT138A) and CD8 (CACT80C), exhibited no reactivity towards camel PBMC in contrast to their reactivity to PBMC of other ruminant species and those of cattle in particular. A relatively high percentage (29.1+/-8.9%) of camel PBMC reacted with a non-immunoglobulin cell surface marker, B-B2, comparable to the reactivity of bovine PBMC. The B-B7 cell marker revealed 22.4+/-10.0% of reactive camel PBMC while the CD45 leukocyte common antigen was identified only on 19.4+/-3.1% of camel PBMC as compared to 74.7+/-4.9% for bovine PBMC. IgM (PIg45A) was detected on 9.1+/-1.4% of camel PBMC and on 46.6+/-19.5% of the bovine PBMC. Double fluorescent labeling with two B-cell markers and an anti-ruminant lambda light-chain mAb revealed 7-9% of cells bearing both B and lambda L-chain markers. Light chain reactivity was also assessed using an anti-goat F(ab')(2) antiserum. The values obtained, 14.3+/-5.8% for the camel and 47.8+/-2.7% for the cattle, are close to the values observed for surface IgM. These data suggest that camels, like other ruminants, possess L-chain bearing cells of the B-cell lineage. However, in the camel, Igs are different in that in addition to regular four chain Igs, about 65% of them possess two heavy chain Igs devoid of light chains. Because different sets of V(H) gene segments are used by four and two chain Igs, it is possible that there might be two lineages of B-cells each secreting a different form of antibodies. PMID:12493494

  5. Camel milk ameliorates hyperglycaemia and oxidative damage in type-1 diabetic experimental rats.

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    Meena, Sunita; Rajput, Yudhishthir S; Pandey, Amit K; Sharma, Rajan; Singh, Raghvendar

    2016-08-01

    This study was designed to assess anti-diabetic potential of goat, camel, cow and buffalo milk in streptozotocin (STZ) induced type 1 diabetic albino wistar rats. A total of 48 rats were taken for the study where one group was kept as non-diabetic control group (8 rats) while others (40 rats) were made diabetic by STZ (50 mg/kg of body weight) injection. Among diabetic rats, a control group (8 rats) was kept and referred as diabetic control whereas other four groups (8 rats each) of diabetic rats were fed on 50 ml of goat or camel or cow or buffalo milk for 4 weeks. All the rats (non-diabetic and diabetic) were maintained on standard diet for four weeks. STZ administration resulted in enhancement of glucose, total cholesterol, triglyceride, low density lipoprotein, HbA1c and reduction in high density lipoprotein in plasma and lowering of antioxidative enzymes (catalase, glutathione peroxidase and superoxide dismutase) activities in pancreas, kidney, liver and RBCs, coupled with enhanced levels of TBARS and protein carbonyls in pancreas, kidney, liver and plasma. OGTT carried out at the end of 4 week milk feeding indicated that all milks helped in early maintenance of glucose level. All milks reduced atherogenic index. In camel milk fed diabetic group, insulin concentration enhanced to level noted for non-diabetic control while goat, cow and buffalo milk failed to restore insulin level. HbA1c level was also restored only in camel milk fed diabetic group. The level of antioxidative enzymes (catalase, GPx and SOD) in pancreas enhanced in all milk fed groups. Camel milk and to a reasonable extent goat milk reduced formation of TBARS and PCs in tissues and blood. It can be concluded that camel milk ameliorates hyperglycaemia and oxidative damage in type-1 diabetic experimental rats. Further, only camel milk completely ameliorated oxidative damage in pancreas and normalised insulin level. PMID:27600979

  6. Molecular analysis of the bacterial microbiome in the forestomach fluid from the dromedary camel (Camelus dromedarius).

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    Bhatt, Vaibhav D; Dande, Suchitra S; Patil, Nitin V; Joshi, Chaitanya G

    2013-04-01

    Rumen microorganisms play an important role in ruminant digestion and absorption of nutrients and have great potential applications in the field of rumen adjusting, food fermentation and biomass utilization etc. In order to investigate the composition of microorganisms in the rumen of camel (Camelus dromedarius), this study delves in the microbial diversity by culture-independent approach. It includes comparison of rumen samples investigated in the present study to other currently available metagenomes to reveal potential differences in rumen microbial systems. Pyrosequencing based metagenomics was applied to analyze phylogenetic and metabolic profiles by MG-RAST, a web based tool. Pyrosequencing of camel rumen sample yielded 8,979,755 nucleotides assembled to 41,905 sequence reads with an average read length of 214 nucleotides. Taxonomic analysis of metagenomic reads indicated Bacteroidetes (55.5 %), Firmicutes (22.7 %) and Proteobacteria (9.2 %) phyla as predominant camel rumen taxa. At a finer phylogenetic resolution, Bacteroides species dominated the camel rumen metagenome. Functional analysis revealed that clustering-based subsystem and carbohydrate metabolism were the most abundant SEED subsystem representing 17 and 13 % of camel metagenome, respectively. A high taxonomic and functional similarity of camel rumen was found with the cow metagenome which is not surprising given the fact that both are mammalian herbivores with similar digestive tract structures and functions. Combined pyrosequencing approach and subsystems-based annotations available in the SEED database allowed us access to understand the metabolic potential of these microbiomes. Altogether, these data suggest that agricultural and animal husbandry practices can impose significant selective pressures on the rumen microbiota regardless of rumen type. The present study provides a baseline for understanding the complexity of camel rumen microbial ecology while also highlighting striking

  7. Purification and Characterization of Glucose-6-Phosphate Dehydrogenase from Camel Liver

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    Mahmoud A. Ibrahim

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase from camel liver was purified to homogeneity by ammonium sulfate precipitation and a combination of DEAE-cellulose, Sephacryl S-300 gel filtration, and 2′, 5′ ADP Sepharose 4B affinity chromatography columns. The specific activity of camel liver G6PD is increased to 1.80438 units/mg proteins with 63-fold purification. It turned out to be homogenous on both native PAGE and 12% SDS PAGE, with a molecular weight of 64 kDa. The molecular weight of the native form of camel liver G6PD was determined to be 194 kDa by gel filtration indicating a trimeric protein. The Km value was found to be 0.081 mM of NADP+. Camel liver G6PD displayed its optimum activity at pH 7.8 with an isoelectric point (pI of pH 6.6–6.8. The divalent cations MgCl2, MnCl2, and CoCl2 act as activators; on the other hand, CaCl2 and NiCl2 act as moderate inhibitors, while FeCl2, CuCl2, and ZnCl2 are potent inhibitors of camel liver G6PD activity. NADPH inhibited camel liver G6PD competitively with Ki value of 0.035 mM. One binding site was deduced for NADPH on the enzyme molecule. This study presents a simple and reproducible purification procedure of G6PD from the camel liver.

  8. Survey of hydatidosis infection in slaughtered camel (Camelus dromedarius) in Tabriz area, Northwest Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirzaei, Mohammad; Rezaei, Hadi; Nematollahi, Ahmad; Ashrafihelan, Javad

    2016-06-01

    Hydatid Disease is the name given to the condition caused by the zoonotic tapeworm Echinococcus granulosus. The tapeworm spends most of its adult life in the intestine of its definitive host, namely canids and in particular the dog. The tapeworm eggs become voided in the canids' faeces and as a result of ingesting the eggs, infection passes to the intermediate host, commonly herbivores while grazing. However, humans can become accidentally infected and hydatid cysts may develop throughout the body. During April 2010-February 2014, a total 198 camels, which had been sent to the abattoir, the daily number of hydatid infected livers and lungs of camels slaughtered at Tabriz abattoir were recorded. To be sure about the validity of recorded data, observed data were collected daily. Approximately 29 (14.64 %) of camels were infected according to this survey. Age wise, the prevalence of infection in young animals (under the age of 5 years) was 4 (2.02 %), whereas in animals between 5 and 10 years and over, the prevalence of infection was 11 (5.55 %) and 14 (7.07 %) respectively. Sex wise, female animals had a higher prevalence with 17 (19.76 %) cases in camels, whereas in the males, there were 12 (10.71 %) cases in camels. There was a notable difference found in our study between male and female animals (P industry. PMID:27413318

  9. Indigenous knowledge of pastoralists on respiratory diseases of camels in northern Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wako, D D; Younan, M; Tessema, T S; Glücks, I V; Baumann, M P O

    2016-08-01

    The camel disease terminology of pastoralists in northern Kenya differentiates between two respiratory disease complexes of camels. Participatory epidemiology data were collected in 2011 in three camel keeping communities (Gabra, Garri, and Somali) and analysed to assess the validity of this differentiation. Further queries assessed recurrence of the disease in the same animal, most affected age group, relative frequency of occurrence, morbidity rates, mortality rates and response to antibiotic treatment. Based on matrix scoring the cardinal symptom nasal discharge was significantly correlated with Respiratory Disease Complex 1 (RDC1; Somali Hergeb, Gabra & Garri Furri) while cough was correlated with Respiratory Disease Complex 2 (RDC2; Somali Dhuguta, Gabra Qufa, Garri Dhugud). RDC1 appears to occur regularly every year and does not respond to antibiotic treatments while outbreaks of RDC2 are only observed at intervals of several years and treated cases do generally respond to antibiotics. While RDC1 is more severe in calves, RDC 2 is mostly associated with respiratory disease in adults. Elements of this differentiation appear to be in agreement with other authors who differentiate between camel influenza (PI3 virus) and bacterial camel pneumonia, respectively. PMID:27435647

  10. Indigenous knowledge of pastoralists on respiratory diseases of camels in northern Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wako, D D; Younan, M; Tessema, T S; Glücks, I V; Baumann, M P O

    2016-08-01

    The camel disease terminology of pastoralists in northern Kenya differentiates between two respiratory disease complexes of camels. Participatory epidemiology data were collected in 2011 in three camel keeping communities (Gabra, Garri, and Somali) and analysed to assess the validity of this differentiation. Further queries assessed recurrence of the disease in the same animal, most affected age group, relative frequency of occurrence, morbidity rates, mortality rates and response to antibiotic treatment. Based on matrix scoring the cardinal symptom nasal discharge was significantly correlated with Respiratory Disease Complex 1 (RDC1; Somali Hergeb, Gabra & Garri Furri) while cough was correlated with Respiratory Disease Complex 2 (RDC2; Somali Dhuguta, Gabra Qufa, Garri Dhugud). RDC1 appears to occur regularly every year and does not respond to antibiotic treatments while outbreaks of RDC2 are only observed at intervals of several years and treated cases do generally respond to antibiotics. While RDC1 is more severe in calves, RDC 2 is mostly associated with respiratory disease in adults. Elements of this differentiation appear to be in agreement with other authors who differentiate between camel influenza (PI3 virus) and bacterial camel pneumonia, respectively.

  11. Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus antibody reactors among camels in Dubai, United Arab Emirates, in 2005.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexandersen, S; Kobinger, G P; Soule, G; Wernery, U

    2014-04-01

    We tested, using a low starting dilution, sequential serum samples from dromedary camels, sheep and horses collected in Dubai from February/April to October of 2005 and from dromedary camels for export/import testing between Canada and USA in 2000-2001. Using a standard Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) neutralization test, serial sera from three sheep and three horses were all negative while sera from 9 of 11 dromedary camels from Dubai were positive for antibodies supported by similar results in a MERS-CoV recombinant partial spike protein antibody ELISA. The two negative Dubai camels were both dromedary calves and remained negative over the 5 months studied. The six dromedary samples from USA and Canada were negative in both tests. These results support the recent findings that infection with MERS-CoV or a closely related virus is not a new occurrence in camels in the Middle East. Therefore, interactions of MERS-CoV at the human-animal interface may have been ongoing for several, perhaps many, years and by inference, a widespread pandemic may be less likely unless significant evolution of the virus allow accelerated infection and spread potential in the human population.

  12. Pregnancy-Associated Changes of IgG and Serum N-Glycosylation in Camel (Camelus dromedarius).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamczyk, Barbara; Albrecht, Simone; Stöckmann, Henning; Ghoneim, Ibrahim M; Al-Eknah, Marzook; Al-Busadah, Khalid A S; Karlsson, Niclas G; Carrington, Stephen D; Rudd, Pauline M

    2016-09-01

    The dromedary camel (Camelus dromedarius) is an agriculturally important species of high economic value but of low reproductive efficiency. Serum and IgG N-glycosylation are affected by physiological and pathogenic changes and might therefore be a useful diagnostic tool in camel livestock management. This study presents the first comprehensive annotation of the N-glycome from dromedary camel serum as well as their single-domain and conventional antibodies and its subsequent application for camel pregnancy diagnostics. N-glycans were released by PNGaseF, labeled with 2-aminobenzamide (2-AB), and analyzed by hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography with fluorescent detection (HILIC-UPLC-FLD), enzymatic sequencing and mass spectrometry (MS). The use of a high-throughput robotic platform for sample preparation allowed the rapid generation of glycomics data from pregnant (n = 8) and nonpregnant (n = 8) camels of the Majaheem and Wadha breed. IgG N-glycans dominate the glycan profile of camel serum and present a mixture of core-fucosylated and noncore-fucosylated N-glycans which can contain N-glycolylneuraminic and N-acetylneuraminic acid. Significant pregnancy-associated but breed-independent increases in galactosylation, core-fucosylation, sialylation, and decreases in serum O-acetylation were observed. The monitoring of IgG and serum N-glycosylation presents an attractive complementary test for camel pregnancy diagnostics and presents an interesting tool for biomarker discovery in camel health and breeding.

  13. BIOCHEMICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF LACTIC ACID PRODUCING BACTERIA AND PREPARATION OF CAMEL MILK CHEESE BY USING STARTER CULTURE

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    T. Ahmed and R. Kanwal

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Lactic acid bacteria (LAB were isolated from camel milk by culturing the milk on specific media and pure culture was obtained by sub-culturing. Purification of culture was confirmed by Gram’s staining and identified by different biochemical tests. Camel milk contained lactic acid producing bacteria like Streptococci such as S. cremoris and S. lactis and Lactobacilli such as L. acidophilus. L. acidophilus grew more rapidly in camel milk than others as its growth was supported by camel milk. Ability of each strain was tested to convert lactose of milk into lactic acid. It was observed that 66% lactose was converted by S. lactis 20, whereas S. cremoris 22 and L. acidophilus 23 converted 56 and 74% lactose into lactic acid, respectively. Effect of freeze-drying was also recorded and the results showed that in all cases there was a slight decrease in the cell count before and after the freeze-drying. The decrease was approximately 0.47, 0.078 and 0.86% for S. lactis 20, S. cremoris 22 and L. acidophilus 23, respectively. Starter culture was prepared from strains isolated from camel milk. Camel and buffalo milk cheese was prepared by using starter culture. The strains isolated from camel milk were best for acid production and coagulated the milk in less time. It is concluded that cheese can be prepared successfully from camel milk and better results can be obtained by coagulating milk with starter culture.

  14. Lead acetate toxicity on glucose level and liver enzymes ameliorated by camel's milk in wistar albino rat

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    Marwan M. Draid

    2016-06-01

    Conclusions: The ability of camel milk to reduce lead toxicity may relate to its antioxidant actions or enhancing, the metal chelating action. In conclusion, Supplementation of daily diets with camel milk may be recommended to improve the body in case of lead contamination. [Int J Basic Clin Pharmacol 2016; 5(3.000: 1125-1130

  15. Effects of age and period of fattening on carcass and non-carcass characteristics of one-humped camels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saghi, Davoud Ali; Shahdadi, Ali Reza; Mokhtarpour, Amir

    2016-08-01

    This study was conducted to compare the carcass characteristics and quantity of carcass and non-carcass components of 2- and 3-year-old male camels fattened for either 3 or 6 months. Twelve 2-year-old camels with an average body live weight of 268.5 ± 21.4 kg and twelve 3-year-old camels with an average body live weight of 307.5 ± 29.9 kg were used in a completely randomized design with a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement. For carcass analysis, three camels from each group were selected and slaughtered. The results showed that camel age and fattening period had no significant effect on average daily gain (ADG). Older camels and a longer fattening period resulted in heavier hot and cold carcass weights. Three-year-old camels had a higher dressing percentage compared to 2-year-old camels, regardless of the period of fattening. Analysis of non-carcass components showed that the heaviest component was the hide and 2-year-old camels fattened for 90 days had the greatest weight of hide as percentage of cold carcass weight. Total muscle weight was greater for the 3-year-old camels compared to the 2-year-old ones, regardless of the fattening period, and camels fattened for 180 days had heavier weight than those fattened for 90 days, regardless of age at fattening. However, the greatest weight of total muscle was detected in camels at 2 years of age fattened for 180 days when it was expressed as percentage of carcass weight. The highest and the lowest total fat content as kilogram or as percentage of cold carcass was observed in 3-year-old camels fattened for 180 days and 2-year-old camels fattened for 180 days, respectively. Our results suggested that the best age for slaughtering is 2 years old with the fattening period of 180 days. PMID:27256367

  16. Camels Milk: Nutrition and Health Perspectives Iranian Traditional Medicine

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    Seyyd Musa al-Reza Hosseini

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Camel milk is the closest to human mother’s milk. In the references on Iranian traditional medicine, camel’s milk has been represented as the one having numerous nutritious and medical properties.Objectives: In this article, the nutritive and therapeutic effects of camel’s milk have been examined from the view point of Iranian traditional medicine.Materials and Methods: The present study is a qualitative one, which was carried out, based on certain criteria, through purposeful search of certain keywords in the written references of Iranian traditional medicine.Results: Numerous pharmacological functions and therapeutic effects of camel’s milk on patients suffering from liver, kidney, bladder, spleen, stomach and intestines, uterus, skin, lungs, and brain diseases have been mentioned. Camel’s milk seems to be an appropriate alternative/supplement to nourish infants and children.Conclusions: Animal resources, such as camel’s milk and its various products, have comprehensively been dealt with regarding their nutritive and therapeutic effects. Its compatibility with and similarity to mother’s milk have led to its application in pediatrics; thus, offering valid information to pediatricians on camel’s milk can further enhance the consumption of this natural product.

  17. Botany and zoology in the late seventeenth-century Philippines: the work of Georg Josef Camel SJ (1661-1706).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes, Raquel A G

    2009-10-01

    Georg Josef Camel (1661-1706) went to the Spanish colony of the Philippine Islands as a Jesuit lay brother in 1687, and he remained there until his death. Throughout his time in the Philippines, Camel collected examples of the flora and fauna, which he drew and described in detail. This paper offers an overview of his life, his publications and the Camel manuscripts, drawings and specimens that are preserved among the Sloane Manuscripts in the British Library and in the Sloane Herbarium at the Natural History Museum, London. It also discusses Camel's links and exchanges with scientifically minded plant collectors and botanists in London, Madras and Batavia. Among those with whom Camel corresponded were John Ray, James Petiver, and the Dutch physician Willem Ten Rhijne. PMID:20014508

  18. One-Humped Camels (Camelus dromedaries Hard Ticks Infestation in Qeshm Island, Iran

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    Saeed Nazifi

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The economic importance of tick infestation on camels are important as they are important meat and milk producer animals in the less vegetation area of Iran and their health and production are greatly affected by the high tick infestation. In this investigation, tick infestations on camels (Camelus dromedarius were determined in Qeshm Island, Iran. A total number of 912 adult ticks (472 males and 440 females were collected and identified. Hyalomma dromedarii was the predominant tick specie and accounted for 61.9% of the adult ticks. Other hard ticks were H. anatolicum excavatum (22 %, H. asiaticum asiaticum (14.2 %, H. marginatum (1.9 %, H. impeltatum (0.4 % and Ripicephalus bursa (0.4 %. In conclusion, The provision of tick control programs in the Qeshm Island would seem a prerequisite for improving camel meat and milk production.

  19. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for rapid diagnosis and differentiation of parapoxvirus and orthopoxvirus infections in camels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rapid identification and differentiation of camel pox (CMP) and camel contagious ecthyma (CCE) were achieved by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) with primers that distinguish Orthopoxvirus (OPV) and Parapovirus (PPV). Forty scab specimens collected from sick camels and sheep were treated by 3 different DNA extraction procedures and examined by PCR. The sensitivity of the PCR was compared with that of electron microscopy and virus isolation in cell culture. Procedure 1, in which viral DNA was extracted directly from scab specimens followed by PCR, proved to be superior and more sensitive. Procedure 2 enables a fast specific diagnosis of PPV and OPV infections directly from scab materials without the need for DNA extraction. These assays provide a rapid and feasible alternative to electron microscopy and virus isolation. (author)

  20. Study of brucellosis in serum of camels in southeast of Iran

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    Ahmad Rafieipour

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out in the town of Qalegange, located in southeast of Iran, home of about 3816 camels. To study brucellosis in these animals, serological examinations including rose Bengal plat test (RBPT, MRT and 2ME were performed on 3502 camel’s serum samples. Positive results were obtained in 245 (7%, 163 (4.66% and 89 (7.92% camels thus tested, respectively. Twenty three percent of the positive camels were adult 2 years old, 36% three years old, 22% four years old, 17% five years old and the remaining 3 percent were six years old. In the infected herds, abortion rates associated with the disease ranged from 10 to 39 percent. Other ailments observed associated with brucellosis were retention of the placenta, fetal death and mummification, delayed maturity and infertility. Recommendations for brucellosis control were given, in order to increase the awareness of shepherds, by suggesting regular testing, slaughtering of infected animals and vaccinations.

  1. Ankyloglossia and its surgical correction by frenuloplasty in a she-camel calf (Camelus dromedarius

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    S. Anwar

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available A rare case of ankyloglossia in a one-humped camel and its successful surgical correction by horizontal to vertical frenuloplasty is reported. Seven-month-old she-camel calf, with a history of excessive salivation and inability to chew and swallow hay, was referred to Al Qattara veterinary hospital. Solid food was regurgitated, whereas milkand water could be swallowed. On examination; the animal could not protrude its tongue which was attached by a thin tissue band between the ventral surface of the tongue and the floor of the oral cavity. The tissue band was corrected by frenuloplasty and the incisions were sutured. The animal recovered well as the salivation and regurgitation stopped and the animal became able to chew and swallow solid food including hay. It was concluded that ankyloglossia can occur in one-humped camel in which a horizontal to vertical frenuloplasty may improve fullfunction of tongue movement.

  2. Pathology of camel tuberculosis and molecular characterization of its causative agents in pastoral regions of Ethiopia.

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    Gezahegne Mamo

    Full Text Available A cross sectional study was conducted on 906 apparently healthy camels slaughtered at Akaki and Metehara abattoirs to investigate the pathology of camel tuberculosis (TB and characterize its causative agents using postmortem examination, mycobacteriological culturing, and multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR, region of difference-4 (RD4-based PCR and spoligotyping. The prevalence of camel TB was 10.04% (91/906 on the basis of pathology and it was significantly higher in females (χ(2 = 4.789; P = 0.029. The tropism of TB lesions was significantly different among the lymph nodes (χ(2 = 22.697; P = 0.002 and lung lobes (χ(2 = 17.901; P = 0.006. Mycobacterial growth was observed in 34% (31/91 of camels with grossly suspicious TB lesions. Upon further molecular characterization using multiplex PCR, 68% (21/31 of the colonies showed a positive signal for the genus Mycobacterium, of which two were confirmed Mycobacterium bovis (M. bovis by RD4 deletion typing. Further characterization of the two M. bovis at strains level revealed that one of the strains was SB0133 while the other strain was new and had not been reported to the M. bovis database prior to this study. Hence, it has now been reported to the database, and designated as SB1953. In conclusion, the results of the present study have shown that the majority of camel TB lesions are caused by mycobacteria other than Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex. And hence further identification and characterization of these species would be useful towards the efforts made to control TB in camels.

  3. Camel Milk Is a Safer Choice than Goat Milk for Feeding Children with Cow Milk Allergy

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammad Ehlayel; Abdulbari Bener; Khalid Abu Hazeima; Fatima Al-Mesaifri

    2011-01-01

    Background. Various sources of mammalian milk have been tried in CMA. Objectives. To determine whether camel milk is safer than goat milk in CMA. Methods. Prospective study conducted at Hamad Medical Corporation between April 2007 and April 2010, on children with CMA. Each child had medical examination, CBC, total IgE, cow milk-specific IgE and SPT. CMA children were tested against fresh camel and goat milks. Results. Of 38 children (median age 21.5 months), 21 (55.3%) presented with urticari...

  4. Too big to be noticed: cryptic invasion of Asian camel crickets in North American houses

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    Mary Jane Epps

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Despite the rapid expansion of the built environment, we know little about the biology of species living in human-constructed habitats. Camel crickets (Rhaphidophoridae are commonly observed in North American houses and include a range of native taxa as well as the Asian Diestrammena asynamora (Adelung, a species occasionally reported from houses though considered to be established only in greenhouses. We launched a continental-scale citizen science campaign to better understand the relative distributions and frequency of native and nonnative camel crickets in human homes across North America. Participants contributed survey data about the presence or absence of camel crickets in homes, as well as photographs and specimens of camel crickets allowing us to identify the major genera and/or species in and around houses. Together, these data offer insight into the geographical distribution of camel crickets as a presence in homes, as well as the relative frequency and distribution of native and nonnative camel crickets encountered in houses. In so doing, we show that the exotic Diestrammena asynamora not only has become a common presence in eastern houses, but is found in these environments far more frequently than native camel crickets. Supplemental pitfall trapping along transects in 10 urban yards in Raleigh, NC revealed that D. asynamora can be extremely abundant locally around some homes, with as many as 52 individuals collected from pitfalls in a single yard over two days of sampling. The number of D. asynamora individuals present in a trap was negatively correlated with the trap’s distance from a house, suggesting that these insects may be preferentially associated with houses but also are present outside. In addition, we report the establishment in the northeastern United States of a second exotic species, putatively Diestrammena japanica Blatchley, which was previously undocumented in the literature. Our results offer new insight into the

  5. Consolidated Storage Facilities: Camel's Nose or Shared Burden? - 13112

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Blue Ribbon Commission (BRC) made a strong argument why the reformulated nuclear waste program should make prompt efforts to develop one or more consolidated storage facilities (CSFs), and recommended the amendment of NWPA Section 145(b) 2 (linking 'monitored retrievable storage' to repository development) as an essential means to that end. However, other than recommending that the siting of CSFs should be 'consent-based' and that spent nuclear fuel (SNF) at stranded sites should be first-in-line for removal, the Commission made few recommendations regarding how CSF development should proceed. Working with three other key Senators, Jeff Bingaman attempted in the 112. Congress to craft legislation (S. 3469) to put the BRC recommendations into legislative language. The key reason why the Nuclear Waste Administration Act of 2012 did not proceed was the inability of the four senators to agree on whether and how to amend NWPA Section 145(b). A brief review of efforts to site consolidated storage since the Nuclear Waste Policy Amendments Act of 1987 suggests a strong and consistent motivation to shift the burden to someone (anyone) else. This paper argues that modification of NWPA Section 145(b) should be accompanied by guidelines for regional development and operation of CSFs. After review of the BRC recommendations regarding CSFs, and the 'camel's nose' prospects if implementation is not accompanied by further guidelines, the paper outlines a proposal for implementation of CSFs on a regional basis, including priorities for removal from reactor sites and subsequently from CSFs to repositories. Rather than allowing repository siting to be prejudiced by the location of a single remote CSF, the regional approach limits transport for off-site acceptance and storage, increases the efficiency of removal operations, provides a useful basis for compensation to states and communities that accept CSFs, and gives states with shared circumstances a shared stake in storage and

  6. First isolation of West Nile virus from a dromedary camel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, Sunitha; Wernery, Ulrich; Teng, Jade Ll; Wernery, Renate; Huang, Yi; Patteril, Nissy Ag; Chan, Kwok-Hung; Elizabeth, Shyna K; Fan, Rachel Yy; Lau, Susanna Kp; Kinne, Jörg; Woo, Patrick Cy

    2016-01-01

    Although antibodies against West Nile virus (WNV) have been detected in the sera of dromedaries in the Middle East, North Africa and Spain, no WNV has been isolated or amplified from dromedary or Bactrian camels. In this study, WNV was isolated from Vero cells inoculated with both nasal swab and pooled trachea/lung samples from a dromedary calf in Dubai. Complete-genome sequencing and phylogenetic analysis using the near-whole-genome polyprotein revealed that the virus belonged to lineage 1a. There was no clustering of the present WNV with other WNVs isolated in other parts of the Middle East. Within lineage 1a, the dromedary WNV occupied a unique position, although it was most closely related to other WNVs of cluster 2. Comparative analysis revealed that the putative E protein encoded by the genome possessed the original WNV E protein glycosylation motif NYS at E154-156, which contained the N-linked glycosylation site at N-154 associated with increased WNV pathogenicity and neuroinvasiveness. In the putative NS1 protein, the A70S substitution observed in other cluster 2 WNVs and P250, which has been implicated in neuroinvasiveness, were present. In addition, the foo motif in the putative NS2A protein, which has been implicated in neuroinvasiveness, was detected. Notably, the amino-acid residues at 14 positions in the present dromedary WNV genome differed from those in most of the closely related WNV strains in cluster 2 of lineage 1a, with the majority of these differences observed in the putative E and NS5 proteins. The present study is the first to demonstrate the isolation of WNV from dromedaries. This finding expands the possible reservoirs of WNV and sources of WNV infection. PMID:27273223

  7. First isolation of West Nile virus from a dromedary camel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, Sunitha; Wernery, Ulrich; Teng, Jade LL; Wernery, Renate; Huang, Yi; Patteril, Nissy AG; Chan, Kwok-Hung; Elizabeth, Shyna K; Fan, Rachel YY; Lau, Susanna KP; Kinne, Jörg; Woo, Patrick CY

    2016-01-01

    Although antibodies against West Nile virus (WNV) have been detected in the sera of dromedaries in the Middle East, North Africa and Spain, no WNV has been isolated or amplified from dromedary or Bactrian camels. In this study, WNV was isolated from Vero cells inoculated with both nasal swab and pooled trachea/lung samples from a dromedary calf in Dubai. Complete-genome sequencing and phylogenetic analysis using the near-whole-genome polyprotein revealed that the virus belonged to lineage 1a. There was no clustering of the present WNV with other WNVs isolated in other parts of the Middle East. Within lineage 1a, the dromedary WNV occupied a unique position, although it was most closely related to other WNVs of cluster 2. Comparative analysis revealed that the putative E protein encoded by the genome possessed the original WNV E protein glycosylation motif NYS at E154–156, which contained the N-linked glycosylation site at N-154 associated with increased WNV pathogenicity and neuroinvasiveness. In the putative NS1 protein, the A70S substitution observed in other cluster 2 WNVs and P250, which has been implicated in neuroinvasiveness, were present. In addition, the foo motif in the putative NS2A protein, which has been implicated in neuroinvasiveness, was detected. Notably, the amino-acid residues at 14 positions in the present dromedary WNV genome differed from those in most of the closely related WNV strains in cluster 2 of lineage 1a, with the majority of these differences observed in the putative E and NS5 proteins. The present study is the first to demonstrate the isolation of WNV from dromedaries. This finding expands the possible reservoirs of WNV and sources of WNV infection. PMID:27273223

  8. Milk production potential, quality of raw milk and reproductive efficiency of dromedary camels (Camelus Dromedarius)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Old world camelids (Dromedary and Bactrian camels) are important source of milk in rural areas of many arid countries. However, extensive production system cannot guarantee constant quality and quantity raw milk for the market. Development of the world first large scale-camel milking farm in Dubai draws attention to camels as potential source for high quality milk and meat in developing countries. This presentation summarizes the development and results of the project. Animals: Intensive management and production require concentration of camels. Camels arrived to the farm from different countries of the region with variable age, condition and lactation stage resulting in great range in individual milk production. In practice, history of the purchased animals (health status, previous production) is not available. Despite the negative preconception, camels can be trained successfully to adopt the machine milking technology. Training takes 1-4 weeks depending on the background of the animal. So far we have trained more than 1400 camels for machine milking. Infectious disease control, general and udder health: Due to lack of history, it is extremely important to establish and maintain strict quarantine. Infectious diseases (Brucellosis, Tuberculosis, Surra, FMD etc.) are monitored with serological tests. The main problem is that most of the tests are not validated for camels and kits from different manufacturers may give controversial results. The prevalence of Brucellosis exceeded 30% in purchased animals from certain regions. Udder health is also monitored carefully. In previously hand milked, multiparous camels, teats are frequently enlarged/deformed or the udder is infected with pathogen bacteria (Str. agalactiae, Str. bovis, Corynebacterium amycolatum, Staph. aureus, etc.). In a recent survey, 21.8% (54 camels) of 248 new lactating animals were infected. These camels should be either rejected or treated before starting machine milking. Adaptation of milking

  9. Confirmed low prevalence of Listeria mastitis in she-camel milk delivers a safe, alternative milk for human consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osman, Kamelia M; Samir, Ahmed; Orabi, Ahmed; Zolnikov, Tara Rava

    2014-02-01

    She-camel milk is an alternative solution for people allergic to milk; unfortunately, potential harmful bacteria have not been tested in she-camel milk. Listeria monocytogenes is one harmful bacterium that causes adverse health effects if chronically or acutely ingested by humans. The purpose of this study was to estimate the prevalence, characterize the phenotypic, genetic characterization, virulence factors, and antibiopotential harmful bacteria resistance profile of Listeria isolated from the milk of she-camel. Udder milk samples were collected from 100 she-camels and screened for mastitis using the California mastitis test (46 healthy female camels, 24 subclinical mastitic animals and 30 clinical mastitic animals). Samples were then examined for the presence of pathogenic Listeria spp; if located, the isolation of Listeria was completed using the International Organization for Standards technique to test for pathogenicity. The isolates were subjected to PCR assay for virulence-associated genes. Listeria spp. were isolated from 4% of samples and only 1.0% was confirmed as L. monocytogenes. The results of this study provide evidence for the low prevalence of intramammary Listeria infection; additionally, this study concludes she-camel milk in healthy camels milked and harvested in proper hygienic conditions may be used as alternative milk for human consumption.

  10. Prevalence, risk factors, and major bacterial causes of camel mastitis in Borana Zone, Oromia Regional State, Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regassa, Alemayehu; Golicha, Gelma; Tesfaye, Dawit; Abunna, Fufa; Megersa, Bekele

    2013-10-01

    A cross-sectional study was carried out from November 2010 up to April 2011 to estimate mastitis prevalence and associated risk factors and to assess its bacterial causes in traditionally managed camels in Borana Zone, Southern Ethiopia. Thus, 348 lactating camels were examined clinically, and subclinical cases were checked with California mastitis test (CMT). The overall prevalence of mastitis was 44.8 % (156/348), comprising clinical (19, 5.4 %) and subclinical (137, 39.4 %) cases. The quarter level prevalence of mastitis was 24.0 % (334/1,392). Of the total 1,392 examined teats, 30 were blind, and hence, from the 1,362 non-blind CMT-examined teats, 22.3 % (304/1,362) were CMT positive. Of the 304 CMT-positive samples, 264 were culture positive (197 Gram-positive, 41 Gram-negative, and 26 mixed isolates), and 40 were culture negative. The prevalence of Staphylococcus aureus was found to be the highest at both the animal (12.8 %, 39/304) and quarter level (2.9 %, 39/1,362). Regression analysis revealed higher likelihood of mastitis occurrence among camels from Dharito (OR = 3.4, 95 % confidence interval (CI) = 1.8, 6.4), Gagna (OR = 3.4, 95 % CI = 1.8, 6.5), and Haro Bake (OR = 2.6, 95 % CI = 1.3, 5.1) than camels from Surupha. Likewise, there was higher chance of mastitis occurrence among camels at the early lactation stage (OR = 2.3, 95 % CI = 1.1, 4.6) and camels with udder/teat lesions (OR = 13.7, 95 % CI = 1.7, 109.4) than among camels at late lactation stage and camels with healthy udder/teats, respectively. In conclusion, this study reveals the current status of camel mastitis in Southern Ethiopia. PMID:23563738

  11. Behavioral benefits of camel milk in subjects with autism spectrum disorder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To investigate the possible therapeutic effects of camel milk on behavioral characteristics as an interventional strategy in autistic children. Study Design: Double-blind, Randomized Clinical Trial (RCT). Place and Duration of Study: Autism Research and Treatment Center, Al-Amodi Autism Research Chair, Department of Physiology, Faculty of Medicine, King Khalid University Hospital, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, from October 2012 to May 2013. Methodology: Changes in behavioral characteristics in 65 (boys=60, girls=5) children with autism (aged from 2 to 12 years) were assessed. The behavioral symptoms were evaluated by Childhood Autism Rating Scale (CARS), Social Responsiveness Scale (SRS), and Autism Treatment Evaluation Checklist (ATEC) before and after the 2 weeks of camel milk therapy. Results: Significant differences were detected on Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) by CARS, SRS and ATEC scales, following 2 weeks of camel milk consumption, but not in the placebo group. Conclusion: The present study demonstrates that camel milk could be very promising therapeutic intervention in ASD. Further wide scale studies are strongly recommended. (author)

  12. Biometric and Ultrasonographic Evaluation of the Testis of One-humped Camel (Camelus dromedarius

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riaz Hussain Pasha, Anas Sarwar Qureshi*, Laeeq Akbar Lodhi1 and Huma Jamil1

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Twenty four adult clinically healthy one-humped male camels (Camelus dromedarius were examined three times (beginning, mid and end in each season (winter, spring, summer and autumn for establishing the normal ultrasonic appearance and seasonal changes in the testicular parenchyma in the natural ecology of Punjab, Pakistan. The testes of each camel were scanned by using a B-mode real time ultrasound scanner fitted with a 7.5-MHz linear-array transducer. Scrotal biometry was done with the measuring tape during all the seasons of year. The tunics of the testes appeared as hyperechoic lines surrounding the homogenous, moderately echogenic parenchyma of the testis. The mediastinum testis was visualized as hyperechoic central line and a spot, in longitudinal and transverse sections, respectively. During winter season, the parenchyma was hyperechoic and mediastinum testis was seen as thin hyperechoic line. In spring, the echogenicity of parenchyma was moderate and mediastinum appeared relatively thick central hyperechoic line. In summer and autumn, less echoic parenchyma and thick band of mediastinum was recorded. Biometric studies showed significantly (P<0.01 higher scrotal length and width of the testis during winter and spring season as compared to summer and autumn. Present study revealed that the ultrasonic structure of camel testis resembles other mammals and season has an apparent effect on the testicular size and echogenicity of the testicular parenchyma in the one-humped camel.

  13. Proteomic study on the stability of proteins in bovine, camel, and caprine milk sera after processing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, Lina; Boeren, Sjef; Smits, Marcel; Hooijdonk, van Toon; Vervoort, Jacques; Hettinga, Kasper

    2016-01-01

    Milk proteins have been shown to be very sensitive to processing. This study aims to investigate the changes of the bovine, camel, and caprine milk proteins after freezing, pasteurization (62 °C, 30 min), and spray drying by proteomic techniques, filter-aided sample preparation (FASP) and dimethy

  14. Use of salivary cortisol to evaluate the influence of rides in dromedary camels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majchrzak, Yasmine N; Mastromonaco, Gabriela F; Korver, Wendy; Burness, Gary

    2015-01-15

    Animals in captivity and in the wild face numerous challenges, including the risk of enduring acute or chronic stress. In captivity, facilities attempt to alleviate the risk of chronic stress by providing environmental enrichment, shown to minimize behavioral disorders and stress in several species. One potential form of enrichment in zoos is training animals to provide rides for guests, however, the effect of this activity on the welfare of individual animals has never been examined. We validated the use of saliva for assessing stress in dromedary camels (Camelus dromedarius), an animal commonly used for rides. We then measured variation in salivary cortisol in four male camels while providing rides of differing frequency for guests at the Toronto Zoo. The camels were sampled during the ride season (June to September) using four treatments: (1) in their pasture, (2) at the ride area when not performing rides, (3) while providing a low number of rides (n=50/day) and (4) while providing a high number of rides (n=150/day). Furthermore, samples were taken before and after the ride season for comparison. There was a significant difference between the post-ride season treatment and the three treatments involving guest presence during the ride season (ride area, low rides, high rides). In general, cortisol concentrations were lower during the ride season and higher during the non-ride season. Based on the metrics we used, performing rides is not a stressful experience for these dromedary camels and suggests that rides may be a form of enrichment. PMID:25452030

  15. Camels in Asia and North Africa: Interdisciplinary Perspectives on their Past and Present Significance

    OpenAIRE

    Robin Bendrey

    2014-01-01

    Review of Camels in Asia and North Africa: Interdisciplinary Perspectives on their Past and Present Significance. Eva-Maria Knoll and Pamela Burger, eds. 2012. Verlag der Österreichischen Akademie der Wissenschaften (Austrian Academy of Sciences Press), Wien (Vienna). Pp. 298, 111 colour illustrations, 33 black-and-white illustrations. €45.00 (paperback). ISBN 9783700172444.

  16. Molecular detection of bovine leukemia virus in peripheral blood of Iranian cattle, camel and sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nekoei, S; Hafshejani, T Taktaz; Doosti, A; Khamesipour, F

    2015-01-01

    Bovine leukemia virus (BLV) is a deltaretrovirus which infects and induces proliferation of B-lymphocytes in the peripheral blood circulation and in lymphoid organs primarily of cattle, leading to leukemia/lymphoma. This study was carried out to investigate the presence of BLV in cattle, sheep and camels from the Chaharmahal va Bakhtiary and Isfahan provinces in Iran. A total of 874 blood samples collected from cattle, sheep and camels were used in this study to detect BLV using a nested-PCR. The results from this study indicated that 17.2% (n=874) of all blood samples collected were positive for BLV. The percentages of blood samples positive for BLV from cattle, sheep and camels were 22.1 (n=657), 5.3 (n=95) and 0 (n=122) respectively. The results from this study showed that BLV infected cattle and sheep. Camels seemed to be resistant to BLV infection. This study contributes to the nationwide effort to obtain baseline information on the prevalence of BLV, which will assist in planning the control strategy for the disease in Iran.

  17. Coercive copopulation in two sexually cannibalistic camel-spider species (Arachnida: Solifugae)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hrusková-Martisová, M.; Pekár, S.; Bilde, T.

    2010-01-01

    Males can overcome female resistance to mating either by using luring behaviour or through sexual coercion. We studied mating behaviour in two sexually cannibalistic camel-spider species Galeodes caspius subfuscus (Galeodidae) and Gluvia dorsalis (Desiidae), to determine the presence of luring an......-predation strategy, as sexual cannibalism occurred in c. 40% of all sexual interactions....

  18. Comparison of composition and whey protein fractions of human, camel, donkey, goat and cow milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Halima El-Hatmi

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to compare the physicochemical parameters of milk samples of five different species: cow, goat, donkey, camel and human. Also the analysis of whey protein profile in different milk samples was performed by anion-exchange fast protein liquid chromatography (FPLC while polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis was used to identify a single fraction. Camel milk was the most acid (pH 6.460±0.005 and the richest in total proteins (3.41±0.31 % and ash (0.750±0.102 %, whereas donkey milk had a neutral pH (7.03±0.02 and characterised by low proteins (1.12±0.40 % and fat (0.97±0.03 % content, being very close to human milk. Proteomic analysis of cow, goat, donkey, camel and human milk highlighted significant interspecies differences. Camel milk was similar to human milk in lacking of β-lactoglobulin and richness of α-lactalbumin. The knowledge gained from the proteomic comparison of the milk samples analysed within this study might be of relevance, both, in terms of identifying sources of hypoallergenic alternatives to bovine milk and detection of adulteration of milk samples and products.

  19. Caudal epidural analgesia using lidocaine alone or in combination with ketamine in dromedary camels (Camelus dromedarius

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omid Azari

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available This study was performed to investigate the analgesic effect of lidocaine and a combination of lidocaine and ketamine following epidural administration in dromedary camels. Ten 12–18-month-old camels were randomly divided into two equal groups. In group L, the animals received 2% lidocaine (0.22 mg/kg and in group LK the animals received a mixture of 10% ketamine (1 mg/kg and 2% lidocaine (0.22 mg/kg administered into the first intercoccygeal (Co1–Co2 epidural space while standing. Onset time and duration of caudal analgesia, sedation level and ataxia were recorded after drug administration. Data were analysed by U Mann-Whitney tests and significance was taken as p < 0.05. The results showed that epidural lidocaine and co-administration of lidocaine and ketamine produced complete analgesia in the tail, anus and perineum. Epidural administration of the lidocaine-ketamine mixture resulted in mild to moderate sedation, whilst the animals that received epidural lidocaine alone were alert and nervous during the study. Ataxia was observed in all test subjects and was slightly more severe in camels that received the lidocaine-ketamine mixture. It was concluded that epidural administration of lidocaine plus ketamine resulted in longer caudal analgesia in standing conscious dromedary camels compared with the effect of administering lidocaine alone.

  20. Antibodies against MERS coronavirus in dromedary camels, United Arab Emirates, 2003 and 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Benjamin; Müller, Marcel A; Corman, Victor M; Reusken, Chantal B E M; Ritz, Daniel; Godeke, Gert-Jan; Lattwein, Erik; Kallies, Stephan; Siemens, Artem; van Beek, Janko; Drexler, Jan F; Muth, Doreen; Bosch, Berend-Jan; Wernery, Ulrich; Koopmans, Marion P G; Wernery, Renate; Drosten, Christian

    2014-04-01

    Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) has caused an ongoing outbreak of severe acute respiratory tract infection in humans in the Arabian Peninsula since 2012. Dromedary camels have been implicated as possible viral reservoirs. We used serologic assays to analyze 651 dromedary camel serum samples from the United Arab Emirates; 151 of 651 samples were obtained in 2003, well before onset of the current epidemic, and 500 serum samples were obtained in 2013. Recombinant spike protein-specific immunofluorescence and virus neutralization tests enabled clear discrimination between MERS-CoV and bovine CoV infections. Most (632/651, 97.1%) camels had antibodies against MERS-CoV. This result included all 151 serum samples obtained in 2003. Most (389/651, 59.8%) serum samples had MERS-CoV-neutralizing antibody titers >1,280. Dromedary camels from the United Arab Emirates were infected at high rates with MERS-CoV or a closely related, probably conspecific, virus long before the first human MERS cases.

  1. INCIDENCE AND TREATMENT OF CAMEL TRYPANOSOMOSIS (GUFFAR IN WEST OMDURMAN IN SUDAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.A. BABEKER

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The incidence of camel trypanosomosis (Guffar caused by Trypanosoma evansi (T.evansi in Omdurman west plain, western Sudan was surveyed using direct smear, Micro Hematocrit Centrfugation Technique (MHCT and Card Agglutination Test for T.evansi (CATT/T.evansi. In a total of 220 blood and serum samples, 115 (52.2% were positive by CATT, 72 (32.7% were positive by the MHCT and 31 (14.1% were positive by the wet smear preparation. Contingency tables and parcel Chi2 – test revealed that CATT/T.evansi was statistically the most sensitive technique for T.evansi followed by the MHCT and lastly the wet smear technique. The percentage packed cell volume (PCV % differed significantly between the diagnostic techniques used. Thus wet smear technique detected positive camels with the lowest PCV%. Camels infection rate with T.evansi did not differ significantly with sex. Treatment of rats infected with T.evansi isolates from Omdurman west area with quinapyramine pro-salt made by three different manufacturers revealed that Tryquine (Wockharde, India was the most effective in clearance of parasitaemia within two weeks. Biquin (Star, Pakistan and quinapyramine (Nicholas primal, India did not clear the parasitaemia in rats during the same period. The results are discussed in relation to studies leading to control of T.evansi in camels using chemotherapy and chemoprophylaxis.

  2. One-Humped Camel (Camelus dromedarius Infestation withLinguatula serrata in Tabriz, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HR Haddadzadeh

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available "n "nBackground: Linguatula serrata is one of well known members of Pentastomida which infects both human and animals. The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of L. serrata in mesenteric lymph nodes, livers and lungs of camels slaughtered in Tabriz area, Iran. "n "nMethods: Mesenteric lymph nodes (MLNs, livers and lungs of 140 one-humped camels slaughtered in Tabriz, north-west of Iran were investigated for nymphs of L. serrata from July 2007 to June 2008. The organs were examined macroscopically and then a tissue digestion method was also done for investigation of liver and lung of the camels that had infected MLN. The liver and lung samples were mostly taken from condemned and rejected part of organs. "n "nResults: The infection rate of L. serrata nymphs in MLNs, livers and lungs was 13.5%, 1.4% and 1.4% respectively. The number of isolated nymph in infected lymph nodes varied from 2 to 18 with a mean of 4.78. Only one nymph was isolated from each infected livers and lungs. The infection rate increased with age (p<0.05. No significant difference in different sex groups and seasons was observed (p>0.05. "n "nConclusion: Considering this fact that consumption of undercooked camel liver was not common in the studied area, the zoonotic importance of this infection should be concluded.

  3. Studies on Liquefaction Time and Proteins Involved in the Improvement of Seminal Characteristics in Dromedary Camels (Camelus dromedarius)

    OpenAIRE

    Gorakh Mal; Sumant Vyas; Alagiri Srinivasan; Nitin Vasant Rao Patil; Krishan Murari Lal Pathak

    2016-01-01

    Semen was collected from six dromedary camels using artificial vagina during rutting season. Liquefaction of the viscous semen occurred in 23.89 ± 1.49 h. During liquefaction, proteins with molecular masses of 24.55 kDa and 22.07 kDa appeared in conjunction with the disappearance of intact 26.00 kDa protein after 18–24 h. These proteins were identified as β-nerve growth factors (β-NGFs) in liquefied camel semen. Guanidine-HCL improves the rheological characteristics of dromedary camel semen a...

  4. Examining Cultural Tourism Attractions for Foreign Visitors: The Case of Camel Wrestling in Selçuk (Ephesus)

    OpenAIRE

    Vedat Çalışkan

    2010-01-01

    This study focuses on the Camel Wrestling Festival in Selçuk, which has gained importance with its tourist appeal among traditional camel wrestling organizations in Western Anatolia. The study aimed to investigate those aspects of the Festival, which were found to be attractive for foreign visitors, and to evaluate the impacts of tourism on this traditional event. The study data were obtained from the surveys that were completed by 56 foreign visitors at the Camel Wrestling Festival in Selçuk...

  5. USING PCU-CAMEL, A WEB-BASED LEARNING ENVIRONMENT, IN EVALUATING TEACHING-LEARNING PROCESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arlinah Imam Rahardjo

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available PCU-CAMEL (Petra Christian University-Computer Aided Mechanical Engineering Department Learning Environment has been developed to integrate the use of this web-based learning environment into the traditional, face-to-face setting of class activities. This integrated learning method is designed as an effort to enrich and improve the teaching-learning process at Petra Christian University. A study was conducted to introduce the use of PCU-CAMEL as a tool in evaluating teaching learning process. The study on this method of evaluation was conducted by using a case analysis on the integration of PCU-CAMEL to the traditional face-to-face meetings of LIS (Library Information System class at the Informatics Engineering Department of Petra Christian University. Students’ responses documented in some features of PCU-CAMEL were measured and analyzed to evaluate the effectiveness of this integrated system in developing intrinsic motivation of the LIS students of the first and second semester of 2004/2005 to learn. It is believed that intrinsic motivation can drive students to learn more. From the study conducted, it is concluded that besides its capability in developing intrinsic motivation, PCU-CAMEL as a web-based learning environment, can also serve as an effective tool for both students and instructors to evaluate the teaching-learning process. However, some weaknesses did exist in using this method of evaluating teaching-learning process. The free style and unstructured form of the documentation features of this web-based learning environment can lead to ineffective evaluation results

  6. Stomoxys calcitrans as possible vector of Trypanosoma evansi among camels in an affected area of the Canary Islands, Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noé Francisco Rodríguez

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Trypanosoma evansi was first identified in the Canary Islands in 1997, and is still present in a small area of the Archipelago. To date, the disease has exclusively affected camel herds, and has not been detected in any other animal hosts. However potential vectors of Trypanosoma evansi must be identified. Methods One Nzi trap was placed on a camel farm located in the infected area for a period of one year. Results Two thousand five hundred and five insects were trapped, of which Stomoxys calcitrans was the sole hematophagous vector captured. Conclusions Stomoxys calcitrans could be exclusively responsible for the transmission of Trypanosoma evansi among camels in the surveyed area, as other species do not seem to be infected by S. calcitrans in the presence of camels.

  7. Studies on Liquefaction Time and Proteins Involved in the Improvement of Seminal Characteristics in Dromedary Camels (Camelus dromedarius

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gorakh Mal

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Semen was collected from six dromedary camels using artificial vagina during rutting season. Liquefaction of the viscous semen occurred in 23.89±1.49 h. During liquefaction, proteins with molecular masses of 24.55 kDa and 22.07 kDa appeared in conjunction with the disappearance of intact 26.00 kDa protein after 18–24 h. These proteins were identified as β-nerve growth factors (β-NGFs in liquefied camel semen. Guanidine-HCL improves the rheological characteristics of dromedary camel semen along with significant (P<0.01 increase in sperm motility. No significant differences were found in viability of spermatozoa indicating no visible detrimental effects on spermatozoa. The cause of semen viscosity, as well as proteins that are present in liquefied dromedary camel seminal plasma, is described for the first time.

  8. Studies on Liquefaction Time and Proteins Involved in the Improvement of Seminal Characteristics in Dromedary Camels (Camelus dromedarius).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mal, Gorakh; Vyas, Sumant; Srinivasan, Alagiri; Patil, Nitin Vasant Rao; Pathak, Krishan Murari Lal

    2016-01-01

    Semen was collected from six dromedary camels using artificial vagina during rutting season. Liquefaction of the viscous semen occurred in 23.89 ± 1.49 h. During liquefaction, proteins with molecular masses of 24.55 kDa and 22.07 kDa appeared in conjunction with the disappearance of intact 26.00 kDa protein after 18-24 h. These proteins were identified as β-nerve growth factors (β-NGFs) in liquefied camel semen. Guanidine-HCL improves the rheological characteristics of dromedary camel semen along with significant (P semen viscosity, as well as proteins that are present in liquefied dromedary camel seminal plasma, is described for the first time. PMID:27022505

  9. Husbandry, breeding practices, and production constraints of camel in the pastoral communities of Afar and Somali, Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yosef Tadesse

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this paper were to identify and describe husbandry practices, herd structure, owners’ trait preferences, breeding practices, and production constraints of camel in the two major camel rearing pastoral communities, viz. Afar and Somali, to generate baseline information that would help to plan possible breed improvement strategies and options for the different camel populations. The study sites were selected purposively while households from each of the sites randomly. Data were collected using formal questionnaires and focus group discussion. Results showed that average camel population per household was higher in Mille (28.06±2.27, Gode (27.51±2.02, and Moyale (24.07±2.13 districts. Female camel populations with age of >1 year contributes 78-83% of the total camel herd population in all the study districts. Higher number of female animals in the herd in the arid environment means providing continuous supply of milk and allows a rapid recovery of herd numbers after a disease outbreak or drought occurrence. This shows that pastoralists breeding objectives are in relation to the arid environment and female population in the herd. Most of the pastoral communities utilize a single breeding male camel per 40-50 female camels and this will affect productivity and heterogeneity of camel population. With regard to trait preference, all pastoral communities ranked milk yield as the first trait of choice, except Liben district in which adaptation trait was the primary preference. Growth trait ranked second in Mille, Gode, Liben, and Jijiga pastoral communities where as adaptation trait ranked second in Amibara and Shinille pastoral communities. The major camel production constraints were feed, diseases, and lack of water in that order and the major cause of the constraints was the recurrent drought occurred during the past 2-3 decades in the two regions. Therefore, in planning and implementation of the breeding strategies for small

  10. Gauss´s Mortality Formula: A Demometric Analysis with Application to the Feral Camel Population in Central Australia

    OpenAIRE

    Pflaumer, Peter

    2014-01-01

    A life table for the feral camel population in central Australia is constructed, using an extension of the Gompertz distribution, which was first proposed in a note by the famous mathematician Gauss. It is shown that under certain conditions some important life table parameters can be represented by simple formulae. The derived life table is then used to formulate both a continuous and a discrete model of the camel population. The models yield an annual growth rate of about 7%, a net reproduc...

  11. Expression and purification of a new recombinant camel hepcidin able to promote the degradation of the iron exporter ferroportin1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boumaiza, Mohamed; Jaouen, Maryse; Deschemin, Jean-Christophe; Ezzine, Aymen; Ben Khalaf, Noureddine; Vaulont, Sophie; Marzouki, Mohamed Nèjib; Sari, Marie Agnès

    2015-11-01

    Hepcidin, a 25-amino-acid and highly disulfide bonded antimicrobial peptide, is the central regulator of iron homeostasis. This hormone is expressed in response to iron and inflammation and interacts with ferroportin1 (FPN1), the only known iron exporter in vertebrates, inducing its internalization and degradation. Thus, the export of iron from cells to plasma will be significantly diminished. Thereby, hepcidin has become the target of intense research studies due to its profound biomedical significance. This study describes the functional expression of recombinant camel hepcidin in Escherichia coli. Biologically active recombinant camel hepcidin was obtained thanks to the production of a hepcidin-thioredoxin fusion protein (TRX-HepcD) and a purified camel hepcidin, with an extra methionine at the N-terminus, was obtained after enterokinase cleavage of the fusion protein. Presence of the four disulfide bridges was verified using MALDI-ToF spectrometry. The recombinant camel hepcidin was compared to related synthetic bioactive peptides, including human hepcidin, and was found equally able to promote ferroportin degradation of mouse macrophages. Furthermore, camel hepcidins exhibits a high capacity to inhibit the growth of Leishmania major promastigotes. These results proved that production of functional camel hepcidin can be achieved in E. coli, this is a major interest for the production of cysteine rich peptides or proteins that can be purified under their functional form without the need of a refolding process. PMID:26169129

  12. Review of present knowledge on machine milking and intensive milk production in dromedary camels and future challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagy, Peter; Juhasz, Judit

    2016-06-01

    The camel dairy industry has gone through major development in the last decade. The world's first large-scale camel dairy farm was established 10 years ago in Dubai, United Arab Emirates, and since then, several commercial and scientific projects have been started, and more studies have been published demonstrating increasing interest in camel milk. The aims of this paper are to summarize relevant published data on factors influencing milk production under intensive management, compare those with our own observations obtained from Emirates Industry for Camel Milk and Products (EICMP), and highlight areas of research that are indispensable for further development. As in other species, the most important factors influencing milk yield are genetic and individual variation, age, parity, stage of lactation, nutrition, management, season, photoperiod, etc. However, the precise role of the various factors has not been thoroughly studied in camels and based on our understanding of the basic physiological processes, endocrine control is minimal. In addition, machine milking of dromedaries is still at early stage and requires research for improvement of the technology and defining factors affecting and improving milk ejection. The role of environment (like photoperiod, nutrition) should also be investigated as there is significant annual variation both in milk quantity and quality that might influence the processing characteristics of raw camel milk. The large pool of animals and thoroughly recorded data at EICMP provide an excellent opportunity for increasing milk production and improving milk quality using various methods, like feeding, management, reproduction, selection, and breeding. PMID:26992732

  13. Review of present knowledge on machine milking and intensive milk production in dromedary camels and future challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagy, Peter; Juhasz, Judit

    2016-06-01

    The camel dairy industry has gone through major development in the last decade. The world's first large-scale camel dairy farm was established 10 years ago in Dubai, United Arab Emirates, and since then, several commercial and scientific projects have been started, and more studies have been published demonstrating increasing interest in camel milk. The aims of this paper are to summarize relevant published data on factors influencing milk production under intensive management, compare those with our own observations obtained from Emirates Industry for Camel Milk and Products (EICMP), and highlight areas of research that are indispensable for further development. As in other species, the most important factors influencing milk yield are genetic and individual variation, age, parity, stage of lactation, nutrition, management, season, photoperiod, etc. However, the precise role of the various factors has not been thoroughly studied in camels and based on our understanding of the basic physiological processes, endocrine control is minimal. In addition, machine milking of dromedaries is still at early stage and requires research for improvement of the technology and defining factors affecting and improving milk ejection. The role of environment (like photoperiod, nutrition) should also be investigated as there is significant annual variation both in milk quantity and quality that might influence the processing characteristics of raw camel milk. The large pool of animals and thoroughly recorded data at EICMP provide an excellent opportunity for increasing milk production and improving milk quality using various methods, like feeding, management, reproduction, selection, and breeding.

  14. Application integration of the camel in network platform GSM900 prepaid telecommunication companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroll Altube

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available La presente investigación se realizó con la finalidad de proponer la Integración de la Aplicación CAMEL en la Plataforma Prepagada de la Red GSM900 de Empresas de Telecomunicaciones considerando como patrón una de las empresas que presta servicios de Telefonía en el occidente del país; el objetivo principal de la investigación fue Desarrollar una propuesta para la integración de la aplicación CAMEL en la Plataforma Prepagada de la Red GSM900 de la Empresa INFONET.La investigación se caracterizó por ser del tipo Descriptivo modalidad de Campo y según la naturaleza de los datos es del tipo Cuantitativo, basado en un diseño de investigación No Experimental del tipo Transeccional-Descriptivo. La población objeto de estudio estuvo constituida por diez (10 profesionales del área de operaciones de la empresa seleccionada y la muestra fue un censo poblacional donde todos los elementos fueron considerados. La técnica de recolección de datos fue la Encuesta y el instrumento utilizado fue un Cuestionario de diez (10 preguntas, además del análisis de la documentación encontrada en la empresa; el instrumento fue validado por un grupo de expertos en cuanto a su redacción y contenido.Los resultados obtenidos fueron tratados a través de estadística descriptiva realizando distribución de frecuencias, y además se realizó la discusión de dichos resultados confrontándolos con la teoría presentada en el Capitulo II de esta investigación (Marco Teórico, en base a estos resultados se pudo diseñar el modelo de integración de la Aplicación CAMEL en la Plataforma GSM900 de Empresas de Telecomunicaciones. Como conclusión se determino que con Aplicación CAMEL mejoraría significativamente la limitante en cuanto a la movilidad para la cartera de clientes móviles prepagados de la empresa, es por ello que se recomienda considerar esta investigación como base para un proyecto que contemple la implantación de la Aplicación CAMEL

  15. Immunohistochemical studies for the neuronal elements in the vomeronasal organ of the one-humped camel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Dalia; Abdel-Maksoud, Fatma; Taniguchi, Kazumi; Yamamoto, Yoshio; Taniguchi, Kazuyuki; Nakamuta, Nobuaki

    2015-02-01

    The neuronal elements of the vomeronasal organ (VNO) of camel were investigated immunohistochemically. PGP 9.5 labeled the receptor cells in the vomeronasal sensory epithelium, but not the supporting or basal cells. OMP stained some receptor cells, but no immunoreactive signals for OMP were detected in the non-sensory epithelium. PLCβ2 labeled scattered cells in the sensory epithelium and a larger number of cells in the non-sensory epithelium. Double labeling immunohistochemistry revealed that the PLCβ2-positive cells were surrounded by substance P-positive nerve fibers. Collectively, these data suggest that the camel VNO bears, in addition to the mature vomeronasal receptor cells, trigeminally-innervated solitary chemosensory cells which are expected to play a substantial role in the control of stimulus access to the VNO. PMID:25319516

  16. Prevalence Rate of Intestinal Parasites in Camels in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wafa A.I. Al-Megrin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The prevalence of intestinal parasites in camels was studied in the Riyadh region, central Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. The study was carried out over a population of 240 animals which examined their feces by coprological methods. Out of 240 samples of feces examined, 143 cases (59.6% were positive for intestinal parasites of whom 82 were male (34.2% and 61 were female (25.4%. There was a significant difference between male and female (pTrichostrongylus spp. (15.4%, Haemonchus spp. (10.4%, Trichuris spp. (8.8%, Nematodirus spp. (5%, Osrtertagia spp. (2.9% and cestoda: Moniezia expansa (6.7%, Stilesia spp. (3.3% coccidia: Eimeria cameli (7.1%. The high prevalence of intestinal parasites among camels reported during summer season.

  17. First description of milk flow traits in Tunisian dairy dromedary camels under an intensive farming system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atigui, Moufida; Hammadi, Mohamed; Barmat, Ahmed; Farhat, Mohamed; Khorchani, Touhami; Marnet, Pierre-Guy

    2014-05-01

    In order to evaluate milking ability in dromedary camels, 124 milk flow curves were registered during morning milking of 20 dairy Maghrebi dromedary camels. Animals were in lactations 1-8, were 6-19 years old and were 4-15 months of their current lactation. Milk flow curves were recorded using an electronic milk flow meter (Lactocorder®). Milk flow curves were classified in three typical patterns: type 1 represents curves with one high and short peak of milk flow; type 2 represents curves with a moderate mean milk flow rate during a large plateau phase; and type 3 represents curves with lower mean milk flow rate and a relatively longer milking duration. The ratio of the different milk flow patterns in the population evaluated was 40:38:22% for types 1, 2 and 3, respectively. The highest milk yield per milking, average and peak milk flow were observed in camels with type 1 curves (4·24 kg, 1·49 and 3·54 kg/min, respectively) followed by type 2 animals (3·30 kg, 1·12 and 2·12 kg/min, respectively) and lastly type 3 curves (2·34 kg, 0·65 and 1·23 kg/min, respectively). This study confirmed that a major proportion of dromedary camels have a suitable machine milking ability. Nevertheless, our results suggest that pre-stimulation and improving the milking process may improve milking efficiency and guarantee a more complete and rapid emptying of the udder.

  18. Technological Aptitude and Applications of Leuconostoc mesenteroides Bioactive Strains Isolated from Algerian Raw Camel Milk

    OpenAIRE

    Zineb Benmechernene; Hanane Fatma Chentouf; Bellil Yahia; Ghazi Fatima; Marcos Quintela-Baluja; Pilar Calo-Mata; Jorge Barros-Velázquez

    2013-01-01

    Two strains (B7 and Z8) of the Leuconostoc mesenteroides subspecies mesenteroides that were isolated from Algerian camel milk from an initial pool of 13 strains and demonstrated a high ability to inhibit the growth of Listeria spp. were selected and characterised at the phenotypic and genotypic levels. Probiotic profiling and inhibition spectra against food borne pathogens in mixed cultures were also investigated. The bacteriocin produced by L. mesenteroides strain B7 was identified as le...

  19. Comparative Analysis of Immune Repertoires between Bactrian Camel's Conventional and Heavy-Chain Antibodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Kai; Zhang, Wei; Zhang, Changjiang; Fu, Longfei; Ren, Zhe; Wang, Changxi; Wu, Jinghua; Lu, Ruxue; Ye, Yanrui; He, Mengying; Nie, Chao; Yang, Naibo; Wang, Jian; Yang, Huanming; Liu, Xiao

    2016-01-01

    Compared to classical antibodies, camel heavy chain antibodies (HCAbs) are smaller in size due to lack of the light chain and the first constant domain of the heavy chain (CH1 region). The variable regions of HCAbs (VHHs) are more soluble and stable than that of conventional antibodies (VHs). Even with such simple structure, they are still functional in antigen binding. Although HCAbs have been extensively investigated over the past two decades, most efforts have been based upon low throughput sequence analysis, and there are only limited reports trying to analyze and describe the complete immune repertoire (IR) of camel HCAbs. Here we leveraged the high-throughput data generated by Next Generation Sequencing (NGS) of the variable domains of the antibody heavy chains from three Bactrian camels to conduct in-depth comparative analyses of the immunoglobulin repertoire. These include analyses of the complementary determining region 3 (CDR3) length and distribution, mutation rate, antibody characteristic amino acids, the distribution of the cysteine (Cys) codons, and the non-classical VHHs. We found that there is higher diversity in the CDR2 than in the other sub-regions, and there is a higher mutation rate in the VHHs than in the VHs (P VH and VHH clones, we also observed other substitutions at the positions NO.40/54/57/96/101 that could lead to additional structural alterations. We also found that VH-derived VHH clones, referred to as non-classical VHH clones in this study, accounted for about 8% of all clones. Further, only 5%-10% clones had the Trp > Arg AA substitution at the first position of framework 4 for all types of clones. We present, for the first time, a relatively complete picture of the Bactrian camel antibody immune repertoire, including conventional antibody (Ab) and HCAbs, using PCR and in silico analysis based on high-throughput NGS data. PMID:27588755

  20. Penilaian Tingkat Kesehatan Bank Dengan Analisa Camels Studi Kasus PT. Bank Sumut

    OpenAIRE

    Siregar, Chatrin C.M.

    2011-01-01

    CAMELS Anilysis is the device activity that support enterprise operational or organization as a part of in organization structure. Direction of estabilish accounting information system with stable like computer basic system therefore management have information about operation organization in exactly and quickly. Bank Sumut is appears enterprise that use accounting information system at computer basic on a scale consistant in operational enterprise use with batch system as decision making sup...

  1. Comparative Analysis of Immune Repertoires between Bactrian Camel's Conventional and Heavy-Chain Antibodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Kai; Zhang, Wei; Zhang, Changjiang; Fu, Longfei; Ren, Zhe; Wang, Changxi; Wu, Jinghua; Lu, Ruxue; Ye, Yanrui; He, Mengying; Nie, Chao; Yang, Naibo; Wang, Jian; Yang, Huanming; Liu, Xiao

    2016-01-01

    Compared to classical antibodies, camel heavy chain antibodies (HCAbs) are smaller in size due to lack of the light chain and the first constant domain of the heavy chain (CH1 region). The variable regions of HCAbs (VHHs) are more soluble and stable than that of conventional antibodies (VHs). Even with such simple structure, they are still functional in antigen binding. Although HCAbs have been extensively investigated over the past two decades, most efforts have been based upon low throughput sequence analysis, and there are only limited reports trying to analyze and describe the complete immune repertoire (IR) of camel HCAbs. Here we leveraged the high-throughput data generated by Next Generation Sequencing (NGS) of the variable domains of the antibody heavy chains from three Bactrian camels to conduct in-depth comparative analyses of the immunoglobulin repertoire. These include analyses of the complementary determining region 3 (CDR3) length and distribution, mutation rate, antibody characteristic amino acids, the distribution of the cysteine (Cys) codons, and the non-classical VHHs. We found that there is higher diversity in the CDR2 than in the other sub-regions, and there is a higher mutation rate in the VHHs than in the VHs (P Arg AA substitution at the first position of framework 4 for all types of clones. We present, for the first time, a relatively complete picture of the Bactrian camel antibody immune repertoire, including conventional antibody (Ab) and HCAbs, using PCR and in silico analysis based on high-throughput NGS data. PMID:27588755

  2. Immunohistochemical studies for the neuronal elements in the vomeronasal organ of the one-humped camel

    OpenAIRE

    Ibrahim, Dalia; ABDEL-MAKSOUD, Fatma; TANIGUCHI, Kazumi; Yamamoto, Yoshio; TANIGUCHI, Kazuyuki; NAKAMUTA, Nobuaki

    2014-01-01

    The neuronal elements of the vomeronasal organ (VNO) of camel were investigated immunohistochemically. PGP 9.5 labeled the receptor cells in the vomeronasal sensory epithelium, but not the supporting or basal cells. OMP stained some receptor cells, but no immunoreactive signals for OMP were detected in the non-sensory epithelium. PLCβ2 labeled scattered cells in the sensory epithelium and a larger number of cells in the non-sensory epithelium. Double labeling immunohistochemistry revealed tha...

  3. Comparative Analysis of Immune Repertoires between Bactrian Camel's Conventional and Heavy-Chain Antibodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xinyang; Duan, Xiaobo; Yang, Kai; Zhang, Wei; Zhang, Changjiang; Fu, Longfei; Ren, Zhe; Wang, Changxi; Wu, Jinghua; Lu, Ruxue; Ye, Yanrui; He, Mengying; Nie, Chao; Yang, Naibo; Wang, Jian; Yang, Huanming; Liu, Xiao; Tan, Wen

    2016-01-01

    Compared to classical antibodies, camel heavy chain antibodies (HCAbs) are smaller in size due to lack of the light chain and the first constant domain of the heavy chain (CH1 region). The variable regions of HCAbs (VHHs) are more soluble and stable than that of conventional antibodies (VHs). Even with such simple structure, they are still functional in antigen binding. Although HCAbs have been extensively investigated over the past two decades, most efforts have been based upon low throughput sequence analysis, and there are only limited reports trying to analyze and describe the complete immune repertoire (IR) of camel HCAbs. Here we leveraged the high-throughput data generated by Next Generation Sequencing (NGS) of the variable domains of the antibody heavy chains from three Bactrian camels to conduct in-depth comparative analyses of the immunoglobulin repertoire. These include analyses of the complementary determining region 3 (CDR3) length and distribution, mutation rate, antibody characteristic amino acids, the distribution of the cysteine (Cys) codons, and the non-classical VHHs. We found that there is higher diversity in the CDR2 than in the other sub-regions, and there is a higher mutation rate in the VHHs than in the VHs (P Arg AA substitution at the first position of framework 4 for all types of clones. We present, for the first time, a relatively complete picture of the Bactrian camel antibody immune repertoire, including conventional antibody (Ab) and HCAbs, using PCR and in silico analysis based on high-throughput NGS data. PMID:27588755

  4. Purification and functional characterization of pancreatic insulin from camel (Camelus dromedarius)

    OpenAIRE

    Elamin, Babiker A.; Al-Maleki, Abdulmajeed; Ismael, Mohammad A.; Ayoub, Mohammed Akli

    2014-01-01

    Large-scale production of insulin still represents the key step in helping diabetic patients throughout the world. Many species and approaches have been used for the production of insulin. In this study, we purified and characterized for the first time pancreatic insulin from the Arabian camel (Camelus dromedarius) using a modified acid-alcohol extraction method. After extraction insulin was purified using a one-step gel filtration on a Sephadex G-50 column leading to a purification yield of ...

  5. Too big to be noticed: cryptic invasion of Asian camel crickets in North American houses

    OpenAIRE

    Mary Jane Epps; Menninger, Holly L.; Nathan LaSala; Dunn, Robert R.

    2014-01-01

    Despite the rapid expansion of the built environment, we know little about the biology of species living in human-constructed habitats. Camel crickets (Rhaphidophoridae) are commonly observed in North American houses and include a range of native taxa as well as the Asian Diestrammena asynamora (Adelung), a species occasionally reported from houses though considered to be established only in greenhouses. We launched a continental-scale citizen science campaign to better understand the relativ...

  6. Analisis Komparatif Kinerja Keuangan antara Bank Syariah dan Bank Konvensional Berdasarkan Metode Camel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Armanto Witjaksono

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this paper is to give an overview of comparative financial performance of Islamic banks with conventional banks based on the CAMEL method. The main question would be answered to know there is difference in the performance of conventional banking and Islamic banking are analyzed by using the ratio CAMEL. To prove the hypothesis that there is no significant difference between the bank's financial performance Islamic and conventional banks (Ho or there are significant differences between the financial performance of Islamic banks and conventional banks (Hi. Researchers used a parametric statistical technique, which consists of test data normality using the Kolmogorov Smirnov test and QQ plots, test of homogeneity using the F test (Levene's Test, and Independent Sample T-Test with significant value 5% confidence level (1 - α = 95%. The results showed that the ratio of data CAMEL Islamic banks and conventional banks in normal distribution and homogeneous. Then it can be concluded that the variable CAR, NPL, and LDR between conventional banks and Islamic banks have significant differences, while the ROA and ROE of the two types of banking industry is not significantly different or relatively the same.

  7. Outbreaks of brucellosis related to the consumption of unpasteurized camel milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcell, Humberto G; Garcia, Elias G; Pueyo, Pedro V; Martín, Isis R; Arias, Ariadna V; Alfonso Serrano, Ramon N

    2016-01-01

    Brucellosis is the most frequent zoonosis reported in Qatar, mainly related to exposure to infected camels. An outbreak of human brucellosis in 14 members of a family living in a rural area in Qatar is reported herein. Clinical, epidemiological and laboratory results from all 14 patients with Brucella and 12 non-confirmed family members were collected from files. All patients reported fever for a maximum of 14 days, associated with arthralgia (6 patients), weakness (4 patients), headache (4 patients), diarrhea (2 patients) and abdominal pain (2 patients). The median age of the patients was 10 years and that of non-cases was 16 years, with a predominance of males (92.9%). Elevated levels of transaminases were observed in patients. A mixed infection caused by Brucella abortus and Brucella melitensis was identified by blood culture and serology. The source of the infection was the milk of an infected camel. The outbreak of brucellosis melitensis/abortus related to the consumption of camel milk constitutes a gap in the prevention and control of the potential sources of brucellosis in animal farms. Proper control and education of the population are required. PMID:26796768

  8. CAMELS-based Determinants for the Credit Rating of Turkish Deposit Banks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serhat Yuksel

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper demonstrates the relationship between CAMELS ratios and credit ratings of deposit banks in Turkey. Annual data was used for the period between 2004 and 2014 in this study. Moreover, 20 deposit banks of Turkey were analyzed and 21 different ratios of CAMELS components were used. In addition to that, credit ratings of these banks were provided from Moody’s corporation or annual activity reports of the banks. After that, we created multi nominal logistic regression analysis in order to illustrate the relationship. The major finding in this study is that three components (Asset Quality, Management Quality, and Sensitivity to Market Risk of CAMELS have effects on credit ratings whereas the ratios related to Capital Adequacy and Earnings are not effective. As a result, it was recommended that Turkish deposit banks should concentrate on the percentage of fixed assets and interest income to have a better rating. Moreover, having high market share with respect to total assets and lower interest expense are also other important points for this purpose. On the other hand, Turkish deposit banks should control the proportion of financial assets and increase the amount of FX liquid assets to prevent credit ratings to decrease. Additionally, market share of banks for loans should not reach at high level for this objective.

  9. Serological evidence of camel exposure to Peste des Petits ruminants virus in Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. S. Swai,

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available A repository of camel sera collected in northern Tanzania between June through August 2010 was assayed for antibody against Peste des petits virus ruminants virus (PPRV known to be widespread in the inter-tropical regions of Africa, as well as in the Arabian Peninsula, the Middle East and Asia. A total of 193 serum samples, collected from 14 herds were tested by competitive enzyme linked immunosorbent assay(c-ELISA for PPRV antibody detection. The overall individual animal level seroprevalence was low, with mean of 2.6% (5/193 and all positive sera were from homebred camels, with at least one seropositive animal detected in 14.2% (2/14 of herds. Amongst the risk factors/variables examined, camels located in Hai, Kilindi and of age category ≥5-10 years old appeared to be most at risk, with seroprevalences of 15%, 13.3% and 5.1%, respectively. The results indicate that PPR virus is circulating in Tanzania. Despite the low prevalence recorded; however, the potential risk to animal health and economic is of concern; underscoring the need for further research, active surveillance to better understand the epidemiology of the disease in a wider geographical area in Tanzania.

  10. The first report of peste des petits ruminants (PPR) in camels (Camelus dromedarius) in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakian, Amir; Nouri, Mohammad; Kahroba, Houman; Mohammadian, Babak; Mokhber-Dezfouli, Mohammad-Reza

    2016-08-01

    In mid-July 2013, an outbreak of peste des petits ruminants (PPR) was observed in a herd of camels after they were imported from Kuwait to the Khuzestan province in southwest of Iran. The clinical signs of the affected animals included sudden death, fever, oral erosion, and ecthyma like lesions, yellowish diarrhea, pneumonia and respiratory distress, enlargement of lymph node, severe dehydration, dermatitis, ulcerative keratitis, and conjunctivitis. Necropsy findings included keratoconjunctivitis, congestion and consolidation of the lung, paleness of the liver, and enlargement and edema of lymph nodes. Histopathological exam revealed degeneration and acute hyperemia of the lungs, fatty change and necrotic foci in the liver, tubular necrosis in the kidneys, and necrotic dermatitis. We used immunocapture enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) to confirm peste des petits ruminants virus (PPRV) and differentiate it from rinderpest virus. Then virus genome was studied by molecular analysis for detecting of strain and substrain of the virus. Immunocapture ELISA of all specimens reacted positively against PPRV antigens. Also, reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) results in the lung and lymph nodes of the dead camels consolidated the cause of disease to be PPRV. The present study is the first report of the PPRV outbreak in camels in Iran. PMID:27155951

  11. Immunohistochemical and lectin histochemical studies on the developing olfactory organs of fetal camel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Dalia; Taniguchi, Kazumi; Yamamoto, Yoshio; Taniguchi, Kazuyuki; Nakamuta, Nobuaki

    2015-07-01

    Little is known about the development of the olfactory organs of camel. In this study, prenatal development and neuronal differentiation of the vomeronasal organ (VNO) and the olfactory epithelium (OE) of the one-humped camel were studied by immunohistochemistry and lectin histochemistry. A neuronal marker, protein gene product (PGP) 9.5, but not a marker of fully differentiated olfactory receptor cells, olfactory marker protein, intensely labeled the olfactory receptor cells of the VNO and OE at 395 mm, 510 mm, and 530 mm fetal ages, indicating that the olfactory receptor cells are differentiated, but not fully matured both in the VNO and the OE. In 187 mm and 190 mm fetuses, PGP 9.5 yielded faint immunoreactive signals in the VNO, but not in the OE, although the presence of olfactory receptor cells were demonstrated in both tissues by intense WGA and LEL stainings. We conclude that the camel VNO and OE bear differentiated, but still immature receptor cells; in addition, the onset of neuronal differentiation seems to be somewhat earlier in the VNO than in the OE till half of the prenatal life. PMID:25950169

  12. Morphometric differentiation between camel and sheep strains of Echinococcus granulosus using computer image analysis system (CIAS)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gholamreza Mowlavi; Mitra Salehi; Mohammadreza Eshraghian; Mohammad Bagher Rokni; Majid Fasihi-Harandi; Ehsan Mohajeran; Abdoreza Salahi-Moghaddam

    2012-01-01

    Objective:To find importance of morphometric criterion of larval rostellar hook of Echinococcus granulosus (E. granulosus) and the easy and reliable method for distinguish sheep and camel strains in epidemiologic studies. Methods:Larval rostellar hooks (n=1860) of 31 camel and sheep isolates in Iran, which already had been characterized by PCR, were carefully processed by computerized imagime analysis system (CIAS) and acquired data about rostellar hooks were analyzed using software SPSS. Results:Measurement analysis of rostellar hooks [mean length (24.23±3.12) μm] indicated that length of the large hook was a remarkable parameter for strain differentiation. Data analysis demonstrated that CIAS could be used as a reliable tool to distinguish camel from sheep strains with high sensitivity (95.2%) and specificity (91.5%). Conclusions:CIAS as a specific, sensitive, economic, fast, and reliable means might be used for differentiation of E. granulosus strains. Although perimeter and area were measured by digital technology, they were not shown as discriminative criterion as total hook length did.

  13. Prevalence of some mastitis causes in dromedary camels in Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.A. Al-Juboori1

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The present study was designed to determine the prevalence of different types of mastitis in camels in U.A.E. and to identify the causative microorganisms and their sensitivity to different antimicrobial agents. From 162 lactating she-camels, 630 milk samples were collected from different cities in Abu Dhabi Emirate/UAE. The overall prevalence of mastitis was 18.52% (7.94% on quarter basis, the prevalence of clinical and sub clinical mastitis was found to be 24.70% and 11.67% on animal basis, respectively; it being 9.70% and 5.86% on quarter basis, respectively. The hind quarters were more frequently affected than the fore quarters. Bacteriological examination of milk samples revealed that Staphylococcus was the chief etiological agents both in clinical and sub clinical mastitis (41.67% in camels, followed by Streptococcus spp. (21.67%, Enterobacter spp. (15.00%, C. pyogenes (10.00%, Micrococcus spp. (5.00%, Pasteurells spp. (5.00% and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (1.66%. Most of the Staphylococcus spp., Streptococcus spp. and C. pyogenes strains were sensitive to carbenicillin, gentamycin, kanamycin, and erythromycin, but resistant to colistin and sulphamethoxazole. Other pathogens like Enterobacter, Micrococcus, Pasteurella spp. and Ps. aeuroginosa isolates showed variable sensitivities to the antimicrobials.

  14. Factors influencing the prevalence of subclinical mastitis in lactating dromedary camels in Riyadh Region, Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aljumaah, Riyadh S; Almutairi, Faris F; Ayadi, Moez; Alshaikh, Mohammad A; Aljumaah, Ali M; Hussein, Mansour F

    2011-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of subclinical mastitis in camels in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia and the factors influencing its incidence. A total of 740 quarter milk samples were collected from 47 camel herds belonging to Majahim, Maghatir, Shu'l, and Sufer breeds. California mastitis test (CMT) was used as a screening test for subclinical mastitis. Samples giving negative or trace CMT scores (0) were assigned to healthy quarters, while those giving positive scores of 1+ to 3+ were assigned to subclinically affected quarters. Logistic regression was used to assess the association of breed, parity, and stage of lactation with the prevalence of subclinical mastitis. Milk fat, protein, lactose, solid nonfat percentages and Na, Ca, and K concentrations were compared in CMT-positive versus healthy quarters. One third (33%) of tested quarters had subclinical mastitis based on CMT. The estimated probability of subclinical mastitis with the combined effects of breed, parity, and stage of lactation ranged from 15.8% to 54.6%. The risk of subclinical mastitis increased significantly with parity and with the early stage of lactation. The Shu'l breed had significantly higher prevalence of subclinical mastitis than other breeds. Significant decreases in protein, lactose, and solid nonfat, Ca and K concentrations and increase in Na concentrations were associated with subclinical mastitis. In conclusion, subclinical mastitis is prevalent in Saudi camels, and its incidence is influenced by breed, parity, and stage of lactation. PMID:21637994

  15. The differentiation of camel breeds based on meat measurements using discriminant analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Atiyat, Raed Mahmoud; Suliman, Gamal; AlSuhaibani, Entissar; El-Waziry, Ahmad; Al-Owaimer, Abdullah; Basmaeil, Saeid

    2016-06-01

    The meat productivity of camel in the tropics is still under investigation for identification of better meat breed or type. Therefore, four one-humped Saudi Arabian (SA) camel breeds, Majaheem, Maghateer, Hamrah, and Safrah were experimented in order to differentiate them from each other based on meat measurements. The measurements were biometrical meat traits measured on six intact males from each breed. The results showed higher values of the Majaheem breed than that obtained for the other breeds except few cases such dressing percentage and rib-eye area. In differentiation analysis, the most discriminating meat variables were myofibrillar protein index, meat color components (L* and a*, b*), and cooking loss. Consequently, the Safrah and the Majaheem breeds presented the largest dissimilarity as evidenced by their multivariate means. The canonical discriminant analysis allowed an additional understanding of the differentiation between breeds. Furthermore, two large clusters, one formed by Hamrah and Maghateer in one group along with Safrah. These classifications may assign each breed into one cluster considering they are better as meat producers. The Majaheem was clustered alone in another cluster that might be a result of being better as milk producers. Nevertheless, the productivity type of the camel breeds of SA needs further morphology and genetic descriptions. PMID:26922738

  16. KEFIRS MANUFACTURED FROM CAMEL (CAMELUS DRAMEDARIUS MILK AND COW MILK: COMPARISON OF SOME CHEMICAL AND MICROBIAL PROPERTIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Kavas

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the production possibilities of kefir from fresh camel milk fermented with grain. The findings were then compared with kefir manufactured from cow’s milk. Cow’s milk was fermented with 2.5% grains. The 1% (v/w glucose enriched camel’s milk was fermented with 10% grains and left in an incubator at 25°C. Physical-chemical and sensorial analyses of the kefir sampleswere measured on day one (18 hours of storage and microbiological analyses were measured on days one, three and five. Some physical-chemical parameters were found to be higherin camel milk and its kefir than in cow milk and its kefir, some were found to be close and some were found to be lower. Addition of 1% glucose and 10% grains to the camel milk affected the titrationacidity and viscosity of kefir to significant levels. The kefir produced from camel milk was perceived as sourer, whereas its other properties were found to be close to those of cow milk. Thecholesterol levels of camel milk and its kefir were detected to be higher when compared to those of cow milk and its kefir, but the cholesterol level decreased in both examples after the productionof kefir. In terms of the composition of fatty acids, it was determined that SFA and the small, medium chain fatty acids ratio was low in camel milk and its kefir, but MUFA and the long chainfatty acids ratio was high. PUFA ratio was high in camel milk but low in its kefir. In microbiological analysis, yeast levels increased in kefir samples with the Lactobacillus ssp. strains, and theincrease in the number of yeasts was higher than in the cow milk kefir. In kefir samples, Lactobacillus ssp. strains increased on day one and three of storage, but diminished after day three.

  17. ANP and BNP responses to dehydration in the one-humped camel and effects of blocking the renin-angiotensin system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adem, Abdu; Al Haj, Mahmoud; Benedict, Sheela; Yasin, Javed; Nagelkerke, Nicolas; Nyberg, Fred; Yandle, Tim G; Frampton, Chris M; Lewis, Lynley K; Nicholls, M Gary; Kazzam, Elsadig

    2013-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to investigate and compare the responses of atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) and B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) in the circulation of hydrated, dehydrated, and dehydrated losartan - treated camels; and to document the cardiac storage form of B-type natriuretic peptide in the camel heart. Eighteen male camels were used in the study: control or hydrated camels (n = 6), dehydrated camels (n = 6) and dehydrated losartan-treated camels (n = 6) which were dehydrated and received the angiotensin II (Ang II) AT-1 receptor blocker, losartan, at a dose of 5 mg/kg body weight intravenously for 20 days. Control animals were supplied with feed and water ad-libitum while both dehydrated and dehydrated-losartan treated groups were supplied with feed ad-libitum but no water for 20 days. Compared with time-matched controls, dehydrated camels exhibited a significant decrease in plasma levels of both ANP and BNP. Losartan-treated camels also exhibited a significant decline in ANP and BNP levels across 20 days of dehydration but the changes were not different from those seen with dehydration alone. Size exclusion high performance liquid chromatography of extracts of camel heart indicated that proB-type natriuretic peptide is the storage form of the peptide. We conclude first, that dehydration in the camel induces vigorous decrements in circulating levels of ANP and BNP; second, blockade of the renin-angiotensin system has little or no modulatory effect on the ANP and BNP responses to dehydration; third, proB-type natriuretic peptide is the storage form of this hormone in the heart of the one-humped camel.

  18. ANP and BNP responses to dehydration in the one-humped camel and effects of blocking the renin-angiotensin system.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdu Adem

    Full Text Available The objectives of this study were to investigate and compare the responses of atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP and B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP in the circulation of hydrated, dehydrated, and dehydrated losartan - treated camels; and to document the cardiac storage form of B-type natriuretic peptide in the camel heart. Eighteen male camels were used in the study: control or hydrated camels (n = 6, dehydrated camels (n = 6 and dehydrated losartan-treated camels (n = 6 which were dehydrated and received the angiotensin II (Ang II AT-1 receptor blocker, losartan, at a dose of 5 mg/kg body weight intravenously for 20 days. Control animals were supplied with feed and water ad-libitum while both dehydrated and dehydrated-losartan treated groups were supplied with feed ad-libitum but no water for 20 days. Compared with time-matched controls, dehydrated camels exhibited a significant decrease in plasma levels of both ANP and BNP. Losartan-treated camels also exhibited a significant decline in ANP and BNP levels across 20 days of dehydration but the changes were not different from those seen with dehydration alone. Size exclusion high performance liquid chromatography of extracts of camel heart indicated that proB-type natriuretic peptide is the storage form of the peptide. We conclude first, that dehydration in the camel induces vigorous decrements in circulating levels of ANP and BNP; second, blockade of the renin-angiotensin system has little or no modulatory effect on the ANP and BNP responses to dehydration; third, proB-type natriuretic peptide is the storage form of this hormone in the heart of the one-humped camel.

  19. 驼绒的脱色工艺%Bleaching technique on camel hair

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭永利; 孙勇; 李玉梅; 罗灿

    2012-01-01

    驼绒本身带有较深的棕黄色,无法进行染色,必须先进行脱色处理.以双氧水为氧化剂对驼绒进行脱色处理.脱色工艺条件为:浴比1:40,双氧水质量浓度14.5g/L,氧漂稳定剂质量浓度6g/L,脱色时间4h、温度55℃、pH6.5.驼绒的白度由-14.32脱色为62.57,可以满足染色工艺的白度要求;单纤断裂强力由13.3cN降为12.5cN,降幅6.0%,但不影响其正常纺纱所需的强力.SEM分析证明经过脱色处理后的驼绒纤维表而变得规整、洁净,鳞片表面变得粗糙,边缘圆滑.%Camel hair can't be dyed because of its deep brown, so it must be bleached firstly. Camel hair was bleached by hydrogen peroxide as oxidizer in the paper. The bleaching technological conditions were bath ratio 1:40, concentration of hydrogen peroxide 14. 5 g/L, concentration of oxygen bleaching stabilizer 6 g/L, bleaching time 4h, temperature 55 ℃ and pH 6.5. Whiteness of camel hair is bleached from - 14. 32 to 62.57 and can be applied to dyeing. The brute force of camel hair cellfibre has some decrease from 13. 3 cN to 12.5 cN,and decreasing amplitude is 6.0% , which still satisfies the brute force of spinning technology. SEM analysis proves that the surface feature of bleached camel hair is changed obviously from irregular to clear and neat, and the edge of squama is smooth and sleek.

  20. Churning efficiency and microbial quality of butter made from camel milk alone and blending it with goat milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleme Asresie

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the churning efficiency of milk sample for buttermaking from camel milk by blending it with goat milk and microbiological quality of butter made at different blending levels were assessed. The experiment was laid out in completely randomized design with five treatments: T1 (100% camel milk, T2 (75% camel and 25% goat milk, T3 (50% camel and 50% goat milk, T4 (25% camel and 75% goat milk and T5 (100% goat milk. The churning efficiency and microbiological quality of the milk and butter samples were analyzed following standard procedures. The fermentation time (11.33 days, churning time (121.7 min and churning temperature (28°C of T1 were significantly (P < 0.001 higher than the other milk samples. T1 had significantly (P < 0.001 lower churning pH (4.13 and butter yield (49.3 g/L than the other samples. T3 and T4 had significantly (P < 0.001 higher butter yield than the other milk samples. The fermentation time, churning time and churning temperature of T5 were significantly (P < 0.001 lower than the rest and T5 required significantly (P < 0.001 higher churning pH than the other milk samples. The coliform count (CC, enterobacteriaceae count (EBC, lipolytic bacteria count (LBC and yeast and mould count (YMC of T1 was significantly (P < 0.001 higher than the other butter samples. The CC, EC and total bacteria count (TBC of T5 was significantly (P < 0.001 higher than T2, T3 and T4 and it had significantly (P < 0.001 lower TBC than the others. The results showed that blending camel milk with goat milk improved churning efficiency and microbial quality of butter made from camel milk at different blending levels. Although butter can be made from pure camel milk, it took longer churning time and fermentation time. Thus, research is needed in order to reduce the churning time, improve the yield of butter and microbial quality made from pure and blended camel milk by manipulating the operating parameters viz., pH of the milk, churning

  1. Disease and health conditions affecting camel production in pastoral and agro-pastoral communities of northern Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. S. Swai,

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available A cross-sectional field survey was conducted to determine the seroprevalence and to identify risk factors for brucellosis seropositivity and udder health in camel from 8 geographical localities of northern Tanzania during the period of June to August 2010. The study populations comprised 193 camels of all age and sexes, selected from 14 traditional managed herds. Individual animal and herd-level data were collected using a structured questionnaire. Mastitis was investigated based on microbiology and California mastitis test (CMT, while brucellosis was evaluated serologically for antibodies against Brucella infection using Rose Bengal Plate test (RBPT. The crude prevalence of antibodies to Brucella was 2.1% for individual camels and 21.4% for herds. Of the 128 udder quarters and 128 teats investigated, proportion found to have physical lesion or defects were 0.8% for teats and 4.7% for udder quarters, respectively. The common observed teats lesion was scar and for quarters was firmness upon touch. Of the 32 lactating camels examined, 12.5% had abnormalities in their udder as evidence of mastitis with 3.1% and 9.3% being clinical and sub-clinical mastitis respectively; at camel level. Of the 128 quarters examined 9(7.03% were infected: 4(3.1% clinically and 5(3.9% sub-clinically. E. coli was the major isolate from camel milk samples. The mean (±SE calving interval of the 17 camels that were reported to have calved more than once in their life time was estimated to be 789 ± 14 days. Results of univariable logistic regression models identified body condition score and geographical location to be the major risk factors for individual herd seroprevalence. Poor condition score (16.6%; P<0.036 was associated with increased risk of seropositivity compared to animals with fair to good condition. Results of the present study suggest that poor husbandry practices, production related diseases namely brucellosis and mastitis in camels exists within camel

  2. Examining Cultural Tourism Attractions for Foreign Visitors: The Case of Camel Wrestling in Selçuk (Ephesus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vedat Çalışkan

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This study focuses on the Camel Wrestling Festival in Selçuk, which has gained importance with its tourist appeal among traditional camel wrestling organizations in Western Anatolia. The study aimed to investigate those aspects of the Festival, which were found to be attractive for foreign visitors, and to evaluate the impacts of tourism on this traditional event. The study data were obtained from the surveys that were completed by 56 foreign visitors at the Camel Wrestling Festival in Selçuk on January 18, 2009. Findings of the study demonstrate that this traditional event attracts foreign visitors from various countries worldwide, for they are curious about this event and desire to have a cultural-authentic experience. The Camel Wrestling Festival in Selçuk is a cultural heritage, which has not been commercialized or lost its authentic significance yet, although it is vulnerable to the impact of international tourism. Nevertheless, handing this value down to the future by conserving it with its cultural surroundings is possible through a sustainable tourism policy. The Camel Wrestling Festival in Selçuk is in the process of becoming a touristic product, and the proposals in the study contribute to the development of a policy for the festival concerned.

  3. Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) RNA and neutralising antibodies in milk collected according to local customs from dromedary camels, Qatar, April 2014

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reusken, C B; Farag, E A; Jonges, M; Godeke, G J; El-Sayed, A M; Pas, S D; Raj, V S; Mohran, K A; Moussa, H A; Ghobashy, H; Alhajri, F; Ibrahim, A K; Bosch, B J; Pasha, S K; Al-Romaihi, H E; Al-Thani, M; Al-Marri, S A; AlHajri, M M; Haagmans, B L; Koopmans, M P

    2014-01-01

    Antibodies to Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) were detected in serum and milk collected according to local customs from 33 camels in Qatar, April 2014. At one location, evidence for active virus shedding in nasal secretions and/or faeces was observed for 7/12 camels; viral RN

  4. Molecular cloning and phylogenetic analysis of integrins alpha v beta 1 and alpha v beta 6 of one-humped camel (Camelus dromedarius)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Du, Junzheng; Larska, Magdalena Larska; Chang, Huiyun;

    2010-01-01

    , and 787 amino acids, respectively. The dromedary camel integrin alpha v, beta 1, and beta 6 subunit shares common structural and functional elements with their counterparts from the other species. Phylogenetic trees showed that the dromedary camel alpha v, beta 1, and beta 6 were clustered...

  5. CAMEL vs. discriminante, un análisis de riesgo al sistema financiero venezolano CAMEL vs discriminant, a risk analysis to the Venezuelan financial system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús Yoel Crespo

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available  El artículo presentan las calificaciones de riesgo de las instituciones pertenecientes al sistema financiero venezolano al cierre del primer semestre del año 2010, obtenidas mediante la aplicación de dos metodologías: la primera conocida como CAMEL y la segunda a través de una técnica estadística denominada análisis discriminante, esta última permitirá clasificar a las instituciones financieras en categorías de riesgo, formar un perfil que muestre las característica más representativa de las categoría y cuantificar la probabilidad de pertenecer a una calificación. La investigación pretende establecer si un modelo es mejor que el otro, sino demostrar que se puede complementar el análisis netamente descriptivo con el análisis multivariante, aplicándolo en un área del saber que ha sido poco explotada en Venezuela, permitiendo informar a la colectividad en general, las técnicas estadísticas empleadas en materia de riesgo. AbstractThis paper presents the credit ratings of the institutions belonging to the Venezuelan financial system at the end of the first half of 2010, obtained by applying two methods: the first known as CAMEL and the second through a statistical technique called analysis discriminant, the latter will qualify for financial institutions in risk categories, form a profile that shows the most representative feature of the category and quantify the probability of belonging to a rating. This research does not establish whether one model is better than the other, but show that you can supplement purely descriptive analysis multivariate analysis, applied to an area of knowledge that has been little exploited in Venezuela, allowing to inform the public at large , the statistical techniques used in risk.This paper presents the credit ratings of the institutions belonging to the Venezuelanfinancial system at the end of the first half of 2010, obtained by applying two methods:the first known as CAMEL and the second

  6. Improving the physico-chemical and sensory characteristics of camel meat burger patties using ginger extract and papain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Naeem, Heba H S; Mohamed, Hussein M H

    2016-08-01

    The objective of the current study was to include tenderizing agents in the formulation of camel meat burger patties to improve the physico-chemical and sensory characteristics of the product. Camel meat burger patties were processed with addition of ginger extract (7%), papain (0.01%) and mixture of ginger extract (5%) and papain (0.005%) in addition to control. Addition of ginger, papain and their mixture resulted in significant (Ppapain extract caused noticeable destructive effect on connective tissue. Moreover, ginger and papain resulted in improvement of the lipid stability of treated burger patties during storage. Therefore, addition of ginger extract and papain powder during formulation of camel burger patties can improve their physico-chemical and sensory properties. PMID:27045253

  7. Antiserum production in immunized camel by the venom of Hemiscorpius lepturus scorpion: evaluation of neutralizing test in vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Behdani M

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available "nBackground: Scorpion envenomation is considered as one of the Public Health problems in some countries in the world including Iran. Annually, approximately 30,000 scorpion stings happen in Iran from which 12% belongs to Hemiscorpius lepturus (special small closely spaced, bead-shaped jointed tail, similar in the shape to a cows tail, and is locally called ‘‘gaodim'' (Gao, cow; dim, tail with 95% mortality. The main treatment is antiserum therapy which is produced in horse and is the only way to neutralize the venom. Due to the anaphylactic shock of the horse antiserum in some of the stung patients other source of antiserum is recommended. In this study the ability of produced camel antiserum in neutralizing the scorpion venom of Hemiscorpius lepturus was performed in Balb/c model. "n"nMethods: Camel is an animal model that genetically is compatible with human genome utilized in this research to produce antiserum against scorpion venom. Two camels were used for immunization with the venom of Hemiscorpius lepturus. ELISA method was used to confirm the immunity. Antiserum was produced and used for neutralizing test. The precipitated antiserum with saturated ammonium sulfate (SAS was also used to perform the neutralizing test in mice. "n"nResults: The results indicated that the amount of 200 µl of antiserum and 400 µl of SAS antiserum were able to neutralize the amount of 1 LD100 of the venom and the survived the mice from death. "n"nConclusion: The result indicated that camel antiserum against scorpion venom is capable to neutralize the crude venom in mice model. Due to the safety of camel serum in human, it is suggested that the produced antiserum in camel can be substitute with the traditional horse antiserum in scorpion stung patients.

  8. Effects of a GnRH administration on testosterone profile, libido and semen parameters of dromedary camel bulls

    OpenAIRE

    Monaco, Davide; Fatnassi, Meriem; Padalino, Barbara; Aubé, Lydiane; Khorchani, Touhami; Hammadi, Mohamed; Lacalandra, Giovanni Michele

    2015-01-01

    International audience GnRH treatment has been suggested to increase testosterone levels temporarily and to stimulate libido in stallions, but its use has not fully ascertained in dromedary camels. The aim of this work was to study the effects of administering 100 μg of GnRH on testosterone profile, libido and semen parameters in dromedary camels. The same bulls were used as self-controls and experimental group. Blood samples were collected every 20 min (T0-T12) for 4 h, and semen collecti...

  9. Behavioral indicators to detect ovarian phase in the dromedary she-camel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padalino, B; Rateb, S A; Ibrahim, N B; Monaco, D; Lacalandra, G M; El-Bahrawy, K A

    2016-06-01

    This pilot study was conducted to test the hypothesis that female camels behave differently in various ovarian phases in the presence of a restrained male camel. The aim was to identify behavioral patterns which could be used as indicators to detect ovulatory phase by visual observation in the presence of a restrained virile bull. Twenty-four healthy, nonpregnant, and nonlactating adult females were used. Transrectal ultrasonography was performed for each animal once a week over a 3-week period to determine the phase of the ovarian cycle. Females were considered to be in the ovulatory phase (O) when there was at least one preovulatory follicle (12detected. Immediately after examination, each female was freely exposed to a restrained bull for 15 minutes, and her behaviors were filmed. The videos were analyzed through a focal animal-sampling ethogram (states: looking at the male; looking outside; standing close to the male; searching; and lying down; events: interaction with the male; urination; defecation; sound emission; and steps). A score for tail position (tail score: 1 = close to the vulva, 2 = horizontal, 3 = vertical) and for interest in the bull (male time score: from 1 to 5; 1 = lie down in front of him (P = 0.1202). Moreover, ovulatory phase had a significant effect on male time score (P detect their ovulatory phase. This would have profound implications for enhancing fertility in dromedary camels by improving timing of mating or artificial insemination. PMID:26928646

  10. Rabies Outbreaks and Vaccination in Domestic Camels and Cattle in Northwest China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Hai-Ning; Zhang, Fei; Wang, Yu-Mei; Ma, Long; Li, Nan; Hu, Rong-Liang

    2016-01-01

    In contrast to many countries where rabies has been well controlled in humans and livestock, even in wildlife, rabies is still endemic in almost regions of China. In Northwest China, rabies transmitted by stray dogs and wild foxes has caused heavy economic losses to local herdsmen, as well as causing numbers of human cases. In this study, as part of an investigation of ways to prevent rabies epidemics in livestock, we report an analysis of domestic cattle and camel rabies cases in Ningxia Hui (NHAR) and Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region (IMAR) and the immune efficacy of canine inactivated rabies vaccines in these animals. We found that rabies viruses from these animals are closely related to dog-hosted China I and fox-associated China III lineages, respectively, indicating that the infections originated from two different sources (dogs and wild foxes). As well as the previously reported Arctic and Arctic-related China IV lineage in IMAR, at least three separate phylogenetic groups of rabies virus consistently exist and spread throughout Northwest China. Since there is no licensed oral vaccine for wild foxes and no inactivated vaccine for large livestock, local canine inactivated vaccine products were used for emergency immunization of beef and milk cattle and bactrian (two-humped) camels in local farms. Compared with a single injection with one (low-efficacy) or three doses (high-cost), a single injection of a double dose of canine vaccine provided low-price and convenience for local veterinarians while inducing levels of virus neutralizing antibodies indicative of protection against rabies for at least 1 year in the cattle and camels. However, licensed vaccines for wildlife and large domestic animals are still needed in China. PMID:27583559

  11. The Symplectic Camel and the Uncertainty Principle: The Tip of an Iceberg?

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Gosson, Maurice A.

    2009-02-01

    We show that the strong form of Heisenberg’s inequalities due to Robertson and Schrödinger can be formally derived using only classical considerations. This is achieved using a statistical tool known as the “minimum volume ellipsoid” together with the notion of symplectic capacity, which we view as a topological measure of uncertainty invariant under Hamiltonian dynamics. This invariant provides a right measurement tool to define what “quantum scale” is. We take the opportunity to discuss the principle of the symplectic camel, which is at the origin of the definition of symplectic capacities, and which provides an interesting link between classical and quantum physics.

  12. An Investigation of Cellulose Digesting Bacteria in the Camel Feces Microbiome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Man, V.; Leung, F. C.

    2015-12-01

    Research Question: Is there a bacteria in camel feces that digests cellulose material and can be used for waste to energy projects? Fossil fuels are the current main resource of energy in the modern world. However, as the demand for fuel increases, biofuels have been proposed as an alternative energy source that is a more sustainable form of liquid fuel generation from living things or waste, commonly known as biofuels and ethanol. The Camelus dromedarius', also known as Arabian camel, diet consist of grass, grains, wheat and oats as well desert vegetation in their natural habitat. However, as the Arabian camel lacks the enzymes to degrade cellulose, it is hypothesized that cellulose digestion is performed by microbial symbionts in camel microbiota. Fecal samples were collected from the Camelus dromedarius in United Arab Emirates and diluted 10-7 times. The diluted sample was then streaked onto a Sodium Carboxymethyl Cellulose plate, and inoculated onto CMC and Azure-B plates. Afterwards, Congo Red was used for staining in order to identify clearance zones of single colonies that may potentially be used as a qualitative assays for cellulose digestion. Then the colonies undergo polymerase chain reaction amplification to produce amplified RNA fragments. The 16S ribosomal RNA gene is identified based on BLAST result using Sanger Sequencing. Amongst the three identified microbes: Bacillus, Staphylococcus and Escherichia coli, both Bacillus and Staphylococcus are cellulose-digesting microbes, and through the fermentation of lignocellulosic, biomasses can be converted into cellulosic ethanol (Biofuel). According to the Improvements in Life Cycle Energy Efficiency and Greenhouse Gas Emissions of Corn-Ethanol by Adam J. Liska, ""Ethanol reduces greenhouse gas emissions by 40-50% when compared directly to gasoline." The determination of bacterial communities that are capable of efficiently and effectively digesting cellulose materials requires that the bacteria be first

  13. Analisis Komparatif Kinerja Keuangan antara Bank Syariah dan Bank Konvensional Berdasarkan Metode Camel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Armanto Witjaksono

    2011-04-01

    performance of Islamic banks and conventional banks (Hi. Researchers used a parametric statistical technique, which consists of test data normality using the Kolmogorov Smirnov test and QQ plots, test of homogeneity using the F test (Levene's Test, and Independent Sample T-Test with significant value 5% confidence level (1 - α = 95%. The results showed that the ratio of data CAMEL Islamic banks and conventional banks in normal distribution and homogeneous. Then it can be concluded that the variable CAR, NPL, and LDR between conventional banks and Islamic banks have significant differences, while the ROA and ROE of the two types of banking industry is not significantly different or relatively the same.

  14. Hematological and serum biochemical aspects associated with a camel(Camelus dromedarius)naturally infected by Trypanosoma evansi with severe parasitemia in Semnan,Iran

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mahmood; Ahmadi-hamedani; Khosro; Ghazvinian; Mohammad; Mehdi; Darvishi

    2014-01-01

    Objective:To determine the presence of Trypanosoma eransi(T.evansi) and the effect of trypanosomosis on hemato-biochemical profile of dromedary camels in Semnan,Iran,which has not been reported yet.Methods:To perform this project,blood samples were collected by venipuncture into plain and EDTA-K2-containing vacutainer tubes from 21 dromedary camels(12 males and 9 females) aged3—18 years,from 4 different regions of Semnan.Results:Microscopic examination of stained thin blood smears revealed the presence of T.evansi in one of the samples.However,it should be noted that this sample showed a very high parasitemia(more than 5 trypomastigote were visible per microscopic field with MGG,1000×.This heavy parasitemia was associated with an 18-year-old female camel that showed symptoms of corneal opacity,intense emaciation and pale mucous membranes.Comparison of hematological and serum biochemical profiles between the camel infected by T.eransi and uninfected camels indicated anemia,leukocytosis,hyperproteinemia.hypoalbuminemia,hyperglobulinemia,reduction A/G ratio,increased a,,p and globulins and decreased of a,globulins and increased the concentration of gumma-glutamyl transferase enzyme.Conclusions:Results of the present study revealed that trypanosomosis was present in dromedary camels of Semnan,Iran(infection rate is 4.76%) and hemato-biochemical parameters were markedly affected by camel trypanosomosis.

  15. Hematological and serum biochemical aspects associated with a camel (Camelus dromedarius) naturally infected by Trypanosoma evansi with severe parasitemia in Semnan, Iran

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mahmood Ahmadi-hamedani; Khosro Ghazvinian; Mohammad Mehdi Darvishi

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To determine the presence of Trypanosoma evansi (T. evansi) and the effect of trypanosomosis on hemato-biochemical profile of dromedary camels in Semnan, Iran, which has not been reported yet. Methods:To perform this project, blood samples were collected by venipuncture into plain and EDTA-K2-containing vacutainer tubes from 21 dromedary camels (12 males and 9 females) aged 3-18 years, from 4 different regions of Semnan. Results: Microscopic examination of stained thin blood smears revealed the presence of T. evansi in one of the samples. However, it should be noted that this sample showed a very high parasitemia (more than 5 trypomastigote were visible per microscopic field with MGG, 1 000×). This heavy parasitemia was associated with an 18-year-old female camel that showed symptoms of corneal opacity, intense emaciation and pale mucous membranes. Comparison of hematologyical and serum biochemical profiles between the camel infected by T. evansi and uninfected camels indicated anemia, leukocytosis, hyperproteinemia, hypoalbuminemia, hyperglobulinemia, reduction A/G ratio, increasedα1,βand globulins and decreased ofα2 globulins and increased the concentration of gamma-glutamyl transferase enzyme. Conclusions: Results of the present study revealed that trypanosomosis was present in dromedary camels of Semnan, Iran (infection rate is 4.76%) and hemato-biochemical parameters were markedly affected by camel trypanosomosis.

  16. Effects of a long-acting trace mineral rumen bolus supplement on growth performance, metabolic profiles, and trace mineral status of growing camels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alhidary, Ibrahim A; Abdelrahman, Mutassim M; Harron, Raafat M

    2016-04-01

    A study was conducted to evaluate the effects of a long-acting trace mineral rumen bolus (TMB) supplement on the productive performance, metabolic profiles, and trace mineral status of growing camels under natural grazing conditions. Fifteen 6-month-old growing male camels (average bodyweight 139.51 ± 26.49 kg) were used in a 150-day trial. Animals were individually housed in a shaded pen and randomly assigned to receive zero (control group, CON), one (TMB1), or two (TMB2) long-acting TMBs. Feed intake was measured weekly, and camels were weighed monthly. Blood samples were collected from all camels on days 1, 30, 60, 90, 120, and 150 to obtain metabolic profiles. Zinc, selenium, copper, cobalt, and manganese concentrations were determined in the diet, serum, and liver. In comparison with controls, giving camels one TMB increased the average daily gain (14.38%; P copper, selenium, cobalt, and manganese were greater (P mineral profiles of camels. Different levels, sources, and synergistic combinations of trace minerals can be used in further studies to elucidate their abilities to increase productive variables as well as their availability and cost to the camel industry. PMID:26894497

  17. Comparative studies on genital infections and antimicrobial susceptibility patterns of isolates from camels (Camelus dromedarius) and cows (Bos indicus) in Maiduguri, north-eastern Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mshelia, Gideon Dauda; Okpaje, Godfrey; Voltaire, Yepmo Andre Casimir; Egwu, Godwin Onyeamaechi

    2014-01-01

    A total of 160 genitalia of Camels and cows were investigated in Maiduguri, north-eastern Nigeria to compare bacterial isolates and the antibacterial susceptibilities of some of the isolates. Streptococcus (Str.) pyogenes (31%), Escherichia (E.) coli (24%) and Staphylococcus (S.) aureus (20%) were the most common vaginal bacterial isolates in camels; while E. coli (73%), Str. pyogenes (18%) and S. aureus (11%) were the most frequent isolates in the cows. Of the 78 uterine isolates recovered in this study, E. coli was the most prominent in camels (8%) and cows (54%). The overall weight of genital infection in all camels and cows examined was highest (P  0.05) between vaginal and uterine bacterial isolates from camels and cows in this study. The Relative Risk (RR) for an infection of the vagina with E coli (3.04, 95% Confidence Interval (CI): 2.104 to 4.398, P < 0.0001) is more in cows compared to the camel, but the RR for vaginal infection with S. aureus and Str. pyogenes were lower in cows compared to Camels. The E. coli and S. aureus isolates were highly susceptible to the antimicrobial agents tested. Therefore effective management of reproductive disorders associated with these pathogens can be achieved with proper use of these antimicrobial agents in these animal species. PMID:24570857

  18. Immunohistochemical localization of androgen and progesterone receptors in the uterus of the camel (Camelus dromedarius).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emam, Mahmoud Abdelghaffar

    2014-10-01

    Ten adult, cyclic female camels (Camelus dromedarius) were used to describe the distribution of androgen (AR) and progesterone (PR) receptors in the uterus using immunohistochemistry. Both AR and PR were distributed throughout the different compartments of the uterus with nuclear staining for AR and PR seen in the cells of epithelia (luminal and glandular), stroma and myometrial smooth muscles. AR immunostaining was not uniform in distribution and intensity; the surface epithelium and the glandular epithelium in the adluminal region of the endometrium showed lower AR immunoreactivity than other compartments of the uterus. PR immunostaining showed uniformity in both distribution and intensity strong PR immunostaining intensity in almost all cells of the different uterine compartments. The intensity and distribution of PR immunostaining in epithelia of lumen and glands in the adluminal regions of endometrium was higher (P<0.05) than that of AR. In conclusion, immunohistochemical localization of AR and PR in the uterus of the cyclic dromedary camel indicates the important roles of androgen and progesterone in controlling the uterine activity during the follicular phase. PMID:25081941

  19. Vertical transmission of Trypanosoma evansi in dromedary camels and studies on fetal pathology, diagnosis and treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narnaware, Shirish D; Ghorui, Samar K; Kumar, Sanjay; Patil, Nitin V

    2016-06-01

    In the present study, a total of 14 (73.68%) cases of abortions and two (100%) cases of still births were detected positive for Trypanosoma evansi infection by wet and dry blood smear examination and fetal tissue PCR in camels of an organized farm. The abortions in infected dams were recorded from 8 to 11.5 month of gestation, however majority occurred during 9th to 10th month. The important laboratorial findings in infected dams were anemia, hypoglycemia, hyperproteinemia and leukocytosis. At necropsy the T. evansi infected aborted and still born fetuses showed subcutaneous edema, presence of moderate amount of dark red hemolysed blood in thoracic and abdominal cavity, bronchopneumonia, hepatic necrosis and acute congestion in all vital organs. Microscopically, there was severe congestion, thickening of bronchial and alveolar wall and mononuclear infiltration in the fetal lung, necrotic and degenerative changes in the liver, nephritis along with severe congestion and tubular necrosis in the kidneys and necrotic and degenerative changes and congestion of capillaries in the brain. The T. evansi DNA was detected by PCR from blood, lung, spleen, liver, kidney and brain of all the infected aborted and still born fetuses. The results of the study indicated that T. evansi can cross placental barrier and cause pathological events in the fetus resulting into abortion or still birth in pregnant camels. PMID:27078656

  20. A comprehensive analysis of immunoglobulin heavy chain genes in the Bactrian camel (Camelus bactrianus

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    Zuoxiang LIANG,Tao WANG,Yi SUN,Wenlong YANG,Zhihong LIU,Jing FEI,Ying GUO,Qingwei MA,Qingjie PAN,Liming REN

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Heavy chain only antibodies (HCAbs represent a rare type of antibody that is devoid of light chains and the CH1 domain that have been reported in cartilaginous fish and camelids. By analyzing transcript data and genome sequences, we conducted a comprehensive analysis of Bactrian camel immunoglobulin heavy chain genes. Based on the transcript data, one μ gene, five γ genes, one α gene and one ε gene were found. Additionally, the variable region of HCAbs (VHH and the conventional antibodies (VH sequences associated with the γ3, γ1a/b and μ genes were amplified. Based on these genome sequences, seven DH, six JH, μ, γ2a, γ2c, α, and ε genes and a portion of a γ3 gene were observed. Different Kozak sequences within different VH families were found in our analysis, and the variability index differed between the VHH3 and VH3 families. Phylogenetic analysis of the constant regions of the camelid immunoglobulin genes indicates that these genes appeared before the evolutionary divergence of Bactrian camels and dromedaries.

  1. THE INFLUENCE OF SEASONS ON BLOOD CONSTITUENTS OF DROMEDARY CAMEL (CAMELUS DROMEDARIUS

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    E.A. BABEKER

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out in White Nile State, Sudan for a period of one year, and was designed to investigate the effect of seasons on the blood constituents of dromadery camel (Camelus dromedarius. One hundred and four Samples different sex and age were collected in July (Rainy Season, September (Rainy hot summer, October (Dry wet winter and April (Dry hot summer. The effect of season on some blood hematology, metabolites, enzymes and minerals profile was studied. The results showed higher significant level were: Monocytes, total protein and Glutamic- Oxaloacetic Transaminase (GPT during rainy season, while MCV, MCH, lymphocytes, Eosinophils and Basophils in rainy hot summer, whereas within dry wet winter were: glucose, albumin and k, even in dry hot summer were: MCHC, total white blood cells, neutrophils, uric acid, creatinine, Serum Glutamic-Oxaloacetic Transaminase (GOT and Ca. The results also indicate that the fluctuations of seasons were observed in red blood cells, hematocrit (PCV and E.S.R as lower level. Therefore, it could be valuable to provide that the dromedary camels adapted to tropical conditions.

  2. Serological evidence of MERS-CoV antibodies in dromedary camels (camelus dromedaries) in laikipia county, Kenya

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.L. Deem (Sharon L.); E.M. Fèvre (Eric); M. Kinnaird (Margaret); A.S. Browne (A. Springer); D. Muloi (Dishon); G-J. Godeke (Gert-Jan); M.P.G. Koopmans D.V.M. (Marion); C.B.E.M. Reusken (Chantal)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractMiddle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) is a recently identified virus causing severe viral respiratory illness in people. Little is known about the reservoir in the Horn of Africa. In Kenya, where no human MERS cases have been reported, our survey of 335 dromedary camels

  3. TIBETANS, CAMELS, YURTS, AND SINGING TO THE SALT GODDESSES: AN A MDO ELDER REFLECTS ON LOCAL CULTURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenchangjia

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Historical camel herding and use in Mang ra (Guinan County, Mtsho lho (Hainan Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture, Mtsho sngon (Qinghai Province, China is described through the recollections of Rin chen skyid (1919-2011 and other lifelong residents of the area. Yurts and salt collecting and culture are also described. Three maps and four photographs provide additional information.

  4. Author Shares a Message of Acceptance with Young Readers: Encouraging Cultural Understanding Author Prue Mason's "Camel Rider"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curriculum Review, 2007

    2007-01-01

    This article presents an interview with Prue Mason about her book "Camel Rider." Prue Mason has written articles for a children's magazine in Dubai, United Arab Emirates, and for "The School Magazine" in Australia. Mason also serves as the science and technology editor for an Australian children's magazine. She discusses what prompted her to write…

  5. Influence of Sodium Bisulfite and Lithium Bromide Solutions on the Shape Fixation of Camel Guard Hairs in Slenderization Process

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    Xueliang Xiao

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Outstanding performance of natural camel hair has attracted much attention on the effective use of such specialty fiber to apparel textiles. In this paper, sodium bisulfide (SB and lithium bromide (LB solutions were used to process the camel guard hair before its slenderization. It is found that camel guard hair processed by SB solution shows the highest breaking elongation (~140% due to the breakage of disulfide bonds (reflected by Raman spectra. LB ions result in the disruption of hair crystalline phase with slight benefit to the slenderization (determined by X-ray diffraction and differential scanning calorimetry. IR spectra indicate that hydrogen bonds of camel guard hair act as fixation switch in the programmed tensile test. It is discovered that guard hair reveals the best water-induced shape memory with 90% of stretching shape recovery, whereas the value remained to be 70% and 60% for hair processed by LB and SB solutions after breaking partial crystalline phase and disulfide cross-links separately (polymer net-points. The poorer shape memory of processed guard hair benefits its slenderization for more stable fixation of stretched length.

  6. The Arabian camel Camelus dromedarius heat shock protein 90α: cDNA cloning, characterization and expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saeed, Hesham; Shalaby, Manal; Embaby, Amira; Ismael, Mohammad; Pathan, Akbar; Ataya, Farid; Alanazi, Mohammad; Bassiouny, Khalid

    2015-11-01

    Heat shock protein 90 (Hsp90) is a highly conserved ubiquitous molecular chaperone contributing to assisting folding, maintenance of structural integrity and proper regulation of a subset of cytosolic proteins. In the present study, a heat shock protein 90α full length coding cDNA was isolated and cloned from the Arabian one-humped camel by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). The full length cDNA sequence was submitted to NCBI GeneBank under the accession number KF612338. The sequence analysis of the Arabian camel Hsp90α cDNA showed 2202bp encoding a protein of 733 amino acids with estimated molecular mass of 84.827kDa and theoretical isoelectric point (pI) of 5.31. Blast search analysis revealed that the C. dromedarius Hsp90α shared high similarity with other known Hsp90α. Comparative analyses of camel Hsp90α protein sequence with other mammalian Hsp90s showed high identity (85-94%). Heterologous expression of camel Hsp90α cDNA in E. coli JM109 (DE3) gave a fusion protein band of 86.0kDa after induction with IPTG for 4h.

  7. TIBETANS, CAMELS, YURTS, AND SINGING TO THE SALT GODDESSES: AN A MDO ELDER REFLECTS ON LOCAL CULTURE

    OpenAIRE

    Wenchangjia; CK Stuart

    2015-01-01

    Historical camel herding and use in Mang ra (Guinan) County, Mtsho lho (Hainan) Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture, Mtsho sngon (Qinghai) Province, China is described through the recollections of Rin chen skyid (1919-2011) and other lifelong residents of the area. Yurts and salt collecting and culture are also described. Three maps and four photographs provide additional information.

  8. Camel's Milk Protects against Aluminum Chloride-Induced Toxicity in the Liver and Kidney of White Albino Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fahaid Al-Hashem

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Aluminum chloride (AlCl3 is commonly used in daily life but it can be potentially toxic. Therefore, the present study was carried out to investigate the protective effects of camel' milk against aluminum-induced biochemical alterations and oxidative stress in the liver and kidney of white albino rats. Approach: White albino male rats (230-250 g were divided into three groups of 10 rats: a control group treated with normal saline, the AlCl3-treated group and the camel's milk-AlCl3-treated group. The AlCl3 treated group received 0.5 mg kg-1 of AlCl3 orally. The camel's milk-AlCl3-treated group was fed 1 mL of fresh camel's milk 10 minutes prior to the administration of oral AlCl3. All rats were treated every day for 30 days. Liver and kidney biochemical serum parameters were analyzed. Lipid peroxidation, as determined by the tissue concentrations of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS and hydrogen peroxide (HP, and the oxidative stress status, as measured by glutathione (GSH, superoxide dismutase (SOD and catalase (CAT activity, were evaluated in the kidney and liver of treated rats. Results: Data showed that the oral administration of AlCl3 resulted in statistically significant increases in the serum levels of urea, creatinine, bilirubin, aspartate aminotransferase (AST, alanine aminotransferase (ALT, alkaline phosphatase (ALP, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH, cholesterol and triglycerides; the total amount of protein and albumin were also significantly decreased. However, these parameters were within normal levels in the rats given camel's milk prior to AlCl3. Additionally, oral administration of AlCl3 induced lipid peroxidation in the liver and kidney, which was indicated by a significant increase in lipid peroxidation biomarkers (TBARS and HP and a significant decrease in the activities of GSH, SOD and CAT. In all rats treated with camel's milk before being given AlCl3, lipid peroxidation and oxidative stress

  9. Molecular detection of Rickettsia africae, Rickettsia aeschlimannii, and Rickettsia sibirica mongolitimonae in camels and Hyalomma spp. ticks from Israel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleinerman, Gabriela; Baneth, Gad; Mumcuoglu, Kosta Y; van Straten, Michael; Berlin, Dalia; Apanaskevich, Dmitry A; Abdeen, Ziad; Nasereddin, Abed; Harrus, Shimon

    2013-12-01

    In this study, we aimed to identify and genetically characterize spotted fever group (SFG) rickettsiae in ticks, domestic one-humped camels, and horses from farms and Bedouin communities in southern Israel. A total of 618 ixodid ticks (Hyalomma dromedarii, Hyalomma turanicum, Hyalomma excavatum, and Hyalomma impeltatum) collected from camels and horses, as well as 152 blood samples from 148 camels and four horses were included in the study. Initial screening for rickettsiae was carried out by targeting the gltA gene. Positive samples were further analyzed for rickettsial ompA, 17kDa, ompB, and 16S rRNA genes. Rickettsia aeschlimannii DNA was detected in the blood of three camels and 14 ticks (H. dromedarii, H. turanicum, and H. excavatum). Rickettsia africae was found in six ticks (H. turanicum, H. impeltatum, H. dromedarii, and H. excavatum). In addition, Rickettsia sibirica mongolitimonae was detected in one H. turanicum tick. These findings represent the first autochthonous detection of R. africae in Israel. Previous detections of R. africae in Asia were reported from the Sinai Peninsula (Egypt) and Istanbul, only. Furthermore, we report for the first time the finding of R. aeschlimannii in H. turanicum and H. excavatum ticks, as well as the first identification of R. sibirica mongolitimonae in H. turanicum ticks. The tick species identified to harbor R. africae and other SFG rickettsiae have been reported to occasionally feed on people, and, therefore, physicians should be aware of the possible exposure of local communities and travelers, especially those in contact with camels, to these tick-borne rickettsial pathogens.

  10. Genomic and Proteomic Characterization of Bacteriocin-Producing Leuconostoc mesenteroides Strains Isolated from Raw Camel Milk in Two Southwest Algerian Arid Zones

    OpenAIRE

    Zineb Benmechernene; Inmaculada Fernández-No; Marcos Quintela-Baluja; Karola Böhme; Mebrouk Kihal; Pilar Calo-Mata; Jorge Barros-Velázquez

    2014-01-01

    Information on the microbiology of camel milk is very limited. In this work, the genetic characterization and proteomic identification of 13 putative producing bacteriocin Leuconostoc strains exhibiting antilisterial activity and isolated from camel milk were performed. DNA sequencing of the 13 selected strains revealed high homology among the 16S rRNA genes for all strains. In addition, 99% homology with Leuconostoc mesenteroides was observed when these sequences were analysed by the BLAST t...

  11. Genotyping of Brucella melitensis strains from dromedary camels (Camelus dromedarius) from the United Arab Emirates with multiple-locus variable-number tandem repeat analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gyuranecz, Miklós; Wernery, Ulli; Kreizinger, Zsuzsa; Juhász, Judit; Felde, Orsolya; Nagy, Péter

    2016-04-15

    Camel brucellosis is a widespread zoonotic disease in camel-rearing countries caused by Brucella melitensis and Brucella abortus. The aim of this study was the first genetic analysis of B. melitensis strains isolated from dromedary camels (Camelus dromedarius) using multiple-locus variable-number tandem repeat analysis (MLVA). MLVA 16 and its MLVA 8 and MLVA11 subsets were used to determine the genotypes of 15 B. melitensis isolates from dromedary camels (11 strains) and other host species (4 strains) from the United Arab Emirates and the results were then compared to B. melitensis MLVA genotypes from other parts of the world. Five, including two novel genotypes were identified with MLVA 8. MLVA 16 further discriminated these five genotypes to ten variants. The eleven camel isolates clustered into four main genetic groups within the East-Mediterranean and African clades and this clustering correlated with the geographic origin of the hosts (United Arab Emirates, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia and Sudan) and the date of their isolation. The camel strains were also genetically related to strains isolated from wild and domestic ruminants from their close habitat or from other parts of the world. Although limited number of strains were analysed, based on our data imported animals from foreign countries, local small ruminants and wildlife species are hypothesized to be the main sources of camel brucellosis in the United Arab Emirates. MLVA was successfully applied to determine the epidemiological links between the different camel B. melitensis infections in the United Arab Emirates and it can be a beneficial tool in future disease control programs.

  12. Scarabaeus cristatus (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae) as intermediate host of Physocephalus dromedarii (Nematoda: Spirocercidae)--a contribution to the epidemiology of camel physocephalidosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuster, Rolf K; Sivakumar, Saritha; Ismail, Akhmad A; Baumann, Maximilian P O

    2016-03-01

    In UAE, camel Physocephalus dromedarii was diagnosed for the first time in 2011 in dromedaries from a farm that previously had imported animals from foreign countries. The large scarab beetle, Scarabaeus cristatus, was found to be the major intermediate host for this parasite in Dubai. A total of 638 specimens of S. cristatus were collected and examined for the presence of third-stage larvae of nematode larvae at two sites in the Dubai Emirate (Emirates Industry for Camel Milk and Products and horse endurance training track) within a distance of 15 km. Third-stage larvae of P. dromedarii were detected in 94 and 97 % of beetles collected from the territory of the camel milk farm and the endurance training track, respectively. In addition to third-stage larvae, 264 beetles contained second-stage larvae. Only four beetles were infected with other than P. dromedarii larvae. The average larval burden in beetles from camel milk farm was significantly higher compared to those in beetles collected from the other site (1538 vs. 697). Comparison of larval burdens in juvenile and adult beetles collected at the camel milk farm showed a significantly higher intensity in adult specimens (501 vs. 1734) while in beetles found on the horse endurance track, larval burdens were comparable (548 vs. 858). The results suggest that S. cristatus become infected at the camel milk farm, and in search for other sources of food, they fly to places where they were found feeding on feces of other animals.

  13. TRANSVERSE VAGINAL SEPTUM: A CONGENITAL MALFORMATION AND ITS MANAGEMENT IN A FEMALE DROMEDARY CAMEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. I. Qureshi, M. Iqbal, A. Wahab, R. Yass and M. Naif

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available A seven year old female dromedary camel was examined for the complaint of inability to breed due to problem during penile intromission. Vaginoscopy, using equine tube vaginoscope, revealed the presence of a tissue flap cranial to the urethral opening, buldging caudally and separating the cranial and caudal parts of vagina. Digital palpation was also performed and the condition was diagnosed as transverse vaginal septum. For treatment, the vaginal septum was grasped with an Allis tissue forceps and a circular piece was severed from the center with the Metzenbaum scissors. The remaining portion of septum was then carefully trimmed. About 28 days after surgery, the animal showed heat signs and was mated. On ultrasonographic examination three months, post mating the animal was found pregnant.

  14. A comparative analysis on ranking insurance firms using RBC and CAMELS

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    Zahra Houshmand Neghabi

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Ranking insurance firms plays an important role on choosing the most appropriate company for receiving appropriate services especially long term insurances such as life insurances. The proposed model of this paper uses two well-known methods of CAMELS and RBC to rank 18 active private and governmental insurance firms in Iran over the period of 2009-2011. The results of Spearman test imply that there is no meaningful difference between these two methods for year 2010 and year 2011 and according to Freedman test, there is not meaningful difference between these two methods in any three years of 2009, 2010 and 2011. In summary, we can conclude that the results of both methods could be used in practice.

  15. Prediction of default probability in banking industry using CAMELS index: A case study of Iranian banks

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    Mohammad Khodaei Valahzaghard

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the relationship between CAMELS index and default probability among 20 Iranian banks. The proposed study gathers the necessary information from their financial statements over the period 2005-2011. The study uses logistic regression along with Pearson correlation analysis to consider the relationship between default probability and six independent variables including capital adequacy, asset quality, management quality, earning quality, liquidity quality and sensitivity of market risk. The results indicate that there were no meaningful relationship between default probability and three independent variables including capital adequacy, asset quality and sensitivity of market risk. However, the results of our statistical tests support such relationship between default probability and three other variables including management quality, earning quality and liquidity quality.

  16. Analyzing Financial Performance of Commercial Banks in India: Application of CAMEL Model

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    Prof. Dr. Mohi-ud-Din Sangmi

    Full Text Available Sound financial health of a bank is the guarantee not only to its depositors but is equally significant for the shareholders, employees and whole economy as well. As a sequel to this maxim, efforts have been made from time to time, to measure the financial position of each bank and manage it efficiently and effectively. In this paper, an effort has been made to evaluate the financial performance of the two major banks operating in northern India .This evaluation has been done by using CAMEL Parameters, the latest model of financial analysis. Through this model, it is highlighted that the position of the banks under study is sound and satisfactory so far as their capital adequacy, asset quality, Management capability and liquidity is concerned.

  17. Molecular characterization of Echinococcus granulosus s.l. cysts from cattle, camels, goats and pigs in Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tigre, Worku; Deresa, Benti; Haile, Adane; Gabriël, Sarah; Victor, Bjorn; Pelt, Jani Van; Devleesschauwer, Brecht; Vercruysse, Jozef; Dorny, Pierre

    2016-01-15

    Cystic Echinococcosis (CE) caused by Echinococcus granulosus sensu lato (s.l.) is a neglected helminth zoonosis affecting humans and various animal species. Human CE has been reported in almost all countries of sub-Saharan Africa but its prevalence and public health impact are subject to large geographical variations. The reasons for these differences are not well understood; among other factors, occurrence of different species/genotypes of E. granulosus s.l. has been suggested. CE is very common in all livestock species in Ethiopia; human CE is poorly documented in the country. The aim of this study was to assess the fertility and molecularly characterize hydatid cysts collected from cattle, camels, goats and pigs from different parts of the country. From the 137 samples characterized by PCR-RFLP and sequencing, 115 (83.9%) were identified as E. granulosus s.s. (G1, common sheep strain), 6 (4.4%) as Echinococcus ortleppi (G5, cattle strain) and 16 (11.7%) as Echinococcus intermedius (G6/7, camel strain). In cattle, E. granulosus s.s. and E. ortleppi were found; in camels and goats, E. granulosus s.s. and E. intermedius; two cysts found in pigs were identified as E. granulosus s.s. and E. ortleppi, respectively. All cysts recovered from goats and pigs were sterile, while fertility was 34% and 50% in cysts from cattle and camels, respectively. In cattle, 31% of E. granulosus s.s. cysts were fertile, showing the importance of cattle in the transmission of the "sheep strain". Next to E. granulosus s.s., E. intermedius (camel strain) was the predominant species: 34.4% of the cysts collected from camels and 62.5% from goats were identified as E. intermedius. These animals originated from the drier Central, Eastern and Southern parts of the country. For the first time, we showed the presence of CE in pigs in Ethiopia. The presence of these strains and especially the fact that the zoonotic E. granulosus s.s. and E. intermedius are dominant, make CE an important public

  18. Epidemiology of camel trypanosomosis due to Trypanosoma evansi in Mauritania and its control strategies for sustainable livestock production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Camel trypanosomiasis due to Trypanosoma evansi is mechanically transmitted by hematophagious diptera such as Tabanidae, Stomoxyinae, and Hippoboscidae. In its acute form, the disease results in a generalized weakness. The animal lies down as of the least effort; milk production falls with the abortion of females. At times, the animal dies after a prolonged decubitus. However, in 80% cases, the disease is observed in its chronic form, which is characterized by considerable economic losses resulting from abortions, reduction of milk production, loss weight, and cachexia. Due to its extremely dry conditions Mauritania remains a favourable environment for camels as preferred livestock species of considerable economic importance. The animals are kept by shepherds who are very mobile in the field in search of good pastures and water points. Unfortunately, this pastoral system is reported to expose dromedaries to numerous pathologic conditions, especially camel trypanosomiasis due to T. evansi. Our investigations from 1993 to 1997 showed that T. evansi is present in the dromedaries in Mauritania. According the haematocrit centrifuge technique the parasite prevalence rate ranged from 1.1 to 13.6 % while seroprevalence varied from 13% to 36.7% according to the CATT test. In the Trarza region, as consequence of a good rainy season we more recently observed an abundance of tabanids and stomoxes hence a favourable ecology of T. evansi vectors, and subsequently an outbreak of camel trypanosomosis. Prevalence rate was 17.6% using buffy coat examination and 58.8% with the CATT. In many herds, numerous abortions were recorded and all breeders registered very important milk production losses. In order to limit the infections due to T. evansi, two control strategies for camel husbandry could be practiced in the Trarza region. The first is 'northern strategy' with the potential of lowering pastures availability and usage. However, it has the advantage of avoiding the direct and

  19. GROSS AND MICROSCOPIC ANATOMY OF THYROID GLAND OF ONE-HUMPED CAMEL (CAMELUS DROMEDARIUS

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    R. KAUSAR AND R. U. SHAHID

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Tissue samples of thyroid glands of 16 healthy camels (Camelus dromedarius were investigated under two age groups i.e. group A (3-5 years and group B (6-10 years with equal number of animals, for their gross and microscopic anatomy. Gross studies revealed that thyroid glands were located near the first ring of trachea and had two lobes, connected by an isthmus. They were of reddish brown in colour. The values of weight, length and width of thyroid glands were 45.7 ± 0.35 and 50.65 ± 0.26 g, 36 ± 0.46 and 6.36 ± 0.33 cm, and 3.35 ± 0.29 and 3.53 ± 0.21 cm in groups A and B, respectively. The diameter of the glands averaged 0.97 ± 0.13 and 1.05 ± 0.14 cm in groups A and B, respectively. Histologically, thyroid gland consisted of a connective tissue capsule and trabeculae were found extending from the capsule into the substance of the gland, which divided it into lobules. Each lobule consisted of two sized follicles in variable numbers, the large and small. The large follicles were lined by low cuboidal epithelium, while the small follicles were lined by high cuboidal to columnar epithelium. The follicles had colloid material in their lumen, probably an apocrine secretion from the lining epithelial cells. The para follicular or C-cells were absent in thyroid glands of camel.

  20. The Effect of Traditional Remedies (Camels Thorn, Flixweed and Sugar Water on Idiopathic Neonatal Jaundice

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    Shahin Mafinejad

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective:Jaundice is the most common reason of newborns admission to neonatal ward. Many Iranian families give traditional remedies like sugar water, camels thorn and flixweed extracts to breast-fed babies for reducing jaundice. This study investigated the effect of traditional remedies on idiopathic neonatal jaundice. Methods:This prospective study has been performed on 336 babies with idiopathic jaundice in a four year period (2005-2009 at Ghaem hospital, Mashhad, Iran. The babies were divided into two groups. In case group (n=234 breast-fed babies received no remedy and in control group (n=102, traditional remedies were given additional to breast milk and the results recorded and compared. Findings:In the present study significant differences were observed between the two groups in age of admission (6.8±3.2 vs 9.2±3.7 day, P<0.001, serum bilirubin values (17.8 vs 21.3 mg/dl, P<0.001 and percent of weight loss (P<0.01. There were no significant differences between the two groups in birth weight, sex, gestational age and duration of hospitalization, age at jaundice remission, hematocrit value and maternal factors (age, gestational order, pregnancy and labor problems(P>0.05. Conclusion:Traditional remedies (camels thorn, flixweed and sugar water cause more weight loss and delayed reexamination of newborns leading to increased hyperbilirubinemia. These remedies may raise pseudo confidence in parents, which postpones reexamination and follow up of the newborns.

  1. Effect of α-Amylase, Papain, and Spermfluid treatments on viscosity and semen parameters of dromedary camel ejaculates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monaco, Davide; Fatnassi, Meriem; Padalino, Barbara; Hammadi, Mohamed; Khorchani, Touhami; Lacalandra, Giovanni Michele

    2016-04-01

    Ejaculates from five clinically healthy dromedary camels (Camelus dromedarius) were used to evaluate the effects of different enzymatic treatments (Amylase, Papain, Spermfluid) on liquefaction and seminal parameters. After collection, ejaculates were divided into 5 aliquots: (1) kept undiluted (control); or diluted 1:1 with: (2) Tris-Citrate-Fructose (TCF), (3) TCF containing Amylase, (4) TCF containing Papain or (5) Spermfluid containing Bromelain. At 120 min after dilution, each aliquot was evaluated, at 20-min intervals, for viscosity, motility, viability and agglutination. Only the aliquots diluted with TCF containing Papain underwent complete liquefaction. Sperm motility decreased significantly during the observation times, except for the samples diluted with Spermfluid (P=0.005). Diluted samples showed different levels of agglutination, with the lowest being observed in the control and the highest in the Papain-treated samples. The viscosity of dromedary camel ejaculates could be effectively reduced by using the proteolytic enzyme Papain. PMID:27033899

  2. The antigenicity-allergenicity of camel milk proteins (camelus dromedarus) in BALB/c mice after oral sensitization

    OpenAIRE

    Dalal, R.; N. Youcef; Mezemaze, F; Saidi, D; KHEROUA, O.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: When the breastfeeding is not possible or not wished, it is usually replaced by cow's milk or by some conventional cow’s milk-based infant formulas. However these proteins can involve at certain subjects pathological manifestations like the cow's milk allergy (CMA). The substitution of cow's milk by other treated milk, called "hypoallergenic", is currently the only alternative. The using of the camel milk, species taxonomically far away from the cow can be considered...

  3. Bioprospecting of Leuconostoc mesenteroides strains isolated from Algerian raw camel and goat milk for technological properties useful as adjunct starters

    OpenAIRE

    ZAROUR, K.; BENMECHERNENE, Z.; HADADJI, M.; MOUSSA-BOUDJEMAA, B.; HENNI, D.; Kihal, M.

    2012-01-01

    Leuconostoc species are lactic acid bacteria widely used in milk fermentation. Based on morphological, physiological and biochemical analysis, 18 strains of Leuconostoc mesenteroides were isolated and identified from 10 samples of goat's milk and camel's milk. Strains were identified as follows 09 strains of L. mesenteroides subsp. mesenteroides and 09 strains of L. mesenteroides subsp. dextranicum The results of technological tests of the strains showed that strains produced dextran, car...

  4. Morphological studies on the seasonal changes in the epididymal duct of the one-humped camel (camelus dromedarius

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    Ahmed El-Zuhry Zayed

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The present work was carried out on 20 testes and epididymis of sexually mature camels to elucidate the gross anatomical, morphometerical, light microscopical and scanning electron microscopical features of the epididymis in different seasons. Anatomically, the epididymal duct of a camel consists of three parts head, body and tail. Histomorphologically, the epididymal duct is subdivided into initial, middle and terminal segments, of which the middle segment is further subdivided into proximal, intermediate and distal parts. There is a gradual decrease in the epithelial height of the epididymal duct from the initial to the terminal segments. This mechanically facilities passage of the sperms toward the terminal segment. High epithelium in the initial segment may indicate a more absorptive power of the epithelium in this segment. The seasonal reproductivety of the epididymal duct in the camel expressed by variations in the weight and volume of the epididymis, total diameter of the epididymal duct, epithelial height, length of the stereocilia, thickness of the muscular coat and cellular distributions in different segments. The spring months offer ideal circumstances for maximal reproductive activity in this species. The cellular components of the epididymal duct epithelium of the camel displays important morphological changes from season to another showing signs of increasing activity during spring in comparison to decreasing activity in other seasons. PAS positive granules are demonstrated in different segments of the epididymal duct and intraepithelial glands in different seasons. These granules are relatively more numerous in spring. The lamina propria surrounding the epididymal duct contains a layer of the elastic fibers which is very thick in winter, thick in spring and thin in other seasons. This increase in thickness of the elastic fibers predisposes for the increase in the total diameter of the epididymal duct in spring. It was conclude

  5. Relationship between udder morphology traits, alveolar and cisternal milk compartments and machine milking performances of dairy camels (Camelus dromedarius

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    M. Ayadi

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available A total of 22 dairy dromedary camels under intensive conditions in late lactation (275±24 days were used to study the relationship between external and internal udder morphology and machine milking performances. Measurements of udder and teat morphology were obtained immediately before milking and in duplicate. Individual milk yield, lag time and total milking time were recorded during milking, and milk samples were collected and analyzed for milk composition thereafter. Cisternal and alveolar milk volumes and composition were evaluated at 9 h milking interval. Results revealed that dairy camels had well developed udders and milk veins, with medium sized teats. On average, milk yield as well as milk fat and protein contents were 4.80±0.50 L d-1, 2.61±0.16% and 3.08±0.05%, respectively. The low fat values observed indicated incomplete milk letdown during machine milking. Lag time, and total milking time were 3.0±0.3, and 120.0±8.9s, on average, respectively. Positive correlations (p<0.05 were observed between milk yield and udder depth (r=0.37, distance between teats (r=0.57 and milk vein diameter (r=0.28, while a negative correlation was found with udder height (r=-0.25, p<0.05. Cisternal milk accounted for 11% of the total udder milk. Positive correlations were observed between total milk yield and volume of alveolar milk (r=0.98; p<0.001 as well as with volume of cisternal milk (r=0.63, p<0.05. Despite the low udder milk storage capacity observed in dairy camels, our study concluded that the evaluated dromedary sample had adequate udder morphology for machine milking. Finally, positive relationships were detected between milk yield and udder morphology traits of dairy camels.

  6. Lead acetate toxicity on glucose level and liver enzymes ameliorated by camel's milk in wistar albino rat

    OpenAIRE

    Draid, Marwan M.; Mujahed O. Bushwereb; Shadia G. Ramadan

    2016-01-01

    Background: The present work was conducted to investigate the effects of lead acetate intoxication on glucose and liver functions in albino rats, and the possible effectiveness of using camel milk to protect against lead induced toxicity. Methods: Eighteen male albino rats were divided into three groups of six, the first was a control group, the second received orally lead acetate in water as (2 ml saline containing 5 mg/kg body weight of lead acetate) and the third received the same ...

  7. Financial Performance Of Axis Bank And Kotak Mahindra Bank In The Post Reform Era: Analysis On CAMEL Model

    OpenAIRE

    Kishore Meghani, Kishore Meghani

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study is to Analyze the Financial Position and Performance of the Axis and Kotak Mahindra Bank in India based on their financial characteristics. We have chosen the CAMEL model and t-test which measures the performance of bank from each of the important parameter like capital adequacy, asset quality, management efficiency, earning quality, liquidity and Sensitivity. The present study is conducted analyze the consistency of the profitability of the Axis and Kotak Mahindra...

  8. High seroprevalence of bluetongue virus antibodies in Sheep, Goats, Cattle and Camel in different districts of Saudi Arabia

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    Ali Ahmed Al-Eesa

    Full Text Available Aim: To estimate the prevalence and distribution of serum antibodies to BTV in different domesticated animals in different localities of Saudi Arabia. Materials and Methods: A total of 4845 field sera collected from different animal species within 10 districts in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia were screened for the presence of group-specific BTV antibodies by competitive ELISA (c ELISA. Results: The overall BTV antibody prevalence was 54.1%, 53.3%, 44.8% and 25.7% in sheep, goat, cattle and camel respectively (at 95% confidence level. The Jizan and Eastern Province districts were the regions with the highest prevalence resulting 65.8% of sheep, 68.2% of goats, 49.3% of cattle, 44% of camel in Jizan and 65.8% of sheep, 62.5% of goats, 53.4% of cattle, 28.5% of camel in Eastern Province positive to c-ELISA. The second highest rate was in Najran district where the seropositivity for Bluetongue was found to be 60% of sheep, 57.9% of goats, 47.2% of cattle and 29.3% of camel. Our results recorded positive animals in all examined districts which indicate serological evidence of exposure to infection was widely distributed all over the country. Conclusions: These results demonstrate the high occurrence of the BTV that emphasize the necessity to a well-defined control strategy for preventing and controlling the BTV in Saudi Arabia. [Vet. World 2012; 5(7.000: 389-393

  9. Ethnoveterinary treatments by dromedary camel herders in the Suleiman Mountainous Region in Pakistan: an observation and questionnaire study

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    Younas Muhammad

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Suleiman mountainous region is an important cradle of animal domestication and the habitat of many indigenous livestock breeds. The dromedary camel is a highly appreciated and valued animal and represents an important genetic resource. Camel herders, living in remote areas, have developed their own ways to treat diseases in camels, based on a long time of experience. Methods Information about the diseases and the ethnoveterinary practices performed was collected from a total of 90 herders and healers by interviews and participant observations. Results The respondents classified the diseased in major and minor fractions. Clinical signs were given in detail. Mange followed by trypanosomosis and orf were considered the most prevalent diseases, and also caused the greatest economic losses. Orf was regarded the most complex disease. The season was considered to have great influence on the occurrence of the diseases. A variety of different treatments were described, such as medicinal plants, cauterization, odorant/fly repellents, pesticides, larvicides, cold drink, yogurt and supportive therapy (hot food, hot drink. Conclusions There is paramount need to document and validate the indigenous knowledge about animal agriculture in general and ethnoveterinary practices in particular. This knowledge is rapidly disappearing and represents a cultural heritage as well as a valuable resource for attaining food security and sovereignty.

  10. Responses to dehydration in the one-humped camel and effects of blocking the renin-angiotensin system.

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    Mahmoud Alhaj Ali

    Full Text Available Our objectives were to compare the levels of circulating electrolytes, hormones, and renal function during 20 days of dehydration in camels versus the level in non-dehydrated camels and to record the effect of blocking angiotensin II AT1 receptors with losartan during dehydration. Dehydration induced significant increments in serum sodium, creatinine, urea, a substantial fall in body weight, and a doubling in plasma arginine vasopressin (AVP levels. Plasma aldosterone, however, was unaltered compared with time-matched controls. Losartan significantly enhanced the effect of dehydration to reduce body weight and increase serum levels of creatinine and urea, whilst also impairing the rise in plasma AVP and reducing aldosterone levels. We conclude that dehydration in the camel induces substantial increments in serum sodium, creatinine, urea and AVP levels; that aldosterone levels are altered little by dehydration; that blockade of angiotensin II type 1 receptors enhances the dehydration-induced fall in body weight and increase in serum creatinine and urea levels whilst reducing aldosterone and attenuating the rise in plasma AVP.

  11. Effects of a GnRH administration on testosterone profile, libido and semen parameters of dromedary camel bulls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monaco, Davide; Fatnassi, Meriem; Padalino, Barbara; Aubé, Lydiane; Khorchani, Touhami; Hammadi, Mohamed; Lacalandra, Giovanni Michele

    2015-10-01

    GnRH treatment has been suggested to increase testosterone levels temporarily and to stimulate libido in stallions, but its use has not fully ascertained in dromedary camels. The aim of this work was to study the effects of administering 100 μg of GnRH on testosterone profile, libido and semen parameters in dromedary camels. The same bulls were used as self-controls and experimental group. Blood samples were collected every 20 min (T0-T12) for 4h, and semen collections were performed over a 2-hour period after T12. GnRH was administered immediately after T0. In GnRH-treated bulls, testosterone levels showed an upward trend, peaking after 140 min, and then slowly decreasing. GnRH administration also led to a decrease in mating time and an increase in spermatozoa concentration. Overall, it seems that administration of 100 μg GnRH might increase testosterone levels temporarily and enhance camel reproduction performance. PMID:26412546

  12. Coxiella burnetii, the causative agent of Q fever in Saudi Arabia:molecular detection from camel and other domestic livestock

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Osama B Mohammed; Abdulrahman A Jarelnabi; Riyadh S Aljumaah; Mohammed A Alshaikh; Amel O Bakhiet; Sawsan A Omer; Abdulaziz N Alagaili; Mansour F Hussein

    2014-01-01

    Objective:To detectCoxiella burnetii(C. burnetii)DNA in clinical specimens from camel, goats, cattle and sheep in theKingdom ofSaudiArabia.Methods:A total of367 clinical samples including blood, milk, faeces and urine were collected from different livestock and subjected to PCR amplification using primers which amplify transposon-like region and transposase gene. Results:Positive amplification from both regions was obtained from camel,goats and cattle but not from sheep.A percentage of10.8% samples yielded positivePCR amplification from both blood and milk, where15 of139 blood and16 of148 milk samples were positive.Faeces and urine showed higher percentages of positive samples reaching40.8% and23.8% respectively. Conclusions:The preferred route of shedding in camel appeared to be the faeces followed by urine, while that of goats appeared to be the faeces and that of the cattle appeared to be the milk.

  13. The Cytotoxic Effect of Small and Large Molecules of PMF Fraction Extracted from Camel Urine on Cancer Cells

    KAUST Repository

    Khorshid, Faten

    2015-01-10

    Aim of the work: Animal urine, including that of camels, has long been used for the therapeutic management of human ailments. In this study, we sought to characterize the cytotoxic properties of newly derived purified fractions from previously described camel urine extract (PMF) on various cancer cell lines. Methodology: Two new size dissimilar fractions of PMF (large and small) were obtained by fractionalizing PMF using 3kD and 50kD membrane filters. A SRB cytotoxicity assay of the PMF fractions was performed on cancer cell lines (A549, HCT116, HepG2, MCF-7, U251 and Hela) as well as normal cell lines (human fibroblast cell line and Vero). Results: This study showed that the newly derived and more purified fraction of PMF (new PMF) possesses effective and selective anti-cancer properties against several types of cancer cell lines. Conclusion: This study, as well as previous ones, suggests that camel urine extracts (old and new PMF) may provide newer therapeutic alternatives to clinically manage cancer patients. However, further studies are needed to verify these positive preliminary results.

  14. Field Investigation on the Prevalence of Trypanosomiasis in Camels in Relation to Sex, Age, Breed and Herd Size

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    B. Bhutto, J. A. Gadahi, G. Shah1, P. Dewani2 and A.G. Arijo

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Blood samples were collected from 240 camels (183 male and 57 female of four breeds from six districts of Sindh. An overall infection was determined as 11.25%. Species of Trypanosoma was identified as Trypanosoma evansi. District wise infection was found to be 2.5, 7.5, 12.5, 15.00, 22.5 and 7.5% in Hyderabad, Mirpur Khas, Umerkot, Badin, Thatta and Larkana, respectively. A higher infection was found in females (15.79% as compared to males (9.84%. Highest (14.96% infection was noted in age group >7 years, followed by 8.57 and 4.65% in 3 to 7 years and less than to 3 years old camels, respectively. Four breeds of camels were surveyed and the highest infection rate was found in Sakrai breed (21.82%, followed by 16.67, 6.15 and 5.95% in Kharai, Sindhi and Dhati breeds respectively. When herd size was considered, infection rate was 1.67, 6.67, 15.00 and 21.67% in herds possessing 1 to 5, 6 to 10, 11 to 20 and more than 20 animals, respectively.

  15. Influence of stimulation by electroejaculation on myocardial function, acid-base and electrolyte status, and hematobiochemical profiles in male dromedary camels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tharwat, M; Ali, A; Al-Sobayil, F; Derar, R; Al-Hawas, A

    2014-10-01

    This study was carried out to evaluate the effect of electroejaculation (EEJ) on myocardial function, acid-base balance, and hematobiochemical profiles in male dromedary camels. Twenty sexually mature, apparently healthy male camels were assigned to EEJ. Parallel, eight naturally mated male camels were enrolled as a control group. Three blood samples were collected from each camel: just before (T0), directly after (T1), and 24 hours after (T2) EEJ or natural mating. The serum concentrations of the cardiac biomarker troponin I (cTnI), blood gas parameters, and hematobiochemical profiles were determined. Nineteen camels were ejaculated by the end of the second circuit and one by the end of the first circuit. In both groups, the mean heart and respiratory rates had increased significantly immediately after the procedure, but returned to normal values 24 hours after the procedure. The mean serum concentration of cTnI had increased significantly in all camels after EEJ, but not in controls. However, at 24 hours post-EEJ, the serum concentration of cTnI did not differ significantly compared with baseline values. The blood pH and base excess had decreased, and the PCO2 and lactic acid had increased after EEJ. The EEJ provoked decreases in hematocrit and mean corpuscular volume. In the control group, the base excess, HCO3(-), TCO2, anion gap, and lactic acid increased slightly after mating but did not reach a significant level compared with premating values. It is concluded that EEJ in camels results in a reversible myocardial injury, changes in the acid-base status, and increase the lactic acid concentration. PMID:25139755

  16. Short communication: survival of the characteristic microbiota in probiotic fermented camel, cow, goat, and sheep milks during refrigerated storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varga, L; Süle, J; Nagy, P

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to monitor the viability during storage of Lactobacillus acidophilus LA-5 (A), Bifidobacterium animalis ssp. lactis BB-12 (B), and Streptococcus thermophilus CHCC 742/2130 (T) in probiotic cultured dairy foods made from pasteurized camel, cow, goat, and sheep milks fermented by an ABT-type culture. The products manufactured were stored at 4°C for 42d. Microbiological analyses were performed at weekly intervals. Streptococcus thermophilus CHCC 742/2130 was the most numerous culture component in all 4 products both at the beginning and at the end of storage. The viable counts of streptococci showed no significant decline in fermented camel milk throughout the entire storage period. The initial numbers of Lb. acidophilus LA-5 were over 2 orders of magnitude lower than those of Strep. thermophilus CHCC 742/2130. With the progress of time, a slow and constant decrease was observed in lactobacilli counts; however, the final viability percentages of this organism did not differ significantly in the probiotic fermented milks tested. The cultured dairy foods made from cow, sheep, and goat milks had comparable B. animalis ssp. lactis BB-12 counts on d 0, exceeding by approximately 0.5 log10 cycle those in the camel milk-based product. No significant losses occurred in viability of bifidobacteria in fermented camel, cow, and sheep milks during 6wk of refrigerated storage. In conclusion, all 4 varieties of milk proved to be suitable raw materials for the manufacture of ABT-type fermented dairy products that were microbiologically safe and beneficial for human consumption. It was suggested that milk from small ruminants be increasingly used to produce probiotic fermented dairy foods. The development of camel milk-based probiotic cultured milks appears to be even more promising because new markets could thus be conquered. It must be emphasized, however, that further microbiological and sensory studies, technology development activities, and

  17. Survival of Bifidobacterium bifidum in cow- and camel-milk yogurts enriched with Cinnamomum verum and Allium sativum

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    Amal Bakr Shori

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The effects of Allium sativum and Cinnamomum verum water extracts on the survival of Bifidobacterium bifidum during 21 days of refrigerated storage and after simulated gastrointestinal digestion (SGD were investigated. Two types of yogurt (cow- and camel-milk yogurts were prepared in the presence of A. sativum or C. verum. The viable cell counts (VCC of B. bifidum in fresh A. sativum- or C. verum-cow milk yogurt (1 day were higher (8.1 × 109 cfu/ml and 6.6 × 109 cfu/ml, respectively; p < 0.05 than plain-yogurt (1.9 × 109 cfu/ml. In contrast, B. bifidum VCC in fresh plain-camel milk yogurt was 1.99 × 109 cfu/ml whereas the presence of A. sativum or C. verum in yogurt increased (p < 0.05 VCC to 19.61 × 109 cfu/ml and 25.55 × 109 cfu/ml, respectively. The VCC of B. bifidum in both herbal-yogurts decreased (p < 0.05 during refrigerated storage for both types of yogurt. The VCC of B. bifidum was ∼1.3 × 109 cfu/ml in all fresh cow milk yogurts after 1 h gastric digestion. Intestinal digestion (1 h increased VCC of B. bifidum in all fresh yogurts but not in 7 day old yogurts (plain- and A. sativum-yogurts. However, prolonged digestion to another 1 h in intestine reduced (p < 0.05 VCC of B. bifidum in all fresh and storage yogurts. In contrast, all fresh camel milk yogurts showed VCC of B. bifidum ⩽1 × 109 cfu/ml after SGD. Seven day old A. sativum – camel milk yogurt showed the lowest survival of B. bifidum after gastric digestion compared to plain- and C. verum-yogurt. The VCC reduced (p < 0.05 in all camel milk-yogurts after 2 h intestinal digestion.

  18. Evaluation and Modeling of Camel Thorn (Alhagi Maurorum Weed Cutting by Water Jet

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    M Naghipour Zade Mahani

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Due to the importance of weed control and the limitations of mechanical methods in some places, in this research the water jet cutting for weed control was investigated. The cutting tests were performed on camel thorn weed in Shahid Bahonar university of Kerman. The water jet pressure of 90 bars was achieved with the aid of a suitable pump. The cutting time was studied in a completely randomized factorial design experiment (CRD with five replications. Factors of experiments are: stem diameter in 2 levels (smaller and larger than 5 mm, distance of spraying jet from weeds in 3 levels (10, 20 and 30 cm and two types of plant holders: blade and plate. The results showed that stem diameter and jet distance from the weed stem had significant effects on cutting time (at the 1%. The mean comparison of parameters showed that with increase of stem diameter the cutting time increased and any increase in jet distance from the weeds decreased the cutting time linearly with R2=0.96 and R2=0.99 for small and large diameter weeds, respectively. The minimum cutting time was measured at 30 cm of the jet from small diameter of stems. A multivariate linear regression model was also proposed for cutting weed parameters. It can be concluded that due to the flexibility of water jet cutting for restricted places, hydrodynamic control of weeds is proposed as a complementary method and sometimes a competing substitute method.

  19. Technological Aptitude and Applications of Leuconostoc mesenteroides Bioactive Strains Isolated from Algerian Raw Camel Milk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benmechernene, Zineb; Chentouf, Hanane Fatma; Yahia, Bellil; Fatima, Ghazi; Quintela-Baluja, Marcos; Calo-Mata, Pilar; Barros-Velázquez, Jorge

    2013-01-01

    Two strains (B7 and Z8) of the Leuconostoc mesenteroides subspecies mesenteroides that were isolated from Algerian camel milk from an initial pool of 13 strains and demonstrated a high ability to inhibit the growth of Listeria spp. were selected and characterised at the phenotypic and genotypic levels. Probiotic profiling and inhibition spectra against food borne pathogens in mixed cultures were also investigated. The bacteriocin produced by L. mesenteroides strain B7 was identified as leucocin B by specific PCR. In vitro studies demonstrated that both Leuconostoc mesenteroides strains exhibited a marked probiotic profile, showing high survival at low pH (2-3 and 4) in the presence of 0.5%, 1%, and 2% of bile salts and at pH 3 in the presence of 3 mg/mL pepsin. Susceptibility testing against antimicrobial agents was also performed for both strains. When tested in a mixed culture with Listeria innocua, Listeria ivanovii, or Staphylococcus aureus, strain B7 reduced the numbers of these species by 1.87, 1.78, and 1.38 log units, respectively. Consequently, these two strains were found to possess good probiotic properties in vitro and a high capacity for Listeria spp. inhibition in mixed cultures. Therefore, these strains have a favourable technological aptitude and a potential application as novel probiotic starters. PMID:24392451

  20. Technological aptitude and applications of Leuconostoc mesenteroides bioactive strains isolated from Algerian raw camel milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benmechernene, Zineb; Chentouf, Hanane Fatma; Yahia, Bellil; Fatima, Ghazi; Quintela-Baluja, Marcos; Calo-Mata, Pilar; Barros-Velázquez, Jorge

    2013-01-01

    Two strains (B7 and Z8) of the Leuconostoc mesenteroides subspecies mesenteroides that were isolated from Algerian camel milk from an initial pool of 13 strains and demonstrated a high ability to inhibit the growth of Listeria spp. were selected and characterised at the phenotypic and genotypic levels. Probiotic profiling and inhibition spectra against food borne pathogens in mixed cultures were also investigated. The bacteriocin produced by L. mesenteroides strain B7 was identified as leucocin B by specific PCR. In vitro studies demonstrated that both Leuconostoc mesenteroides strains exhibited a marked probiotic profile, showing high survival at low pH (2-3 and 4) in the presence of 0.5%, 1%, and 2% of bile salts and at pH 3 in the presence of 3 mg/mL pepsin. Susceptibility testing against antimicrobial agents was also performed for both strains. When tested in a mixed culture with Listeria innocua, Listeria ivanovii, or Staphylococcus aureus, strain B7 reduced the numbers of these species by 1.87, 1.78, and 1.38 log units, respectively. Consequently, these two strains were found to possess good probiotic properties in vitro and a high capacity for Listeria spp. inhibition in mixed cultures. Therefore, these strains have a favourable technological aptitude and a potential application as novel probiotic starters. PMID:24392451

  1. Enterococcus bulliens sp. nov., a novel lactic acid bacterium isolated from camel milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadri, Zaina; Spitaels, Freek; Cnockaert, Margo; Praet, Jessy; El Farricha, Omar; Swings, Jean; Vandamme, Peter

    2015-11-01

    Four lactic acid bacteria isolates obtained from fresh dromedary camel milk produced in Dakhla, a city in southern Morocco, were characterised in order to determine their taxonomic position. The four isolates had highly similar MALDI-TOF MS and RAPD fingerprints and identical 16S rRNA gene sequences. Comparative sequence analysis revealed that the 16S rRNA gene sequence of the four isolates was most similar to that of Enterococcus sulfureus ATCC 49903(T) and Enterococcus italicus DSM 15952(T) (99.33 and 98.59% similarity, respectively). However, sequence analysis of the phenylalanyl-tRNA synthase (pheS), RNA polymerase (rpoA) and ATP synthase (atpA) genes revealed that the taxon represented by strain LMG 28766(T) was well separated from E. sulfureus LMG 13084(T) and E. italicus LMG 22039(T), which was further confirmed by DNA-DNA hybridization values that were clearly below the species demarcation threshold. The novel taxon was easily differentiated from its nearest neighbour species through sequence analysis of protein encoding genes, MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry and multiple biochemical tests, but had a similar percentage G+C content of about 39%. We therefore propose to formally classify these isolates as Enterococcus bulliens sp. nov., with LMG 28766(T) (=CCMM B1177(T)) as the type strain.

  2. Technological Aptitude and Applications of Leuconostoc mesenteroides Bioactive Strains Isolated from Algerian Raw Camel Milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zineb Benmechernene

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Two strains (B7 and Z8 of the Leuconostoc mesenteroides subspecies mesenteroides that were isolated from Algerian camel milk from an initial pool of 13 strains and demonstrated a high ability to inhibit the growth of Listeria spp. were selected and characterised at the phenotypic and genotypic levels. Probiotic profiling and inhibition spectra against food borne pathogens in mixed cultures were also investigated. The bacteriocin produced by L. mesenteroides strain B7 was identified as leucocin B by specific PCR. In vitro studies demonstrated that both Leuconostoc mesenteroides strains exhibited a marked probiotic profile, showing high survival at low pH (2-3 and 4 in the presence of 0.5%, 1%, and 2% of bile salts and at pH 3 in the presence of 3 mg/mL pepsin. Susceptibility testing against antimicrobial agents was also performed for both strains. When tested in a mixed culture with Listeria innocua, Listeria ivanovii, or Staphylococcus aureus, strain B7 reduced the numbers of these species by 1.87, 1.78, and 1.38 log units, respectively. Consequently, these two strains were found to possess good probiotic properties in vitro and a high capacity for Listeria spp. inhibition in mixed cultures. Therefore, these strains have a favourable technological aptitude and a potential application as novel probiotic starters.

  3. Haematological and serum biochemical indices of growing rabbits fed camel blood-rumen content mixture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Gambo,

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Forty-five crossbred rabbits (Dutch × New Zealand White of mixed sexes with age between 5 and 7 weeks were divided into 5 groups of 9 rabbits and fed camel blood–rumen content mixture (CBRCM for 10 weeks. The CBRCM which contained 36.40% crude protein and 22.36% crude fibre was included at 0, 10, 20, 30 and 40% levels in diets of group 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 respectively. The packed cell volume (PCV, red blood cells (RBC, mean corpuscular volume (MCV, mean corpuscular haemoglobin (MCH and mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentration (MCHC were not significantly different (P>0.05 among the treatments groups, although the haemoglobin (Hb and white blood cells (WBC were significantly (P<0.05 influenced by the treatments. The number of basophils, neutrophils, eosinophils and lymphocytes were not affected by the levels of inclusion, however, only the monocytes differed significantly (P<0.05 among the treatments. All values for blood parameters were within the normal range for growing rabbit. Thus, the study indicated that up to 40% CBRCM could be incorporated into the diets of growing rabbits without compromising the health status of the rabbits.

  4. Perceptions and problems of disease in the one-humped camel in southern Africa in the late 19th and early 20th centuries : historical review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.T. Wilson

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available The one-humped camel (Camelus dromedarius was first introduced to German South West Africa (Namibia for military purposes in 1889. Introductions to the Cape of Good Hope (South Africa in 1897 and Rhodesia (Zimbabwe in 1903 were initially with a view to replacing oxen that died of rinderpest. Disease risks attendant on these introductions were recognised and to some extent guarded against. There were, however, relatively few problems. One camel was diagnosed as having foot-and-mouth disease. Mange in camels from India caused some concern as did trypanosomosis from Sudan. Trypanosomosis was introduced into both the Cape of Good Hope and Transvaal. Antibodies to some common livestock disease were found in later years.

  5. Determination of Micro minerals in Milk from Farm and Pasture-reared Cow, Goat and Camel; using Inductively Coupled Plasma-Optical Emission Spectrometry

    OpenAIRE

    SirelkhatimBalla Elhardallou; Ashraf Yehia El-naggar

    2016-01-01

    This study covers raw fresh milk of cow, goat and camel (farm and pasture-reared),in addition to two brands of commercial milk samples, liquid milk of powder origin and drinking yoghurt samples. Camel milk showed a relatively lower pH range (6.15 - 6.46) compared cow, goat and commercial milk. The pH of drinking yoghurt was found (4.35 - 4.47).Microwave digestion, was selected followed by mineral analysis using Inductively Coupled Plasma-Optical Emission Spectrometry. Micro minerals; Cd, Cr...

  6. Changes in cumulus-oocyte complexes of pregnant and non-pregnant camels (Camelus dromedarius) during maturation in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torner, H; Heleil, B; Alm, H; Ghoneim, I M; Srsen, V; Kanitz, W; Tuchscherer, A; Fattouh, E M

    2003-09-15

    The aim of the present study was to examine the cumulus morphology and the oocyte chromatin quality of camel cumulus-oocyte complexes (COCs) at the time of recovery, and to monitor changes in oocyte chromatin configuration and apoptosis in cumulus cells from camel COCs during in vitro maturation (IVM) (0, 12, 24, 32, 36, 42, and 48 p.IVM) depending on pregnancy of donors. A total of 1023 COCs were isolated from sliced ovaries after slaughtering of 47 pregnant and 43 non-pregnant camels in an abattoir. The mean number of COCs per donor was 10.3 in pregnant and 12.5 in non-pregnant donors. The cumulus morphology of COCs was independent of the type of donor and was divided in COCs with compact (26.9 and 28%), dispersed (39.3 and 46%), corona radiata cumulus investment (27.9 and 21.7%) and without cumulus (6 and 4.2%), respectively for pregnant and non-pregnant donors. The highest proportion of COCs exhibited dispersed cumulus (P50% were found only in compact (55 and 56.5%) and in dispersed COCs (58.4 and 60%), respectively for pregnant and non-pregnant donors. During IVM (0-48h) the first significant onset of specific meiotic stages were different in oocytes from pregnant donors: metaphase 1 (24-32h), metaphase 2 (36-42h), versus oocytes from non-pregnant donors: metaphase 1 (24h), metaphase 2 (32-48h) (P50% metaphase 2 stage in comparison to oocytes from non-pregnant donors where 32h are sufficient. The earlier onset of apoptosis in the COCs derived from non-pregnant donors possibly determines the faster progression of the oocytes through the final stages of meiosis. PMID:12935874

  7. Molecular detection of Rickettsia aeschlimannii in Hyalomma spp. ticks from camels (Camelus dromedarius) in Nigeria, West Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamani, J; Baneth, G; Apanaskevich, D A; Mumcuoglu, K Y; Harrus, S

    2015-06-01

    Several species of the spotted fever group rickettsiae have been identified as emerging pathogens throughout the world, including in Africa. In this study, 197 Hyalomma ticks (Ixodida: Ixodidae) collected from 51 camels (Camelus dromedarius) in Kano, northern Nigeria, were screened by amplification and sequencing of the citrate synthase (gltA), outer membrane protein A (ompA) and 17-kDa antigen gene fragments. Rickettsia sp. gltA fragments were detected in 43.3% (42/97) of the tick pools tested. Rickettsial ompA gene fragments (189 bp and 630 bp) were detected in 64.3% (n = 27) and 23.8% (n = 10) of the gltA-positive tick pools by real-time and conventional polymerase chain reaction (PCR), respectively. The amplicons were 99-100% identical to Rickettsia aeschlimannii TR/Orkun-H and R. aeschlimannii strain EgyRickHimp-El-Arish in GenBank. Furthermore, 17-kDa antigen gene fragments of 214 bp and 265 bp were detected in 59.5% (n = 25) and 38.1% (n = 16), respectively, of tick pools, and sequences were identical to one another and 99-100% identical to those of the R. aeschlimannii strain Ibadan A1 in GenBank. None of the Hyalomma impressum ticks collected were positive for Rickettsia sp. DNA. Rickettsia sp. gltA fragments (133 bp) were detected in 18.8% of camel blood samples, but all samples were negative for the other genes targeted. This is the first report to describe the molecular detection of R. aeschlimannii in Hyalomma spp. ticks from camels in Nigeria.

  8. A study on relationship between CAMELS Index's and Risk taking: A case study of Iranian banking industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Khodaei Valahzaghard

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Among the activists of the money market, banks as the most important financial institutions undertake an important role in optimal appropriation of financial short-term resources. Furthermore, they allocate the short-term surplus funds to enterprises, which have a short-term need. Holding a main part of the funds in economy circulation, banks have a critical role in adjustment of economic relations. Banks are facing different types of risks in their daily operations. In the banking system, the CAMELS indictors are used to evaluate and rate of the performance of banks. The CAMELS rating model is one of the most effective systems of financial assessment in banks. Therefore, in this research, the effects of CAMELS indicators of banks on risk taking of Iranian banks are studied. The statistical population of the national banking system includes all governmental and private banks. The whole statistical population is studied as a research sample during 2006-2011. Taking into consideration the fact that the research data or section-bounded and time-bounded, a combinational regression analysis has been used. The results of the combinational regression analysis have supported the presence of a reverse and meaningful effect of the indicators of assets quality and sensitivity of market risk on risk taking in national banks. In addition, the results have supported the direct and meaningful effects of capital sufficiency and quality of profit-making on risk taking, however, the effects of the indicators of management quality and liquidity quality on risk taking have been rejected.

  9. Survival of Bifidobacterium bifidum in cow- and camel-milk yogurts enriched with Cinnamomum verum and Allium sativum

    OpenAIRE

    Amal Bakr Shori; Ahmad Salihin Baba

    2015-01-01

    The effects of Allium sativum and Cinnamomum verum water extracts on the survival of Bifidobacterium bifidum during 21 days of refrigerated storage and after simulated gastrointestinal digestion (SGD) were investigated. Two types of yogurt (cow- and camel-milk yogurts) were prepared in the presence of A. sativum or C. verum. The viable cell counts (VCC) of B. bifidum in fresh A. sativum- or C. verum-cow milk yogurt (1 day) were higher (8.1 × 109 cfu/ml and 6.6 × 109 cfu/ml, respectively; p ...

  10. Bioactivities of some essential oils against the camel nasal botfly, Cephalopina titillator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khater, Hanem F

    2014-02-01

    Nasopharyngeal myiasis of camels is caused by the larvae of Cephalopina titillator. We determined the efficacy of essential oils (EOs) of pumpkin, Cucurbita maxima; lupinus, Lupinus luteus; garlic oil, Allium sativum; and peppermint, Mentha piperita, against the third larval stage of C. titillator using larval immersion tests. The positive control group was treated with ivermectin and the negative control one was treated with distilled water and few drops of Tween 80. Larvae were reared until adult emergence. The data indicated that complete larval mortalities were reached 24 h post treatment (PT) with 2 % pumpkin, 7.5 % garlic and peppermint, 30 % lupinus, and 0.15 % ivermectin. The lethal values, LC50s, were 0.20, 0.44, 0.42, 0.47, and 0.03 %, respectively. Pumpkin and ivermectin were 2 and 17 times, respectively, more effective than the other EOs. Ivermectin was seven times more intoxicating than pumpkin oil. Formation of pupae had been stopped after treatment of larvae with 2 % pumpkin, 7.5 % garlic and peppermint, 30 % lupines, and 0.04 % ivermectin. Adult emergence had been completely ceased following treatment of larvae with 0.5 % EOs and 0.04 % ivermectin. Morphological abnormalities were pronounced after treatments, and peppermint oil was the foremost cause of deformation in larvae (44 % PT with 7.5 %) and pupae (40 % PT with 2 %). Pumpkin oil (6 %) was selected to be the drug of choice for controlling C. titillator. Besides their insecticidal effects, EOs are much safer than ivermectin regarding health and environmental issues. Consequently, EOs described herein merit further study as potential nasal drench for C. titillator control. PMID:24276644

  11. Analisis Pengaruh Rasio Camels terhadap Pertumbuhan Laba pada Perusahaan Perbankan yang Terdaftar di Bursa Efek Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hidayatullah Hidayatullah

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to analyze the influence of CAMELS method of profit growth in banking companies listed on stock exchanges of Indonesia. The methodology this research is t use purposive sampling, namely by taking a sample of 20 from a total of 30 banking companies listed on the Indonesia Stock Exchange. The type of data used are secondary data. Secondary data were obtained in the form of documentation of routine financial statements issued annually by competent parties contained in the Indonesia Capital Market Directory (ICMD and the official site www.idx.co.id. This study tested the effect of CAR, NPLs, NIM, BO / PO, LDR, and the reserve requirement on profit growth at banks listed on the Indonesia Stock Exchange. Techniques of data analysis in this study using multiple linear regression analysis. F test results indicate that the variable CAR, NPLs, NIM, BO / PO, LDR, and the reserve requirement is jointly significant effect on the variable income changes. While partially by t-test, indicates that the variable has positive and significant CAR, NPLs and no significant negative effect, NIM has positive and insignificant, BO / PO and a significant negative effect, LDR has positive and significant, negative effect and the reserve requirement no significant effect on bank profit growth. The results also showed an adjusted R2 value of 18.3%. The limitations of this study is the sample data and the year that is used relatively little. The results of this study is expected to be taken into consideration for management to predict the growth of bank earnings and improve overall performance by improving business efficiency and credit portfolio without ignoring the precautionary principle.

  12. STAPHYLOCOCCUS AUREUS ISOLATES FROM CAMELS DIFFER IN COAGULASE PRODUCTION, GENOTYPE AND METHICILLIN RESISTANCE GENE PROFILES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ziad Jaradat

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Accurate and rapid typing of S. aureus is crucial to the control of its infections and minimizing its leakage to the food chain. The primary purpose of this research was to isolate S. aureus from camels’ meat and nasal swabs and to characterize the isolates for coagulase production and the presence of methicillin gene using PCR-RFLP of coagulase gene. A total of 264 camel’s meat and nasal swabs were collected from abattoirs or meat markets and were used in the study. Ninety two percent of samples showed typical colonies of S. aureus on Baird-Parker agar with a mean count 2.5 × 104 ± 1.8 × 104 CFU g-1. Upon confirmation of the isolates using S. aureus specific thermonuclease gene (nuc PCR primers, only 64 isolates contained the specific product and thus were confirmed as S. aureus. However, when tested for the presence of coagulase gene, only 48 of them were positive while the other 16 were coagulase negative. Coagulase gene-RFLP revealed 19 distinct patterns when the gene was digested with Alu I and Cfo I. The typing revealed that the 48 classified isolates were genetically diverse and comprised a heterogeneous population with 14 genotypes at a 44.4% similarity level. When the coagulase positive isolates were tested for the presence of methicillin resistance (mec A gene, 37 of the isolates were positive while the other 11 isolates were negative. The high heterogeneity among S. aureus isolates might be due to cross contamination between camel carcasses in slaughter houses and from handlers and their utensils.

  13. Adaptation of indigenous sheep, goats and camels in harsh grazing conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Microbial breakdown of cellulose is a rather slow process. Therefore the retention time of digesta and the volume of the fermentation chamber are factors limiting the quantity of fibrous diets that can be digested. Indigenous ruminants can generally adapt to harsh grazing conditions better than conventional breeds. Unexpectedly high rumen volumes were reported in a number of indigenous ruminants. In studies reported in this paper, Heidschnucken, an indigenous breed of sheep in the heather region of Northern Germany, were able to increase their rumen volume from 14% to 22% of body weight during adaptation to a low quality fibrous diet. Heidschnucken did not lose significant body weight, whereas Blackface sheep lost 20% and failed to adapt the rumen volume. Rumen volume of indigenous sheep and goats in Northern Kenya was 20% of body weight while grazing in the thornbush savannah during the dry season, compared with 9-12% while kept indoors on a hay-concentrate diet. Mean retention time of particles in the total gastrointestinal tract of goats and sheep in Kenya was 38 h and 46 h respectively. In the experiment with Heidschnucken, these sheep increased the retention time of particles to 71 h on a straw diet, while Blackface sheep retained particles 58 h. Dietary preference and feed intake have been studied in indigenous sheep and goats in Kenya at seasonal pasture conditions in the thornbush savannah. Goats have a higher preference to dicotyledon species (92-97%) than sheep, who are less selective grazers. The feeding behaviour of indigenous sheep and goats was complementary rather than competitive. Feeding observations indicate that this is also the case when cattle (grazers) and camels (browsers) are included in such a comparison. (author)

  14. A new anaerobic fungus (Oontomyces anksri gen. nov., sp. nov.) from the digestive tract of the Indian camel (Camelus dromedarius).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dagar, Sumit S; Kumar, Sanjay; Griffith, Gareth W; Edwards, Joan E; Callaghan, Tony M; Singh, Rameshwar; Nagpal, Ashok K; Puniya, Anil K

    2015-08-01

    Two cultures of anaerobic fungi were isolated from the forestomach of an Indian camel (Camelus dromedarius). Phylogenetic analysis using both the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) and large-subunit (LSU) regions of the rRNA locus demonstrated that these isolates were identical and formed a distinct clade within the anaerobic fungi (phylum Neocallimastigomycota). Morphological examination showed that these fungi formed monocentric thalli with filamentous rhizoids and uniflagellate zoospores, broadly similar to members of the genus Piromyces. However, distinctive morphological features were observed, notably the pinching of the cytoplasm in the sporangiophore and the formation of intercalary rhizoidal swellings. Since genetic analyses demonstrated this fungus was only distantly related to Piromyces spp. and closer to the polycentric Anaeromyces clade, we have assigned it to a new genus and species Oontomyces anksri gen. nov., sp. nov. Interrogation of the GenBank database identified several closely related ITS sequences, which were all environmental sequences obtained from camels, raising the possibility that this fungus may be specific to camelids. PMID:26228561

  15. Losses associated with mortality of cattle and camels during transportation to Oko-Oba abattoir, Lagos State, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ademola A. Ibironke

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Many food animals meant for slaughter arrive at the Agege abattoir and lairage daily to be produced into wholesome meat for human consumption. These animals generally get to the abattoir packed in Lorries and transported over long distances for many days to get to their destinations. Over a period of 36 months (three years, a total of 1179492 cattle and 11403 camels arrived for slaughter at the abattoir for human consumption. Over the same period, 1197 cattle and 27 camels died in the course of transportation due to the stress and inhumane treatment during transport. All the animals that arrived dead in transit had their carcass totally condemned and destroyed resulting in substantial losses to cattle traders, butchers and the general citizenry. Some of the reasons for these mortalities associated with transportation included overcrowding, long transportation without resting, stress, poor access road networks and traders not adhering to minimal space requirement for animal transportation in a bid to increase their profit margins. Failure to address the issue of proper transportation of food animals are likely to lead to more losses of food animals during transportation.

  16. Morphological characterization of gland cells of the glandular sac area in the complex stomach of the Bactrian camel (Camelus bactrianus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eerdunchaolu; Takehana, K; Kobayashi, A; Baiyin; Cao, G F; Andrén, A; Iwasa, K; Abe, M

    1999-07-01

    The morphology of the gland cells in the glandular sac area of the Bactrian camel and the composition of secretory substances were examined by histochemical methods. It was found that the gland cells of the glandular sac area were of the same type and size as those of the cardiac glands. The composition of secretory substances from the glandular sac area was the same as that of secretory substances from the cardiac glands. Moreover, secretory substances from the gland cells of the glandular sac area contained a great deal of acid glycoconjugates, such as sialic acid, in addition to neutral saccharides (fucose, mannose, glucose, N-acetyl-D-glucosamin, galactose and N-acetyl-galactosamin). Furthermore, immunohistochemical examination showed that progastricsin was present in the gland cells of the glandular sac area and the cardiac gland. In this study, histological analysis suggested that the stomach of the Bactrian camel is a single cavity stomach, formed as a result of multiple differentiation and growth of cardiac glands through the process of evolution.

  17. The socio-economic impact of important camel diseases as perceived by a pastoralist community in Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mochabo, M O K; Kitala, P M; Gathura, P B; Ogara, W O; Eregae, E M; Kaitho, T D; Catley, A

    2006-12-01

    This paper presents the results of a study conducted in a pastoral community in Kenya using participatory appraisal approaches. The objective of the study was to assess the socio-economic impact of camel trypanosomosis (surra) according to the perceptions of the pastoralists. Four livestock grazing units were conveniently selected and in each of them, three groups of key informants comprising five to eight persons were selected for the participatory exercises. Five camel diseases were listed in order of importance according to their severity and frequency of occurrence including trypanosomosis, mange, non-specific diarrhoea, tick infestations and haemorrhagic septicaemia. The losses listed as incurred due to the five diseases were: losses in milk, meat, blood, fats and hides, dowry payments, and depreciation in sale of animals, losses due to infertility and abortions, and losses due to the cost of treatment. There was good agreement (P impact. There is a need for veterinary and policy decision-makers to focus more attention on the control of surra in this arid and semi-arid area of Kenya.

  18. Efficacy of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus Bm86 against Hyalomma dromedarii and Amblyomma cajennense tick infestations in camels and cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Valle, Manuel; Taoufik, Amar; Valdés, Mario; Montero, Carlos; Ibrahin, Hassan; Hassan, Shawgi Mohammed; Jongejan, Frans; de la Fuente, Jose

    2012-05-14

    The recombinant Bm86-based tick vaccines have shown their efficacy for the control of cattle ticks, Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus and R. annulatus infestations. However, cattle ticks often co-exist with multi-host ticks such as Hyalomma and Amblyomma species, thus requiring the control of multiple tick infestations for cattle and other hosts. Vaccination trials using a R. microplus recombinant Bm86-based vaccine were conducted in cattle and camels against Hyalomma dromedarii and in cattle against Amblyomma cajennense immature and adult ticks. The results showed an 89% reduction in the number of H. dromedarii nymphs engorging on vaccinated cattle, and a further 32% reduction in the weight of the surviving adult ticks. In vaccinated camels, a reduction of 27% and 31% of tick engorgement and egg mass weight, respectively was shown, while egg hatching was reduced by 39%. However, cattle vaccination with Bm86 did not have an effect on A. cajennense tick infestations. These results showed that Bm86 vaccines are effective against R. microplus and other tick species but improved vaccines containing new antigens are required to control multiple tick infestations. PMID:22446633

  19. Phimosis in male dromedary camels: Clinical findings and changes in the hemogram, nitric oxide metabolites, and testosterone concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Ahmed; Derar, Derar; Al-Sobyil, Fahd A; Zeitoun, Moustafa M; Hassanein, Khaled M A; Al-Howas, Abdella

    2016-06-01

    The objectives of this study were to elucidate the clinical findings in male dromedary camels with phimosis (PHI, n = 43) and to investigate the association of this syndrome with the hemogram, nitric oxide metabolites (NOMs), and testosterone concentrations. History and signalment were obtained, and a breeding soundness examination was performed. The penis was exteriorized after administration of a pudendal nerve block. Abnormal masses obtained from the prepuce and penis were prepared for histopathology. Blood samples for hemogram assessment were taken from the diseased animals and from 10 healthy control males. Total nitrates/nitrites were determined in sera using the Griess assay. Testosterone was estimated in sera using ELISA. Phimosis associated with detectable pathologic lesions, mainly including ulcerative posthitis and lacerated glans penis, was present in 34 (79.1%) of the 43 cases (PHI-P), whereas the remaining nine (20.9%) of the 43 cases had no noticeable lesions (PHI-N). The PHI-P group showed higher leukocyte counts (P = 0.001), especially neutrophils (P = 0.0001), and greater NOM concentrations (P = 0.002) than the PHI-N and control groups. However, testosterone concentrations did not differ among groups. In conclusion, PHI in the male dromedary camels was mainly associated with ulcerative posthitis and laceration of the glans penis. The presence of pathologic lesions in cases with PHI was associated with leukocytosis, neutrophilia, and high NOM concentrations. PMID:26879996

  20. Mycobacterium pinnipedii: Transmission from South American sea lion (Otaria byronia) to Bactrian camel (Camelus bactrianus bactrianus) and Malayan tapirs (Tapirus indicus)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moser, I.; Prodinger, W.M.; Hotzel, H.; Greenwald, R.; Lyashchenko, K.P.; Bakker, D.; Gomis, D.; Seidler, T.; Ellenberger, C.; Hetzel, U.; Wuennemann, K.; Moisson, P.

    2008-01-01

    Tuberculosis infections caused by Mycobacterium (M.) pinnipedii in a South American sea lion, Bactrian camel, and Malayan tapirs kept in two zoological gardens spanning a time period of 5 years are reported. The zoos were linked by the transfer of one tapir. Conventional bacteriological and molecula

  1. Mixed infection of peste des petits ruminants virus (PPRV) and other respiratory viruses in dromedary camels in Sudan, an abattoir study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saeed, Intisar Kamil; Ali, Yahia Hassan; AbdulRahman, Magdi Badawi; Mohammed, Zakia Abas; Osman, Halima Mohammed; Taha, Khalid Mohammed; Musa, Mohammed Zain; Khalafalla, AbdelMelik Ibrahim

    2015-06-01

    This study was intended to determine the role played by peste des petits ruminants (PPR) in causing respiratory infections in camels and its association with other respiratory viruses. A total of 474 lung specimens showing pneumonia were collected from clinically healthy camels in slaughterhouses at five different areas in Sudan. Using immunocapture ELISA (IcELISA), 214 specimens (45.1 %) were found to be positive for PPR antigen. The highest prevalence was found in central Sudan (59.9 %) then northern Sudan (56.6 %) and eastern Sudan (26.6 %). Parainfluenza virus 3 (PIV 3), respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), bovine herpes virus-1 (BHV-1), bovine viral diarrhea (BVD), and adenovirus were detected in 4.4, 2.9, 2.0, 9.0, and 1.3 % of the specimens, respectively. PPR antigen was found in about 50 % of specimens that showed positive result for other viral antigens. Twenty-five of 28 BVD, 15 of 16 PIV3, 8 of 12 RSV, 4 of 4 adenovirus, and 4 of 5 BHV-1 were found in association with other respiratory antigens. Results revealed the existence of PPRV infection in dromedary camels in Sudan and present evidence for mixed virus infection, suggesting that respiratory infections in camels might be exacerbated by PPRV. PMID:25904508

  2. Extensor and flexor digit synovial sheath, sac and synovial capsule in the distal part of the limbs in buffalos and camels and its relation of surgical interference

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. AL-sadi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Sixty one samples of the distal parts of limbs were obtained from different ages of buffalo and camels of both sex to study the synovial structures to determine the suitable sites for injection of surgical interference. The result showed that extensor digit synovial sheath was extend between middle or distal part of metacarpal (metatarsal to the extensor processes and this formed with synovial capsule dorsal pouches which serve in surgical interference. The flexor digit synovial sheath extended to palmar (planter between distal extremity of metacarpal (metatarsal to the middle of second phalanx in buffalo while in camel it extended to the proximal extremity of second phalanx, that sheath was formed with suspensory ligament and sessamoid bone palmar or planter pouches which were serve the surgical interference. Fourth synovial bursa observed situated dorsally between the extensor digit laterals tendon and capsule of fetlock joint, forms site of injection during surgical interference, while the other two synovial bursa were located to palmer (planter between deep flexor tendon and distal sessamoid bone in buffalo while in camel these bursa were located between deep flexor tendon and cartilage of the second phalanx, these bursa were served for surgical interference. The synovial capsule which serve the surgical interference through digit cushion these were shown extended from the claw capsule. The result show that surgical interference was form six pouches in buffalo and eight pouches in camel, which formed by synovial structures and the tissue associated with them.

  3. Use of ELISA in the diagnosis of infection and evaluation of treatment with Cymelarsan in camels infected with Trypanosoma evansi in Kenya

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A polyclonal based antigen detection enzyme immunoassay (Ag-ELISA) was validated and used for the diagnosis of camel trypanosomiasis in five localities in Kenya. The Ag-ELISA results were correlated with those of parasitological tests, namely, Buffy Coat Technique (BCT) and rodent subinoculation (RI). More animals showed evidence of infection using Ag-ELISA than when using BCT and RI, and showed infection rates ranging from 45.3% to 86.2% in sampled herds, compared with 0.8% to 18% using parasitologial tests. An overall apparent sensitivity of 74% by Ag-ELISA was obtained after screening sera from three camel herds. Higher ELISA values were observed in those herds with the highest rate of patent infection or where drug intervention was not being practised. However, the study revealed that trypanosomiasis was endemic in all the sampled herds and although treatment with quinapyramine sulphate suppressed parasitaemia, the presence of circulating trypanosomal antigens indicated the probable persistence of infection due to resistance to this drug. In experimental camels, the use of Ag-ELISA in evaluating the efficacy of Cymelarsan revealed that in more than 80% of the treated camels there appeared to be cure, characterized by the absence of both parasitaemia and circulating trypanosomal antigens. However, in a few animals relapse in parasitaemia occurred, and in a number of camels, antigenaemia persisted throughout the study period. Treatment on the basis of a positive Ag-ELISA reduced the proportion of Ag-positive animals from 75% to 26% and parasite positive animals were no longer present at the end of the experiment. (author). 13 refs, 4 figs, 3 tabs

  4. Feasibility of utilising an infrared-thermographic technique for early detection of subclinical mastitis in dairy camels (Camelus dromedarius).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samara, Emad M; Ayadi, Moez; Aljumaah, Riyadh S

    2014-02-01

    Despite the proven ability of infrared thermography (IRT) technology for early detection of subclinical mastitis in dairy cows/sheep/goats, studies on its diagnostic feasibility in dairy camels are lacking. Sixty-five lactating camels in mid lactation, machine milked twice-daily and managed under intensive conditions were screened to evaluate the feasibility of utilising IRT compared with other routine indicators in detecting subclinical mastitis. Immediately before the morning milking, a portable infrared camera was used to obtain thermograms in duplicate for the front and rear left quarters to determine the udder surface temperature (UST). Thereafter, milk samples from quarters were collected, and processed for California mastitis test (CMT) score and somatic cell count (SCC). In the present study, CMT score was used to define subclinical mastitis and the feasibility of IRT to detect subclinical mastitis was compared with CMT and SCC. According to CMT score, subclinical mastitic udders had an average UST of 1·42 °C greater (P<0·0001) than healthy udders. The relationship between UST and CMT was found to be highly correlated (r=0·77; P<0·001), and UST was linearly increased as the CMT increased [UST (°C)=34·86+0·66×CMT score; R 2=0·65; P<0·001]. Additionally, high correlations were obtained between UST and SCC score (r=0·75; P<0·001) and the relationship between UST and SCC was fitted best to a logarithmic equation [UST, °C=33·39+0·88×Log (SCC, ×103 cells/ml), R 2=0·61, P<0·001]. The cut-off value, sensitivity, specificity and area under the receiver operating characteristics (ROC) curve for UST were 35·15 °C, 0·90, 0·98, and 0·95, respectively, when subclinical mastitis was defined according to CMT score, and were 35·70 °C, 0·89, 0·96 and 0·94, respectively, when categorised according to the obtained SCC threshold (SCC=432 000 cells/ml). In conclusion, IRT, as an indirect non-invasive screening method, was highly feasible for

  5. A complete mitochondrial genome sequence of the wild two-humped camel (Camelus bactrianus ferus: an evolutionary history of camelidae

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    Meng He

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The family Camelidae that evolved in North America during the Eocene survived with two distinct tribes, Camelini and Lamini. To investigate the evolutionary relationship between them and to further understand the evolutionary history of this family, we determined the complete mitochondrial genome sequence of the wild two-humped camel (Camelus bactrianus ferus, the only wild survivor of the Old World camel. Results The mitochondrial genome sequence (16,680 bp from C. bactrianus ferus contains 13 protein-coding, two rRNA, and 22 tRNA genes as well as a typical control region; this basic structure is shared by all metazoan mitochondrial genomes. Its protein-coding region exhibits codon usage common to all mammals and possesses the three cryptic stop codons shared by all vertebrates. C. bactrianus ferus together with the rest of mammalian species do not share a triplet nucleotide insertion (GCC that encodes a proline residue found only in the nd1 gene of the New World camelid Lama pacos. This lineage-specific insertion in the L. pacos mtDNA occurred after the split between the Old and New World camelids suggests that it may have functional implication since a proline insertion in a protein backbone usually alters protein conformation significantly, and nd1 gene has not been seen as polymorphic as the rest of ND family genes among camelids. Our phylogenetic study based on complete mitochondrial genomes excluding the control region suggested that the divergence of the two tribes may occur in the early Miocene; it is much earlier than what was deduced from the fossil record (11 million years. An evolutionary history reconstructed for the family Camelidae based on cytb sequences suggested that the split of bactrian camel and dromedary may have occurred in North America before the tribe Camelini migrated from North America to Asia. Conclusion Molecular clock analysis of complete mitochondrial genomes from C. bactrianus ferus and L

  6. Camel Milk Modulates the Expression of Aryl Hydrocarbon Receptor-Regulated Genes, Cyp1a1, Nqo1, and Gsta1, in Murine hepatoma Hepa 1c1c7 Cells

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    Hesham M. Korashy

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available There is a traditional belief in the Middle East that camel milk may aid in prevention and treatment of numerous cases of cancer yet, the exact mechanism was not investigated. Therefore, we examined the ability of camel milk to modulate the expression of a well-known cancer-activating gene, Cytochrome P450 1a1 (Cyp1a1, and cancer-protective genes, NAD(PH:quinone oxidoreductase 1 (Nqo1 and glutathione S-transferase a1 (Gsta1, in murine hepatoma Hepa 1c1c7 cell line. Our results showed that camel milk significantly inhibited the induction of Cyp1a1 gene expression by 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD, the most potent Cyp1a1 inducer and known carcinogenic chemical, at mRNA, protein, and activity levels in a concentration-dependent manner. In addition, camel milk significantly decreased the xenobiotic responsive element (XRE-dependent luciferase activity, suggesting a transcriptional mechanism is involved. Furthermore, this inhibitory effect of camel milk was associated with a proportional increase in heme oxygenase 1. On the other hand, camel milk significantly induced Nqo1 and Gsta1 mRNA expression level in a concentration-dependent fashion. The RNA synthesis inhibitor, actinomycin D, completely blocked the induction of Nqo1 mRNA by camel milk suggesting the requirement of de novo RNA synthesis through a transcriptional mechanism. In conclusion, camel milk modulates the expression of Cyp1a1, Nqo1, and Gsta1 at the transcriptional and posttranscriptional levels.

  7. A atividade de camelô como prática urbana no contexto das cidades The activity of street vendors as a practice in the urban context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neusa Rolita Cavedon

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo neste ensaio foi analisar a atividade de camelô a partir das discussões e dos conceitos de cidade e território. Essa análise leva em consideração estudos etnográficos desenvolvidos no mercado camelô e,também, os dois deslocamentos propostos, sendo: primeiro o deslocamento da ideia de cidade-conceito para o de práticas urbanas; e, segundo, a desmistificação da lógica estabelecida na reestruturação produtiva,que verifica o funcionamento da atividade de camelô como uma prática marginalizada. Por isso, é necessária uma análise sobre os conceitos de cidade, e o funcionamento e as possibilidades da atividade de camelô no entremeio a esses conceitos, para, no fim deste ensaio, subsidiar algumas implicações sobre a lógica até então estabelecida e que cria pressupostos e preconceitos sobre o funcionamento de tal atividade de comércio. Assim, um primeiro passo será a discussão dos conceitos de cidade e as implicações da atividade de camelô neste entremeio; o segundo passo será um aprofundamento das discussões sobre a cidade na lógica das práticas urbanas, procurando salientar a importância de se observar os microterritórios; o terceiro será a apresentação de estudos etnográficos desenvolvidos no mercado camelô; e, por fim, o quarto passo é uma análise sobre os dados discutidos nesses trabalhos etnográficos, levando em consideração as discussões sobre cidade e território, e permitindo o deslocamento para a ideia de práticas urbanas, bem como a desmistificação da lógica na reestruturação produtiva.

  8. THE ANALYSIS OF ISLAMIC BANK FINANCIAL PERFORMANCE BY USING CAMEL, SHARIAH CONFORMITY AND PROFITABILITY (SCnP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Widiya Ratnaputri

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to examine how the model variables cover innovation entrepreneur orientation, learning orientation, initiative, commitment, adaptability and organizational performance based on the research gap and SMEs phenomena that exists in Semarang. The method used in this research is quantitative method. The data were collected through interviews by conducting the focus group disscusion (FGD, study documentation, and participant observation. The respondents of this research is 135 managers of SMEs in Semarang. The analysis techniques for this study  is Structural Equation Model (SEM with AMOS software. The study result shows that the increase of SMEs performance in Semarang is influenced by the ability of adaptability which is built by the commitment on consensus. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengukur kinerja bank syariah dengan menggunakan CAMEL dan SCnP Model. Populasi penelitian ini adalah semua bank umum syariah yang terdaftar di BI dari tahun 2009-2012. Teknik pengambilan sampel menggunakan purposive sampling, sementara teknik analisis data berupa deskriptif yang bersifat explanatory. Model CAMEL memiliki lima variabel, yaitu capital menggunakan proksi CAR, asset quality menggunakan proksi RORA, management menggunakan proksi NPM, earning menggunakan proksi ROA dan liquidity menggunakan proksi FDR. Model SCnP memiliki dua variabel, yaitu Shariah Conformity dan Profitability. Hasil penelitian ini menunjukkan, bahwa rasio CAR, RORA dan FDR telah memenuhi standar yang ditentukan BI, sedangkan rasio NPM dan ROA belum memenuhi standar. Analisis pada hasil SCnP yaitu, bank syariah tersebar dalam empat kuadran (ULQ, LLQ, URQ dan LRQ dan merekomendasikan Bank Syariah Mandiri sebagai sasaran investasi karena mampu bertahan pada kuadran kanan atas (URQ selama periode 2009-2012.

  9. Determination of Micro minerals in Milk from Farm and Pasture-reared Cow, Goat and Camel; using Inductively Coupled Plasma-Optical Emission Spectrometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SirelkhatimBalla Elhardallou

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This study covers raw fresh milk of cow, goat and camel (farm and pasture-reared,in addition to two brands of commercial milk samples, liquid milk of powder origin and drinking yoghurt samples. Camel milk showed a relatively lower pH range (6.15 - 6.46 compared cow, goat and commercial milk. The pH of drinking yoghurt was found (4.35 - 4.47.Microwave digestion, was selected followed by mineral analysis using Inductively Coupled Plasma-Optical Emission Spectrometry. Micro minerals; Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn and Pb, ranged from not detected to 23.4+0.52mg/L for Fe while Sr (0.32+0.005 – 2.51+0.043 mg/L and Zn (1.58+0.01 – 8.91+0.14 mg/L in all milk samples.

  10. Investigation of InGaP/GaAs/InGaAs camel-like gate delta-doped p-channel field-effect transistor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Jung-Hui; Lour, Wen-Shiung; Huang, Chia-Hong; Dale, Ning-Feng; Lee, Yuan-Hong; Sheng, Jhih-Syuan; Liu, Wen-Chau

    2010-03-01

    In this paper, high device linearity and characteristics of an InGaP/GaAs/InGaAs camel-like gate delta-doped p-channel field-effect transistor is demonstrated. The energy band and hole distribution are depicted with respect to the device performance. Due to the npn depletion of the camel-like gate structure, the considerable conduction band discontinuities at n +-InGaP/p-GaAs and p-GaAs/i-In 0.15Ga 0.85As heterojunctions, and the good confinement effect for holes in InGaAs quantum well, a large gate turn-on voltage is achieved. The drain saturation current linearly increases with the gate voltage and the high device linearity is illustrated by fitting the drain current versus the gate voltage. The excellent performance of the studied device is promise for linear amplifiers and high-frequency circuit applications.

  11. SIMMER II analysis of the CAMEL II C6 and C7 experiments (simulated fuel penetration into a primary control assembly)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The CAMEL C6 and C7 tests, performed at Argonne National Laboratory, simulated asymmetric midplane fuel injection into a nonvoided fully withdrawn primary control assembly during the meltdown phase of a hypothetical core-disruptive accident in a liquid-metal-cooled fast breeder reactor. These tests were modeled with no a priori knowledge of the experimental results using the SIMMER-II code. Subsequent comparison of calculations with experimental results showed good agreement. 21 figures, 3 tables

  12. The prevalence of Linguatula serrata nymphs in mesenteric and mediastinal lymph nodes in one-humped camels (Camelus dromedarius) slaughtered in Rafsanjan slaughterhouse, Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Bamorovat, Mehdi; Zarandi, Mehdi Borhani; Mostafavi, Mahshid; Kheirandish, Reza; Sharifi, Iraj; Radfar, Mohammad Hossein

    2013-01-01

    Linguatula serrata is a well-known zoonotic parasite belonging to the order of Pentastomida which infects both human and animals. Human can be infected by both the nymph stage, causing a disease condition called nasopharyngeal linguatulosis or halzoun syndrome and the egg, a condition called visceral linguatulosis. The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of nymphal stages of L. serrata in mesenteric and mediastinal lymph nodes of one-humped camels slaughtered in Rafsanjan slaught...

  13. Prevalence of Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Salmonella in camels, cattle, goats, and sheep harvested for meat in Riyadh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosilevac, Joseph M; Gassem, Mustafa A; Al Sheddy, Ibraheem A; Almaiman, Salah A; Al-Mohizea, Ibrahim S; Alowaimer, Abdullah; Koohmaraie, Mohammad

    2015-01-01

    Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Salmonella are significant foodborne pathogens that can be found in the feces and on the hides of meat animals. When hides are removed during the harvest process, the carcass and subsequent meat products can become contaminated. Camels, cattle, sheep, and goats are harvested for meat in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. The prevalence of E. coli O157:H7 and Salmonella are unknown in these animals, and it is assumed that if the animals carry the pathogens in their feces or on their hides, meat products are likely to become contaminated. To this end, a minimum of 206 samples each from hides and feces of camels, cattle, goats, and sheep were collected over the course of 8 months and tested for E. coli O157:H7 and Salmonella. It was found that E. coli O157:H7 was present in feces (10.7, 1.4, 2.4, and 2.4%) and on hides (17.9, 8.2, 2.9, and 9.2%) of cattle, goats, camels, and sheep, respectively. The prevalence of Salmonella was 11.2, 13.5, 23.2, and 18.8% in feces and 80.2, 51.2 67.6, and 60.2% on hides of cattle, goats, camels, and sheep, respectively. The prevalence of E coli O157:H7 was nearly zero in all samples collected in June and July, while Salmonella did not exhibit any seasonal variation. These results constitute the first comprehensive study of E. coli O157:H7 and Salmonella prevalence in Saudi Arabian meat animals at harvest. PMID:25581182

  14. Analisis Perbandingan Kinerja Keuangan antara Bank Konvensional dan Bank Syariah dengan menggunakan rasio CAMEL (Studi Kasus Pada Bank Mandiri dan Bank Syariah Mandiri)

    OpenAIRE

    Indasari, Nurlita

    2015-01-01

    This research aims to analyse the comparison of conventional banking finance performance and moslem banking by using ratio CAMEL which is Capital Adequacy Ratio (CAR), Non Performing Loan (NPL), Return on Asset (ROA), Beban Operasional / Pendapatan Operasional (BO/PO) dan to Deposit Ratio (LDR). The example of the company that used is PT Bank Mandiri and PT Bank Syariah Mandiri during 2007 until 2010 for knowing the significant difference between Capital Adequacy Ratio (CAR), Non Performing L...

  15. Genomic and Proteomic Characterization of Bacteriocin-Producing Leuconostoc mesenteroides Strains Isolated from Raw Camel Milk in Two Southwest Algerian Arid Zones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zineb Benmechernene

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Information on the microbiology of camel milk is very limited. In this work, the genetic characterization and proteomic identification of 13 putative producing bacteriocin Leuconostoc strains exhibiting antilisterial activity and isolated from camel milk were performed. DNA sequencing of the 13 selected strains revealed high homology among the 16S rRNA genes for all strains. In addition, 99% homology with Leuconostoc mesenteroides was observed when these sequences were analysed by the BLAST tool against other sequences from reference strains deposited in the Genbank. Furthermore, the isolates were characterized by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDITOF MS which allowed for the identification of 2 mass peaks 6242 m/z and 5118 m/z that resulted to be specific to the species L. mesenteroides. Remarkably, the phyloproteomic tree provided more intraspecific information of L. mesenteroides than phylogenetic analysis. Accordingly, phyloproteomic analysis grouped L. mesenteroides strains into different subbranches, while all L. mesenteroides isolates were grouped in the same branch according to phylogenetic analysis. This study represents, to our knowledge, the first report on the use of MALDI-TOF MS on the identification of LAB isolated from camel milk.

  16. Genomic and Proteomic Characterization of Bacteriocin-Producing Leuconostoc mesenteroides Strains Isolated from Raw Camel Milk in Two Southwest Algerian Arid Zones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benmechernene, Zineb; Fernández-No, Inmaculada; Quintela-Baluja, Marcos; Kihal, Mebrouk; Calo-Mata, Pilar; Barros-Velázquez, Jorge

    2014-01-01

    Information on the microbiology of camel milk is very limited. In this work, the genetic characterization and proteomic identification of 13 putative producing bacteriocin Leuconostoc strains exhibiting antilisterial activity and isolated from camel milk were performed. DNA sequencing of the 13 selected strains revealed high homology among the 16S rRNA genes for all strains. In addition, 99% homology with Leuconostoc mesenteroides was observed when these sequences were analysed by the BLAST tool against other sequences from reference strains deposited in the Genbank. Furthermore, the isolates were characterized by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDITOF MS) which allowed for the identification of 2 mass peaks 6242 m/z and 5118 m/z that resulted to be specific to the species L. mesenteroides. Remarkably, the phyloproteomic tree provided more intraspecific information of L. mesenteroides than phylogenetic analysis. Accordingly, phyloproteomic analysis grouped L. mesenteroides strains into different subbranches, while all L. mesenteroides isolates were grouped in the same branch according to phylogenetic analysis. This study represents, to our knowledge, the first report on the use of MALDI-TOF MS on the identification of LAB isolated from camel milk. PMID:24809059

  17. Genomic and proteomic characterization of bacteriocin-producing Leuconostoc mesenteroides strains isolated from raw camel milk in two southwest Algerian arid zones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benmechernene, Zineb; Fernández-No, Inmaculada; Quintela-Baluja, Marcos; Böhme, Karola; Kihal, Mebrouk; Calo-Mata, Pilar; Barros-Velázquez, Jorge

    2014-01-01

    Information on the microbiology of camel milk is very limited. In this work, the genetic characterization and proteomic identification of 13 putative producing bacteriocin Leuconostoc strains exhibiting antilisterial activity and isolated from camel milk were performed. DNA sequencing of the 13 selected strains revealed high homology among the 16S rRNA genes for all strains. In addition, 99% homology with Leuconostoc mesenteroides was observed when these sequences were analysed by the BLAST tool against other sequences from reference strains deposited in the Genbank. Furthermore, the isolates were characterized by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDITOF MS) which allowed for the identification of 2 mass peaks 6242 m/z and 5118 m/z that resulted to be specific to the species L. mesenteroides. Remarkably, the phyloproteomic tree provided more intraspecific information of L. mesenteroides than phylogenetic analysis. Accordingly, phyloproteomic analysis grouped L. mesenteroides strains into different subbranches, while all L. mesenteroides isolates were grouped in the same branch according to phylogenetic analysis. This study represents, to our knowledge, the first report on the use of MALDI-TOF MS on the identification of LAB isolated from camel milk. PMID:24809059

  18. Cultural Implication and Value of the Mongolian Camel Ball Movement%蒙古族驼球运动的文化意蕴及其价值

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨强

    2015-01-01

    By using the method of literature, investigation, interview and so on .in order to depth research the development history of the Mongolian camel ball movement and the cultural value. Main conclusion: camel ball culture is developing prosperity for protecting the ecological environment and developing Mongolian social economic. At the same time camel ball culture including the cultural implication and value is playing an important role to our development of traditional minority national sports culture and certain practical significance.%通过运用文献资料、实地考察、访谈等方法,对蒙古族驼球运动的发展历史及蕴含的文化价值进行深入的调查研究.主要结论:驼球文化的兴盛与内蒙古生态环境的保护和蒙古族社会经济的发展有很大关系.同时驼球文化所蕴含的文化意蕴与价值对我国少数民族传统体育文化发展具有一定的现实意义.

  19. Effect of weaning stress, housing system and probiotics supplementation on cortisol, thyroid activity and productive performance of sucker camel calves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The weaning process has been identified as associated with potential psychological, nutritional and physiological stressors on both dam and her young. These stressors are often stressful for the young. Ten sucker camel calves were weaned using calf-dam on and suckling off weaning system (calves were kept with their dams at all times during weaning process and prevented from suckling) under two housing systems, 6 calves in group housing system (G) and 4 calves in individually housing system (I). Half of calves in each housing system were supplemented with probiotics (treated, P), while the other was not-supplemented with probiotics (control, C). This study was carried out at Maryout Research Station of the Desert Research Center, 35 km to southwest of Alexandria, Egypt. Calves were weaned at 280 days of age with initial live body weight (LBW) of 236.76±0.224 kg. The duration of the study was 35 days and divided into five weeks; one week served as pre-weaning followed by four weeks served as post-weaning period (calves were in treatments). Calves and their dams were used to estimate the effects of weaning stress, housing systems (group, G vs. individually, I) and probiotics supplementation on the productive performance, cortisol (COR) and thyroid hormones (T3 and T4) concentrations of camel calves (Camelus dromedaries). No measurements were done on the dams. The results indicated that, regardless the effect of housing system and Abdel-Fattah et al., J. Rad. Res. Appl. Sci., Vol. 4, No. 4(B) (2011) 1292 probiotics supplementation, weaning stress declined LBW -0.89% at d7 post weaning. Concerned housing system effect, group-housed calves and individually-housed calves lost -0.36 and -1.43% of their body weights, respectively on d7 post-weaning and they recovered their weaning weight (d0) on d14 post-weaning period (2.45 and 0.57%). Neither group housing system nor probiotics supplementation prevented the weight lost resulted by weaning stress during the first week

  20. Physiological responses of camel calves to weaning stress with absence of dams under group or individual rearing system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present study was performed to investigate the effects of weaning stress, rearing system and probiotics supplementation on live body weight, LBW; total feed intake, TFI, water consumption, WC, average daily gain, ADG and growth rate, GR, plasma cortisol and thyroid hormones concentrations during weaning period. This study was carried out at Maryout Research Station of the Desert Research Center, 35 km southwest of Alexandria, Egypt. Ten Maghraby breed camel calves were separated from their dams at 280 days of age with initial LBW of 236.76±0.22 kg. The duration of the study was 35 days and divided into five weeks; first week served as pre-weaning period followed by four weeks served as post-weaning period. Camel calves were weaned using calf-dam contact off system (calves were completely separated from their dams at all times during weaning process) under two rearing systems (6 calves penned in two groups and 4 calves penned in complete isolation, each alone in 4 replicates). Half of calves in each type of rearing system were supplemented with probiotics while the others were not-supplemented with probiotics. The results showed that maternal and milk deprivation affect significantly LBW, TWG, ADG and GR during post-weaning period (28 days), where grouped and isolated calves were different significantly in LBW, TWG and ADG, during the first two weeks post-weaning, but not different significantly in GR (1.66%) at the end of weaning period (28 days). However, grouped calves were more endurance (less responsive) to weaning stress along weaning period. The beneficial effect of probiotics supplementation on TFI was more pronounced from d14 till d28 post-weaning for both grouped and isolated-housed calves. The results showed also that completely social isolation was more pronounced as a stressful condition, this was indicated by the physiological changes which were considered indicative for a higher state of stress, such as an acute release of cortisol hormone and

  1. Identification, antimicrobial susceptibility, and virulence factors of Enterococcus spp. strains isolated from Camels in Canary Islands, Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tejedor Junco, María Teresa; Gonzalez-Martin, Margarita; Rodriguez Gonzalez, Noe Francisco; Gutierrez, Carlos

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the presence of Enterococcus spp. strains in camel faeces, their virulence factors, and resistance to the antibiotics commonly used as therapy of enterococcal infections. One hundred and seventy three Enterococcus strains were isolated and identified to species level using polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Susceptibility to 11 antimicrobials was determined by disk diffusion method. Minimal Inhibitory Concentrations (MIC) of penicillin, ampicillin, vancomycin, teicoplanin, gentamicin, and streptomycin were all determined. Genes encoding resistance to vancomycin, tetracycline, and erythromycin as well as genes encoding some virulence factors were identified by PCR. Enterococcus hirae (54.3%) and Enterococcus faecium (25.4%) were the species most frequently isolated. None of the strains were resistant to vancomycin, teicoplanin, ampicillin or showed high level aminoglycoside resistance (HLAR). Strains resistant to rifampicin (42.42%) were those most commonly found followed those resistant to trimethoprim - sulfamethoxazole (33.33%). The genes tetM, tetL, vanC1, and vanC2-C3 were detected in some strains. Virulence genes were not detected. Monitoring the presence of resistant strains of faecal enterococci in animal used with recreational purposes is important to prevent transmission of those strains to humans and to detect resistance or virulence genes that could be transferred to other clinically important bacteria.

  2. Safety profile of antimicrobial peptides: camel, citropin, protegrin, temporin a and lipopeptide on HaCaT keratinocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barańska-Rybak, Wioletta; Pikula, Michał; Dawgul, Małgorzata; Kamysz, Wojciech; Trzonkowski, Piotr; Roszkiewicz, Jadwiga

    2013-01-01

    Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are an essential part of the innate immunity of the skin and mucosal surfaces. They have a broad spectrum of antimicrobial activity: antibacterial, antifungal, antiviral as well as antiprotozoal. Numerous studies using AMPs as potential agents against different microbes has been performed during the last two decades. Here we investigated antistaphylococcal activity and safety of following AMPs: camel, citropin, protegrin, temporin A and lipopeptide Palm-KK-NH2. The susceptibility of the strains of Staphylococcus aureus isolated from the patients with erythrodermia to conventional antibiotics and AMPs was determined by the broth dilution method. The cytotoxicity assay was performed on HaCaT keratinocytes. Tested peptides turned out to be very effective against all clinical isolates, including strains resistant to conventional antibiotics. The majority of the examined peptides as well as conventional antimicrobials do not exert any toxic effect on HaCaT cells in minimal inhibitory concentration. Peptides are very promising agents for the topical treatment of staphylococcal skin infections. The most promising seem to be citropin 1.1 and temporin A, as they were toxic only in two highest concentration (50 and 100 microg/mL), with relatively low MIC values.

  3. Isolation and Characterization of Dromedary Camel Coronavirus UAE-HKU23 from Dromedaries of the Middle East: Minimal Serological Cross-Reactivity between MERS Coronavirus and Dromedary Camel Coronavirus UAE-HKU23

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick C. Y. Woo

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Recently, we reported the discovery of a dromedary camel coronavirus UAE-HKU23 (DcCoV UAE-HKU23 from dromedaries in the Middle East. In this study, DcCoV UAE-HKU23 was successfully isolated in two of the 14 dromedary fecal samples using HRT-18G cells, with cytopathic effects observed five days after inoculation. Northern blot analysis revealed at least seven distinct RNA species, corresponding to predicted subgenomic mRNAs and confirming the core sequence of transcription regulatory sequence motifs as 5′-UCUAAAC-3′ as we predicted previously. Antibodies against DcCoV UAE-HKU23 were detected in 58 (98.3% and 59 (100% of the 59 dromedary sera by immunofluorescence and neutralization antibody tests, respectively. There was significant correlation between the antibody titers determined by immunofluorescence and neutralization assays (Pearson coefficient = 0.525, p < 0.0001. Immunization of mice using recombinant N proteins of DcCoV UAE-HKU23 and Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV, respectively, and heat-inactivated DcCoV UAE-HKU23 showed minimal cross-antigenicity between DcCoV UAE-HKU23 and MERS-CoV by Western blot and neutralization antibody assays. Codon usage and genetic distance analysis of RdRp, S and N genes showed that the 14 strains of DcCoV UAE-HKU23 formed a distinct cluster, separated from those of other closely related members of Betacoronavirus 1, including alpaca CoV, confirming that DcCoV UAE-HKU23 is a novel member of Betacoronavirus 1.

  4. Isolation and Characterization of Dromedary Camel Coronavirus UAE-HKU23 from Dromedaries of the Middle East: Minimal Serological Cross-Reactivity between MERS Coronavirus and Dromedary Camel Coronavirus UAE-HKU23

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woo, Patrick C. Y.; Lau, Susanna K. P.; Fan, Rachel Y. Y.; Lau, Candy C. Y.; Wong, Emily Y. M.; Joseph, Sunitha; Tsang, Alan K. L.; Wernery, Renate; Yip, Cyril C. Y.; Tsang, Chi-Ching; Wernery, Ulrich; Yuen, Kwok-Yung

    2016-01-01

    Recently, we reported the discovery of a dromedary camel coronavirus UAE-HKU23 (DcCoV UAE-HKU23) from dromedaries in the Middle East. In this study, DcCoV UAE-HKU23 was successfully isolated in two of the 14 dromedary fecal samples using HRT-18G cells, with cytopathic effects observed five days after inoculation. Northern blot analysis revealed at least seven distinct RNA species, corresponding to predicted subgenomic mRNAs and confirming the core sequence of transcription regulatory sequence motifs as 5′-UCUAAAC-3′ as we predicted previously. Antibodies against DcCoV UAE-HKU23 were detected in 58 (98.3%) and 59 (100%) of the 59 dromedary sera by immunofluorescence and neutralization antibody tests, respectively. There was significant correlation between the antibody titers determined by immunofluorescence and neutralization assays (Pearson coefficient = 0.525, p < 0.0001). Immunization of mice using recombinant N proteins of DcCoV UAE-HKU23 and Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV), respectively, and heat-inactivated DcCoV UAE-HKU23 showed minimal cross-antigenicity between DcCoV UAE-HKU23 and MERS-CoV by Western blot and neutralization antibody assays. Codon usage and genetic distance analysis of RdRp, S and N genes showed that the 14 strains of DcCoV UAE-HKU23 formed a distinct cluster, separated from those of other closely related members of Betacoronavirus 1, including alpaca CoV, confirming that DcCoV UAE-HKU23 is a novel member of Betacoronavirus 1. PMID:27164099

  5. Alpha S1-casein polymorphisms in camel (Camelus dromedarius) and descriptions of biological active peptides and allergenic epitopes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erhardt, Georg; Shuiep, El Tahir Salih; Lisson, Maria; Weimann, Christina; Wang, Zhaoxin; El Zubeir, Ibtisam El Yas Mohamed; Pauciullo, Alfredo

    2016-06-01

    Milk samples of 193 camels (Camelus dromedarius) from different regions of Sudan were screened for casein variability by isoelectric focusing. Kappa-casein and beta-casein were monomorphic, whereas three protein patterns named αs1-casein A, C, and D were identified. The major allele A revealed frequencies of 0.79 (Lahaoi), 0.75 (Shanbali), 0.90 (Arabi Khali), and 0.88 (Arabi Gharbawi) in the different ecotypes. CSN1S1*C shows a single G > T nucleotide substitution in the exon 5, leading to a non-synonymous amino acid exchange (p.Glu30 > Asp30) in comparison to CSN1S1*A and D. At cDNA level, no further single nucleotide polymorphisms could be identified in CSN1S1* A, C, and D, whereas the variants CSN1S1*A and CSN1S1*C are characterized by missing of exon 18 compared to the already described CSN1S1*B, as consequence of DNA insertion of 11 bp at intron 17 which alter the pre-mRNA spliceosome machinery. A polymerase chain-restriction fragment length polymorphism method (PCR-RFLP) was established to type for G > T nucleotide substitution at genomic DNA level. The occurrence and differences of IgE-binding epitopes and bioactive peptides between αs1-casein A, C, and D after digestion were analyzed in silico. The amino acid substitutions and deletion affected the arising peptide pattern and thus modifications between IgE-binding epitopes and bioactive peptides of the variants were found. The allergenic potential of these different peptides will be investigated by microarray immunoassay using sera from milk-sensitized individuals, as it was already demonstrated for bovine αs1-casein variants. PMID:26922739

  6. The influence of high dietary protein, energy and mineral intake on deficient young camel (Camelus dromedarius)--II. Changes in mineral status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faye, B; Saint-Martin, G; Cherrier, R; Ruffa, A

    1992-06-01

    1. Mangrove Avicennia marina is poor in some trace elements such as copper, zinc and manganese. In a trial we used 32 young camels divided into four groups. 2. Groups 1 and 3 were supplemented with copper and zinc in drinking water after 1 month of mangrove feeding. 3. Groups 2 and 3 received concentrate rich in protein and energy. The supplementation was stopped after 2 months. 4. All the camels were deficient in trace elements at the beginning of mineral supplementation. 5. The plasma concentration of copper increased significantly up to normal levels (less than 70 micrograms/100 ml) in energy protein supplemented groups, but the quantity supplied (100 mg of copper sulphate/day) was not sufficient to maintain this level after the end of supplementation. 6. The original zinc deficiency was too severe to observe a significant effect of the mineral supplementation. 7. Calcium, magnesium and phosphorus levels were improved during the supplementation period in protein-energy supplemented groups. 8. A high interaction between mineral absorption and quality of the diet was observed. A well-balanced diet seems essential to avoid deficient mineral status.

  7. Bioscreening and expression of a camel anti-CTGF VHH nanobody and its renaturation by a novel dialysis-dilution method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Xiulei; Fan, Xiaobo; Qu, Qingrong; Wu, Guoqiu

    2016-12-01

    The variable regions of the camel heavy chain antibody, also known as nanobody is the smallest antibody with antigen-binding efficiency. CTGF is considered important during extracellular matrix deposition which was involved in the pathogenesis of fibrosis related diseases. There are several anti-CTGF-C nanobody drugs under developing in pharmacy. In this study, we described the screening of a novel anti-CTGF-C nanobody from the peripheral blood of immunized camel by phage display. The screened nanobody was further expressed and purified from E. coli cells. A sophisticated dialysis-dilution method was designed for the in vitro refolding of the nanobody. The results showed that the expressed nanobody was consisted of 135 amino acid and mainly expressed as inclusion body in E. coli cells. The dialysis-dilution method was very effective and the recovery rate of the renaturation was more than 80 %. The ELISA result suggested the nanobody had been well refolded showing a superior CTGF binding activity to the commercial mouse anti-CTGF-C mAb. In conclusion, the anti-CTGF-C nonobody had been successfully screened by phage display. The dialysis-dilution refolding method was very effective and the recovery rate reached over 80 %. PMID:27620736

  8. Histomorphometric study of the prenatal development of the kidney of one-humped camel (camelus dromedarius in north-westhern Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Bello

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed at investigating the prenatal development of the kidney of the camel using standard histomorphometric methods. In the experiment, fifteen foetuses obtained from Sokoto metropolitan abattoir at different gestational ages were used for the study. The fetuses were weighed and grouped and aged. In all the foetuses the kidneys were bean-shaped with smooth external surface and thick fibrous capsule which becomes thicker with advancement of gestational age. Well developed ureters and distinct renal pelvis were evident at all stages of development. In each gestational age, values of the weight, length, width and volume of the kidney were determined. In addition the periodic differentiation of the cortex and medulla; their significance in relation to the renal histodiffrentiation was discussed. Histological sections showed evidence of collecting duct system that are numerous and extensively coiled in the cortex and medulla of the third trimester kidneys. This is an indication of the ability of the kidney to concentrate urine, in accordance with the counter-current mechanism of the kidney collecting system. It was suggested that the kidney’s of the camel possesses the anatomical features for the production of hypertonic urine owing with the adaptive behavior of desert animals. Thick capsule that increases in thickness was also noticed in the kidneys.

  9. 益生菌发酵驼乳对慢性肾功能衰竭的治疗作用%The rapeutic Action of Probiotic Fermented Camel Milk on Chronic Renal Failure Rats Caused by Adenine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李建美; 潘蕾; 张敏; 王娟; 刘薇; 郭春燕; 李擎; 吉日木图

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: To compare the different therapeutic Failure(CRF) of rats. Method: CRF rat models induced by fermentation camel milk. And then evaluated the therapeutic action of probiotics felTnented camel milk on Chronic Renal adenine were received intragastric administration with probiotic effect of three kinds of fermented camel milk by measure the diet and water intake, weight, kidney index, serum creatinine(Scr), Urea Nitrogen(BUN), nitric oxide(NO), superoxide dismutase(SOD), serum total protein(STP), calcium(Ca), phosphorus(P), urine volume in 24 hours, urine protein(UP) and the Renal Biopsy. Result: The result showed that fermentation camel milk can reduce the serum level of Set and BUN, slow down UP, ameliorate the balance of calcium and phosphorus, enhanced the level of SOD and STP and alleviated pathological changes of the kidney tissue. Conclusion: Different kinds of probiotic fermented camel milk are effective in treating CRF of rats and the effect of camel milk fermented by L.casei Zhang is superior to camel milk fermented by other probiotics.%目的:比较不同菌种发酵的驼乳制品对腺嘌呤所致大鼠慢性。肾功能衰竭(CRF)的缓解作用。方法:采用腺嘌呤复制CRF大鼠模型,以不同发酵剂发酵的驼乳作为受试物进行灌胃干预。通过检测大鼠的饮食饮水情况、排尿量、尿液和血清常规指标及肾脏病理组织学变化,评估各发酵驼乳对CRF大鼠的治疗效果。结果:发酵驼乳均可改善肾功能衰竭大鼠的一般生理状况,可降低大鼠血肌酐(Scr)、尿素氦(BUN)水平,减缓尿蛋白(UP),调节Ca、P的含量,提高过氧化物歧化酶(SOD)、血清总蛋白(STP)水平,具有保护肾功能的作用,其中LIcaseiZhang发酵的驼乳对CRF大鼠的改善效果最佳。

  10. Effect of camel chymosin on the texture, functionality, and sensory properties of low-moisture, part-skim Mozzarella cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moynihan, A C; Govindasamy-Lucey, S; Jaeggi, J J; Johnson, M E; Lucey, J A; McSweeney, P L H

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the effect of coagulant (bovine calf chymosin, BCC, or camel chymosin, CC), on the functional and sensory properties and performance shelf-life of low-moisture, part-skim (LMPS) Mozzarella. Both chymosins were used at 2 levels [0.05 and 0.037 international milk clotting units (IMCU)/mL], and clotting temperature was varied to achieve similar gelation times for each treatment (as this also affects cheese properties). Functionality was assessed at various cheese ages using dynamic low-amplitude oscillatory rheology and performance of baked cheese on pizza. Cheese composition was not significantly different between treatments. The level of total calcium or insoluble (INSOL) calcium did not differ significantly among the cheeses initially or during ripening. Proteolysis in cheese made with BCC was higher than in cheeses made with CC. At 84 d of ripening, maximum loss tangent values were not significantly different in the cheeses, suggesting that these cheeses had similar melt characteristics. After 14 d of cheese ripening, the crossover temperature (loss tangent = 1 or melting temperature) was higher when CC was used as coagulant. This was due to lower proteolysis in the CC cheeses compared with those made with BCC because the pH and INSOL calcium levels were similar in all cheeses. Cheeses made with CC maintained higher hardness values over 84 d of ripening compared with BCC and maintained higher sensory firmness values and adhesiveness of mass scores during ripening. When melted on pizzas, cheese made with CC had lower blister quantity and the cheeses were firmer and chewier. Because the 2 types of cheeses had similar moisture contents, pH values, and INSOL Ca levels, differences in proteolysis were responsible for the firmer and chewier texture of CC cheeses. When cheese performance on baked pizza was analyzed, properties such as blister quantity, strand thickness, hardness, and chewiness were maintained for a longer

  11. Microbiological quality and somatic cell count in bulk milk of dromedary camels (Camelus dromedarius): descriptive statistics, correlations, and factors of variation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagy, P; Faye, B; Marko, O; Thomas, S; Wernery, U; Juhasz, J

    2013-09-01

    The objectives of the present study were to monitor the microbiological quality and somatic cell count (SCC) of bulk tank milk at the world's first large-scale camel dairy farm for a 2-yr period, to compare the results of 2 methods for the enumeration of SCC, to evaluate correlation among milk quality indicators, and to determine the effect of specific factors (year, season, stage of lactation, and level of production) on milk quality indicators. The study was conducted from January 2008 to January 2010. Total viable count (TVC), coliform count (CC), California Mastitis Test (CMT) score, and SCC were determined from daily bulk milk samples. Somatic cell count was measured by using a direct microscopic method and with an automatic cell counter. In addition, production parameters [total daily milk production (TDM, kg), number of milking camels (NMC), average milk per camel (AMC, kg)] and stage of lactation (average postpartum days, PPD) were recorded for each test day. A strong correlation (r=0.33) was found between the 2 methods for SCC enumeration; however, values derived using the microscopic method were higher. The geometric means of SCC and TVC were 394×10(3) cells/mL and 5,157 cfu/mL during the observation period, respectively. Somatic cell count was >500×10(3) cells/mL on 14.6% (106/725) and TVC was >10×10(3) cfu/mL on 4.0% (30/742) of the test days. Both milk quality indicators had a distinct seasonal pattern. For log SCC, the mean was lowest in summer and highest in autumn. The seasonal pattern of log TVC was slightly different, with the lowest values being recorded during the spring. The monthly mean TVC pattern showed a clear difference between years. Coliform count was CMT score (r=0.26), and between log TVC and CC in yr 1 (r=0.30). All production parameters and stage of lactation showed strong seasonal variation. Log SCC was negatively correlated with TDM (r=-0.35), AMC (r=-0.37), and NMC (r=-0.15) and positively correlated with PPD (r=0.40). Log TVC

  12. Pharmacokinetics and metabolism study of firocoxib in camels after intravenous administration by using high-resolution bench-top orbitrap mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasfi, Ibrahim A; Saeed, Hanan M; Agha, B A; Kamel, Asmaa M; Al Biriki, Nasreen A; Al Neaimi, Khaled M; Al Ali, Waleed A; Sultan, Saeed Mahmoud

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we developed a high-resolution liquid chromatography mass spectrometry method for the pharmacokinetic study of firocoxib followed by full method validation. Following a solid-phase extraction, the firocoxib and internal standard (celecoxib) were separated on an Agilent Zorbax ZDB C18 column (50 mm × 2.1 mm i.d., 3.5 μm) with a gradient elution using methanol and 0.1% aqueous formic acid. Data acquisition was performed at 25,000 resolution with the automatic gain set to 1,000,000 and the maximum injection time of 100 ms. Data were acquired in full-scan mode over a mass range of 100-550 Da in positive electrospray mode. Linear calibration curves were obtained over the concentration ranges of 0.5-200 ng/mL and no interfering peaks were detected at the retention time of firocoxib and internal standard in blank camel plasma samples. The mean extraction recoveries of firocoxib at three concentrations of 5, 25 and 75 ng/mL ranged from 92 to 104%. Coefficient of variation of intra-day and inter-day precision were both firocoxib in camels (Camelus dromedarus) (n=5) following intravenous (i.v.) administration of a dose of 0.1 mgkg/body weight. The results obtained (mean ± SD) were as follows: the terminal elimination half-life (t₁/₂β) was 5.75 ± 2.26 h, and total body clearance (ClT) was 354.1 ± 82.6 mL/kg/h. The volume of distribution at steady state (VSS) was 2344.4 ± 238.7 mL/kg. One metabolite of firocoxib was tentatively identified as desalkyl firocoxib (m/z 283). Firocoxib could be detected in plasma 3-5 days following i.v. administration in camels using a sensitive liquid chromatography high-resolution orbitrap mass spectrometry method. PMID:25463193

  13. 木瓜蛋白酶对骆驼肉嫩化效果的研究%Effects of Papain on Tenderness of Two-Humped Camel Meat

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马欣欣; 双全; 李秀丽; 乌尼孟和; 陈泽明

    2012-01-01

    通过试验研究木瓜蛋白酶处理对骆驼肉嫩度及感官品质的影响。对木瓜蛋白酶用量、处理温度、处理时间进行试验,并且通过L9(33)正交试验,筛选出木瓜蛋白酶嫩化骆驼肉的最佳条件。结果表明:木瓜蛋白酶对骆驼肉的失水率、持水力及嫩度均有显著影响,且对骆驼肉感官品质没有影响。木瓜蛋白酶嫩化骆驼肉的最佳条件:酶用量为0.02%、处理温度4℃、恒温放置时间60min。因素的显著性次序为:木瓜蛋白酶用量〉处理温度〉处理时间。%The influences of papain solution on the tenderness of two-humped camel meat and its sensory qualities were determined in this study. With papain dosage, treatment temperature and time were variables, L9(33) orthogonal experiment was used to sift the optimal conditions of the tenderization. The results showed that papain could significantly affect water loss rate, water holding capacity and the tenderness of the camel meat, without the change of sensory qualities. The optimum conditions are papain dosage 0.02%, temperatuxe 4 ℃, treatment time 60 min. The sequence of the significance of these factors is as follows: papain dosage〉treatment temperature〉treatment time.

  14. Probiotic characteristics of Lactobacillus plantarum strains from traditional butter made from camel milk in arid regions (Sahara of Algeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meriem, Kaid Harche

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Lactobacillus plantarum strains previously isolated from the traditional butter made from camel milk (shmen were evaluated for some probiotic criteria. Among 38 strains investigated for bile resistance, 14 were tolerant to 2% oxgall with survival percentages ranging from 69 to 75%. Out of these, only 4 strains (L. plantarum SH5, SH12, SH24 and SH32 were sufficiently resistant to pH 2.0 for 2 to 6 h incubation periods. Only crude extracts of L. plantarum SH12 and L. plantarum SH24 were inhibitory against Lactococcus lactis B8, the strain used as indicator. The antibacterial activity of crude extracts was completely lost after treatment with α-chymotrypsin and proteinase K. L. plantarum SH12 and SH24 strains were susceptible to penicillin G, oxacillin, vancomycin and clindamycin, but resistant to tetracycline and kanamycin. These strains showed rapid acidification activity (0.921 and 1.075 mmol/l of lactic acid, respectively, a good proteolytic activity (5.45 and 3.49 mg/l tyrosine at 72 h, respectively and high survival percentage after freeze-drying. None of the strains produced polysaccharides or haemolysin in sheep blood.Se evalúan algunas características probióticas de cepas de Lactobacillus plantarum aisladas de la mantequilla tradicional elaborada a partir de leche de camello (shmen. De 38 cepas investigadas para resistencia biliar, 14 fueron tolerantes a un 2% oxgall con porcentajes de supervivencia entre 69 y 75%. De éstas, sólo 4 cepas (L. plantarum SH5, SH12, SH24 and SH32 fueron suficientemente resistentes a pH 2 con periodos de incubación entre 2 y 6 h. Únicamente los extractos crudos de L. plantarum SH12 y L. plantarum SH24 fueron inhibitorios frente a Lactococcus lactis B8, la cepa utilizada como indicador. La actividad antibacteriana de los extractos crudos se perdió completamente después de tratamiento con α-quimotripsina y proteinasa K. Las cepas SH12 y SH24 fueron susceptibles a la penicilina G, oxacilina

  15. Prevalence study of Bovine viral diarrhea virus by evaluation of antigen capture ELISA and RT-PCR assay in Bovine, Ovine, Caprine, Buffalo and Camel aborted fetuses in Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Safarpoor Dehkordi, Farhad

    2011-01-01

    Bovine viral diarrhea virus is a pestivirus in the family Flaviviridae that cause abortions and stillbirths in livestock and its traditional diagnosis is based on cell culture and virus neutralization test. In this study, for more sensitive, specific detection and determined the prevalence of virus in aborted Bovine, Ovine, Caprine, Buffalo and Camel fetuses the antigen capture ELISA and RT-PCR were recommended. From the total of 2173 aborted fetuses, 347 (15.96%) and 402 (18.49%) were positi...

  16. Comparison of California Mastitis Test (CMT), Somatic Cell Counts (SCC) and bacteriological examinations for detection of camel (Camelus dromedarius) mastitis in Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel Gadir Atif, E; Hildebrandt, Goetz; Kleer, Josef N; Molla, Bayleyegn; Kyule, Moses N; Baumann, Maximilian P O

    2006-01-01

    A total of 956 quarter milk samples from 253 traditionally managed lactating camels were collected aseptically from Negele (Borena Region), Dire Dawa, and Gewane (Afar Region), Ethiopia, according to multi-stage sampling. The quarter milk samples were subjected to California Mastitis Test (CMT), Somatic Cell Counts (SCC) and bacteriological examinations. Five hundred and seventy one (59.7%) quarter milk samples had microorganisms. Of these, 428 (75.0%) had isolates that were identified as major pathogens (MAP) and 143 (25.0%) as minor pathogens (MIP). A positive correlation was found between CMT scores and bacteriological classes (MAP, MIP) (p-value = 0.00). Strong correlation (p-value = 0.00) between CMT scores and SCC was recorded. The differences among the median log SCC of bacteriological classes (MAP, MIP) were not significant (p-value = 0.24). Similarly, the application of the cut-off level of 2.5 x 10(5) ml(-1) indicated less agreement (p-value = 0.32) for bacteriological classes MAP and MIP. PMID:16450708

  17. Prevalence of Listeria species in camel sausages from retail markets in Aydin province in Turkey and RAPD analysis of Listeria monocytogenes Isolates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ozbey Gokben

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Samples were taken from 100 camel sausages from the different retail markets in Aydin province in the south-west of Turkey and they were tested for the presence of Listeria spp by biochemical methods. Samples were enriched using Listeria Enrichment Broth and they were inoculated onto Listeria Selective Agar. Listeria monocytogenes was isolated from nine samples (9%, Listeria innocua from 14 samples (14% and Listeria welshimeri from two samples(2%. A 701 bp fragment of listeriolysin O sequence for L. monocytogenes was amplified using specific primers by polymerase chain reaction (PCR for confirmation of the identification. A random primer (OPA-11 was used in a random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD assay. This detected five different band profiles amongst the L. monocytogenes isolates, indicating a relatively large amount of genetic heterogeneity amongst the nine isolates. The study has highlighted the need for improved strategies for food safety, in particular appropriate hygienic precautions to avoid contamination of sausage during the manufacturing process and appropriate preservation techniques during storage and transport, to prevent transmission of Listeria spp to consumers at home and abroad.

  18. Establishment and Optimization of Incubation System of Bactrian Camel Studying CYP2D6 Enzyme in Vitro%双峰驼 CYP2D6酶体外孵育体系的建立与优化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王艳; 高飞; 哈斯苏荣

    2016-01-01

    为了研究双峰驼 CYP2D6酶体外活性,建立双峰驼肝微粒体孵育体系并对孵育体系中探针底物浓度、肝微粒体蛋白浓度和孵育时间等进行优化研究。首先采用改良差速离心法制备双峰驼肝微粒体、BCA 法测定双峰驼肝微粒体蛋白浓度、CO 还原差示光谱法检测 CYP 总酶含量,然后采用 HPLC 法跟踪检测孵育体系中 CYP2D6酶特异性底物的主要代谢产物去甲右美沙芬含量进而优化孵育条件。结果表明,双峰驼肝微粒体蛋白浓度为5.5650 mg/mL±0.5197 mg/mL,CYP 总酶含量为0.1777 nmol/mg±0.0503 nmol/mg;肝微粒体孵育体系的最适底物浓度为250μg/mL,肝微粒体蛋白浓度为5.5650 mg/mL,最适孵育时间为40 min 。所制备的双峰驼肝微粒体各项指标和优化后的肝微粒体孵育条件均能满足后续对双峰驼 CYP2D6酶体外活性研究的基本要求。%In order to study the in vitro activities of Bactrian Camel CYP2D6 enzyme,the liver microsome in-cubation system was established and optimized by studying the concentration of probe substrate,protein content of liver microsome and incubation time,etc.Firstly,liver microsomes of bactrian camel was pre-pared by modified differential centrifugation method,the protein content of bactrian camel liver microsomes was detected by using BCA method and the total content of CYP enzyme was determined by using CO re-duction method.Secondly,the incubation system was optimized by detecting and tracking the concentration of dextrophan,an active essential metabolite of dextromethorphan,in incubation system by using HPLC method.The results showed that the liver microsomal protein content of bactrian camel was 5.565 0 mg/mL±0.519 7 mg/mL,total CYP enzyme content was 0.177 7 nmol/mg±0.050 3 nmol/mg and the optimum substrate concentration in the liver microsome incubation system was 250 μg/mL,the op-timum concentration of protein in liver microsomes was 5

  19. Effect of storage conditions and sequestrants on the ethanol stability of Sinkiang bactrian camel milk%贮藏条件及螯合剂对新疆双峰驼乳酒精稳定性的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    豆智华; 王学清; 杨洁

    2013-01-01

    The effect of pH value, Ca2+, temperature and different chelating agents and storage conditions on the physical and chemical properties and ethanol stability of camel milk were studied in experiment. The primary test standard of raw camel milk:the intractable acidity was not more than 29°T,the ethanol stability value was not less than 50%. The results showed that the ethanol stability of camel milk significant increased (p<0.05) when the pH between 6.0-6.2,when increasing concentration of Ca2+,the ethanol stability of camel milk reduced. The ethanol stability increased with the additions of NaH2PO4,Na2HPO4,ethylenediamine tetraacetic acid disodium and sodium citrate,while with the additions of sodium pyrophosphate,ethanol stability reduced.%研究了pH、Ca2+、螯合剂、贮存温度及时间对驼乳酒精稳定性值的影响.用菌落总数,酒定酸度和酒精稳定性建立原料驼乳的初级检验标准:滴定酸度不大于29°T,酒精稳定性值不低于50%.结果显示:在pH6.0~6.2之间,驼乳的酒精的稳定性显著增加(p<0.05).随着Ca2+浓度的增大使驼乳的酒精稳定性降低;添加磷酸二氢钠、磷酸氢二钠、乙二胺四乙酸二钠和柠檬酸钠能提高驼乳的酒精稳定性,焦磷酸钠使驼乳的酒精热稳定性降低.

  20. 论甘肃安南坝国家级自然保护区野骆驼生存环境的保护%Discussion on Wild Camel Habitat Environment Protection of Gansu Annan Dam National Nature Reserve

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    白升选; 张永虎

    2011-01-01

    To protect wild camel and their habitat is our common responsibility,and called for all the society to take care of this glorious missoon.once this species extinct,our descendants can only learn it from the textbook,as a wild camel sanctuary worker,this is our generation's malpractice,also the fault that our people of this generation commits.%保护野骆驼及栖息环境是我们保护区人共同的责任,呼吁全社会都来关心和担负起这份光荣的使命,一旦这个物种灭绝了,我们的子孙们只能从教科书中了解它、看到它,这是我们这一代野骆驼保护区工作者的失职,也是我们这一代人犯下的罪过。

  1. 公驼宝克对肾阳虚大鼠的影响%STUDY ON INFLUENCE OF MALE CAMEL BOKHI ON THE RATS OF KIDNEY YANG DEFICIENCY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王朝霞; 邵玉宇; 李擎; 刘微; 郭春燕; 王娟; 哈斯苏荣; 吉日木图

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, the influence of male camel Bokhi on the rats of Kidney Yang Deficiency was studied. The rats model groups of Kidney Yang Deficiency were established by intramuscular injecting hydrocortisone for 14 days, and then the rats were treated by oral administration of Bokhi for 14 days. The appearance, the changes of weight gain and histological changes of experimental rats were observed. Meanwhile, the content of testesterone (T) , thyroid stimulating hormone(TSH), serum creatinine(Scr) , blood urea nitrogen (BUN), nitric oxide( NO), superoxide dismutase(SOD) in rats serum were detected. The result showed that the "exhaustion" phenomenon of the rats caused by deficiency of Kidney Yang were gradually alleviated by Bokhi which also improved the weight, testesterone(T), superoxide dismutase(SOD) and nitric oxide (NO). The contents of thyroid stimulating h armone (TSH), serum creatinine (Scr), serum urea nitrogen(BUN) and histological changes were reduced. Through the experiment, it was demonstrated that Bokhi can improve the rats of Kidney Yang Deficiency.%本文探讨了公驼宝克对氢化可的松注射液所致肾阳虚大鼠的影响。采用氢化可的松注射液肌肉注射14d建立肾阳虚大鼠模型后,以宝克作为受试物进行灌胃干预14d。观察大鼠外观、称量造模前后体重变化和睾丸病理组织学变化。同时检测肾阳虚大鼠血清中睾酮(T)、促甲状腺激素(TSH)、血肌酐(Scr)、尿素氮(BUN)、一氧化氮(NO)、超氧化物歧化酶(SOD)的含量。结果显示宝克对肾阳虚大鼠所表现出的”耗竭”现象逐渐减轻,同时发现宝克具有增加体重,升高T,降低TSH、Scr和BUN含量,提高SOD和NO含量,减轻睾丸病理改变的特性。实验表明宝克能明显改善肾阳虚大鼠的症状。

  2. Physicochemical and microbiological study of “shmen”, a traditional butter made from camel milk in the Sahara (Algeria: isolation and identification of lactic acid bacteria and yeasts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mourad, Kacem

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Microorganisms (aerobic bacteria, coliforms, lactic acid bacteria, psychrotrophs, lipolytic bacteria and yeasts were isolated from 20 samples of shmen, a traditional clarified butter made from sour camel milk in the Algerian Sahara. The values of pH, titratable acidity, NaCl, total solid, moisture, and fat content ranged from : 3.11-4.97, 0.19-0.36%, 1.04-2.15%, 64.03-65.11%, 34.40-34.99%, and 49.90-56% respectively. A total of 181 isolates of lactic acid bacteria were identified as Lactobacillus plantarum (40 strains, Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus (35 strains, Lactococcus lactis ssp. lactis biovar diacetylacti (22 strains, Lactococcus lactis ssp. cremoris (18 strains, Lactobacillus paracasei ssp. paracasei (10 strains, Leuconostoc pseudomesenteroides (9 strains and Leuconostoc gelidum (12 strains Enterococcus faecium (35 strains. Yeasts were isolated from all samples (55 isolates. Of these, 40 were identified as Saccharomyces cerevisiae and 15 isolates were identified as Saccharomyces sp.Se aislaron los microorganismos (bacterias aeróbicas, coliformes, bacterias acido lácticas, bacterias lipolíticas y levaduras de 20 muestras de “shmen”, una matequilla tradicional del Sahara argelino hecha a partir de leche de camella. Los valores de pH, acidez, libre, Nacl, solidos totales, humedad y grasa oscilaron entre 3,11-4,97, 0,19-0,36%, 1.04-2,15%, 64,03-65,11%, 34,40-34,99% y 49,90-56,00%, respectivamente. Entre los 181 cultivos puros de bacterias lácticas se identificaron Lactobacillus plantarum (40 cepas, Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus (35 cepas, Lactococcus lactis ssp. lactis biovar diacetylacti (22 cepas, Lactococcus lactis ssp. cremoris (18 cepas, Lactobacillus paracasei ssp. paracasei (10 cepas, Leuconostoc pseudomesenteroides (9 cepas and Leuconostoc gelidum (12cepas Enterococcus faecium (35 cepas. Asimismo, se detectaron levaduras en todas las muestras (55 cultivos puros. De estos, 40 se identificaron como

  3. 双峰驼血淋巴结的形态结构研究%STUDIES ON MORPHOSTRUCTURE OF HEMOLYMPH NODES IN BACTRIAN CAMELS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李晓明; 陈怀涛

    2001-01-01

    本研究用解剖学和组织学方法首次确定我国双峰驼具有血淋巴结这一形态结构。其外观呈卵圆形、紫红色,直径6~11 mm,常见于皮下结缔组织中。在组织学上,外有一层由胶原纤维、弹性纤维和成纤维细胞构成的薄而疏松的被膜,其中有较多的血管和淋巴管;被膜伸入内部形成细小且分布散乱的小梁,但未将实质分隔成明显的小叶。实质由大量的血窦、较少的淋巴小结和淋巴窦构成,未见索状淋巴组织。血窦可分为边缘窦和中间窦,充满血液,前者位于被膜下方,较宽大,呈索状排列;后者狭窄,吻合成网;窦壁由内皮和基膜组成。淋巴窦较少,窦壁完整,明显扩张。淋巴小结多呈卵圆形,散在分布于血窦之间,由淋巴、网状组织构成,有的有明显的生发中心。和他种动物相比,双峰驼血淋巴结在组织学上有以下特点:(1)除具有血管和血窦外,还有淋巴管和淋巴窦;(2)实质无皮质和髓质之分;(3)淋巴组织主要为淋巴小结,未见索状的淋巴组织。%Morphostructure of hemolymph nodes of 35 bactrian camels were studied by anatomic and histological techniques.The results are as follow:It is first proved that there are hemolymph nodes in Bactrian camel′s body.The hemolymph nodes were purple,slightly round and very small in outer apperance.They were often found in connective tissue below the skin.Histologically,the thin capsule which consists of collagenous fibers,elastic fibers and fibroblasts went inward,but could not divide the parenchyma into obvious lobules.The parenchyma consisted of many hemal sinuses,few lymph nodules and lymph sinuses,but the cordlike lymph tissue was not found in it.The hemal sinuses filled with blood could be divided into two portions,the marginal sinuses,located below the capsule were bigger and cordlike,but the intermediate sinuses were

  4. 阿拉善双峰驼不同部位肌肉氨基酸的研究%Research on the Muscular Amino Acid Contents in Different Parts of Alxa Bactrian Camel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    双全; 柰如嘎; 李秀丽; 乌云; 乌尼孟和

    2016-01-01

    The amino acids of different parts(biceps femoris,arm triceps and longissimus)of Alxa bactrian camel with different sex(male and female)were determined and analyzed. Results showed that eighteen amino acids were detected and identified from meat of Alxa bactrian camel. The proportion of total amino acids and essential amino acids were 19.32% and 8.13% in amount, respectively. The ratio of essential amino acids to total amino acids was 42%. There were no differences in content of amino acids between sex groups.But there were significantly difference between different parts groups.The contents of threonine,leucine, phenylalanine,lysine,arginine,aspartate,serine and glutamate in biceps femoris and arm triceps were significantly higher(P<0.05) than those in longissimus of Alxa bactrian camel meat. Alxa bactrian camel meat compared favorably with the essential amino acid requirements of the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations/World Health Organization(FAO/WHO).%对不同性别的阿拉善双峰骆驼股二头肌、臂三头肌和背最长肌中氨基酸组成进行分析,研究性别和部位对肌肉氨基酸含量的影响并评价其营养价值。结果表明:阿拉善双峰驼肉中共检测出18种氨基酸,总氨基酸(TAA)含量为19.32%,其中必需氨基酸(EAA)含量为8.13%,必需氨基酸占总氨基酸的比例为42%。阿拉善双峰驼肌肉中氨基酸含量不受性别影响(P>0.05),但受部位影响较大。股二头肌和臂三头肌中的苏氨酸(Thr)、亮氨酸(Leu)、苯丙氨酸(Phe)、赖氨酸(Lys)、精氨酸(Arg)、天门冬氨酸(Asp)、丝氨酸(Ser)及谷氨酸(Glu)均显著高于背最长肌中的含量(P<0.05)。阿拉善双峰驼肉中氨基酸组成非常接近联合国粮农组织/世界卫生组织(FAO/WHO)提出的模式,营养价值高。

  5. 山羊绒与细羊毛、牦牛绒、驼绒混纺产品中羊绒含量分析的探讨%Discussion of Quantitative Analysis of Cashmere Content in the Product Blended by Cashmere, Wool, Yak Hair and Camel Hair

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄富强; 薛瑞

    2012-01-01

    Cashmere, wool, yak hair and camel hair are constituted by polyclonal keratin cells and have similar structure. It" s difficult to test cashmere content in the product blended by cashmere, wool, yak hair and camel hair. In this article, the structural features of animal hair fibers were introduced. According to the imagines by optical microscope and the structural differences of cashmere, wool, yak hair and camel hair, the quantitative analysis of cashmere content in the blended product is discussed.%山羊绒与细羊毛、牦牛绒、驼绒均为角朊蛋白细胞组成,结构特征相似,在测定其混纺产品中羊绒含量具有一定的难度,是检验部门面对的一大难题。本文介绍了动物纤维的结构特点,结合光学显微镜图片围绕着山羊绒与细羊毛、牦牛绒、驼绒的鳞片形态特征的差异,对这几种混纺产品中羊绒含量的定量方法做出探讨。

  6. ‘Everybody knows’, but the rest of the world: the case of a caterpillar-borne reproductive loss syndrome in dromedary camels observed by Sahrawi pastoralists of Western Sahara

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background The traditional knowledge of local communities throughout the world is a valuable source of novel ideas and information to science. In this study, the ethnoveterinary knowledge of Sahrawi pastoralists of Western Sahara has been used in order to put forward a scientific hypothesis regarding the competitive interactions between camels and caterpillars in the Sahara ecosystem. Methods Between 2005 and 2009, 44 semi-structured interviews were conducted with Sahrawi pastoralists in the territories administered by the Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic, Western Sahara, using a snow-ball sampling design. Results Sahrawi pastoralists reported the existence of a caterpillar-borne reproductive loss syndrome, known locally as duda, affecting their camels. On the basis of Sahrawi knowledge about duda and of a thorough literature review, we built the hypothesis that: 1) caterpillars of the family Lasiocampidae (genera Lasiocampa, Psilogaster, or Streblote) have sudden and rare outbreaks on Acacia treetops in the Western Sahara ecosystem after heavy rainfall; 2) during these outbreaks, camels ingest the caterpillars while browsing; 3) as a consequence of this ingestion, pregnant camels have sudden abortions or give birth to weaklings. This hypothesis was supported by inductive reasoning built on circumstantiated evidence and analogical reasoning with similar syndromes reported in mares in the United States and Australia. Conclusions The possible existence of a caterpillar-borne reproductive loss syndrome among camels has been reported for the first time, suggesting that such syndromes might be more widespread than what is currently known. Further research is warranted to validate the reported hypothesis. Finally, the importance of studying folk livestock diseases is reinforced in light of its usefulness in revealing as yet unknown biological phenomena that would deserve further investigation. Resumen ‘Todos lo saben’, menos el resto del mundo: el caso de un s

  7. ‘Everybody knows’, but the rest of the world: the case of a caterpillar-borne reproductive loss syndrome in dromedary camels observed by Sahrawi pastoralists of Western Sahara

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background The traditional knowledge of local communities throughout the world is a valuable source of novel ideas and information to science. In this study, the ethnoveterinary knowledge of Sahrawi pastoralists of Western Sahara has been used in order to put forward a scientific hypothesis regarding the competitive interactions between camels and caterpillars in the Sahara ecosystem. Methods Between 2005 and 2009, 44 semi-structured interviews were conducted with Sahrawi pastoralists in the territories administered by the Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic, Western Sahara, using a snow-ball sampling design. Results Sahrawi pastoralists reported the existence of a caterpillar-borne reproductive loss syndrome, known locally as duda, affecting their camels. On the basis of Sahrawi knowledge about duda and of a thorough literature review, we built the hypothesis that: 1) caterpillars of the family Lasiocampidae (genera Lasiocampa, Psilogaster, or Streblote) have sudden and rare outbreaks on Acacia treetops in the Western Sahara ecosystem after heavy rainfall; 2) during these outbreaks, camels ingest the caterpillars while browsing; 3) as a consequence of this ingestion, pregnant camels have sudden abortions or give birth to weaklings. This hypothesis was supported by inductive reasoning built on circumstantiated evidence and analogical reasoning with similar syndromes reported in mares in the United States and Australia. Conclusions The possible existence of a caterpillar-borne reproductive loss syndrome among camels has been reported for the first time, suggesting that such syndromes might be more widespread than what is currently known. Further research is warranted to validate the reported hypothesis. Finally, the importance of studying folk livestock diseases is reinforced in light of its usefulness in revealing as yet unknown biological phenomena that would deserve further investigation. Resumen ‘Todos lo saben’, menos el resto del mundo: el caso de un s

  8. 内蒙古双峰驼乳及乳制品中乳杆菌的分离及其%STUDIES ON BIOLOGICAL PROPERTIES OF LACTOBACILLUS FROM TOW-HUMPED CAMEL MILK AND ITS MILK PRODUCTS IN INNER MONGOLIAR

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩向红; 贾志斌

    2001-01-01

    16 strains of lactobacillus were isolated from 11 samples oftow-humped camel milk and its milk products.Their biological properties were studied.According to the morphological character,physiological and biochemical reaction,they respectively belonged to 3 genus 6 species:5 strains of Lactobacillus casei subsp.casei,4 strains of Lactobacillus plantarum and strain of Lactobacillus delbruekii subsp.lactis. Most of strains belong to homofermentation.But AZ41-1 and AZ44-1 strains belong to heterofermentation Lactobacillus.Most strains had weak acid-producing abilities to solidify milk.%本实验主要对11份双峰骆驼乳样品进行了乳酸杆菌的分离和生物学特性的研究。将分离到的16株革兰氏阳性、过氧化氢酶试验阴性杆菌,分别鉴定为Lactobacilluscasei subsp. casei(5株)、Lactobacillus plantarum(4株)和Lactobacillus delbruekii subsp.lactis等同型发酵乳杆菌和2株异型发酵乳杆菌(AZ41-1和AZ44-1)。多数菌株为15℃生长良好,以中温性菌株占优势。脱脂乳中产酸量较低。

  9. FİNANSAL KRİZLERİN BANKALARIN PERFORMANSLARINA ETKİSİ: TÜRK MEVDUAT BANKALARINDA CAMELS MODELİNİN İNCELENMESİ VE ÖRNEK BİR UYGULAMA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selami GÜNEY

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available ÖZ: Günümüzde, finansal sistemin yapı taşı olan bankacılık sektöründe, finansal krizlerin etkisinde ve oluşan rekabet ortamında, bankaların finansal performansının objektif bir şekilde ölçülememesinden dolayı, sektörde performans ölçümünün önemi artmıştır. Banka yönetimleri ya da denetim otoritelerince uygulanabilen performans değerlemeleri, bankaların mevcut durumlarını, potansiyellerini, yönetim stratejilerini belirleyebilmeleri ve sektörde rekabet avantajı elde edebilmelerini sağlamaktadır. Bu çalışmada, CAMELS modeli ile mevduat banka gruplarının kendi aralarında ve mevduat bankaları içindeki performansları 2002-2012 dönemi itibariyle TBB verileri kullanılarak analiz edilmiş, finansal krizlerin analiz sonuçlarına yansımaları değerlendirilmiştir. Analiz sonucunda; incelenen dönemde yabancı sermayeli mevduat bankalarının performansı en iyi olan ve özel sermayeli mevduat bankalarının performansı en düşük olan grup olduğu tespit edilmiştir. Mevduat bankalarının 2001 krizinden sonra yüksek sermaye yeterlilik ve likidite oranlarına sahip olmalarından dolayı krizlere karşı tedbirli oldukları ve 2008 küresel ekonomik krizini sektörle paralel olarak ufak sıyrıklarla atlatmayı başardıkları sonucuna ulaşılmıştır. ABSTRACT: Nowadays, it has increased the importance of performance measurement in banking sector that is the building block of the financial system due to inability measured banks’ financial performance by the impact of financial crisis and the resulting competitive environment. Banks’ management or supervisory authorities can be applied performance evaluations that banks determine current situation, potential, management strategies and ensure that they are able to achieve competitive advantage in banking sector. In this study, the performance of deposit bank groups were analyzed with CAMELS model in the 2002-2012 period by using the data of the

  10. 新疆家犬体内存在细粒棘球绦虫G1(羊)株和G6(骆驼)株的分子证据%MOLECULAR EVIDENCE OF SHEEP(G1) AND CAMEL(G6) STRAINS OF ECHINOCOCCUS GRANULOSUS IN XINJIANG, CHINA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张亚楼; Jean-Mathieu BART; 温浩; 马旭东; 苗玉清; 林仁勇; 王星; 卢晓梅

    2005-01-01

    Objective 17 dogs' adult worms of Echinococcus granulosus were collected in order to establish some epidemiological molecular information in Xinjiang. Methods The sequencing of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidaseⅠ( COⅠ) gene of several adult worm from dogs was performed to confirm genotype of the E. granulosus strains. Results The most part (17) of adult worms' genotype was sheep strain (G1). Especially, the mixed infection of the camel strain G6 and sheep strain G1 were uniquely found in one dog. Conclusion The results confirm the importance of the prophylaxis measures in order to disrupt the cycle of sheep-dog and camel-dog transmission in Xinjiang. Nevertheless, the supervision of dog infection should be reinforced because this definitive host constitutes an important link with human contamination.%目的收集家犬体内的细粒棘球绦虫成虫以建立新疆棘球蚴病的分子流行病学资料. 方法对家犬体内成虫细胞色素c氧化酶Ⅰ基因序列进行测定以确定其亚株型. 结果所有感染犬体内成虫的基因型为G1型.特别是1条家犬体内发现存在细粒棘球绦虫G1(羊)株和G6(骆驼)株混合感染的情况. 结论在新疆阻断羊犬和羊骆驼循环圈是预防棘球蚴病的重要措施.作为终末宿主的家犬与人类的感染密切相关,对感染犬的管理应该加强.

  11. 散养条件下野生双峰驼初冬活动时间分配及节律%Time Budgets and Diurnal Activity Rhythms of Re-Introduced Wild Bactrian Camels in Semi-Free Environment during Early Winter

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    薛亚东; 孙志成; 吴鹏; 张于光; 李迪强

    2015-01-01

    【目的】对散养状态下野生双峰驼(下称野骆驼)昼夜行为时间分配及活动节律进行研究,旨在丰富野骆驼行为生态学基础资料,为其进一步保护和管理提供科学依据。【方法】2012年10—12月期间,采用目标动物取样法对在甘肃敦煌西湖国家级自然保护区进行试验性放归的4峰野骆驼(2雄2雌)进行昼间行为的观测。将野骆驼的行为分为6类:休息、警戒、运动、采食、反刍和其他行为。【结果】时间分配上雄性采食行为时间比例最高,为28.13%±10.42%,雌性野骆驼由于适应新的环境表现出警戒行为比例最高,为28.22%±10.74%。观察期间雌、雄性野骆驼行为时间分配无显著差异。随月份变化,野骆驼休息、警戒和反刍时间呈下降趋势,运动时间和采食时间呈上升趋势。野骆驼昼间警戒和运动行为存在晨昏活动的高峰,其采食行为有2个高峰时段,出现在当地时间日出之后(9:00—10:00)和日落之前(14:00—16:00),野骆驼的休息高峰出现在中午时分(11:00—13:00)。散养条件下野骆驼行为时间分配和活动节律与大多数有蹄类动物类似。【结论】散养条件下野骆驼行为时间分配和活动节律与大多数有蹄类动物相似,相关数据可为其进一步保护和管理提供参考。%The wild Bactrian camel is a critically endangered species, and has high adaptability in extreme arid environments of Central Asia. Most researches about wild camel are limited on the field survey as the species is alert and distributed in arid and semi-arid areas. There are great knowledge gaps concerning the behavior ecology of the wild camels. From October to December in 2012,the behavioral time budget and diurnal activity rhythm of four released wild camels ( two males and two females) in a semi-free environment were observed by the focal animal sampling method in Gansu Dunhuang Wetland National

  12. Taxonomy Icon Data: Arabian camel [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Camelus+dromedarius&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy..._icon/icon.cgi?i=Camelus+dromedarius&t=NL http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_ic...on/icon.cgi?i=Camelus+dromedarius&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Camelus+dromedarius&t=NS ...

  13. Vitamin C status in Sudanese camels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elkhidir, Hassab Elrasoul Hussein Mohamed

    2002-01-01

    Vitamin C (ascorbic acid), which is a potent antioxidant, recently has received a great deal of attention because of its positive action on the immune response and disease resistance of animals. Brief reviews are presented on ascorbic acid metabolism in animals and its relation with stressful condit

  14. Molecular biological identification of one lactic acid bacteria in Xinjiang traditional fermented camel milk%新疆传统发酵驼乳中分离出的一株乳酸菌的分子生物学鉴定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    拉提帕·艾尔肯; 唐雪; 新华·那比

    2014-01-01

    Objective To identify one Lactic Acid Bacteria isolated from Xinjiang traditional fermented camel milk in molecular biological level.Methods The strain was identified and analysed based on the data from DNA extraction,PCR amplification and 16S rDNA sequence analysis and phylogenetic analysis.Re-sults The rate of similarity of 16S rDNA sequencing in the strain with Lactobacillus pentosus (JCM 1558T ),Lactobacillus plantarum subsp .Argentoratensis (DKO 22 T ),Lactobacillus paraplantarum (DSM 10667T )and Lactobacillus plantarum subsp .Plantarum (ATCC 14917 T)reached 100%,99.87%, 99.8% and 99.74% after comparing with that in Eztaxon database,rpoA,conservative gene NCBI database for sequence alignment,sequence of lactic acid bacteria strains fermented in camel milk and reported lacto-bacillus strains 16 s rDNA,rpoA,pheS sequence using MEGA 5.2 software for phylogenetic analysis.Con-clusion The strains of 10 identified by molecular biological way is Lactobacillus pentosus (JCM 1558T).%目的:对新疆阿勒泰牧区哈萨克传统发酵驼乳中分离出的一株乳酸菌进行分子生物学鉴定。方法采用 DNA 提取、PCR 扩增、16S rDNA 产物测序和数据分析对该菌株进行系统发育分析鉴定。结果16S rD-NA 产物测序结果通过 Eztaxon 数据库比对,保守基因 rpoA、pheS 的扩增产物通过 NCBI 数据库比对,发酵驼乳中乳酸菌菌株的序列和已报道的乳酸菌菌株16S rDNA、rpoA、pheS 的序列分别用 MEGA 5.2软件进行系统发育分析表明:此菌株(10号)的16S rDNA 序列与 Lactobacillus pentosus (JCM 1558T )、Lactobacillus plantarum subsp. Argentoratensis (DKO 22T )、Lactobacillus paraplantarum (DSM 10667T )和 Lactobacillus plantarum subsp. Plantarum (ATCC 14917T )的相似率分别为100%、99.87%、99.8%和99.74%。结论10号乳酸菌菌种经分子生物学鉴定为 Lactobacillus pentosus (JCM 1558T )。

  15. 《骆驼祥子》人物形象塑造艺术再探--祥子形象的心理学多维阐释%The exploration of shaping art of character image in Lao She’s“Camel Xiang Zi”--the psychology multidimensional interpretation of Xiang Zi’s image

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    詹虎

    2013-01-01

    In Lao She“Camel Xiang Zi”, Xiang Zi’s hero image contains the female desire performer’s lust mental set which changed/deducted between the positive and negative roles in traditional male semantic, the sharp conflicts between the unconscious primal desire and the moral personality, the culture gene which can’t resolve the desire knot and variable sex psychology, the universality of the psychological consensus:“eating people/eating yourself”and the psychological movement trend of personality reverse transformation: “the weak winning victory while the strong failure”. On the metaphysical level, the characters of human body pointed to the thinking about the problems of human nature.%  《骆驼祥子》中,主人公祥子形象蕴涵着传统男性语义中正负两极不断变化演绎的女性欲望执行者的色欲心理定势、无意识中原初欲望与人格道德的尖锐冲突,以及无法化解的欲望心结与变异性爱心理的文化基因、“吃人/吃己”心理共识的普遍性和“劣胜优败”人格反向转化的心理运动趋势。在形而上的层面,这一人物的塑形指向了对人类人性问题的思考。

  16. 我国商业银行信用评级5A模型初探--以骆驼评级为启示%The 5A model of Credit Rating of Commercial Banks in China---With Camel Rating for Inspiration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贾曼莉

    2015-01-01

    strategy and the additive items on the basis of the model of CAMEL. The purpose of the paper is to initiate and cause the public to be acquainted with, focus on and probe into Chinese commercial bank rating.

  17. An Approaching Dawn in Loving Hometown Constructed by Language---an Impression in Reading Yang Fang’s Collection of Poems Eyes Like That of Camel Cub%词是逐渐增长的黎明,是可靠的故乡--杨方诗集《骆驼羔一样的眼睛》阅读印象

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    薛梅; 赵东阳

    2015-01-01

    Yang Fang is a poet-in-residence of Chinese Poetry Study Center in Capital Normal University. In her collection of poems Eyes Like That of Camel Cub, language is used as a constructing tool of poetic flavor, a “thing” to ensure the existence of poetry and an amulet of soul. Thus, the poetic flavor has achieved a special effect of spreading randomly to show her thinking about the world and inner sentiment. Hometown is her primary emotional complex that brings her entanglement and pain. She finds flowers, grass and trees as well as streams as her reliable shade and has gradually accomplished an integrated and rhythmical form of poetic life. This has not only unified the romantic experience of poetic culture and realistic searching of spiritual hometown, but also achieved the intoxicating and endless setting of the biological state and spiritual destination. Autumn wind gives her the strength of soberness. With her inner strength, she gets away from self bondage, observing and looking up-on the existence and nirvana of all things in autumn wind. With her permanent searching for spiritual hometown, she keeps an unfathomable sincerity on the existential intention.%诗人杨方,是首都师范大学中国诗歌研究中心的驻校诗人,其诗集《骆驼羔一样的眼睛》,以诗“词”题,有一种漫溯的效果,她让词成为她的诗意构成方式,成为一种诗歌的物件,并成为灵魂的一件护身符,从而呈现了她的经世之思与内在情调。故乡,是她的原初的情结,是故乡之于她的纠结和疼痛。花间、草木、流水,是她寻找到的可靠的遮蔽,并逐渐完成一种整合的、有节律的诗性生命形式,市诗性文化的浪漫体验和精神故乡的现实寻根,有机成为整体,完成陶醉和安放的永无止息的生态境遇和精神归宿。秋风,是她获取的清醒的力量。杨方依靠内心的力量离开了自身,观看和瞩望着秋风中万事万物的存

  18. Cigarette taxes. The straw to break the camel's back.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grossman, M; Chaloupka, F J

    1997-01-01

    Teenage cigarette smoking is sensitive to the price of cigarettes. The most recent research suggests that a 10% increase in price would reduce the number of teenagers who smoke by 7%. If the proposed 43-cent hike in the Federal excise tax rate on cigarettes contained in the Hatch-Kennedy Bill were enacted, the number of teenage smokers would fall by approximately 16%. This translates into more than 2.6 million fewer smokers and more than 850,000 fewer smoking-related premature deaths in the current cohort of 0 to 17-year-olds. Adjusted for inflation, the current 24-cent-a-pack tax costs the buyer about half of the original cigarette tax of 8 cents imposed in 1951. A substantial tax hike would curb youth smoking; this strategy should move to the forefront of the antismoking campaign. PMID:9258294

  19. Cigarette taxes. The straw to break the camel's back.

    OpenAIRE

    Grossman, M.; F. J. Chaloupka

    1997-01-01

    Teenage cigarette smoking is sensitive to the price of cigarettes. The most recent research suggests that a 10% increase in price would reduce the number of teenagers who smoke by 7%. If the proposed 43-cent hike in the Federal excise tax rate on cigarettes contained in the Hatch-Kennedy Bill were enacted, the number of teenage smokers would fall by approximately 16%. This translates into more than 2.6 million fewer smokers and more than 850,000 fewer smoking-related premature deaths in the c...

  20. Taxonomy Icon Data: wild Bactrian camel [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available odactyla Camelus_ferus_L.png Camelus_ferus_NL.png Camelus_ferus_S.png Camelus_ferus_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy..._icon/icon.cgi?i=Camelus+ferus&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Camelus+f...erus&t=NL http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Camelus+ferus&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Camelus+ferus&t=NS ...

  1. Perancangan Aplikasi Penentuan Tingkat Kesehatan Bank Perkreditan Rakyat Dengan Metode CAMEL

    OpenAIRE

    Simatupang, Alam Panuturi

    2011-01-01

    Bank Indonesia as the central bank has a function for supervision the quality performance of a bank. The quality performance of a bank can be known based on its health. The health of a bank can be valued by several indicators. The financial report and supervision data can be used as the indicator. Some actual cases such as bankrupt bank, bad credit and the other case are usually find in Indonesia. Therefore, it’s important to know the health level of a bank regularly so that we can know the q...

  2. Proteolytic Activity in Reduced-Fat Cheddar Cheese Made with Lactic Acid Bacteria and Camel Chymosin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Børsting, Mette Winther

    need of an extended ripening period to reach a similar cheese structure as in cheeses produced with BC. The aim of this project was to compensate for the lower proteolytic activity in cheese produced with CC compared to BC. Selection of dairy lactic acid bacteria (LAB) for cheese production with high...... ability to influence proteolysis and structure during cheese ripening. In an attempt to improve the screening methods and contribute to the development of a new classification system of Latcococcus lactic strains, the peptide profile formed by selected strains after growth in milk was analyzed and...... culture mediated an increase in the total amount of amino acids as well as a shorter structure. A model system, used to study the retention of chymosin in a curd, showed that the retention of CC was less dependent on pH compared to BC, and the retention of CC was higher than BC in the pH interval 6...

  3. Globalising assessment: an ethnography of literacy assessment, camels and fast food in the Mongolian Gobi

    OpenAIRE

    Maddox, Bryan

    2014-01-01

    What happens when standardised literacy assessments travel globally? The paper presents an ethnographic account of adult literacy assessment events in rural Mongolia. It examines the dynamics of literacy assessment in terms of the movement and re-contextualisation of test items as they travel globally and are received locally by Mongolian respondents. The analysis of literacy assessment events is informed by Goodwin’s ‘participation framework’ on language as embodied and situated interactive ...

  4. Globalising Assessment: An Ethnography of Literacy Assessment, Camels and Fast Food in the Mongolian Gobi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maddox, Bryan

    2014-01-01

    What happens when standardised literacy assessments travel globally? The paper presents an ethnographic account of adult literacy assessment events in rural Mongolia. It examines the dynamics of literacy assessment in terms of the movement and re-contextualisation of test items as they travel globally and are received locally by Mongolian…

  5. THE CAMEL AND THE CONTRAVENTIONAL GALAXY. REFLECTIONS ON THE CODE OF FAULTS IN CORDOBA, ARGENTINA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucas Crisafulli

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This article will analyze the police practices enabled by the Misdemeanors Code of Córdoba-Argentina. Most countries have "administrative" laws that authorize the use of state coercion without judicial review or participation. This use of the state coercive power transforms executive state officers and police officers in micro-dictators. Whether it is immigration laws in Central Europe, "vagrancy" laws in Venezuela, "loafers" act in Bolivia, bylaws in USA municipalities or Codes of Conduct in Argentina; almost every western country have or have had misdemeanor legislation that criminalize acts by using ambiguous terms and producing large spaces for administrative arbitrariness. In the province of Cordoba-Argentina, the Misdemeanors penalizes with arrest-day behaviours such as ‘disturbing prostitution,’ ‘refusal to identify,’ ‘prowl,’ among other figures of dubious constitutionality. Moreover, the prosecution for the commission of these offenses is carried directly by the police officers without judicial intervention or participation of a lawyer. Penalties include fines and arrest, although the last sentence is the most widespread application. Thus, from police practices authorized by misdemeanor legislation we will analyze the implications of hyper- misdemeanor-incarceration in control societies. Detentions by the application of the misdemeanors code exceeds five times the number of arrests for the violation of the Criminal Code. Key words: Control Societies, misdemeanour, police.

  6. Camels, Cormorants, and Kangaroo Rats: Integration and Synthesis in Organismal Biology After World War II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagen, Joel B

    2015-01-01

    During the decades following World War II diverse groups of American biologists established a variety of distinctive approaches to organismal biology. Rhetorically, organismal biology could be used defensively to distinguish established research traditions from perceived threats from newly emerging fields such as molecular biology. But, organismal biologists were also interested in integrating biological disciplines and using a focus on organisms to synthesize levels of organization from molecules and cells to populations and communities. Part of this broad movement was the development of an area of research variously referred to as physiological ecology, environmental physiology, or ecophysiology. This area of research was distinctive in its self-conscious blend of field and laboratory practices and its explicit integration with other areas of biology such as ecology, animal behavior, and evolution in order to study adaptation. Comparing the intersecting careers of Knut Schmidt-Nielsen and George Bartholomew highlights two strikingly different approaches to physiological ecology. These alternative approaches to studying the interactions of organisms and environments also differed in important ways from the organismal biology championed by leading figures in the modern synthesis.

  7. Exile, camps, and camels: recovery and adaptation of subsistence practices and ethnobiological knowledge among Sahrawi refugees

    OpenAIRE

    Volpato, G.

    2014-01-01

    The study of how people adapt to social and environmental change is central to current theoretical understandings of human-nature relationships. There are recurrent cases in human history in which entire populations have been uprooted from the environments in which they live, where it becomes exceedingly difficult for them to maintain their ways of life including their modes of subsistence, social and ecological relations, knowledge, and culture. The ways in which such people exercise their c...

  8. Exile, camps, and camels: recovery and adaptation of subsistence practices and ethnobiological knowledge among Sahrawi refugees

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Volpato, G.

    2014-01-01

    The study of how people adapt to social and environmental change is central to current theoretical understandings of human-nature relationships. There are recurrent cases in human history in which entire populations have been uprooted from the environments in which they live, where it becomes exceed

  9. Effect of diet supplementation on growth and reproduction in camels under arid range conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdouli H.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Eighteen pregnant dromedary females (Camelus dromedarius were used to determine the effect of concentrate supplement on growth and reproductive performances in peri-partum period. The females were divided into supplemented (n = 9; S and unsupplemented (n = 9; C experimental groups. All animals grazed, with one mature male, 7 to 8 hours per day on salty pasture rangelands. During night, they were kept in pen, where each female of group S received 4 kg per day of concentrate supplement during the last 3 months of gestation and 5 kg per day during the first 3 months post-partum. During the last 90 days of gestation daily body weight gain (DBG was at least tenfold more important in group S than in group C (775 g vs. 72 g respectively. Supplementation affected birth weight of offspring (30.3 kg vs. 23.4 kg and its DBG (806 g vs. 430 g in group S and group C respectively. During the post-partum period, females in group S gained in weight (116 g per day whereas females in group C lost more than 200 g per day. The mean post-partum interval to the first heat and the percentage of females in heat were 29.5 day and 44.4/ vs. 41.2 day and 71.4/ for the C and S groups, respectively. We conclude that under range conditions, dietary supplementation of dromedary during late pregnancy stage and post-partum period improves productive and reproductive parameters.

  10. Purification and Characterization of Cytosolic Glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate Dehydrogenase from the Dromedary Camel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Latifa FOURRAT; Abdelghani IDDAR; Abdelaziz SOUKRI

    2007-01-01

    Glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) (EC 1.2.1.12), a key enzyme of carbon metabolism, was purified and characterized to homogeneity from skeletal muscle of Camelus dromedarius. The protein was purified approximately 26.8 folds by conventional ammonium sulphate fractionation followed by Blue Sepharose CL-6B chromatography, and its physical and kinetic properties were investigated. The native protein is a homotetramer with an apparent molecular weight of approximately 146 kDa. Isoelectric focusing analysis showed the presence of only one GAPDH isoform with an isoelectric point of 7.2. The optimum pH of the purified enzyme was 7.8. Studies on the effect of temperature on enzyme activity revealed an optimal value of approximately 28-32 ℃ with activation energy of 4.9 kcal/mol.The apparent Km values for NAD+ and DL-glyceraldehyde-3-phophate were estimated to be 0.025±0.040 mM and 0.21±0.08 mM, respectively. The Vmax of the purified protein was estimated to be 52.7±5.9 U/mg.These kinetic parameter values were different from those described previously, reflecting protein differences between species.

  11. Analisis Perbandingan Kinerja Antara Bank Syariah Mandiri dan Bank Muamalat Indonesia dengan Rasio CAMELS

    OpenAIRE

    Syafriadi, Eko

    2011-01-01

    PT Bank Muamalat Indonesia and PT Bank Syariah Mandiri, a banking company which has been leading the Islamic banking market in Indonesia. This research aims to investigate and prove empirically about the differences between the financial performance of PT. Bank Muamalat Indonesia and PT. Bank Syariah Mandiri during the period 2007-2009. This research is a descriptive comparison. The data used are secondary data in the form of financial statements of companies that obtained from the bank's ...

  12. How terrestrial planets traverse spin-orbit resonances: A camel goes through a needle's eye

    CERN Document Server

    Makarov, Valeri V

    2011-01-01

    The dynamical evolution of terrestrial planets resembling Mercury in the vicinity of spin-orbit resonances is investigated using comprehensive harmonic expansions of the tidal torque with accurate expressions for the frequency-dependent quality factors and Love numbers. The torque equations are integrated numerically with a small step in time, taking into account the oscillating triaxial torque components but neglecting the layered structure of the planet and assuming a zero obliquity. We find that a Mercury-like planet with its current value of orbital eccentricity (0.2056) is always captured in the 3:2 resonance, and invariably traverses all higher resonances. The circumstances of a resonance passage are remarkable, in that it happens very quickly, in a sudden lunge. Considering the phase space parameters at the times of periastron, a Mercury-like planet can traverse the resonance only if its angle with respect to the star is close to $\\pm\\pi/2$, i.e., if the planet is positioned sidewise, with the longest ...

  13. A Comparative Study On Financial Performance Of Public Sector Banks In India: An Analysis On Camel Model

    OpenAIRE

    Kishore Meghani, Kishore Meghani; Hari Krishna Karri, Hari Krishna Karri; Bharti Meghani Mishra, Bharti Meghani Mishra

    2015-01-01

    Banking sector is one of the fastest growing sectors in India. Today’s banking sector becoming more complex. The objective of this study is to analyze the Financial Position and Performance of the Bank of Baroda and Punjab National Bank in India based on their financial characteristics. This study attempts to measure the relative performance of Indian banks. For this study, we have used public sector banks. We know that in the service sector, it is difficult to quantify the output...

  14. A Comparative Study On Financial Performance Of Public Sector Banks In India: An Analysis On Camel Model

    OpenAIRE

    Kishore Meghani, Kishore Meghani; Hari Krishna Karri, Hari Krishna Karri; Bharti Meghani Mishra, Bharti Meghani Mishra

    2015-01-01

    Banking sector is one of the fastest growing sectors in India. Today’s banking sector becoming more complex. The objective of this study is to analyze the Financial Position and Performance of the Bank of Baroda and Punjab National Bank in India based on their financial characteristics. This study attempts to measure the relative performance of Indian banks. For this study, we have used public sector banks. We know that in the service sector, it is difficult to quantify the output because it ...

  15. Effects of feeding level on body weight, hump size, lipid content and adipocyte volume in the dromedary camel

    OpenAIRE

    Bengoumi, Mohammed; Faulconnier, Yannick; Tabarani, Ahmed; Sghiri, Abdelmalek; Faye, Bernard; Chilliard, Yves

    2005-01-01

    Effet du niveau d'alimentation sur le poids vif, la taille, la teneur en lipides et le volume des adipocytes de la bosse chez le dromadaire. Les effets de la suralimentation et de la sous-alimentation sur les réserves lipidiques chez le dromadaire ont été mesurés chez 14 chamelles divisées en trois lots : un lot suralimenté - sous-alimenté (OV-UN), un lot sous-alimenté - suralimenté (UN-OV) et un lot témoin (CTRL). Après 4 semaines d'adaptation un schéma expérimental croisé a été appliqué pen...

  16. Chymotryptic and tryptic hydrolysis of whey proteins camel: Study of the antigenicity / allergenicity of hydrolysates in BALB/c mice

    OpenAIRE

    Benhatchi, S; KHEROUA, O.; Mezemaze, F

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: The proteins of the animal specie and cow's milk certain can involve allergic reactions in particular in the predisposed young child. The beta lactoglobulin ( -Lg) and lactalbumin (!-La) are to it two the most accused proteins of the whey. Preceding studies showed that the consumption of the milk of dromedary causes a reaction crossed with proteins of the cow's milk. On the other hand, the hydrolysis of proteins of the milk of the two species attenuates their antigenici...

  17. TIME SERIES ANALYSES OF AIR POLLUTION AND HEALTH: STRAINING AT GNATS WHILE SWALLOWING CAMELS? (R827355C009)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The perspectives, information and conclusions conveyed in research project abstracts, progress reports, final reports, journal abstracts and journal publications convey the viewpoints of the principal investigator and may not represent the views and policies of ORD and EPA. Concl...

  18. Characterization of Asia 1 sdAb from Camels Bactrianus (C. bactrianus) and Conjugation with Quantum Dots for Imaging FMDV in BHK-21 Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Shuanghui Yin; Shunli Yang; Youjun Shang; Shiqi Sun; Guangqing Zhou; Ye Jin; Hong Tian; Jinyan Wu; Xiangtao Liu

    2013-01-01

    Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD), caused by FMD virus (FMDV), is a highly contagious viral disease affecting cloven-hoofed animals. Camelids have a unique immunoglobulin profile, with the smallest functional heavy-chain antibodies (sdAb or VHH) naturally devoid of light chains with antigen-binding capacity. We screened and characterized five sdAbs against FMDV by immunized library from C. bactrianus with Asia 1 virus-like particles (VLPs). Three of five recombinant sdAbs were stably expressed in ...

  19. A traditional Sudanese fermented camel's milk product, Gariss, as a habitat of Streptococcus infantarius subsp. infantarius

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abdelgadir, Warda; Nielsen, Dennis Sandris; Hamad, Siddig;

    2008-01-01

    and pH=2.7 for 1--4 h. Also Lactobacillus fermentum were detected in high numbers, whereas Enterococcus faecium and Lactobacillus helveticus were detected more occasionally. The yeast microflora in all Gariss samples consisted of Kluyveromyces marxianus and Issatchenkia orientalis with the former being.......05-7.79] were detected in high numbers. A total of 180 LAB isolates were identified of which 123 isolates were found to belong to the Streptococcus bovis group. Thirteen representative isolates were characterized by PCR amplification and sequencing of the housekeeping genes rpoB and sodA and the streptococcal...... glucosyltransferase gene (gtf). All thirteen isolates were identified as Streptococcus infantarius subsp. infantarius, a potential human pathogen. The gene encoding the virulence determinant gtf was detected in 10 of the 13 tested strains. The same isolates were able to survive exposure to 0.3% (w/v) oxgall for 4 h...

  20. Determinants of capital adequacy in the Banking Sub-Sector of the Nigeria Economy: Efficacy of Camels. (A Model Specification with Co-Integration Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harley Tega Williams

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the impact of banks characteristics, financial structure and macroeconomic indicators on banks Capital base in the Nigerian banking industry. The study does not account for ratio analysis in the computation of capital adequacy but rather it examines the determinant of Capital adequacy in Nigeria during the period 1980 – 2008 within an error correction framework. Co-integration technique revealed that economic indicators such as rate of inflation, real exchange rate, demand deposits, money supply, political instability, return on investment are most robust predictors of the determinants of capital adequacy in Nigeria. After the global credit crunch capital adequacy, being critical for banks, led the study to examine the relationship between bank capital base and macroeconomics variables. This implies that political stability may reduce financial distress and bankruptcy why Foreign investment will affect Banks capital in most developing economy in the period of financial crisis . However, the study also establishes that there is a negative relationship between inflation and banks capital base as inflation erode banks capital in most developing economy. This simply means that Nigerian government should regulate investment policy why banks regulators should strive to keep inflation rate at a minimum level, if possible below 5% for them to be more efficient so as to be globally competitive.

  1. Characterization of Asia 1 sdAb from camels bactrianus (C. bactrianus and conjugation with quantum dots for imaging FMDV in BHK-21 cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuanghui Yin

    Full Text Available Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD, caused by FMD virus (FMDV, is a highly contagious viral disease affecting cloven-hoofed animals. Camelids have a unique immunoglobulin profile, with the smallest functional heavy-chain antibodies (sdAb or VHH naturally devoid of light chains with antigen-binding capacity. We screened and characterized five sdAbs against FMDV by immunized library from C. bactrianus with Asia 1 virus-like particles (VLPs. Three of five recombinant sdAbs were stably expressed in E.coli, remained highly soluble, and were serotype-specific for VP1 protein of FMDV Asia 1 by ELISA. These failed to completely neutralize the Asia 1 virus. According to the KD value of binding affinity to three sdAbs, which ranged from 0.44 to 0.71 nm by SPR, sdAb-C6 was selected and conjugated with Zn/CdSe quantum dots (QDs to form a QDs-C6 probe, which was used to trace and image the subcellular location of FMDV in BHK-21 cells. The results show that FMD virions were observed from 3 h.p.i., and most of virions were distributed on one side of the nucleus in the cytoplasm. We demonstrate the utility of sdAbs as functionalized QDs are powerful tools for FMDV research.

  2. Of goats, sheep, camels and oil : two Calgary lawyers are helping government officials in Somalia and Kurdistan design new petroleum laws

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lorenz, A.W.

    2007-05-15

    A few international energy companies have shown strong interest in the northern regions of Somalia for the exploration of oil, particularly since Somalia shares geological trends with Yemen and Sudan, both of which have prolific hydrocarbon basins. Two Calgary lawyers have been working with the government of Somalia in developing a new set of oil and gas laws. After decades of repression, Iraq's Kurdish Regional Government (KRG) has now asked one of the lawyers to also help develop their laws. Unlike the Somalis who live in a region where hydrocarbons have barely been explored, the Kurds live in a mountainous region with one of the world's largest hydrocarbon basins. The lawyers began by teaching the Somalis the basics of petroleum legal practices and designing Somalia's new system. This article emphasized that the task of creating a foundation for the petroleum legal system is quite similar for both regions, in terms of who is entitled to the resource and how much will be shared with foreign companies in return for investment and expertise. The Somalis have asked for advice on the best way to divide profits between the state and the foreign investor. This article also discussed the political challenges facing the Kurds in terms of negotiating their own exploration and development contracts in Iraq. One of the greatest challenges is that when a new Iraq National Oil Company was created, it was given basically every current field in the country, even those in Kurdistan. While oil companies prefer concession regimes, Iraq offers 3 different types of contracts, namely Production Sharing Agreements, service contracts and risk exploration contracts. 4 figs.

  3. The Camel Tick, Hyalomma (Hyalomma dromedarii Koch, 1844 (Ixodoidea: Ixodidae: Description of the Egg and Redescription of the Larva by Scanning Electron Microscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashraf Ahmed Montasser

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study describes the egg of Hyalomma (H. dromedarii for the first time and adds more features to the larva using Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM in order to extend our knowledge on these acarine stages to be useful for further taxonomical or control studies. With the purpose of presenting exact description of acarine eggs, it is preferable to examine them both with and without SEM processing. SEM processing caused partial removal of the chorion which makes the egg shell clear and easily observed. The study revealed rough surface of egg shell which was surrounded by the chorion. The egg shell was perforated particularly at poles. The chorion appeared as a finely perforated cloth. Different forms of bumps were noticed between egg shell and chorion. Length, width, l/w ratio and pore diameter of the egg were measured. SEM investigation of the larva revealed smooth scutum with slight irregular ornamentation and horizontally folded extensible cuticle with vertical ridges. At least 2 types of cuticular openings were noticed on the extensible cuticle of the idiosoma. The first type was represented by 1 pair on dorsal side and 2 pairs on ventral one. It was surrounded with thick integumental ring and guarded with 2 internal lips. The second type was numerous, slit-like and without rings or lips. Dorsolateral plate of the hypostome carried numerous oval, tile-like and elevated denticles while ventral one carried 4 rows of posteriorly directed retrograde conical denticles. Mouth enclosed 2 cheliceral digits, each terminated with 3 lobes. Each lobe is supported with 2 or 3 conical denticles which were externally directed to the posterior. Haller`s organ on the tarsus of the first pair of legs consisted of anterior pit and posterior capsule. The pit contained 6 conical sensillae while the capsule opening had extensively branched margin. Measurements of the whole body, idiosoma, scutum, eye, capitulum, hypostome, palp, cuticular pores, legs and Haller`s organ sensillae of the larva are also presented.

  4. 双峰驼肾上腺的组织学与细胞超微结构%Histology and Cellular Ultrastructure of Suprarenal Gland in Bactrian Camels

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李晓明; 陈怀涛

    2000-01-01

    用组织学、组织化学和电镜技术对35例双峰驼肾上腺的组织学和细胞超微结构作了研究.结果表明,双峰驼肾上腺的主要组织结构特点为:(1)被膜厚而致密,其纤维束常伸入球状区并将此区实质分隔成大小不等的细胞团;(2)束状区中可见由纤维组织和球状区细胞构成的圆团状结构,有时也见髓质细胞团分布;(3)网状区细胞着色均匀,因此不像其他动物的那样分为明细胞和暗细胞,此区与髓质界限不清,其中有较多孤立存在的髓质细胞团; (4)髓质细胞分亮细胞和暗细胞2类,但其分布与人和其他动物的完全不同,髓质因此也不能被分为内区和外区;更特别的是在髓质中有较多大小不一的皮质小体,其中心为一束纤维和血管,向外依次由皮质各层细胞环绕.

  5. Frequently Asked Questions on Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus (MERS‐CoV)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Algeria, Austria, Egypt Greece Iran Jordan, Kuwait, Lebanon, Malaysia, the Netherlands, Oman Qatar Saudi Arabia Turkey, United ... with care to avoid cross-contamination with uncooked foods. Camel meat and camel milk are nutritious products ...

  6. Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus (MERS-CoV) origin and animal reservoir.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohd, Hamzah A; Al-Tawfiq, Jaffar A; Memish, Ziad A

    2016-01-01

    Middle East Respiratory Syndrome-Coronavirus (MERS-CoV) is a novel coronavirus discovered in 2012 and is responsible for acute respiratory syndrome in humans. Though not confirmed yet, multiple surveillance and phylogenetic studies suggest a bat origin. The disease is heavily endemic in dromedary camel populations of East Africa and the Middle East. It is unclear as to when the virus was introduced to dromedary camels, but data from studies that investigated stored dromedary camel sera and geographical distribution of involved dromedary camel populations suggested that the virus was present in dromedary camels several decades ago. Though bats and alpacas can serve as potential reservoirs for MERS-CoV, dromedary camels seem to be the only animal host responsible for the spill over human infections. PMID:27255185

  7. Distribution characteristics of intraepithelial lymphocytes in small intestine of Bactrian camel%上皮内淋巴细胞在双峰驼小肠内的分布特征

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李淑娴; 郭明刚; 王雯慧

    2015-01-01

    Using the HE regular dyeing method,the distribution location,density and morphology of the intraepithelial lymphocytes in small intestine were observed,and its number was counted under micro-scope.The results showed that the distribution characteristics of the intraepithelial lymphocytes among the different places of the small intestine were significantly different (P <0.05).The quantity of the intraepi-thelial lymphocytes increased gradually from duodenum to ileum.Within each 5 000 μm2 intestinal mucosal epithelial cells,the average number of intestinal intraepithelial lymphocytes was 5.40,17.36 and 33.64 re-spectively.Most of the intraepithelial lymphocytes were distributed in the base of absorption cell,and a small number of the intraepithelial lymphocytes were distributed near the free surface of epithelial cells. The latter was mainly distributed from the distal jejunum to distal ileum.The cell morphology was round and oval,it's boundary with the surrounding epithelial absorption cell was clear and had a ‘halo’.The study showed that the quantity of intestinal intraepithelial lymphocytes from duodenμm to ileum increased gradu-ally,and the phenomenon further illustrated the homing of intraepithelial lymphocyte was closely related to the E-calcium adhesion proteins expressing on the epithelial basal side of absorptive cells and the different antigens among the different places of the small intestine.%试验采用 HE 常规染色方法,光镜下观察小肠各段肠黏膜上皮内淋巴细胞的分布位置、密度和形态,并对其进行计数,来探索双峰驼肠黏膜免疫机制.结果表明:上皮内淋巴细胞在小肠各段数量分布有显著差异(P <0.05),从十二指肠到回肠数量逐渐增多,每5000μm2大小的肠黏膜上皮细胞中,肠上皮内淋巴细胞的平均数量分别为5.40、17.36和33.64个.上皮内淋巴细胞多数位于上皮吸收细胞的基底部,少数分布在上皮细胞核区和核上方,且后者多出现在空肠后段到回肠后段.上皮内淋巴细胞形态单一,多为圆形和椭圆形,与周围上皮吸收细胞的界限非常清晰,有一明显的“空晕”.肠上皮内淋巴细胞从十二指肠到回肠数量逐渐增多,说明了上皮内淋巴细胞的归巢可能与小肠各段的抗原因素差异以及上皮吸收细胞基底侧的 E-钙粘连蛋白表达密切相关.这一结果与在其他动物上的研究结果是不相同的.

  8. ‘Everybody knows’, but the rest of the world: the case of a caterpillar-borne reproductive loss syndrome in dromedary camels observed by Sahrawi pastoralists of Western Sahara

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Volpato, G.; Nardo, Di A.; Rossi, D.; Lamin Saleh, S.; Broglia, A.

    2013-01-01

    Background The traditional knowledge of local communities throughout the world is a valuable source of novel ideas and information to science. In this study, the ethnoveterinary knowledge of Sahrawi pastoralists of Western Sahara has been used in order to put forward a scientific hypothesis regardin

  9. Banking Sector Stability in the Five Central and Eastern European Countries: An Assessment Based on the CAMEL System%从CAMEL指标看中东欧五国银行体系的稳定性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    庄起善; 窦菲菲

    2005-01-01

    衡量一国金融体制改革成效,很重要的一条,就是看其银行体系稳定与否.用CAMEL指标对中东欧五国银行体系稳定性状况进行的实证分析表明,经过10多年金融体制的改革,五国银行部门基本稳定,银行体系稳定性微观审慎指标趋好.同时也说明了:良好的宏观经济环境对于银行业的发展产生较大影响;外资银行的进入对银行部门的稳定性起着重要作用;良好的监管体系是银行体系稳定性的重要保证.

  10. 从《语丝》和《骆驼草》看周作人编辑思想的变化%On the Change of Zhou Zuoren's Editorial Thoughts from the Magazines of Yu Si and Camel Grass

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    闫东艳

    2009-01-01

    周作人研究是近年来的文化热点之一."五·四"时期周作人参与了大量书刊编辑活动,其中和又是其编辑活动的重要阶段.通过分析周作人在创办这两份期刊时编辑思想的深刻变化,籍此解析人生观和世界观的改变对于其编辑理念的巨大影响,由此,进而了解周作人在民族危亡的关键时刻政治操守严重失节的深层次原因.

  11. Neutralisation of venom-induced haemorrhage by IgG from camels and llamas immunised with viper venom and also by endogenous, non-IgG components in camelid sera

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Harrison, R.A.; Hasson, S.S.; Harmsen, M.M.; Laing, G.D.; Theakston, R.D.

    2006-01-01

    Envenoming by snakes results in severe systemic and local pathology. Intravenous administration of antivenom, prepared from IgG of venom immunised horses or sheep, is the only effective treatment of systemic envenoming. Conventional antivenoms, formulated as intact IgG, papain-cleaved (Fab) or pepsi

  12. Psychiatric Analysis of Hero Xiangzi in Camel Xiangzi by Laoshe%老舍《骆驼祥子》中“祥子”的精神分析学解读

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    詹虎

    2014-01-01

    From the perspective of psychiatric analysis,the article analyzes the emotional relationship among Huniu,Xiao Fuzi and Mrs Xia,and Xiangzi's varying psychological structure while facing them three.The article probes into libido proj ection,reverse performance,Anima prototype,psychological motion,changes and development trend of collective unawareness,recognition and identity of subj ect loss.All these are the key to the interpretation of Xiangzi's personality alienation,and the demonstra-tion of the trend and rules of human psychological development.%从精神分析学的视角分析祥子与虎妞、小福子、夏太太3个女性人物的情感纠葛以及祥子面临她们时截然不同的心理结构,并透析祥子心域中力比多投射、反向表现、阿尼玛原型及其集体无意识、认同与对象丧失性认同等心理运动、演变的过程和发展态势,是解读祥子人格异化、呈现人类心理发展某种趋势与规律的关键。

  13. Production systems and reproductive performances of Camelus dromedarius in Somali regional state, eastern Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simenew Keskes

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Across-sectional questionnaire survey and focused group discussions were conducted to characterize camel production systems and to evaluate reproductive performances of camels at their natural pastoralist management systems of Somali region. A total of 100 households were included in the study during the period of October 2012 to March 2013. About 98% of Somali pastoralists preferred camels as their first choice over other livestock species and mainly kept in the society for milk and meat production. The camel management dominating in the study areas of Somali region is traditional nomadic. Camel is one of the most important livestock for Somali pastoralists’ livelihood as a source of milk, meat and draught power. Mature female camels were dominant (54.87% in the camel herd. The ratio of male to female camel was 1:13. Mean age at first calving and calving interval were 62.16±10.44 and 23.28±3.36 months respectively. Age at first calving and calving interval can be minimized to 57±5.52 and 21.84±4.8 months by proper husbandry and health care. The mean lactation length was 11.51±1.91 months. Diseases and predators were reported as the main causes of calf mortality. In the herd dynamic simulation calf mortality rate can be reduced at least to 7% only by preventing predators attack. Diseases (66%, lack of pasture (59% and security (47% were the main constraints in camel production of the study areas. For the better productivity of camels, the major constraints such as disease problems, lack of pasture and tribal conflicts should be mitigated. Proper husbandry and health services can play significant roles in the long term improvement of camel production and productivity of the region.  

  14. Presence of Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus antibodies in Saudi Arabia : a nationwide, cross-sectional, serological study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Müller, Marcel A; Meyer, Benjamin; Corman, Victor M; Al-Masri, Malak; Turkestani, Abdulhafeez; Ritz, Daniel; Sieberg, Andrea; Aldabbagh, Souhaib; Bosch, Berend-J; Lattwein, Erik; Alhakeem, Raafat F; Assiri, Abdullah M; Albarrak, Ali M; Al-Shangiti, Ali M; Al-Tawfiq, Jaffar A; Wikramaratna, Paul; Alrabeeah, Abdullah A; Drosten, Christian; Memish, Ziad A

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Scientific evidence suggests that dromedary camels are the intermediary host for the Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV). However, the actual number of infections in people who have had contact with camels is unknown and most index patients cannot recall any such cont

  15. Acute middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus infection in livestock Dromedaries, Dubai, 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wernery, Ulrich; Corman, Victor M; Wong, Emily Y M; Tsang, Alan K L; Muth, Doreen; Lau, Susanna K P; Khazanehdari, Kamal; Zirkel, Florian; Ali, Mansoor; Nagy, Peter; Juhasz, Jutka; Wernery, Renate; Joseph, Sunitha; Syriac, Ginu; Elizabeth, Shyna K; Patteril, Nissy Annie Georgy; Woo, Patrick C Y; Drosten, Christian

    2015-06-01

    Camels carry Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus, but little is known about infection age or prevalence. We studied >800 dromedaries of all ages and 15 mother-calf pairs. This syndrome constitutes an acute, epidemic, and time-limited infection in camels <4 years of age, particularly calves. Delayed social separation of calves might reduce human infection risk.

  16. Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV): animal to human interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omrani, Ali S; Al-Tawfiq, Jaffar A; Memish, Ziad A

    2015-01-01

    The Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) is a novel enzootic betacoronavirus that was first described in September 2012. The clinical spectrum of MERS-CoV infection in humans ranges from an asymptomatic or mild respiratory illness to severe pneumonia and multi-organ failure; overall mortality is around 35.7%. Bats harbour several betacoronaviruses that are closely related to MERS-CoV but more research is needed to establish the relationship between bats and MERS-CoV. The seroprevalence of MERS-CoV antibodies is very high in dromedary camels in Eastern Africa and the Arabian Peninsula. MERS-CoV RNA and viable virus have been isolated from dromedary camels, including some with respiratory symptoms. Furthermore, near-identical strains of MERS-CoV have been isolated from epidemiologically linked humans and camels, confirming inter-transmission, most probably from camels to humans. Though inter-human spread within health care settings is responsible for the majority of reported MERS-CoV cases, the virus is incapable at present of causing sustained human-to-human transmission. Clusters can be readily controlled with implementation of appropriate infection control procedures. Phylogenetic and sequencing data strongly suggest that MERS-CoV originated from bat ancestors after undergoing a recombination event in the spike protein, possibly in dromedary camels in Africa, before its exportation to the Arabian Peninsula along the camel trading routes. MERS-CoV serosurveys are needed to investigate possible unrecognized human infections in Africa. Amongst the important measures to control MERS-CoV spread are strict regulation of camel movement, regular herd screening and isolation of infected camels, use of personal protective equipment by camel handlers and enforcing rules banning all consumption of unpasteurized camel milk and urine. PMID:26924345

  17. Retail promotions and perceptions of R.J. Reynolds' novel dissolvable tobacco in a US test market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coan Lorinda L

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background With declining cigarette sales, tobacco manufacturers have been developing and marketing new smokeless products, such as R. J. Reynolds' dissolvable tobacco, Camel Sticks, Strips and Orbs. This study assessed the availability, price and point-of-purchase promotional strategies for Camel Dissolvables, and investigated consumer awareness, interest and perception of these products in the Indiana test market. Methods An exploratory retail audit of point-of-purchase promotions was conducted in a random sample of retailers from 6 store categories (n = 81 in the test market area. Data included: store type, location, product placement, forms/flavors carried, price, types and locations of advertisements and promotions, and ad messages. An Awareness-Attitude-Usage (AAU survey was used to gauge consumer awareness and knowledge of tobacco products including Camel Dissolvables. Respondents were shown promotional materials from a package onsert and perceptions and interest in the Camel Dissolvables were assessed. An Intended Target Survey (ITS compared subjects' perceptions of ad targets for several non-tobacco products, as well as Camel Snus, Camel No. 9 and Camel Dissolvables. Respondents were asked to identify each ad's intended target category, perceived targetedness, and purchase intent. Results The products were carried by 46% of stores, most frequently gas stations (100% and convenience stores (75%. They were shelved near smokeless tobacco (70%, cigarettes (25% or candy (5%. Prices ranged from $3.59 -$4.19 per package; most stores carried at least 1 promotional item. Ad messages included: "Dissolvable Tobacco" (60%. "Free Trial" (24%, "Special Price" (24%, "What's Your Style?" (22%. At 14% of stores, free trial packs of Camel Dissolvables were offered with another Camel purchase. Awareness was reported by 42% of respondents (n = 243, and trial by 3%. Consumer interest was very low, but younger respondents ( 40 years, p Conclusions

  18. Proteomics of the milk fat globule membrane from Camelus dromedarius.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saadaoui, Besma; Henry, Céline; Khorchani, Touhami; Mars, Mohamed; Martin, Patrice; Cebo, Christelle

    2013-04-01

    Camel milk has been widely characterized with regards to casein and whey proteins. However, in camelids, almost nothing is known about the milk fat globule membrane (MFGM), the membrane surrounding fat globules in milk. The purpose of this study was thus to identify MFGM proteins from Camelus dromedarius milk. Major MFGM proteins (namely, fatty acid synthase, xanthine oxidase, butyrophilin, lactadherin, and adipophilin) already evidenced in cow milk were identified in camel milk using MS. In addition, a 1D-LC-MS/MS approach led us to identify 322 functional groups of proteins associated with the camel MFGM. Dromedary MFGM proteins were then classified into functional categories using DAVID (the Database for Annotation, Visualization, and Integrated Discovery) bioinformatics resources. More than 50% of MFGM proteins from camel milk were found to be integral membrane proteins (mostly belonging to the plasma membrane), or proteins associated to the membrane. Enriched GO terms associated with MFGM proteins from camel milk were protein transport (p-value = 1.73 × 10(-14)), translation (p-value = 1.08 × 10(-11)), lipid biosynthetic process (p-value = 6.72 × 10(-10)), hexose metabolic process (p-value = 1.89 × 10(-04)), and actin cytoskeleton organization (p-value = 2.72 × 10(-04)). These findings will help to contribute to a better characterization of camel milk. Identified MFGM proteins from camel milk may also provide new insight into lipid droplet formation in the mammary epithelial cell.

  19. Study In Some Quality Attribute Of Meat

    OpenAIRE

    Dr. Siham Abdelwhab Alamin; Prof. Sid Ahmed Elshafia; Prof. Daoud Alzubair Ahmed

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The study aimed to evaluate the quality attributes of fresh camel meat and beef. The result showed that hunter lightness L values were highly significant P 0.001 between the types of meat. Beef recorded higher values of lightness compared to camel meat as 35.40 and 29.56 respectively. Redness a values was significantly P 0.01 between the types of meat studied hence beef recorded the higher values than that in camel meat as 19.60 and 16.45 respectively. The yellowness b values were s...

  20. Novel electronic properties in GaAs/AlAs systems

    CERN Document Server

    Bremme, L E

    2001-01-01

    Mixing. Both theoretical and experimental work on GaAs/AIAs systems is presented in this thesis. A literature survey has revealed that there are many issues concerning bulk AIAs and concerning GaAs/AIAs heterostructures that are not well understood. Based on a set of experimental data (resonant tunneling, cyclotron resonance and photoluminescence measurements), a proper determination of the camel's back dispersion at the X-point of AIAs is presented. The new camel's back is found to be significantly changed from any previous determinations. For this analysis two theoretical methods (an analytical and a transfer matrix approach) are deduced to properly deal with the camel's back dispersion in systems with quantum confinement, such as heterostructures or a quantising magnetic field. This approach has to replace the effective mass treatment commonly used. The new camel's back enables adequate interpretation of experimental data on X sub x -X sub y Interface Band Mixing in confined AIAs systems. In this thesis In...

  1. Reproductive status of Camelus bactrianus during early breeding season in India

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Vyas S; Sharma N; Sheikh FD; Singh S; Sena DS; Bissa UK

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To study the behaviour and reproductive status of the bactrian camel (Camelus bactrianus). Methods:This study was conducted at two places, Government Bactrian Camel Farm, Chusoot, Leh and Hundar village, Nubra valley, India, situated at higher than 10000 feet above sea level during the month of October, said to be initial period of breeding season. Results:The uterine horns were similar to that of dromedary i.e. between T and Y shaped. The ovaries were irregular but without follicle. The male camels were not showing any symptoms of rut or breeding season but were capable of mounting and copulating the sitting female. Conclusions:There is a need to carry out more research on reproduction in Indian Bactrian camel as they have become major attraction of tourists in Nubra valley and has become an important source of livelihood for the people who inhabit high altitude regions.

  2. Molecular characterization of Echinococcus granulosus sensu lato from farm animals in Egypt.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Said Amer

    Full Text Available Little is known on the diversity and public health significance of Echinococcus species in livestock in Egypt. In this study, 37 individual hydatid cysts were collected from dromedary camels (n=28, sheep (n=7 and buffalos (n=2. DNA was extracted from protoscoleces/germinal layer of individual cysts and amplified by PCR targeting nuclear (actin II and mitochondrial (COX1 and NAD1 genes. Direct sequencing of amplicons indicated the presence of Echinococcus canadenesis (G6 genotype in 26 of 28 camel cysts, 3 of 7 sheep cysts and the 2 buffalo derived cysts. In contrast, Echinococcus granulosus sensu stricto (G1 genotype was detected in one cyst from a camel and 4 of 7 cysts from sheep, whereas Echinococcus ortleppi (G5 genotype was detected in one cyst from a camel. This is the first identification of E. ortleppi in Egypt.

  3. Molecular characterization of Echinococcus granulosus sensu lato from farm animals in Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amer, Said; Helal, Ibrahim B; Kamau, Evelyne; Feng, Yaoyu; Xiao, Lihua

    2015-01-01

    Little is known on the diversity and public health significance of Echinococcus species in livestock in Egypt. In this study, 37 individual hydatid cysts were collected from dromedary camels (n=28), sheep (n=7) and buffalos (n=2). DNA was extracted from protoscoleces/germinal layer of individual cysts and amplified by PCR targeting nuclear (actin II) and mitochondrial (COX1 and NAD1) genes. Direct sequencing of amplicons indicated the presence of Echinococcus canadenesis (G6 genotype) in 26 of 28 camel cysts, 3 of 7 sheep cysts and the 2 buffalo derived cysts. In contrast, Echinococcus granulosus sensu stricto (G1 genotype) was detected in one cyst from a camel and 4 of 7 cysts from sheep, whereas Echinococcus ortleppi (G5 genotype) was detected in one cyst from a camel. This is the first identification of E. ortleppi in Egypt.

  4. Construction of a synthetic phage-displayed Nanobody library with CDR3 regions randomized by trinucleotide cassettes for diagnostic applications

    OpenAIRE

    Yan, Junrong; LI, GUANGHUI; Hu, Yonghong; Ou, Weijun; Wan, Yakun

    2014-01-01

    Background Nanobodies (Nbs) have proved their great value as therapeutic molecules and clinical diagnostic tools. Although the routine procedure to obtain Nbs is to immunize camels with antigens, it is unavailable to immunize a camel when the antigens are highly toxic, pathogenic or nonimmunogenic. A synthetic phage display library is an alternative to generate Nbs against such targets, besides all the other ones. Methods We constructed a large and diverse synthetic phage display Nanobody (Nb...

  5. Evaluation of a competitive enzyme immunoassay for detection of Coxiella burnetii antibody in animal sera.

    OpenAIRE

    Soliman, A.K.; Botros, B A; Watts, D M

    1992-01-01

    A competitive enzyme immunoassay (CEIA) was established and compared with other serological techniques for detecting Coxiella burnetii antibody in camels, goats, and sheep. This technique was evaluated because a conjugated anti-camel immunoglobulin was not available to serve as a direct signal for the demonstration of antigen-antibody reaction. A C. burnetii antibody-positive human serum and a peroxidase-conjugated anti-human immunoglobulin G were used as an indicator system competing against...

  6. Measurement of purine derivatives in the urine of some ruminant species

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The application of published high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) methods for the determination of PD in urine of cattle, sheep, buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis) and arabian camels (Camelus dromedarius) was investigated. Urine was taken from two water buffaloes, two camels, three cows and four sheep, all fed at maintenance level. Total nitrogen content in urine was determined using a micro-Kjeldahl procedure. Allantoin, uric acid and creatinine levels were determined colorimetrically while xanthine and hypoxanthine concentrations were determined by HPLC. Relative proportion of allantoin ranged from 74 ± 7 to 91 ± 1% in camels and cattle, respectively. Uric acid proportion was very low in camel urine (1.7 ± 1) but ranged from 3.7 ± 3 to 9.2 ± 1% in sheep and cows, respectively. Xanthine + hypoxanthine ranged from 11 ± 3 to 25 ± 7% in buffalo and camels, respectively. Total PD:Creatinine ratio (mol/mol W0.75) was 118 ± 15, 46 ± 17, 37 ± 9 and 33 ± 5 for cattle, camels, buffaloes and sheep respectively. The adoption of a single method for the simultaneous detection of all derivatives proved difficult due to elution of polar coextractives at the same retention times as the peaks of allantoin, uric acid and creatinine. (author)

  7. PENGUKURAN TINGKAT KESEHATAN DAN GEJALA FINANCIAL DISTRESS BANK UMUM SYARIAH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhamad Nadratuzzaman Hosen

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstrak: Pengukuran Tingkat Kesehatan dan Gejala Financial Distress Bank Umum Syariah. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengukur, menganalisis serta membandingkan tingkat kesehatan Bank Umum Syariah (BUS dengan menggunakan metode CAMELS dan metode Multiple ECR. Faktor asset terdiri dari rasio KAP dan NPF, faktor earning mencakup rasio NOM, ROA, ROE dan REO serta faktor terakhir liquidity mencakup rasio STM dan STMP. Sedangkan pada Multiple Discriminant Analysis (MDA Altman Z-score. Berdasarkan hasil analisis dengan CAMEL ditemukan bahwa ketiga bank syariah yang diteliti tergolong sehat, namun demikian hasil MDA menyatakan ketiga bank tersebut dalam kondisi bankrut. Temuan yang bertentangan tersebut menunjukkan bahwa metode MDA ternyata tidak tepat untuk diterapkan pada perbankan karena karakteristik perbankan sebagai financial intermediatory jauh berbeda dengan karakteristik perusahaan.   Kata kunci: kesehatan bank, CAMELS, financial distress Abstract: Measurement of Financial Soundness and Financial Distress Symptom of Commercial Bank. This study aims to measure, analyze and compare the level of Islamic Banks (BUS soundness using the CAMELS and the Multiple ECR method. The results of the CAMEL analysis show that the three Islamic banks studied are healthy. However, the results of the MDA analysis suggest that those three banks are categorized bankrupt. This conflicting finding indicates that MDA method is not appropriate to assess commercial banks. This is because the natures of commercial bank as a financial intermediary are much different from those of the company. Keywords:  Bank Soundness, CAMELS, financial distress

  8. Toward a comprehensive areal model of earthquake-induced landslides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miles, S.B.; Keefer, D.K.

    2009-01-01

    This paper provides a review of regional-scale modeling of earthquake-induced landslide hazard with respect to the needs for disaster risk reduction and sustainable development. Based on this review, it sets out important research themes and suggests computing with words (CW), a methodology that includes fuzzy logic systems, as a fruitful modeling methodology for addressing many of these research themes. A range of research, reviewed here, has been conducted applying CW to various aspects of earthquake-induced landslide hazard zonation, but none facilitate comprehensive modeling of all types of earthquake-induced landslides. A new comprehensive areal model of earthquake-induced landslides (CAMEL) is introduced here that was developed using fuzzy logic systems. CAMEL provides an integrated framework for modeling all types of earthquake-induced landslides using geographic information systems. CAMEL is designed to facilitate quantitative and qualitative representation of terrain conditions and knowledge about these conditions on the likely areal concentration of each landslide type. CAMEL is highly modifiable and adaptable; new knowledge can be easily added, while existing knowledge can be changed to better match local knowledge and conditions. As such, CAMEL should not be viewed as a complete alternative to other earthquake-induced landslide models. CAMEL provides an open framework for incorporating other models, such as Newmark's displacement method, together with previously incompatible empirical and local knowledge. ?? 2009 ASCE.

  9. Structure and distribution of mucosal immunological ti ssue and cell in reproductive duct of female two-humped camel%雌性双峰驼生殖道粘膜免疫组织和细胞的结构与分布

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈秋生; 苏泽红; 陈晓武

    2001-01-01

    应用光镜和透射电镜观察12峰雌性双峰驼生殖道粘膜免疫组织和细胞的结构与分布.结果显示,输卵管、子宫和阴道的粘膜上皮以及子宫腺上皮内普遍分布着上皮内淋巴细胞(IEL),尤其在子宫颈后段和阴道前段的上皮中可见淋巴细胞浸润现象.从输卵管伞到阴道,固有膜内分布有数量不等的固有层淋巴细胞(LPL)、浆细胞、巨噬细胞和嗜中性粒细胞,在子宫角、子宫体和子宫颈固有膜中还出现淋巴小结,小结内含有一种成群分布的强嗜伊红细胞,细胞大而有突起.子宫颈粘膜上皮和腺上皮内还见嗜中性粒细胞,这些细胞有时充满于子宫颈腺腔内.在子宫(尤其子宫角)固有膜深层和浅肌层分布着成群的肥大细胞,肥大细胞在孕驼子宫内明显减少.母驼生殖道粘膜形成的众多皱襞和腺体大大增加了上皮表面积,进而增大了粘膜免疫组织和细胞的数量.结果提示,双峰驼生殖道具有强大的粘膜免疫功能.

  10. Primary Observation on Apoptosis of Protoscolices of Echinococcus granulosus from Camel Induced by TNF-α In Vitro%TNF-α诱导骆驼源细粒棘球绦虫原头节凋亡的初步实验

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘玉红; 王昕; 康金凤; 刘辉; 胡汉华; 万义

    2007-01-01

    目的 初步探讨TNF-α有无诱导包虫凋亡作用.方法 将 TNF-α加入无菌生理盐水中体外培养骆驼源细粒棘球绦虫原头节.用TUNEL染色、HE染色及电镜观察其有无诱导凋亡作用.结果 各用药组原头节TUNEL染色阳性率与对照组相比,差异有统计学意义(P>0.05),且具有剂量和时间依赖性.电镜下观察到原头节内部有细胞凋亡现象.结论 初步观察到TNF-α在体外对骆驼源细粒棘球绦虫原头节有凋亡诱导作用,且存在剂量和时间依赖性.

  11. Sequencing, analysis, and annotation of expressed sequence tags for Camelus dromedarius.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulaziz M Al-Swailem

    Full Text Available Despite its economical, cultural, and biological importance, there has not been a large scale sequencing project to date for Camelus dromedarius. With the goal of sequencing complete DNA of the organism, we first established and sequenced camel EST libraries, generating 70,272 reads. Following trimming, chimera check, repeat masking, cluster and assembly, we obtained 23,602 putative gene sequences, out of which over 4,500 potentially novel or fast evolving gene sequences do not carry any homology to other available genomes. Functional annotation of sequences with similarities in nucleotide and protein databases has been obtained using Gene Ontology classification. Comparison to available full length cDNA sequences and Open Reading Frame (ORF analysis of camel sequences that exhibit homology to known genes show more than 80% of the contigs with an ORF>300 bp and approximately 40% hits extending to the start codons of full length cDNAs suggesting successful characterization of camel genes. Similarity analyses are done separately for different organisms including human, mouse, bovine, and rat. Accompanying web portal, CAGBASE (http://camel.kacst.edu.sa/, hosts a relational database containing annotated EST sequences and analysis tools with possibility to add sequences from public domain. We anticipate our results to provide a home base for genomic studies of camel and other comparative studies enabling a starting point for whole genome sequencing of the organism.

  12. Severe whipworm (Trichuris spp.) infection in the dromedary (Camelus dromedarius).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eo, Kyung-Yeon; Kwak, Dongmi; Kwon, Oh-Deog

    2014-03-01

    One adult (13-yr-old) and two young (3-4-yr-old) male dromedary camels (Camelus dromedarius) from the Seoul Zoo displayed anorexia and chronic diarrhea for 2 wk. Direct fecal smear examination revealed Trichuris spp. infection. After confirmation of the infection, fenbendazole was orally administered as a suspension; this was repeated two times at 3-wk intervals. A high initial dose (20 mg/kg) was followed by administration at the recommended dose (10 mg/kg). Starting on the day following the first treatment, a large number of adult whipworms were discharged with the feces over a 3-day period. Two young male dromedary camels gradually recovered. However, the adult male dromedary camel developed continuous bloody mucoid diarrhea and died 2 days after treatment. Postmortem examination revealed that numerous whipworms were attached to the mucosa throughout the large intestine.

  13. Biochemical adaptation of camelids during periods where feed is withheld

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Wensvoort

    2001-03-01

    Full Text Available Biochemical changes during fasting or the withholding of feed for 5 day were studied in serum of camelids (dromedary camel, llama and ruminants (sheep, steers. Camels maintained low levels of 13-hydroxybutyrate (BHB and high levels of glucose but showed some increased levels of non-esterified fatty acid (NEFA and urea when fasting. Sheep and steers showed a rise in serum BHB and much higher increases of NEFA than camels and llamas. Sheep showed decreased serum glucose. The llama showed some increase in BHB but NEFA was lower than the other three species. The results indicate that camelids have a unique ability to control lipolytic and gluconeogenic activity to prevent or postpone the state of ketosis. Understanding and manipulation of these metabolic mechanisms in cattle and sheep could have great benefit to the livestock industry.

  14. Detection of antibodies against the orthopox virus cameli in sera of East African dromedaries using two different ELISAs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The suitability of using two different enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) for the detection of immunoglobulin G antibodies against the camel pox virus has been tested by examining 297 sera of dromedaries from Kenya, Somalia and Sudan. The ELISAs were based on an indirect method of antibody detection. One technique used direct conjugation of enzymes to antispecies-antibodies (C-EL), the other a biotin-avidin amplification system (BA-EL). Using the conventional technique (C-EL) on 196 sera of dromedaries from different ranches in Kenya during the period 1981 to 1984 we determined a high prevalence of antibodies, with titres of up to 1:4096. A comparison made for the years 1981 to 1984 showed a slight decrease in antibody titres. Five animals suffering from acute camel pox showed titres between 1:8192 and 1:32768; eight serum samples from Somalia, collected during an outbreak of camel pox, showed titres of 1:2048 to 1:8192. A high prevalence of antibodies was also found in 93 samples from Sudan; 95% of the animals showed titres of between 1:128 and 1:4096. Differences due to sex or age could not be determined. According to these results, camel pox appears to be endemic in the areas investigated. To test the applicability of the new BA-EL method, 60 camel sera were investigated. It was found that the sensitivity and specificity of this technique seem to be superior to those of the standard ELISA. The advantage of BA-EL is that it avoids direct conjugation of enzymes to antispecies-globulins which, in the case of exotic animals, are not commercially available. Both ELISAs can be regarded as suitable for serological screening tests and for rapid serological differentiation of orthopox and parapox virus infections, also in camels. (author)

  15. Seroprevalence of Brucellosis and Q-Fever in Southeast Ethiopian Pastoral Livestock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gumi, Balako; Firdessa, Rebuma; Yamuah, Lawrence; Sori, Teshale; Tolosa, Tadele; Aseffa, Abraham; Zinsstag, Jakob; Schelling, Esther

    2013-03-22

    To assess seroprevalences of Brucella and C. burnetii in pastoral livestock in southeast Ethiopia, a cross-sectional study was carried out in three livestock species (cattle, camels and goats). The study was conducted from July 2008 to August 2010, and eight pastoral associations (PAs) from the selected districts were included in the study. Sera from a total of 1830 animals, comprising 862 cattle, 458 camels and 510 goats were screened initially with Rose Bengal plate test (RBPT) for Brucella. All RBPT positive and 25% of randomly selected negative sera were further tested by ELISA. These comprise a total of 460 animals (211 cattle, 102 camels and 147 goats). Out of sera from total of 1830 animals, 20% were randomly selected (180 cattle, 90 camels and 98 goats) and tested for C. burnetii using ELISA. The seroprevalences of Brucella was 1.4% (95% confidence interval (CI), 0.8-2.6), 0.9% (95% CI, 0.3-2.7)b and 9.6% (95% CI, 5.2-17.1) in cattle, camels and goats, respectively. Goats and older animals were at higher risk of infection (OR=7.3, 95% CI, 2.8-19.1) and (OR=1.7 95% CI, 0.9-2.9), respectively. Out of 98 RBPT negative camel sera, 12.0% were positive for ELISA. The seroprevalences of C. burnetii were 31.6% (95% CI, 24.7-39.5), 90.0% (95% CI, 81.8-94.7) and 54.2% (95% CI, 46.1-62.1) in cattle, camels and goats, respectively. We found positive animals for C. burnetii test in all tested PAs for all animal species. Being camel and older animal was a risk factor for infection (OR=19.0, 95% CI, 8.9-41.2) and (OR=3.6, 95% CI, 2.0-6.6), respectively. High seropositivity of C. burnetii in all livestock species tested and higher seropositive in goats for Brucella, implies risks of human infection by both diseases. Thus, merit necessity of further study of both diseases in animals and humans in the area.

  16. モンゴル国のラクダ乳酒(Hoormog)の性質と製造方法

    OpenAIRE

    石井, 智美; 小宮山, 博

    2010-01-01

    In the Gobi district of State of Mongolia, a Bactrian camel has been kept. We let the milk of the camel ferment in the Gobi district and made Hoormog. However, there are few reports about the property. We investigated it till now in the nomad's house who produced Hoormog in Umunu Gobi prefecture. We investigated it in the of the nomad's house (Mr. L) who had begun to make Hoormog newly in the Darhan Hoor prefecture that was near to the capital in 2008. As for the property of Hoormog of the Da...

  17. Analysis of camelid antibodies for antivenom development: Neutralisation of venom-induced pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Darren A N; Owen, Timothy; Wagstaff, Simon C; Kinne, Joerg; Wernery, Ulrich; Harrison, Robert A

    2010-09-01

    Camelid IgG has been reported to be less immunogenic, less able to activate the complement cascade and more thermostable than IgG from other mammals, and has the ability to bind antigens that are unreactive with other mammalian IgGs. We are investigating whether these attributes of camelid IgG translate into antivenom with immunological and venom-neutralising efficacy advantages over conventional equine and ovine antivenoms. The objective of this study was to determine the preclinical venom-neutralising effectiveness of IgG from camels immunised with venoms, individually or in combination, of the saw-scaled viper, Echis ocellatus, the puff adder, Bitis arietans and the spitting cobra, Naja nigricollis - the most medically-important snake species in West Africa. Neutralisation of the pathological effects of venoms from E. ocellatus, B. arietans and N. nigricollis by IgG from the venom-immunised camels, or commercial antivenom, was compared using assays of venom lethality (ED(50)), haemorrhage (MHD) and coagulopathy (MCD). The E. ocellatus venom ED(50), MHD and MCD results of the E. ocellatus monospecific camel IgG antivenom were broadly equivalent to comparable ovine (EchiTAbG, MicroPharm Ltd, Wales) and equine (SAIMR Echis, South African Vaccine Producer, South Africa) antivenoms, although the equine antivenom required half the amount of IgG. The B. arietans monospecific camel IgG neutralised the lethal effects of B. arietans venom at one fourth the concentration of the SAIMR polyspecific antivenom (a monospecific B. arietans antivenom is not available). The N. nigricollis camel IgG antivenom was ineffective (at the maximum permitted dose, 100 mul) against the lethal effects of N. nigricollis venom. All the equine polyspecific antivenoms required more than 100 microl to be effective against this venom. The polyspecific camel IgG antivenom, prepared from five camels, was effective against the venom-induced effects of E. ocellatus but not against that of B. arietans

  18. Prevalence of hydatid cysts in slaughtered animals in Sirte, Libya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassem, Hamed H; Abdel-Kader, Abdel-Kader M; Nass, Sedigh Ahmed

    2013-04-01

    The prevalence of cystic echinococcosis was studied among the livestock slaughtered in abattoir of Sirte, Libya during the period July 2004 to May 2005. The overall infection rate of 4.9% in sheep, 2.4% in goats, 2.7% in camels and 15% in cattle were observed. The increase in prevalence with age of the animals was statistically significant in the four species. In female goats, examined infection was higher in the male. Liver had higher hydatid cysts than lungs in sheep, goat while infected lungs had higher in camel.

  19. Asian Highlands Perspectives 35

    OpenAIRE

    various

    2015-01-01

    This complete version of AHP 35 features four original research articles, three short stories, and seven book reviews. The research articles include studies of camels in Mang ra County, Sinophone Tibetan author Alai, marmot hunting, and the construction and maintenance of yurts.

  20. Asian Highlands Perspectives 35

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    various

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This complete version of AHP 35 features four original research articles, three short stories, and seven book reviews. The research articles include studies of camels in Mang ra County, Sinophone Tibetan author Alai, marmot hunting, and the construction and maintenance of yurts.

  1. Selection and characterization of camelid nanobodies towards urokinase-type plasminogen activator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaczmarek, Jakub; Skottrup, Peter Durand

    2015-01-01

    , increased cancer malignancy and poor survival prognosis. For these reasons uPA is considered an important target for anticancer drug therapy. In this study we isolated two camel single domain antibodies (nanobodies) from a naïve library by phage display. The nanobody sequences were sequence...

  2. Investigating Salmonella Eko from Various Sources in Nigeria by Whole Genome Sequencing to Identify the Source of Human Infections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leekitcharoenphon, Pimlapas; Raufu, Ibrahim; Thorup Nielsen, Mette;

    2016-01-01

    Twenty-six Salmonella enterica serovar Eko isolated from various sources in Nigeria were investigated by whole genome sequencing to identify the source of human infections. Diversity among the isolates was observed and camel and cattle were identified as the primary reservoirs and the most likely...

  3. Investigating Salmonella Eko from Various Sources in Nigeria by Whole Genome Sequencing to Identify the Source of Human Infections.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pimlapas Leekitcharoenphon

    Full Text Available Twenty-six Salmonella enterica serovar Eko isolated from various sources in Nigeria were investigated by whole genome sequencing to identify the source of human infections. Diversity among the isolates was observed and camel and cattle were identified as the primary reservoirs and the most likely source of the human infections.

  4. A Study of Siliceous Pneumoconiosis in a Desert Area of Sunan County,Gansu Province,China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1993-01-01

    Three hundred and ninety five residents in a desert area were examined with chest radiographs and 28 cases with siliceous pneumoconiosis were found.The prevalence of siliceous pneumoconiosis was 7.09%,and that over 40 years of age was 21%.The histological findings of lungs from a camel living in that area for 20 years also confirmed to have siliceous pneumoconiosis.

  5. Modular and aggregation resistant Vh antibodies from a phage display library

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friis, Niels Anton; Mandrup, Ole Aalund; Lykkemark, Simon;

    2012-01-01

    through immunisation of sharks or camels, or alternatively from recombinant libraries1. The domain antibodies have certain advantages, both pharmacologically and technically. Here we report the construction of a semi-synthetic and highly modular antibody library, based on a human framework (V3-23/D47...

  6. Antibodies against MERS coronavirus in dromedaries, United Arab Emirates, 2003 and 2013

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meyer, Benjamin; Müller, Marcel A.; Corman, Victor M.; Reusken, Chantal B E M; Ritz, Daniel; Godeke, Gert Jan; Lattwein, Erik; Kallies, Stephan; Siemens, Artem; van Beek, Janko; Drexler, Jan F.; Muth, Doreen; Bosch, Berend Jan; Wernery, Ulrich; Koopmans, Marion P G; Wernery, Renate; Drosten, Christian

    2014-01-01

    Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) has caused an ongoing outbreak of severe acute respiratory tract infection in humans in the Arabian Peninsula since 2012. Dromedary camels have been implicated as possible viral reservoirs. We used serologic assays to analyze 651 dromedary came

  7. MERS: Emergence of a novel human coronavirus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    V.S. Raj (Stalin); A.D.M.E. Osterhaus (Albert); R.A.M. Fouchier (Ron); B.L. Haagmans (Bart)

    2014-01-01

    textabstractA novel coronavirus (CoV) that causes a severe lower respiratory tract infection in humans, emerged in the Middle East region in 2012. This virus, named Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS)-CoV, is phylogenetically related to bat CoVs, but other animal species like dromedary camels ma

  8. Reliable typing of MERS-CoV variants with a small genome fragment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.L. Smits (Saskia); V.S. Raj (Stalin); S.D. Pas (Suzan); C.B.E.M. Reusken (Chantal); K.A. Mohran (Khaled A.); E. Farag (Elmoubasher); H.E. Al Romaihi (Hamad); M.M. AlHajri (Mohd); B.L. Haagmans (Bart); M.P.G. Koopmans D.V.M. (Marion)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Middle East Respiratory Syndrome coronavirus (. MERS-CoV) is an emerging pathogen that causes lower respiratory tract infection in humans. Camels are the likely animal source for zoonotic infection, although exact transmission modes remain to be determined. Human-to-human tra

  9. Middle east respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) serology in major livestock species in an affected region in Jordan, june to September 2013

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C.B.E.M. Reusken (Chantal); M. Ababneh; V.S. Raj (Stalin); B. Meyer (Bernhard); A. Eljarah; S. Abutarbush; G-J. Godeke (Gert-Jan); T.M. Bestebroer (Theo); I. Zutt (I.); M.A. Müller (Marcel); B.J. Bosch (Berend Jan); P.J.M. Rottier (Peter); A.D.M.E. Osterhaus (Albert); C. Drosten (Christian); B.L. Haagmans (Bart); M.P.G. Koopmans D.V.M. (Marion)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractBetween June and September 2013, sera from 11 dromedary camels, 150 goats, 126 sheep and 91 cows were collected in Jordan, where the first human Middle-East respiratory syndrome (MERS) cluster appeared in 2012. All sera were tested for MERS-coronavirus (MERS-CoV) specific antibodies by p

  10. Independent introduction of two lactase-persistence alleles into human populations reflects different history of adaptation to milk culture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enattah, Nabil Sabri; Jensen, Tine G K; Boyd, Mette;

    2008-01-01

    the same history, probably related to the same cattle domestication event. In contrast, the compound Arab allele shows a different, highly divergent ancestral haplotype, suggesting that these two major global LP alleles have arisen independently, the latter perhaps in response to camel milk consumption...

  11. 78 FR 77563 - Technical Amendments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-24

    ... Stat. 857 (1996). \\5\\ 5 U.S.C. 551. Final Rule Generally, the Administrative Procedure Act (APA... reflect the conversion to the CAMEL rating system for corporate credit unions. The APA permits an agency... under section 553(b)(3)(B) of the APA.\\6\\ NCUA also finds good cause to dispense with the 30-day...

  12. 中国-新记录属——小裸囊菌属%Gymnascella, a Newly Recorded Genus in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨红; 吕国忠; 刘志恒; 赵志慧

    2009-01-01

    @@ INTRODUCTION The genus Gymnascella was established by Peck in 1884 (see Kirk et al. 2008) with the type species G aurantiaca. As an onygenalean ascomycetes it was unusual because it was mainly isolated from camel skin, human ear and foot, ulcerated chicken gizzard, bat and fox dung, dog tick and soil enriched with dung or keratinous debris (Currah 1985).

  13. Diagnostic approaches for Rift Valley Fever

    Science.gov (United States)

    Disease outbreaks caused by arthropod-borne animal viruses (arboviruses) resulting in significant livestock and economic losses world-wide appear to be increasing. Rift Valley fever (RVF) virus (RVFV) is an important arbovirus that causes lethal disease in cattle, camels, sheep and goats in Sub-Saha...

  14. Utility of Antibody Avidity for Rift Valley Fever Virus Vaccine Potency and Immunogenicity Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Disease outbreaks caused by arthropod-borne animal viruses (arboviruses) resulting in significant livestock and economic losses world-wide appear to be increasing. Rift Valley fever (RVF) virus is an important arbovirus that causes lethal disease in cattle, camels, sheep and goats in sub-Saharan Afr...

  15. Impact of selected coagulants and starters on primary proteolysis and amino acid release related to bitterness and structure of reduced-fat Cheddar cheese

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Børsting, Mette Winther; Qvist, Karsten Bruun; Rasmussen, Morten;

    2012-01-01

    Despite substantial research, it is still difficult to produce high quality reduced-fat Cheddar cheese. The objective of this study was to investigate how two coagulants, bovine chymosin (BC) and camel chymosin (CC) having different proteolytic activities and two starter cultures, an O-culture (O...

  16. 75 FR 23515 - Assessments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-03

    ..., the rule set initial assessment rates using a financial ratios method, which combined the weighted average CAMELS component rating and certain financial ratios. (This method was also applied to all small... institution is determined by either the financial ratios method applicable to all small institutions or,...

  17. Investigating Salmonella Eko from Various Sources in Nigeria by Whole Genome Sequencing to Identify the Source of Human Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leekitcharoenphon, Pimlapas; Raufu, Ibrahim; Nielsen, Mette T.; Rosenqvist Lund, Birthe S.; Ameh, James A.; Ambali, Abdul G.; Sørensen, Gitte; Le Hello, Simon; Aarestrup, Frank M.; Hendriksen, Rene S.

    2016-01-01

    Twenty-six Salmonella enterica serovar Eko isolated from various sources in Nigeria were investigated by whole genome sequencing to identify the source of human infections. Diversity among the isolates was observed and camel and cattle were identified as the primary reservoirs and the most likely source of the human infections. PMID:27228329

  18. Investigating Salmonella Eko from Various Sources in Nigeria by Whole Genome Sequencing to Identify the Source of Human Infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leekitcharoenphon, Pimlapas; Raufu, Ibrahim; Nielsen, Mette T; Rosenqvist Lund, Birthe S; Ameh, James A; Ambali, Abdul G; Sørensen, Gitte; Le Hello, Simon; Aarestrup, Frank M; Hendriksen, Rene S

    2016-01-01

    Twenty-six Salmonella enterica serovar Eko isolated from various sources in Nigeria were investigated by whole genome sequencing to identify the source of human infections. Diversity among the isolates was observed and camel and cattle were identified as the primary reservoirs and the most likely source of the human infections.

  19. Asymptomatic MERS-CoV Infection in Humans Possibly Linked to Infected Dromedaries Imported from Oman to United Arab Emirates, May 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Hammadi, Zulaikha M; Chu, Daniel K W; Eltahir, Yassir M; Al Hosani, Farida; Al Mulla, Mariam; Tarnini, Wasim; Hall, Aron J; Perera, Ranawaka A P M; Abdelkhalek, Mohamed M; Peiris, J S M; Al Muhairi, Salama S; Poon, Leo L M

    2015-12-01

    In May 2015 in United Arab Emirates, asymptomatic Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus infection was identified through active case finding in 2 men with exposure to infected dromedaries. Epidemiologic and virologic findings suggested zoonotic transmission. Genetic sequences for viruses from the men and camels were similar to those for viruses recently detected in other countries.

  20. An Adventure Gone Awry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    BRANDON; TAYLOR

    2010-01-01

    Istared out at the mountains of sand in front of me-the Taklimakan Desert reaching off into the distance. A few camels yowled somewhere nearby. My guide sauntered over, his feet slipping in the unstable sand. "Ready to go?" he said. "Oh

  1. Triacylglycerol and melting profiles of milk fat from several species

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smiddy, M.A.; Huppertz, T.; Ruth, van S.M.

    2012-01-01

    Gas chromatography and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) were used to differentiate the fats of cow, goat, sheep, water buffalo, donkey, horse and camel milk (n = 20 for each species). Principal component analysis of triacylglycerol (TAG) composition allowed classification into groups accordin

  2. Brucellosis in Milk and Milk Products and Its Importance

    OpenAIRE

    Keskin, Dilek; TOROĞLU, Sevil

    2007-01-01

    Brucellosis, caused by Brucella spp, is a zoonotic disease which is patogenic to human. Brucella spp especially can be host cattle, sheep, goats, water bufalo pigs, dogs, camel, deer, certain poultry and human even tick and some artropod. Brucella spp are very important for public health because, along causing important economical losses, they infect man via milk and milk products of infected animals.

  3. Muslim Students in Post-9/11 Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jandali, Ameena K.

    2012-01-01

    "Terrorist," "son of bin Laden," "camel jockey," "raghead," "towel-head"--variations of the same epithets resurface in each generation with the same painful impact. While Muslim students in public schools were objects of derision and harassment long before 9/11, the situation in the past decade has become markedly worse. Bullying and harassment…

  4. Parental Influences on the Prevalence and Development of Child Aggressiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahl, Klaus; Metzner, Cornelia

    2012-01-01

    The development of aggressiveness between 5 and 17 years and some parental influences on this development were analyzed using data from Germany. International studies have shown a "camel humps" curve, i.e., a peak of aggression of children (primarily boys) between 2 and 4 years and a second peak of antisocial or aggressive behavior of boys between…

  5. Por uma cidade que se move e se comunica: corpo, rua e improviso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Saldanha Vieira de Aguiar

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho trata da relação de um lugar com suas pessoas. A reflexão acontece a partir de um estudo de caso: o Camelódromo da Praça XV. O Camelódromo foi uma grande feira, que durante 40 anos ocupou um espaço importante no centro de Porto Alegre/RS. (Auto organizado e vivido principalmente pelo povo, o fenômeno se configurava em um lugar onde improviso e estética constituiam o modo de ser e agir no cotidiano da rua. Ironicamente, no início de 2009, o Camelódromo foi transferido para dentro de um prédio. Hoje, onde se desenrolava o espetáculo do imprevisível, encontra-se um estacionamento para carros. Este trabalho foi produzido nos últimos meses do Camelódromo; em um espírito de elogio à estética do improviso e à auto-organização. Buscamos articular idéias da teoria da complexidade, do urbanismo, das artes e da comunicação, para tentar compreender um pouco essa manifestação espontânea, tão característica da urbe no século XXI.

  6. Effects of drought on the animal population in Eritrea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woldehiwet, Z.; Haywood, S.; Trafford, J.

    1985-08-17

    Most nomads in Eritrea have lost their animals due to outright starvation or diseases aggravated by malnutrition, resulting in part from drought. Animals surviving the drought itself are succumbing to infectious diseases and ecto- and endoparasites. Affected animals include camels as well as bovine and caprine populations.

  7. Imagery as Ethical Inquiry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Gaye Leigh

    2000-01-01

    Discusses five realms to explore when distinguishing the efficacy of images. Explores six ethical issues that the use of images raise, such as misconception and sensationalism. Proposes a strategy for analyzing controversial images and illustrates the use of this methodology by analyzing the use of "Joe Camel" in advertising. (CMK)

  8. Diagnostic evaluation of a nanobody with picomolar affinity toward the protease RgpB from Porphyromonas gingivalis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skottrup, Peter Durand; Leonard, Paul; Kaczmarek, Jakub;

    2011-01-01

    Porphyromonas gingivalis is one of the major periodontitis-causing pathogens. P. gingivalis secretes a group of proteases termed gingipains, and in this study we have used the RgpB gingipain as a biomarker for P. gingivalis. We constructed a naive camel nanobody library and used phage display...

  9. Endoparasites of exotic ungulates from the Giraffidae and Camelidae families kept ex situ.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nosal, Paweł; Kowal, Jerzy; Kornaś, Sławomir; Wyrobisz, Anna; Skotnicki, Józef; Basiaga, Marta; Plucińska, Natalia E

    2016-01-01

    Giraffes and camels are popular attractions at zoological gardens. In order to present the diversity of parasites infecting exotic ungulates from zoos, faecal samples from three giraffes and six camels from both the Silesian Zoological Garden in Chorzów, and Kraków Zoological Garden, were examined. The research was carried out over a ten-month period in 2013 and 2014. In total, 100 faecal samples from 18 animals were analysed with the use of the McMaster method. Moreover, coccidian oocysts were incubated to investigate their development and larvoscopic examination was conducted to detect the presence of nematode species. Giraffes were infected with coccidia from the genus Eimeria, and gastrointestinal nematodes from the Strongylida order, and Trichuris and Aonhotheca genera. One male giraffe was uninfected. The level of infection in giraffes was low when compared to camels kept in both of the zoos. Limited contact with other animal species contributed greatly to the lower level of infection in camels from Kraków Zoo than those from Chorzów, which were kept in the same enclosure as alpacas and Shetland ponies. PMID:27262960

  10. Investigating Salmonella Eko from Various Sources in Nigeria by Whole Genome Sequencing to Identify the Source of Human Infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leekitcharoenphon, Pimlapas; Raufu, Ibrahim; Nielsen, Mette T; Rosenqvist Lund, Birthe S; Ameh, James A; Ambali, Abdul G; Sørensen, Gitte; Le Hello, Simon; Aarestrup, Frank M; Hendriksen, Rene S

    2016-01-01

    Twenty-six Salmonella enterica serovar Eko isolated from various sources in Nigeria were investigated by whole genome sequencing to identify the source of human infections. Diversity among the isolates was observed and camel and cattle were identified as the primary reservoirs and the most likely source of the human infections. PMID:27228329

  11. Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay To Differentiate the Antibody Responses of Animals Infected with Brucella Species from Those of Animals Infected with Yersinia enterocolitica O9

    OpenAIRE

    Erdenebaatar, Janchivdorj; Bayarsaikhan, Balgan; Watarai, Masahisa; Makino, Sou-Ichi; Shirahata, Toshikazu

    2003-01-01

    Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays using antigens extracted from Brucella abortus with n-lauroylsarcosine differentiated natural Brucella-infected animals from Brucella-vaccinated or Yersinia enterocolitica O9-infected animals. A field trial in Mongolia showed cattle, sheep, goat, reindeer, camel, and human sera without infection could be distinguished from Brucella-infected animals by conventional serological tests.

  12. A molecular survey on cystic echinococcosis in Sinnar area,Blue Nile state (Sudan)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kamal Ibrahim; Romig Thomas; Kern Peter; Rihab All Omer

    2011-01-01

    Background Cystic echinococcosis (CE) is a zoonosis caused by the cestodes of the Echinococcus species. Its life cycle involves dogs and other canids as definitive hosts for the intestinal tapeworm, as well as domestic and wild ungulates as intermediate hosts for the tissue-invading metacestode (larval) stage. The disease has a special impact on disadvantaged pastoralist communities and is listed now among the three top priority neglected tropical disease (NTD).Therefore, CE is a neglected disease even in high endemicity regions. This study aimed at investigation of the prevalence of CE in different animals slaughtered for food consumption in Sinnar area, Blue Nile states in Sudan.Methods A survey of CE in livestock was conducted from April 2009 to March 2011 in Sinnar area, Blue Nile state in Sudan. Location, parasitological status and fertility conditions were determined. In addition, 120 hydatid cysts (30 from camels, 62 from cattle and 28 from sheep) were examined by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and mitochondrial gene sequencing for the genetic allocation of Echinococcus strains or species Results The prevalence of CE was 29.7% (30/101) in camels, 2.7% (62/2310) in cattle and 0.6% (26/4378) in sheep. It was shown that infection rates increased with age in camels, cattle and sheep. In camels, 67% (20/30) of the infected animals were aged between 2-5 years whereas 58% (36/62) of the infected cattle were >5 years. In sheep, the prevalence rate was distributed equally between animals ranging 2-5 years and >5 years. Even though multiple cysts were found in some animals, the average number of cysts per animal was close to 1 in all examined species. Lungs were found to be the predilection sites for the parasite in both camels and cattle, while most of the cysts found in sheep were located in the liver. About 63.4% of cysts encountered in camels were considered as large (5-7 cm), whereas those in cattle and sheep were medium (2-4 cm) and small (<2

  13. Heavy chain only antibodies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moghimi, Seyed Moein; Rahbarizadeh, Fatemeh; Ahmadvand, Davoud;

    2013-01-01

    Unlike conventional antibodies, heavy chain only antibodies derived from camel contain a single variable domain (VHH) and two constant domains (CH2 and CH3). Cloned and isolated VHHs possess unique properties that enable them to excel conventional therapeutic antibodies and their smaller antigen-...... for combating HER2+ breast cancer. © 2013 by Tabriz University of Medical Sciences.......Unlike conventional antibodies, heavy chain only antibodies derived from camel contain a single variable domain (VHH) and two constant domains (CH2 and CH3). Cloned and isolated VHHs possess unique properties that enable them to excel conventional therapeutic antibodies and their smaller antigen......-binding fragments in cancer targeting and therapy. VHHs express low immunogenicity, are highly robust and easy to manufacture and have the ability to recognize hidden or uncommon epitopes. We highlight the utility of VHH in design of new molecular, multifunctional particulate and immune cell-based systems...

  14. Infection, Replication, and Transmission of Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus in Alpacas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adney, Danielle R; Bielefeldt-Ohmann, Helle; Hartwig, Airn E; Bowen, Richard A

    2016-06-01

    Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus is a recently emerged pathogen associated with severe human disease. Zoonotic spillover from camels appears to play a major role in transmission. Because of logistic difficulties in working with dromedaries in containment, a more manageable animal model would be desirable. We report shedding and transmission of this virus in experimentally infected alpacas (n = 3) or those infected by contact (n = 3). Infectious virus was detected in all infected animals and in 2 of 3 in-contact animals. All alpacas seroconverted and were rechallenged 70 days after the original infection. Experimentally infected animals were protected against reinfection, and those infected by contact were partially protected. Necropsy specimens from immunologically naive animals (n = 3) obtained on day 5 postinfection showed virus in the upper respiratory tract. These data demonstrate efficient virus replication and animal-to-animal transmission and indicate that alpacas might be useful surrogates for camels in laboratory studies. PMID:27070385

  15. CCPIT-TEX Paves New Silk Road

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    2000 years ago, Silk Road was considered the concernful channel of trade promotion that connects China and the world, stretching thousands of miles running through the desert. At that time, groups of Chinese traders crossed this road with the help of camels at the risk oflosing their own life in the desert; venturing their trade in westerncountries. Nowadays, sands have covered this road and soundfrom camel bells has died out for a long time, but the pioneeringspirit of Chinese trade forerunners has been passed to us despitethe lapse of time. As a trade platform of China’s textile and apparelenterprises, the Sub-Council of Textile Industry, China Council forthe Promotion of International Trade (CCPIT TEX) was consideredas an intangible Silk Road that provides trade opportunitiesthrough organizing expo. and exhibitions.

  16. Penerapan Metode Multiple Discriminant Analysis untuk Mengukur Tingkat Kesehatan yang Mengindikasikan Gejala Financial Distress pada Bank Umum Syariah

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shofaun Nada

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This research aims to account, analyse, and compare the level of Islamic commercial bank's health using CAMELS method mentioned in PBI No. 9/1/PBI/2007 and SEBI No. 9/24/DPBs/2007, and using multiple discriminant analysis (MDA altman z-score method. There are only four from six factors that used in CAMELS: capital, asset, earning, and liquidity excluding management and sensivity of market risk factor. The variables of capital factors are KPMM and ECR ratio. Asset factor consist of KAP and NPF ratio. Earning factor contains four ratios, such as NOM, ROA, ROE, and REO.DOI: 10.15408/aiq.v5i2.2119

  17. Penerapan Metode Multiple Discriminant Analysis untuk Mengukur Tingkat Kesehatan yang Mengindikasikan Gejala Financial Distress pada Bank Umum Syariah

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shofaun Nada

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This research aims to account, analyse and compare the level ofIslamic commercial bank’s health using CAMELS method mentioned in PBI No.9/1/PBI/2007 and SEBI No 9/24/DPbS/2007 and using multiple discriminant analysis (MDA altman z-score method. There are only four of six factors that used in CAMELS: capital, asset, earning and liquidity excluding Management and Sensitivity of Market Risk factor. The variables of capital factors are KPMM and ECR ratio. Asset factor consist of KAP and NPF ratio. Earning factor contains four ratios, such as NOM, ROA, ROE and REODOI: 10.15408/aiq.v5i2.2566

  18. Adolescents' responses to cigarette advertisements: links between exposure, liking, and the appeal of smoking

    OpenAIRE

    Arnett, J J; Terhanian, G.

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVE—To evaluate adolescents' responses to cigarette advertisements for different brands.
DESIGN—Adolescents were shown one print advertisement for each of five cigarette brands (Camel, Marlboro, Kool, Benson & Hedges, and Lucky Strike). They indicated on a structured questionnaire how many times they had seen the advertisement (or one almost like it), how much they liked it, whether or not they thought it made smoking more appealing, and whether or not it made them want to smoke cigaret...

  19. Risk of Escherichia coli O157:H7, Non-O157 Shiga Toxin-Producing Escherichia coli, and Campylobacter spp. in Food Animals and Their Products in Qatar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammed, Hussni O; Stipetic, Korana; Salem, Ahmed; McDonough, Patrick; Chang, Yung Fu; Sultan, Ali

    2015-10-01

    Escherichia coli O157:H7, non-O157 E. coli, and Campylobacter spp. are among the top-ranked pathogens that threaten the safety of food supply systems around the world. The associated risks and predisposing factors were investigated in a dynamic animal population using a repeat-cross-sectional study design. Animal and environmental samples were collected from dairy and camel farms, chicken processing plants, and abattoirs and analyzed for the presence of these pathogens using a combination of bacterial enrichment and real-time PCR tests without culture confirmation. Data on putative risk factors were also collected and analyzed. E. coli O157:H7 was detected by PCR at higher levels in sheep and camel feces than in cattle feces (odds ratios [OR], 6.8 and 21.1, respectively). Although the genes indicating E. coli O157:H7 were detected at a relatively higher rate (4.3%) in fecal samples from dairy cattle, they were less common in milk and udder swabs from the same animals (1 and 2%, respectively). Among the food adulterants, E. coli O103 was more common in cattle fecal samples, whereas O26 was more common in sheep feces and O45 in camel feces compared with cattle (OR, 2.6 and 3.1, respectively). The occurrence of E. coli in the targeted populations differed by the type of sample and season of the year. Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli were more common in sheep and camel feces than in cattle feces. Most of the survey and surveillance of E. coli focused on serogroup O157 as a potential foodborne hazard; however, based on the PCR results, non-O157 Shiga toxin-producing E. coli serotypes appeared to be more common, and efforts should be made to include them in food safety programs.

  20. No Fools with Horses

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MarkGodfrey

    2004-01-01

    HORSES have been around China for a long time. The Mongols conquered China on horseback and ruled as the Yuan Dynasty for a century. The terracotta warriors in Xi'an, cavalrymen by their steeds, date from the pre-millennial Qin Dynasty. Tang Dynasty ceramics depic thorses and camels, and many generals of the Republic of China in the 1920s had a predilection for equestrian statues of themselves.

  1. Antioxidant activity and fatty acid profile of fermented milk prepared by Pediococcus pentosaceus

    OpenAIRE

    Balakrishnan, Gayathri; Agrawal, Renu

    2012-01-01

    Probiotics are the class of beneficial microorganisms that have positive influence on the health when ingested in adequate amounts. Probiotic fermented milk is one of the dairy products that is prepared by using probiotic lactic acid bacteria. The study comprised preparation of fermented milk from various sources such as cow, goat and camel. Pediococcus pentosaceus which is a native laboratory isolate from cheese was utilized for the product formation. Changes in functional properties in the ...

  2. The killing desert?: droogte, nomadentradities en ontwikkelingsbestuur bij de Turkana

    OpenAIRE

    P. Wymeersch; Beke, D.

    1987-01-01

    The Turkana are nomadic pastoralists who live in the desert regions of northwestern Kenya. The majority of the Turkana practice no agriculture nor fishing and live exclusively from the products of their livestock (milk, blood and meat). They keep multiple species herds (cattle, camels, goats, sheep and donkeys) in order to buffer the variations in the quality and distribution of vegetal resources and water requirements. The Turkana were one of many affected by several droughts. Although the f...

  3. Activities of the Animal Production and Health Laboratory (Animal Production and Health Newsletter, No. 63, January 2016)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This article provides information on: • Animal Genetics: Genetic variation on the control of resistance to internal parasites in small ruminants for improving animal productivity; Support to MSs for implementation of Global Plan of Action on animal genetic resources (AnGR); • Animal Health: Application of irradiation technology to develop a potential trypanosome vaccine; African swine fever; Study of pox diseases in Ethiopian camels; • Fellows/interns/consultants; • Field suppprt missions

  4. A Con A- purified hydatid glycoprotein fraction effectively diagnoses human hydatidosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamel, Manal M; Maher, Kesmat M; Rabia, Ibrahim; Helmy, Ahmed H; El-Adawi, Azza I; Mousa, Mousa A; Mahgoub, Abeer M

    2006-12-01

    Diagnosis and quantification of Echinococcus granulosus infection in man and animal hosts are centralized to feasible control. This study included 93 serum samples, 25 sure positive hydatid cases confirmed surgically, 7 suspected cases diagnosed by indirect haemagglutination IHA and 41 cases other parasitic infections (15 S. mansoni, 8 Fasciola, 7 Ascaris, 5 H. nana & 6 Ancylostoma) diagnosed by microscopic examination and were negative by ELISA and/or IHA for anti-hydatid antibody. Twenty negative serum samples served as healthy controls. Six types of hydatid fluid antigens (crude, host-free & Con-A purified) of human and camel origin were subjected to electrophoretic separation (SDS-PAGE) and immunoblotting (EITB). The anti-hydatid IgG was detected in sera of the different groups for evaluation of sensitivity, specificity and diagnostic efficacy of each type of antigens. Detection of circulating hydatid antigen (CAg) was performed using anti rabbit hyperimmune sera raised against Con-A purified either human or camel hydatid antigen. SDS-PAGE revealed several bands ranging from 55-185 kDa with 10 kDa band shared by all antigens. The specific bands revealed by EITB for Con-A purified camel and human antigens were at 80, 110 & 55, 110 kDa respectively. ELISA highest sensitivity (96.9%) was by using host-free Con-A purified glycoprotein fraction of human hydatid antigen. Highest specificity (98.4%) was recorded upon use of either Con-A purified camel or human antigen with 94.5% & 97.7% diagnostic efficacy respectively. Detection of circulating antigen by polyclonal antibodies against Con-A purified human hydatid antigen revealed 91.8% specificity.

  5. Emerging viral diseases of livestock in the developing world

    OpenAIRE

    Bayry, Jagadeesh

    2013-01-01

    Emerging and reemerging viral diseases of livestock and human beings are in sharp rise in recent years. Importantly, many of these viruses, including influenza, Hendra, Nipah and corona are of zoonotic importance. Several viral diseases of livestock such as bluetongue, peste des petits ruminants, camel pox, equine infectious anaemia, chicken anaemia and sheep-associated malignant catarrhal fever are crossing their traditional boundaries. Emergence of new serotypes and variant forms of viruses...

  6. Milking drylands : gender networks, pastoral markets and food security in stateless Somalia

    OpenAIRE

    M. Nori

    2010-01-01

    The Milking Drylands research initiative addresses the critical issues of food security, market integration, gender roles and governance matters in a peculiar area of the world, the Somali ecosystem. The research aims at exploring interesting dynamics of ongoing social change, in order to stimulate appropriate understanding of complex pastoral economics and provide options for sensitive interventions. More specifically camel milk marketing is a developing women enterprise in Somali drylands, ...

  7. Impact of cattle on the prevalence and severity of trachoma.

    OpenAIRE

    Sole, G.

    1987-01-01

    Ethiopia is the African country with the largest number of cattle (26 million). Because of the potential impact of cattle on the transmission and severity of trachoma, the major cause of blindness in the country, an attempt is made to document this association to justify the inclusion of the control of cattle pollution in the prevention of blindness. The prevalence of trachoma is lower in pastoralists who herd mainly camels than in pastoralists who herd mainly cattle. In the first group the p...

  8. Seroprevalence of peste des petits ruminants among domestic small and large ruminants in the semi-arid region of North-eastern Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Abdul-Dahiru El-Yuguda; Saka Saheed Baba; Abdul Ganiyu Ambali; Godon O Egwu

    2013-01-01

    Background: Recent changes in the host range of peste des petits ruminants (PPR) virus coupled with the presence of a hugeruminant population in the study area has stimulated our interest to carry out a sero-survey for PPR among the differentdomestic ruminant populations of semi-arid region of North-eastern (NE) Nigeria.Materials and Methods: The prevalence of PPR virus antibodies among domestic animals (goat, sheep, cattle and camel)populations in NE Nigeria was studied using virus neutralis...

  9. What happens when Trypanosoma brucei leaves Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Jensen, Robert E.; Simpson, Larry; Englund, Paul T.

    2008-01-01

    Julius Lukeš and co-workers evaluated the evolutionary origin of Trypanosoma equiperdum and Trypanosoma evansi, parasites that cause horse and camel diseases. Although similar to T. brucei, the sleeping-sickness parasite, these trypanosomes do not cycle through the tsetse fly and have been able to spread beyond Africa. Transmission occurs sexually, or via blood-sucking flies or vampire bats. They concluded that these parasites, which resemble yeast petite mutants, are T. brucei sub-species, w...

  10. Species Diversity and Distribution of Ticks (Acari: Ixodidae) in Zabol County, Eastern Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Maryam Ganjali; Mansour Dabirzadeh; Masoud Sargolzaie

    2014-01-01

    Background: Ticks are important vectors of human and animal pathogens. They are considered as main vectors for transmission of many viral, bacterial, rickettsial and parasitical pathogens. The aim of the present study was to find out species diversity of ticks, which infested the domestic ruminants in Zabol County, Eastern Iran in 2012. Methods: Ticks were selected randomly from sheep, goats, cattle and camels. The ticks were collected from the body of infested animals and stored in 70% ethan...

  11. MOLECULAR CHARACTERIZATION AND IMMUNOPROTECTIVE ACTIVITY OF CAPSULAR POLYSACCHARIDE OF KLEBSIELLA PNEUMONIAE ISOLATED FROM FARM ANIMALS AT TAIF GOVERNORATE

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmed M.A. Mansour; Hoda M. Zaki; Nibal A. Hassan; Abdulrahman A. Al-Humiany

    2014-01-01

    Klebsiella pneumoniae is a Gram-negative enterobacterium that has historically been and currently remains, a significant cause of human disease and several kinds of infections in animals. In the present work, trials for the isolation of Klebsiella pneumoniae from diseased and apparently healthy farm animals (cows, sheep, goats and camels) were done for recognition of Klebsiella pneumoniae subspecies. It was noticed that there was a marked variation between incidences of Klebsiella pneumoniae ...

  12. Alpaca (Lama pacos) as a convenient source of recombinant camelid heavy chain antibodies (VHHs)

    OpenAIRE

    Maass, David R.; Sepulveda, Jorge; Pernthaner, Anton; Shoemaker, Charles B.

    2007-01-01

    Recombinant single domain antibody fragments (VHHs) that derive from the unusual camelid heavy chain only IgG class (HCAbs) have many favourable properties compared with single-chain antibodies prepared from conventional IgG. As a result, VHHs have become widely used as binding reagents and are beginning to show potential as therapeutic agents. To date, the source of VHH genetic material has been camels and llamas despite their large size and limited availability. Here we demonstrate that the...

  13. Expression, purification, and characterization of a diabody against the most important angiogenesis cell receptor: Vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2

    OpenAIRE

    Mahdi Behdani; Sirous Zeinali; Morteza Karimipour; Hossein Khanahmad; Nader Asadzadeh; Kayhan Azadmanesh; Negar Seyed; Seyed Farzad Baniahmad; Mahdi Habibi Anbouhi

    2012-01-01

    Antibodies and their derivative fragments have long been used as tools in a variety of applications, in fundamental research work, biotechnology, diagnosis, and therapy. Camels produce single heavy-chain antibodies (VHH) in addition to usual antibodies. These minimal-sized binders are very robust and bind the antigen with high affinity in a monomeric state. Vascular endothelial growth factor recepror-2 (VEGFR2) is an important tumor-associated receptor that blockade of its signaling can lead ...

  14. PHENOTYPING, VIRULENCE CHARACTERISTICS OF AEROMONAS SPECIES AND THE EFFECTS OF ESSENTIAL PLANT OILS AS ANTIMICROBIAL AGENTS AGAINST PATHOGENIC ISOLATES FROM DIFFERENT SOURCES

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmed M.A. Mansour; Hoda M. Zaki; Nibal A. Hassan; Nihad A.M. El-Nashar

    2014-01-01

    Aeromonas species are increasingly recognized as enteric pathogens. Faecal samples from 20 cow, 45 sheep; 60 goat and 60 camels were examined for the presence of Aeromonas species, which was also sought in the available drinking water (55 well water and 52 drinking chlorinated tap water were also examined). Aeromonas species was isolated more frequently from goats (21.7%) than from other animal groups sampled and isolated more frequentl...

  15. Variation in mitochondrial minichromosome composition between blood-sucking lice of the genus Haematopinus that infest horses and pigs

    OpenAIRE

    Song, Simon D; Barker, Stephen C.; Shao, Renfu

    2014-01-01

    Background The genus Haematopinus contains 21 species of blood-sucking lice, parasitizing both even-toed ungulates (pigs, cattle, buffalo, antelopes, camels and deer) and odd-toed ungulates (horses, donkeys and zebras). The mitochondrial genomes of the domestic pig louse, Haematopinus suis, and the wild pig louse, Haematopinus apri, have been sequenced recently; both lice have fragmented mitochondrial genomes with 37 genes on nine minichromosomes. To understand whether the composition of mito...

  16. INVESTIGATION ON THE ACUTE AND SUBACUTE TOXICITY OFALHAGI GRAECORUM IN EXPERIMENTAL ANIMALS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huda Gargum

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Little is known about the acute and subacute toxicity of Alhagi Graecorum (Camel Thorn in mice. The aim of this study is to investigate the acute toxicity (LD50 and sub acute toxicity of camel thorn in mice. For determination of LD50, mice weighing 25-30 g were divided into nine groups each of 6 animals and received 130, 330, 660, 1300, 2600, 4200, 5000, 5900 and 6900 mg/kg orally of camel thorn water extract respectively. The sign and symptoms of toxicity and the number of died animals in each group were registered and the LD50 was calculated.Another group of Male albino mice weighed 25-30 g were divided into control and different treated group each of 6 mice and placed in the metabolism cages that allowed daily measurement of food and water consumption. The control received normal saline whereas the other groups received 130, 660, 1300 mg/kg (i.p, daily of camel thorn extract (CTErespectively, for two weeks.. The animals were weighed daily for any sign of reduction or gain of body weight. The food and water consumption were daily calculated. At the end of this experiment, the mice were killed and blood was collected and used for the determination of glucose and the serum creatinine,urea, aspartate, aminotransferase, (AST and alanine aminotransferase (ALT levels.The liver of the animals were removed,fixed in 10%formaline for histopathological investigation. The LD50 was equal to 5400mg/kg.Results of sub acute toxicity studies revealed that no significant weight reduction were observed in treated groups as compared to control, however the food consumption was significantly increased in the mice received 660mg/kg of CTE . Also the water consumption was significantly decreased in the animal receiving 1300mg/kg of CTE.

  17. GROSS AND MICROSCOPIC ANATOMY OF MAMMARY GLAND OF DROMEDARIES UNDER DIFFERENT PHYSIOLOGICAL CONDITIONS

    OpenAIRE

    R. Kausar, A. Sarwar and C.S. Hayat

    2001-01-01

    Samples of 24 mammary glands from healthy one-humped camel (Camelus dromedarius) cows were investigated under different physiological conditions for their gross and light microscopic anatomy. Different groups included equal number of immature heifers, mature heifers, lactating and non-lactating animals. Tissues fixed in 10% NBF were processed as per routine and stained with hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) and Massons trichome. Morphometry was done with the help of stage and ocular micrometer. Gro...

  18. GROSS AND MICROSCOPIC ANATOMY OF MAMMARY GLAND OF DROMEDARIES UNDER DIFFERENT PHYSIOLOGICAL CONDITIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Kausar, A. Sarwar and C.S. Hayat

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available Samples of 24 mammary glands from healthy one-humped camel (Camelus dromedarius cows were investigated under different physiological conditions for their gross and light microscopic anatomy. Different groups included equal number of immature heifers, mature heifers, lactating and non-lactating animals. Tissues fixed in 10% NBF were processed as per routine and stained with hematoxylin and eosin (H&E and Massons trichome. Morphometry was done with the help of stage and ocular micrometer. Gross studies revealed that the camel's udder consists of four quarters. The udder and teat showed light brown to solid black tinge in colour. The tips of teats sloped to a point both in immature and mature animals, however, the conformation of teats turned rounded at the tips in lactating camels. Each teat possessed two teat canals. The dimensions of teat and streak canal varied markedly among four different groups. Number of Furestenberg's rosettes ranged from 11.6 to 13.6. Microscopic studies revealed that streak canal was lined by stratified squamous keratinized epithelium that was partially extremely thin in some parts. Cutaneous layer of teat was devoid of hair follicles except at the base of teat. Follicles were associated with sebaceous glands. Sweat glands were less coiled and showed a wide acinous element forming the part of excretory duct. Glomus organs occurred in the stratum profundum of the corium as well as in the subcutis of the skin of mammary gland. They also revealed great variation in structure and size. Epithelial lining of the alveoli varied from flattened to columnar according to physiological state. Number and size of alveoli per lobule decreased and the parenchyma was replaced by loose connective tissue during non-lactating phase. These results suggested that age and lactation considerably influenced gross and microscopic anatomy of mammary gland in camels.

  19. Prevalence of Hydatid Cysts in Livestock Animals in Xinjiang, China

    OpenAIRE

    Qingling, Meng; Guanglei, Wang; Jun, Qiao; Xinquan, Zhu; Tianli, Liu; Xuemei, Song; Jinsheng, Zhang; Huisheng, Wang; Kuojun, Cai; Chuangfu, Chen

    2014-01-01

    Hydatid worms, hosted by humans and animals, impose serious human health risk and cause significant livestock production loss. To better understand the disease infection status in Xinjiang, China, we investigated the disease epidemics in 4 livestock animals, i.e., cattle, sheep (both sheep and goat), camels, and horses, slaughtered at the abattoirs in Urumqi, Yining, Tacheng, and Altay areas. The results showed that the animals were infected at different rates, in the order of sheep (9.8%), c...

  20. Epidemiological study of hydatidosis in the dromedaries (Camelus dromedarius) of different regions of Iran

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Moghaddas Elham; Borji Hassan; Naghibi Aboul Ghasem; Razmi Gholamreza; Shayan Parviz

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To determine the prevalence of hydatidosis in dromedaries.Methods:2011. The relationship between host age and the mean number of hydatid cysts, and prevalence and fertility rates was analyzed using chi-square test.Results:438 dromedaries were examined in five regions of Iran from 20 March, 2010 to 19 March, Echinococcus granulosus. Number of cysts was 700 with 72.5% lung cyst. The highest rate of infection was that 54 (40%) of camels was found in the Khorasan Razavi region (in the north-east part of Iran) while the lowest 6 (4.4%) of camels was found in Semnan province. Infection was higher in >15 years age group. The most commonly infected organs were lungs (72.5%) followed by liver (12.6%). Both liver and lungs together constituted 14.8% of infection. A comparison found that hydatid cysts of liver had a higher fertility rate (32.57%) than that of lung (19%); while most of cysts of lung were calcified (24.42%). The mean number of protoscoleces per mL in the lung fertile cysts was higher than that of liver cysts. Fertile or sterile might be due to the different species or genotypes. The mean number of cysts in infected liver and lungs was 1-5 cysts. The intensity of infection increased with age.Conclusions:The results of current study can make a background data for implementing hydatid One hundred and thirty five out of 438 (30.82%) camels harboured hydatid cysts of control programs and warrant the importance of camel in public health.

  1. Antioxidant activity and fatty acid profile of fermented milk prepared by Pediococcus pentosaceus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balakrishnan, Gayathri; Agrawal, Renu

    2014-12-01

    Probiotics are the class of beneficial microorganisms that have positive influence on the health when ingested in adequate amounts. Probiotic fermented milk is one of the dairy products that is prepared by using probiotic lactic acid bacteria. The study comprised preparation of fermented milk from various sources such as cow, goat and camel. Pediococcus pentosaceus which is a native laboratory isolate from cheese was utilized for the product formation. Changes in functional properties in the fermented milks obtained from three different species were evaluated. Antioxidant activity determined by DPPH assay showed activity in probiotic fermented milk obtained from all the products being highest in goat milk (93 %) followed by product from camel milk (86 %) and then product from cow milk (79 %). The composition of beneficial fatty acids such as stearic acid, oleic acid and linoleic acid were higher in fermented milk than the unfermented ones. Results suggested that probiotic bacteria are able to utilize the nutrients in goat and camel milk more efficiently compared to cow milk. Increase in antioxidant activity and fatty acid profile of fermented milks enhances the therapeutic value of the products. PMID:25477694

  2. Echinococcus granulosus sensu lato GENOTYPES IN DOMESTIC LIVESTOCK AND HUMANS IN GOLESTAN PROVINCE, IRAN.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharbatkhori, Mitra; Tanzifi, Asal; Rostami, Sima; Rostami, Masoomeh; Fasihi Harandi, Majid

    2016-01-01

    Cystic echinococcosis (CE) is a globally parasitic zoonosis caused by larval stages of Echinococcus granulosus. This study investigated E. granulosus genotypes isolated from livestock and humans in the Golestan province, northern Iran, southeast of the Caspian sea, using partial sequencing data of the cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (cox1) and NADH dehydrogenase 1 (nad1) mitochondrial genes. Seventy E. granulosus isolates were collected from animals in slaughterhouses: 18 isolates from sheep, 40 from cattle, nine from camels, two from buffaloes and one from a goat, along with four human isolates (formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissues) from CE patients of provincial hospitals. All isolates were successfully analysed by PCR amplification and sequencing. The sequence analysis found four E. granulosus genotypes among the 74 CE isolates: G1 (78.3%), G2 (2.7%), G3 (15%) and G6 (4%). The G1-G3 complex genotype was found in all of the sheep, goat, cattle and buffalo isolates. Among the nine camel isolates, the frequency of G1-G3 and G6 genotypes were 66.7% and 33.3%, respectively. All four human CE isolates belonged to E. granulosus sensu stricto. This study reports the first occurrence of the G2 genotype in cattle from Iran and confirms the previously reported G3 genotype in camels in the same country.

  3. Dromedaries (Camelus dromedarius) are of Low Susceptibility to Inoculation with Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus Serotype O

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alexandersen, Søren; Wernery, U.; Nagy, P.;

    2008-01-01

    ,,; of illness or vesicular lesions. However, one of them had a raised body temperature at 3 days post-inoculation (pi) and a viraemia from days 2 to 10; probang samples from this animal were negative for infections virus, but a low level of FMDV RNA was detected in a sample taken on day 6 pi, five other samples......Two sheep and five dromedaries were inoculated with a highdose of a cattle-passaged type O strain of foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV). The sheep developed typical FMD. The inoculated camels, which were placed in contact with five further dromedaries and four sheep, showed no visible sign...... taken front days 3 to 28 being negative. Examination of mouth swabs indicated a low level of FMDV RNA at days 1-5 pi in four of the five inoculated camels, but no infectious FMDN7 or FMDV RNA was detected in serum, probang or month swab samples front contact-exposed animals (camels and sheep). All...

  4. Echinococcus granulosus sensu lato GENOTYPES IN DOMESTIC LIVESTOCK AND HUMANS IN GOLESTAN PROVINCE, IRAN

    Science.gov (United States)

    SHARBATKHORI, Mitra; TANZIFI, Asal; ROSTAMI, Sima; ROSTAMI, Masoomeh; HARANDI, Majid FASIHI

    2016-01-01

    Cystic echinococcosis (CE) is a globally parasitic zoonosis caused by larval stages of Echinococcus granulosus. This study investigated E. granulosus genotypes isolated from livestock and humans in the Golestan province, northern Iran, southeast of the Caspian sea, using partial sequencing data of the cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (cox1) and NADH dehydrogenase 1 (nad1) mitochondrial genes. Seventy E. granulosus isolates were collected from animals in slaughterhouses: 18 isolates from sheep, 40 from cattle, nine from camels, two from buffaloes and one from a goat, along with four human isolates (formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissues) from CE patients of provincial hospitals. All isolates were successfully analysed by PCR amplification and sequencing. The sequence analysis found four E. granulosus genotypes among the 74 CE isolates: G1 (78.3%), G2 (2.7%), G3 (15%) and G6 (4%). The G1-G3 complex genotype was found in all of the sheep, goat, cattle and buffalo isolates. Among the nine camel isolates, the frequency of G1-G3 and G6 genotypes were 66.7% and 33.3%, respectively. All four human CE isolates belonged to E. granulosus sensu stricto. This study reports the first occurrence of the G2 genotype in cattle from Iran and confirms the previously reported G3 genotype in camels in the same country. PMID:27253740

  5. Coping with shortage of adequate food by livestock in the extreme desert

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goats, camels and donkeys are the traditional livestock of man in the extreme deserts of the Middle East. In the harsh environment where these animals are raised precipitation is sparse. Following a short rainy season, pasture in this area dries out and its quality deteriorates. To meet their energy requirements, livestock graze unselectively and consume mostly dry plant material that is high in fibre and low in protein. This behaviour allows for high stocking rates. In the present study the energy and nitrogen metabolism of livestock characteristic of the extreme desert were studied in the laboratory under mid-summer conditions (maximum daily temperature: 35 deg. C; RH: 60 to 80%; maximum solar radiation: 0.959 W/cm2). Experiments were conducted on eight Bedouin goats, four camels and five donkeys. Throughout the study the animals were maintained in unshaded metabolism cages and were tested in sequence under two different diets: high quality roughage (alfalfa hay, 25% crude fibre, 18% crude protein) and low quality roughage (wheat straw, 35% crude fibre, 5% crude protein). The gross energy intake, dry matter digestibility, resting oxygen consumption and urea nitrogen kinetics were assessed. When on alfalfa hay, all three species gained virtually the same amount of digestible energy on a mass specific basis. When on wheat straw, the gross energy intake in the goat, camel and donkey was lower by 64, 76 and 25%, respectively, than on alfalfa hay. Oxygen consumption on alfalfa hay was lowest in the Bedouin goat and highest in the donkey. When tested on wheat straw, the oxygen consumption amounted to 66, 52 and 43% of the values recorded when on alfalfa hay in the goat, donkey and camel, respectively. Urea recycling, as a percentage of urea entry rate in animals fed alfalfa hay, amounted to 40.3, 16.8 and 59.0% in goats, donkeys and camels, respectively, and when on wheat straw 69.3, 85.3 and 90.6%, respectively. It is concluded that livestock indigenous to the desert

  6. Chemical Composition, Nitrogen Fractions and Amino Acids Profile of Milk from Different Animal Species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafiq, Saima; Huma, Nuzhat; Pasha, Imran; Sameen, Aysha; Mukhtar, Omer; Khan, Muhammad Issa

    2016-07-01

    Milk composition is an imperative aspect which influences the quality of dairy products. The objective of study was to compare the chemical composition, nitrogen fractions and amino acids profile of milk from buffalo, cow, sheep, goat, and camel. Sheep milk was found to be highest in fat (6.82%±0.04%), solid-not-fat (11.24%±0.02%), total solids (18.05%±0.05%), protein (5.15%±0.06%) and casein (3.87%±0.04%) contents followed by buffalo milk. Maximum whey proteins were observed in camel milk (0.80%±0.03%), buffalo (0.68%±0.02%) and sheep (0.66%±0.02%) milk. The non-protein-nitrogen contents varied from 0.33% to 0.62% among different milk species. The highest r-values were recorded for correlations between crude protein and casein in buffalo (r = 0.82), cow (r = 0.88), sheep (r = 0.86) and goat milk (r = 0.98). The caseins and whey proteins were also positively correlated with true proteins in all milk species. A favorable balance of branched-chain amino acids; leucine, isoleucine, and valine were found both in casein and whey proteins. Leucine content was highest in cow (108±2.3 mg/g), camel (96±2.2 mg/g) and buffalo (90±2.4 mg/g) milk caseins. Maximum concentrations of isoleucine, phenylalanine, and histidine were noticed in goat milk caseins. Glutamic acid and proline were dominant among non-essential amino acids. Conclusively, current exploration is important for milk processors to design nutritious and consistent quality end products. PMID:26954163

  7. Echinococcosis /hydatidosis in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MB Rokni

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available "nCystic echinococcosis caused by Echinococcus spp. is considered endemic in Iran. To clarify the pre­sent status of hydatidosis in Iran the present review article is presented. Authentic databases and search engines from 1996 onwards were utilized to enquire the situation of the disease in Iran. Human hydati­dosis is responsible for approximately 1% of admission to surgical wards and the rate of human infec­tion is 0.6-1.2/100000. The usual order of involvement, i.e. liver, lung, and other organs, respectively is documented here as well. Risk factors include contact with dog, eating vegetable, geophagy and con­tact with sheep. Dogs play a critical role in transition the hydatidosis. The rate of infec­tion with E. granulo­sus in stray dogs shows a prevalence of 5% to 49% in different parts of Iran. Followed by sheep with 88% fertilized cysts, camel with 70%, and cattle with 19% have been considered as the most important and the weakest intermediate host of E. granulosus, respectively. Molecular analyses clearly indicate that the camel/dog strain (G6 genotype of E. granulosus as well as the cosmopolitan, common sheep strain (G1 genotype occurs in Iran. A wide variety of livestock including sheep, cattle, goat, camel and buffalo also harbor the disease.  E. multilocularis another agent of human hydatidosis (alveolar cyst is reported here as well and from 1946 to 1993, 37 cases of human alveo­lar echinococcosis were reported from northwestern Iran.  Hydatidosis must be consid­ered as a dilemma in Iran because of its endemicity in the country.

  8. Epidemiological Studies on Echinococcosis and Characterization of Human and Livestock Hydatid Cysts in Mauritania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CB Ould Ahmed Salem

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Echinococcosis/hydatidosis is considered endemic in Mauritania. The aim of this study is to present an epidemiological study on the echinococcosis in man and animals in the Nouakchott region. Methods: The internal organs from livestock carcasses were inspected for research of hydatid cysts. The hydatid fluid was examined for research of the protoscoleces. Dogs were necropsied for the collect of Echinococcus granulosus.Results: In the Nouakchott Hospital, 24 surgical operation of human hydatid cysts have been per­formed, out of which 50% were localised in the lung, 33% in the liver and 17% elsewhere. Then, the incidence rate would be of 1.2% per 100 000 inhabitants in Mauritania. In the dog, the prevalence rate is 14%. The average number of E. granulosus on the whole dogs is 172 and 1227 on the positive dogs. Concerning the livestock, hydatid cysts found in 30.1% of the dromedary, 5.5% of the cattle and 6.5 of the sheep. The fertility rate of hydatid cysts in humans (75% and camels (76% was significantly higher than that of sheep (24% and cattle (23% (P<0.0001. Hydatid infestation is characterized globally by the dominance of pulmonary localiza­tions in hu­mans (50% and camels (72.7% and in the liver in sheep (76.1% and cattle (82.3%.Conclusion: The differences between prevalence rates, the fertility of hydatid cysts and diversity sites localization observed in humans and camels of one hand and the sheep and cattle on the other hand, depends possibly the strain(s diversity of E. granulosus.

  9. Creating a Learning Community for Solutions to Climate Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloom, A. J.; Benedict, B. A.; Blockstein, D. E.; Hassenzahl, D. M.; Hunter, A.; Jorgensen, A. D.; Pfirman, S. L.

    2011-12-01

    The rapidly evolving and interdisciplinary nature of climate change presents a challenge to colleges and universities as they seek to educate undergraduate students. To address this challenge, the National Council for Science and the Environment (NCSE) with NSF funding is creating a nationwide cyber-enabled learning community called CAMEL (Climate, Adaptation, and Mitigation e-Learning). CAMEL engages experts in science, policy and decision-making, education, and assessment in the production of a virtual toolbox of curricular resources designed for teaching climate change causes, consequences, and solutions. CAMEL is: ? Developing cyberinfrastructure that supports and promotes the creation of materials and community; ? Generating materials for the Encyclopedia of Earth, a site averaging 50,000 views per day; ? Ensuring that materials developed and shared are founded on the best available scientific information and follow the most appropriate educational practices; ? Assisting faculty at institutions of higher education across the United States as they create, improve, test, and share resources for teaching students not only how to diagnose climate change problems, but also to identify and effect solutions; ? Evaluating the determinants of successful community building using cybermedia. The community and resultant content range from general education to upper division courses for students in a variety of majors. At the center of the community are the 160 colleges and universities represented in NCSE's Council of Environmental Deans and Directors. Members of this group represent recognized expertise in virtually all areas of this project. A team with substantial experience with evaluating innovative initiatives in STEM education is administering the evaluation component.

  10. Chemical Composition, Nitrogen Fractions and Amino Acids Profile of Milk from Different Animal Species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafiq, Saima; Huma, Nuzhat; Pasha, Imran; Sameen, Aysha; Mukhtar, Omer; Khan, Muhammad Issa

    2016-01-01

    Milk composition is an imperative aspect which influences the quality of dairy products. The objective of study was to compare the chemical composition, nitrogen fractions and amino acids profile of milk from buffalo, cow, sheep, goat, and camel. Sheep milk was found to be highest in fat (6.82%±0.04%), solid-not-fat (11.24%±0.02%), total solids (18.05%±0.05%), protein (5.15%±0.06%) and casein (3.87%±0.04%) contents followed by buffalo milk. Maximum whey proteins were observed in camel milk (0.80%±0.03%), buffalo (0.68%±0.02%) and sheep (0.66%±0.02%) milk. The non-protein-nitrogen contents varied from 0.33% to 0.62% among different milk species. The highest r-values were recorded for correlations between crude protein and casein in buffalo (r = 0.82), cow (r = 0.88), sheep (r = 0.86) and goat milk (r = 0.98). The caseins and whey proteins were also positively correlated with true proteins in all milk species. A favorable balance of branched-chain amino acids; leucine, isoleucine, and valine were found both in casein and whey proteins. Leucine content was highest in cow (108±2.3 mg/g), camel (96±2.2 mg/g) and buffalo (90±2.4 mg/g) milk caseins. Maximum concentrations of isoleucine, phenylalanine, and histidine were noticed in goat milk caseins. Glutamic acid and proline were dominant among non-essential amino acids. Conclusively, current exploration is important for milk processors to design nutritious and consistent quality end products. PMID:26954163

  11. Molecular characterization of Cysticercus tenuicollis of slaughtered livestock in Upper Egypt governorates

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mosaab Adl Eldin Omar; Layla Omran Elmajdoub; Mohammad Saleh Al-Aboody; Ahmed Mahmoud Elsify; Ahmed Osman Elkhtam; Abdelnasser A Hussien

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To present the molecular characterization of Cysticercus tenuicollis (C. tenuicollis) of Taenia hydatigena (T. hydatigena) from livestock isolates in Egypt, and to introduce a detailed image of C. tenuicollis infection in ruminant animals in Upper Egypt. Methods: The prevalence rates of C. tenuicollis infections among the slaughtered ani-mals from different organs were determined using the amplification of sequencing of the MT-CO1 gene. Results: In the present study the infection rates of C. tenuicollis were found to be 16%and 19% in sheep and goat samples respectively. Firstly we report one larval stage of T. hydatigena detected in the camel liver in Egypt. C. tenuicollis infection manifested a higher prevalence in females than in males. Those above two years of age manifested a higher infection rate than younger animals. The preferred site for the infection was the omentum: a 70% preference in sheep and a 68% preference in goats. The molecular characterization using the MT-CO1 gene of isolates from sheep, goats and camels cor-responded to T. hydatigena. For this study, molecular characterizations of T. hydatigena were done for the first time in Egypt. Molecular tools are of great assistance in charac-terizing the C. tenuicollis parasite especially when the morphological character cannot be detected, because the metacestodes are frequently confused with infection by the hydatid cyst, especially when these occur in the visceral organs. In the present study, C. tenuicollis manifested high identity in the goat and sheep samples, while differences were found more frequently in the camel samples (10 base pair). Conclusions: Clearly molecular diagnosis for C. tenuicollis infection significantly helps to differentiate it from such other metacestodes as hydatidosis, which manifests a completely different pathogenicity and requires different control programs.

  12. New and traditional smokeless tobacco: comparison of toxicant and carcinogen levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stepanov, Irina; Jensen, Joni; Hatsukami, Dorothy; Hecht, Stephen S

    2008-12-01

    Declining cigarette use and spreading bans on smoking in public places in the United States are encouraging the U.S. cigarette industry to turn to another tobacco category, smokeless tobacco products. Currently, a number of new brands are being test marketed, including Taboka, Marlboro Snus, Camel Snus, and Skoal Dry. We report here levels of tobacco-specific nitrosamines (TSNAs), alkaloids, anions, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), and volatile aldehydes in these products, and compare them to the most popular traditional moist snuff brands. Total TSNAs averaged 1.97 microg/g dry weight tobacco in Taboka, Marlboro Snus, and Camel Snus, 4.54 microg/g tobacco in Skoal Dry, and 7.42 microg/g tobacco in traditional brands. The amounts of unprotonated nicotine averaged 0.961 mg/g tobacco in Taboka, Marlboro Snus, and Skoal Dry, 7.22 mg/g tobacco in Camel Snus, and 7.57 mg/g tobacco in traditional brands. Levels of minor tobacco alkaloids were relatively high in Taboka, Marlboro Snus, and Skoal Dry, as compared to other products analyzed here. Levels of nitrite and nitrate in new U.S. smokeless tobacco products and the Swedish snus General were lower than those in the other products. Remarkably high levels of chloride and some PAH were observed in the traditional moist snuff. Crotonaldehyde levels were about five times higher in Taboka and Marlboro Snus than in traditional products. The large variation in the levels of some toxicants and carcinogens analyzed here indicates that more effort is required from the U.S. tobacco industry to further reduce their amounts in new and traditional smokeless tobacco products. PMID:19023828

  13. High proportion of MERS-CoV shedding dromedaries at slaughterhouse with a potential epidemiological link to human cases, Qatar 2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elmoubasher A. B. A. Farag

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Two of the earliest Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS cases were men who had visited the Doha central animal market and adjoining slaughterhouse in Qatar. We show that a high proportion of camels presenting for slaughter in Qatar show evidence for nasal MERS-CoV shedding (62/105. Sequence analysis showed the circulation of at least five different virus strains at these premises, suggesting that this location is a driver of MERS-CoV circulation and a high-risk area for human exposure. No correlation between RNA loads and levels of neutralizing antibodies was observed, suggesting limited immune protection and potential for reinfection despite previous exposure.

  14. Rhetoric and the digital humanities

    CERN Document Server

    Ridolfo, Jim

    2015-01-01

    The digital humanities is a rapidly growing field that is transforming humanities research through digital tools and resources. Researchers can now quickly trace every one of Issac Newton's annotations, use social media to engage academic and public audiences in the interpretation of cultural texts, and visualize travel via ox cart in third-century Rome or camel caravan in ancient Egypt. Rhetorical scholars are leading the revolution by fully utilizing the digital toolbox, finding themselves at the nexus of digital innovation.Rhetoric and the Digital Humanities is a timely, multidisciplinary c

  15. Middle East respiratory syndrome: A new global threat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatia, Pradeep Kumar; Sethi, Priyanka; Gupta, Neeraj; Biyani, Ghansham

    2016-01-01

    The outbreak of Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS) is reported from Saudi Arabia and the Republic of Korea. It is a respiratory disease caused by coronavirus. Camels are considered as a source for MERS transmission in humans, although the exact source is unknown. Human-to-human transmission is reported in the community with droplet and contact spread being the possible modes. Most patients without any underlying diseases remain asymptomatic or develop mild clinical disease, but some patients require critical care for mechanical ventilation, dialysis and other organ support. MERS is a disease with pandemic potential and awareness, and surveillance can prevent such further outbreaks. PMID:27013745

  16. Morphology of Blastocystis sp. isolated from circus animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stenzel, D J; Cassidy, M F; Boreham, P F

    1993-08-01

    Blastocystis sp. is reported for the first time from faecal samples collected from a camel, a llama, a highland bull and a lion in a travelling circus. Fresh faecal specimens were examined by light and electron microscopy, and vacuolar and cyst forms of similar morphology were present in all three ungulates. These cells were smaller than cultured vacuolar cells of Blastocystis hominis isolated from humans and contained only a single vacuole in comparison to the multivacuolar cell found in fresh human faeces. The taxonomic relationship of Blastocystis isolated from humans and ungulates remains to be determined. The number of parasites present in the lion sample was too small to make valid comparisons.

  17. Heavy Chain Only Antibodies: A New Paradigm in Personalized HER2+ Breast Cancer Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Moein Moghimi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Unlike conventional antibodies, heavy chain only antibodies derived from camel contain a single variable domain (VHH and two constant domains (CH2 and CH3. Cloned and isolated VHHs possess unique properties that enable them to excel conventional therapeutic antibodies and their smaller antigen-binding fragments in cancer targeting and therapy. VHHs express low immunogenicity, are highly robust and easy to manufacture and have the ability to recognize hidden or uncommon epitopes. We highlight the utility of VHH in design of new molecular, multifunctional particulate and immune cell-based systems for combating HER2+ breast cancer.

  18. Medical grand rounds. West Virginia University Health Sciences Center. Bites and stings. Part 1. Spiders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ullrich, I H

    1989-04-01

    Most animals can bite or sting. In narrowing the kingdom down to those that harm humans, the field still is vast. It would be interesting to explore the rich variety of pathology produced in us by moray eels, lionfish, sea urchins, jellyfish, sting rays, fire ants, kissing bugs, flies, lice, mosquitoes, ticks, mites, fleas, puss caterpillars, centipedes, snakes, dogs and cats, camels, and myriad other creatures including homo sapiens (not a trivial biter)--but for this grand rounds, the topic will simply be spiders (Part 1), bees and vespid (Part 2). Vespids are the wasps, yellow jackets and hornets.

  19. The Symplectic Egg

    CERN Document Server

    de Gosson, Maurice A

    2012-01-01

    We invite the reader (presumably an upper level undergraduate student) to a journey leading from the continent of Classical Mechanics to the new territories of Quantum Mechanics. We'll be riding the symplectic camel and have William of Occam as travel companion, so no excess baggage is allowed. The first part of our trip takes us from the symplectic egg to Gromov's non-squeezing theorem and its dynamical interpretation. The second part leads us to a symplectic formulation of the quantum uncertainty principle, which opens the way to new discoveries.

  20. Risk management in the banking industry

    OpenAIRE

    Gambetta Lopassio, Nicolás

    2016-01-01

    El negocio bancario está altamente regulado porque las instituciones financieras captan ahorro público y tienen riesgos específicos y complejidades que hacen que sus estados financieros sean opacos y difíciles de analizar por el público en general (Petrella y Resti, 2013; Morgan, 2001). Para entender y monitorear los riesgos específicos en las empresas del sector financiero, el regulador estadounidense diseñó el sistema de evaluación CAMELS, que es comúnmente utilizado por los reguladores ...

  1. Powder method for detecting latent fingerprints: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sodhi, G S; Kaur, J

    2001-09-01

    The powder technique for detecting latent fingerprints involves the application of a finely divided formulation to the fingermark impression, generally with a glass-fibre or a camel hair brush. The powder gets mechanically adhered to the sweat residue defining the ridge pattern. The furrows which are devoid of the fingerprint residue, do not adhere the powder onto them. The final outcome is that the powder formulation sticks to the ridges, but is easily blown off the furrows. Since the powder is normally coloured, the ridge pattern becomes visible and the latent print is said to have developed.

  2. Taking ATLAS to new heights

    CERN Multimedia

    Abha Eli Phoboo, ATLAS experiment

    2013-01-01

    Earlier this month, 51 members of the ATLAS collaboration trekked up to the highest peak in the Atlas Mountains, Mt. Toubkal (4,167m), in North Africa.    The physicists were in Marrakech, Morocco, attending the ATLAS Overview Week (7 - 11 October), which was held for the first time on the African continent. Around 300 members of the collaboration met to discuss the status of the LS1 upgrades and plans for the next run of the LHC. Besides the trek, 42 ATLAS members explored the Saharan sand dunes of Morocco on camels.  Photos courtesy of Patrick Jussel.

  3. Accountability: Antecedents, Power, and Processes

    OpenAIRE

    Tröhler, Daniel; Meyer, Heinz-Dieter; Labaree, David F.; Hutt, Ethan L.

    2014-01-01

    During the past decade “accountability” has emerged as the master rationale for education reform. Given its ubiquity and central role in current policy and practice, it is almost possible to forget that even 15 years ago the term was hardly ever used and accountability, in today’s sense, was virtually a nonissue. That is surprising given the certainty with which advocates claim accountability as the needle’s eye through which the camel of public education reform must pass. How has this ch...

  4. The principles of Newtonian and quantum mechanics the need for Planck's constant, h

    CERN Document Server

    De Gosson, M A

    2001-01-01

    This book deals with the foundations of classical physics from the "symplectic" point of view, and of quantum mechanics from the "metaplectic" point of view. The Bohmian interpretation of quantum mechanics is discussed. Phase space quantization is achieved using the "principle of the symplectic camel", which is a recently discovered deep topological property of Hamiltonian flows. The mathematical tools developed in this book are the theory of the metaplectic group, the Maslov index in a precise form, and the Leray index of a pair of Lagrangian planes. The concept of the "metatron" is introduce

  5. Osborn Waves: History and Significance

    OpenAIRE

    Maruyama, Mitsunori; Kobayashi, Yoshinori; Kodani, Eitaroh; Hirayama, Yoshiyuki; Atarashi, Hirotsugu; Katoh, Takao; Takano, Teruo

    2004-01-01

    The Osborn wave is a deflection with a dome or hump configuration occurring at the R-ST junction (J point) on the ECG (Fig. 1). In the historical view, different names have been used for this wave in the medical literature, such as “camel-hump sign”, “late delta wave”, “hathook junction”, “hypothermic wave”, “J point wave”, “K wave”, “H wave” and “current of injury”.1 Although there is no definite consensus about terminology of this wave, either “Osborn wave” or “J wave” are the most common...

  6. Nové kašny na Náměstí Republiky města Plzně

    OpenAIRE

    HESOVÁ, Martina

    2012-01-01

    I have chosen three public fountains called the Angel, the Camel and the Grey-hound bitch like a topic for my Bachelor work. These fountain were emplaced on the Republic Square in Pilsen in July 2010. The author of this work is Mga Ondřej Císler, whose fountains were whose fountains were honour for honorable mention of honorable mention in prestigious competition of architects called Grand Prix. It was in Architectonic design cathegory. Throught writing of my thesis I tried to bent on these o...

  7. Darwin and evolution: a set of activities based on the evolution of mammals

    OpenAIRE

    Haresnape, Janet

    2010-01-01

    These activities, prepared for key stage 5 students (ages 16-18) and also suitable for key stage 4 (ages 14-16), show that physical appearance is not necessarily the best way to classify mammals. DNA structure is examined to show how similarities and differences between DNA sequences of mammals can be used to establish evolutionary relationships. Some real DNA sequences are compared to illustrate that the whale is surprisingly closely related to mammals such as the hippo, camel and cow, a rel...

  8. Middle East respiratory syndrome: A new global threat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pradeep Kumar Bhatia

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The outbreak of Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS is reported from Saudi Arabia and the Republic of Korea. It is a respiratory disease caused by coronavirus. Camels are considered as a source for MERS transmission in humans, although the exact source is unknown. Human-to-human transmission is reported in the community with droplet and contact spread being the possible modes. Most patients without any underlying diseases remain asymptomatic or develop mild clinical disease, but some patients require critical care for mechanical ventilation, dialysis and other organ support. MERS is a disease with pandemic potential and awareness, and surveillance can prevent such further outbreaks.

  9. Grid-Based Pseudo-Parallel Genetic Algorithm and Its Application

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Aimed at the problems of premature and lower convergence of simple genetic algorithms (SGA), three ideas--partition the whole search uniformly, multi-genetic operators and multi-populations evolving independently are introduced, and a grid-based pseudo-parallel genetic algorithms (GPPGA) is put forward. Thereafter, the analysis of premature and convergence of GPPGA is made. In the end, GPPGA is tested by both six-peak camel back function, Rosenbrock function and BP network. The result shows the feasibility and effectiveness of GPPGA in overcoming premature and improving convergence speed and accuracy.

  10. Gamma irradiation effects on microbial decontamination of ostrich meat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F Tabatabaei Yazdi

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available In this work effects of gamma irradiation and storage time on microbial decontamination of fresh camel meat stored at 4˚C were evaluated. Microbial analysis indicated that irradiation had a significant effect on the reduction of microbial loads. Among the analyzed bacteria, coliforms were most sensitive to gamma radiation. Considering the sensory analyses and Total bacterial counts analyses as a whole, air-packed samples irradiated at 1.0 kGy were acceptable under refrigerated storage for 9 days, compared to 5 and 7 days for irradiated at 3.0 kGy and non irradiated air-packaged samples, respectively. 

  11. Un nuevo enfoque para el análisis y calificación del Sistema Cooperativo Ecuatoriano

    OpenAIRE

    Freire González, Paulo Alejandro; Vivar Aguilar, Mayra Isabel; Maldonado, Diego

    2010-01-01

    This document exposes a EWS that is based on two models, the first corresponds to a full econometric model such as the Logistics and the second is a financial model based on OVT for the KMV model. Both models are based on financial indicators CAMEL evaluation methodology for the Cooperative System of Ecuador, so that they become an easy tool for interpretation by the entities that comprise this system as well as the regulator and supervisor, giving rise to easily identify financial crisis phe...

  12. Differential capacitance of the electric double layer: the interplay between ion finite size and dielectric decrement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakayama, Yasuya; Andelman, David

    2015-01-28

    We study the electric double layer by combining the effects of ion finite size and dielectric decrement. At high surface potential, both mechanisms can cause saturation of the counter-ion concentration near a charged surface. The modified Grahame equation and differential capacitance are derived analytically for a general expression of a permittivity ε(n) that depends on the local ion concentration, n, and under the assumption that the co-ions are fully depleted from the surface. The concentration at counter-ion saturation is found for any ε(n), and a criterion predicting which of the two mechanisms (steric vs. dielectric decrement) is the dominant one is obtained. At low salinity, the differential capacitance as function of surface potential has two peaks (so-called camel-shape). Each of these two peaks is connected to a saturation of counter-ion concentration caused either by dielectric decrement or by their finite size. Because these effects depend mainly on the counter-ion concentration at the surface proximity, for opposite surface-potential polarity either the cations or anions play the role of counter-ions, resulting in an asymmetric camel-shape. At high salinity, we obtain and analyze the crossover in the differential capacitance from a double-peak shape to a uni-modal one. Finally, several nonlinear models of the permittivity decrement are considered, and we predict that the concentration at dielectrophoretic saturation shifts to higher concentration than those obtained by the linear decrement model. PMID:25638002

  13. Enrichment of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) in hen eggs and broiler chickens meat by lactic acid bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herzallah, Saqer

    2013-01-01

    1. The aim of this work was to compare conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) concentrations in chickens supplemented with 4 American Tissue Culture Collection (ATCC) bacterial strains, Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus lactis, Lactobacillus casei and Lactobacillus fermentum, and 4 isolates of Lactobacillus reuteri from camel, cattle, sheep and goat rumen extracts. 2. Micro-organisms were grown anaerobically in MRS broth, and 10(6) CFU/ml of bacteria were administered orally to mixed-sex, 1-d-old broiler chickens weekly for 4 weeks and to 23-week-old layer hens weekly for 6 weeks. 3. The 4 strains were evaluated for their effects on synthesis of CLA in hen eggs and broiler meat cuts. 4. Administration of pure Lactobacillus and isolated L. reuteri strains from camel, cattle, goat and sheep led to significantly increased CLA concentrations of 0.2-1.2 mg/g of fat in eggs and 0.3-1.88 mg/g of fat in broiler chicken flesh homogenates of leg, thigh and breast. 5. These data demonstrate that lactic acid bacteria of animal origin (L. reuteri) significantly enhanced CLA synthesis in both eggs and broiler meat cuts. PMID:24397511

  14. Distribution of ticks (Acari:Ixodidae) infesting domestic ruminants in mountainous areas of Golestan province, Iran

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Moslem Sarani; Zakkyeh Telmadarraiy; Abdolreza Salahi Moghaddam; Kamal Azam; Mohammad Mehdi Sedaghat

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To determine the prevalence of ticks on cattle in the mountainous areas of Golestan province and their geographical distribution.Methods:collection was carried out during four seasons, twice per season over a period of 12 month from March 2009 through February 2010 in two districts, Azadshahr and Ramian. Meteorological data were obtained from Iran Meteorological Organization. The geographical points recorded using a Garmin eTrex®H GPS.Results:In total, 498 animals from 25 herds were selected to search for ticks in 2009-2010. Tick 63 goats, 99 cows and 13 camels in two districts of the mountainous area of Golestan province, including Azadshahr and Ramian. Five species of ixodid ticks were identified: Rhipicephalussanguineus A total of 255 ticks were collected from a total of 219 ruminants including 44 sheep, anatolicum (6%) and Hyalomma asiaticum (4%). The densities of infestations were calculated for sheep, goats, cows and camels 0.9, 0.79, 0.16 and 0.43 respectively. Seasonal activity of each ixodid tick infesting domestic ruminants was determined. The distribution maps showed ixodid ticks on domestic ruminants, and Rhipicephalus sanguineus were dominant species in the area.Conclusions:Such research provides necessary information for human and animal health (66.5%), Rhipicephalus bursa (4.6%), Hyalomma marginatum (19.9%), Hyalomma service mangers to have a better understanding of prevention and control of vector borne diseases especially during the outbreaks.

  15. SDS-PAGE in conjunction with match lane statistical analysis for the detection of meat adulteration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) of seven meat types and two component mixtures of them were made. Banding patterns of resulting denstograms in conjunction with cluster analysi and match lane statistical analysis were used for the detection of meat adulteration. The use of beef as a reference meat have resulted in a clear distinction from goat, pork, chicken, turkey, camel meats and their mixture and camel meat. The use of pork meat as a reference was more assurate because of the low degrees of matching with all meats and their mixtures and consequently high abilities of differentiations. The purpose of identification. the purpose of identification of meat species arises from the desire of human, in general, to confirm what he eat ? for moslems the establisment that meat is free from pork type is most important. Another economic purpose is the detection of adulteration of valuable meat by less valuable types. Several attempts in different laboratories were done to serve this object but most of analytical techniques. Barbieri and formi (1999) were able to detect 5% of meat type in mixtures by isolelectric focusing and 1% of meat type by PCR technique in beef, pork, chicken and turkey meats. By crossover immunoelectrophoresis technique, zanon and vianello (1998) were also to detect a limit of 5% of specific meat in mixuters of beef, pork, mutton/lamb, horse and chicken meats

  16. Trypanosoma evansi and surra: a review and perspectives on origin, history, distribution, taxonomy, morphology, hosts, and pathogenic effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desquesnes, Marc; Holzmuller, Philippe; Lai, De-Hua; Dargantes, Alan; Lun, Zhao-Rong; Jittaplapong, Sathaporn

    2013-01-01

    Trypanosoma evansi, the agent of "surra," is a salivarian trypanosome, originating from Africa. It is thought to derive from Trypanosoma brucei by deletion of the maxicircle kinetoplastic DNA (genetic material required for cyclical development in tsetse flies). It is mostly mechanically transmitted by tabanids and stomoxes, initially to camels, in sub-Saharan area. The disease spread from North Africa towards the Middle East, Turkey, India, up to 53° North in Russia, across all South-East Asia, down to Indonesia and the Philippines, and it was also introduced by the conquistadores into Latin America. It can affect a very large range of domestic and wild hosts including camelids, equines, cattle, buffaloes, sheep, goats, pigs, dogs and other carnivores, deer, gazelles, and elephants. It found a new large range of wild and domestic hosts in Latin America, including reservoirs (capybaras) and biological vectors (vampire bats). Surra is a major disease in camels, equines, and dogs, in which it can often be fatal in the absence of treatment, and exhibits nonspecific clinical signs (anaemia, loss of weight, abortion, and death), which are variable from one host and one place to another; however, its immunosuppressive effects interfering with intercurrent diseases or vaccination campaigns might be its most significant and questionable aspect. PMID:24024184

  17. Trypanosoma evansi and Surra: A Review and Perspectives on Origin, History, Distribution, Taxonomy, Morphology, Hosts, and Pathogenic Effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc Desquesnes

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Trypanosoma evansi, the agent of “surra,” is a salivarian trypanosome, originating from Africa. It is thought to derive from Trypanosoma brucei by deletion of the maxicircle kinetoplastic DNA (genetic material required for cyclical development in tsetse flies. It is mostly mechanically transmitted by tabanids and stomoxes, initially to camels, in sub-Saharan area. The disease spread from North Africa towards the Middle East, Turkey, India, up to 53° North in Russia, across all South-East Asia, down to Indonesia and the Philippines, and it was also introduced by the conquistadores into Latin America. It can affect a very large range of domestic and wild hosts including camelids, equines, cattle, buffaloes, sheep, goats, pigs, dogs and other carnivores, deer, gazelles, and elephants. It found a new large range of wild and domestic hosts in Latin America, including reservoirs (capybaras and biological vectors (vampire bats. Surra is a major disease in camels, equines, and dogs, in which it can often be fatal in the absence of treatment, and exhibits nonspecific clinical signs (anaemia, loss of weight, abortion, and death, which are variable from one host and one place to another; however, its immunosuppressive effects interfering with intercurrent diseases or vaccination campaigns might be its most significant and questionable aspect.

  18. Identification of Echinococcus granulosus strains using polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism amongst livestock in Moroto district, Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamai, Martin; Omadang, Leonard; Erume, Joseph; Ocaido, Michael; Oba, Peter; Othieno, Emmanuel; Bonaventure, Straton; Kitibwa, Annah

    2016-07-29

    A descriptive study was conducted to identify the different strains of Echinococcus granulosus occurring in livestock in Moroto district, Uganda. Echinococcus cysts from 104 domestic animals, including cattle, sheep, goats and camels, were taken and examined by microscopy, polymerase chain reaction with restriction fragment length polymorphism and Sanger DNA sequencing. Echinococcus granulosus genotypes or strains were identified through use of Bioinformatics tools: BioEdit, BLAST and MEGA6. The major finding of this study was the existence of a limited number of E. granulosus genotypes from cattle, goats, sheep and camels. The most predominant genotype was G1 (96.05%), corresponding to the common sheep strain. To a limited extent (3.95%), the study revealed the existence of Echinococcus canadensis G6/7 in three (n = 3) of the E. granulosus-positive samples. No other strains of E. granulosus were identified. It was concluded that the common sheep strain of Echinococcus sensu stricto and G6/7 of E. canadensis were responsible for echinococcal disease in Moroto district, Uganda.

  19. Molecular characterization of Echinococcus granulosus cysts in north Indian patients: identification of G1, G3, G5 and G6 genotypes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Sharma

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Cystic echinococcosis (CE caused by the Echinococcus granulosus, is a major public health problem worldwide, including India. The different genotypes of E. granulosus responsible for human hydatidosis have been reported from endemic areas throughout the world. However, the genetic characterization of E. granulosus infecting the human population in India is lacking. The aim of study was to ascertain the genotype(s of the parasite responsible for human hydatidosis in North India. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: To study the transmission patterns of E. granulosus, genotypic analysis was performed on hydatid cysts obtained from 32 cystic echinococcosis (CE patients residing in 7 different states of North India. Mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit1 (cox1 sequencing was done for molecular identification of the isolates. Most of the CE patients (30/32 were found to be infected with hydatid cyst of either G3 (53.1% or G1 (40.62% genotype and one each of G5 (cattle strain and G6 (camel strain genotype. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These findings demonstrate the zoonotic potential of G1 (sheep strain and G3 (buffalo strain genotypes of E. granulosus as these emerged as predominant genotypes infecting the humans in India. In addition to this, the present study reports the first human CE case infected with G5 genotype (cattle strain in an Asian country and presence of G6 genotype (camel strain in India. The results may have important implications in the planning of control strategies for human hydatidosis.

  20. Morphological and molecular characterisation of Echinococcus granulosus from goat isolates in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajabloo, Mohammad; Hosseini, Seyed Hossein; Jalousian, Fatemeh

    2012-08-01

    Hydatidosis is considered to be an important economic and human public health problem in Iran, where a variety of animals act as intermediate hosts. There is limited information about the genotypes of Echinococcus granulosus in goats. In this study, 20 isolates of E. granulosus obtained from goats were characterised by mitochondrial DNA sequencing and morphology of the metacestode. The mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase 1 sequences were evaluated, and the sequence analysis indicated two genotypes within the isolates. 17 samples were identified as G1 strain, and 3 isolates were identified as G6 strain. The results of the morphological studies support the findings of the molecular studies. Two types of rostellar hooks were observed in the goat isolates, in agreement with the strain identification. Type 1 hooks were morphologically similar to those of the common sheep strains, whereas the dimensions of the hooks in type 2 were similar to those normally found in the camel strain. The morphological results suggest that Echinococcus of goat origin is phenotypically similar to either the sheep (G1) or the camel (G6) strains. Further, these results suggest that the transmission of the G1 genotype between sheep and goats seems to be the predominant mode of transmission, but further work is required to verify this.

  1. Ruminant production systems in developing countries: Resource utilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruminant production systems are discussed with specific reference to the resource utilization required to support them. Particular focus is placed on the main production resources (animals and feeds) and their underutilization. The ruminant animals include buffaloes, cattle, goats, sheep and camels. With the exception of cattle and sheep, their numbers in developing countries account for between 94 and 100% of total world population. Their biological attributes, including inherent characteristics, feeding behaviour and metabolism, are summarized. The extent and availability of feed resources are considered; resources include permanent pastures, crop residues, agroindustrial by-products and non-conventional feeds. The prevailing ruminant production systems are classified into three main categories: extensive systems, systems incorporating arable cropping (roadside, communal and arable grazing systems; tethering and cut-and-carry feeding), and systems integrated with tree cropping. Their genesis and endurance with patterns of crop production and farming systems are discussed. Integrated systems, involving animals and tree crops, are potentially important. Prevailing ruminant production systems are unlikely to change in the foreseeable future, unless there are major shifts in resource use and the proposed new systems are demonstrably superior. Factors likely to influence future ruminant production systems are market requirements, available feed resources and growth in human populations. Two associated strategies for improvement are proposed: increased priority to buffaloes, goats, sheep and camels, consistent with their potential contribution to meat, milk and fibre supplies and draught power; and more complete utilization of the available feed ingredients and increased feed supplies

  2. Optimization of cocoa butter analog synthesis variables using neural networks and genetic algorithm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shekarchizadeh, Hajar; Tikani, Reza; Kadivar, Mahdi

    2014-09-01

    Cocoa butter analog was prepared from camel hump fat and tristearin by enzymatic interesterification in supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO2) using immobilized Thermomyces lanuginosus lipase (Lipozyme TL IM) as a biocatalyst. Optimal process conditions were determined using neural networks and genetic algorithm optimization. Response surfaces methodology was used to design the experiments to collect data for the neural network modelling. A general regression neural network model was developed to predict the response of triacylglycerol (TAG) distribution of cocoa butter analog from the process pressure, temperature, tristearin/camel hump fat ratio, water content, and incubation time. A genetic algorithm was used to search for a combination of the process variables for production of most similar cocoa butter analog to the corresponding cocoa butter. The combinations of the process variables during genetic algorithm optimization were evaluated using the neural network model. The pressure of 10 MPa; temperature of 40 °C; SSS/CHF ratio of 0.6:1; water content of 13 % (w/w); and incubation time of 4.5 h were found to be the optimum conditions to achieve the most similar cocoa butter analog to the corresponding cocoa butter.

  3. Rate of carcass and offal condemnation in animals slaughtered at Yazd Slaughterhouse, central Iran

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    B Hajimohammadi; A Oryan; A Zohourtabar; M Ardian; M Shokuhifar

    2014-01-01

    Objective:To determine the rate of carcass and offal condemnation in the animals slaughtered at Yazd slaughterhouse, Yazd, Iran. Methods:In a nine-month retrospective survey from June 2011 to March 2012, all the carcasses and offal condemnations for large animals (cattle and camels) and small animals (sheep and goats) in Yazd Slaughterhouse were carefully recorded daily. Results: In total, 2 741 large animals (cattle and camels) and 77 515 small animals (sheep and goats) were slaughtered during the period of this survey. Six carcasses (0.21%) of the large animals and 18 carcasses (0.02%) of the small animals were condemned. For large animals, condemnations in summer and autumn were significantly greater than winter (P Conclusions: This study aimed to show the efficiency of documentation records during meat inspection at slaughterhouses to monitor the amount of condemnation and possible approaches to better awareness about the future preventive programs. Considering the percentage of condemnation of carcass and offal in the present study and their price in Iranian markets, the overall economic losses seems to be notable at Yazd slaughterhouse.

  4. Molecular Evidence of Bartonella Species in Ixodid Ticks and Domestic Animals in Palestine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ereqat, Suheir; Nasereddin, Abdelmajeed; Vayssier-Taussat, Muriel; Abdelkader, Ahmad; Al-Jawabreh, Amer; Zaid, Taher; Azmi, Kifaya; Abdeen, Ziad

    2016-01-01

    Ticks play an important role in disease transmission as vectors for human and animal pathogens, including the Gram-negative pathogen Bartonella. Here, we evaluated the presence of Bartonella in ixodid ticks and domestic animals from Palestine. We tested 633 partly engorged ticks and 139 blood samples from domestic animals (dogs, sheep and camels) for Bartonella using ITS-PCR. Bartonella DNA was detected in 3.9% of the tested ticks. None of the ticks collected from sheep and goats were positive for Bartonella. Seventeen R. sanguineus ticks (17/391; 4.3%) collected from dogs were infected with B. rochalimae (n = 10), B. chomelii (n = 6), and B. koehlerae (n = 1). Four H. dromedarri ticks (4/63; 6.3%) obtained from camels were infected with B. bovis (n = 2) and B. rochalimae (n = 2). Among canine blood samples (n = 110), we found one asymptomatic female dog to be infected with B. rochalimae (0.9%). The detection of zoonotic Bartonella species in this study should raise awareness of these vector-borne diseases among physicians, veterinarians and public health workers and highlight the importance of surveillance and preventive measures in the region. PMID:27540374

  5. Metabolomic biomarkers identify differences in milk produced by Holstein cows and other minor dairy animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yongxin; Zheng, Nan; Zhao, Xiaowei; Zhang, Yangdong; Han, Rongwei; Yang, Jinhui; Zhao, Shengguo; Li, Songli; Guo, Tongjun; Zang, Changjiang; Wang, Jiaqi

    2016-03-16

    Several milk metabolites are associated with breeds or species of dairy animals. A better understanding of milk metabolites from different dairy animals would advance their use in evaluating milk traits and detecting milk adulteration. The objective of this study was to characterize the milk metabolite profiles of Chinese Holstein, Jersey, yak, buffalo, goat, camel, and horse and identify any differences using non-targeted metabolomic approaches. Milk samples were tested using nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS). Data were analyzed using a multivariate analysis of variance and differences in milk metabolites between Holstein and the other dairy animals were assessed using orthogonal partial least-squares discriminant analysis. Differential metabolites were identified and some metabolites, such as choline and succinic acid, were used to distinguish Holstein milk from that of the other studied animals. Metabolic pathway analysis of different metabolites revealed that glycerophospholipid metabolism as well as valine, leucine, and isoleucine biosynthesis were shared in the other ruminant animals (Jersey, buffalo, yak, and goat), and biosynthesis of unsaturated fatty acids was shared in the non-ruminant animals (camel and horse). These results can be useful for gaining a better understanding of the differences in milk synthesis between Holstein and the other dairy animals. PMID:26779989

  6. Bovine calves as ideal bio-indicators for fluoridated drinking water and endemic osteo-dental fluorosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choubisa, S L

    2014-07-01

    Relative susceptibility to fluoride (F) toxicosis in the form of osteo-dental fluorosis was observed in an observational survey of 2,747 mature and 887 immature domestic animals of diverse species living in areas with naturally fluoridated (>1.5 ppm F) drinking water. These animals included buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis), cattle (Bos taurus), camels (Camelus dromedarius), donkeys (Equus asinus), horses (Equus caballus), goats (Capra hircus), and sheep (Ovis aries). Of these mature and immature animals, 899 (32.7 %) and 322 (36.3 %) showed evidence of dental fluorosis with varying grades, respectively. Their incisor teeth were stained with light to deep brownish color. On clinical examination, 31.2 % mature and 10.7 % immature animals revealed periosteal exostoses, intermittent lameness, and stiffness of tendons in the legs as signs of skeletal fluorosis. The maximum susceptibility to fluoride toxicosis was found in bovines (buffaloes and cattle) followed by equines (donkeys and horses), flocks (goats and sheep), and camelids (camels). The bovine calves were found to be more sensitive and highly susceptible to F toxicosis and revealed the maximum prevalence (92.2 %) of dental fluorosis. This indicates that bovine calves are less tolerant and give early sign of F poisoning (dental fluorosis) and therefore, they can be considered as bio-indicators for fluoridated water as well as for endemicity of osteo-dental fluorosis. Causes for variation in susceptibility to F toxicosis (fluorosis) in various species of domestic animal are also discussed.

  7. Expression, purification, and characterization of a diabody against the most important angiogenesis cell receptor: Vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behdani, Mahdi; Zeinali, Sirous; Karimipour, Morteza; Khanahmad, Hossein; Asadzadeh, Nader; Azadmanesh, Kayhan; Seyed, Negar; Baniahmad, Seyed Farzad; Anbouhi, Mahdi Habibi

    2012-01-01

    Antibodies and their derivative fragments have long been used as tools in a variety of applications, in fundamental research work, biotechnology, diagnosis, and therapy. Camels produce single heavy-chain antibodies (VHH) in addition to usual antibodies. These minimal-sized binders are very robust and bind the antigen with high affinity in a monomeric state. Vascular endothelial growth factor recepror-2 (VEGFR2) is an important tumor-associated receptor that blockade of its signaling can lead to the inhibition of neovascularization and tumor metastasis. Here, we describe the construction, expression, and purification VEGFR2-specific Diabody. Two variable fragments of a same camel anti-VEGFR2 antibody were linked together by the upper hinge segment of antibody to make a diabody. We showed the ability of diabody to recognition of VEGFR2 on the cell surface by FACS. Diabodies can be produced in the low-cost prokaryotic expression system, so they are suitable molecules for diagnostic and therapeutic issues. PMID:23326765

  8. Expression, purification, and characterization of a diabody against the most important angiogenesis cell receptor: Vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahdi Behdani

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Antibodies and their derivative fragments have long been used as tools in a variety of applications, in fundamental research work, biotechnology, diagnosis, and therapy. Camels produce single heavy-chain antibodies (VHH in addition to usual antibodies. These minimal-sized binders are very robust and bind the antigen with high affinity in a monomeric state. Vascular endothelial growth factor recepror-2 (VEGFR2 is an important tumor-associated receptor that blockade of its signaling can lead to the inhibition of neovascularization and tumor metastasis. Here, we describe the construction, expression, and purification VEGFR2-specific Diabody. Two variable fragments of a same camel anti-VEGFR2 antibody were linked together by the upper hinge segment of antibody to make a diabody. We showed the ability of diabody to recognition of VEGFR2 on the cell surface by FACS. Diabodies can be produced in the low-cost prokaryotic expression system, so they are suitable molecules for diagnostic and therapeutic issues.

  9. Soundness of Ethiopian Banks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamdu Kedir Mohammed

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available A well-functioning financial institution will sustain a countries economic development and play a great role in reduction of poverty. One of the major participants in the financial institution is the banking industry. However, the mal-functioning of the banking system can be extremely costly to the real economy. As Bank is one of the participants and major key player in the financial institutions, it needs a continuous assessment by its supervisory and management. Mere ratio analyses are commonly used Performance measurement among the banking industry in Ethiopia. Nonetheless, these financial ratios are more of traditional as well as partial measurements. As such this study conducted using CAMEL framework set by bank for international settlement. The study takes secondary data which are gathered from audited annual reports of all banks. The result shows CAMEL framework is the best fit measurement for Ethiopian Banks and it give a comprehensive result which is very helpful for the governor to set a well determined policy and procedure.

  10. Analysis of Six Kinds of Milk Products Through SDS-PAGE and Microfluidic Chip Electrophoresis%用聚丙烯酰胺凝胶电泳和微流体芯片电泳鉴别6种液态奶

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    尹艳; 李通; 姜艳彬; 杨红菊; 张栩; 陈刚; 王海; 于雷

    2012-01-01

    目的:研究6种液态奶制品蛋白电泳图谱的区别,建立奶制品的蛋白质学鉴别方法.方法:以5种纯牛奶、羊奶、水牛奶、骆驼奶、牦牛奶、黄豆浆为研究对象,通过SDS-PAGE和Agilent 2100微流体芯片电泳法进行分析比较.结果:骆驼奶、黄豆浆与其他研究对象的图谱有明显区别,而牛奶、羊奶、水牛奶、牦牛奶的差异却不是很大;采用微流体芯片电泳可有效地对豆奶、骆驼奶进行区分,还可在一定程度上鉴别牛奶、羊奶、水牛奶和牦牛奶.结论:Agilent 2100系统作为一种新型半自动微流体芯片技术,可以快速、高效、准确地应用于液态奶制品的蛋白成分分析及鉴别.%To research on protein difference of six kinds of liquid milk and construct a new distinguishing method of liquid milk through protein assay. Methods: Five kinds of cow milk, goat milk, buffalo milk, camel milk, yak milk and soybean milk were used as the experimental samples, which were analyzed and compared by sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis(SDS-PAGE) and microfluidic chip electrophoresis respectively. Results: Five kinds of pure cow milk had the same protein electrophoresis in the two gel electrophoresis methods. The maps of camel milk and soybean milk were quite different from others, but little difference was found among cow milk, goat milk, buffalo milk and yak milk. Besides soybean milk and camel milk were distinguished efferectively, cow milk, goat milk, buffalo milk and yak milk could be identified in a certain degree by the micro-fluidic chip electrophoresis. Conclusion: Agilent 2100 system is a new semi automatic microfluidic chip which is fast, efficient and accurate that can be used in analyzing and identifying proteins in liquid milk.

  11. Effect of Fortifying Camel’s Milk with Skim Milk Powder on the Physicochemical, Microbiological and Sensory Characteristics of Set Yoghurt

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    Mortada Mohammed Salih

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The present study was carried out in the milk processing unit at college of animal production Science and Technology, Sudan University of Science and Technology during January-May 2012. The effect of fortification with skim milk powder (0, 5 and 7% to the camel’s milk on the quality of yoghurt during storage was investigated. Fresh camel’s milk was purchased from Alaas farm at Khartoum North. Nine litres of raw camel’s milk were divided into three portions. The first treatment was used as control. To the other two treatments 5 and 7% of skim milk powder was added to the camels milk respectively, then the milk in each treatment was heated in a water bath at 85°C for 30 min. Milk samples were cooled to 43°C and 2% of commercial yoghurt starter culture was added and packed into plastic cups (200 g capacity in triplicates. The plastic containers were incubated at 39°C until coagulation occurred (16 h thereafter samples from different treatments were stored at 4°C for 0, 5and 10 days. Yoghurt Samples were taken for chemical, microbiological and sensory analysis.The results indicated that yoghurt treated with 7% skim milk powder had the highest viscosity value (p≤0.01 during storage period. The control yoghurt had the highest pH value (p≤0.01 during storage period in comparison with other treatments. In this study no significant differences in chemical composition of the yoghurt from different treatments during storage were observed. The yoghurt sample treated with 7% skim milk powder was significantly higher (p≤0.05 in total bacterial count (7.70×106 cfu/mL than the control yoghurt (5.29×106 cfu/mL. No variations were observed in lactic acid bacteria count. Coliforms and E.coli bacteria were not detected in tested samples. The results indicated that yoghurt treated with 7% skim milk powder had the highest (p≤0.01 flavour. Also there was significant difference (p≤0.05 in overall acceptability in tested treatments. It is concluded

  12. Discussion on Control Points of “Black on White” Municipal Road Reconstruction Project Construction%“白加黑”市政道路改造施工控制要点探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    权生智

    2013-01-01

    “Black on White”is in the original cement concrete pavement overlaying asphalt concrete surface layer, making t-he rigid pavement turned into flexible pavement. Combining with the road maintenance of Nanning city high-quality goods line (Camel ia Garden Road), this paper summarizes the cont-rol points of similar engineering construction.%“白加黑”是在原水泥混凝土路面上加铺沥青混凝土面层,使原来的刚性路面变为柔性路面。本文结合南宁市市区精品线路路面维修工程(茶花园路),总结了类似工程的施工控制要点。

  13. A historical review of R.J. Reynolds' strategies for marketing tobacco to Hispanics in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iglesias-Rios, Lisbeth; Parascandola, Mark

    2013-05-01

    Hispanics are the fastest growing racial/ethnic group in the United States, and smoking is the leading preventable cause of morbidity and mortality among this population. We analyzed tobacco industry documents on R. J. Reynolds' marketing strategies toward the Hispanic population using tobacco industry document archives from the Legacy Tobacco Documents Library (http://legacy.library.ucsf.edu) between February-July 2011 and April-August 2012. Our analysis revealed that by 1980 the company had developed a sophisticated surveillance system to track the market behavior of Hispanic smokers and understand their psychographics, cultural values, and attitudes. This information was translated into targeted marketing campaigns for the Winston and Camel brands. Marketing targeted toward Hispanics appealed to values and sponsored activities that could be perceived as legitimating. Greater understanding of tobacco industry marketing strategies has substantial relevance for addressing tobacco-related health disparities.

  14. Toward Developing a Preventive MERS-CoV Vaccine-Report from a Workshop Organized by the Saudi Arabia Ministry of Health and the International Vaccine Institute, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, November 14-15, 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Excler, Jean-Louis; Delvecchio, Christopher J; Wiley, Ryan E; Williams, Marni; Yoon, In-Kyu; Modjarrad, Kayvon; Boujelal, Mohamed; Moorthy, Vasee S; Hersi, Ahmad Salah; Kim, Jerome H

    2016-08-01

    Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS) remains a serious international public health threat. With the goal of accelerating the development of countermeasures against MERS coronavirus (MERS-CoV), funding agencies, nongovernmental organizations, and researchers across the world assembled in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, on November 14-15, 2015, to discuss vaccine development challenges. The meeting was spearheaded by the Saudi Ministry of Health and co-organized by the International Vaccine Institute, South Korea. Accelerating the development of a preventive vaccine requires a better understanding of MERS epidemiology, transmission, and pathogenesis in humans and animals. A combination of rodent and nonhuman primate models should be considered in evaluating and developing preventive and therapeutic vaccine candidates. Dromedary camels should be considered for the development of veterinary vaccines. Several vaccine technology platforms targeting the MERS-CoV spike protein were discussed. Mechanisms to maximize investment, provide robust data, and affect public health are urgently needed. PMID:27439020

  15. NUMBER, COLOUR AND ANIMAL MYSTICISIM IN BEOWULF AND THE BOOK OF DEDEM KORKUT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hülya TAFLI (M.A.H.

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available There are both similiarities and differences in the use of numbers, colours and the animal images in Beowulf and The Book of Dedem Korkut. It is not known how the numbers, colours, and the animal images came into being, but they are used by the respective societies. Number, colour and animal mysticism was influenced by the pre-Christian and pre-Islamic legends, myths, and sagas both in Beowulf and The Book of Dedem Korkut, and it may be emphasized that this tradition continued even after conversion to Christianity and Islam.In this article the significance of numbers such as three, nine, forty and fifty; the colours such as black, white, red, yellow; and the animal images such as wolf, deer, raven, camel and pigeon will be studied by pointing out the similarities and the differences in Beowulf and The Book of Dedem Korkut.

  16. Potent neutralization of influenza A virus by a single-domain antibody blocking M2 ion channel protein.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guowei Wei

    Full Text Available Influenza A virus poses serious health threat to humans. Neutralizing antibodies against the highly conserved M2 ion channel is thought to offer broad protection against influenza A viruses. Here, we screened synthetic Camel single-domain antibody (VHH libraries against native M2 ion channel protein. One of the isolated VHHs, M2-7A, specifically bound to M2-expressed cell membrane as well as influenza A virion, inhibited replication of both amantadine-sensitive and resistant influenza A viruses in vitro, and protected mice from a lethal influenza virus challenge. Moreover, M2-7A showed blocking activity for proton influx through M2 ion channel. These pieces of evidence collectively demonstrate for the first time that a neutralizing antibody against M2 with broad specificity is achievable, and M2-7A may have potential for cross protection against a number of variants and subtypes of influenza A viruses.

  17. Ancient engineering geology projects in China; A canal system in Ganzu province and trenches along the Great Wall in Ningxia Hui Autonomous Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, R.E.; Bucknam, R.C.; Hanks, T.C.

    1994-01-01

    Two major construction projects of ancient times in China involved what today would be considered engineering geology. We describe an ancient canal system in Gaotai County, Gansu province that was possibly begun in the Han dynasty (206 BC-220 AD). The canal system heads at the Dasha River and extends northwestward for about 55 km to the City of Camels and Xusanwan village. Four parallel canals are present at the local site we examined. The canals were likely built primarily to transport water but may also have served as defensive military barriers. A second project involves trenches and berms along the north side of the Great Wall, clearly part of the Great Wall defensive system. This site is in Ningxia Autonomous Region near the town of Shizuishan. ?? 1994.

  18. Animal health constraints to livestock exports from the Horn of Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbas, B; Yousif, M A; Nur, H M

    2014-12-01

    The Horn of Africa (Djibouti, Ethiopia, Somalia, Eritrea) is home to the largest population of livestock in Africa and is the historic centre of the livestock trade to the Middle East and northern Africa. The recent resumption of livestock exports from the region has resulted in the handling of over one million head of cattle, sheep, goats and camels at one quarantine facility during a single year. Several of the importing countries for which the facility operates have differing hygiene requirements for the same diseases. Most of the animals handled in the facility come from pastoralist areas, which lack state Veterinary Services. The pathological conditions encountered during one year of monitoring were recorded and the impacts of some of the endemic diseases are discussed, together with particular import-limiting hygiene requirements on this trade. PMID:25812200

  19. 关于对银行类金融机构信用评级的若干思考

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈峰; 胡锐

    2007-01-01

    对银行类金融机构的信用评级参照了国际通行的骆驼评级体系(CAMELS).该评级体系包括资本状况(capital adequacy)、资产质量(asset quality)、管理水平(management)、盈利水平(eamings)和流动性(liquidity),市场风险敏感度(Sensitivity Of Mardet Risk),但由于对银行财务数据采集的不及时全面,定性分析与定量分析结构不合理,现金流量分析不重视,忽视利润结构分析等原因,旧有的对银行类金融机构的信用评价体系的信度和效度还有待提高.

  20. 美国"骆驼评级体系"与我国银行业的监管

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马军炜; 白宁

    2004-01-01

    @@ "骆驼评级体系"是美国监管当局对商业银行经营状况进行全面评估时使用的统一标准,其正式名称是"联邦监理机构内部统一银行评级体系".该评级体系包括资本状况(capital adequacy)、资产质量(asset quality)、管理水平(manngement)、盈利水平(earnings)和流动性(1iquidity).这五项的第一个英文字母排列在一块,是"骆驼"这个英文单词(camel),所以将这一评级体系称为"骆驼评级法".

  1. Development of Medical Countermeasures to Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uyeki, Timothy M; Erlandson, Karl J; Korch, George; O'Hara, Michael; Wathen, Michael; Hu-Primmer, Jean; Hojvat, Sally; Stemmy, Erik J; Donabedian, Armen

    2016-07-01

    Preclinical development of and research on potential Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) medical countermeasures remain preliminary; advancements are needed before most countermeasures are ready to be tested in human clinical trials. Research priorities include standardization of animal models and virus stocks for studying disease pathogenesis and efficacy of medical countermeasures; development of MERS-CoV diagnostics; improved access to nonhuman primates to support preclinical research; studies to better understand and control MERS-CoV disease, including vaccination studies in camels; and development of a standardized clinical trial protocol. Partnering with clinical trial networks in affected countries to evaluate safety and efficacy of investigational therapeutics will strengthen efforts to identify successful medical countermeasures. PMID:27191188

  2. The monastery of Soumela and ancient trade routes connected to it

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ismail Köse

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available It is a well known fact that trade routes and temples had a close relation. It is not possible to exempt monasteries from this generalization. It is inevitable to build connection between trade and three monasteries located in the area where trade routes passing. The Monastery of Soumela comes front among the rest two with its unique location on summer trade route. Watch towers and camel inns at the vicinity of the Monastery prove this fact. Another important aspect related to Soumela Monastery and her connection to the trade routes is the demographic structure and settlement of villages located on the trade destinations. Especially travelers’ memoirs and registers of Ottoman Empire show that for a long period there was a lively economy in the region. Field surveys at the last years also show the importance of trade routes passing from the region.

  3. Phylogenetic relationships among Linguatula serrata isolates from Iran based on 18S rRNA and mitochondrial cox1 gene sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghorashi, Seyed Ali; Tavassoli, Mousa; Peters, Andrew; Shamsi, Shokoofeh; Hajipour, Naser

    2016-01-01

    The phylogenetic relationships among seven Linguatula serrata (L. serrata) isolates collected from cattle, goats, sheep, dogs and camels in different geographical locations of Iran were investigated using partial 18S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) and partial mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (cox1) gene sequences. The nucleotide sequences were analysed in order to determine the phylogenetic relationships between the isolates. Higher sequence diversity and intraspecies variation was observed in the cox1 gene compared to 18S rRNA sequences. Phylogenetic analysis of the cox1 gene placed all L. serrata isolates in a sister clade to L. arctica. The Mantel regression analysis revealed no association between genetic variations and host species or geographical location, perhaps due to the small sample size. However, genetic variations between L. serrata isolates in Iran and those isolated in other parts of the world may exist and could reveal possible evolutionary relationships.

  4. Inoculation of Goats, Sheep, and Horses with MERS-CoV Does Not Result in Productive Viral Shedding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danielle R. Adney

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV was first recognized in 2012 and can cause severe disease in infected humans. Dromedary camels are the reservoir for the virus, although, other than nasal discharge, these animals do not display any overt clinical disease. Data from in vitro experiments suggest that other livestock such as sheep, goats, and horses might also contribute to viral transmission, although field data has not identified any seropositive animals. In order to understand if these animals could be infected, we challenged young goats and horses and adult sheep with MERS-CoV by intranasal inoculation. Minimal or no virus shedding was detected in all of the animals. During the four weeks following inoculation, neutralizing antibodies were detected in the young goats, but not in sheep or horses.

  5. Development of Medical Countermeasures to Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erlandson, Karl J.; Korch, George; O’Hara, Michael; Wathen, Michael; Hu-Primmer, Jean; Hojvat, Sally; Stemmy, Erik J.; Donabedian, Armen

    2016-01-01

    Preclinical development of and research on potential Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) medical countermeasures remain preliminary; advancements are needed before most countermeasures are ready to be tested in human clinical trials. Research priorities include standardization of animal models and virus stocks for studying disease pathogenesis and efficacy of medical countermeasures; development of MERS-CoV diagnostics; improved access to nonhuman primates to support preclinical research; studies to better understand and control MERS-CoV disease, including vaccination studies in camels; and development of a standardized clinical trial protocol. Partnering with clinical trial networks in affected countries to evaluate safety and efficacy of investigational therapeutics will strengthen efforts to identify successful medical countermeasures. PMID:27191188

  6. SARS and MERS: recent insights into emerging coronaviruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Wit, Emmie; van Doremalen, Neeltje; Falzarano, Darryl; Munster, Vincent J

    2016-08-01

    The emergence of Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) in 2012 marked the second introduction of a highly pathogenic coronavirus into the human population in the twenty-first century. The continuing introductions of MERS-CoV from dromedary camels, the subsequent travel-related viral spread, the unprecedented nosocomial outbreaks and the high case-fatality rates highlight the need for prophylactic and therapeutic measures. Scientific advancements since the 2002-2003 severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) pandemic allowed for rapid progress in our understanding of the epidemiology and pathogenesis of MERS-CoV and the development of therapeutics. In this Review, we detail our present understanding of the transmission and pathogenesis of SARS-CoV and MERS-CoV, and discuss the current state of development of measures to combat emerging coronaviruses. PMID:27344959

  7. Inoculation of Goats, Sheep, and Horses with MERS-CoV Does Not Result in Productive Viral Shedding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adney, Danielle R; Brown, Vienna R; Porter, Stephanie M; Bielefeldt-Ohmann, Helle; Hartwig, Airn E; Bowen, Richard A

    2016-01-01

    The Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) was first recognized in 2012 and can cause severe disease in infected humans. Dromedary camels are the reservoir for the virus, although, other than nasal discharge, these animals do not display any overt clinical disease. Data from in vitro experiments suggest that other livestock such as sheep, goats, and horses might also contribute to viral transmission, although field data has not identified any seropositive animals. In order to understand if these animals could be infected, we challenged young goats and horses and adult sheep with MERS-CoV by intranasal inoculation. Minimal or no virus shedding was detected in all of the animals. During the four weeks following inoculation, neutralizing antibodies were detected in the young goats, but not in sheep or horses. PMID:27548203

  8. Brucellosis in Islamic republic of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein Esmaeili

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Brucellosis is a zoonotic disease that is widely distributed throughout the developing countries.In this review, an overview of the epidemiological and epizootic status of brucellosis in Islamic republic of Iran is presented. In Iran, the disease was first recognized in 1932, which is now endemic in the entire country. The first animal vaccination program was carried out in 1949. Brucellosis has been found in humans, cattle, sheep, goats, camels, horses, buffaloes, dogs and the prevalence of bovine brucellosis is estimated 0.3%. The successful implementation of a national brucellosis control program requires enough compensation, farmers’ cooperation, accurate diagnosis of infected animals and impetus of health system is required to overcome thedisease.

  9. Modelización de la solvencia bancaria en escenarios adversos: aplicación a los «PIIGS»

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio Abad-González

    2016-07-01

    Este trabajo pretende modelizar los niveles de solvencia estimados por las pruebas realizadas en 2011, expresados en términos de capital tier 1, a partir de variables contables, exposición a soberanos e indicadores que definan los escenarios macroeconómicos considerados. El análisis, a través de un modelo de regresión multinivel, se centra en las entidades de los países más afectados por la crisis financiera, los denominados PIIGS (Portugal, Italia, Irlanda, Grecia y España. Los resultados muestran que las ratios contables, conforme a un modelo CAMEL, junto con las variables categóricas relativas a país y escenario y su interacción, ofrecen una buena capacidad predictiva.

  10. Phase diagram of a bulk 1d lattice Coulomb gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Démery, V.; Monsarrat, R.; Dean, D. S.; Podgornik, R.

    2016-01-01

    The exact solution, via transfer matrix, of the simple one-dimensional lattice Coulomb gas (1d LCG) model can reproduce peculiar features of ionic liquid capacitors, such as overscreening, layering, and camel- and bell-shaped capacitance curves. Using the same transfer matrix method, we now compute the bulk properties of the 1d LCG in the constant voltage ensemble. We unveil a phase diagram with rich structure exhibiting low-density disordered and high-density ordered phases, separated by a first-order phase transition at low temperature; the solid state at full packing can be ordered or not, depending on the temperature. This phase diagram, which is strikingly similar to its three-dimensional counterpart, also sheds light on the behaviour of the confined system.

  11. Plague in Arab Maghreb, 1940-2015: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maliya Alia Malek

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available We reviewed the epidemiology of 49 plague outbreaks which resulted in about 7,612 cases in 30 localities in the Arabic Maghreb (Mauritania, Morocco, Algeria, Tunisia, Libya and Egypt over 75 years. Between 1940 and 1950, most cases recorded in Morocco (75% and Egypt (20%, resulted from plague imported to Mediterranean harbours and transmitted by rat ectoparasites. In contrast, the re-emergence of plague in the southern part of Western Sahara in 1953 and in northeast Libya in 1976, was traced to direct contact between nomadic populations and infected goats and camels in natural foci, including the consumption of contaminated meat, illustrating this neglected oral route of contamination. Further familial outbreaks were traced to human ectoparasite transmission. Efforts to identify the factors contributing to natural foci may guide where to focus the surveillance of sentinel animals in order to eradicate human plague, if not Y. pestis from the Arab Maghreb.

  12. Plague in Arab Maghreb, 1940-2015: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malek, Maliya Alia; Bitam, Idir; Drancourt, Michel

    2016-01-01

    We reviewed the epidemiology of 49 plague outbreaks that resulted in about 7,612 cases in 30 localities in the Arabic Maghreb (Mauritania, Morocco, Algeria, Tunisia, Libya, and Egypt) over 75 years. Between 1940 and 1950, most cases recorded in Morocco (75%) and Egypt (20%), resulted from plague imported to Mediterranean harbors and transmitted by rat ectoparasites. By contrast, the re-emergence of plague in the southern part of Western Sahara in 1953 and in northeast Libya in 1976 was traced to direct contact between nomadic populations and infected goats and camels in natural foci, including the consumption of contaminated meat, illustrating this neglected oral route of contamination. Further familial outbreaks were traced to human ectoparasite transmission. Efforts to identify the factors contributing to natural foci may guide where to focus the surveillance of sentinel animals in order to eradicate human plague, if not Yersinia pestis from the Arab Maghreb. PMID:27376053

  13. Isolation and characterization of Clostridium difficile in farm animals from slaughterhouse to retail stage in Isfahan, Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esfandiari, Zahra; Weese, J Scott; Ezzatpanah, Hamid; Chamani, Mohammad; Shoaei, Parisa; Yaran, Majid; Ataei, Behrooz; Maracy, Mohammad Reza; Ansariyan, Akbar; Ebrahimi, Fatemeh; Jalali, Mohammad

    2015-10-01

    To determine the prevalence of Clostridium difficile in farm animals from slaughterhouse through to retail stage, a total of 750 samples of feces, posteviscerated and washed carcass were collected from cattle, camels, goats, and sheep in Isfahan, Iran. The overall prevalence of C. difficile in feces, posteviscerated and washed carcass were 20 (13.3%), 23 (15.3%), and 11 (7.3%), respectively; while C. difficile was isolated from 79 (26.3%) retail samples. Twenty-nine (3.8%) isolates were toxigenic, with most toxigenic isolates (n = 17, 5.6%) identified from the retail stage. All toxigenic isolates harbored tcdA and tcdB; however, all were negative for cdtB. The 29 isolates were classified into 21 different ribotypes. This study revealed evidence of existence of toxigenic C. difficile in farm animal feces and meat in Iran. PMID:26440207

  14. Molecular Characterization of Staphylococcus aureus Isolated from Meat and Their Antibiotic Resistance Profiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ziad W Jaradat

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aims of this study were to characterize S. aureus isolates from different meat sources in Jordan and study their genetic relationship using PCR-RFLP in addition to their antibiotic resistance profiles. Thirty S. aureus isolates were identified and confirmed by PCR techniques. The isolates from goat and camel meats were sensitive to the majority of the tested antibiotics. Plasmid profiling revealed that 26 isolates contained at least one plasmid with no correlation between the number of plasmids and the resistance profiles. PCR-RFLP of the coagulase gene (coa classified the isolates to several clusters upon digestion with Alu I or Cfo I restriction enzymes. This study concluded that the 30 S. aureus isolates were genetically diverse and comprised heterogeneous population with 7 genotypes at both 33.1 and 51.2 similarity levels.

  15. Bauhinia variegata var. variegata trypsin inhibitor: From isolation to potential medicinal applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fang, Evandro Fei; Wong, Jack Ho [School of Biomedical Sciences, Faculty of Medicine, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Shatin, Hong Kong SAR (China); Bah, Clara Shui Fern [Department of Food Science, Division of Sciences, University of Otago (New Zealand); Lin, Peng [School of Biomedical Sciences, Faculty of Medicine, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Shatin, Hong Kong SAR (China); Tsao, Sai Wah [Department of Anatomy, Li Ka Shing Faculty of Medicine, The University of Hong Kong, Sassoon Road, Pokfulam, Hong Kong SAR (China); Ng, Tzi Bun, E-mail: b021770@mailserv.cuhk.edu.hk [School of Biomedical Sciences, Faculty of Medicine, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Shatin, Hong Kong SAR (China)

    2010-06-11

    Here we report for the first time of a new Kunitz-type trypsin inhibitor (termed BvvTI) from seeds of the Camel's foot tree, Bauhinia variegata var. variegata. BvvTI shares the same reactive site residues (Arg, Ser) and exhibits a homology of N-terminal amino acid sequence to other Bauhinia protease inhibitors. The trypsin inhibitory activity (K{sub i}, 0.1 x 10{sup -9} M) of BvvTI ranks the highest among them. Besides anti-HIV-1 reverse transcriptase activity, BvvTI could significantly inhibit the proliferation of nasopharyngeal cancer CNE-1 cells in a selective way. This may partially be contributed by its induction of cytokines and apoptotic bodies. These results unveil potential medicinal applications of BvvTI.

  16. Multifunctional Iron Bound Lactoferrin and Nanomedicinal Approaches to Enhance Its Bioactive Functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jagat R. Kanwar

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Lactoferrin (Lf, an iron-binding protein from the transferrin family has been reported to have numerous functions. Even though Lf was first isolated from milk, it is also found in most exocrine secretions and in the secondary granules of neutrophils. Antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory activity reports on lactoferrin identified its significance in host defense against infection and extreme inflammation. Anticarcinogenic reports on lactoferrin make this protein even more valuable. This review is focused on the structural configuration of iron-containing and iron-free forms of lactoferrin obtained from different sources such as goat, camel and bovine. Apart for emphasizing on the specific beneficial properties of lactoferrin from each of these sources, the general antimicrobial, immunomodulatory and anticancer activities of lactoferrin are discussed here. Implementation of nanomedicinial strategies that enhance the bioactive function of lactoferrin are also discussed, along with information on lactoferrin in clinical trials.

  17. Zygomycetes from herbivore dung in the ecological reserve of Dois Irmãos, Northeast Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Luiz Cabral Monteiro de Azevedo Santiago

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Thirty-eight taxa of Zygomycetes distributed in 15 genera were recorded from tapir (Tapirus terrestris, camel (Camelus bactrianus, horse (Equus caballus, deer (Cervus elaphus, agouti (Dasyprocta aguti, donkey (Equus asinus, llama (Llama glama and waterbuck (Kobus ellipsiprymnus dung collected at the Reserva Ecológica de Dois Irmãos located in Recife, State of Pernambuco, Northeast Brazil. The samples were collected on a monthly basis from June 2005 to May 2006, taken to the laboratory and incubated in moist chambers. Higher number of taxa was observed in the excrements of tapir, followed by deer and donkey. The highest number of species was detected for Mucor, followed by Pilobolus. Statistical analyses showed significant differences in richness of Zygomycetes taxa between the herbivore dung types. Differences of species composition, however, were weak. Seasonality influenced the Zygomycetes species composition but not its richness. Variations in taxa composition between ruminants and non-ruminants dung were non significant.

  18. Genetic Variation of Echinococcus canadensis (G7) in Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez-Prado, Ulises; Jimenez-Gonzalez, Diego Emiliano; Avila, Guillermina; Gonzalez, Armando E.; Martinez-Flores, Williams Arony; Mondragon de la Peña, Carmen; Hernandez-Castro, Rigoberto; Romero-Valdovinos, Mirza; Flisser, Ana; Martinez-Hernandez, Fernando; Maravilla, Pablo; Martinez-Maya, Jose Juan

    2014-01-01

    We evaluated the genetic variation of Echinococcus G7 strain in larval and adult stages using a fragment of the mitochondrial cox1 gen. Viscera of pigs, bovines, and sheep and fecal samples of dogs were inspected for cystic and canine echinococcosis, respectively; only pigs had hydatid cysts. Bayesian inferences grouped the sequences in an E. canadensis G7 cluster, suggesting that, in Mexico, this strain might be mainly present. Additionally, the population genetic and network analysis showed that E. canadensis in Mexico is very diverse and has probably been introduced several times from different sources. Finally, a scarce genetic differentiation between G6 (camel strain) and G7 (pig strain) populations was identified. PMID:25266350

  19. A nematomorph parasite explains variation in terrestrial subsidies to trout streams in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Takuya; Watanabe, Katsutoshi; Tokuchi, Naoko; Kamauchi, Hiromitsu; Harada, Yasushi; Lafferty, Kevin D.

    2011-01-01

    Nematomorph parasites alter the behavior of their orthopteran hosts, driving them to water and creating a source of food for stream salmonids. We investigated whether nematomorphs could explain variation in terrestrial subsidies across several streams. In nine study streams, orthopterans comprise much of the stomach contents of trout (46 +/- 31% on average). Total mass of ingested prey per trout biomass positively correlated with the mass of orthopterans ingested, suggesting that the orthopterans enhanced absolute mass of prey consumption by the trout population. The orthopterans ingested per trout biomass positively correlated with the abundance of nematomorphs in the stream, but not with the abundance of camel crickets (the dominant hosts) around the streams. Streams in conifer plantations had fewer nematomorphs than streams in natural deciduous forests. These results provide the first quantitative evidence that a manipulative parasite can explain variation in the allochthonous energy flow through and across ecosystems.

  20. 西夏动物资源述论%The Animal Resources In Tangut

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王守权

    2012-01-01

    In the Song Dynasty,the region of Tangut had sheep,cattle,horses,camel,dogs,chickens and other domestic animals.At the same time,there were wild beasts,birds and fish.Thus,the district of Tangut had rich animal resources in the Song Dynasty.Lots of animal resources had a tremendous impact on diet structure and foreign relations.%宋时西夏地区既有羊、牛、马、骆驼、狗、鸡等畜牧家养类动物,亦有野生动物类的走兽、飞禽和鱼类,因而西夏地区的动物资源十分丰富。西夏各类动物的大量存在对西夏的饮食结构和对外交往产生了深远而巨大的影响。

  1. Vitrinite reflectance studies of dispersed organic material from northland allochthon rocks, north island, new zealand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Northland Allochthon is a structurally displaced rock unit located between Three Kings Island and Mt. Camel in northern North Island, New Zealand. Lithologically, the allochthonous unit is composed of different lithofacies comprising sandstone, siltstone, greensand, siliceous mudstone, argillaceous micritic limestone and rare coal measures alongwith dispersed organic matter. In this paper, vitrinite reflectance of dispersed organic matter in non-coaly clastic rocks from different lithofacies of Northland Allochthon, Rocks, North Island, New Zealand is analyzed to assess the degree of diagenesis of organic matter and paleo temperature. Vitrinite Reflectance values range from 0.30 to 2.00 %Rm and correspond to estimate of palaeotemperature of 60 to 180 degree C. Oldest sedimentary complex may have been affected by heating to 300 C from intrusion of keratophyre dykes. (author)

  2. Rickettsia africae in Hyalomma dromedarii ticks from sub-Saharan Algeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kernif, Tahar; Djerbouh, Amel; Mediannikov, Oleg; Ayach, Bouhous; Rolain, Jean-Marc; Raoult, Didier; Parola, Philippe; Bitam, Idir

    2012-12-01

    Spotted fever group (SFG) rickettsioses are caused by obligate, intracellular Gram-negative bacteria of the genus Rickettsia. In recent years, several species and subspecies of rickettsias have been identified as emerging pathogens throughout the world, including sub-Saharan Africa. We report here the detection of Rickettsia africae, the agent responsible for African tick-bite fever, by amplification of fragments of gltA and ompA genes and multi-spacer typing from Hyalomma dromedarii ticks collected from the camel Camelus dromedarius in the Adrar and Béchar region (sub-Saharan Algeria). To date, R. africae has been associated mainly with Amblyomma spp. The role of H. dromedarii in the epidemiology of R. africae requires further investigation.

  3. Screw dislocation mobility in BCC metals: the role of the compact core on double-kink nucleation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this work, we examine the kink-nucleation process in BCC screw dislocations using atomistic simulation and transition pathway analysis, with a particular focus on the compact core structure. We observe the existence of a threshold stress, which results in an abrupt change in the minimum energy path of the kink-nucleation process, and hence, a discontinuity in the activation energy versus stress for the process. The magnitude of the discontinuity is found to be related to the degree of metastability of an intermediate split-core structure. This feature appears to be a direct consequence of the so-called 'camel-hump' nature of the Peierls potential, which manifests itself in the existence of a metastable, intermediate split-core structure. The effect is observed in a number of empirical EAM potentials, including Fe, Ta, V, Nb and Mo, suggesting a generality to the observations

  4. Control Deficit Subjects are Superior for Man-Made Objects on a Verbal Semantic Task

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Roncero

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available When semantic deficits occur following brain damage, the subjects generally show anomia as well as deficits on semantic matching tasks such as the Camels and Cactus test. Such individuals can be further characterized as demonstrating either a semantic control deficit or a storage deficit (Jeffries & Lambon Ralph, 2006. Semantic control subjects show improved performance when responses are constrained, but storage subjects do not. In the present study, we categorized 17 subjects with neurodegenerative diseases – Alzheimer’s disease and Primary Progressive Aphasia - as Semantic Storage or Semantic Control patterns of deficit, based on their performance on three semantic tasks—Naming, Cued Naming, and Word-to-Picture Matching. This was done independent of both the subject’s localization of brain damage and clinical diagnosis. Subjects who demonstrated impaired performance on the Naming task, but showed normal performance on Cued Naming and Word-to-Picture Matching, were classified as showing a control deficit (N = 8, while subjects who were impaired on all three semantic tasks were classified as anomic subjects with a storage deficit (N = 9. Despite only using these three semantic tasks, the identified sub-groups demonstrated different patterns of semantic knowledge consistent with either a control deficit or a storage deficit. The identified sub-groups, for example, were comparable for letter fluency, but subjects with a storage deficit were significantly worse for animal fluency. Accessing subjects’ semantic knowledge with the word and picture versions of the Camels and Cactus test, we also found that storage deficit subjects’ performance was equally poor on both versions compared to normal elderly participants, whereas control deficit subjects were relatively impaired only in the word version. Finally, comparing FDG PET scans for these subjects, we noted storage deficit subjects typically had bilateral temporal damage—all but one

  5. Brain Mass and Encephalization Quotients in the Domestic Industrial Pig (Sus scrofa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serena Minervini

    Full Text Available In the present study we examined the brain of fetal, newborn, and adult pigs raised for meat production. The fresh and formalin-fixed weights of the brain have been recorded and used, together with body weight, to calculate the Encephalization Quotient (EQ. The weight of the cerebellum has been used to calculate the Cerebellar Quotient (CQ. The results have been discussed together with analogue data obtained in other terrestrial Cetartiodactyla (including the domestic bovine, sheep, goat, and camel, domesticated Carnivora, Proboscidata, and Primates. Our study, based on a relatively large experimental series, corrects former observations present in the literature based on smaller samples, and emphasizes that the domestic pig has a small brain relative to its body size (EQ = 0.38 for adults, possibly due to factors linked to the necessity of meat production and improved body weight. Comparison with other terrestrial Cetartiodactyla indicates a similar trend for all domesticated species.

  6. Plague in Arab Maghreb, 1940–2015: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malek, Maliya Alia; Bitam, Idir; Drancourt, Michel

    2016-01-01

    We reviewed the epidemiology of 49 plague outbreaks that resulted in about 7,612 cases in 30 localities in the Arabic Maghreb (Mauritania, Morocco, Algeria, Tunisia, Libya, and Egypt) over 75 years. Between 1940 and 1950, most cases recorded in Morocco (75%) and Egypt (20%), resulted from plague imported to Mediterranean harbors and transmitted by rat ectoparasites. By contrast, the re-emergence of plague in the southern part of Western Sahara in 1953 and in northeast Libya in 1976 was traced to direct contact between nomadic populations and infected goats and camels in natural foci, including the consumption of contaminated meat, illustrating this neglected oral route of contamination. Further familial outbreaks were traced to human ectoparasite transmission. Efforts to identify the factors contributing to natural foci may guide where to focus the surveillance of sentinel animals in order to eradicate human plague, if not Yersinia pestis from the Arab Maghreb. PMID:27376053

  7. AEROBIC BACTERIA AND FUNGI ASSOCIATED WITH RAW CAMEL’S MILK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. E. ELHAJ

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine the aerobic bacteria and fungi associated with raw camel’s milk. Samples were collected from farms in Bahri (Khartoun North area in the Sudan. The isolated aerobic bacteria (one hundred and fifteen isolates were identified as (85.26% Gram–negative, while (14.73% were Gram-positive. The Gram-negative bacteria were 39.13% Escherichia coli serotypes, 07.82% Klebsiella spp., 01.73% Psedomonas spp., 03.47% Proteues spp. and 06.08% Enterococci spp. While, the Gram-positive bacteria were 07.82% Micrococcus spp., 05.21% Streptococcus spp. and 28.69% Staphylococcus spp. In conclusion camel milk is a source for many bacteria which may lead to health hazard for man when it is taken raw (as in many rural areas in Arabic countries including the Sudan.

  8. The role of the Oregon State University Endophyte Service Laboratory in diagnosing clinical cases of endophyte toxicoses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craig, A Morrie; Blythe, Linda L; Duringer, Jennifer M

    2014-07-30

    The Oregon State University Colleges of Veterinary Medicine and Agricultural Sciences instituted the Endophyte Service Laboratory to aid in diagnosing toxicity problems associated with cool-season grasses in livestock. The endophyte (Neotyphodium coenophalum) present in tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea) produces ergopeptine alkaloids, of which ergovaline is the molecule used to determine exposure and toxicity thresholds for the vasoconstrictive conditions "fescue foot" and "summer slump". Another vasoconstrictive syndrome, "ergotism," is caused by a parasitic fungus, Claviceps purpurea, and its primary toxin, ergotamine. "Ryegrass staggers" is a neurological condition that affects livestock consuming endophyte (Neotyphodium lolii)-infected perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne) with high levels of lolitrem B. HPLC-fluorescent analytical methods for these mycotoxins are described and were used to determine threshold levels of toxicity for ergovaline and lolitrem B in cattle, sheep, horses, and camels. In addition, six clinical cases in cattle are presented to illustrate diagnosis of these three diseases. PMID:25017309

  9. Temperature effects on the capacitance of an imidazolium-based ionic liquid on a graphite electrode: a molecular dynamics simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiaohong; Han, Yining; Yan, Tianying

    2014-08-25

    Temperature-dependent electric double layer (EDL) and differential capacitance-potential (C(d)-U) curves of the ionic liquid 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate (BMIM(+)/PF6(-)) were studied on a graphite electrode by molecular dynamics simulations. It was found that all C(d)-U curves were asymmetric camel-shaped with higher C(d) at negative polarization, attributed to the specific adsorption of BMIM(+). In addition, the maxima of Cd at the negative polarization decrease monotonically with temperature due to the thicker EDL, whereas at the positive polarization they gradually increase from 450 to 550 K and decrease at 600 K. Such temperature effects at positive polarization may be understood in terms of the competition between two aspects: the weakening specific adsorption of BMIM(+) allows more effective screening to the positive charge and overall increasing EDL thickness. Although the former dominates from 450 to 550 K, the latter becomes dominant at 600 K.

  10. Some physical, physiological and biochemical adaptations of ruminant livestock including buffaloes to different feeds and climates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.R. Ørskov

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Some of the adaptations of ruminant livestock to climate and feed resources are discussed. 1. Physical. Various types of coat serve to protect animals from cold and from the sun’s heat. 2. Physiological. Large rumen volumes enables animals to consume large amounts of poor roughages; fat depots in distinct regions of the body allow them to withstand regulation and fluctuating supply of nutrients, seasonality of reproduction matches requirement to seasonal variation in food supply. 3. Biochemical. There are species differences in the ability to recycle N to the rumen (buffaloes in the requirement for glucose to accommodate several days of fasting (camels, and in adaptation to low atmospheric oxygen tension (yaks. Such adaptations are important and should be considered when animals exported to areas where climates and feeds are different.

  11. High-spin states in the odd-odd nucleus sup 8 sup 0 Y

    CERN Document Server

    Bucurescu, D; Ionescu-Bujor, M; Iordachescu, A; Bazzacco, D; Brandolini, F; De Angelis, G; De Poli, M; Gadea, A; Lunardi, S; Marginean, N; Medina, N H; Napoli, D R; Pavan, P; Rossi-Alvarez, C; Spolaore, P

    2002-01-01

    The high-spin states of sup 8 sup 0 Y have been studied with the reactions sup 2 sup 4 Mg( sup 5 sup 8 Ni, pn gamma) at 180 MeV and sup 5 sup 8 Ni( sup 2 sup 4 Mg, pn gamma) at 77 MeV. Gamma-ray transitions in this nucleus have been unambiguously assigned by using the GASP detector array in conjunction with the recoil mass spectrometer CAMEL and the ISIS Silicon detector ball. These transitions have been arranged into several rotational bands extending up to an excitation energy of about 12 MeV and spin 24 Planck constant. The bands are discussed within the framework of the interacting boson-fermion-fermion and cranked shell models.

  12. Evaluating Banking Productivity and Information Technology Using the Translog Production Function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madueme Ifeoma Stella

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available This empirical study tried to assess the impact of Information Communication Technology (ICT on the productivity of the Nigerian banking sector. Impact on Productivity was conceptualized as ability to make positive contributions to output after deductions for depreciation and labour expenses has been made. The Trancendental Logarithimic Production function and the CAMEL rating were used for the study. Results showed that bank output such as loans and other assets increased significantly to changes in expenditure on information communication technology. Information communication technology labour expenses impacted more on bank output more than capital expenditure on ICT gadgets. The recommendation centered on the need to increase investments in information technology in order to increase productivity of banks. This is based on the purview that increased productivity in many instances leads to improved operational efficiency and profitability which are the laudable goals of any banking establishment.

  13. 1st joint meeting of lGCP 490 and ICSU on rapid and catastrophic environmental changes and the human response

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    Have you ever seen scientists listening attentively to research talks whilst sitting, standing or lying on the sand? Well-known scientific personalities presenting their results on an improvised black board leaning a gainst afour-wheel drive vehicle, or an acacia tree (we avoided camels which definitively move too much)? If not, you should have taken part to the first of six international meetings on“Rapid and catastrophic environmental changes in the Holocene and humanresponse”. This conference was held in Mauritania from 4 to 18 January 2004, with the first week along the coast of the Nature Park of Banc d'Arguin and the second one on the Adrar plateau. In attendance were 29 participants from 17 countries who were drawn there to examine in the field various phenomena linked to the theme of the meeting,

  14. Phylogenetic relationships among Linguatula serrata isolates from Iran based on 18S rRNA and mitochondrial cox1 gene sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghorashi, Seyed Ali; Tavassoli, Mousa; Peters, Andrew; Shamsi, Shokoofeh; Hajipour, Naser

    2016-01-01

    The phylogenetic relationships among seven Linguatula serrata (L. serrata) isolates collected from cattle, goats, sheep, dogs and camels in different geographical locations of Iran were investigated using partial 18S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) and partial mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (cox1) gene sequences. The nucleotide sequences were analysed in order to determine the phylogenetic relationships between the isolates. Higher sequence diversity and intraspecies variation was observed in the cox1 gene compared to 18S rRNA sequences. Phylogenetic analysis of the cox1 gene placed all L. serrata isolates in a sister clade to L. arctica. The Mantel regression analysis revealed no association between genetic variations and host species or geographical location, perhaps due to the small sample size. However, genetic variations between L. serrata isolates in Iran and those isolated in other parts of the world may exist and could reveal possible evolutionary relationships. PMID:27149706

  15. Synthesis, spectroscopic investigations, and computational study of 4-((9,10-dioxo-9,10-dihydroanthracen-1-yl)oxy)-3-methoxybenzaldehyde

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanaani, Ayoub; Ajloo, Davood; Kiyani, Hamzeh; Vakili, Mohamad; Farahani, Mahnaz; Amiri, Majid

    2016-08-01

    4-((9,10-dioxo-9,10-dihydroanthracen-1-yl)oxy)-3-methoxybenzaldehyde has been synthesized in an attempt to obtain a new photochromic compound. The optimized molecular structure, mole fractions of title compound in trans and ana forms have been investigated. UV-visible spectra of the compound were also recorded. Upon irradiation with 300 nm light, the camel solid turned orange, in which a visible absorption band was observed at 475 nm. The electronic properties, such as HOMO, LUMO and band gap energies were obtained by the time-dependent DFT (TD-DFT) approach. The predicted nonlinear optical properties of the title compound are much greater than those of urea. Transition structures were calculated by QST3 and IRC methods which yielded the potential energy surface and activation energy.

  16. Dissertações e Teses v.2 n.3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Frederico Barboza de Souza

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available No mais profundo centro: João da Cruz e o Sufismo Sadili cantam a união transformanteCarlos Frederico Barboza de Souza O camelô em Belo Horizonte: aspectos da informalidade e da identidadeMaria Aparecida Carvalho de Castro Igreja, povo de Deus, sujeito da comunhão e da missãoCleto Caliman A literatura como questionamento do sujeito da modernidade: Memórias do cárcere, de Graciliano Ramos, e A peste, de Albert CamusJoão Pereira Pinto O ensino religioso na rede pública estadual de Belo Horizonte -MG: história, modelos e percepções de professores sobre formação e docênciaDouglas Cabral Dantas

  17. Chronological Trends in Negev Rock Art: The Har Michia Petroglyphs as a Test Case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davida Eisenberg-Degen

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Negev rock art comprises a large and diverse corpus of motifs and compositions developed over the course of several millennia. As dating of specific elements is at present not possible, the rock art was analyzed statistically through the study of individual panels where internal sequences of engraving could be discerned. Examining the set of such individual sequences, larger scale reconstruction of engraving phases, sequences and patterns were recognized. Additional chronological markers, such as the presence of domestic camels or other chronologically diagnostic features, offer benchmarks for tying the general trends to more absolute frameworks. The reconstructed patterns reflect the long term history of the Negev and some of the most significant cultural and social transitions in the region are reflected visually through the rock art, notably a form of self-expression, a crucial complement to the historical sequences derived from sedentary peoples living farther north. For example the introduction of the domestic camel and its symbolic and economic significance is well evident in the rock art. Similarly, the emergence of Islam is expressed through the mark makers’ preference for "abstract" (non-figurative motifs. One motif found throughout all engraving phases, transcending the religious, political and economic structures of Negev society, is the “ibex”. Although Negev societies have all focused, to one degree or another, on sheep and goat pastoralism, these animals are rarely present in the Negev rock art and never as herds. Ibex, whose role in the diet and daily subsistence was minimal, was the most commonly depicted zoomorphic motif.

  18. Chaperonin GroEL a Brucella immunodominant antigen identified using Nanobody and MALDI-TOF-MS technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbady, A Q; Al-Daoude, A; Al-Mariri, A; Zarkawi, M; Muyldermans, S

    2012-05-15

    The deployment of today's antibodies that are able to distinguish Brucella from the closely similar pathogens, such as Yersinia, is still considered a great challenge since both pathogens share identical LPS (lipopolysaccharide) O-ring epitopes. In addition, because of the great impact of Brucella on health and economy in many countries including Syria, much effort is going to the development of next generation vaccines, mainly on the identification of new immunogenic proteins of this pathogen. In this context, Brucella-specific nanobodies (Nbs), camel genetic engineered heavy-chain antibody fragments, could be of great value. Previously, a large Nb library was constructed from a camel immunized with heat-killed Brucella. Phage display panning of this 'immune' library with Brucella total lysate resulted in a remarkable fast enrichment for a Nb referred to as NbBruc02. In the present work, we investigated the main characteristics of this Nb that can efficiently distinguish under well-defined conditions the Brucella from other bacteria including Yersinia. NbBruc02 showed a strong and specific interaction with its antigen within the crude lysate as tested by a surface plasmon resonance (SPR) biosensor and it was also able to pull down its cognate antigen from such lysate by immuno-capturing. Using matrix assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS), NbBruc02 specific antigen was identified as chaperonin GroEL, also known as heat shock protein of 60 kDa (HSP-60), which represents a Brucella immunodominant antigen responsible of maintaining proteins folding during stress conditions. Interestingly, the antigen recognition by NbBruc02 was found to be affected by the state of GroEL folding. Thus, the Nb technology applied in the field of infectious diseases, e.g. brucellosis, yields two outcomes: (1) it generates specific binders that can be used for diagnosis, and perhaps treatment, and (2) it identifies the immunogenic candidate

  19. Advances in control of ectoparasites in large animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiepe, T

    1988-11-01

    In continuation of a publication on "Large-scale management systems and parasite populations: ectoparasites" in Vet. Parasitol. 11 (1982): 61-68, advances and present state of the control of ectoparasites in herds of cattle, sheep and camels are discussed. An intensified animal production necessitates permanent veterinary control of the status of ectoparasites. Strategically, control is basically directed towards achieving three aims: eradication, reduction of losses by means of dilution of ectoparasites regulations, and therapeutic measures. In the last few years, important progress has been made in effective ectoparasites control, mainly resulting from the discovery of new insecticides and acaricides, the improvement of the application techniques and the recent results in the biological control of arthropods; finally, an immunological approach will open new alternative ways of control. The control of mange and demodicosis in cattle; sarcoptic mange and sucking lice infestations in pigs; mange, biting lice infestations and nasal bots in sheep; ectoparasite infestations in camels and tick infestations are the main topics of the paper. The discovery of Ivermectin, a derivate of Streptomyces avermitilis which is now already fully integrated in to the spectrum of antiparasitic drugs, created a new generation of broad spectrum insecticides/acaricides. Current problems of the chemical control of arthropods, like the risk of residues in meat, milk and their products, the insecticide resistance and the possible environment pollution are critically outlined. But on the other hand, it can be predicted hypothetically that the amount of pest control measures in farm animals will increase in the near future to eliminate arthropods as causes of skin diseases and of damages to hides entailing negative effects on leather processing and as vectors of important infection agents. Finally, the proposal is submitted to elaborate international control programmes against ectoparasite

  20. Activity of heat shock genes' promoters in thermally contrasting animal species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astakhova, Lyubov N; Zatsepina, Olga G; Funikov, Sergei Yu; Zelentsova, Elena S; Schostak, Natalia G; Orishchenko, Konstantin E; Evgen'ev, Michael B; Garbuz, David G

    2015-01-01

    Heat shock gene promoters represent a highly conserved and universal system for the rapid induction of transcription after various stressful stimuli. We chose pairs of mammalian and insect species that significantly differ in their thermoresistance and constitutive levels of Hsp70 to compare hsp promoter strength under normal conditions and after heat shock (HS). The first pair includes the HSPA1 gene promoter of camel (Camelus dromedarius) and humans. It was demonstrated that the camel HSPA1A and HSPA1L promoters function normally in vitro in human cell cultures and exceed the strength of orthologous human promoters under basal conditions. We used the same in vitro assay for Drosophila melanogaster Schneider-2 (S2) cells to compare the activity of the hsp70 and hsp83 promoters of the second species pair represented by Diptera, i.e., Stratiomys singularior and D. melanogaster, which dramatically differ in thermoresistance and the pattern of Hsp70 accumulation. Promoter strength was also monitored in vivo in D. melanogaster strains transformed with constructs containing the S. singularior hsp70 ORF driven either by its own promoter or an orthologous promoter from the D. melanogaster hsp70Aa gene. Analysis revealed low S. singularior hsp70 promoter activity in vitro and in vivo under basal conditions and after HS in comparison with the endogenous promoter in D. melanogaster cells, which correlates with the absence of canonical GAGA elements in the promoters of the former species. Indeed, the insertion of GAGA elements into the S. singularior hsp70 regulatory region resulted in a dramatic increase in promoter activity in vitro but only modestly enhanced the promoter strength in the larvae of the transformed strains. In contrast with hsp70 promoters, hsp83 promoters from both of the studied Diptera species demonstrated high conservation and universality.