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Sample records for camellia sinensis

  1. Phytochemical analysis of Camellia sinensis Leaves

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    Tariq. A. L

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Medicinal plants possess an important source of pharmacological effects that acts as new anti-infections, antioxidant and anti-cancer agents. The most important bioactive constituents of plants are steroids, terpenoids, carotenoids, flavonoids, alkaloids, tannins and glycosides which serve a valuable starting material for drug development. Tea (Camellia sinensis is consumed worldwide and is second only to water in its popularity as a beverage. It has ascribed many health benefits viz reduction of cholesterol, protection against cardio – vascular diseases and cancer. By concerning all these studies, we have traced out the presence of phytochemical in Camellia sinensis leave. The phytochemical analysis showed the presence alkaloids, flavonoids, steroids and tannins by changing the colour of medium when treated with respective reagents. One gram of Camellia sinensis leaves extract contained 0.7 grams of phenolic compounds. While flavonoid content was 14 mg/gram of Camellia sinensis leave extract. one gram of leaf extracts contained 0.11 gram of reducing power. The methanolic extract of Camellia sinensis showed the presence of various functional groups when run through Fourier transforms infrared spectroscopy. The methanolic extract of Camellia sinensis showed the antimicrobial activity against Bacillus subtilis, and Enterococcus sp. It reveals the highest zone of inhibition around the bacterial colonies when compared with standard antibiotics Erythromycin, Tetracycline and Ampicillin.

  2. Correlation between antioxidant activity and total phenolic content with physicochemical parameters of blended extracts of Camellia sinensis

    OpenAIRE

    Lucilene Dornelles Mello; Gabriel Porto Quadros

    2014-01-01

    http://dx.doi.org/10.4025/actascihealthsci.v36i1.12615 This paper evaluated the total antioxidant activity (TAA) and the correlation with parameters such as total phenols (FT), total acidity, pH, redox potential (ORP) and conductivity (EC), of commercial teas of Camellia sinensis, single or blended with other plants. The extracts tested were: Camellia sinensis fermented and unfermented, Camellia sinensis with Citrus limonium, Camellia sinensis with Mentha piperita, Camellia sinensis with P...

  3. Investigation of major phenolic antioxidants from Camellia sinensis fruits

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    Ajay Rana

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study unveils major phenolic antioxidant compounds from Camellia sinensis fruits, followed by their investigation, purification and characterization using HPLC, ESI-MS and NMR studies. The spectrophotometric estimation results have clearly demonstrated that C. sinensis (tea fruits contain up to 14% of total polyphenols (as gallic acid equivalent and 7% of flavonoids (as quercetin equivalent on dry weight basis. Differential solvent-mediated extractions have been performed for quantitative assessment of major phytoconstituents by RP-HPLC analysis. And the results have revealed that these fruits contain adequate amount of tea catechins (4% along with caffeine (1% and theanine (0.4% on dry weight basis. Moreover, purification and characterization of major phytoconstituents such as epigallocatechin, epicatechin, epigallocatechin gallate and epicatechin gallate along with caffeine have been accomplished. Thus, it is clearly demonstrated that tea fruits could act as a possible and reliable source for obtaining major phenolic antioxidants.

  4. Correlation between antioxidant activity and total phenolic content with physicochemical parameters of blended extracts of Camellia sinensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucilene Dornelles Mello

    2014-03-01

    This paper evaluated the total antioxidant activity (TAA and the correlation with parameters such as total phenols (FT, total acidity, pH, redox potential (ORP and conductivity (EC, of commercial teas of Camellia sinensis, single or blended with other plants. The extracts tested were: Camellia sinensis fermented and unfermented, Camellia sinensis with Citrus limonium, Camellia sinensis with Mentha piperita, Camellia sinensis with Prunus persica, Camellia sinensis with Citrus sinensis. All extracts showed high percentages of TAA and were not significantly different by Tukey’s test. The correlation matrices indicated that except for the extract of Camellia sinensis with Prunus persica, all the other extracts had statistically significant correlations. Strong correlations were found between TAA and FT, and between pH and FT. The extract of Camellia sinensis with Mentha piperita presented the highest correlation between TAA and FT. The same compounds that influence the pH and ORP may also influence the EC, for almost all teas. For the fermented and unfermented extracts of Camellia sinensis all parameters had been strongly correlated (r > 0.7.

  5. In Vitro Evaluation of Antagonism of Endophytic Colletotrichum gloeosporioides Against Potent Fungal Pathogens of Camellia sinensis

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    Rabha, Aparna Jyoti; Naglot, Ashok; Sharma, Gauri Dutta; Gogoi, Hemant Kumar; Veer, Vijay

    2014-01-01

    An endophytic fungus isolated from Camellia sinensis, Assam, Northeastern India was identified as Colletotrichum gloeosporioides on the basis of morphological characteristics and rDNA ITS analysis. This endophytic fungus was evaluated for growth inhibition against tea pathogens Pestalotiopsis theae and Colletotrichum camelliae. One isolate of C. gloeosporioides showed strong antagonistic activity against Pestalotiopsis theae (64 %) and moderate activity against C. camelliae (37 %). Fifty perc...

  6. Thesis Abstract Fermented milk elaborated with Camellia sinensis.

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    Ribeiro, O A S; Silva, M I A; Boari, C A

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to develop and to characterize fermented dairy beverage formulated with Camellia sinensis. The infusion was elaborated with the addiction of dehydrated leaves of C. sinensis in whey (1g/100g) which added in sweetened milk (10% sucrose w/w) coagulated by Streptococcus salivarius subspecies thermophilus and Lactobacillus delbrueckii subspecies bulgaricus in proportions of 10, 20, 30 and 40% (v/w). The control treatment consisted of yogurt added with sucrose (10% w/w). Analysis were performed to quantify dry mass, moisture, ash, protein, fat, sodium, acidity, total quantification of lactic acid bacteria, total antioxidant activity and viscosity at the initial time of production and at 15 and 30 days of storage. Chromatographic determination of volatile compounds and sensory tests of acceptance and consumption intention were conducted at the initial time of production. Dry matter content, moisture, ash and total count of lactic acid bacteria from fermented milk drink formulations were not significantly affected by the amount of infusion of C. sinensis. However, the content of protein, fat and sodium were significantly lower with the increase of the proportion of infusion incorporated into the product. Significant reduction in apparent viscosity occurs with the increase in the amount of infusion added. The total antioxidant activity of the formulations was significantly higher as higher were the amount of added infusion. The addition of infusion contributed to the diversification of volatile aroma and taste makers in the product. The formulation of fermented dairy drink with addition of 30% infusion C. sinensis was better evaluated in sensory tests, with greater acceptance and greater consumer intent of consumption. PMID:27323046

  7. Screening of anti-oxidative effects in Camellia sinensis L. leaves treated with boric acid

    OpenAIRE

    İsmailoğlu, Işıl; COŞKUN, Zeynep Mine; Ersöz, Melike; Murat Ali TURAN

    2014-01-01

    Camellia sinensis L. (tea) is one of the most widely consumed drink in the World. The anti-oxidant role of boric acid has been reported. The present study was aimed to evaluate the alteration of anti-oxidative effects of C. sinensis L. leaves extract treated with boric acid.

  8. The Effect of Camellia sinensis on Wound Healing Potential in an Animal Model

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    Fatemeh Hajiaghaalipour; Kanthimathi, M. S.; Mahmood Ameen Abdulla; Junedah Sanusi

    2013-01-01

    Camellia sinensis (tea) is reported to have health benefits, including the building of healthy skin. This study evaluated the effects of topical application of Camellia sinensis extract on the rate of wound closure and the histology of wound area. A uniform area of 2.00 cm in diameter was excised from the neck of adult male Sprague Dawley rats. The animals were topically treated with 0.2 mL of vehicle (CMC), Intrasite gel (positive control), or 200 and 400 mg/mL of extract. Wounds dressed wit...

  9. Development of microsatellite and amplicon length polymorphism markers for Camellia japonica L. from tea plant (Camellia sinensis) expressed sequence tags.

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    Ueno, Saneyoshi; Tsumura, Yoshihiko

    2009-05-01

    Simple sequence repeats and amplicon length polymorphism markers for Camellia japonica were developed, based on Camellia sinensis sequences in the National Center for Biotechnology Information database. In total, 2495 gene sequences were used to design 216 primer pairs. To identify amplicon length polymorphism markers, 61 gene loci in 16 Camellia individuals were re-sequenced. In total, 10 markers (three expressed sequence tags-simple sequence repeats and seven amplicon length polymorphisms) yielded polymerase chain reaction products with clear polymorphic patterns and were used for genotyping 22 C. japonica individuals from a population. Numbers of alleles and expected heterozygosity ranged from two to 13 and from 0.28 to 0.90, respectively. PMID:21564753

  10. In Vitro Evaluation of Antagonism of Endophytic Colletotrichum gloeosporioides Against Potent Fungal Pathogens of Camellia sinensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabha, Aparna Jyoti; Naglot, Ashok; Sharma, Gauri Dutta; Gogoi, Hemant Kumar; Veer, Vijay

    2014-09-01

    An endophytic fungus isolated from Camellia sinensis, Assam, Northeastern India was identified as Colletotrichum gloeosporioides on the basis of morphological characteristics and rDNA ITS analysis. This endophytic fungus was evaluated for growth inhibition against tea pathogens Pestalotiopsis theae and Colletotrichum camelliae. One isolate of C. gloeosporioides showed strong antagonistic activity against Pestalotiopsis theae (64 %) and moderate activity against C. camelliae (37 %). Fifty percent cell-free culture filtrate from 5-day-old cultures showed highest antagonistic activity against both the pathogens although the inhibition percent was less as compared to dual culture. In the experiment of volatile compounds none of the isolates of C. gloeosporioides strains showed visible inhibition against P. theae and C. camelliae. The activity of extracellular hydrolytic enzymes chitinase and protease was also high in this culture fluid and measured 10 and 4.3 IU/μl, respectively. PMID:24891737

  11. Formulasi Dan Uji Efek Anti-Aging Dari Sediaan Hand Cream Ekstrak Daun Teh Hijau (Camellia Sinensis L.)

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    Andhasari, Yessy

    2015-01-01

    Aging is a natural process in all of the body ogan including the skin. Green tea leaf extract (Camellia sinensis L.) is one of natural material can be used as antioksidant cream for anti aging on skin. Green tea leaf extract (Camellia sinensis L.) contains polyphenol are epychatechin, epychatechingalat, epygalochatechin, chatechin and galochatechin have strong aktivity to inhibitor of free radical, therefore it is probably use ful for slowing down the aging process, particularly that caused ...

  12. Morfodiagnose da anatomia foliar e caulinar de Camellia sinensis (L.) Kuntze, Theaceae Leaf and stem anatomical morpho-diagnosis of Camellia sinensis (L.) Kuntze, Theaceae

    OpenAIRE

    Márcia R. Duarte; Menarim, Daniele O.

    2006-01-01

    Camellia sinensis é um arbusto ou árvore de pequeno porte, de origem asiática, denominado de chá-da-índia, chá-verde ou chá-preto. Possui atividades antioxidante, antiinflamatória, antimicrobiana e hepatoprotetora. A comercialização dessa espécie é relevante, como droga farmacognóstica e insumo na indústria de bebidas. O presente trabalho trata da caracterização estrutural de folha e caule, de modo a contribuir na morfodiagnose para o controle de qualidade. Amostras do material vegetal foram ...

  13. Exogenous abscisic acid significantly affects proteome in tea plant (Camellia sinensis) exposed to drought stress

    OpenAIRE

    Lin Zhou; Hui Xu; Sue Mischke; Meinhardt, Lyndel W.; Dapeng Zhang; Xujun Zhu; Xinghui Li; Wanping Fang

    2014-01-01

    Tea [Camellia sinensis (L.) O. Kuntze] is an important economic crop, and drought is the most important abiotic stress affecting yield and quality. Abscisic acid (ABA) is an important phytohormone responsible for activating drought resistance. Increased understanding of ABA effects on tea plant under drought stress is essential to develop drought-tolerant tea genotypes, along with crop management practices that can mitigate drought stress. The objective of the present investigation is evaluat...

  14. ESTIMATING BIOCHEMICAL PARAMETERS OF TEA (CAMELLIA SINENSIS (L.)) USING HYPERSPECTRAL TECHNIQUES

    OpenAIRE

    Bian, M.; Skidmore, A.K.; Schlerf, M.; Liu, Y; Wang, T.

    2012-01-01

    Tea (Camellia Sinensis (L.)) is an important economic crop and the market price of tea depends largely on its quality. This research aims to explore the potential of hyperspectral remote sensing on predicting the concentration of biochemical components, namely total tea polyphenols, as indicators of tea quality at canopy scale. Experiments were carried out for tea plants growing in the field and greenhouse. Partial least squares regression (PLSR), which has proven to be the one of th...

  15. The Effect of Camellia sinensis on Wound Healing Potential in an Animal Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajiaghaalipour, Fatemeh; Kanthimathi, M S; Abdulla, Mahmood Ameen; Sanusi, Junedah

    2013-01-01

    Camellia sinensis (tea) is reported to have health benefits, including the building of healthy skin. This study evaluated the effects of topical application of Camellia sinensis extract on the rate of wound closure and the histology of wound area. A uniform area of 2.00 cm in diameter was excised from the neck of adult male Sprague Dawley rats. The animals were topically treated with 0.2 mL of vehicle (CMC), Intrasite gel (positive control), or 200 and 400 mg/mL of extract. Wounds dressed with the extract and Intrasite gel healed significantly earlier than those with vehicle. Histological analysis of the wound area after 10 days showed that wounds dressed with the extract had less scar width when compared to the control. The tissue contained less inflammatory cells and more collagen and angiogenesis, compared to wounds dressed with vehicle. In this study, Camellia sinensis showed high potential in wound healing activity. PMID:23864889

  16. Heterologous nuclear and chloroplast microsatellite amplification and variation in tea, Camellia sinensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaundun, Shiv Shankhar; Matsumoto, Satoru

    2002-12-01

    The advantage of the cross transferability of heterologous chloroplast and nuclear microsatellite primers was taken to detect polymorphism among 24 tea (Camellia sinensis (L.) O. Kuntze) genotypes, including both the assamica and the sinensis varieties. Primer information was obtained from the closely related Camellia japonica species for four nuclear microsatellites, and from Nicotiana tabaccum for seven universal chloroplast microsatellites. All of the nuclear microsatellite loci tested generated an expected DNA fragment in tea, revealing between three and five alleles per locus. Four out of the seven chloroplast microsatellites primers amplified positively, and of these only one was polymorphic with three alleles, which is in agreement with the conserved nature of chloroplast microsatellites at the intraspecific level. A factorial correspondence analysis carried out on all genotypes and nuclear microsatellite alleles separated the assamica and sinensis genotypes into two groups, thus demonstrating the value of these markers in establishing the genetic relationship between tea varieties. Genetic diversity measured with nuclear microsatellites was higher than that measured with other types of molecular markers, offering prospects for their use in fingerprinting, mapping, and population genetic studies, whereas polymorphisms detected at a cpSSR locus will allow the determination of plastid inheritance in the species. PMID:12502248

  17. Genome-Wide Identification of Genes Probably Relevant to the Uniqueness of Tea Plant (Camellia sinensis) and Its Cultivars

    OpenAIRE

    Wei, Yan; Jing, Wang; Youxiang, Zhou; Mingming, Zhao; Yan, Gong; Hua, Ding; Lijun, Peng; Dingjin, Hu

    2015-01-01

    Tea (Camellia sinensis) is a popular beverage all over the world and a number of studies have focused on the genetic uniqueness of tea and its cultivars. However, molecular mechanisms underlying these phenomena are largely undefined. In this report, based on expression data available from public databases, we performed a series of analyses to identify genes probably relevant to the uniqueness of C. sinensis and two of its cultivars (LJ43 and ZH2). Evolutionary analyses showed that the evoluti...

  18. Camellia sinensis (L.) Kuntze Extract Ameliorates Chronic Ethanol-Induced Hepatotoxicity in Albino Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Poonam Lodhi; Neeraj Tandan; Neera Singh; Divyansh Kumar; Monu Kumar

    2014-01-01

    The goal of this study was to investigate the hepatoprotective effects of aqueous extract of Camellia sinensis or green tea extract (AQGTE) in chronic ethanol-induced albino rats. All animals were divided into 4 groups in the study for a 5-week duration. 50% ethanol was given orally to the rats with two doses (5 mg/kg bw and 10 mg/kg bw) of AQGTE. Ethanol administration caused a significant increase in the levels of plasma and serum enzymatic markers, alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate...

  19. Extract of Camellia sinensis as Green Inhibitor for the Corrosion of Mild Steel in Aqueous Solution

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    Fouda, Abd Elaziz S. [El-Mansoura Univ., El-Mansoura (Egypt); Mekkia, Dina; Badr, Abeer H. [Water and wastewater company, Dakahlia (Egypt)

    2013-04-15

    Corrosion inhibition of mild steel used in water station in 35 ppm aluminum sulfate and 10 ppm chloride solution by Camellia sinensis leaves extract was studied using weight loss, potentiodynamic polarization and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy techniques at 30 .deg. C. Results show that the inhibition efficiency increases with increasing concentration of the extract and decreases with increasing temperature. Inhibitive effect was afforded by adsorption of the extract's components which was found to accord with Langmuir adsorption isotherm. Inhibition mechanism is deduced from the temperature dependence of the inhibition efficiency and was further corroborated by the values of activation parameters obtained from the experimental data.

  20. Extract of Camellia sinensis as Green Inhibitor for the Corrosion of Mild Steel in Aqueous Solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corrosion inhibition of mild steel used in water station in 35 ppm aluminum sulfate and 10 ppm chloride solution by Camellia sinensis leaves extract was studied using weight loss, potentiodynamic polarization and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy techniques at 30 .deg. C. Results show that the inhibition efficiency increases with increasing concentration of the extract and decreases with increasing temperature. Inhibitive effect was afforded by adsorption of the extract's components which was found to accord with Langmuir adsorption isotherm. Inhibition mechanism is deduced from the temperature dependence of the inhibition efficiency and was further corroborated by the values of activation parameters obtained from the experimental data

  1. Efek Kumur Ekstrak Teh Hijab (Camellia sinensis) terhadap Derajat Kesamaan dan Volume Saliva Penderita Gingivitis

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    Didi Adriano Anwar; Al. Supartinah; Juni Handajani

    2015-01-01

    Gingivitis is an inflammatory condition of gingival tissue and caused by the accumulation of dental plaque. Green tea (Camellia sinensis) is a plant matter that has been shown to inhibit the growth of acidogenic bacteria and the formation of dental plaque. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of green tea extract on pH and volume of saliva of gingivitis patients. The subjects were 30 male gingivitis patients, 18-25 years old. The subjects were divided into 3 groups according to mouthrinse...

  2. The Impact of pH and Calcium on the Uptake of Fluoride by Tea Plants (Camellia sinensis L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Ruan, Jianyun; Ma, Lifeng; Shi, Yuanzhi; HAN, WENYAN

    2004-01-01

    • Background and Aims Tea plants (Camellia sinensis L.) accumulate large amounts of fluoride (F) from soils containing normal F concentrations. The present experiments examined the effects of pH and Ca on F uptake by this accumulating plant species.

  3. Effects of the medicinal plants Curcuma zedoaria and Camellia sinensis on halitosis control

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    Vitor Hugo Farina

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Volatile sulphur compounds (VSC are the gases mainly responsible for halitosis (bad breath. The aim of this research was to evaluate the effects of medicinal plants on halitosis control. Two commonly used plants were tested: Curcuma zedoaria and Camellia sinensis (green tea. These plants were prepared as an aqueous solution and used as mouthwashes, compared with a standard mouthwash of 0.12% chlorhexidine gluconate and a placebo (water. The experiment was conducted with 30 volunteers from the School of Dentistry of São Jose dos Campos, Univ. Estadual Paulista - UNESP, SP, Brazil. Each volunteer tested the four mouthwashes. The Cysteine Challenge Method, modified for this study, was used for initial breath standardization. Four breath assessments were conducted after volunteers rinsed orally with acetylcysteine: one before the test mouthwash was used; the second, one minute after its use; a third 90 minutes later; and the last 180 minutes later. The results showed that chlorhexidine gluconate lowered VSC production immediately, and that this effect lasted up to 3 hours, while the tested plants had immediate inhibitory effects but no residual inhibitory effects on VSC. We concluded that Curcuma zedoaria and Camellia sinensis, prepared as infusions and used as mouthwashes, did not have a residual neutralizing effect on VSC.

  4. Morfodiagnose da anatomia foliar e caulinar de Camellia sinensis (L. Kuntze, Theaceae Leaf and stem anatomical morpho-diagnosis of Camellia sinensis (L. Kuntze, Theaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcia R. Duarte

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Camellia sinensis é um arbusto ou árvore de pequeno porte, de origem asiática, denominado de chá-da-índia, chá-verde ou chá-preto. Possui atividades antioxidante, antiinflamatória, antimicrobiana e hepatoprotetora. A comercialização dessa espécie é relevante, como droga farmacognóstica e insumo na indústria de bebidas. O presente trabalho trata da caracterização estrutural de folha e caule, de modo a contribuir na morfodiagnose para o controle de qualidade. Amostras do material vegetal foram fixadas, seccionadas e coradas com azul de astra e fucsina básica. Testes microquímicos usuais foram realizados. A folha apresenta estômatos anomocíticos na face abaxial, tricomas tectores unicelulares em ambas as superfícies, mesofilo dorsiventral, drusas de oxalato de cálcio, nervura central biconvexa e pecíolo plano-convexo, ambos percorridos por feixe vascular colateral. O caule, no nível analisado, possui epiderme unisseriada, camada subepidérmica de células colabadas, bainha esclerenquimática, estrato de células com paredes espessadas em U, organização vascular colateral e medula com células parenquimáticas e esclerenquimáticas. Esclereídes são encontradas na folha e no caule.Camellia sinensis is a shrub or small tree, of Asian origin and commonly called Chinese tea, green tea or black tea. This species has antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial and hepatic protective activities. Its trade is relevant, either as pharmacognostic drug or raw material in food industry. This work has dealt with the structural diagnosis of the leaf and stem, in order to contribute to its quality control. Samples of the botanical material were fixed, sectioned and stained with astra blue and basic fuchsine. Microchemical tests were also conducted. The leaf has anomocytic stomata on the abaxial side, unicellular non-glandular trichomes on both surfaces, dorsiventral mesophyll, calcium oxalate druses, biconvex midrib and plain

  5. In vitro inhibition of Helicobacter pylori urease with non and semi fermented Camellia sinensis

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    Shoae Hassani A

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Helicobacter pylori is the etiological agent in duodenal and peptic ulcers. The growing problem of antibiotic resistance by the organism demands the search for novel compounds, especially from natural sources. This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of Camellia sinensis extracts on the urease enzyme that is a major colonization factor for H. pylori. Methods: Minimum inhibitory concentrations of nonfermented and semifermented C. sinensis methanol: water extracts were assessed by broth dilution method. Examination of the urease function was performed by Mc Laren method, and urease production was detected on 12% SDS polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis from whole cell and membrane bound proteins. Results: Both extracts had inhibitory effects against H. pylori and urease production. At a concentration of 2.5 mg/ml of nonfermented extract and 3.5 mg/ml of semifermented extract the production of Ure A and Ure B subunits of the urease enzyme were inhibited completely. A concentration of 4 mg/ml of nonfermented and 5.5 mg/ml of semifermented extract were bactericidal for H. pylori. Conclusions: C. sinensis extracts, especially the nonfermented, could reduce H. pylori population and inhibit urease production at lower concentrations. The superior effect of nonfermented extract is due to its rich polyphenolic compounds and catechin contents.

  6. Inhibition of the Cu65/Zn35 brass corrosion by natural extract of Camellia sinensis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramde, Tambi, E-mail: t_ramde@univ-ouaga.bf [Equipe Chimie Physique et Electrochimie, Laboratoire de Chimie Moléculaire et des Matériaux, Université de Ouagadougou, 03 BP 7021 Ouagadougou 03 (Burkina Faso); Department of Industrial Engineering, University of Trento, via Sommarive 9, 38123 Trento (Italy); Rossi, Stefano; Zanella, Caterina [Department of Industrial Engineering, University of Trento, via Sommarive 9, 38123 Trento (Italy)

    2014-07-01

    In this work, the corrosion inhibition of brass was studied using natural plant extract, Camellia sinensis, in 0.1 M Na2SO4 solutions with pH 7 and pH 4. Electrochemical techniques (potentiodynamic polarization, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) were applied to study the brass corrosion behavior in presence and absence of the extract. The results indicated that the extract is a very effective corrosion inhibitor for brass corrosion process in both the acidic and neutral media by virtue of adsorption. The inhibition effect increases by time as demonstrated by the EIS monitoring for 120 h. In the blank solution the corrosion process leads to the formation of a dark oxide patina at pH 7 and induces localized corrosion morphology at pH 4. The extract presence can avoid both the dark patina and the pits formation.

  7. Synthesis of silver nanoparticles by using tea leaf extract from Camellia sinensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loo, Yuet Ying; Chieng, Buong Woei; Nishibuchi, Mitsuaki; Radu, Son

    2012-01-01

    The development of the biological synthesis of nanoparticles using microorganisms or plant extracts plays an important role in the field of nanotechnology as it is environmentally friendly and does not involve any harmful chemicals. In this study, the synthesis of silver nanoparticles using the leaves extract of Chinese tea from Camellia sinensis is reported. The synthesized nanoparticles were characterized using UV-vis spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. The XRD analysis shows that the synthesized silver nanoparticles are of face-centered cubic structure. Well-dispersed silver nanoparticles with an approximate size of 4 nm were observed in the TEM image. The application of the green synthesized nanoparticles can be used in many fields such as cosmetics, foods, and medicine. PMID:22904632

  8. Antioxidant and antifungal activities of Camellia sinensis (L.) Kuntze leaves obtained by different forms of production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camargo, L E A; Pedroso, L S; Vendrame, S C; Mainardes, R M; Khalil, N M

    2016-06-01

    The antioxidant and anticandidal activities of leaves obtained from Camellia sinensis by non-fermentation (green and white teas), semi-fermentation (red tea) and fermentation method (black tea) were investigated. It was evaluated the total phenolic content by Folin-Ciocalteau assay; antioxidant capacities were evaluated in vitro using DPPH and ABTS radicals, hypochlorous acid and superoxide anion scavenger assays, induced hemolysis, lipid peroxidation by conjugated diene formation and myeloperoxidase activity. Anticandidal activity was performed on three strains of Candida spp. The results showed that non-fermented teas have a higher concentration of phenolic compounds, and then presented the best inhibitory activity of AAPH-induced hemolysis, the best inhibition of conjugated diene formation and more pronounced antioxidant activity in all tests. The highest anticandidal activity was obtained from fermented tea, followed by non-fermented tea. These results indicate that the antioxidant activity demonstrated has no direct relation with the anticandidal activity. PMID:26983085

  9. Study on transportation and accumulation mechanisms of cesium in Camellia sinensis by SR-XRF imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After the tragedy in Fukushima, soil and food pollution by radionuclides has become a serious problem. Cs can be uptaken by many plants due to its chemical similarities with K. So, removal of radioactive Cs from the soils can be carried out using the phytoremediation technology. However, the development of phytoremediation techniques require the knowledge on the interactions between the plants and soils. Although the competitive relation between K and Cs to enter the plant is known, few works were dedicated to the visual localization of Cs in the plant and its relation to potassium. In this study, we have used synchrotron radiation X-ray fluorescence (SR-XRF) imaging in order to reveal accumulation of Cs with a cellular spatial resolution. The Cs Lβ intensity measured in the XRF imaging were transformed into the Cs concentration based on the calibration curves prepared using in house standard samples of known Cs concentrations. It is remarkable that after exposure to 10 ppm Cs solution for 4 weeks Camellia sinensis accumulated Cs up to 300 ppm (expressed in dry weight) in the body. XRF imaging of the root show that Cs was located mainly at the epidermis. On the other hand, K was located mainly at endodermis and the cell wall. A correlation coefficient(R) between XRF intensity of K and that of Cs in the root was about R=0.5. This suggest that Cs is hardly absorbed from roots of Camellia sinensis compared with K, due to its large ionic radius. In the case of stem, distribution of Cs was similar to that of K. They were located at the exodermis, epidermis and the cell wall. Their correlation coefficient was about R=0.8. These results suggest that Cs was transported through the same pathway as that of K in the stem. (author)

  10. Optimization of a DNA Nicking Assay to Evaluate Oenocarpus bataua and Camellia sinensis Antioxidant Capacity

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    Louis-Jérôme Leba

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This study was aimed at assessing the DNA damage protective activity of different types of extracts (aqueous, methanolic and acetonic using an in vitro DNA nicking assay. Several parameters were optimized using the pUC18 plasmid, especially FeSO4, EDTA, solvent concentrations and incubation time. Special attention has been paid to removing the protective and damaging effect of the solvent and FeSO4 respectively, as well as to identifying the relevant positive and negative controls. For each solvent, the optimal conditions were determined: (i for aqueous extracts, 0.33 mM of FeSO4 and 0.62 mM of EDTA were incubated for 20 min at 37 °C; (ii for acetone extracts, 1.16% solvent were incubated for 15 min at 37 °C with 1.3 mM of FeSO4 and 2.5 mM of EDTA and (iii for methanol extracts, 0.16% solvent, were incubated for 1.5 h at 37 °C with 0.33 mM of FeSO4 and 0.62 mM of EDTA. Using the optimized conditions, the DNA damage protective activity of aqueous, methanolic and acetonic extracts of an Amazonian palm berry (Oenocarpus bataua and green tea (Camellia sinensis was assessed. Aqueous and acetonic Oenocarpus bataua extracts were protective against DNA damage, whereas aqueous, methanolic and acetonic extracts of Camellia sinensis extracts induced DNA damage.

  11. OPTIMIZATION OF EXTRACTION OF PHENOLIC ANTIOXIDANTS FROM TEA (CAMELLIA SINENSIS L.) FRUIT PEEL BIOMASS USING RESPONSE SURFACE METHODOLOGY

    OpenAIRE

    Ping Xu; Jinsong Bao; Junjie Gao; Tao Zhou; Yuefei Wang

    2012-01-01

    Tea (Camellia sinensis L.) fruit peel, the main byproduct during the manufacture of tea seed oil, was used as raw material for the recovery of phenolic antioxidants. The effect of ethanol concentration, extraction time, and extraction temperature on total phenolic content (TPC) and ferric-reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) of the extracts from tea fruit peel was investigated. The maximum predicted TPC (47.5 mg GAE/g dry peel) was obtained under the optimum recovery conditions (43% ethanol, 60°...

  12. Transcriptome analysis reveals self-incompatibility in the tea plant (Camellia sinensis) might be under gametophytic control

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Cheng-Cai; Wang, Li-Yuan; Wei, Kang; Wu, Li-Yun; Li, Hai-Lin; Zhang, Fen; Cheng, Hao; Ni, De-Jiang

    2016-01-01

    Background Self-incompatibility (SI) is under genetic control and prevents inbreeding depression in angiosperms. SI mechanisms are quite complicated and still poorly understood in many plants. Tea (Camellia sinensis L.) belonging to the family of Theaceae, exhibits high levels of SI and high heterozygosity. Uncovering the molecular basis of SI of the tea plant may enhance breeding and simplify genomics research for the whole family. Results The growth of pollen tubes following selfing and cro...

  13. Laboratory, Epidemiological, and Human Intervention Studies Show That Tea (Camellia sinensis) May Be Useful in the Prevention of Obesity12

    OpenAIRE

    Grove, Kimberly A.; Lambert, Joshua D.

    2010-01-01

    Tea (Camellia sinensis, Theaceae) and tea polyphenols have been studied for the prevention of chronic diseases, including obesity. Obesity currently affects >20% of adults in the United States and is a risk factor for chronic diseases such as type II diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and cancer. Given this increasing public health concern, the use of dietary agents for the prevention of obesity would be of tremendous benefit. Whereas many laboratory studies have demonstrated the potential eff...

  14. Contents and compositions of policosanols in green tea (Camellia sinensis) leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Sol Ji; Park, Su Yeon; Park, Ji Su; Park, Sang-Kyu; Jung, Mun Yhung

    2016-08-01

    Policosanol (PC) is a mixture of health promoting bioactive long-chain aliphatic alcohols. Here, we report that green tea (Camellia sinensis) leaves are the exceptionally rich plant-sources of PC. Young and tender leaves and old and turf leaves of C. sinensis were hand-picked in spring and autumn. The total contents of PC in the leaves were in the range of 726.2-1363.6mg/kg as determined by a GC-MS/MS. The compositions of PC in the leaves were different with harvest season and types. The total contents of PC in commercial green tea leaves were found to be in the range of 856.7-1435.1mg/kg. Interestingly, the infused green tea leaves contained the higher PC than the non-infused green tea product, reaching to 1629.4mg/kg. This represents the first report on the contents and compositions of PC in green tea leaves, showing unambiguous evidence of their potential as rich sources of PC. PMID:26988480

  15. Effect of Medium Supplements on Agrobacterium rhizogenes Mediated Hairy Root Induction from the Callus Tissues of Camellia sinensis var. sinensis

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    Mohammad M. Rana

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Tea (Camellia sinensis L. is recalcitrant to Agrobacterium-mediated genetic transformation largely due to the bactericidal effects of tea polyphenols and phenolics oxidation induced by necrosis of explant tissue over the process of transformation. In this study, different antioxidants/adsorbents were added as supplements to the co-cultivation and post co-cultivation media to overcome these problems for the transformation improvement. Tea-cotyledon-derived calli were used as explants and Agrobacterium rhizognes strain ATCC 15834 was used as a mediator. Results showed that Agrobacterium growth, virulence (vir gene expression and browning of explant tissue were greatly influenced by different supplements. Murashige and Skoog (MS basal salts medium supplemented with 30 g·L−1 sucrose, 0.1 g·L−1 l-glutamine and 5 g·L−1 polyvinylpolypyrrolidone (PVPP as co-cultivation and post co-cultivation media could maintain these parameters better that ultimately led to significant improvement of hairy root generation efficiency compared to that in the control (MS + 30 g·L−1 sucrose. Additionally, the reporter genes β-glucuronidase (gusA and cyan fluorescent protein (cfp were also stably expressed in the transgenic hairy roots. Our study would be helpful in establishing a feasible approach for tea biological studies and genetic improvement of tea varieties.

  16. Identification, characterization and utilization of unigene derived microsatellite markers in tea (Camellia sinensis L.

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    Mohapatra Trilochan

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite great advances in genomic technology observed in several crop species, the availability of molecular tools such as microsatellite markers has been limited in tea (Camellia sinensis L.. The development of microsatellite markers will have a major impact on genetic analysis, gene mapping and marker assisted breeding. Unigene derived microsatellite (UGMS markers identified from publicly available sequence database have the advantage of assaying variation in the expressed component of the genome with unique identity and position. Therefore, they can serve as efficient and cost effective alternative markers in such species. Results Considering the multiple advantages of UGMS markers, 1,223 unigenes were predicted from 2,181 expressed sequence tags (ESTs of tea (Camellia sinensis L.. A total of 109 (8.9% unigenes containing 120 SSRs were identified. SSR abundance was one in every 3.55 kb of EST sequences. The microsatellites mainly comprised of di (50.8%, tri (30.8%, tetra (6.6%, penta (7.5% and few hexa (4.1% nucleotide repeats. Among the dinucleotide repeats, (GAn.(TCn were most abundant (83.6%. Ninety six primer pairs could be designed form 83.5% of SSR containing unigenes. Of these, 61 (63.5% primer pairs were experimentally validated and used to investigate the genetic diversity among the 34 accessions of different Camellia spp. Fifty one primer pairs (83.6% were successfully cross transferred to the related species at various levels. Functional annotation of the unigenes containing SSRs was done through gene ontology (GO characterization. Thirty six (60% of them revealed significant sequence similarity with the known/putative proteins of Arabidopsis thaliana. Polymorphism information content (PIC ranged from 0.018 to 0.972 with a mean value of 0.497. The average heterozygosity expected (HE and observed (Ho obtained was 0.654 and 0.413 respectively, thereby suggesting highly heterogeneous nature of tea. Further, test

  17. Effects of Ocimum sanctum and Camellia sinensis on stress-induced anxiety and depression in male albino Rattus norvegicus

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    Tabassum Imrana

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective : The aim of this study was to study the ameliorative effects of Ocimum sanctum and Camellia sinensis on stress-induced anxiety and depression. Materials and Methods : The study was carried out using male albino rats (200 ± 50 g. The effect of O. sanctum and C. sinensis was evaluated for anxiety and depression using elevated plus maze (EPM test, open field test (OFT, forced swim test (FST, and tail suspension test (TST. Result : Restraint stress (3 h/day for six consecutive days induced a significant reduction in both the percentage number of entries and time spent in open arms in EPM, and these changes were reversed with post-treatment of aqueous extract of O. sanctum and C. sinensis (100 mg/kg for 6 days. Restraint stress-induced (a increased latency and (b decreased ambulation and rearing were also reversed by O. sanctum and C. sinensis in OFT. A significant increase in immobility period was observed in FST and TST after restraint stress. O. sanctum and C. sinensis significantly reduced the immobility times of rats in FST and TST. Conclusion : O. sanctum and C. sinensis possess anxiolytic and antidepressant activities.

  18. Ionizing radiation effect on teas of Camellia sinensis plant irradiated with different water activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tea is the most consumed beverage in the world. Teas from Camellia sinensis plant have high levels of antioxidants, which mean that they may have several beneficial effects on health preservation. For centuries, mankind looks for ways to conserve better and for a longer time the food that they eat. The food irradiation process is a largely technique used worldwide, and is recommended by many health agencies and authorities of several countries. The radiation interacts with the material causing two kinds of effects, the direct and the indirect effect. In the direct effect the radiation interacts with the DNA molecule, breaking it, and then inactivates the cell. In the indirect effect, which represents 70% of the interaction, the radiation breaks the water molecule in a process denominated radiolysis, creating a number of free radicals that will interact with the cellular components, leading to the cell death. Therefore, the aim of this work is to study the effects of gamma radiation on two kinds of tea from Camellia sinensis plant irradiated with different water activities. The green tea and black tea samples had their Aw adjusted to three values (high Aw, medium Aw, and low Aw). The samples were irradiated in 60Co source at doses of 0, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0, 2.5, 5.0, 7.5, and 10.0 kGy. The analyses used were: microbiology by plate count, total phenolic compounds quantification, antioxidant activity by ORAC assay, and identification and quantification of main antioxidants in these beverages. It was noted that the greater the quantity of free water present in the medium, the lower was the dose to achieve microbiological control. The green tea showed to be a little more susceptible to irradiation by high Aw once there was more variation in the amount of flavonoids and phenolics than the black tea, decreasing the amount of these compounds in some doses, but increasing the amount in other ones. However in both teas, these changes can be considered insignificant, since there

  19. A comparative analysis of chemical compositions in Camellia sinensis var. puanensis Kurihara, a novel Chinese tea, by HPLC and UFLC-Q-TOF-MS/MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yi-Fang; Ouyang, Shu-Hua; Chang, Yi-Qun; Wang, Ting-Mei; Li, Wei-Xi; Tian, Hai-Yan; Cao, Hong; Kurihara, Hiroshi; He, Rong-Rong

    2017-02-01

    Camellia sinensis var. puanensis Kurihara (Puan tea) is a kind of ancient tea plant newly found in Jiangxipo and the surrounding areas of Puan County (Guizhou, China). People there always believe that drinking Puan tea is beneficial to the promotion of health and prevention of diseases. However, detailed information on its compositions has not been reported. Therefore, in this study, the varieties and contents of purine alkaloids and polyphenols in Puan tea were identified and determined by HPLC and UFLC-Q-TOF-MS/MS. Our results showed that theacrine, but not caffeine, was the dominated purine alkaloid detected in Puan tea. Meanwhile, Puan tea contained B-type procyanidin dimer, trimer and dimer monogallate, which were not detected in Camellia sinensis, Camellia ptilophylla and Camellia assamica var. kucha. The obtained results could support the local uses of Puan tea in health and nutrition and contribute to the research of tea variety. PMID:27596421

  20. Black tea (camellia sinensis ) role in modulating antioxidant enzymes and biochemical changes in γ -irradiated rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the present work, we investigated the efficacy of camellia sinensis beverage in reducing gamma-irradiation - induced oxidative damage to the liver, lipid profile and antioxidant enzymes in adult male rats. Animals were received the black tea beverage (BTB) as a sole source of potable liquid for seven consecutive days before exposing them to single dose of 6 Gy whole-body gamma irradiation . The irradiated rats continued to receive BTB for 21 days before sacrifice. The effect of BTB was assessed by monitoring the plasma aspartate transaminase (AST), alanine transaminase (ALT), acid phosphatase (AcP), total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG), high, low and very low density lipoproteins cholesterol (HDL-C,LDL-C and VLDL-C) as well as protein carbonyl content (PCC). In addition, the concentration of thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS), reduced glutathione (GSH) and catalase activity (CAT) in blood and liver of experimental rats. It was observed that tea administration lowers significantly (p< 0.05), the plasma AST, ALT, AcP activities and TC, TG, LDL-C, VLDL-C and PCC concentration as well as blood and liver TBARS. The level of GSH and activity of CAT in the blood and liver tissue were however shown to be significantly elevated (p< 0.05).The results provide useful information for future investigations and strongly implicate the beneficial application of BTB

  1. In vitro Antibacterial Activity of Camellia sinensis and Andrographis paniculata against Vancomycin Resistant Enterococci

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pallavi Thakur

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The herbal extracts of Camellia sinensis (Cs and Andrographis paniculata (Ap with standard F/P ratio (flavonoid/ polyphenol of 0.26-0.27 were used for evaluation of anti-microbial efficacy against Vancomycin Resistant Enterococci (VRE. The bioactivity fingerprints useful for standardizing both extracts were found to be coherent with respect to their Diphenyl picryl hydrazyl radical scavenging potential (IC50 = ~ 30µg/ml. In vitro efficacy analysis of Cs and Ap extracts using exponentially growing culture of VRE revealed Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC as 200µg/mL and 50µg/mL respectively. The comparative analysis of their Minimum Bactericidal Concentration (MBC revealed that 5X concentration of Cs as against 10X concentration of Ap was required to achieve zero microbial count. Such analysis indicated that both extracts would be useful for future analysis. In vivo pre-clinical evaluation studies are underway for utilization of identified herbal leads for trials on humans.

  2. Synthesis of silver nanoparticles by using tea leaf extract from Camellia Sinensis

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    Loo YY

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Yuet Ying Loo,1 Buong Woei Chieng,2 Mitsuaki Nishibuchi,3 Son Radu11Centre of Excellent for Food Safety Research, Faculty of Food Science and Technology, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Selangor, Malaysia; 2Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Selangor, Malaysia; 3Center for South East Asian Studies, Kyoto University, Kyoto, JapanAbstract: The development of the biological synthesis of nanoparticles using microorganisms or plant extracts plays an important role in the field of nanotechnology as it is environmentally friendly and does not involve any harmful chemicals. In this study, the synthesis of silver nanoparticles using the leaves extract of Chinese tea from Camellia sinensis is reported. The synthesized nanoparticles were characterized using UV-vis spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD, transmission electron microscopy (TEM, and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR spectroscopy. The XRD analysis shows that the synthesized silver nanoparticles are of face-centered cubic structure. Well-dispersed silver nanoparticles with an approximate size of 4 nm were observed in the TEM image. The application of the green synthesized nanoparticles can be used in many fields such as cosmetics, foods, and medicine.Keywords: silver, nanoparticles, green synthesis, leaf extract, transmission electron microscopy, nanotechnology

  3. Antidiarrhoeal activity of Sri Lankan Dust grade Black Tea (Camellia sinensis L. in mice

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    W D Ratnasooriya

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the antidiarrhoeal potential of Sri Lankan black tea (Camellia sinensis in mice using high grown unblend Dust grade No: 1 tea. Different concentrations of black tea brew (BTB [84 mg/ ml (equivalent to 1.5 cups, 167 mg/ ml (equivalent to 3 cups, 501 mg/ ml (equivalent to 9 cups or 1336 mg/ ml (equivalent to 24 cups], or a high concentration (equivalent to 9 cups of green tea brew (GTB of Chinese and Japanese types or reference drug, toperamide (10 mg/ kg were orally administered to different groups of mice (N = 9-12/group and were subjected to two antidiarrhoeal tests: normal defecation test and castor oil-induced diarrhoea test. The results show that BTB of Sri Lankan Dust grade tea dose-dependently and markedly decreased the number of faecal boluses produced in the normal defecation test and improved the severity of the diarroheal condition in the castor oil-induced diarrhoea test. However, the antidiarrhoeal effect of BTB was superior to Japanese type of GTB and inferior to loperamide. BTB also prolonged the gastrointestinal transit time, impaired intestinal fluid secretion, increased intestinal fluid absorption and reduced in vitro nitric oxide production. It is concluded that Sri Lankan black tea possesses marked antidiarrhoeal activity supporting the folkloric claim that Sri Lankan black tea is a good remedy for acute non specific diarrhoea.

  4. Ammonia-oxidizing activity and microbial community structure in acid tea (Camellia sinensis) orchard soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okamura, K.; Takanashi, A.; Yamada, T.; Hiraishi, A.

    2012-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the ammonia-oxidizing activity and the phylogentic composition of microorganisms involved in acid tea (Camellia sinensis) orchard soil. All soil samples were collected from three sites located in Tahara and Toyohashi, Aichi Prefecture, Japan. The potential nitrification rate (PNR) was measured by the chlorate inhibition method. The soil pH of tea orchards studied ranged from 2.78 to 4.84, differing significantly from sample to sample, whereas that of meadow and unplanted fields ranged from 5.78 to 6.35. The PNR ranged from 0.050 to 0.193 μg NO2--Ng-1 h-1 and were positively correlated with the soil pH (r2 = 0.382, pamoA genes. The detected archaeal clones separated from the cluster of the 'Soil clones' and tightly clustered with the clones originating from other acidic soil environments including the Chinese tea orchard soil. These results suggest that the specific archaeal populations dominate as the ammonia oxidizers in acid tea-orchard soils and possibly other acid soils, independent of geographic locations, which results from the adaptation to specific ecological niches.

  5. White tea (Camellia sinensis extract reduces oxidative stress and triacylglycerols in obese mice

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    Lílian Gonçalves Teixeira

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available White tea is an unfermented tea made from young shoots of Camellia sinensis protected from sunlight to avoid polyphenol degradation. Although its levels of catechins are higher than those of green tea (derived from the same plant, there are no studies addressing the relationship between this tea and obesity associated with oxidative stress.The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of white tea on obesity and its complications using a diet induced obesity model. Forty male C57BL/6 mice were fed a high-fat diet to induce obesity (Obese group or the same diet supplemented with 0.5% white tea extract (Obese + WTE for 8 weeks. Adipose tissue, serum lipid profile, and oxidative stress were studied. White tea supplementation was not able to reduce food intake, body weight, or visceral adiposity. Similarly, there were no changes in cholesterol rich lipoprotein profile between the groups. A reduction in blood triacylglycerols associated with increased cecal lipids was observed in the group fed the diet supplemented with white tea. White tea supplementation also reduced oxidative stress in liver and adipose tissue. In conclusion, white tea extract supplementation (0.5% does not influence body weight or adiposity in obese mice. Its benefits are restricted to the reduction in oxidative stress associated with obesity and improvement of hypertriacylglycerolemia.

  6. Molecular Cloning and Characterization of Hydroperoxide Lyase Gene in the Leaves of Tea Plant (Camellia sinensis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Wei-Wei; Wu, Yi-Lin; Li, Ye-Yun; Tan, Zhen; Wei, Chao-Ling

    2016-03-01

    Hydroperoxide lyase (HPL, E.C. 4.1.2.) is the major enzyme in the biosynthesis of natural volatile aldehydes and alcohols in plants, however, little was known about HPL in tea plants (Camellia sinensis). A unique cDNA fragment was isolated by suppressive subtractive hybridization (SSH) from a tea plant subjected to herbivory by tea geometrid Ectropis obliqua. This full length cDNA acquired by RACE was 1476 bp and encoded 491 amino acids. DNA and protein BLAST searches showed high homology to HPL sequences from other plants. The His-tag expression vector pET-32a(+)/CsHPL was constructed and transferred into Escherichia coli Rosetta (DE3). The expression product of recombinant CsHPL in E. coli was about 60 kDa. The enzyme activity of CsHPL was 0.20 μmol·min(-1)·mg(-1). Quantitative RT-PCR analysis indicated CsHPL was strongly up-regulated in tea plants after Ectropis obliqua attack, suggesting that it may be an important candidate for defense against insects in tea plants. PMID:26886573

  7. A novel green chemical route for synthesis of silver nanoparticles using camellia sinensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamal, Sarika Srinivas Kalyan; Sahoo, Prasanta Kumar; Vimala, Johnson; Premkumar, Manda; Ram, Shanker; Durai, Loganathan

    2010-12-01

    The thrust to develop environmental friendly procedures for production of Nanoparticles arises from the very fact that current nanotechnology research uses a lot of chemicals, which are potential threat to both environment and public health. Tea (Camellia Sinensis) with its rich source of polyphenolic compounds has been exploited for the reduction and capping of silver nanoparticles (Ag-NPs), making it a complete green chemical route. The reduction of Ag+ to Ag0 was observed by the color change from pale yellow to dark yellow. The reaction was followed with the help of UV-Visible spectrometer. Crystal structure was obtained by carrying out X-ray diffraction studies and it showed face centered cubic (fcc) structure. The particle size and morphology were obtained from transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) studies. An average particle size of 25 nm silver particles could be obtained using this method and the TEM and SAXS data corroborate with each other. PMID:24061881

  8. Efek Kumur Ekstrak Teh Hijab (Camellia sinensis terhadap Derajat Kesamaan dan Volume Saliva Penderita Gingivitis

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    Didi Adriano Anwar

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Gingivitis is an inflammatory condition of gingival tissue and caused by the accumulation of dental plaque. Green tea (Camellia sinensis is a plant matter that has been shown to inhibit the growth of acidogenic bacteria and the formation of dental plaque. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of green tea extract on pH and volume of saliva of gingivitis patients. The subjects were 30 male gingivitis patients, 18-25 years old. The subjects were divided into 3 groups according to mouthrinse used (0.25% and 0.5% green tea extract, and 0.1% hexetidine as positive control. The subjects were instructed to gargle during five consecutive days in the morning and at night with 5 ml of the mouthrinse for 30 seconds. The data were taken in the beginning and at the sixth day. Data for salivary volume and pH before and after gargle were compared using MANOVA (p<0.05. The results showed signifcant differences in salivary pH, suggesting that green tea extract can increase the salivary pH of gingivitis patients, and that the 0.5% concentration was the most influential.

  9. Chemical constituents from the leaves of Camellia sinensis%茶叶的化学成分

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵楠; 高慧媛; 孙博航; 吴立军

    2007-01-01

    目的 分离并鉴定茶叶(Camellia sinensis)中的化学成分.方法 采用硅胶柱色谱、羟丙基葡聚糖凝胶(Sephadex LH-20)柱色谱和重结晶等多种分离方法对体积分数为70%的乙醇溶液回流提取物进行分离,并通过NMR和MS等多种谱学方法对分离得到的化学成分进行结构鉴定.结果 分离得到8个化合物,分别鉴定为咖啡碱(caffeine,1)、可可碱(theobromine,2)、山柰酚(kaempferol,3)、(+)儿茶察((+)-catechin,4)、胡萝卜苷(daucosterol,5)、(Z)-9-十六碳烯酸((Z)-9-hexadecenoic acid,6),苯基-β-萘胺(phenyl-β-naphthylamine,7)和没食子酸(gallic acid,8).结论 其中化合物5、6和7为首次从该属植物中分离得到.

  10. Epigallocatechin gallate from Camellia sinensis L. (Kuntze is a potential quorum sensing inhibitor in Chromobacterium violaceum

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    Joemar C. Taganna

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The problem on the widespread occurrence of antibiotic resistant strains of bacteria calls for novel methods of control of bacterial activity. One of the new viable alternatives to antibiotics is the use of substances that inhibit quorum sensing (QS – a bacterial communication system that has been known to regulate the expression of virulence genes during infection. In this study, epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG from green tea, Camellia sinensis L. (Kuntze was tested for its ability to inhibit QS in a test organism, Chromobacterium violaceum. This microorganism produces a violet-colored substance, violacein, through QS. This study aimed to detect inhibition of QS-regulated violacein production in C. violaceum by EGCG and to determine the dynamics of QS inhibition relative to the concentration of EGCG. The effect of increasing concentration of EGCG on both violacein production and cell density of treated and untreated C. violaceum was determined in a 96-well-microplate format and read at 570nm and 620nm for violacein production and growth, respectively. The results show that addition of EGCG increased the growth of the organism while there is concentration-dependent decrease in the QS-controlled production of violacein. This study thus establishes that EGCG is a potential QS inhibitor and can be further studied and developed for its use as an anti-pathogenic but non-toxic drug.

  11. Thrombolytic Potential of Aqueous and Methanolic Crude Extracts of Camellia sinensis (Green Tea: In vitro study

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    Muhammad Ajmal Shah

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Investigation of thrombolytic activityof crude extracts ofCamellia sinensis (Green tea using in-vitrothrombolytic model which is very simple, rapid and easy to do method. Both aqueous crude and methanolic extracts were studied however; the results of methanolic extract were more promising which exhibited maximum 95. 24% clot lysis as compared to aqueous one i.e. 90.34% at 800 μg/ml concentration in 72 hrs of incubation. Various concentrations of leaf extract i.e. 200μg/ml, 400μg/ml, 600ug/ml and 800μg/ml were tested at different time intervals including; 24hrs, 48hrs and 72hrs duration of incubation at 370 C for observing maximum clot lysis. The result indicated that concentrations of leaf extract enhanced the percentage of clot lysis in dose dependent manner. On the other hand, Streptokinase SK, a reference standard and water were used as a positive and negative control showed clot lysis maximum 96.63% and 41.32% in 72 hrs of incubation respectively. From results, it can be concluded that if further studies reveals the exact molecule from green tea diverse composition, an effective thromolytic candidate can be achieved for the improvement of the patients suffering from Atherothrombotic diseases.

  12. Floral transcriptome sequencing for SSR marker development and linkage map construction in the tea plant (Camellia sinensis.

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    Li-Qiang Tan

    Full Text Available Despite the worldwide consumption and high economic importance of tea, the plant (Camellia sinensis is not well studied in molecular biology. Under the few circumstances in which the plant is studied, C. sinensis flowers, which are important for reproduction and cross-breeding, receive less emphasis than investigation of its leaves or roots. Using high-throughput Illumina RNA sequencing, we analyzed a C. sinensis floral transcriptome, and 26.9 million clean reads were assembled into 75,531 unigenes averaging 402 bp. Among them, 50,792 (67.2% unigenes were annotated with a BLAST search against the NCBI Non-Redundant (NR database and 10,290 (16.67% were detected that contained one or more simple sequence repeats (SSRs. From these SSR-containing sequences, 2,439 candidate SSR markers were developed and 720 were experimentally tested, validating 431 (59.9% novel polymorphic SSR markers for C. sinensis. Then, a consensus SSR-based linkage map was constructed that covered 1,156.9 cM with 237 SSR markers distributed in 15 linkage groups. Both transcriptome information and the genetic map of C. sinensis presented here offer a valuable foundation for molecular biology investigations such as functional gene isolation, quantitative trait loci mapping, and marker-assisted selection breeding in this important species.

  13. Antimicrobial effect and kinetic inhibition of partially purified extracellular protease of Shigella dysenteriae by the volatile oils of Camellia sinensis

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    Folorunso Olufemi Samuel

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available In spite of great advances observed in modern medicine, plants still constitute a major source of medicine especially in developing countries. Hence, there is need for unrelenting effort in the exploration of the health benefit of medicinal plants. This work was designed to determine the effect of the volatile oils of Camellia sinensis on the extracellular protease, which is one of the major virulent factors in the pathogenesis of Shigella dysenteriae and its antibacterial effects on eight other enteric bacterial as compared with the antibiotics. The average total growth inhibition of the volatile oils from the leaf, stem and root of Camellia sinensis (291.0±33.0 mm was significantly higher (p>0.05 than the antibiotics tested (97.0±25.0 mm. The minimum inhibitory and bactericidal concentrations of the oils revealed Escherichia coli as the most sensitive organism. However, relatively higher concentrations of the oils are required to achieve similar sensitivity against Salmonella and Shigella species. The kinetics of partially purified extracellular protease, which is one of the adjuncts virulence factors of Shigella dysenteriae, was competitively (leaf and root and noncompetitively (stem inhibited by these oils from different parts of the plant. The activity of this enzyme increased steadily between pH 7.0 – 8.0 and 40 – 50 oC. The volatile oils possessed antimicrobial activity and showed both competitive and noncompetitive kinetic inhibition of the extracellular protease of Shigella dysenteriae. The inhibitory action of the oil on extracellular protease from Shigella dysenteriae suggests the possible mode of action. Volatile oil from Camellia sinensis, especially the leaf, may be an important source of antibiotic against these organisms particularly Shigella dysenteriae.

  14. Maillard Reaction of Pidan White as Inhibited by Chinese Black Tea Extract (Camellia sinensis) in the Pickling Solution

    OpenAIRE

    Ganesan, Palanivel; Benjakul, Soottawat; Baharin, Badlishah Sham

    2014-01-01

    Changes in Maillard reaction of pidan white were monitored with A294, fluorescence intensity, and browning intensity during pickling in the absence and presence of Chinese black tea extract (Camellia sinensis) at levels of 2% and 5% together with 0.2% ZnCl2 or 0.2% CaCl2 up to 3 wk, followed by ageing for another 3 wk. Browning intensity and A294 of pidan white increased with increasing pickling/ageing, while fluorescence intensity decreased during ageing (p

  15. Estudo prospectivo, duplo cego e cruzado da Camellia sinensis (chá verde nas dislipidemias Estudio prospectivo, doble ciego y cruzado de la Camellia sinensis (té verde en las dislipidemias Prospective double-blind crossover study of Camellia sinensis (green tea in dyslipidemias

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gesiani de Almeida Pierin Batista

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available FUNDAMENTO: Estudos epidemiológicos estabeleceram uma associação entre dislipidemias e aterosclerose. A terapia nutricional é um ponto central da estratégia preventiva em indivíduos que apresentam fatores de risco para doença aterosclerótica. OBJETIVOS: Investigar os efeitos do chá verde (Camellia sinensis em pacientes portadores de dislipidemias. MÉTODOS: O estudo envolveu 33 pacientes, com idade entre 21 e 71 anos, que consumiam uma dieta com baixo teor de gorduras (25% a 35% das calorias totais e 200 mg de colesterol por dia. Foram randomizados para dois tratamentos sequenciais: cápsulas contendo 250 mg de extrato seco do chá verde ou placebo, administradas por um período total de 16 semanas, tendo cada paciente utilizado chá verde (Camellia sinensis por oito semanas e placebo em igual período. RESULTADOS: Os valores lipídicos basais (mg/dl foram os seguintes: HDL-colesterol 60,7 ± 7,3; colesterol total 255 ± 30,9; LDL-colesterol 158,8 ± 29,0; triglicerídeos 169,0 ± 61,3 e Apo-B 120,2 ± 18,9. As variações lipídicas médias, provocadas pelo uso do chá verde (Camellia sinensis, mostraram uma redução de 3,9 % (p = 0,006 nas concentrações do colesterol total e uma redução de 4,5 % (p = 0,026 do LDL-colesterol. A ingestão de chá verde não influenciou significativamente os níveis de HDL-colesterol, dos triglicerídeos e do Apo-B. Resultados não significativos foram observados na avaliação dos lipídeos sanguíneos (colesterol total e LDL-colesterol com o uso do placebo. CONCLUSÃO: Foi demonstrado o efeito benéfico do chá verde (Camellia sinensis, que reduziu significativamente, em oito semanas, os níveis de colesterol total e LDL-colesterol nesse grupo de pacientes.FUNDAMENTO: Estudios epidemiológicos establecieron una asociación entre dislipidemias y aterosclerosis. La terapia nutricional es un punto central de la estrategia preventiva en individuos que presentan factores de riesgo para enfermedad

  16. Estudo prospectivo, duplo cego e cruzado da Camellia sinensis (chá verde) nas dislipidemias Estudio prospectivo, doble ciego y cruzado de la Camellia sinensis (té verde) en las dislipidemias Prospective double-blind crossover study of Camellia sinensis (green tea) in dyslipidemias

    OpenAIRE

    Gesiani de Almeida Pierin Batista; Cláudio L. Pereira da Cunha; Mariléia Scartezini; Raul von der Heyde; Murílo G Bitencourt; Sandra Fabrício de Melo

    2009-01-01

    FUNDAMENTO: Estudos epidemiológicos estabeleceram uma associação entre dislipidemias e aterosclerose. A terapia nutricional é um ponto central da estratégia preventiva em indivíduos que apresentam fatores de risco para doença aterosclerótica. OBJETIVOS: Investigar os efeitos do chá verde (Camellia sinensis) em pacientes portadores de dislipidemias. MÉTODOS: O estudo envolveu 33 pacientes, com idade entre 21 e 71 anos, que consumiam uma dieta com baixo teor de gorduras (25% a 35% das calorias ...

  17. CsSAD: a fatty acid desaturase gene involved in abiotic resistance in Camellia sinensis (L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Z T; Shen, J Z; Pan, L L; Wang, Y U; Li, Y S; Wang, Y; Sun, H W

    2016-01-01

    Tea (Camellia sinensis L.) is a thermophilic evergreen woody plant that has poor cold tolerance. The SAD gene plays a key role in regulating fatty acid synthesis and membrane lipid fluidity in response to temperature change. In this study, full-length SAD cDNA was cloned from tea leaves using rapid amplification of cDNA ends and polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based methods. Sequence analysis demonstrated that CsSAD had a high similarity to other corresponding cDNAs. At 25°C, the CsSAD transcriptional level was highest in the leaf and lowest in the stem, but there was no obvious difference between the root and stem organs. CsSAD expression was investigated by reverse transcription-PCR, which showed that CsSAD was upregulated at 4° and -5°C. At 25°C, CsSAD was induced by polyethylene glycol, abscisic acid, and wounding, and a similar trend was observed at 4°C, but the mean expression level at 4°C was lower than that at 25°C. Under natural cold acclimation, the 'CsCr05' variety's CsSAD expression level increased before decreasing. The CsSAD expression level in variety 'CsCr06' showed no obvious change at first, but rapidly increased to a maximum when the temperature was very low. Our study demonstrates that CsSAD is upregulated in response to different abiotic conditions, and that it is important to study the stress resistance of the tea plant, particularly in response to low temperature, drought, and wounding. PMID:26985937

  18. Effect of nicotine and preventive role of camellia sinensis on the histomorphology of developing epiphyseal plate of thigh bone of chick

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To determine the effect of nicotine and camellia sinensis (green tea) on the developing epiphyseal plate of thigh bone of chick. Design: Randomized controlled trial. Place and Duration of Study: Army medical college, Rawalpindi, Pakistan from April 2012 to May 2012. Material and Method: Freshly laid fertilized eggs of Fayoumi breed chick eggs were selected at zero hour of incubation. Four groups were made, group G1 was control group treated with normal saline. Experimental group G2 was treated with camellia sinensis extract (green tea), group G3 was given nicotine whereas group G4 was injected with working solution nicotine and camellia sinensis (green tea), in 0.1 ml quantity. Double exposure one at 48 hour of incubation and other at 48 hours after hatching of chicks. SPSS version 15 was used to analyze the data. Results: It was observed that the weight of chick at one month of age and weight of femur of chicks of nicotine treated groups G3 and group G4 were reduced in comparison to control group G1. Mean number of cells in hypertrophy zone of developing epiphyseal plate of thigh bone were reduced of nicotine treated groups in comparison to control group. Conclusion: Camellia sinensis (green tea) helped to reduce the harmful effects of nicotine treated group but cannot reverse the oxidative injury. (author)

  19. CAMELLIA SINENSIS LEAVES A NEW TREATMENT AGAINST URINARY TRACT INFECTION CAUSED BY PSEUDOMONAS FLUORESCENS AND SERRATIA SP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.L. Tariq* and A.L. Reyaz

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Urinary tract infection is the most common disease in females and males which is big threat of kidney failure. The increasing interest is in the powerful biological activity of medicinal plant containing bioactive compounds which paves way for the importance to determine their antibacterial activity. The bioactive chemical determination revealed the presence of bioactive constituents’ steroids, alkaloids, tannins and flavonoids due the color change in the reaction tubes. While the absence of terpenoids saponins and glycosides as there was no color change in the reaction tubes. The total flavonoid content was 16mg/gram while total phenolic compound was 0.9grams in the leave extract of Camellia sinensis. The reducing power was found 0.13grams/gram of leave extracts. The phenolic extract of Camellia sinensis showed the antibacterial activity against Pseudomonas fluorescens and Serratia Sp by showing maximum zone of inhibition around the bacterial colonies when compared with standard antibiotics Cotrimaxazole, Norfloxacin, Chloramphenicol, and Nalidixic acid.

  20. THE INHIBITORY EFFECT OF EXTRACT OF CAMELLIA SINENSIS AND EXTRACT OF CAMELLIA PTILOPHYLLA CHANG ON DNA POLYMERASE OF EHRLICH ASCITES CARCINOMA CELLS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xian Lijian; Liu Zongchao; Pan Qichao; Li Hanxi

    1998-01-01

    Objective:To detect the effect of extract of Camellia Sinensis (ECS) and extract of Camellia Ptilophylla Chang (ECPC) on DNA polymerase (Pol) of Ehrlich ascites tumor cells. Methods: Referring to the method of K.Ono, Pol was extracted from Ehrlich ascites tumor cells in mice. Pol α, β, and γ were separated by phosphocellulose column chromatography and were identified. The effect of ECPC and ECS on Pol was studied. Results: ECPC and ECS were shown to inhibit the activity of Pol α, β, and γ. IC50 values of ECS on Polα, β, and γ were 10.2μ g/ml, 9.9μ g/ml and 28.9 μ g/mlrespectively. IC50 values of ECPC on Pol α, Pol β and Pol γ were 5.6 μ g/ml, 15 μ g/ml and 14.7 μ g/mlrespectively. The modes of inhibition of ECPC on Pol α,Pol β and Pol γ were noncompetitive with respect to template DNA. The Ki values of ECPC on Pol α, β, and γ were 2.68± 0.12 μ g/ml, 2.24 ± 0. 12 μ g/ml , 2.56 ±0. 18 μ g/ml . Conclusion: ECPC and ECS were shown to have inhibitory effect on DNA polymerase of tumor cells. The mode of inhibition of ECPC on Pol α, Pol βand Pol γwere noncompetitive with respect to template DNA.

  1. Analytical strategy coupled with response surface methodology to maximize the extraction of antioxidants from ternary mixtures of green, yellow, and red teas (Camellia sinensis var. sinensis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granato, Daniel; Grevink, Raymond; Zielinski, Acácio A F; Nunes, Domingos S; van Ruth, Saskia M

    2014-10-22

    This work aimed at using a simplex-centroid design to model the effects of green, yellow, and red tea mixtures (Camellia sinensis var. sinensis) on metal chelation activity, phenolic composition, antioxidant activity, and instrumental taste profile. The regression models that described the extraction of flavan-3-ols, o-diphenols, total phenolic compounds (TPC), free radical scavenging activity toward 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical (DPPH), cupric ion reducing antioxidant activity (CUPRAC), and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) were significant, and data were fit satisfactorily (R(2) > 80%). A mixture of green and red teas had a synergism in CUPRAC and TPC, whereas a mixture of yellow and red teas had a positive effect on CUPRAC and DPPH. An optimization was performed to maximize the antioxidant activity and flavan-3-ol content and to render a tea with mild bitterness, and results showed that a mixture of 14.81% green, 56.86% yellow, and 28.33% red teas would be the most suitable combination of factors. PMID:25270398

  2. OPTIMIZATION OF EXTRACTION OF PHENOLIC ANTIOXIDANTS FROM TEA (CAMELLIA SINENSIS L. FRUIT PEEL BIOMASS USING RESPONSE SURFACE METHODOLOGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ping Xu,

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Tea (Camellia sinensis L. fruit peel, the main byproduct during the manufacture of tea seed oil, was used as raw material for the recovery of phenolic antioxidants. The effect of ethanol concentration, extraction time, and extraction temperature on total phenolic content (TPC and ferric-reducing antioxidant power (FRAP of the extracts from tea fruit peel was investigated. The maximum predicted TPC (47.5 mg GAE/g dry peel was obtained under the optimum recovery conditions (43% ethanol, 60°C, and 33 min given by using response surface methodology (RSM. A high correlation (R2 = 0.929, p < 0.01 between TPC and FRAP value was identified by linear regression analysis. Furthermore, gallocatechin (GC and epigallocatechin (EGC were found to be the major individual catechins in the extracts from tea fruit peel. Ethanol/aqueous extraction has been presented as an effective method for the recovery of phenolic antioxidants from tea fruit peel.

  3. Differential display-mediated identification of three drought-responsive expressed sequence tags in tea [Camellia sinensis (L.) O. Kuntze

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Priti Sharma; Sanjay Kumar

    2005-03-01

    There is no information on drought-modulated gene(s) in tea [Camellia sinensis (L.) O. Kuntze], a woody and perennial plant of commercial importance. Using differential display of mRNA, three drought-modulated expressed sequence tags (ESTs) were identified. Northern and BLAST analysis revealed that clone dr1 (droughtresponsive), induced only by drought but not by ABA, showed significant scores with PR-5 (pathogenesis related) family of PR-protein gene. Another clone dr2, repressed by drought but not by ABA, had nucleotide repeats for polyasparate that are also present in chicken calsequestrin-like mRNA. Clone dr3, responded similarly to clone dr2 but did not show significant homology with the reported genes, hence appears to be novel. Identification of these ESTs is an initial step to clone the full length genes and their promoters.

  4. Antimicrobial activity of Calendula officinalis, Camellia sinensis and chlorhexidine against the adherence of microorganisms to sutures after extraction of unerupted third molars

    OpenAIRE

    FARIA, Raquel Lourdes; CARDOSO, Lincoln Marcelo Lourenço; Akisue, Gokithi; PEREIRA, Cristiane Aparecida; Junqueira, Juliana Campos; Jorge, Antonio Olavo Cardoso; SANTOS JÚNIOR, Paulo Villela

    2011-01-01

    Objective The objective of this study was to compare the antimicrobial effect of mouthwashes containing Calendula officinalis L., Camellia sinensis (L.) Kuntze and 0.12% chlorhexidine digluconate on the adherence of microorganisms to suture materials after extraction of unerupted third molars. Material and Methods Eighteen patients with unerupted maxillary third molars indicated for extraction were selected (n=6 per mouthwash). First, the patients were subjected to extraction of the left toot...

  5. Anti-Inflammatory Effects of a Polyphenols-Rich Extract from Tea (Camellia sinensis) Flowers in Acute and Chronic Mice Models

    OpenAIRE

    Bang-Tian Chen; Wei-Xi Li; Rong-Rong He; Yi-Fang Li; Bun Tsoi; Yu-Jia Zhai; Hiroshi Kurihara

    2012-01-01

    While beneficial health properties of tea leaves have been extensively studied, less attention is paid to the flowers of tea. In this study, the anti-inflammatory effects of hot water extract of tea (Camellia sinensis) flowers were investigated. Pharmacological studies found that administration of tea flowers extract (TFE) could effectively inhibit croton oil-induced ear edema and carrageenin-induced paw edema. Furthermore, administration of TFE also protected against Propionibacterium acnes ...

  6. Combined Cytological and Transcriptomic Analysis Reveals a Nitric Oxide Signaling Pathway Involved in Cold-Inhibited Camellia sinensis Pollen Tube Growth

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Weidong; Sheng, Xianyong; Shu, Zaifa; Li, Dongqin; Pan, Junting; Ye, Xiaoli; Chang, Pinpin; Li, Xinghui; Wang, Yuhua

    2016-01-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) as a signaling molecule plays crucial roles in many abiotic stresses in plant development processes, including pollen tube growth. Here, the signaling networks dominated by NO during cold stress that inhibited Camellia sinensis pollen tube growth are investigated in vitro. Cytological analysis show that cold-induced NO is involved in the inhibition of pollen tube growth along with disruption of the cytoplasmic Ca2+ gradient, increase in ROS content, acidification of cytoplas...

  7. Isolation, identification and purification of caffeine from Coffea arabica L. and Camellia sinensis L.: A combination antibacterial study

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammed Muthanna; Al-Bayati Firas

    2009-01-01

    The present study was conducted to isolate the most important bioactive compound from Coffea arabica (coffee) beans and Camellia sinensis (green tea) leaves. Caffeine (3,7-dihydro-1,3,7-trimethyl-1H-purine-2,6-dione) was isolated from both plants using a liquid-liquid extraction method, detected on thin layer chromatography (TLC) plates in comparison with standard caffeine, which served as a positive control. Moreover, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectrometer and High performance li...

  8. Comparing the antiplaque efficacy of 0.5% Camellia sinensis extract, 0.05% sodium fluoride, and 0.2% chlorhexidine gluconate mouthwash in children

    OpenAIRE

    Hambire, Chaitali U.; Jawade, Rashmi; Patil, Amol; Wani, Vaibhav R.; Kulkarni, Ankur A.; Nehete, Parag B.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Dental caries is a multifactorial disease which requires a susceptible host, a cariogenic microflora, and a suitable substrate that must be present for a sufficient length of time. Tea is prepared by the infusion of dried leaves of the tea plant, Camellia sinensis, which contains bioactive compounds like polyphenols, flavonoids, and catechins that are thought to be responsible for the health benefits that have traditionally been attributed to tea. These compounds have multidimensi...

  9. The Function of Roots of Tea Plant (Camellia sinensis) Cultured by a Novel Form of Hydroponics and Soil Acidification

    OpenAIRE

    Masahiko Ikeda; Kieko Saito

    2012-01-01

    A novel form of hydroponic culture was employed to explore the physiological function of roots of a tea plant (Camellia sinensis). The pH of the nutrient solution with an actively growing tea plant decreased during cultivation. Furthermore, no oxalic acid, tartaric acid, malic acid or citric acid, all possible factors in acidification, was detected in the nutrient solution of a growing plant. A proton pump inhibitor suppressed the acidification of the solution. Soil acidifi...

  10. Identification of UDP-glycosyltransferases involved in the biosynthesis of astringent taste compounds in tea (Camellia sinensis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Lilan; Yao, Shengbo; Dai, Xinlong; Yin, Qinggang; Liu, Yajun; Jiang, Xiaolan; Wu, Yahui; Qian, Yumei; Pang, Yongzhen; Gao, Liping; Xia, Tao

    2016-04-01

    Galloylated catechins and flavonol 3-O-glycosides are characteristic astringent taste compounds in tea (Camellia sinensis). The mechanism involved in the formation of these metabolites remains unknown in tea plants. In this paper, 178 UGT genes (CsUGTs) were identified inC. sinensis based on an analysis of tea transcriptome data. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that 132 of these genes were clustered into 15 previously established phylogenetic groups (A to M, O and P) and a newly identified group R. Three of the 11 recombinant UGT proteins tested were found to be involved in the in vitro biosynthesis of β-glucogallin and glycosylated flavonols. CsUGT84A22 exhibited catalytic activity toward phenolic acids, in particular gallic acid, to produce β-glucogallin, which is the immediate precursor of galloylated catechin biosynthesis in tea plants. CsUGT78A14 and CsUGT78A15 were found to be responsible for the biosynthesis of flavonol 3-O-glucosides and flavonol 3-O-galactosides, respectively. Site-directed mutagenesis of the Q373H substitution for CsUGT78A14 indicated that the Q (Gln) residue played a catalytically crucial role for flavonoid 3-O-glucosyltransferase activity. The expression profiles of the CsUGT84A22, CsUGT78A14, and CsUGT78A15 genes were correlated with the accumulation patterns of β-glucogallin and the glycosylated flavonols which indicated that these three CsUGT genes were involved in the biosynthesis of astringent compounds inC. sinensis. PMID:26941235

  11. Ionizing radiation effect on teas of Camellia sinensis plant irradiated with different water activities; Efeito da radiacao ionizante em chas da planta Camellia sinensis irradiados com diferentes atividades de agua

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fanaro, Gustavo Bernardes

    2013-07-01

    Tea is the most consumed beverage in the world. Teas from Camellia sinensis plant have high levels of antioxidants, which mean that they may have several beneficial effects on health preservation. For centuries, mankind looks for ways to conserve better and for a longer time the food that they eat. The food irradiation process is a largely technique used worldwide, and is recommended by many health agencies and authorities of several countries. The radiation interacts with the material causing two kinds of effects, the direct and the indirect effect. In the direct effect the radiation interacts with the DNA molecule, breaking it, and then inactivates the cell. In the indirect effect, which represents 70% of the interaction, the radiation breaks the water molecule in a process denominated radiolysis, creating a number of free radicals that will interact with the cellular components, leading to the cell death. Therefore, the aim of this work is to study the effects of gamma radiation on two kinds of tea from Camellia sinensis plant irradiated with different water activities. The green tea and black tea samples had their Aw adjusted to three values (high Aw, medium Aw, and low Aw). The samples were irradiated in {sup 60}Co source at doses of 0, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0, 2.5, 5.0, 7.5, and 10.0 kGy. The analyses used were: microbiology by plate count, total phenolic compounds quantification, antioxidant activity by ORAC assay, and identification and quantification of main antioxidants in these beverages. It was noted that the greater the quantity of free water present in the medium, the lower was the dose to achieve microbiological control. The green tea showed to be a little more susceptible to irradiation by high Aw once there was more variation in the amount of flavonoids and phenolics than the black tea, decreasing the amount of these compounds in some doses, but increasing the amount in other ones. However in both teas, these changes can be considered insignificant, since

  12. Consumo de Camellia sinensis em população de origem oriental e incidência de doenças crônicas Camellia sinensis consumption by an Asian-Brazilian population and incidence of chronic diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Faria

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Investigar os prováveis benefícios dos hábitos culturais orientais, incluindo o consumo de Camellia sinensis (chá verde na prevenção de doenças crônicas. Trinta e quatro indivíduos entre 25 e 84 anos, de ambos os sexos, pertencentes à comunidade nipônica do Rio de Janeiro, RJ, foram submetidos a anamnese alimentar e questionário socio-econômico-cultural. Dos indivíduos, 76% consumiam chá verde, sendo que 35% o ingeriam diariamente e 27% esporadicamente. Verificou-se que o consumo regular de álcool era predominante nos não usuários de chá verde, quando comparados com os apreciadores da bebida (50% e 35%, respectivamente, faziam uso de álcool. Não foi observado sedentarismo na amostra. Dos apreciadores do chá, 81% não apresentavam doenças crônicas. Já entre os consumidores, observamos um menor percentual de doenças crônicas, especialmente, de hipertensão, porém sem significância estatística.To investigate the probable benefits of Asian dietary habits, including the intake of Camellia sinensis (green tea, in preventing chronic-degenerative diseases. Thirty-four individuals aging from 25 to 84 years from a Japanese community in Rio de Janeiro answered a socioeconomic-cultural questionnaire. Seventy-six percent of the individuals consumed green tea, where 35% consumed it daily and 27% consumed it sporadically. The regular intake of alcohol predominated among the non-consumers of green tea, when compared with green tea consumers (50% and 35%, respectively consumed alcoholic beverages. None of the individuals in the sample had a sedentary lifestyle. Among the individuals who consumed green tea, 81% did not have any chronic illnesses. The consumers of tea presented a lower incidence of chronic diseases, especially hypertension, but it was not statistically significant.

  13. Deep sequencing of the Camellia sinensis transcriptome revealed candidate genes for major metabolic pathways of tea-specific compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shi, CY; Yang, H; Wei, CL; Yu, O; Zhang, ZZ; Sun, J; Wan, XC

    2011-01-01

    Tea is one of the most popular non-alcoholic beverages worldwide. However, the tea plant, Camellia sinensis, is difficult to culture in vitro, to transform, and has a large genome, rendering little genomic information available. Recent advances in large-scale RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) provide a fast, cost-effective, and reliable approach to generate large expression datasets for functional genomic analysis, which is especially suitable for non-model species with un-sequenced genomes. Using high-throughput Illumina RNA-seq, the transcriptome from poly (A){sup +} RNA of C. sinensis was analyzed at an unprecedented depth (2.59 gigabase pairs). Approximate 34.5 million reads were obtained, trimmed, and assembled into 127,094 unigenes, with an average length of 355 bp and an N50 of 506 bp, which consisted of 788 contig clusters and 126,306 singletons. This number of unigenes was 10-fold higher than existing C. sinensis sequences deposited in GenBank (as of August 2010). Sequence similarity analyses against six public databases (Uniprot, NR and COGs at NCBI, Pfam, InterPro and KEGG) found 55,088 unigenes that could be annotated with gene descriptions, conserved protein domains, or gene ontology terms. Some of the unigenes were assigned to putative metabolic pathways. Targeted searches using these annotations identified the majority of genes associated with several primary metabolic pathways and natural product pathways that are important to tea quality, such as flavonoid, theanine and caffeine biosynthesis pathways. Novel candidate genes of these secondary pathways were discovered. Comparisons with four previously prepared cDNA libraries revealed that this transcriptome dataset has both a high degree of consistency with previous EST data and an approximate 20 times increase in coverage. Thirteen unigenes related to theanine and flavonoid synthesis were validated. Their expression patterns in different organs of the tea plant were analyzed by RT-PCR and quantitative real

  14. Deep sequencing of the Camellia sinensis transcriptome revealed candidate genes for major metabolic pathways of tea-specific compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Qi

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Tea is one of the most popular non-alcoholic beverages worldwide. However, the tea plant, Camellia sinensis, is difficult to culture in vitro, to transform, and has a large genome, rendering little genomic information available. Recent advances in large-scale RNA sequencing (RNA-seq provide a fast, cost-effective, and reliable approach to generate large expression datasets for functional genomic analysis, which is especially suitable for non-model species with un-sequenced genomes. Results Using high-throughput Illumina RNA-seq, the transcriptome from poly (A+ RNA of C. sinensis was analyzed at an unprecedented depth (2.59 gigabase pairs. Approximate 34.5 million reads were obtained, trimmed, and assembled into 127,094 unigenes, with an average length of 355 bp and an N50 of 506 bp, which consisted of 788 contig clusters and 126,306 singletons. This number of unigenes was 10-fold higher than existing C. sinensis sequences deposited in GenBank (as of August 2010. Sequence similarity analyses against six public databases (Uniprot, NR and COGs at NCBI, Pfam, InterPro and KEGG found 55,088 unigenes that could be annotated with gene descriptions, conserved protein domains, or gene ontology terms. Some of the unigenes were assigned to putative metabolic pathways. Targeted searches using these annotations identified the majority of genes associated with several primary metabolic pathways and natural product pathways that are important to tea quality, such as flavonoid, theanine and caffeine biosynthesis pathways. Novel candidate genes of these secondary pathways were discovered. Comparisons with four previously prepared cDNA libraries revealed that this transcriptome dataset has both a high degree of consistency with previous EST data and an approximate 20 times increase in coverage. Thirteen unigenes related to theanine and flavonoid synthesis were validated. Their expression patterns in different organs of the tea plant were

  15. Genetic Variation of Flavonols Quercetin, Myricetin, and Kaempferol in the Sri Lankan Tea (Camellia sinensis L. and Their Health-Promoting Aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brasathe Jeganathan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Flavonol glycosides in tea leaves have been quantified as aglycones, quercetin, myricetin, and kaempferol. Occurrence of the said compounds was reported in fruits and vegetable for a long time in association with the antioxidant potential. However, data on flavonols in tea were scanty and, hence, this study aims to envisage the flavonol content in a representative pool of accessions present in the Sri Lankan tea germplasm. Significant amounts of myricetin, quercetin, and kaempferol have been detected in the beverage type tea accessions of the Sri Lankan tea germplasm. This study also revealed that tea is a good source of flavonol glycosides. The Camellia sinensis var. sinensis showed higher content of myricetin, quercetin, and total flavonols than var. assamica and ssp. lasiocalyx. Therefore flavonols and their glycosides can potentially be used in chemotaxonomic studies of tea germplasm. The nonbeverage type cultivars, especially Camellia rosaflora and Camellia japonica Red along with the exotic accessions resembling China type, could be useful in future germplasm studies because they are rich sources of flavonols, namely, quercetin and kaempferol, which are potent antioxidants. The flavonol profiles can be effectively used in choosing parents in tea breeding programmes to generate progenies with a wide range of flavonol glycosides.

  16. Genetic Variation of Flavonols Quercetin, Myricetin, and Kaempferol in the Sri Lankan Tea (Camellia sinensis L.) and Their Health-Promoting Aspects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeganathan, Brasathe; Kottawa-Arachchi, J. Dananjaya; Ranatunga, Mahasen A. B.; Abeysinghe, I. Sarath B.; Gunasekare, M. T. Kumudini; Bandara, B. M. Ratnayake

    2016-01-01

    Flavonol glycosides in tea leaves have been quantified as aglycones, quercetin, myricetin, and kaempferol. Occurrence of the said compounds was reported in fruits and vegetable for a long time in association with the antioxidant potential. However, data on flavonols in tea were scanty and, hence, this study aims to envisage the flavonol content in a representative pool of accessions present in the Sri Lankan tea germplasm. Significant amounts of myricetin, quercetin, and kaempferol have been detected in the beverage type tea accessions of the Sri Lankan tea germplasm. This study also revealed that tea is a good source of flavonol glycosides. The Camellia sinensis var. sinensis showed higher content of myricetin, quercetin, and total flavonols than var. assamica and ssp. lasiocalyx. Therefore flavonols and their glycosides can potentially be used in chemotaxonomic studies of tea germplasm. The nonbeverage type cultivars, especially Camellia rosaflora and Camellia japonica Red along with the exotic accessions resembling China type, could be useful in future germplasm studies because they are rich sources of flavonols, namely, quercetin and kaempferol, which are potent antioxidants. The flavonol profiles can be effectively used in choosing parents in tea breeding programmes to generate progenies with a wide range of flavonol glycosides. PMID:27366737

  17. EFEK EKSTRAK DAUN TEH (Camellia sinensis KONSENTRASI 0,5% TERHADAP KADAR sIgA PADA SALIVA PENDERITA GINGIVITIS

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    Juni Handajani

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Enhanced humoral immune response (sIgA can be caused by gingivitis. A study has been conducted on the effect of tea leaf extract (Camellia sinensis at a concentration of 0,5% as mouth-wash on salivary sIgA level on gingivitis patients. Ten patients (age= 18-30 years were divided into 2 groups so that five patients of the first group representes early gingivitis, and five patients of the second group represented normal gingiva. The gingival index by Loe and Silness (1963 was measured one day before treatment and five days after treatment. The first group was given tea leaf extract solution (0,5% and the others were given aquabidest as control. Five ml of each solution was mouth washed for 5 seconds and this was repeated two times in the morning and at night before sleeping. All treatments were repeated for five days. Saliva samples were collected one day before treatment and five days after treatment. The sIgA level was measured using sIgA ELISA kit (Salimetrics LLC. Optical Density was read on standard plate at 450 nm. The results showed a significant decrease in the salivary sIgA level and in the severity of gingivitis by mouth-washing with a tea leaf extract at a concentration 0.5%.

  18. Fatty Acid Composition and Antioxidant Activity of Tea (Camellia sinensis L. Seed Oil Extracted by Optimized Supercritical Carbon Dioxide

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    Ping Xu

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Seeds are another product in addition to leaves (raw materials for teas of tea (Camellia sinensis L. plant. The great increase of tea consumption in recent years raises the challenge of finding commercial applications for tea seeds. In the present study, supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO2 extraction edible oil from tea seed was carried out, response surface methodology (RSM was used to optimize processing parameters including time (20–90 min, temperature (35–45 °C and pressure (50–90 MPa. The fatty acid composition and antioxidant activity of the extracted oil was also investigated. The highest yield of oil (29.2 ± 0.6% was obtained under optimal SC-CO2 extraction conditions (45 °C, 89.7 min and 32 MPa, respectively, which was significantly higher (p < 0.05 than that (25.3 ± 1.0% given by Soxhlet extraction. Meanwhile, tea seed oil extracted by SC-CO2 contained approximately 80% unsaturated fatty acids and showed a much stronger scavenging ability on the DPPH radical than that extracted by Soxhlet. SC-CO2 is a promising alternative for efficient extraction of edible oil from tea seed. Moreover, tea seed oil extracted by SC-CO2 is highly edible and has good antioxidant activity, and therefore may play a potential role as a health-promoting food resource in human diets.

  19. Identification and quantification of 1,3-dimethylbutylamine (DMBA) from Camellia sinensis tea leaves and dietary supplements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avula, Bharathi; Wang, Mei; Sagi, Satyanarayanaraju; Cohen, Pieter A; Wang, Yan-Hong; Lasonkar, Pradeep; Chittiboyina, Amar G; Feng, Wei; Khan, Ikhlas A

    2015-11-10

    1,3-dimethylbutylamine (DMBA), is a CNS stimulant, which has recently been identified in multiple dietary supplements and sometimes labeled as a natural constituent of Pouchung tea. DMBA is an homologue of 1,3-dimethylamylamine (DMAA) which the US Food and Drug Administration has attempted to remove from all dietary supplements after DMAA consumption was linked to strokes, heart disease, and sudden death. To address questions concerning the natural origin of DMBA, three independent analytical methods were developed for analyzing authentic tea samples and dietary supplements. A high performance thin layer chromatography (HPTLC) method was developed for the fast screening and chemical fingerprint analysis. Chiral Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS) was used to determine the enantiopurity and a validated Ultra-High Performance Liquid Chromatography-Quadrupole Time of Flight Mass Spectrometry (UHPLC-QToF-MS) method was developed for the quantification of DMBA. Using these techniques the presence of DMBA was confirmed using a reference standard and was not detected in any of 25 authentic or commercial samples of Camellia sinensis tea leaves (green tea, black tea, Oolong tea, and Pouchung tea). Of 13 dietary supplements tested, 11 contained DMBA in racemic form and ranged from 0.1 to 214mg per daily dose. PMID:26209774

  20. A Comparative Proteomic Analysis of the Buds and the Young Expanding Leaves of the Tea Plant (Camellia sinensis L.

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    Qin Li

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Tea (Camellia sinensis L. is a perennial woody plant that is widely cultivated to produce a popular non-alcoholic beverage; this beverage has received much attention due to its pleasant flavor and bioactive ingredients, particularly several important secondary metabolites. Due to the significant changes in the metabolite contents of the buds and the young expanding leaves of tea plants, high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC analysis and isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantitation (iTRAQ analysis were performed. A total of 233 differentially expressed proteins were identified. Among these, 116 proteins were up-regulated and 117 proteins were down-regulated in the young expanding leaves compared with the buds. A large array of diverse functions was revealed, including roles in energy and carbohydrate metabolism, secondary metabolite metabolism, nucleic acid and protein metabolism, and photosynthesis- and defense-related processes. These results suggest that polyphenol biosynthesis- and photosynthesis-related proteins regulate the secondary metabolite content of tea plants. The energy and antioxidant metabolism-related proteins may promote tea leaf development. However, reverse transcription quantitative real-time PCR (RT-qPCR showed that the protein expression levels were not well correlated with the gene expression levels. These findings improve our understanding of the molecular mechanism of the changes in the metabolite content of the buds and the young expanding leaves of tea plants.

  1. Metabolic Changes of Caffeine in Tea Plant (Camellia sinensis (L.) O. Kuntze) as Defense Response to Colletotrichum fructicola.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yu-Chun; Qian, Wen-Jun; Li, Na-Na; Hao, Xin-Yuan; Wang, Lu; Xiao, Bin; Wang, Xin-Chao; Yang, Ya-Jun

    2016-09-01

    Tea plant (Camellia sinensis) is one of the most economically valuable crops in the world. Anthracnose can affect the growth of leaves and cause serious yield losses of tea. Tea plants are rich in secondary metabolites; however, their roles in resistance to anthracnose are unclear. Herein we compared the contents of total phenolics, catechins, and caffeine in two cultivars with different resistances to anthracnose during Colletotrichum fructicola infection. (-)-Epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), (+)-catechin (C), caffeine, and critical regulatory genes were induced in C. fructicola-resistant tissues. In vitro antifungal tests showed that caffeine more strongly inhibited mycelial growth than tea polyphenols and catechins. Both electron microscopy and bioactivity analysis results showed that caffeine can affect mycelial cell walls and plasma membranes. Through promoter sequences analysis, a number of stress response-related cis-acting elements were identified in S-adenosylmethionine synthetase and tea caffeine synthase. These results demonstrated that (-)-EGCG, (+)-C, and caffeine may be involved in the resistance of tea plants to anthracnose. PMID:27541180

  2. Evaluation of antioxidant interactions in combined extracts of green tea (Camellia sinensis), rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis) and oak fruit (Quercus branti).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranjbar Nedamani, Elham; Sadeghi Mahoonak, Alireza; Ghorbani, Mohammad; Kashaninejad, Mehdi

    2015-07-01

    Green tea (Camellia sinensis), rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis) and oak fruit (Quercus branti) are of known medicinal plants used in traditional medicine. They provide substantial antioxidant activities but the possible antioxidant interaction between them has not been studied. In the present study first the bioactive compounds from these three plants were first extracted and thereafter assayed for total phenols, 2, 2-diphenyl-1- picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity, total antioxidant capacity (TAOC) and reducing power. In addition, the antioxidant properties of the extracts individually and in combinations were evaluated in soy bean oil as food system. There was a direct relation between total phenolics and antioxidant activities of extracts. Green tea and oak fruit extracts had the highest and least activity, respectively. All three kinds of interactions (synergistic, antagonistic and additive) were observed. In soy bean oil, the only effect was antagonism but even with this effect, combined extract was significantly (P extracts and their combination can be effectively used as a substituent of synthetic antioxidant BHT. PMID:26139926

  3. Chemical characterization of heteropolysaccharides from green and black teas (Camellia sinensis) and their anti-ulcer effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scoparo, Camila T; Souza, Lauro M; Dartora, Nessana; Sassaki, Guilherme L; Santana-Filho, Arquimedes P; Werner, Maria Fernanda P; Borato, Débora G; Baggio, Cristiane H; Iacomini, Marcello

    2016-05-01

    In order to obtain polysaccharides from green and black teas (Camellia sinensis), commercial leaves were submitted to infusion and then to alkaline extraction. The extracts were fractionated by freeze-thawing process, giving insoluble and soluble fractions. Complex arabinogalactan protein from the soluble fractions of both teas (GTPS and BTPS) were determined by methylation analysis and (1)H/(13)C-HSQC spectroscopy, showing a main chain of (1→3)-β-Galp, substituted at O-6 by (1→6)-linked β-Galp with side chains of α-Araf and terminal units of α-Araf, α-Fucp and α-Rhap. A highly branched heteroxylan from the insoluble fractions (GTPI and BTPI) showed in methylation analysis and (1)H/(13)C-HSQC spectroscopy the main chain of (1→4)-β-Xylp, substituted in O-3 by α-Araf, β-Galp and α-Glcp units. Evaluating their gastroprotective activity, the fractions containing the soluble heteropolysaccharides from green (GTPS) and black teas (BTPS) reduced the gastric lesions induced by ethanol. Furthermore, the fraction of insoluble heteropolysaccharides of green (GTPI) and black (BTPI) teas also protected the gastric mucosa. In addition, the maintenance of gastric mucus and reduced glutathione (GSH) levels was involved in the polysaccharides gastroprotection. PMID:26861826

  4. Antimicrobial activity of Calendula officinalis, Camellia sinensis and chlorhexidine against the adherence of microorganisms to sutures after extraction of unerupted third molars

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    Raquel Lourdes Faria

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to compare the antimicrobial effect of mouthwashes containing Calendula officinalis L., Camellia sinensis (L. Kuntze and 0.12% chlorhexidine digluconate on the adherence of microorganisms to suture materials after extraction of unerupted third molars. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Eighteen patients with unerupted maxillary third molars indicated for extraction were selected (n=6 per mouthwash. First, the patients were subjected to extraction of the left tooth and instructed not to use any type of antiseptic solution at the site of surgery (control group. After 15 days, the right tooth was extracted and the patients were instructed to use the Calendula officinalis, Camellia sinensis or chlorhexidine mouthwash during 1 week (experimental group. For each surgery, the sutures were removed on postoperative day 7 and placed in sterile phosphate-buffered saline. Next, serial dilutions were prepared and seeded onto different culture media for the growth of the following microorganisms: blood agar for total microorganism growth; Mitis Salivarius bacitracin sucrose agar for mutans group streptococci; mannitol agar for Staphylococcus spp.; MacConkey agar for enterobacteria and Pseudomonas spp., and Sabouraud dextrose agar containing chloramphenicol for Candida spp. The plates were incubated during 24-48 h at 37ºC for microorganism count (CFU/mL. RESULTS: The three mouthwashes tested reduced the number of microorganisms adhered to the sutures compared to the control group. However, significant differences between the control and experimental groups were only observed for the mouthwash containing 0.12% chlorhexidine digluconate. CONCLUSIONS: Calendula officinalis L. and Camellia sinensis (L. Kuntze presented antimicrobial activity against the adherence of microorganisms to sutures but were not as efficient as chlorhexidine digluconate.

  5. Functional analysis of Flavonoid 3′,5′-hydroxylase from Tea plant (Camellia sinensis): critical role in the accumulation of catechins

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Yun-Sheng; Xu, Yu-Jiao; Gao, Li-Ping; Yu, Oliver; Wang, Xin-Zhen; He, Xiu-Juan; Jiang, Xiao-Lan; Liu, Ya-Jun; Xia, Tao

    2014-01-01

    Background Flavonoid 3′,5′-hydroxylase (F3′5′H), an important branch point enzyme in tea plant flavan-3-ol synthesis, belongs to the CYP75A subfamily and catalyzes the conversion of flavones, flavanones, dihydroflavonols and flavonols into 3′,4′,5′-hydroxylated derivatives. However, whether B-ring hydroxylation occurs at the level of flavanones and/or dihydroflavonols, in vivo remains unknown. Results The Camellia sinensis F3′5′H (CsF3′5′H) gene was isolated from tea cDNA library. Expression ...

  6. Disorganization of cell division of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus by a component of tea (Camellia sinensis): a study by electron microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton-Miller, J M; Shah, S

    1999-07-15

    A component of aqueous extracts of green tea (Camellia sinensis), known to reverse methicillin-resistance in staphylococci, causes extensive morphological changes in methicillin-resistant but not in methicillin-sensitive Staphylococcus aureus. Clumps of partly divided cocci, consisting of up to 14 individuals, with thickened internal but normal external cell walls were seen by electron microscopy in cultures of methicillin-resistant S. aureus grown in the presence of the active principle. The morphological changes observed were consistent with selective inhibition of penicillin-binding proteins. PMID:10427729

  7. Evaluation of antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and antimicrobial activities of two different extracts of Camellia sinensis (L. O. Kuntze

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    K. Shanmugapriya

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: White tea is the mildest tea made from new young leaves of the tea plant Camellia sinensis (L. O. Kuntze belonging to the family Theaceae. Objective: To compare the efficacy for phytochemical, antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activities of methanol and acetone extracts of White tea. Methodology: The methanolic and acetone extracts of the white tea leaves were screened for all pharmacological activities. The four bacterial strains and one fungal species were investigated for antimicrobial activity of white tea. Phytochemical screening, Nonenzymatic and enzymatic antioxidant activity was analysed by standard methods. The prevention of hypotonicity induced HRBC membrane lysis was taken a measure of anti-inflammatory activity. The compounds were identified by GC-MS analysis. Results: The methanolic extracts showed higher activity against four of the bacterial organisms and one fungus than acetone extracts. The methanolic extract of white tea has a high level of total phenolic content and reducing power than acetone extracts. Antioxidant activity of the methanolic extracts of white tea was higher than acetone extracts for all methods expect by Ferric reducing antioxidant power methods. It showed anti-inflammatory activity in terms of percent prevention of lysis of 40% and 38% for 100μl of methanolic and acetone extracts. The compounds present in both extracts were identified using GC-MS analysis. Conclusions: The results of the present study indicate compounds isolated from methanolic and acetone extracts of White tea possesses pharmacological properties. Therefore, they could be used as natural potential compounds of natural origin for pharmaceuticals plant-based products industry.

  8. Identification, classification, and expression profiles of heat shock transcription factors in tea plant (Camellia sinensis) under temperature stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhi-Wei; Wu, Zhi-Jun; Li, Xing-Hui; Huang, Ying; Li, Hui; Wang, Yong-Xin; Zhuang, Jing

    2016-01-15

    In vascular plants, heat shock transcription factors (Hsfs) regulate heat stress response by regulating the expression of heat shock proteins. This study systematically and comprehensively analyzed the Hsf family in tea plant [Camellia sinensis (L.) O. Kuntze]. A total of 16 CsHsfs were identified from the transcriptome database of tea plant and analyzed for their phylogenetic relationships, motifs, and physicochemical characteristics. On the basis of the phylogenetic comparison of tea plant with Arabidopsis thaliana, Populus trichocarpa, Theobroma cacao, and Oryza sativa, the CsHsfs were classified into three classes, namely, A (56.25%), B (37.50%), and C (6.25%). Heat mapping showed that the expression profiles of CsHsf genes under non-stress conditions varied among four tea plant cultivars, namely, 'Yunnanshilixiang', 'Chawansanhao', 'Ruchengmaoyecha', and 'Anjibaicha'. Six CsHsf genes (CsHsfA1a, CsHsfA1b, CsHsfA6, CsHsfB1, CsHsfB2b, and CsHsfC1) were selected from classes A, B, and C to analyze the expression profiles of CsHsf genes through quantitative real-time PCR in 'Yingshuang', 'Anjibaicha', and 'Yunnanshilixiang' under high (38 °C) or low (4 °C) temperature stress. Temperature stress positively or negatively regulated all of the selected CsHsf genes, and the expression levels evidently varied even among CsHsf genes belonging to the same class. This study provided a relatively detailed summary of Hsfs in tea plant and may serve as a reference for further studies on the mechanism of temperature stress regulation by CsHsfs. PMID:26431998

  9. Isolation, identification and purification of caffeine from Coffea arabica L. and Camellia sinensis L.: A combination antibacterial study

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    Mohammed Muthanna

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study was conducted to isolate the most important bioactive compound from Coffea arabica (coffee beans and Camellia sinensis (green tea leaves. Caffeine (3,7-dihydro-1,3,7-trimethyl-1H-purine-2,6-dione was isolated from both plants using a liquid-liquid extraction method, detected on thin layer chromatography (TLC plates in comparison with standard caffeine, which served as a positive control. Moreover, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR spectrometer and High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC analyses were used to confirm the purity and characterization of the extracted caffeine. The isolated material(s from both plants were investigated for their single and combined antibacterial activities against six selected pathogenic bacteria. The Gram-positive bacteria were; Staphylococcus aureus , Bacillus cereus and Gram-negative bacteria included; Escherichia coli , Proteus mirabilis , Klebsiella pneumonia and Pseudomonas aeruginosa . Both compounds at a concentration of 2 mg/ml showed similar antibacterial activities against all tested bacteria, except for P. mirabilis , and the highest inhibitory effect was observed against P. aeruginosa using a modified agar diffusion method. The minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC of caffeine was determined using a broth microdilution method in 96 multi-well microtitre plates. MIC values ranged from 62.5 to 250.0 µg/ml for the caffeine isolated from coffee and 62.5 to 500.0 µg/ml for green tea caffeine. Combination results showed additive effects against most pathogenic bacteria especially for P. aeruginosa, using both antibacterial assays.

  10. CHOLESTEROL ESTERASE ENZYME INHIBITORY AND ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITIES OF LEAVES OF CAMELLIA SINENSIS (L. KUNTZE. USING IN VITRO MODELS

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    Pradeep Kumar et al.

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The present study was to evaluate the in vitro cholesterol esterase enzyme inhibitory and in vitro antioxidant activity of the methanol extract of the leaves of Camellia sinensis (L.. Phytochemical screening of the extract shows the presence of flavonoids, phenolics and terpenoids. The extract shows ability to inhibit the enzyme with IC50 (82.46±0.74µg/ml where as that of standard, Orlistat (24.15±0.59µg/ml. Antioxidant and free radical scavenging activity were also assessed by using the methods, IC50 values for Nitric oxide radical scavenging activity (396.83±0.83µg/ml, whereas for standard curcumin (260.38±0.66µg/ml, hydroxyl radical scavenging activity (47.04±2.26µg/ml and for quercetin (70.99±1.31µg/ml. Moreover, the extract was found to scavenge the superoxide with 50% inhibition at 308.17±23.25µg/ml and standard ascorbic acid at 225.08±2.44µg/ml, IC50 for ferrous chelating ability assay (44.12±4.63µg/ml and of ascorbic acid (47.25±.89µg/ml. Total content of flavonoids present in 1mg of extract was 19.8±0.11 µg quercetin equivalents/mg. Results indicated that the extract shows potential bioactive compounds which might have a beneficial impact on diseases related to cholesterol synthesis and showed potential antioxidant and free radical scavenging activities.

  11. TOKSISITAS AKUT (LD50 DAN UJI GELAGAT EKSTRAK DAUN TEH HIJAU (CAMELLIA SINENSIS (LINN. KUNZE PADA MENCIT

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    Dian Sundari

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Among many kind of drinks, tea is the most preferable drink for Indonesian people. Compare to other drinks, tea has a lot of benefit to our healthy. Tea are able to prevent some diseases and help for recover process from simple diseasessuch as influenza, to chronic hard disease; that could cause death such as cancer. Variety of tea can be selected referring to the flavor. Acute toxicity test (Lethal Dose has been conducted of the extract of green tea leave (Camellia sinensis (Linn., Kunze. to the safety and symptom test as well. The test used mice as an animal experiments. The acute toxicity test use Weil, C.S (1915 method for the acute toxicity test and Paget. GE and Barnes, JM (1964 method for symptom test, high dosage under LD50 value are given to the mice, while green tea leave extract is made by percolation according to the method in Indonesian Pharmacope III. One kilogram of green tea powder produced an extract of 375 g or 37.5% of rendemen (sample. The result showed, the LD50 value of green lea leave extract was 3.303 (2.10 - 5.14 mg/10 g body weight i.p. By extrapolating the value as per oral in mice based on Gleason test (1969, the extract was classified as a Practically Non Toxic (PNT. The symptom test proved that green tea leave extract in a dosage of 2,7 mg/10 g body weight influenced the nerve system.   Key words : Camelia Sibebsis (Linn, Kunze, Green Tea, Safety, Toxicology

  12. The occurrence and distribution of Tuckerella japonica (Acari: Tuckerellidae) on tea bushes, Camellia sinensis and C. assamica, in Alabama, Georgia and South Carolina, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Childers, Carl C; Ebert, Timothy A; Rogers, Michael E; Shepard, Merle

    2016-08-01

    Adults, immatures and eggs of Tuckerella japonica (Ehara) were collected from unknown clones or varieties of Camellia sinensis (L.) O. Kuntze tea bushes in the Clemson University Farm, Coastal Research and Education Center, Charleston, South Carolina; from Assam hybrids in The Caw Caw Nature Preserve in Ravenel, SC; from C. sinensis and C. assamica (Masters) in the Charleston Tea Plantation on Wadmalaw Island, SC; C. sinensis in the Fairhope Tea Plantation in Fairhope, Alabama; and from C. sinensis 'Rosea' and a C. sinensis and C. assamica hybrid in Savannah and Ellabell, Georgia, between 1994 and 2015. This mite was consistently collected from 1-, 2- and 3+-year-old wood of tea plants with significantly greater numbers collected from 2-year-old wood. All stages of the mite were found within longitudinally split areas of the wood where underlying green bark tissues were exposed. As 1-year-old wood matured, there was increased splitting of the bark with increased mite presence. Mature green fruit (= developing seed pods) of tea were also frequented by T. japonica between June-July and October and their numbers were no greater than those on 1- or 3+-year wood. When the fruit were small (March-May) or as they hardened in late fall, they were not suitable feeding sites for this mite. Very few T. japonica were collected from 50 mature, inner or outer leaf samples with none usually found. Tuckerella japonica has multiple, overlapping generations and occurs on tea throughout the year in Alabama, Georgia and South Carolina, USA. PMID:27294360

  13. EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA); Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of a health claim related to a combination of Paullinia cupana Kunth (guarana) and Camellia sinensis (L.) Kuntze (green tea) extracts and reduction of body weight pursuant to

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tetens, Inge

    related to a combination of Paullinia cupana Kunth (guarana) and Camellia sinensis (L.) Kuntze (green tea) extracts and reduction of body weight. The Panel considers that the food constituent which is the subject of the health claim is sufficiently characterised. The claimed effect, reduction of body...... between the consumption of a combination of Paullinia cupana Kunth (guarana) and Camellia sinensis (L.) Kuntze (green tea) extracts and a reduction in body weight. © European Food Safety Authority, 2012...

  14. Purple foliage coloration in tea (Camellia sinensis L.) arises from activation of the R2R3-MYB transcription factor CsAN1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Binmei; Zhu, Zhangsheng; Cao, Panrong; Chen, Hao; Chen, Changming; Zhou, Xin; Mao, Yanhui; Lei, Jianjun; Jiang, Yanpin; Meng, Wei; Wang, Yingxi; Liu, Shaoqun

    2016-01-01

    Purple foliage always appears in Camellia sinensis families; however, the transcriptional regulation of anthocyanin biosynthesis is unknown. The tea bud sport cultivar 'Zijuan' confers an abnormal pattern of anthocyanin accumulation, resulting in a mutant phenotype that has a striking purple color in young foliage and in the stem. In this study, we aimed to unravel the underlying molecular mechanism of anthocyanin biosynthetic regulation in C. sinensis. Our results revealed that activation of the R2R3-MYB transcription factor (TF) anthocyanin1 (CsAN1) specifically upregulated the bHLH TF CsGL3 and anthocyanin late biosynthetic genes (LBGs) to confer ectopic accumulation of pigment in purple tea. We found CsAN1 interacts with bHLH TFs (CsGL3 and CsEGL3) and recruits a WD-repeat protein CsTTG1 to form the MYB-bHLH-WDR (MBW) complex that regulates anthocyanin accumulation. We determined that the hypomethylation of a CpG island in the CsAN1 promoter is associated with the purple phenotype. Furthermore, we demonstrated that low temperature and long illumination induced CsAN1 promoter demethylation, resulting in upregulated expression to promote anthocyanin accumulation in the foliage. The successful isolation of CsAN1 provides important information on the regulatory control of anthocyanin biosynthesis in C. sinensis and offers a genetic resource for the development of new varieties with enhanced anthocyanin content. PMID:27581206

  15. Atividade hepatoprotetora do extrato alcoólico da Camellia sinensis (L.) Kuntze (chá-verde) em ratos Wistar tratados com dietilnitrosamina Hepatic protection effect of the alcoholic extract from Camellia sinensis (L.) Kuntze (green tea) in Wistar rats treated with diethylnitrosamine

    OpenAIRE

    Wanderlei Onofre Schmitz; Rubens Cecchini; Dirceu Estevão; Halha Ostrensky Saridakis

    2009-01-01

    O chá-verde (Camellia sinensis (L.) Kuntze) é utilizado por suas propriedades: antioxidante, quimioprotetora e antiinflamatória em varias situações patológicas, principalmente frente a compostos químicos cancerígenos. Para tanto se avaliou o efeito hepatoprotetor do extrato de chá verde (ECV) sobre a lipoperoxidação e necrose provocada pelo agente cancerígeno Dietilnitrosamina (DEN) no fígado de ratos machos Wistar. Os ratos foram expostos a dose única de 200 mg/kg de DEN via intra peritoneal...

  16. Anti-inflammatory effects of a polyphenols-rich extract from tea (Camellia sinensis) flowers in acute and chronic mice models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Bang-Tian; Li, Wei-Xi; He, Rong-Rong; Li, Yi-Fang; Tsoi, Bun; Zhai, Yu-Jia; Kurihara, Hiroshi

    2012-01-01

    While beneficial health properties of tea leaves have been extensively studied, less attention is paid to the flowers of tea. In this study, the anti-inflammatory effects of hot water extract of tea (Camellia sinensis) flowers were investigated. Pharmacological studies found that administration of tea flowers extract (TFE) could effectively inhibit croton oil-induced ear edema and carrageenin-induced paw edema. Furthermore, administration of TFE also protected against Propionibacterium acnes (P. ances) plus lipopolysaccharide-(LPS-) induced liver inflammation by reversing the histologic damage and plasma alanine aminotransferase (ALT) increase. Moreover, the levels of nitric oxide (NO), tumor necrosis factor-(TNF)-α and interleukin-(IL-) 1β mRNA in mouse liver were markedly suppressed after treatment with TFE in mice with immunological liver inflammation. These results indicated that tea flowers had potent anti-inflammatory effects on acute and immunological inflammation in vivo, and may be used as a functional natural food. PMID:22900128

  17. Anti-Inflammatory Effects of a Polyphenols-Rich Extract from Tea (Camellia sinensis Flowers in Acute and Chronic Mice Models

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    Bang-Tian Chen

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available While beneficial health properties of tea leaves have been extensively studied, less attention is paid to the flowers of tea. In this study, the anti-inflammatory effects of hot water extract of tea (Camellia sinensis flowers were investigated. Pharmacological studies found that administration of tea flowers extract (TFE could effectively inhibit croton oil-induced ear edema and carrageenin-induced paw edema. Furthermore, administration of TFE also protected against Propionibacterium acnes (P. ances plus lipopolysaccharide-(LPS- induced liver inflammation by reversing the histologic damage and plasma alanine aminotransferase (ALT increase. Moreover, the levels of nitric oxide (NO, tumor necrosis factor-(TNF-α and interleukin-(IL- 1β mRNA in mouse liver were markedly suppressed after treatment with TFE in mice with immunological liver inflammation. These results indicated that tea flowers had potent anti-inflammatory effects on acute and immunological inflammation in vivo, and may be used as a functional natural food.

  18. Kinetic inhibition of the extracellular protease of Shigella dysenteriae by the volatile oil from camellia sinensis and its effects on pathogenic bacteria in comparison with standard antibiotics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Folorunso Olufemi Samuel

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Context: In spite of great advances observed in modern medicine, plants still make an important contribution to health care. Hence, there is need for unrelenting effort in the exploration of the health benefit of medicinal plants. Purpose: This work was designed to determine the role of the volatile oil of Camellia sinensis on the extracellular protease, which is one of the major virulent factors in the pathogenesis of Shigella dysenteriae and its antibacterial effects on eight other enteric bacterial as compared with the antibiotics Finding: The total antimicrobial effect of the volatile oil (355.0 mm was significantly higher (p<0.05 than the antibiotics tested (203.0 mm. The minimum inhibitory and bactericidal concentrations of the oils revealed Escherichia coli as the most sensitive. However, relatively higher concentrations of the oils is required to achieve similar sensitivity against Salmonella and Shigella species. The activity of the partially purified extracellular protease, which is one of the virulence factors of Shigella dysenteriae was inhibited by the oil from different parts of the plant especially the leaf. The activity of this enzyme increased steadily between pH 7.0 – 8.0 and 40 – 50 oC. Summary: The volatile oils possessed antimicrobial activity and showed both competitive and noncompetitive kinetic inhibition of the extracellular protease of Shigella dysenteriae. Implication: The inhibitory action of the oil on protease from Shigella dysenteriae suggests the possible mode of action. Volatile oil from Camellia sinensis, especially the leaf, may be an important source of antibiotic against these organisms particularly Shigella dysenteriae.

  19. Combined cytological and transcriptomic analysis reveals a nitric oxide signaling pathway involved in cold-inhibited Camellia sinensis pollen tube growth

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    Weidong eWang

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Nitric oxide (NO as a signaling molecule plays crucial roles in many abiotic stresses in plant development processes, including pollen tube growth. Here, the signaling networks dominated by NO during cold stress that inhibited Camellia sinensis pollen tube growth are investigated in vitro. Cytological analysis show that cold-induced NO is involved in the inhibition of pollen tube growth along with disruption of the cytoplasmic Ca2+ gradient, increase in ROS content, acidification of cytoplasmic pH and abnormalities in organelle ultrastructure and cell wall component distribution in the pollen tube tip. Furthermore, differentially expressed genes (DEGs-related to signaling pathway, such as NO synthesis, cGMP, Ca2+, ROS, pH, actin, cell wall and MAPK cascade signal pathways, are identified and quantified using transcriptomic analyses and qRT-PCR, which indicate a potential molecular mechanism for the above cytological results. Taken together, these findings suggest that a complex signaling network dominated by NO, including Ca2+, ROS, pH, RACs signaling and the crosstalk among them, is stimulated in the C. sinensis pollen tube in response to cold stress, which further causes secondary and tertiary alterations, such as ultrastructural abnormalities in organelles and cell wall construction, ultimately resulting in perturbed pollen tube extension.

  20. Combined Cytological and Transcriptomic Analysis Reveals a Nitric Oxide Signaling Pathway Involved in Cold-Inhibited Camellia sinensis Pollen Tube Growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Weidong; Sheng, Xianyong; Shu, Zaifa; Li, Dongqin; Pan, Junting; Ye, Xiaoli; Chang, Pinpin; Li, Xinghui; Wang, Yuhua

    2016-01-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) as a signaling molecule plays crucial roles in many abiotic stresses in plant development processes, including pollen tube growth. Here, the signaling networks dominated by NO during cold stress that inhibited Camellia sinensis pollen tube growth are investigated in vitro. Cytological analysis show that cold-induced NO is involved in the inhibition of pollen tube growth along with disruption of the cytoplasmic Ca(2+) gradient, increase in ROS content, acidification of cytoplasmic pH and abnormalities in organelle ultrastructure and cell wall component distribution in the pollen tube tip. Furthermore, differentially expressed genes (DEGs)-related to signaling pathway, such as NO synthesis, cGMP, Ca(2+), ROS, pH, actin, cell wall, and MAPK cascade signal pathways, are identified and quantified using transcriptomic analyses and qRT-PCR, which indicate a potential molecular mechanism for the above cytological results. Taken together, these findings suggest that a complex signaling network dominated by NO, including Ca(2+), ROS, pH, RACs signaling and the crosstalk among them, is stimulated in the C. sinensis pollen tube in response to cold stress, which further causes secondary and tertiary alterations, such as ultrastructural abnormalities in organelles and cell wall construction, ultimately resulting in perturbed pollen tube extension. PMID:27148289

  1. Assessment of aquo-ethanolic extract of Camellia sinensis against Carbapenem Resistant Escherichia coli: In Vivo Trials in a Murine Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thakur, Pallavi; Chawla, Raman; Narula, Alka; Goel, Rajeev; Arora, Rajesh; Sharma, Rakesh Kumar

    2016-04-01

    The prevalence of Carbapenem Resistant Escherichia coli (CRE) has increased considerably during the last decade, which can be ascribed to relative scarcity of effective non toxic antimicrobial agents. The present study was conducted to evaluate the antimicrobial activity of aquo-ethanolic (1:1) extract of leaves of Camellia sinensis (PTRC-31911-A) against Carbapenem Resistant Escherichia coli at preclinical level using peritonitis infection model in Sprague Dawley rats. Efficacy analysis of PTRC-31911-A involved enumeration of CRE colonies in blood and urine samples of test animals for a period of 5 days from infection. A reduction in microbial count of biological fluids was considered as the primary endpoint of the selected murine model. Physical, biochemical, hematological and histological indices of toxicity were employed as secondary relative indicators of the induced disease. Physical manifestations of infected rats included significantly high body temperature (TempInfected=103.18°F, ∼5% increase) and noteworthy reduction in weight (WeightInfected=126.83g, ∼15% decrease) as compared to control. Significant (P<0.05) increase in total white blood cells, eosinophil and monocyte counts as well as a significant decrease (P<0.05) in erythrocytes count, hematocrit volume, red blood cell distribution width and hemoglobin concentration were observed in the infected group as compared to the control group. Furthermore, noteworthy increase in liver and kidney function test parameters were observed in case of infected groups. All the hematological and biochemical parameters were found to be within optimum range in case of treatment group, indicating restoration of homeostasis. Histopathological studies also presented symptoms of hemorrhage and glomerular damage with structural distortion in glomerular capillary loops of infected groups, which were later recovered in treated groups, indicating the nephro-protective potential of PTRC-31911-A. The study clearly points

  2. Mixture design analysis of solvent extractor effects on epicatechin, epigallocatechin gallate, epigallocatechin and antioxidant activities of the Camellia sinensis L. leaves

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    Elis Daiane Pauli

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports an RP-HPLC-UV-DAD study of the effects of four solvents and their mixtures on the extraction and antioxidant activities of three main catechins, epicatechin (EC, epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG and epigallocatechin (EGC of Camellia sinensis L. leaves for two harvests. The extraction efficiency solvent was measured by the chromatographic peak areas. The results showed that the relative abundance of the catechins in the second harvest is somewhat larger than in the first one, although there is no significant difference at the 95% level. The relative abundance found for EGCG is greater than for EGC which is greater than EC for all solvent mixtures. According to the mixture models, the maximum values of relative abundances of EGCG, EGC and EC can be obtained with a (70:30 v/v ethanol:ethyl acetate binary mixture and the antioxidant activities with a (55:25:20 v/v/v ethanol:ethyl acetate:dichloromethane ternary mixture.

  3. SWAPDT: A method for Short-time Withering Assessment of Probability for Drought Tolerance in Camellia sinensis validated by targeted metabolomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyarukowa, Christopher; Koech, Robert; Loots, Theodor; Apostolides, Zeno

    2016-07-01

    Climate change is causing droughts affecting crop production on a global scale. Classical breeding and selection strategies for drought-tolerant cultivars will help prevent crop losses. Plant breeders, for all crops, need a simple and reliable method to identify drought-tolerant cultivars, but such a method is missing. Plant metabolism is often disrupted by abiotic stress conditions. To survive drought, plants reconfigure their metabolic pathways. Studies have documented the importance of metabolic regulation, i.e. osmolyte accumulation such as polyols and sugars (mannitol, sorbitol); amino acids (proline) during drought. This study identified and quantified metabolites in drought tolerant and drought susceptible Camellia sinensis cultivars under wet and drought stress conditions. For analyses, GC-MS and LC-MS were employed for metabolomics analysis.%RWC results show how the two drought tolerant and two drought susceptible cultivars differed significantly (p≤0.05) from one another; the drought susceptible exhibited rapid water loss compared to the drought tolerant. There was a significant variation (pdrought tolerant and drought susceptible tea cultivars after short-time withering conditions. These metabolite changes were similar to those seen in other plant species under drought conditions, thus validating this method. The Short-time Withering Assessment of Probability for Drought Tolerance (SWAPDT) method presented here provides an easy method to identify drought tolerant tea cultivars that will mitigate the effects of drought due to climate change on crop losses. PMID:27137993

  4. The Effect of Camellia Sinensis (Green Tea Mouthwash on Plaque-Induced Gingivitis: a Single-Blinded Randomized Controlled Clinical Trial

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    Poorsattar Bejeh Mir A

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Background and the purpose of the Study Complementary medicine received high attention during last decades. We aimed to assess the efficacy of Green tea mouthwash on plaque-induced gingivitis as the most common form of periodontal disease.Methods and materials: We designed a single blinded placebo controlled clinical trial. High school female students with chronic generalized plaque-induced gingivitis were distributed to receive either 5 ml of Green tea 5% two times/day or normal saline with the same dosage. Gingival index (Sillness & Loe, plaque index (Sillness & Loeand bleeding index (Barnett were recorded at baseline and five consecutive weeks. Comparisons were made by a general linear model, repeated measure ANOVA and a Bonferroni test applied for multiple comparisons.Results: Twenty five students were recruited in each arm of the study. A significant improvement was observed in all periodontal indices during the study (P 0.05, observed power for GI: 0.09, PI: 0.11 and BI: 0.07.Conclusion: Green tea mouthwash may be a safe and feasible adjunct treatment for inflammatory periodontal diseases. A future larger scale study is warranted for better evaluating the effect of green tea.Keywords: Camellia Sinensis, Gingivitis, Complementary medicine, Clinical trial, Mouth wash

  5. HPTLC methods for the Rapid Determination of Adhatoda vasica L. Glycyrrhiza glabbra L., Phyllanthus embelica L. and Camellia sinensis L. in a polyherbal formulation (INSTY)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An Insty Granule is a polyherbal formulation, and it is widely used to treat upper respiratory tract infections. It contains expectorant, anti-inflammatory, mucolytic and anti-pyretic properties. The major active constituents are vasicine, gallic acid, caffeine and glycyrrhizin. Insty a poly herbal formulation of eight herbs were investigated for its phytochemical evaluation. Biomarkers of about four herbs both qualitatively and quantitatively were investigated. Methods: The solvent systems used were ethyl acetate, chloroform, ethanol, ammonia (6: 3: 1: 1) for vasicin, ethyl acetate, chloroform, formic acid (12: 15: 3) for gallic acid, ethyl acetate, methanol, water (100: 13.5: 10) for caffeine, and methanol, water, acetic acid (70: 30: 0.5) for glycyrrhizin. Results: The methods showed a good linear relationship (r/sup 2/ = 0.999) in the concentration range 25-1500 ng per spot. It was found to be linear, accurate, precise, specific, robust and can be applied for quality control and standardization. Conclusion: In present study rapid and inexpensive qualification methods for the quality control of Adhatoda vasica L. Glycyrrhiza glabbra L., Phyllanthus embelica L. and Camellia sinensis L. on thin layer chromatography (TLC) were developed and validated on silica gel. HPTLC is most suitable technique because of quantification of number of samples at low operating cost, easy sample preparation, short analysis time and analytical assurance. (author)

  6. [Determination of the antimicrobial capacity of green tea (Camellia sinensis) against the potentially pathogenic microorganisms Escherichia coli, Salmonella enterica, Staphylococcus aureus, Listeria monocytogenes, Candida albicans and Aspergillus niger].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mora, Andreína; Pawa, Jonathan; Chaverri, José M; Arias, María Laura

    2013-09-01

    Many studies can be found in scientific literature demonstrating the antimicrobial capacity of different herbs, including green tea. Never-theless, many results are divergent or cannot be compared. Several green tea formulations may be found in market, but there is scarce or non-information about its activity. In this work, the potential antimicrobial effect of 50 samples of dry green tea and in 10% infusion against Escherichia coli, Salmonella enterica, Listeria monocytogenes, Staphylococcus aureus, Candida albicans and Aspergillus niger distributed in the metropolitan area of Costa Rica, was determined. This activity was compared with the effect produced by Chinese origin green tea (Camellia sinensis). Different solvents were evaluated for preparing polyphenol enriched extracts from green tea samples. Total phenols were determined using the Folin-Ciocalteu spectrophotometric methodology, using galic acid as reference. Antimicrobial activity of green tea extracts and infusions was evaluated using the microplate methodology described by Breuking (2006). Ethanol was the most efficient solvent used for the polyphenol extractions. There was no antimicrobial effect of the different green tea extracts and infusions against the microorganisms evaluated, except for Listeria monocytogenes, where the extracts of 70% of samples analyzed and the control showed an inhibitory effect in the 10.5 mg/mL and 1.05 mg/L concentrations. None of the infusions tested, including the control, showed any effect against this bacteria. PMID:25362825

  7. Selection and Verification of Candidate Reference Genes for Mature MicroRNA Expression by Quantitative RT-PCR in the Tea Plant (Camellia sinensis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Hui; Zhang, Xiao; Shi, Cong; Wang, Shuangshuang; Wu, Ailin; Wei, Chaoling

    2016-01-01

    Quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) is a rapid and sensitive method for analyzing microRNA (miRNA) expression. However, accurate qRT-PCR results depend on the selection of reliable reference genes as internal positive controls. To date, few studies have identified reliable reference genes for differential expression analysis of miRNAs among tissues, and among experimental conditions in plants. In this study, three miRNAs and four non-coding small RNAs (ncRNA) were selected as reference candidates, and the stability of their expression was evaluated among different tissues and under different experimental conditions in the tea plant (Camellia sinensis) using the geNorm and NormFinder programs. It was shown that miR159a was the best single reference gene in the bud to the fifth leaf, 5S rRNA was the most suitable gene in different organs, miR6149 was the most stable gene when the leaves were attacked by Ectropis oblique and U4, miR5368n and miR159a were the best genes when the leaves were treated by methyl jasmonate (MeJA), salicylic acid (SA) and abscisic acid (ABA), respectively. Our results provide suitable reference genes for future investigations on miRNA functions in tea plants. PMID:27240406

  8. In vitro pancreatic lipase, cholesterol esterase and cholesterol micellization inhibitory activity of Sri Lankan low grown orthodox Orange Pekoe grade black tea (Camellia sinensis L.)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wanigasekera Daya Ratnasooriya

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To access the pancreatic lipase, cholesterol esterase and cholesterol micellization inhibitory activities of Sri Lankan low grown orthodox Orange Pekoe grade black tea made from uppermost tender leaves and unopened buds ofCamellia sinensis L. Methods: Black tea brew (BTB) was made according to International Organization for Standardization 3103 specifications and concentrations ofBTB tested were 37.5, 75.0, 150.0, 300.0 and 600.0µg/mL for antilipase and anti-cholesterol esterase assays and 0.25, 0.50 and 1.00µg/mL for cholesterol micellization inhibitory assay. Results:The results showed thatBTB of Sri Lankan low grown orthodox Orange Pekoe grade black tea has marked and dose-dependent (r2 = 0.95) cholesterol micellization inhibitory activityin vitro comparable to epigallocatechin gallate, the reference drug used. In contrast, BTB had only mild but dose-dependent (r2= 0.94) inhibitory activity against pancreatic lipase and weak inhibitory effect (up to 13.17%) on pancreatic cholesterol esterase. Conclusions: It is concluded that consumption ofBTB of Sri Lankan low grown orthodox Orange Pekoe grade tea as a beverage may be a useful strategy in the management of hyperlipidaemia.

  9. Polifenóis totais e flavonoides em amostras de chá verde (Camellia sinensis L. de diferentes marcas comercializadas na cidade de Salvador-BA

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    L.A. FIRMINO

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available RESUMO Camellia sinensis é amplamente conhecida por seus efeitos benéficos à saúde humana. Dentre as diversas formas de processamento desta erva, o chá verde e chá preto são os mais populares. Neste trabalho objetivou-se avaliar os teores de fenólicos totais e flavonoides em amostras de 25 diferentes marcas disponíveis à venda em farmácias e supermercados de Salvador-Ba. Os resultados obtidos apresentaram diferenças significativas na concentração dos compostos fenólicos entre as marcas de chá verde estudadas. No estudo também ficou comprovado que, no preparo do chá verde, as amostras obtidas por infusão aquosa com agitação mecânica apresentaram maiores teores de polifenóis e flavonoides em relação àquelas que não foram submetidas à agitação.

  10. Selection and Verification of Candidate Reference Genes for Mature MicroRNA Expression by Quantitative RT-PCR in the Tea Plant (Camellia sinensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui Song

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR is a rapid and sensitive method for analyzing microRNA (miRNA expression. However, accurate qRT-PCR results depend on the selection of reliable reference genes as internal positive controls. To date, few studies have identified reliable reference genes for differential expression analysis of miRNAs among tissues, and among experimental conditions in plants. In this study, three miRNAs and four non-coding small RNAs (ncRNA were selected as reference candidates, and the stability of their expression was evaluated among different tissues and under different experimental conditions in the tea plant (Camellia sinensis using the geNorm and NormFinder programs. It was shown that miR159a was the best single reference gene in the bud to the fifth leaf, 5S rRNA was the most suitable gene in different organs, miR6149 was the most stable gene when the leaves were attacked by Ectropis oblique and U4, miR5368n and miR159a were the best genes when the leaves were treated by methyl jasmonate (MeJA, salicylic acid (SA and abscisic acid (ABA, respectively. Our results provide suitable reference genes for future investigations on miRNA functions in tea plants.

  11. In vitro pancreatic lipase, cholesterol esterase and cholesterol micellization inhibitory activity of Sri Lankan low grown orthodox Orange Pekoe grade black tea (Camellia sinensis L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wanigasekera Daya Ratnasooriya

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To access the pancreatic lipase, cholesterol esterase and cholesterol micellization inhibitory activities of Sri Lankan low grown orthodox Orange Pekoe grade black tea made from uppermost tender leaves and unopened buds of Camellia sinensis L. Methods: Black tea brew (BTB was made according to International Organization for Standardization 3103 specifications and concentrations of BTB tested were 37.5, 75.0, 150.0, 300.0 and 600.0 µg/mL for antilipase and anti-cholesterol esterase assays and 0.25, 0.50 and 1.00 µg/mL for cholesterol micellization inhibitory assay. Results: The results showed that BTB of Sri Lankan low grown orthodox Orange Pekoe grade black tea has marked and dose-dependent (r 2 = 0.95 cholesterol micellization inhibitory activity in vitro comparable to epigallocatechin gallate, the reference drug used. In contrast, BTB had only mild but dose-dependent (r 2 = 0.94 inhibitory activity against pancreatic lipase and weak inhibitory effect (up to 13.17% on pancreatic cholesterol esterase. Conclusions: It is concluded that consumption of BTB of Sri Lankan low grown orthodox Orange Pekoe grade tea as a beverage may be a useful strategy in the management of hyperlipidaemia.

  12. The Consumer behavior behind the most consumed beverage in the world, Camellia sinensis : case study on French consumers

    OpenAIRE

    Baills, Tiphanie

    2015-01-01

    To business students and professionals alike, consumer behavior is an essential part of business, and more so for those who specialize in marketing. Knowing how to make sure your product stays in the mind of the customer is not an essay challenge. It becomes even more difficult when you are told to use anthropology together with it. We are left with something known as business anthropology. Camelia sinensis, known to most simply as tea, has been a product that has been around for millenni...

  13. White tea (Camellia sinensis extract reduces oxidative stress and triacylglycerols in obese mice Extrato de chá branco reduz extresse oxidativo e triacilglicerois em camundongos obesos

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    Lílian Gonçalves Teixeira

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available White tea is an unfermented tea made from young shoots of Camellia sinensis protected from sunlight to avoid polyphenol degradation. Although its levels of catechins are higher than those of green tea (derived from the same plant, there are no studies addressing the relationship between this tea and obesity associated with oxidative stress.The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of white tea on obesity and its complications using a diet induced obesity model. Forty male C57BL/6 mice were fed a high-fat diet to induce obesity (Obese group or the same diet supplemented with 0.5% white tea extract (Obese + WTE for 8 weeks. Adipose tissue, serum lipid profile, and oxidative stress were studied. White tea supplementation was not able to reduce food intake, body weight, or visceral adiposity. Similarly, there were no changes in cholesterol rich lipoprotein profile between the groups. A reduction in blood triacylglycerols associated with increased cecal lipids was observed in the group fed the diet supplemented with white tea. White tea supplementation also reduced oxidative stress in liver and adipose tissue. In conclusion, white tea extract supplementation (0.5% does not influence body weight or adiposity in obese mice. Its benefits are restricted to the reduction in oxidative stress associated with obesity and improvement of hypertriacylglycerolemia.O chá branco é um chá não fermentando feito a partir de brotos jovens da Camellia sinensis protegidos da luz solar para evitar a degradação de polifenóis. Embora os níveis de catequinas sejam mais elevados que os do chá verde (mesma planta, nenhum estudo foi realizado sobre estresse oxidativo relacionado obesidade. Nosso objetivo foi avaliar o efeito do chá verde na obesidade e suas complicações, usando um modelo de obesidade induzida por dieta. Quarenta camundongos C57BL/6 machos foram alimentados com dieta hiperlipídica para indução da obesidade ou mesma dieta suplementada

  14. Time series changes in radiocaesium distribution in tea plants (Camellia sinensis (L.)) after the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant accident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirono, Yuhei; Nonaka, Kunihiko

    2016-02-01

    Radiocaesium ((134)Cs and (137)Cs) release following the accident at the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant, belonging to the Tokyo Electric Power Company caused severe contamination of new tea plant (Camellia sinensis (L.)) shoots by radiocaesium in many prefectures in eastern Japan. Because tea plants are perennial crops, there is the fear that the contamination might last for a long time. The objectives of this study were to reveal time series changes in the distribution of radiocaesium in tea plants after radioactive fallout and to evaluate the effect of pruning on reduction of radiocaesium concentrations in new shoots growing next year. The experimental tea field was located in Shizuoka, Japan, approximately 400 km away from the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant in a southwest direction. Time series changes in radiocaesium concentrations in unrefined tea, a tea product primarily produced for making Japanese green tea, from May 2011 to June 2013 and distribution of radiocaesium in tea plants from May 2011 to May 2012 were monitored. The radiocaesium concentrations in unrefined tea exponentially decreased; the effective half-lives for (134)Cs and (137)Cs were 0.30 and 0.36 y during the first 2 y after the accident, respectively. With time, the highest concentrations of (137)Cs moved from the upper to the lower parts of plants. Medium pruning 2-3 months after the accident reduced the concentration of (137)Cs in new shoots harvested in the first crop season of the following year by 56% compared with unpruned tea plants; thus, pruning is an effective measure for reducing radiocaesium concentration in tea. PMID:26695880

  15. Evaluation of free radical-scavenging and antihemolytic activities of quince (Cydonia oblonga) leaf: a comparative study with green tea (Camellia sinensis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Rossana M; Magalhães, Ana S; Pereira, José A; Andrade, Paula B; Valentão, Patrícia; Carvalho, Márcia; Silva, Branca M

    2009-04-01

    This study aimed to determine the phenolic profile and to investigate the antioxidant potential of quince (Cydonia oblonga) leaf, comparing it with green tea (Camellia sinensis). For these purposes, methanolic extracts were prepared and phenolics content of quince leaf was determined by HPLC/UV. The antioxidant properties were assessed by Folin-Ciocalteu reducing capacity assay and by the ability to quench the stable free radical 2,2'-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and to inhibit the 2,2'-azobis(2-amidinopropane) dihydrochloride (AAPH)-induced oxidative hemolysis of human erythrocytes.5-O-Caffeoylquinic acid was found to be the major phenolic compound in quince leaf extract. Quince leaf exhibited a significantly higher reducing power than green tea (mean value of 227.8 +/- 34.9 and 112.5 +/- 1.5 g/kg dry leaf, respectively). Quince leaf extracts showed similar DPPH radical-scavenging activities (EC50 mean value of 21.6 +/- 3.5 microg/ml) but significantly lower than that presented by green tea extract (EC50 mean value of 12.7 +/- 0.1 microg/ml). Under the oxidative action of AAPH, quince leaf methanolic extract significantly protected the erythrocyte membrane from hemolysis in a similar manner to that found for green tea (IC50 mean value of 30.7 +/- 6.7 and 24.3 +/- 9.6 microg/ml, respectively, P > 0.05). These results point that quince leaf may have application as preventive or therapeutic agent in diseases in which free radicals are involved. PMID:19271320

  16. A Comparative Study on the Effects of Glutathione and Green Tea Extract (Camellia sinensis L. on Thioacetamide-induced Hepatotoxicity in Male Adult Wistar Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahnaz Shekarforoush

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Flavonoids play significant role in the treatment of many diseases. Green tea (Camellia Sinensis L. is a common beverage all over the world with antioxidant and detoxification effects related to the presence of flavonoids and catchins. This study aimed to investigate the protective effect of green tea on thioacetamide-induced hepatotoxicity. Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, 64 male Wistar rats were allocated to eight groups. The control group received a normal diet alone, sham group received normal saline, hepatotoxic group received thioacetamide (50 mg/kg thioacetamide for three days, other groups received a thioacetamide for three days and the alcoholic extract of bgreen tea, at minimum (50 mg/kg, moderate (100 mg/kg, and maximum (200 mg/kg doses, glutathione (250 mg/kg, green tea (200 mg/kg with glutathione (250 mg/kg for 21 days (i.p.. After that, blood samples were drawn and the levels of serum alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, Alkaline phosphatase, total protein and albumin, as liver injury indices, were measured. Results: The decrease of aminotransferase and alkaline phosphatase activity in the receptors of different dosages of green tea and glutathione was significant compared with the group treated by thioacetamide. Also, a significant increase was observed in total protein and albumin of serum in green tea receptors compared with thioacetamide group. Conclusion: The study results show the protective effect of green tea on thioacetamide-induced hepatotoxicity which is likely caused by the antioxidant effect of polyphenol compounds controlling thioacetamide activity which in turn controls the cytochrome P450 activity and neutralization of free radicals.

  17. Effects of extreme climate events on tea (Camellia sinensis) functional quality validate indigenous farmer knowledge and sensory preferences in tropical China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Selena; Stepp, John Richard; Orians, Colin; Griffin, Timothy; Matyas, Corene; Robbat, Albert; Cash, Sean; Xue, Dayuan; Long, Chunlin; Unachukwu, Uchenna; Buckley, Sarabeth; Small, David; Kennelly, Edward

    2014-01-01

    Climate change is impacting agro-ecosystems, crops, and farmer livelihoods in communities worldwide. While it is well understood that more frequent and intense climate events in many areas are resulting in a decline in crop yields, the impact on crop quality is less acknowledged, yet it is critical for food systems that benefit both farmers and consumers through high-quality products. This study examines tea (Camellia sinensis; Theaceae), the world's most widely consumed beverage after water, as a study system to measure effects of seasonal precipitation variability on crop functional quality and associated farmer knowledge, preferences, and livelihoods. Sampling was conducted in a major tea producing area of China during an extreme drought through the onset of the East Asian Monsoon in order to capture effects of extreme climate events that are likely to become more frequent with climate change. Compared to the spring drought, tea growth during the monsoon period was up to 50% higher. Concurrently, concentrations of catechin and methylxanthine secondary metabolites, major compounds that determine tea functional quality, were up to 50% lower during the monsoon while total phenolic concentrations and antioxidant activity increased. The inverse relationship between tea growth and concentrations of individual secondary metabolites suggests a dilution effect of precipitation on tea quality. The decrease in concentrations of tea secondary metabolites was accompanied by reduced farmer preference on the basis of sensory characteristics as well as a decline of up to 50% in household income from tea sales. Farmer surveys indicate a high degree of agreement regarding climate patterns and the effects of precipitation on tea yields and quality. Extrapolating findings from this seasonal study to long-term climate scenario projections suggests that farmers and consumers face variable implications with forecasted precipitation scenarios and calls for research on management

  18. Effects of extreme climate events on tea (Camellia sinensis functional quality validate indigenous farmer knowledge and sensory preferences in tropical China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selena Ahmed

    Full Text Available Climate change is impacting agro-ecosystems, crops, and farmer livelihoods in communities worldwide. While it is well understood that more frequent and intense climate events in many areas are resulting in a decline in crop yields, the impact on crop quality is less acknowledged, yet it is critical for food systems that benefit both farmers and consumers through high-quality products. This study examines tea (Camellia sinensis; Theaceae, the world's most widely consumed beverage after water, as a study system to measure effects of seasonal precipitation variability on crop functional quality and associated farmer knowledge, preferences, and livelihoods. Sampling was conducted in a major tea producing area of China during an extreme drought through the onset of the East Asian Monsoon in order to capture effects of extreme climate events that are likely to become more frequent with climate change. Compared to the spring drought, tea growth during the monsoon period was up to 50% higher. Concurrently, concentrations of catechin and methylxanthine secondary metabolites, major compounds that determine tea functional quality, were up to 50% lower during the monsoon while total phenolic concentrations and antioxidant activity increased. The inverse relationship between tea growth and concentrations of individual secondary metabolites suggests a dilution effect of precipitation on tea quality. The decrease in concentrations of tea secondary metabolites was accompanied by reduced farmer preference on the basis of sensory characteristics as well as a decline of up to 50% in household income from tea sales. Farmer surveys indicate a high degree of agreement regarding climate patterns and the effects of precipitation on tea yields and quality. Extrapolating findings from this seasonal study to long-term climate scenario projections suggests that farmers and consumers face variable implications with forecasted precipitation scenarios and calls for research

  19. Influence of phenolic compounds of Kangra tea [Camellia sinensis (L O Kuntze] on bacterial pathogens and indigenous bacterial probiotics of Western Himalayas

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    Aditi Sourabh

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Phenolic compounds of nutraceutical importance viz., catechins (C, (--epicatechin (EC, (--epigallocatechin (EGC, (--epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG and (--epicatechin-3-gallate (ECG were estimated in fresh green tea shoots of Camellia sinensis (L O Kuntze cultivar. The total polyphenols and total catechins were in the range of 219.90 to 317.81 and 140.83 to 271.39 g/kg, respectively in monthly samples of tea. The values of C, EC, EGC, EGCG and ECG in tea powders as analyzed through high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC were in the range of 1.560 to 3.661, 13.338 to 27.766, 26.515 to 39.597, 62.903 to 102.168 and 18.969 to 39.469 mg/g, respectively. Effect of tea extracts and standard flavanols against five pathogenic bacteria viz., Listeria monocytogenes (MTCC-839, Pseudomonas aeruginosa (MTCC-741, Bacillus cereus (MTCC-1272, Staphylococcus aureus (MTCC-96 and Escherichia coli (MTCC-443, and eleven indigenous potential bacterial probiotics belonging to genera Enterococcus, Bacillus and Lactobacillus spp. obtained from fermented foods of Western Himalayas, was investigated. EGCG, ECG and EGC exhibited antibacterial activity but, C and EC did not show this activity. Tea extracts having high concentrations of EGCG and ECG were more potent in antibacterial action against bacterial pathogens. Tea extracts and standard flavan-3-ols augmented viability of potential probiotics in an order of EGCG > EGC > ECG > EC > C. Tea extracts and standard flavanols had no antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli (MTCC-443 but, in combination with probiotic culture supernatants, this activity was seen. The Kangra tea thus, exerts antibacterial effect on bacterial pathogens through EGCG, ECG and EGC constituents while stimulatory effect on growth of indigenous potential probiotics.

  20. Healing mechanisms of the hydroalcoholic extract and ethyl acetate fraction of green tea (Camellia sinensis (L.) Kuntze) on chronic gastric ulcers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borato, Débora Gasparin; Scoparo, Camila Toledo; Maria-Ferreira, Daniele; da Silva, Luísa Mota; de Souza, Lauro Mera; Iacomini, Marcello; Werner, Maria Fernanda de Paula; Baggio, Cristiane Hatsuko

    2016-03-01

    Green tea is an infusion of unfermented leaves of Camellia sinensis (L.) Kuntze (Theaceae), traditionally used for the treatment of obesity, hypercholesterolemia, and gastric complaints. This study evaluated the mechanisms involved in the gastric ulcer healing of the hydroalcoholic extract from green tea (GEt), its ethyl acetate fraction, (GEAc) and epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) using the model of acetic acid-induced gastric ulcer in rats. The chronic gastric ulcer was induced by application of 80 % acetic acid on serosal mucosa of rats. After 7 days of oral treatment with GEt and GEAc, the ulcer area, mucin content, inflammatory parameters (MPO and NAG), and antioxidant system (GSH and LOOH levels, SOD and GST activities) were evaluated. In vitro, the scavenging activity of GEt and GEAc were also measured. The antisecretory action was studied on the pylorus ligature method in rats. Oral treatment with GEt and GEAc reduced significantly the gastric ulcer area induced by acetic acid. The gastric ulcer healing was accompanied by increasing of mucin content, restoration of GSH levels and SOD activity, and reduction of MPO and LOOH levels. In addition, GEt and GEAc reduced the DPPH free radicals in vitro. Furthermore, the oral treatment of animals with GEt and GEAc did not alter the gastric acid secretion or cause signs of toxicity. Collectively, these results showed that GEt had a pronounced antiulcer effect, possibly through maintenance of mucin content and reduction of inflammation and oxidative stress. In addition, the compounds present in its ethyl acetate fraction could be responsible for the extract activity. PMID:26715119

  1. Atividade hepatoprotetora do extrato alcoólico da Camellia sinensis (L. Kuntze (chá-verde em ratos Wistar tratados com dietilnitrosamina Hepatic protection effect of the alcoholic extract from Camellia sinensis (L. Kuntze (green tea in Wistar rats treated with diethylnitrosamine

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    Wanderlei Onofre Schmitz

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available O chá-verde (Camellia sinensis (L. Kuntze é utilizado por suas propriedades: antioxidante, quimioprotetora e antiinflamatória em varias situações patológicas, principalmente frente a compostos químicos cancerígenos. Para tanto se avaliou o efeito hepatoprotetor do extrato de chá verde (ECV sobre a lipoperoxidação e necrose provocada pelo agente cancerígeno Dietilnitrosamina (DEN no fígado de ratos machos Wistar. Os ratos foram expostos a dose única de 200 mg/kg de DEN via intra peritoneal e tratados por via oral de 120 mg/kg de ECV em diferentes momentos experimentais. Após 24 h em relação a exposição ao DEN, os animais foram sacrificados sendo avaliado: os níveis de AST/ALT no plasma, a lipoperoxidação por quantificação de TBARS e FOX no fígado e a ocorrência de necrose e hemorragia hepática através do estudo histopatológico. A ação quimioprotetora e a diminuição da lipoperoxidação foram verificadas pela diminuição das transaminases, TBARS, FOX e redução da necrose hepática. A avaliação confirmou a importância de se utiliza o chá verde como agente quimioprotetor, principalmente na forma preventiva.Green tea (Camellia sinensis (L. Kuntze is used for its properties: antioxidant, chemoprotector and anti-inflammatory in several pathological situations, mainly those facing carcinogen chemical substances. This work has evaluated the hepatic protection effect of the green tea extract (GTE on lipoperoxidation and necrosis, induced by the carcinogenic DEN in rats´ liver. Adult male Wistar rats were used and exposed to one only intra peritoneal dose of 200 mg/kg of DEN, and orally 120 mg/kg of ECV in different experimental moments. After 24 h of a DEN treatment, the animals were sacrificed and the following aspects were evaluated: the AST/ALT levels in plasma, lipoperoxidation of TBARS and FOX in the liver. Necrosis and Hepatic hemorrhage were observed through a histological examination. The chemoprotector

  2. Study of extraction and HPTLC - UV method for estimation of caffeine in marketed tea ( Camellia sinensis granules

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    Misra H

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available A simple, precise and accurate high-performance thin-layer chromatographic (HPTLC method has been established and validated for screening and quantitative estimation of caffeine in different extracts of tea samples ( Camellia sinenesis . Separation was performed on silica gel 60 F 254 HPTLC plates with ethyl acetate:methanol in the proportion of 27: 3 ( v/v , as a mobile phase. The determination was carried out in the ultraviolet (UV region using the densitometric remission-absorbance mode at 274nm. Maximum recovery of caffeine was achieved when extracted with 5% diethyl amine in DM water (v/v. The maximum concentration of caffeine in tea samples was found to be 2.145%, dry weight basis. Caffeine response was found to be linear over the range of 2-14µg per zone. Limits of detection and quantitation were found to be 40 and 120ng/spot, respectively. The HPTLC method was validated in terms of precision, accuracy, sensitivity and robustness. Some rare parameters for the HPTLC method like calculation of flow constant (k and plate efficiency (N are included specially.

  3. Integrated RNA-Seq and sRNA-Seq Analysis Identifies Chilling and Freezing Responsive Key Molecular Players and Pathways in Tea Plant (Camellia sinensis.

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    Chao Zheng

    Full Text Available Tea [Camellia sinensis (L O. Kuntze, Theaceae] is one of the most popular non-alcoholic beverages worldwide. Cold stress is one of the most severe abiotic stresses that limit tea plants' growth, survival and geographical distribution. However, the genetic regulatory network and signaling pathways involved in cold stress responses in tea plants remain unearthed. Using RNA-Seq, DGE and sRNA-Seq technologies, we performed an integrative analysis of miRNA and mRNA expression profiling and their regulatory network of tea plants under chilling (4℃ and freezing (-5℃ stress. Differentially expressed (DE miRNA and mRNA profiles were obtained based on fold change analysis, miRNAs and target mRNAs were found to show both coherent and incoherent relationships in the regulatory network. Furthermore, we compared several key pathways (e.g., 'Photosynthesis', GO terms (e.g., 'response to karrikin' and transcriptional factors (TFs, e.g., DREB1b/CBF1 which were identified as involved in the early chilling and/or freezing response of tea plants. Intriguingly, we found that karrikins, a new group of plant growth regulators, and β-primeverosidase (BPR, a key enzyme functionally relevant with the formation of tea aroma might play an important role in both early chilling and freezing response of tea plants. Quantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR analysis further confirmed the results from RNA-Seq and sRNA-Seq analysis. This is the first study to simultaneously profile the expression patterns of both miRNAs and mRNAs on a genome-wide scale to elucidate the molecular mechanisms of early responses of tea plants to cold stress. In addition to gaining a deeper insight into the cold resistant characteristics of tea plants, we provide a good case study to analyse mRNA/miRNA expression and profiling of non-model plant species using next-generation sequencing technology.

  4. Integrated RNA-Seq and sRNA-Seq Analysis Identifies Chilling and Freezing Responsive Key Molecular Players and Pathways in Tea Plant (Camellia sinensis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Chao; Zhao, Lei; Wang, Yu; Shen, Jiazhi; Zhang, Yinfei; Jia, Sisi; Li, Yusheng; Ding, Zhaotang

    2015-01-01

    Tea [Camellia sinensis (L) O. Kuntze, Theaceae] is one of the most popular non-alcoholic beverages worldwide. Cold stress is one of the most severe abiotic stresses that limit tea plants' growth, survival and geographical distribution. However, the genetic regulatory network and signaling pathways involved in cold stress responses in tea plants remain unearthed. Using RNA-Seq, DGE and sRNA-Seq technologies, we performed an integrative analysis of miRNA and mRNA expression profiling and their regulatory network of tea plants under chilling (4℃) and freezing (-5℃) stress. Differentially expressed (DE) miRNA and mRNA profiles were obtained based on fold change analysis, miRNAs and target mRNAs were found to show both coherent and incoherent relationships in the regulatory network. Furthermore, we compared several key pathways (e.g., 'Photosynthesis'), GO terms (e.g., 'response to karrikin') and transcriptional factors (TFs, e.g., DREB1b/CBF1) which were identified as involved in the early chilling and/or freezing response of tea plants. Intriguingly, we found that karrikins, a new group of plant growth regulators, and β-primeverosidase (BPR), a key enzyme functionally relevant with the formation of tea aroma might play an important role in both early chilling and freezing response of tea plants. Quantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) analysis further confirmed the results from RNA-Seq and sRNA-Seq analysis. This is the first study to simultaneously profile the expression patterns of both miRNAs and mRNAs on a genome-wide scale to elucidate the molecular mechanisms of early responses of tea plants to cold stress. In addition to gaining a deeper insight into the cold resistant characteristics of tea plants, we provide a good case study to analyse mRNA/miRNA expression and profiling of non-model plant species using next-generation sequencing technology. PMID:25901577

  5. 茶饼病菌侵染对茶树挥发性物质的影响%Effects of Exobasidium vexans Massee Infection on Volatile Components in Tea Plant (Camellia Sinensis var.assamica)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张春花; 单治国; 魏朝霞; 李家华; 唐嘉义

    2012-01-01

    采用同时蒸馏萃取和气相色谱-质谱联用( SDE/GC/MS)技术,分别测定了健康及受茶饼病菌侵染鲜叶中挥发性物质,探讨了云南大叶种健康及受茶饼病菌侵染鲜叶中挥发性物质的组成和差异,分析了茶饼病菌侵染对茶树挥发性物质的影响.结果表明:茶树健康叶片中共检测出37种挥发性物质,占总挥发物的80.195%,而受茶饼病菌侵染叶片中共检测出56种挥发性物质,占总挥发物的92.166%;在受茶饼病菌侵染叶片中有13种物质未检测出,有31种新的挥发性物质被检测出;芳樟醇是云南大叶种茶树鲜叶中主要的挥发性物质;受茶饼病菌危害的叶片以含氮含硫化合物、萜烯类、芳香族化合物、绿叶性气体为主要挥发物.%The aim of this experiment was to analyze the variation of component and relative amount of volatile compounds from tea plant infested by Exobasidium vexans Masseeon (E. vexans). The volatile compounds released from tea plant {Camellia sinensis var. assamica) healthy and diseased were analyzed by SDE/GC/MS. Result showed that a total of 37 volatile compounds were detected from the healthy tea plant, as 80.195% of total compounds identified from the healthy tea plants. A total of 56 volatile compounds, 92.166% of compounds were identified from the infected plants. However, 13 volatile components which was existed in intact tea leaf were not detected and 31 new volatile compounds were in E. vexans infested plants. Linalool was the main volatile compound in intacted Camellia sinensis var. assamica. The kinds of azotic, sulfur, terpenes, aromatic, green leaf volatile were main volatile compounds in tea plants infested by E. vexans.

  6. A stress-responsive late embryogenesis abundant protein 7 (CsLEA7) of tea [Camellia sinensis (L.) O. Kuntze] encodes for a chaperone that imparts tolerance to Escherichia coli against stresses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Asosii; Singh, Sewa; Sharma, Shweta; Kumar, Sanjay

    2014-11-01

    The present study characterized CsLEA7, a group 7 late embryogenesis abundant (LEA) gene, from tea [Camellia sinensis (L.) O. Kuntze]. The gene had an open reading frame of 462 base pairs encoding 153 amino acids with calculated molecular weight of 16.63 kDa and an isoelectric point (pI) of 4.93. Analysis revealed CsLEA7 to be an intrinsically ordered protein consisting of nine β-strands and two α-helices. CsLEA7 expressed ubiquitously in all the tissues analyzed with highest level of transcripts in mature leaf as compared to in flower bud, younger leaves, stem and fruit. Expression was the least in root tissue. CsLEA7 exhibited up-regulation in response to low temperature, polyethylene glycol-8000, sodium chloride and hydrogen peroxide in tea. Analysis of the promoter of CsLEA7 revealed a core promoter element and distinct cis-acting regulatory elements regulating gene expression under abiotic stresses. CsLEA7 exhibited chaperonic activity as evinced by protection to malate dehydrogenase against heat denaturation assay. Recombinant Escherichia coli cells producing CsLEA7 exhibited improved tolerance against diverse cues: polyethylene glycol-8000, sodium chloride, hydrogen peroxide and low temperature signifying its role in imparting stress tolerance. PMID:25052187

  7. Research on the Allelopathy of Camellia sinensis in Yibin on the Seed Germination of Two Kinds of Crops%宜宾茶对2种农作物种子萌发的化感作用研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓骛远

    2012-01-01

    [ Objective] The aim was to research the allelopathy of tea plant (Camellia sinensis(L. )O. Kuntze) in Yibin on the seed germination of two kinds of crops. [Method] The bioassay method was used to study the allelopathy of tea plant on the seed germination of maize {Zea mays L. ) and fava bean(Vicia faba Linn. ). [Result] The allelopathy has a close relation to the species of acceptor plant, supporter organs and extract concentration. The general trend of the synthesis effect is as follows: maize > fava bean, leaf > root > stem. Within the range of extract concentration in this experiment, the allelopathy effect of aqueous extract of root, stem and leaf at the concentration of 0. 100 g/ml is the strongest. The root, stem and leaf of tea plant inhibit maize seed germination; but for fava bean, only the stem promotes its seed germination, the root and leaf inhibit it. The index of allelopathic effect of germination speed is greater than the rate of final germination, it indicates that the allelopathy of tea plant mainly extend or shorten the germinating period of maize or fava bean. [Conclusion] The soil near the tea garden is not conducive to growing maize and faba bean.%[目的]研究宜宾茶树(Camellia sinensis L.)对2种农作物种子萌发的化感作用.[方法]采用生物测定法研究宜宾茶树根、茎、叶水浸提液对玉米( Zea mays L.)和蚕豆(Vicia faba Linn.)种子萌发的化感作用.[结果]茶树的化感作用和受体植物种类、供体植物器官以及浸提液浓度有关.化感效应总趋势为玉米>蚕豆,叶>根>茎.在实验设计的浸提液浓度范围内,0.100 g/ml的根、茎、叶浸提液对2种种子萌发的化感作用最强.茶树根、茎、叶对玉米种子萌发均表现为化感抑制作用;对蚕豆而言,仅茶树茎对其种子的萌发表现为促进作用,而根、叶为化感抑制作用.对种子发芽速率的化感效应敏感指数远大于最终发芽率的敏感指数,表明茶树的化感作

  8. Indications for Three Independent Domestication Events for the Tea Plant (Camellia sinensis (L.) O. Kuntze) and New Insights into the Origin of Tea Germplasm in China and India Revealed by Nuclear Microsatellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meegahakumbura, M. K.; Wambulwa, M. C.; Thapa, K. K.; Li, M. M.; Möller, M.; Xu, J. C.; Yang, J. B.; Liu, B. Y.; Ranjitkar, S.; Liu, J.; Li, D. Z.; Gao, L. M.

    2016-01-01

    Background Tea is the world’s most popular non-alcoholic beverage. China and India are known to be the largest tea producing countries and recognized as the centers for the domestication of the tea plant (Camellia sinensis (L.) O. Kuntze). However, molecular studies on the origin, domestication and relationships of the main teas, China type, Assam type and Cambod type are lacking. Methodology/Principal Findings Twenty-three nuclear microsatellite markers were used to investigate the genetic diversity, relatedness, and domestication history of cultivated tea in both China and India. Based on a total of 392 samples, high levels of genetic diversity were observed for all tea types in both countries. The cultivars clustered into three distinct genetic groups (i.e. China tea, Chinese Assam tea and Indian Assam tea) based on STRUCTURE, PCoA and UPGMA analyses with significant pairwise genetic differentiation, corresponding well with their geographical distribution. A high proportion (30%) of the studied tea samples were shown to possess genetic admixtures of different tea types suggesting a hybrid origin for these samples, including the Cambod type. Conclusions We demonstrate that Chinese Assam tea is a distinct genetic lineage from Indian Assam tea, and that China tea sampled from India was likely introduced from China directly. Our results further indicate that China type tea, Chinese Assam type tea and Indian Assam type tea are likely the result of three independent domestication events from three separate regions across China and India. Our findings have important implications for the conservation of genetic stocks, as well as future breeding programs. PMID:27218820

  9. Chá verde brasileiro (Camellia sinensis var assamica: efeitos do tempo de infusão, acondicionamento da erva e forma de preparo sobre a eficiência de extração dos bioativos e sobre a estabilidade da bebida Brazilian green tea (Camellia sinensis var assamica: effect of infusion time, mode of packaging and preparation on the extraction efficiency of bioactive compounds and on the stability of the beverage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcia Fernandes Nishiyama

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Os estudos do chá verde brasileiro (Camellia sinensis var assamica ainda são escassos quando comparados aos realizados com chás verdes produzidos em outros países. Os objetivos deste trabalho foram avaliar os efeitos do tempo de infusão, forma de acondicionamento da erva (a granel ou em sachês e forma de preparo da bebida na extração dos biativos do chá verde brasileiro e na estabilidade da bebida obtida. Foram avaliados os parâmetros sólidos solúveis e compostos fenólicos extraídos, bem como as propriedades antioxidantes da bebida pelo método DPPH (radicais 2,2-difenil-1-picrilhidrazil. Os dados obtidos evidenciam que o uso da erva a granel sob agitação e tempo de infusão de 5 minutos foi a condição mais propícia para a extração dos bioativos do chá verde. Aumentando-se o volume de preparação da bebida sem alteração da razão erva:água, aumentou-se a eficiência da extração dos bioativos, devido ao fato de que o resfriamento de volumes maiores é mais demorado que o resfriamento de volumes menores. As bebidas obtidas foram estáveis por 24 horas em temperatura ambiente e em geladeira, visto não terem sido detectadas redução das propriedades antioxidantes e variações significativas dos seus principais bioativos epigalocatequina galato, epicatequina, catequina e cafeína.Studies on the Brazilian green tea (Camellia sinensis var assamica are still scarce when compared with the great number of investigations conducted on the green tea produced in other countries. The purposes of the present study were to evaluate the effects of infusion time, mode of packaging (tea in bulk or in tea bags and preparation on the extraction of bioactive compounds from the Brazilian green tea and on the stability of the beverage. The evaluated parameters were: the amounts of soluble solutes and phenolic compounds that were extracted as well as the antioxidant properties of the beverage using the DPPH method (2,2-diphenyl-1

  10. Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of a health claim related to a combination of Paullinia cupana Kunth (guarana and Camellia sinensis (L. Kuntze (green tea extracts and reduction of body weight pursuant to Article 13(5 of Regulation (EC No 1924/2006

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    EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Following an application from Nutrilinks Sarl, submitted pursuant to Article 13(5 of Regulation (EC No 1924/2006 via the Competent Authority of Cyprus, the Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA was asked to deliver an opinion on the scientific substantiation of a health claim related to a combination of Paullinia cupana Kunth (guarana and Camellia sinensis (L. Kuntze (green tea extracts and reduction of body weight. The Panel considers that the food constituent which is the subject of the health claim is sufficiently characterised. The claimed effect, reduction of body weight, is a beneficial physiological effect for overweight subjects. One human intervention study from which no conclusions could be drawn for the scientific substantiation of the claim was provided by the applicant. The Panel concludes that a cause and effect relationship has not been established between the consumption of a combination of Paullinia cupana Kunth (guarana and Camellia sinensis (L. Kuntze (green tea extracts and a reduction in body weight.

  11. 'Anacostia' Camellia

    Science.gov (United States)

    A new Camellia japonica, ‘Anacostia’, developed at the U.S. National Arboretum is described. ‘Anacostia’ (NA35667, PI659061) is a seedling selection grown from a controlled cross made in the late 1960s by Skip March. The female parent was an undetermined white-flowered selection of C. japonica, whil...

  12. Enraizamento de estacas de genótipos de Camellia sinensis L. em meio ácido, presença de alumínio e ácido indolbutírico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.D. LIMA

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available RESUMO Experimentos foram conduzidos para avaliar o efeito do meio ácido e do alumínio, assim como para determinar a concentração mais apropriada de ácido indolbutírico (AIB para o enraizamento de estacas de diferentes genótipos de Camellia sinensis L (planta de chá. Para tal, foram coletados ramos de plantas-matrizes em Pariquera-Açu-SP, Brasil, no inverno de 2012 e preparadas estacas semi-lenhosas, contendo uma gema e uma folha, que foram mantidas em viveiro com 70% de sombreamento. A irrigação do substrato foi feita com água e soluções contendo ácido fosfórico e sulfato de alumínio a pH 5,5, 4,5; 3,5. No primeiro experimento, o delineamento experimental foi o inteiramente casualizado em esquema fatorial 3 x 7, três genótipos (F 15, IAC 259 e Comum e sete condições diferentes de enraizamento (vermiculita a pH 6,5, vermiculita acidificada com ácido fosfórico a pH 3,5; 4,5 e 5,5 ou vermiculita acidificada com sulfato de alumínio a pH 3,5; 4,5 e 5,5. No segundo experimento, o tratamento que promoveu o maior enraizamento no primeiro experimento (vermiculita acidificada com sulfato de alumínio a pH 3,5 foi combinado ao tratamento com AIB. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi o inteiramente casualizado em esquema fatorial 3 x 6, sendo três genótipos e seis concentrações de AIB (0, 2000, 4000, 6000, 8000 e 1000 mg L-1. A vermiculita acidificada com sulfato de alumínio a pH 3,5, combinada a aplicação de 10000 mg L-1 de AIB por 30 segundos, foi o tratamento mais adequado para o enraizamento de estacas semi-lenhosas dos genótipos F15, IAC 259 e Comum.

  13. 崂山茶区茶树根围AM真菌多样性%Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi diversity in the rhizosphere of tea plant (Camellia sinensis)grown in Laoshan,Shandong

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴丽莎; 王玉; 李敏; 丁兆堂; 刘润进

    2009-01-01

    To determine the diversity of arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi in the rhizosphere of tea plant (Camellia sinensis) in Laoshan region, Shandong Province, we selected and sampled 12 representative tea gardens. Soil samples were collected from these gardens in September 2007. Spores of AM fungi were identified to reveal the species richness, frequency, spore density, relative abundance, importance value and Shannon-Wiener indices of AM fungi. Species diversity and composition of AM fungal community were also compared among the 12 tea gardens. A total of 22 species belonging to three genera were identified according to the morphological characteristics of the spores isolated from soil samples collected using wet-sieving techniques. The relative abundance of the genus Acaulospora was the highest, followed by Glomus. Soil samples from Xiaowang Village Tea Garden showed the highest spore density, while Gaojia Village soils were the lowest. Species richness in soil samples from Changjiacun Village and Sangyuan Village Tea Garden was significantly higher than that in other tea gardens. Species diversity was highest in the Changjiacun Village Tea Garden. Acaulospora laevis was the dominant species in Beilao Tea Garden, Wanglijiang Tea Garden, Yingshanchun Tea Garden, Wanlijiang Organic Tea Garden, Changjia Village, and Sangyuan Village Tea Garden, while Acaulospora undulata was the most common species in Gaojiacun Village and Wanlaike Tea Garden. Glomus occultum occurred most frequently in Yingshanchun Tea Garden, Xiaowang Village and Wanlaike Tea Garden. Relationships between environmental factors and AM fungi spore density in the Laoshan Tea region were determined using Canonical Correspondence Analysis, and their relative degree of impact on density was as follows: available phosphorus content>soil organic matter content>tree age>soil available nitrogen content > soil pH>soil available potassium content.%为调查崂山茶区土壤中丛枝菌根(AM)真

  14. Analytical Strategy Coupled with Response Surface Methodology To Maximize the Extraction of Antioxidants from Ternary Mixtures of Green, Yellow, and Red Teas (Camillia sinensis var. Sinensis)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Granato, D.; Grevink, R.; Zielinski, R.; Nunes, D.S.; Ruth, van S.M.

    2014-01-01

    This work aimed at using a simplex-centroid design to model the effects of green, yellow, and red tea mixtures (Camellia sinensis var. sinensis) on metal chelation activity, phenolic composition, antioxidant activity, and instrumental taste profile. The regression models that described the extractio

  15. Effect of hydro-alcoholic root extract of Plumbago zeylanica l alone and its combination with aqueous leaf extract of Camellia sinensis on haloperidol induced parkinsonism in wistar rats

    OpenAIRE

    Ittiyavirah, Sibi P.; R., Ruby

    2014-01-01

    Background Herbal medicines have been used to treat PD in ancient medical systems in Asian countries such as India, China, Japan and Korea based on their own anecdotal or experience-based theories. Mucuna pruriens commonly known asvelvet beans, or cow itch, are used in case of spasms associated with Parkinsonism. Purpose To investigate the antiparkinsonism activity of hydro alcoholic root extract of P. zeylanica L (PZE) aloneand its combination withaqueous extract of C. sinensis leaves (AECS)...

  16. Cloning and Expression Analysis of Trehalose-6-phosphate Synthase Gene(CsTPS)from Tea Plant(Camellia sinensis(L.)O.Kuntz)%茶树海藻糖-6-磷酸合成酶基因(CsTPS)的克隆及表达分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁菲; 庞磊; 李叶云; 葛菁; 江昌俊

    2012-01-01

    海藻糖-6-磷酸合成酶(trehalose-6-phosphate synthase,TPS)是海藻糖合成途径中的一个关键酶.目前,TPS基因的研究多数集中于细菌和真菌等,而对植物的研究较少.本实验通过对茶树(Camellia sinensis(L.)O.Kuntze)全器官转录组文库序列比对,获得一条与其他物种同源性较高的编码TPS基因的EST序列,通过RACE扩增后获得茶树TPS基因cDNA全长序列,命名为Cs TPS(GenBank登录号JQ742017).该基因cDNA全长3 125 bp,包含一个2799 bp的开放阅读框,编码932个氨基酸.多序列比对分析结果表明,Cs TPS基因编码的蛋白具有明显的TPS和TPP两个结构域.系统进化分析表明,其编码的氨基酸序列与拟南芥(Arabidopsis thaliana)、烟草(Nicotiana tabacum)和番茄(Solanum lycopersicum)等植物的TPS同源性较高,且CsTPS与拟南芥TPS1(AtTPS1)的同源性高于TPS2(AtTPS2)和TPS3(AtTPS3).qPCR分析显示,CsTPS基因在茶树不同组织器官中呈现差异性表达.低温诱导促使老叶和嫩叶中的CsTPS基因上调程度明显大于根系,表明CsTPS基因可能参与了茶树抗寒机制.%Trehalose-6-phosphate Synthase (TPS) is a key enzyme in the synthesis of trehalose in plants. At present, researches about TPS have mainly focused on bacteria and fungi but little about plants. An EST, having high homology with TPS gene from other organisms, was screened from the whole organic transcriptomic library of tea {Camellia sinensis (L.) O. Kuntz) and amplified through RACE technology to obtain the cDNA full-length of trehalose-6-phosphate synthase gene, named CsTPS (GenBank accession number: JQ742017). The cDNA full-length of CsTPS was 3 125 bp with a single 2 799 bp opening reading frame that predicted to encoded a 932 animo acid, which contained two obvious structure domains, TPS and TPP, through multiple sequences alignment. Phylogenetic tree indicated that the deduced animo acid sequence of CsTPS gene had a very high identity with TPS genes from other

  17. Identification of An Endophytic Paecilomyces lilaeimls from A Leaf of Camellia sinensis As Well As Determination of Its Anti-fungal Activity%一株茶树内生淡紫拟青霉的鉴定及抗真菌活性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李绍锋; 杨民和

    2012-01-01

      In this study, an endophytic fungus from a leaf of Camellia sinensis was identified by morphology and ITS sequence analysis as Paecilomyces lilaeimls. On this basis, confrontation culture and antimicrobial effects of fermentation broth were conducted. Results showed that Paecilomyces lilaeimls FHM-1 had different antimicrobial activities against 7 strains of endophytic fungi and 10 strains of plant pathogenic fungi. The results also showed that fermentation broth of the strain HMF-1 could inhibit 16 kinds of sensitive fungi to different degree, but promoted the growth of Pestalotiopsis sp.%  采用形态学观察及ITS序列分析对1株分离自健康茶树叶片的内生真菌进行鉴定,初步确定该菌株为淡紫拟青霉;并通过对峙培养和发酵液的抑菌试验研究其对真菌的抗生作用。结果表明,淡紫拟青霉FHM-1对7种茶树内生真菌和10种植物病原菌均有较强的抑菌作用;其发酵液对供试的16种真菌具有不同程度的抑制作用,而对拟盘多毛孢的生长有较强的促进作用。

  18. HPLC-MS/MS Analysis of Poly phenols in Different Fermented Type Tea Products Prepared from Camellia sinensis'Baiye Dancong'%白叶单枞不同发酵茶中多酚类成分的HPLC-MS/MS分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苗爱清; 程悦; 梁祈; 赵超艺; 凌彩金; 庞式; 王冬梅

    2011-01-01

    Chemical compositions of broken black tea, oolong tea and dark tea prepared from Camellia sinensis ‘Baiye Dancong’ were analyzed by HPLC-MS/MS method.Comparing the UV absorption spectra and mass spectra of the peaks in the obtained HPLC chromatograms with those of the authentic standards and related literatures, 32, 30 and 14 compounds were identified from broken black tea, oolong tea and dark tea respectively.These compounds included catechins, alkaloids.Some non-catechin polyphenol compounds such as flavonol glycosides with kaempferol, quercetin and myricitin as aglycones, and catechin polymers such as theasinensins were also identified.%采用HPLC-MS/MS对以白叶单枞茶为原料生产的红碎茶、乌龙茶、黑茶进行分析,通过对紫外吸收光谱以及质谱信息进行分析,并参考相关文献,推定出白叶单枞红茶中32个化合物,乌龙茶中30个化合物,黑茶中14个化合物.这些化合物中包括常见的儿茶素类化合物、生物碱.此外还检测到多种以山奈酚、槲皮素、杨梅素为苷元的黄酮醇苷等非儿茶素类茶多酚和茶双没食子儿茶素等儿茶素聚合物.

  19. Unravelling Colletotrichum species associated with Camellia: employing ApMat and GS loci to resolve species in the C. gloeosporioides complex

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, F; Weir, B S; Damm, U.; Crous, P.W.; Wang, Y; Liu, B.; Wang, M.(Central China Normal University, Wuhan, China); Zhang, M.; L. Cai

    2015-01-01

    We investigated the phylogenetic diversity of 144 Colletotrichum isolates associated with symptomatic and asymptomatic tissues of Camellia sinensis and other Camellia spp. from seven provinces in China (Fujian, Guizhou, Henan, Jiangxi, Sichuan, Yunnan, Zhejiang), and seven isolates obtained from other countries, including Indonesia, UK, and the USA. Based on multi-locus (ACT, ApMat, CAL, GAPDH, GS, ITS, TUB2) phylogenetic analyses and phenotypic characters, 11 species were distinguished, incl...

  20. Next-generation sequencing reveals differentially amplified tandem repeats as a major genome component of Northern Europe's oldest Camellia japonica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heitkam, Tony; Petrasch, Stefan; Zakrzewski, Falk; Kögler, Anja; Wenke, Torsten; Wanke, Stefan; Schmidt, Thomas

    2015-12-01

    Northern Europe's oldest and largest Camellia japonica growing at the Pillnitz Castle (Germany) for over 200 years is of botanical and cultural importance and is a reference for C. japonica molecular scale analysis. In order to provide a fundament for genome analysis of the genus Camellia, we characterize the C. japonica tandem repeat fraction, constituting 12.5 % of the Pillnitz camellia's genome. A genomic library of the Pillnitz C. japonica was produced and Illumina sequenced to generate 36 Gb of paired-end reads. We performed graph-based read clustering implemented in the RepeatExplorer pipeline to estimate the C. japonica repeat fraction of 73 %. This enabled us to identify and characterize the most prominent satellite DNAs, Camellia japonica satellite 1-4 (CajaSat1-CajaSat4), and the 5S ribosomal DNA (rDNA) by bioinformatics, fluorescent in situ and Southern hybridization. Within the Camellia genus, satellite spreading, array expansion and formation of higher-order structures highlight different modes of repeat evolution. The CajaSat satellites localize at prominent chromosomal sites, including (peri)centromeres and subtelomeres of all chromosomes, thus serving as chromosomal landmarks for their identification. This work provides an insight into the C. japonica chromosome organization and significantly expands the Camellia genomic knowledge, also with respect to the tea plant Camellia sinensis. PMID:26582634

  1. 茶树中两个ERF类转录因子的分离及不同茶树中温度胁迫的响应分析%Isolation and Expression Profiles Analysis of Two ERF Subfamily Transcription Factor Genes Under Temperature Stresses in Camellia sinensis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘志薇; 熊洋洋; 李彤; 严雅君; 韩洪润; 吴致君; 庄静

    2014-01-01

    Tea plant [Camellia sinensis (L.) O. Kuntze] is one of important economic tree species in our country. Throughout life, tea plants are challenged by various abiotic stresses, including temperature stress. In higher plants, ERF transcription factors provide important and effective signal regulation in defense temperature stress. In this study, the CsERF-B1 and CsERF-B4 genes, which encoding to the ERF transcription factor, were cloned by RT-PCR using cDNA as template, from Camellia sinensis cultivar‘Yingshuang’. Sequence analysis indicated that the cDNA of CsERF-B1 and CsERF-B4 had a 474 and 483 bp open reading frame, encoding 157 and 160 amino acids, respectively. Both of the CsERF-B1 and CsERF-B4 contained a conserved AP2 domain, which is conserved in AP2/ERF family transcription factors. Phylogenetic analysis showed that CsERF-B1 and CsERF-B4 belong to B1 and B4 group of ERF subfamily of AP2/ERF family transcription factors. Based on sequence comparison, CsERF-B1 and CsERF-B4 had high homology in amino acid conserved regions with ERFs from other plants, such as Arabidopsis thaliana, Actinidia deliciosa, Populus trichocarpa, and so on. In the three-dimension structure, CsERF-B1 and CsERF-B4 had the typical structure with oneα-helix and threeβ-strands. Three tea plant cultivars‘Yingshuang’,‘Anjibaicha’, and‘Yunnanshilixiang’ were selected to analyze the expression proifles of CsERF-B1 and CsERF-B4 genes under the different temperature stresses. By quanti-tative real-time PCR, the expression proifles of the CsERF-B1 and CsERF-B4 genes were detected under high (38℃) and low (4℃) temperature stresses, at 0.5, 1, 2, 4, 8, 12, 24 and 48 h treatments, respectively. Under high or low temperature stresses, the expression levles of CsERF-B1 and CsERF-B4 genes were induced. The expression proifles showed difference among the three cultivars of tea plant. The different response of two tran-scription factors in three tea plant cultivars, belonging to ERF

  2. Unravelling Colletotrichum species associated with Camellia: employing ApMat and GS loci to resolve species in the C. gloeosporioides complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, F; Weir, B S; Damm, U; Crous, P W; Wang, Y; Liu, B; Wang, M; Zhang, M; Cai, L

    2015-12-01

    We investigated the phylogenetic diversity of 144 Colletotrichum isolates associated with symptomatic and asymptomatic tissues of Camellia sinensis and other Camellia spp. from seven provinces in China (Fujian, Guizhou, Henan, Jiangxi, Sichuan, Yunnan, Zhejiang), and seven isolates obtained from other countries, including Indonesia, UK, and the USA. Based on multi-locus (ACT, ApMat, CAL, GAPDH, GS, ITS, TUB2) phylogenetic analyses and phenotypic characters, 11 species were distinguished, including nine well-characterised species (C. alienum, C. boninense, C. camelliae, C. cliviae, C. fioriniae, C. fructicola, C. gloeosporioides, C. karstii, C. sia-mense), and two novel species (C. henanense and C. jiangxiense). Of these, C. camelliae proved to be the most dominant and probably host specific taxon occurring on Camellia. An epitype is also designated for the latter species in this study. Colletotrichum jiangxiense is shown to be phylogenetically closely related to the coffee berry pathogen C. kahawae subsp. kahawae. Pathogenicity tests and the pairwise homoplasy index test suggest that C. jiangxiense and C. kahawae subsp. kahawae are two independent species. This study represents the first report of C. alienum and C. cliviae occurring on Camellia sinensis. In addition, our study demonstrated that the combined use of the loci ApMat and GS in a phylogenetic analysis is able to resolve all currently accepted species in the C. gloeosporioides species complex. PMID:26823629

  3. Cloning and sequence analysis of HMG-CoA reductase full-length cDNA from tea (Camellia sinensis)%茶树 HMG-CoA 还原酶基因全长 cDNA 克隆及序列分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩兴杰; 徐玲玲; 廖亮; 李同建; 邓辉胜; 樊启水; 徐小青

    2015-01-01

    )catalyzes the conversion of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A (HMG-CoA)to mevalonate,which is the committed step in the synthesis of isoprenoids via the MVA pathway.To help understand the molecular and genetic mechanisms underlying terpenoid synthesis of tea,a full-length cDNA encoding HMGR was cloned from tea (Camellia sinensis (L.)O.Kuntze)by using the RACE-PCR technique (designated as CsHMGR 1).It comprised 1 979 bp,with a 1 722 bp intact open read-ing frame encoding a 573-amino-acid protein.The deduced protein showed 80% to 82% similarities to homologs from rubber tree (Hevea brasiliensis ),common camptotheca fruit (Camptotheca acuminate ),ginseng (Panax ginseng ), litchis (Litchi chinensis ),American ginseng (Panax quinquefolius ),rooted salvia (Salvia miltiorrhiza ),Momordica grosvenori (Siraltia grosvenorii ),and longan (Dimocarpus longan).The phylogenetic tree,constructed with the cat-alytic domalned of CsHMGR1 and homologs from other species,indicated that CsHMGR1 belonged to the eukaryotic class I HMGR family.CsHMGR1 consisted of two transmembrane domalns,implying that it may be localized to en-doplasmic reticulum (ER)similarly to other eukaryotic homologs.It also contalned two HMG-CoA binding sites,two NADP(H)-binding sites,four conserved catalytic active residues and a phosphorylation site,indicating that phospho-rylation/dephosphorylation is likely a crucial mode of regulation of its biochemical activity.Tissue expression analysis indicated that CsHMGR 1 was expressed comparatively in the leaf buds of C .sinensis cv.Dayelong and in both leaf buds and floral buds of the mother plants.The regulation of expression and physiological activity of CsHMGR1 are likely to impact greatly on tea quality,and CsHMGR1 may provide a basis of the quality evaluation and breeding of tea given that its function is further resolved.

  4. 茶树 HMG-CoA 还原酶基因全长 cDNA 克隆及序列分析%Cloning and sequence analysis of HMG-CoA reductase full-length cDNA from tea (Camellia sinensis)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩兴杰; 徐玲玲; 廖亮; 李同建; 邓辉胜; 樊启水; 徐小青

    2015-01-01

    )catalyzes the conversion of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A (HMG-CoA)to mevalonate,which is the committed step in the synthesis of isoprenoids via the MVA pathway.To help understand the molecular and genetic mechanisms underlying terpenoid synthesis of tea,a full-length cDNA encoding HMGR was cloned from tea (Camellia sinensis (L.)O.Kuntze)by using the RACE-PCR technique (designated as CsHMGR 1).It comprised 1 979 bp,with a 1 722 bp intact open read-ing frame encoding a 573-amino-acid protein.The deduced protein showed 80% to 82% similarities to homologs from rubber tree (Hevea brasiliensis ),common camptotheca fruit (Camptotheca acuminate ),ginseng (Panax ginseng ), litchis (Litchi chinensis ),American ginseng (Panax quinquefolius ),rooted salvia (Salvia miltiorrhiza ),Momordica grosvenori (Siraltia grosvenorii ),and longan (Dimocarpus longan).The phylogenetic tree,constructed with the cat-alytic domalned of CsHMGR1 and homologs from other species,indicated that CsHMGR1 belonged to the eukaryotic class I HMGR family.CsHMGR1 consisted of two transmembrane domalns,implying that it may be localized to en-doplasmic reticulum (ER)similarly to other eukaryotic homologs.It also contalned two HMG-CoA binding sites,two NADP(H)-binding sites,four conserved catalytic active residues and a phosphorylation site,indicating that phospho-rylation/dephosphorylation is likely a crucial mode of regulation of its biochemical activity.Tissue expression analysis indicated that CsHMGR 1 was expressed comparatively in the leaf buds of C .sinensis cv.Dayelong and in both leaf buds and floral buds of the mother plants.The regulation of expression and physiological activity of CsHMGR1 are likely to impact greatly on tea quality,and CsHMGR1 may provide a basis of the quality evaluation and breeding of tea given that its function is further resolved.

  5. Camellia sinensis (Tea: Implications and role in preventing dental decay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Puneet Goenka

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Tea is one of the most commonly consumed beverages with bioactive compounds like polyphenols-flavonoids-catechins, which are thought to be responsible for the health benefits that have traditionally been attributed to the tea. These compounds have multi-dimensional effects such as antibacterial action, inhibitory action on the bacterial and salivary amylase and inhibition of acid production. This article outlines the possible role of these compounds coupled with the presence of high fluoride content in tea to exhibit an anticariogenic effect.

  6. Camellia sinensis (Tea): Implications and role in preventing dental decay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goenka, Puneet; Sarawgi, Aditi; Karun, Vinayak; Nigam, Anant G; Dutta, Samir; Marwah, Nikhil

    2013-07-01

    Tea is one of the most commonly consumed beverages with bioactive compounds like polyphenols-flavonoids-catechins, which are thought to be responsible for the health benefits that have traditionally been attributed to the tea. These compounds have multi-dimensional effects such as antibacterial action, inhibitory action on the bacterial and salivary amylase and inhibition of acid production. This article outlines the possible role of these compounds coupled with the presence of high fluoride content in tea to exhibit an anticariogenic effect. PMID:24347923

  7. Screening of Adoptive Elite Tea (Camellia sinensis) Clones

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Muhammad Razaq; Hasnain Alam; Muhammad Ishfaq; Salahuddin

    2015-01-01

    The research screening of adoptive elite tea clones was conducted at NTRI, Mansehra during 2011-2012. Nine clones 101Aa, 105aa, 108aa, 561aa, 117aa, 219ab, 470bb and 180bd were evaluated for seedling performance. Randomized complete block design was used with three replications. Data was recorded on various morphological characters after 8 months. The results showed that high survival percentage, shoot length, number of roots plant-1, number of leaves plant-1 and root length were observed in clone 105aa. While the highest fresh weight and dry weight of leaves were observed in clones 117aa and 105aa. The clone 105aa was drought resistant, high survival percentage and root growth. On the basis of the results, clone 105aa was recommended for cultivation through cuttings in the hilly areas of Pakistan where unequal rainfall distribution was a major hitch.

  8. Green Tea (Camellia Sinensis): Chemistry and Oral Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khurshid, Zohaib; Zafar, Muhammad S.; Zohaib, Sana; Najeeb, Shariq; Naseem, Mustafa

    2016-01-01

    Green tea is a widely consumed beverage worldwide. Numerous studies have suggested about the beneficial effects of green tea on oral conditions such as dental caries, periodontal diseases and halitosis. However, to date there have not been many review articles published that focus on beneficial effects of green tea on oral disease. The aim of this publication is to summarize the research conducted on the effects of green tea on oral cavity. Green tea might help reduce the bacterial activity in the oral cavity that in turn, can reduce the aforementioned oral afflictions. Furthermore, the antioxidant effect of the tea may reduce the chances of oral cancer. However, more clinical data is required to ascertain the possible benefits of green tea consumption on oral health. PMID:27386001

  9. Green Tea (Camellia Sinensis): Chemistry and Oral Health

    OpenAIRE

    Khurshid, Zohaib; Zafar, Muhammad S.; Zohaib, Sana; Najeeb, Shariq; Naseem, Mustafa

    2016-01-01

    Green tea is a widely consumed beverage worldwide. Numerous studies have suggested about the beneficial effects of green tea on oral conditions such as dental caries, periodontal diseases and halitosis. However, to date there have not been many review articles published that focus on beneficial effects of green tea on oral disease. The aim of this publication is to summarize the research conducted on the effects of green tea on oral cavity. Green tea might help reduce the bacterial activity i...

  10. Anatomical studies on twelve clones of Camellia species with reference to their taxonomic significance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajanna L

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Anatomical studies of leaf and stem of twelve clones of Camellia were investigated. Cross sections of the stem of all the clones exhibited a typical pattern of arrangement of tissues characteristics of woody plants. Two types of idioblastic sclereids were found in the medullary parenchyma of the taxa studied. While astrosclereids werepresent in 10 of the twelve clones, the vesciculose sclereids were found only in the four clones belonging to C. sinensis. Leaves of the clones show variations in the number of palisade layers. Astro sclereids, brachy sclereids, and dendritic forms were observed in the leaves, their distribution varying in the different clones. A few other micromorphological features are also recorded. Our study forms a basis for answering uncertainties in taxonomic revision in the genus Camellia.

  11. 茶树GDP-D-甘露糖焦磷酸化酶基因cDNA全长的克隆与表达分析%Cloning and Expression Analysis of GDP-D-mannose PyrophosphorylasecDNA inCamellia sinensis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖瑶; 周天山; 李佼; 张佳欣; 余有本

    2015-01-01

    抗坏血酸(Vc)是重要的抗氧化剂,在茶树体内的各种生理代谢及抵御非生物胁迫中起重要作用,Vc 含量关系到绿茶品质优劣。GDP-D-甘露糖焦磷酸化酶(GMP)是茶树 Vc 生物合成途径中的关键酶之一。本研究通过 RACE-PCR 方法从茶树中克隆了 GMP cDNA 全长序列,共计1510 bp,其中包含1086 bp 的开放阅读框(ORF),编码361个氨基酸,推测蛋白分子量为39.599 kDa。BLAST 分析表明,茶树 GMP 基因氨基酸序列与猕猴桃的亲缘性最高,达到96%。实时定量 PCR 分析表明,茶树新梢芽下第三叶中 GMP 基因表达量最高,嫩茎中最低,不同品种茶树新梢叶片中表达量存在明显差异。高温胁迫初期,GMP 基因表达量及抗坏血酸含量迅速升高,然后逐渐下降且均低于同期对照。%Ascorbic acid(Vitamin C, Vc) is an important antioxidant in tea plant, playing important roles in metabolism and responses to abiotic stress, and tea qualityis positive correlation with the content ofVc.GDP-D-mannosepyrophosphorylase(GMP) is an important enzyme in the synthesis of ascorbic acid.The full-length cDNA sequence ofGMPgene was isolated from the shoots ofCamellia sinensisby RT-PCR and RACE. The entire GMPcDNAwas 1510bp, containing a 1086bp complete open reading frame which encoding a protein with 361 amino acidsand a calculated molecular weight of39.599kDa.Blastanalysis showedthatGMPgene in Camellia sinensiswas most closely toActinidiawith 96% amino acids similarity.Quantitative real-time PCR analysis showed that the expression levels ofGMPgene in the third leaves were highest while the stem is the lowest, and the different varieties also existed an obvious differences. High temperature stress stimulate the expression of GMPgene and the accumulation ofVcin incipient stage, then reduced rapidly.

  12. Stereospecific positional distribution of fatty acids of Camellia (Camellia japonica L.) seed oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noh, Siwon; Yoon, Suk Hoo

    2012-10-01

    The stereospecific positional distribution of fatty acids of camellia seed oil (also called camellia oil) was determined. The camellia oil was mainly composed of neutral lipids (88.2%), and the oleic acid (86.3%) was found to be a major fatty acid of neutral lipids. In the glycolipids and phospholipids, the oleic acid was also found to be a major fatty acid at 62.5% and 54.2%, respectively. The oleic acid was distributed abundantly in all sn-1, 2, and 3 positions. It was found that the oleic acid was present more at sn-2 (93.6%) and 3 positions (94.7%), than at sn-1 position (66.0%). Practical Application:  The information of stereospecific positional distribution of fatty acids in the camellia oil can be used for the development of the structured lipids for food, pharmaceutical, and medical purposes. PMID:23009642

  13. Teor de fluoretos em infusões de chá verde (Camellia sinensis) Fluoride content in green tea infusions (Camellia sinensis)

    OpenAIRE

    Márcia Reto; Maria Eduardo Figueira; Helder Mota Filipe; Cristina M. M. Almeida

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this work was to study the influence of green tea consumption on fluoride ingestion. The extraction conditions of fluorides from green tea infusions were defined and nine brands of green tea available in Portugal were analyzed. The quantification of fluorides in the green tea was preceded by the implementation and validation of the potentiometric method (commercial fluoride selective electrode). The concentration of fluorides in the samples ranged from 0. 8 to 2. 0 mg L-1.

  14. [Chemical constituents from Spatholobus sinensis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Ting; Liu, Hua; Wang, Bin; Tu, Guang-Zhong; Liang, Hong; Zhao, Yu-Ying

    2008-01-01

    Spatholobus sinensis is a plant of the Spatholobus genus (Leguminosae family). Its caulis are used as "ji-xue-teng" regionally. However, to our knowledge, no phytochemical investigation on S. sinensis has been reported to date. In this study, eight compounds were isolated from the ethanol extract of the caulis of S. sinensis, by solvents extraction and column chromatography methods. By analysis of their physic-chemical constants and spectral data, the structures of 8 compounds were identified as spatholosineside A (1), 2',4',5,7-tetrahydroxyisoflavone (2), isoliquiritigenin (3), lupinalbin A (4), coumestrol (5), naringenin (6), protocatechuic acid (7), leonuriside A (8). Compound 1 is a new compound. PMID:18357735

  15. Isozyme studies on some selected Camellia clones

    OpenAIRE

    L. Rajanna; Ramakrishnan, M.

    2010-01-01

    Polyphenoloxidase and peroxidase enzymes were extracted and the isozyme banding pattern was studied in twelve south Indian tea clones of Camellia species conserved an ex situ gene bank. Banding pattern exhibited variations at inter specific and clonal level. A maximum of 6 isozymes were observed for polyphenol oxidase in UPASI 2 clone and a minimum of 3 in the clone BSS 1. Peroxidase isozyme exhibited two bands in all the clones with variation in its mobility (Rf). Isozyme profile of polyphen...

  16. Induction of mutation with gamma irradiation in camellia (Camellia Japonica L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Studies on the radiosensitivity and mutagenic effects in Camellia (Camellia Japonica L.) were carried out with the shoot cuttings, one-year seedlings and three or four-year plants irradiated with 60Co-γ rays. Results obtained showed that the radiosensitivities varied greatly in cultivars and in different parts of the plant. The suitable irradiation doses for shoot cuttings are 1-3 krad. The treatment of low doses (bellow 2 kard) resulted in higher frequency of mutation with plants of high sensitivity to γ-rays. The frequencies of mutation in flower color and type were 2.5-12.0%. The mutant with ornamental value has been obtained

  17. Aluminium Uptake and Accumulation in the Hyperaccumulator Camellia Oleifera Abel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZENG Qi-Long; CHEN Rong-Fu; ZHAO Xue-Qiang; WANG Huo-Yan; SHEN Ren-Fang

    2011-01-01

    Oiltea camellia (Camellia oleifera Abel.), an aluminium (Al) hyperaccumulator, grows well on acid soils in tropical or subtropical areas. In this study, the growth of oiltea camellia in response to Al application and the characteristics of Al uptake and accumulation were investigated using laboratory and field experiments. The growth of oiltea camellia seedlings in the nutrient solution tended to be stimulated by addition of Al. Results of the field experiment showed that oiltea camellia accumulated 11000 mg kg-1 Al in leaves within 10 months, and the average rate of A1 accumulation in new leaves was about 1 100 mg kg-1 month-1; however, the monthly rate varied and was highest in spring and autumn. The results of the laboratory experiment on Al uptake by oiltea camellia seedlings in CaCl2 solutions with various forms of Al showed that large amounts of Al supplied as Al3+ and Al complexes Al-malate (1:1) and Al-F (1:1) were influxed into oiltea camellia roots, whereas Al supplied as Al-citrate (1:1), Al-F (1:6), Al-oxalate (1:3), and Al-oxalate (1:1) complexes exhibited low affinity to oiltea camellia roots. The kinetics of Als+ cumulative uptake in excised roots and intact plants showed a biphasic pattern, with an initial rapid phase followed by a slow phase. The Al cumulative uptake was unaffected by low temperature,which indicated that Al uptake in oiltea camellia was a passive process. The efficient influx of Al into the roots and the high transport rate in specific seasons were presumed to account for the plentiful Al accumulation in leaves of oiltea camellia.

  18. Fluoride bioaccumulation by hydroponic cultures of camellia (Camellia japonica spp.) and sugar cane (Saccharum officinarum spp.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camarena-Rangel, Nancy; Rojas Velázquez, Angel Natanael; Santos-Díaz, María del Socorro

    2015-10-01

    The ability of hydroponic cultures of camellia and sugar cane adult plants to remove fluoride was investigated. Plants were grown in a 50% Steiner nutrient solution. After an adaptation period to hydroponic conditions, plants were exposed to different fluoride concentrations (0, 2.5, 5 and 10 mg L(-1)). Fluoride concentration in the culture medium and in tissues was measured. In sugar cane, fluoride was mainly located in roots, with 86% of it absorbed and 14% adsorbed. Sugar cane plants removed 1000-1200 mg fluoride kg(-1) dry weight. In camellia plants the highest fluoride concentration was found in leaf. Roots accumulated fluoride mainly through absorption, which was 2-5 times higher than adsorption. At the end of the experiment, fluoride accumulation in camellia plants was 1000-1400 mgk g(-1) dry weight. Estimated concentration factors revealed that fluoride bioaccumulation is 74-221-fold in camellia plants and 100-500-fold in sugar cane plants. Thus, the latter appear as a suitable candidate for removing fluoride from water due to their bioaccumulation capacity and vigorous growth rate; therefore, sugar cane might be used for phytoremediation. PMID:25930125

  19. Camellia spp. : Kamelien (Theaceae), Rosen des Winters

    OpenAIRE

    Dörken, Veit Martin; Jagel, Armin

    2012-01-01

    Kamelien haben ausgesprochen attraktive Blüten und blühen im Winter, weswegen man sie auch "Rosen des Winters" nennt. Bei den Kamelien, die bei uns im Gartenhandel angeboten werden, handelt es sich in den meisten Fällen um Sorten der Japanischen Kamelie (Camellia japonica). In Ostasien fand die Art in der Gartenkultur als Blütensolitär schon sehr lange Verwendung, bevor sie Anfang des 18. Jahrhunderts auch nach Europa gelangte. In den letzten Jahren werden Kamelien zunehmend auch in deutschen...

  20. Measurement and decontamination of radiocesium on fir (Abies firma) and camellia (Camellia japonica) leaves in Fukushima city

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pollutants on radiocesium contaminated fir and camellia leaves in Northern Fukushima prefecture were measured and decontaminated after the accident at TEPCO's Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant. The surface contamination of the leaves of the fir and the camellia leaves was measured by washing by hand with water; the contaminants were then removed by deposition. Leaves that had unfolded more than three years ago were polluted by a high concentration of Cs-137+Cs-134; 7,070±129 Bq/kg in fir and 6,610±195 Bq/kg camellia. Lower position leaves of large camellia plants showed higher levels of radiocesium concentration compared with them of small plants. The radiocesium contamination of leaves decreased to one-fifth (fir) and one-quarter (camellia) by hand rubbing with water before washing. 99.4% of radiocesium contamination from fir leaves and 90.8% of radiocesium contamination from camellia. A large amount of the radiocesium surface contamination on fir and camellia could be removed by rubbing leaf surfaces with water, and the contamination was collected by deposition processing. (author)

  1. Assessment of the fungal diversity and succession of ligninolytic endophytes in Camellia japonica leaves using clone library analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirose, Dai; Matsuoka, Shunsuke; Osono, Takashi

    2013-01-01

    Fungal assemblages in live, newly shed and partly decomposed leaves of Camellia japonica were investigated with a clone library analysis to assess the fungal diversity and succession in a subtropical forest in southern Japan. Partly decomposed leaves were divided into bleached and adjacent nonbleached portions to estimate the fungi functionally associated with lignin decomposition in the bleached portions, with an emphasis on Coccomyces sinensis (Rhytismataceae, Ascomycota). From 144 cloned 28S ribosomal DNA (rDNA) sequences, 48 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) were defined based on a sequence similarity threshold of 98%. Forty-one (85%) of the 48 OTUs belonged to the Ascomycota and seven OTUs (15%) to the Basidiomycota. Twenty-six OTUs (54%) were detected only once (singletons). The number of OTUs and the diversity indices of the fungal assemblages in the different leaves were in this order: live leaves > newly shed leaves > bleached portions > nonbleached portions of partly decomposed leaves. The fungal assemblages were similar in newly shed leaves and the bleached portions of partly decomposed leaves. Ligninolytic fungi of the genera Coccomyces, Lophodermium and Xylaria were frequently detected in the bleached portions. OTU3, identified as Coccomyces sinensis, was detected in live and newly shed leaves and the bleached portions of partly decomposed leaves, suggesting that this fungus latently infects live leaves, persists after leaf fall and takes part in lignin decomposition. PMID:23709486

  2. Ionizing radiation effects on volatiles formation in Camellia sinensis (L) teas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of radiation on volatile formation in white, green, oolong and black teas. Samples were irradiated in room temperature at 60Co source Gammacell 220 (A.E.C. Ltda) at doses of 0, 5, 10, 15 and 20 kGy. The volatiles organic compound was extracted by hydro distillation and the extract was separated and identified by gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GCMS) analysis. The results show that the volatiles formations are directly proportional to the increase of radiation dose. The white tea showed less influence of ionizing radiation, as 37.86% of the compounds were stable at all doses of radiation and formed 47.53% of new compounds after irradiation. The green tea was the tea that has the greatest influence of radiation effects, increasing 66.12% of volatiles identified in relation to the control sample and only 21.77% of volatiles found naturally were resistant to all doses of radiation. The oolong tea, despite suffering a partial enzymatic treatment, was the second tea that has least interference of radiation in increasing the formation of new volatile. >From this tea, was able to detect 49.59% of new compounds after irradiation and 30.08% of the compounds found naturally were also found after irradiation. The black tea has the second greatest influence of radiation on formation of new volatile (60.94%) and only 17.97% of all identified compounds were not degraded after radiation. (author)

  3. Subcellular Localization of Galloylated Catechins in Tea Plants (Camellia sinensis (L. O. Kuntze Assessed via Immunohistochemistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huanhuan eXu

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Galloylated catechins, as the main secondary metabolites in the tea plant, including (--epigallocatechin-3-gallate and (--epicatechin-3-gallate, comprise approximately three-quarters of all the tea plant catechins and have stronger effects than non-galloylated catechins, both on the product quality in tea processing and the pharmacological efficacy to human beings. The subcellular localization of galloylated catechins has been the primary focus of studies that assess biosynthesis and physiological functions. Classical histochemical localization staining reagents can not specifically detect galloylated catechins; thus, their subcellular localization remains controversial. In the present study, we generated a monoclonal antibody (mAb against galloylated catechins, which can be used for the subcellular localization of galloylated catechins in the tea plant by immunohistochemistry. Direct ELISA and ForteBio Octet Red 96 System assay indicated the mAb could recognize the galloylated catechins with high specificities and affinities. In addition, tea bud was ascertained as the optimal tissue for freezing microtomic sections for immunohistochemistry. What’s more, the high quality mAbs which exhibited excellent binding capability to galloylated catechins were utilised for the visualization of them via immunohistochemistry. Our findings demonstrated that vacuoles were the primary sites of localization of galloylated catechins at the subcellular level.

  4. Wichtige Aromastoffe in schwarzem und grünem Tee (Camellia sinensis)

    OpenAIRE

    Schuh, Christian

    2007-01-01

    Tee ist nach Wasser das meistkonsumierte Getränk der Welt, und wie bei vielen Lebensmitteln hat das Aroma einen entscheidenden Einfluss auf die Qualität. Trotzdem wurde bisher keine systematische sensorische Untersuchung des Teearomas durchgeführt. Über eine Aromaextraktverdünnungsanalyse wurden die bestimmenden Aromastoffe des Schwarztees Darjeeling Gold-Auslese bestimmt und diese nach Identifizierung anschließend über Isoptenverdünnungsanalysen quantifiziert. Zur Bestimmung der Aromarelevan...

  5. Synthesis of silver nanoparticles by using tea leaf extract from Camellia Sinensis

    OpenAIRE

    Loo YY; Chieng BW; Nishibuchi M; Radu S

    2012-01-01

    Yuet Ying Loo,1 Buong Woei Chieng,2 Mitsuaki Nishibuchi,3 Son Radu11Centre of Excellent for Food Safety Research, Faculty of Food Science and Technology, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Selangor, Malaysia; 2Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Selangor, Malaysia; 3Center for South East Asian Studies, Kyoto University, Kyoto, JapanAbstract: The development of the biological synthesis of nanoparticles using microorganisms or plant extracts plays an important role i...

  6. Transcriptome Analysis Reveals Candidate Genes involved in Blister Blight defense in Tea (Camellia sinensis (L) Kuntze).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayaswall, Kuldip; Mahajan, Pallavi; Singh, Gagandeep; Parmar, Rajni; Seth, Romit; Raina, Aparnashree; Swarnkar, Mohit Kumar; Singh, Anil Kumar; Shankar, Ravi; Sharma, Ram Kumar

    2016-01-01

    To unravel the molecular mechanism of defense against blister blight (BB) disease caused by an obligate biotrophic fungus, Exobasidium vexans, transcriptome of BB interaction with resistance and susceptible tea genotypes was analysed through RNA-seq using Illumina GAIIx at four different stages during ~20-day disease cycle. Approximately 69 million high quality reads were assembled de novo, yielding 37,790 unique transcripts with more than 55% being functionally annotated. Differentially expressed, 149 defense related transcripts/genes, namely defense related enzymes, resistance genes, multidrug resistant transporters, transcription factors, retrotransposons, metacaspases and chaperons were observed in RG, suggesting their role in defending against BB. Being present in the major hub, putative master regulators among these candidates were identified from predetermined protein-protein interaction network of Arabidopsis thaliana. Further, confirmation of abundant expression of well-known RPM1, RPS2 and RPP13 in quantitative Real Time PCR indicates salicylic acid and jasmonic acid, possibly induce synthesis of antimicrobial compounds, required to overcome the virulence of E. vexans. Compendiously, the current study provides a comprehensive gene expression and insights into the molecular mechanism of tea defense against BB to serve as a resource for unravelling the possible regulatory mechanism of immunity against various biotic stresses in tea and other crops. PMID:27465480

  7. Do leaf surface characteristics affect Agrobacterium infection in tea [Camellia sinensis (L.) O Kuntze]?

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Nitish Kumar; Subedar Pandey; Amita Bhattacharya; Paramvir Singh Ahuja

    2004-09-01

    The host range specificity of Agrobacterium with five tea cultivars and an unrelated species (Artemisia parviflora) having extreme surface characteristics was evaluated in the present study. The degree of Agrobacterium infection in the five cultivars of tea was affected by leaf wetness, micro-morphology and surface chemistry. Wettable leaf surfaces of TV1, Upasi-9 and Kangra jat showed higher rate (75%) of Agrobacterium infection compared to Upasi-10 and ST-449, whereas non-wettable leaves of A. parviflora showed minimum (25%) infection. This indicated that the leaves with glabrous surface having lower (larger surface area covered by water droplet), higher phenol and wax content were more suitable for Agrobacterium infection. Caffeine fraction of tea promoted Agrobacterium infection even in leaves poor in wax (Upasi-10), whereas caffeine-free wax inhibited both Agrobacterium growth and infection. Thus, study suggests the importance of leaf surface features in influencing the Agrobacterium infection in tea leaf explants. Our study also provides a basis for the screening of a clone/cultivar of a particular species most suitable for Agrobacterium infection the first step in Agrobacterium-mediated genetic transformation.

  8. Transcriptome Analysis Reveals Candidate Genes involved in Blister Blight defense in Tea (Camellia sinensis (L) Kuntze)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayaswall, Kuldip; Mahajan, Pallavi; Singh, Gagandeep; Parmar, Rajni; Seth, Romit; Raina, Aparnashree; Swarnkar, Mohit Kumar; Singh, Anil Kumar; Shankar, Ravi; Sharma, Ram Kumar

    2016-07-01

    To unravel the molecular mechanism of defense against blister blight (BB) disease caused by an obligate biotrophic fungus, Exobasidium vexans, transcriptome of BB interaction with resistance and susceptible tea genotypes was analysed through RNA-seq using Illumina GAIIx at four different stages during ~20-day disease cycle. Approximately 69 million high quality reads were assembled de novo, yielding 37,790 unique transcripts with more than 55% being functionally annotated. Differentially expressed, 149 defense related transcripts/genes, namely defense related enzymes, resistance genes, multidrug resistant transporters, transcription factors, retrotransposons, metacaspases and chaperons were observed in RG, suggesting their role in defending against BB. Being present in the major hub, putative master regulators among these candidates were identified from predetermined protein-protein interaction network of Arabidopsis thaliana. Further, confirmation of abundant expression of well-known RPM1, RPS2 and RPP13 in quantitative Real Time PCR indicates salicylic acid and jasmonic acid, possibly induce synthesis of antimicrobial compounds, required to overcome the virulence of E. vexans. Compendiously, the current study provides a comprehensive gene expression and insights into the molecular mechanism of tea defense against BB to serve as a resource for unravelling the possible regulatory mechanism of immunity against various biotic stresses in tea and other crops.

  9. Use of tea extracts (Camelia sinensis) in jelly candies as polyphenols sources in human diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gramza-Michalowska, Anna; Regula, Julita

    2007-01-01

    Diet rich in polyphenols may be important factor in preventing cardiovascular, neoplastic diseases and slowing down the aging processes. Because tea (Camelia sinensis) is most popular beverage containing relatively large amounts of polyphenols, it could be tremendously important source of polyphenolic constituents in human diet. However, there has been no data on the tea extracts use in particular everyday snacks. Objective of the study was to investigate potential use of tea polyphenol extracts in jelly candies, its taste, colour, consistency and general consumer's acceptance. Sensory analyses were conducted on two kinds of sweet jellies, with gelatin and agar used as thickening agents. As polyphenol source green and black tea extracts (Camellia sinensis) were used at concentration of 1.0% and 1.5%. Total polyphenol content in jellies ranged between 245.9-1256.5 mg/100g of candies and EGCG (epigallocatechin gallate) strong antioxidant content ranged between 3.2-170.1 mg/100g of candies. Sensory analyses included evaluation of overall appearance, colour, taste, aroma, consistence (homogenicity, clot presence) and clarity of jellies. Comparison of two thickening agents resulted in better properties of gelatin jellies according to its quality: colour, clarity, consistence, taste and aroma (ptea extract used it was found that ethanol extracts resulted in lower acceptance for overall acceptance and consistency (ptea polyphenols extracts were accepted by consumers as food product constituents, and might be an interest of wider usage as food components. PMID:17392075

  10. A New Acylated Anthocyanin from the Red Flowers of Camellia hongkongensis and Characterization of Anthocyanins in the Section Camellia Species

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jian-Bin Li; Fumio Hashimoto; Keiichi Shimizu; Yusuke Sakata

    2009-01-01

    Twelve anthocyanins (1-12) were isolated from the red flowers of Camellia hongkongensis Seem. by chromatography using open columns. Their structures were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic analyses, that is, proton-nuclear magnetic resonance, carbon 13-nuclear magnetic resonance, heteronuclear multiple quantum correlation, heteronuclear multiple bond correlation, high resolution electrospray ionization mass and ultraviolet visible spectroscopies. Out of these anthocyanins, a novel acylated anthocyanin, cyanidin 3-O-(6-O-(Z)-p-coumaroyl)-β-galactopyranoside (6), two known acylated anthocyanins, cyanidin 3-O-(6-O-(E)-p-coumaroyl)-β-galactopyranoside (7) and cyanidin 3-O-(6-O-(E)-caffeoyl)-β-galactopyranoside (8), and three known delphinidin glycosides (10-12) were for the first time isolated from the genus Camellia. Furthermore, pigment components in C. japonica L., C. chekiangoleosa Hu and C. semiserrata Chi were studied.The results indicated that the distribution of anthocyanins was differed among these species. Delphinidin glycoside was only detected in the flowers of C. hongkongensis, which is a special and important species in the section Camellia. Based on the characterization of anthocyanins in the section Camellia species, there is a close relationship among these species,and C. hongkongensis might be an important parent for creating new cultivars with bluish flower color.

  11. Chemistry and Pharmacology of Citrus sinensis

    OpenAIRE

    Juan Manuel J. Favela-Hernández; Omar González-Santiago; Mónica A. Ramírez-Cabrera; Patricia C. Esquivel-Ferriño; María del Rayo Camacho-Corona

    2016-01-01

    Presently the search for new drugs from natural resources is of growing interest to the pharmaceutical industry. Natural products have been the source of new drugs since ancient times. Plants are a good source of secondary metabolites which have been found to have beneficial properties. The present study is a review of the chemistry and pharmacology of Citrus sinensis. This review reveals the therapeutic potential of C. sinensis as a source of natural compounds with important activities that ...

  12. Survival Analysis to Determine the Length of the Incubation Period of Camellia Twig Blight Caused by Colletorichum gloeosporioides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camellia twig blight, caused by Colletotrichum gloeosporioides, is a prevalent disease problem on several Camellia species in the southern United States. To determine the potential seasonal differences in incubation periods, twelve to sixteen stems of Camellia sasanqua ‘Rosa’ plants grown in pine ba...

  13. Seasonal Responses in the Time it Takes for Camellia Twig Blight Symptoms to Develop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little is known about how long after infection by Colletotrichum gloeosporioides camellia twigs can appear healthy before disease symptoms become evident, which is termed the incubation period. Individual twigs were wound inoculated monthly on separate sets of container-grown Camellia sasanqua ‘Rose...

  14. Camellia Oil-Enriched Diet Attenuates Oxidative Stress and Inflammatory Markers in Hypercholesterolemic Subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bumrungpert, Akkarach; Pavadhgul, Patcharanee; Kalpravidh, Ruchaneekorn W

    2016-09-01

    Camellia oil is commonly used as an adjuvant in medicine. It is rich in monounsaturated fatty acids, vitamin E, and phytochemicals. The objective of this study was to examine effects of camellia oil consumption on oxidative stress, low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C) oxidation, and inflammatory markers in hypercholesterolemic subjects. The study design was a randomized, single-blind controlled trial. Women with hypercholesterolemia (n = 50) were randomly divided into two groups. The treatment group (n = 25) was provided camellia oil-enriched diets and the control group (n = 25) was provided diets cooked with soybean oil three meals (45 mL oil) a day for 8 weeks. Biomarkers of oxidative stress and inflammatory cytokines were assessed before and the after intervention. Camellia oil consumption significantly decreased malondialdehyde (11.2%; P stress and inflammatory markers in hypercholesterolemic women. Therefore, camellia oil consumption may reduce cardiovascular disease risk factors. PMID:27627703

  15. Chemical taxonomy of red-flowered wild Camellia species based on floral anthocyanins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jian-Bin; Hashimoto, Fumio; Shimizu, Keiichi; Sakata, Yusuke

    2013-01-01

    This study uses anthocyanins in the red flowers of section Camellia as taxonomic markers to investigate the phenetic relationships among 33 wild species from China, Taiwan, and Japan. The 25 anthocyanins from section Camellia produced 38 pigment patterns that serve as phenetic markers. Principal Component Analysis (PCA) indicated that the attachment of one or two glucoses to the cyanidin-core structure at the 3- or the 3- and 5-positions, respectively, was the most influential pattern against the first factor, Z₁. In addition, two alternative pigment patterns, acylated or non-acylated, and the structural isomerism (cis- or trans-) of the p-coumaroyl group were relatively significant patterns. Ward's minimum-variance cluster analysis (WMVCA) produced a dendrogram that consisted of two sub-clusters. One sub-cluster (A) was constructed by species that have mainly two types of anthocyanins: 3,5-di-O-β-glucosides (Camellia saluenensis) and sambubioside of cyanidin (Camellia reticulata). The other sub-cluster (B) was made up of the 3-O-β-glucosides of cyanidin (Camellia japonica) and delphinidin (Camellia hongkongensis), with a higher proportion of the 3-O-β-galactosides (Camellia mairei and Camellia boreali-yunnanica). The former group showed a higher proportion of acylation, over 63%, but with the exception of Camellia azalea. The latter group showed less than 52% acylation, but with the exception of C. hongkongensis and C. boreali-yunnanica. PCA and WMVCA indicated that the greater the amount of di-O-glycosides and acylation, the more primitive anthocyanin traits the species possess. Based on these results, in conjunction with geographical and literary information, the data suggest that the Xinan district is the site/center of origin for the red-flowered Camellia species of which both C. saluenensis and C. reticulata have the most primitive anthocyanin traits. PMID:23122772

  16. The Chemical Constituents and Pharmacological Actions of Cordyceps sinensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yi; Wang, Jihui; Wang, Wei; Zhang, Hanyue; Zhang, Xuelan; Han, Chunchao

    2015-01-01

    Cordyceps sinensis, also called DongChongXiaCao (winter worm, summer grass) in Chinese, is becoming increasingly popular and important in the public and scientific communities. This study summarizes the chemical constituents and their corresponding pharmacological actions of Cordyceps sinensis. Many bioactive components of Cordyceps sinensis have been extracted including nucleoside, polysaccharide, sterol, protein, amino acid, and polypeptide. In addition, these constituents' corresponding pharmacological actions were also shown in the study such as anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, antitumour, antiapoptosis, and immunomodulatory actions. Therefore can use different effects of C. sinensis against different diseases and provide reference for the study of Cordyceps sinensis in the future. PMID:25960753

  17. The Chemical Constituents and Pharmacological Actions of Cordyceps sinensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Liu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Cordyceps sinensis, also called DongChongXiaCao (winter worm, summer grass in Chinese, is becoming increasingly popular and important in the public and scientific communities. This study summarizes the chemical constituents and their corresponding pharmacological actions of Cordyceps sinensis. Many bioactive components of Cordyceps sinensis have been extracted including nucleoside, polysaccharide, sterol, protein, amino acid, and polypeptide. In addition, these constituents’ corresponding pharmacological actions were also shown in the study such as anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, antitumour, antiapoptosis, and immunomodulatory actions. Therefore can use different effects of C. sinensis against different diseases and provide reference for the study of Cordyceps sinensis in the future.

  18. Studies on Rhizospheric Mycoflora of Tea (Camellia sinensis): In vitro Antagonism with Dominant Bacteria%Studies on Rhizospheric Mycoflora of Tea (Camellia sinensis):In vitro Antagonism with Dominant Bacteria

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SINGH Shuchi; SOOD Anchal; SHARMA Shivesh; KUMAR Vivek; SINGH Kamal Deep; PANDEY Piyush

    2007-01-01

    Species of Trichoderma, Penicillium, Aspergillus and Mucor were found to dominate the rhizosphere of tea bushes in different regions of the Indian Himalayas. The Himachal Himalayas were dominated by Monilia humiscola (45.08%) and Mucor hiemalis (33.11% ). In the Uttaranchal Himalayas, Aspergillus clavatum dominated the rhizosphere (54.01% ), followed by A. flavous (20.07%). Although the fungal isolates require a mesophillic temperature (15 ℃ to 35 ℃ ), the tea rhizospheric isolates tolerate a wide range of temperatures (5 ℃ to 45 ℃ ). When tested for pH tolerance, these fungi showed a wide range (2.0 to 13.0) of pH tolerance under in vitro conditions. Seasonal variations also influenced the colony forming units (cfu) of the rhizospheric fungi, with the maximum forming in November and March, and the minimum in December ~February. During this period, the populations of the fungi were found inversely proportional to the bacterial populations. In addition, the dominant bacteria in the tea rhizosphere, i. e. , Bacillus subtilis and B. mycoides, showed antagonistic activity against fungal isolates by inhibiting the growth and causing structural abnormalities in mycelium. Tab 5, Ref 13

  19. Chemistry and Pharmacology of Citrus sinensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Favela-Hernández, Juan Manuel J; González-Santiago, Omar; Ramírez-Cabrera, Mónica A; Esquivel-Ferriño, Patricia C; Camacho-Corona, María del Rayo

    2016-01-01

    Presently the search for new drugs from natural resources is of growing interest to the pharmaceutical industry. Natural products have been the source of new drugs since ancient times. Plants are a good source of secondary metabolites which have been found to have beneficial properties. The present study is a review of the chemistry and pharmacology of Citrus sinensis. This review reveals the therapeutic potential of C. sinensis as a source of natural compounds with important activities that are beneficial for human health that could be used to develop new drugs. PMID:27072414

  20. In vitro anti-hyaluronidase activity of Sri Lankan low grown orthodox orange pekoe grade black tea (Camellia sinensis L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Wanigasekera Daya Ratnasooriya; Walimuni Prabhashini Kaushalya Mendis Abeysekera; Chatura Tissa Dayendra Ratnasooriya

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To access the anti-hyaluronidase activity of Sri Lankan low grown orthodox orange pekoe (OP) grade black tea with a view to develop an anti-aging skin formulation. Methods: Five concentrations (0.125, 0.250, 0.500, 1.000 and 2.000 mg/mL) of black tea brew (BTB) were made using a freeze dried sample of Sri Lankan low grown orthodox OP grade black tea which was prepared according to international organization for standardization specification. Epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) was u...

  1. In vitro anti-hyaluronidase activity of Sri Lankan low grown orthodox orange pekoe grade black tea (Camellia sinensis L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wanigasekera Daya Ratnasooriya

    2014-12-01

    Conclusions: Sri Lankan low grown orthodox OP grade black tea has promising anti-hyaluronidase activity in vitro and has the potential to be used as an anti-aging cosmaceutical. In addition, it may prove useful as a beverage in the management of allergy, some joint diseases and envenomation.

  2. Purification and Characterization of a Novel Galloyltransferase Involved in Catechin Galloylation in the Tea Plant (Camellia sinensis)*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yajun; Gao, Liping; Liu, Li; Yang, Qin; Lu, Zhongwei; Nie, Zhiyin; Wang, Yunsheng; Xia, Tao

    2012-01-01

    Catechins (flavan-3-ols), the most important secondary metabolites in the tea plant, have positive effects on human health and are crucial in defense against pathogens of the tea plant. The aim of this study was to elucidate the biosynthetic pathway of galloylated catechins in the tea plant. The results suggested that galloylated catechins were biosynthesized via 1-O-glucose ester-dependent two-step reactions by acyltransferases, which involved two enzymes, UDP-glucose:galloyl-1-O-β-d-glucosyltransferase (UGGT) and a newly discovered enzyme, epicatechin:1-O-galloyl-β-d-glucose O-galloyltransferase (ECGT). In the first reaction, the galloylated acyl donor β-glucogallin was biosynthesized by UGGT from gallic acid and uridine diphosphate glucose. In the second reaction, galloylated catechins were produced by ECGT catalysis from β-glucogallin and 2,3-cis-flavan-3-ol. 2,3-cis-Flavan-3-ol and 1-O-galloyl-β-d-glucose were appropriate substrates of ECGT rather than 2,3-trans-flavan-3-ol and 1,2,3,4,6-pentagalloylglucose. Purification by more than 1641-fold to apparent homogeneity yielded ECGT with an estimated molecular mass of 241 to 121 kDa by gel filtration. Enzyme activity and SDS-PAGE analysis indicated that the native ECGT might be a dimer, trimer, or tetramer of 60- and/or 58-kDa monomers, and these monomers represent a heterodimer consisting of pairs of 36- or 34- of and 28-kDa subunits. MALDI-TOF-TOF MS showed that the protein SCPL1199 was identified. Epigallocatechin and epicatechin exhibited higher substrate affinities than β-glucogallin. ECGT had an optimum temperature of 30 °C and maximal reaction rates between pH 4.0 and 6.0. The enzyme reaction was inhibited dramatically by phenylmethylsulfonyl fluoride, HgCl2, and sodium deoxycholate. PMID:23132863

  3. Volatile profile analysis and quality prediction of Longjing tea (Camellia sinensis) by HS-SPME/GC-MS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jie LIN; Yi DAI; Ya-nan GUO; Hai-rong XU; Xiao-chang WANG

    2012-01-01

    This study aimed to analyze the volatile chemical profile of Longjing tea,and further develop a prediction model for aroma quality of Longjing tea based on potent odorants.A total of 21 Longjing samples were analyzed by headspace solid phase microextraction (HS-SPME) coupled with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS).Pearson's linear correlation analysis and partial least square (PLS) regression were applied to investigate the relationship between sensory aroma scores and the volatile compounds.Results showed that 60 volatile compounds could be commonly detected in this famous green tea.Terpenes and esters were two major groups characterized,representing 33.89% and 15.53% of the total peak area respectively.Ten compounds were determined to contribute significantly to the perceived aroma quality of Longjing tea,especially linalool (0.701),nonanal (0.738),(Z)-3-hexenyl hexanoate (-0.785),and β-ionone (-0.763).On the basis of these 10 compounds,a model (correlation coefficient of 89.4% and cross-validated correlation coefficient of 80.4%) was constructed to predict the aroma quality of Longjing tea.Summarily,this study has provided a novel option for quality prediction of green tea based on HS-SPME/GC-MS technique.

  4. Volatile profile analysis and quality prediction of Longjing tea (Camellia sinensis) by HS-SPME/GC-MS

    OpenAIRE

    Lin, Jie; Dai, Yi; Guo, Ya-nan; Xu, Hai-Rong; Wang, Xiao-chang

    2012-01-01

    This study aimed to analyze the volatile chemical profile of Longjing tea, and further develop a prediction model for aroma quality of Longjing tea based on potent odorants. A total of 21 Longjing samples were analyzed by headspace solid phase microextraction (HS-SPME) coupled with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Pearson’s linear correlation analysis and partial least square (PLS) regression were applied to investigate the relationship between sensory aroma scores and the volati...

  5. Antioxidative potential, nutritional value and sensory profiles of confectionery fortified with green and yellow tea leaves (Camellia sinensis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gramza-Michałowska, Anna; Kobus-Cisowska, Joanna; Kmiecik, Dominik; Korczak, Józef; Helak, Barbara; Dziedzic, Krzysztof; Górecka, Danuta

    2016-11-15

    This paper presents a study on development of functional food products containing green and yellow tea leaves. The results indicated that green and yellow tea are significant tools in the creation of the nutritional value, antioxidative potential and stability of the lipid fraction of cookies. Tea-fortified cookies showed considerably higher contents of dietary fiber, especially hemicellulose and insoluble fractions, and were characterized by significantly higher antioxidant potential associated with their phenolics content. Results of ABTS, DPPH, ORACFL and PCL assay showed significantly higher antioxidant potential of tea cookies, highest for yellow tea. The antioxidative potential of applied teas was significant in terms of the inhibition of hydroperoxide content, while formation of secondary lipid oxidation products was less spectacular. It is concluded that tea leaves could be widely used as a source of polyphenols with high antioxidative potential, as well as fiber; thus introducing numerous health benefits for the consumer. PMID:27283654

  6. Heterologous expression and in-silico characterization of Pathogenesis related protein1 (CsPR1 gene from Camellia sinensis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niraj Agarwala*

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Pathogenesis related protein1 gene induced after pathogen infection in plantshave been frequently used as marker gene for systemic acquired resistance. We have carried out isolation, annotation and expression of CsPR1, a potential disease resistance gene. The full length cDNA consist of 671 bp in length containing 162 amino acids with a signal peptide of 22 amino acids and 17.92 kDa predicted molecular weight. Recombinant CsPR1 was successfully expressed in BL21(DE3pLysS cells using pET 43.1 EK LIC vector system and was purified. Three dimensional models weregenerated using Phyre2 and I-TASSER and built a compact structureconsisting beta sheets surrounded by alpha helixes. The models werevalidated by MolProbity and RAMPAGE servers. Validation of modelledstructures based on Ramachandran plot, revealed I-TASSER producebetter quality and reliable 3D model. Purified recombinant CsPR1 and insilico generated 3D models from this study provide foundation forcomprehensive functional and structural characterization of CsPR1protein.

  7. White tea (Camellia sinensis Kuntze) exerts neuroprotection against hydrogen peroxide-induced toxicity in PC12 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López, Víctor; Calvo, Maria Isabel

    2011-03-01

    Tea is a popular beverage whose consumption is associated with prevention of certain disorders. The objective of the study was to investigate the potential neuroprotective effect of white tea extract (WTE) on hydrogen peroxide induced toxicity in PC12 cells. Cells were treated with various doses of WTE (10-250 μg/ml) before exposition to 250 μM hydrogen peroxide and cell survival was determined through the MTT and LDH assays. Oxidative stress was quantified in the cells after treatments as intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and the antioxidant activity of the extract was assessed in a cell free system in terms of free radical scavenging capacity. Results showed that WTE has a significant protective effect in the PC12 cell line against hydrogen peroxide as cell survival was significantly superior in WTE-treated cells compared to hydrogen peroxide-treated cells. A reduction on intracellular oxidative stress as well as radical scavenging properties were produced by WTE. Results suggest that WTE protects PC12 cells against H(2)O(2)-induced toxicity, and that an antioxidant mechanism through ROS scavenging may be in part responsible for cells neuroprotection. PMID:21271291

  8. Sri Lankan black tea (Camellia sinensis L.) inhibits the methylglyoxal mediated protein glycation and potentiates its reversing activity in vitro

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wanigasekara Daya Ratnasooriya

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate inhibitory activity of methylglyoxal (MGO) mediated protein glycation and ability to potentiate its reversing activity and range of antioxidant properties of Sri Lankan low grown orthodox orange pekoe grade black tea. Methods: Freeze dried black tea brew (BTB) was used as the sample in this study. Anti-glycation and glycation reversing activity was studied in bovine serum albumin (BSA)-MGO model. Antioxidant properties were studied using total polyphenolic content, total flavonoid content, 2,2’-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid, 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazine and ferric reducing antioxidant power in vitro antioxidant assays. Results: The results demonstrated significant (P Conclusions: The novel properties observed for Sri Lankan orange pekoe grade black tea indicate its usefulness as a supplementary beverage in managing MGO and advanced glycation end products related diseases and ailments.

  9. In vitro anti-hyaluronidase activity of Sri Lankan low grown orthodox orange pekoe grade black tea (Camellia sinensis L.)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wanigasekera Daya Ratnasooriya

    2014-01-01

    To access the anti-hyaluronidase activity of Sri Lankan low grown orthodox orange pekoe (OP) grade black tea with a view to develop an anti-aging skin formulation. Methods: Five concentrations (0.125, 0.250, 0.500, 1.000 and 2.000 mg/mL) of black tea brew (BTB) were made using a freeze dried sample of Sri Lankan low grown orthodox OP grade black tea which was prepared according to international organization for standardization specification. Epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) was used as the reference agent (concentrations tested: 0.012, 0.025, 0.050, 0.100 and 0.200 mg/mL). Anti-hyaluronidase activity of BTB and EGCG in vitro were ascertained spectrometrically using hyaluronic acid (from rooster comb) and bovine testicular hyaluronidase. Results: The results revealed that BTB had moderate [IC50=(1.09±0.12) mg/mL] and dose dependent (r2=0.94) anti-hyaluronidase activity. EGCG also exhibited dose dependent (r2=0.93, P<0.05) anti-hyaluronidase activity which was superior [IC50=(0.09±0.00) mg/mL] to BTB. Conclusions: Sri Lankan low grown orthodox OP grade black tea has promising anti-hyaluronidase activity in vitro and has the potential to be used as an anti-aging cosmaceutical. In addition, it may prove useful as a beverage in the management of allergy, some joint diseases and envenomation.

  10. DETERMINATION OF FLAVONOIDS AND ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITY IN LAPHET LABORATORY PROCESS AND TEA (CAMELLIA SINENSIS) PRODUCTS BETWEEN CHINA AND MYANMAR

    OpenAIRE

    Pyie Phyo Maung; Qian He

    2013-01-01

    In this study, the effect of extraction method on the flavonoids and antioxidant activity was investigated. The flavonoid contents of Laphet(fermented pickled tea leaves) possessed more than twice as much than fresh tea leaves. Chinese green tea had higher flavonoid contents than Myanmar green tea. But Myanmar black tea’s flavonoid contents were higher. In laphet, both countries tea’s products possessed similar contents. Antioxidant activity of tea extracts were determined by using DPPH assay...

  11. Effect of extraction time on antioxidants and bioactive volatile components of green tea (Camellia sinensis, using GC/MS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mudasir Ahmad

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Two green tea types, leaf grade and sanding, were extracted at different time intervals: 20, 40, and 120 min at a constant temperature of 50°C. The extracts were analyzed by GC/MS technique. The major compounds identified were myristic acid, palmitic acid, stearic acid, oleic acid, 1H-purine-2,6-dione, caffeine, linoleic acid, diethyl ester, and 1H-purine-6-amine. Stearic acid, palmitic acid, linoleic acid, and myristic acid were more abundantly present in the leaf-grade variety than sanding. However, some levels of acetic acid, cyclobutanol, hexadecanoic acid, octadecanoic acid, 9-octadecenoic acid, and caffeine were also found in both the tea types. Most of the volatile compounds were detected between 20–40-min time of extraction. The 40-min time of extraction also showed the maximum content of polyphenols and antioxidants in both the tea types. Thus, 40 min was suggested as the most suitable time for maximum extraction of bioactive volatiles, antioxidants, and polyphenols from green tea.

  12. A biochemical study on ameliorative effect of green tea (Camellia sinensis) extract against contrast media induced acute kidney injury

    OpenAIRE

    Nasri, Hamid; Ahmadi, Ali; Baradaran, Azar; Nasri, Parto; Hajian, Shabnam; Pour-Arian, Armita; Kohi, Golnoosh; Rafieian-Kopaei, Mahmoud

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Reactive oxygen species have been shown to be mediators of kidney injury and green tea polyphenols are potent-free radical scavengers.Objectives: In this study we sought to examine whether green tea was able to protect renal toxicity induced by contrast media or not. Materials and Methods: In this experimental study 40 rats were randomly divided into four groups including: 1) control group 2) contrast media group 3) contrast media plus green tea 4) Green tea pretreatment and con...

  13. Comparative dynamics of tea (Camellia sinensis L.) roots under organic and conventional management systems with special reference to water use

    OpenAIRE

    Mohotti, Dr (Mrs) A. J; Damayanthi, Mrs N; Anandacoomaraswamy, Dr A; Mohotti, Dr K. M

    2008-01-01

    Comparative measurements were carried out in the on-going, long-term organic and conventional comparison “TRI OR-CON” trial at the Tea Research Institute of Sri Lanka. The tea was grown organically using tea waste (TW), neem oil cake (NOC), compost (COM) as soil amendments using IFOAM guidelines, which were compared with tea grown conventionally (CONV) with recommended synthetic inputs. Responses of the tea yield, root system and mass volume sap flow were studied. The tea bushes showed com...

  14. Dissipation Pattern, Processing Factors, and Safety Evaluation for Dimethoate and Its Metabolite (Omethoate in Tea (Camellia Sinensis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rong Pan

    Full Text Available Residue levels of dimethoate and its oxon metabolite (omethoate during tea planting, manufacturing, and brewing were investigated using a modified QuEChERS sample preparation and gas chromatography. Dissipation of dimethoate and its metabolite in tea plantation followed the first-order kinetic with a half-life of 1.08-1.27 d. Tea manufacturing has positive effects on dimethoate dissipation. Processing factors of dimethoate are in the range of 2.11-2.41 and 1.41-1.70 during green tea and black tea manufacturing, respectively. Omethoate underwent generation as well as dissipation during tea manufacturing. Sum of dimethoate and omethoate led to a large portion of 80.5-84.9% transferring into tea infusion. Results of safety evaluation indicated that omethoate could bring higher human health risk than dimethoate due to its higher hazard quotient by drinking tea. These results would provide information for the establishment of maximum residue limit and instruction for the application of dimethoate formulation on tea crop.

  15. Effects of green tea (camellia sinensis on liver histology of mice on high fat diet: a morphometric study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To evaluate the effects of green tea on liver histology of mice on high fat diet. Study Design: Analytical experimental randomized control trial. Place and Duration of Study: Department of Anatomy in collaboration with the Department of Pathology, Army Medical College, Rawalpindi and National Institute of Health, Islamabad. Twelve weeks study. Material and Methods: Sixty adult mice, Balb-c, strain were selected and divided into three groups. The control group was given standard laboratory diet throughout the study. In experimental group A, the study was carried out in two phases. In the first phase, hepatic steatosis was induced by high fat diet containing 4 percent cholesterol powder and 40 percent butter fat for six weeks. In the second phase, experimental group was given normal diet with 1 percent green tea over a period of next six weeks. The experimental group B was given high fat diet containing 4 percent cholesterol powder and 40 percent butter fat with 1 percent green tea over a period of twelve weeks. Ten mice in each group were sacrificed at six weeks and remaining ten were sacrificed at twelve weeks.Results: High fat diet for six weeks produced significant hepatic steatosis, evident on histological analysis. When experimental group A (induction phase) with high fat diet was compared with the (reversal phase) on normal diet and green tea, statistically significant difference (p<0.05) was noted in terms of liver histology. Green tea reverted all parameters in experimental group B, which though reduced never reached the control value and remained somewhat elevated. Conclusion: It is therefore concluded that green tea protects against the development of hepatic steatosis and reduces hepatic injury in mice. (author)

  16. Genetic integrity of somaclonal variants in tea (Camellia sinensis (L.) O Kuntze) as revealed by inter simple sequence repeats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Jibu; Vijayan, Deepu; Joshi, Sarvottam D; Joseph Lopez, S; Raj Kumar, R

    2006-05-17

    Adoption of inter simple sequence repeats (ISSR) technique to analyze the genetic variability of somatic embryo derived tea plants was evaluated. Morphological characterisation of the field grown plants revealed no identical character aligning with the parent, UPASI-10. Out of 40 primers, 15 exhibited concurrent polymorphism were selected for the study. Genetic variability of somaclones derived from single line cotyledonary culture ranged from 33.0 to 55.0%. A unique fragment of 1.2Kb was visible in majority of the accessions whereas the fragments below the length of 0.6Kb were noticed only in 50% of the variants. Out of 120 interactions attempted using Pearson's coefficient correlation, only 9.2% of somaclones exhibited significant similarity at genetic level. Dendrogram constructed based on simple matching coefficient revealed a distance of 2.257-3.317 between the final clusters. This strengthens the existence of wide genetic variation among the somaclones. PMID:16360228

  17. Flavonoids and fatty acids of Camellia japonica leaves extract

    OpenAIRE

    Cinthia M. Azuma; Flávia Cristina S. dos Santos; João Henrique G. Lago

    2011-01-01

    The ethanol extract from the leaves of Camellia japonica L., Theaceae, showed antiradical potential in the DPPH test using TLC plates (SiO2). Aiming the isolation of active compounds, this extract was partitioned between BuOH:H2O (1:1) and the two obtained phases were also evaluated to detection of antiradical activity. The active BuOH phase was fractionated in Sephadex LH-20 and silica (normal or reverse phase) to afford three aglycone flavonoids (quercetin, kaempferol and apigenin), which h...

  18. Flavonoid triglycosides from the seeds of Camellia oleifera Abel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Chun Du; Bei Li Wu; Jian Min Chen

    2008-01-01

    Two flavonoid triglycosides,kaempferol 3-O-{β-D-glucopyranosyl-(1→2)-[a-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→6)]-β-D-glucopyra-noside} (1) and kaempferol 3-O-{β-D-xylopyranosyl-(1→2)-[a-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→6)]-[β-D-glucopyranoside} (2),were isolated from the seed of Camellia oleifera Abel.The absolute configuration of compound I was established on the basis of its X-ray analysis.Their cytotoxic activities and anti-HIV-RT activities were evaluated.

  19. Anti-inflammatory activity of Camellia japonica oil

    OpenAIRE

    Seungbeom Kim; Eunsun Jung; Seungwoo Shin; Moohan Kim; Young-Soo Kim; Jongsung Lee; Deokhoon Park

    2012-01-01

    Camellia japonica oil (CJ oil) has been used traditionally in EastAsia to nourish and soothe the skin as well as help restore theelasticity of skin. CJ oil has also been used on all types ofbleeding instances. However, little is known about itsanti-inflammatory effects. Therefore, the anti-inflammatoryeffects of CJ oil and its mechanisms of action were investigated.CJ oil inhibited LPS-induced production of NO, PGE2, andTNF-α in RAW264.7 cells. In addition, expression of COX-2and iNOS genes w...

  20. Zero-correlation linear cryptanalysis with FFT and improved attacks on ISO standards Camellia and CLEFIA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bogdanov, Andrey; Geng, Huizheng; Wang, Meiqin;

    2014-01-01

    Zero-correlation linear cryptanalysis is based on the linear approximations with correlation exactly zero, which essentially generalizes the integral property, and has already been applied to several block ciphers - among others, yielding best known attacks to date on round-reduced TEA and CAST-256...... Camellia. Namely, we present zero-correlation attacks on 11-round Camellia-128 and 12-round Camellia-192 with FL/FL-1 and whitening key starting from the first round, which is an improvement in the number of attacked rounds in both cases. Moreover, we provide multidimensional zero-correlation cryptanalysis...

  1. High Diversity of the Fungal Community Structure in Naturally-Occurring Ophiocordyceps sinensis

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Yongjie; Zhang, Shu; Wang, Mu; Bai, Fengyan; Liu, Xingzhong

    2010-01-01

    Background Ophiocordyceps sinensis (syn. Cordyceps sinensis), which is a parasite of caterpillars and is endemic to alpine regions on the Tibetan Plateau, is one of the most valuable medicinal fungi in the world. “Natural O. sinensis specimens” harbor various other fungi. Several of these other fungi that have been isolated from natural O. sinensis specimens have similar chemical components and/or pharmaceutical effects as O. sinensis. Nevertheless, the mycobiota of natural O. sinensis specim...

  2. High Diversity of the Fungal Community Structure in Naturally-Occurring Ophiocordyceps sinensis

    OpenAIRE

    Yongjie Zhang; Shu Zhang; Mu Wang; Fengyan Bai; Xingzhong Liu

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Ophiocordyceps sinensis (syn. Cordyceps sinensis), which is a parasite of caterpillars and is endemic to alpine regions on the Tibetan Plateau, is one of the most valuable medicinal fungi in the world. "Natural O. sinensis specimens" harbor various other fungi. Several of these other fungi that have been isolated from natural O. sinensis specimens have similar chemical components and/or pharmaceutical effects as O. sinensis. Nevertheless, the mycobiota of natural O. sinensis speci...

  3. The Chemical Constituents and Pharmacological Actions of Cordyceps sinensis

    OpenAIRE

    Yi Liu; Jihui Wang; Wei Wang; Hanyue Zhang; Xuelan Zhang; Chunchao Han

    2015-01-01

    Cordyceps sinensis, also called DongChongXiaCao (winter worm, summer grass) in Chinese, is becoming increasingly popular and important in the public and scientific communities. This study summarizes the chemical constituents and their corresponding pharmacological actions of Cordyceps sinensis. Many bioactive components of Cordyceps sinensis have been extracted including nucleoside, polysaccharide, sterol, protein, amino acid, and polypeptide. In addition, these constituents’ corresponding ph...

  4. Culture of Eriocheir sinensis Larvae in Ponds in Greenhouse

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guoliang RUAN; Liangcheng HU; Hai ZHOU; Dawen MA; Yabin TANG

    2016-01-01

    A total of 15 pools were selected from a greenhouse, and they were randomly and evenly divided into three groups. In each group, one stocking density of Eriocheir sinensis was arranged. The results showed that after 45-d culture, the crab number per kilogram reached about 300 with survival rate of about 20%; the initial stocking density had significantly effect on the body size of E. sinensis on sel , instead on the survival rate of E. sinensis larvae. Therefore, it is feasible to conduct the culture of E. sinensis larvae in a pool in greenhouse.

  5. Arms race between weevil rostrum length and camellia pericarp thickness: Geographical cline and theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iseki, Naoyuki; Sasaki, Akira; Toju, Hirokazu

    2011-09-21

    The geographical cline of the coevolving traits of weevil rostrum (mouthpart) length and camellia pericarp (fruit coat) thickness provides an opportunity to test the arms race theory of defense (pericarp thickness) and countermeasure (rostrum length) between antagonistically interacting species. By extending the previous model for the coevolution of quantitative traits to introduce nonlinear costs for exaggerated traits, the generation overlap, and density-dependent regulation in the host, we studied the evolutionarily stable (ES) pericarp thickness in the Japanese camellia (Camellia japonica) and the ES rostrum length in the camellia-weevil (Curculio camelliae). The joint monomorphic ES system has a robust outcome with nonlinear costs, and we analyzed how the traits of both species at evolutionary equilibrium depend on demographic parameters. If camellia demographic parameters vary latitudinally, data collected over the geographical scale of rostrum length and pericarp thickness should lie on an approximately linear curve with the slope less than that of the equiprobability line A/B of boring success, where A and B are coefficients for the logistic regression of boring success to pericarp thickness and rostrum length, respectively. This is a robust prediction as long as the cost of rostrum length is nonlinear (accelerating). As a result, boring success should be lower in populations with longer rostrum length, as reported in the weevil-camellia system (Toju, H., and Sota, T., 2006a. Imbalance of predator and prey armament: Geographic clines in phenotypic interface and natural selection. American Naturalist 167, 105-117). The nonlinearity (exponent) for the cost of rostrum length estimated from the geographical cline data for the weevil-camellia system was 2.2, suggesting nonlinearity between quadratic and cubic forms. PMID:21651915

  6. Fine-scale local adaptation of weevil mouthpart length and camellia pericarp thickness: altitudinal gradient of a putative arms race.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toju, Hirokazu

    2008-05-01

    Although coevolutionary theory predicts that evolutionary interactions between species are spatially hierarchical, few studies have examined coevolutionary processes at multiple spatial scales. In an antagonistic system involving a plant, the Japanese camellia (Camellia japonica), and its obligate seed predator, the camellia weevil (Curculio camelliae), I elucidated the local adaptation of a camellia defensive armament (pericarp thickness) and a weevil offensive armament (rostrum length) within Yakushima Island (ca. 30 km in diameter), compared to a larger-scale variation in those traits throughout Japan reported in previous studies. Results showed that camellia pericarp thickness and weevil rostrum length vary remarkably within several kilometers on this island. In addition, geographic variation in each camellia and weevil armament was best explained by the armament size of the sympatric participant than by abiotic environmental heterogeneity. However, I also found that camellia pericarp thickness significantly decreased in cool-temperate (i.e., highland) areas, suggesting the contributions of climate on the spatial structuring of the weevil-camellia interaction. Interestingly, relatively thin pericarps occurred not only in the highlands but also in some low-altitude areas, indicating that other factors such as nonrandom or asymmetric gene flow play important roles in the metapopulation processes of interspecific interactions at small spatial scales. PMID:18266990

  7. Mutagenesis of hibiscus rosa-sinensis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mutation induction is an alternative method to create more variation in Hibiscus rosa-sinensis. Radiosensitivity test was carried out to determine the effective doses for irradiation of stem cuttings. Stem cuttings of Hibiscus rosa-sinensis were irradiated at 10, 20, 30 and 60 Gy using a gamma cell with a Co-60 source at a dose rate of 1.66 Gys-1. Irradiated stem cuttings were planted in sand-beds and data on the number of growing shoots were taken. Increasing gamma ray doses resulted in a reduction of growing shoots on the irradiated stem cuttings. It was shown that the LD50 for the stem cuttings was 36.2 Gy and at 75% growth was 17.15 Gy. Based on these results, 20 to 30 Gy were chosen for irradiation of the stem cuttings to induce mutation in Hibiscus rosa-sinensis. Irradiated stem cuttings were then planted into sand-beds for rooting. After one month, the rooted stems were transferred into polybags and allowed to grow under 70% shade provided by plastic netting and the variants were subsequently observed. Three variants with variation in flower shapes and colours were obtained. (Author)

  8. Longidorus camelliae n. sp. (Nematoda: Longidoridae) associated with ornamental cultivars of Camellia japonica L. growing in a nursery at Fuyang, Zhejiang Province, eastern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, J; Peneva, V; Brown, D J

    2000-10-01

    A description is provided of Longidorus camelliae n. sp., a bisexual species associated with ornamental cultivars of Camellia japonica L. growing in Fuyang, Zhejiang Province, eastern China. The species is characterised by its small body length (1.83-3.54 mm), narrow (6-10 microm), anteriorly flattened, continuous head region, non-bilobed amphidial pouches, medium odontostyle length (80-91, microm) and elongate, conoid tail (32-39 microm; c' = 1.1-1.4). Males are characterised by having short spicules (44-48 microm) and a row of seven supplements. The species has only three juvenile development stages. PMID:10966219

  9. Antioxidant Effects of the Ethanol Extract from Flower of Camellia japonica via Scavenging of Reactive Oxygen Species and Induction of Antioxidant Enzymes

    OpenAIRE

    Piao, Mei Jing; Yoo, Eun Sook; Koh, Young Sang; Kang, Hee Kyoung; Kim, Junoh; Kim, Yong Jin; Kang, Hak Hee; Hyun, Jin Won

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the antioxidant properties of the ethanol extract of the flower of Camellia japonica (Camellia extract). Camellia extract exhibited 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical and intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavenging activity in human HaCaT keratinocytes. In addition, Camellia extract scavenged superoxide anion generated by xanthine/xanthine oxidase and hydroxyl radical generated by the Fenton reaction (FeSO4 + H2O2) in a cell-free system, ...

  10. Flavonoids and fatty acids of Camellia japonica leaves extract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cinthia M. Azuma

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The ethanol extract from the leaves of Camellia japonica L., Theaceae, showed antiradical potential in the DPPH test using TLC plates (SiO2. Aiming the isolation of active compounds, this extract was partitioned between BuOH:H2O (1:1 and the two obtained phases were also evaluated to detection of antiradical activity. The active BuOH phase was fractionated in Sephadex LH-20 and silica (normal or reverse phase to afford three aglycone flavonoids (quercetin, kaempferol and apigenin, which have been described in the C. japonica at first time, two glycosilated flavonoids (rutin and quercetrin, and a mixture of saturated fatty acids. The structures of isolated compounds were defined by NMR and GC/MS analyses.

  11. Triterpenoids from Camellia japonica and their cytotoxic activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thao, Nguyen Thi Phuong; Hung, Tran Manh; Lee, Mi Kyoung; Kim, Jin Cheol; Min, Byung Sun; Bae, KiHwan

    2010-01-01

    From the ethyl acetate fraction of the stem bark of Camellia japonica, three new triterpenoids, 3beta-O-acetyl-16beta-hydroxy-12-oxoolean (6), 3beta-O-acetyl-16beta-hydroxy-11-oxoolean-12-ene (7), and 3beta-O-acetyl-16beta-hydroxyolean-12-ene (8), along with seven known compounds, 3alpha-hydroxy-1-oxofriedelan (1), friedelin (2), 3beta-friedelanol (3), canophyllol (4), 3-oxofriedelan-1(2)-ene (5), beta-amyrin (9), camellenodiol (10), and camelledionol (11) were isolated. Their structures were established on the basis of spectroscopic analysis and chemical evidence. The isolated compounds were tested in vitro for their cytotoxic activities against the A549, LLC, HL-60 and MCF-7 cancer cell lines. Among them, compound 8 showed cytotoxicity against LLC and HL-60 cancer cell lines with IC(50) values of 25.2 and 21.7 microM, respectively. PMID:20045980

  12. Hemicellulose of the pollen tube wall of Camellia japonica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, N; Yoshida, K; Suzuki, H

    1980-12-01

    Successive fractionation of the pollen tube wall polysaccharides of Camellia japonica was carried out to analyze the sugar composition of each fraction. The hemicellulose fraction extracted with dimethylsulfoxide accounted for about 47% of the pollen tube wall. A purified preparation of this fraction was comprised essentially of glucose. A low specific rotation ([α]d = +6° in 1 n NaOH) and an absorption at 890 cm(-1) of the purified glucan indicated the β-configuration. This glucan was shown to be a callose-like β-1,3-d-glucan by periodate oxidation, Smith degradation and methylation studies. The degree of polymerization of the glucan was calculated to be 21 from methylation analysis and determination of the reducing end-group. PMID:25385955

  13. Two new flavonoid diglycosides from Cephalotaxus sinensis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Two new acetylated flavonoid diglycosides, scutellarein-5-O-[α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1 → 4)-β-D-6-O-acetylglucopyranoside](1), apigenin-5-O-[α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→ 2)-β-D-3,6-di-O-acetylglucopyranoside] (2), were isolated from the leaves of Cephalotaxus sinensis. Their structures were determined by chemical and spectroscopic methods including HR-FAB-MS,1H-1H COSY, HSQC and HMBC experiments.(C) 2007 Yu Hong Yu. Published by Elsevier B.V. on behalf of Chinese Chemical Society. All rights reserved.

  14. A new hydrochalcone from Miliusa sinensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thuy, Tran Thi Thanh; Quan, Tran Duc; Anh, Nguyen Thi Hoang; Van Sung, Tran

    2011-08-01

    A new dihydrochalcone 4',6'-dihydroxy-2',3',4-trimethoxydihydrochalcone (1) along with nine known compounds, pashanone (2), dihydropashanone (3), pinostrobin (4), 5-hydroxy-7,4'-dimethoxyflavanone (5), 5-hydroxy-6,7-dimethoxyflavanone (6), 5-hydroxy-7,8-dimethoxyflavanone (7), 24-methylencycloartane-3β,21-diol (8), liriodenine (9) and 3,5-dihydroxy-7,3',4'-trimethoxyflavone (10), were isolated from the extracts, exhibiting cytotoxic activity (n-hexane and ethyl acetate extracts) of Miliusa sinensis. The structure of (1) was elucidated by the analysis of spectral data (IR, HR-MS, EI-MS, 1D and 2D NMR). PMID:21859261

  15. Antioxidant effects of the ethanol extract from flower of Camellia japonica via scavenging of reactive oxygen species and induction of antioxidant enzymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piao, Mei Jing; Yoo, Eun Sook; Koh, Young Sang; Kang, Hee Kyoung; Kim, Junoh; Kim, Yong Jin; Kang, Hak Hee; Hyun, Jin Won

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the antioxidant properties of the ethanol extract of the flower of Camellia japonica (Camellia extract). Camellia extract exhibited 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical and intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavenging activity in human HaCaT keratinocytes. In addition, Camellia extract scavenged superoxide anion generated by xanthine/xanthine oxidase and hydroxyl radical generated by the Fenton reaction (FeSO(4) + H(2)O(2)) in a cell-free system, which was detected by electron spin resonance spectrometry. Furthermore, Camellia extract increased the protein expressions and activity of cellular antioxidant enzymes, such as superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione peroxidase. These results suggest that Camellia extract exhibits antioxidant properties by scavenging ROS and enhancing antioxidant enzymes. Camellia extract contained quercetin, quercetin-3-O-glucoside, quercitrin and kaempferol, which are antioxidant compounds. PMID:21731461

  16. Antioxidant Effects of the Ethanol Extract from Flower of Camellia japonica via Scavenging of Reactive Oxygen Species and Induction of Antioxidant Enzymes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junoh Kim

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the antioxidant properties of the ethanol extract of the flower of Camellia japonica (Camellia extract. Camellia extract exhibited 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical and intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS scavenging activity in human HaCaT keratinocytes. In addition, Camellia extract scavenged superoxide anion generated by xanthine/xanthine oxidase and hydroxyl radical generated by the Fenton reaction (FeSO4 + H2O2 in a cell-free system, which was detected by electron spin resonance spectrometry. Furthermore, Camellia extract increased the protein expressions and activity of cellular antioxidant enzymes, such as superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione peroxidase. These results suggest that Camellia extract exhibits antioxidant properties by scavenging ROS and enhancing antioxidant enzymes. Camellia extract contained quercetin, quercetin-3-O-glucoside, quercitrin and kaempferol, which are antioxidant compounds.

  17. PERBANDINGAN APLIKASI MENGGUNAKAN METODE CAMELLIA 128 BIT KEY DAN 256 BIT KEY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lanny Sutanto

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The rapid development of the Internet today to easily exchange data. This leads to high levels of risk in the data piracy. One of the ways to secure data is using cryptography camellia. Camellia is known as a method that has the encryption and decryption time is fast. Camellia method has three kinds of scale key is 128 bit, 192 bit, and 256 bit.This application is created using the C++ programming language and using visual studio 2010 GUI. This research compare the smallest and largest key size used on the file extension .Txt, .Doc, .Docx, .Jpg, .Mp4, .Mkv and .Flv. This application is made to comparing time and level of security in the use of 128-bit key and 256 bits. The comparison is done by comparing the results of the security value of avalanche effect 128 bit key and 256 bit key.

  18. Study of One Physical Property of Oil-Tea Camellia Heated by Microwave

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Zhou

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we have a research of the physical properties of oil tea camellia fruit, which is one of the important and native ecological plants in China. One important physical property was studied; it was one crack type of oil-tea camellia fruit while heated by microwave. The fruit’s diameters, quality, crack lengths were measured and fruit crack pictures in different time were taken in the heated process, the results showed that about 38% crack type was near -120º and the crack was produced almost at the time after it was heated about 60 sec. So the microwave heating method is more rapid to separate the oil-tea camellia fruit and seeds than other traditional methods. The theory of crack was also analyzed, formula relation of Kic and E was obtained after calculated.

  19. Transcriptome analysis of the oil-rich tea plant, Camellia oleifera, reveals candidate genes related to lipid metabolism.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    En-Hua Xia

    Full Text Available Rapidly driven by the need for developing sustainable sources of nutritionally important fatty acids and the rising concerns about environmental impacts after using fossil oil, oil-plants have received increasing awareness nowadays. As an important oil-rich plant in China, Camellia oleifera has played a vital role in providing nutritional applications, biofuel productions and chemical feedstocks. However, the lack of C. oleifera genome sequences and little genetic information have largely hampered the urgent needs for efficient utilization of the abundant germplasms towards modern breeding efforts of this woody oil-plant.Here, using the 454 GS-FLX sequencing platform, we generated approximately 600,000 RNA-Seq reads from four tissues of C. oleifera. These reads were trimmed and assembled into 104,842 non-redundant putative transcripts with a total length of ∼38.9 Mb, representing more than 218-fold of all the C. oleifera sequences currently deposited in the GenBank (as of March 2014. Based on the BLAST similarity searches, nearly 42.6% transcripts could be annotated with known genes, conserved domains, or Gene Ontology (GO terms. Comparisons with the cultivated tea tree, C. sinensis, identified 3,022 pairs of orthologs, of which 211 exhibited the evidence under positive selection. Pathway analysis detected the majority of genes potentially related to lipid metabolism. Evolutionary analysis of omega-6 fatty acid desaturase (FAD2 genes among 20 oil-plants unexpectedly suggests that a parallel evolution may occur between C. oleifera and Olea oleifera. Additionally, more than 2,300 simple sequence repeats (SSRs and 20,200 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs were detected in the C. oleifera transcriptome.The generated transcriptome represents a considerable increase in the number of sequences deposited in the public databases, providing an unprecedented opportunity to discover all related-genes associated with lipid metabolic pathway in C

  20. Anti-inflammatory activity of Camellia japonica oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seungbeom Kim

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Camellia japonica oil (CJ oil has been used traditionally in EastAsia to nourish and soothe the skin as well as help restore theelasticity of skin. CJ oil has also been used on all types ofbleeding instances. However, little is known about itsanti-inflammatory effects. Therefore, the anti-inflammatoryeffects of CJ oil and its mechanisms of action were investigated.CJ oil inhibited LPS-induced production of NO, PGE2, andTNF-α in RAW264.7 cells. In addition, expression of COX-2and iNOS genes was reduced. To evaluate the mechanism ofthe anti-inflammatory activity of CJ oil, LPS-induced activationof AP-1 and NF-κB promoters was found to be significantlyreduced by CJ oil. LPS-induced phosphorylation of IκBα, ERK,p38, and JNK was also attenuated. Our results indicate that CJoil exerts anti-inflammatory effects by downregulating theexpression of iNOS and COX-2 genes through inhibition ofNF-κB and AP-1 signaling. [BMB reports 2012; 45(3: 177-182

  1. Anti-inflammatory activity of Camellia japonica oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Seungbeom; Jung, Eunsun; Shin, Seungwoo; Kim, Moohan; Kim, Young-Soo; Lee, Jongsung; Park, Deokhoon

    2012-03-01

    Camellia japonica oil (CJ oil) has been used traditionally in East Asia to nourish and soothe the skin as well as help restore the elasticity of skin. CJ oil has also been used on all types of bleeding instances. However, little is known about its anti-inflammatory effects. Therefore, the anti-inflammatory effects of CJ oil and its mechanisms of action were investigated. CJ oil inhibited LPS-induced production of NO, PGE(2), and TNF-α in RAW264.7 cells. In addition, expression of COX-2 and iNOS genes was reduced. To evaluate the mechanism of the anti-inflammatory activity of CJ oil, LPS-induced activation of AP-1 and NF-κB promoters was found to be significantly reduced by CJ oil. LPS-induced phosphorylation of IκBα, ERK, p38, and JNK was also attenuated. Our results indicate that CJ oil exerts anti-inflammatory effects by downregulating the expression of iNOS and COX-2 genes through inhibition of NF-κB and AP-1 signaling. [BMB reports 2012; 45(3): 177-182]. PMID:22449705

  2. Draft Genome Sequence of Paecilomyces hepiali, Isolated from Cordyceps sinensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yi; Wang, Wenting; Wang, Linping; Pang, Fang; Guo, Lanping; Song, Lai; Liu, Guiming; Feng, Chengqiang

    2016-01-01

    Paecilomyces hepiali is an endoparasitic fungus that commonly exists in the natural Cordyceps sinensis Here, we report the draft genome sequence of P. hepiali, which will facilitate the exploitation of medicinal compounds produced by the fungus. PMID:27389266

  3. Structural analysis and immunostimulatory activity of glycopeptides from Paecilomyces sinensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Zhen-Yuan; Meng, Meng; Sun, Huiqing; Li, Yang; Yu, Na; Zhang, Yong-Min

    2016-03-01

    The parasitic fungus, Paecilomyces sinensis, is used to produce Cordyceps materials as a succedaneum of natural Cordyceps sinensis (C. sinensis) in China. In this work, a glycopeptide (CPS-II) was isolated and purified from Paecilomyces sinensis. The result of HPLC indicated that CPS-II was a glycopeptide. The estimated average molecular weight of CPS-II was 2 × 10(6) Da. FTIR, methylation, periodate oxidation, Smith degradation, (1)H NMR, (13)C NMR and CD were used for its structural analysis. The glycopeptide CPS-II was mainly composed of (1 → 3), (1 → 4) connected glucose and galactose as the backbone, there are (1 → 2,3,6) connected glucose, (1 → 3,6) connected mannose, and (1 → 6) connected galactose. Cell proliferation assay and morphological observations indicated that in a certain range of concentrations and time, CPS-II can significantly improve the proliferation activity of RAW264.7 cells. PMID:26912165

  4. Draft Genome Sequence of Paecilomyces hepiali, Isolated from Cordyceps sinensis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yi; Wang, Wenting; Wang, Linping; Pang, Fang; Guo, Lanping; Song, Lai

    2016-01-01

    Paecilomyces hepiali is an endoparasitic fungus that commonly exists in the natural Cordyceps sinensis. Here, we report the draft genome sequence of P. hepiali, which will facilitate the exploitation of medicinal compounds produced by the fungus. PMID:27389266

  5. Efficacy and Safety of Tribendimidine Against Clonorchis sinensis

    OpenAIRE

    Qian, Men-Bao; Yap, Peiling; Yang, Yi-Chao; Liang, Hai; Jiang, Zhi-Hua; Li, Wei; Tan, Yu-Guang; Zhou, Hui; Utzinger, Jürg; Zhou, Xiao-Nong; Keiser, Jennifer

    2012-01-01

    In this randomized open-label trial, tribendimidine was shown to have an efficacy comparable to praziquantel for the treatment of Clonorchis sinensis infection. Patients treated with praziquantel experienced significantly more adverse events than tribendimidine recipients.

  6. Host insect species of Ophiocordyceps sinensis: a review

    OpenAIRE

    Xiao-Liang Wang; Yi-Jian Yao

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Ophiocordyceps sinensis (≡ Cordyceps sinensis ) is one of the most valued medicinal fungi in China, used for its invigorating effects in strengthening the body and restoring energy. The fungus parasitizes larvae of moths and converts them into sclerotia from which the fungus fruiting body grows. Since the late 1950s, considerable effort has been devoted to the study of host insects related to the fungus. In the present paper, the research history of insect species associated with Oph...

  7. Traditional uses and medicinal potential of Cordyceps sinensis of Sikkim

    OpenAIRE

    Ashok Kumar Panda; Kailash Chandra Swain

    2011-01-01

    Cordyceps sinensis has been described as a medicine in old Chinese medical books and Tibetan medicine. It is a rare combination of a caterpillar and a fungus and found at altitudes above 4500m in Sikkim. Traditional healers and local people of North Sikkim recommend the mushroom, i.e., Yarsa gumba, Keera jhar (C. sinensis ) for all diseases either as a single drug or combined with other herbs. The present study was undertaken to collect information regarding the traditional uses of cordyceps ...

  8. Effects of Citrus sinensis juice on blood pressure

    OpenAIRE

    Asgary, Sedigheh; keshvari, Mahtab

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND Citrus sinensis juice (CSJ) is a rich source of dietary flavonoids which reduce the risk of adverse cardiovascular events. This study aimed to examine the effects of four-week intake of natural and commercial orange (Citrus sinensis) juice on blood pressure in healthy volunteers. METHODS In this single-blind randomized crossover study, 22 healthy subjects (age: 18-59 years old) were included and randomly divided into two groups of 11. Group A consumed commercial CSJ during the firs...

  9. Developmental transcriptomic features of the carcinogenic liver fluke, Clonorchis sinensis.

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    Won Gi Yoo

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Clonorchis sinensis is the causative agent of the life-threatening disease endemic to China, Korea, and Vietnam. It is estimated that about 15 million people are infected with this fluke. C. sinensis provokes inflammation, epithelial hyperplasia, and periductal fibrosis in bile ducts, and may cause cholangiocarcinoma in chronically infected individuals. Accumulation of a large amount of biological information about the adult stage of this liver fluke in recent years has advanced our understanding of the pathological interplay between this parasite and its hosts. However, no developmental gene expression profiles of C. sinensis have been published. In this study, we generated gene expression profiles of three developmental stages of C. sinensis by analyzing expressed sequence tags (ESTs. Complementary DNA libraries were constructed from the adult, metacercaria, and egg developmental stages of C. sinensis. A total of 52,745 ESTs were generated and assembled into 12,830 C. sinensis assembled EST sequences, and then these assemblies were further categorized into groups according to biological functions and developmental stages. Most of the genes that were differentially expressed in the different stages were consistent with the biological and physical features of the particular developmental stage; high energy metabolism, motility and reproduction genes were differentially expressed in adults, minimal metabolism and final host adaptation genes were differentially expressed in metacercariae, and embryonic genes were differentially expressed in eggs. The higher expression of glucose transporters, proteases, and antioxidant enzymes in the adults accounts for active uptake of nutrients and defense against host immune attacks. The types of ion channels present in C. sinensis are consistent with its parasitic nature and phylogenetic placement in the tree of life. We anticipate that the transcriptomic information on essential regulators of development

  10. Host insect species of Ophiocordyceps sinensis: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-Liang Wang

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Ophiocordyceps sinensis (≡ Cordyceps sinensis is one of the most valued medicinal fungi in China, used for its invigorating effects in strengthening the body and restoring energy. The fungus parasitizes larvae of moths and converts them into sclerotia from which the fungus fruiting body grows. Since the late 1950s, considerable effort has been devoted to the study of host insects related to the fungus. In the present paper, the research history of insect species associated with O. sinensis is briefly reviewed and an extensive literature survey is presented. Ninety-one insect names, spanning 13 genera, related to host insects of O. sinensis are investigated. The relationships between the reported insect species and O. sinensis are analyzed. Fifty-seven of these are considered as recognizable potential host species of the fungus distributed throughout the Tibetan Plateau, whilst eight are considered as indeterminate hosts and 26 as non-hosts. Among the names of recognizable potential host insects, three are invalid (nomen nudum and require further study. This work provides basic information for management of the insect resources and for the conservation and sustainable use of O. sinensis.

  11. Potential cytoplasmic inheritance in Wisteria sinensis and Robinia pseudoacacia (Leguminosae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yufei; Zhang, Quan; Sodmergen

    2005-07-01

    We examined pollen cells of Wisteria sinensis and Robinia pseudoacacia (Leguminosae) to determine a possible mode for cytoplasmic inheritance in these species. Epifluorescence microscopy revealed distinct mature generative cells. Mature generative cells of W. sinensis were associated with large numbers of punctuated fluorescent signals corresponding to cytoplasmic DNA aggregates, but no fluorescent signals were observed in the generative cells of R. pseudoacacia. Closer examination showed that the punctate fluorescent signals corresponded to plastid but not mitochondrial DNA. These results suggest a strong potential for paternal transmission of the plastid genome in W. sinensis. Electron microscopy confirmed the presence of plastids in the generative cells of W. sinensis and the absence of plastids in R. pseudoacacia cells due to an unequal distribution of plastids during the first pollen mitosis. Mitochondria were present and intact in the mature generative cells of both species. The lack of fluoresced mitochondrial DNA suggests a very low level of mitochondrial DNA in the cells. Immunoelectron microscopy demonstrated that the labeling of mitochondrial DNA in these cells was reduced by nearly 90% during pollen development. Such a dramatic reduction suggests an active degradation of paternal mitochondrial DNA, which may contribute greatly to the maternal inheritance of mitochondria. In short, we found that W. sinensis exhibits a strong potential for paternal transmission of plastids and that both W. sinensis and R. pseudoacacia appear to share the same mechanism for maternal mitochondrial inheritance. PMID:15843369

  12. Morphological and molecular characterization of Ortleppascaris sinensis sp. nov. (Nematoda: Ascaridoidea) from the Chinese alligator Alligator sinensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, J H; Wang, S S; Tu, G J; Zhou, Y K; Wu, X B

    2016-05-01

    A new nematode species, Ortleppascaris sinensis sp. nov. (Ascaridoidea), is described from specimens found in the stomach and intestine of the Chinese alligator Alligator sinensis Fauvel, 1879 (Crocodilian: Alligatoridae) in the National Nature Reserve of Chinese Alligator (Chinese Crocodile Lake) in Anhui Province, China. This is the first description of O. sinensis sp. nov. in both China and this crocodile host, increasing its distribution in South Asia as well as expanding the number of helminths known to infect this crocodile. The detailed description of O. sinensis sp. nov., based on light and scanning electron microscopic examination, provides new taxonomic data for this species, and we also report sequences of the internal transcribed spacers (ITS), small subunit DNA segments (18S) and the cytochrome oxidase I (COI) gene. PMID:25882968

  13. Hypotriglyceridemic potential of fermented mixed tea made with third-crop green tea leaves and camellia (Camellia japonica) leaves in Sprague-Dawley rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamaru, Shizuka; Ohmachi, Kazuhiro; Miyata, Yuji; Tanaka, Takashi; Kubayasi, Takashi; Nagata, Yasuo; Tanaka, Kazunari

    2013-06-19

    Fermented mixed tea made with third-crop green tea leaves and camellia leaves by a tea-rolling process has been developed. The objective of this study was to investigate hypotriglyceridemic potential of the mixed tea in rats. The mixed tea contained theasinensins and theaflavins. Rats fed the mixed tea extract at the level of 1% exerted significantly lower body weight and adipose tissue weight compared to animals fed third-crop green tea or camellia tea extract alone for 4 weeks. Serum and hepatic triglyceride was significantly and dose-dependently decreased by the mixed tea. This decrease was associated with lowered lipogenic enzyme activities in the liver. Furthermore, an oral administration of 4 or 8% of the mixed tea extract followed by fat emulsion suppressed the increment of serum triglyceride level. These results suggest that the mixed tea has hypotriglyceridemic action, partially via delaying triglyceride absorption in the small intestine and repressing hepatic lipogenic enzymes. PMID:23705670

  14. Changes in Biston robustum and Camellia japonica distributions, according to climate change predictions in South Korea

    OpenAIRE

    Tae Guen Kim; Yong-Gu Han; Jong Chul Jeong; Youngjin Kim; Ohseok Kwon; Youngho Cho

    2015-01-01

    We investigated the current and potential spatial distributions and habitable areas of Biston robustum and Camellia japonica in South Korea in order to provide useful data for the conservation of C. japonica and minimize the damage caused by B. robustum. It was predicted that, by 2070, although B. robustum would be widely distributed throughout the Korean Peninsula, except for the western and eastern coa...

  15. Camelliatannin D, a new inhibitor of bone resorption, from Camellia japonica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatano, T; Han, L; Taniguchi, S; Okuda, T; Kiso, Y; Tanaka, T; Yoshida, T

    1995-11-01

    Camelliatannin D (1), a new complex tannin which inhibits Ca release from mouse calvaria, was isolated from the leaves and fruits of Camellia japonica L. (Theaceae). This tannin is the first example of complex tannin composed of a dimeric hydrolyzable tannin and a flavan-3-ol. PMID:8575042

  16. Genetic structure of age classes in Camellia japonica (Theaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Mi Yoon; Epperson, Bryan K; Chung, Myong Gi

    2003-01-01

    Camellia japonica L. (Theaceae), an insect- and bird-pollinated, broad-leaved evergreen tree, is widely distributed in Japan and the southern Korean peninsula. The species has a relatively even age distribution within populations, which may influence the spatial genetic structure of different age classes relative to species with typical L-shaped age distributions. To determine whether the internal spatial genetic structure found in seedlings and young individuals carries over into adults, we used allozyme loci, F-statistics, spatial autocorrelation statistics (Moran's I), and coancestry measures to examine changes in genetic structure among seven age classes in a population (60-m x 100-m area) in southern Korea. In seedlings, weak but significant positive values of Moran's I-statistics and coancestry measures were found for distances less than 14 m, which is consistent with a mechanism of limited seed dispersal combined with overlapping seed shadows. This spatial structure, however, dissipates in older age classes, and in adults genetic variation has an essentially random spatial distribution. Morisita's index of dispersion of individuals in each age class showed that seedlings and juveniles are more highly clustered than are older individuals. These results suggest that self-thinning changes the spatial relationships of individuals, and thus genotypes. A multilocus estimate of FST (0.008) shows a small but statistically significant difference in allele frequencies among age classes. In summary, intrapopulation genetic structure within and among age classes of C. japonica was significant but weak. Despite presumably limited seed dispersal, weak spatial genetic structure in juveniles suggests overlapping seed shadows followed by self-thinning during recruitment. The present study also demonstrates that studies of spatial genetic structure focusing on limited numbers of generations may not be sufficient to reveal the entire picture of genetic structure in populations

  17. Enhancement of Neuromuscular Activity by Natural Specimens and Cultured Mycelia of Cordyceps sinensis in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, K P; Meena, H S; Negi, P S

    2014-09-01

    The present study was aimed to evaluate the effect of natural specimen and laboratory cultured mycelia of Cordyceps sinensis on neuromuscular activity in mice. The powder of natural specimen and laboratory cultured Cordyceps sinensis was orally administered at the dose rate of 100, 300 and 500 mg/kg for 30 days. Natural specimen and in vitro propagated Cordyceps sinensis showed significant (PCordyceps sinensis were comparable and showed almost equal potency. PMID:25425763

  18. Antimycotic Activity and Genotoxic Evaluation of Citrus sinensis and Citrus latifolia Essential Oils

    OpenAIRE

    Ruiz-Pérez, Nancy J.; González-Ávila, Marisela; Sánchez-Navarrete, Jaime; Toscano-Garibay, Julia D.; Moreno-Eutimio, Mario A.; Sandoval-Hernández, Teresa; Arriaga-Alba, Myriam

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the antifungal activity of essential oils (EOs) of Citrus sinensis (C. sinensis) and Citrus latifolia (C. latifolia) against five Candida species: Candida albicans, Candida tropicalis, Candida glabrata, Candida lusitaniae and Candida guilliermondii; and perform its genotoxic evaluation. The EOs of C. sinensis and C. latifolia were obtained from the peel by hydro-distillation. The major components determined by GC-MS were in C. sinensis, d-limonene (96%) a...

  19. Antihyperlipidemic effects of Citrus sinensis, Citrus paradisi, and their combinations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neelam Mallick

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Hyperlipidemia, extensively contributes in the progression of coronary heart diseases and atherosclerosis, but may be managed through alterations in the nutritional pattern. Several studies show that diet rich in polyphenols and antioxidants have antiatherogenic effects. Citrus sinensis and Citrus paradisi are widely known for health benefits and have found to produce antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and hypolipidemic effects, hence current research was planned to determine the hypolipidemic effects of C. sinensis and C. paradisi in rats receiving diet rich in cholesterol. Materials and Methods: All rats were divided into 11 groups each comprising 10 animals: Normal control group and hyperlipidemic control. C. sinensis treated three groups, C. paradisi treated three groups, C. sinensis and C. paradisi combination treated two groups, and group treated atorvastatin. All rats in the respective groups were treated orally with sterile water, juices, and standard drug for 8 weeks and lipid profile was estimated at the end of dosing. Results: Cholesterol, triglycerides (TGs, and low-density lipoprotein (LDL were decreased at all the three doses of C. sinensis and C. paradisi but rise in high-density lipoprotein (HDL was only significant at 8 ml/kg, and 0.3 ml/kg, respectively. Animals received the combination doses of C. sinensis and C. paradisi also showed a highly significant fall in cholesterol, LDL, and TGs, however HDL level was significantly elevated by SPJ-2 combination. Conclusion: Results suggest that C. sinensis and C. paradisi possess antihyperlipidemic activity due to phytochemicals and other essential nutrients, hence may serve as cardioprotective by preventing thrombosis.

  20. Antihyperlipidemic effects of Citrus sinensis, Citrus paradisi, and their combinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallick, Neelam; Khan, Rafeeq Alam

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Hyperlipidemia, extensively contributes in the progression of coronary heart diseases and atherosclerosis, but may be managed through alterations in the nutritional pattern. Several studies show that diet rich in polyphenols and antioxidants have antiatherogenic effects. Citrus sinensis and Citrus paradisi are widely known for health benefits and have found to produce antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and hypolipidemic effects, hence current research was planned to determine the hypolipidemic effects of C. sinensis and C. paradisi in rats receiving diet rich in cholesterol. Materials and Methods: All rats were divided into 11 groups each comprising 10 animals: Normal control group and hyperlipidemic control. C. sinensis treated three groups, C. paradisi treated three groups, C. sinensis and C. paradisi combination treated two groups, and group treated atorvastatin. All rats in the respective groups were treated orally with sterile water, juices, and standard drug for 8 weeks and lipid profile was estimated at the end of dosing. Results: Cholesterol, triglycerides (TGs), and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) were decreased at all the three doses of C. sinensis and C. paradisi but rise in high-density lipoprotein (HDL) was only significant at 8 ml/kg, and 0.3 ml/kg, respectively. Animals received the combination doses of C. sinensis and C. paradisi also showed a highly significant fall in cholesterol, LDL, and TGs, however HDL level was significantly elevated by SPJ-2 combination. Conclusion: Results suggest that C. sinensis and C. paradisi possess antihyperlipidemic activity due to phytochemicals and other essential nutrients, hence may serve as cardioprotective by preventing thrombosis. PMID:27134462

  1. Enhancement of Neuromuscular Activity by Natural Specimens and Cultured Mycelia of Cordyceps sinensis in Mice

    OpenAIRE

    Singh, K. P.; H S Meena; Negi, P. S.

    2014-01-01

    The present study was aimed to evaluate the effect of natural specimen and laboratory cultured mycelia of Cordyceps sinensis on neuromuscular activity in mice. The powder of natural specimen and laboratory cultured Cordyceps sinensis was orally administered at the dose rate of 100, 300 and 500 mg/kg for 30 days. Natural specimen and in vitro propagated Cordyceps sinensis showed significant (P

  2. Histopathological Changes in Tissues of Bithynia siamensis goniomphalos Incubated in Crude Extracts of Camellia Seed and Mangosteen Pericarp

    OpenAIRE

    Aukkanimart, Ratchadawan; Boonmars, Thidarut; Pinlaor, Somchai; Tesana, Smarn; Aunpromma, Surasit; Booyarat, Chantana; Sriraj, Pranee; Laummaunwai, Porntip; Punjaruk, Wiyada

    2013-01-01

    The present study was performed to observe histopathological changes in tissues of Bithynia siamensis goniomphalos (Gastropoda, Bithyniidae) incubated in crude extract solutions of camellia (Camellia oleifera) seed and mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana) pericarp, and furthermore to estimate the molluscicidal effects of 2 plant substances. Substantial numbers of bithyniid snails were incubated in various concentrations of 2 plant solution for 24 hr. As the positive control, snails incubated in v...

  3. Extraction of Saponin from Camellia oleifera Abel Cake by a Combination Method of Alkali Solution and Acid Isolation

    OpenAIRE

    Yongjun Liu; Zhifeng Li; Hongbo Xu; Yuanyuan Han

    2016-01-01

    Saponin 15%~20% content in the seed cake of Camellia oleifera Abel, from which Camellia oil is squeezed, is a natural nonionic surface active agent and is extensively applied to emulsification, humectation, foaming, medicine, pesticide, and so on. In this paper, the extraction process of saponin was researched through a combining method of alkali solution and acid isolation. A quantitative method for saponin was established by ultraviolet spectrophotometer. The influence of extraction factors...

  4. Comparative proteomic analysis in Miscanthus sinensis exposed to antimony stress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To explore the molecular basis of Sb tolerance mechanism in plant, a comparative proteomic analysis of both roots and leaves in Miscanthus sinensis has been conducted in combination with physiological and biochemical analyses. M. sinensis seedlings were exposed to different doses of Sb, and both roots and leaves were collected after 3 days of treatment. Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE) and image analyses found that 29 protein spots showed 1.5-fold change in abundance in leaves and 19 spots in roots, of which 31 were identified by MALDI-TOF-MS and MALDI-TOF-TOF-MS. Proteins involved in antioxidant defense and stress response generally increased their expression all over the Sb treatments. In addition, proteins relative to transcription, signal transduction, energy metabolism and cell division and cell structure showed a variable expression pattern over Sb concentrations. Overall these findings provide new insights into the probable survival mechanisms by which M. sinensis could be adapting to Sb phytotoxicity. - Highlights: • Proteomics in Miscanthus sinensis leaves and roots exposed to Sb stress were studied. • There were 31 spots that were identified by mass spectrometry. • Most of these proteins were involved in antioxidant defense and stress response. • Our findings provide new insights into the tolerant mechanisms to Sb stress. - Miscanthus sinensis proteomic analysis under Sb stress reveals probable molecular mechanisms on Sb detoxification

  5. Antiaging effect of Cordyceps sinensis extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Deng-Bo; Ye, Jia; Li, Chang-Ling; Wang, Yu-Hua; Zhao, Jiong; Cai, Shao-Qing

    2009-01-01

    This experiment studied the effect of Cordyceps sinensis extract (CSE) on mice aged by d-galactose and castrated rats to analyse its antiaging effect. Water maze and step-down type avoidance tests were used to examine the effect of CSE on learning and memory. CSE shortened escape latency, prolonged step-down latency and decreased the number of errors in mice aged by d-galactose. The effect of CSE on the sexual function of castrated rats was evaluated by measuring the penis erection latency, mount latency and ejaculation latency. CSE appeared to shorten penis erection latency and mount latency in castrated rats. The study also measured the effect of CSE on the activity of age-related enzymes. The results showed that CSE improved the activity of superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase and catalase and lowered the level of lipid peroxidation and monoamine oxidase activity in the aged mice. The study demonstrated that CSE can improve the brain function and antioxidative enzyme activity in mice with d-galactose-induced senescence and promote sexual function in castrated rats. All of these findings suggest that CSE has an antiaging effect. PMID:18803231

  6. HPLC estimation of berberine in Tinospora cordifolia and Tinospora sinensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srinivasan G

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available A high-performance liquid chromatographic method for the estimation of berberine in the stem of Tinospora cordifolia (Willd. Miers. ex Hook.f. and Thoms. and Tinospora sinensis (Lour. Merrill is described. The dried stems of T. cordifolia and T. sinensis were defatted with petroleum ether (60-80°. The marc was dried and further extracted with methanol. The concentration of berberine in methanol extract was determined using a C-18 reverse phase column with a mobile phase of acetonitrile:water (10:90 v/v at a flow rate of 0.6 ml/min and with UV detection at 266 nm. TLC and HPLC comparison of both the species revealed significant variation in the chemical constitution of the two species. This observation becomes important in the context of the use of T. sinensis in place of the genuine drug T. cordifolia .

  7. HPLC Estimation of berberine in Tinospora cordifolia and Tinospora sinensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivasan, G V; Unnikrishnan, K P; Rema Shree, A B; Balachandran, Indira

    2008-01-01

    A high-performance liquid chromatographic method for the estimation of berberine in the stem of Tinospora cordifolia (Willd.) Miers. ex Hook.f. and Thoms. and Tinospora sinensis (Lour.) Merrill is described. The dried stems of T. cordifolia and T. sinensis were defatted with petroleum ether (60-80 degrees ). The marc was dried and further extracted with methanol. The concentration of berberine in methanol extract was determined using a C-18 reverse phase column with a mobile phase of acetonitrile:water (10:90 v/v) at a flow rate of 0.6 ml/min and with UV detection at 266 nm. TLC and HPLC comparison of both the species revealed significant variation in the chemical constitution of the two species. This observation becomes important in the context of the use of T. sinensis in place of the genuine drug T. cordifolia. PMID:20390090

  8. Effects of temperature and salinity on the development of the amphipod crustacean Eogammarus sinensis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Suyan; Fang, Jianguang; Zhang, Jihong; Jiang, Zengjie; Mao, Yuze; Zhao, Fazhen

    2013-09-01

    The amphipod crustacean Eogammarus sinensis has useful features that make it suitable for use in the aquaculture of fish and large decapod crustaceans. In this study, we investigated the effects of temperature and salinity on the development, fecundity, survival, and growth rate of E. sinensis. The results show that temperature significantly affected E. sinensis development, but salinity. As temperature increased, the duration of E. sinensis embryonic development decreased. Fecundity was affected significantly by temperature and the combination of temperature and salinity, but by salinity alone. In addition, high temperatures accelerated E. sinensis juvenile growth rates, whereas high salinity reduced it. Therefore, our data suggest that E. sinensis tolerates a wide range of salinities and that temperature has more significant effects than salinity on the embryonic development, fecundity, and growth of E. sinensis. Our results shall be useful for mass production of this species for use in aquaculture.

  9. HPLC Estimation of berberine in Tinospora cordifolia and Tinospora sinensis

    OpenAIRE

    Srinivasan, G. V.; Unnikrishnan, K. P.; Rema Shree, A B; Balachandran, Indira

    2008-01-01

    A high-performance liquid chromatographic method for the estimation of berberine in the stem of Tinospora cordifolia (Willd.) Miers. ex Hook.f. and Thoms. and Tinospora sinensis (Lour.) Merrill is described. The dried stems of T. cordifolia and T. sinensis were defatted with petroleum ether (60-80°). The marc was dried and further extracted with methanol. The concentration of berberine in methanol extract was determined using a C-18 reverse phase column with a mobile phase of acetonitrile:wat...

  10. Okicamelliaside, an extraordinarily potent anti-degranulation glucoside isolated from leaves of Camellia japonica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onodera, Ken-ichi; Tsuha, Keiko; Yasumoto-Hirose, Mina; Tsuha, Kazuyo; Hanashiro, Kaoru; Naoki, Hideo; Yasumoto, Takeshi

    2010-01-01

    Guided by anti-degranulation assays, we isolated from leaves of Camellia japonica an ellagic acid glucoside named okicamelliaside. The structure was elucidated as 3,4-dioxoloellagic acid 4'-O-β-D-glucopyranoside by spectroscopic and chemical methods. Okicamelliaside was 12,000 times more potent than the antihistaminic drug, ketotifen fumarate, in inhibiting the degranulation of RBL-2H3 cells. PMID:21150097

  11. Cold Treatment Breaks Dormancy but Jeopardizes Flower Quality in Camellia japonica L

    OpenAIRE

    Berruti, Andrea; Christiaens, Annelies; De Keyser, Ellen; Van Labeke, Marie-Christine; Valentina SCARIOT

    2015-01-01

    Camellia japonica L. is an evergreen shrub whose cultivars are of great ornamental value. In autumn, after flower bud differentiation, dormancy is initiated. As in many other spring flowering woody ornamentals, winter low temperatures promote dormancy release of both flower and vegetative buds. However, warm spells during late autumn and winter can lead to unfulfilled chilling requirements leading to erratic and delayed flowering. We hypothesized that storing plants at no light and low temper...

  12. Methods and Processes for Extracting Polyphnols from the Flowers of Camellia japonica

    OpenAIRE

    DENG Wu-yuan; ZOU Jia-li; HE Qi-yi; Zhao, Yin; DENG Ke-xuan; Zhang, Jin-Chun; Yang, Xian; Yu, Xiao-Dong; Luo, Tong

    2013-01-01

    Extracting and precipitating polyphenol from the Camellia japonica flowers. Using single factor experiments and orthogonal experiments to study the optimal conditions (including temperature, time, ratio of solid-to-liquid, ethanol concentration etc ); and then using the method of metal ion precipitation to extract polyphenols from the extract liquid, and in the process we studied the influence of metal ion, pH, several alkaline solutions and their concentration on sedimentation rate (methods)...

  13. ANTIDIABETIC ACTIVITY OF METHANOLIC EXTRACT OF CAMELLIA JAPONICA LEAVES AGAINST ALLOXAN INDUCED DIABETES IN RATS

    OpenAIRE

    Somasundaram, A.

    2011-01-01

    Hypoglycaemic activity of the methanolic extract from Camellia japonica leaves were investigated in alloxan-induced diabetic rats. After oral administration of the extract at two different doses (100 and 200mg/kg body weight) to alloxan-induced diabetic rats, the blood glucose, level was assayed. The blood glucose levels after a single oral administration of the methanolic extract significantly reduced in a time-dependent manner, which is much faster and more than that of glibenclamide. The b...

  14. Anti-Inflammatory and Analgesic Activities of a Novel Biflavonoid from Shells of Camellia oleifera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Ye

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Shells are by-products of oil production from Camellia oleifera which have not been harnessed effectively. The purpose of this research is to isolate flavonoid from shells of Camellia oleifera and evaluate its anti-inflammatory and analgesic effects. The flavonoid was identified as bimolecular kaempferol structure by UV, MS, 1H NMR and 13C NMR spectra, which is a new biflavonoid and first found in Camellia oleifera. It showed dose-dependent anti-inflammatory activity by carrageenin-induced paw oedema in rats and croton oil induced ear inflammation in mice, and analgesic activity by hot plate test and acetic acid induced writhing. The mechanism of anti-inflammation of biflavonoid is related to both bradykinin and prostaglandins synthesis inhibition. The biflavonoid showed both central and peripheral analgesic effects different from aspirin, inhibition of the synthesis or action of prostaglandins may contribute to analgesic effect of biflavonoid. The biflavonoid significantly decreased malonaldehyde (MDA and increased superoxidase dismutase (SOD and Glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px activity in serum (p < 0.01, revealed strong free radical scavenging activity in vivo. It indicates the biflavonoid can control inflammation and pain by eliminating free radical so as to inhibit the mediators and decrease the prostaglandins. The biflavonoid can be used as a prospective medicine for inflammation and pain.

  15. Antioxidant, Anti-Tyrosinase and Anti-Inflammatory Activities of Oil Production Residues from Camellia tenuifloria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shu-Yuan Chiou

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Camellia tenuifloria is an indigenous Camellia species used for the production of camellia oil in Taiwan. This study investigated for the first time the potential antioxidant, anti-tyrosinase and anti-inflammatory activities of oil production byproducts, specifically those of the fruit shell, seed shell, and seed pomace from C. tenuifloria. It was found that the crude ethanol extract of the seed shell had the strongest DPPH scavenging and mushroom tyrosinase inhibitory activities, followed by the fruit shell, while seed pomace was the weakest. The IC50 values of crude extracts and fractions on monophenolase were smaller than diphenolase. The phenolic-rich methanol fraction of seed shell (SM reduced nitric oxide (NO production, and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS expression in lipopolysaccharide (LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 cells. It also repressed the expression of IL-1β, and secretion of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2 and IL-6 in response to LPS. SM strongly stimulated heme oxygenase 1 (HO-1 expression and addition of zinc protoporphyrin (ZnPP, a HO-1 competitive inhibitor, reversed the inhibition of NO production, indicating the involvement of HO-1 in its anti-inflammatory activity. The effects observed in this study provide evidence for the reuse of residues from C. tenuifloria in the food additive, medicine and cosmetic industries.

  16. Three phenylethanoid glucosides of unusual structure from Chirita sinensis (Gesneriaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damtoft, S; Jensen, S R

    1994-09-01

    From Chirita sinensis (Gesneriaceae) was isolated six phenylethanoid glucosides, namely the previously known positional isomers plantainoside A, calceolarioside A and calceolarioside B together with three new compounds named chiritoside A, B and C. It was proved by analysis of the NMR data that the chiritosides were the 4"-O-beta-glucopyranosyl-derivatives of the first three compounds. PMID:7765624

  17. Silver Nano Scaffold Formation by Flowers of Hibiscus Rosa Sinensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.Shabana

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Hibiscusrosa sinensis grows for their showy flowers and are used as landscape shrubs. Hibiscusrosa sinensis also has too many medicinal properties. Flowers are rich in polyphenols, flavonoids and anthocyanins. Inourstudy the flower extracts of Hibiscus rosa sinensis has been used for the synthesis of silver nano scaffold formation and its reduction by the flowers. The synthesis of silver nanoparticles occurred under the exposure of the flower extract to 1mM (AgNO3, Silver nitrate aqueous solution. During this process the complete reduction of nanoparticles was observed nearly 48hours of reaction at 30°C under vigorous shaking conditions. The colour change is noted in the reaction mixture and observed during the process of incubation period, it may be due to the formation of the silver nanoparticles which are able to produce the colour in the reaction mixture may be due to their specific properties of surface Plasmon resonance. The colour change was made confirmed by visualization and the characterization by FT-IR, UV-Visible Spectroscopy. Thus we conclude that the reduction process and capping may be having occurred due to the presence of many flavonoids, terpenoids, anthocyanins, some aminoacids and proteins. In conclusion, Hibiscus rosa sinensis flower extract appears capable of forming silver nanoparticles. It can be concluded that, Hibiscus rosa sinensis flower extract was able to form the silver nano scaffold and may be probably due to its antioxidants potential, some flavonoids, terpenes etc. This study is a preliminary effort and requires further investigation at different levels.

  18. Ökologischer Landbau in Sri Lanka - unter besonderer Berücksichtigung von Tee-Anbausystemen (Camellia sinensis (L.) O. Kuntze)

    OpenAIRE

    Williges, Ute

    2005-01-01

    In Sri Lanka the agricultural structure of smallholder production has changed with population growth and land reforms. In former days a farm family could life from the production of their home garden through subsistence farming and barter economy. Additional income was achieved by selling surplus products like spices on the local markets. Today living standards and life style have changed and monetary needs for housing, schooling, electricity, telephone, household goods and transport faciliti...

  19. Synergetic downregulation of 67 kDa laminin receptor by the green tea (Camellia sinensis secondary plant compound epigallocatechin gallate: a new gateway in metastasis prevention?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Müller Jakob

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In traditional Chinese medicine, green tea is considered to have a life-prolonging effect, possibly as a result of its rich content of antioxidant tea polyphenols, and hence has the potential to prevent cancer. This study investigated the role of the major tea secondary plant compound epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG for its inhibitory effects on the metastasis-associated 67 kDa laminin receptor (67LR. Methods To clarify the impact of EGCG on siRNA-silenced expression of 67LR, we applied an adenoviral-based intestinal in vitro knockdown model, porcine IPEC-J2 cells. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction was performed to analyze 67LR gene expression following treatment with physiological and pharmacological concentrations of EGCG (1.0 g/l, 0.1 g/l, 0.02 g/l and 0.002 g/l. Results We report co-regulation of EGCG and 67LR, which is known to be an EGCG receptor. siRNA selectively and highly significantly suppressed expression of 67LR under the impact of EGCG in a synergetic manner. Conclusions Our findings suggest that 67LR expression is regulated by EGCG via a negative feedback loop. The explicit occurrence of this effect in synergy with a small RNA pathway and a plant-derived drug reveals a new mode of action. Our findings may help to provide insights into the many unsolved health-promoting activities of other natural pharmaceuticals.

  20. The effect of Camellia Sinensis (green tea mouthwash on plaque-induced gingivitis: a single-blinded randomized controlled clinical trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenabian Niloofar

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background and the purpose of the Study Complementary medicine received high attention during last decades. We aimed to assess the efficacy of Green tea mouthwash on plaque-induced gingivitis as the most common form of periodontal disease. Methods and materials We designed a single blinded placebo controlled clinical trial. High school female students with chronic generalized plaque-induced gingivitis were distributed to receive either 5 ml of Green tea 5% two times/day or normal saline with the same dosage. Gingival index (Sillness & Loe, plaque index (Sillness & Loe and bleeding index (Barnett were recorded at baseline and five consecutive weeks. Comparisons were made by a general linear model, repeated measure ANOVA and a Bonferroni test applied for multiple comparisons. Results Twenty five students were recruited in each arm of the study. A significant improvement was observed in all periodontal indices during the study (P  0.05, observed power for GI: 0.09, PI: 0.11 and BI: 0.07. Conclusion Green tea mouthwash may be a safe and feasible adjunct treatment for inflammatory periodontal diseases. A future larger scale study is warranted for better evaluating the effect of green tea.

  1. The effect of Camellia Sinensis (green tea) mouthwash on plaque-induced gingivitis: a single-blinded randomized controlled clinical trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background and the purpose of the Study Complementary medicine received high attention during last decades. We aimed to assess the efficacy of Green tea mouthwash on plaque-induced gingivitis as the most common form of periodontal disease. Methods and materials We designed a single blinded placebo controlled clinical trial. High school female students with chronic generalized plaque-induced gingivitis were distributed to receive either 5 ml of Green tea 5% two times/day or normal saline with the same dosage. Gingival index (Sillness & Loe), plaque index (Sillness & Loe) and bleeding index (Barnett) were recorded at baseline and five consecutive weeks. Comparisons were made by a general linear model, repeated measure ANOVA and a Bonferroni test applied for multiple comparisons. Results Twenty five students were recruited in each arm of the study. A significant improvement was observed in all periodontal indices during the study (P  0.05, observed power for GI: 0.09, PI: 0.11 and BI: 0.07). Conclusion Green tea mouthwash may be a safe and feasible adjunct treatment for inflammatory periodontal diseases. A future larger scale study is warranted for better evaluating the effect of green tea. PMID:23351842

  2. The characterization of caffeine and nine individual catechins in the leaves of green tea (Camellia sinensis L.) by near-infrared reflectance spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Min-Seuk; Hwang, Young-Sun; Lee, Jinwook; Choung, Myoung-Gun

    2014-09-01

    Near-infrared reflectance spectroscopy (NIRS) was used to determine the contents of caffeine and nine individual catechins in tea leaves. A total of 665 samples were scanned by NIRS, and also by high performance liquid chromatography coupled to a diode array detector to determine the contents of caffeine and nine individual catechins. The calibration models for caffeine, EGC, C, EGCG, EC, ECG, and total catechins had high r(2) (more than 0.90) and RSP (the ratio of standard deviation of reference data to SEP(C) in the external validation set) values (more than 4.1), indicating a good correlation between reference values and NIRS predicted values. In contrast, the calibration models of GC and EGCG-3Me had low r(2) and RSP values (below 0.8 and 2.0). Therefore, these results suggest that NIRS could be applied for the rapid determination of the contents of caffeine, EGC, C, EGCG, EC, ECG, and total catechins in tea leaves for breeding programs that develop high-quality tea plants. PMID:24731354

  3. Effect of different brewing times on antioxidant activity and polyphenol content of loosely packed and bagged black teas (Camellia sinensisL.)

    OpenAIRE

    Zeinab Nikniaz; Reza Mahdavi; Seyed Jamal Ghaemmaghami; Neda Lotfi Yaghin; Leila Nikniaz

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Determination and comparison of the effect of infusion time on the antioxidant activity and total polyphenol contents of bagged and loosely packed black teas. Materials and Methods: For twenty loosely packed and eleven bagged tea samples, the antioxidant activity and total polyphenol content were analyzed using FRAP and Folin-Ciocalteau methods, respectively. The ANOVA with Tukey post-hoc test and independent t-test were used for statistical analysis. Results: The antioxidant activ...

  4. Evaluation of the Potential Nephroprotective and Antimicrobial Effect of Camellia sinensis Leaves versus Hibiscus sabdariffa (In Vivo and In Vitro Studies).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anwar Ibrahim, Doa'a; Noman Albadani, Rowida

    2014-01-01

    Green tea and hibiscus are widely consumed as traditional beverages in Yemen and some regional countries. They are relatively cheap and the belief is that they improve health state and cure many diseases. The aim of this study was to evaluate the potential protective and antibacterial activity of these two famous plants in vitro through measuring their antibacterial activity and in vivo through measuring nonenzymatic kidney markers dysfunction after induction of nephrotoxicity by gentamicin. Gram positive bacteria like MRSA (methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus) were isolated from hospitalized patients' different sources (pus and wound) and Gram negative bacteria including E. coli and P. aeruginosa were used in vitro study. In addition, the efficacy of these plants was assessed in vivo through measuring nonenzymatic kidney markers including S. creatinine and S. urea. Green tea was shown antimicrobial activity against MRSA with inhibition zone 19.67 ± 0.33 mm and MIC 1.25 ± 0.00 mg/mL compared with standard reference (vancomycin) 18.00 ± 0.00 mg/mL. Hibiscus did not exhibit a similar effect. Both Hibiscus- and green tea-treated groups had nephroprotective effects as they reduced the elevation in nonenzymatic kidney markers. We conclude that green tea has dual effects: antimicrobial and nephroprotective. PMID:24949007

  5. Evaluation of the Potential Nephroprotective and Antimicrobial Effect of Camellia sinensis Leaves versus Hibiscus sabdariffa (In Vivo and In Vitro Studies)

    OpenAIRE

    Doa’a Anwar Ibrahim; Rowida Noman Albadani

    2014-01-01

    Green tea and hibiscus are widely consumed as traditional beverages in Yemen and some regional countries. They are relatively cheap and the belief is that they improve health state and cure many diseases. The aim of this study was to evaluate the potential protective and antibacterial activity of these two famous plants in vitro through measuring their antibacterial activity and in vivo through measuring nonenzymatic kidney markers dysfunction after induction of nephrotoxicity by gentamicin. ...

  6. In vitro anti-hyaluronidase activity of Sri Lankan low grown orthodox orange pekoe grade black tea(Camellia sinensis L.)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wanigasekera; Daya; Ratnasooriya; Walimuni; Prabhashini; Kaushalya; Mendis; Abeysekera; Chatura; Tissa; Dayendra; Ratnasooriya

    2014-01-01

    Objective:To access the anti-hyaluronidase activity of Sri Lankan low grown orthodox orange pekoe(OP) grade black tea with a view to develop an anti-aging skin formulation.Methods:Five concentrations(0.125,0.250,0.500,1.000 and 2.000 mg/mL) of black tea brew(BTB) were made using a freeze dried sample of Sri Lankan low grown orthodox OP grade black tea which was prepared according to international organization for standardization specification.Epigallocatechin gallate(EGCG) was used as the reference agent(concentrations tested:0.012,0.025,0.050,0.100 and 0.200 mg/mL).Anti-hyaluronidase activity of BTB and EGCG in vitro were ascertained spectrometrically using hyaluronic acid(from rooster comb)and bovine testicular hyaluronidase.Results:The results revealed that BTB had moderate[IC50=(1.09±0.12) mg/mL]and dose dependent(r2=0.94) anti-hyaluronidase activity.EGCG also exhibited dose dependent(r2=0.93,P<0.05) anti-hyaluronidase activity which was superior[IC50=(0.09±0.00) mg/mL]to BTB.Conclusions:Sri Lankan low grown orthodox OP gradc black tca has promising antihyaluronidase activity in vitro and has the potential to be used as an anti-aging cosmaceutical.In addition,it may prove useful as a beverage in the management of allergy,some joint diseases and cnvenomation.

  7. Quality-related constituents in tea (Camellia sinensis (L.) O. Kuntze) as affected by the form and concentration of nitrogen and the supply of chloride

    OpenAIRE

    Ruan, Jianyun

    2005-01-01

    Free amino acids, polyphenols and caffeine are particularly important groups of compounds for taste and quality of green tea infusions. The influence of nutrient supply on their accumulation in tea plants was investigated under controlled conditions. Plants supplied with NO3- grew much slower than those receiving NH4+ or NH4++NO3-. Concentrations of free amino acids in young tea shoots were considerably larger in NH4+- than in NO3--fed plants, attributing to the larger absorption rate of NH4+...

  8. Rapid and direct volatile compound profiling of black and green teas (Camellia sinensis) from different countries with PTR-ToF-MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yener, Sine; Sánchez-López, José A; Granitto, Pablo M; Cappellin, Luca; Märk, Tilmann D; Zimmermann, Ralf; Bonn, Günther K; Yeretzian, Chahan; Biasioli, Franco

    2016-05-15

    Volatile profiles of 63 black and 38 green teas from different countries were analysed with Proton Transfer Reaction-Time of Flight-Mass Spectrometry (PTR-ToF-MS) both for tea leaves and tea infusion. The headspace volatile fingerprints were collected and the tea classes and geographical origins were tracked with pattern recognition techniques. The high mass resolution achieved by ToF mass analyser provided determination of sum formula and tentative identifications of the mass peaks. The results provided successful separation of the black and green teas based on their headspace volatile emissions both from the dry tea leaves and their infusions. The volatile fingerprints were then used to build different classification models for discrimination of black and green teas according to their geographical origins. Two different cross validation methods were applied and their effectiveness for origin discrimination was discussed. The classification models showed a separation of black and green teas according to geographical origins the errors being mostly between neighbouring countries. PMID:26992494

  9. In vitro antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties of Limonium algarvense flowers' infusions and decoctions: A comparison with green tea (Camellia sinensis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Maria João; Neves, Vanessa; Martins, Alice; Rauter, Amélia P; Neng, Nuno R; Nogueira, José M F; Varela, João; Barreira, Luísa; Custódio, Luísa

    2016-06-01

    This work reports the in vitro antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities and toxicity of infusions and decoctions of Limonium algarvense flowers, and green tea. The total contents in different phenolic groups and the quantification of individual phenolics by HPLC are also reported. L. algarvense and green tea had similar antioxidant properties, except for hydroxyl radical-scavenging activity, higher on green tea, and iron chelating potential, higher on L. algarvense. The later species also had the uppermost anti-inflammatory potential. Green tea decoction had the highest content of phenolic groups, but the infusion of L. algarvense had higher amounts of salicylic, gallic and coumaric acids. L. algarvense was not toxic, whereas green tea was toxic for S17 cells. Under our experimental conditions, infusions and decoctions of L. algarvense flowers had similar or higher antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties than green tea, and thus, may be useful for alleviating symptoms associated with oxidative and inflammatory-related diseases. PMID:26830595

  10. Evaluation of the Potential Nephroprotective and Antimicrobial Effect of Camellia sinensis Leaves versus Hibiscus sabdariffa (In Vivo and In Vitro Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doa’a Anwar Ibrahim

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Green tea and hibiscus are widely consumed as traditional beverages in Yemen and some regional countries. They are relatively cheap and the belief is that they improve health state and cure many diseases. The aim of this study was to evaluate the potential protective and antibacterial activity of these two famous plants in vitro through measuring their antibacterial activity and in vivo through measuring nonenzymatic kidney markers dysfunction after induction of nephrotoxicity by gentamicin. Gram positive bacteria like MRSA (methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus were isolated from hospitalized patients’ different sources (pus and wound and Gram negative bacteria including E. coli and P. aeruginosa were used in vitro study. In addition, the efficacy of these plants was assessed in vivo through measuring nonenzymatic kidney markers including S. creatinine and S. urea. Green tea was shown antimicrobial activity against MRSA with inhibition zone 19.67 ± 0.33 mm and MIC 1.25 ± 0.00 mg/mL compared with standard reference (vancomycin 18.00 ± 0.00 mg/mL. Hibiscus did not exhibit a similar effect. Both Hibiscus- and green tea-treated groups had nephroprotective effects as they reduced the elevation in nonenzymatic kidney markers. We conclude that green tea has dual effects: antimicrobial and nephroprotective.

  11. Study on discrimination of Roast green tea ( Camellia sinensis L.) according to geographical origin by FT-NIR spectroscopy and supervised pattern recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Quansheng; Zhao, Jiewen; Lin, Hao

    2009-05-01

    Rapid discrimination of roast green tea according to geographical origin is crucial to quality control. Fourier transform near-infrared (FT-NIR) spectroscopy and supervised pattern recognition was attempted to discriminate Chinese green tea according to geographical origins (i.e. Anhui Province, Henan Province, Jiangsu Province, and Zhejiang Province) in this work. Four supervised pattern recognitions methods were used to construct the discrimination models based on principal component analysis (PCA), respectively. The number of principal components factors (PCs) and model parameters were optimized by cross-validation in the constructing model. The performances of four discrimination models were compared. Experimental results showed that the performance of SVM model is the best among four models. The optimal SVM model was achieved when 4 PCs were used, discrimination rates being all 100% in the training and prediction set. The overall results demonstrated that FT-NIR spectroscopy with supervised pattern recognition could be successfully applied to discriminate green tea according to geographical origins.

  12. PR Enzyme Activities of Cercospora theae Causing Bird’s Eye Spot Disease in Tea Plants (Camellia sinensis (L. O.kuntze

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajendran Yazhini

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A total of three isolates of Cercospora theae namely KC10, MC24 and VC38 obtained from birds eye spot disease were used for the present study and subjected to various Pathogen Related (PR enzymatic secretion by the pathogen and the plant as a response to the disease attack. The enzyme secreted from the pathogen includes CMCase, amylase, invertase, pectinase and protease, its activity was studied at various incubation periods ranging from 15, 30, 60, 90 and 120 min. All enzymes except amylase, exhibited its maximal activity at 30 min incubation period whereas amylase exhibited its optimal activity at 60 min of incubation. The study revealed that C. theae was capable of producing the range of pathogenic enzymes and exhibited its maximal activity at 10th day harvest. The said enzyme activities was also studied in healthy and C. theae infected tea leaves including chitinase, DNase, Phenylalanine Ammonia Lyase (PAL, Tyrosine Ammonia Lyase (TAL, polyphenol oxidase (PPO, peroxidase (PO and catalase in order to detect the level of defensive response. The significance of the specific enzymatic activity detected in C. theae isolates and tea leaves were discussed by correlating to the plant pathogenesis. This study showed that phyopathogenic isolates of C. theae is capable of producing various carbohydrases, pectinases and protease and defensive enzymes along with phenolic and oxidative enzymes. The significance of correlating the enzymatic activity with the virulence of the isolates was ascertained and discussed. The enzyme profile studies of the pathogenic isolates assist in understanding and revealing of host-pathogen interaction.

  13. Cordyceps sinensis prevents apoptosis in mouse liver with D-galactosamine/lipopolysaccharide-induced fulminant hepatic failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Yu-Jung; Cheng, Shiu-Min; Teng, Yi-Hsien; Shyu, Woei-Cherng; Chen, Hsiu-Ling; Lee, Shin-Da

    2014-01-01

    Cordyceps sinensis (C. sinensis) has long been considered to be an herbal medicine and has been used in the treatment of various inflammatory diseases. The present study examined the cytoprotective properties of C. sinensis on D(+)-galactosamine (GalN)/lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced fulminant hepatic failure. Mice were randomly assigned into control, GalN/LPS, CS 20 mg and CS 40 mg groups (C. sinensis, oral gavage, five days/week, four weeks). After receiving saline or C. sinensis, mice were intraperitoneally given GalN (800 mg/kg)/LPS (10 μg/kg). The effects of C. sinensis on TNF-α, IL-10, AST, NO, SOD, and apoptoticrelated proteins after the onset of endotoxin intoxication were determined. Data demonstrated that GalN/LPS increased hepatocyte degeneration, circulating AST, TNF-α, IL-10, and hepatic apoptosis and caspase activity. C. sinensis pre-treatment reduced AST, TNF-α, and NO and increased IL-10 and SOD in GalN/LPS induced fulminant hepatic failure. C. sinensis attenuated the apoptosis of hepatocytes, as evidenced by the TUNEL and capase-3, 6 activity analyses. In summary, C. sinensis alleviates GalN/LPS-induced liver injury by modulating the cytokine response and inhibiting apoptosis. PMID:24707872

  14. Investigation of free amino acid, total phenolics, antioxidant activity and purine alkaloids to assess the health properties of non-Camellia tea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wu Bi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available To find novel functional beverages from folk teas, 33 species of frequently used non-Camellia tea (plants other than Camellia were collected and compared with Camellia tea (green tea, pu-erh tea and black tea for the first time. Data are reported here on the quantities of 20 free amino acids (FAAs and three purine alkaloids (measured by UHPLC, total polyphenols (measured by Folin-Ciocalteu assay, and antioxidant activity (DPPH. The total amounts of FAAs in non-Camellia tea (0.62–18.99 mg/g are generally less than that of Camellia tea (16.55–24.99 mg/g. However, for certain FAAs, the quantities were much higher in some non-Camellia teas, such as γ-aminobutyric acid in teas from Ampelopsis grossedentata, Isodon serra and Hibiscus sabdariffa. Interestingly, theanine was detected in tea from Potentilla fruticosa (1.16±0.81 mg/g. Furthermore, the content of polyphenols in teas from A. grossedentata, Acer tataricum subsp. ginnala are significantly higher than those from Camellia tea; teas from I. serra, Pistacia chinensis and A. tataricum subsp. ginnala have remarkable antioxidant activities similar to the activities from green tea (44.23 μg/mL. Purine alkaloids (caffeine, theobromine and theophylline were not detected in non-Camellia teas. The investigation suggest some non-Camellia teas may be great functional natural products with potential for prevention of chronic diseases and aging, by providing with abundant polyphenols, antioxidants and specific FAAs.

  15. Investigation of free amino acid, total phenolics, antioxidant activity and purine alkaloids to assess the health properties of non-Camellia tea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bi, Wu; He, Chunnian; Ma, Yunyun; Shen, Jie; Zhang, Linghua Harris; Peng, Yong; Xiao, Peigen

    2016-03-01

    To find novel functional beverages from folk teas, 33 species of frequently used non-Camellia tea (plants other than Camellia) were collected and compared with Camellia tea (green tea, pu-erh tea and black tea) for the first time. Data are reported here on the quantities of 20 free amino acids (FAAs) and three purine alkaloids (measured by UHPLC), total polyphenols (measured by Folin-Ciocalteu assay), and antioxidant activity (DPPH). The total amounts of FAAs in non-Camellia tea (0.62-18.99 mg/g) are generally less than that of Camellia tea (16.55-24.99 mg/g). However, for certain FAAs, the quantities were much higher in some non-Camellia teas, such as γ-aminobutyric acid in teas from Ampelopsis grossedentata, Isodon serra and Hibiscus sabdariffa. Interestingly, theanine was detected in tea from Potentilla fruticosa (1.16±0.81 mg/g). Furthermore, the content of polyphenols in teas from A. grossedentata, Acer tataricum subsp. ginnala are significantly higher than those from Camellia tea; teas from I. serra, Pistacia chinensis and A. tataricum subsp. ginnala have remarkable antioxidant activities similar to the activities from green tea (44.23 μg/mL). Purine alkaloids (caffeine, theobromine and theophylline) were not detected in non-Camellia teas. The investigation suggest some non-Camellia teas may be great functional natural products with potential for prevention of chronic diseases and aging, by providing with abundant polyphenols, antioxidants and specific FAAs. PMID:27006902

  16. Descriptions of Meloidogyne camelliae n.sp. and M. querciana n.sp (Nematoda:Meloidogynidae), with SEM and Host-Range Observations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golden, A M

    1979-04-01

    Meloidogyne camelliae n.sp. on camellia (Camellia japonica) from Japan and M. querciana n.sp. on pin oak (Quercus palustris) from Virginia, USA, are described and illustrated. M. camelliae n.sp. is distingnishable from other species of the genus especially by its striking perineal pattern having heavy ropelike striae forming a squarish to rectangular outline with shoulders or projections, appearing sometimes ahnost starlike. M. querciana differs from other species by its characteristic perineal pattern round to oval in outline, sometimes with a low arch, and sunken vulva surrounded by a prominent obovate area devoid of striae. M. querciana shows some relationship to M. ovalis, but differs further fxom the latter by longer larvae, absence of annules on head of larvae, and rarity of males. Examination of specimens of M. camelliae n.sp. and M. querciana n.sp. with the scanning electron microscope confirmed observations made by optical microscopy and revealed diagnostic and other structures in greater detail. In greenhouse host tests, M. camelliae infected camellia heavily, showed moderate infection on oxalis, only a trace infection on tomato, and no infection on five other plants tested; and M. querciana attacked pin oak, red oak, and American chestnut heavily, but did not infect nine other test plants. In another test, pin oak seedlings did not become infected when heavily inoculated with and grown in the presence of two populations of M. incognita incognita and one of M. incognita acrita. The common names "camellia root-knot nematode" and "oak root-knot nematode" are respectively proposed for M. camelliae and M. querciana. PMID:19305554

  17. Traditional uses and medicinal potential of Cordyceps sinensis of Sikkim

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashok Kumar Panda

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Cordyceps sinensis has been described as a medicine in old Chinese medical books and Tibetan medicine. It is a rare combination of a caterpillar and a fungus and found at altitudes above 4500m in Sikkim. Traditional healers and local people of North Sikkim recommend the mushroom, i.e., Yarsa gumba, Keera jhar (C. sinensis for all diseases either as a single drug or combined with other herbs. The present study was undertaken to collect information regarding the traditional uses of cordyceps in Sikkim. It was found that most local folk healers/traditional healers use cordyceps for the treatment of 21 ailments. A modern literature search was carried out to assess whether the curative effects are valid or just blind faith of local people. Chemical constituents of cordyceps are given and pharmacological and biological studies reviewed. More mechanism-based and disease-oriented clinical studies are recommended.

  18. The mitochondrial genome of Pseudolaubuca sinensis (Cypriniformes, Cyprinidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Huijuan; Wang, Dengqiang; Duan, Xinbin; Liu, Shaoping; Chen, Daqing

    2016-09-01

    In the present study, the complete mitogenome sequence of Pseudolaubuca sinensis was determined using PCR amplificationand DNA sequencing, which contains 13 protein-coding genes, 22 tRNA genes, 2 rRNA genes, and a non-coding control region with the total length of 16,617 bp. Except for eight tRNA and ND6 genes, all other mitochondrial genes are encoded on the heavy strand. The codon usage followed the typical vertebrate mitochondrial pattern (ATG or GTG for start codon and TAA or TAG for stop codon). There are 6 regions of gene share totaling 22 bp and 14 intergenic spacer regions totaling 66 bp. The complete mitochondrial genome sequence is useful for phylogenetic analysis and studies of population genetics of Pseudolaubuca sinensis. PMID:25714142

  19. Foam Properties and Detergent Abilities of the Saponins from Camellia oleifera

    OpenAIRE

    Yu-Fen Chen; Ming-Shiang Chang; Yong-Ping Ciou; Yu-Chun Huang; Chao-Hsun Yang

    2010-01-01

    The defatted seed meal of Camellia oleifera has been used as a natural detergent and its extract is commercially utilized as a foam-stabilizing and emulsifying agent. The goal of this study was to investigate the foam properties and detergent ability of the saponins from the defatted seed meal of C. oleifera. The crude saponin content in the defatted seed meal of C. oleifera was 8.34% and the total saponins content in the crude saponins extract was 39.5% (w/w). The foaming power of the 0.5% c...

  20. Cryopreservation of somatic embryos and embryonic axes of Camellia japonica L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janeiro, L V; Vieitez, A M; Ballester, A

    1996-05-01

    Cryopreservation in liquid nitrogen was attempted with both somatic embryos and zygotic embryonic axes of the ornamental Camellia japonica L. Several protective measures were applied to somatic embryos (desiccation, chemical protectors, hardening by culture at low temperatures, encapsulation in alginate beads), but none allowed somatic embryos cultures to survive after 24 h in liquid nitrogen. Embryonic axes, however, were easily cryopreserved by means of the simplest technique: desiccation in a laminar flow hood and direct immersion in liquid nitrogen. Although the causes of the difference in cryopreservability between the two types of material are not known, one might be the difference between their degrees of differentiation and water content. PMID:24178614

  1. Camellianoside, a novel antioxidant glycoside from the leaves of Camellia japonica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onodera, Ken-Ichi; Hanashiro, Kaoru; Yasumoto, Takeshi

    2006-08-01

    A novel flavonol glycoside named camellianoside and three known flavonol glycosides were isolated from the leaves of Camellia japonica. The structure of camellianoside was established as quercetin-3-O-beta-D-xylopyranosyl-(1-->3)-O-alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1-->6)-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside by spectroscopic and chemical methods. The antioxidant activities of these glycosides evaluated by the diphenylpicrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging reaction was higher than those of L-cysteine and L-ascorbic acid used as the reference antioxidants. PMID:16926516

  2. Antihyperlipidemic effects of Citrus sinensis, Citrus paradisi, and their combinations

    OpenAIRE

    Neelam Mallick; Rafeeq Alam Khan

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Hyperlipidemia, extensively contributes in the progression of coronary heart diseases and atherosclerosis, but may be managed through alterations in the nutritional pattern. Several studies show that diet rich in polyphenols and antioxidants have antiatherogenic effects. Citrus sinensis and Citrus paradisi are widely known for health benefits and have found to produce antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and hypolipidemic effects, hence current research was planned to determine the hypo...

  3. Authentication of Cordyceps sinensis by DNA Analyses: Comparison of ITS Sequence Analysis and RAPD-Derived Molecular Markers

    OpenAIRE

    Kelly Y. C. Lam; Gallant K. L. Chan; Gui-Zhong Xin; Hong Xu; Chuen-Fai Ku; Jian-Ping Chen; Ping Yao; Huang-Quan Lin; Dong, Tina T. X.; TSIM, KARL W. K.

    2015-01-01

    Cordyceps sinensis is an endoparasitic fungus widely used as a tonic and medicinal food in the practice of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM). In historical usage, Cordyceps specifically is referring to the species of C. sinensis. However, a number of closely related species are named themselves as Cordyceps, and they are sold commonly as C. sinensis. The substitutes and adulterants of C. sinensis are often introduced either intentionally or accidentally in the herbal market, which seriously ...

  4. Interleukin-13 is involved in the formation of liver fibrosis in Clonorchis sinensis-infected mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yanquan; Liang, Pei; Bian, Meng; Chen, Wenjun; Wang, Xiaoyun; Lin, Jinsi; Shang, Mei; Qu, Hongling; Wu, Zhongdao; Huang, Yan; Yu, Xinbing

    2016-07-01

    Clonorchiasis is a chronic infection disease often accompanied by formation of liver fibrosis. Previous study has identified that Clonorchis sinensis (C. sinensis, Cs) infection and CsRNASET2 (a member of CsESPs) immunization can drive Th2 immune response. IL-13, a multifunctional Th2 cytokine, has been widely confirmed to be profibrotic mediator. We want to determine whether IL-13 is involved in the generation of liver fibrosis during C. sinensis infection. A part of mice were infected with C. sinensis or immunized with CsRNASET2, respectively. Another part of mice were intravenously injected with rIL-13. Liver tissues of C. sinensis-infected mice were stained with hematoxylin-eosin and Masson's trichrome, respectively. The transcriptional levels of collagen-I, collagen-III, α-SMA, and TIMP-1 in the livers of infected mice and rIL-13-treated mice were measured by quantitative RT-PCR. Besides, splenocytes of C. sinensis-infected and CsRNASET2-immunized mice were isolated, respectively. The levels of IL-13 in splenocytes were detected by ELISA. Our results displayed that the livers of C. sinensis-infected mice had serious chronic inflammation and collagen deposition. The transcriptional levels of collagen-I, collagen-III, α-SMA, and TIMP-1 in the livers of C. sinensis-infected mice were obviously increased. Splenocytes from both C. sinensis-infected and CsRNASET2-immunized mice expressed high levels of IL-13. Moreover, rIL-13 treatment markedly promoted the transcriptional levels of collagen-I, collagen-III, α-SMA, and TIMP-1. These data implied that hepatic fibrosis was formed in the livers of C. sinensis-infected mice, and IL-13 induced by C. sinensis infection and CsRNASET2 immunization might favor this progression. PMID:26993324

  5. How cell wall complexity influences saccharification efficiency in Miscanthus sinensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Souza, Amanda P; Alvim Kamei, Claire L; Torres, Andres F; Pattathil, Sivakumar; Hahn, Michael G; Trindade, Luisa M; Buckeridge, Marcos S

    2015-07-01

    The production of bioenergy from grasses has been developing quickly during the last decade, with Miscanthus being among the most important choices for production of bioethanol. However, one of the key barriers to producing bioethanol is the lack of information about cell wall structure. Cell walls are thought to display compositional differences that lead to emergence of a very high level of complexity, resulting in great diversity in cell wall architectures. In this work, a set of different techniques was used to access the complexity of cell walls of different genotypes of Miscanthus sinensis in order to understand how they interfere with saccharification efficiency. Three genotypes of M. sinensis displaying different patterns of correlation between lignin content and saccharification efficiency were subjected to cell wall analysis by quantitative/qualitative analytical techniques such as monosaccharide composition, oligosaccharide profiling, and glycome profiling. When saccharification efficiency was correlated negatively with lignin, the structural features of arabinoxylan and xyloglucan were found to contribute positively to hydrolysis. In the absence of such correlation, different types of pectins, and some mannans contributed to saccharification efficiency. Different genotypes of M. sinensis were shown to display distinct interactions among their cell wall components, which seem to influence cell wall hydrolysis. PMID:25908240

  6. Histopathological Changes in Tissues of Bithynia siamensis goniomphalos Incubated in Crude Extracts of Camellia Seed and Mangosteen Pericarp

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aukkanimart, Ratchadawan; Pinlaor, Somchai; Tesana, Smarn; Aunpromma, Surasit; Booyarat, Chantana; Sriraj, Pranee; Laummaunwai, Porntip; Punjaruk, Wiyada

    2013-01-01

    The present study was performed to observe histopathological changes in tissues of Bithynia siamensis goniomphalos (Gastropoda, Bithyniidae) incubated in crude extract solutions of camellia (Camellia oleifera) seed and mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana) pericarp, and furthermore to estimate the molluscicidal effects of 2 plant substances. Substantial numbers of bithyniid snails were incubated in various concentrations of 2 plant solution for 24 hr. As the positive control, snails incubated in various concentrations of niclosamide, a chemical molluscicide, were used. The histopathological findings were observed in sectioned snail specimens of each experimental and control groups. The results showed that both camellia and mangosteen extracts had molluscicidal effects at 24 hr with 50% lethal concentration (LC50) at concentrations of 0.003 and 0.002 g/ml, respectively, while niclosamide had LC50 at concentrations 0.599 ppm. B. siamensis goniomphalos snail tissues (foot, gill, and digestive system) showed disruption of columnar muscle fibers of the foot, reduction of the length and number of gill cilia, numerous mucous vacuoles, and irregularly shaped of epithelial cells. Irregular apical and calciferous cells, dilatation of the digestive gland tubule, and large hemolymphatic spaces, and irregular apical surfaces, detachment of cilia, and enlargement of lysosomal vacuoles of epidermis were also shown in all groups. By the present study, it is confirmed that 2 plants, camellia and mangosteen, are keeping some substance having molluscicidal effects, and histopathological findings obtained in this study will provide some clues in further studies on their action mechanisms to use them as natural molluscicides. PMID:24327779

  7. Functional analyses of a flavonol synthase - like gene from Camellia nitidissima reveal its roles in flavonoid metabolism during floral pigmentation

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Xing-Wen Zhou; Zheng-Qi Fan; Yue Chen; Yu-Lin Zhu; Ji-Yuan Li; Heng-Fu Yin

    2013-09-01

    The flavonoids metabolic pathway plays central roles in floral coloration, in which anthocyanins and flavonols are derived from common precursors, dihydroflavonols. Flavonol synthase (FLS) catalyses dihydroflavonols into flavonols, which presents a key branch of anthocyanins biosynthesis. The yellow flower of Camellia nitidissima Chi. is a unique feature within the genus Camellia, which makes it a precious resource for breeding yellow camellia varieties. In this work, we characterized the secondary metabolites of pigments during floral development of C. nitidissima and revealed that accumulation of flavonols correlates with floral coloration. We first isolated CnFLS1 and showed that it is a FLS of C. nitidissima by gene family analysis. Second, expression analysis during floral development and different floral organs indicated that the expression level of CnFLS1 was regulated by developmental cues, which was in agreement with the accumulating pattern of flavonols. Furthermore, over-expression of CnFLS1 in Nicotiana tabacum altered floral colour into white or light yellow, and metabolic analysis showed significant increasing of flavonols and reducing of anthocyanins in transgenic plants. Our work suggested CnFLS1 plays critical roles in yellow colour pigmentation and is potentially a key point of genetic engineering toward colour modification in Camellia.

  8. A New Eudesmane Sesquiterpene from Nigrospora oryzae, an Endophytic Fungus of Aquilaria sinensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dongli Li

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available A new eudesmane-type sesquiterpene, 11 -hydroxy capitulatin B (1 , along with a known related sesquiterpene, capitulatin B (2, was isolated from the endophytic fungus Nigrospora oryzae A8 from Aquilaria sinensis, the only plant resource for agarwood production in China. This research demonstrates that the endophytic fungi from A. sinensis might play a role in the formation of agarwood.

  9. Angelica sinensis induces hair regrowth via the inhibition of apoptosis signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Mi Hye; Choi, You Yeon; Cho, Ik-Hyun; Hong, Jongki; Kim, Sung-Hoon; Yang, Woong Mo

    2014-01-01

    Hair loss is accompanied by keratinocyte apoptosis-regression during catagen and prolonged telogen. Angelica sinensis was reported to promote hair growth in vitro. Based on previous studies, we explored the hair growth effect and the mechanism of A. sinensis related to keratinocyte apoptosis-regression during catagen in mice. The 70% Ethanol extract of A. sinensis was applied topically at doses of 1 and 100 mg/mL to the dorsa of C57BL/6 mice for 2 weeks. The A. sinensis-treated group showed noticeable hair regrowth. Treatment with A. sinensis restored the lengths of hair shafts and size of hair follicles. In addition, mice treated with A. sinensis showed notably decreased apoptotic cells, along with a significant change in the expression of cleaved caspase-3 and the ratio of a pair of apoptosis-associated proteins: Bcl-2 and Bax. Also, A. sinensis inhibited the nuclear translocation of NF-κB, the phosphorylation of IκB-α, the phosphorylation of three mitogen-activated protein MAP kinases, and the activation of c-Jun with decreased TNF-α. These findings reveal a role of A. sinensis as an alternative treatment for hair loss that acts through hair cycle pathways associated with apoptosis regression during catagen. PMID:25004889

  10. Triterpene alcohols from camellia and sasanqua oils and their anti-inflammatory effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akihisa, T; Yasukawa, K; Kimura, Y; Takase, S; Yamanouchi, S; Tamura, T

    1997-12-01

    The nonsaponifiable lipids of camellia and sasanqua oils from the seeds of Camellia japonica L. and C. sasanqua THUNB., respectively, were investigated for their triterpene alcohol constituents. This led to the isolation of twenty-seven triterpene alcohols of which seven were novel naturally occurring compounds, tirucalla-5,7,24-trien-3 beta-ol (1), lemmaphylla-7,21-dien-3 beta-ol (2), isoeuphol (3), isotirucallol (4), (24R)-24,25-epoxybutyrospermol (5) and its 24S-epimer (6), and isoaglaiol (7). The structures were determined by spectroscopic and chemical methods. The inhibitory effects of 3, 4 a mixture of 5 and 6, a mixture of 7 and its 24S-epimer (aglaiol), and eight known triterpene alcohols isolated in this study were evaluated in ear inflammation in mice induced by 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA). The 50% inhibitory dose of these triterpenes for TPA-induced inflammation (1 microgram per ear) was 0.2-0.9 mg/ear. PMID:9433772

  11. Camellia cordifolia (Metc.) Nakai, Newly Recorded from Fujian Province%福建新纪录野生植物--心叶毛蕊茶

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林沁文

    2014-01-01

    报道一种福建新记录野生植物--心叶毛蕊茶Camellia cordifolia (Metc.) Nakai。凭证标本存放于福建农林大学林学院树木标本室(FJFC)。%Camellia cordifolia (Metc.) Nakai, a wild plant, is newly recorded from Fujian Province. Voucher specimens deposited in Herbarium of Fujian Agriculture and Forestry University (FJFC).

  12. Resilient Plant–Bird Interactions in a Volcanic Island Ecosystem: Pollination of Japanese Camellia Mediated by the Japanese White-Eye

    OpenAIRE

    Abe, Harue; Ueno, Saneyoshi; Takahashi, Toshimori; Tsumura, Yoshihiko; Hasegawa, Masami

    2013-01-01

    Observations of interspecies interactions during volcanic activity provide important opportunities to study how organisms respond to environmental devastation. Japanese camellia (Camellia japonica L.) and its main avian pollinator, the Japanese White-eye (Zosterops japonica), offer an excellent example of such an interaction as key members of the biotic community on Miyake-jima, which erupted in 2000 and continues to emit volcanic gases. Both species exhibit higher resistance to volcanic dama...

  13. Cordyceps sinensis, un hongo usado en la medicina tradicional china.

    OpenAIRE

    Illana Esteban, Carlos

    2007-01-01

    Cordyceps sinensis (Berk.) Sacc. es un hongo ascomiceto perteneciente a la familia Clavicipitaceae del orden Hypocreales, parásito de artrópodos, que ha sido altamente valorado en la medicina tradicional china durante siglos. Según el Diccionario de Hongos [9], hay 100 especies conocidas de Cordyceps, y la base de datos del Index Fungorum del CABI tiene 506 entradas para este género. En China se conoce con los nombres de Hia tsao tong tchong o Dong Chong Xia Cao (chongcao) y en inglés como co...

  14. Fruiting Body Production of the Medicinal Chinese Caterpillar Mushroom, Ophiocordyceps sinensis (Ascomycetes), in Artificial Medium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Li; Ye, Yunshou; Han, Richou

    2015-01-01

    Ophiocordyceps sinensis (syn. Cordyceps sinensis), regarded as the "Himalayan Viagra", is widely used for medicinal treatment and health foods. The price of O. sinensis has continued to increase over the past few years because of the growing worldwide demand and resource limitations. Artificial cultivation of the fruiting bodies to substitute natural O. sinensis is urgently needed for the effective protection of a valuable bioresource and environment in the Tibetan plateau, and for commercial trade. In this study, the anamorph of 3 isolates was separated from natural O. sinensis and identified by molecular markers as Hirsutella sinensis. These fungal isolates were cultured in a rice-based medium at 9-13 °C for 50 days for mycelial growth, at 4 °C for 100 days for stromatal induction, and at 13 °C for 40 days for fruiting body formation. The mature fruiting bodies with mature perithecium were harvested in about 140 days. This is, to our knowledge, the first report of stable fruiting body production of O. sinensis by artificial media in the low-altitude area outside the Tibetan plateau. PMID:26853966

  15. Antimycotic Activity and Genotoxic Evaluation of Citrus sinensis and Citrus latifolia Essential Oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Pérez, Nancy J; González-Ávila, Marisela; Sánchez-Navarrete, Jaime; Toscano-Garibay, Julia D; Moreno-Eutimio, Mario A; Sandoval-Hernández, Teresa; Arriaga-Alba, Myriam

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the antifungal activity of essential oils (EOs) of Citrus sinensis (C. sinensis) and Citrus latifolia (C. latifolia) against five Candida species: Candida albicans, Candida tropicalis, Candida glabrata, Candida lusitaniae and Candida guilliermondii; and perform its genotoxic evaluation. The EOs of C. sinensis and C. latifolia were obtained from the peel by hydro-distillation. The major components determined by GC-MS were in C. sinensis, d-limonene (96%) and α-myrcene (2.79%); and in C. latifolia, d-limonene (51.64%), β-thujene (14.85%), β-pinene (12.79%) and γ-terpinene (12.8%). Antifungal properties were studied by agar diffusion method, where C. sinensis presented low activity and C. latifolia essential oil was effective to inhibit growing of C. lusitaniae and C. guilliermondii with IC50 of 6.90 and 2.92 μg respectively. The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) for C. sinensis were in a range of 0.42-3.71 μg and for C. latifolia of 0.22-1.30 μg. Genotoxic evaluation was done by Ames test where none of the oils induced point mutations. Flow cytometry was used to measure toxicity in human oral epithelial cells, C. sinensis was not cytotoxic and C. latifolia was toxic at 21.8 μg. These properties might bestow different odontological applications to each essential oil. PMID:27137128

  16. Patogenicidade cruzada de Ceratobasidium spp. do caquizeiro (Diospyros kaki e do chá(Camellia sinensis e reação de cultivares de caqui ao patógeno Cross pathogenicity of Ceratobasidium spp. from kaki (Diospyros kaki and tea (Camellia sinensis and reaction of kaki varieties to the pathogen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elaine Costa Souza

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available O fungo Ceratobasidium spp. é o agente causal da doença mal-do-fio ou queima-do-fio em várias plantas frutíferas, em cafeeiro e em chá. Esta doença ocorre com maior freqüência em zonas de alta precipitação e temperaturas elevadas, típicas de regiões de florestas tropicais como a Amazônica e a Mata Atlântica. Em São Paulo, o primeiro relato do mal-do-fio em caquizeiro ocorreu na região de Mogi das Cruzes. O objetivo deste estudo foi testar a patogenicidade cruzada de isolados de Ceratobasidium spp. de caquizeiro e chá para ambas as culturas e também para o cafeeiro e citros. Avaliou-se, também, a reação de oito cultivares de caquizeiro, sob condições controladas, a isolados de Ceratobasidium spp. obtidos da mesma cultura. Constatou-se que os isolados de caquizeiro e de chá, embora filogeneticamente distintos, foram patogênicos para ambas as culturas, além de afetarem cafeeiro e citros. Não foram verificados indícios de reação de resistência aos isolados de Ceratobasidium spp. para as oito cultivares de caquizeiro testadas.The fungus Ceratobasidium spp. causes the white-thread blight disease, which affects several fruit trees, coffee and tea crops. This disease frequently occurs in zones of high precipitation and temperatures, typical of the tropical forest regions such as the Amazon and the Atlantic Forests. In São Paulo State, Brazil, this disease was reported by the first time affecting kaki plants in Mogi das Cruzes county. The objective of this study was to test the cross-pathogenicity of Ceratobasidium spp. isolates from kaki and tea to both host plants and also to coffee and citrus. This study also aimed to determine the reaction of local kaki varieties to Ceratobasidium spp. isolates from kaki under controlled conditions. Although phylogenetically distinct, kaki- and tea-infecting isolates were cross-pathogenic to both hosts, besides infecting coffee and citrus. There was no indication of resistance reaction among the eight kaki varieties tested.

  17. 油茶籽仁中油脂的水酶法提取研究%Aqueous Enzymatic Extraction of Oil-tea Camellia (Camellia oleifera) Seed Oil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    方学智; 王开良; 姚小华; 王亚萍

    2010-01-01

    @@ 油茶(Camellia oleifera Abel.)作为我国特有的木本油料树种,在我国南方地区有广泛的分布[1].油茶与油棕(Elaeis guineensis Jacq.)、油橄榄(Olea europaea L.)、椰子(Cocos nucifera L.)并称为世界四大木本油料作物[2],其果仁含油率高达40 %以上,茶油不饱和脂肪酸含量可高达91.5%以上,其中油酸含量可达50%83%[1].总体而言,茶油脂肪酸组成与橄榄油相似,但价格低于橄榄油,作为高档油发展潜力极大.如何有效地提取山茶油并保持其丰富的营养,对茶油的推广具有重要的意义.

  18. Use of Ophiocordyceps sinensis (syn. Cordyceps sinensis) combined with angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEI)/angiotensin receptor blockers (ARB) versus ACEI/ARB alone in the treatment of diabetic kidney disease: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Ying; Yang, Shi-kun; Zhou, Xun; Wang, Ming; Tang, Dan; Liu, Fu-you; Sun, Lin; Xiao, Li

    2015-05-01

    Ophiocordyceps sinensis (O. sinensis; syn. Cordyceps sinensis) has been used in clinical therapy for diabetic kidney disease (DKD) for more than 15 years. O. sinensis is a household name in china and it is available even in supermarket. However, the precise role of O. sinensis has not been fully elucidated with meta-analysis. The aim of this study was to review existing evidence on the effectiveness of O. sinensis for the treatment of DKD. We identified 60 trials involving 4288 participants. Overall, O. sinensis combined with ACEI/ARB had a better effect when compared to ACEI/ARB alone on 24 h UP (MD = -0.23 g/d, 95% CI: - 0.28 to -0.19, p sinensis combined with ACEI/ARB may have a more beneficial effect on the proteinuria, inflammatory, dyslipidemia status as compared to ACEI/ARB alone in DKD III-IV stage patients, while there is no evidence that O. sinensis could improve the hyperglycemia status. However, with regard to low-quality and significant heterogeneity of included trials, to further verify the current results from this meta-analysis, long-term and well-designed RCTs with high-quality study are warranted to ascertain the long-term efficacy of O. sinensis. PMID:25682973

  19. Discrimination of Wild Tea Germplasm Resources (Camellia sp.) Using RAPD Markers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Liang; WANG Ping-sheng; Yamaguchi Satoshi

    2002-01-01

    Discrimination of 24 wild tea germplasm resources ( Camellia sp. ) using RAPD markers was conducted. The result showed that RAPD markers were very effective tool and method in wild tea germplasm discrimination. There were 3 independent ways to discriminate tea germplasms, a) unique RAPD markers, b)specific band patterns and c) a combination of the band patterns or DNA fingerprinting provided by different primers. The presence of 16 unique RAPD markers and the absence of 3 unique markers obtained from 12 primers made it possible to discriminate 14 germplasms. Using the unique band patterns of primer OPO-13 could discriminate 10 tea germplasms. It was of much importance using minimum primers to obtain maximum discrimination capacity. All the 24 wild tea germplasms could be discriminated easily and entirely by the band patterns combination or DNA fingerprinting obtained from OPO-13, OPO-18, OPG-12 and OPA-13, including two wild tea trees of very similar morphological characteristics and chemical components.

  20. Genetic structure of Camellia japonica L. in an old-growth evergreen forest, Tsushima, Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueno, S; Tomaru, N; Yoshimaru, H; Manabe, T; Yamamoto, S

    2000-06-01

    The spatial genetic structure of Camellia japonica was investigated, using microsatellite markers, in a 4-ha permanent plot within an old-growth forest. Spatial distribution of individuals was also assessed to obtain an insight into spatial relationships between individuals and alleles. Morisita's index of dispersion showed that 518 C. japonica individuals in the plot were clumped, and Moran's I spatial autocorrelation coefficient revealed weak genetic structure, indicating a low level of allele clustering. Average I correlograms showed that there was stronger genetic structure over short-distance classes. The clumped distribution of individuals and the positive autocorrelation over short-distance classes may result from the limited seed dispersal and microsite heterogeneity of the stand, while the genetic structure may be weakened by overlapping seed shadow and extensive pollen flow, mediated by animal vectors, and the high outcrossing rate found in C. japonica. PMID:10849281

  1. [Observations on the germinability in vitro of pollen from Camellia japonica L. (Theaceae)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braggio Morucchio, G; Cornara, L; Dellachà, E

    1989-08-01

    Pollen grains from samples of Camellia japonica living in soil (A) and in greenhouse (B) were collected daily from just-opened anthers. The pollen was sown in various liquid media and incubated at 28 C. Higher germinative ability of A in comparison with B was observed and related to the relative humidity which is higher in soil than in greenhouse. This phenomenon recurs even if the composition of the culture medium is changed. However the composition of the medium greatly influences the percentage of germination of both A and B notwithstanding the environmental conditions. The pollen collected from anthers dehiscing in the first day of the anthesis has a high germinative ability which suddenly decreases in the ripe pollen of the following days. PMID:2803733

  2. Characteristics and bioactivities of different molecular weight polysaccharides from camellia seed cake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Zhou; Li, Xu; Feng, Shiling; Liu, Jing; Zhou, Lijun; Yuan, Ming; Ding, Chunbang

    2016-10-01

    Four polysaccharides, namely COP-1, COP-2, COP-3 and COP-4, were ultrafiltrated from crud Camellia oleifera seed cake polysaccharides (COP-c), purified, and characterized, including the determination of antioxidant and antiproliferative activities. Their molecular weights were 7.9, 36, 83 and 225kDa, respectively. All COPs showed the similar FT-IR spectrums, but significant differentials in monosaccharide components. COP-2 exhibited the highest radical scavenging abilities. COP-1 has the strongest metal chelating capabilities. Although with higher molecular weight, COP-4 showed the poorest antioxidant abilities. These results suggested appreciate molecular weight COP possessed a better antioxidant activities. Additionally, all COPs had non-significant antiproliferative abilities in HaLa and HepG2 cells. PMID:27341780

  3. Effects of heat on the biological activity of wild Cordyceps sinensis

    OpenAIRE

    Pengkai Wu; Zhi Tao; Huafeng Liu; Guixiang Jiang; Changhua Ma; Chunmei Wang; Di Geng

    2015-01-01

    Background: Current methods of extending the storage time of wild Cordyceps sinensis adversely affect the nutritive and medicinal value of the product. Thus, this study was designed to investigate the effects of heat treatment, a relatively safe storage extension method, on the biological activity of wild C. sinensis. Methods: Samples were heated to 60, 80, or 100°C for 15, 30, or 60 minutes. SOD activity in wild C. sinensis before and after heating was assayed using a standard colorimetri...

  4. A newly found cadmium accumulator-Malva sinensis Cavan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Screening hyperaccumulators and accumulators is a key step in the phytoremediation of soils contaminated by heavy metals. A pot experiment was conducted involving a soil Cd concentration gradient (0, 50, 75, 100, 125, 150, 175, and 200 mg kg-1) to determine if Malva sinensis Cavan. from two lead-zinc mines in Kangding and Yajiang in western Sichuan, China, is a Cd-hyperaccumulator. The highest Cd concentrations in plant shoots from Kangding and Yajiang were 154.30 and 122.77 mg kg-1, respectively, at a soil Cd concentration of 200 mg kg-1. The largest amounts of accumulation in plant shoots from Kangding and Yajiang were 700.5 and 1403.2 μg pot-1, respectively. The bioconcentration factors in shoots were 0.53-1.03 for Kangding and 0.69-1.25 for Yajiang. Moreover, all translocation factors of plants from the two sites were over 1.0. Therefore, M. sinensis can be classified as a Cd-accumulator or non-standard Cd-hyperaccumulator.

  5. A newly found cadmium accumulator-Malva sinensis Cavan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang Shirong, E-mail: rsz01@163.com [College of Resources and Environment, Sichuan Agricultural University, 46 Xinkang Road, Yaan 625014 (China); Chen Mingying; Li Ting; Xu Xiaoxun; Deng Liangji [College of Resources and Environment, Sichuan Agricultural University, 46 Xinkang Road, Yaan 625014 (China)

    2010-01-15

    Screening hyperaccumulators and accumulators is a key step in the phytoremediation of soils contaminated by heavy metals. A pot experiment was conducted involving a soil Cd concentration gradient (0, 50, 75, 100, 125, 150, 175, and 200 mg kg{sup -1}) to determine if Malva sinensis Cavan. from two lead-zinc mines in Kangding and Yajiang in western Sichuan, China, is a Cd-hyperaccumulator. The highest Cd concentrations in plant shoots from Kangding and Yajiang were 154.30 and 122.77 mg kg{sup -1}, respectively, at a soil Cd concentration of 200 mg kg{sup -1}. The largest amounts of accumulation in plant shoots from Kangding and Yajiang were 700.5 and 1403.2 {mu}g pot{sup -1}, respectively. The bioconcentration factors in shoots were 0.53-1.03 for Kangding and 0.69-1.25 for Yajiang. Moreover, all translocation factors of plants from the two sites were over 1.0. Therefore, M. sinensis can be classified as a Cd-accumulator or non-standard Cd-hyperaccumulator.

  6. A transcriptome analysis of mitten crab testes (Eriocheir sinensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Zhang

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The identification of expressed genes involved in sexual precocity of the mitten crab (Eriocheir sinensis is critical for a better understanding of its reproductive development. To this end, we constructed a cDNA library from the rapid developmental stage of testis of E. sinensis and sequenced 3,388 randomly picked clones. After processing, 2,990 high-quality expressed sequence tags (ESTs were clustered into 2,415 unigenes including 307 contigs and 2,108 singlets, which were then compared to the NCBI non-redundant (nr protein and nucleotide (nt database for annotation with Blastx and Blastn, respectively. After further analysis, 922 unigenes were obtained with concrete annotations and 30 unigenes were found to have functions possibly related to the process of reproduction in male crabs - six transcripts relevant to spermatogenesis (especially Cyclin K and RecA homolog DMC1, two transcripts involved in nuclear protein transformation, two heat-shock protein genes, eleven transcription factor genes (a series of zinc-finger proteins, and nine cytoskeleton protein-related genes. Our results, besides providing valuable information related to crustacean reproduction, can also serve as a base for future studies of reproductive and developmental biology.

  7. Analysis of MINT hibiscus rosa-sinensis mutants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gamma irradiation is an alternative method to create new cultivars of Hibiscus rosa-sinensis in Malaysia. Increasing gamma ray doses resulted in a reduction of growing shoots on the irradiated stem cuttings. The LD50 for the stem cuttings was 36.2 Gy and at 75% growth was 17.15 Gy. Based on these results, 20 to 30 Gy were chosen for irradiation of the stem cuttings to induce mutation in Hibiscus rosa-sinensis. Irradiated stem cuttings were then planted into sand-beds for rooting. After one month, the rooted stems were transferred into polybags and allowed to grow under 70% shade provided by plastic netting and the variants were subsequently observed. Three new cultivars with variations in flower size and colours were obtained. The plants were propagated for five generations to achieve the stable mutants. Anthocyanins analysis is being carried out to measure the amount of anthocyanins in each cultivar. Pelargonidin chloride, Cyanidin chloride and Delphinidin chloride are used as standards for the analysis. (Author)

  8. 3-epicabraleahydroxylactone and other triterpenoids from camellia oil and their inhibitory effects on Epstein-Barr virus activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akihisa, Toshihiro; Tokuda, Harukuni; Ukiya, Motohiko; Suzuki, Toshie; Enjo, Fumio; Koike, Kazuo; Nikaido, Tamotsu; Nishino, Hoyoku

    2004-01-01

    The structure of a triterpenoid isolated from the nonsaponifiable lipid (NSL) of the seed oil of the camellia (Camellia japonica L.; Theaceae) was established to be (20S)-3beta-hydroxy-25,26,27-trisnordammaran-24,20-olide (1; 3-epicabraleahydroxylactone) on the basis of spectroscopic and chemical methods. Six other triterpenoids isolated from the NSL were identified as 3-epicabraleadiol (2), ocotillol II (3), ocotillol I (4), dammarenediol II (5), (20R)-taraxastane-3beta,20-diol (6), and lupane-3beta,20-diol (7). Upon evaluation of the seven triterpenoids (1-7) with respect to their inhibitory effects on the induction of Epstein-Barr virus early antigen (EBV-EA) by 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA) in Raji cells, three compounds (5-7) showed potent inhibitory effects against EBV-EA induction (IC(50) values of 277-420 mol ratio/32 pmol TPA). PMID:14709887

  9. Extraction of Saponin from Camellia oleifera Abel Cake by a Combination Method of Alkali Solution and Acid Isolation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongjun Liu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Saponin 15%~20% content in the seed cake of Camellia oleifera Abel, from which Camellia oil is squeezed, is a natural nonionic surface active agent and is extensively applied to emulsification, humectation, foaming, medicine, pesticide, and so on. In this paper, the extraction process of saponin was researched through a combining method of alkali solution and acid isolation. A quantitative method for saponin was established by ultraviolet spectrophotometer. The influence of extraction factors was investigated by a single-factor test and a response surface methodology. The results indicated that the optimal extraction conditions of saponin were extraction temperature 68°C, alkali solution pH 9.1, acid isolation pH 4.1, and liquid-solid ratio 15.9 : 1. The extraction rate of saponin was 76.12% at the optimal extraction conditions.

  10. Tannins of theaceous plants. V. Camelliatannins F, G and H, three new tannins from Camellia japonica L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, L; Hatano, T; Yoshida, T; Okuda, T

    1994-07-01

    Two new complex tannins, camelliatannins F (3) and G (4), were isolated from the leaves of Camellia japonica L. (Theaceae), and their structures, each consisting of an epicatechin unit and a C-glucosidic ellagitannin moiety, were elucidated. A new dimeric hydrolyzable tannin, named camelliatannin H (5), was isolated from the fruits of this plant. Camelliins A (6) and B (7), and camelliatannin A (1) and 3 were also isolated from the fruits. PMID:7923462

  11. An optimized extraction technique for acetylcholinesterase inhibitors from the Camellia japonica seed cake by using response surface methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jae Kyeom; Kim, Cho Rong; Lim, Ho-Jeong; Nam, Sang Hae; Joo, Ok Soo; Shin, Dong-Hoon; Shin, Eui-Cheol

    2014-01-01

    The response surface methodology (RSM) was used to optimize the extraction conditions for the acetylcholinesterase (AchE) inhibitory activity and extraction yield from Camellia japonica seed cake. Predicted values for AchE inhibition and extraction yield were 19.41 and 13.35%, respectively, which are in good agreement with the experimental values from validation, suggesting that RSM may provide a useful tool to optimization processes. PMID:25229864

  12. [Assessment of Antitumor Effect of Submerged Culture of Ophiocordyceps sinensis and Cordyceps militaris].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avtonomova, A V; Krasnopolskaya, L M; Shuktueva, M I; Isakova, E B; Bukhman, V M

    2015-01-01

    Ophiocordyceps sinensis and Cordyceps militaris metabolites showed a high potential in the treatment of tumors as well as some other diseases. Antitumor properties of O. sinensis and C. militaris submerged mycelium were investigated. It was found that the O. sinensis dry biomass in a dose of 50 mg/kg administered once a day to the mice with subcutaneously inoculated P388 lympholeucosis lowered the tumor growth by 65% vs. 54% for the C. militaris dry biomass. The water extract of O. sinensis submerged culture however accelerated the growth of the P388 lympholeucosis tumor node in the mice almost two times, compared to the control. A greater caution in using this fungus as a source of biologically active substances is required since unwanted tumor-stimulating effects can arise. PMID:26863737

  13. Enhancement of neuromuscular activity by natural specimens and cultured mycelia of Cordyceps Sinensis in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K P Singh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study was aimed to evaluate the effect of natural specimen and laboratory cultured mycelia of Cordyceps sinensis on neuromuscular activity in mice. The powder of natural specimen and laboratory cultured Cordyceps sinensis was orally administered at the dose rate of 100, 300 and 500 mg/kg for 30 days. Natural specimen and in vitro propagated Cordyceps sinensis showed significant (P<0.05 enhancement in neuromuscular endurance and antidepressant activity at 300 and 500 mg/kg as compared to the control group. However, the fungus did not proved to be as effective as fluoxetine in exhibiting antidepressant action. Muscular endurance was determined on a Rota rod apparatus while antidepressant (mood elevating activity was measured on a photoactometer in Swiss albino mice. The effects produced by both natural specimens and laboratory cultured Cordyceps sinensis were comparable and showed almost equal potency.

  14. Complete Chloroplast Genome Sequence of Aquilaria sinensis (Lour. Gilg and the Evolution Analysis within the Malvalesorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying eWang

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Aquilaria sinensis (Lour. Gilg is an important medicinal woody plant producing agarwood, which is widely used in traditional Chinese medicine. High-throughput sequencing of chloroplast (cp genomes enhanced the understanding about evolutionary relationships within plant families. In this study, we determined the complete cp genome sequences for A. sinensis. The size of the A.sinensis cp genome was 159,565 bp. This genome included a large single-copy region of 87,482 bp, a small single-copy region of 19,857 bp, and a pair of inverted repeats (IRa and IRb of 26,113 bp each. The GC content of the genome was 37.11%. The A.sinensis cp genome encoded 113 functional genes, including 82 protein-coding genes, 27 tRNA genes, and 4 rRNA genes. Seven genes were duplicated in the protein-coding genes, whereas 11 genes were duplicated in the RNA genes. A total of 45 polymorphic simple-sequence repeat loci and 60 pairs of large repeats were identified. Most simple-sequence repeats were located in the noncoding sections of the large single-copy/small single-copy region and exhibited high A/T content. Moreover, 33 pairs of large repeat sequences were located in the protein-coding genes, whereas 27 pairs were located in the intergenic regions. Aquilaria sinensis cp genome bias ended with A/T on the basis of codon usage. The distribution of codon usage in A.sinensis cp genome was most similar to that in the Gonystylus bancanus cp genome. Comparative results of 82 protein-coding genes from 29 species of cp genomes demonstrated that A.sinensis was a sister species to G. bancanus within the Malvales order. Aquilaria sinensis cp genome presented the highest sequence similarity of >90% with the G. bancanus cp genome by using CGView Comparison Tool. This finding strongly supports the placement of A.sinensis as a sister to G. bancanus within the Malvales order. The complete A.sinensis cp genome information will be highly beneficial for further studies on this traditional

  15. 油茶苗木质量分级标准研究%Study on the Classification of Seedling Quality of Oil-tea Camellia (Camellia oleifera)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭邵锋; 陈永忠; 杨小胡; 王湘南; 马力; 王瑞; 陈隆升

    2012-01-01

    In order to improve the quality of seedlings and standardize the market and formulate scientifically rational standards for seedlings of oil-tea camellia, through method of small sample plot and random sampling and principal components analysis, the seedling height, ground diameter, lateral root length and leave number of oil-tea camellia, which included annual grafted seedlings, annual seedlings and biennial grafted seedlings, were investigated in 9 nurseries distributed in Hunan, Jiangxi and Guangxi.Meanwhile, the indices which could be used for seedling grading were considered.The results showed that seedling height, ground diameter and main root length were employed for the quality guideline of seedling grading.The quality grading standards of the three kinds of seedlings were obtained as following: annual grafted seedlings (seedling height≥15 cm, ground diameter ≥0.25 cm as grade I; seedling height ≥10 cm, ground diameter≥ 0.20 cm as grade Ⅱ); annual seedlings (seedling height≥25 cm, ground diameter≥0.30 cm, lateral root length≥10 cm as grade I; seedling height≥15 cm, ground diameter≥0.25 cm, lateral root length ≥7 cm as grade II); biennial grafted seedlings (seedling height≥ 40 cm, ground diameter≥0.40 cm, lateral root length≥15 cm as grade I; seedling height≥ 25 cm, ground diameter≥0.30 cm, lateral root length≥ 10 cm as grade Ⅱ).%为了提高油茶出圃苗木质量,规范苗木市场,制定出科学合理的油茶苗木质量分级标准,在湖南、江西、广西等油茶主产区,选取1年生嫁接苗、1年生实生苗、2年生嫁接苗的苗圃9个,采用小样方随机抽样和主成分分析法,调查研究了油茶苗木的苗高(H)、地径(D)、侧根长(L)、叶片数,筛选出苗木质量分级指标.结果表明:苗高、地径和侧根长可作为油茶苗木分级质量指标.油茶苗木质量分级标准为:1年生嫁接苗:Ⅰ级苗H≥15 cm,D≥0.25 cm;Ⅱ级苗H≥10 cm,D≥0.20 cm;1

  16. HPLC estimation of berberine in Tinospora cordifolia and Tinospora sinensis

    OpenAIRE

    Srinivasan G; Unnikrishnan K; Rema Shree A; Balachandran Indira

    2008-01-01

    A high-performance liquid chromatographic method for the estimation of berberine in the stem of Tinospora cordifolia (Willd.) Miers. ex Hook.f. and Thoms. and Tinospora sinensis (Lour.) Merrill is described. The dried stems of T. cordifolia and T. sinensis were defatted with petroleum ether (60-80°). The marc was dried and further extracted with methanol. The concentration of berberine in methanol extract was determined using a C-18 reverse phase column with a mobile phase of a...

  17. Citrus sinensis Annotation Project (CAP): A Comprehensive Database for Sweet Orange Genome

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Jia; Chen, DiJun; Lei, Yang; Chang, Ji-Wei; Hao, Bao-Hai; Xing, Feng; Li, Sen; Xu, Qiang; Deng, Xiu-Xin; Chen, Ling-ling

    2014-01-01

    Citrus is one of the most important and widely grown fruit crop with global production ranking firstly among all the fruit crops in the world. Sweet orange accounts for more than half of the Citrus production both in fresh fruit and processed juice. We have sequenced the draft genome of a double-haploid sweet orange (C. sinensis cv. Valencia), and constructed the Citrus sinensis annotation project (CAP) to store and visualize the sequenced genomic and transcriptome data. CAP provides GBrowse-...

  18. Molecular cloning and characterization of taurocyamine kinase from Clonorchis sinensis: a candidate chemotherapeutic target.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing-Ying Xiao

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Adult Clonorchis sinensis lives in the bile duct and causes endemic clonorchiasis in East Asian countries. Phosphagen kinases (PK constitute a highly conserved family of enzymes, which play a role in ATP buffering in cells, and are potential targets for chemotherapeutic agents, since variants of PK are found only in invertebrate animals, including helminthic parasites. This work is conducted to characterize a PK from C. sinensis and to address further investigation for future drug development. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: [corrected] A cDNA clone encoding a putative polypeptide of 717 amino acids was retrieved from a C. sinensis transcriptome. This polypeptide was homologous to taurocyamine kinase (TK of the invertebrate animals and consisted of two contiguous domains. C. sinensis TK (CsTK gene was reported and found consist of 13 exons intercalated with 12 introns. This suggested an evolutionary pathway originating from an arginine kinase gene group, and distinguished annelid TK from the general CK phylogenetic group. CsTK was found not to have a homologous counterpart in sequences analysis of its mammalian hosts from public databases. Individual domains of CsTK, as well as the whole two-domain enzyme, showed enzymatic activity and specificity toward taurocyamine substrate. Of the CsTK residues, R58, I60 and Y84 of domain 1, and H60, I63 and Y87 of domain 2 were found to participate in binding taurocyamine. CsTK expression was distributed in locomotive and reproductive organs of adult C. sinensis. Developmentally, CsTK was stably expressed in both the adult and metacercariae stages. Recombinant CsTK protein was found to have low sensitivity and specificity toward C. sinensis and platyhelminth-infected human sera on ELISA. CONCLUSION: CsTK is a promising anti-C. sinensis drug target since the enzyme is found only in the C. sinensis and has a substrate specificity for taurocyamine, which is different from its mammalian counterpart

  19. Cordyceps sinensis attenuates renal fibrosis and suppresses BAG3 induction in obstructed rat kidney

    OpenAIRE

    Du, Feng; Li, Si; Wang, Tian; Zhang, Hai-Yan; Zong, Zhi-Hong; Du, Zhen-Xian; Li, De-Tian; Wang, Hua-Qin; Liu, Bo; Miao, Jia-Ning; Bian, Xiao-Hui

    2015-01-01

    BAG3 regulates a number of cellular processes, including cell proliferation, apoptosis, adhesion and migration, and epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). However, the role of BAG3 in renal tubular EMT and renal interstitial fibrosis remains elusive. This study aimed to examine the dynamic expression of BAG3 during renal fibrosis, and to investigate the efficacy of Cordyceps sinensis (C. sinensis) on renal fibrosis. A rat model of unilateral ureteral obstruction (UUO) was established, and t...

  20. Hirsutella sinensis mycelium attenuates bleomycin-induced pulmonary inflammation and fibrosis in vivo

    OpenAIRE

    Tsung-Teng Huang; Hsin-Chih Lai; Yun-Fei Ko; Ojcius, David M; Ying-Wei Lan; Jan Martel; Young, John D.; Kowit-Yu Chong

    2015-01-01

    Hirsutella sinensis mycelium (HSM), the anamorph of Cordyceps sinensis, is a traditional Chinese medicine that has been shown to possess various pharmacological properties. We previously reported that this fungus suppresses interleukin-1β and IL-18 secretion by inhibiting both canonical and non-canonical inflammasomes in human macrophages. However, whether HSM may be used to prevent lung fibrosis and the mechanism underlying this activity remain unclear. Our results show that pretreatment wit...

  1. High diversity of the fungal community structure in naturally-occurring Ophiocordyceps sinensis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongjie Zhang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Ophiocordyceps sinensis (syn. Cordyceps sinensis, which is a parasite of caterpillars and is endemic to alpine regions on the Tibetan Plateau, is one of the most valuable medicinal fungi in the world. "Natural O. sinensis specimens" harbor various other fungi. Several of these other fungi that have been isolated from natural O. sinensis specimens have similar chemical components and/or pharmaceutical effects as O. sinensis. Nevertheless, the mycobiota of natural O. sinensis specimens has not been investigated in detail. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Based on the technique of PCR-single-strand conformation polymorphism (PCR-SSCP, the mycobiota of three different sections (stromata, sclerotia, and mycelial cortices from natural O. sinensis specimens were investigated using both culture-dependent and -independent methods. For the culture-dependent method, 572 fungal strains were isolated, and 92 putative operational taxonomic units (OTUs were identified from 226 sequenced strains with the threshold of 97%. For the culture-independent method, 490 fungal clones were identified from about 3000 clones of ITS fragments from the whole-community DNA; based on PCR-SSCP analyses, 266 of these clones were selected to be sequenced, and 118 putative OTUs were detected. The overwhelming majority of isolates/clones and OTUs were detected from mycelial cortices; only a few were detected from stromata and sclerotia. The most common OTUs detected with both methods belonged to Ascomycota; however, only 13 OTUs were detected simultaneously by both methods. Potential novel lineages were detected by each of the two methods. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: A great number of fungal species present in the mycobiota of naturally-occurring O. sinensis specimens were detected, and many of them may represent undescribed lineages. That only a few of the same OTUs were detected by both methods indicated that different methods should be used. This study increased our

  2. Optimization of induction, subculture conditions, and growth kinetics of Angelica sinensis (Oliv. Diels callus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bing Huang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Angelica sinensis (Oliv. Diels is an important traditional Chinese medicine, and the medicinal position is its root. This perennial herb grows vigorously only in specific areas and the environment. Tissue culture induction of callus and plant regeneration is an important and effective way to obtain large scale cultures of A. sinensis. Objective: The objective was to optimize the inductive, subculture conditions, and growth kinetics of A. sinensis. Materials and Methods: Tissue culture conditions for A. sinensis were optimized using leaves and petioles (types I and II as explants source. Murashige and Skoog (MS and H media supplemented with 30 g/L sucrose, 7.5 g/L agar, and varying concentrations of plant growth regulators were used for callus induction. In addition, four different basal media supplemented with 1.0 mg/L 2,4 dichlorophenoxy acetic acid (2,4 D, 0.2 mg/L 6 benzyladenine (BA and 30 g/L sucrose were optimized for callus subculture. Finally, growth kinetics of A. sinensis cultured on different subculture media was investigated based on callus properties, including fresh weight, dry weight, medium pH, callus relative fresh weight growth, callus relative growth rate (CRGR, and sucrose content. Results: MS medium supplemented with 5 mg/L α-naphthaleneacetic acid, 0.5 mg/L BA, 0.7 mg/L 2,4 D, 30 g/L sucrose and 7.5 g/L agar resulted in optimal callus induction in A. sinensis while petiole I was found as the best plant organ for callus induction. The B5 medium supplemented with 1.0 mg/L 2,4 D, 0.2 mg/L BA and 30 g/L sucrose displayed the best results in A. sinensis callus subculture assays. Conclusion: The optimized conditions could be one of the most potent methods for large scale tissue culture of A. sinensis.

  3. In vitro antimicrobial status of methanolic extract of Citrus sinensis Linn. fruit peel

    OpenAIRE

    Anju Dhiman; Arun Nanda; Sayeed Ahmad; Balasubramanian Narasimhan

    2012-01-01

    Aim : The present investigation evaluated the antimicrobial potential of methanolic extract of Citrus sinensis Linn. (Rutaceae) fruit peel. There is a basis for the traditional use of this plant for local health remedies. Materials and Methods: The antimicrobial activity of methanolic extract of C. sinensis fruit peel was tested against three bacterial and two fungal strains. Turbidimetric or tube dilution method and paper disc diffusion method were followed. Results are expressed as mean ± s...

  4. Ulcer protective potential of standardized hesperidin, a citrus flavonoid isolated from Citrus sinensis

    OpenAIRE

    Papiya Bigoniya; Kailash Singh

    2014-01-01

    Free radicals play an important role in stomach ulcer formation. The present investigation validates the anti ulcer activity of hesperidin, isolated from Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck, Rutaceae, through the assessment of its antioxidant potential over stomach mucosal tissue by histological examination. Hesperidin was isolated from the dried peel of C. sinensis, and authenticated by TLC, IR and HPLC. The anti-ulcerogenic potential of this fruit was assessed using indomethacin and hypothermic res...

  5. Cordyceps sinensis attenuates renal fibrosis and suppresses BAG3 induction in obstructed rat kidney.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Feng; Li, Si; Wang, Tian; Zhang, Hai-Yan; Zong, Zhi-Hong; Du, Zhen-Xian; Li, De-Tian; Wang, Hua-Qin; Liu, Bo; Miao, Jia-Ning; Bian, Xiao-Hui

    2015-01-01

    BAG3 regulates a number of cellular processes, including cell proliferation, apoptosis, adhesion and migration, and epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). However, the role of BAG3 in renal tubular EMT and renal interstitial fibrosis remains elusive. This study aimed to examine the dynamic expression of BAG3 during renal fibrosis, and to investigate the efficacy of Cordyceps sinensis (C. sinensis) on renal fibrosis. A rat model of unilateral ureteral obstruction (UUO) was established, and the expression of BAG3 and α-SMA, and the efficacy of C. sinensis on renal fibrosis induced by UUO were examined. The results showed that UUO led to collagen accumulation, which was significantly suppressed by C. sinensis. UUO increased the expression of BAG3 and α-SMA, a mesenchymal marker, while UUO induced BAG3 and α-SMA expression was significantly inhibited by C. sinensis. In addition, immunohistochemical staining demonstrated that BAG3 immunoreactivity was restricted to tubular epithelium. In conclusion, BAG3 is a potential target for the prevention and/or treatment of renal fibrosis, and C. Sinensis is a promising agent for renal fibrosis. PMID:26175854

  6. Clonorchis sinensis and Opisthorchis spp. in Vietnam: current status and prospects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doanh, Pham N; Nawa, Yukifumi

    2016-01-01

    Clonorchis sinensis and Opisthorchis viverrini are clinically important small liver flukes because of their known association with development of cholangiocarcinoma. In Vietnam, high prevalence of C. sinensis infection in humans was previously reported in northern provinces, and O. viverrini infection has been detected in several central provinces. However, diagnosis of C. sinensis and O. viverrini infections in the past was merely based on faecal egg examination. This method alone can lead to misidentification at the species level because of morphological similarity between the eggs of these liver flukes and minute intestinal trematodes of the family Heterophyidae. In fact, recent surveys in Vietnam revealed that infection with several minute intestinal flukes, such as Haplorchis pumilio and H. taichui, are much more common than infection with C. sinensis or O. viverrini, and they often co-infect humans. Thus, previously reported prevalence of small liver fluke infection in Vietnam was likely over-estimated due to mis identification of parasites in copro-parasitological examinations. In addition, there is some confusion about identification of cercariae, metacercariae and also adults of C. sinensis and O. viverrini in intermediate and definitive hosts. The aim of this review is, therefore, to draw realistic pictures of the past and present scientific reports on the epidemiology and biology of C. sinensis and Opisthorchis spp. infection in Vietnam. PMID:26740358

  7. [Cloning and tissue expression of 4-coumarate coenzyme A ligase gene in Angelica sinensis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Sui-chao; Wang, Yin-quan; Luo, Jun; Xia, Qi; Fan, Qin; Li, Shu-nan; Wang, Zhen-heng

    2015-12-01

    4-coumarate coenzyme A ligase is a key enzyme of phenylpropanoid metabolic pathway in higher plant and may regulate the biosynthesis of ferulic acid in Angelica sinensis. In this study, the homology-based cloning and rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE) technique were used to clone a full length cDNA encoding 4-coumarate coenzyme A ligase gene (4CL), and then qRT-PCR was taken for analyzing 4CL gene expression levels in the root, stem and root tissue at different growth stages of seedlings of A. sinensis. The results showed that a full-length 4CL cDNA (1,815 bp) was obtained (GenBank accession number: KT880508) which shares an open reading frame (ORF) of 1 632 bp, encodes 544 amino acid polypeptides. We found 4CL gene was expressed in all tissues including leaf, stem and root of seedlings of A. sinensis. The expressions in the leave and stem were increased significantly with the growth of seedlings of A. sinensis (P space pattern of 4CL gene expression in seedlings of A. sinensis. These findings will be useful for establishing an experiment basis for studying the structure and function of 4CL gene and elucidating mechanism of ferulic acid biosynthesis and space-time regulation in A. sinensis. PMID:27245029

  8. Attenuation of Biochemical Parameters in Streptozotocin-induced Diabetic Rats by Oral Administration of Extracts and Fractions of Cephalotaxus sinensis

    OpenAIRE

    Saeed, Muhammad K.; Deng, Yulin; Dai, Rongji

    2007-01-01

    Cephalotaxus sinensis (C. sinensis) large size, evergreen tree common in China and utilized for numerous effective pharmacological applications in Chinese traditional medicine. The hepato-renal effects of C. sinensis were evaluated in vivo using Streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats as an tentative model. Animals were orally treated with 80% EtOH extract (aq.EE), H2O extract (WtE) and ethylacetate (EaF)/butanol fractions (BtF) of C. sinensis (200 mg/kg, b.w.) for 28 days whereas control ...

  9. GC-FID/MS Profiling of Supercritical CO2 Extracts of Peels from Citrus aurantium, C. sinensis cv. Washington navel, C. sinensis cv. Tarocco and C. sinensis cv. Doppio Sanguigno from Dubrovnik Area (Croatia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jerković, Igor; Drulžić, Jasmina; Marijanović, Zvonimir; Gugić, Mirko; Jokić, Stela; Roje, Marin

    2015-07-01

    The peels of Citrus aurantium L. and Citrus sinensis Osbeck cultivars from the Dubrovnik region (south Croatia) were extracted by supercritical CO2 at 40 degrees C and 10 MPa at 1.76 kg/h to obtain enriched extracts in comparison with simple pressing of the peels. The extracts were analyzed in detail by gas chromatography and mass spectrometry (GC-FID/MS). Relevant similarities among the peel oil compositions of C. aurantium and C. sinensis cultivars were found with limonene predominance (up to 54.3%). The principal oxygenated monoterpenes were linalool (3.0%-5.9%), α-terpineol (0.7%-2.4%), linalyl acetate (0.0%-5.0%), geranyl acetate (0.0%-0.4%), (Z)-citral (0.0%-1.8%) and (E)-citral (0.0%-1.9%). Several sesquiterpenes were found with minor percentages. Coumarin derivatives were identified in all the samples among the relevant compounds. Isogeijerin dominated in the peels of C. sinensis cv. Tarocco (15.3%) and C. aurantium (11.2%). Scoparone ranged from 0.1% to 0.5% in all the samples. Bergapten (up to 1.4%), osthole (up to 1.1%) and 7-methoxy-8-(2-formylpropyl)coumarin (up to 1.1%) were found mostly in C. sinensis cv. Doppio Sanguigno. It was possible to indicate a few other differences among the extracts such as higher percentage of linalool, linalyl and geranyl acetates, as well as the abundance of sabinene and isogeijerin in C. aurantium or the occurrence of β-sinensal in C. sinensis cultivars. PMID:26411039

  10. Cordyceps sinensis preserves intestinal mucosal barrier and may be an adjunct therapy in endotoxin-induced sepsis rat model: a pilot study

    OpenAIRE

    Gu, Guo-Sheng; Ren, Jian-An; Li, Guan-Wei; Yuan, Yu-Jie; Ning LI; Li, Jie-Shou

    2015-01-01

    Background: Cordyceps sinensis (C. sinensis), a traditional Chinese medicine, exhibits various pharmacological activities such as reparative, antioxidant, and apoptosis inhibitory effects. Intestinal barrier dysfunction plays a vital role in the progression of sepsis. We aimed to explore the effect of C. sinensis on the gut barrier and evaluate its efficacy in sepsis. Methods: A murine model of gut barrier dysfunction was created by intraperitoneal injection of endotoxin. C. sinensis or salin...

  11. On the Decoloration Technology of Camellia Essential Oil for Skin Moisten%润肤用山茶油精油脱色工艺的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈俊; 应跃跃; 王喜周; 姜川; 卢光英

    2015-01-01

    目前国内食用山茶油的脱色工艺一般为传统的白土脱色,所得油色泽一般为黄色,仅能符合一般食用的要求而难以满足润肤用山茶油精油的要求,而且传统的白土脱色工艺产生的废弃物对环境也有较大的污染。本文针对这一情况,采用了一种新型的硅胶柱层析法对山茶油进行脱色,得到了清亮透明无色的润肤用山茶油精油,并将茶油中油酸的含量提高。%At present, the decoloration technology of edible camellia oil in China is commonly the traditional clay discoloration. The color of camellia oil is usually yellow. It only can meet the requirements of general edible oil and it is difficult to meet the requirements of camellia essential oil for skin moisten. The waste of traditional clay discoloration technology has larger pollution to the environment. Aimed at this situation, this paper uses a new silicagel column chromatography to decalor the camellia oil. It gets the limpid lucid and colorless camellia essential oil for skin moisten, and it improves the content of oleic acid in camellia oil.

  12. Domestic cats (Felis catus) are definitive hosts for Sarcocystis sinensis from water buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gjerde, Bjørn; Hilali, Mosaad

    2016-08-01

    The definitive hosts of Sarcocystis sinensis in water buffaloes have hitherto been unknown, but the close similarity of this species to the cat-transmitted Sarcocystis bovifelis in cattle suggested they were felids. In a previous study, two domestic cats were fed macroscopic sarcocysts of Sarcocystis fusiformis contained within or dissected from the esophageal muscles of water buffaloes, while no microscopic sarcocysts of S. sinensis were noticed. Both cats started shedding small numbers of sporocysts 8-10 days post infection (dpi) and were euthanized 15 dpi. Using a PCR-based molecular assay targeting the mitochondrial cox1 gene of S. fusiformis, both cats were shown to act as definitive hosts for this species. In the present study, DNA samples derived from oocysts/sporocysts in the intestinal mucosa of both cats were further examined by PCR for the presence of S. sinensis using 2 newly designed primers selectively targeting the cox1 gene of this species. All 6 DNA samples examined from each cat tested positive for S. sinensis. A 1,038-bp-long portion of cox1 was amplified and sequenced as 2 overlapping fragments from 5 of these DNA samples. The 5 sequences shared 99.3-100% identity with 7 previous cox1 sequences of S. sinensis obtained from sarcocysts in water buffaloes. Additionally, amplification of the ITS1 region with primers targeting various Sarcocystis spp., yielded amplicons of 2 different lengths, corresponding to those obtained from sarcocyst isolates of S. sinensis and S. fusiformis, respectively. This is the first study to show that cats act as definitive hosts for S. sinensis. PMID:27075117

  13. Study on the chemical components of shoots and leaves of Camellia oleifera from different elevations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The correlation between chemical components of shoot and leaf of Camellia oleifera and elevations were discussed, to provide theoretical basis for taking effective cultivation measures to promote the cold resistance of C. oleifera in the future Northward Movement of C. oleifera. The ratio of bound water to free water of the leaf, as well as the contents of holocellulose, cellulose, lignin and benzene-ethanol extracts were determined. The results showed that: In different elevations, the ratio of bound water to free water of the leaf varied from 0.11-0.22, the contents of holocellulose, cellulose, lignin and benzene-ethanol extracts varied from 25.08%-62.72%, 7.72%-36.61%, 11.80%-30.29% and 7.66%-8.57% respectively. In the same elevation, the content of benzene-ethanol extracts of leaf was higher than that of shoot, and the contents of other materials were quite the contrary. The elevation was positively correlated with the ratio of bound water to free water and the contents of holocellulose, cellulose, lignin and benzene-ethanol extracs. The chemical components of shoot and leaf represented extremely significant difference (p<0.01) among different elevations. In the future northward movement of C. oleifera, for the climate characteristics of cooler regions and higher elevation, a serious of cultivation measures, improving the contents of holocellulose, cellulose, lignin, benzene-ethanol extracts and the ratio of water to free water, were taken to improve the cold resistance of C. oleifera. (author)

  14. Antiatherogenic Effect of Camellia japonica Fruit Extract in High Fat Diet-Fed Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyun-Ho Lee

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Hypercholesterolemia is a well-known etiological factor for cardiovascular disease and a common symptom of most types of metabolic disorders. Camellia japonica is a traditional garden plant, and its flower and seed have been used as a base oil of traditional cosmetics in East Asia. The present study was carried out to evaluate the effect of C. japonica fruit extracts (CJF in a high fat diet- (HFD- induced hypercholesterolemic rat model. CJF was administered orally at three different doses: 100, 400, and 800 mg·kg−1·day−1 (CJF 100, 400, and 800, resp.. Our results showed that CJF possessed strong cholesterol-lowering potency as indicated by the decrease in serum total cholesterol (TC, triglyceride (TG, and low-density lipoprotein (LDL, accompanied by an increase in serum high-density lipoprotein (HDL. Furthermore, CJF reduced serum lipid peroxidation by suppressing the formation of thiobarbituric acid reactive substance. In addition, oil red O (ORO staining of rat arteries showed decreased lipid-positive staining in the CJF-treated groups compared to the control HFD group. Taken together, these results suggest that CJF could be a potent herbal therapeutic option and source of a functional food for the prevention and treatment of atherosclerosis and other diseases associated with hypercholesterolemia.

  15. Antiatherogenic Effect of Camellia japonica Fruit Extract in High Fat Diet-Fed Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hyun-Ho; Paudel, Keshav Raj; Jeong, Jieun; Wi, An-Jin; Park, Whoa-Shig; Kim, Dong-Wook; Oak, Min-Ho

    2016-01-01

    Hypercholesterolemia is a well-known etiological factor for cardiovascular disease and a common symptom of most types of metabolic disorders. Camellia japonica is a traditional garden plant, and its flower and seed have been used as a base oil of traditional cosmetics in East Asia. The present study was carried out to evaluate the effect of C. japonica fruit extracts (CJF) in a high fat diet- (HFD-) induced hypercholesterolemic rat model. CJF was administered orally at three different doses: 100, 400, and 800 mg·kg(-1)·day(-1) (CJF 100, 400, and 800, resp.). Our results showed that CJF possessed strong cholesterol-lowering potency as indicated by the decrease in serum total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG), and low-density lipoprotein (LDL), accompanied by an increase in serum high-density lipoprotein (HDL). Furthermore, CJF reduced serum lipid peroxidation by suppressing the formation of thiobarbituric acid reactive substance. In addition, oil red O (ORO) staining of rat arteries showed decreased lipid-positive staining in the CJF-treated groups compared to the control HFD group. Taken together, these results suggest that CJF could be a potent herbal therapeutic option and source of a functional food for the prevention and treatment of atherosclerosis and other diseases associated with hypercholesterolemia. PMID:27340422

  16. Oleanane triterpenes from the flowers of Camellia japonica inhibit porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) replication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jun-Li; Ha, Thi-Kim-Quy; Dhodary, Basanta; Pyo, Euisun; Nguyen, Ngoc Hieu; Cho, Hyomoon; Kim, Eunhee; Oh, Won Keun

    2015-02-12

    Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) infections have resulted in a severe economic loss in the swine industry in many countries due to no effective treatment approach. Fifteen oleanane triterpenes (1-15), including nine new ones (1-4 and 10-14), were isolated from the flowers of Camellia japonica, and their molecular structures were determined by extensive spectroscopic methods. These compounds were evaluated for their antiviral activity against PEDV replication, and the structure-activity relationships (SARs) were discussed. Compounds 6, 9, 11, and 13 showed most potent inhibitory effects on PEDV replication. They were found to inhibit PEDV genes encoding GP6 nucleocapsid, GP2 spike, and GP5 membrane protein synthesis based on RT-PCR data. Western blot analysis also demonstrated their inhibitory effects on PEDV GP6 nucleocapsid and GP2 spike protein synthesis during viral replication. The present study suggested the potential of compounds 6, 9, 11, and 13 as promising scaffolds for treating PEDV infection via inhibiting viral replication. PMID:25568928

  17. Distorted segregation and linkage of alcohol dehydrogenase genes in Camellia japonica L. (Theaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wendel, J F; Parks, C R

    1984-08-01

    Alcohol dehydrogenase isozymes in Camellia japonica are encoded by two genes, Adh-1 and Adh-2. Both loci are expressed in seeds, and their products randomly associate into intragenic and intergenic dimers. Electrophoresis of leaf extracts reveals only the products of Adh-2. Formal genetic analysis indicated that the two Adh loci are tightly linked (combined estimate of r = 0.004). Most segregations fit expected Mendelian ratios, but in some families distorted segregation was observed at Adh-1, Adh-2, or both loci. The deficient progeny class varied across families, and in two apparent back-crosses three rather than two phenotypic classes were recovered. The mechanism underlying these distortions is not known, but evidence is presented that suggests that the phenomenon is genic or segmental in nature. Plausible hypotheses include linkage of the Adh structural genes with a gametophytic self-incompatibility locus, translocation heterozygosity involving the segment bearing Adh-1 and Adh-2, or a combination of these two mechanisms. PMID:6388563

  18. Oleanane triterpenes as protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B) inhibitors from Camellia japonica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uddin, Mohammad Nasir; Sharma, Govinda; Yang, Jun-Li; Choi, Hong Seok; Lim, Seong-Il; Kang, Keon Wook; Oh, Won Keun

    2014-07-01

    Protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B) plays a key role in metabolic signaling, thereby making it an exciting drug target for type 2 diabetes and obesity. Besides, there is substantial evidence that shows its overexpression is involved in breast cancer, which suggests that selective PTP1B inhibition might be effective in breast cancer treatment. As part of our continuous research on PTP1B inhibitors from medicinal plants, four oleanane-type triterpenes were isolated from an EtOAc-soluble extract of fruit peels of Camellia japonica (Theaceae), together with 6 previously known compounds of this class. Their structures were determined on the basis of spectroscopic data analysis (UV, IR, (1)H and (13)CNMR, HMBC, HSQC, NOESY, and MS). All isolates were evaluated for their inhibitory effects on PTP1B, as well as their cytotoxic effects against human breast cancer cell lines MCF7, MCF7/ADR, and MDA-MB-231. Several compounds with OH-3 or/and COOH-28 functionalities showed strong PTP1B inhibitory activity (IC50 values ranging from 3.77±0.11 to 6.40±0.81 μM) as well as significant cytotoxicity (IC50 values ranging from 0.51±0.05 to 13.55±1.44 μM). PMID:24815008

  19. Endophytic and epiphytic phyllosphere fungi of Camellia japonica: seasonal and leaf age-dependent variations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osono, Takashi

    2008-01-01

    Seasonal and leaf age-dependent variations in the endophytic and epiphytic phyllosphere fungal assemblages of Camellia japonica were examined and compared. Live leaves of C. japonica were collected in four seasons (May, Aug, Nov, Feb), and fungi were isolated from healthy-looking leaves of 0, 1, 2 and 3 y old. The infection rate and total number of endophytic fungi increased May-Feb, and species richness of endophytes increased as leaves aged. In contrast the infection rate of epiphytic fungi was 100% for all leaf ages at every sampling date. The total number of epiphytic fungi isolated was greatest in May and lowest in Aug. The species richness of epiphytes did not differ significantly by season or leaf age. Eight fungal species were recorded as major phyllosphere fungi of C. japonica. Seasonal variations were detected for the frequencies of Colletotrichum gloeosporioides, C. acutatum, and epiphytes Pestalotiopsis sp.1, Aureobasidium pullulans, Phoma sp.1 and Ramichloridium sp., whereas the frequency of the endophyte Geniculosporium sp.1 varied with leaf age. The frequency of the epiphyte Cladosporium cladosporioides varied with both season and leaf age. PMID:18751546

  20. The Antioxidant Effect of Camellia Sinesison on the Liver Damage Induced by Tioacetamide in Male Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharifi, A. ( B Sc

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objective: Flavonoids play an important role in non-enzymatic reaction against oxidative stress. These are polyphenolic compounds in tea structure that could be reacted with free radicals and neutralized them. In this study, we investigated the anti-oxidant impact of Camellia Sinesis on the liver of thioacetamide -injected male albino mice. Material and Methods: In this study, 40 male mice were categorized in five groups of eight. The first group was control. The second and the third group received 100mg/kg and 150mg/kg of thioacetamide, respectively. The fourth group received 100mg/kg thioacetamide followed by black tea (5 gr/100 and the fifth one received 150mg/kg thioacetamide followed by black tea (5 gr/100. Tioacetamide was given via intraperitoneal. After that, for 30 days, they were only fed on black tea (5 gr/100. At the end, catalase (CAT and glutathione peroxidase (GPx activity were measured. Results: Based on the results, catalase(CAT and glutathione peroxidase(GPx activity were significantly increased in the groups of Thioacetamide and black tea compared to those of only Thioacetamide groups (p<0.05. Conclusion: The increase of these enzymes in tea groups shows the anti-oxidant effect of black tea that can be caused by Catechin. Keywords: Antioxidant; Thioacetamide; Black Tea; Glutathione Peroxidase; Catalase

  1. Antiatherogenic Effect of Camellia japonica Fruit Extract in High Fat Diet-Fed Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hyun-Ho; Paudel, Keshav Raj; Jeong, Jieun; Wi, An-Jin; Park, Whoa-Shig; Kim, Dong-Wook

    2016-01-01

    Hypercholesterolemia is a well-known etiological factor for cardiovascular disease and a common symptom of most types of metabolic disorders. Camellia japonica is a traditional garden plant, and its flower and seed have been used as a base oil of traditional cosmetics in East Asia. The present study was carried out to evaluate the effect of C. japonica fruit extracts (CJF) in a high fat diet- (HFD-) induced hypercholesterolemic rat model. CJF was administered orally at three different doses: 100, 400, and 800 mg·kg−1·day−1 (CJF 100, 400, and 800, resp.). Our results showed that CJF possessed strong cholesterol-lowering potency as indicated by the decrease in serum total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG), and low-density lipoprotein (LDL), accompanied by an increase in serum high-density lipoprotein (HDL). Furthermore, CJF reduced serum lipid peroxidation by suppressing the formation of thiobarbituric acid reactive substance. In addition, oil red O (ORO) staining of rat arteries showed decreased lipid-positive staining in the CJF-treated groups compared to the control HFD group. Taken together, these results suggest that CJF could be a potent herbal therapeutic option and source of a functional food for the prevention and treatment of atherosclerosis and other diseases associated with hypercholesterolemia. PMID:27340422

  2. Two new triterpenoid glycosides from the stems of Camellia oleifera Abel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Qing-Wei; Fu, Hui-Zheng; Luo, Yue-Hua; Zhou, Guo-Ping; Wan, Kai-Hua; Zhong, Rui-Jian

    2016-07-01

    Two new oleanane-type triterpenoid glycosides, 3-O-β-D-xylopyranosyl-(1→2)-α-L-arabinopyranosyl-(1→3)-[β-D-glucuronopyranosyl-(1→2)]-β-D-glucuronopyranosyl-22α-angeloyloxyolean-12-ene-15α,16α,28-triol(1) and 3-O-β-D-xylopyranosyl-(1→2)-α-L-arabinopyranosyl-(1→3)-[β-D-glucuronopyranosyl-(1→2)]-β-D-glucuronopyranosyl-21β-acetyl-22α-angeloyloxyolean-12-ene-16α,28-diol (2) were isolated from the stems of Camellia oleifera Abel. Their structures were elucidated by means of spectroscopic methods and chemical evidence. The cytotoxic activities of compounds 1-2 were evaluated against five human tumour cell lines (HCT-8, BGC-823, A5049, and A2780). Compounds 1-2 showed cytotoxic activity against five human cancer cell lines, with IC50 values ranging from 3.15 to 7.32 μM. PMID:26610161

  3. CONTRIBUTION TO THE WOOD ANATOMY OF TINOSPORA SINENSIS (LOUR) MERRILL IN RELATION WITH T.CORDIFOLIA MIERS

    OpenAIRE

    Bonde, S.D.; Upaehye, A.S.

    1989-01-01

    Morphologically Tincspora sinensis (Lour.) Merrill is differentiated from T. cordifolia Miers. Only by the tomentose leaves. The present anatomical study aids in differentiating pieces of woods of T. sinensis from those of T. cordifolia which is often mixed as adulterant or substitute for T. cordifolia in several Ayurvedic compound preparations.

  4. In vitro antimicrobial status of methanolic extract of Citrus sinensis Linn. fruit peel

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    Anju Dhiman

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim : The present investigation evaluated the antimicrobial potential of methanolic extract of Citrus sinensis Linn. (Rutaceae fruit peel. There is a basis for the traditional use of this plant for local health remedies. Materials and Methods: The antimicrobial activity of methanolic extract of C. sinensis fruit peel was tested against three bacterial and two fungal strains. Turbidimetric or tube dilution method and paper disc diffusion method were followed. Results are expressed as mean ± standard deviation. Results: The C. sinensis fruit peel methanolic extract exhibited antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli with minimum inhibitory concentration of 0.78 μg/ ml and minimum bactericidal concentration of 6.25 μg/ml, and appreciable antifungal activity with minimum inhibitory concentration of 12.5 μg/ml. The phytochemistry of C. sinensis fruit peel methanolic extract revealed the presence of carbohydrates (reducing sugars, hexose sugars, non-reducing polysaccharides, gums, and mucilages, flavonoid glycosides, coumarin glycosides, volatile oils, organic acids, fats and fixed oils. Conclusion: Most of the organic chemical constituents reported are aromatic phenolic compounds, which are known for their wide spectra of antimicrobial activity. Therefore, the bacteriostatic and fungistatic action of the tested extract may be attributed to the presence of polyphenolic compounds. In short, C. sinensis fruit peel methanolic extract is a potential source of natural antimicrobials.

  5. [Cordyceps sinensis enhances lymphocyte proliferation and CD markers expression in simulated microgravity environment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Tong; Li, Jun-Jie; Du, Zhi-Yan; Duan, Cui-Mi; Wang, Yan-Meng; Wang, Chang-Yong; Song, Jing-Ping; Wang, Lin-Jie; Li, Ying-Hui; Wang, Yan

    2012-10-01

    This study was aimed to explore the effect of cordyceps sinensis enhancing lymphocyte proliferation and surface CD marker expression in simulated microgravity environment. The splenic lymphocytes were separated from mice and cultured in the rotary cell culture system simulated microgravity environment. The cells were treated with different concentration of cordyceps sinensis solution (0, 6.25, 12.5, 25 and 50 µg/ml) for 24, 48 and 72 h respectively, then the cells were harvested, and analyzed for cell proliferation and the expression of cell surface markers (CD4 and CD8). The results showed that under simulated microgravity environment, the lymphocyte proliferation was inhibited. When the concentration of cordyceps sinensis was 25 or 50 µg/ml, the lymphocyte proliferation, CD4 and CD8 expressions all increased, but 50 µg/ml cordyceps sinensis could inhibit the proliferation ability with the time prolonging. It is concluded that the suitable concentration of cordyceps sinensis displayed the ability to enhance the lymphocyte proliferation and CD marker expression in simulated microgravity environment. These results may be valuable for screening drugs which can be potentially against immunosuppression under simulated microgravity. PMID:23114150

  6. Isolation, characterization, and antitumor activity of a novel heteroglycan from cultured mycelia of Cordyceps sinensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mei, Yu-xia; Yang, Wei; Zhu, Pei-xin; Peng, Nan; Zhu, Hai; Liang, Yun-xiang

    2014-08-01

    A novel heteroglycan, Cordyceps sinensis polysaccharide 1 (molecular weight 1 17 × 10(5) Da), was isolated and purified from mycelia of the fungus C. sinensis obtained by solid-state culture. Structural characterization by chemical analysis, GC-MS, FTIR, and NMR spectroscopy showed that C. sinensis polysaccharide 1 was mainly composed of (1 → 6)-linked α-D-Glc and α-D-Gal, with minor β-(1 → 4)-D-Xyl and β-(1 → 4)-D-Man residues probably located in the side chains with a trace amount of α-(1 → 3)-L-Rha residue. In biological assays, C. sinensis polysaccharide 1 significantly inhibited proliferation of sarcoma 180 cells and induced apoptosis in a dose-dependent manner. Further studies will elucidate the antitumor mechanism of C. sinensis polysaccharide 1 and promote its utilization for the development of novel, effective anticancer drugs. PMID:25127022

  7. Application of HACCP Scheme in the Production of Mingke 1 (mellia sinensis) Oolong Tea%HACCP体系在茗科1号乌龙茶生产中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周永波

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, more and more consumers have focused on the safety of tea products:microbial contamination, pesticide residue and heavy metal contamination. Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point (HACCP) could apply to a safeguard for tea products as the most common control in the production of safe foods worldwide. In this paper, we conducted hazard analysis and preventive measures, identified critical control point, established critical limits and CCP monitoring, offered corrective actions and established the HACCP scheme in the process of Oolong tea made of Mingke 1 (Camellia sinensis), so as to provide reference for the application of HACCP in tea production.%近年来,茶产品安全备受消费者关注,微生物污染、农药残留和重金属污染等问题日益突出。HACCP系生产(加工)安全食品的一种控制手段,其在茶叶生产中的应用对于产品的安全保障尤为重要。以茗科1号为原料加工生产乌龙茶,进行危害分析和提出预防措施,确定关键控制点,建立关键界限和关键控制点的监控,提出纠正措施,从而建立乌龙茶生产HACCP计划,为HACCP体系在茶叶加工中的应用开展提供参考。

  8. 1H-Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Analysis of the Triacylglyceride Composition of Cold-Pressed Oil from Camellia japonica

    OpenAIRE

    Salinero, Carmen; Feás, Xesús; Mansilla, J. Pedro; Seijas, Julio A.; Vázquez-Tato, M. Pilar; Vela, Pilar; Sainz, María J.

    2012-01-01

    Camellia japonica (CJ) has oil-rich seeds, but the study of these oils has received little attention and has mainly focused only on their health properties. In the present work the relative composition of the fatty acid (FA) components of the triglycerides in cold-pressed oil from CJ is studied by 1H-NMR. The results obtained were: 75.75%, 6.0%, 0.17% and 18.67%, for oleic, linoleic, linolenic and saturated FA respectively. Levels of C18 unsaturated FA found in CJ oil were similar to those re...

  9. Inhibitory effects of Korean medicinal plants and camelliatannin H from Camellia japonica on human immunodeficiency virus type 1 protease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jong Cheol; Hur, Jong Moon; Park, Ju Gwon; Hatano, Tsutomu; Yoshida, Takashi; Miyashiro, Hirotsugu; Min, Byung Sun; Hattori, Masao

    2002-08-01

    To identify substances with anti-human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) activity in traditional medicines, 101 extracts of Korean medicinal plants were screened for their inhibitory effects on HIV type 1 protease (PR). The enzyme activity was determined by HPLC. Of the extracts tested, strong inhibitory effects were observed in the acetone extracts of the pericarp and leaves of Camellia japonica, the water extract of the leaves of Sageretia theezans and the methanol extract of the aerial part of Sophora flavescens. Camelliatannin H from the pericarp of C. japonica, showed a potent inhibitory activity on HIV-1 PR with IC(50) of 0.9 microM. PMID:12203260

  10. 油茶杂交育种试验初报%Primary experiments on Camellia oleifera cross breeding

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    龚春; 何小三; 王玉娟; 敖婉初; 幸伟年; 周文才; 黄建建

    2011-01-01

    Camellia oleifera distant cross breeding experiments have been taken to cultivate new variety with good characters of big Suit, thin skin, high seed-producing percentage and oil content. The results show that the success rates between Rosy Camellia oleifera and superior clones of Camellia oleifera and native variety of Camellia oleifera were all very low; and there was only one hybrid fruit of one hundred eighty-two artificial pollination from six cross combination.The hybrid seeds of BPZZ × GW2, BPZZ × GW1 and TSFH × G55 all exhibited good characters of big fruit, thin skin, high seed-producing percentage and oil content through comprehensive analysis on various fruit characters of new hybrid variety. The hybrid seeds have been cultured, and their late features needs further study.%为了培育出果大、皮薄、出籽率高、含油率高的油茶新品种,进行了油茶远缘杂交育种试验.试验结果表明:红花油茶与油茶优良无性系和农家品种进行杂交的成功率均非常低;其中,6个杂交组合,共计授粉182个,最后仅获得1个杂交果实.综合分析杂交新品种的各项果实性状,初步得出白皮中子(父)×赣无2(母)、白皮中子(父)×赣无1(母)及泰顺粉红(父)×赣55(母)的杂交种子均表现出果大、皮薄、出籽率高、含油率高的特点,目前选出的品种已播种培育,其后期表现有待进一步研究.

  11. A New Saponin from Tea Seed Pomace (Camellia oleifera Abel) and Its Protective Effect on PC12 Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Li-Ping Gao; Tao Xia; Ying-Ying Han; Guan-Hu Bao; Liang Zhang; Tie-Jun Ling; Xin-Fu Zhang

    2012-01-01

    A new triterpenoid saponin, oleiferasaponin A1, was isolated from tea seed pomace (Camellia oleifera Abel). The structure of oleiferasaponin A1 was elucidated on the basis of chemical and physicochemical evidence and was found to be 22-O-cis-2-hexenoyl-A1-barrigenol 3-O-[β-D-galactopyranosyl(1→2)] [β-D-glucopyranosyl(1→2)-α-L-arabinopyranosyl(1→3)]-β-D-glucopyranosiduronic acid. PC12 cells injured with H2O2 were used as the model to test the protective effects of oleiferasaponin A1. The resul...

  12. The sex ratio of wild Chinese alligators Alligator sinensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lan ZHAO, Hai-Qiong YANG, Li-Ming FANG, Guo-Liang PAN, Wei-Qiang ZOU, Da-Bin REN, Qiu-Hong WAN, Sheng-Guo FANG

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The Chinese alligator Alligator sinensis is one of the most endangered crocodilian species, and typically exhibits temperature-dependent sex determination. It is extremely important to clarify the sex structure of Chinese alligators to implement recovery projects successfully. However, the sex ratio of wild Chinese alligators remains unknown. In this study, we collected 28 years of sex ratio data from Chinese alligators residing in the natural and artificial habitats of Changxing Nature Reserve, China, and examined the differences in the sex ratio dynamics between these two populations.We observed that the sex ratio of wild Chinese alligators is 1 male to 4.507 females, which was significantly lower compared to that of the captive population (1 to 2.040; P 0.05. Overall, this study indicates that the stabilized female-biased sex ratio of Changxing Chinese alligators might result from selection pressure caused by local mate competition and major inbreeding [Current Zoology 59 (6 : 725–731, 2013 ].

  13. Fullerene-Based Symmetry in Hibiscus rosa-sinensis Pollen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade, Kleber; Guerra, Sara; Debut, Alexis

    2014-01-01

    The fullerene molecule belongs to the so-called super materials. The compound is interesting due to its spherical configuration where atoms occupy positions forming a mechanically stable structure. We first demonstrate that pollen of Hibiscus rosa-sinensis has a strong symmetry regarding the distribution of its spines over the spherical grain. These spines form spherical hexagons and pentagons. The distance between atoms in fullerene is explained applying principles of flat, spherical, and spatial geometry, based on Euclid’s “Elements” book, as well as logic algorithms. Measurements of the pollen grain take into account that the true spine lengths, and consequently the real distances between them, are measured to the periphery of each grain. Algorithms are developed to recover the spatial effects lost in 2D photos. There is a clear correspondence between the position of atoms in the fullerene molecule and the position of spines in the pollen grain. In the fullerene the separation gives the idea of equal length bonds which implies perfectly distributed electron clouds while in the pollen grain we suggest that the spines being equally spaced carry an electrical charge originating in forces involved in the pollination process. PMID:25003375

  14. Neuroprotective and Cytotoxic Phthalides from Angelicae Sinensis Radix

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenxia Gong

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Seven phthalides, including a new dimeric one named tokinolide C (7, were isolated from Angelicae Sinensis Radix and characterized. The structures of these compounds were elucidated on the basis of comprehensive analysis of spectroscopic data and comparison with literature data. All of the compounds were evaluated for their cytotoxic activities against the A549, HCT-8, and HepG2 cancer cell lines. Riligustilide (4 showed cytotoxicity against three cancer cell lines, with IC50 values of 13.82, 6.79, and 7.92 μM, respectively. Tokinolide A (6 and tokinolide C (6 exerted low cytotoxicity in these cancer cell lines, while the remaining compounds were inactive. Flow cytometry analysis was employed to evaluate the possible mechanism of cytotoxic action of riligustilide (4. We observed that compound 4 was able to arrest the cell cycle in the G1, S phases and induce apoptosis in a time-dependent manner in HCT-8 cell lines. In addition, these compounds were evaluated for neuroprotective effect against SH-SY5Y cells injured by glutamate. The result showed that ligustilide (1, Z-butylidenephthalide (3 and tokinolide A (6 exhibited significant neuroprotective effects.

  15. Neuroprotective and Cytotoxic Phthalides from Angelicae Sinensis Radix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Wenxia; Zhou, Yuzhi; Li, Xiao; Gao, Xiaoxia; Tian, Junsheng; Qin, Xuemei; Du, Guanhua

    2016-01-01

    Seven phthalides, including a new dimeric one named tokinolide C (7), were isolated from Angelicae Sinensis Radix and characterized. The structures of these compounds were elucidated on the basis of comprehensive analysis of spectroscopic data and comparison with literature data. All of the compounds were evaluated for their cytotoxic activities against the A549, HCT-8, and HepG2 cancer cell lines. Riligustilide (4) showed cytotoxicity against three cancer cell lines, with IC50 values of 13.82, 6.79, and 7.92 μM, respectively. Tokinolide A (6) and tokinolide C (6) exerted low cytotoxicity in these cancer cell lines, while the remaining compounds were inactive. Flow cytometry analysis was employed to evaluate the possible mechanism of cytotoxic action of riligustilide (4). We observed that compound 4 was able to arrest the cell cycle in the G1, S phases and induce apoptosis in a time-dependent manner in HCT-8 cell lines. In addition, these compounds were evaluated for neuroprotective effect against SH-SY5Y cells injured by glutamate. The result showed that ligustilide (1), Z-butylidenephthalide (3) and tokinolide A (6) exhibited significant neuroprotective effects. PMID:27128890

  16. EFFECT OF ANGELICA SINENSIS ON AFFERENT DISCHARGE OF SINGLE MUSCLE SPINDLE IN TOADS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高云芳; 樊小力

    2004-01-01

    Objective In drugs for invigorating blood circulation, to find a herb that can stimulate afferent discharge of muscle spindle. Methods A single muscle spindle was isolated from sartorial muscle of toad. Using air-gap technique, afferent discharge of the muscle spindle was recorded. Effects of Angelica Sinensis, Salvia Miltiorrhiza, and Safflower on afferent discharge of the muscle spindle were observed. Results Angelica Sinensis could distinctly increase afferent discharge frequency of the muscle spindle, and this increase was dose-dependent. But Salvia Miltiorrhiza and Safflower had no this excitatory effect. Conclusion It is known that Angelica Sinensis can invigorate blood circulation, and we have found its excitatory effect on muscle spindle which makes it possible to serve people with muscle atrophy if more evidences from clinical experiments are available.

  17. Biology, pretreatment and genetic development of Miscanthus sinensis, a biomass crop with great potential in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junhua Peng

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Climate changes and energy crisis accelerate the exploration on traditional energy production and new alternative energy sources. Biofuels are important because they could replace petroleum fuels. With high yield production, wide distribution and dramatically high tolerance to biotic and abiotic stress, Miscanthus sinensis was considered as one of the most potential energy plants in China. As a relatively new biomass plant, its background knowledge in physiological, pretreatment and genetic investigation is scarce. This review aimed at physiological and characteristics description, as well as pretreatment for ethanol production and genetic improvement of M. sinensis. The achievements of genomic and epigenomic research programs in other plants are of great help to better understand the nature of this promising biomass crop species in China. Meanwhile further researches on deconstruction enzymes, genetics and breeding would accelerate the application of M. sinensis, with higher yield, better quality, and wider adaption.

  18. Identification of chemical markers in Cordyceps sinensis by HPLC-MS/MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Hankun; Xiao, Ling; Zheng, Baogen; Wei, Xin; Ellis, Alexis; Liu, Yi-Ming

    2015-10-01

    Authentication and quality assessment of Cordyceps sinensis, a precious and pricey natural product that offers a variety of health benefits, is highly significant. To identify effective chemical markers, authentic C. sinensis was thoroughly screened by using HPLC-MS/MS. In addition to many previously reported ingredients, two glycosides, i.e., cyclo-Ala-Leu-rhamnose and Phe-o-glucose, were detected for the first time in this material. Six ingredients detected, including cordycepin, D-mannitol, Phe, Phe-o-glucose, cyclo-Gly-Pro, and cyclo-Ala-Leu-rhamnose, were selected as a collection of chemical markers. An HPLC-MS/MS method was developed to simultaneously quantify them with sensitivity and specificity. The method had limits of detection ranging from 0.008 μg mL(-1) for cordycepin to 0.75 μg mL(-1) for cyclo-Gly-Pro. Recovery was found between 96 and 103 % in all tests. To evaluate the effectiveness of the marker collection proposed, five authentic C. sinensis samples and five samples of its substitutes were analyzed. Cordycepin, D-mannitol, and Phe were found present in all samples. The contents ranged from 0.0076 to 0.029 % (w/w) for cordycepin, 0.33 to 18.9 % for mannitol, and 0.0013 to 0.642 % for Phe. Interestingly, the two glycosides, Phe-o-glucose and cyclo-Ala-Leu-rhamnose, were detected only in authentic C. sinensis samples. These results indicated that the proposed protocol based on HPLC-MS/MS quantification of the markers might have a great potential in authentication and quality assessment of C. sinensis. Graphical abstract Chemical markers of C. sinensis identified in this work. PMID:26302964

  19. Genetic diversity and population structure of Miscanthus sinensis germplasm in China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hua Zhao

    Full Text Available Miscanthus is a perennial rhizomatous C4 grass native to East Asia. Endowed with great biomass yield, high ligno-cellulose composition, efficient use of radiation, nutrient and water, as well as tolerance to stress, Miscanthus has great potential as an excellent bioenergy crop. Despite of the high potential for biomass production of the allotriploid hybrid M. ×giganteus, derived from M. sacchariflorus and M. sinensis, other options need to be explored to improve the narrow genetic base of M. ×giganteus, and also to exploit other Miscanthus species, including M. sinensis (2n = 2x = 38, as bioenergy crops. In the present study, a large number of 459 M. sinensis accessions, collected from the wide geographical distribution regions in China, were genotyped using 23 SSR markers transferable from Brachypodium distachyon. Genetic diversity and population structure were assessed. High genetic diversity and differentiation of the germplasm were observed, with 115 alleles in total, a polymorphic rate of 0.77, Nei's genetic diversity index (He of 0.32 and polymorphism information content (PIC of 0.26. Clustering of germplasm accessions was primarily in agreement with the natural geographic distribution. AMOVA and genetic distance analyses confirmed the genetic differentiation in the M. sinensis germplasm and it was grouped into five clusters or subpopulations. Significant genetic variation among subpopulations indicated obvious genetic differentiation in the collections, but within-subpopulation variation (83% was substantially greater than the between-subpopulation variation (17%. Considerable phenotypic variation was observed for multiple traits among 300 M. sinensis accessions. Nine SSR markers were found to be associated with heading date and biomass yield. The diverse Chinese M. sinensis germplasm and newly identified SSR markers were proved to be valuable for breeding Miscanthus varieties with desired bioenergy traits.

  20. Stage-specific expression, immunolocalization of Clonorchis sinensis lysophospholipase and its potential role in hepatic fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Fan; Liang, Pei; Chen, Wenjun; Wang, Xiaoyun; Hu, Yue; Liang, Chi; Sun, Jiufeng; Huang, Yan; Li, Ran; Li, Xuerong; Xu, Jin; Yu, Xinbing

    2013-02-01

    Lysophospholipase, belonging to the complex family of phospholipases, is supposed to play a vital role in virulence and pathogenesis of parasites and fungi. In the current study, the potential role of Clonorchis sinensis lysophospholipase (CslysoPLA) in hepatic fibrosis induced by C. sinensis was explored for the first time. In the liver of the cat infected with C. sinensis, CslysoPLA was recognized in the lumen between adult worms and surrounding bile duct epithelia together with some inside the cells by means of immunolocalization. Both Cell Counting Kit-8 (CCK-8 assay) and cell cycle analysis of human hepatic stellate cell line LX-2 showed that a higher percentage of cells were at proliferation phase after incubation with lower concentrations of recombinant CslysoPLA (rCslysoPLA). Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) demonstrated an upregulation in fibrogenic genes of smooth muscle α-actin, collagen III, matrix metalloproteinase 2 and tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinase II in LX-2 treated with rCslysoPLA. Moreover, human biliary epithelial cell line 5100 proliferated significantly in response to rCslysoPLA. Notably, CslysoPLA was localized in the adenomatoid hyperplastic tissue within the intrahepatic bile duct of experimentally infected rats by immunolocalization analysis. In addition, quantitative RT-PCR implied that CslysoPLA was differentially expressed at the developmental stages of C. sinensis (metacercariae, adult worms and eggs), with the highest level at metacercariae stage. Immunolocalization analysis showed that CslysoPLA was distributed in the intestine, vitelline gland, tegument and eggs in the adult worms and in the tegument and vitelline gland in the metacercariae, respectively. Collectively, it suggests that CslysoPLA might be involved in the initiation and promotion of C. sinensis-related human hepatic fibrosis and advance future studies on its promotion to C. sinensis-induced cholangiocarcinogenesis. PMID:23183703

  1. Phylogenetic relationships of host insects of Cordyceps sinensis inferred from mitochondrial Cytochrome b sequences

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cheng Zhou; Geng Yang; Liang Honghui; Yang Xiaoling; Li Shan; Zhu Yunguo; Guo Guangpu; Zhou Tongshui; Chen Jiakuan

    2007-01-01

    This study used the sequence of the mitochondrial Cytochrome b (Cytb) to estimate phylogenetic relationships among host Hepialidae insects of Cordyceps sinensis. Genome DNA of host insect was extracted from the dead larva head part of 18 cordyceps populations and 2 species of Hepialus, and the Cytb fragment of host insect was amplified with PCR technique. The nucleotide sequence alignments and their homologous sequences of 24 species host Hepialidae insects of Cordyceps sinensis were obtained from GenBank and were used to construct phylogenetic trees based on neighbor-joining method. The results showed that genus Bipectilus diverged earlier than genus Hepialus and Hepialiscus. Hepialus host insects of Cordyceps sinensis have multitudinous species with different morphological characteristics and geographical distributions. The interspecific genetic differentiations are obvious in Hepialus. Thus, the genus Hepialus might be considered as polyphyletic origin. Cytb sequences have abundant variations among the host insects of Cordyceps sinensis on specific and generic level. The divergence rate of Cytb sequences among the species in Hepialus ranged from 0.23 % to 9.24 %, except that Hepialus pratensis and Hepialus jinshaensis have the same sequence. Cytb sequence can be used for species identification of host insects of Cordyceps sinensis, but further confirmation in more host insect species is needed. To obtain the Cytb sequence of host insect by amplifying DNA extracted from the head part of dead larva in cordyceps turns out to be an effective and accurate approach, which will be useful for studies on phylogeny and genetic structure of host insects of cordyceps populations, especially for analyzing relationships between C.sinensis and its host insects.

  2. Resilient Plant–Bird Interactions in a Volcanic Island Ecosystem: Pollination of Japanese Camellia Mediated by the Japanese White-Eye

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abe, Harue; Ueno, Saneyoshi; Takahashi, Toshimori; Tsumura, Yoshihiko; Hasegawa, Masami

    2013-01-01

    Observations of interspecies interactions during volcanic activity provide important opportunities to study how organisms respond to environmental devastation. Japanese camellia (Camellia japonica L.) and its main avian pollinator, the Japanese White-eye (Zosterops japonica), offer an excellent example of such an interaction as key members of the biotic community on Miyake-jima, which erupted in 2000 and continues to emit volcanic gases. Both species exhibit higher resistance to volcanic damage than other species. We examined the effects of volcanic activity on this plant–pollinator system by estimating pollen flow and the genetic diversity of the next generation. The results showed that despite a decrease in Camellia flowers, the partitioning of allelic richness among mother-tree pollen pools and seeds decreased while the migration rate of pollen from outside the study plot and the pollen donor diversity within a fruit increased as the index of volcanic damage increased. In areas with low food (flower) density due to volcanic damage, Z. japonica ranged over larger areas to satisfy its energy needs rather than moving to areas with higher food density. Consequently, the genetic diversity of the seeds (the next plant generation) increased with the index of volcanic damage. The results were consistent with previously published data on the movement of Z. japonica based on radio tracking and the genetic diversity of Camellia pollen adhering to pollinators. Overall, our results indicated that compensation mechanisms ensured better pollination after volcanic disturbance. PMID:23646136

  3. Resilient plant-bird interactions in a volcanic island ecosystem: pollination of Japanese Camellia mediated by the Japanese White-eye.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abe, Harue; Ueno, Saneyoshi; Takahashi, Toshimori; Tsumura, Yoshihiko; Hasegawa, Masami

    2013-01-01

    Observations of interspecies interactions during volcanic activity provide important opportunities to study how organisms respond to environmental devastation. Japanese camellia (Camellia japonica L.) and its main avian pollinator, the Japanese White-eye (Zosterops japonica), offer an excellent example of such an interaction as key members of the biotic community on Miyake-jima, which erupted in 2000 and continues to emit volcanic gases. Both species exhibit higher resistance to volcanic damage than other species. We examined the effects of volcanic activity on this plant-pollinator system by estimating pollen flow and the genetic diversity of the next generation. The results showed that despite a decrease in Camellia flowers, the partitioning of allelic richness among mother-tree pollen pools and seeds decreased while the migration rate of pollen from outside the study plot and the pollen donor diversity within a fruit increased as the index of volcanic damage increased. In areas with low food (flower) density due to volcanic damage, Z. japonica ranged over larger areas to satisfy its energy needs rather than moving to areas with higher food density. Consequently, the genetic diversity of the seeds (the next plant generation) increased with the index of volcanic damage. The results were consistent with previously published data on the movement of Z. japonica based on radio tracking and the genetic diversity of Camellia pollen adhering to pollinators. Overall, our results indicated that compensation mechanisms ensured better pollination after volcanic disturbance. PMID:23646136

  4. Breeding of Hibiscus rosa-sinensis for garden use in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuligowska, Katarzyna; Simonsen, Maria Boye; Lütken, Henrik Vlk; Müller, Renate; Christensen, B.

    2013-01-01

    increased chilling tolerance by conventional breeding is unlikely because there is a lack of genetic information in relation to this trait within this species. In the Hibiscus genus, cold hardiness is available, but only in a few species. Attempts to create cold tolerant Hibiscus plants resembling H. rosa......-sinensis suitable for Nordic climate have not been successful so far. In ornamental breeding wide hybridization is a major source of genetic variation, and can also be a promising approach to introgress cold hardiness in H. rosa-sinensis. The objective of the present study is to evaluate the possibilities of...

  5. The pharmacological potential of the macromycetes (Cordyceps sinensis and Pleurotus ostreatus) cultived by submerged fermentation

    OpenAIRE

    Leandro Freire dos SANTOS

    2013-01-01

    Resumo: Este trabalho objetivou a avaliação das potencialidades farmacológicas dos macromicetos Cordyceps sinensis e Pleurotus ostreatus, obtidos por fermentação submersa, quanto à ação hipolipidêmica, antiaterosclerótica, e protetor da disfunção puberal em modelos hiperlipídicos de ratos machos Wistar, bem como a ação antitumoral do extrato aquoso de Cordyceps sinensis contra células do neuroblastoma humano. Para a instauração do modelo hiperlipídico, uma dieta comercial basal foi aditivada ...

  6. Transcriptome Sequencing of Chemically Induced Aquilaria sinensis to Identify Genes Related to Agarwood Formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Wei; Wu, Hongqing; He, Xin; Wang, Lei; Zhang, Weimin; Li, Haohua; Fan, Yunfei; Tan, Guohui; Liu, Taomei; Gao, Xiaoxia

    2016-01-01

    Background Agarwood is a traditional Chinese medicine used as a clinical sedative, carminative, and antiemetic drug. Agarwood is formed in Aquilaria sinensis when A. sinensis trees are threatened by external physical, chemical injury or endophytic fungal irritation. However, the mechanism of agarwood formation via chemical induction remains unclear. In this study, we characterized the transcriptome of different parts of a chemically induced A. sinensis trunk sample with agarwood. The Illumina sequencing platform was used to identify the genes involved in agarwood formation. Methodology/Principal Findings A five-year-old Aquilaria sinensis treated by formic acid was selected. The white wood part (B1 sample), the transition part between agarwood and white wood (W2 sample), the agarwood part (J3 sample), and the rotten wood part (F5 sample) were collected for transcriptome sequencing. Accordingly, 54,685,634 clean reads, which were assembled into 83,467 unigenes, were obtained with a Q20 value of 97.5%. A total of 50,565 unigenes were annotated using the Nr, Nt, SWISS-PROT, KEGG, COG, and GO databases. In particular, 171,331,352 unigenes were annotated by various pathways, including the sesquiterpenoid (ko00909) and plant–pathogen interaction (ko03040) pathways. These pathways were related to sesquiterpenoid biosynthesis and defensive responses to chemical stimulation. Conclusions/Significance The transcriptome data of the different parts of the chemically induced A. sinensis trunk provide a rich source of materials for discovering and identifying the genes involved in sesquiterpenoid production and in defensive responses to chemical stimulation. This study is the first to use de novo sequencing and transcriptome assembly for different parts of chemically induced A. sinensis. Results demonstrate that the sesquiterpenoid biosynthesis pathway and WRKY transcription factor play important roles in agarwood formation via chemical induction. The comparative analysis of

  7. Dujardinascaris gigantea sp. n. (Nematoda: Ascaridida) from the critically endangered crocodile Alligator sinensis Fauvel (Reptilia: Crocodylia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jin-Hong; Li, Liang; Guo, Yan-Ning; Zhang, Lu-Ping

    2015-03-01

    The Chinese alligator Alligator sinensis Fauvel (Reptilia: Crocodylia) is considered as one of the most critically endangered species of the 23 extant crocodiles. However, our knowledge of the helminth parasites of this rare animal is completely lacking. During a helminthological survey of reptiles in China, we found a new ascaridoid nematode, Dujardinascaris gigantea sp. n. from A. sinensis. The morphology of D. gigantea sp. n. was studied using light and scanning electron microscopy. The new species was also characterised using molecular methods by sequencing and analysing the small ribosomal DNA (18S) and the second internal transcribed spacer (ITS-2). PMID:24924435

  8. The complete mitochondrial genome of the Asian particolored bat Vespertilio sinensis (Chiroptera: Vespertilionidae) in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Kwang Bae; Lee, Jin Hong; Cho, Jae Youl; Park, Yung Chul

    2016-01-01

    The complete nucleotide sequence of the mitochondrial genome of the Asian particolored bat, Vespertilio sinensis, was determined. The genome organization, gene contents, and codon usage conformed to those of other bat mitochondrial genomes. The total length of the mitogenome of Vespertilio sinensis is 16,971 bp with a total base composition of 32.6% A, 29.6% T, 23.7% C and 14.0% G. The mitogenome consists of 13 protein-coding genes, 2 rRNA (12S and 16S RNA) genes, 22 tRNA genes and 1 control region. PMID:24660937

  9. Variation of nuclear and mitochondrial DNAs in Korean and Chinese isolates of Clonorchis sinensis

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Soo-Ung; Huh, Sun

    2004-01-01

    We compared the DNA sequence difference of isolates of Clonorchis sinensis from one Korean (Kimhae) and two Chinese areas (Guangxi and Shenyang). The sequences of nuclear rDNA (18S, internal transcribed spacer 1 and 2: ITS1 and ITS2) and mitochondrial DNA (cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1: cox1) were compared. A very few intraspecific nucleotide substitution of the 18S, ITS1, ITS2 and cox1 was found among three isolates of C. sinensis and a few nucleotide insertion and deletion of ITS1 were det...

  10. An Early Cretaceous Avialian Bird, Shenzhouraptor sinensis from Western Liaoning, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    This paper describes an avialian bird from the Early Cretaceous Jiufotang Formation in Yixian county,western Liaoning, China, which is named as Shenzhouraptor sinensis by Ji et al. on July 15, 2002. Shenzhouraptor sinensis is characterized by no teeth in its mouth, the forelimbs longer than the hindlimbs, a long tail with more than 23 caudal vertebrae, U-shaped wishbone, and remiges longer than the total length of ulna and manus. It is certain that the new avialian bird is really capable of powerful flight, representing a missing link between theropod dinosaurs and birds.

  11. Effect of Camellia japonica oil on human type I procollagen production and skin barrier function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Eunsun; Lee, Jongsung; Baek, Jihoon; Jung, Kwangsun; Lee, Jiyoung; Huh, Sungran; Kim, Saebom; Koh, Jaesook; Park, Deokhoon

    2007-05-30

    Type I collagen is the primary component of the skin dermis. Both the quantity and quality of extracellular collagen are primarily related to skin ageing. In this study, we investigated the possibility that Camellia japonica oil (CJ oil) may be introduced as an anit-wrinkle agent. As a first step to this end, human COL1A2 promoter luciferase assay was performed in human dermal fibroblast cells. CJ oil was determined to activate human COL1A2 promoter in a concentration-dependent manner. In consistency with this result, while matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-1 activity was inhibited by CJ oil, human type I procollagen synthesis was also induced by CJ oil. These results suggest the possibility that CJ oil may be involved in the skin ageing. For the evaluation of CJ oil's safety and efficiency on human skin, human skin primary irritation test and trans-epidermal water loss (TEWL) were performed. Transepidermal water loss (TEWL) was measured before treatment then, 1h and 2h after treatment; the forearm site was selected to measure TEWL. Also, a human skin primary irritation test was performed on the normal skin (upper back) in 30 volunteers to see if a certain material included in CJ oil has irritation or sensitization potential. In these assays, CJ oil reduced trans-epidermal water loss (TEWL) and did not induce any adverse reactions. Therefore, based on these results, we suggest the possibility that CJ oil may be considered as possible wrinkle-reducing candidates for topical application. PMID:17386986

  12. Effects of inorganic components in acid rain on tube elongation of Camellia pollen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Masaru, N.; Katsuhisa, F.; Sankichi, T.; Yutaka, W.

    1980-01-01

    Pollen grains of Camellia japonica were cultivated in culture plates containing individual inorganic components found in acid rain (SO/sub 4//sup 2 -/, NO/sub 3//sup -/, Cl/sup -/, H/sup +/, Pb/sup +2/, Mg/sup +2/ or Mn/sup +2/). In the case of three acids (HNO/sub 3/, HCl or H/sub 2/SO/sub 4/), a promotion of pollen tube elongation due to nitric acid or hydrogen chloride occurred in the range 0-0.5 millimole/litre and a marked inhibition was observed when the acid concentrations were above 0.6 millimole/litre (pH<3.2). Sulphuric acid promoted tube elongation in the range 0-0.2 millimole/litre and markedly inhibited tube elongation above 0.3 millimole/litre (pH<3.2). Nitric acid promoted tube elongation more than hydrogen chloride and sulphuric acid. However, individual inhibitions due to the three acids were similar to each other. In the case of three metallic salts (Pb(NO/sub 3/)/sub 2/, Mg(NO/sub 3/)/sub 2/ or Mn(NO/sub 3/)/sub 2/), those of lead and manganese showed a slight promotion of tube elongation at low concentrations (0.005-0.015 millimole/litre). However, the salt of magnesium had no effect in this range. Interaction of various combinations of three acids (HNOHNO/sub 3/, HCl and H/sub 2/SO/sub 4/) or three ammonium salts (NH/sub 4/NO/sub 3/, NH/sub 4/Cl and (NH/sub 4/)/sub 2/SO/sub 4/) were studied. A marked inhibition of tube elongation occurred above 0.47 millimole/litre (pH<3.2) with a combination of the three acids. However, no inhibition occurred in the same concentration range with a combination of the three ammonium salts.

  13. Cold Treatment Breaks Dormancy but Jeopardizes Flower Quality in Camellia japonica L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berruti, Andrea; Christiaens, Annelies; Keyser, Ellen De; Labeke, Marie-Christine Van; Scariot, Valentina

    2015-01-01

    Camellia japonica L. is an evergreen shrub whose cultivars are of great ornamental value. In autumn, after flower bud differentiation, dormancy is initiated. As in many other spring flowering woody ornamentals, winter low temperatures promote dormancy release of both flower and vegetative buds. However, warm spells during late autumn and winter can lead to unfulfilled chilling requirements leading to erratic and delayed flowering. We hypothesized that storing plants at no light and low temperature could favor dormancy breaking and lead to early and synchronized flowering in response to forcing conditions in C. japonica 'Nuccio's Pearl'. Plants with fully developed floral primordia were stored at dark, 7°C, and RH > 90% for up to 8 weeks. To monitor endodormancy release during the storage, we evaluated the content of abscisic acid (ABA) in flower buds and the expression profiles of five putative genes related to dormancy and cold acclimation metabolism in leaves and flower buds. In addition, the expression of four anthocyanin biosynthesis pathway genes was profiled in flower buds to assess the effect of the treatment on flower pigment biosynthesis. At 0, 4, 6, and 8 weeks of cold treatment, 10 plants were transferred to the greenhouse and forced to flower. Forced plant flower qualities and growth were observed. The ABA content and the expression profiles of two dormancy-related genes (CjARP and CjDEH) suggested that dormancy breaking occurred after 6-8 weeks of cold treatment. Overall, plants treated for 6-8 weeks showed earlier vegetative sprouting, enhanced, and homogeneous flowering with reduced forcing time. Prolonged cold treatments also reduced flower size and longevity, anthocyanin content, and pigment biosynthesis-related gene transcripts. In conclusion, the cold treatment had a promotive effect on dormancy breaking but caused severe drawbacks on flower quality. PMID:26617623

  14. Anti-photoaging capability of antioxidant extract from Camellia japonica leaf.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizutani, Taeko; Masaki, Hitoshi

    2014-10-01

    It is well known that the Camellia japonica leaf exhibits antioxidant activity because of its high content of polyphenolic compounds. Thus, the extract prepared from mature leaves of C. japonica (CJML) has been widely used as an anti-ageing material in foods and cosmetics. Concerning the process of growing C. japonica, it is expected that the extract from green leaves (CJGL) has superior effects compared with that from mature leaves. However, there are few reports that discuss the difference between green and mature leaves. In this study, both CJML and CJGL were extracted with 50% 1,3-butylene glycol (1,3-BG) and used for investigations. In a chemical examination, we compared both extracts in terms of scavenging activities against hydrogen peroxide (H2 O2 ) and hydroxyl radicals. CJGL exhibited higher scavenging activities against both types of ROSs compared with CJML. In addition, CJGL reduced the carbonylation of tape-stripped stratum corneum (SC) after UVB irradiation. In a biological study, the intra-cellular ROS level of HaCaT keratinocytes precultured with CJGL for 24 h was significantly lower than that of the control cells. Furthermore, cell damage induced by H2 O2 exposure was attenuated by 24 h precultivation with CJGL but not by 2 h precultivation. The results of examinations indicate that CJGL possess properties that reduce oxidative stress. In addition, the result of 2 h precultivation with CJGL suggests that CJGL might affect the status of intra-cellular antioxidants. PMID:25234832

  15. Antibacterial activity in extracts of Camellia japonica L. petals and its application to a model food system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, K Y; Davidson, P M; Chung, H J

    2001-08-01

    The potential presence of naturally occurring antimicrobials in petals of Camellia japonica L., a member of the tea family, was investigated against foodborne pathogens in microbiological media and food. Petals of the camellia flower (C. japonica L.) were extracted with methanol and fractionated into basic, acidic, and neutral fractions. The acidic fraction (equivalent to 1.0 g of raw sample per disk) produced an inhibitory zone of 14 to 19 mm (diameter) in a disk assay against the pathogens Salmonella Typhimurium DT104, Escherichia coli O157:H7, Listeria monocytogenes, and Staphylococcus aureus on agar plates. Silica gel adsorption column chromatography, Sephadex LH-20 column chromatography, and preparative purification by high-pressure liquid chromatography were used to purify compounds in the fraction. The mass spectrum of the antibacterial compound isolated had a molecular ion (M+) of m/z 116 and showed good conformity with the spectrum of fumaric acid (HOOC-CH=CH-COOH). An aqueous extract from the petals of C. japonica L. had an inhibitory effect on growth of all pathogens at 37 degrees C in microbiological media by increasing the lag phase. None of the microorganisms was inhibited completely. Milk was used as a model food system. Aqueous extract at a concentration of 100 mg/ml was bacteriostatic against all the foodborne pathogens in the milk stored at 25 degrees C for up to 4 days. PMID:11510672

  16. Antioxidant Activity of Camellia Oil Extracted by the Sub-critical Fluid%亚临界流体萃取油茶籽油的抗氧化活性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苗建银; 车科; 陈雪香; 吕洪财; 黄奕诚; 管晓盛; 陈洪璋; 庄雪影; 曹庸

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, the polyphenol contents, DPPH-scavenging ability and effects of inhibition of the peroxide value and thiobarbituric acid value of sunflower oils during storage were analyzed for sub-critical camellia oil, commercial refined camellia oil and pressed crude camellia oil. It was shown from the results that the polyphenol contents of of sub-critical camellia oil,commercial refined camellia oil and pressed crude camellia oil were 6. 26 mg/g, 1. 70 mg/g and 8. 33 mg/g, respectively. The DPPH radical scavenging IC50 of sub-critical camellia oil was 15. 39 g/L (equivalent to 0. 02 g/L of VE) , which was approximate to pressed crude camellia oil, but significantly lower than the commercially available refined camellia oil (21.66 g/L). There were much more polyphenols contained in both sub-critical camellia oil and pressed crude camellia oil. The sub-critical camellia oil had a better performance in inhibiting the peroxide value and thiobarbituric acid value of sunflower oils during storage than that of commercial refined camellia oil and pressed crude camellia oil. Sub-critical camellia oil had the capacity to keep the antioxidant activity of oil products. In the process of producing camellia oil, sub-critical fluid extraction was a superior technology.%分析亚临界萃取油茶籽油、市售精炼油茶籽油和压榨毛油中多酚含量差异,对比不同工艺油茶籽油对1,1-二苯基-2-苦基肼自由基(DPPH·)清除、葵花籽油自氧化过程中过氧化值和硫代巴比妥酸值的影响.结果表明,亚临界油茶籽油、市售精炼油茶籽油和压榨毛油中多酚质量分数分别为6.26、1.70和8.33 mg/g;亚临界油茶籽油的DPPH·半数抑制质量浓度(IC50)为15.39 g/L( VE0.02 g/L),与压榨毛油相当,而明显低于市售精炼油茶籽油(21.66 g/L),表明亚临界油茶籽油和压榨毛油含有较多的酚类物质,同时亚临界油茶籽油抑制葵花籽油贮藏过程中过氧化值和硫代巴比妥酸值的能

  17. Immune-Modulating Activity of Extract Prepared from Mycelial Culture of Chinese Caterpillar Mushroom, Ophiocordyceps sinensis (Ascomycetes).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Sun-Hee; Kim, Sae-Hae; Lee, Ha-Yan; Jang, Seung-Hwan; Jang, Hyonseok; Chae, Soo-Wan; Jung, Su-Jin; So, Byung-Ok; Ha, Ki-Chan; Sin, Hong-Sig; Jang, Yong-Suk

    2015-01-01

    Ophiocordyceps sinensis is a natural fungus that has been valued as a health food and traditional Chinese medicine for centuries. The fungus is parasitic and colonizes insect larva. Naturally occurring O. sinensis thrives at high altitude in cold and grassy alpine meadows on the Himalayan mountain ranges. Wild O. sinensis is becoming increasingly rare in its natural habitats, and its price is out of reach for clinical practice. For these reasons, development of a standardized alternative is a great focus of research to allow the use of O. sinensis as a medicine. To develop an alternative for wild O. sinensis, a refined standardized extract, CBG-CS-2, was produced by artificial fermentation and extraction of the mycelial strain Paecilomyces hepiali CBG-CS-1, which originated from wild O. sinensis. In this study, we analyzed the in vivo immune-modulating effect of CBG-CS-2 in mice. Oral administration of CBG-CS-2 supported splenocyte stimulation and enhanced Th1-type cytokine expression from the splenocytes. Importantly, the same treatment significantly enhanced the natural killer cell activity of the splenocytes. Finally, oral administration of CBG-CS-2 enhanced the potential for inflammatory responses. Together, these findings indicate that the mycelial culture extract prepared from O. sinensis exhibited immune-modulating activity and suggest its possible use in the treatment of diseases caused by abnormal immune function. PMID:26854106

  18. Phytochemical and antimicrobial activities of Himalayan Cordyceps sinensis (Berk.) Sacc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mamta; Mehrotra, Shubhi; Amitabh; Kirar, Vandana; Vats, Praveen; Nandi, Shoma Paul; Negi, P S; Misra, Kshipra

    2015-01-01

    This study evaluated the phytochemical and antimicrobial activities and also quantified bioactive nucleoside using high performance thin layer chromatography (HPTLC) of five extracts of Indian Himalayan Cordyceps sinensis prepared with different solvents employing accelerated solvent extraction (ASE) technique. The phytochemical potential of these extracts was quantified in terms of total phenolic and total flavonoid content while antioxidant activities were determined by 1,1-diphenyl-2-pycryl-hydrazyl (DPPH) and 2,2 -azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) (ABTS) and ferric-reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assays. Total reducing power (TRP) was determined by converting iron (III) into iron (II) reduction assay. CS(50%Alc) (15.1 ± 0.67mg/g of dry extract) and CS(100%Alc) (19.3 ± 0.33 mg/g of dry extract) showed highest phenolic and flavonoid content, respectively while CS(Aq) extract showed maximum antioxidant activity and the highest concentration of the three nucleosides (adenine 12.8 ± 0.49 mg/g, adenosine 0.36 ± 0.28 mg/g and uracil 0.14 ± 0.36 mg/g of dry extract) determined by HPTLC. The evaluation of extracts for antimicrobial activity against gram-negative and gram-positive bacterial strains showed CS(25%Alc), CS(75%Alc) and CS(100%Alc) extract to be more effective against E. coli, P. aerugenosa and B. subtilis giving 9, 7 and 6.5 mm of zone of inhibition (ZOI) in 93.75, 93.75 and 45 μg concentration, respectively, whereas CS(Aq) extract showed minimal inhibition against these. PMID:25675710

  19. Evaluation of Hirsutella sinensis mycelium for antifatigue effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Lung-Yuan; Wu, Ming-Fang; Lu, Hsu-Feng; Liu, Chia-Hui; Lee, Ching-Hsiao; Chen, Yung-Liang; Hsueh, Shu-Ching; Yeh, Chun; Huang, Yi-Ping; Liu, Jia-You; Chung, Jing-Gung

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether Hirsutella sinensis mycelium (HSM) has any antifatigue effect, using a forced swimming model in rats. Forty rats were randomly divided into five groups, each containing eight animals. The control group received 2 ml/kg body weight of distilled water and a positive control group was administered 1.13 ml/kg Quaker Essence of Chicken. The treated swimming groups were administered HSM powder manufactured by Chang Gung Biotechnology Corporation, Ltd., at doses of 63 mg/kg, 189 mg/kg or 378 mg/kg body weight/day, respectively for a period of six weeks. The above experiment was repeated with another 40 rats but for a period of eight weeks. At the end of the experiments, rats were placed in a swimming apparatus and the total swimming time until exhaustion was recorded. Pre-/post-exercise concentrations of serum urea nitrogen (BUN) and lactic acid were also determined. There were no deaths during the study. Physical and behavioral examinations did not reveal any treatment-related adverse effects after dosing. Changes in lactate levels were dose-dependent for the 8- but not the 6-week treatment. BUN levels were more affected by the 8-week treatment of HSM but not significantly altered in the 6-week treatment groups. The 8-week treatment groups showed a significant increase in swimming time to exhaustion compared to the control groups, which was not dose-dependent. For the 6-week treatment, only the middle and high doses increased swimming time to exhaustion. Conjugated diene contents were significantly higher in rats treated at any HSM dose for 8-weeks than the control groups. Swimming did not alter levels of liver glycogen when compared to the control sub-groups. Results of this study demonstrate that HSM improves physical endurance, which may be beneficial in treating conditions where fatigue is a factor and other antifatigue treatments are contraindicated. PMID:25792655

  20. Draft Genome Sequence of Methylobacterium mesophilicum Strain SR1.6/6, Isolated from Citrus sinensis

    OpenAIRE

    Marinho Almeida, Diogo; Dini-Andreote, Francisco; Camargo Neves, Aline Aparecida; Jucá Ramos, Rommel Thiago; Andreote, Fernando Dini; Carneiro, Adriana Ribeiro; Oliveira de Souza Lima, André; Caracciolo Gomes de Sá, Pablo Henrique; Ribeiro Barbosa, Maria Silvanira; Araújo, Welington Luiz; Silva, Artur

    2013-01-01

    Methylobacterium mesophilicum strain SR1.6/6 is an endophytic bacterium isolated from a surface-sterilized Citrus sinensis branch. Ecological and biotechnological aspects of this bacterium, such as the genes involved in its association with the host plant and the primary oxidation of methanol, were annotated in the draft genome.

  1. Fruits foraging patterns and seed dispersal effect of frugivorous birds on Hippophae rhamnoides sinensis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LU Xianwen; SUN Kun; MA Ruijun; ZHANG Hui; SU Xue; WANG Mingli

    2006-01-01

    Behaviors of 18 species of birds eating fruits of Hippophae rhamnoides spp.sinensis were observed from September 2003 to March 2004.Their foraging patterns were found to be very different and Can be divided into five classes:(1)direct swallowing the fruits on crown of the shrubs and sometimes regurgitating seeds soon after;(2)carrying the fruits to their perching sites and swallowing;(3)pecking the fruits from the shrubs to the ground,eating pulp and seeds but leaving pericarp;(4)pecking through the pericarp,eating pulp and leaving pericarp and seeds;(5)pecking through the pericarp on the top of fruits,and only eating seeds.These foraging patterns have different effects on seed dispersal of H.rhamnoides spp.sinensis.The germination experiment of three groups of seeds(seeds from feces,dry fruits and extracted seeds from dry fruits)was carried out.Although ingestion processes of birds had some adverse effects on the seed germination of H.rhamnoides spp.sinensis,the seeds from feces still have a relatively higher germination ratio.H.rhamnoides spp.sinensis provides food to a variety of frugivorous birds.and the birds disperse its seeds.Thus,a mutually beneficial relationship between the bird and the seed is formed.

  2. Effects of heat on the biological activity of wild Cordyceps sinensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pengkai Wu

    2015-01-01

    Conclusions: These results suggested that heat treatment does not adversely affect SOD or DNase activity, polysaccharide content, or cordycepin dissolution. Thus, heat treatment might be a safe processing method to extend the storage time of wild C. sinensis without compromising biological activity.

  3. De Novo Assembly and Comparative Transcriptome Analysis Provide Insight into Lysine Biosynthesis in Toona sinensis Roem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xia Zhang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Toona sinensis Roem is a popular leafy vegetable in Chinese cuisine and is also used as a traditional Chinese medicine. In this study, leaf samples were collected from the same plant on two development stages and then used for high-throughput Illumina RNA-sequencing (RNA-Seq. 125,884 transcripts and 54,628 unigenes were obtained through de novo assembly. A total of 25,570 could be annotated with known biological functions, which indicated that the T. sinensis leaves and shoots were undergoing multiple developmental processes especially for active metabolic processes. Analysis of differentially expressed unigenes between the two libraries showed that the lysine biosynthesis was an enriched KEGG pathway, and candidate genes involved in the lysine biosynthesis pathway in T. sinensis leaves and shoots were identified. Our results provide a primary analysis of the gene expression files of T. sinensis leaf and shoot on different development stages and afford a valuable resource for genetic and genomic research on plant lysine biosynthesis.

  4. Daily energy expenditure of great cormorants Phalacrocorax carbo sinensis wintering at Lake Chiemsee, Southern Germany

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keller, T.M; Visser, G.H.

    1999-01-01

    In the winters of 1993/94 and 1994/95 the daily energy expenditure (DEE) of Great Cormorants Phalacrocorax carbo sinensis was measured using the doubly labelled water technique (DLW). This was the first time the method has been used on a Phalacrocoracid species. DLW trials were carried out on 5 cage

  5. De Novo Assembly and Comparative Transcriptome Analysis Provide Insight into Lysine Biosynthesis in Toona sinensis Roem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xia; Song, Zhenqiao; Liu, Tian; Guo, Linlin; Li, Xingfeng

    2016-01-01

    Toona sinensis Roem is a popular leafy vegetable in Chinese cuisine and is also used as a traditional Chinese medicine. In this study, leaf samples were collected from the same plant on two development stages and then used for high-throughput Illumina RNA-sequencing (RNA-Seq). 125,884 transcripts and 54,628 unigenes were obtained through de novo assembly. A total of 25,570 could be annotated with known biological functions, which indicated that the T. sinensis leaves and shoots were undergoing multiple developmental processes especially for active metabolic processes. Analysis of differentially expressed unigenes between the two libraries showed that the lysine biosynthesis was an enriched KEGG pathway, and candidate genes involved in the lysine biosynthesis pathway in T. sinensis leaves and shoots were identified. Our results provide a primary analysis of the gene expression files of T. sinensis leaf and shoot on different development stages and afford a valuable resource for genetic and genomic research on plant lysine biosynthesis.

  6. Identification and characterization of microRNAs in Clonorchis sinensis of human health significance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan Zi-Guo

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Clonorchis sinensis is a zoonotic parasite causing clonorchiasis-associated human disease such as biliary calculi, cholecystitis, liver cirrhosis, and it is currently classified as carcinogenic to humans for cholangiocarcinoma. MicroRNAs (miRNAs are non-coding, regulating small RNA molecules which are essential for the complex life cycles of parasites and are involved in parasitic infections. To identify and characterize miRNAs expressed in adult C. sinensis residing chronically in the biliary tract, we developed an integrative approach combining deep sequencing and bioinformatic predictions with stem-loop real-time PCR analysis. Results Here we report the use of this approach to identify and clone 6 new and 62,512 conserved C. sinensis miRNAs which belonged to 284 families. There was strong bias on families, family members and sequence nucleotides in C. sinensis. Uracil was the dominant nucleotide, particularly at positions 1, 14 and 22, which were located approximately at the beginning, middle and end of conserved miRNAs. There was no significant "seed region" at the first and ninth positions which were commonly found in human, animals and plants. Categorization of conserved miRNAs indicated that miRNAs of C. sinensis were still innovated and concentrated along three branches of the phylogenetic tree leading to bilaterians, insects and coelomates. There were two miRNA strategies in C. sinensis for its parasitic life: keeping a large category of miRNA families of different animals and keeping stringent conserved seed regions with high active innovation in other places of miRNAs mainly in the middle and the end, which were perfect for the parasite to perform its complex life style and for host changes. Conclusions The present study represented the first large scale characterization of C. sinensis miRNAs, which have implications for understanding the complex biology of this zoonotic parasite, as well as miRNA studies of other

  7. Genetic diversity of six populations of Atractomorpha sinensis and Atractomorpha peregrina in Shanxi Province,China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LU Fuping; LI Cuilan; DUAN Yihao; GUO Yaping; MA Enbo

    2007-01-01

    Ten enzymes (AAT,CK,G3PDH,HEX,IDH,LDH,MDH,ME,PGI,PGM)were examined using horizontal starch gel electrophoresis to estimate the levels of genetic variation within and among six natural populations of two grasshopper species Atractomorpha sinensis and A.peregrina from Shanxi,China.The collecting sites were geographically distant from each other from south to north:Quwo district,Linfen city;Xiangyuan county,Changzhi;Jinyuan district,Taiyuan city;Yuanping county,Xinzhou city and Fanshi county of Xinzhou.A.sinensis showed 43 alleles at 16 loci but A.peregrine showed 39 alleles at 15 loci (ldh-1 was deficient).The zymograms showed that some common alleles were shared at several loci in these two species (Aat-1-b,Aat-2-b,G3pdh-a,Ck-1-b and Ldh-b).However,Hex-1-a,Hex-2-a,Hex-3-a,Idh-2-b,Mdh-2-b,Mdh-1-f Pgi-b,Pgm-b had common alleles in A.sinensis and Hex-1-b,Hex-2-b,Hex-3-b,Idh-2-a,Mdh-2-a,Mdh-1-d,Pgi-a,Pgm-c were of high frequency in A.peregrine instead.Most of the observed genotype frequencies were found to significantly deviate from the Hardy-Weinberg expectations in both species.A tendency of clinal distribution of allele frequency was observed at three loci.The frequency of the moderately migrating allele Me-c (0.318-0.740)in A.peregrina,Hex-1-a (0.800-1.000)and Ldh-b (0.487-0.750)in A.sinensis demonstrated increased frequency from north to south.Such tendency suggests that the allele frequency in these three loci may be correlated with the species'geographic distributions.A.sinensis showed higher genetic diversity than A.peregrina as indicated by higher mean number of alleles per locus (A=1.9-2.3 in A.sinensis and 1.7-2.2 in A.peregrina),percentage of polymorphic loci (56.3%-68.8%in A.sinensis and 43.8%-56.3%in A.peregrina),and the observed heterozygosities (Ho=0.072-0.096 in A.sinensis and 0.070-0.107 in A.peregrina).The observed heterozygosities of the six populations were all noticeably lower than the Hardy-Weinberg expectations,mostly due to heterozygote

  8. 紫外光谱法对油茶籽油掺伪的检测%Detection of adulterated oil-tea camellia seed oil by UV spectrophotometry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑艳艳; 吴雪辉; 侯真真

    2014-01-01

    Based on the differences in the UV absorption spectrum between 200 nm and 360 nm of oil-tea camellia seed oil and other vegetable oils,qualitative and quantitative detections of adulterated oil-tea camellia seed oil were carried out by discriminant analysis and regression analysis. The results showed that the adulteration types of adulterated oil-tea camellia seed oil could be identified using discriminant function established by discriminant analysis,and the accuracy rate was 100%;the adulteration amount of adulterated oil-tea camellia seed oil could be detected quantitatively by regression analysis;the optimal detection ranges of adulteration amounts of rapeseed oil,soybean oil and rice bran oil adulterated in oil-tea camellia seed oil were 12% -100%;and the optimal detection ranges of adulteration amounts of corn oil and palm oil adulterated in oil-tea camellia seed oil were 15% -100%.%利用油茶籽油及其他植物油在紫外波长200~360 nm间吸收光谱的差异性,通过判别分析和回归分析,对掺伪油茶籽油实现定性和定量检测。结果表明:通过判别分析建立的判别函数可以对掺伪油茶籽油的掺伪种类进行鉴别,准确率为100%;通过回归分析可对掺伪油茶籽油进行掺伪量的定量检测,掺杂菜籽油、大豆油和米糠油掺伪量的最佳检测范围为12%~100%,掺杂玉米油和棕榈油掺伪量的最佳检测范围为15%~100%。

  9. Refined Climate Regionalization of Camellia in Hunan Based on GIS%湖南油茶GIS精细化气候区划研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陆魁东; 宋忠华; 杜东升; 张艳贵

    2011-01-01

    油茶是湖南重要的经济作物之一.为了探讨油茶气候适宜种植区域,为油茶布局提供科学依据.笔者根据油荼生长发育对气象条件的要求,以年平均气温、年日照时数及盛花期降水量3个指标作为油荼气候区划因子,针对不同气象要素采用不同的数理统计方法进行500m×500m小网格插值,对插值后小网格的气象数据和气候区划采用等级划分法,进行湖南油茶进行精细化气候区划.结果表明:湖南绝大部分地方为油茶生长的气候最适宜区,仅洞庭湖部分地方为油荼生长的欠适宜或不适宜区;且随着近年湖南气候变暖,油茶最适宜区有所增加,发展潜力大.%Camellia is one of the important economic crops in Hunan.Considering the meteorological condition for Camellia growth, the annual mean temperature, annual sunshine duration and precipitation of full-bloom stage were used as climate regionalization factor of Camellia.Different meteorological factors were interpolated on a 500 m×500 m grid with different mathematic statistic method.Technique of grade division was used on the interpolated small grid data to finish refined climate regionalization for Hunan Camellia.The results showed that except for part of Dongting Lake, climate condition in most of Hunan was suitable for planting Camellia.Along with increasing temperature in Hunan recently, the area which was suitable for planting Camellia would extend and had a big potential.

  10. The oldest record of Alligator sinensis from the Late Pliocene of Western Japan, and its biogeographic implication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iijima, Masaya; Takahashi, Keiichi; Kobayashi, Yoshitsugu

    2016-07-01

    The late Cenozoic fossil record of alligators in East Asia is crucial in understanding the origin and past distribution of Asian alligators that are now represented by a single species, Alligator sinensis. This study reports a partial skeleton of A. sinensis from the Late Pliocene (approximately 3.0 Ma) of western Japan. This Japanese A. sinensis is large in size (>200 cm total length), comparable to the maximum size of extant individuals. It demonstrates the oldest record of A. sinensis and wider distribution of this species in the past. Tectonic and geographic history of East Asia suggests that alligators presumably dispersed into Japan before 25 Ma or after 10 Ma, yet finally were wiped out from Japan due to the semi-isolated condition of the Japanese island arc and the deteriorated climate during the Plio-Pleistocene.

  11. Hirsutella sinensis mycelium suppresses interleukin-1β and interleukin-18 secretion by inhibiting both canonical and non-canonical inflammasomes

    OpenAIRE

    Huang, Tsung-Teng; Chong, Kowit-Yu; Ojcius, David M; Wu, Yi-Hui; Ko, Yun-Fei; Wu, Cheng-Yeu; Martel, Jan; Lu, Chia-Chen; Lai, Hsin-Chih; Young, John D.

    2013-01-01

    Cordyceps sinensis is a medicinal mushroom used for centuries in Asian countries as a health supplement and tonic. Hirsutella sinensis—the anamorphic, mycelial form of C. sinensis—possesses similar properties, and is increasingly used as a health supplement. Recently, C. sinensis extracts were shown to inhibit the production of the pro-inflammatory cytokine IL-1β in lipopolysaccharide-treated macrophages. However, the molecular mechanism underlying this process has remained unclear. In additi...

  12. Genetic diversity of Ophiocordyceps sinensis, a medicinal fungus endemic to the Tibetan Plateau: Implications for its evolution and conservation

    OpenAIRE

    An Zhiqiang; Liu Xingzhong; Zhang Shu; Xu Lingling; Zhang Yongjie; Wang Mu; Guo Yinglan

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background Ophiocordyceps sinensis (syn. Cordyceps sinensis), endemic to alpine regions on the Tibetan plateau, is one of the most valuable medicinal fungi in the world. Huge commercial demand has led to excessive harvest and a dramatic decline in its numbers. The diversity of terrains and climates on the Tibetan Plateau and the broad insect host range (more than 50 species in the family Hepialidae) may have resulted in substantial intraspecific genetic diversity for this fungus. The...

  13. Combination Chemotherapy against Clonorchis sinensis: Experiments with Artemether, Artesunate, OZ78, Praziquantel, and Tribendimidine in a Rat Model▿

    OpenAIRE

    Keiser, Jennifer; Xiao, Shu-Hua; Smith, Thomas A.; Utzinger, Jürg

    2009-01-01

    Caused by the Chinese liver fluke Clonorchis sinensis, clonorchiasis is of growing public health importance. Treatment and control of the disease rely on a single drug, praziquantel, and little information regarding combination chemotherapy is available. Here, we evaluated the in vivo efficacy of praziquantel combined with artemether, artesunate, OZ78, and tribendimidine, as well as an artesunate-tribendimidine combination against C. sinensis, in a rat model. Data from previous experiments we...

  14. Biology and control of the fruit borer, Conopomorpha sinensis Bradley on litchi (Litchi chinensis Sonn.) in northern Thailand

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MARIE JOY SCHULTE; KONRAD MARTIN; JOACHIM SAUERBORN

    2007-01-01

    Fruit and leaf shoot of litchi (Litchi chinensis) infestation by naturally occurring populations of the fruit borer, Conopomorpha sinensis larvae and C. sinensis parasitization rates were determined in litchi orchards in northern Thailand at high (ca. 1 400 m ASL) and low (ca. 800 m ASL) elevations with different, non-overlapping fruiting seasons. In addition,spray applications of Bacillus thuringiensis var. aizawai, the natural compound spinosad and the chemical pesticide imidacloprid were conducted in the field to test the effects of these agents on C. sinensis fruit infestation rate. Fruit infestation rate and fruit growth, studied in a low elevation orchard, were sigmoidal and showed a highly significant positive correlation (P ≤ 0.01). Leaf shoot infestation rate in the low elevation orchard decreased in the course of the fruiting season (March until May), but increased in the high elevation orchard, where no fruits were present within the same period of time. Together, these results indicate that females of C. sinensis clearly prefer fruits over shoots for oviposition. If no fruits are available, which was the case in the high elevation orchard during that time, they are constrained to lay their eggs on shoots. The parasitization rate of C. sinensis larvae in untreated fruits was 54.3%. The parasitoid species were Chelonus chailini (90.8%) and Phanerotoma sp. (9.2%). In the leaf shoots, C. sinensis was found to be parasitized by Phanerotoma sp. and Apanteles briareus. The applications of the different active agents had no significant effect on C. sinensis fruit infestation compared to the untreated control.Besides the cryptic life of the larvae, this is most probably explained by the fact that C. sinensis has several generations during the fruiting season. Because of the high parasitization rates recorded, an alternative and more effective control measure than the application of pesticides might be the augmentative release of parasitoids.

  15. In vitro Stimulation of NK Cells and Lymphocytes Using an Extract Prepared from Mycelial Culture of Ophiocordyceps sinensis

    OpenAIRE

    Jang, Sun-Hee; Park, Jisang; Jang, Seung-Hwan; Chae, Soo-Wan; Jung, Su-Jin; So, Byung-Ok; Ha, Ki-Chan; Sin, Hong-Sig; Jang, Yong-Suk

    2016-01-01

    Ophiocordyceps sinensis is a natural fungus that has been valued as a health food and used in traditional Chinese medicine for centuries. The fungus is parasitic and colonizes insect larva. Naturally occurring O. sinensis thrives at high altitude in cold and grassy alpine meadows on the Himalayan mountain ranges. Wild Ophiocordyceps is becoming increasingly rare in its natural habitat, and its price limits its use in clinical practice. Therefore, the development of a standardized alternative ...

  16. Antioxidant Activity of Phenolic Compounds in Bulk Camellia Oil and Corresponding Oil in Water (O/W Emulsions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Zhu

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The antioxidant activities of gallic acid, propyl gallate, (+-catechin and quercetin in bulk camellia oil and corresponding emulsions were investigated using hydroperoxides and nonanal as indicators of oxidation. In bulk oil, these phenolic compounds showed antioxidant activities with the order of gallic acid>quercetin>propyl gallate> (+-catechin when measured using hydroperoxides and gallic acid>quercetin>(+-catechin>propyl gallate using nonanal. In emulsions, propyl gallate and (+-catechin showed antioxidant activities for the entire duration of the experiment, while quercetin and gallic acid displayed antioxidant activities for 10 days, and then pro-oxidant activities thereafter. Results suggested that in bulk oil, the antioxidant activity was regulated by phenol polarity and hydrogen atom donating ability too. In emulsions, the antioxidant activity of phenolic compounds seems to be related to their affinity toward the emulsifing agent rather than their polarity.

  17. Antioxidant activities and functional properties of enzymatic protein hydrolysates from defatted Camellia oleifera seed cake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xu; Deng, Junlin; Shen, Shian; Li, Tian; Yuan, Ming; Yang, Ruiwu; Ding, Chunbang

    2015-09-01

    Seed cake protein (SCP) from Camellia oleifera was hydrolyzed by five commercial proteases (Flavorzyme, Trypsin, Neutrase, Papain, Alcalase). Amino acid composition, molecular weight distribution, antioxidant activity and functional property of the seed cake protein hydrolysates (SCPH) were investigated. Enzymatic hydrolysis improved protein solubility significantly but impaired the foaming and emulsifying property. Hydrolysate generated by alcalase had the highest hydrolysis degree (DH) and antioxidant activity, and displayed excellent protein solubility over wide range of pH, while hydrolysate prepared by flavorzyme showed better copper chelating capacity and emulsifying stability with low molecular weight distribution. Trypsin-treated SCPH showed better foaming property than original protein. The results indicated that enzyme type greatly influenced the molecular weight, functional property and antioxidant activity of SCPH. It was also found that electing appropriate protease and controlling the DH could be enhanced or reduced functional property according to actual applications. PMID:26344981

  18. ¹H-nuclear magnetic resonance analysis of the triacylglyceride composition of cold-pressed oil from Camellia japonica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salinero, Carmen; Feás, Xesús; Mansilla, J Pedro; Seijas, Julio A; Vázquez-Tato, M Pilar; Vela, Pilar; Sainz, María J

    2012-01-01

    Camellia japonica (CJ) has oil-rich seeds, but the study of these oils has received little attention and has mainly focused only on their health properties. In the present work the relative composition of the fatty acid (FA) components of the triglycerides in cold-pressed oil from CJ is studied by ¹H-NMR. The results obtained were: 75.75%, 6.0%, 0.17% and 18.67%, for oleic, linoleic, linolenic and saturated FA respectively. Levels of C₁₈ unsaturated FA found in CJ oil were similar to those reported for olive oils. We also checked the possibility of using ¹³C-NMR spectroscopy; however, the results confirmed the drawback of ¹³C over ¹H-NMR for the study of FA components of CJ triglycerides due to its low gyromagnetic ratio and its very low natural abundance. PMID:22664463

  19. A New Saponin from Tea Seed Pomace (Camellia oleifera Abel and Its Protective Effect on PC12 Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li-Ping Gao

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available A new triterpenoid saponin, oleiferasaponin A1, was isolated from tea seed pomace (Camellia oleifera Abel. The structure of oleiferasaponin A1 was elucidated on the basis of chemical and physicochemical evidence and was found to be 22-O-cis-2-hexenoyl-A1-barrigenol 3-O-[β-D-galactopyranosyl(1→2] [β-D-glucopyranosyl(1→2-α-L-arabinopyranosyl(1→3]-β-D-glucopyranosiduronic acid. PC12 cells injured with H2O2 were used as the model to test the protective effects of oleiferasaponin A1. The results indicated that oleiferasaponin A1 can potentially prevent the H2O2-induced cell death of PC12 cells.

  20. 大别山野生油茶中茶氨酸检测与茶氨酸合成酶基因克隆%Determination of theanine and cloning of theanine synthetase gene in Dabieshan wild Camellia oleifera

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马林龙; 顾辰辰; 邓威威; 金阳; 宛晓春

    2015-01-01

    茶氨酸是茶树叶片中最丰富的游离氨基酸,具有重要的生理药理功能,但迄今仅在蘑菇、蕈和一些山茶科(属)植物中检测到茶氨酸.茶氨酸因有一种独特的风味特色“umami鲜爽味”而被人类营养学广泛研究,并发现合成茶氨酸的植物不仅在植物分类上具有积极意义,而且对于植物资源的有效发掘有巨大经济价值;同时还可以间接去研究茶树中茶氨酸的代谢机理以及茶氨酸合成酶的分离纯化和 TS基因的克隆表达.该文运用 HPLC、LC-TOF/MS对大别山地区野生幼年与成年油茶根、叶中茶氨酸进行检测,并结合分子生物学手段对油茶中茶氨酸合成酶(theanine synthetase,TS)基因进行克隆与生物信息学分析.结果表明:在幼年的油茶根中检测到茶氨酸,含量为0.08 mg·g-1(鲜重),而在幼年的油茶叶片和成年油茶根、叶中均未检测到茶氨酸;在幼年油茶根中克隆出一条长为1071 bp油茶 TS 基因开放阅读框,其基因序列与茶树谷氨酰胺合成酶(glutamine synthetase,GS,AB117934)基因和TS(DD410896)序列的同源性达到98%,氨基酸序列与茶树中GS(AB117934)和TS(DD410896)的相似性高达99%.经生物信息学分析,该序列编码的TS蛋白具有20个磷酸化位点,不存在信号肽序列与跨膜结构,含有卷曲螺旋结构的亲水性细胞质蛋白.该研究将为油茶新经济价值的发掘,为茶氨酸在油茶中合成代谢途径的研究提供一定的理论基础,同时也为进一步研究茶氨酸在茶树中代谢机理提供了新的研究思路.%Theanine was discovered as the most abundant free amino acid in Camellia sinensis leaves with many physi-ological and pharmacological function.However,only limited reports have subsequently been published about theanine in the plant kingdom,for instance,mushroom,Xerocomus badius,and some theaceae plants.Theanine has been ex-tensively studied about human nutrition for tea unique taste

  1. Protective effect of extract of Cordyceps sinensis in middle cerebral artery occlusion-induced focal cerebral ischemia in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tang Huiling

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ischemic hypoxic brain injury often causes irreversible brain damage. The lack of effective and widely applicable pharmacological treatments for ischemic stroke patients may explain a growing interest in traditional medicines. From the point of view of "self-medication" or "preventive medicine," Cordyceps sinensis was used in the prevention of cerebral ischemia in this paper. Methods The right middle cerebral artery occlusion model was used in the study. The effects of Cordyceps sinensis (Caterpillar fungus extract on mortality rate, neurobehavior, grip strength, lactate dehydrogenase, glutathione content, Lipid Peroxidation, glutathione peroxidase activity, glutathione reductase activity, catalase activity, Na+K+ATPase activity and glutathione S transferase activity in a rat model were studied respectively. Results Cordyceps sinensis extract significantly improved the outcome in rats after cerebral ischemia and reperfusion in terms of neurobehavioral function. At the same time, supplementation of Cordyceps sinensis extract significantly boosted the defense mechanism against cerebral ischemia by increasing antioxidants activity related to lesion pathogenesis. Restoration of the antioxidant homeostasis in the brain after reperfusion may have helped the brain recover from ischemic injury. Conclusions These experimental results suggest that complement Cordyceps sinensis extract is protective after cerebral ischemia in specific way. The administration of Cordyceps sinensis extract significantly reduced focal cerebral ischemic/reperfusion injury. The defense mechanism against cerebral ischemia was by increasing antioxidants activity related to lesion pathogenesis.

  2. Extraction, chemical analysis of Angelica sinensis polysaccharides and antioxidant activity of the polysaccharides in ischemia-reperfusion rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Song; He, Ben; Ge, Junbo; Li, Huibin; Luo, Xiuying; Zhang, Hui; Li, Yuhui; Zhai, Changlin; Liu, Pingang; Liu, Xin; Fei, Xuetao

    2010-11-01

    Angelica sinensis polysaccharides were analyzed using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and Fourier Transform Infrared (FT-IR). The major sugar of the polysaccharide was saccharose (18.55%); and the sugar constituted about 83% of the monomer content. Glucose and fructose were found as minor components of the polysaccharides. The FT-IR spectra of A. sinensis polysaccharides are used for determination of their structural features. The FT-IR spectrum of A. sinensis polysaccharides showed bands at 1641 cm(-1), 1415 cm(-1), 1050 cm(-1) and 926 cm(-1) characteristic for the carboxylic group. Absorptions at 2920-2930 cm(-1) are attributed to asymmetrical stretching vibration of CH(2)-group. Medium stretch observed in the range 1650-1400 cm(-1) is assigned to C-C stretching of polysaccharides. Cardioprotective effects of A. sinensis polysaccharides were evaluated by using myocardial ischemia/reperfusion (IR) rats. A. sinensis polysaccharides treatment significantly reduced myocardial infarction size, enhanced CT-1 and antioxidant enzymes activity, downregulated caspase-12 mRNA expression in rats. The study strongly suggests the cardioprotective activity of A. sinensis polysaccharides in limiting ischemia-reperfusion induced myocardial injury. PMID:20691723

  3. Cytological Characterization of Anamorphic Fungus Lecanicillium pui and Its Relationship with Chinese Caterpillar Mushroom, Ophiocordyceps sinensis (Ascomycetes).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Wei; Zhang, Guren; Wu, Guangguo; Liu, Xin

    2016-01-01

    Ophiocordyceps sinensis (syn. Cordyceps sinensis), one of the most valuable medicinal mushrooms, has great economic importance on the Tibetan Plateau. We isolated an anamorphic fungus Lecanicillium pui from natural O. sinensis specimens and found that the optimal temperature for its culture on potato dextrose agar media was 25°C. Cell ultrastructure in L. pui hyphae and spores was characterized by transmission electron microscopy, and it was observed that some primary organelles showed the typical fungal features. Five chemical elements were determined in this fungus and niobium was discovered for the first time even with trace amounts. A species-specific method, nested polymerase chain reaction, was established to investigate the colonization of this fungus. Thus, the extensive distribution of L. pui on O. sinensis, in the shape of hyphae or mycelia, suggested that it may have subtle and chronic effects on the growth of the O. sinensis teleomorphic stage. These findings provide a potential reference, in the view of microbial ecology, for the study on the occurrence and mechanism of development of O. sinensis. PMID:27279447

  4. De novo transcriptome analysis of Thitarodes jiachaensis before and after infection by the caterpillar fungus, Ophiocordyceps sinensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shaosong; Zhong, Xin; Kan, Xutian; Gu, Li; Sun, Hongxia; Zhang, Guren; Liu, Xin

    2016-04-15

    Thitarodes jiachaensis is a host species of the pathogenic caterpillar fungus Ophiocordyceps sinensis, which is a fungus with broad medical effects and great economic value. Curated genomic information on Thitarodes is still limited, and the interaction between host Thitarodes larvae and O. sinensis during infection is incompletely understood. In this study, we performed transcriptome sequencing for T. jiachaensis before and after O. sinensis infection using the Illumina sequencing platform, and we identified the transcripts associated with the defense response of T. jiachaensis upon O. sinensis infection. A total of 161,804 transcripts and 94,827 unigenes for T. jiachaensis were obtained from 26.62-Gb clean reads, and 35.03% of all the unigenes were annotated in current databases. The expression of 1581 genes was significantly altered following infection; among them, 928 (58.70%) were up-regulated and 653 (41.30%) were down-regulated. Genes encoding physical barriers such as cuticle proteins and peritrophic matrix proteins, antimicrobial peptides (AMPs), pattern recognition receptors (PRRs), and enzymes in the proteolytic cascade were predicted to be involved in the response of T. jiachaensis to O. sinensis infection. Together, these data provide a valuable genomic resource for further studies of Thitarodes and increase our understanding of the host-pathogen interaction that occurs between Thitarodes and O. sinensis. PMID:26778205

  5. Cordyceps sinensis Increases Hypoxia Tolerance by Inducing Heme Oxygenase-1 and Metallothionein via Nrf2 Activation in Human Lung Epithelial Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Mrinalini Singh; Rajkumar Tulsawani; Praveen Koganti; Amitabh Chauhan; Manimaran Manickam; Kshipra Misra

    2013-01-01

    Cordyceps sinensis, an edible mushroom growing in Himalayan regions, is widely recognized in traditional system of medicine. In the present study, we report the efficacy of Cordyceps sinensis in facilitating tolerance to hypoxia using A549 cell line as a model system. Treatment with aqueous extract of Cordyceps sinensis appreciably attenuated hypoxia induced ROS generation, oxidation of lipids and proteins and maintained antioxidant status similar to that of controls via induction of antioxid...

  6. Morphological Observations and Fatty Acid Composition of Indoor-Cultivated Cordyceps sinensis at a High-Altitude Laboratory on Sejila Mountain, Tibet

    OpenAIRE

    Guo, Lian-Xian; Xu, Xiao-Ming; Liang, Fu-Rui; Yuan, Jian-Ping; Peng, Juan; Wu, Chou-Fei; Wang, Jiang-Hai

    2015-01-01

    Cordyceps sinensis, a caterpillar entomopathogenic fungus-host larva complex, is a rare medicinal herb found in the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau and its surrounding high-altitude areas. The alternation of generations in the life cycle, whatever the fungus or its host insect, requires special growth conditions. However, it is difficult to simulate the growth conditions of C. sinensis, which hinders its artificial cultivation. In this work, the life cycle from the host larva to C. sinensis was obser...

  7. Cordyceps sinensis biomass produced by submerged fermentation in high-fat diet feed rats normalizes the blood lipid and the low testosterone induced by diet

    OpenAIRE

    Aikawa, Júlia; Bonatto, Sandro José Ribeiro; Freire dos Santos, Leandro; Habu, Sascha; Prado, Karin Braun.; Rubel, Rosália; Soccol, Carlos Ricardo; Soccol, Vanete Thomaz; De Torres, Maria Fernanda; Yamaguchi, Adriana Aya; Zanatta, Ana Lucia

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of Cordyceps sinensis biomass supplementation obtained from submerged fermentation on blood lipid and low testosterone induced by high-fat diet (HFD). The experiments were carried out using a long-term intake of HFD and HFD plus Simvastatin or C. sinensis (4 months). Our results show that plasma cholesterol, triglycerides and LDL were decreased by Cordyceps sinensis biomass supplementation (CSBS). A longterm intake of HFD caused a significant liver damage wh...

  8. First Report on Co-Occurrence Knockdown Resistance Mutations and Susceptibility to Beta-Cypermethrin in Anopheles sinensis from Jiangsu Province, China

    OpenAIRE

    Tan, Wei-Long; Wang, Zhong-Ming; Li, Chun-xiao; Chu, Hong-Liang; Xu, Yan; Dong, Yan-De; Wang, Zhong-can; Chen, Dong-Ya; Liu, Hui; Liu, Da-Peng; Liu, Nannan; Sun, Jun; Zhao, Tongyan

    2012-01-01

    The increasing prevalence of insecticide resistance in Anopheles sinensis, a major vector of malaria in Jiangsu province in eastern China, threatens to compromise the successful use of insecticides in malaria control strategies. It is therefore vital to understand the insecticide resistance status of An. sinensis in the region. This study examined the nucleotide diversity of the para-sodium channel and knockdown resistance (kdr) in five field populations of adult An. sinensis mosquitoes colle...

  9. Morphological Observations and Fatty Acid Composition of Indoor-Cultivated Cordyceps sinensis at a High-Altitude Laboratory on Sejila Mountain, Tibet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Lian-Xian; Xu, Xiao-Ming; Liang, Fu-Rui; Yuan, Jian-Ping; Peng, Juan; Wu, Chou-Fei; Wang, Jiang-Hai

    2015-01-01

    Cordyceps sinensis, a caterpillar entomopathogenic fungus-host larva complex, is a rare medicinal herb found in the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau and its surrounding high-altitude areas. The alternation of generations in the life cycle, whatever the fungus or its host insect, requires special growth conditions. However, it is difficult to simulate the growth conditions of C. sinensis, which hinders its artificial cultivation. In this work, the life cycle from the host larva to C. sinensis was observed in an indoor-cultivation laboratory at 4,200 m a.s.l. on Sejila Mountain, Tibet. Comparative examinations between indoor-cultivated and wild C. sinensis demonstrated that the indoor-cultivated C. sinensis preferred to germinate multiple long, slim stromata at diverse positions on dead larvae, including but not limited to their heads. Their fatty acid composition shows a significant difference in the levels of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs). In indoor-cultivated C. sinensis, PUFAs constituted 24.59% and 49.43%, respectively, of neutral and polar lipids; meanwhile, in wild C. sinensis, PUFAs represented 34.34% and 61.25% of neutral and polar lipids, respectively. These observations and fatty acid data suggest that environmental factors, particularly temperature, soil pressure and light intensity, strongly affect the growth of C. sinensis. Our new findings may provide important information for improving techniques for the large-scale artificial cultivation of C. sinensis. PMID:25938484

  10. Morphological Observations and Fatty Acid Composition of Indoor-Cultivated Cordyceps sinensis at a High-Altitude Laboratory on Sejila Mountain, Tibet.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lian-Xian Guo

    Full Text Available Cordyceps sinensis, a caterpillar entomopathogenic fungus-host larva complex, is a rare medicinal herb found in the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau and its surrounding high-altitude areas. The alternation of generations in the life cycle, whatever the fungus or its host insect, requires special growth conditions. However, it is difficult to simulate the growth conditions of C. sinensis, which hinders its artificial cultivation. In this work, the life cycle from the host larva to C. sinensis was observed in an indoor-cultivation laboratory at 4,200 m a.s.l. on Sejila Mountain, Tibet. Comparative examinations between indoor-cultivated and wild C. sinensis demonstrated that the indoor-cultivated C. sinensis preferred to germinate multiple long, slim stromata at diverse positions on dead larvae, including but not limited to their heads. Their fatty acid composition shows a significant difference in the levels of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs. In indoor-cultivated C. sinensis, PUFAs constituted 24.59% and 49.43%, respectively, of neutral and polar lipids; meanwhile, in wild C. sinensis, PUFAs represented 34.34% and 61.25% of neutral and polar lipids, respectively. These observations and fatty acid data suggest that environmental factors, particularly temperature, soil pressure and light intensity, strongly affect the growth of C. sinensis. Our new findings may provide important information for improving techniques for the large-scale artificial cultivation of C. sinensis.

  11. Vascular Protective Effect of an Ethanol Extract of Camellia japonica Fruit: Endothelium-Dependent Relaxation of Coronary Artery and Reduction of Smooth Muscle Cell Migration

    OpenAIRE

    Sin-Hee Park; Bong-Sup Shim; Jun-Seong Yoon; Hyun-Ho Lee; Hye-Won Lee; Seok-Bong Yoo; An-Jin Wi; Whoa-Shig Park; Hyun-Jung Kim; Dong-Wok Kim; Min-Ho Oak

    2016-01-01

    Camellia japonica is a popular garden plant in Asia and widely used as cosmetic sources and traditional medicine. However, the possibility that C. japonica affects cardiovascular system remains unclear. The aim of the present study was to evaluate vascular effects of an extract of C. japonica. Vascular reactivity was assessed in organ baths using porcine coronary arteries and inhibition of proliferation and migration were assessed using human vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs). All four dif...

  12. Medicinal flowers. XXXVI.1) Acylated oleanane-type triterpene saponins with inhibitory effects on melanogenesis from the flower buds of Chinese Camellia japonica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Seikou; Fujimoto, Katsuyoshi; Nakashima, Souichi; Matsumoto, Takahiro; Miura, Tomoko; Uno, Kaoru; Matsuda, Hisashi; Yoshikawa, Masayuki

    2012-01-01

    Four acylated oleanane-type triterpene oligoglycosides, sanchakasaponins E-H, were isolated from the flower buds of Camellia japonica cultivated in Yunnan province, China, together with four known triterpene oligoglycosides. The chemical structures of the new triterpene oligoglycosides were elucidated on the basis of chemical and physicochemical evidence. The inhibitory effects of the triterpene oligoglycoside constituents on melanogenesis in theophylline-stimulated B16 melanoma 4A5 cells were investigated. PMID:22689427

  13. Camelliasaponins B1, B2, C1 and C2, new type inhibitors of ethanol absorption in rats from the seeds of Camellia japonica L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshikawa, M; Harada, E; Murakami, T; Matsuda, H; Yamahara, J; Murakami, N

    1994-03-01

    New type inhibitors of ethanol absorption, camelliasaponins B1, B2, C1 and C2, were isolated from the seeds of Camellia japonica L. The structures of camelliasaponins were elucidated on the basis of chemical and physicochemical evidence. The inhibitory effect of camelliasaponins and related saponins on ethanol absorption have been examined, and it was found that the triterpene oligoglycoside structure having an acyl group was essential to exerting the activity. PMID:8004726

  14. Phylogeography of Camellia taliensis (Theaceae) inferred from chloroplast and nuclear DNA: insights into evolutionary history and conservation

    OpenAIRE

    Liu Yang; Yang Shi-xiong; Ji Peng-zhang; Gao Li-zhi

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background As one of the most important but seriously endangered wild relatives of the cultivated tea, Camellia taliensis harbors valuable gene resources for tea tree improvement in the future. The knowledge of genetic variation and population structure may provide insights into evolutionary history and germplasm conservation of the species. Results Here, we sampled 21 natural populations from the species' range in China and performed the phylogeography of C. taliensis by using the n...

  15. Development and cross-species transferability of unigene-derived microsatellite markers in an edible oil woody plant, Camellia oleifera (Theaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, B G; Lin, Q; Feng, Y Z; Hu, X Y; Tan, X F; Shao, F G; Zhang, L

    2015-01-01

    Camellia oleifera is an important edible oil woody plant in China. Lack of useful molecular markers hinders current genetic research on this tree species. Transcriptome sequencing of developing C. oleifera seeds generated 69,798 unigenes. A total of 6949 putative microsatellites were discovered among 6042 SSR-containing unigenes. Then, 150 simple sequence repeats (SSRs) were evaluated in 20 varieties of C. oleifera. Of these, 52 SSRs revealed polymorphism, with the number of alleles per locus ranging from 2 to 15 and expected heterozygosity values from 0.269 to 0.888. The polymorphic information content varied from 0.32 to 0.897. Cross-species transferability rates in Camellia chekangoleosa and Camellia japonica were 90.4 and 78.8%, respectively. The 52 polymorphic unigene-derived SSR markers serve to enrich existing microsatellite marker resources for C. oleifera and offer potential for applications in genetic diversity evaluation, molecular fingerprinting, and genetic mapping in C. oleifera, C. chekangoleosa, and C. japonica. PMID:26125898

  16. Anion Channel Inhibitor NPPB-Inhibited Fluoride Accumulation in Tea Plant (Camellia sinensis) Is Related to the Regulation of Ca2+, CaM and Depolarization of Plasma Membrane Potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xian-Chen; Gao, Hong-Jian; Yang, Tian-Yuan; Wu, Hong-Hong; Wang, Yu-Mei; Zhang, Zheng-Zhu; Wan, Xiao-Chun

    2016-01-01

    Tea plant is known to be a hyper-accumulator of fluoride (F). Over-intake of F has been shown to have adverse effects on human health, e.g., dental fluorosis. Thus, understanding the mechanisms fluoride accumulation and developing potential approaches to decrease F uptake in tea plants might be beneficial for human health. In the present study, we found that pretreatment with the anion channel inhibitor NPPB reduced F accumulation in tea plants. Simultaneously, we observed that NPPB triggered Ca2+ efflux from mature zone of tea root and significantly increased relative CaM in tea roots. Besides, pretreatment with the Ca2+ chelator (EGTA) and CaM antagonists (CPZ and TFP) suppressed NPPB-elevated cytosolic Ca2+ fluorescence intensity and CaM concentration in tea roots, respectively. Interestingly, NPPB-inhibited F accumulation was found to be significantly alleviated in tea plants pretreated with either Ca2+ chelator (EGTA) or CaM antagonists (CPZ and TFP). In addition, NPPB significantly depolarized membrane potential transiently and we argue that the net Ca2+ and H+ efflux across the plasma membrane contributed to the restoration of membrane potential. Overall, our results suggest that regulation of Ca2+-CaM and plasma membrane potential depolarization are involved in NPPB-inhibited F accumulation in tea plants. PMID:26742036

  17. Anion Channel Inhibitor NPPB-Inhibited Fluoride Accumulation in Tea Plant (Camellia sinensis Is Related to the Regulation of Ca2+, CaM and Depolarization of Plasma Membrane Potential

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xian-Chen Zhang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Tea plant is known to be a hyper-accumulator of fluoride (F. Over-intake of F has been shown to have adverse effects on human health, e.g., dental fluorosis. Thus, understanding the mechanisms fluoride accumulation and developing potential approaches to decrease F uptake in tea plants might be beneficial for human health. In the present study, we found that pretreatment with the anion channel inhibitor NPPB reduced F accumulation in tea plants. Simultaneously, we observed that NPPB triggered Ca2+ efflux from mature zone of tea root and significantly increased relative CaM in tea roots. Besides, pretreatment with the Ca2+ chelator (EGTA and CaM antagonists (CPZ and TFP suppressed NPPB-elevated cytosolic Ca2+ fluorescence intensity and CaM concentration in tea roots, respectively. Interestingly, NPPB-inhibited F accumulation was found to be significantly alleviated in tea plants pretreated with either Ca2+ chelator (EGTA or CaM antagonists (CPZ and TFP. In addition, NPPB significantly depolarized membrane potential transiently and we argue that the net Ca2+ and H+ efflux across the plasma membrane contributed to the restoration of membrane potential. Overall, our results suggest that regulation of Ca2+-CaM and plasma membrane potential depolarization are involved in NPPB-inhibited F accumulation in tea plants.

  18. 茶树EST-SNP分布特征及标记开发%Characterization of EST-derived SNPs and Development of SNP-markers in Tea (Camellia sinensis)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王丽鸳; 张成才; 成浩; 韦康

    2012-01-01

    By clustering the 12 757 ESTs of tea downloaded from NCBI, a unigene database of tea was successfully built. It was found that the redundancy rate for ESTs from tea was approximately 68.2%. An EST-SNP exploiting system for tea was established preliminarily. The SNP distribution was identified. The occurrence frequency for coding region SNP in tea was appropriately 0.58%. It meant that there was average one SNP in every 200 bp of tea ESTs. Furthermore, the hybrid rate for tea genome was deduced to be 0.38%, averagely one hybrid DNA site per 300 bp. Totally 818 candidated SNP were exploited from 237 multigene clusters. Then 25 pairs of SNP primers were designed and 75% of these sites were validated to be polymorphism by DNA sequencing.%对NCBI网上公开的12757条茶树ESTs序列进行聚类,成功构建了茶树的独立基因(Unigene)数据库,发现茶树的EST序列冗余率约为68.2%.初步建立了茶树EST-SNP标记开发体系,明确了茶树EST中SNP的分布规律,茶树编码区的SNP发生频率约为0.58%,平均200bp就有1个SNP位点,并进一步推算出茶树基因组DNA序列的杂合率约为0.38%,平均300个碱基就可能出现1个杂合位点.从237个多基因聚类簇中发现了818个SNP候选位点,设计了25对SNP引物进行DNA重测序验证,发现EST-SNP候选位点的多态检出率为75%.

  19. Theaflavin Synthesized in a Selective, Domino-Type, One-Pot Enzymatic Biotransformation Method with Camellia sinensis Cell Culture Inhibits Weight Gain and Fat Accumulation to High-Fat Diet-Induced Obese Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takemoto, Masumi; Takemoto, Hiroaki; Saijo, Ryoyasu

    2016-08-01

    The polyphenolic compound theaflavin, which is the main red pigment present in black tea, is reported to elicit various physiological effects. Because of the extremely low concentration of theaflavin present in black tea, its extraction from black tea leaves in quantities sufficient for use in medical studies has been difficult. We have developed a simple, inexpensive, selective, domino-type, one-pot enzymatic biotransformation method for the synthesis of theaflavin that is suitable for use in medical studies. Subsequent administration of this synthetic theaflavin to high-fat diet-induced obese mice inhibited both body weight gain and visceral fat accumulation, with no significant difference in the amount of faeces between the experimental and control mice. PMID:27237789

  20. Nontargeted Analysis Using Ultraperformance Liquid Chromatography-Quadrupole Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry Uncovers the Effects of Harvest Season on the Metabolites and Taste Quality of Tea (Camellia sinensis L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Weidong; Qi, Dandan; Yang, Ting; Lv, Haipeng; Guo, Li; Zhang, Yue; Zhu, Yin; Peng, Qunhua; Xie, Dongchao; Tan, Junfeng; Lin, Zhi

    2015-11-11

    The chemical composition and taste quality of tea fluctuate seasonally. However, the compounds responsible for the seasonal variation of metabolic pattern and taste quality are far from clear. This study compared the metabolite profiles of green teas of nine varieties that were plucked in spring, summer, and autumn by using ultraperformance liquid chromatography-quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC-Q-TOF/MS) on a reversed phase column. A multivariate analysis indicated distinct differences among the metabolite phenotypes of teas harvested in different seasons. Heat-map analysis and metabolic pathway analysis demonstrated that flavan-3-ols, theasinensins, procyanidins, quercetin-O-glycosides, apigenin-C-glycosides, and amino acids exhibited sharp seasonal fluctuations. An equivalent quantification of tea tastes showed that in summer and autumn teas, the bitterness and astringency were significantly elevated, whereas umami declined. Metabolite content comparisons and partial least-squares analysis suggested that several flavonoids and amino acids are mainly responsible for the seasonal variations in taste quality. PMID:26494158

  1. fRNAdb Summary: FR131028 [

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available FR131028 AY845293,AY845294,AY845295,AY845296,AY845297,AY845298,AY845299,AY845300,AY845301,AY8453 ... ,DQ004533,DQ004534 Group II intron group_II_intron Cannabis ... sativa,Camellia sinensis,Camellia sinensis var. as ...

  2. An autoradiographic study on the distribution of 14C-glycine in clonorchis sinensis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To study an aspect of protein metabolism in chinese liverfluke, Clonorchis sinensis, an autoradiographic study was performed. A batch of 25 ml erlenmeyer flasks, each flask containing 10 worms of C. sinensis and 10 ml of Tyrode medium with 2.5 μCi/ml of 14C-glycine, was incubated for 1 hour in Dubnoff metabolic shaking incubator at 370C. Those worms were processed for microautoradiography immediately after the incubation, and following results were obtained from the autoradiographs. The densities of black silver grains derived from 14C-glycine were the most apparent in the subparenchymal cells, intestinal epithelium, vitelline gland cells, ovary and the wall of the seminal vesicle. Moderate grade of densities were observed in the tegument, oral sucker, pharynx, intestinal content and in the testes. The reticular tissue, ventral sucker, uterus with eggs, seminal receptacle and the content of seminal vesicle showed trace amount of silver grains. (author)

  3. PHYTOCHEMICAL SCREENING AND MINERAL ELEMENTS COMPOSITION OF CORDYCEPS SINENSIS AND ITS BASED PRODUCT (ESULIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farah Atiqah Ab Rahman

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Screening of phytochemical and mineral elements composition of Cordyceps sinensis and its based product, Esulin were carried out in order to provide a basis for further research on the therapeutic value of these herbs. The results of both aqueous extracts positively showed the presence of several bioactive compounds like alkaloids, saponins, tannins, and flavonoids. However, terpenoids only present in the aqueous extract of Esulin. In addition, the levels of copper, zinc, cadmium, ferum, lead and nickel of both extracts were below the maximum permissible level suggested by World Health Organization (1989 & Malaysian Food Law (1985. The presence of phytochemical components and mineral elements in the aqueous extract of Cordyceps sinensis and Esulin might contribute to their therapeutic applications in medicinal practices.

  4. Development and Characterization of 11 Polymorphic Microsatellite Markers in Tapiscia sinensis (Staphyleaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pengfei Zhang

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Premise of the study: We developed and characterized five polymorphic microsatellite loci from an AC-enriched genomic library of a rare tree, Tapiscia sinensis, and six compound microsatellite primers using a dual-suppression-PCR–based approach, to investigate geographical genetic structure. Methods and Results: The polymorphism of these loci was assessed in 102 samples collected from three populations. The number of alleles per locus ranged from one to nine. Expected heterozygosity per locus ranged from 0.000 to 0.709 and observed heterozygosity ranged from 0.000 to 0.750. Five loci deviated from Hardy–Weinberg equilibrium after Bonferroni correction. Conclusions: This set of microsatellites may be useful for investigating broad-scale genetic variation in the extant populations of the endangered tree species T. sinensis.

  5. Molecular Weight and Proposed Structure of the Angelica sinensis Polysaccharide-iron Complex

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG,Kai-Ping; CHEN,Zhi-Xiang; ZHANG,Yu; WANG,Pei-Pei; WANG,Ji-Hong; DAI,Li-Quan

    2008-01-01

    The molecular weight and the proposed structure of the Angelica sinensis polysaccharide-iron complex (APIC) were studied.Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy,X-ray powder diffraction,differential scanning calorimetry,transmission electron microscopy,electron paramagnetic resonance,thermogravimetric analysis,atomic force microscopy,and gel filtration chromatography were used to characterize APIC,which is a macromolecule complex composed of Angelica sinensis polysaccharide (ASP) and iron.The structure of APIC was proposed to be a polynuclear ferrihydrite core chelated firmly by an encircling framework of ASP chains,forming a core molecule,which is surrounded by a removable outer protective sheath of colloidal ASP.And the molecular formula of APIC was proposed to be { [(Fe2O3·2.2H2O)1043(ASP)32](ASP)12 },with MW=270000 Da.

  6. Stimulation growth effect of Eriocheir sinensis treated with low-dose neutron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper was dealt with the relationship between biochemical indexes and different growth stages of Eriocheir sinensis megalopa treated with Low-dose Neutron at 55.24 to 73.66 mGy. It showed that some biochemical component indexes were increased, such as-SH group in protain (between 23.40% to 69.59%), albumen (between 4.99% to 22.6%) and Hyp compared with CK. However, free radical level (between 7.67% to 32.68%) and AKP were decreased. The carapace color was turned into darker than that of CK; Antibacterial immunity of younger crab during the growing stage was increased, the body size of treated Eriocheir sinensis megalopa became uniform and early sexual maturity was inhibited in a certain degree with a low dose neutron treatment. (authors)

  7. Effects of different dietary lipid contents on growth and lipase activity of Eriocheir sinensis larvae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Debin; Pan, Luqing; Fang, Bo

    2011-03-01

    The effects of different dietary lipid content on the growth and lipase activity of Eriocheir sinensis larvae were studied in the paper. The results showed that the survival, metamorphic rate and weight gain of E. sinensis larvae at different stages of growth all varied significantly with lipid content ( Plipase activity increased over time at Z1, Z2, Z3 and M and declined at Z4 and Z5, and was influenced significantly by lipid content ( Plipase activity at each larval stage began to respond to dietary lipid contents 4 h after the larvae were fed, and tended to be stable after 12 h. The diets with higher lipase activity and lower lipid content were selected to give the suitable recipe of lipid requirements at each larval stage. It was concluded that the suitable lipid requirements at Z1, Z2, Z3, Z4, Z5 and M were 6%, 4%, 6%, 8%, 8% and 10%, respectively.

  8. Comparison of the functional features of the pump organs of Anopheles sinensis and Aedes togoi

    OpenAIRE

    Young-Ran Ha; Seung-Chul Lee; Seung-Jun Seo; Jeongeun Ryu; Dong-Kyu Lee; Sang-Joon Lee

    2015-01-01

    Mosquitoes act as vectors for severe tropical diseases. Mosquito-borne diseases are affected by various factors such as environmental conditions, host body susceptibility, and mosquito feeding behavior. Among these factors, feeding behavior is affected by the feeding pump system located inside the mosquito head and also depends on the species of mosquito. Therefore, the 3D morphological structures of the feeding pumps of Aedes togoi and Anopheles sinensis were comparatively investigated using...

  9. An in silico analysis of the key genes involved in flavonoid biosynthesis in Citrus sinensis

    OpenAIRE

    Adriano R. Lucheta; Ana Carla O. Silva-Pinhati; Ana Carolina Basílio-Palmieri; Irving J. Berger; Juliana Freitas-Astúa; Mariângela Cristofani

    2007-01-01

    Citrus species are known by their high content of phenolic compounds, including a wide range of flavonoids. In plants, these compounds are involved in protection against biotic and abiotic stresses, cell structure, UV protection, attraction of pollinators and seed dispersal. In humans, flavonoid consumption has been related to increasing overall health and fighting some important diseases. The goals of this study were to identify expressed sequence tags (EST) in Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck co...

  10. Production of intracellular selenium-enriched polysaccharides from thin stillage by Cordyceps sinensis and its bioactivities

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Shengli; Zhang, Hui

    2016-01-01

    Background: Thin stillage was used as the substrate to produce intracellular selenium-enriched polysaccharides (ISPS) from Cordyceps sinensis to increase the value of agricultural coproducts.Methods: Fermentation parameters were optimized using response surface methodology (RSM) to improve the production of ISPS. Then, the effects of ISPS on the antioxidant activities in vitro, as well as the glycosylated serum protein concentration, malondialdehyde level, and total antioxidant capacity of st...

  11. Production of intracellular selenium-enriched polysaccharides from thin stillage by Cordyceps sinensis and its bioactivities

    OpenAIRE

    Shengli Yang; Hui Zhang

    2016-01-01

    Background: Thin stillage was used as the substrate to produce intracellular selenium-enriched polysaccharides (ISPS) from Cordyceps sinensis to increase the value of agricultural coproducts. Methods: Fermentation parameters were optimized using response surface methodology (RSM) to improve the production of ISPS. Then, the effects of ISPS on the antioxidant activities in vitro, as well as the glycosylated serum protein concentration, malondialdehyde level, and total antioxidant capacity of s...

  12. Production of intracellular selenium-enriched polysaccharides from thin stillage by Cordyceps sinensis and its bioactivities

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Shengli; Zhang, Hui

    2016-01-01

    Background Thin stillage was used as the substrate to produce intracellular selenium-enriched polysaccharides (ISPS) from Cordyceps sinensis to increase the value of agricultural coproducts. Methods Fermentation parameters were optimized using response surface methodology (RSM) to improve the production of ISPS. Then, the effects of ISPS on the antioxidant activities in vitro, as well as the glycosylated serum protein concentration, malondialdehyde level, and total antioxidant capacity of str...

  13. Phytochemical analysis and radical scavenging profile of juices of Citrus sinensis, Citrus anrantifolia, and Citrus limonum

    OpenAIRE

    Rauf, Abdur; Uddin, Ghias; Ali, Jawad

    2014-01-01

    Background The aim of the current investigation was to identify bioactive secondary metabolites including phenols, tannins, flavonoids, terpinedes, and steroids and compare the phytochemical analysis and antioxidant profile of the juice extracted from the fruits of Citrus sinensis, Citrus anrantifolia, and Citrus limonum. Results Phytochemical screening is important for the isolation of new, novel, and rare secondary metabolites before bulk extraction. Phytochemical analysis of the desired pl...

  14. Genetic diversity and population structure of Bretschneidera sinensis, an endangered species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gangbiao Xu

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Amounts and distribution of intraspecific genetic variation provide benchmarks for developing conservation strategies. Bretschneidera sinensis is a monotypic relic species listed in the First Grade of the List of Wild Plants Under State Protection (First Batch in China. We examined the genetic diversity and genetic structure of 219 B. sinensis individuals sampled from 15 natural populations distributed in Hunan, Jiangxi, Guangdong, Guangxi, and Guizhou using inter-simple sequence repeat (ISSR markers generated by seven ISSR primers. The percentage of polymorphic bands (PPB at the species and population level was 74.42% and 38.06%, respectively. Shannon’s index (I of phenotypic diversity at the species and population level was 0.3630 and 0.2081, respectively, and Nei’s genetic diversity (He at the species and population level was 0.2397 and 0.1405, respectively. These results indicate that B. sinensis contains relatively high levels of genetic diversity. Analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA and estimates of the coefficient of genetic differentiation based on phenotypic diversity index also indicated high levels of population subdivision (GST = 0.2973; FST = 0.4267 in the species. Analysis of the ISSR data using UPGMA further revealed that populations were genetically clustered into two groups, while a Mantel test showed that genetic divergence was significantly correlated with geographical distance among populations (Mantel test; r = 0.3096, P = 0.008. We conclude from our results that B. sinensis is not endangered due to low evolutionary potential stemming from low genetic diversity, but by habitat destruction coupled with a low reproductive capacity, poor adaptability and weak competitiveness. The Mt. Yangming, Mt. Mangshan, Ruyang, and Mt. Bamianshan populations of the species with higher genetic diversity should be given priority for conservation, and inbreeding depression monitoring should be conducted.

  15. Gene Expression Profiling of Dendritic Cells in Different Physiological Stages under Cordyceps sinensis Treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Chia-Yang; Chiang, Chi-Shiun; Cheng, Wei-Chung; Wang, Shu-Chi; Cheng, Hung-Tsu; Chen, Chaang-Ray; Shu, Wun-Yi; Tsai, Min-Lung; Hseu, Ruey-Shyang; Chang, Cheng-Wei; Huang, Chao-Ying; Fang, Shih-Hua; Ian C Hsu

    2012-01-01

    Cordyceps sinensis (CS) has been commonly used as herbal medicine and a health supplement in China for over two thousand years. Although previous studies have demonstrated that CS has benefits in immunoregulation and anti-inflammation, the precise mechanism by which CS affects immunomodulation is still unclear. In this study, we exploited duplicate sets of loop-design microarray experiments to examine two different batches of CS and analyze the effects of CS on dendritic cells (DCs), in diffe...

  16. Vanadium-Enriched Cordyceps sinensis, a Contemporary Treatment Approach to Both Diabetes and Depression in Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Jianyou Guo; ChangYu Li; Jie Wang; Yongmei Liu; Jiahui Zhang

    2011-01-01

    This article studies a contemporary treatment approach toward both diabetes and depression management by vanadium-enriched Cordyceps sinensis (VECS). Streptozotocin-induced hyperglycemic rats were used in the study. After the rats were administered with VECS, a significant reduction in blood glucose levels was seen (P < .05) and the levels of serum insulin increased significantly (P < .05). At the same time, the study revealed a significant decrease in immobility with a corresponding increase...

  17. PHYTOCHEMICAL SCREENING AND MINERAL ELEMENTS COMPOSITION OF CORDYCEPS SINENSIS AND ITS BASED PRODUCT (ESULIN)

    OpenAIRE

    Farah Atiqah Ab Rahman; Tuan Noorfatiehah Tuan Kub; Mohd Dasuki Sulain; Aziz Al-Safi Ismail; Wan Ezumi Mohd Fuad

    2015-01-01

    Screening of phytochemical and mineral elements composition of Cordyceps sinensis and its based product, Esulin were carried out in order to provide a basis for further research on the therapeutic value of these herbs. The results of both aqueous extracts positively showed the presence of several bioactive compounds like alkaloids, saponins, tannins, and flavonoids. However, terpenoids only present in the aqueous extract of Esulin. In addition, the levels of copper, zinc, cadmium, ferum, lead...

  18. A Contemporary Treatment Approach to Both Diabetes and Depression by Cordyceps sinensis, Rich in Vanadium

    OpenAIRE

    Yong-Mei Liu; Chun-Chao Han; Jian-You Guo

    2009-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus is accompanied by hormonal and neurochemical changes that can be associated with anxiety and depression. Both diabetes and depression negatively interact, in that depression leads to poor metabolic control and hyperglycemia exacerbates depression. We hypothesize one novel vanadium complex of vanadium-enriched Cordyceps sinensis (VECS), which is beneficial in preventing depression in diabetes, and influences the long-term course of glycemic control. Vanadium compounds have th...

  19. Altered Proteomic Polymorphisms in the Caterpillar Body and Stroma of Natural Cordyceps sinensis during Maturation

    OpenAIRE

    Dong, Yun-Zi; Zhang, Li-Juan; Wu, Zi-mei; Gao, Ling; Yao, Yi-Sang; Tan, Ning-Zhi; Wu, Jian-Yong; Ni, Luqun; Zhu, Jia-Shi

    2014-01-01

    Objective To examine the maturational changes in proteomic polymorphisms resulting from differential expression by multiple intrinsic fungi in the caterpillar body and stroma of natural Cordyceps sinensis (Cs), an integrated micro-ecosystem. Methods The surface-enhanced laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (SELDI-TOF MS) biochip technique was used to profile the altered protein compositions in the caterpillar body and stroma of Cs during its maturation. The MS chromato...

  20. Cultured mycelium Cordyceps sinensis protects liver sinusoidal endothelial cells in acute liver injured mice

    OpenAIRE

    Peng, Yuan; Chen, Qian; Yang, Tao; Tao, Yanyan; Lu, Xiong; Liu, Chenghai

    2014-01-01

    Cultured mycelium Cordyceps sinensis (CMCS) was widely used for a variety of diseases including liver injury, the current study aims to investigate the protective effects of CMCS on liver sinusoidal endothelial cells (LSECs) in acute injury liver and related action mechanisms. The mice were injected intraperitoneally with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and d-galactosamine (D-GalN). 39 male BABL/c mice were randomly divided into four groups: normal control, model control, CMCS treatment and 1,10-phe...

  1. Analysis of the Main Nucleosides in Cordyceps Sinensis by LC/ESI-MS

    OpenAIRE

    Yun-Biao He; Wei Hu; Lan-Fang Huang; Jian-Wei Xie; Kin Ping Wong

    2010-01-01

    A sensitive, selective and reliable liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry coupled with electrospray ionization interface method for simultaneous separation and determination of thymine, adenine, adenosine and cordycepin in Cordyceps sinensis has been established. The optimum separation for these analytes was achieved using a gradient elution system and a 2.0 × 150 mm Shimadzu VP-ODS column. 2-Chloroadenosine was used as internal standard for this assay. [M+H]+ions at m/z 127, 136, 268, 252 ...

  2. Determination of nucleosides in Cordyceps sinensis and Ganoderma lucidum by high performance liquid chromatography method

    OpenAIRE

    Masood Shah Khan; Rabea Parveen; Kshipra Mishra; Rajkumar Tulsawani; Sayeed Ahmad

    2015-01-01

    Background: Nucleosides are supportive in the regulation and modulation of various physiological processes in body, they acts as precursors in nucleic acid synthesis, enhance immune response, help in absorption of iron and influence the metabolism of fatty acids. Cordyceps sinensis and Ganoderma lucidum are well-known for its use in traditional medicine of China, Nepal and India. They are rich in nucleosides such as adenine, adenosine, cordycepin, etc. Hence, a simple, economic and accurate h...

  3. Effects of fermented Cordyceps sinensis on oxidative stress in doxorubicin treated rats

    OpenAIRE

    Wu, Rong; Gao, Jian-ping; Wang, Hui-Lin; Gao, Yan; Wu, Qian; Cui, Xiao-Hua

    2015-01-01

    Background: Cordyceps sinensis (CS) is one of the rare traditional Chinese herbs, only a very limited amount of natural CS is produced. Fermented CS, as a substitute for natural CS, is widely used in the field of supplementary medical treatment and health products. Its antagonistic effect on oxidative stress (OS) in vivo has not been investigated. Objective: Our aim was to investigate the antagonistic effect of fermented CS on OS in doxorubicin (DOX) treated rats and to compare the anti-OS ef...

  4. Effects of Extract from Solid-State Fermented Cordyceps sinensis on Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

    OpenAIRE

    Wei-Chih Kan; Hsien-Yi Wang; Chih-Chiang Chien; Shun-Lai Li; Yu-Chun Chen; Liang-Hao Chang; Chia-Hui Cheng; Wan-Chen Tsai; Jyh-Chang Hwang; Shih-Bin Su; Li-Hsueh Huang; Jiunn-Jye Chuu

    2012-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus is the most common chronic disease in the world, and a wide range of drugs, including Chinese herbs, have been evaluated for the treatment of associated metabolic disorders. This study investigated the potential hypoglycemic and renoprotective effects of an extract from the solid-state fermented mycelium of Cordyceps sinensis (CS). We employed the KK/HIJ diabetic mouse model, in which the mice were provided with a high-fat diet for 8 weeks to induce hyperglycemia, followed b...

  5. Therapeutic Effect of Captopril, Pentoxifylline, and Cordyceps Sinensis in Pre-Hepatic Portal Hypertensive Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmed F Ahmed; El-Maraghy, Nabila N; Rasha H Abdel Ghaney; Shimaa M Elshazly

    2012-01-01

    Background/Aim: Portal hypertension is an important and potentially fatal complication of liver disease whereby cellular and fibrotic alterations manifest to increase portal venous pressure. The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of captopril, pentoxifylline (PTX), and cordyceps sinensis in pre-hepatic portal hypertensive rats. Settings and Design: Wister male rats were divided at random into 3 main groups: the first group: control rats. The second group: sham-operated rats and th...

  6. Effect of Cordyceps sinensis and Tripterygium wilfordii polyglycosidium on podocytes in rats with diabetic nephropathy

    OpenAIRE

    Hao, Li; PAN, MENG-SHU; Zheng, Yun; Rui-feng WANG

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of Cordyceps sinensis (CS) and Tripterygium wilfordii polyglycosidium (TWP) on podocytes in rats with diabetic nephropathy (DN). DN rat models were established and divided randomly into normal control (group A), DN (group B), CS (group C), TWP (group D) and CS and TWP groups (group E). After 12 weeks, levels of 24-h urinary protein, blood urea nitrogen (BUN), serum creatinine (SCR), white blood cells, blood glucose (GLU), aspartate a...

  7. Ergosterol Is the Active Compound of Cultured Mycelium Cordyceps sinensis on Antiliver Fibrosis

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Cultured mycelium Cordyceps sinensis (CMCS) is a Chinese herbal medicine, which is widely used for a variety of diseases including liver injury in clinic. The current study aims to investigate the protective effects of CMCS against liver fibrosis and to exploit its active antifibrotic substances in vivo and in vitro. For evaluating the antifibrotic effect of CMCS and ergosterol, male C57BL/6 mice were injected intraperitoneally with carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) and treated with CMCS (120 mg/kg...

  8. The effects of Cordyceps sinensis phytoestrogen on estrogen deficiency-induced osteoporosis in Ovariectomized rats

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Da-Wei; Wang, Zhen-lin; Qi, Wei; Zhao, Guang-Yue

    2014-01-01

    Background Isoflavones are naturally occurring plant chemicals belonging to the “phytoestrogen” class. The aim of the present study was to examine the effects of isoflavones obtained from Cordyceps sinensis (CSIF) on development of estrogen deficiency-induced osteoporosis in ovariectomized rats. Methods After the rats were treated orally with CSIF, serum alkaline phosphatase (ALP), tartarate resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP), serum osteocalcin (OC), homocysteine (HCY), C-terminal crosslinked ...

  9. Therapeutic effect of captopril, pentoxifylline, and cordyceps sinensis in pre-hepatic portal hypertensive rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed F Ahmed

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim: Portal hypertension is an important and potentially fatal complication of liver disease whereby cellular and fibrotic alterations manifest to increase portal venous pressure. The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of captopril, pentoxifylline (PTX, and cordyceps sinensis in pre-hepatic portal hypertensive rats. Settings and Design: Wister male rats were divided at random into 3 main groups: the first group: control rats. The second group: sham-operated rats and the third group: prehepatic portal hypertensive rats (PHPHT induced by regulated pre-hepatic portal vein ligation. After 14 days, Group 3 was subdivided into 5 subgroups. Subgroup (1: portal vein-ligated (PVL was killed at once; Subgroup (2: received distilled water for 30 days (untreated PVL group; subgroups 3-5 were treated with captopril (60 mg/kg, orally; PTX (100 mg/kg, orally; and C. sinensis (200 mg/kg, orally, respectively, as a single daily dose for 30 days. Patients a nd M ethods: Portal pressure, nitric oxide (NO, antioxidant enzymes, Liver enzymes, and creatinine levels were measured to evaluate the status of the liver state. Results: Portal vein ligation produced significant increments in liver enzymes, NO, creatinine and portal pressure concomitant with significant decrements in glutathione content and superoxide dismutase activity. Treatment with captopril, PTX, and C. sinensis resulted in a significant reduction in liver enzymes, NO, creatinine and portal pressure and observable increase in antioxidant enzymes. Conclusions: captopril, PTX, and C. sinensis have promising effect in controlling PHPHT and reducing hyperdynamic circulatory state through reduction of portal pressure and NO level.

  10. Effect of food restriction on the energy metabolism of the Chinese bulbul (Pycnonotus sinensis)

    OpenAIRE

    LIANG, Qing-Jian; Zhao, Lei; Wang, Jia-Qi; Chen, Qian; Zheng, Wei-Hong; Liu, Jin-Song

    2015-01-01

    Food resources play an important role in the regulation of animals’ physiology and behavior. We investigated the effect of short-term food restriction on metabolic thermogenesis of Chinese bulbuls (Pycnonotus sinensis) by measuring changes in body mass, body fat, basic metabolic rate (BMR), and organ mass of wild-caught Chinese bulbuls from Wenzhou, China. Short-term food restriction induced a significant decrease in body mass and body fat but body mass returned to normal levels soon after fo...

  11. Angelica sinensis Improves Exercise Performance and Protects against Physical Fatigue in Trained Mice

    OpenAIRE

    Tzu-Shao Yeh; Chi-Chang Huang; Hsiao-Li Chuang; Mei-Chich Hsu

    2014-01-01

    Angelica sinensis (AS) is a well-known medicinal herb and food material with antioxidative and multifunctional pharmacological activities. However, we lack evidence of the effect of AS on exercise performance and physical fatigue. We aimed to evaluate the potential beneficial effect of AS on ergogenic and anti-fatigue functions after physiological challenge. Male ICR strain mice were randomly assigned to four groups (n = 10 per group) for treatment: (1) sedentary control and vehicle treatment...

  12. Structural Basis of the Rind Disorder Oleocellosis in Washington Navel Orange (Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck)

    OpenAIRE

    KNIGHT, TOBY G.; KLIEBER, ANDREAS; Sedgley, Margaret

    2002-01-01

    Oleocellosis, a physiological rind disorder of citrus fruit, is an unattractive surface blemish caused by phytotoxic effects of released rind oils. The development of oleocellosis in Washington navel orange (Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck) was examined by following a time sequence of surface symptoms and microscopic rind changes. The two natural causes of oleocellosis were simulated: mechanical damage to the fruit and transfer of rind oil between fruit. Mechanical fruit injury resulted in rupture ...

  13. Hibiscus Rosa Sinensis alleviates Thioacetamide induced Acute Hepatotoxicity in Wistar Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Sana Nafees; Shiekh Tanveer Ahmad; Wani Arjumand; Nemat Ali; Summya Rashid; Sarwat Sultana

    2013-01-01

    The plant phenolic compounds such as flavonoids play an important role in the protection of several disorders. Some of the plant derived compounds possess potent hepatoprotective efficacy. The present study was designed to assess the prophylactic effect of Hibiscus rosa sinensis (HRS) extract against thioacetamide (TAA) induced hepatotoxicity in male wistar rats. TAA treated showed noticeable hepatotoxicity symptoms marked by suppression of antioxidant armoury and destruction of liver morphol...

  14. Hibiscus Rosa Sinensis Leaves: Analysis Of Proximate, Antioxidant Activities And Inorganic Compound

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A variety of herbal plants species has been used in traditional medicine. Most of these plants contained several potent bio-active ingredients and nutrients that could give potential positive effects to the health such as antioxidant and antipyretic. Hibiscus rosa sinensis, commonly known as Bunga raya, have similar concoction characteristic to tea which contain antioxidants that help to control cholesterol. In addition, mucilage that was found in the leaves could helps to reduce extreme body heat during fever (which potentially acts as an antipyretic). Therefore, this preliminary study on the fresh and dried H. rosa sinensis leaves was carried out to analyze and identify the nutrients content, anti-oxidants and inorganic material. Total phenolic content (TPC) method was used for both fresh and dried leaves prior to the antioxidant activities of DPPH free radicals scavenging and ferric ion reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) as to confirm the existence of antioxidant constituents. Meanwhile, the composition of heavy metals was studied using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The proximate analysis of the fresh leaves showed the presence of moisture content (9.03 %), protein (10.44 %), fat (6.43 %), crude fiber (11.55 %), ash (11.22 %) and carbohydrate (51.33 %). Meanwhile, the inorganic contents are as follows: cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr), arsenic (As), nickel (Ni), lead (Pb), iron (Fe) and zinc (Zn). Furthermore, the antioxidant activities of FRAP and DPPH showed that dried leaves of H. rosa sinensis was higher than the fresh leaves (p < 0.05) irrespective of any solvent used. The positive correlation between TPC and two other antioxidant activities of DPPH and FRAP (p < 0.05) indicates the presence of antioxidant components in the acetone and water extracts. Therefore, the high availability of essential nutritional component, anti-oxidants and low concentration of hazardous inorganic matter in H. rosa sinensis leaves enable it to be used as one

  15. Histochemistry and cytology of the mucosa of small stomach in Alligator sinensis

    OpenAIRE

    ZHANG Sheng-Zhou; PAN Hong-Zhen; CHEN Hong-Hong; WU Xiao-Bing; WANG Chao-Lin; ZHU Hong-Xing

    2008-01-01

    The small stomach of Alligator sinensis is a small cavity at the juncture of the stomachus pyloricus and duodenum enclosed by pyloric and duodenal circular sphincter. Its physiological function is still unclear. The histochemical components, ultrastructure and cell types of the small stomach were studied with histochemical, electron microscopic and immunohistochemical techniques. The epithelium in all parts of small stomach showed a strongly positive PAS-reaction and weakly AB staining, secre...

  16. Morphological and antioxidant characteristics of quince (Cydonia oblonga Mill.) and chinese quince fruit (Pseudocydonia sinensis Schneid.)

    OpenAIRE

    Anton Monka; Olga Grygorieva; Peter Chlebo; Ján Brindza

    2014-01-01

    Quince (Cydonia oblonga Mill.) is a fruit species, whose fruits have a high therapeutic value and therefore are used in many countries in traditional medicine. Chinese quince (Pseudocydonia sinensis Schneid.) is a lesser used species, although it is a relative of quince. The aim of the study was to evaluate some morphological characters of both kinds of fruit and antioxidant activity of morphological parts of the fruit. For these experiments, two genotypes were used from each species growing ...

  17. Antimicrobial effects of Citrus sinensis peel extracts against dental caries bacteria: An in vitro study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shetty, Sapna B.; Mahin-Syed-Ismail, Prabu; Varghese, Shaji; Thomas-George, Bibin; Kandathil- Thajuraj, Pathinettam; Baby, Deepak; Haleem, Shaista; Sreedhar, Sreeja

    2016-01-01

    Background Ethnomedicine is gaining admiration since years but still there is abundant medicinal flora which is unrevealed through research. The study was conducted to assess the in vitro antimicrobial potential and also determine the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of Citrus sinensis peel extracts with a view of searching a novel extract as a remedy for dental caries pathogens. Material and Methods Aqueous and ethanol (cold and hot) extracts prepared from peel of Citrus sinensis were screened for in vitro antimicrobial activity against Streptococcus mutans and Lactobacillus acidophilus, using agar well diffusion method. The lowest concentration of every extract considered as the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) values were determined for both test organisms. One way ANOVA with Post Hoc Bonferroni test was applied for statistical analysis. Confidence level and level of significance were set at 95% and 5% respectively. Results Dental caries pathogens were inhibited most by hot ethanolic extract of Citrus sinensispeel followed by cold ethanolic extract. Aqueous extracts were effective at very high concentrations. Minimum inhibitory concentration of hot and cold ethanolic extracts of Citrus sinensis peel ranged between 12-15 mg/ml against both the dental caries pathogens. Conclusions Citrus sinensispeels extract was found to be effective against dental caries pathogens and contain compounds with therapeutic potential. Nevertheless, clinical trials on the effect of these plants are essential before advocating large-scale therapy. Key words:Agar well diffusion, antimicrobial activity, dental caries, Streptococcus mutans, Lactobacillus acidophilus. PMID:26855710

  18. Fermentation optimization for the production of bioactive polysaccharides from Cordyceps sinensis fungus UM01.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lan-Ying; Cheong, Kit-Leong; Wu, Ding-Tao; Meng, Lan-Zhen; Zhao, Jing; Li, Shao-Ping

    2015-08-01

    The optimal fermentation conditions and medium for the production of bioactive polysaccharides from the mycelium of Cordyceps sinensis fungus UM01 were investigated by using orthogonal design and high performance size exclusion chromatography coupled with multi-angel laser light scattering and refractive index detector (HPSEC-MALLS-RID). Results showed that the optimal temperature, initial pH, rotation speed, medium capacity (ratio of medium volume to the volume of flask bottle) and inoculums volume for the mycelium growth were 15 °C, pH 6.0, 150 rpm, 2/5 (v/v), and 3% (v/v), respectively. Furthermore, bioactive polysaccharides from the mycelium of C. sinensis fungus UM01 were determined as polysaccharide fractions with the molecular weight above 10 kDa. The optimal fermentation medium was determined as a composition of glucose 30.0 g/L, sucrose 30.0 g/L, KH2PO4 1.0 g/L, CaCl2 0.5 g/L, yeast extract 3.0 g/L, and MgCl2 0.1g/L according to the maximum amount of the bioactive polysaccharides (486.16±19.60 mg/L) measured by HPSEC-MALLS/RID. Results are helpful to establish an efficient and controllable fermentation process for the industrial production of bioactive polysaccharides from C. sinensis UM01, and beneficial to develop a unique health and functional product in future. PMID:25936285

  19. Using FT-NIR spectroscopy technique to determine arginine content in fermented Cordyceps sinensis mycelium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Chuanqi; Xu, Ning; Shao, Yongni; He, Yong

    2015-10-01

    This research investigated the feasibility of using Fourier transform near-infrared (FT-NIR) spectral technique for determining arginine content in fermented Cordyceps sinensis (C. sinensis) mycelium. Three different models were carried out to predict the arginine content. Wavenumber selection methods such as competitive adaptive reweighted sampling (CARS) and successive projections algorithm (SPA) were used to identify the most important wavenumbers and reduce the high dimensionality of the raw spectral data. Only a few wavenumbers were selected by CARS and CARS-SPA as the optimal wavenumbers, respectively. Among the prediction models, CARS-least squares-support vector machine (CARS-LS-SVM) model performed best with the highest values of the coefficient of determination of prediction (Rp(2)=0.8370) and residual predictive deviation (RPD=2.4741), the lowest value of root mean square error of prediction (RMSEP=0.0841). Moreover, the number of the input variables was forty-five, which only accounts for 2.04% of that of the full wavenumbers. The results showed that FT-NIR spectral technique has the potential to be an objective and non-destructive method to detect arginine content in fermented C. sinensis mycelium. PMID:26010565

  20. Physico-chemical properties and cytotoxic potential of Cordyceps sinensis metabolites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Eun-Jeong; Jang, Ka-Hee; Im, Seon-Young; Lee, Yoon-Kyung; Farooq, Muhammad; Farhoudi, Rozbeh; Lee, Dong-Jin

    2015-01-01

    This study was conducted to estimate the antioxidant activities, biochemical properties and biological activities of one of the entomopathogenic fungi, Cordyceps sinensis. Analysis of fungal metabolites indicated that the most abundant free sugar was glucose; the highest component of organic acids was citric acid from 10-day culture medium and the glutamate was the predominant amino acid observed from 3-day culture medium. Maximum total polyphenols and flavonoids were detected in the 15-day culture medium. For cytotoxicity test, three cancer cell lines, HepG2 (liver), MCF-7 (breast) and A549 (lung) were used. The IC50 values of the highest toxicity of HepG2 cell lines were observed from 10-day cultured medium, whereas the highest toxicity of MCF-7 and A549 was observed on 5-day cultured medium. This is the first study reporting on the strong antioxidant and cytotoxic potential of C. sinensis. Culture medium of C. sinensis may thus be used as an effective antioxidant and anticancer treatment of natural origin. PMID:25135771

  1. A Contemporary Treatment Approach to Both Diabetes and Depression by Cordyceps sinensis, Rich in Vanadium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian-You Guo

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Diabetes mellitus is accompanied by hormonal and neurochemical changes that can be associated with anxiety and depression. Both diabetes and depression negatively interact, in that depression leads to poor metabolic control and hyperglycemia exacerbates depression. We hypothesize one novel vanadium complex of vanadium-enriched Cordyceps sinensis (VECS, which is beneficial in preventing depression in diabetes, and influences the long-term course of glycemic control. Vanadium compounds have the ability to imitate the action of insulin, and this mimicry may have further favorable effects on the level of treatment satisfaction and mood. C. sinensis has an antidepressant-like activity, and attenuates the diabetes-induced increase in blood glucose concentrations. We suggest that the VECS may be a potential strategy for contemporary treatment of depression and diabetes through the co-effect of C. sinensis and vanadium. The validity of the hypothesis can most simply be tested by examining blood glucose levels, and swimming and climbing behavior in streptozotocin-induced hyperglycemic rats.

  2. Bioactive Peptides from Angelica sinensis Protein Hydrolyzate Delay Senescence in Caenorhabditis elegans through Antioxidant Activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiangqiang Wang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Since excessive reactive oxygen species (ROS is known to be associated with aging and age-related diseases, strategies modulating ROS level and antioxidant defense systems may contribute to the delay of senescence. Here we show that the protein hydrolyzate from Angelica sinensis was capable of increasing oxidative survival of the model animal Caenorhabditis elegans intoxicated by paraquat. The hydrolyzate was then fractionated by ultrafiltration, and the antioxidant fraction (<3 kDa was purified by gel filtration to obtain the antioxidant A. sinensis peptides (AsiPeps, which were mostly composed of peptides with <20 amino acid residues. Further studies demonstrate that AsiPeps were able to reduce the endogenous ROS level, increase the activities of the antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase and catalase, and decrease the content of the lipid peroxidation product malondialdehyde in nematodes treated with paraquat or undergoing senescence. AsiPeps were also shown to reduce age pigments accumulation and extend lifespan but did not affect the food-intake behavior of the nematodes. Taken together, our results demonstrate that A. sinensis peptides (AsiPeps are able to delay aging process in C. elegans through antioxidant activities independent of dietary restriction.

  3. Extraction of Angelica sinensis polysaccharides using ultrasound-assisted way and its bioactivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Ying; Shi, Yongyong; Yang, Huixin; Mao, Lijuan

    2016-07-01

    In the present article, ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) of polysaccharides from Angelica sinensis were investigated. The aim of the study is to examine the extraction parameters such as ultrasound power (140-180W), the ratio of liquid to solid (5-7), extraction time (40-50min) and extraction temperature (80-100°C) and to obtain the best possible combinations of these parameters through response surface methodology (RSM). Based on contour plots and variance analysis, optimum operational conditions for maximizing polysaccharides yield were found to be 180w, 7, 45min and 90°C. Under the optimum operating conditions determined, 6.96% polysaccharides were achieved. In addition, the results showed that A. sinensis polysaccharides (ASP) could increase antioxidant enzymes activities and decrease the MDA levels in the skeletal muscle of exhaustive exercise rats. This study provides strong evidence that A. sinensis polysaccharides supplementation possessed protective effects against exhaustive exercise-induced oxidative stress. PMID:26845475

  4. Antihyperlipidemic activity of Hibiscus rosa-sinensis Linn. ethanolic extract fractions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mukesh Singh Sikarwar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The study investigates the antihyperlipidemic effect of Hibiscus rosa-sinensis Linn. (Malvaceae ethanolic extract fractions in triton and atherogenic diet-induced hyperlipidemic rats. Materials and Methods: Oral administrations of 500 mg/kg body weight of various fractions of selected plant were evaluated for possible antihyperlipidemic activity in triton and atherogenic diet-induced hyperlipidemic rats for duration of 48 h and 14 days respectively. In triton model, hyperlipidemia was induced by intra-peritoneal injection of a saline solution of triton 400 mg/kg in rats, whereas in diet induced model, rats were made hyperlipidemic by giving atherogenic diet for 20 days using oral route of administration. A comparative assessment was also made between the actions of selected drug with simvastatin, known antihyperlipidemic drug. Result and Discussion: The outcomes of this study were expressed as mean ± standard error and data were evaluated by using analysis of variance followed by Dunnett′s t-test for multiple comparisons. Oral administration of 500 mg/kg body weight of ethanolic extract residual fraction of Hibiscus rosa-sinensis Linn. flowers exhibited a significant reduction (P < 0.01 in serum lipid parameters such as triglycerides, total cholesterol, low density lipoprotein (LDL, very LDL and increase in high density lipoprotein in hyperlipidemic rats when compared with hyperlipidemic control in both models. Conclusion: Our results demonstrated that ethanolic extract fraction of Hibiscus rosa-sinensis Linn. possessed significant antihyperlipidemic activity.

  5. 云南西部高海拔区传统食用油茶种性状调查分析%Characteristic Survey of Camellia oleifera Species at High Altitude Areas of Western Yunnan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周志美; 任华东; 俞新水; 郭兴

    2012-01-01

    介绍腾冲红花油茶,猴子木、怒江红山茶分布区域、适生环境.在云南腾冲、龙陵、昌宁县分别选取连续3年结实、性状稳定的优良单株进行单果重、果皮厚度、鲜出籽率、干出籽率、脂肪酸组成、矿物质含量、氨基酸含量等指标测定及分析.结果认为,这3个油茶品种都具有山茶油的共同特征和优点,适宜在云南省海拔1 700 ~2 500 m区域种植.%This paper introduced the distribution area and suitable environment for Camellia oleifers, Camellia yunnanensis, and Nujiang red camellia. In this trial, fine individual samples with three consecutive years of fructification, and stable traits were selected from Tengchong, Longling, Changning County, indicators such as fruit weight, peel thickness, fresh seed and dry seed rate, fatty acid composition, mineral content, amino acid content have been analyzed. Results showed that three Camellia species have common features and advantages of camellia oil, which suitable for planting at an altitude of 1700 to 2500 m region in Yunnan Province,

  6. A comparison of the genetic diversity in Dipteronia sinensis Oliv.and Dipteronia dyeriana Henry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Shan; QIAN Zengqiang; CAI Yuliang; ZHAO Guifang

    2006-01-01

    Dipteronia is an endemic genus to China and includes only two species, Dipteronia sinensis and D.dyeriana.Based on random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers,a comparative study of the genetic diversity and genetic structure of Dipteronia was performed.In total,128 and 103 loci were detected in 17 D.sinensis populations and 4 D.dyeriana populations,respectively,using 18 random primers.These results showed that the proportions of polymorphic loci for the two species were 92.97% and 81.55%,respectively,indicating that the genetic diversity of D.sinensis was higher than that of D.dyeriana.Analysis,based on similarity coefficients,Shannon diversity index and Nei gene diversity index,also confirmed this result.AMOVA analysis demonstrated that the genetic variation of D.sinensis within and among populations accounted for 56.89% and 43.11% of the total variation,respectively,and that of D.dyeriana was 57.86% and 42.14%,respectively.The Shannon diversity index and Nei gene diversity index showed similar results.The abovementioned characteristics indicated that the genetic diversity levels of these two species were extremely similar and that the interpopulational genetic differentiation within both species was relatively high.Analysis of the genetic distance among populations also supported this conclusion.Low levels of interpopulational gene flow within both species were believed to be among the leading causes for the above-mentioned phenomenon.The correlation analysis between genetic and geographical distances showed the existence of a remarkably significant correlation between the genetic distance and the longitudinal difference among populations of D.sinensis (p<0.01),while no significant correlation was found between genetic and geographical distances among populations of D.dyeriana.This indicated that genetic distance was correlated with geographical distances on a large scale rather than on a small scale.This result may be related to differences in the

  7. Characterization of the Anticoagulative Constituents of Angelicae Sinensis Radix and Their Metabolites in Rats by HPLC-DAD-ESI-IT-TOF-MSn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lu; Huang, Shuai; Chen, Bing; Zang, Xin-Yu; Su, Dan; Liang, Jing; Xu, Feng; Liu, Guang-Xue; Shang, Ming-Ying; Cai, Shao-Qing

    2016-03-01

    Angelicae Sinensis Radix is commonly used in traditional Chinese medicine. Pharmacological studies show that Angelicae Sinensis Radix has clear anticoagulant activity. Therefore, in this study, the anticoagulant activity of crude Angelicae Sinensis Radix extracts was investigated by measuring the thrombin times of the extracts. The results revealed that the petroleum ether-soluble fraction of Angelicae Sinensis Radix exhibited significant anticoagulant activity in vitro, and 26 compounds were characterized by high-performance liquid chromatography with diode array detection combined with electrospray ionization ion trap time-of-flight multistage mass spectrometry. In addition, 5 prototype constituents, 24 in vivo metabolites in rat urine and 7 prototype constituents, and 9 in vitro metabolites in the rat hepatic S9 incubation system of the petroleum ether-soluble fraction were tentatively identified. All metabolites were found from Angelicae Sinensis Radix for the first time. Among them, 13 (three ferulic acid-related constituents, six senkyunolide D-related constituents, and four senkyunolide F-related constituents) were identified as new metabolites (new compounds). This study is the first to qualitatively characterize the chemical constituents of the potent anticoagulative extract of Angelicae Sinensis Radix and to explore its metabolism. The result is a notable improvement in the discovery of Angelicae Sinensis Radix metabolites, and it provides the chemical basis for the effective forms and pharmacodynamic substances (prototypes, metabolites, or both) of the anticoagulant activity of Angelicae Sinensis Radix. PMID:26829520

  8. Bioactivity-Guided Fractionation and GC/MS Fingerprinting of Angelica sinensis and Angelica archangelica Root Components for Antifungal and Mosquito Deterrent Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angelica sinensis and A. archangelica belong to the Umbelliferae and both are used in traditional Chinese medicine to treat gynecological and intestinal disorders. In this study, oils from three different A. sinensis collections and one A. archangelica root were analyzed by GC and GC/MS. The domin...

  9. The intronic minisatellite OsMin1 within a serine protease gene in the Chinese caterpillar fungus Ophiocordyceps sinensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yong-Jie; Hou, Jun-Xiu; Zhang, Shu; Hausner, Georg; Liu, Xing-Zhong; Li, Wen-Jia

    2016-04-01

    Repetitive DNA sequences make up a significant portion of all genomes and may occur in intergenic, regulatory, coding, or even intronic regions. Partial sequences of a serine protease gene csp1 was previously used as a population genetic marker of the Chinese caterpillar fungus Ophiocordyceps sinensis, but its first intron region was excluded due to ambiguous alignment. Here in this study, we report the presence of a minisatellite OsMin1 within this intron, where a 20(19)-bp repeat motif is duplicated two to six times in different isolates. Fourteen intron alleles and 13 OsMin1 alleles were identified among 125 O. sinensis samples distributed broadly on the Tibetan Plateau. Two OsMin1 alleles were prevalent, corresponding to either two or five repeats of the core sequence motif. OsMin1 appears to be a single locus marker in the O. sinensis genome, but its origin is undetermined. Abundant recombination signals were detected between upstream and downstream flanking regions of OsMin1, suggesting that OsMin1 mutate by unequal crossing over. Geographic distribution, fungal phylogeny, and host insect phylogeny all significantly affected intron distribution patterns but with the greatest influence noted for fungal genotypes and the least for geography. As far as we know, OsMin1 is the first minisatellite found in O. sinensis and the second found in fungal introns. OsMin1 may be useful in designing an efficient protocol to discriminate authentic O. sinensis from counterfeits. PMID:26754819

  10. Differentiation of human adipose-derived stem cells into neuron-like cells by Radix Angelicae Sinensis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qiaozhi Wang; Lile Zhou; Yong Guo; Guangyi Liu; Jiyan Cheng; Hong Yu

    2013-01-01

    Human adipose tissues are an ideal source of stem cells. It is important to find inducers that can safely and effectively differentiate stem cells into functional neurons for clinical use. In this study, we investigate the use of Radix Angelicae Sinensis as an inducer of neuronal differentiation. Primary human adipose-derived stem cells were obtained from adult subcutaneous fatty tissue, then pre-induced with 10%Radix Angelicae Sinensis injection for 24 hours, and incubated in serum-free Dulbecco’s modified Eagle’s medium/Nutrient Mixture F-12 containing 40% Radix Angelicae Si-nensis to induce its differentiation into neuron-like cells. Butylated hydroxyanisole, a common in-ducer for neuronal differentiation, was used as the control. After human adipose-derived stem cells differentiated into neuron-like cells under the induction of Radix Angelicae Sinensis for 24 hours, the positive expression of neuron-specific enolase was lower than that of the butylated hydroxyani-sole-induced group, and the expression of glial fibril ary acidic protein was negative. After they were induced for 48 hours, the positive expression of neuron specific enolase in human adipose-derived stem cells was significantly higher than that of the butylated hydroxyanisole-induced group. Our experimental findings indicate that Radix Angelicae Sinensis can induce human adipose-derived stem celldifferentiation into neuron-like cells and produce less cytotoxicity.

  11. Effect of Cordyceps sinensis mycelium on serum vasoactive intestinal peptide and substance P in mice with intestinal dysbacteriosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai-zhong DONG

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective To observe the effect of Cordyceps sinensis mycelium on serum vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP and substance P (SP in mice with dysbacteriosis induced by antibiotics. Methods Forty-eight healthy SPF BALB/c mice were randomly divided into the normal control group (normal drink, the dysbacteriosis model group (induced by oral administration of 0.5 g/L ceftriaxone sodium, the natural recovery group (oral sterile water to replace antibiotic after reproduction of dysbacteriosis, and Cordyceps sinensis mycelium treatment group (treated by intragastric administration of Cordyceps sinensis mycelium. The feces were collected without contamination, and the change in intestinal bacterial number was observed with the plate dilution method. The volatile fatty acid was detected by chromatography. The serum VIP and SP contents were assayed with enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA. Results Compared with the normal control group, the numbers of probiotics, volatile fatty acids and serum VIP significantly decreased in the model group, while the serum SP markedly increased (P<0.01. Compared with the natural recovery group, the bacteria number, the quantities of volatile fatty acids and serum VIP significantly increased after the Cordyceps sinensis mycelium treatment, while the serum SP significantly decreased (P<0.01, P<0.05. Conclusion Cordyceps sinensis mycelium may effectively adjust the proportion of the probiotics in the mice with dysbacteriosis, and the mechanism is apparently related to alteration in the VIP and SP. DOI: 10.11855/j.issn.0577-7402.2014.11.06

  12. Authentication of Cordyceps sinensis by DNA Analyses: Comparison of ITS Sequence Analysis and RAPD-Derived Molecular Markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Kelly Y C; Chan, Gallant K L; Xin, Gui-Zhong; Xu, Hong; Ku, Chuen-Fai; Chen, Jian-Ping; Yao, Ping; Lin, Huang-Quan; Dong, Tina T X; Tsim, Karl W K

    2015-01-01

    Cordyceps sinensis is an endoparasitic fungus widely used as a tonic and medicinal food in the practice of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM). In historical usage, Cordyceps specifically is referring to the species of C. sinensis. However, a number of closely related species are named themselves as Cordyceps, and they are sold commonly as C. sinensis. The substitutes and adulterants of C. sinensis are often introduced either intentionally or accidentally in the herbal market, which seriously affects the therapeutic effects or even leads to life-threatening poisoning. Here, we aim to identify Cordyceps by DNA sequencing technology. Two different DNA-based approaches were compared. The internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequences and the random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD)-sequence characterized amplified region (SCAR) were developed here to authenticate different species of Cordyceps. Both approaches generally enabled discrimination of C. sinensis from others. The application of the two methods, supporting each other, increases the security of identification. For better reproducibility and faster analysis, the SCAR markers derived from the RAPD results provide a new method for quick authentication of Cordyceps. PMID:26694332

  13. Authentication of Cordyceps sinensis by DNA Analyses: Comparison of ITS Sequence Analysis and RAPD-Derived Molecular Markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelly Y. C. Lam

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Cordyceps sinensis is an endoparasitic fungus widely used as a tonic and medicinal food in the practice of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM. In historical usage, Cordyceps specifically is referring to the species of C. sinensis. However, a number of closely related species are named themselves as Cordyceps, and they are sold commonly as C. sinensis. The substitutes and adulterants of C. sinensis are often introduced either intentionally or accidentally in the herbal market, which seriously affects the therapeutic effects or even leads to life-threatening poisoning. Here, we aim to identify Cordyceps by DNA sequencing technology. Two different DNA-based approaches were compared. The internal transcribed spacer (ITS sequences and the random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD-sequence characterized amplified region (SCAR were developed here to authenticate different species of Cordyceps. Both approaches generally enabled discrimination of C. sinensis from others. The application of the two methods, supporting each other, increases the security of identification. For better reproducibility and faster analysis, the SCAR markers derived from the RAPD results provide a new method for quick authentication of Cordyceps.

  14. Clonorchis sinensis ova in bile juice cytology from a patient with severe hyperbilirubinemia and portal vein thrombosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujiya, Keiichi; Ganno, Hideaki; Ando, Masayuki; Chong, Ja-Mun

    2016-03-01

    Infection with the trematode Clonorchis sinensis is the most common human fluke infection in East Asian populations. Although this infection is associated with obstructive jaundice or choledocholithiasis, portal vein thrombosis has not been reported. Here, we report the first case of a 60-year-old man who had both C. sinensis infection and portal vein thrombosis with severe hyperbilirubinemia (75.4 mg/dl). He initially presented with abdominal pain and jaundice. Computed tomography revealed gallstones, common bile duct calculus, and thrombus in the left main branch of the portal vein. A nasobiliary tube was inserted under endoscopic retrograde cholangiography. Cytology of the bile juice revealed many C. sinensis eggs. The abdominal pain and jaundice improved following choledocholithotomy and combination treatment with a chemotherapeutic agent and anti-coagulant. This case suggests that inflammation around the portal vein as a result of C. sinensis infection has the potential to evoke portal vein thrombosis. Such cases should be treated with both a chemotherapeutic agent and anti-coagulant therapy. In conclusion, the possibility of infection with C. sinensis should be considered in patients presenting with hyperbilirubinemia and portal vein thrombosis, particularly in East Asian populations. PMID:26663478

  15. 世界橄榄油市场格局及其对我国油茶产业的潜在影响%World olive oil market situation and its potential influence on Camellia oleifera industry at home

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵松子

    2012-01-01

    The effects of production, consumption, international trade and price on the world olive oil market and current status of Camellia oleifera industry at home were introduced. It was predicted that the demand for high - grade edible oil would reach 800 - 1 460 thousand tons per year and to 2022 the production of oil - tea camellia seed oil would be 985 thousand tons in China. Olive oil and oil - tea camellia seed oil would compete in high - grade edible oil market. Olive oil was superior to oil - tea camellia seed oil in brand,quality and dietetic culture. Impacted by exchange rate,labor cost etc, the cost price of oil ?tea camellia seed oil would be much higher than that of olive oil in the future. Recommendations was that the government should enforce supports for Camellia oleifera industry.%从生产、消费、国际贸易、价格等方面介绍了世界橄榄油市场格局以及我国油茶产业现状.预计到2022年我国油茶籽油产量可达98.5万t,而高档食用油的潜在市场为80万~146万t/a.橄榄油将与油茶籽油竞争高档食用油市场,橄榄油在品牌、质量、饮食文化等方面优于油茶籽油,受汇率、劳动力价格等因素的影响,未来油茶籽油的成本价可能高于橄榄油,建议国家加大对油茶产业的支持力度.

  16. Genetic structure of Miscanthus sinensis and M. sacchariflorus in Japan indicates a gradient of bidirectional but asymmetric introgression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clark, Lindsay V; Stewart, J Ryan; Nishiwaki, Aya;

    2015-01-01

    Unilateral introgression from diploids to tetraploids has been hypothesized to be an important evolutionary mechanism in plants. However, few examples have been definitively identified, perhaps because data of sufficient depth and breadth were difficult to obtain before the advent of affordable h...... in northern China, selection for adaptation to a moderate maritime climate probably favoured cross-ploidy introgressants in southern Japan. These results will help guide the selection of Miscanthus accessions for the breeding of biomass cultivars....... high-density genotyping. Throughout Japan, tetraploid Miscanthus sacchariflorus and diploid Miscanthus sinensis are common, and occasionally hybridize. In this study, 667 M. sinensis and 78 M. sacchariflorus genotypes from Japan were characterized using 20 704 SNPs and ten plastid microsatellites....... Similarity of SNP genotypes between diploid and tetraploid M. sacchariflorus indicated that the tetraploids originated through autopolyploidy. Structure analysis indicated a gradient of introgression from diploid M. sinensis into tetraploid M. sacchariflorus throughout Japan; most tetraploids had some M...

  17. Development of an in Vitro System to Simulate the Adsorption of Self-Emulsifying Tea (Camellia oleifera Seed Oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Issara Sramala

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In this study, tea (Camellia oleifera seed oil was formulated into self-emulsifying oil formulations (SEOF to enhance the aqueous dispersibility and intestinal retention to achieve higher bioavailability. Self-emulsifying tea seed oils were developed by using different concentrations of lecithin in combination with surfactant blends (Span®80 and Tween®80. The lecithin/surfactant systems were able to provide clear and stable liquid formulations. The SEOF were investigated for physicochemical properties including appearance, emulsion droplets size, PDI and zeta potential. The chemical compositions of tea seed oil and SEOF were compared using GC-MS techniques. In addition, the oil adsorption measurement on artificial membranes was performed using a Franz cell apparatus and colorimetric analysis. The microscopic structure of membranes was observed with scanning electron microscopy (SEM. After aqueous dilution with fed-state simulated gastric fluid (FeSSGF, the droplet size of all SEOF was close to 200 nm with low PDI values and the zeta potential was negative. GC-MS chromatograms revealed that the chemical compositions of SEOF were not significantly different from that of the original tea seed oil. The morphological study showed that only the SEOF could form film layers. The oil droplets were extracted both from membrane treated with tea seed oil and the SEOF in order to evaluate the chemical compositions by GC-MS.

  18. Two new 28-nor-oleanane-type triterpene saponins from roots of Camellia oleifera and their cytotoxic activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zi-Yu; Wu, Jiang-Ping; Gao, Bin-Bin; Ren, Hai-Tao; Liu, Yan-Li; Li, Xiao-Ran; Li, Kun-Ping; Xu, Qiong-Ming; Yang, Shi-Lin

    2016-07-01

    Two new 28-nor-oleanane-type triterpene saponins, oleiferoside U (1), and oleiferoside V (2) were isolated from the 50% EtOH extract of the roots of Camellia oleifera C. Abel. Their structures were elucidated as camellenodiol 3β-O-β-d-galactopyranosyl-(1→2)-β-d-xylopyranosyl-(1→2)-[β-d-galactopyranosyl-(1→3)]-β-d-glucuronopyranoside and camellenodiol 3β-O-β-d-galactopyranosyl-(1→3)-β-d-xylopyranosyl-(1→2)-[β-d-galactopyranosyl-(1→3)]-β-d-glucuronopyranoside. Their chemical structures were established mainly on the basis of integrated spectroscopic techniques. In vitro, cytotoxic activities of the two new triterpene saponins were evaluated against three human tumor cell lines (A549, SMMC-7721, and MCF-7) using the MTT assay. Both of them showed a certain cytotoxic activities toward the tested cell lines and gave IC50 values in the range of 45.04-63.22 μM. PMID:26982333

  19. Anti-inflammatory and analgesic activities of the hydrolyzed sasanquasaponins from the defatted seeds of Camellia oleifera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Yong; Xing, Haiting; Chen, Xuelan

    2013-08-01

    The defatted seeds of Camellia oleifera (Abel.) are used for stopping itching and pain in old days, the effective compounds need to be investigated. Sasanquasaponin as a rich fraction was extracted with 70% ethanol, purified by AB-8 macro-reticular resin, crystallized in 80% ethanol, and further hydrolyzed by 4% hydroxyl potassium or 2 M hydrochloride. Anti-inflammatory activities of the extracts were measured by carrageenan-induced paw edema in rats and croton oil induced ear inflammation in mice; the analgesic activities were analyzed by hot plate test, acetic acid induced writhing in mice; the levels of pain mediators of IL-1β, TNF-α and PGE₂ were determined; the antioxidative activities in vivo were evaluated by MDA, SOD and GSH-Px in serum of rats. The extracts showed significant (p < 0.01) anti-inflammatory and analgesic activities, remarkably (p < 0.01) inhibited production of pro-inflammatory cytokines and PGE2, decreased MDA and increased SOD and GSH-Px in serum. Inhibition of IL-1β, TNF-α and PGE2 may contribute to their anti-inflammatory and analgesic effects; elimination of free radicals is also involved. The sapogenin and acid hydrolyzed product have better anti-inflammatory, analgesic effects, and stronger antioxidative activity than sasanquasaponin and alkaline hydrolyzed product, and they are better candidate medicines for inflammation and pain. PMID:23625174

  20. Phytochemicals from Camellia nitidissima Chi inhibited the formation of advanced glycation end-products by scavenging methylglyoxal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Weixin; Liu, Haiyan; Wang, Zhennan; Qi, Jing; Yuan, Shengtao; Zhang, Weijie; Chen, Hongjuan; Finley, John W; Gu, Liwei; Jia, Ai-Qun

    2016-08-15

    The objective of this study was to investigate the inhibitory effects of Camellia nitidissima Chi (CNC) on the advanced glycation end-product (AGE) formation. CNC was extracted with ethanol and further separated into dichloromethane, ethyl acetate, n-butanol, and water soluble fractions. Ethyl acetate fraction had the highest total phenolic and quercetin content compared with other fractions. Sixteen phenolic compounds were identified using HPLC Triple TOF MS/MS. Bovine serum albumin (BSA)-glucose assay showed that dichloromethane and ethyl acetate fraction inhibited AGE formation by 88.1% and 87.5% at 2.5mg/mL. BSA-methylglyoxal assay showed that ethyl acetate fraction inhibited 54.1% AGE formation while dichloromethane fraction inhibited 28.1%. Over 96.0% of methylglyoxal was scavenged by different fractions within 12h. Both mono- and di-methylglyoxal quercetin adducts were identified after incubating quercetin with methylglyoxal using HPLC-ESI-MS(n). The results in this study suggest that CNC extracts inhibited AGEs formation in part through scavenging methylglyoxal by phenolic compounds. PMID:27006232

  1. Transcriptome Analysis of an Anthracnose-Resistant Tea Plant Cultivar Reveals Genes Associated with Resistance to Colletotrichum camelliae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lu Wang

    Full Text Available Tea plant breeding is a topic of great economic importance. However, disease remains a major cause of yield and quality losses. In this study, an anthracnose-resistant cultivar, ZC108, was developed. An infection assay revealed different responses to Colletotrichum sp. infection between ZC108 and its parent cultivar LJ43. ZC108 had greater resistance than LJ43 to Colletotrichum camelliae. Additionally, ZC108 exhibited earlier sprouting in the spring, as well as different leaf shape and plant architecture. Microarray data revealed that the genes that are differentially expressed between LJ43 and ZC108 mapped to secondary metabolism-related pathways, including phenylpropanoid biosynthesis, phenylalanine metabolism, and flavonoid biosynthesis pathways. In addition, genes involved in plant hormone biosynthesis and signaling as well as plant-pathogen interaction pathways were also changed. Quantitative real-time PCR was used to examine the expression of 27 selected genes in infected and uninfected tea plant leaves. Genes encoding a MADS-box transcription factor, NBS-LRR disease-resistance protein, and phenylpropanoid metabolism pathway components (CAD, CCR, POD, beta-glucosidase, ALDH and PAL were among those differentially expressed in ZC108.

  2. Variation in physiological and chemical characteristics at developmental stage in different disease-resistant varieties of camellia oleifera

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Camellia oleifera Abel. is an important edible oil tree species from Southern China. Anthracnose, caused by Colletotrichum gloeosporioides (Penz.), is responsible for more than 50% of C. oleifera production loss, and C. oleifera varieties differ in their resistance to anthracnose. The aim of this study was to assess resistance mechanisms by monitoring physiological and biochemical parameters of differentially resistant cultivars during the development of C. oleifera. C. oleifera fruit coats were analyzed between May and September for tannins, anthocyanins, soluble sugar content, pH, buffer capacity, activity of three enzyme (Phenylalanine ammonia lyase; polyphenol oxidase; peroxidase) and free radical scavenging capacity. Anthocyanins, soluble contents and free radical scavenging capacity were related to anthracnose resistance, with anthocyanins and soluble sugar contents of the resistant varieties nearly twofold higher than those of susceptible varieties. The results of free radical scavenging capacity showed that extracts from highly resistant varieties of C. oleifera fruit coats performed more efficiently in the scavenging of free radicals than those from susceptible varieties. The three enzyme activities of highly resistant varieties rose rapidly and continuously, while those of medium resistant and highly susceptible varieties increased initially and then decreased. Tannins, pH and buffer capacity showed no significant differences between different cultivars. This study broadens the understanding of disease resistance mechanisms in C. oleifera. (author)

  3. Cocoa tea (Camellia ptilophylla) water extract inhibits adipocyte differentiation in mouse 3T3-L1 preadipocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Kai Kai; Liu, Chuek Lun; Shiu, Hoi Ting; Wong, Hing Lok; Siu, Wing Sum; Zhang, Cheng; Han, Xiao Qiang; Ye, Chuang Xing; Leung, Ping Chung; Ko, Chun Hay

    2016-01-01

    Cocoa tea (Camellia ptilophylla) is a naturally decaffeinated tea plant. Previously we found that cocoa tea demonstrated a beneficial effect against high-fat diet induced obesity, hepatic steatosis, and hyperlipidemia in mice. The present study aimed to investigate the anti-adipogenic effect of cocoa tea in vitro using preadipocytes 3T3-L1. Adipogenic differentiation was confirmed by Oil Red O stain, qPCR and Western blot. Our results demonstrated that cocoa tea significantly inhibited triglyceride accumulation in mature adipocytes in a dose-dependent manner. Cocoa tea was shown to suppress the expressions of key adipogenic transcription factors, including peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPAR γ) and CCAAT/enhancer binding protein (C/EBP α). The tea extract was subsequently found to reduce the expressions of adipocyte-specific genes such as sterol regulatory element binding transcription factor 1c (SREBP-1c), fatty acid synthase (FAS), Acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC), fatty acid translocase (FAT) and stearoylcoenzyme A desaturase-1 (SCD-1). In addition, JNK, ERK and p38 phosphorylation were inhibited during cocoa tea inhibition of 3T3-L1 adipogenic differentiation. Taken together, this is the first study that demonstrates cocoa tea has the capacity to suppress adipogenesis in pre-adipocyte 3T3-L1 similar to traditional green tea. PMID:26833256

  4. Effects of canopy gaps on the genetic structure of Camellia japonica saplings in a Japanese old-growth evergreen forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueno, S; Tomaru, N; Yoshimaru, H; Manabe, T; Yamamoto, S

    2006-04-01

    The genetic structure of Camellia japonica saplings was investigated in relation to canopy conditions in an old-growth evergreen forest in Tsushima, Japan. To elucidate effects of canopy gaps on genetic structure, a 1 ha study site was divided into 20 x 20 m quadrats, which were classified into a gap quadrats (GAP), closed canopy quadrats (CLS) and mixed quadrats. Five GAP quadrats and six CLS quadrats were analyzed separately. Isolation-by-distance was tested by examining the correlation between genetic distance and geographic distance. A significant positive correlation was detected for GAP quadrats, whilst that for CLS quadrats was significantly smaller and not significantly different from zero. On the other hand, an analysis using Moran's I spatial autocorrelation coefficients indicates that the genetic structure is weaker in GAP quadrats than in CLS quadrats in short distance classes. The values were significantly positive for both types of quadrat. These results, along with our field observations on flowering, suggest that canopy gaps affect the genetic structure of C. japonica saplings in two distinct ways. First, canopy gaps may promote flowering and mating in an isolation-by-distance manner within canopy gaps. Second, canopy gaps may promote seed production and resulting overlap in seed shadows may weaken fine-scale genetic structures. PMID:16570095

  5. Two New Oleanane-Type Saponins with Anti-Proliferative Activity from Camellia oleifera Abel. Seed Cake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian-Fa Zong

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Two new oleanane-type saponins, named oleiferasaponins C4 (1 and C5 (2, were isolated from Camellia oleifera Abel. seed cake residue. Their respective structures were identified as 16α-hydroxy-22α-O-angeloyl-23α-aldehyde-28-dihydroxymethylene-olean-12-ene-3β-O-[β-d-galacto-pyranosyl-(1→2]-[β-d-glucopyranosyl-(1→2-β-d-galactopyranosy-(1→3]-β-d-glucopyranosid-uronic acid methyl ester (1 and 16α-hydroxy-22α-O-angeloyl-23α-aldehyde-28-dihydroxy-methylene-olean-12-ene-3β-O-[β-d-galactopyranosyl-(1→2]-[β-d-galactopyranosyl-(1→3]-β-d-glucopyranosiduronic acid methyl ester (2 through 1D- and 2D-NMR, HR-ESI-MS, and GC-MS spectroscopic methods. The two compounds exhibited potent cytotoxic activities against five human tumor cell lines (BEL-7402, BGC-823, MCF-7, HL-60 and KB.

  6. Novel triterpenoid saponins from residual seed cake of Camellia oleifera Abel. show anti-proliferative activity against tumor cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zong, Jianfa; Wang, Ruilong; Bao, Guanhu; Ling, Tiejun; Zhang, Liang; Zhang, Xinfu; Hou, Ruyan

    2015-07-01

    Four oleanane-type triterpenoid saponins were isolated from the seed cake of Camellia oleifera Abel.: camelliasaponin B1 and three new saponins, oleiferasaponin C1-C3 (1-3). Their structures were identified as 22-O-angeloyl-camelliagenin B 3-O-[β-d-galactopyranosyl-(1→2)]-[β-d-galactopyranosyl-(1→2)-α-l-arabinopyranosyl-(1→3)]-β-d-glucopyranosiduronic acid methyl ester (1); 22-O-angeloyl-camelliagenin A 3-O-[β-d-galactopyranosyl-(1→2)]-[β-d-glucopyranosyl-(1→2)-β-d-galactopyranosyl-(1→3)]-β-d-glucopyranosiduronic acid methyl ester (2); and 28-O-cinnamoyl-camelliagenin B 3-O-[β-d-galactopyranosylz-(1→2)] [β-d-galactopyranosyl(1→2)-α-l-arabinopyranosyl-(1→3)]-β-d-glucopyranosiduronic acid methyl ester (3) through 1D and 2D NMR, HR-ESI-MS, as well as GC-MS spectroscopic methods. The anti-proliferative activities of these four compounds were investigated on five human tumor cell lines (BEL-7402, BGC-823, MCF-7, HL-60 and KB). Compounds 1 and 2 and camelliasaponin B1 showed significant cytotoxic activities. PMID:25958771

  7. Preparative separation of gallocatechin gallate from Camellia ptilophylla using macroporous resins followed by sephadex LH-20 column chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Kaikai; Zhou, Xuelin; Liu, Cheuk-Lun; Yang, Xiaorong; Han, Xiaoqiang; Shi, Xianggang; Song, Xiaohong; Ye, Chuangxing; Ko, Chun-hay

    2016-02-01

    Gallocatechin gallate (GCG) possesses multiple potential biological activities. However, the content of GCG in traditional green tea is too low which limits its in-depth pharmacological research and application. In the present study, a simple, efficient and environment-friendly chromatographic separation method was developed for preparative enrichment and separation of GCG from cocoa tea (Camellia ptilophylla) which contains high content of GCG. In the first step, the adsorption properties of selected resins were evaluated, and XAD-7HP resin was chosen by its adsorption and desorption properties for GCG. In order to maximize column efficiency for GCG collection, the operating parameters (e.g., flow rate, ethanol concentration, and bed height) were optimized. We found that the best combination was the feed concentration at 20mg/mL, flow rate at 0.75 BV/h and the ratio of diameter to bed heights as 1:12. Under these conditions, the purity of GCG was 45% with a recovery of 89%. In order to obtain pure target, a second step was established using column chromatography with sephadex LH-20 gel and 55% ethanol-water solution as eluent. After this step, the purity of the GCG was 91% with a recovery of 68% finally. PMID:26744789

  8. Discussion on the optimal dose of angelica sinensis sini decoctioncombined with mifepristone treatment to patients after endometriosis operation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hong-Qin Liu

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Discussion on the optimal dose of angelica sinensis sini decoction combined with mifepristone treatment to patients after endometriosis operation. Method: Randomly divided 110 cases of patients who have done the endometriosis (EMS) operation into 5 groups, made sure each group were 22 cases respectively: KB group (blank group), D1 group (merely 5mg mifepristone), D2 group (merely angelica sinensis sini decoction), G1 group (5mg mifepristone+angelica sinensis sini decoction), G2 group (10mg mifepristone+angelica sinensis sini decoction), compared the serum sex hormone, CA125 levels changes, clinical remission and recurrence rate, adverse reactions etc. before and after treatment of each group. Results: The complete remission rate in G1 and G2 group was obviously higher than that in D1 and D2 group(P0.05), CA125 levels in G1 and G2 group were higher than that in D1 and D2 group (P0.05); P, E2 levels in G1 and G2 group were obviously lower than that in D1 and D2 group (P0.05). Conclusion: Adopting low dose (5mg) mifepristone combined angelica sinensis sini decoction to treat patients who have done endometriosis operation, it was found that the serum sex hormone,CA125 levels were obviously lower, clinical remission and recurrence rate, adverse reactions became lower, compared with high dose (10mg) mifepristone combined angelica sinensis sini decoction, clinical treatable effects had no difference, but the former was more cheaper, and comprehensive application value was higher.

  9. Rhodiola crenulata- and Cordyceps sinensis-Based Supplement Boosts Aerobic Exercise Performance after Short-Term High Altitude Training

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Chung-Yu; Hou, Chien-Wen; Bernard, Jeffrey R.; Chen, Chiu-Chou; Hung, Ta-Cheng; Cheng, Lu-Ling; Liao, Yi-Hung; Kuo, Chia-Hua

    2014-01-01

    Chen, Chung-Yu, Chien-Wen Hou, Jeffrey R. Bernard, Chiu-Chou Chen, Ta-Cheng Hung, Lu-Ling Cheng, Yi-Hung Liao, and Chia-Hua Kuo. Rhodiola crenulata- and Cordyceps sinensis-based supplement boosts aerobic exercise performance after short-term high altitude training. High Alt Med Biol 15:371–379, 2014.—High altitude training is a widely used strategy for improving aerobic exercise performance. Both Rhodiola crenulata (R) and Cordyceps sinensis (C) supplements have been reported to improve exerc...

  10. Cordyceps sinensis protects against liver and heart injuries in a rat model of chronic kidney disease: a metabolomic analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Xia; Zhong, Fang; Tang, Xu-long; Lian, Fu-lin; Zhou, Qiao; Guo, Shan-mai; Liu, Jia-Fu; Sun, Peng; Hao, Xu; Lu, Ying; Wang, Wei-Ming; Chen, Nan; Zhang, Nai-xia

    2014-01-01

    Aim: To test the hypothesis that the traditional Chinese medicine Cordyceps sinensis could improve the metabolic function of extrarenal organs to achieve its anti-chronic kidney disease (CKD) effects. Methods: Male SD rats were divided into CKD rats (with 5/6-nephrectomy), CKD rats treated with Cordyceps sinensis (4 mg•kg-1•d-1, po), and sham-operated rats. After an 8-week treatment, metabolites were extracted from the hearts and livers of the rats, and then subjected to 1H-NMR-based metabolo...

  11. Fast Simultaneous Determination of 13 Nucleosides and Nucleobases in Cordyceps sinensis by UHPLC–ESI–MS/MS

    OpenAIRE

    Shi-Yu Zong; Han Han; Bing Wang; Ning Li; Tina Ting-Xia Dong; Tong Zhang; TSIM, KARL W. K.

    2015-01-01

    A reliable ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography–electrospray ionization–tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC–ESI–MS/MS) method for the fast simultaneous determination of 13 nucleosides and nucleobases in Cordyceps sinensis (C. sinensis) with 2-chloroadenosine as internal standard was developed and validated. Samples were ultrasonically extracted in an ice bath thrice, and the optimum analyte separation was performed on an ACQUITY UPLCTM HSS C18 column (100 mm × 2.1 mm, 1.8 μm) with gradie...

  12. Sarcocystis sinensis is the most prevalent thick-walled Sarcocystis species in beef on sale for consumers in Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moré, G; Pantchev, A; Skuballa, J; Langenmayer, M C; Maksimov, P; Conraths, F J; Venturini, M C; Schares, G

    2014-06-01

    Bovines are intermediate hosts of Sarcocystis cruzi, Sarcocystis hirsuta, and Sarcocystis hominis, which use canids, felids, or primates as definitive hosts, respectively. Cattle represent also intermediate hosts of Sarcocystis sinensis, but the definitive hosts of this parasite are not yet known. Sarcocystosis in cattle is frequently asymptomatic. The infection is characterized by the presence of thin-walled (S. cruzi) or thick-walled muscle cysts or sarcocysts (S. hominis, S. sinensis, and S. hirsuta). Recent reports suggest high prevalence of the zoonotic S. hominis in beef in Europe. We therefore aimed at differentiating Sarcocystis spp. in beef offered to consumers in Germany using molecular and microscopical methods, focusing on those species producing thick-walled sarcocysts. A total of 257 beef samples were obtained from different butcheries and supermarkets in Germany and processed by conventional and multiplex real-time PCR. In addition, 130 of these samples were processed by light microscopy and in 24.6% thick-walled cysts were detected. Transmission electron microscopical analysis of six of these samples revealed an ultrastructural cyst wall pattern compatible with S. sinensis in five samples and with S. hominis in one sample. PCR-amplified 18S ribosomal DNA (rDNA) fragments of 28 individual thick-walled cysts were sequenced, and sequence identities of ≥98% with S. sinensis (n = 22), S. hominis (n = 5) and S. hirsuta (n = 1) were observed. Moreover, nine Sarcocystis sp. 18S rDNA full length gene sequences were obtained, five of S. sinensis, three of S. hominis, and one of S. hirsuta. Out of all samples (n = 257), 174 (67.7%) tested positive by conventional PCR and 179 (69.6%) by multiplex real-time PCR for Sarcocystis spp. Regarding individual species, 134 (52%), 95 (37%), 17 (6.6%), and 16 (6.2%) were positive for S. cruzi, S. sinensis, S. hirsuta, and S. hominis, respectively. In conclusion, S. sinensis is the most prevalent thick

  13. Phylogenetic tree-informed microRNAome analysis uncovers conserved and lineage-specific miRNAs in Camellia during floral organ development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Hengfu; Fan, Zhengqi; Li, Xinlei; Wang, Jiangying; Liu, Weixin; Wu, Bin; Ying, Zhen; Liu, Liping; Liu, Zhongchi; Li, Jiyuan

    2016-04-01

    In plants, miRNAs are endogenous small RNAs derived from single-stranded precursors with hairpin structures. The evolution of miRNAs and their targets represents one of the most dynamic circuits directing gene expression, which may play fundamental roles in shaping the development of distinct plant organs. Here we performed high-throughput small RNA sequencing in five organ types of Camellia azalea to capture the spatial profile of small non-coding RNA. In total we obtained >227 million high-quality reads and identified 175 miRNAs with mature and precursor sequences. We aligned the miRNAs to known miRNA databases and revealed some conserved as well as 'newly evolved' miRNA genes. Twelve miRNAs were identified to be specific in the genus Camellia, supporting the lineage-specific manner of expansion of 'young' miRNAs. Through differential expression analysis, we showed that many miRNAs were preferentially abundant in certain organ types. Moreover, hierarchical clustering analysis revealed distinctive expression patterns of tissue-specific miRNAs. Gene Ontology enrichment analysis of targets of stamen- and carpel-specific miRNA subclusters showed that miRNA-target regulatory circuits were involved in many important biological processes, enabling their proper specification and organogenesis, such as 'DNA integration' and 'fruit development'. Further, quantitative PCR of key miRNAs and their target genes revealed anti-correlated patterns, and uncovered the functions of key miRNA-target pairs in different floral organs. Taken together, this work yielded valuable information on miRNA-target regulation in the control of floral organ development and sheds light on the evolution of lineage-specific miRNAs in Camellia. PMID:26951373

  14. Effect of Microwave Heating on Quality of Camellia Oil%微波加热对茶油品质的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴雪辉; 黄安诚; 周淑婷; 陈祖华; 李丽

    2009-01-01

    探讨了不同微波功率和作用时间下,茶油品质指标的变化规律,结果表明,茶油过氧化值和色值受微波作用条件影响较大,过氧化值在一定的微波功率下,随作用时间的延长而逐渐增加,达到最大值后,开始下降,微波功率越大,达到最大值所需的时间越短;茶油色值随功率增大,增加越快,颜色越深.酸值、碘值和皂化价受微波功率和作用时间影响较小,微波作用下,茶油酸值稍有升高,碘值略有下降,但与功率和作用时间之间没有量效关系.%The change law of quality of camellia oil with different microwave power and acting time was discussed.Results: Microwave affects the peroxide value and color value of camellia oil. The peroxide value gradually increases with prolongation of microwave time at a constant microwave power, and decreases after reaching a peak value; the time to reach the peak value is shortened with increase of microwave power. The color value of camellia oil increases more quickly and the color becomes darker with increase of microwave power. The microwave power and acting time have less effect on oil acid value, saponification value and iodine value. The acid value increases slightly and the iodine value decreases a little with microwave action, but there is no dose - effect relationship with the microwave power and time.

  15. Anti-inflammatory effects of Citrus sinensis L., Citrus paradisi L. and their combinations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Rafeeq Alam; Mallick, Neelam; Feroz, Zeeshan

    2016-05-01

    Citrus bioflavonoids embrace a wide group of phenolic compounds effecting the production and scavenging of reactive oxygen species and the processes relating free radical-mediated injury. Keeping in view of the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties of Citrus sinensis and Citrus paradisi, present study was undertaken to explore the effects of C. sinensis (orange juice) and C. paradisi (grapefruit juice) at three different doses alone and their two combinations with the objective to examine the effects of these compounds in an experimental model of rat colitis induced by trinitrobenzenesulphonic acid (TNBS). Hence biochemical parameters e.g. myeloperoxidase, alkaline phosphatase, C-reactive protein (CRP) and glutathione were assessed. Data entry and analysis was accomplished by Statistical Package for the Social Sciences version 17 and was presented as mean ± S.E.M with 95% confidence interval. Present result shows that these juices, mainly C. paradisi, may be efficacious for the management of inflammatory bowel disease. In acute colitis model, C. paradise encouraged a decrease in the extension of the lesion escorted by a decrease in the occurrence of diarrhea and reinstatement of the glutathione content. Related effects were produced by the administration of C. sinensis, which also prevented the myeloperoxidase and alkaline phosphatase actions in acute intestinal inflammatory process. The effect of the citrus juices on the inflammatory process may be associated to their antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties, as revealed in present investigation. The favorable effects exerted were demonstrated both by histological and biochemical changes and were related with a progress in the colonic oxidative status. PMID:27166529

  16. Comparative effect of Citrus sinensis and carbimazole on serum T 4 , T 3 and TSH levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Okon Uduak Uduak

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: There are previous independent reports on the anti-thyroid property of Citrus sinensis. This isoflavones and phenolic acid-rich natural agent is widely consumed as dietary supplement, thus the need to investigate its comparative effect with a standard anti-thyroid drug on T 4 , T 3 and thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH levels. Objective: To compare the effect of Citrus sinensis and carbimazole (CARB on blood levels of thyroid hormones (T 4 and T 3 and TSH. Materials and Methods: Male wistar albino rats weighing 100-150 g were employed in this research. The rats were randomly assigned to four groups of seven rats per group. Group I served as control and were administered distilled water while groups II-IV were administered with 1500 mg/kg of Citrus sinensis (fresh orange juice; FOJ, 0.1 μg/g of levothyroxine (LVT and 0.01 mg/g of CARB, respectively, per oral once daily for 28 days. The animals were sacrificed under chloroform anaesthesia and blood sample collected by cardiac puncture and processed by standard method to obtain serum. TSH, T 4 and T 3 were assayed with the serum using ARIA II automated radioimmunoassay instrument. Results: The results showed that TSH level was significantly (P < 0.05 decreased in LVT treated group compared with the FOJ group. T 4 was significantly (P < 0.05 decreased in the FOJ and CARB groups compared with the control and LVT groups. LVT significantly increased T 4 when compared with FOJ group. T 3 was significantly (P < 0.05 decreased in the CARB group compared with the control. Conclusion: These findings suggest that FOJ alters thyroid hormones metabolism to reduce their serum levels with a compensatory elevations of TSH level in a direction similar to CARB.

  17. Full-length cDNA cloning and structural characterization of preproinsulin in Alligator sinensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, R; Zhang, S Z; Li, E; Wang, C; Wang, C L; Wu, X B

    2014-01-01

    Insulin is an important endocrine hormone that plays a critical physiological role in regulating metabolism and glucostasis in vertebrates. In this study, the complete cDNA of Alligator sinensis preproinsulin gene was cloned for the first time by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and rapid amplification of cDNA ends methods; the amino acid sequence encoded and protein structure were analyzed. The full-length of preproinsulin cDNA sequence consists of 528 base pairs (bp), comprising a 34-bp 5'-untranslated region, a 170-bp 3'-untranslated region and an open reading frame that is 324 bp in length. The open reading frame encodes a 107-amino acid preproinsulin with a molecular weight of approximately 12,153.8 Da, theoretical isoelectric point of 5.68, aliphatic index of 92.06, and grand average of hydropathicity of -0.157, from which a signal peptide, a B-chain, a C-peptide, and an A-chain are derived. Online analysis suggested that the deduced preproinsulin amino acid sequence contains a transmembrane region, and that it has a signal peptide whose cleavage site occurs between alanine 24 and alanine 25. Comparative analysis of preproinsulin amino acid sequences indicated that the A-chain and B-chain sequences of preproinsulins are highly conserved between reptiles and birds, and that the preproinsulin amino acid sequence of Alligator sinensis shares 89% similarity to that of Chelonia mydas, but low similarity of 48-63% to those of mammals and fishes. The phylogenetic tree constructed using the neighbor-joining method revealed that preproinsulin of Alligator sinensis had high homology with reptiles and birds, such as Chelonia mydas, Gallus gallus, and Columba livia. PMID:25366775

  18. Characteristics of camellia shell pyrolysis products and optimization of preparation parameters of activated carbon%油茶壳热解产物特性及热解炭制备活性炭工艺优化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    顾洁; 周建斌; 马欢欢; 马孟; 邢美腾

    2015-01-01

    为了探究热解终温对油茶壳热解产物特性的影响,实现油茶壳热解多联产产物的有效利用,该文研究了油茶壳300~700℃热解过程中气、液、固的得率,特性和能量分布规律,讨论了油茶壳热解炭制备活性炭的工艺条件。研究表明,随着热解终温的升高,生物质炭得率下降,不可凝气体得率上升,生物质油得率则呈现先上升后下降的变化趋势。生物质炭的能量产率高达47.21%~81.59%,是油茶壳热解的主要产物,随着热解终温的升高,其固定碳含量增大,比表面积先增加后减小,在600℃达到最高值278 m2/g。油茶壳活性炭制备的最佳工艺条件活化温度850℃,活化时间1.5 h,水蒸气用量与炭的比2.0,此条件下的活性炭得率为37.47%,碘吸附值为825 mg/g,BET比表面积为736 m2/g。该研究为油茶壳热解多联产工艺及产物的综合有效利用提供参考依据。%Biomass is a clean, abundant and renewable energy source with many ecological advantages. Camellia, as one of the most important economic forest resources in China, is a potential biomass source for energy demand. Camellia shell is the primary residue left over from camellia oil production. Currently, the majority of camellia shells haven't been converted into high-quality bio-fuels efficiently. To utilize the camellia shell waste, pyrolysis for poly-generation is a promising technology which converts biomass resource to solid char, liquid oil and biogas. This paper focused on the product yields, characteristics and energy distribution during camellia shell pyrolysis at the temperature ranging from 300 to 700℃, and the reaction of activated carbon prepared from camellia shell pyrolysis used water vapor activation, so as to explore the effects of temperature on the characteristics of camellia shell pyrolysis product, and achieve the comprehensive utilization of products derived from camellia shell pyrolysis

  19. Effects of Chinese Herbmedicines as Feed Additives on Resistance of Trionyx sinensis to Diseases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    In the comparision between two experimental turtle ( Trionyx sinensis) groups fed on the feed containing 1% or 2 % Chinese medicinal herb powder and the contrast group to which no Chinese herb was fed, no obvious difference of γ- globulin level in the turtles' serum was found, but the survival rate of the experimental groups was obviously higher than that of the contrast group, and cell im munity of the experimental groups was significantly higher when tested by subcutaneous injection of PHA. Meanwhile, the Chinese herb promoted the growth of the turtles.

  20. Effects of Fermented Mushroom of Cordyceps sinensis, Rich in Selenium, on Uterine Cervix Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Jing Ji; Juan Liu; Haijuan Liu; Yueling Wang

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of fermented mushroom of Cordyceps sinensis (CS), rich in selenium (Se-CS), on uterine cervical cancer in mice. The methylcholanthrene- (MCA-) induced tumor model was used in this paper. After the mice were administered Se-CS, the animals showed 40% tumor incidence (P < 0.05). Se-CS also enhanced the immune functions. Se-CS treatment showed significant (P < 0.05–0.01) restoration in the level of glutathione content, lipid peroxidation, g...