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Sample records for camelids new world

  1. Pathology of Haemonchus contortus in New World camelids in the southeastern United States: a retrospective review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Erin E; Garner, Bridget C; Williamson, Lisa H; Storey, Bob E; Sakamoto, Kaori

    2016-03-01

    Most small ruminant farms in tropical climates are plagued by Haemonchus contortus, a hematophagous, abomasal parasite. Heavy burdens of this parasite can cause anemia, hypoproteinemia, weight loss, and mortality in susceptible animals. Haemonchus contortus is becoming a major health concern in New World camelids as well, namely llamas (Llama glama) and alpacas (Vicugna pacos), yet little research has been conducted regarding its prevalence or pathology in these species. Herein, we present a retrospective review of llamas and alpacas that were admitted to The University of Georgia Veterinary Teaching Hospital and Athens Diagnostic Laboratory between the years 2002 and 2013. Antemortem fecal egg count (FEC) estimates performed on 30 alpacas were negatively correlated with hematocrit, hemoglobin, and red blood cell count. Total protein was not significantly correlated with FEC. On postmortem examination, 55 of 198 camelids, including 2 from the aforementioned antemortem review, were infected with H. contortus, with llamas (42.6%) having a significantly higher infection rate than alpacas (22.2%). In 15.7% of the total cases, the parasite was the major cause of death. Common gross lesions included peritoneal, thoracic, and pericardial effusions, visceral pallor, subcutaneous edema, and serous atrophy of fat. Histologic lesions included centrilobular hepatic necrosis, hepatic atrophy, lymphoplasmacytic inflammation of the mucosa of the third gastric compartment (C3), extramedullary hematopoiesis in both the liver and spleen, and the presence of nematodes in C3. Our study emphasizes the importance of H. contortus diagnosis and herd monitoring in New World camelids, particularly llamas.

  2. Antibody responses in New World camelids with tuberculosis caused by Mycobacterium microti.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyashchenko, K P; Greenwald, R; Esfandiari, J; Meylan, M; Burri, I Hengrave; Zanolari, P

    2007-12-15

    Antibody responses in New World camelids (NWC) infected with Mycobacterium microti were studied by two serological methods, multiantigen print immunoassay (MAPIA) and lateral-flow-based rapid test (RT). Serum samples were collected during 2004-2006 from 87 animals including 1 alpaca and 7 llamas with confirmed or suspected M. microti infection, 33 potentially exposed but clinically healthy animals from known infected herds, and 46 control NWC from herds where infection had not been previously diagnosed. The serological assays correctly identified infection status in 97% (MAPIA) or 87% (RT) cases. In three llamas with confirmed M. microti infection and one llama with gross pathology suggestive of disease, for which multiple serum samples collected over time were available, the antibody-based tests showed positive results 1-2 years prior to the onset of clinical signs or being found dead. In MAPIA, MPB83 protein was identified to be an immunodominant serological target antigen recognized in NWC infected with M. microti. With the limited number of animals tested in this study, the serological assays demonstrated the potential for convenient, rapid, and accurate diagnosis of M. microti infection in live llamas and alpacas.

  3. Surgical repair of femoral fractures in New World camelids: five cases (1996-2003).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoemaker, R W; Wilson, D G

    2007-04-01

    Five New World camelids were admitted to the Western College of Veterinary Medicine between 1996 and 2003 for evaluation of femoral fractures. There were three alpacas and two llamas. Four of the animals were female and three were less than 3 months of age. Fracture configurations consisted of distal physeal fractures (three), a comminuted diaphyseal/metaphyseal fracture, and a transverse diaphyseal fracture. Fractures were diagnosed with a combination of physical examination and radiographs in all cases. All five fractures were repaired with internal fixation and three animals were discharged from the hospital with fractures that healed. One cria underwent successful internal fixation but died from pulmonary oedema during recovery from anaesthesia. Postoperative complications were rare and limited to inadequate fracture stability in one alpaca and prolonged recovery to weight bearing in another. One llama with a comminuted metaphyseal fracture, repaired with a 4.5 mm dynamic compression plate, subsequently had catastrophic failure of the bone 17 days after surgery. Overall the clients were pleased with the outcome of discharged animals. Although femoral fractures are considered rare, they pose a unique opportunity for the large animal veterinarian to successfully achieve fracture union with the aid of internal fixation.

  4. The history of Old World camelids in the light of molecular genetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burger, Pamela Anna

    2016-06-01

    Old World camels have come into the focus as sustainable livestock species, unique in their morphological and physiological characteristics and capable of providing vital products even under extreme environmental conditions. The evolutionary history of dromedary and Bactrian camels traces back to the middle Eocene (around 40 million years ago, mya), when the ancestors of Camelus emerged on the North American continent. While the genetic status of the two domestic species has long been established, the wild two-humped camel has only recently been recognized as a separate species, Camelus ferus, based on molecular genetic data. The demographic history established from genome drafts of Old World camels shows the independent development of the three species over the last 100,000 years with severe bottlenecks occurring during the last glacial period and in the recent past. Ongoing studies involve the immune system, relevant production traits, and the global population structure and domestication of Old World camels. Based on the now available whole genome drafts, specific metabolic pathways have been described shedding new light on the camels' ability to adapt to desert environments. These new data will also be at the origin for genome-wide association studies to link economically relevant phenotypes to genotypes and to conserve the diverse genetic resources in Old World camelids.

  5. Camelid cardiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margiocco, Marco L; Scansen, Brian A; Bonagura, John D

    2009-07-01

    Cardiovascular disorders, although not thoroughly described in the literature, are frequently diagnosed in South American camelids, causing morbidity, mortality, and loss of production. Definitive confirmation concerning the heritability of cardiac defects in these species is lacking; however, this potential exists and should be taken into account when counseling breeders and owners. This article describes the diagnosis and treatment of cardiovascular diseases in llamas and alpacas and reviews the most recent literature. Unique aspects of the cardiovascular physiology in these species are also reviewed.

  6. Proteomics of old world camelid (Camelus dromedarius: Better understanding the interplay between homeostasis and desert environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamad Warda

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Life is the interplay between structural–functional integrity of biological systems and the influence of the external environment. To understand this interplay, it is useful to examine an animal model that competes with harsh environment. The dromedary camel is the best model that thrives under severe environment with considerable durability. The current proteomic study on dromedary organs explains a number of cellular mysteries providing functional correlates to arid living. Proteome profiling of camel organs suggests a marked increased expression of various cytoskeleton proteins that promote intracellular trafficking and communication. The comparative overexpression of α-actinin of dromedary heart when compared with rat heart suggests an adaptive peculiarity to sustain hemoconcentration–hemodilution episodes associated with alternative drought-rehydration periods. Moreover, increased expression of the small heat shock protein, α B-crystallin facilitates protein folding and cellular regenerative capacity in dromedary heart. The observed unbalanced expression of different energy related dependent mitochondrial enzymes suggests the possibility of mitochondrial uncoupling in the heart in this species. The evidence of increased expression of H+-ATPase subunit in camel brain guarantees a rapidly usable energy supply. Interestingly, the guanidinoacetate methyltransferase in camel liver has a renovation effect on high energy phosphate with possible concomitant intercession of ion homeostasis. Surprisingly, both hump fat tissue and kidney proteomes share the altered physical distribution of proteins that favor cellular acidosis. Furthermore, the study suggests a vibrant nature for adipose tissue of camel hump by the up-regulation of vimentin in adipocytes, augmenting lipoprotein translocation, blood glucose trapping, and challenging external physical extra-stress. The results obtained provide new evidence of homeostasis in the arid habitat

  7. Identification and isolation of stimulator of interferon genes (STING): an innate immune sensory and adaptor gene from camelids.

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    Premraj, A; Aleyas, A G; Nautiyal, B; Rasool, T J

    2013-10-01

    The mechanism by which type I interferon-mediated antiviral response is mounted by hosts against invading pathogen is an intriguing one. Of late, an endoplasmic reticulum transmembrane protein encoded by a gene called stimulator of interferon genes (STING) is implicated in the innate signalling pathways and has been identified and cloned in few mammalian species including human, mouse and pig. In this article, we report the identification of STING from three different species of a highly conserved family of mammals - the camelids. cDNAs encoding the STING of Old World camels - dromedary camel (Camelus dromedarius) and bactrian camel (Camelus bactrianus) and a New World camel - llama (Llama glama) were amplified using conserved primers and RACE. The complete STING cDNA of dromedary camel is 2171 bp long with a 706-bp 5' untranslated regions (UTR), an 1137-bp open reading frame (ORF) and a 328-bp 3' UTR. Sequence and phylogenetic analysis of the ORF of STING from these three camelids indicate high level of similarity among camelids and conservation of critical amino acid residues across different species. Quantitative real-time PCR analysis revealed high levels of STING mRNA expression in blood, spleen, lymph node and lung. The identification of camelid STING will help in better understanding of the role of this molecule in the innate immunity of the camelids and other mammals.

  8. Diagnosis of tuberculosis in camelids: old problems, current solutions and future challenges.

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    Alvarez, J; Bezos, J; Juan, L de; Vordermeier, M; Rodriguez, S; Fernandez-de-Mera, I G; Mateos, A; Domínguez, L

    2012-02-01

    In spite of great efforts for its control and eradication, tuberculosis remains one of the most important zoonosis worldwide. Its causative agents, the members of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex, have a wide host range that complicates the epidemiology of this disease. Among susceptible species to these pathogens, camelids from the New World (llama, alpaca and vicuña) and Old World (Bactrian camel and dromedary) are acquiring an increasing importance in several European countries because of its growing number and could act as reservoirs of the disease for livestock and humans in their natural habitat. In addition, tuberculosis caused by a number of M. tuberculosis complex members is a life-threatening disease in these animal species. Although tuberculosis has been known to affect camelids for a long time, ante-mortem diagnosis is still challenging because of the lack of standardized diagnostic techniques and the limited sensitivity and specificity of the most widely applied tests. However, in recent years, several techniques that can at least partially overcome these limitations have been developed. This paper reviews the results and advances achieved in tuberculosis diagnosis in camelids in the last decade as well as the progresses on ongoing investigations, with special attention to the remaining challenges that still have to be faced to assure the availability of reliable tools for the detection of tuberculosis-infected animals and herds.

  9. The new world disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Checa, Nicolas; Maguire, John; Barney, Jonathan

    2003-08-01

    On January 1, 1995, representatives from 76 countries signed the World Trade Organization charter, which for years had been part of a temporary trade agreement. The WTO's emergence as a fully empowered supranational body seemed to reflect the triumph of what the first President Bush had described as the "new world order." That order was based on two assumptions: that a healthy economy and a sound financial system make for political stability, and that countries in business together do not fight each other. The number one priority of U.S. foreign policy was thus to encourage the former Communist countries of Europe and the developing nations in Latin America, Asia, and Africa to adopt business-friendly policies. Private capital would flow from the developed world into these countries, creating economic growth. It sounded too good to be true, and so it proved. The new world order of Bush père and his successor, Bill Clinton, has been replaced by the new world disorder of Bush fils. Under the second Bush's administration, the economic and political rationale-behind the Washington consensus of the 1990s has unraveled, forcing a radical change in our perceptions of which countries are safe for business. Negotiating this new environment will require companies to more rigorously evaluate political events and more carefully assess the links between political, economic, and financial risk factors. They'll need to be more selective about which markets to enter, and they'll need to think differently about how to position themselves in those markets. The geopolitical events of the past year, the Bush administration's global war on terror, as well as ongoing convulsions in traditional political and economic relationships must be understood and managed by corporate leaders worldwide. With careful analysis, business leaders can increase their companies' visibility and better respond to the uncertainties of the new world disorder.

  10. New Wonders of the World

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    New Seven Wonders of the World is a contemporary attempt to create analternative to historical lists of the Seven Wonders of the World.The result of a worldwide popularity poll was organized by the private,non-profit New Open World Corporation(NOWC).Its final list was announced on

  11. New Worlds Airship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harness, Anthony; Cash, Webster; Shipley, Ann; Glassman, Tiffany; Warwick, Steve

    2013-09-01

    We review the progress on the New Worlds Airship project, which has the eventual goal of suborbitally mapping the Alpha Centauri planetary system into the Habitable Zone. This project consists of a telescope viewing a star that is occulted by a starshade suspended from an airship. The starshade suppresses the starlight such that fainter planetary objects near the star are revealed. A visual sensor is used to determine the position of the starshade and keep the telescope within the starshade's shadow. In the first attempt to demonstrate starshades through astronomical observations, we have built a precision line of sight position indicator and flew it on a Zeppelin in October (2012). Since the airship provider went out of business we have been redesigning the project to use Vertical Takeoff Vertical Landing rockets instead. These Suborbital Reusable Launch Vehicles will serve as a starshade platform and test bed for further development of the visual sensor. We have completed ground tests of starshades on dry lakebeds and have shown excellent contrast. We are now attempting to use starshades on hilltops to occult stars and perform high contrast imaging of outer planetary systems such as the debris disk around Fomalhaut.

  12. Our Brave New World Today

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    Stivers, Richard

    2010-01-01

    Aldous Huxley is perhaps the only author to have written a work of science fiction and a work of nonfiction to ascertain whether fiction had become reality. Both "Brave New World" and "Brave New World Revisited" are discussed and compared with Jacques Ellul's work on technology.

  13. A Brave New World?

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    Botstein, Leon

    2001-01-01

    Do the "new economy" and "information age" really exist? Effects of the railroad and telephone fell far short of those predicted. The psychology of human behavior may not have changed much. One must maintain a healthy skepticism about predictions concerning any new technology's influence and long-range significance. (MLH)

  14. Brave new world?

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    Motulsky, A G

    1974-08-01

    Recent developments in biology and medicine are raising new problems in the prevention and treatment of birth defects, and in research on these diseases. The problems include immediate issues such as genetic counseling, abortion for birth defects, the withholding of complex treatments from individuals in some situations, screening for genetic and other diseases, artificial insemination, and fertilization in vitro. Other problems, such as the dysgenic effects of modern medicine and the possibilities of cloning and gene therapy, are more remote. Each of these issues should be considered on its own merits and by its immediate and remote consequences rather than by a priori absolute criteria. Ways must be found to deal with these issues in a manner acceptable to most human beings. Open discussions and freedom from coercion are the best guarantees for ultimate success. The ethical human brain is the highest accomplishment of biologic evolution. By harmonizing our scientific, cultural, and ethical capabilities, the potentially achievable results can place us at the threshold of a new era of better health and less human suffering.

  15. Development and application of camelid molecular cytogenetic tools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avila, Felipe; Das, Pranab J; Kutzler, Michelle; Owens, Elaine; Perelman, Polina; Rubes, Jiri; Hornak, Miroslav; Johnson, Warren E; Raudsepp, Terje

    2014-01-01

    Cytogenetic chromosome maps offer molecular tools for genome analysis and clinical cytogenetics and are of particular importance for species with difficult karyotypes, such as camelids (2n = 74). Building on the available human-camel zoo-fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) data, we developed the first cytogenetic map for the alpaca (Lama pacos, LPA) genome by isolating and identifying 151 alpaca bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) clones corresponding to 44 specific genes. The genes were mapped by FISH to 31 alpaca autosomes and the sex chromosomes; 11 chromosomes had 2 markers, which were ordered by dual-color FISH. The STS gene mapped to Xpter/Ypter, demarcating the pseudoautosomal region, whereas no markers were assigned to chromosomes 14, 21, 22, 28, and 36. The chromosome-specific markers were applied in clinical cytogenetics to identify LPA20, the major histocompatibility complex (MHC)-carrying chromosome, as a part of an autosomal translocation in a sterile male llama (Lama glama, LGL; 2n = 73,XY). FISH with LPAX BACs and LPA36 paints, as well as comparative genomic hybridization, were also used to investigate the origin of the minute chromosome, an abnormally small LPA36 in infertile female alpacas. This collection of cytogenetically mapped markers represents a new tool for camelid clinical cytogenetics and has applications for the improvement of the alpaca genome map and sequence assembly.

  16. Fluid therapy in small ruminants and camelids.

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    Jones, Meredyth; Navarre, Christine

    2014-07-01

    Body water, electrolytes, and acid-base balance are important considerations in the evaluation and treatment of small ruminants and camelids with any disease process, with restoration of these a priority as adjunctive therapy. The goals of fluid therapy should be to maintain cardiac output and tissue perfusion, and to correct acid-base and electrolyte abnormalities. Hypoglycemia, hyperkalemia, and acidosis are the most life-threatening abnormalities, and require most immediate correction.

  17. New Threat to World Economy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The aggregate amount of money and credit in the global economy has risen sharply over the past 30 years,with its growth rate and stock far exceeding that of the real economy or real assets of the world.This is the view of Xiang Songzuo,professor at the Huazhong University of Science and Technology,whose opinion was first published in a recent article in China Business News.Xiang said this situation is a real threat to the world economy.Excerpts of his article are reprinted below:

  18. Global Science: Brave New World

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Michael

    2005-04-01

    Scientists have always viewed their activity as one without borders, and they can be rightfully called first adapters of globalization. Be careful what you wish for! While there are great benefits to working together - e.g., tackling bigger problems, traveling to exotic places, and bringing the world closer together - there are challenges too - e.g., more approvals and longer timescales; larger, more diverse collaborations with different customs; meshing not only currencies but accounting systems. It is too late to go back - and I for one would not want to - and the rules have changed forever. In a small world with three similarly economically powerful regions, dominance is impossible - what's important in the Americas will soon become important to Europe and Asia; what's no longer important to Europe and Asia will soon no longer be important to the Americas. Cooperation is encouraged, competition is bad, and duplication cannot be afforded. The biggest challenge of all is coordination/formation of world projects without a ``World Science Foundation." I will use NSF examples to illustrate, including Gemini, IceCube, LHC, and ALMA.

  19. Notes on New World Zingiberaceae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maas, P.J.M.

    1976-01-01

    12 New species of Costus and 22 new species of Renealmia are described and various new combinations are made. All these species will be more intensively dealt with by the author in his forthcoming treatment of the genera Renealmia and Costus for Flora Neotropica (to be published in 1976).

  20. Nutrition: the new world disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cannon, Geoffrey

    2002-01-01

    Scale up 'we are what we eat' and nutrition is revealed as an aspect of world governance. The quality and nature of food systems has always tended to determine not only the health and welfare but also the fate of nations. The independence of nations depends on their development of their own human and natural resources, including food systems, which, if resilient, are indigenous, traditional, or evolved over time to climate, terrain and culture. Rapid adoption of untested or foreign food systems is hazardous not only to health, but also to security and sovereignty. Immediate gain may cause permanent loss. Dietary guidelines that recommend strange foods are liable to disrupt previous established food cultures. Since the 1960s the 'green revolution' has increased crop yield, and has also accelerated the exodus of hundreds of millions of farmers and their families from the land into lives of misery in mega-cities. This is a root cause of increased global inequity, instability and violence. 'Free trade' of food, in which value is determined by price, is imposed by dominant governments in alliance with industry when they believe they can thereby control the markets. The World Trade Organization and other agencies coordinate the work of transnational corporations that are the modern equivalents of the East India companies. Scientists should consider the wider dimensions of their work, nutrition scientists not least, because of the key place of food systems in all societies.

  1. Global Systems Science: A New World View

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    Sneider, Cary; Golden, Richard; Barrett, Katharine

    1999-01-01

    Global systems science is a new field of study about the interactions between Earth's natural systems and human activities. The people who study global systems science draw on methods and theories of many different fields from chemistry and biology to economics and politics-in order to predict how today's actions are likely to affect the world of tomorrow - our world and our children's world.

  2. Northwest Introduces Its New World Business Class

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    <正>Northwest Airlines today unveiled several major enhancements to its international World Business Class product, providing its premium customers in the Asia Pacific region with a new lie-flat bed seat and state-of-the-art inflight entertainment system.In addition the carrier announced chanaes to its world

  3. Teaching Literature in the Brave New World

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brinton, George

    1974-01-01

    Argues that teachers must provide students with a rationale for studying literature in this media dominated age and suggests a technique for teaching literature through the use of "Brave New World." (RB)

  4. Virtual Geographies: The New Worlds of Cyberspace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunkel, David J.; Gunkel, Ann Hetzel

    1997-01-01

    Investigates the legacy, logic, and consequences of the appellation "the new world of cyberspace" that connects cyberspace to the Columbian voyages of discovery and the larger network of European expansionism. Engages in a critical investigation of the colonial logic implied by this seemingly innocent taxonomy, and examines its deployment in and…

  5. New strings with world-sheet supersymmetry

    CERN Document Server

    Nichols, A; Savvidy, G K

    2004-01-01

    We suggest a new model of string theory with world-sheet supersymmetry. It possesses an additional global fermionic symmetry which is similar in many ways to BRST symmetry. The spectrum consists of massless states of Rarita-Schwinger fields describing infinite tower of half-integer spins.

  6. America and China in a New World

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Robert E.Goodman

    2007-01-01

    <正>America has prided itself for the past 50 years on being a leader in all things:politics,human rights,and economics,However,in this new century,there are new paradigms that are arising that are forcing a change of attitude and views on how America views the rest of the world_and, especially,China.That is the subject of this discourse today.

  7. South Africa: the new world of disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coetzer, Pieter

    2008-01-01

    Over the past 10 years, unique business imperatives in South Africa have led to innovative risk product design, some of which are still unfamiliar to the rest of the world. The main drivers are: the unique mix of first- and third-world societies in our country, and an energetic marketing force operating in an already highly saturated insurance market. As a result, new product design has become one of the most effective ways to grow new business volumes in this competitive environment. This article reviews some of the unique products available and their advantages, target markets and disadvantages. The products that are discussed include lump sum total and permanent disability benefits, extended critical illness products, cover for impairment of function as well as risk products for people living with HIV/AIDS.

  8. Parasitic diversity found in coprolites of camelids during the Holocene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taglioretti, Verónica; Fugassa, Martín Horacio; Sardella, Norma Haydée

    2015-07-01

    Knowledge of parasitic infections to which fauna was exposed in the past provides information on the geographical origin of some parasites, on the possible dispersal routes and for archaeological fauna on the potential zoonotic risk that human and animal populations could be exposed. The aim of the present study was to examine the gastrointestinal parasite present in camelid coprolites collected from the archaeological site Cerro Casa de Piedra, cave 7 (CCP7), Patagonia, Argentina. Coprolites were collected from different stratified sequences dating from the Pleistocene-Holocene transition to the late Holocene. Paleoparasitological examination revealed the presence of eggs of Trichostrongylidae attributed to Lamanema chavezi or Nematodirus lamae, eggs of three unidentified capillariids, Strongylus-type eggs and oocysts of Eimeria macusaniensis. These parasites affected camelids living in the studied area since the Pleistocene-Holocene transition, about 10,000 years ago. Gastrointestinal parasite fauna of patagonian camelids did not vary significatively from Pleistocene-Holocene transition to late Holocene, although environmental conditions fluctuated greatly throughout this period, as indicative of the strength and the stability of these associations over time. In this study, the zoonotic and biogeography importance of parasites of camelids are also discussed.

  9. A new world; Un monde nouveau

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mayor, F.

    1999-07-01

    This book makes a broad status of todays main questions concerning the evolution and the future of our world. These questions are approached in four chapters representing the framework of our planetary system. The first chapter concerns the man in his immediate living environment: demographic growth, poverty and exclusion, supply of food, employment, natural resources, urbanization, development of more efficient, reliable, economical and safe transportation systems. The second chapter concerns the natural environment and its degradation: greenhouse effect, global warming, CO{sub 2} emissions, growth of desert areas, decay of water resources, energy needs and development of renewable energy sources. The third chapter is devoted to the development of information systems (Internet) and new technologies and its impact on culture and languages. The last chapter is devoted to the health and political aspects of our world (civil wars, violence, aids..), to the efficiency of the United Nations system and to the benefits of a durable peace. (J.S.)

  10. Glocal spirituality for a brave new world

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antoon Geels

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Spirituality, as it is presented in this article, can serve as an antidote to an all too disrespectful attitude towards our fellow human beings, towards life in general. Spirituality might unite a greater part of the world in the battle for survival. Our world, Gaia, is threatened, as we all know. Apart from the usual disasters as seemingly never-ending wars and conflicts we now also have to confront global threats such as climate changes, global pollution, and food distribution problems. In such a world everything has to be done in order to promote the fundamental idea that we only have one planet and one humanity.Spirituality addresses such issues. The purpose of this paper is to show that people who express the view that they are ‘spiritual, not religious’, people belonging to what can be called the new spirituality, despite their aversion to institutionalized religion never­theless exhibit elements in their belief-systems that are closely related to the great mystical traditions in world religion. These common denominators are, a good ground for dialogue. When theologians from especially the theistic traditions more often than not search for differences, mystics and representatives for the new spirituality are more inclined to find commonalities. At a time when elements of traditional Christianity such as the belief in a transcendent God show signs of being in decline, there seems to be an increasing interest in the predominant mystical and panentheistic view of God, stating that God is both immanent and transcendent.

  11. Modern Exploration of Galileo's New Worlds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Torrence V.

    2010-01-01

    Four hundred years ago Galileo turned his telescope to the heavens and changed the way we view the cosmos forever. Among his discoveries in January of 1610 were four new 'stars', following Jupiter in the sky but changing their positions with respect to the giant planet every night. Galileo showed that these 'Medicean stars', as he named them, were moons orbiting Jupiter in the same manner that the Earth and planets revolve about the Sun in the Copernican theory of the solar system. Over the next three centuries these moons, now collectively named the Galilean satellites after their discoverer, remained tiny dots of light in astronomers' telescopes. In the latter portion of the twentieth century Galileo's new worlds became important targets of exploration by robotic spacecraft. This paper reviews the history of this exploration through the discoveries made by the Galileo mission from 1995 to 2003, setting the stage for on-going exploration in the new century.

  12. A NEW THINKING FOR A NEW WORLD. REPRESENTATIONS FROM ECONOMY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Negucioiu Aurel

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available An incursion, even a succinct one, incomplete, in the universal history, in the world economic history and not in the least in the real world gives more and more credit to the idea according to which the movement is the main form of existence- working and evolution- of the society, economy, and of all the structures they are made of. Its "force motrice", its internal cause is represented, in our opinion, the unity and interaction of opposites. The changes, the transformations taking place in society and in its economy have direct or indirect authors the human beings who, using their minds, "leaven bread" and express at the beginning through thinking, the objectives that are going to complete or lessen reality. The positive changes and transformations that the people operate renew the world. For more than half of a century, the humankind has been in a vast and very complex process of transformation, changes with innovative character. In other words, a process of building a new world. Hence, the need to create a new thinking. "A new thinking for a new world" Making a halt in the field of economy -theory, science and practice - we are trying to bring to attention to those interested a few considerations concerning the truth value of some paradigms in the theoretical circuit, including their degree of rationality or irrationality.

  13. Get Involved in Planetary Discoveries through New Worlds, New Discoveries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shupla, Christine; Shipp, S. S.; Halligan, E.; Dalton, H.; Boonstra, D.; Buxner, S.; SMD Planetary Forum, NASA

    2013-01-01

    "New Worlds, New Discoveries" is a synthesis of NASA’s 50-year exploration history which provides an integrated picture of our new understanding of our solar system. As NASA spacecraft head to and arrive at key locations in our solar system, "New Worlds, New Discoveries" provides an integrated picture of our new understanding of the solar system to educators and the general public! The site combines the amazing discoveries of past NASA planetary missions with the most recent findings of ongoing missions, and connects them to the related planetary science topics. "New Worlds, New Discoveries," which includes the "Year of the Solar System" and the ongoing celebration of the "50 Years of Exploration," includes 20 topics that share thematic solar system educational resources and activities, tied to the national science standards. This online site and ongoing event offers numerous opportunities for the science community - including researchers and education and public outreach professionals - to raise awareness, build excitement, and make connections with educators, students, and the public about planetary science. Visitors to the site will find valuable hands-on science activities, resources and educational materials, as well as the latest news, to engage audiences in planetary science topics and their related mission discoveries. The topics are tied to the big questions of planetary science: how did the Sun’s family of planets and bodies originate and how have they evolved? How did life begin and evolve on Earth, and has it evolved elsewhere in our solar system? Scientists and educators are encouraged to get involved either directly or by sharing "New Worlds, New Discoveries" and its resources with educators, by conducting presentations and events, sharing their resources and events to add to the site, and adding their own public events to the site’s event calendar! Visit to find quality resources and ideas. Connect with educators, students and the public to

  14. The Old and New RNA World

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zofia Szweykowska-Kulińska

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Among the numerous hypotheses offering a scenario for the origin of life on Earth, the one called “The RNA World” has gained the most attention. According to this hypothesis RNA acted as a genetic information storage material, as a catalyst of all metabolic reactions, and as a regulator of all processes in the primordial world. Various experiments show that RNA molecules could have been synthesized abiotically, with the potential to mediate a whole repertoire of metabolic reactions. Ribozymes carrying out aminoacyl-tRNA reactions have been found in SELEX (systematic evolution of ligands by exponential enrichment approaches and the development of a ribosome from a RNA-built protoribosome is easy to imagine. Transfer RNA aminoacylation, protoribosome origin, and the availability of amino acids on early Earth allowed the genetic code to evolve. Encoded proteins most likely stabilized RNA molecules and were able to create channels across membranes. In the modern cell, DNA replaced RNA as the main depositor of genetic information and proteins carry out almost all metabolic reactions. However, RNA is still playing versatile, crucial roles in the cell. Apart from its classical functions in the cell, a huge small RNA world is controlling gene expression, chromatin condensation, response to environmental cues, and protecting the cell against the invasion of various nucleic acids forms. Long non-coding RNAs act as crucial gene expression regulators. Riboswitches act at the level of transcription, splicing or translation and mediate feedback regulation on biosynthesis and transport of the ligand they sense. Alternative splicing generates genetic variability and increases the protein repertoire in response to developmental or environmental changes. All these regulatory functions are essential in shaping cell plasticity in the changing milieu. Recent discoveries of new, unexpected and important functions of RNA molecules support the hypothesis that we

  15. Maxwell: A new vision of the world

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maystre, Daniel

    2014-05-01

    The paper outlines the crucial contributions of James Clerk Maxwell to Physics and more generally to our vision of the world. He achieved 150 years ago a synthesis of the pioneering works in magnetostatics, electrostatics, induction and, by introducing the notion of displacement current, gave birth to Electromagnetics. Then, he deduced the existence of electromagnetic waves and identified light as one of them. Maxwell equations deeply changed a Newtonian conception of the world based on particle interactions by pointing out the vital role of waves in physics. This new conception had a strong influence on the development of quantum physics. Finally, the invariance of light velocity in Galilean frames led to Lorentz transformations, a key step toward the theory of relativity. Par ailleurs, les équations de Maxwell ont profondément changé une conception du monde newtonienne basée sur l'interaction entre particules en révélant le rôle essentiel des ondes en physique, ce qui eut une influence déterminante sur le développement de la physique quantique. Enfin, l'invariance de la vitesse de la lumière dans les repères galiléens a entraîné la découverte des transformations de Lorentz, une étape capitale vers la théorie de la relativité.

  16. Biochemical adaptation of camelids during periods where feed is withheld

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Wensvoort

    2001-03-01

    Full Text Available Biochemical changes during fasting or the withholding of feed for 5 day were studied in serum of camelids (dromedary camel, llama and ruminants (sheep, steers. Camels maintained low levels of 13-hydroxybutyrate (BHB and high levels of glucose but showed some increased levels of non-esterified fatty acid (NEFA and urea when fasting. Sheep and steers showed a rise in serum BHB and much higher increases of NEFA than camels and llamas. Sheep showed decreased serum glucose. The llama showed some increase in BHB but NEFA was lower than the other three species. The results indicate that camelids have a unique ability to control lipolytic and gluconeogenic activity to prevent or postpone the state of ketosis. Understanding and manipulation of these metabolic mechanisms in cattle and sheep could have great benefit to the livestock industry.

  17. New Challenges in the Narcotics World

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicoleta-Elena Buzatu

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The consumption of narcotics is one of the problems the international world is confronted withnowadays; its direct or indirect effects lead to the conclusion that it represents a worrying phenomenon meantto be taken into account by the international programs of co-operation. In contrast with the mature population,the younger population is much more receptive to the new, much more attracted by new experiments and,consequently, by risks. The narcotics flagellum is one of the most complex, profound and dramaticphenomena met with in the contemporary world. Narcotization is the morbid habit of repeatedly taking andusing ever higher doses of more or less toxic substances able to generate a psychological and physicaladdiction to them. Unhappily due to the lack of information, people think that the illegal substances only –heroine, marijuana, cocaine, etc. – are considered drugs. Not long ago there appeared the so-called “mixes ofethno-botanical plants” that are perfectly legal, and many consumers have replaced narcotics - as marijuana,for example - with plant mixes. According to explanations given by the Ethno-botanical ExplanatoryDictionary, ethno-biology is a branch that studies the mutual relationship between man and plant. InRomania, ethno-botanical plants are sold under the generic names of “aroma therapeutic” or “ethnobotanical”plants. The numerous researches meant to decode the molecular and biochemical structure of theseherbs, the researchers found that consumers are described as facing hallucinogenic effects caused by somesynthetic substances - cannabinoids - added by manufacturers.

  18. New Vaccines for the World's Poorest People.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hotez, Peter J; Bottazzi, Maria Elena; Strych, Ulrich

    2016-01-01

    The 2000 Millennium Development Goals helped stimulate the development of life-saving childhood vaccines for pneumococcal and rotavirus infections while greatly expanding coverage of existing vaccines. However, there remains an urgent need to develop new vaccines for HIV/AIDS, malaria, and tuberculosis, as well as for respiratory syncytial virus and those chronic and debilitating (mostly parasitic) infections known as neglected tropical diseases (NTDs). The NTDs represent the most common diseases of people living in extreme poverty and are the subject of this review. The development of NTD vaccines, including those for hookworm infection, schistosomiasis, leishmaniasis, and Chagas disease, is being led by nonprofit product development partnerships (PDPs) working in consortia of academic and industrial partners, including vaccine manufacturers in developing countries. NTD vaccines face unique challenges with respect to their product development and manufacture, as well as their preclinical and clinical testing. We emphasize global efforts to accelerate the development of NTD vaccines and some of the hurdles to ensuring their availability to the world's poorest people.

  19. Jaw muscles of New World squirrels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ball, S S; Roth, V L

    1995-06-01

    The jaw, suprahyoid, and extrinsic tongue muscles are described for eight species of New World squirrels, spanning more than an order of magnitude in body mass. Anatomical differences are discussed in the light of body size, natural history, and phylogeny. The relative sizes of different muscles, their orientations, and the shapes and positions of their areas of attachment vary but show few trends in relation to body size. The anatomical differences are likewise not readily explained by the mechanical requirements of the animals' diets, which are similar. The most marked anatomical differences occur in Sciurillus (the pygmy tree squirrel), as well as those genera--Glaucomys (the flying squirrel) and Tamias (the chipmunk)--that are taxonomically most distinct from the tree squirrels. Sciurillus is noteworthy for its unusually small temporalis and an anterior deep masseter that is oriented to assist in retraction of the jaw. Tamias has a more vertically oriented temporalis and greater inclination in the anterior masseter muscles than the other squirrels, features that may be associated with its large diastema and relatively posteriorly situated cheek teeth, which in turn may relate to its having cheek pouches. Our results form a valuable database of information to be used in further studies of functional morphology and phylogeny.

  20. New Worlds Observer: Minotaur to Ares V

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, Amy S.; Glassman, Tiffany; Dailey, Dean; Lillie, Charles F.; Cash, Webster; Oakley, Philip

    2008-07-01

    As currently envisioned, New Worlds Observer is a NASA flagship class mission, designed to fulfill the Terrestrial Planet Finding mission objectives with a much more flexible architecture than the current TPF design concepts. In this paper, we discuss the scalability of NWO for a variety of telescope sizes and briefly discuss the associated science capability. In particular, the paper will address in detail three mission categories: medium, large, and future mission concepts. Medium missions are missions with life cycle costs under $600 million dollars, including a version of NWO that may potentially fit within a MIDEX budget. Large missions are flagship missions that involve significant science returns on a Observatory class level; this is our current realization of NWO for the TPF mission. Future concepts use the NWO architecture, in conjunction with enabling technologies such as in-space servicing, to solve long-term NASA missions such as Lifefinder and Planet Imager. We present a multi-starshade NWO architecture designed for launch on an Ares V launch vehicle as an example of a future concept.

  1. The World Needs a New Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prensky, Marc

    2014-01-01

    The author proposes that today's existing, world-wide curriculum--based on offering roughly the same math, language arts, science, and social studies to all--is not what is required for the future, and is hurting rather than helping the world's students. Math, language arts, science, and social studies, he argues, are really "proxies"…

  2. The Brave New World of Biotechnology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reese, Susan

    2004-01-01

    Is it the science that will save the world from starvation, or will it mean the end of the world as it is known? While some people fear genetically altered "Frankenfoods" and DNA experiments with pathogenic microorganisms that could result in worldwide epidemics, others view biotechnology as using biological organisms to make products that benefit…

  3. The New Leader of the Free World

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williamson, Kevin D.

    2012-01-01

    On January 20, 2009, Dr. Manmohan Singh, the prime minister of India, became the leader of the free world. The free world's attention was focused elsewhere: Senator Barack Obama, who on that day became President Barack Obama, quietly abdicated the role now taken up by Dr. Singh, having run an election campaign premised upon the ever-present but…

  4. The World Bank’s New Contributor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    At the end of 2007,China announced for the first time that it would contrib- ute to the International Development Association(IDA),the part of the World Bank Group that provides grants and no-interest credit to the world’s poorest countries.As Robert Zoellick,President of the World Bank,said at the time, China had moved within less than a decade from being a successful IDA recipi- ent to being a global partner. In an exclusive interview with Beifing Review reporter Yu Shujun,David Dollar,the World Bank’s Country Director for China and Mongolia,discusses China’s cooperation with the international bank,the areas of future coopera- tion,the economic development of China and its role in the world economy.

  5. Biomechanical analysis of the camelid cervical intervertebral disc

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dean K. Stolworthy

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Chronic low back pain (LBP is a prevalent global problem, which is often correlated with degenerative disc disease. The development and use of good, relevant animal models of the spine may improve treatment options for this condition. While no animal model is capable of reproducing the exact biology, anatomy, and biomechanics of the human spine, the quality of a particular animal model increases with the number of shared characteristics that are relevant to the human condition. The purpose of this study was to investigate the camelid (specifically, alpaca and llama cervical spine as a model of the human lumbar spine. Cervical spines were obtained from four alpacas and four llamas and individual segments were used for segmental flexibility/biomechanics and/or morphology/anatomy studies. Qualitative and quantitative data were compared for the alpaca and llama cervical spines, and human lumbar specimens in addition to other published large animal data. Results indicate that a camelid cervical intervertebral disc (IVD closely approximates the human lumbar disc with regard to size, spinal posture, and biomechanical flexibility. Specifically, compared with the human lumbar disc, the alpaca and llama cervical disc size are approximately 62%, 83%, and 75% with regard to area, depth, and width, respectively, and the disc flexibility is approximately 133%, 173%, and 254%, with regard to range of motion (ROM in axial-rotation, flexion-extension, and lateral-bending, respectively. These results, combined with the clinical report of disc degeneration in the llama lower cervical spine, suggest that the camelid cervical spine is potentially well suited for use as an animal model in biomechanical studies of the human lumbar spine.

  6. Widening Worlds: Understanding and Teaching New Literacies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosaen, Cheryl; Terpstra, Marjorie

    2012-01-01

    New conceptions of literacies and the practices associated with them call for new approaches to preparing teachers to engage students in literacy as a situated social phenomenon. This article describes two teacher educators' engagement in collaborative self-study as we implemented "The New Literacies Project" to help pre-service teachers expand…

  7. New world order. Hope for the planet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boayes, V

    1995-09-15

    This brief article gives the total fertility rates (TFR), based on World Bank sources, for 75 countries in the world in 1975 and 1993. The calculation uses age-specific fertility rates against the total female population. The current population estimate for world population is 5.4 billion human beings. Countries having declining populations are China, India, Indonesia, and the Philippines. Populations that are increasing live in the United States, Sweden, and Finland. The US TFR was 2.0 in 1975 and 2.1 in 1993. Sweden's TFR was 1.9 in 1975 and 2.1 in 1993. Finland's TFR was 1.6 in 1975 and 1.9 in 1993. China's TFR declined from 3.4 in 1975 to 2.0 in 1993. India's TFR declined from 5.4 in 1975 to 3.7 in 1993. Indonesia's TFR declined from 5.1 in 1975 to 2.9 in 1993. The Philippines' TFR declined from 5.5 in 1975 to 3.9 in 1993. Very low fertility in 1995 was evident in Hong Kong (1.2), Spain (1.2), Germany (1.3), Italy (1.3), and Greece (1.4). Low fertility ranging from 1.5 children per woman to 1.9 children per woman is indicated for 32 countries. 35 countries have replacement or under-replacement fertility. 8 countries hover around replacement (2.1). 10 countries have fertility ranging from 2.2 to 2.5. 6 countries have fertility ranging from 2.6 to 2.9. 11 countries have fertility greater than 3.0. The highest TFR is in Pakistan, with 6.1 children per woman.

  8. Electromagnetic perturbations in new brane world scenarios

    CERN Document Server

    Molina, C; Torrejon, T E M

    2016-01-01

    In this work we consider electromagnetic dynamics in Randall-Sundrum branes. It is derived a family of four-dimensional spacetimes compatible with Randall-Sundrum brane worlds, focusing on asymptotic flat backgrounds. Maximal extensions of the solutions are constructed and their causal structures are discussed. These spacetimes include singular, non-singular and extreme black holes. Maxwell's electromagnetic field is introduced and its evolution is studied in an extensive numerical survey. Electromagnetic quasinormal mode spectra are derived and analyzed with time-dependent and high order WKB methods. Our results indicate that the black holes in the brane are electromagnetically stable.

  9. The Brave New World of Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adkins, Sam S.

    2003-01-01

    Explores how old and new training technologies are converging. Discusses the concept of integrated applications and provides a taxonomy of convergent enterprise applications for use with real-time workflow. (JOW)

  10. Middle East: New Balkans of the World?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr.Sc. Georgescu Stefan

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Middle East is a region whose geopolitical dynamics has many analogies with the role of the Balkans in the first half of the 19th century and up to the 3rd decade of the 20th century, namely a "Powder keg of Europe", defined in the same period as the "Eastern Issue".Moreover, Middle East is a region located at the junction of three continents: Europe, Asia and the Mediterranean Africa, and along with ancient Egypt is the cradle of Western civilization, providing for it political, economic, religious, scientific, military, intellectual and institutional models.Four millennia of civilization before Christian era did not pass without leaving a trace.Trade, currency, law, diplomacy, technology applied to works in time of war or peace, the profit based economy and the bureaucratized economy, popular and absolutist government, nationalist and universal spirit, tolerance and fanaticism – all these are not inventions of the modern world, but have their origins and methods of implementation, often even sophisticated methods, in this region.

  11. Brave new plastics world; Schoene neue Plastikwelt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knauer, R.

    2008-07-01

    Organic photovoltaics: 40 years ago, scientists accidentally discovered a new class of materials, i.e. electrically conductive plastics. They are cheap to produce, so since then scientists therefore have been working on producing solar cells on this basis. Industry is waiting impatiently for a breakthrough. (orig.)

  12. Astrobiology: Discovering New Worlds of Life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Charles C.; Van Dover, Cindy Lee

    2001-01-01

    Emphasizes discoveries at the frontiers of science. Includes an instructional poster illustrating the hydrothermal vent communities on the deep ocean floor. Describes research activities related to the new discipline of astrobiology, a multidisciplinary approach to studying the emergence of life in the universe. Research activities include the…

  13. Positive psychology: New worlds for old

    OpenAIRE

    2004-01-01

    Clinical Psychology has traditionally focused on psychological de ficits and disability. It has rarely privileged clients’ resilience, resourcefulness and capacity for renewal. In the USA Professor Martin Seligman and his colleagues have begun laying the foundations for a positive psychology to complement deficit - based a pproaches (Seligman & Peterson 2004; Snyder & Lopez, 2002). This new branch of psychology is primarily concerned with the scientific study of human strengths and happiness.

  14. Exploration: New Treasures in the Old World

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pieters, C. M.; Donaldson Hanna, K. L.; Dhingra, D.; Cheek, L.; Prissel, T. C.; Jackson, C.; Parman, S. W.; Taylor, L. A.

    2013-12-01

    The last decade has seen a renewed effort in the exploration of the Moon by modern spacecraft sent from Japan, China, India, and the US. These missions have resulted in remarkable discoveries and have inspired a new understanding of the early solar system shared by the Earth and the Moon. Although invaluable samples were brought to Earth from the Apollo and Luna landing sites more than four decades ago, the modern orbital measurements have demonstrated that key components of crustal compositions were missed. Small exposures of one lithology in particular, a Mg-rich 'pink' spinel anorthosite (PSA) has been confirmed at several sites around the globe, implying that its origin is linked to wide-spread crustal-evolution processes. We now believe this new lithology is deep-seated in origin [1] and possibly associated with early (Mg-suite) magma interactions with the primordial anorthositic crust [2]. In addition to the higher water (and sulfur) contents now recognized for the lunar interior [3], the recognition of PSA reopens a question as to whether ancient lunar processes may have concentrated valuable minerals/resources in small zones of the crust, as often occurs for layered magmatic complexes on Earth. We ask the question 'Where on the Moon should humans/robots go to obtain samples to address such wide-ranging science/exploration issues?' We focus on four areas with discrete outcrops of Mg-spinel lithology exposed from depth, and rank them in terms of science/exploration potential (1 - 4), and in terms of ease of access (A - D). THOMSON CRATER in SPA (1D): Multiple Mg-spinel exposures are found around Thomson (diameter 117 km); pure crystalline plagioclase and norite occur nearby. Thomson is within Ingenii (diameter 318 km), both of which are mare filled, facilitating access to the crater walls. Ingenii also contains enigmatic ';swirls' and magnetic anomalies, as well as a small mascon. Stratigraphic relations imply deep crust from the inner ring of SPA basin at

  15. New Particles” of the Changing World Situation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YuSui; WangWei

    2004-01-01

    The world situation, as always complicated and volatile, has seen some “new particles” after the war on Iraq. This is a special war that has affected the whole world. The course and consequences of the war have exemplified the fever pitch of the U.S. unilateralism and the heavy cost thus paid by the U.S. They have also resulted in the changes of relations between major powers,

  16. Incompatibility of Happiness and Truth in Brave New World

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨波; 张敏; 夏梅花

    2014-01-01

    Aldous Huxley’s Brave New World is called one of the“Anti-Utopian Trilogy”because of its obvious political empha-sis. Yet the following analysis about its theme shows that it is more than a science fiction or political fable. It was given more phil-osophical significance. The fact that happiness and truth cannot be compatible in the World Stare actually gives a warning to the modern society which depends too much on technical development and material prosperity.

  17. World nuclear performance report 2016. A new study by World Nuclear Association

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cobb, Jonathan [World Nuclear Association, London (United Kingdom)

    2016-08-15

    A larger number of nuclear power units are under construction than at any other time in the last 25 years, and with another ten new reactors coming online 2015 demonstrated improving new build performance all round. The existing global fleet, totally 439 by year-end, generated roughly 10 % of the world's electricity, making up around one-third of the world's low-carbon electricity supply. Nevertheless, there are challenges ahead for the global nuclear industry. The World Nuclear Association's vision for the future global electricity system consists of a diverse mix of low-carbon technologies - where renewables, nuclear and a fossil fuels work together in harmony to ensure a reliable, affordable and clean energy supply.

  18. Brave new world revisited revisited: Huxley's evolving view of behaviorism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, B

    1992-01-01

    Aldous Huxley's Brave New World has served as a popular and powerful source of antibehavioral sentiment. Several of Huxley's works are examined in order to ascertain his true thoughts regarding behaviorism. Early in his career Huxley failed to appreciate aspects of behavioral theory (e.g., an appreciation of heredity) or the good ends to which it could be employed. Huxley's later works portrayed behaviorism in a much more positive light, and he believed that behavioral science, along with spiritual enlightenment, might help save humanity from the Brave New World he predicted.

  19. Designing a brave new world: eugenics, politics, and fiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woiak, Joanne

    2007-01-01

    Aldous Huxley composed Brave New World in the context of the Depression and the eugenics movement in Britain. Today his novel is best known as satirical and predictive, but an additional interpretation emerges from Huxley's nonfiction writings in which the liberal hurmanist expressed some surprising opinions about eugenics, citizenship, and meritocracy. He felt that his role as an artist and public intellectual was to formulate an evolving outlook on urgent social, scientific, and moral issues. His brave new world can therefore be understood as a serious design for social reform, as well as a commentary about the social uses of scientific knowledge.

  20. New Skills in a Changing World: Strategic Alliances at World Heritage Sites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simona Cadar

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The presentation aims to examine the new type of skills that heritage professionals may need to acquire in response to the changing socio-economic context of the contemporary world. It will also look into possible strategic alliances between higher education, communities and the tourism sector that could link conservation and sustainable development (especially youth employment at World Heritage Sites. Particular attention will be given to the social threats induced by tourism at heritage sites, such as the dramatic decrease of young population, rural exodus, or the deterioration of the local social fabric, and the critical need for revitalization strategies in this regard.

  1. [The occurrence of "Candidatus Mycoplasma haemolamae" infections in clinically asymptomatic South American Camelids in Austria].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franz, Sonja; Spergser, Joachim; Schwendenwein, Ilse; Stanitznig, Anna; Lambacher, Bianca; Tichy, Alexander; Wittek, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Reports of CMhl infections in South American Camelids in Europe are only available from the United Kingdom and Switzerland. Knowing that CMhl infections can lead to severe disease resulting in death if combined with other diseases or stress, it was the aim of this study to assess prevalence data from camelids in Austria. In comparison to the previous studies a representative number of camelids was investigated nationwide. Data were assessed due to differences in geographical region, age, sex, species, and origin. A relatively high prevalence of 25.8% was recorded. CMhl was detected significantly more often in alpacas (Vicunja pacos) than in llamas (Lama glama) and more frequently in animals younger than 2 years. Additionally regional differences have been observed, which might be due to climatic differences and/or variations in insect vectors. In this study apperantly clinical healthy animals were shown to be infected with CMhl. Camelids infected with CMhl are a pathogen reservoir. The results of this study indicate different risk levels of infection between llamas and alpacas and between younger and older animals. The data presented underline the necessity of further studies on CMhlI infections in South American Camelids.

  2. Brave new world? Political participation and new media

    OpenAIRE

    Simões, Maria João; Barriga, Antónia do Carmo; Jerónimo, Nuno Amaral

    2011-01-01

    This paper intends to highlight the role played by new social media upon citizens’ political participation, their challenges and inequalities, like what has been thoroughly studied for traditional media. New media, also called social networks, like Twitter or Facebook, have been glorified as the universal public sphere, a promising new "café". This paper intends to discuss, in a more realistic and reflexive way, the use of some internet platforms, contradicting the excess...

  3. Novel camelid antibody fragments targeting recombinant nucleoprotein of Araucaria hantavirus: a prototype for an early diagnosis of Hantavirus Pulmonary Syndrome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soraya S Pereira

    Full Text Available In addition to conventional antibodies, camelids produce immunoglobulins G composed exclusively of heavy chains in which the antigen binding site is formed only by single domains called VHH. Their particular characteristics make VHHs interesting tools for drug-delivery, passive immunotherapy and high-throughput diagnosis. Hantaviruses are rodent-borne viruses of the Bunyaviridae family. Two clinical forms of the infection are known. Hemorrhagic Fever with Renal Syndrome (HFRS is present in the Old World, while Hantavirus Pulmonary Syndrome (HPS is found on the American continent. There is no specific treatment for HPS and its diagnosis is carried out by molecular or serological techniques, using mainly monoclonal antibodies or hantavirus nucleoprotein (N to detect IgM and IgG in patient serum. This study proposes the use of camelid VHHs to develop alternative methods for diagnosing and confirming HPS. Phage display technology was employed to obtain VHHs. After immunizing one Lama glama against the recombinant N protein (prNΔ₈₅ of a Brazilian hantavirus strain, VHH regions were isolated to construct an immune library. VHHs were displayed fused to the M13KO7 phage coat protein III and the selection steps were performed on immobilized prNΔ₈₅. After selection, eighty clones recognized specifically the N protein. These were sequenced, grouped based mainly on the CDRs, and five clones were analyzed by western blot (WB, surface plasmon resonance (SPR device, and ELISA. Besides the ability to recognize prNΔ85 by WB, all selected clones showed affinity constants in the nanomolar range. Additionaly, the clone KC329705 is able to detect prNΔ₈₅ in solution, as well as the native viral antigen. Findings support the hypothesis that selected VHHs could be a powerful tool in the development of rapid and accurate HPS diagnostic assays, which are essential to provide supportive care to patients and reduce the high mortality rate associated with

  4. Novel camelid antibody fragments targeting recombinant nucleoprotein of Araucaria hantavirus: a prototype for an early diagnosis of Hantavirus Pulmonary Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Soraya S; Moreira-Dill, Leandro S; Morais, Michelle S S; Prado, Nidiane D R; Barros, Marcos L; Koishi, Andrea C; Mazarrotto, Giovanny A C A; Gonçalves, Giselle M; Zuliani, Juliana P; Calderon, Leonardo A; Soares, Andreimar M; Pereira da Silva, Luiz H; Duarte dos Santos, Claudia N; Fernandes, Carla F C; Stabeli, Rodrigo G

    2014-01-01

    In addition to conventional antibodies, camelids produce immunoglobulins G composed exclusively of heavy chains in which the antigen binding site is formed only by single domains called VHH. Their particular characteristics make VHHs interesting tools for drug-delivery, passive immunotherapy and high-throughput diagnosis. Hantaviruses are rodent-borne viruses of the Bunyaviridae family. Two clinical forms of the infection are known. Hemorrhagic Fever with Renal Syndrome (HFRS) is present in the Old World, while Hantavirus Pulmonary Syndrome (HPS) is found on the American continent. There is no specific treatment for HPS and its diagnosis is carried out by molecular or serological techniques, using mainly monoclonal antibodies or hantavirus nucleoprotein (N) to detect IgM and IgG in patient serum. This study proposes the use of camelid VHHs to develop alternative methods for diagnosing and confirming HPS. Phage display technology was employed to obtain VHHs. After immunizing one Lama glama against the recombinant N protein (prNΔ₈₅) of a Brazilian hantavirus strain, VHH regions were isolated to construct an immune library. VHHs were displayed fused to the M13KO7 phage coat protein III and the selection steps were performed on immobilized prNΔ₈₅. After selection, eighty clones recognized specifically the N protein. These were sequenced, grouped based mainly on the CDRs, and five clones were analyzed by western blot (WB), surface plasmon resonance (SPR) device, and ELISA. Besides the ability to recognize prNΔ85 by WB, all selected clones showed affinity constants in the nanomolar range. Additionaly, the clone KC329705 is able to detect prNΔ₈₅ in solution, as well as the native viral antigen. Findings support the hypothesis that selected VHHs could be a powerful tool in the development of rapid and accurate HPS diagnostic assays, which are essential to provide supportive care to patients and reduce the high mortality rate associated with hantavirus

  5. Molecular Verification of New World Mansonella perstans Parasitemias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavares da Silva, Lucyane Bastos; Crainey, James Lee; Ribeiro da Silva, Túllio Romão; Suwa, Uziel Ferreira; Vicente, Ana Carolina Paulo; Fernandes de Medeiros, Jansen; Pessoa, Felipe Arley Costa; Luz, Sérgio Luiz Bessa

    2017-03-01

    We obtained ribosomal and mitochondrial DNA sequences from residents of Amazonas state, Brazil, with Mansonella parasitemias. Phylogenetic analysis of these sequences confirm that M. ozzardi and M. perstans parasites occur in sympatry and reveal the close relationship between M. perstans in Africa and Brazil, providing insights into the parasite's New World origins.

  6. The genetic prehistory of the New World Arctic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raghavan, Maanasa; DeGiorgio, Michael; Albrechtsen, Anders

    2014-01-01

    The New World Arctic, the last region of the Americas to be populated by humans, has a relatively well-researched archaeology, but an understanding of its genetic history is lacking. We present genome-wide sequence data from ancient and present-day humans from Greenland, Arctic Canada, Alaska, Al...

  7. Toxoplasmosis in a colony of New World monkeys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dietz, H.H.; Henriksen, P.; Bille-Hansen, Vivi

    1997-01-01

    In a colony of New World monkeys five tamarins (Saguinus oedipus, Saguinus labiatus and Leontopithecus rosal. rosal.), three marmosets (Callithrix jacchus and Callithrix pygmaea) and one saki (Pithecia pithecia) died suddenly. The colony comprised 16 marmosets, 10 tamarins and three sakis. The main...

  8. RELATIVE THEORY OF GOOD IN "BRAVE NEW WORLD" AND "1984."

    Science.gov (United States)

    PARTRIDGE, ALICE

    ONE METHOD OF INTERESTING THE AVERAGE HIGH SCHOOL STUDENT IN QUESTIONING INTELLIGENTLY THE NATURE OF GOOD IS THROUGH THE STUDY OF HUXLEY'S "BRAVE NEW WORLD" AND ORWELL'S "1984." IN BOTH OF THESE NEGATIVE UTOPIAS THE LOSS OF MAN'S HUMANITY, INDIVIDUALITY, AND RIGHT TO REASON THE NATURE OF GOOD ARE THE VERY QUALITIES WHICH MAKE HIM "EXCELLENT," AND…

  9. A "New Silk Road" Between China and the Arab World

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zank, Wolfgang

    2014-01-01

    The chapter reconstructs the development of new links between China and the Arab World. The links have been created from "above" and from "below", by private initiatives. This process has been facilitated by a turn to more open economic systems on both sides. The relations are closest between Chi...

  10. Adenoviral targeting using genetically incorporated camelid single variable domains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaliberov, Sergey A; Kaliberova, Lyudmila N; Buggio, Maurizio; Tremblay, Jacqueline M; Shoemaker, Charles B; Curiel, David T

    2014-08-01

    The unique ability of human adenovirus serotype 5 (Ad5) to accomplish efficient transduction has allowed the use of Ad5-based vectors for a range of gene therapy applications. Several strategies have been developed to alter tropism of Ad vectors to achieve a cell-specific gene delivery by using fiber modifications via genetic incorporation of targeting motifs. In this study, we have explored the utility of novel anti-human carcinoembryonic antigen (hCEA) single variable domains derived from heavy chain (VHH) camelid family of antibodies to achieve targeted gene transfer. To obtain anti-CEA VHHs, we produced a VHH-display library from peripheral blood lymphocytes RNA of alpacas at the peak of immune response to the hCEA antigen (Ag). We genetically incorporated an anti-hCEA VHH into a de-knobbed Ad5 fiber-fibritin chimera and demonstrated selective targeting to the cognate epitope expressed on the membrane surface of target cells. We report that the anti-hCEA VHH used in this study retains Ag recognition functionality and provides specificity for gene transfer of capsid-modified Ad5 vectors. These studies clearly demonstrated the feasibility of retargeting of Ad5-based gene transfer using VHHs.

  11. Semen preservation and artificial insemination in domesticated South American camelids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bravo, P Walter; Alarcon, V; Baca, L; Cuba, Y; Ordoñez, C; Salinas, J; Tito, F

    2013-01-10

    Semen preservation and artificial insemination in South American camelids are reviewed giving emphasis to work done in Peru and by the authors. Reports on semen evaluation and the preservation process indicate that semen of alpacas and llamas can be manipulated by making it liquid first. Collagenase appears to be the best enzyme to eliminate viscosity. Tris buffer solution maintains a higher motility than egg-yolk citrate, phosphate buffered saline (PBS), Triladyl, and Merck-I extenders. Cooling of semen took 1h after collected, and equilibrated with 7% glycerol presented a better motility and spermatozoa survival at 1, 7, 15 and 30days after being slowly frozen in 0.25mL plastic straws. Trials of artificial insemination with freshly diluted semen and frozen-thawed semen are encouraging and needs to be tested extensively under field conditions. Recently, fertility rates varied from 3 to 67%. Semen preservation and most important, artificial insemination appear to be a reality, and could be used to improve the genetic quality of alpacas and llamas.

  12. ICD-10: are you ready for a brave new world?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cannon, Barbara A; Strubler, Diana L

    2014-09-01

    The ICD-10 transition will be an evolutionary process. Relying on the EHR or certified coding staff alone will not be sufficient. The EHR can facilitate easy search tools that assist the provider in selecting a diagnosis. Billing staff are an invaluable resource to help validate that coding and documentation are in sync but the burden will clearly rest on the provider. The provider will be juggling a new code structure, drilling down to new levels of complexity and ensuring their documentation supports the specificity of the new codes selected, all while managing a full patient schedule. Education for the provider will be of paramount importance as they navigate this brave new world.

  13. ELT in a changing world innovative approaches to new challenges

    CERN Document Server

    Ahmed, Azra; Saleem, Faiza; Cane, Graeme

    2013-01-01

    A novel ELT resource for language specialists and teachers across the world, this selection of papers is a collection of the most compelling and innovative ideas presented at a seminar hosted by the Centre of English Language, Aga Khan University, Pakistan, in January 2011, entitled 'ELT in a Changing World: Innovative Approaches to New Challenges'.The book is divided into three sections, the first of which is 'Global change and language learning'. This section offers a guided tour of language teaching evolution, highlighting the merits of enhanced language awareness, self-immersive and input/

  14. A review of the New World Coproica (Diptera: Sphaeroceridae) with a description of 8 new species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergeron, Matthew D; Marshall, Stephen A; Swann, John E

    2015-04-30

    The New World species of Coproica Rondani, 1861 (Diptera: Sphaeroceridae) are reviewed on the basis of over 17,000 examined specimens. The genus is divided into three major clades: the C. acutangula, C. vagans, and C. urbana species groups. Eight new species (C. bifurcata, C. bispatha, C. brachystyla, C. diabolica, C. emarginata, C. galapagosensis, C. novacula, and C. testudinea) are described, and redescriptions are provided for eleven additional species. Included are two keys (one for the twenty New World species only and one for all described species), updated New World distribution records, and illustrations of male and female genitalic structures.

  15. Efficacy of anthelmintics on South American camelid (llama and alpaca) farms in Georgia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillespie, Rose-Ann M; Williamson, Lisa H; Terrill, Thomas H; Kaplan, Ray M

    2010-08-27

    The number of South American camelid (SAC; llama and alpaca) farms is growing in the southeastern United States, and infection with gastrointestinal nematodes (GIN) is a major health concern in this region. There is widespread resistance to anthelmintic remedies in small ruminants (sheep and goats), but a paucity of information on llamas and alpacas. Anthelmintic resistance was evaluated on three SAC farms (two llama; one alpaca) in Georgia in the southern United States using fecal egg count reduction (FECR) tests. For each farm, animals were randomly assigned to 1 of 5 treatment groups based on initial fecal egg count (FEC) and number of animals available (2-5 groups, n=9-11 per treatment). Ivermectin (IVM, subcutaneous injection; 0.3mg/kg body weight (BW)) and a control group were tested on an alpaca farm, and fenbendazole (FBZ, oral; 10mg/kg BW; two farms), moxidectin (MOX oral; 0.2mg/kg BW; two farms), and levamisole (LEV, oral; 8 mg/kg BW; one farm) were added for the llama farms. Anthelmintic efficacy was determined by comparing FEC of treatment and control animals 14 days post-treatment, with resistance evaluated using the World Association for the Advancement of Veterinary Parasitology (WAAVP) guidelines. Based upon these guidelines, there was GIN resistance to IVM in both llamas and alpacas in Georgia and to FBZ on both llama farms where this drug was tested. There was MOX resistance on one llama farm using the FECR test, while there was no resistance to LEV detected in this study. These data demonstrate a serious emerging problem in the United States of llama and alpaca GIN resistant to drugs from two of the three major anthelmintic classes.

  16. Secret science: Spanish cosmography and the New World

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portuondo, Maria M.

    This study explores the efforts of sixteenth-century Spanish cosmographers to create a scientific framework to explain the New World. Cosmography is defined broadly to encompass the modern disciplines of geography, cartography, ethnography, natural history, and certain elements of astronomy and history. By the mid sixteenth century humanistic modes of representation and epistemological methods associated with Renaissance cosmography proved incapable of effectively describing the reality of the New World. The onus on Spanish royal cosmographers working in state-run institutions to describe their nation's vast empire resulted in a series of ambitious large-scale scientific projects aimed at addressing this problem. Spanish cosmographers turned to voyages of scientific exploration, new cartographic methods and an unrelenting questioning of those living in the new lands to formulate an accurate and useful description of the world. During most of the sixteenth century, the Spanish monarchy considered cosmographical information about the New World a valuable strategic and utilitarian asset and thus treated such information as a state secret. Legal measures taken to safeguard this information also increasingly regulated cosmographical practice, forcing royal cosmographers to compromise between the intellectual demands of science and the bureaucratic demands of an expanding empire. For the most part, historians have treated the scientific enterprises that resulted form the work of royal cosmographers as independent projects, springing loosely from administrative needs or the monarch's curiosity. This study forms a more cohesive picture of these scientific enterprises by reconstructing the intellectual heritage of Spanish cosmographers, defining the cosmographical methodology they ascribed to and studying the cosmographer as one of the key agents in a vigorous trans-Atlantic exchange of information. The work of two royal cosmographers of the Council of Indies, Juan L

  17. OSTEOMETRÍA Y GENÉTICA DE LOS CAMÉLIDOS MOCHICA, COSTA NORTE DEL PERÚ / Mochica camelids osteometry and genetics, north coast of Peru

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Víctor Félix Vásquez Sánchez

    2009-12-01

    of Peru during Moche times. This model takes into account that in this environment currently camelids are not breed, as well as genetics and evolutionary factors in the new domestic form, the effect of Bergmann’s Rule, and new grasses in the morphology of this new form of domestic camelid, ,which lived in the region at the time of Moche.Keywords: osteometry, genetic, camelids, speciation, Mochica 

  18. New Hypothesis on Service Management within the Global World

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ion PLUMB

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available World economies have changed into service economies in the last decade, as services became the main dynamic component of economic competition. Therefore, this study explores how the globalization and, moreover, the knowledge-based economy could influence the conceptualization of service management. The findings of this study reveal that some of the hypothesis on service management are no longer valid, being replaced by new hypothesis more suitable within the global world and the knowledge-based economy. The study was carried out by combining a wide variety of sources, such as research papers, literature reviews, conceptual papers and books. The results reported in this research may be used for designing new methods and models for the management of service organizations so as to consider the changes in conceptualizing service management.

  19. Paleobiolinguistics of New World Crops and the Otomanguean Language Family

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecil H. Brown

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Several studies recently published in Ethnobiology Letters treat respectively the paleobiolinguistics of chili pepper, manioc, maize, and the common bean in New World language families. This includes the Otomanguean family of Mexico, one of the oldest language groups of the hemisphere, whose parent language may have been spoken at the latest around 6500 years ago. This communication addresses the possibility that Otomanguean paleobiolinguistics should be considered tentative since languages of the grouping are not yet conclusively demonstrated to be descended from a common ancestor. This challenges the proposal that words for chili pepper, manioc, and maize were in vocabularies of languages spoken two thousand or more years before development of a village-farming way of life in the New World.

  20. First complete mitochondrial genome data from ancient South American camelids - The mystery of the chilihueques from Isla Mocha (Chile).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westbury, Michael; Prost, Stefan; Seelenfreund, Andrea; Ramírez, José-Miguel; Matisoo-Smith, Elizabeth A; Knapp, Michael

    2016-12-08

    In South American societies, domesticated camelids were of great cultural importance and subject to trade and translocation. South American camelids were even found on remote and hard to reach islands, emphasizing their importance to historic and pre-historic South American populations. Isla Mocha, a volcanic island 35 km offshore of Central-South Chile, is an example of such an island. When Dutch and Spanish explorers reached the island in the early 17th century, they found that domesticated camelids called "chilihueque" played a major role in the island's society. The origin and taxonomy of these enigmatic camelids is unclear and controversial. This study aims to resolve this controversy through genetic analyses of Isla Mocha camelid remains dating from pre-Columbian to early historic times. A recent archaeological excavation of site P21-3 on Isla Mocha yielded a number of camelid remains. Three complete mitochondrial genomes were successfully recovered and analysed. Phylogenetic analyses suggest that "chilihueque" was a local term for a domesticated guanaco. Results from phylogeographic analyses are consistent with Isla Mocha camelids being sourced from Southern Chilean guanaco populations. Our data highlights the capability of ancient DNA to answer questions about extinct populations which includes species identity, potential translocation events and origins of founding individuals.

  1. Brave new world revisited revisited: Huxley's evolving view of behaviorism

    OpenAIRE

    Newman, Bobby

    1992-01-01

    Aldous Huxley's Brave New World has served as a popular and powerful source of antibehavioral sentiment. Several of Huxley's works are examined in order to ascertain his true thoughts regarding behaviorism. Early in his career Huxley failed to appreciate aspects of behavioral theory (e.g., an appreciation of heredity) or the good ends to which it could be employed. Huxley's later works portrayed behaviorism in a much more positive light, and he believed that behavioral science, along with spi...

  2. New World and Mediterranean wine tourism: A comparative analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Charters, Steve

    2010-01-01

    This is a theoretical paper providing a comparative overview of wine tourism in the New World and Europe – particularly the Mediterranean region. The review is timely because while there has been substantial wine tourism research in Anglophone countries, less has occurred in Europe, despite the fact that it has such a long history of wine production. The paper suggests a series of differences between the two areas based on both structural factors affecting the context in which wine is produce...

  3. A brave new world for an old world pest: Helicoverpa armigera (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tay, Wee Tek; Soria, Miguel F; Walsh, Thomas; Thomazoni, Danielle; Silvie, Pierre; Behere, Gajanan T; Anderson, Craig; Downes, Sharon

    2013-01-01

    The highly polyphagous Old World cotton bollworm Helicoverpa armigera is a quarantine agricultural pest for the American continents. Historically H. armigera is thought to have colonised the American continents around 1.5 to 2 million years ago, leading to the current H. zea populations on the American continents. The relatively recent species divergence history is evident in mating compatibility between H. zea and H. armigera under laboratory conditions. Despite periodic interceptions of H. armigera into North America, this pest species is not believed to have successfully established significant populations on either continent. In this study, we provide molecular evidence via mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) cytochrome oxidase I (COI) and cytochrome b (Cyt b) partial gene sequences for the successful recent incursion of H. armigera into the New World, with individuals being detected at two sites (Primavera do Leste, Pedra Preta) within the State of Mato Grosso in Brazil. The mtDNA COI and Cyt b haplotypes detected in the Brazilian H. armigera individuals are common throughout the Old World, thus precluding identification of the founder populations. Combining the two partial mtDNA gene sequences showed that at least two matrilines are present in Brazil, while the inclusion of three nuclear DNA Exon-Primed Intron-Crossing (EPIC) markers identified a further two possible matrilines in our samples. The economic, biosecurity, resistance management, ecological and evolutionary implications of this incursion are discussed in relation to the current agricultural practices in the Americas.

  4. A brave new world for an old world pest: Helicoverpa armigera (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae in Brazil.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wee Tek Tay

    Full Text Available The highly polyphagous Old World cotton bollworm Helicoverpa armigera is a quarantine agricultural pest for the American continents. Historically H. armigera is thought to have colonised the American continents around 1.5 to 2 million years ago, leading to the current H. zea populations on the American continents. The relatively recent species divergence history is evident in mating compatibility between H. zea and H. armigera under laboratory conditions. Despite periodic interceptions of H. armigera into North America, this pest species is not believed to have successfully established significant populations on either continent. In this study, we provide molecular evidence via mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA cytochrome oxidase I (COI and cytochrome b (Cyt b partial gene sequences for the successful recent incursion of H. armigera into the New World, with individuals being detected at two sites (Primavera do Leste, Pedra Preta within the State of Mato Grosso in Brazil. The mtDNA COI and Cyt b haplotypes detected in the Brazilian H. armigera individuals are common throughout the Old World, thus precluding identification of the founder populations. Combining the two partial mtDNA gene sequences showed that at least two matrilines are present in Brazil, while the inclusion of three nuclear DNA Exon-Primed Intron-Crossing (EPIC markers identified a further two possible matrilines in our samples. The economic, biosecurity, resistance management, ecological and evolutionary implications of this incursion are discussed in relation to the current agricultural practices in the Americas.

  5. [The social status of women. For a new world order].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gauffenic, A

    1985-01-01

    Curiosity about the place of women in development and solidarity with women's organizations in different economies prompt consideration of the individual and collective possibilities for women in public life and of the social status of women. Recent histories of Third World countries as reported in UN conferences held in Tunisia, Portugal, and New Delhi in 1982-83 and Western experience are the basis for identification of constraints in the development of women's movements and alternatives for participation of women in a new world order. Women have always contributed to the life and economic development of their countries, often in activities not recognized as economic, but they are excluded from processes of institutionalization and their presence is very rare at the highest levels of the social hierarchy. Women organized themselves and participated in the liberation movements of India, Malaysia, Libya, and Egypt, but were later relegated to their customary low status. Among the structural and ideological factors impeding access of women to political power and a true social status are cultural nationalism and religious ideology. Socialization is 1 of the processes by which members of a society acquire a common fund of knowledge, but norms produced by the dominant ideology, in this case male, pose a problem to dominated groups concerning the nature of their particularity. Such groups can strive for integration at the price of risking loss of identity, or they can contest the rules, situating themselves at the margin of the "laws" or rules. The essential question concerns the possibility of women rethinking the process and contents of socialization. A new system is required of perceptions, evaluations, and actions founded on new human values. In this perspective the women's movement would contribute to the realization of a new world order. Theories of equality, to comprehend reality in its entirety, must include equality while developing the concept of differences

  6. Properties, production and applications of camelid single-domain antibody fragments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Harmsen, M.M.; Haard, de H.J.

    2007-01-01

    Camelids produce functional antibodies devoid of light chains of which the single N-terminal domain is fully capable of antigen binding. These single-domain antibody fragments (VHHs or Nanobodies®) have several advantages for biotechnological applications. They are well expressed in microorganisms a

  7. Algal chloroplast produced camelid VH H antitoxins are capable of neutralizing botulinum neurotoxin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrera, Daniel J; Rosenberg, Julian N; Chiu, Joanna G; Chang, Yung-Nien; Debatis, Michelle; Ngoi, Soo-Mun; Chang, John T; Shoemaker, Charles B; Oyler, George A; Mayfield, Stephen P

    2015-01-01

    We have produced three antitoxins consisting of the variable domains of camelid heavy chain-only antibodies (VH H) by expressing the genes in the chloroplast of green algae. These antitoxins accumulate as soluble proteins capable of binding and neutralizing botulinum neurotoxin. Furthermore, they accumulate at up to 5% total soluble protein, sufficient expression to easily produce these antitoxins at scale from algae. The genes for the three different antitoxins were transformed into Chlamydomonas reinhardtii chloroplasts and their products purified from algae lysates and assayed for in vitro biological activity using toxin protection assays. The produced antibody domains bind to botulinum neurotoxin serotype A (BoNT/A) with similar affinities as camelid antibodies produced in Escherichia coli, and they are similarly able to protect primary rat neurons from intoxication by BoNT/A. Furthermore, the camelid antibodies were produced in algae without the use of solubilization tags commonly employed in E. coli. These camelid antibody domains are potent antigen-binding proteins and the heterodimer fusion protein containing two VH H domains was capable of neutralizing BoNT/A at near equimolar concentrations with the toxin. Intact antibody domains were detected in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract of mice treated orally with antitoxin-producing microalgae. These findings support the use of orally delivered antitoxins produced in green algae as a novel treatment for botulism.

  8. Analysis of mitochondrial DNA in Bolivian llama, alpaca and vicuna populations: a contribution to the phylogeny of the South American camelids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barreta, J; Gutiérrez-Gil, B; Iñiguez, V; Saavedra, V; Chiri, R; Latorre, E; Arranz, J J

    2013-04-01

    The objectives of this work were to assess the mtDNA diversity of Bolivian South American camelid (SAC) populations and to shed light on the evolutionary relationships between the Bolivian camelids and other populations of SACs. We have analysed two different mtDNA regions: the complete coding region of the MT-CYB gene and 513 bp of the D-loop region. The populations sampled included Bolivian llamas, alpacas and vicunas, and Chilean guanacos. High levels of genetic diversity were observed in the studied populations. In general, MT-CYB was more variable than D-loop. On a species level, the vicunas showed the lowest genetic variability, followed by the guanacos, alpacas and llamas. Phylogenetic analyses performed by including additional available mtDNA sequences from the studied species confirmed the existence of the two monophyletic clades previously described by other authors for guanacos (G) and vicunas (V). Significant levels of mtDNA hybridization were found in the domestic species. Our sequence analyses revealed significant sequence divergence within clade G, and some of the Bolivian llamas grouped with the majority of the southern guanacos. This finding supports the existence of more than the one llama domestication centre in South America previously suggested on the basis of archaeozoological evidence. Additionally, analysis of D-loop sequences revealed two new matrilineal lineages that are distinct from the previously reported G and V clades. The results presented here represent the first report on the population structure and genetic variability of Bolivian camelids and may help to elucidate the complex and dynamic domestication process of SAC populations.

  9. The new world atlas of artificial night sky brightness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falchi, Fabio; Cinzano, Pierantonio; Duriscoe, Dan; Kyba, Christopher C M; Elvidge, Christopher D; Baugh, Kimberly; Portnov, Boris A; Rybnikova, Nataliya A; Furgoni, Riccardo

    2016-06-01

    Artificial lights raise night sky luminance, creating the most visible effect of light pollution-artificial skyglow. Despite the increasing interest among scientists in fields such as ecology, astronomy, health care, and land-use planning, light pollution lacks a current quantification of its magnitude on a global scale. To overcome this, we present the world atlas of artificial sky luminance, computed with our light pollution propagation software using new high-resolution satellite data and new precision sky brightness measurements. This atlas shows that more than 80% of the world and more than 99% of the U.S. and European populations live under light-polluted skies. The Milky Way is hidden from more than one-third of humanity, including 60% of Europeans and nearly 80% of North Americans. Moreover, 23% of the world's land surfaces between 75°N and 60°S, 88% of Europe, and almost half of the United States experience light-polluted nights.

  10. The new world atlas of artificial night sky brightness

    CERN Document Server

    Falchi, Fabio; Duriscoe, Dan; Kyba, Christopher C M; Elvidge, Christopher D; Baugh, Kimberly; Portnov, Boris A; Rybnikova, Nataliya A; Furgoni, Riccardo

    2016-01-01

    Artificial lights raise night sky luminance, creating the most visible effect of light pollution-artificial skyglow. Despite the increasing interest among scientists in fields such as ecology, astronomy, health care, and land-use planning, light pollution lacks a current quantification of its magnitude on a global scale. To overcome this, we present the world atlas of artificial sky luminance, computed with our light pollution propagation software using new high-resolution satellite data and new precision sky brightness measurements. This atlas shows that more than 80% of the world and more than 99% of the U.S. and European populations live under light-polluted skies. The Milky Way is hidden from more than one-third of humanity, including 60% of Europeans and nearly 80% of North Americans. Moreover, 23% of the world's land surfaces between 75{\\deg}N and 60{\\deg}S, 88% of Europe, and almost half of the United States experience light-polluted nights.

  11. Comparative analysis of disease pathogenesis and molecular mechanisms of New World and Old World arenavirus infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLay, Lisa; Liang, Yuying; Ly, Hinh

    2014-01-01

    Arenaviruses can cause fatal human haemorrhagic fever (HF) diseases for which vaccines and therapies are extremely limited. Both the New World (NW) and Old World (OW) groups of arenaviruses contain HF-causing pathogens. Although these two groups share many similarities, important differences with regard to pathogenicity and molecular mechanisms of virus infection exist. These closely related pathogens share many characteristics, including genome structure, viral assembly, natural host selection and the ability to interfere with innate immune signalling. However, members of the NW and OW viruses appear to use different receptors for cellular entry, as well as different mechanisms of virus internalization. General differences in disease signs and symptoms and pathological lesions in patients infected with either NW or OW arenaviruses are also noted and discussed herein. Whilst both the OW Lassa virus (LASV) and the NW Junin virus (JUNV) can cause disruption of the vascular endothelium, which is an important pathological feature of HF, the immune responses to these related pathogens seem to be quite distinct. Whereas LASV infection results in an overall generalized immune suppression, patients infected with JUNV seem to develop a cytokine storm. Additionally, the type of immune response required for recovery and clearance of the virus is different between NW and OW infections. These differences may be important to allow the viruses to evade host immune detection. Understanding these differences will aid the development of new vaccines and treatment strategies against deadly HF viral infections.

  12. Characterization of tobacco geminiviruses in the Old and New World.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paximadis, M; Idris, A M; Torres-Jerez, I; Villarreal, A; Rey, M E; Brown, J K

    1999-01-01

    Biological differences and molecular variability between six phenotypically distinct tobacco-infecting geminivirus isolates from southern Africa (Zimbabwe) and Mexico were investigated. Host range studies conducted with tobacco virus isolates ZIM H from Zimbabwe and MEX 15 and MEX 32 from Mexico indicated all had narrow host ranges restricted to the Solanaceae. Alignment of coat protein gene (CP) and common region (CR) sequences obtained by PCR, and phylogenetic analysis of the CP sequences indicated Zimbabwean isolates were distantly related to those from Mexico and that geographically proximal isolates shared their closest affinities with Old and New World geminiviruses, respectively. Zimbabwean isolates formed a distinct cluster of closely related variants (> 98% sequence identity) of the same species, while MEX 15 segregated independently from MEX 32, the former constituting a distinct species among New World geminiviruses, and the latter being a variant, Texas pepper virus-Chiapas isolate (TPV-CPS) with 95% sequence identity to TPV-TAM. Results collectively indicated a geographic basis for phylogenetic relationships rather than a specific affiliation with tobacco as a natural host. MEX 15 is provisionally described as a new begomovirus, tobacco apical stunt virus, TbASV, whose closest CP relative is cabbage leaf curl virus, and ZIM isolates are provisionally designated as tobacco leaf curl virus, TbLCV-ZIM, a new Eastern Hemisphere begomovirus, which has as its closest relative, chayote mosaic virus from Nigeria.

  13. A New Globalization Paradigm: World Unity or Alternatives for Development?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oleg Shvydanenko

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with the conceptual foundations of the modern global economic system of development. It reflects the cyclical nature of changes to and the details of global integration processes. The creation of a global economy from a multi-paradigmatic angle is briefly outlined, taking into account the modern paradigms of globalization and the predominance of alternatives to the future development of a global economic space. The article investigates the development of a new type of world economy, a multi-system with a proven role for linkages and a more consolidated world economy. The article reveals the initial conditions for and main qualitative changes related to the integrated development of a complex network of interdependent national societies and macro-regional geo-economic structures. The article also reveals changes in the configuration of those factors that provide competitiveness for these societies and geo-economic formations.

  14. D-Brane superstrings and new perspective of our world

    CERN Document Server

    Hashimoto, Koji

    2012-01-01

    Superstring theory is a promising theory which can potentially unify all the forces and the matters in particle physics. A new multi-dimensional object which is called "D-brane" was found. It drastically changed our perspective of a unified world. We may live on membrane-like hypersurfaces in higher dimensions ("braneworld scenario"), or we can create blackholes at particle accelarators, or the dynamics of quarks is shown to be equivalent to the higher dimensional gravity theory. All these scenarios are explained in this book with plain words but with little use of equations and with many figures. The book starts with a summary of long-standing problems in elementary particle physics and explains the D-branes and many applications of them. It ends with future roads for a unified ultimate theory of our world.  

  15. Aboriginal new world epidemiolgy and medical care, and the impact of Old World disease imports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, M T

    1976-11-01

    Various workers, including T. D. Stewart, claim that the aboriginal Americas were relatively disease-free because of the bering Strait cold-screen, eliminating many pathogens, and the paucity of zoonotic infections because of few domestic animals. Evidence of varying validity suggests that precontact Americns had their own strains of treponemic infections, bacillary and amoebic dysenteries, influenza and viral penumonia and other respiratory diseases, salmonellosis and perhaps other food poisoning, various arthritides, some endoparasites such as the ascarids, and several geographically circumscribed diseases such as the rickettsial verruca (Carrion's disease) and New World leishmaniasis and trypanosomiasis. Questionably aboriginal are tuberculosis and typhus. Accordingly, virtually all the "crowd-type" ecopathogenic diseases such as smallpox, yellow fever, typhoid, malaria, measles, pertussis, polio, etc., appear to have been absent from the New World, and were only brought in by White conquerors and their Black slaves. My hypothesis is that native American medical care systems--especially in the more culturally advanced areas--were sufficiently sophisticated to deal with native disease entities with reasonable competence. But native medical systems could not cope with the "crowd-type" disease imports that struck Indian and Eskimos as "virgin-field" populations. Reanalysis of native population losses through a genocidal combination of diease, war, slavery and attendant cultural disruption by Dobyns, Cook and others strongly suggest that traditiona estimates underplayed the death toll by a factor of the general order of ten. This would make for an immediately pre-contact Indian population of some 90-111 million instead of the tradition 8-11 million. Evidence is growing that Indians may have been no more susceptible to new pathogens that are other "virgin soil" populations, and thus their immune systems need not be considered less effective than those in other people

  16. Old World hantaviruses in rodents in New Orleans, Louisiana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cross, Robert W; Waffa, Bradley; Freeman, Ashley; Riegel, Claudia; Moses, Lina M; Bennett, Andrew; Safronetz, David; Fischer, Elizabeth R; Feldmann, Heinz; Voss, Thomas G; Bausch, Daniel G

    2014-05-01

    Seoul virus, an Old World hantavirus, is maintained in brown rats and causes a mild form of hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) in humans. We captured rodents in New Orleans, Louisiana and tested them for the presence of Old World hantaviruses by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) with sequencing, cell culture, and electron microscopy; 6 (3.4%) of 178 rodents captured--all brown rats--were positive for a Seoul virus variant previously coined Tchoupitoulas virus, which was noted in rodents in New Orleans in the 1980s. The finding of Tchoupitoulas virus in New Orleans over 25 years since its first discovery suggests stable endemicity in the city. Although the degree to which this virus causes human infection and disease remains unknown, repeated demonstration of Seoul virus in rodent populations, recent cases of laboratory-confirmed HFRS in some US cities, and a possible link with hypertensive renal disease warrant additional investigation in both rodents and humans.

  17. Referential alarm calling behaviour in New World primates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiane CÄSAR, Klaus ZUBERBÜHLER

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available There is relatively good evidence that non-human primates can communicate about objects and events in their environment in ways that allow recipients to draw inferences about the nature of the event experienced by the signaller. In some species, there is also evidence that the basic semantic units are not individual calls, but call sequences and the combinations generated by them. These two findings are relevant to theories pertaining to the origins of human language because of the resemblances of these phenomena with linguistic reference and syntactic organisation. Until recently, however, most research efforts on the primate origins of human language have involved Old World species with comparatively few systematic studies on New World monkeys, which has prevented insights into the deeper phylogenetic roots and evolutionary origins of language-relevant capacities. To address this, we review the older primate literature and very recent evidence for functionally referential communication and call combinations in New World primates. Within the existing literature there is ample evidence in both Callitrichids and Cebids for acoustically distinct call variants given to external disturbances that are accompanied by distinct behavioural responses. A general pattern is that one call type is typically produced in response to a wide range of general disturbances, often on the ground but also including inter-group encounters, while another call type is produced in response to a much narrower range of aerial threats. This pattern is already described for Old World monkeys and Prosimians, suggesting an early evolutionary origin. Second, recent work with black-fronted titi monkeys has produced evidence for different alarm call sequences consisting of acoustically distinct call types. These sequences appear to encode several aspects of the predation event simultaneously, notably predator type and location. Since meaningful call sequences have already been

  18. The genetic prehistory of the New World Arctic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raghavan, Maanasa; DeGiorgio, Michael; Albrechtsen, Anders; Moltke, Ida; Skoglund, Pontus; Korneliussen, Thorfinn S; Grønnow, Bjarne; Appelt, Martin; Gulløv, Hans Christian; Friesen, T Max; Fitzhugh, William; Malmström, Helena; Rasmussen, Simon; Olsen, Jesper; Melchior, Linea; Fuller, Benjamin T; Fahrni, Simon M; Stafford, Thomas; Grimes, Vaughan; Renouf, M A Priscilla; Cybulski, Jerome; Lynnerup, Niels; Lahr, Marta Mirazon; Britton, Kate; Knecht, Rick; Arneborg, Jette; Metspalu, Mait; Cornejo, Omar E; Malaspinas, Anna-Sapfo; Wang, Yong; Rasmussen, Morten; Raghavan, Vibha; Hansen, Thomas V O; Khusnutdinova, Elza; Pierre, Tracey; Dneprovsky, Kirill; Andreasen, Claus; Lange, Hans; Hayes, M Geoffrey; Coltrain, Joan; Spitsyn, Victor A; Götherström, Anders; Orlando, Ludovic; Kivisild, Toomas; Villems, Richard; Crawford, Michael H; Nielsen, Finn C; Dissing, Jørgen; Heinemeier, Jan; Meldgaard, Morten; Bustamante, Carlos; O'Rourke, Dennis H; Jakobsson, Mattias; Gilbert, M Thomas P; Nielsen, Rasmus; Willerslev, Eske

    2014-08-29

    The New World Arctic, the last region of the Americas to be populated by humans, has a relatively well-researched archaeology, but an understanding of its genetic history is lacking. We present genome-wide sequence data from ancient and present-day humans from Greenland, Arctic Canada, Alaska, Aleutian Islands, and Siberia. We show that Paleo-Eskimos (~3000 BCE to 1300 CE) represent a migration pulse into the Americas independent of both Native American and Inuit expansions. Furthermore, the genetic continuity characterizing the Paleo-Eskimo period was interrupted by the arrival of a new population, representing the ancestors of present-day Inuit, with evidence of past gene flow between these lineages. Despite periodic abandonment of major Arctic regions, a single Paleo-Eskimo metapopulation likely survived in near-isolation for more than 4000 years, only to vanish around 700 years ago.

  19. Mirror Neurons in a New World Monkey, Common Marmoset.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Wataru; Banno, Taku; Miyakawa, Naohisa; Abe, Hiroshi; Goda, Naokazu; Ichinohe, Noritaka

    2015-01-01

    Mirror neurons respond when executing a motor act and when observing others' similar act. So far, mirror neurons have been found only in macaques, humans, and songbirds. To investigate the degree of phylogenetic specialization of mirror neurons during the course of their evolution, we determined whether mirror neurons with similar properties to macaques occur in a New World monkey, the common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus). The ventral premotor cortex (PMv), where mirror neurons have been reported in macaques, is difficult to identify in marmosets, since no sulcal landmarks exist in the frontal cortex. We addressed this problem using "in vivo" connection imaging methods. That is, we first identified cells responsive to others' grasping action in a clear landmark, the superior temporal sulcus (STS), under anesthesia, and injected fluorescent tracers into the region. By fluorescence stereomicroscopy, we identified clusters of labeled cells in the ventrolateral frontal cortex, which were confirmed to be within the ventrolateral frontal cortex including PMv after sacrifice. We next implanted electrodes into the ventrolateral frontal cortex and STS and recorded single/multi-units under an awake condition. As a result, we found neurons in the ventrolateral frontal cortex with characteristic "mirror" properties quite similar to those in macaques. This finding suggests that mirror neurons occur in a common ancestor of New and Old World monkeys and its common properties are preserved during the course of primate evolution.

  20. A new local-world evolving network model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qin Sen; Dai Guan-Zhong

    2009-01-01

    In some real complex networks, only a few nodes can obtain the global information about the entire networks, but most of the nodes own only local connections therefore own only local information of the networks. A new local-world evolving network model is proposed in this paper. In the model, not all the nodes obtain local network information, which is different from the local world network model proposed by Li and Chen (LC model). In the LC model, each node has only the local connections therefore owns only local information about the entire networks. Theoretical analysis and numerical simulation show that adjusting the ratio of the number of nodes obtaining the global information of the network to the total number of nodes can effectively control the valuing range for the power-law exponent of the new network. Therefore, if the topological structure of a complex network, especially its exponent of power-law degree distribution, needs controlling, we just add or take away a few nodes which own the global information of the network.

  1. Systematics of the blackfly subgenus Trichodagmia Enderlein (Diptera: Simuliidae: Simulium) in the new world

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hernández Triana, L.M.

    2011-01-01

    Systematics of the blackfly subgenus Trichodagmia ENDERLEIN (Diptera: Simuliidae: Simulium) in the New World The systematics of the New World subgenus Trichodagmia has been reassessed by employing an integrated taxonomic approach based upon revisionary taxonomy, phylogenetic (cladistics) analysis

  2. The developing world in The New England Journal of Medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Banerjee Amitava

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Rampant disease in poor countries impedes development and contributes to growing North-South disparities; however, leading international medical journals underreport on health research priorities for developing countries. Methods We examined 416 weekly issues of the New England Journal of Medicine (NEJM over an eight-year period, January 1997 to December 2004. A total of 8857 articles were reviewed by both authors. The content of each issue was evaluated in six categories: research, review articles, editorial, correspondence, book reviews and miscellaneous. If the title or abstract concerned a topic pertinent to any health issue in the developing world, the article was reviewed. Results Over the eight years covered in this study, 1997–2004, in the three essential categories of original research articles, review articles and editorials, less than 3.0 percent of these addressed health issues in the developing world. Publications relevant to DC were largely concerned with HIV and communicable diseases and constituted 135 of the 202 articles of which 63 were devoted to HIV. Only 23 articles addressed non-communicable disease in the DC and only a single article – a book review – discussed heart disease. Conclusion The medical information gap between rich and poor countries as judged by publications in the NEJM appears to be larger than the gap in the funding for research. Under-representation of developing world health issues in the medical literature is a global phenomenon. International medical journals cannot rectify global inequities, but they have an important role in educating their constituencies about the global divide.

  3. Healthy by law: heading towards a brave new world?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gignon, Maxime; Ganry, Olivier; Manaouil, Cécile

    2012-12-01

    The law is a tool used by Government to protect public health. Health is an omnipresent preoccupation, inviting each one of us to protect ourselves against potential risks at all times and in all places. The right to health protection is a source of benefit entitlements and rights-obligations that render it effective. However, believing that the law can and should regulate all sectors of human life, still a utopian belief. International law suffers from intrinsic weaknesses that limit its effectiveness. The current economic context has lead to stricter controls over healthcare expenditure faced with the ever-growing demand for treatment, limiting the right to healthcare protection. Through health law, the State has developed controls over individuals. Individual liberties tend to be limited to the cause of the public health policy. Healthy by law, raises a question: are we heading towards a brave new world as described by Aldous Huxley?

  4. System Concept Design for the New Worlds Observer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmons, W.; Kasdin, N. J.; Vanderbei, R. J.; Cash, W.

    2003-12-01

    The New Worlds Observer (NWO) is a proposed space mission to provide high resolution spectroscopy from the far UV to the near IR of extra-solar terrestrial sized planets. The design of NWO is based on the concept of a large space-based pinhole camera made up of two spacecraft flying in formation. The first spacecraft is a large, thin occulting shield (perhaps 100's of meters in diameter) with a ``pinhole'' aperture about 10m in diameter. The second spacecraft is a conventional-quality space telescope (possibly with a 10m primary mirror) which "flies" in the focal plane of the camera to observe the image of the extra-solar planets. In this paper we describe the design of the two spacecraft system. In particular, the pinhole design utilizes the shaped pupil coronagraph pioneered for the Terrestrial Planet Finder. We describe the analysis and design of shaped ``pinholes'' to achieve the high contrast necessary for planet finding.

  5. U.S. asylum policy and the New World Order.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briggs, V M

    1993-01-01

    US policy on refugees was developed as an ad hoc response to the problem of displaced persons in Europe following the Second World War and quickly became a foreign policy tactic to be manipulated in the context of the Cold War political struggle. It was not until 1980 that the US formally adopted an asylee policy in legislative forum. That policy, too, was affected by the Cold War. The dismantlement of the Berlin Wall in 1989 and the subsequent collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991, however, have radically changed the dynamics of refugee and asylee issues. Refugee and asylee pressures are increasingly being linked with the broader worldwide issues of population growth, unbalanced economic development, and migration pressures. New refugee and asylum policies are required in the new world order which are not predicated upon the need to respond to communism. These policies must be reserved for truly persecuted individuals. The author discusses the creation of an asylum policy, mass asylum, and pending policy reforms. The refugee system provides a means of access for many people looking to escape the poverty, unemployment, and destitution of their homeland. Asylum policy is the most vulnerable element of refugee policy for exploitation. To alleviate the economic forces which lie at the core of asylum abuse will require more fundamental policies than the procedural changes currently under consideration by Congress or those proposed by President Clinton. Among them must be policies which promote family planning and provide the means for its practice; expand commitments to economic development assistance; and link trade access to the US marketplace and the receipt of foreign aid to the strict adherence of internationally specified human rights practices.

  6. Referential alarm calling behaviour in New World primates

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cristiane C(A)SAR; Klaus ZUBERB(U)HLER

    2012-01-01

    There is relatively good evidence that non-human primates can communicate about objects and events in their environment in ways that allow recipients to draw inferences about the nature of the event experienced by the signaller.In some species,there is also evidence that the basic semantic units are not individual calls,but call sequences and the combinations generated by them.These two findings are relevant to theories pertaining to the origins of human language because of the resemblances of these phenomena with linguistic reference and syntactic organisation.Until recently,however,most research efforts on the primate origins of human language have involved Old Word species with comparatively few systematic studies on New World monkeys,which has prevented insights into the deeper phylogenetic roots and evolutionary origins of language-relevant capacities.To address this,we review the older primate literature and very recent evidence for functionally referential communication and call combinations in New World primates.Within the existing literature there is ample evidence in both Callitrichids and Cebids for acoustically distinct call variants given to external disturbances that are accompanied by distinct behavioural responses.A general pattern is that one call type is typically produced in response to a wide range of general disturbances,often on the ground but also including inter-group encounters,while another call type is produced in response to a much narrower range of aerial threats.This pattern is already described for Old World monkeys and Prosimians,suggesting an early evolutionary origin.Second,recent work with black-fronted titi monkeys has produced evidence for different alarm call sequences consisting of acoustically distinct call types.These sequences appear to encode several aspects of the predation event simultaneously,notably predator type and location.Since meaningful call sequences have already been described in Old Word primates,we suggest

  7. Diversity of the World and New Diplomatic Idea of China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    Diversity is the basic feature of the world, which is not contradictory to the democratization of international relations and the efforts of the people of various countries in building a harmonious world. In recent years, on the premises of respecting and maintaining diversity of the world, and by conforming to the historical trend of the times, China has

  8. Fully Human VH Single Domains That Rival the Stability and Cleft Recognition of Camelid Antibodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rouet, Romain; Dudgeon, Kip; Christie, Mary; Langley, David; Christ, Daniel

    2015-05-01

    Human VH single domains represent a promising class of antibody fragments with applications as therapeutic modalities. Unfortunately, isolated human VH domains also generally display poor biophysical properties and a propensity to aggregate. This has encouraged the development of non-human antibody domains as alternative means of antigen recognition and, in particular, camelid (VHH) domains. Naturally devoid of light chain partners, these domains are characterized by favorable biophysical properties and propensity for cleft binding, a highly desirable characteristic, allowing the targeting of cryptic epitopes. In contrast, previously reported structures of human VH single domains had failed to recapitulate this property. Here we report the engineering and characterization of phage display libraries of stable human VH domains and the selection of binders against a diverse set of antigens. Unlike "camelized" human domains, the domains do not rely on potentially immunogenic framework mutations and maintain the structure of the VH/VL interface. Structure determination in complex with hen egg white lysozyme revealed an extended VH binding interface, with complementarity-determining region 3 deeply penetrating into the active site cleft, highly reminiscent of what has been observed for camelid domains. Taken together, our results demonstrate that fully human VH domains can be constructed that are not only stable and well expressed but also rival the cleft binding properties of camelid antibodies.

  9. Paridris Kieffer of the New World (Hymenoptera, Platygastroidea, Platygastridae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elijah Talamas

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Paridris in the New World is revised (Hymenoptera: Platygastridae. Fifteen species are described, of which 13 are new. Paridris aenea (Ashmead (Mexico (Tamaulipas and West Indies south to Bolivia and southern Brazil (Rio de Janeiro state, P. armata Talamas, sp. n. (Venezuela, P. convexa Talamas, sp. n. (Costa Rica, Panama, P. dnophos Talamas, sp. n. (Mexico (Vera Cruz south to Bolivia and central Brazil (Goiás, P. gongylos Talamas & Masner, sp. n. (United States: Appalachian Mountains of Virginia, Tennessee, South Carolina, P. gorn Talamas & Masner, sp. n. (United States: Ohio south to Alabama, Georgia, P. invicta Talamas & Masner, sp. n. (Brazil: São Paulo, P. isabelicae Talamas & Masner, sp. n. (Cuba, Dominican Republic, P. lemete Talamas & Masner, sp. n. (Puerto Rico, P. minor Talamas, sp. n. (Cuba, P. nayakorum Talamas, sp. n. (Costa Rica, P. pallipes (Ashmead (southeastern Canada, United States south to Costa Rica, also Brazil (São Paulo, P. psydrax Talamas & Masner, sp. n. (Argentina, Mexico, Paraguay, United States, Venezuela, P. saurotos Talamas, sp. n. (Jamaica, P. soucouyant Talamas & Masner, sp. n. (Colombia, Trinidad and Tobago, Venezuela. Paridris brevipennis Fouts, P. laeviceps (Ashmead, and P. nigricornis (Fouts are treated as junior synonyms of P. pallipes; Paridris opaca is transferred to Probaryconus. Lectotypes are designated for Idris aenea Ashmead and Caloteleia aenea Ashmead.

  10. The new World Atlas of Artificial Sky Brightness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falchi, Fabio; Cinzano, Pierantonio; Kyba, Christopher C. M.; Portnov, Boris A.

    2015-08-01

    I present the main steps toward the completion of the new World Atlas of Artificial Sky Brightness (WA II) and some results. The computational technique has been updated, in comparison to the first World Atlas, to take into account both sources and sites elevation. The elevation data are from USGS GTOPO30 global digital elevation model, with the same pixel size as the WA II maps. The upward emission function used to compute the Atlas is a three parameters function. The parameters can be constrained to the database of Earth based night sky brightness measurements. In this way we can use the better fitting upward function for the final map’s calibration. We maintained constant atmosphere parameters over the entire Earth, identical to those used for the first Atlas (Garstang atmospheric clarity coefficient k=1, equivalent to a vertical extinction at sea level of 0.33 magnitude in the V band). This was done in order to avoid introducing a local bias due to different conditions that may confound the light pollution propagation effects. The radiance data used are those from Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) Day-Night Band (DNB) on board the Suomi NPP satellite. The use of this newly available radiance data allows for an increased real resolution, even while maintaining the same 30"x30" lat-lon pixel size. Anyway, a higher resolution is really appreciable only in the immediate proximity of sources of light pollution (e.g. inside a big city). The VIIRS DNB data used for the input data were chosen from the months ranging from May to September in order to avoid introducing bias from the variable snow coverage in mid to high northern latitudes. In the southern hemisphere this problem is far less pronounced. The WA II takes advantage of the now enormous database of Earth based sky brightness measurements obtained mainly with Sky Quality Meters, but also with CCD measurements.

  11. Contemporary world migration - towards new terminology, patterns and policies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Šantić Danica

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In the last decades, after the Cold War and the fall of the Berlin wall, the strengthening of overall population mobility is evident on local, regional, national and global scale. In addition, there are changes in the scope and direction of migration, their structural characteristics and increasing in the number of determining factors and consequences, which affects the complexity of this phenomenon. It is important to point out the emergence of new forms of migration as a result of intensifying pace of globalization, which is an integral part of the migration. The total number of migrants in the world (internal and external in the first decade of the XXI century reached the highest value in history and is around one billion, with small, but continuous increase in share of total population. This means that one in every seven person in the world has changed place of residence, either within their own country (about 700 million of internal migrants or moved to another country (244 million international migrants. Therefore some authors points out that all of us are becoming migrants. Also, the number of irregular migrants recently has reached its highest amount, which implies an intensification of government actions to regulate migration through the creation of effective policies, spatial mobility and intensification of bilateral, regional and international negotiations in this domain. Estimates show that the number of migrants will continue to grow, especially the number of climate migrants, persons who left their homes due to changes in the environment. That is why it is of crucial importance in a first place to understand migrations properly and then to create the steps towards the best solutions in solving the problems caused by population movement in space and create proper migration policies.

  12. A new world malaria map: Plasmodium falciparum endemicity in 2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gething Peter W

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Transmission intensity affects almost all aspects of malaria epidemiology and the impact of malaria on human populations. Maps of transmission intensity are necessary to identify populations at different levels of risk and to evaluate objectively options for disease control. To remain relevant operationally, such maps must be updated frequently. Following the first global effort to map Plasmodium falciparum malaria endemicity in 2007, this paper describes the generation of a new world map for the year 2010. This analysis is extended to provide the first global estimates of two other metrics of transmission intensity for P. falciparum that underpin contemporary questions in malaria control: the entomological inoculation rate (PfEIR and the basic reproductive number (PfR. Methods Annual parasite incidence data for 13,449 administrative units in 43 endemic countries were sourced to define the spatial limits of P. falciparum transmission in 2010 and 22,212 P. falciparum parasite rate (PfPR surveys were used in a model-based geostatistical (MBG prediction to create a continuous contemporary surface of malaria endemicity within these limits. A suite of transmission models were developed that link PfPR to PfEIR and PfR and these were fitted to field data. These models were combined with the PfPR map to create new global predictions of PfEIR and PfR. All output maps included measured uncertainty. Results An estimated 1.13 and 1.44 billion people worldwide were at risk of unstable and stable P. falciparum malaria, respectively. The majority of the endemic world was predicted with a median PfEIR of less than one and a median PfRc of less than two. Values of either metric exceeding 10 were almost exclusive to Africa. The uncertainty described in both PfEIR and PfR was substantial in regions of intense transmission. Conclusions The year 2010 has a particular significance as an evaluation milestone for malaria global health policy. The

  13. Phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase 1 gene (Pck1) displays parallel evolution between Old World and New World fruit bats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Lei; Yin, Qiuyuan; Irwin, David M; Zhang, Shuyi

    2015-01-01

    Bats are an ideal mammalian group for exploring adaptations to fasting due to their large variety of diets and because fasting is a regular part of their life cycle. Mammals fed on a carbohydrate-rich diet experience a rapid decrease in blood glucose levels during a fast, thus, the development of mechanisms to resist the consequences of regular fasts, experienced on a daily basis, must have been crucial in the evolution of frugivorous bats. Phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase 1 (PEPCK1, encoded by the Pck1 gene) is the rate-limiting enzyme in gluconeogenesis and is largely responsible for the maintenance of glucose homeostasis during fasting in fruit-eating bats. To test whether Pck1 has experienced adaptive evolution in frugivorous bats, we obtained Pck1 coding sequence from 20 species of bats, including five Old World fruit bats (OWFBs) (Pteropodidae) and two New World fruit bats (NWFBs) (Phyllostomidae). Our molecular evolutionary analyses of these sequences revealed that Pck1 was under purifying selection in both Old World and New World fruit bats with no evidence of positive selection detected in either ancestral branch leading to fruit bats. Interestingly, however, six specific amino acid substitutions were detected on the ancestral lineage of OWFBs. In addition, we found considerable evidence for parallel evolution, at the amino acid level, between the PEPCK1 sequences of Old World fruit bats and New World fruit bats. Test for parallel evolution showed that four parallel substitutions (Q276R, R503H, I558V and Q593R) were driven by natural selection. Our study provides evidence that Pck1 underwent parallel evolution between Old World and New World fruit bats, two lineages of mammals that feed on a carbohydrate-rich diet and experience regular periods of fasting as part of their life cycle.

  14. The new world of retirement income security in America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinn, Joseph F; Cahill, Kevin E

    2016-01-01

    We have entered a new world of retirement income security in America, with older individuals more exposed to market risk and more vulnerable to financial insecurity than prior generations. This reflects an evolution that has altered the historical vision of a financially secure retirement supported by Social Security, a defined-benefit pension plan, and individual savings. Today, 2 of these 3 retirement income sources-pensions and savings-are absent or of modest importance for many older Americans. Retirement income security now often requires earnings from continued work later in life, which exacerbates the economic vulnerability of certain segments of the population, including persons with disabilities, the oldest-old, single women, and individuals with intermittent work histories. Because of the unprecedented aging of our society, further changes to the retirement income landscape are inevitable, but policymakers do have options to help protect the financial stability of older Americans. We can begin by promoting savings at all (especially younger) ages and by removing barriers that discourage work later in life. For individuals already on the cusp of retirement, more needs to be done to educate the public about the value of delaying the receipt of Social Security benefits. Inaction now could mean a return to the days when old age and poverty were closely linked. The negative repercussions of this would extend well beyond traditional economic measures, as physical and mental health outcomes are closely tied to financial security. (PsycINFO Database Record

  15. Molecular phylogenetics of New World searobins (Triglidae; Prionotinae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portnoy, David S; Willis, Stuart C; Hunt, Elizabeth; Swift, Dominic G; Gold, John R; Conway, Kevin W

    2017-02-01

    Phylogenetic relationships among members of the New World searobin genera Bellator and Prionotus (Family Triglidae, Subfamily Prionotinae) and among other searobins in the families Triglidae and Peristediidae were investigated using both mitochondrial and nuclear DNA sequences. Phylogenetic hypotheses derived from maximum likelihood and Bayesian methodologies supported a monophyletic Prionotinae that included four well resolved clades of uncertain relationship; three contained species in the genus Prionotus and one contained species in the genus Bellator. Bellator was always recovered within the genus Prionotus, a result supported by post hoc model testing. Two nominal species of Prionotus (P. alatus and P. paralatus) were not recovered as exclusive lineages, suggesting the two may comprise a single species. Phylogenetic hypotheses also supported a monophyletic Triglidae but only if armored searobins (Family Peristediidae) were included. A robust morphological assessment is needed to further characterize relationships and suggest classification of clades within Prionotinae; for the time being we recommend that Bellator be considered a synonym of Prionotus. Relationships between armored searobins (Family Peristediidae) and searobins (Family Triglidae) and relationships within Triglidae also warrant further study.

  16. F0 fluxbranes, F-walls and new brane worlds

    CERN Document Server

    Clément, G; Clement, Gerard; Gal'tsov, Dmitri

    2002-01-01

    We complete the list of fluxbrane solutions in classical supergravities introducing Melvin type space-times supported by antisymmetric forms of rank $D-1$ and their pseudoscalar duals. In IIB theory these solutions belong to the same family as the seven-brane and D-instanton. In current notation, a fluxbrane supported by the D-1 form is an F0 brane, its euclidean continuation is a cylindrical background which ``interacts'' with the pointlike instanton. The general F0 brane can have a transverse space S_k times R^{(D-k-2)} with 1 <= k <= D-2. For k=1 we find the complete solution containing four parameters, three of them associated with pointlike singularities on the Melvin-type background. The S-dual to the F0 brane in ten dimensions is the F8 fluxbrane of codimension one, or F-wall, similar fluxbranes exist in any dimensions if an appropriate form field is present. F-walls contain naked singularities unless one introduces source branes. In such a way one obtains new brane-world type solutions with two ...

  17. Latitude, elevational climatic zonation and speciation in New World vertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cadena, Carlos Daniel; Kozak, Kenneth H; Gómez, Juan Pablo; Parra, Juan Luis; McCain, Christy M; Bowie, Rauri C K; Carnaval, Ana C; Moritz, Craig; Rahbek, Carsten; Roberts, Trina E; Sanders, Nathan J; Schneider, Christopher J; VanDerWal, Jeremy; Zamudio, Kelly R; Graham, Catherine H

    2012-01-07

    Many biodiversity hotspots are located in montane regions, especially in the tropics. A possible explanation for this pattern is that the narrow thermal tolerances of tropical species and greater climatic stratification of tropical mountains create more opportunities for climate-associated parapatric or allopatric speciation in the tropics relative to the temperate zone. However, it is unclear whether a general relationship exists among latitude, climatic zonation and the ecology of speciation. Recent taxon-specific studies obtained different results regarding the role of climate in speciation in tropical versus temperate areas. Here, we quantify overlap in the climatic distributions of 93 pairs of sister species of mammals, birds, amphibians and reptiles restricted to either the New World tropics or to the Northern temperate zone. We show that elevational ranges of tropical- and temperate-zone species do not differ from one another, yet the temperature range experienced by species in the temperate zone is greater than for those in the tropics. Moreover, tropical sister species tend to exhibit greater similarity in their climatic distributions than temperate sister species. This pattern suggests that evolutionary conservatism in the thermal niches of tropical taxa, coupled with the greater thermal zonation of tropical mountains, may result in increased opportunities for allopatric isolation, speciation and the accumulation of species in tropical montane regions. Our study exemplifies the power of combining phylogenetic and spatial datasets of global climatic variation to explore evolutionary (rather than purely ecological) explanations for the high biodiversity of tropical montane regions.

  18. A multilocus phylogeny of New World jay genera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonaccorso, Elisa; Peterson, A Townsend

    2007-02-01

    We studied phylogenetic relationships of the New World Jays (NWJs) based on DNA sequences from three mitochondrial and two nuclear loci. Sampling included at least two individuals from each of the seven NWJ genera and four outgroups of closely related corvids, as well as six of the 16 Cyanocorax species (including two representatives of the previously recognized "Cissilopha"). Phylogenetic analyses were conducted using maximum parsimony, maximum likelihood, and Bayesian analyses for individual genes and a combined dataset. The combined phylogenetic analysis supports the basal position of Cyanolyca to all other NWJs, a (Cyanocorax (Calocitta, Psilorhinus)) clade, and a ((Cyanocitta, Aphelocoma) Gymnorhinus) clade that agrees with a novel morphological synapomorphy uniting Cyanocitta and Aphelocoma. Within Cyanocorax, C. yncas (former "Xanthoura") is basal to a split among former "Cyssilopha" species and the rest of the Cyanocorax species. To explore implications for the historical biogeography of the NJWs, we used Dispersal-Vicariance Analysis, which indicated that NWJs originated either in Mesoamerica or North America+Mesoamerica, with South American NWJs dispersing three times independently from Mesoamerica.

  19. Treatment of New World cutaneous and mucosal leishmaniases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berman, J D

    1996-01-01

    The most extensive investigations of treatment of New World cutaneous leishmaniasis have been performed against L. panamensis disease in Colombia, and the relative value of regimens shown there may be instructive for disease from other areas. In Colombia, a 90-95% cure rate was achieved with three different drug regimens: The standard regimen of pentavalent antimony (20 mg/ kg/day for 20 days parenterally) A short course of pentamidine (3 mg/kg every other day for four injections intramuscularly The marketed combination of topical paromomycin (15%)-MBCl (12%) for 10 days, plus antimony (20 mg/kg/day parenterally) for 7 days. My view is that all these regimens could be chosen as first-line therapy for cutaneous disease in Colombia. The antimony regimen has the advantage of established use; the disadvantages are cost, requirement for injections each day for 20 days, and considerable morbidity in the last two weeks of therapy. The pentamidine regimen has the advantage of a short time course; the disadvantages are lack of experience with this new regimen and frequent, although moderate, morbidity. The combined topical-parenteral regimen has the advantage of requiring few and nontoxic injections; the primary disadvantage is that the regimen is novel and its efficacy has not been confirmed. It would be expected that cases of lesions in other areas caused by L. braziliensis complex would respond in a similar manner to these regimens. To date, however, only the efficacy of the standard antimonial regimen has been confirmed. In certain regions of Central America, other regimens may be effective. Thus, ketoconazole appears to be effective for the more rapidly self-curing forms of disease (cutaneous disease caused by L. mexicana and L. panamensis from Central America), and a short course of antimony may be effective against L. braziliensis in Guatemala.

  20. Two novel parvoviruses in frugivorous New and Old World bats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Canuti

    Full Text Available Bats, a globally distributed group of mammals with high ecological importance, are increasingly recognized as natural reservoir hosts for viral agents of significance to human and animal health. In the present study, we evaluated pools of blood samples obtained from two phylogenetically distant bat families, in particular from flying foxes (Pteropodidae, Eidolon helvum in West Africa, and from two species of New World leaf-nosed fruit bats (Phyllostomidae, Artibeus jamaicensis and Artibeus lituratus in Central America. A sequence-independent virus discovery technique (VIDISCA was used in combination with high throughput sequencing to detect two novel parvoviruses: a PARV4-like virus named Eh-BtPV-1 in Eidolon helvum from Ghana and the first member of a putative new genus in Artibeus jamaicensis from Panama (Aj-BtPV-1. Those viruses were circulating in the corresponding bat colony at rates of 7-8%. Aj-BtPV-1 was also found in Artibeus lituratus (5.5%. Both viruses were detected in the blood of infected animals at high concentrations: up to 10E8 and to 10E10 copies/ml for Aj-BtPV-1 and Eh-BtPV-1 respectively. Eh-BtPV-1 was additionally detected in all organs collected from bats (brain, lungs, liver, spleen, kidneys and intestine and spleen and kidneys were identified as the most likely sites where viral replication takes place. Our study shows that bat parvoviruses share common ancestors with known parvoviruses of humans and livestock. We also provide evidence that a variety of Parvovirinae are able to cause active infection in bats and that they are widely distributed in these animals with different geographic origin, ecologies and climatic ranges.

  1. New possibilities for a secure and just world

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zagotta, W.E. [ed.

    1994-02-28

    More than a decade ago individuals from three significant institutions in East Bay Area began discussions in response to the apprehensions that were so deep in the early 1980s. These apprehensions were a result of the intense rhetoric between the two superpowers and the casual commentary about ``limited nuclear war.`` The discussions spoke to the mortal danger as well as to the profound moral question revolving around nuclear arms. The issuance of the US Bishops` Pastoral on War and Peace in 1983 gave the group focus and momentum. The Chancellor at the University of California at Berkeley, the President of the Graduate Theological Union (the consortium of theological schools in Berkeley), and the Director of the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (one of the chief designers of American nuclear arms) encouraged us to complete plans for a symposium. It was an era of activism. We chose, however, to serve the theme expressed by Albert Einstein, ``Peace cannot be kept by force, it can only be achieved by understanding.`` After a decade, all of us can commend the leadership of the three institutions and the individuals involved for their perseverance. Their commitments to the pursuit of peace and to the development of an approach to manage the weapons of our time remain a concern of this group even though the great anxiety of a decade ago has subsided. We are now in a time different from that in which the Bishops` Pastoral was written. The talks of Fr. J. Bryan Hehir, Dr. Michael M. May, and Prof. Robert N. Bellah move into new areas of exploration; thus, our theme for this colloquium is ``New Possibilities for a Secure and Just World.`` During our early encounters, one member of our founding group stated that: ``This project will be a work of thirty years.`` Such a profound change in attitude may well be the work of an entire generation.

  2. WORLD

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    1. THE UNITED STATES U.S. President Barack Obama, Israeli Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu and President of the Palestinian National Authority Mahmoud Abbas confer during trilateral negotiations on Middle East peace on September 22 in New York

  3. Innovative Ways to Look at New World Historical Geography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raat, W. Dirk

    2004-01-01

    The Cape Canaveral endeavor led the author to contemplate the history of cartography and the role of geographers and historians in describing the human-environment nexus. He was especially interested in the depiction of the Americas by world historians and geographers. He wanted to answer the question, "How do world historians and geographers…

  4. A new small-world network created by Cellular Automata

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruan, Yuhong; Li, Anwei

    2016-08-01

    In this paper, we generate small-world networks by the Cellular Automaton based on starting with one-dimensional regular networks. Besides the common properties of small-world networks with small average shortest path length and large clustering coefficient, the small-world networks generated in this way have other properties: (i) The edges which are cut in the regular network can be controlled that whether the edges are reconnected or not, and (ii) the number of the edges of the small-world network model equals the number of the edges of the original regular network. In other words, the average degree of the small-world network model equals to the average degree of the original regular network.

  5. Inhibition of the Myotoxicity Induced by Bothrops jararacussu Venom and Isolated Phospholipases A2 by Specific Camelid Single-Domain Antibody Fragments.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nidiane D R Prado

    Full Text Available Antivenoms, produced using animal hyperimmune plasma, remains the standard therapy for snakebites. Although effective against systemic damages, conventional antivenoms have limited efficacy against local tissue damage. Additionally, the hypersensitivity reactions, often elicited by antivenoms, the high costs for animal maintenance, the difficulty of producing homogeneous lots, and the instability of biological products instigate the search for innovative products for antivenom therapy. In this study, camelid antibody fragments (VHH with specificity to Bothropstoxin I and II (BthTX-I and BthTX-II, two myotoxic phospholipases from Bothrops jararacussu venom, were selected from an immune VHH phage display library. After biopanning, 28 and 6 clones recognized BthTX-I and BthTX-II by ELISA, respectively. Complementarity determining regions (CDRs and immunoglobulin frameworks (FRs of 13 VHH-deduced amino acid sequences were identified, as well as the camelid hallmark amino acid substitutions in FR2. Three VHH clones (KF498607, KF498608, and KC329718 were capable of recognizing BthTX-I by Western blot and showed affinity constants in the nanomolar range against both toxins. VHHs inhibited the BthTX-II phospholipase A2 activity, and when tested for cross-reactivity, presented specificity to the Bothrops genus in ELISA. Furthermore, two clones (KC329718 and KF498607 neutralized the myotoxic effects induced by B. jararacussu venom, BthTX-I, BthTX-II, and by a myotoxin from Bothrops brazili venom (MTX-I in mice. Molecular docking revealed that VHH CDRs are expected to bind the C-terminal of both toxins, essential for myotoxic activity, and to epitopes in the BthTX-II enzymatic cleft. Identified VHHs could be a biotechnological tool to improve the treatment for snake envenomation, an important and neglected world public health problem.

  6. Climatic niche evolution in New World monkeys (Platyrrhini.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andressa Duran

    Full Text Available Despite considerable interest in recent years on species distribution modeling and phylogenetic niche conservatism, little is known about the way in which climatic niches change over evolutionary time. This knowledge is of major importance to understand the mechanisms underlying limits of species distributions, as well as to infer how different lineages might be affected by anthropogenic climate change. In this study we investigate the tempo and mode climatic niche evolution in New World monkeys (Platyrrhini. Climatic conditions found throughout the distribution of 140 primate species were investigated using a principal component analysis, which indicated that mean temperature (particularly during the winter is the most important climatic correlate of platyrrhine geographical distributions, accounting for nearly half of the interspecific variation in climatic niches. The effects of precipitation were associated with the second principal component, particularly with respect to the dry season. When models of trait evolution were fit to scores on each of the principal component axes, significant phylogenetic signal was detected for PC1 scores, but not for PC2 scores. Interestingly, although all platyrrhine families occupied comparable regions of climatic space, some aotid species such as Aotus lemurinus, A. jorgehernandezi, and A. miconax show highly distinctive climatic niches associated with drier conditions (high PC2 scores. This shift might have been made possible by their nocturnal habits, which could serve as an exaptation that allow them to be less constrained by humidity during the night. These results underscore the usefulness of investigating explicitly the tempo and mode of climatic niche evolution and its role in determining species distributions.

  7. Climatic niche evolution in New World monkeys (Platyrrhini).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duran, Andressa; Meyer, Andreas L S; Pie, Marcio R

    2013-01-01

    Despite considerable interest in recent years on species distribution modeling and phylogenetic niche conservatism, little is known about the way in which climatic niches change over evolutionary time. This knowledge is of major importance to understand the mechanisms underlying limits of species distributions, as well as to infer how different lineages might be affected by anthropogenic climate change. In this study we investigate the tempo and mode climatic niche evolution in New World monkeys (Platyrrhini). Climatic conditions found throughout the distribution of 140 primate species were investigated using a principal component analysis, which indicated that mean temperature (particularly during the winter) is the most important climatic correlate of platyrrhine geographical distributions, accounting for nearly half of the interspecific variation in climatic niches. The effects of precipitation were associated with the second principal component, particularly with respect to the dry season. When models of trait evolution were fit to scores on each of the principal component axes, significant phylogenetic signal was detected for PC1 scores, but not for PC2 scores. Interestingly, although all platyrrhine families occupied comparable regions of climatic space, some aotid species such as Aotus lemurinus, A. jorgehernandezi, and A. miconax show highly distinctive climatic niches associated with drier conditions (high PC2 scores). This shift might have been made possible by their nocturnal habits, which could serve as an exaptation that allow them to be less constrained by humidity during the night. These results underscore the usefulness of investigating explicitly the tempo and mode of climatic niche evolution and its role in determining species distributions.

  8. Global health diplomacy, 'smart power', and the new world order.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kevany, Sebastian

    2014-01-01

    Both the theory and practice of foreign policy and diplomacy, including systems of hard and soft power, are undergoing paradigm shifts, with an increasing number of innovative actors and strategies contributing to international relations outcomes in the 'New World Order'. Concurrently, global health programmes continue to ascend the political spectrum in scale, scope and influence. This concatenation of circumstances has demanded a re-examination of the existing and potential effectiveness of global health programmes in the 'smart power' context, based on adherence to a range of design, implementation and assessment criteria, which may simultaneously optimise their humanitarian, foreign policy and diplomatic effectiveness. A synthesis of contemporary characteristics of 'global health diplomacy' and 'global health as foreign policy', grouped by common themes and generated in the context of related field experiences, are presented in the form of 'Top Ten' criteria lists for optimising both diplomatic and foreign policy effectiveness of global health programmes, and criteria are presented in concert with an examination of implications for programme design and delivery. Key criteria for global health programmes that are sensitised to both diplomatic and foreign policy goals include visibility, sustainability, geostrategic considerations, accountability, effectiveness and alignment with broader policy objectives. Though diplomacy is a component of foreign policy, criteria for 'diplomatically-sensitised' versus 'foreign policy-sensitised' global health programmes were not always consistent, and were occasionally in conflict, with each other. The desirability of making diplomatic and foreign policy criteria explicit, rather than implicit, in the context of global health programme design, delivery and evaluation are reflected in the identified implications for (1) international security, (2) programme evaluation, (3) funding and resource allocation decisions, (4) approval

  9. Brave New World or Blind Alley? American History on the World Wide Web.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Malley, Michael; Rosenzweig, Roy

    1997-01-01

    Offers a preliminary assessment of the possibilities and limitations, allures, and dangers, of the World Wide Web for those interested in presenting, teaching, and learning United States history. Reviews Internet search tools, online libraries and archives, and museums and commercial sites. Discusses how to create an online archive. (DSK)

  10. New World Journalism in Mauritius: The Credibility of Development News in the Third World.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, Allen

    The debate over the role of the press in the Third World has largely ignored questions of public perception of media roles and performance. To investigate whether an audience perceives the fundamental difference between development journalism (where the state has significant involvement in news decisions) and a free press, and whether that…

  11. "When Did They Make the World Like This?" Discovering New Worlds through an Ancient Map.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goben, Victoria

    1993-01-01

    Describes a teaching activity in which middle school students draw maps based on map models used in ancient Babylon. Contends that this approach serves as a transition from the study of world civilizations in grade six to the U.S. history course in grade seven. Includes 10 student-created maps and student comments about the activity. (CFR)

  12. THE U.S. AS THE NEW ROME: DISPUTING THE NEW WORLD ORDER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. I. Ivonina

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The starting point of the conclusions of politicians and experts was the recognition of the changed nature of threats to the New World Order. In post-Westfalia system of international relations the main actors are not sovereigns, but transnational actors of world politics, including transnational terrorist and criminal networks. In this situation, the support of global security threat serves the underground world – terrorists, shady business structures, failed states. The unconventional nature of the threat to peace and stability of the New World Order requires an equally innovative response which transcends the formal constraints of international law and the traditional doctrine of deterrence. An analysis of the U.S. foreign policy concepts suggests that today’s academic and political community has promoted consensus of neoliberals and neoconservatives, supporters of the institutional functionalism and representatives of the school of Realpolitik. This consensus was based on the recognition of the admissibility of pre-emptive strikes on the territory of failed states, sponsoring international terrorism, or the implementation of open interference in the internal affairs of “rogue states” for human rights and democratic freedoms guarantee.

  13. A Brave New World: Students Debate Ethics of Biotechnology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barksdale, Francia

    1996-01-01

    This article describes an interdisciplinary classroom project in which ninth graders simulate a "World Council on Genetic Technology." Students in small groups take on the persona and interests of individuals from specific countries in the group effort to develop a covenant for regulating the use of biotechnology. The benefits of having gifted…

  14. A Brave New World: Synchronous Environments in the Literature Classroom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozema, Robert

    The Internet may be the ultimate immersive and participatory medium, opening doors as it does to countless story worlds. As such, it has much to offer reading instruction in both elementary and secondary classrooms. This paper explores how a teacher used one web application--a text-based virtual environment called a MOO--to encourage his high…

  15. Interspecies embryo transfer in camelids: the birth of the first Bactrian camel calves (Camelus bactrianus) from dromedary camels (Camelus dromedarius).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niasari-Naslaji, A; Nikjou, D; Skidmore, J A; Moghiseh, A; Mostafaey, M; Razavi, K; Moosavi-Movahedi, A A

    2009-01-01

    Interspecies embryo transfer is a possible approach that can be used to conserve endangered species. It could provide a useful technique to preserve the Iranian and wild Bactrian camels, both of which are threatened with extinction. In the present study, one Bactrian camel was superovulated using decreasing doses of FSH (60, 40, 30, 30, 20, 20 mg, b.i.d.; Folltropin-V; Bioniche, London, ON, Canada) for 6 days, followed by a single injection of FSH (20 mg, i.m.) on Day 7. Daily ovarian ultrasonography was performed until most of the growing follicles had reached a mature size of 13-17 mm, at which time the camel was mated twice, 24 h apart, with a fertile male Bactrian camel. At the time of first mating, female camels were given 20 microg, i.v., buserelin (Receptal; Intervet, Boxmeer, The Netherlands). One day after the donor camel had been mated, the dromedary recipients (n = 8) were injected with 25 mg, i.v., porcine LH (Lutropin-V; Bioniche) to induce ovulation. Embryos were recovered on Day 8.5 after the first mating and transferred non-surgically into recipients on Day 7.5 after LH injection. Pregnancy was diagnosed 25 days after embryo transfer. Healthy Bactrian camel calves (n = 4) were born without any particular complications at the time of parturition (e.g. dystocia and neonatal diseases). The present study is the first report of the birth of Bactrian camel calves from dromedary camels, as well as the first report of interspecies embryo transfer in old world camelids.

  16. Camelid antivenom development and potential in vivo neutralization of Hottentotta saulcyi scorpion venom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darvish, Maryam; Ebrahimi, Soltan Ahmad; Shahbazzadeh, Delavar; Bagheri, Kamran-Pooshang; Behdani, Mahdi; Shokrgozar, Mohammad Ali

    2016-04-01

    Scorpion envenoming is a serious health problem which can cause a variety of clinical toxic effects. Of the many scorpion species native to Iran, Hottentotta saulcyi is important because its venom can produce toxic effects in man. Nowadays, antivenom derived from hyper immune horses is the only effective treatment for sever scorpion stings. Current limitations of immunotherapy urgently require an efficient alternative with high safety, target affinity and more promising venom neutralizing capability. Recently, heavy chain-only antibodies (HC-Abs) found naturally in camelid serum met the above mentioned advantages. In this study, immuno-reactivities of polyclonal antibodies were tested after successful immunization of camel using H. saulcyi scorpion crude venom. The lethal potency of scorpion venom in C57BL/6 mice injected intraperitoneally was determined to be 2.7 mg/kg. These results were followed by the efficient neutralization of lethal activity of H. saulcyi scorpion venom by injection of antivenom and purified IgG fractions into mice intraperitonelly or intravenously, respectively. HC-Ab camelid antivenom could be considered as a useful serotherapeutics instead of present treatment for scorpion envenomation.

  17. 葡萄酒的古文明世界、旧世界与新世界%Ancient World,Old World and New World of Wine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王华; 宁小刚; 杨平; 李华

    2016-01-01

    According to the existing archaeological evidence and the results of analyzing world wine history,the authors maintain that world wine is firstly originated in the Orient,including China,Syria,Turkey ,Georgia,Ar-menia,Iran and other countries.Wine was introduced into Europe from the Far East,and then to the Far East and other parts of the world from Europe.As a result,the Far East (mainly China)is the origin of grapes and wine, and Europe is the prost-original center,that is the center of prost-domesticating and spreading for grape varieties. Combining the above analysis results and the current world wine distribution,the authors considered that the wine world could be divided into Ancient World,Old World and New World,and China could belong to Ancient World.%根据现有考古证据和葡萄酒发展历史分析,认为葡萄酒的最初起源地在远东,包括中国、叙利亚、土耳其、格鲁吉亚、亚美尼亚、伊朗等国家。葡萄酒由最初的起源地远东传入欧洲,再由欧洲传入东方和世界其他地区。因此,包括中国等国家的远东地区是葡萄、葡萄酒的起源地,欧洲则是后起源中心,即栽培葡萄的后驯化与传播中心。根据这些分析结果,结合目前世界葡萄酒的格局,提出应将世界葡萄酒生产国分为古文明世界、旧世界和新世界,并认为中国是葡萄酒古文明世界的代表。

  18. What Change Can The New Developments In Energy Sector Bring Into the World`s Energypolitical and Geopolitical Order?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Onur TUTULMAZ

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The recent developments bring US to a leading natural gas and oil producer position. The attempts in last 20 years to bring new horizontal drilling and hydraulic fracturing technologies together have developed a success in shale gas and oil production in US; the production volumes has reached to a position to redefine the market. Last estimations are bringing more information about the shale capacities of the major basins of the world. However, the estimates are based on a wide range of assumptions and consequently their results vary in a large scale. In any case, these developments have crucial economic, political and geopolitical consequences on the energy market, petroleum producer and consumer countries and regions. Despite the wide range of ambiguity of the estimated size of the resources, the estimations show US and North America has one of the biggest potential, already turning technology into the giant production numbers. Some of the estimations allege so big numbers can even mean to a new world order. The asymmetric nature of the potential, can also be said, increases some of the expected impacts too. In this study, basically, we want to supply an initial solid and economical evaluation to this ambiguity. We are trying to shape a frame for the new energy potential and to put it in a place in the current practice of the world. Secondly, in this context, we are underlying here some of the possible economic and geopolitical consequences each of which can constitute a subject of deeper study.

  19. New horizons: Australian nurses at work in World War I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Kirsty

    2014-06-01

    More than 3000 nurses from Australia served with the Australian Army Nursing Service or the British nursing services during World War I. These nurses served in various theatres of war including Egypt, France, India, Greece, Italy and England. They worked in numerous roles including as a surgical team nurse close to the front working under fire; nursing on hospital ships carrying the sick and wounded; or managing hospital wards overrun with patients whilst dealing with a lack of hospital necessities. The skills and roles needed to be a military nurse significantly differed to the skills required to nurse in Australia.

  20. A diminutive new tyrannosaur from the top of the world.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiorillo, Anthony R; Tykoski, Ronald S

    2014-01-01

    Tyrannosaurid theropods were dominant terrestrial predators in Asia and western North America during the last of the Cretaceous. The known diversity of the group has dramatically increased in recent years with new finds, but overall understanding of tyrannosaurid ecology and evolution is based almost entirely on fossils from latitudes at or below southern Canada and central Asia. Remains of a new, relatively small tyrannosaurine were recovered from the earliest Late Maastrichtian (70-69Ma) of the Prince Creek Formation on Alaska's North Slope. Cladistic analyses show the material represents a new tyrannosaurine species closely related to the highly derived Tarbosaurus+Tyrannosaurus clade. The new taxon inhabited a seasonally extreme high-latitude continental environment on the northernmost edge of Cretaceous North America. The discovery of the new form provides new insights into tyrannosaurid adaptability, and evolution in an ancient greenhouse Arctic.

  1. The New World Order: A Second Look. A Selected Bibliography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-08-01

    228pp. (P95.8 .054 1993) Podraza, Andrzej. The Western European Union and Central Europe: A New Relationship. London: Royal Institute of International...Press, 1993. 461pp. (HF1413 .C73 1993) Jackbon, Tim. The Next Battleagound: Lanan. America. and the New Europea Market. Boston: Houghton Mufflin, 1993...War College, 6 April 1993. 47 pp. (AD-A265-096) 35 Podraza, Andrzej. The Western Euroocan Union and Central Europe: A New Relationship. London: Royal

  2. World Heritage Sites through the Eyes of New Tourists – Who Cares about World Heritage Brand in Budapest?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivett Sziva

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Budapest is one the most emerging tourism destinations in Central-Eastern Europe, and besides the popularity of the regenerated “multicultural and design” district, its cultural heritage, particularly those on the list of the UNESCO World Heritage, assure its growing attractiveness. However the cultural sites are the most visited sightseeing attractions, our proposition was that the tourists are not aware of the fact, that they are visiting UNESCO World Heritage Site (WHS. The main aim of the paper is to highlight the importance of the WHS in cultural tourism, and to introduce the significance of place branding in it. A structured content analysis were taken out to analyse the reviews of the Tripadvisor considering the attractions of Budapest, with the objective of crystallizing the main motivations and awareness of the tourists visiting the world heritage site of Budapest. Further on our objective was to analyse their satisfaction with interpretation, attraction, and visitor management issues. Then their overall experiences, development needs and ideas for the world heritage sites attracting cultural tourism were taken into consideration. Our presupposition was that new technologies can improve a site’s popularity by pulling the attention on its real values that can be experienced by the visitors.

  3. Brave New World: Higher Education Reform in Finland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aarrevaara, Timo; Dobson, Ian R.; Elander, Camilla

    2009-01-01

    Finnish universities are about to enter a period of radical change. This paper considers the reforms expected of a new Universities Act currently before parliament and a set of institutional mergers. When passed, the new act will provide universities with independent legal status, change their relationship with the government in several ways,…

  4. Increasing returns and the new world of business.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arthur, W B

    1996-01-01

    Our understanding of how markets and businesses operate was passed down to us more than a century ago by English economist Alfred Marshall. It is based on the assumption of diminishing returns: products or companies that get ahead in a market eventually run into limitations so that a predictable equilibrium of prices and market shares is reached. The theory was valid for the bulk-processing, smokestack economy of Marshall's day. But in this century, Western economies have gone from processing resources to processing information, from the application of raw energy to the application of ideas. The mechanisms that determine economic behavior have also shifted--from diminishing returns to increasing returns. Increasing returns are the tendency for that which is ahead to get further ahead and for that which is losing advantage to lose further advantage. If a product gets ahead, increasing returns can magnify the advantage, and the product can go on to lock in the market. Mechanisms of increasing returns exist alongside those of diminishing returns in all industries. But, in general, diminishing returns hold sway in the traditional, resource-processing industries. Increasing returns reign in the newer, knowledge-based industries. Modern economies have split into two interrelated worlds of business corresponding to the two types of returns. The two worlds have different economics. They differ in behavior, style, and culture. They call for different management techniques, strategies, and codes of government regulation. The author illuminates those differences by explaining how increasing returns operate in high tech and in service industries. He also offers advice to managers in knowledge-based markets.

  5. World's particle physics laboratories join to create new communication resource

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    "The worldwide particle physics community today (August 12) launched Interactions.org, a new global, Web-based resource developed to provide news, high-quality imagery, video and other tools for communicating the science of particle physics" (1 page).

  6. Relationship of Old World Pseudoxenodon and New World Dipsadinae, with Comments on Underestimation of Species Diversity of Chinese Pseudoxenodon

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Baolin ZHANG; Song HUANG

    2013-01-01

    Assessment of the relationship between Pseudoxenodon and Dipsadinae has been hampered by lack of adequate samples. In this paper, we conducted phylogenetic analyses using two mitochondrial genes (12S and 16S rRNA) and one nuclear gene (c-mos) from thirteen specimens representing two species of Pseudoxenodon, together with 84 sequences of caenophidians and an outgroup sequence of Boa constrictor. Our study suggests that the Southeast Asian genus, Pseudoxenodon forms a robust genetic subclade within South American xenodontines, indicating that at least one lineage within this genus entered or returned to the Old World (OW) from the New World (NW) across the Beringian Land Bridge during the early Tertiary and the warm mid-Miocene. It also reveals the high intraspeciifc genomic variation within the populations of Pseudoxenodon macrops, indicating that species diversity of Pseudoxenodon in China is likely underestimated.

  7. New Trends in the Western World in Innovations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paduchak, B.M.

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available New forms of science cooperation are described. The global trends on the general principles of scientific researches are defined. The main problems of basic science funding are outlined. The need for implementation of effective public private partnerships in innovation is emphasized. The new level of innovation culture must be based on the principle of harmonious cooperation of all entities to achieve the creation and commercialization of innovations.

  8. Chemical composition of suspended sediments in World Rivers: New insights from a new database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viers, Jérôme; Dupré, Bernard; Gaillardet, Jérôme

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to present a new database on the chemical composition of suspended matter in World Rivers, together with the associated elemental fluxes. There is a lack of any recent attempt in the literature to update the pioneering work of Martin and Meybeck [Martin, J.-M., Meybeck, M., 1979. Elemental mass balance of material carried by major world rivers. Mar. Chem. 7, 173-206.] and Martin and Whitfield [Martin, J.-M., Whitfield, M., 1983. The significance of the river input of chemical elements to the ocean. Trace metals in sea water Wong, Boyle, Bruland, Burton, Goldberg (Eds) Plenum Publishing Corporation.] regarding the worldwide average major and trace element chemistry of riverine particulate matter. Apart from compiling a new database on particulate matter, this paper also aims to give a "snap-shot" of elemental fluxes for each continent. This approach should allow us to obtain new insights on weathering conditions in different environments and assess the influence of human activities on natural geochemical cycles. Finally, this study demonstrates the large uncertainties currently associated with estimating the flux of sediments transported by rivers. By comparing the riverine suspended sediment fluxes of some metals (Cd, Zn, Ni, Cu, Cr and Pb) given in this study with estimates of the anthropogenic fluxes of these metals to the atmosphere, soils and waters (natural ecosystems) [Nriagu, J.O., 1988. A silent epidemic of environmental poisoning. Environ. Pollut. 50, 139-161.], we can see that riverine fluxes are similar to anthropogenic fluxes. This casts light on the effect of human activities on the cycles of trace elements at the Earth's surface.

  9. New trends in accident prevention due to the changing world of work

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beeck, R. op de; Heuverswyn, K. van; Lemkowitz, S.; Saari, J.; Sundström-Frisk, C.; Zwetsloot, G.

    2002-01-01

    Changes in the world of work can give rise to new risk areas or they can change the way that occupational safety and health needs to be managed. This has implications for workplaces themselves and also for the occupational safety and health system. For this reason the 'changing world of work' has be

  10. Site-specific labeling of cysteine-tagged camelid single-domain antibody-fragments for use in molecular imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massa, Sam; Xavier, Catarina; De Vos, Jens; Caveliers, Vicky; Lahoutte, Tony; Muyldermans, Serge; Devoogdt, Nick

    2014-05-21

    Site-specific labeling of molecular imaging probes allows the development of a homogeneous tracer population. The resulting batch-to-batch reproducible pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic properties are of great importance for clinical translation. Camelid single-domain antibody-fragments (sdAbs)-the recombinantly produced antigen-binding domains of heavy-chain antibodies, also called Nanobodies-are proficient probes for molecular imaging. To safeguard their intrinsically high binding specificity and affinity and to ensure the tracer's homogeneity, we developed a generic strategy for the site-specific labeling of sdAbs via a thio-ether bond. The unpaired cysteine was introduced at the carboxyl-terminal end of the sdAb to eliminate the risk of antigen binding interference. The spontaneous dimerization and capping of the unpaired cysteine required a reduction step prior to conjugation. This was optimized with the mild reducing agent 2-mercaptoethylamine in order to preserve the domain's stability. As a proof-of-concept the reduced probe was subsequently conjugated to maleimide-DTPA, for labeling with indium-111. A single conjugated tracer was obtained and confirmed via mass spectrometry. The specificity and affinity of the new sdAb-based imaging probe was validated in a mouse xenograft tumor model using a modified clinical lead compound targeting the human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) cancer biomarker. These data provide a versatile and standardized strategy for the site-specific labeling of sdAbs. The conjugation to the unpaired cysteine results in the production of a homogeneous group of tracers and is a multimodal alternative to the technetium-99m labeling of sdAbs.

  11. New optical, acoustic, and electrical diagnostics for the developing world

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neale, S. L.; Witte, C.; Bourquin, Y.; Kremer, C.; Menachery, A.; Zhang, Y.; Wilson, R.; Reboud, J.; Cooper, J. M.

    2012-03-01

    Infectious diseases cause 10 million deaths each year worldwide, accounting for ~60% of all deaths of children aged 5- 14. Although these deaths arise primarily through pneumonia, TB, malaria and HIV, there are also the so called "neglected diseases" such as sleeping sickness and bilharzia, which have a devastating impact on rural communities, in sub-Sahara Africa. There, the demands for a successful Developing World diagnostic are particularly rigorous, requiring low cost instrumentation with low power consumption (there is often no fixed power infrastructure). In many cases, the levels of infection within individuals are also sufficiently low that instruments must show extraordinary sensitivity, with measurements being made in blood or saliva. In this talk, a description of these demands will be given, together with a review of some of the solutions that have been developed, which include using acoustics, optics and electrotechnologies, and their combinations to manipulate the fluid samples. In one example, we show how to find a single trypanosome, as the causative agent of sleeping sickness.

  12. Degrees of Durability and the New World of Credentialing

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiSalvio, Philip

    2013-01-01

    The erosion of the college credit monopoly, the devaluation of the degree and the rise of new forms of credentialing suggest a generation of students and higher education institutions somewhat different than the previous generation. Consider a higher learning environment where students create their own academic portfolios and shape their…

  13. A World 2010: A New Order of Nations

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-01-01

    theory of 1798 (T. R. Malthus , An Essay on the Principle of Population). The Malthusian theory remains the position of the "catastrophic" or neo...Westport. CT Greenwood Press. 1990 Malthus , T R. An Essay on the Principle of Population Edited with introduction by Anthony Flew, New York. Penguin

  14. Bud's World. Grade 3. New York Agriculture in the Classroom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolanyk, Betty

    This collection of classroom exercises was designed to maximize teacher time, while creating an awareness of our food and fiber system among New York third graders. The materials are color-coded, falling into four categories: language arts, mathematics, science, and social studies. Each exercise includes background information, concepts, and…

  15. Capitalism's New Handmaiden: The Biotechnical World Negotiated through Children's Fiction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawers, Naarah

    2009-01-01

    In an era when the merger between capitalism and science becomes an accepted norm, new questions need to be asked about the ethical implications of scientific practices. One such practice is organ transplantation. However, potent debates surround the just distribution and ethical implications of organ transplantation. This paper examines the ways…

  16. New Corporate Governance in the Post-Crisis World

    OpenAIRE

    Hilb, Martin

    2010-01-01

    The new corporate governance concept is articulating goes back to the roots of good corporate governance, which is the ability to act as a visionary and effective decision body, exerting both strategic leadership and control. It's also an invitation to think twice about the applicability of "best practices" in different legal contexts and business models. Arguably, despite some common feat...

  17. Supramolecular science: A new way to understand the matter world

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Xi; SHEN Jiacong

    2003-01-01

    @@ After over 20 years' rapid development, supramolecular chemistry has exceeded the original realm of organic host-guest chemistry, and formed its own unique concepts and systems, such as molecular recognition, molecular self-assembly, supramolecular devices and materials[1,2]. These branches have organized into a charming new subject in the whole family of chemistry.

  18. Literacy Instruction in the Brave New World of Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKenna, Michael C.

    2014-01-01

    Technology integration into language arts instruction has been slow and tentative, even as information technologies have evolved with frightening speed. Today's teachers need to be aware of several extant and unchanging realities: Technology is now indispensable to literacy development; reading with technology requires new skills and…

  19. The genomic proliferation of transposable elements in colonizing populations: Schistosoma mansoni in the new world.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wijayawardena, Bhagya K; DeWoody, J Andrew; Minchella, Dennis J

    2015-06-01

    Transposable elements (TEs) are mobile genes with an inherent ability to move within and among genomes. Theory predicts that TEs proliferate extensively during physiological stress due to the breakdown of TE repression systems. We tested this hypothesis in Schistosoma mansoni, a widespread trematode parasite that causes the human disease schistosomiasis. According to phylogenetic analysis, S. mansoni invaded the new world during the last 500 years. We hypothesized that new world strains of S. mansoni would have more copies of TEs than old world strains due to the physiological stress associated with invasion of the new world. We quantified the copy number of six TEs (Saci-1, Saci-2 and Saci-3, Perere-1, Merlin-sm1, and SmTRC1) in the genome and the transcriptome of old world and new world strains of S. mansoni, using qPCR relative quantification. As predicted, the genomes of new world parasites contain significantly more copies of class I and class II TEs in both laboratory and field strains. However, such differences are not observed in the transcriptome suggesting that either TE silencing mechanisms have reactivated to control the expression of these elements or the presence of inactive truncated copies of TEs.

  20. Lophopidae of the amazon basin with keys to new world genera and species (HOMOPTERA: FULGOROIDEA).

    OpenAIRE

    1986-01-01

    The two especies of Lophopidae found in the lowland Amazon Basin, Hesticus rufimanus, (walker) and H. sanguinifrons Muir, are redescribed and their geographical distributions given. Keys are provided to genera of New World lophopidae, and to species of Hesticus .

  1. Green-Color World Creates for You a New Living Environment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Shenzhen Green-Color World LandscapeHorticultural Research and DevelopmentCo., Ltd., is a high and new technologyenterprise. Its operations include cross-breeding grouped flowers, the design and imple-mentation of horticultural projects, ag-biological

  2. A new world find of european scale armor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rogers, Hugh C.

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available A group of armor scales found in New Mexico (USA is critically examined from an archeological and historical point of view. The rarity of the find and its importance are demostrated, both for the history of Spanish exploration in New Mexico and for the development of scale armor in Europe.

    Estudio crítico, desde un punto de vista histórico y arqueológico, de un grupo de placas de armadura hallados en Nuevo Méjico (USA. La rareza del hallazgo es manifiesta para la historia de las expediciones españolas en Nuevo Méjico y para la evolución de las armaduras de placas en Europa.

  3. Mitogenomic perspectives into sciaenid fishes' phylogeny and evolution origin in the New World.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Tianjun; Tang, Da; Cheng, Yuanzhi; Wang, Rixin

    2014-04-10

    Sciaenid fishes are widely distributed throughout the coastal waters and estuaries of the world. A total of 23 genera of this family are endemic to the Old World. However, evolutionary relationships among Old World sciaenid fishes and their origin have remained unresolved despite their diversity and importance. Besides, hypotheses that explain the origin and biogeographical distribution of sciaenid fishes are controversial. In this study, the complete mitochondrial genome sequences of seven representative sciaenid species were determined and a well-resolved tree was recovered. This new timescale demonstrated that the sciaenid originated during the late Jurassic to early Cretaceous Period. The estimated origin time of sciaenid fish is 208 Mya, and the origin of Old World sciaenid is estimated at 126 Mya. Reconstruction of ancestral distributions indicated a plesiomorphic distribution and center of origin in the New World, with at least one lineage subsequently dispersed to the Old World. Moreover, we conclude that the common ancestors of Old World sciaenid fishes were derived from species of New World.

  4. Brand-new world. Medical marketing the business way.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neely, Melinda Hinson

    2006-01-01

    If someone mentioned the name of your practice, would y our patients, prospects and referring physicians feel, think or say? Are these images and adjectives consistent with the image you endeavor to build? Do people even know the vision for your practice? A well-planned brand strategy--aligned with overall business objectives--guides internal and external communications, new product introductions, acquisitions and mergers.

  5. ART STAGE SINGAPORE THE NEW DESTINATION FOR THE ART WORLD

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    ASlA’S NEW INTERNATIONAL TOP CONTEMPORARY ART FAIR Art Stage Singapore supports and protects the interests of Asian galleries by elevating them to a level of international importance in order to help propel them as strong and competitive players in the global market. Therefore,the heart of the fair is made up of the best and most exciting of Asia’s artistic creativity,showcasing Asia’s most important

  6. The Brave New World of Binary Star Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guinan, Edward F.; Engle, Scott G.

    2006-08-01

    In this paper we discuss some of the new and exciting developments in the study of binary stars. Recent technological advances (such as CCDs) now make it possible (even easy) to study faint, astrophysically important binaries that in the past could only be done with large 4 + meter class telescopes. Also, the panoramic nature of CCDs (and the use of mosaics), permit large numbers of stars to be imaged and studied. At this conference, most of the observational material discussed was secured typically with smaller aperture 0.5 - 2 m telescopes. Excellent examples are the discovery of over 104 new ˜13 - 20 mag eclipsing (and interacting) binaries now found in nearby galaxies from the EROS, OGLE, MACHO and DIRECT programs. As briefly discussed here, and in more detail in several papers in this volume, a small fraction of these extragalactic eclipsing binaries are now serving as “standard candles” to secure accurate distances to the Magellanic Clouds, as well as to M31 and M33. Moreover, the discovery of increasingly larger numbers of eclipsing binaries has stimulated the development of automatic methods for reducing and analyzing the light curves of thousands of systems. In the near future, hundreds of thousands (possibly millions) of additional systems are expected to be discovered by Pan-STARRS, the Large Synoptic Survey Telescopes (LSST), and later by GAIA. Over the last decade, new classes of binary systems have also been found which contain Jupiter-size planets and binaries containing pulsating stars. Some examples of these important binaries are discussed. Also discussed are the increasing numbers (now eight) of eclipsing binary planet-star systems that have been found from high precision photometry. These systems are very important since the radii and masses of the hosted planets can be directly measured. Moreover, from the upcoming COROT and KEPLER missions hundreds of additional transiting planet-star systems are expected to be found. All in all, we hope

  7. New Transnational Literary Histories on the World Scene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Remo Ceserani

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Il saggio discute il rapporto sempre più problematico fra storia della letteratura e identità nazionale. Dopo aver esaminato alcune storie recenti che continuano a privilegiare la dimensione nazionale ed esclusivamente letteraria della materia trattata, si sofferma su alcune interessanti esperienze di storie che trattano la produzione culturale e letteraria di intere zone geografiche, a prescindere dalle identità statali, culturali e linguistiche di singoli Paesi e nazioni (per esempio: l’Europa centro-orientale, la penisola iberica, l’intero continente sudamericano. Fra i testi presi in esame: la Storia della letteratura ungherese, a cura di B. Ventavoli (2002-2004, la Storia della letteratura polacca, a cura di L. Marinelli (2004, la Geografia e storia della civiltà letteraria rumena nel contesto europeo, a cura di B. Mazzoni e A. Tarantino (2010, la History of the Literary Cultures of East-Central Europe, a cura di M. Cornis-Pope e J. Neubauer (2004-2010, la New History of German Literature, a cura di D. E. Wellbery e J. Ryan (2004, la New History of French Literature, a cura di D. Hollier (1998, la Comparative History of Literatures in the Iberian Peninsula, a cura di F. Cabo Aseguinolaza, A. Abuín Gonzales e C. Domínguez (2010, la New Literary History of America, a cura di G. Marcus e W. Sollors (2009 e le Literary Cultures of Latin America, a cura di M. Valdés e D. Kadir (2004.  

  8. Ordinary Workers and Industrial Relations in a New World Order

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Niels Jul

    2014-01-01

    —involving fieldwork at both workplaces and private homes—of Polish migrant laborers participating in the Danish labor market. Firstly, it is shown how the Polish laborers, due to the lower costs they represent, benefit from the new opportunities. Secondly, the paper illustrates how the trade union, though uneasy...... with the downward pressure on wage and working conditions that the Polish represent, prioritizes the organization of workers in order to maintain some degree of control over the labor market. Finally, the question is raised how the EU (European Union) is able to navigate two contrasting concerns: the urge both...

  9. A new form of collaboration in cultural anthropology: Matsutake worlds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    T. K, Choy,; Tsing, Anna

    2009-01-01

    Experiments in collaboration open new investigative possibilities for cultural anthropologists. In this report, we use our research on matsutake mushrooms to show the promise of collaborative experiments for ethnographers of scale making, global connection, and human–nonhuman relations. Anna Tsing...... introduces. Mogu Mogu (Timothy Choy and Shiho Satsuka) argue that the mushroomic figure of mycorrhizal life illuminates workings of capital and power, nature and culture. Lieba Faier examines contingency—through the effect of weather and bugs on matsutake production—as a form of self-positioning that emerges...

  10. Liberating the NHS: a brave new world, or litigation nightmare?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McHale, Jean

    The coalition Government, in its White Paper Equity and Excellence: Liberating the NHS and in the subsequent paper Liberating the NHS: the new Legislative Framework has advanced its proposals for NHS restructuring. These proposals are intended to provide much enhanced roles for GPs in relation to the commissioning of NHS services in the future. This article explores these proposals and considers whether they can be seen as a return to the 1990s and the approach of the NHS Community Care Act 1990. It also explores the nature of these greater responsibilities and some of the problems that this may give rise to in the future.

  11. A New World to Discover-Grimm’s Fairy Tales

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    莫槟菱

    2014-01-01

    Nowadays, the fairy tales have been on hot discussion. Some say that the very original Grimm's fairy tales is capricious that we may be more cautious whether it's suitable for children. With the rethinking of fairy tales, many other scholars argue that the fairy tales can be valuable with its hidden German customs in the original version and the current versions are acceptable to children.The hot discussion raises our thinking. This new discussing wave may indicate something at a degree that the Grimm’s Fairy Tales is worthy going deeper to study. We think that the Grimm's ferry tales is valuable for its pure essence and the German culture it hides that even adults should read it. Children can read the current version of Grimm's Fairy Tales with their innocence, getting the basic judging system of good and bad. The core question is that Adults also should pick it up. That’s because usually people will find that all the experiences and reasons can be dated back to the simple truths in fairy tales. Meantime, the Grimm's Fairy Tales reflects lots of unthinkable customs and culture. The only thing we need to do is try to find new aspects and directions to explore the classic. With the spiritual and academic help, shouldn't the Grimm's fairy tales be necessary for both children and adults to read?

  12. Artificial Intelligence and the Brave New World of Eclipsing Binaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devinney, E.; Guinan, E.; Bradstreet, D.; DeGeorge, M.; Giammarco, J.; Alcock, C.; Engle, S.

    2005-12-01

    The explosive growth of observational capabilities and information technology over the past decade has brought astronomy to a tipping point - we are going to be deluged by a virtual fire hose (more like Niagara Falls!) of data. An important component of this deluge will be newly discovered eclipsing binary stars (EBs) and other valuable variable stars. As exploration of the Local Group Galaxies grows via current and new ground-based and satellite programs, the number of EBs is expected to grow explosively from some 10,000 today to 8 million as GAIA comes online. These observational advances will present a unique opportunity to study the properties of EBs formed in galaxies with vastly different dynamical, star formation, and chemical histories than our home Galaxy. Thus the study of these binaries (e.g., from light curve analyses) is expected to provide clues about the star formation rates and dynamics of their host galaxies as well as the possible effects of varying chemical abundance on stellar evolution and structure. Additionally, minimal-assumption-based distances to Local Group objects (and possibly 3-D mapping within these objects) shall be returned. These huge datasets of binary stars will provide tests of current theories (or suggest new theories) regarding binary star formation and evolution. However, these enormous data will far exceed the capabilities of analysis via human examination. To meet the daunting challenge of successfully mining this vast potential of EBs and variable stars for astrophysical results with minimum human intervention, we are developing new data processing techniques and methodologies. Faced with an overwhelming volume of data, our goal is to integrate technologies of Machine Learning and Pattern Processing (Artificial Intelligence [AI]) into the data processing pipelines of the major current and future ground- and space-based observational programs. Data pipelines of the future will have to carry us from observations to

  13. Eating and Obesity—The New World Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neville Rigby

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Obesity is not a new phenomenon. Paleolithic artefacts, some almost 35,000 years old, depict obesity in its classical gynoid form, suggesting that early hunter-gathers were not entirely safeguarded by the assumed Stone Age diet [1]. Nevertheless it has been convincingly argued by Boyd Eaton and others that the 21st century epidemic of non-communicable diseases (NCDs, including obesity, is attributable to mankind no longer enjoying the diet of our ancestors for which we remain genetically and metabolically programmed [2]. Even if our forebears seemed to revere obesity sufficiently to carve out stone “venuses”, it is still unclear if they were documenting a commonplace feature, although the frequency with which these venuses appear across thousands of years and even thousands of miles apart might suggest that obesity, in women at least, was not a complete rarity [3].

  14. Juvenile idiopathic arthritis in the new world of biologics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostring, Genevieve Tyra; Singh-Grewal, Davinder

    2013-09-01

    Juvenile idiopathic arthritis results in significant pain and disability in both children and adults. Advances in treatment resulting in improved long-term outcomes have occurred; however, an emphasis on early and aggressive diagnosis and management hopes to improve outcomes further. Juvenile idiopathic arthritis remains a clinical diagnosis of exclusion, but further research may delineate biological markers associated with the disease and its subtypes. Therapy for patients includes intra-articular steroid injections, disease modifying agents such as methotrexate and biological agents. Biological agents have provided exciting new therapeutic options in the last decade; however, long-term side effects of modulating the immune system are not yet fully understood. Systemic steroids may also be required but their long-term use is avoided. Uveitis needs to be screened for in all of those with the diagnosis. Multidisciplinary team care is required in managing these young people.

  15. New World Orders: Continuities and Changes in Latin American Migration

    Science.gov (United States)

    DURAND, JORGE; MASSEY, DOUGLAS S.

    2010-01-01

    Although migration from Mexico to the United States is more than a century old, until recently most other countries in Latin America did not send out significant numbers of migrants to foreign destinations. Over the past thirty years, however, emigration has emerged as an important demographic force throughout the region. This article outlines trends in the volume and composition of the migrant outflows emanating from various countries in Latin America, highlighting their diversity with respect to country of destination; multiplicity of destinations; legal auspices of entry; gender and class composition; racial, ethnic, and national origins; and the mode of insertion into the receiving society. The review underscores the broadening of international migration away from unidirectional flows toward the United States to new streams going to Europe, Canada, Australia, and Japan, as well as to other countries in Latin America itself. PMID:20814591

  16. Cereus peruvianus (Koubo new cactus fruit for the world

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yosef Mizrahi

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Several different species of the columnar cacti of the genera Stenocereus and Pachycereus, were introduced into different semi-arid ecozones in Israel and most of these efforts were of disappointing outcomes, the only exception being the Cereus peruvianus (L. Miller,which bore plenty of fruits, some of them of good taste. The original seeds of this plant were obtained from the late Mr. Amram (Ron Kodish, who collected seeds from various private gardens in Southern California which bore fruits of reasonable qualities. The initial success of this species led us to initiate an intensive research study, and today it is already fruit-crop, marketed mainly in Israel under the name " Koubo" . This paper will describe our work of domestication of this new cactus fruit crop in Israel.

  17. Parallel evolution of the glycogen synthase 1 (muscle) gene Gys1 between Old World and New World fruit bats (Order: Chiroptera).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Lu; Shen, Bin; Irwin, David M; Zhang, Shuyi

    2014-10-01

    Glycogen synthase, which catalyzes the synthesis of glycogen, is especially important for Old World (Pteropodidae) and New World (Phyllostomidae) fruit bats that ingest high-carbohydrate diets. Glycogen synthase 1, encoded by the Gys1 gene, is the glycogen synthase isozyme that functions in muscles. To determine whether Gys1 has undergone adaptive evolution in bats with carbohydrate-rich diets, in comparison to insect-eating sister bat taxa, we sequenced the coding region of the Gys1 gene from 10 species of bats, including two Old World fruit bats (Pteropodidae) and a New World fruit bat (Phyllostomidae). Our results show no evidence for positive selection in the Gys1 coding sequence on the ancestral Old World and the New World Artibeus lituratus branches. Tests for convergent evolution indicated convergence of the sequences and one parallel amino acid substitution (T395A) was detected on these branches, which was likely driven by natural selection.

  18. A revision of the new world species of Polytrichophora Cresson and Facitrichophora, new genus (Diptera, Ephydridae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wayne Mathis

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The New World species of Polytrichophora Cresson and Fascitrichophora new genus, are revised. Fifteen new species are described (type locality in parenthesis: Fascitrishophora atrella sp. n. (Costa Rica. Guanacaste: Murciélago [10°56.9’N, 85°42.5’W; sandy mud flats around mangrove inlet], F. carvalhorum sp.n. (Brazil. São Paulo: Praia Puruba [23°21’S, 44°55.6’W; beach], F. manza sp. n. (Trinidad and Tobago. Trinidad. St. Andrew: Lower Manzanilla (12 km S; 10°24.5’N, 61°01.5’W, bridge over Nariva River, F. panama sp. n. (Panama. Darien: Garachine [8°04’N, 78°22’W], Polytrichophora adarca sp. n. (Barbados. Christ Church: Graeme Hall Nature Sanctuary [13°04.2’N, 59°34.7’W; swamp], P. arnaudorum sp. n. (Mexico. Baja California. San Felipe [31°01.5’N, 114°50.4’W], P. barba sp. n. (Cuba. Sancti Spiritus: Topes de Collantes [21°54.4’N, 80°01.4’W, 670 m], P. flavella sp. n. (Peru. Madre de Dios: Rio Manu, Pakitza [11°56.6’S, 71°16.9’W; 250 m], P. marinoniorum sp. n. (Brazil. Paraná: Antonina [25°28.4’S, 48°40.9’W; mangal], P. rostra sp. n. (Peru. Madre de Dios: Rio Manu, Pakitza [11°56.6’S, 71°16.9’W; 250 m], P. sinuosa sp. n. (Trinidad and Tobago. Trinidad. St. Andrew: Lower Manzanilla [12 km S; 10°24’N, 61°02’W], P. mimbres sp. n. (United States. New Mexico. Grant: Mimbres River [New Mexico Highway 61 & Royal John Mine Road; 32°43.8’N, 107°52’W; 1665 m], P. salix sp. n. (United States. Alaska. Matanuska-Susitna: Willow Creek [61°46.1’N, 150°04.2’W; 50 m], P. sturtevantorum sp. n. (United States. Tennessee. Shelby: Meeman Shelby State Park [Mississippi River; 35°20.4’N, 90°2.1’W; 98 m], P. prolata sp. n. (Belize. Stann Creek: Cockscomb Basin Wildlife Sanctuary [16°45’N, 88°30’W]. All known New World species of both genera are described with an emphasis on structures of the male terminalia, which are fully illustrated. Detailed locality data and distribution

  19. Demographics and genetic variability of the new world bollworm (Helicoverpa zea) and the old world bollworm (Helicoverpa armigera) in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leite, Natália A; Alves-Pereira, Alessandro; Corrêa, Alberto S; Zucchi, Maria I; Omoto, Celso

    2014-01-01

    Helicoverpa armigera is one of the primary agricultural pests in the Old World, whereas H. zea is predominant in the New World. However, H. armigera was first documented in Brazil in 2013. Therefore, the geographical distribution, range of hosts, invasion source, and dispersal routes for H. armigera are poorly understood or unknown in Brazil. In this study, we used a phylogeographic analysis of natural H. armigera and H. zea populations to (1) assess the occurrence of both species on different hosts; (2) infer the demographic parameters and genetic structure; (3) determine the potential invasion and dispersal routes for H. armigera within the Brazilian territory; and (4) infer the geographical origin of H. armigera. We analyzed partial sequence data from the cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) gene. We determined that H. armigera individuals were most prevalent on dicotyledonous hosts and that H. zea were most prevalent on maize crops, based on the samples collected between May 2012 and April 2013. The populations of both species showed signs of demographic expansion, and no genetic structure. The high genetic diversity and wide distribution of H. armigera in mid-2012 are consistent with an invasion period prior to the first reports of this species in the literature and/or multiple invasion events within the Brazilian territory. It was not possible to infer the invasion and dispersal routes of H. armigera with this dataset. However, joint analyses using sequences from the Old World indicated the presence of Chinese, Indian, and European lineages within the Brazilian populations of H. armigera. These results suggest that sustainable management plans for the control of H. armigera will be challenging considering the high genetic diversity, polyphagous feeding habits, and great potential mobility of this pest on numerous hosts, which favor the adaptation of this insect to diverse environments and control strategies.

  20. Demographics and genetic variability of the new world bollworm (Helicoverpa zea and the old world bollworm (Helicoverpa armigera in Brazil.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natália A Leite

    Full Text Available Helicoverpa armigera is one of the primary agricultural pests in the Old World, whereas H. zea is predominant in the New World. However, H. armigera was first documented in Brazil in 2013. Therefore, the geographical distribution, range of hosts, invasion source, and dispersal routes for H. armigera are poorly understood or unknown in Brazil. In this study, we used a phylogeographic analysis of natural H. armigera and H. zea populations to (1 assess the occurrence of both species on different hosts; (2 infer the demographic parameters and genetic structure; (3 determine the potential invasion and dispersal routes for H. armigera within the Brazilian territory; and (4 infer the geographical origin of H. armigera. We analyzed partial sequence data from the cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI gene. We determined that H. armigera individuals were most prevalent on dicotyledonous hosts and that H. zea were most prevalent on maize crops, based on the samples collected between May 2012 and April 2013. The populations of both species showed signs of demographic expansion, and no genetic structure. The high genetic diversity and wide distribution of H. armigera in mid-2012 are consistent with an invasion period prior to the first reports of this species in the literature and/or multiple invasion events within the Brazilian territory. It was not possible to infer the invasion and dispersal routes of H. armigera with this dataset. However, joint analyses using sequences from the Old World indicated the presence of Chinese, Indian, and European lineages within the Brazilian populations of H. armigera. These results suggest that sustainable management plans for the control of H. armigera will be challenging considering the high genetic diversity, polyphagous feeding habits, and great potential mobility of this pest on numerous hosts, which favor the adaptation of this insect to diverse environments and control strategies.

  1. The New Rules: How To Succeed in Today's Post-Corporate World.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotter, John P.

    The new realities of today's postcorporate world and the new rules for achieving success were examined through a study of the career progress of a sample of 115 individuals who graduated from Harvard in 1974 with a Master's of Business Administration. The members of the study sample completed yearly questionnaires between January 1975 and 1992.…

  2. Brave New World versus Island - Utopian and dystopian views on psychopharmacology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.H.N. Schermer (Maartje)

    2007-01-01

    textabstractAldous Huxley's Brave New World is a famous dystopia, frequently called upon in public discussions about new biotechnology. It is less well known that 30 years later Huxley also wrote a utopian novel, called Island. This paper will discuss both novels focussing especially on the role of

  3. NEW TYPES INDEX OF ACCOUNTING [ALL THAT CURRENTLY EXIST IN THE WORLD

    OpenAIRE

    Valdivia Ramos, Román Arturo; Facultad de Ciencias Contables, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos

    2014-01-01

    In this research, it signals a new World Ranking types of accounting that currently exist in the world. We do not know a rating as extensive and detailed as the one presented, the product of a long academic research. This classification should be the foundation and / or support of further work to be carried or led by other researchers in the field. This is a rather unique classification, unlike anything known today. This is the contribution to the School of Accounting and makes the world acco...

  4. Cultural routes: characterization and challenges of a new category of world cultural heritage

    OpenAIRE

    Martínez Yáñez, Celia; Universidad de Granada

    2014-01-01

    This paper studies in depth the progress that cultural routes, as a new category of World Cultural Heritage, introduce in heritageprotection, as a result of their multidimensional, transnational and wide territorial extension. For this purpose it focuses onboth its scientific definition and its differentiation from other heritage categories, as well as on the challenges that set out itsfull assumption in the framework of the Convention Concerning the Protection of World Cultural and Natural H...

  5. New Worlds / New Horizons Science with an X-ray Astrophysics Probe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Randall K.; Bookbinder, Jay A.; Hornschemeier, Ann E.; Bandler, Simon; Brandt, W. N.; Hughes, John P.; McCammon, Dan; Matsumoto, Hironori; Mushotzky, Richard; Osten, Rachel A.; Petre, Robert; Plucinsky, Paul P.; Ptak, Andrew; Ramsey, Brian; Reynolds, Christopher S.; Schattenburg, Mark

    2014-01-01

    In 2013 NASA commenced a design study for an X-ray Astrophysics Probe to address the X-ray science goals and program prioritizations of the Decadal Survey New World New Horizons (NWNH) with a cost cap of approximately $1B. Both the NWNH report and 2011 NASA X-ray mission concept study found that high-resolution X-ray spectroscopy performed with an X-ray microcalorimeter would enable the most highly rated NWNH X-ray science. Here we highlight some potential science topics, namely: 1) a direct, strong-field test of General Relativity via the study of accretion onto black holes through relativistic broadened Fe lines and their reverberation in response to changing hard X-ray continuum, 2) understanding the evolution of galaxies and clusters by mapping temperatures, abundances and dynamics in hot gas, 3) revealing the physics of accretion onto stellar-mass black holes from companion stars and the equation of state of neutron stars through timing studies and time-resolved spectroscopy of X-ray binaries and 4) feedback from AGN and star formation shown in galaxy-scale winds and jets. In addition to these high-priority goals, an X-ray astrophysics probe would be a general-purpose observatory that will result in invaluable data for other NWNH topics such as stellar astrophysics, protostars and their impact on protoplanetary systems, X-ray spectroscopy of transient phenomena such as high-z gamma-ray bursts and tidal capture of stars by massive black holes, and searches for dark matter decay.

  6. Structural basis for receptor recognition by New World hemorrhagic fever arenaviruses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abraham, Jonathan; Corbett, Kevin D.; Farzan, Michael; Choe, Hyeryun; Harrison, Stephen C. (Harvard-Med)

    2010-08-18

    New World hemorrhagic fever arenaviruses are rodent-borne agents that cause severe human disease. The GP1 subunit of the surface glycoprotein mediates cell attachment through transferrin receptor 1 (TfR1). We report the structure of Machupo virus (MACV) GP1 bound with human TfR1. Atomic details of the GP1-TfR1 interface clarify the importance of TfR1 residues implicated in New World arenavirus host specificity. Analysis of sequence variation among New World arenavirus GP1s and their host-species receptors, in light of the molecular structure, indicates determinants of viral zoonotic transmission. Infectivities of pseudoviruses in cells expressing mutated TfR1 confirm that contacts at the tip of the TfR1 apical domain determine the capacity of human TfR1 to mediate infection by particular New World arenaviruses. We propose that New World arenaviruses that are pathogenic to humans fortuitously acquired affinity for human TfR1 during adaptation to TfR1 of their natural hosts.

  7. Historical evidence for a pre-Columbian presence of Datura in the Old World and implications for a first millennium transfer from the New World

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R Geeta; Waleed Gharaibeh

    2007-12-01

    Datura (Solanaceae) is a small genus of plants that, for long, was thought to occur naturally in both the New and Old Worlds. However, recent studies indicate that all species in the genus originated in the Americas. This finding has prompted the conclusion that no species of Datura could have been present in the Old World prior to its introduction there by Europeans in the early 16th century CE. Further, the textual evidence traditionally cited in support of a pre-Columbian Old World presence of Datura species is suggested to be due to the misreading of classical Greek and Arabic sources. As a result, botanists generally accept the opinion that Datura species were transferred into the Old World in the post-Columbian period. While the taxonomic and geographic evidence for a New World origin for all the Datura species appears to be well supported, the assertion that Datura species were not known in the Old World prior to the 16th century is based on a limited examination of the pre-Columbian non-Anglo sources. We draw on old Arabic and Indic1 texts and southern Indian iconographic representations to show that there is conclusive evidence for the pre-Columbian presence of at least one species of Datura in the Old World. Given the systematic evidence for a New World origin of the genus, the most plausible explanation for this presence is a relatively recent but pre-Columbian (probably first millennium CE) transfer of at least one Datura species, D. metel, into the Old World. Because D. metel is a domesticated species with a disjunct distribution, this might represent an instance of human-mediated transport from the New World to the Old World, as in the case of the sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas).

  8. Identification of New World Quails Susceptible to Infection with Avian Leukosis Virus Subgroup J.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plachý, Jiří; Reinišová, Markéta; Kučerová, Dana; Šenigl, Filip; Stepanets, Volodymyr; Hron, Tomáš; Trejbalová, Kateřina; Elleder, Daniel; Hejnar, Jiří

    2017-02-01

    The J subgroup of avian leukosis virus (ALV-J) infects domestic chickens, jungle fowl, and turkeys. This virus enters the host cell through a receptor encoded by the tvj locus and identified as Na(+)/H(+) exchanger 1. The resistance to avian leukosis virus subgroup J in a great majority of galliform species has been explained by deletions or substitutions of the critical tryptophan 38 in the first extracellular loop of Na(+)/H(+) exchanger 1. Because there are concerns of transspecies virus transmission, we studied natural polymorphisms and susceptibility/resistance in wild galliforms and found the presence of tryptophan 38 in four species of New World quails. The embryo fibroblasts of New World quails are susceptible to infection with avian leukosis virus subgroup J, and the cloned Na(+)/H(+) exchanger 1 confers susceptibility on the otherwise resistant host. New World quails are also susceptible to new avian leukosis virus subgroup J variants but resistant to subgroups A and B and weakly susceptible to subgroups C and D of avian sarcoma/leukosis virus due to obvious defects of the respective receptors. Our results suggest that the avian leukosis virus subgroup J could be transmitted to New World quails and establish a natural reservoir of circulating virus with a potential for further evolution.

  9. Sequence and evolution of the blue cone pigment gene in old and new world primates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hunt, D.M.; Cowing, J.A.; Patel, R. [Univ. of London (United Kingdom)] [and others

    1995-06-10

    The sequences of the blue cone photopigments in the talapoin monkey (Miopithecus talapoin), an Old World primate, and in the marmoset (Callithrix jacchus), a New World monkey, are presented. Both genes are composed of 5 exons separated by 4 introns. In this respect, they are identical to the human blue gene, and intron sizes are also similar. Based on the level of amino acid identity, both monkey pigments are members of the S branch of pigments. Alignment of these sequences with the human gene requires the insertion/deletion of two separate codons in exon 1. The silent site divergence between these primate blue genes indicates a separation of the Old and New World primate lineages around 43 million years ago. 41 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs.

  10. Differential recognition of Old World and New World arenavirus envelope glycoproteins by subtilisin kexin isozyme 1 (SKI-1)/site 1 protease (S1P).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burri, Dominique J; da Palma, Joel Ramos; Seidah, Nabil G; Zanotti, Giuseppe; Cendron, Laura; Pasquato, Antonella; Kunz, Stefan

    2013-06-01

    The arenaviruses are an important family of emerging viruses that includes several causative agents of severe hemorrhagic fevers in humans that represent serious public health problems. A crucial step of the arenavirus life cycle is maturation of the envelope glycoprotein precursor (GPC) by the cellular subtilisin kexin isozyme 1 (SKI-1)/site 1 protease (S1P). Comparison of the currently known sequences of arenavirus GPCs revealed the presence of a highly conserved aromatic residue at position P7 relative to the SKI-1/S1P cleavage side in Old World and clade C New World arenaviruses but not in New World viruses of clades A and B or cellular substrates of SKI-1/S1P. Using a combination of molecular modeling and structure-function analysis, we found that residue Y285 of SKI-1/S1P, distal from the catalytic triad, is implicated in the molecular recognition of the aromatic "signature residue" at P7 in the GPC of Old World Lassa virus. Using a quantitative biochemical approach, we show that Y285 of SKI-1/S1P is crucial for the efficient processing of peptides derived from Old World and clade C New World arenavirus GPCs but not of those from clade A and B New World arenavirus GPCs. The data suggest that during coevolution with their mammalian hosts, GPCs of Old World and clade C New World viruses expanded the molecular contacts with SKI-1/S1P beyond the classical four-amino-acid recognition sequences and currently occupy an extended binding pocket.

  11. The testes transcriptome derived from the New World Screwworm, Cochliomyia hominivorax TSA

    Science.gov (United States)

    In a collaboration with National Center for Genome Resources researchers, we sequenced and assembled the testes transcriptome derived from the Pacora, Panama, production plant strain of the New World Screwworm, Cochliomyia hominivorax. This transcriptome contains 4,149 unigenes and the Transcriptome...

  12. The testes transcriptome derived from the New World Screwworm, Cochliomyia hominivorax

    Science.gov (United States)

    The New World Screwworm (NWS), Cochliomyia hominivorax, is a pest insect that is endemic to subtropical and tropical regions of the Western Hemisphere. The female lays eggs in open wounds or orifices of warm-blooded animals. Upon hatching, the resulting larvae feed upon the host's living tissues, wh...

  13. The testes transcriptome derived from the New World Screwworm, Cochliomyia hominivorax SRA

    Science.gov (United States)

    In a collaboration with National Center for Genome Resources researchers, we sequenced and assembled the testes transcriptome derived from the Pacora, Panama, production plant strain J06 of the New World Screwworm, Cochliomyia hominivorax. This sequencing project produced 72,750,822 raw reads and th...

  14. WWW.Cell Biology Education: Using the World Wide Web to Develop a New Teaching Topic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blystone, Robert V.; MacAlpine, Barbara

    2005-01-01

    "Cell Biology Education" calls attention each quarter to several Web sites of educational interest to the biology community. The Internet provides access to an enormous array of potential teaching materials. In this article, the authors describe one approach for using the World Wide Web to develop a new college biology laboratory exercise. As a…

  15. The Chinese Dream-A New Dream Provided By China For The World

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张保

    2013-01-01

    Along With promotion of comprehensive national strength, Chinese dream, as a new term ,begins to more and more popular. It is introduced, explained and spread by officials, scholars and medias. Would it be another dream for the world beside the American one?

  16. First New World Primate Papillomavirus Identification in the Atlantic Forest, Brazil: Alouatta guariba papillomavirus 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silvestre, Rodrigo Vellasco Duarte; de Souza, Alex Junior Souza; Silva, Allan Kaio; de Mello, Wyller Alencar; Nunes, Marcio Roberto T.; Júnior, João Lídio S. G. V.; Cardoso, Jedson Ferreira; de Vasconcelos, Janaina Mota; de Oliveira, Layanna Freitas; da Silva, Sandro Patroca; da Silva, Adriana Marques J.; Fries, Brigida Gomes; Summa, Maria Eugênia L.; de Sá, Lilian Rose M.

    2016-01-01

    We report here the complete genome sequence of the first papillomavirus detected in a New World primate, howler monkey, Alouatta guariba clamitans papillomavirus 1 (AgPV1), from the Atlantic Forest in São Paulo State, Brazil. PMID:27540053

  17. Geographic variation and environmental correlates of functional trait distributions in palms (Arecaceae) across the New World

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Göldel, B.; Kissling, W.D.; Svenning, J.-C.

    2015-01-01

    Functional traits play a key role in driving biodiversity effects on ecosystem functioning. Here, we examine the geographical distributions of three key functional traits in New World palms (Arecaceae), an ecologically important plant group, and their relationships with current climate, soil and gla

  18. High tropical net diversification drives the New World latitudinal gradient in palm (Arecaceae) species richness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svenning, J.-C.; Borchsenius, Finn; Bjorholm, Stine Wendelboe

    2008-01-01

    Aim Species richness exhibits striking geographical variation, but the processes that drive this variation are unresolved. We investigated the relative importance of two hypothesized evolutionary causes for the variation in palm species richness across the New World: time for diversification and ...

  19. The 1939-1940 New York World's Fair and the Transformation of the American Science Extracurriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terzian, Sevan G.

    2009-01-01

    At the 1939-1940 New York World's Fair, several thousand boys and girls, all members of a growing national network of high school science and engineering clubs, displayed their science fair projects and conducted live experiments to more than 10 million visitors. Housed in the building sponsored by the Westinghouse Electric and Manufacturing…

  20. A Brave New World: Understanding the Net Generation through Their Eyes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lohnes, Sarah; Wilber, Dana J.; Kinzer, Charles K.

    2008-01-01

    College today is part of a brave new world, populated by the technologically literate young people of the Net Generation. In this article, the authors offer two vignettes of Net Gen students, taken from their research, to provide portraits of college students' everyday technology use. These vignettes, which report technology practices and beliefs…

  1. Learning Facts: The Brave New World of Data-Informed Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, Julie Landry

    2007-01-01

    In just the last ten years, goaded by broad and still unsettled cultural shifts, education practices have changed dramatically. Schools are no longer just recording and analyzing inputs--dollars spent, number of days of instruction, numbers of students per teacher--but pushing their data-gathering and analysis efforts into the brave new world of…

  2. Energetic diplomacy and its role on creation of a new multipolar world

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor Gelev

    2016-01-01

    Many of us would ask does this mean the reincarnation of the so called almost forgotten Cold War only now coming in such a shape that seems to be far more terrifying in character with a great deal of chance to impose the brink of a new world war and another humanitarian wash-out to humanity.

  3. Isolation of Camelid Single-Domain Antibodies Against Native Proteins Using Recombinant Multivalent Peptide Ligands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alturki, Norah A; Henry, Kevin A; MacKenzie, C Roger; Arbabi-Ghahroudi, Mehdi

    2015-01-01

    Generation of antibodies against desired epitopes on folded proteins may be hampered by various characteristics of the target protein, including antigenic and immunogenic dominance of irrelevant epitopes and/or steric occlusion of the desired epitope. In such cases, peptides encompassing linear epitopes of the native protein represent attractive alternative reagents for immunization and screening. Peptide antigens are typically prepared by fusing or conjugating the peptide of interest to a carrier protein. The utility of such antigens depends on many factors including the peptide's amino acid sequence, display valency, display format (synthetic conjugate vs. recombinant fusion) and characteristics of the carrier. Here we provide detailed protocols for: (1) preparation of DNA constructs encoding peptides fused to verotoxin (VT) multimerization domain; (2) expression, purification, and characterization of the multivalent peptide-VT ligands; (3) concurrent panning of a non-immune phage-displayed camelid VHH library against the peptide-VT ligands and native protein; and (4) identification of VHHs enriched via panning using next-generation sequencing techniques. These methods are simple, rapid and can be easily adapted to yield custom peptide-VT ligands that appear to maintain the antigenic structures of the peptide. However, we caution that peptide sequences should be chosen with great care, taking into account structural, immunological, and biophysical information on the protein of interest.

  4. Bluetongue disease and seroprevalence in South American camelids from the northwestern region of the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Andrew J; Stanton, James B; Evermann, James F; Fry, Lindsay M; Ackerman, Melissa G; Barrington, George M

    2015-03-01

    In late summer/early fall of 2013, 2 South American camelids from central Washington were diagnosed with fatal bluetongue viral disease, an event which is rarely reported. A 9-year-old intact male llama (Lama glama), with a 1-day history of anorexia, recumbency, and dyspnea before death. Abundant foam discharged from the mouth and nostrils, and the lungs were severely edematous on postmortem examination. Histologically, there was abundant intra-alveolar edema with fibrin. Hemorrhage and edema disrupted several other organs. Bluetongue viral RNA was detected by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), and serotype 11 was identified by sequencing a segment of the VP2 outer capsid gene. Approximately 1 month later, at a site 150 miles north of the index case, a 2-year-old female alpaca with similar, acutely progressive clinical signs was reported. A postmortem examination was performed, and histologic lesions from the alpaca were similar to those of the llama, and again serotype 11 was detected by PCR. The occurrence of bluetongue viral infection and disease is described in the context of seasonal Bluetongue virus activity within the northwestern United States and southwestern Canada.

  5. Isolation and optimization of camelid single-domain antibodies:Dirk Saerens’work on nanobodies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dirk; Saerens

    2010-01-01

    It is well established that all camelids have unique antibodies circulating in their blood.Unlike antibodies from all other species,these special antibodies are devoid of light chains,and are composed of a heavy chain homodimer.These so-called heavy-chain antibodies(HCAbs)are expressed after a V-D-J rearrangement and require dedicated constant gamma genes. An immune response is raised in these HCAbs following a classical immunization protocol.These HCAbs are easily purified from serum,and their antigen-binding fragment interacts with parts of the target that are less antigenic to conventional antibodies.The antigen binding site of the dromedary HCAb comprises one single domain,referred to as VHH or nanobody(Nb),therefore,a strategy was designed to clone the Nb repertoire of an immunized dromedary and to select the Nb with specificity for our target antigens.The monoclonal Nb is produced well in bacteria,is very stable and highly soluble,and it binds the antigen with high affinity and specificity.Currently,the recombinant Nb has been developed successfully for research purposes, as a probe in biosensors,to diagnose infections,or to treat diseases such as cancer or trypanosomiasis.

  6. Camelid-derived heavy-chain nanobody against Clostridium botulinum neurotoxin E in Pichia pastoris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baghban, Roghayyeh; Gargari, Seyed Latif Mousavi; Rajabibazl, Masoumeh; Nazarian, Shahram; Bakherad, Hamid

    2016-01-01

    Botulinum neurotoxins (BoNTs) result in severe and often fatal disease, botulism. Common remedial measures such as equine antitoxin and human botulism immunoglobulin in turn are problematic and time-consuming. Therefore, diagnosis and therapy of BoNTs are vital. The variable domain of heavy-chain antibodies (VHH) has unique features, such as the ability to identify and bind specifically to target epitopes and ease of production in bacteria and yeast. The Pichia pastoris is suitable for expression of recombinant antibody fragments. Disulfide bond formation and correct folds of protein with a high yield are some of the advantages of this eukaryotic host. In this study, we have expressed and purified the camelid VHH against BoNT/E in P. pastoris. The final yield of P. pastoris-expressed antibody was estimated to be 16 mg/l, which is higher than that expressed by Escherichia coli. The nanobody expressed in P. pastoris neutralized 4LD50 of the BoNT/E upon i.p. injection in 25% of mice. The nanobody expressed in E. coli extended the mice's survival to 1.5-fold compared to the control. This experiment indicated that the quality of expressed protein in the yeast is superior to that of the bacterial expression. Favorable protein folding by P. pastoris seems to play a role in its better toxin-binding property.

  7. On Narrative Strategies Embodied in The Known World under New His-torical Perspective

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Ying-ying; QIU Jia-ling

    2014-01-01

    With the multiple clues, rambling narrative and multidimensional architecture, Jones, in TheKnownWorld, constructs a fairly layered, three-dimensional world and presents a panorama of the entire slave society. The so-called mongline History be-fore is decomposed into a number of linear histories, and history which was non-narrative and non-representational is dismantled into histories narrated by many single narrators. Cultural discourse and historical discourse blend together. Jones shares the same conception on history and literature with New Historical critics who emphasize the complex mix-and-match interaction be-tween history and text.

  8. Brave New World versus Island--utopian and dystopian views on psychopharmacology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schermer, M H N

    2007-06-01

    Aldous Huxley's Brave New World is a famous dystopia, frequently called upon in public discussions about new biotechnology. It is less well known that 30 years later Huxley also wrote a utopian novel, called Island. This paper will discuss both novels focussing especially on the role of psychopharmacological substances. If we see fiction as a way of imagining what the world could look like, then what can we learn from Huxley's novels about psychopharmacology and how does that relate to the discussion in the ethical and philosophical literature on this subject? The paper argues that in the current ethical discussion the dystopian vision on psychopharmacology is dominant, but that a comparison between Brave New World and Island shows that a more utopian view is possible as well. This is illustrated by a discussion of the issue of psychopharmacology and authenticity. The second part of the paper draws some further conclusions for the ethical debate on psychopharmacology and human enhancement, by comparing the novels not only with each other, but also with our present reality. It is claimed that the debate should not get stuck in an opposition of dystopian and utopian views, but should address important issues that demand attention in our real world: those of evaluation and governance of enhancing psychopharmacological substances in democratic, pluralistic societies.

  9. Small World Properties Generated by a New Algorithm Under Same Degree of All Nodes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Yong; FANG Jin-Qing; LIU Qiang; LIANG Yong

    2006-01-01

    Based on the model of the same degree of all nodes we proposed before, a new algorithm, the so-called"spread all over vertices" (SAV) algorithm, is proposed for generating small-world properties from a regular ring lattices.During randomly rewiring connections the SAV is used to keep the unchanged number of links. Comparing the SAV algorithm with the Watts-Strogatz model and the "spread all over boundaries" algorithm, three methods can have the same topological properties of the small world networks. These results offer diverse formation of small world networks.It is helpful to the research of some applications for dynamics of mutual oscillator inside nodes and interacting automata associated with networks.

  10. Old World and Clade C New World Arenaviruses Mimic the Molecular Mechanism of Receptor Recognition Used by α-Dystroglycan's Host-Derived Ligands▿

    OpenAIRE

    Rojek, Jillian M.; Spiropoulou, Christina F.; Campbell, Kevin P; Kunz, Stefan

    2007-01-01

    α-Dystroglycan (DG) is an important cellular receptor for extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins and also serves as the receptor for Old World arenaviruses Lassa fever virus (LFV) and lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV) and clade C New World arenaviruses. In the host cell, α-DG is subject to a remarkably complex pattern of O glycosylation that is crucial for its interactions with ECM proteins. Two of these unusual sugar modifications, protein O mannosylation and glycan modifications involv...

  11. Drug discovery technologies and strategies for Machupo virus and other New World arenaviruses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radoshitzky, Sheli R.; Kuhn, Jens H.; de Kok-Mercado, Fabian; Jahrling, Peter B.; Bavari, Sina

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Seven arenaviruses cause viral hemorrhagic fever in humans: the Old World arenaviruses Lassa and Lujo, and the New World Clade B arenaviruses Machupo (MACV), Junín (JUNV), Guanarito (GTOV), Sabiá (SABV), and Chapare (CHPV). All of these viruses are Risk Group 4 biosafety pathogens. MACV causes human disease outbreak with high case-fatality rates. To date, at least 1,200 cases with ≈200 fatalities have been recorded 1, 2. Areas covered This review summarizes available systems and technologies for the identification of antivirals against MACV, animal models for in vivo evaluation of novel inhibitors, present treatment of arenaviral diseases, overview of efficacious small molecules and other therapeutics reported to date, and strategies to identify novel inhibitors for anti-arenaviral therapy. Expert opinion New high-throughput approaches to quantitate infection rates of areaviruses, as well as viruses modified to carry reporter genes, will accelerate compound screens and drug discovery efforts. RNAi, gene expression profiling and proteomics studies will identify host targets for therapeutic intervention. New discoveries in the cell entry mechanism of MACV and other arenaviruses as well as extensive structural studies of arenaviral L and NP could facilitate the rational design of antivirals effective against all pathogenic New World arenaviruses. PMID:22607481

  12. World-Economy Centrality and Carbon Dioxide Emissions: A New Look at the Position in the Capitalist World-System and Environmental Pollution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Prew

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available With the ever-growing concern of climate change, much attention has been paid to the factors driving carbon dioxide emissions. Previous research in the World-Systems perspective has identified a relationship between carbon dioxide emissions and position in the world-economy. This study intends to build on the previous research by developing a new, more parsimonious indicator of World-System position based on Immanuel Wallerstein’s theoretical concepts of incorporation and core-periphery processes. The new World-System indicator is derived from the centrality measure in network analysis based on import data from the International Monetary Fund’s Direction of Trade Statistics. Based on the theoretical concepts of core-periphery processes, carbon dioxide emissions are predicted to rise based on the predominance of energy-intensive, high-technology, core processes within the nation. The results tend to demonstrate a strong relationship between carbon dioxide emissions and position in the world-economy, and the new World-System position indicator is more strongly related with carbon dioxide emissions than Gross Domestic Product per capita.

  13. Notes on New World Zingiberaceae: IV. Some new species of Costus and Renealmia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maas, P.J.M.; Maas, H.

    1988-01-01

    Three new species of Costus (sect. Ornithophilus) and two new species of Renealmia are described, and a revised key to the species of Costus with separate flowering shoots and unappendaged bracts is given.

  14. Genetically engineered T cells bearing chimeric nanoconstructed receptors harboring TAG-72-specific camelid single domain antibodies as targeting agents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sharifzadeh, Zahra; Rahbarizadeh, Fatemeh; Shokrgozar, Mohammad A

    2013-01-01

    Despite the preclinical success of adoptive therapy with T cells bearing chimeric nanoconstructed antigen receptors (CARs), certain limitations of this therapeutic approach such as the immunogenicity of the antigen binding domain, the emergence of tumor cell escape variants and the blocking...... capacity of soluble antigen still remain. Here, we address these issues using a novel CAR binding moiety based on the oligoclonal camelid single domain antibodies. A unique set of 13 single domain antibodies were selected from an immunized camel phage library based on their target specificity and binding...... to reverse multiple tumor immune evasion mechanisms, avoid CAR immunogenicity, and overcome problems in cancer gene therapy with engineered nanoconstructs....

  15. Widespread adaptive evolution during repeated evolutionary radiations in New World lupins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nevado, Bruno; Atchison, Guy W.; Hughes, Colin E.; Filatov, Dmitry A.

    2016-01-01

    The evolutionary processes that drive rapid species diversification are poorly understood. In particular, it is unclear whether Darwinian adaptation or non-adaptive processes are the primary drivers of explosive species diversifications. Here we show that repeated rapid radiations within New World lupins (Lupinus, Leguminosae) were underpinned by a major increase in the frequency of adaptation acting on coding and regulatory changes genome-wide. This contrasts with far less frequent adaptation in genomes of slowly diversifying lupins and all other plant genera analysed. Furthermore, widespread shifts in optimal gene expression coincided with shifts to high rates of diversification and evolution of perenniality, a putative key adaptation trait thought to have triggered the evolutionary radiations in New World lupins. Our results reconcile long-standing debate about the relative importance of protein-coding and regulatory evolution, and represent the first unambiguous evidence for the rapid onset of lineage- and genome-wide accelerated Darwinian evolution during rapid species diversification. PMID:27498896

  16. A multilocus phylogeny of a major New World avian radiation: the Vireonidae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slager, David L; Battey, C J; Bryson, Robert W; Voelker, Gary; Klicka, John

    2014-11-01

    The family Vireonidae represents one of the most widespread and well-known New World avian radiations, but a robust species-level phylogeny of the group is lacking. Here, we infer a phylogeny of Vireonidae using multilocus data obtained from 221 individuals from 46 of 52 vireonid species (representing all four genera) and five "core Corvoidea" outgroups. Our results show Vireonidae to be monophyletic, consistent with a single colonization of the New World by an Asian ancestor. Cyclarhis and Vireolanius are monophyletic genera that diverged early from the rest of Vireonidae. Hylophilus is polyphyletic, represented by three distinct clades concordant with differences in morphology, habitat, and voice. The poorly known South American species Hylophilus sclateri is embedded within the genus Vireo. Vireo, in turn, consists of several well-supported intrageneric clades. Overall, tropical vireonid species show much higher levels of intraspecific genetic structure than temperate species and several currently recognized species are probably comprised of multiple cryptic species.

  17. Preparing nurses for the new world order: a faculty development focus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNamara, Anne; Roat, Cheryl; Kemper, Mori

    2012-01-01

    The new world order demands nursing faculty members be as competent in teaching and coaching students as they are about the art and science of nursing. The complexity associated with classroom management requires mastery of innovative learning modalities to assist students to think critically using research-based evidence in making patient care decisions. Grand Canyon University has made faculty competence a priority to ensure quality student outcomes. The College of Nursing has embraced a systematic process for creating faculty excellence through a comprehensive faculty development initiative. Developing faculty requires university support through policy and resources that is essential to prepare nurses for the new world order and therefore closing the education practice gap.

  18. The remarkable journey of adaptation of the Plasmodium falciparum malaria parasite to New World anopheline mosquitoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molina-Cruz, Alvaro; Barillas-Mury, Carolina

    2014-08-01

    Plasmodium falciparum originated in Africa, dispersed around the world as a result of human migration and had to adapt to several different indigenous anopheline mosquitoes. Anophelines from the New World are evolutionary distant form African ones and this probably resulted in a more stringent selection of Plasmodium as it adapted to these vectors. It is thought that Plasmodium has been genetically selected by some anopheline species through unknown mechanisms. The mosquito immune system can greatly limit infection and P. falciparum evolved a strategy to evade these responses, at least in part mediated by Pfs47, a highly polymorphic gene. We propose that adaptation of P. falciparum to new vectors may require evasion of their immune system. Parasites with a Pfs47 haplotype compatible with the indigenous mosquito vector would be able to survive and be transmitted. The mosquito antiplasmodial response could be an important determinant of P. falciparum population structure and could affect malaria transmission in the Americas.

  19. The remarkable journey of adaptation of the Plasmodium falciparum malaria parasite to New World anopheline mosquitoes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alvaro Molina-Cruz

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Plasmodium falciparum originated in Africa, dispersed around the world as a result of human migration and had to adapt to several different indigenous anopheline mosquitoes. Anophelines from the New World are evolutionary distant form African ones and this probably resulted in a more stringent selection of Plasmodium as it adapted to these vectors. It is thought that Plasmodium has been genetically selected by some anopheline species through unknown mechanisms. The mosquito immune system can greatly limit infection and P. falciparum evolved a strategy to evade these responses, at least in part mediated by Pfs47, a highly polymorphic gene. We propose that adaptation of P. falciparum to new vectors may require evasion of their immune system. Parasites with a Pfs47 haplotype compatible with the indigenous mosquito vector would be able to survive and be transmitted. The mosquito antiplasmodial response could be an important determinant of P. falciparum population structure and could affect malaria transmission in the Americas.

  20. Molecular characterization of the first polyomavirus from a New World primate: squirrel monkey polyomavirus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verschoor, Ernst J; Groenewoud, Marlous J; Fagrouch, Zahra; Kewalapat, Aruna; van Gessel, Sabine; Kik, Marja J L; Heeney, Jonathan L

    2008-01-01

    DNA samples from a variety of New World monkeys were screened by using a broad-spectrum PCR targeting the VP1 gene of polyomaviruses. This resulted in the characterization of the first polyomavirus from a New World primate. This virus naturally infects squirrel monkeys (Saimiri sp.) and is provisionally named squirrel monkey polyomavirus (SquiPyV). The complete genome of SquiPyV is 5,075 bp in length, and encodes the small T and large T antigens and the three structural proteins VP1, VP2 and VP3. Interestingly, the late region also encodes a putative agnoprotein, a feature that it shares with other polyomaviruses from humans, baboons and African green monkeys. Comparison with other polyomaviruses revealed limited sequence similarity to any other polyomavirus, and phylogenetic analysis of the VP1 gene confirmed its uniqueness.

  1. New World Arenavirus Clade C, but Not Clade A and B Viruses, Utilizes α-Dystroglycan as Its Major Receptor

    OpenAIRE

    Spiropoulou, Christina F.; Kunz, Stefan; Rollin, Pierre E.; Campbell, Kevin P; Oldstone, Michael B. A.

    2002-01-01

    α-Dystroglycan (α-DG) has been identified as a major receptor for lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV) and Lassa virus, two Old World arenaviruses. The situation with New World arenaviruses is less clear: previous studies demonstrated that Oliveros virus also exhibited high-affinity binding to α-DG but that Guanarito virus did not. To extend these initial studies, several additional Old and New World arenaviruses were screened for entry into mouse embryonic stem cells possessing or lacki...

  2. A brave new world: considering the pedagogic potential of Virtual World Field Trips (VWFTs in initial teacher education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fitzsimons Sabrina

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available In its broadest and historical sense, place-based education refers to education that occurs outside of the physical boundaries of a school building (Dewey 1910; Sobel 1996; Theobald 1997; Woodhouse and Knapp 2000. Place-based education, colloquially referred to as the ‘field trip’, is predominantly considered a pedagogic tool of the sciences. It involves a physical movement from the school-based location to a place of interest, for example, a geography field trip to an ecological landscape or science visit to a local museum. This paper considers the use of virtual world field trips (VWFTs within the context of a pre-service Teacher Education programme. The paper presents data from one undergraduate module offered on a programme of initial teacher education. The paper identifies three significant elements of virtual world field trips: place, people and content. First, the virtual world can provide access to places not possible in the offline context as a result of geographic, economic or religious factors. Second, exposure to and dialogue with a variety of world views can challenge students’ assumptions, facilitate reflection and provide an opportunity for oneto-one teaching encounters. Third, from a teacher educator perspective, engagement in virtual world field trips can provide a space for teachers to model teaching methodologies and model creative learning techniques, thus providing student teachers with an insight into different approaches to teaching.

  3. Checklist of the terrestrial isopods of the new world (Crustacea, Isopoda, Oniscidea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Leistikow

    1999-03-01

    Full Text Available A check-list of all the American Oniscidea known to the authors and their quotation in literature is presented. The species account comprises notes on species' distribution and a revised synonymy. As far as possible comments on taxonomic problems are given. The species are ascribed to the families which are commonly recognised, despite many of them are paraphyletic constructions. This check-list should support the work of both ecologists and taxonomist when dealing with New World Oniscidea.

  4. The New World Order and the Unmasking of the Neo-Colonial Present

    OpenAIRE

    Lilijana Burcar

    2012-01-01

    In his dramatic sketch The New World Order Pinter exposes practices of psychological and physical abuse targeted at local people who resist neo-colonial advancements in territories directly occupied or indirectly controlled by Western hegemonic powers. Through the deployment of Pinteresque double-layered meanings conveyed through seemingly ordinary, everyday language, the drama unveils the ideological premises and operating principles of neo-colonial discourse. The paper discusses the way Pin...

  5. A new species and an annotated world list of the sucking louse genus Neohaematopinus (Anoplura: Polyplacidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durden, L A

    1991-09-01

    A new species of sucking louse, Neohaematopinus sundasciuri, collected from the tree squirrel, Sundasciurus juvencus, is described from Palawan Island, Philippines. An updated world list of the genus Neohaematopinus is presented; this documents descriptive citations, known hosts, and geographical distributions with interpretive annotations for each of the 32 species now included in the genus. The geographical distributions of Neohaematopinus sciuri and N. sciurinus are discussed.

  6. Eocene primates of South America and the African origins of New World monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bond, Mariano; Tejedor, Marcelo F; Campbell, Kenneth E; Chornogubsky, Laura; Novo, Nelson; Goin, Francisco

    2015-04-23

    The platyrrhine primates, or New World monkeys, are immigrant mammals whose fossil record comes from Tertiary and Quaternary sediments of South America and the Caribbean Greater Antilles. The time and place of platyrrhine origins are some of the most controversial issues in primate palaeontology, although an African Palaeogene ancestry has been presumed by most primatologists. Until now, the oldest fossil records of New World monkeys have come from Salla, Bolivia, and date to approximately 26 million years ago, or the Late Oligocene epoch. Here we report the discovery of new primates from the ?Late Eocene epoch of Amazonian Peru, which extends the fossil record of primates in South America back approximately 10 million years. The new specimens are important for understanding the origin and early evolution of modern platyrrhine primates because they bear little resemblance to any extinct or living South American primate, but they do bear striking resemblances to Eocene African anthropoids, and our phylogenetic analysis suggests a relationship with African taxa. The discovery of these new primates brings the first appearance datum of caviomorph rodents and primates in South America back into close correspondence, but raises new questions about the timing and means of arrival of these two mammalian groups.

  7. Eocene primates of South America and the African origins of New World monkeys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bond, Mariano; Tejedor, Marcelo F.; Campbell, Kenneth E.; Chornogubsky, Laura; Novo, Nelson; Goin, Francisco

    2015-04-01

    The platyrrhine primates, or New World monkeys, are immigrant mammals whose fossil record comes from Tertiary and Quaternary sediments of South America and the Caribbean Greater Antilles. The time and place of platyrrhine origins are some of the most controversial issues in primate palaeontology, although an African Palaeogene ancestry has been presumed by most primatologists. Until now, the oldest fossil records of New World monkeys have come from Salla, Bolivia, and date to approximately 26 million years ago, or the Late Oligocene epoch. Here we report the discovery of new primates from the ?Late Eocene epoch of Amazonian Peru, which extends the fossil record of primates in South America back approximately 10 million years. The new specimens are important for understanding the origin and early evolution of modern platyrrhine primates because they bear little resemblance to any extinct or living South American primate, but they do bear striking resemblances to Eocene African anthropoids, and our phylogenetic analysis suggests a relationship with African taxa. The discovery of these new primates brings the first appearance datum of caviomorph rodents and primates in South America back into close correspondence, but raises new questions about the timing and means of arrival of these two mammalian groups.

  8. [Dry matter intake of South American camelids and its effects on the composition of feed rations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stölzl, Anna Maria; Lambertz, Christian; Moors, Eva; Stiehl, Jennifer; Gauly, Matthias

    2014-01-01

    The number of South American camelids (SAC) is increasing in Germany since decades. Due to a lack of scientifically based publications the knowledge about feeding SACs is still poor. Therefore, the aim of this study was to estimate the dry matter intake (DMI) of SACs as a basis for calculations of feed rations. Previous studies proposed a DMI of up to 3% of the body weight (BW) (Vaughan und Gauly, 2011). In the present study, eight llamas (Llama glama) were allocated to two groups of four animals each. The two groups were fed with hay of different qualities over a total period often weeks, which was divided into two runs of five weeks each. During the first run, group 1 was fed with hay 1 (15.1% crude protein; 8.5% crude ash; 3.1% crude fat; 52.6% NDF per kg DM) and group 2 with hay 2 (6.6% crude protein; 6.2% crude ash; 2.1% crude fat; 64.3% NDF per kg DM). After five weeks the groups were changed and group 1 received hay 2 and group 2 received hay 1. BW was measured at the start and end of each run (week zero, five and ten). The hay quality affected the DMI, but the animals did not compensate a lower feed quality with an increased DMI. The total DMI was 1.26% and 0.89% of the BW for hay 1 and hay 2, respectively, which was lower than expected in both groups. In conclusion, calculations of feed rations for SACs should be adjusted to the present findings of a lower DMI capability.

  9. Molecular characterization and antibiotic resistance of Enterococcus species from gut microbiota of Chilean Altiplano camelids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katheryne Guerrero-Olmos

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Enterococcus is one of the major human pathogens able to acquire multiple antibiotic-resistant markers as well as virulence factors which also colonize remote ecosystems, including wild animals. In this work, we characterized the Enterococcus population colonizing the gut of Chilean Altiplano camelids without foreign human contact. Material and methods: Rectal swabs from 40 llamas and 10 alpacas were seeded in M-Enterococcus agar, and we selected a total of 57 isolates. Species identification was performed by biochemical classical tests, semi-automated WIDER system, mass spectrometry analysis by MALDI-TOF (matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization with a time-of-flight mass spectrometer, and, finally, nucleotide sequence of internal fragments of the 16S rRNA, rpoB, pheS, and aac(6-I genes. Genetic diversity was measured by pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE-SmaI, whereas the antibiotic susceptibility was determined by the WIDER system. Carriage of virulence factors was explored by polymerase chain reaction (PCR. Results: Our results demonstrated that the most prevalent specie was Enterococcus hirae (82%, followed by other non–Enterococcus faecalis and non–Enterococcus faecium species. Some discrepancies were detected among the identification methods used, and the most reliable were the rpoB, pheS, and aac(6-I nucleotide sequencing. Selected isolates exhibited susceptibility to almost all studied antibiotics, and virulence factors were not detected by PCR. Finally, some predominant clones were characterized by PFGE into a diverse genetic background. Conclusion: Enterococcus species from the Chilean camelids’ gut microbiota were different from those adapted to humans, and they remained free of antibiotic resistance mechanisms as well as virulence factors.

  10. "The New World". Musica e narratività nel cinema di Terrence Malick

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Finocchiaro

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The New World (USA, 2005 is the fourth full-length film’s title of the American director Terrence Malick. The movie tells the legendary love story between Princess Pocahontas (Q’orianka Kilcher of the Powathan tribe and the English soldier and explorer John Smith (Colin Farrell. The background of the historical events concerns the foundation of one of the first European settlements in the New World, at the close beginning of 17th Century. The specific topic of the proposed didactical unit, which is addressed to a 2nd or 3rd class of the Secondary School, consists in the analysis of some film sequences, that all employ the main theme of the second movement (Adagio from the Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart’s Piano Concerto K 488. The didactic unit is based on an audiovisual analysis, that focuses on developing some categories, concepts and tools, which can enrich the reading strategies of a kind of text – the syncretic cinematographic one – with a central role in the contemporary music production and consumption. Malick’s work not only represents a polished example of music employment in a movie, but also deals with a topic of a relevant historical importance, that is the encounter between the Old and New World; indeed this topic is particularly suitable for encouraging a reflection upon cultural diversity and interethnic communication.

  11. Host switching of human lice to new world monkeys in South America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drali, Rezak; Abi-Rached, Laurent; Boutellis, Amina; Djossou, Félix; Barker, Stephen C; Raoult, Didier

    2016-04-01

    The coevolution between a host and its obligate parasite is exemplified in the sucking lice that infest primates. In the context of close lice-host partnerships and cospeciation, Pediculus mjobergi, the louse of New World primates, has long been puzzling because its morphology resembles that of human lice. To investigate the possibility that P. mjobergi was transmitted to monkeys from the first humans who set foot on the American continent thousands of years ago, we obtained and compared P. mjobergi lice collected from howler monkeys from Argentina to human lice gathered from a remote and isolated village in Amazonia that has escaped globalization. Morphological examinations were first conducted and verified the similarity between the monkey and human lice. The molecular characterization of several nuclear and mitochondrial genetic markers in the two types of lice revealed that one of the P. mjobergi specimens had a unique haplotype that clustered with the haplotypes of Amazonian head lice that are prevalent in tropical regions in the Americas, a natural habitat of New World monkeys. Because this phylogenetic group forms a separate branch within the clade of lice from humans that were of American origin, this finding indicates that human lice have transferred to New World monkeys.

  12. Transferrin receptor 1 in the zoonosis and pathogenesis of New World hemorrhagic fever arenaviruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choe, Hyeryun; Jemielity, Stephanie; Abraham, Jonathan; Radoshitzky, Sheli R; Farzan, Michael

    2011-08-01

    At least five New World arenaviruses cause severe human hemorrhagic fevers. These viruses are transmitted to humans through contact with their respective South American rodent hosts. Each uses human transferrin receptor 1 (TfR1) as its obligate receptor. Accidental similarities between human TfR1 and TfR1 orthologs of arenaviral host species enable zoonoses, whereas mice and rats are not infectable because they lack these TfR1 determinants of infection. All pathogenic New World arenaviruses bind to a common region of the apical domain of TfR1. The ability of a New World arenavirus to use human TfR1 is absolutely predictive of its ability to cause hemorrhagic fevers in humans. Nonpathogenic arenaviruses, closely related to hemorrhagic fever arenaviruses, cannot utilize human TfR1 but efficiently enter cells through TfR1 orthologs of their native rodent hosts. Mutagenesis studies suggest that minor changes in the entry glycoproteins of these nonpathogenic viruses may allow human transmission. TfR1 is upregulated as a result of iron sequestration during the acute-phase response to infection, and the severity of disease may result from amplification of viral replication during this response.

  13. The major epidemic infections: a gift from the Old World to the New?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sessa, R; Palagiano, C; Scifoni, M G; di Pietro, M; Del Piano, M

    1999-03-01

    With the discovery of the New World, the Europeans flocked to America and with them spread infectious diseases. During long sea voyages the agents of these diseases increased their diffusion capacity in a suitable environment. Lack of hygiene, fatigue and privations, a diet without vitamins and many persons kept in confined spaces were the essential features of this environment. Sick persons, whose health conditions worsened during the journey to the New World, carried the germs of infectious diseases. The first disease to appear in the New World was smallpox described in 1518 in Hispaniola. From there the disease moved rapidly to Mexico in 1520, exterminating most of the Aztecs, Guatemala and to the territories of Incas from 1525-26, killing most of them and the King himself. The second disease, influenza, appeared in La Isabela, a few years later, causing a heavy epidemic between 1558 and 1559. Other diseases followed such as yellow fever and malaria. So Europeans and these invisible and mortal agents caused enormous destruction of American populations. In fact historians have estimated that beginning from early 1500, in only 50 years the population of Peru and Mexico fell from 60 to 10 million; in the latter country, in one century, the populations fell from an initial 10 million to only 2 million.

  14. Population policy at a crossroads. Will world conference signal new directions for U.S.?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mccarty, L; Sherman, D

    1994-06-01

    In September 1994 in Cairo, at the third population conference hosted by the United Nations, world leaders will be asked to approve a plan that could stabilize the world population at about 8 billion people by the middle of the next century. Participants will consider interrelated issues: population growth, access to family planning, women's empowerment, sustainable development, poverty, consumption, and the environment. This campaign for a more equitable world is likely to continue after Cairo, with the UN-sponsored social summit in Copenhagen and a women's conference in Beijing slated for next year. The Cairo International Conference on Population and Development will require a new approach to sustainability by balancing environmental protection, economic development, and present and future human needs. The United States has only 5% of the world's population, but it uses 25% of the world's commercial energy, produces more garbage and waste than any other country, and generates 21% of all carbon dioxide emissions, which contribute to global warming. Demands for energy, water and food already cannot be met as natural resources are being exhausted at an alarming rate. The fight over water rights to the Colorado River exemplifies the shrinking natural resource base. In contrast to the Reagan-Bush administration, the Clinton administration restored funding to international family planning agencies and endorsed sustainable development. The US birth rate is back at a 2-decade high, while 60% of pregnancies are unintended. US adolescent pregnancy is the highest among industrialized countries, leading to a cycle of poverty and soaring public costs. Government funding for new contraceptive research has been stagnant because of the pressure of right-wing groups, although finally RU-486 became available for clinical trials. The Cairo conference is likely to recognize the US as the leader in global political issues, however, domestic population and consumption issues have

  15. New World Pouzozlia and Boehmeria (Urticaceae): a new species and new generic record for Paraguay, Pouzolzia amambaiensis, and additional observations on already described species of both genera

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wilmot-Dear, Christine Melanie; Friis, Ib

    2011-01-01

    The paper supplements a revision of the New World species of Boehmeria and Pouzozia published by the authors in 1996. Pouzolzia amambaiensis sp. nov. is described from recent material from Paraguay near the border with Brazil and represents a new generic record for Paraguay. Also recorded...

  16. Mother of a New World? Stereotypical Representations of Black Women in Three Postapocalyptic Films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karima K. Jeffrey

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This essay explores three cinematic representations of Black matriarchs who play prophetic roles in redeeming humanity in the midst of apocalyptic change: Ika (Quest for Fire, Kee (Children of Men, and The Oracle (The Matrix trilogy. Not only do these courageous women resist the politics of domination, rebelling against a dying status quo, but they "give birth" to the leaders needed to rebuild a world in chaos and decay. One film ends with a pregnant woman rubbing her belly as she stands on the precipice of evolutionary change; another positions a mother and newborn adrift, waiting to be found by leaders of a new world order; in the third, a character sacrifices herself to empower resistance fighters with ideas and the means to choose their survival in a postapocalyptic world. Defying the politics of an annihilating patriarchy, these women portend a return to a naturally evolving world. However, despite their powerful influence, they can be understood, problematically, as modern-day reinventions of Black female stereotypes—Ika as Jezebel, Kee as Hagar, the Oracle as Mammy—because they, and the indices for understanding their roles in the community, are wedded to White patriarchs and to their own gendered functions as nurturing or sexual(ized beings.

  17. Extending the Lunar Mapping and Modeling Portal - New Capabilities and New Worlds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day, B.; Law, E.; Arevalo, E.; Bui, B.; Chang, G.; Dodge, K.; Kim, R.; Malhotra, S.; Sadaqathullah, S.; Schmidt, G.; Bailey, B.

    2015-01-01

    NASA's Lunar Mapping and Modeling Portal (LMMP) provides a web-based Portal and a suite of interactive visualization and analysis tools to enable mission planners, lunar scientists, and engineers to access mapped lunar data products from past and current lunar missions (http://lmmp.nasa.gov). During the past year, the capabilities and data served by LMMP have been significantly expanded. New interfaces are providing improved ways to access and visualize data. At the request of NASA's Science Mission Directorate, LMMP's technology and capabilities are now being extended to additional planetary bodies. New portals for Vesta and Mars are the first of these new products to be released. This presentation will provide an overview of LMMP, Vesta Trek, and Mars Trek, demonstrate their uses and capabilities, highlight new features, and preview coming enhancements.

  18. Retargeted oncolytic adenovirus displaying a single variable domain of camelid heavy-chain-only antibody in a fiber protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Erp, Elisabeth A; Kaliberova, Lyudmila N; Kaliberov, Sergey A; Curiel, David T

    2015-01-01

    Conditionally replicative adenoviruses are promising agents for oncolytic virotherapy. Various approaches have been attempted to retarget adenoviruses to tumor-specific antigens to circumvent deficiency of receptor for adenoviral binding and to provide an additional level of tumor specificity. Functional incorporation of highly specific targeting molecules into the viral capsid can potentially retarget adenoviral infection. However, conventional antibodies are not compatible with the cytoplasmic adenovirus capsid synthesis. The goal of this study was to evaluate the utility of single variable domains derived from heavy chain camelid antibodies for retargeting of adenovirus infection. We have combined transcriptional targeting using a tumor-specific promoter with transductional targeting through viral capsid incorporation of antihuman carcinoembryonic antigen single variable domains. Obtained data demonstrated that employment of a single variable domain genetically incorporated into an adenovirus fiber increased specificity of infection and efficacy of replication of single variable domain-targeted oncolytic adenovirus. The double targeting, both transcriptional through the C-X-C chemokine receptor type 4 promoter and transductional using the single variable domain, is a promising means to improve the therapeutic index for these advanced generation conditionally replicative adenoviruses. A successful strategy to transductional retargeting of oncolytic adenovirus infection has not been shown before and therefore we believe this is the first employment of transductional targeting using single variable domains derived from heavy chain camelid antibodies to enhance specificity of conditionally replicative adenoviruses.

  19. Morphofunctional structure of the lingual papillae in three species of South American Camelids: Alpaca, guanaco, and llama.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdoğan, Serkan; Villar Arias, Silvia; Pérez, William

    2016-02-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the anatomical and functional characteristics of the lingual papilla among the Camelidae. For this purpose, tongues of alpaca, guanaco, and llama were used. Numerous long and thin filiform papillae were located in the median groove and none were detected on the rest of the dorsal surface of the lingual apex in alpaca. Secondary papillae originated from the base of some filiform papillae on the ventral surface of alpaca tongue. The bases of some filiform papillae of the lateral surface of the lingual apex were inserted into conspicuous grooves in guanaco and tips of filiform papillae on the dorsal surface of the lingual body were ended by bifurcated apex. On the dorsal surface of the lingual apex of llama, there were no filiform papillae but there were numerous filiform papillae on both the lateral margins of the ventral surface of the lingual apex. Fungiform papillae were distributed randomly on dorsal lingual surface and ventral margins of the tongues of all camelid species. Lenticular papillae were located on the lingual torus and varied in size and topographical distribution for each species. Circumvallate papillae had irregular surfaces in llama and alpaca, and smooth surface in guanaco. In conclusion, llama and alpaca tongues were more similar to each other, and tongues of all camelid species displayed more similarities to those of Bactrian and dromedary camels in comparison with other herbivores and ruminants.

  20. Palynological analysis of camelid coprolites: seasonality in the use of the site Cerro Casa de Piedra 7 (Santa Cruz, Argentina)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velázquez, Nadia Jimena; Burry, Lidia Susana; Fugassa, Martín Horacio; Civalero, María Teresa; Aschero, Carlos Alberto

    2014-01-01

    Palynological, palaeoparasitological and paleobotanical studies of coprolites found in archaeological sites from Perito Moreno National Park (47°57‧S72°05‧W) yielded information on diet, palaeoenvironment and health. These studies allowed adding evidence to the reconstruction of life history of the hunter-gatherers that inhabited Patagonia during the Holocene. We examined the season of the year when camelid Lama guanicoe coprolites (5400 ± 64 yr 14C BP to 9640 ± 190 yr 14C BP) were deposited at Cerro Casa de Piedra 7 (site CCP7). The study used palynological evidence and comparison with pollen spectra of modern feces collected during summer, fall, winter and spring of 2010. The dominant types were: pollen of Nothofagus, Empetrum rubrum, Asteraceae subfam. Asteroideae, Nassauvia, Caryophyllaceae and Poaceae; fern spores; remains of Eimeria macusaniensis; and plant remains of Poaceae, Festuca pallescens, Stipa speciosa, Armeria maritima, Gaultheria mucronata and E. rubrum. Pollen spectra of modern and fossil feces were used for multivariate analysis. Coprolites associated to fall and winter modern feces. These results and those obtained from pollen concentration values and the presence of pollen types indicators of seasonality, allowed the determination of summer, fall and winter coprolites. However, caution must be taken with the seasonality results of coprolites dated earlier than 9000 years BP since the environmental conditions differed from now. The site was probably a camelid shelter during the unfavorable seasons.

  1. Detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis Complex in New World Monkeys in Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenbaum, Marieke; Mendoza, Patricia; Ghersi, Bruno M; Wilbur, Alicia K; Perez-Brumer, Amaya; Cavero Yong, Nancy; Kasper, Matthew R; Montano, Silvia; Zunt, Joseph R; Jones-Engel, Lisa

    2015-06-01

    The Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex causes tuberculosis in humans and nonhuman primates and is a global public health concern. Standard diagnostics rely upon host immune responses to detect infection in nonhuman primates and lack sensitivity and specificity across the spectrum of mycobacterial infection in these species. We have previously shown that the Oral Swab PCR (OSP) assay, a direct pathogen detection method, can identify the presence of M. tuberculosis complex in laboratory and free-ranging Old World monkeys. Addressing the current limitations in tuberculosis diagnostics in primates, including sample acquisition and pathogen detection, this paper furthers our understanding of the presence of the tuberculosis-causing bacteria among New World monkeys in close contact with humans. Here we use the minimally invasive OSP assay, which includes buccal swab collection followed by amplification of the IS6110 repetitive nucleic acid sequence specific to M. tuberculosis complex subspecies, to detect the bacteria in the mouths of Peruvian New World monkeys. A total of 220 buccal swabs from 16 species were obtained and positive amplification of the IS6110 sequence was observed in 30 (13.6%) of the samples. To our knowledge, this is the first documentation of M. tuberculosis complex DNA in a diverse sample of Peruvian Neotropical primates.

  2. World Literature - World Culture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Offering their own twenty-first-century perspectives - across generations, nationalities and disciplines -, the contributors to this anthology explore the idea of world literature for what it may add of new connections and itineraries to the study of literature and culture today. Covering a vast ...... historical material these essays, by a diverse group of scholars, examine the pioneers of world literature and the roles played by translation, migration and literary institutions in the circulation and reception of both national and cosmopolitan literatures....

  3. Innate immune response to arenaviral infection: a focus on the highly pathogenic New World hemorrhagic arenaviruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koma, Takaaki; Huang, Cheng; Kolokoltsova, Olga A; Brasier, Allan R; Paessler, Slobodan

    2013-12-13

    Arenaviruses are enveloped, negative-stranded RNA viruses that belong to the family Arenaviridae. This diverse family can be further classified into OW (Old World) and NW (New World) arenaviruses based on their antigenicity, phylogeny, and geographical distribution. Many of the NW arenaviruses are highly pathogenic viruses that cause systemic human infections characterized by hemorrhagic fever and/or neurological manifestations, constituting public health problems in their endemic regions. NW arenavirus infection induces a variety of host innate immune responses, which could contribute to the viral pathogenesis and/or influence the final outcome of virus infection in vitro and in vivo. On the other hand, NW arenaviruses have also developed several strategies to counteract the host innate immune response. We will review current knowledge regarding the interplay between the host innate immune response and NW arenavirus infection in vitro and in vivo, with emphasis on viral-encoded proteins and their effect on the type I interferon response.

  4. New Member States of the European Union and the Current Trends in the World Economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilya Bolotov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the specifics of the current development of the world economy and discusses implications for new member states of the European Union, the EU NMS, with a small case study on the Czech Republic. The paper is divided into four parts: the trends, the EU NMS and the effects of the trends in the EU NMS and in the Czech Republic. The paper is based on a general economic analysis of data provided by the World Bank (WB, the International Monetary Fund (IMF, Eurostat, the European Central Bank (ECB and by the Czech Statistical Office (CZSO. Being familiar with recent macroeconomic trends is nowadays important for Central and Eastern European managers in order to efficiently adapt their strategies to the constantly changing business environment.

  5. Pastoralism in northern Peru during pre-Hispanic times: insights from the Mochica Period (100-800 AD) based on stable isotopic analysis of domestic camelids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dufour, Elise; Goepfert, Nicolas; Gutiérrez Léon, Belkys; Chauchat, Claude; Jordán, Régulo Franco; Vásquez Sánchez, Segundo

    2014-01-01

    Llama (Lama glama) and alpaca (Vicugna pacos) are the only large domesticated animals indigenous to the Americas. Pastoralism occupies a fundamental economic, social and religious role in Andean life. Today, camelid livestock are confined to the ecozone of the puna (above 3,500 masl), while their presence on the Pacific coast during pre-Hispanic times is attested by archaeological skeletal remains. This study aims to document herding practices on the northern Peruvian coast during the Early Intermediate Period (200 BC-600 AD) by gaining insights into diet, location of breeding and mobility of archaeological camelids from the funerary and ritual contexts of two Mochica sites, Uhle Platform in Huacas de Moche and El Brujo. The three first early years and the long-term life histories of the animals were documented by the combined bulk analysis of bone collagen (δ(13)C col and δ(15)N col) and bone structural carbonate (δ(13)C bone and δ(18)O bone) and the serial analysis of structural carbonate of molar tooth enamel (δ(13)C enamel and δ(18)O enamel). Mochica camelids were bred in the low and/or middle valleys, unlike their modern counterparts, who are restricted to highland puna C3 pastures. Archaeological camelids had diverse and complex life histories, usually with substantial maize foddering. An ontogenetic switch in diet and possible residential mobility during the course of life were identified for some specimens. Although the inference of geographic origin from δ(18)O bone and δ(18)O enamel values was limited because of the lack of understanding of the influence of environmental and biological factors, tooth enamel analysis has great potential for exploring camelid herding practices and Andean pastoralism. Our study suggested that Mochica herders adapted their practices to the difficult lowland environment and that herding practices were varied and not restricted to breeding at higher altitudes. The role of maize in different aspects of the economic life

  6. Diminished internalization and action of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 in dermal fibroblasts cultured from New World primates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adams, J.S.; Gacad, M.A.; Baker, A.J.; Kheun, G.; Rude, R.K.

    1985-06-01

    We investigated the occurrence of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25-(OH)2D3)-resistant osteomalacia in the New World primate colony of Saguinus imperator at the Los Angeles Zoo. The mean serum concentration of 1,25-(OH)2D3 was elevated 5-fold in the New World primates compared to that in their Old World counterparts. The specific internalization of 0.6 nM (/sup 3/H)1,25-(OH)2D3 by cultured dermal fibroblasts from New World primates was reduced 75% compared to that by cells from Old World primates or man. The decrease in hormone uptake resulted from a decrease in the number of high affinity intracellular binding sites for 1,25-(OH)2D3 and apparently caused a 90-95% reduction in 1,25-(OH)2D3-induced 25-hydroxyvitamin-D3-24-hydroxylase activity. There was no alteration in the capacity or avidity of New World primate serum for 1,25-(OH)2D3 compared to that of serum from Old World primates. These data suggest that the occurrence of vitamin D-resistant osteomalacia in New World primates is the result of decreased high affinity, receptor-mediated uptake of 1,25-(OH)2D3 by the target cell.

  7. Identification and characterization of potent small molecule inhibitor of hemorrhagic fever New World arenaviruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolken, Tove C; Laquerre, Sylvie; Zhang, Yuanming; Bailey, Thomas R; Pevear, Daniel C; Kickner, Shirley S; Sperzel, Lindsey E; Jones, Kevin F; Warren, Travis K; Amanda Lund, S; Kirkwood-Watts, Dana L; King, David S; Shurtleff, Amy C; Guttieri, Mary C; Deng, Yijun; Bleam, Maureen; Hruby, Dennis E

    2006-02-01

    Category A arenaviruses as defined by the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID) are human pathogens that could be weaponized by bioterrorists. Many of these deadly viruses require biosafety level-4 (BSL-4) containment for all laboratory work, which limits traditional laboratory high-throughput screening (HTS) for identification of small molecule inhibitors. For those reasons, a related BSL-2 New World arenavirus, Tacaribe virus, 67-78% identical to Junín virus at the amino acid level, was used in a HTS campaign where approximately 400,000 small molecule compounds were screened in a Tacaribe virus-induced cytopathic effect (CPE) assay. Compounds identified in this screen showed antiviral activity and specificity against not only Tacaribe virus, but also the Category A New World arenaviruses (Junín, Machupo, and Guanarito). Drug resistant variants were isolated, suggesting that these compounds act through inhibition of a viral protein, the viral glycoprotein (GP2), and not through cellular toxicity mechanisms. A lead compound, ST-294, has been chosen for drug development. This potent and selective compound, with good bioavailability, demonstrated protective anti-viral efficacy in a Tacaribe mouse challenge model. This series of compounds represent a new class of inhibitors that may warrant further development for potential inclusion in a strategic stockpile.

  8. Livestock systems and rangeland degradation in the new World Atlas of Desertification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zucca, Claudio; Reynolds, James F.; Cherlet, Michael

    2015-04-01

    Livestock systems and rangeland degradation in the new World Atlas of Desertification Land degradation and desertification (LDD), which are widespread in global rangelands, are complex processes. They are caused by multiple (but limited) number of biophysical and socioeconomic drivers that lead to an unbalance in the capacity of the land to sustainably produce ecosystem services and economic value. Converging evidence indicates that the key biophysical and socioeconomic drivers include agricultural or pastoral land use and management practices, population growth, societal demands (e.g., urbanization), and climate change (e.g., increasing aridity and drought). The new World Atlas of Desertification (WAD) describes these global issues, documents their spatial change, and highlights the importance of these drivers in relation to land degradation processes. The impacts of LDD on the atmosphere, on water and on biodiversity are also covered. The WAD spatially illustrates relevant types of livestock and rangeland management systems, related (over-under) use of resources, various management activities, and some of the common features and transitions that contribute to LDD. For example, livestock grazing in marginal areas is increasing due to competition with agricultural encroachment and, hence, vulnerable lands are under threat. The integration of stratified global data layers facilitates identifying areas where stress on the land system can be linked to underlying causal issues. One of the objectives of the new WAD is to provide synthesis and tools for scientists and stakeholders to design sustainable solutions for efficient land use in global rangelands.

  9. Voices: World Forum for Music Therapy - A new avenue for communication among music therapy communities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolyn Kenny

    2001-03-01

    Full Text Available Welcome to the inaugural issue of a new international music therapy journal, electronically published and with free access. We're sure you have noticed the growing interest in the field of music therapy. The number of music therapists around the world is increasing every year. Diverse contexts for music therapy work grow too. Though music has been practiced as a healing art in Indigenous societies for hundreds of years, contemporary professional music therapy has grown from a Western enterprise to one with a very broad foundation of approaches internationally.

  10. [Science fiction and the Brave New World: predictions fulfilled in our century and bioethical considerations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Ana Carolina Clemente Dos; Amorim Neto, Thomaz Pereira de; Goes, Andrea Carla de Souza

    2013-06-01

    The speed with which science generates results in modern society requires reflection on the limits of scientific progress. This is the foundation of Brave New World, a book published by Aldous Huxley in 1932 that portrays a future technological society along the lines of Fordism. This article establishes a relationship between our current technocratic society and that described by Huxley, discussing the viability of the technical and biological aspects of the manipulations narrated in the book in light of current knowledge. Some bioethical considerations with respect to the procedures 'invented' by the author - and which are already or could be developed in modern society - will also be addressed.

  11. Development of a minigenome system for Andes virus, a New World hantavirus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Kyle S; Ebihara, Hideki; Feldmann, Heinz

    2012-11-01

    The development of reverse genetics systems for negative-stranded RNA viruses is a rapidly evolving field that has greatly advanced the study of the many different aspects of the viral life cycle. Andes virus (ANDV) is a highly pathogenic hantavirus found in South America that causes hantavirus pulmonary syndrome but to date remains poorly characterized due to the lack of a reverse genetics system for genetic manipulation. Here, we describe the first successful minigenome system for a New World hantavirus, as well as many of the obstacles that still exist in the development of such a system.

  12. Wiki management a revolutionary new model for a rapidly changing and collaborative world

    CERN Document Server

    Collins, Rod

    2013-01-01

    We now live in a "wiki" world where mass collaboration is not only possible-it's often the best solution. Conventional management thought assumes that command-and-control is the most effective way to organize the efforts of large numbers of people, but rapid change and increasing complexity have rendered that model obsolete. As a result, most managers today lack the skills and knowledge needed to succeed in an age when networks are proving smarter and faster than hierarchies. Designing organizations for mass collaboration demands a new and very different model-wiki management.

  13. Rethinking project management: A structured literature review with a critical look at the brave new world

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svejvig, Per; Andersen, Peter

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a structured review of the rethinking project management (RPM) literature based on the classification and analysis of 74 contributions and in addition takes a critical look at this brave new world. Through the analysis, a total of 6 overarching categories emerged......: contextualization, social and political aspects, rethinking practice, complexity and uncertainty, actuality of projects and broader conceptualization. These categories cover a broad range of different contributions with diverse and alternative perspectives on project management. The early RPM literature dates back...

  14. The New World Order and the Unmasking of the Neo-Colonial Present

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lilijana Burcar

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available In his dramatic sketch The New World Order Pinter exposes practices of psychological and physical abuse targeted at local people who resist neo-colonial advancements in territories directly occupied or indirectly controlled by Western hegemonic powers. Through the deployment of Pinteresque double-layered meanings conveyed through seemingly ordinary, everyday language, the drama unveils the ideological premises and operating principles of neo-colonial discourse. The paper discusses the way Pinter blasts apart a seemingly neutral Western rhetoric of humanitarian militarism, focusing on the discursive strategies by means of which neo-imperial violence, torture and massive dispossession of local populations are justified and naturalized.

  15. Public health threat of new, reemerging, and neglected zoonoses in the industrialized world.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cutler, Sally J; Fooks, Anthony R; van der Poel, Wim H M

    2010-01-01

    Microbiologic infections acquired from animals, known as zoonoses, pose a risk to public health. An estimated 60% of emerging human pathogens are zoonotic. Of these pathogens, >71% have wildlife origins. These pathogens can switch hosts by acquiring new genetic combinations that have altered pathogenic potential or by changes in behavior or socioeconomic, environmental, or ecologic characteristics of the hosts. We discuss causal factors that influence the dynamics associated with emergence or reemergence of zoonoses, particularly in the industrialized world, and highlight selected examples to provide a comprehensive view of their range and diversity.

  16. Trypanosoma (Duttonella vivax: its biology, epidemiology, pathogenesis, and introduction in the New World - a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Luiza Alves Rosa Osório

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available The biology, epidemiology, pathogenesis, diagnostic techniques, and history of the introduction of Trypanosoma (Duttonella vivax in the New World are reviewed. The two main immunological responses of trypanosome-infected animals - antibody production and immunodepression - are discussed in the context of how these responses play a role in disease tolerance or susceptibility. Isolation and purification of T. vivax are briefly discussed. The recent reports of bovine trypanosomiasis diagnosed in cattle on farms located in the Pantanal region of the states of Mato Grosso do Sul and Mato Grosso, Brazil, are also discussed.

  17. YottaYotta announces new world record set for TCP disk-to-disk bulk transfer

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    The Yottabyte NetStorage(TM) Company, today announced a new world record for TCP disk-to-disk data transfer using the company's NetStorager(R) System. The record-breaking demonstration transferred 5 terabytes of data between Chicago, Il. to Vancouver, BC and Ottawa, ON, at a sustained average throughput of 11.1 gigabits per second. Peak throughput exceeded 11.6 gigabits per second, more than 15-times faster than previous records for TCP transfer from disk-to-disk (1 page).

  18. Globalization and new world order are we ready for "Scientists without Borders"?

    CERN Document Server

    Kouchner, B

    2005-01-01

    Since the end of the cold war and the fall of the Berlin wall, large scientific projects, such as the LHC and ITER, are now based on international collaborations involving most world powers. These collaborations cover not only the design, but also run the construction and operation phases. Scientists, like other cultural and economical actors, have to adapt and organize their work in this new world environment. They also need to learn how to convince public opinion, offering information and transparency. There is no good model yet on how to do that in the most efficient way and a great deal might be learned by looking at experiences outside the scientific field. Relying on my experience as founder of "Doctors Without Borders" and "Doctors of the World", as well as holder of several ministerial positions in different French governments and as former Head of the UN Interim Administration Mission in Kosovo, I share with you my view on globalization and on how to initiate and carry out large international, nonpro...

  19. Cooperative Security: A New Paradigm For A World Without Nuclear Weapons?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc Finaud

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available If there is a loose consensus on aiming at a world free of nuclear weapons in the future, there are clear oppositions as to the timeframe as well as the means for achieving this goal. The approach to nuclear disarmament followed to date has only yielded limited success because it has been conceived in isolation from global and regional security environments and threat perceptions. A new paradigm should thus be sought in order to reconcile nuclear powers’ security doctrines with global aspirations for a safer world, and ensure that nuclear powers derive their security less from others’ insecurity but from mutually beneficial cooperative security. This should not become a pretext for preserving nuclear weapons for ever. It will on the contrary require parallel tracks addressing the initial motivations for acquiring nuclear weapons and other weapons of mass destruction (WMD, in particular in the context of regional conflicts, as well as dealing with the current issues necessarily related to nuclear disarmament (missile defence, weaponization of space, conventional imbalances and future weapon systems. Ultimately, in a globalised nuclear-weapon free world, state security will not require nuclear weapons because it will be inserted into a broader network encompass­ing all aspects of security addressed in cooperative and multilateral approaches.

  20. New Lens Scenarios. A Shift in Perspective for a World in Transition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-02-15

    With the world's population headed toward 9 billion at mid-century and millions of people climbing out of poverty, global energy demand could increase by as much as 80% by 2050. That's according to Shell's latest scenarios, which look at trends in the economy, politics and energy in considering developments over the next half a century. The first scenario (Mountains) sees a strong role for government and the introduction of firm and far-reaching policy measures. These help to develop more compact cities and transform the global transport network. New policies unlock plentiful natural gas resources - making it the largest global energy source by the 2030s - and accelerate carbon capture and storage technology, supporting a cleaner energy system. The second scenario (Oceans) describes a more prosperous and volatile world. Energy demand surges, due to strong economic growth. Power is more widely distributed and governments take longer to agree major decisions. Market forces rather than policies shape the energy system: oil and coal remain part of the energy mix but renewable energy also grows. By the 2070s solar becomes the world's largest energy source.

  1. Phylogeny of the lizard subfamily Lygosominae (Reptilia: Scincidae), with special reference to the origin of the new world taxa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honda, Masanao; Ota, Hidetoshi; Köhler, Gunther; Ineich, Ivan; Chirio, Laurent; Chen, Szu-Lung; Hikida, Tsutomu

    2003-02-01

    Phylogenetic relationships of the three lygosomine skink genera occurring both in the Old World and the New World (Mabuya, Scincella and Sphenomorphus) were inferred from mitochondrial DNA sequence of 12S and 16S rRNA genes. Results strongly suggested the non-monophyly for any of these three genera. Within the Mabuya group, Asian members appear to have diverged first, leaving the Neotropical and the Afro-Malagasy Mabuya as sister groups. These relationships, together with the absence of extant or fossil representatives of the Mabuya group from North America, strongly suggest the trans-Atlantic dispersals of Mabuya from Africa to Neotropics. Our results also indicated a closer affinity of the New World Scincella with the New World Sphenomorphus than with the Old World Scincella. Such relationships suggest the trans-Beringian dispersal of the common ancestor from Asia and its subsequent divergence into the North American Scincella and the Neotropical Sphenomorphus.

  2. Developing as new search engine and browser for libraries to search and organize the World Wide Web library resources

    OpenAIRE

    Sreenivasulu, V.

    2000-01-01

    Internet Granthalaya urges world wide advocates and targets at the task of creating a new search engine and dedicated browseer. Internet Granthalaya may be the ultimate search engine exclusively dedicated for every library use to search and organize the world wide web libary resources

  3. Tackling Challenges in the Global Economy and Building a New World Order-China's Influence and U.S. Factors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fu Mengzi; Liu Bo

    2010-01-01

    @@ Great expectations rest upon the U.S. and China, as the biggest economies in the developed and developing worlds, with regard to tackling challenges in the global economy and building a new world order. The governments have enjoyed a solid cooperation within the framework of G20.

  4. Millisecond precision psychological research in a world of commodity computers: new hardware, new problems?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plant, Richard R; Turner, Garry

    2009-08-01

    Since the publication of Plant, Hammond, and Turner (2004), which highlighted a pressing need for researchers to pay more attention to sources of error in computer-based experiments, the landscape has undoubtedly changed, but not necessarily for the better. Readily available hardware has improved in terms of raw speed; multi core processors abound; graphics cards now have hundreds of megabytes of RAM; main memory is measured in gigabytes; drive space is measured in terabytes; ever larger thin film transistor displays capable of single-digit response times, together with newer Digital Light Processing multimedia projectors, enable much greater graphic complexity; and new 64-bit operating systems, such as Microsoft Vista, are now commonplace. However, have millisecond-accurate presentation and response timing improved, and will they ever be available in commodity computers and peripherals? In the present article, we used a Black Box ToolKit to measure the variability in timing characteristics of hardware used commonly in psychological research.

  5. Detection of Plasmodium in faeces of the New World primate Alouatta clamitans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assis, Gabriela Maíra Pereira de; Alvarenga, Denise Anete Madureira de; Costa, Daniela Camargos; Souza, Júlio César de; Hirano, Zelinda Maria Braga; Kano, Flora Satiko; Sousa, Taís Nóbrega de; Brito, Cristiana Ferreira Alves de

    2016-09-01

    Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax have evolved with host switches between non-human primates (NHPs) and humans. Studies on the infection dynamics of Plasmodium species in NHPs will improve our understanding of the evolution of these parasites; however, such studies are hampered by the difficulty of handling animals in the field. The aim of this study was to detect genomic DNA of Plasmodium species from the faeces of New World monkeys. Faecal samples from 23 Alouatta clamitans from the Centre for Biological Research of Indaial (Santa Catarina, Brazil) were collected. Extracted DNA from faecal samples was used for molecular diagnosis of malaria by nested polymerase chain reaction. One natural infection with Plasmodium simium was identified by amplification of DNA extracted from the faeces of A. clamitans. Extracted DNA from a captive NHP was also used for parasite genotyping. The detection limit of the technique was evaluated in vitro using an artificial mixture of cultured P. falciparum in NHP faeces and determined to be 6.5 parasites/µL. Faecal samples of New World primates can be used to detect malaria infections in field surveys and also to monitor the genetic variability of parasites and dynamics of infection.

  6. The Food Crisis and Food Security: Towards a New World Food Order?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christophe Golay

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The worst food crisis since 1974 broke out in 2007-08. Higher world market prices of food commodities (especially wheat, rice, soya and maize sparked an unprecedented increase in the number of hungry people. Despite moderately lower prices since the summer of 2008, the number of the hungry continued to rise in 2009. This food crisis has placed the fight against hunger on the international agenda. Since March 2008 governments UN agencies and many social movements have adopted positions on the causes of the crisis and the means to address it. Unfortunately, while these parties are trying to coordinate their activities and suggest new approaches, the old recipes for producing more food are often brought up. Contradictory proposals are made and the thought given to the causes underlying hunger and the food crisis (social, economic and political discrimination and exclusion has gone largely unheeded. The first Millennium Development Goal, which calls for cutting the percentage of hungry people by half by 2015, is clearly out of reach. But the food crisis might lead to a new world food order based on the three pillars of food assistance, food security and the right to food.

  7. Ecuador Paraiso Escondido Virus, a New Flavivirus Isolated from New World Sand Flies in Ecuador, Is the First Representative of a Novel Clade in the Genus Flavivirus

    OpenAIRE

    Alkan, Cigdem; Zapata, Sonia; Bichaud, Laurence; Moureau, Grégory; Lemey, Philippe; Firth, Andrew E; Tamara S Gritsun; Gould, Ernest A.; de Lamballerie, Xavier; Depaquit, Jérôme; Charrel, Rémi N.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT A new flavivirus, Ecuador Paraiso Escondido virus (EPEV), named after the village where it was discovered, was isolated from sand flies (Psathyromyia abonnenci, formerly Lutzomyia abonnenci) that are unique to the New World. This represents the first sand fly-borne flavivirus identified in the New World. EPEV exhibited a typical flavivirus genome organization. Nevertheless, the maximum pairwise amino acid sequence identity with currently recognized flaviviruses was 52.8%. Phylogeneti...

  8. Development of new substances and materials in the world and in Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.O. Sichkarenko

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the article. The purpose of article is to show the position of Ukraine’s research in the sphere of new substances and materials in world context, and what types of new materials are the most perspective in that moment. The results of the analysis. The article includes the results of the analysis in the field of new substances and materials in the world and particularly in Ukraine. The author says that there are a lot of definitions of the term “advanced materials”, and there are some points of view what advanced materials are and how it makes influences to economic development. The author allows that the sphere of researching in the field of advanced materials and substances is actual and it is in the focus of the scientific community. The author has analyzed what countries are leaders in this direction and why they got their positions. The most important idea in the article is how low-income countries can take part in this direction of scientific researches. Ukraine is one of the examples which show how a low-income country can develop its own research in the field of advanced materials and substances. In addition the author has researched European Union’s experience in innovation policy and innovation sphere and particularly in the field of advanced materials. The scientific importance of the article is demonstration, how low-income countries like Ukraine can develop scientific research in the field of new substances and materials with poor funding and weak government institutions. If to talk briefly about the research results, we should mention the following. Scientific research in the field of new substances and materials is the significant part of the research activities in general. It is quite difficult to appreciate the importance of this area, but it is possible to say clearly, that development of new compounds and materials is at least one fifth of all physical and chemical researches. The most important scientific

  9. WorldWide Telescope and Google Sky: New Technologies to Engage Students and the Public

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landsberg, R. H.; Subbarao, M. U.; Dettloff, L.

    2010-08-01

    New, visually rich, astronomical software environments coupled with large web-accessible data sets hold the promise of new and exciting ways to teach, collaborate, and explore the universe. These freeware tools provide contextual views of astronomical objects, real time access to multi-wavelength sky surveys, and, most importantly, the ability to incorporate new data and to produce user created content. This interactive panel examined the capabilities of Google Sky and WorldWide Telescope, and explored case studies of how these tools have been used to create compelling and participatory educational experiences in both formal (i.e., K-12 and undergraduate non-science majors classrooms), and informal (e.g., museum) settings. The overall goal of this session was to stimulate a discussion about future uses of these technologies. Substantial time was allotted for participants to create conceptual designs of learning experiences for use at their home institutions, with feedback provided by the panel members. Activities included technical discussions (e.g., mechanisms for incorporating new data and dissemination tools), exercises in narrative preparation, and a brainstorming session to identify potential future uses of these technologies.

  10. Analysis of heavy and light chain sequences of conventional camelid antibodies from Camelus dromedarius and Camelus bactrianus species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffin, Laura M; Snowden, James R; Lawson, Alastair D G; Wernery, Ulrich; Kinne, Jorg; Baker, Terry S

    2014-03-01

    Camel antibodies have been widely investigated, but work has focused upon the unique heavy chain antibodies found across camelid species. These are homodimers, devoid of light chains and the first constant heavy chain domain. Camelid species also display conventional hetero-tetrameric antibodies with identical pairs of heavy and light chains; in Camelus dromedarius these constitute 25% of circulating antibodies. Few investigations have been made on this subset of antibodies and complete conventional camel IgG sequences have not been reported. Here we study the sequence diversity of functional variable and constant regions observed in 57 conventional heavy, 18 kappa and 35 lambda light chains of C. dromedarius and Camelus bactrianus. We detail sequences of the full kappa and lambda light chain, variable and CH1 region for IgG1a and IgG1b and the CH2 and CH3 region for IgG1a. The majority (60%) of IgG1 variable region sequences aligned with the human IgHV3 family (clan III) and had leader sequences beginning with MELG whereas the remaining sequences aligned with the IgHV4 (clan II) and had leader sequences beginning with MRLL. Distinct differences in CDR length were observed between the two; where CDR1 was typically 5 and 7 residues and CDR2 at 17 and 16 residues, respectively. CDR3 length of IgHV4 (range 11 to 20) was closer to that typical of VHH antibodies than that of IgHV3 (range 3 to 18 residues). Designed oligonucleotide primers have enabled identification of paired heavy and light chains of conventional camel antibodies from individual B cell clones.

  11. A camelid anti-PrP antibody abrogates PrP replication in prion-permissive neuroblastoma cell lines.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daryl Rhys Jones

    Full Text Available The development of antibodies effective in crossing the blood brain barrier (BBB, capable of accessing the cytosol of affected cells and with higher affinity for PrP(Sc would be of paramount importance in arresting disease progression in its late stage and treating individuals with prion diseases. Antibody-based therapy appears to be the most promising approach following the exciting report from White and colleagues, establishing the "proof-of-principle" for prion-immunotherapy. After passive transfer, anti-prion antibodies were shown to be very effective in curing peripheral but not central rodent prion disease, due to the fact that these anti-prion antibodies are relatively large molecules and cannot therefore cross the BBB. Here, we show that an anti-prion antibody derived from camel immunised with murine scrapie material adsorbed to immunomagnetic beads is able to prevent infection of susceptible N2a cells and cure chronically scrapie-infected neuroblastoma cultures. This antibody was also shown to transmigrate across the BBB and cross the plasma membrane of neurons to target cytosolic PrP(C. In contrast, treatment with a conventional anti-prion antibody derived from mouse immunised with recombinant PrP protein was unable to prevent recurrence of PrP(Sc replication. Furthermore, our camelid antibody did not display any neurotoxic effects following treatment of susceptible N2a cells as evidenced by TUNEL staining. These findings demonstrate the potential use of anti-prion camelid antibodies for the treatment of prion and other related diseases via non-invasive means.

  12. The adventures of Miranda in the brave new world: learning in a Web 2.0 millennium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cameron Barnes

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper looks at the implications of Web 2.0 technologies for university teaching and learning. The latest generation of undergraduates already live in a Web 2.0 world. They have new service expectations and are increasingly dissatisfied with teacher-centred pedagogies. To attract and retain these students, universities will need to rethink their operations. New social technologies mean that universities have the chance to create a new generation of student-centred learning environments, to realize the idea of a University 2.0. The following discussion draws upon a fictional character in order to capture the possible futures of such a brave new world.

  13. Higher primates, but not New World monkeys, have a duplicate set of enhancers flanking their apoC-I genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puppione, Donald L

    2014-09-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated that the apoC-I gene and its pseudogene on human chromosome 19 are flanked by a duplicate set of enhancers. Multienhancers, ME.1 and ME.2, are located upstream from the genes and the hepatic control region enhancers, HCR.1 and HCR.2, are located downstream. The duplication of the enhancers has been thought to have occurred when the apoC-I gene was duplicated during primate evolution. Currently, the only primate data are for the human enhancers. Examining the genome of other primates (great and lesser apes, Old and New World monkeys), it was possible to locate the duplicate set of enhancers in apes and Old World monkeys. However, only a single set was found in New World monkeys. These observations provide additional evidence that the apoC-I gene and the flanking enhancers underwent duplication after the divergence of Old and New World monkeys.

  14. Biopiracy and vaccines: Indonesia and the World Health Organization’s new Pandemic Influenza Plan

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    Shawn Smallman

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Viral samples of avian influenza are essential to preparing pre-pandemic vaccines. In 2007, the conflicting interests of the developed and developing nations led Indonesia to briefly stop sharing viral samples. The result was a struggle in which the two blocs argued for different paradigms for viral sample sharing. The first paradigm, articulated by the developed world, depicted the issue as one of health security, in which international law mandated the sharing of viral samples. The second paradigm, advanced by the developing world, depicted viral sample sharing as a form of biopiracy, which violated countries’ sovereign control of their biological resources. Ultimately, the second paradigm proved more politically effective, enabling developing nations to achieve many of their goals through the WHO’s 2011 pandemic influenza plan. This paper examines how this plan was shaped by Indonesia’s argument that the global public good required a new approach to global health governance, in order to eliminate neocolonial power relationships.

  15. The Hunt for Planet X New Worlds and the Fate of Pluto

    CERN Document Server

    Schilling, Govert

    2009-01-01

    "The Hunt for Planet X is a fascinating tale by one of the world's premier astronomy writers. Govert Schilling is not only scrupulously accurate, he writes beautifully as well." Stephen P. Maran, Author of "Astronomy for Dummies" and Press Officer, American Astronomical Society "The Hunt for Planet X is an adventure story or, more accurately, a series of adventure stories. Schilling tells them well, capturing both the science and the people involved. It starts with the classics: Uranus, Neptune and Pluto; and moves all over the solar system as ground-based astronomers and space scientists pour over measurements and observations to try to understand the worlds around us. Current debates about the Pioneer Anomaly and the definition of what is a planet make the book current as well as a good history." Dr. Louis Friedman, Executive Director, The Planetary Society "This exciting tale of the centuries-old search for new planets in the solar system reads like a thriller. It is an adventure packed with fierce competi...

  16. Molecular Diversity between Salivary Proteins from New World and Old World Sand Flies with Emphasis on Bichromomyia olmeca, the Sand Fly Vector of Leishmania mexicana in Mesoamerica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Townsend, Shannon; Pasos-Pinto, Silvia; Sanchez, Laura; Rasouli, Manoochehr; B. Guimaraes-Costa, Anderson; Aslan, Hamide; Francischetti, Ivo M. B.; Oliveira, Fabiano; Becker, Ingeborg; Kamhawi, Shaden; Ribeiro, Jose M. C.; Jochim, Ryan C.; Valenzuela, Jesus G.

    2016-01-01

    Background Sand fly saliva has been shown to have proteins with potent biological activities, salivary proteins that can be used as biomarkers of vector exposure, and salivary proteins that are candidate vaccines against different forms of leishmaniasis. Sand fly salivary gland transcriptomic approach has contributed significantly to the identification and characterization of many of these salivary proteins from important Leishmania vectors; however, sand fly vectors in some regions of the world are still neglected, as Bichromomyia olmeca (formerly known as Lutzomyia olmeca olmeca), a proven vector of Leishmania mexicana in Mexico and Central America. Despite the importance of this vector in transmitting Leishmania parasite in Mesoamerica there is no information on the repertoire of B. olmeca salivary proteins and their relationship to salivary proteins from other sand fly species. Methods and Findings A cDNA library of the salivary glands of wild-caught B. olmeca was constructed, sequenced, and analyzed. We identified transcripts encoding for novel salivary proteins from this sand fly species and performed a comparative analysis between B. olmeca salivary proteins and those from other sand fly species. With this new information we present an updated catalog of the salivary proteins specific to New World sand flies and salivary proteins common to all sand fly species. We also report in this work the anti-Factor Xa activity of Lofaxin, a salivary anticoagulant protein present in this sand fly species. Conclusions This study provides information on the first transcriptome of a sand fly from Mesoamerica and adds information to the limited repertoire of salivary transcriptomes from the Americas. This comparative analysis also shows a fast degree of evolution in salivary proteins from New World sand flies as compared with Old World sand flies. PMID:27409591

  17. The Innovation Paradigm of New Industrialization in the Conditions of the Integrated World Economic Way

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Aleksandrovna Romanova

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The article emphasizes the importance of the concept of «technical and economic paradigm», which characterizes the certain stage of the world economy development associated with the corresponding technological revolution. The paper reveals the feature of the modern technical and economic paradigm development connected with new concepts determining a priority of general values. The author states the hypothesis that in the conditions of the emergence of the fourth industrial revolution elements (so-called 4.0 industry, it is fair to consider the innovation paradigm of development as the foundation of the new industrialization which preceds this revolution. The author considers new industrialization as the process contributing to the global technological parity of Russia and the countries-technological leaders. The most significant statements from this post of view are allocated: consideration of new industrialization as a process of continuous innovations and distribution of breakthrough technologies, computerization of production, robotization, cross-disciplinary nature of high technologies, the ecology of technologies, intellectualization of the potential of all persons occupied in industrial production, etc. The author analyses strategic documents connected with the development of innovative activities in Russia. The paper emphasizes that the indicators characterizing these activities do not allow to rank Russia as a country having the developed innovative economy. The article reveals the possibilities of the activation of innovative activities in Russia connected to the development of the approved private priorities in the main spheres of activity with the state priorities of social development; with construction of integrated strategy of a scientific and technological, institutional and industrial development of the country; with creation of the system of scientific monitoring allowing to adjust the necessary corrective actions in time. The

  18. Leptospirosis en camélidos sudamericanos. Estudio de prevalencia serológica en distintas regiones de la Argentina Leptospirosis in south-american camelids. A study on the serological prevalence in different regions of Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. LLORENTE

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Se evaluó la seroprevalencia en Camélidos Sudamericanos de Leptospirosis, zoonosis de distribución mundial, producida por espiroquetas patógenas del género Leptospira. Se examinaron 494 animales (llamas, guanacos y vicuñas, clínicamente sanos sin vacunar, de diferentes regiones geográficas de la República Argentina. Se utilizó la técnica, serovar específica, de microaglutinación (MAT. El estudio reveló prevalencias entre 47.3 y 96.2% en llamas, entre 0 y 13% en guanacos y entre 9 y 62.8% en vicuñas. De los serovares que se usaron como antígeno en las determinaciones, los que más frecuentemente reaccionaron con los anticuerpos séricos de los camélidos, fueron copenhageni y castellonisLeptospirosis is a zoonotic infectious disease, affecting wild and domestic animals and human beings, caused by pathogenic spirochetes, spread world wide, belonging to the genus Leptospira. It is transmited by direct contact with infected animal urine or tissues, and indirectly through contaminated water and soil. Leptospirosis has a negative economic impact on porcine and bovine productions. It causes abortions, stillbirths, placental retention, infertility and chronical renal deficiency, causing disturbance of flow milk and quality in dairy cattle. Studies on south-american camelids productive aspects, have increased during the last decades, in order to promote alternative regional economies. There exist three species in Argentina, llama (Lama glama, guanaco (Lama guanicoe and vicuña (Vicugna vicugna. The knowledge of physiological parameters and susceptibility and immune response to infectious agents of these animals, are required to improve their breeding efficiency. Leptospirosis is an infectious disease, which may affect reproduction efficiency. Leptospira antibody prevalence in 494 sera obtained from healthy non vaccinated llamas, vicuñas and guanacos from different geographic zones in Argentina, was evaluated. The serovar specific

  19. The new Excellence Indicator in the World Report of the SCImago Institutions Rankings 2011

    CERN Document Server

    Bornmann, Lutz; Leydesdorff, Loet

    2011-01-01

    The new excellence indicator in the World Report of the SCImago Institutions Rankings (SIR) makes it possible to test differences in the ranking in terms of statistical significance. For example, at the 17th position of these rankings, UCLA has an output of 37,994 papers with an excellence indicator of 28.9. Stanford University follows at the 19th position with 37,885 papers and 29.1 excellence, and z = - 0.607. The difference between these two institution thus is not statistically significant. We provide a calculator at http://www.leydesdorff.net/scimago11/scimago11.xls in which one can fill out this test for any two institutions and also for each institutions on whether its score is significantly above or below expectation (assuming that 10% of the papers are for stochastic reasons in the top-10% set).

  20. Brief Communication: Seasonality of diet composition is related to brain size in New World Monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Woerden, Janneke T; van Schaik, Carel P; Isler, Karin

    2014-08-01

    New World monkeys exhibit a more pronounced variability in encephalization than other primate taxa. In this comparative study, we tested two current hypotheses on brain size evolution, the Expensive Brain hypothesis and the Cognitive Buffer hypothesis, in a sample of 21 platyrrhine species. A high degree of habitat seasonality may impose an energetic constraint on brain size evolution if it leads to a high variation in caloric intake over time, as predicted by the Expensive Brain Hypothesis. However, simultaneously it may also provide the opportunity to reap the fitness benefits of increased cognitive abilities, which enable the exploitation of high-quality food resources even during periods of scarcity, as predicted by the Cognitive Buffer hypothesis. By examining the effects of both habitat seasonality and the variation in monthly diet composition across species, we found support for both hypotheses, confirming previous results for catarrhine primates and lemurs. These findings are in accordance with an energetic and ecological view of brain size evolution.

  1. The influence of new world species on the botany of the 16th century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ubrizsy Savoia, Andrea

    1996-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper is about how some New World species, not as widespread as tomato, tobacco, etc. were introduced in the botanical European knowledge, with special reference to Ulisse Aldrovandi (1522-1605. His herbal, his inconographic collections and manuscripts containing lists of seeds, woods and other matrials, are conserved in his Museum and grown in the Botanical Garden of Bologna.

    El presente trabajo analiza cómo algunas especies botánicas del Nuevo mundo, no tan difundidas como el tomate, el tabaco, etc., formaron parte del conocimiento botánico europeo, haciendo especial referencia a la de obra de Ulisse Aldrovandi (1522-1605. Su herbario, sus colecciones iconográficas y manuscritos que contienen listas de semillas, maderas y otros materiales, se conservan en su Museo y algunas de las especies crecen en el Jardín Botánico de Bolonia.

  2. Coral snakes predict the evolution of mimicry across New World snakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis Rabosky, Alison R; Cox, Christian L; Rabosky, Daniel L; Title, Pascal O; Holmes, Iris A; Feldman, Anat; McGuire, Jimmy A

    2016-05-05

    Batesian mimicry, in which harmless species (mimics) deter predators by deceitfully imitating the warning signals of noxious species (models), generates striking cases of phenotypic convergence that are classic examples of evolution by natural selection. However, mimicry of venomous coral snakes has remained controversial because of unresolved conflict between the predictions of mimicry theory and empirical patterns in the distribution and abundance of snakes. Here we integrate distributional, phenotypic and phylogenetic data across all New World snake species to demonstrate that shifts to mimetic coloration in nonvenomous snakes are highly correlated with coral snakes in both space and time, providing overwhelming support for Batesian mimicry. We also find that bidirectional transitions between mimetic and cryptic coloration are unexpectedly frequent over both long- and short-time scales, challenging traditional views of mimicry as a stable evolutionary 'end point' and suggesting that insect and snake mimicry may have different evolutionary dynamics.

  3. Brave new worlds: trophallaxis and the origin of society in the early twentieth century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sleigh, Charlotte

    2002-01-01

    Trophallaxis, the process of feeding by mutual regurgitation amongst insects, was named by the North American entomologist William Morton Wheeler in 1918. I argue that entomologists, both before and after 1918, saw mutual feeding as an integral part of the behavioral whole of the nest, and moreover related its explanatory power to theories about human society. In particular, feeding behavior was seen as the key to the riddle of the origin of sociality. I show how entomologists' precise interpretations of trophallaxis varied and explore the increasingly functional, sociological, and economic constructions of the phenomenon that they developed-without breaking with earlier tradition-into the early 1930s. The article ends by demonstrating how Aldous Huxley's bleak vision of humanity in the novel Brave New World, and its ambiguous prescription for meaningful life amidst the trappings of modernity, has much in common with metaphors generated by those studying ants.

  4. John’s Apocalypse: Dynamic word-images for a new world

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    Sergio Rosell

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the article is to investigate the function of the symbols and images in the Apocalypse of John. Its aim is to focus on the ‘mental scenarios’ readers are bringing to the text, rather than on John’s supposed lack of ability to convey his message. The article discusses both the symbolic or iconographic and the evocative power within the historical situation which the author of the Apocalypse addresses. The article’s intention is to show how John reveals an alternative way of understanding history through the use of his particular imagery, aided by film theory tools and based on previous work that had perceived the Apocalypse’s ‘theatrical’ nature, in order to discover John’s use of images, their function and the new world he aims to portray.

  5. New World hantaviruses activate IFNlambda production in type I IFN-deficient vero E6 cells.

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    Joseph Prescott

    Full Text Available Hantaviruses indigenous to the New World are the etiologic agents of hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome (HCPS. These viruses induce a strong interferon-stimulated gene (ISG response in human endothelial cells. African green monkey-derived Vero E6 cells are used to propagate hantaviruses as well as many other viruses. The utility of the Vero E6 cell line for virus production is thought to owe to their lack of genes encoding type I interferons (IFN, rendering them unable to mount an efficient innate immune response to virus infection. Interferon lambda, a more recently characterized type III IFN, is transcriptionally controlled much like the type I IFNs, and activates the innate immune system in a similar manner.We show that Vero E6 cells respond to hantavirus infection by secreting abundant IFNlambda. Three New World hantaviruses were similarly able to induce IFNlambda expression in this cell line. The IFNlambda contained within virus preparations generated with Vero E6 cells independently activates ISGs when used to infect several non-endothelial cell lines, whereas innate immune responses by endothelial cells are specifically due to viral infection. We show further that Sin Nombre virus replicates to high titer in human hepatoma cells (Huh7 without inducing ISGs.Herein we report that Vero E6 cells respond to viral infection with a highly active antiviral response, including secretion of abundant IFNlambda. This cytokine is biologically active, and when contained within viral preparations and presented to human epithelioid cell lines, results in the robust activation of innate immune responses. We also show that both Huh7 and A549 cell lines do not respond to hantavirus infection, confirming that the cytoplasmic RNA helicase pathways possessed by these cells are not involved in hantavirus recognition. We demonstrate that Vero E6 actively respond to virus infection and inhibiting IFNlambda production in these cells might increase their utility

  6. Comparing alignment methods for inferring the history of the new world lizard genus Mabuya (Squamata: Scincidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whiting, Alison S; Sites, Jack W; Pellegrino, Katia C M; Rodrigues, Miguel T

    2006-03-01

    The rapid increase in the ability to generate molecular data, and the focus on model-based methods for tree reconstruction have greatly advanced the use of phylogenetics in many fields. The recent flurry of new analytical techniques has focused almost solely on tree reconstruction, whereas alignment issues have received far less attention. In this paper, we use a diverse sampling of gene regions from lizards of the genus Mabuya to compare the impact, on phylogeny estimation, of new maximum likelihood alignment algorithms with more widely used methods. Sequences aligned under different optimality criteria are analyzed using partitioned Bayesian analysis with independent models and parameter settings for each gene region, and the most strongly supported phylogenetic hypothesis is then used to test the hypothesis of two colonizations of the New World by African scincid lizards. Our results show that the consistent use of model-based methods in both alignment and tree reconstruction leads to trees with more optimal likelihood scores than the use of independent criteria in alignment and tree reconstruction. We corroborate and extend earlier evidence for two independent colonizations of South America by scincid lizards. Relationships within South American Mabuya are found to be in need of taxonomic revision, specifically complexes under the names M. heathi, M. agilis, and M. bistriata (sensu, M.T. Rodrigues, Papeis Avulsos de Zoologia 41 (2000) 313).

  7. Europe's fertility transition: new evidence and lessons for today's developing world.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van De Walle, E; Knodel, J

    1980-02-01

    Statistics of population dynamics in pre-fertility transition Europe, especially Western Europe, are diagrammed, tabulated, and graphed. A description of new sources of information, refined concepts on Europe's fertility transition, and ways of measuring the actual practice of family limitation are explained. New findings in the field indicate that the past was largely characterized by natural fertility. Factors such as the period of lactation and seasonal migration influenced total fertility differences. The transition from high to low fertility and mortality represented a shift from natural fertility to family limitation. Differences in the start and speed of the fertility decline are determined more by cultural than by socioeconomic conditions. This process began in Western Europe, under varying socioeconomic conditions, during the 1880-1910 period and was irreversible once it started. It is generally agreed that many areas of the developing world are currently undergoing a fertility transition. Both birth and death rates in these countries are higher than levels ever were in pre-transition Europe. However, the new findings relating to the transition in Europe lead experts to believe that this curent transition will follow the same courese. A certain level of socioeconomic development is not a precondition. Family planning programs, even in underdeveloped areas, can be effective.

  8. Pacific Symposium on Biocomputing '99, World Scientific, New Jersey; Pacific Symposium on Biocomputing '00, World Scientific, New Jersey; Pacific Symposium on Biocomputing '01, World Scientific, New Jersey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Altman, R.B.; Dunker, A.K.; Hunter, L.; Klein, T.E.; Lauderdale, K.

    2003-04-28

    The Pacific Symposium on Biocomputing is an international, multidisciplinary conference covering current research in the theory and application of computational methods in problems of biological significance. Researchers from the United States, the Asian Pacific nations and around the world gather each year at PSB to exchange research results and discuss open issues in all aspects of computational biology. PSB provides a forum for work on databases, algorithms, interfaces, visualization, modeling and other computational methods, as applied to biological problems. The data-rich areas of molecular biology are emphasized.

  9. New NIH-Funded Ultrasound Technology is Changing Lives around the World

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... funded Ultrasound Technology is Changing Lives around the World Past Issues / Winter 2013 Table of Contents A ... to dramatically improve patient care all over the world. With a one-hand user interface, Vscan provides ...

  10. Revision of the new world genus Crassomicrodus Ashmead (Hymenoptera, Braconidae, Agathidinae), with an identification key to species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueroa, José Isaac; Sharkey, Michael Joseph; Nápoles, Jesus Romero; García, José Antonio Sánchez; Martínez, Ana Mabel; López-Martínez, Victor; Pineda, Samuel

    2011-01-01

    Abstract A key to species and descriptions are presented for 14 species of the New World genus Crassomicrodus Ashmead. Seven new species, Crassomicrodus azteca, Crassomicrodus clypealis, Crassomicrodus costaricensis, Crassomicrodus jalisciensis, Crassomicrodus mariae, Crassomicrodus oaxaquensis,and Crassomicrodus olgae are described. Crassomicrodus fenestratus (Viereck) is synonymized with Crassomicrodus nigriceps (Cresson). Crassomicrodus melanopleurus (Ashmead) is recognized as a valid species. PMID:22144862

  11. Revision of the new world genus Crassomicrodus Ashmead (Hymenoptera, Braconidae, Agathidinae, with an identification key to species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Figueroa

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available A key to species and descriptions are presented for 14 species of the New World genus Crassomicrodus Ashmead. Seven new species, C. azteca, C. clypealis, C. costaricensis, C. jalisciensis, C. mariae, C. oaxaquensis, and C. olgae are described. C. fenestratus (Viereck is synonymized with C. nigriceps (Cresson. C. melanopleurus (Ashmead is recognized as a valid species.

  12. Formation of functional CENP-B boxes at diverse locations in repeat units of centromeric DNA in New World monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kugou, Kazuto; Hirai, Hirohisa; Masumoto, Hiroshi; Koga, Akihiko

    2016-06-13

    Centromere protein B, which is involved in centromere formation, binds to centromeric repetitive DNA by recognizing a nucleotide motif called the CENP-B box. Humans have large numbers of CENP-B boxes in the centromeric repetitive DNA of their autosomes and X chromosome. The current understanding is that these CENP-B boxes are located at identical positions in the repeat units of centromeric DNA. Great apes also have CENP-B boxes in locations that are identical to humans. The purpose of the present study was to examine the location of CENP-B box in New World monkeys. We recently identified CENP-B box in one species of New World monkeys (marmosets). In this study, we found functional CENP-B boxes in CENP-A-assembled repeat units of centromeric DNA in 2 additional New World monkeys (squirrel monkeys and tamarins) by immunostaining and ChIP-qPCR analyses. The locations of the 3 CENP-B boxes in the repeat units differed from one another. The repeat unit size of centromeric DNA of New World monkeys (340-350 bp) is approximately twice that of humans and great apes (171 bp). This might be, associated with higher-order repeat structures of centromeric DNA, a factor for the observed variation in the CENP-B box location in New World monkeys.

  13. Inhibition of host extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) activation decreases new world alphavirus multiplication in infected cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Voss, Kelsey; Amaya, Moushimi [National Center for Biodefense and Infectious Diseases, School of Systems Biology, George Mason University, 10650 Pyramid Place, Manassas, VA (United States); Mueller, Claudius [Center for Applied Proteomics and Personalized Medicine, George Mason University, 10900 University Boulevard, Manassas, VA (United States); Roberts, Brian [Leidos Health Life Sciences, 5202 Presidents Court, Suite 110, Frederick, MD (United States); Kehn-Hall, Kylene; Bailey, Charles [National Center for Biodefense and Infectious Diseases, School of Systems Biology, George Mason University, 10650 Pyramid Place, Manassas, VA (United States); Petricoin, Emanuel [Center for Applied Proteomics and Personalized Medicine, George Mason University, 10900 University Boulevard, Manassas, VA (United States); Narayanan, Aarthi, E-mail: anaraya1@gmu.edu [National Center for Biodefense and Infectious Diseases, School of Systems Biology, George Mason University, 10650 Pyramid Place, Manassas, VA (United States)

    2014-11-15

    New World alphaviruses belonging to the family Togaviridae are classified as emerging infectious agents and Category B select agents. Our study is focused on the role of the host extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) in the infectious process of New World alphaviruses. Infection of human cells by Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEEV) results in the activation of the ERK-signaling cascade. Inhibition of ERK1/2 by the small molecule inhibitor Ag-126 results in inhibition of viral multiplication. Ag-126-mediated inhibition of VEEV was due to potential effects on early and late stages of the infectious process. While expression of viral proteins was down-regulated in Ag-126 treated cells, we did not observe any influence of Ag-126 on the nuclear distribution of capsid. Finally, Ag-126 exerted a broad-spectrum inhibitory effect on New World alphavirus multiplication, thus indicating that the host kinase, ERK, is a broad-spectrum candidate for development of novel therapeutics against New World alphaviruses. - Highlights: • VEEV infection activated multiple components of the ERK signaling cascade. • Inhibition of ERK activation using Ag-126 inhibited VEEV multiplication. • Activation of ERK by Ceramide C6 increased infectious titers of TC-83. • Ag-126 inhibited virulent strains of all New World alphaviruses. • Ag-126 treatment increased percent survival of infected cells.

  14. Feministas en el Foro Feminists at the World Social Forum: challenges for a new political culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lilian Celiberti

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available El articulo trata sobre la forma de incursión de expresiones significativas de la pluralidad feminista en el Foro Social Mundial expresa. Estas incursiones expresan los cambios en las subjetividades y en las estrategias de lucha que comienzan a desarrollar los movimientos feministas en particular y los movimientos sociales en general, en el marco de un mundo globalizado y en el nuevo milenio. Es un proceso inédito, que esta impulsando el desarrollo de nuevos paradigmas para la acción colectiva, que combina lo local y lo global, la interconexión de múltiples agendas y la recuperación de una dimensión mas profunda de la justicia económica, social, cultural y simbólica, ampliando, en este proceso, el concepto de la política, lo político y el poder. El articulo coloca en debate las formas de hacer política de los movimientos sociales que confluyen en el Foro - que arrastran viejas dinámicas y al mismo tiempo recrean los nuevos paradigmas - y que abren la posibilidad de reinventar un mapa emancipatorio y un imaginario social, capaz de competir con el consenso neoliberal y el pensamiento único, recuperando la diversidad y la pluralidad de sujet@s y actor@s sociales.The article deals with the ways of incursion of the feminist plurality's significant expressions in the World Social Forum. These incursions express the changes in the subjectivities and in strategies of struggle that feminist movements in particular and social movements in general begin to develop, in the frame of a globalised world and in the new millennium. It's an unprecedented process, that is promoting the development of new paradigms for collective action, that combines local and global issues, the interconnection of multiple agendas and the recovery of a more profound dimension of economic, social, cultural and symbolic justice, broadening, in this process, the concept of politics, the political and the power. The article sets discussion around the ways in which social

  15. New β-lactamase inhibitors: a therapeutic renaissance in an MDR world.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drawz, Sarah M; Papp-Wallace, Krisztina M; Bonomo, Robert A

    2014-01-01

    As the incidence of Gram-negative bacterial infections for which few effective treatments remain increases, so does the contribution of drug-hydrolyzing β-lactamase enzymes to this serious clinical problem. This review highlights recent advances in β-lactamase inhibitors and focuses on agents with novel mechanisms of action against a wide range of enzymes. To this end, we review the β-lactamase inhibitors currently in clinical trials, select agents still in preclinical development, and older therapeutic approaches that are being revisited. Particular emphasis is placed on the activity of compounds at the forefront of the developmental pipeline, including the diazabicyclooctane inhibitors (avibactam and MK-7655) and the boronate RPX7009. With its novel reversible mechanism, avibactam stands to be the first new β-lactamase inhibitor brought into clinical use in the past 2 decades. Our discussion includes the importance of selecting the appropriate partner β-lactam and dosing regimens for these promising agents. This "renaissance" of β-lactamase inhibitors offers new hope in a world plagued by multidrug-resistant (MDR) Gram-negative bacteria.

  16. Inferring host range dynamics from comparative data: the protozoan parasites of new world monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waxman, David; Weinert, Lucy A; Welch, John J

    2014-07-01

    Uncovering the ecological determinants of parasite host range is a central goal of comparative parasitology and infectious disease ecology. But while parasites are often distributed nonrandomly across the host phylogeny, such patterns are difficult to interpret without a genealogy for the parasite samples and without knowing what sorts of ecological dynamics might lead to what sorts of nonrandomness. We investigated inferences from comparative data, using presence/absence records from protozoan parasites of the New World monkeys. We first demonstrate several distinct types of phylogenetic signal in these data, showing, for example, that parasite species are clustered on the host tree and that closely related host species harbor similar numbers of parasite species. We then show that all of these patterns can be generated by a single, simple dynamical model, in which parasite host range changes more rapidly than host speciation/extinction and parasites preferentially colonize uninfected host species that are closely related to their existing hosts. Fitting this model to data, we then estimate its parameters. Finally, we caution that quite different ecological processes can lead to similar signatures but show how phylogenetic variation in host susceptibility can be distinguished from a tendency for parasites to colonize closely related hosts. Our new process-based analyses, which estimate meaningful parameters, should be useful for inferring the determinants of parasite host range and transmission success.

  17. Beyond aridification: multiple explanations for the elevated diversification of cacti in the New World Succulent Biome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Hernández, Tania; Brown, Joseph W; Schlumpberger, Boris O; Eguiarte, Luis E; Magallón, Susana

    2014-06-01

    Succulent plants are widely distributed, reaching their highest diversity in arid and semi-arid regions. Their origin and diversification is thought to be associated with a global expansion of aridity. We test this hypothesis by investigating the tempo and pattern of Cactaceae diversification. Our results contribute to the understanding of the evolution of New World Succulent Biomes. We use the most taxonomically complete dataset currently available for Cactaceae. We estimate divergence times and utilize Bayesian and maximum likelihood methods that account for nonrandom taxonomic sampling, possible extinction scenarios and phylogenetic uncertainty to analyze diversification rates, and evolution of growth form and pollination syndrome. Cactaceae originated shortly after the Eocene-Oligocene global drop in CO2 , and radiation of its richest genera coincided with the expansion of aridity in North America during the late Miocene. A significant correlation between growth form and pollination syndrome was found, as well as a clear state dependence between diversification rate, and pollination and growth-form evolution. This study suggests a complex picture underlying the diversification of Cactaceae. It not only responded to the availability of new niches resulting from aridification, but also to the correlated evolution of novel growth forms and reproductive strategies.

  18. A comprehensive species-level molecular phylogeny of the New World blackbirds (Icteridae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, Alexis F L A; Barker, F Keith; Lanyon, Scott M; Burns, Kevin J; Klicka, John; Lovette, Irby J

    2014-02-01

    The New World blackbirds (Icteridae) are among the best known songbirds, serving as a model clade in comparative studies of morphological, ecological, and behavioral trait evolution. Despite wide interest in the group, as yet no analysis of blackbird relationships has achieved comprehensive species-level sampling or found robust support for most intergeneric relationships. Using mitochondrial gene sequences from all ∼108 currently recognized species and six additional distinct lineages, together with strategic sampling of four nuclear loci and whole mitochondrial genomes, we were able to resolve most relationships with high confidence. Our phylogeny is consistent with the strongly-supported results of past studies, but it also contains many novel inferences of relationship, including unexpected placement of some newly-sampled taxa, resolution of relationships among major clades within Icteridae, and resolution of genus-level relationships within the largest of those clades, the grackles and allies. We suggest taxonomic revisions based on our results, including restoration of Cacicus melanicterus to the monotypic Cassiculus, merging the monotypic Ocyalus and Clypicterus into Cacicus, restoration of Dives atroviolaceus to the monotypic Ptiloxena, and naming Curaeus forbesi to a new genus, Anumara. Our hypothesis of blackbird phylogeny provides a foundation for ongoing and future evolutionary analyses of the group.

  19. Credit of ecological interactions: A new conceptual framework to support conservation in a defaunated world.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genes, Luísa; Cid, Bruno; Fernandez, Fernando A S; Pires, Alexandra S

    2017-03-01

    As defaunation spreads through the world, there is an urgent need for restoring ecological interactions, thus assuring ecosystem processes. Here, we define the new concept of credit of ecological interactions, as the number of interactions that can be restored in a focal area by species colonization or reintroduction. We also define rewiring time, as the time span until all the links that build the credit of ecological interactions of a focal area have become functional again. We expect that the credit will be gradually cashed following refaunation in rates that are proportional to (1) the abundance of the reintroduced species (that is expected to increase in time since release), (2) the abundance of the local species that interact with them, and (3) the traits of reintroduced species. We illustrated this approach using a theoretical model and an empirical case study where the credit of ecological interactions was estimated. This new conceptual framework is useful for setting reintroduction priorities and for evaluating the success of conservation initiatives that aim to restore ecosystem services.

  20. The world on a collision course and the need for a new economy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Max-Neef, Manfred

    2010-05-01

    The first part of the paper is an attempt to demonstrate that what we are going through at the present time is not just an economic-financial crisis, but a crisis of humanity. It seems that for the first time in human history several crises converge to simultaneously reach their maximum level of tension. The dominant economic model is to a great degree responsible for the world's collision course. Hence a number of myths that sustain the model are listed and analyzed. It is argued that a new economy, coherent with the problematiques of the twenty first century, needs urgently to be devised. The second part proposes the foundations for a new economy based on five fundamental postulates that allow the construction of transdisciplinary, holistic, and systemic visions to adequately understand the interdependence of all the elements that sustain life. It is stressed that it is no longer acceptable that Universities still teach economic theories of the nineteenth century in order to tackle twenty first century problems that have no precedence.

  1. Visualization of Vgi Data Through the New NASA Web World Wind Virtual Globe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brovelli, M. A.; Kilsedar, C. E.; Zamboni, G.

    2016-06-01

    GeoWeb 2.0, laying the foundations of Volunteered Geographic Information (VGI) systems, has led to platforms where users can contribute to the geographic knowledge that is open to access. Moreover, as a result of the advancements in 3D visualization, virtual globes able to visualize geographic data even on browsers emerged. However the integration of VGI systems and virtual globes has not been fully realized. The study presented aims to visualize volunteered data in 3D, considering also the ease of use aspects for general public, using Free and Open Source Software (FOSS). The new Application Programming Interface (API) of NASA, Web World Wind, written in JavaScript and based on Web Graphics Library (WebGL) is cross-platform and cross-browser, so that the virtual globe created using this API can be accessible through any WebGL supported browser on different operating systems and devices, as a result not requiring any installation or configuration on the client-side, making the collected data more usable to users, which is not the case with the World Wind for Java as installation and configuration of the Java Virtual Machine (JVM) is required. Furthermore, the data collected through various VGI platforms might be in different formats, stored in a traditional relational database or in a NoSQL database. The project developed aims to visualize and query data collected through Open Data Kit (ODK) platform and a cross-platform application, where data is stored in a relational PostgreSQL and NoSQL CouchDB databases respectively.

  2. VISUALIZATION OF VGI DATA THROUGH THE NEW NASA WEB WORLD WIND VIRTUAL GLOBE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Brovelli

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available GeoWeb 2.0, laying the foundations of Volunteered Geographic Information (VGI systems, has led to platforms where users can contribute to the geographic knowledge that is open to access. Moreover, as a result of the advancements in 3D visualization, virtual globes able to visualize geographic data even on browsers emerged. However the integration of VGI systems and virtual globes has not been fully realized. The study presented aims to visualize volunteered data in 3D, considering also the ease of use aspects for general public, using Free and Open Source Software (FOSS. The new Application Programming Interface (API of NASA, Web World Wind, written in JavaScript and based on Web Graphics Library (WebGL is cross-platform and cross-browser, so that the virtual globe created using this API can be accessible through any WebGL supported browser on different operating systems and devices, as a result not requiring any installation or configuration on the client-side, making the collected data more usable to users, which is not the case with the World Wind for Java as installation and configuration of the Java Virtual Machine (JVM is required. Furthermore, the data collected through various VGI platforms might be in different formats, stored in a traditional relational database or in a NoSQL database. The project developed aims to visualize and query data collected through Open Data Kit (ODK platform and a cross-platform application, where data is stored in a relational PostgreSQL and NoSQL CouchDB databases respectively.

  3. A checklist of the New World species of Tillinae (Coleoptera: Cleridae), with an illustrated key to genera and new country records.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, Alan F; Leavengood, John M; Zolnerowich, Gregory

    2015-12-21

    This checklist presents the distribution of the checkered beetle subfamily Tillinae (Coleoptera: Cleridae) in the New World. Information for 164 species and 2 subspecies from 11 genera is included. The data are based on an extensive survey of material collected throughout the Americas, descriptions of new species, a number of revisionary works, data from museum specimens, as well as unpublished checklists. Cymatodera, the most speciose tilline genus in the New World, has its greatest diversity in Mexico where 100 of the 134 recognized species are known to occur. Remaining genera inhabiting the New World and corresponding species numbers are: Araeodontia, 5 species; Barrotillus, 1 species; Bogcia, 2 species; Bostrichoclerus, 1 species; Callotillus, 5 species; Cylidrus, 1 species; Cymatoderella, 3 species; Lecontella, 3 species; Monophylla, 4 species; and Onychotillus, 5 species. An illustrated key to the genera of the New World Tillinae is provided. Forty-eight new country records are given for 35 species. References are presented for all species listed. Distribution maps for all New World genera are provided and locality data is presented for selected species.

  4. Construct new world history system——the enlightenment of China and Japan and Korea S. editing historical textbook of east Asia jointly

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jiang JunKai

    2012-01-01

    To constructs the new world history system, should function as the system to understand to intension and epitaxy of the world history, and also define the standard of establishing the system of new world history, on the basis of the existing

  5. The new world of discovery, invention, and innovation: convergence of knowledge, technology, and society

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roco, Mihail C., E-mail: mroco@nsf.gov; Bainbridge, William S. [National Science Foundation (United States)

    2013-09-15

    Convergence of knowledge and technology for the benefit of society (CKTS) is the core opportunity for progress in the twenty-first century. CKTS is defined as the escalating and transformative interactions among seemingly different disciplines, technologies, communities, and domains of human activity to achieve mutual compatibility, synergism, and integration, and through this process to create added value and branch out to meet shared goals. Convergence has been progressing by stages over the past several decades, beginning with nanotechnology for the material world, followed by convergence of nanotechnology, biotechnology, information, and cognitive science (NBIC) for emerging technologies. CKTS is the third level of convergence. It suggests a general process to advance creativity, innovation, and societal progress based on five general purpose principles: (1) the interdependence of all components of nature and society, (2) decision analysis for research, development, and applications based on dynamic system-logic deduction, (3) enhancement of creativity and innovation through evolutionary processes of convergence that combines existing principles and divergence that generates new ones, (4) the utility of higher-level cross-domain languages to generate new solutions and support transfer of new knowledge, and (5) the value of vision-inspired basic research embodied in grand challenges. CKTS is a general purpose approach in knowledge society. It allows society to answer questions and resolve problems that isolated capabilities cannot, as well as to create new competencies, knowledge, and technologies on this basis. Possible solutions are outlined for key societal challenges in the next decade, including support for foundational emerging technologies NBIC to penetrate essential platforms of human activity and create new industries and jobs, improve lifelong wellness and human potential, achieve personalized and integrated healthcare and education, and secure a

  6. Co-evolution of plumage characteristics and winter sociality in New and Old World sparrows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tibbetts, E A; Safran, R J

    2009-12-01

    Understanding the evolution of phenotypic diversity, including the stunning array of avian plumage characters, is a central goal of evolutionary biology. Here, we applied a comparative analysis to test factors associated with the origin and maintenance of black chest and throat patches, which in some taxa are referred to as 'badges-of-status'. Specifically, we tested whether the evolution of black colour patches in Old and New World sparrows is consistent with a signalling function during the nonbreeding season or breeding season. We found no positive associations between patch evolution and polygyny or summer sociality. Instead, patch evolution is significantly associated with sociality during the nonbreeding season. Additionally, unlike typical plumage characteristics under sexual selection, these patches are visible throughout the nonbreeding season. Further, the pattern of patch dimorphism uncovered in this study does not match expectations for a trait that evolved in a reproductive context. In particular, patch dimorphism is not associated with polygyny or the presence of extra-pair mating although other types of plumage dimorphism are strongly associated with nonmonogamous mating systems. Overall, patterns of patch evolution suggest that they are more strongly associated with social competition during the nonbreeding season than sexual competition during the breeding season. These results clarify why some previous work has uncovered puzzling relationships between black plumage patches and reproductive behaviour. We discuss these findings in the context of signal theory and previous work on badges-of-status.

  7. Battle in the New World: Helicoverpa armigera versus Helicoverpa zea (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    The corn earworm Helicoverpa zea (Boddie) and the old world bollworm Helicoverpa armigera (Hübner) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) are allopatric species and occur in important agricultural crops. In maize, both species tend to infest the ear. The introduction of H. armigera in Brazil has created a new scenario, where these Helicoverpa species might cohabit and interact with one another, affecting the prevalence of each species in the agroecosystem, integrated pest management, and insect resistance management. In this study, larval occurrence and proportion of these species in maize was assessed in three regions of Brazil during three crop seasons. Interaction between the species was evaluated in interspecific and intraspecific scenarios under laboratory and field conditions. Helicoverpa zea was predominant in Rio Grande do Sul and the Planaltina, DF (central Brazil). In western Bahia, H. zea was predominant in the first collection, but approximately equal in number to H armigera in the second crop season. Both species exhibit high cannibalism/predation rates, and larval size was the primary factor for larval survival in the interaction studies. Larva of H. zea had higher survival when interacting with H. armigera, indicating that H. zea has an advantage in intraguild interactions with H. armigera in maize. Overall, the results from this study indicate that maize might play a role as a source of infestation or a sink of insecticide or Bt protein unselected H. armigera populations, depending on the H. zea:H. armigera intraguild competition and adult movement in the landscape. PMID:27907051

  8. Sprint mechanics in world-class athletes: a new insight into the limits of human locomotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabita, G; Dorel, S; Slawinski, J; Sàez-de-Villarreal, E; Couturier, A; Samozino, P; Morin, J-B

    2015-10-01

    The objective of this study was to characterize the mechanics of maximal running sprint acceleration in high-level athletes. Four elite (100-m best time 9.95-10.29 s) and five sub-elite (10.40-10.60 s) sprinters performed seven sprints in overground conditions. A single virtual 40-m sprint was reconstructed and kinetics parameters were calculated for each step using a force platform system and video analyses. Anteroposterior force (FY), power (PY), and the ratio of the horizontal force component to the resultant (total) force (RF, which reflects the orientation of the resultant ground reaction force for each support phase) were computed as a function of velocity (V). FY-V, RF-V, and PY-V relationships were well described by significant linear (mean R(2) of 0.892 ± 0.049 and 0.950 ± 0.023) and quadratic (mean R(2) = 0.732 ± 0.114) models, respectively. The current study allows a better understanding of the mechanics of the sprint acceleration notably by modeling the relationships between the forward velocity and the main mechanical key variables of the sprint. As these findings partly concern world-class sprinters tested in overground conditions, they give new insights into some aspects of the biomechanical limits of human locomotion.

  9. Trematode diversity in freshwater fishes of the Globe II: 'New World'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choudhury, Anindo; Aguirre-Macedo, M Leopoldina; Curran, Stephen S; de Núñez, Margarita Ostrowski; Overstreet, Robin M; de León, Gerardo Pérez-Ponce; Santos, Cláudia Portes

    2016-03-01

    We provide a summary overview of the diversity of trematode parasites in freshwater fishes of the 'New World', i.e. the Americas, with emphasis on adult forms. The trematode fauna of three regions, South America, Middle America, and USA and Canada (North America north of Mexico), are considered separately. In total, 462 trematode species have been reported as adults from the Americas. The proportion of host species examined for parasites varies widely across the Americas, from a high of 45% in the Mexican region of Middle America to less than 5% in South America. North and South America share no adult species, and one exclusively freshwater genus, Creptotrema Travassos, Artigas & Pereira, 1928 in the Allocreadiidae Looss, 1902 is the most widely distributed. Metacercariae of strigeiforms maturing in fish-eating birds (e.g. species of the Diplostomidae Poirier, 1886) are common and widely distributed. The review also highlights the paucity of known life-cycles. The foreseeable future of diversity studies belongs to integrative approaches and the application of molecular ecological methods. While opportunistic sampling will remain important in describing and cataloguing the trematode fauna, a better understanding of trematode diversity and biology will also depend on strategic sampling throughout the Americas.

  10. Pre-Columbian mycobacterial genomes reveal seals as a source of New World human tuberculosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bos, Kirsten I.; Harkins, Kelly M.; Herbig, Alexander; Coscolla, Mireia; Weber, Nico; Comas, Iñaki; Forrest, Stephen A.; Bryant, Josephine M.; Harris, Simon R.; Schuenemann, Verena J.; Campbell, Tessa J.; Majander, Kerrtu; Wilbur, Alicia K.; Guichon, Ricardo A.; Wolfe Steadman, Dawnie L.; Cook, Della Collins; Niemann, Stefan; Behr, Marcel A.; Zumarraga, Martin; Bastida, Ricardo; Huson, Daniel; Nieselt, Kay; Young, Douglas; Parkhill, Julian; Buikstra, Jane E.; Gagneux, Sebastien; Stone, Anne C.; Krause, Johannes

    2015-01-01

    Modern strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis from the Americas are closely related to those from Europe, supporting the assumption that human tuberculosis was introduced post-contact1. This notion, however, is incompatible with archaeological evidence of pre-contact tuberculosis in the New World2. Comparative genomics of modern isolates suggests that M. tuberculosis attained its worldwide distribution following human dispersals out of Africa during the Pleistocene epoch3, although this has yet to be confirmed with ancient calibration points. Here we present three 1,000-year-old mycobacterial genomes from Peruvian human skeletons, revealing that a member of the M. tuberculosis complex caused human disease before contact. The ancient strains are distinct from known human-adapted forms and are most closely related to those adapted to seals and sea lions. Two independent dating approaches suggest a most recent common ancestor for the M. tuberculosis complex less than 6,000 years ago, which supports a Holocene dispersal of the disease. Our results implicate sea mammals as having played a role in transmitting the disease to humans across the ocean. PMID:25141181

  11. Emigration Gothic: A Scotswoman’s Contribution to the New World

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle Gadpaille

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Ellen Ross (1816?–1892 emigrated from Scotland to Montreal at mid-century and wrote two Gothic novels, in one of which – Violet Keith, An Autobiography (1868 – she used the Canadian setting as a fantastic Gothic locale in which to explore areas of social and sexual transgression. Drawing on earlier traditions of European Gothic, including Sir Walter Scott’s mythologized Scottish landscape, and on an emerging North American genre of convent exposes, Ross’s writing accommodates female protest, distances it from reality and allows its dissipation in conventional denouements. If female Gothic can be read as an analogue of realistic women’s problems, then perhaps this analogy can be extended to encompass emigration and immigrant life. The paper analyzes Ross’s motifs of loss, imprisonment, solitude, surveillance and deliverance and considers the possibility that Gothic motifs in her work both conceal and express features of the immigrant’s psychic battle with the transition to the New World.

  12. Seismic waves generated by aircraft impacts and building collapses at World Trade Center, New York City

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Won-Young; Sykes, L. R.; Armitage, J. H.; Xie, J. K.; Jacob, K. H.; Richards, P. G.; West, M.; Waldhauser, F.; Armbruster, J.; Seeber, L.; Du, W. X.; Lerner-Lam, A.

    Seismologists sometimes do their work of data acquisition and analysis against a tragic background. Usually, the context is fieldwork far from home, in an area subjected to the natural but sometimes devastating effects of an earthquake. But in the present case, we are in our own New York City area; that is, the Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory of Columbia University, in Palisades, N.Y; and the context is inhuman actions against people and the fabric of our society.As the appalling events of September 11 unfolded, we found that we had recorded numerous seismic signals from two plane impacts and building collapses of the two World Trade Center (WTC) towers, often at times different than those being reported elsewhere. Collapses of the two WTC towers generated large seismic waves, observed in five states and up to 428 km away The north tower collapse was the largest seismic source and had local magnitude ML 2.3. From this, we infer that ground shaking of the WTC towers was not a major contributor to the collapse or damage to surrounding buildings. But unfortunately, we also conclude that from the distance at which our own detections were made (the nearest station is 34 km away at Palisades) it is not possible to infer (with detail sufficient to meet the demands of civil engineers in an emergency situation) just what the near-in ground motions must have been.

  13. Genetic diversity in oxytocin ligands and receptors in New World monkeys.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dongren Ren

    Full Text Available Oxytocin (OXT is an important neurohypophyseal hormone that influences wide spectrum of reproductive and social processes. Eutherian mammals possess a highly conserved sequence of OXT (Cys-Tyr-Ile-Gln-Asn-Cys-Pro-Leu-Gly. However, in this study, we sequenced the coding region for OXT in 22 species covering all New World monkeys (NWM genera and clades, and characterize five OXT variants, including consensus mammalian Leu(8-OXT, major variant Pro(8-OXT, and three previously unreported variants: Ala(8-OXT, Thr(8-OXT, and Phe(2-OXT. Pro(8-OXT shows clear structural and physicochemical differences from Leu(8-OXT. We report multiple predicted amino acid substitutions in the G protein-coupled OXT receptor (OXTR, especially in the critical N-terminus, which is crucial for OXT recognition and binding. Genera with same Pro(8-OXT tend to cluster together on a phylogenetic tree based on OXTR sequence, and we demonstrate significant coevolution between OXT and OXTR. NWM species are characterized by high incidence of social monogamy, and we document an association between OXTR phylogeny and social monogamy. Our results demonstrate remarkable genetic diversity in the NWM OXT/OXTR system, which can provide a foundation for molecular, pharmacological, and behavioral studies of the role of OXT signaling in regulating complex social phenotypes.

  14. Comparison of eye morphology and retinal topography in two species of New World vultures (Aves: Cathartidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lisney, Thomas J; Stecyk, Karyn; Kolominsky, Jeffrey; Graves, Gary R; Wylie, Douglas R; Iwaniuk, Andrew N

    2013-12-01

    Vultures are highly reliant on their sensory systems for the rapid detection and localization of carrion before other scavengers can exploit the resource. In this study, we compared eye morphology and retinal topography in two species of New World vultures (Cathartidae), turkey vultures (Cathartes aura), with a highly developed olfactory sense, and black vultures (Coragyps atratus), with a less developed sense of olfaction. We found that eye size relative to body mass was the same in both species, but that black vultures have larger corneas relative to eye size than turkey vultures. However, the overall retinal topography, the total number of cells in the retinal ganglion cell layer, peak and average cell densities, cell soma area frequency distributions, and the theoretical peak anatomical spatial resolving power were the same in both species. This suggests that the visual systems of these two species are similar and that vision plays an equally important role in the biology of both species, despite the apparently greater reliance on olfaction for finding carrion in turkey vultures.

  15. Cajal and the discovery of a new artistic world: the neuronal forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeFelipe, Javier

    2013-01-01

    The introduction of the staining method of Camillo Golgi in 1873 represented a giant step for neuroscience. Prior to this development, the visualization of neurons with the available histological techniques had been incomplete; it was only feasible to observe the cell body and the proximal portions of the dendrites and axon. However, with the Golgi method it was possible to observe neurons and glia with all their parts (cell body, dendrites, and axon in the case of neurons; cell body and processes in the case of glia). Due to the advantages of this method, all of a sudden it was possible to begin studying one of the great mysteries and critical issues of the organization of the nervous system-the tracing of the connections between neurons. Nevertheless, this method was not fully exploited until Santiago Ramón y Cajal arrived on the scene in 1888. It should be noted that, in Cajal's day, drawing was the most common method of describing microscopic images in the absence of the highly developed microphotography and other imaging techniques commonly available in today's laboratories. As a consequence, most scientific figures presented by the early neuroanatomists were their own drawings, providing an outlet for these scientists to express and develop their artistic talent. In the hands of Cajal, the Golgi method represented not only the principal tool that was to change the course of the history of neuroscience but also the discovery of a new artistic world, the neuronal forest.

  16. Field assessment of two synthetic attractants for the New World Screwworm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mastrangelo, Thiago, E-mail: mastrang@unicamp.br [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (CBMEG/UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Centro de Biologia Molecular e Engenharia Genetica; Neto, Paulo C.; Arthur, Valter, E-mail: pcassier@cena.usp.br, E-mail: arthur@cena.usp.br [Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura (CENA/USP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil)

    2015-07-01

    The New World Screwworm fly (NWS), Cochliomyia hominivorax, causes millions of dollars in annual losses to farmers. The collection of adult flies with trapping systems is essential in surveillance for NWS populations and for monitoring the progress of eradication programs against this pest. Chemical baits can be used to attract adult flies, such as the Swormlure-4. In ports of Australia, the attractant Bezzilure-2 B is part of a quarantine surveillance program for another screwworm fly, Chrysomya bezziana. Comparative trials with these attractants have never been done in Brazil. The aim of this study was to evaluate the performance between the attractants Swormlure-4 and Bezzilure-2 B for NWS. Field trials were carried out on a vegetated area of UNICAMP campus. For each trial, 12 Delta sticky traps were set up, with traps positioned 100 to 200 m apart. The attractants were dispensed in 30 mL bottles containing a dental roll. Three independent trials were performed: one applying Swormlure-4 alone (Trial A), the second with only Bezzilure-2 B (Trial B), and the third with both attractants (6 traps for each attractant) (Trial C). Between 800 and 1120 sterile adult flies were released 1 h after the installation of the traps. The trapped flies were collected on the 10{sup th} day after the release. In all trials, the Swormlure-4 proved to be much more efficient and its use should be encouraged for future collections and surveillance of NWS populations in Brazil. (author)

  17. The New World arenavirus Tacaribe virus induces caspase-dependent apoptosis in infected cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolff, Svenja; Groseth, Allison; Meyer, Bjoern; Jackson, David; Strecker, Thomas; Kaufmann, Andreas; Becker, Stephan

    2016-04-01

    The Arenaviridae is a diverse and growing family of viruses that already includes more than 25 distinct species. While some of these viruses have a significant impact on public health, others appear to be non-pathogenic. At present little is known about the host cell responses to infection with different arenaviruses, particularly those found in the New World; however, apoptosis is known to play an important role in controlling infection of many viruses. Here we show that infection with Tacaribe virus (TCRV), which is widely considered the prototype for non-pathogenic arenaviruses, leads to stronger induction of apoptosis than does infection with its human-pathogenic relative Junín virus. TCRV-induced apoptosis occurred in several cell types during late stages of infection and was shown to be caspase-dependent, involving the activation of caspases 3, 7, 8 and 9. Further, UV-inactivated TCRV did not induce apoptosis, indicating that the activation of this process is dependent on active viral replication/transcription. Interestingly, when apoptosis was inhibited, growth of TCRV was not enhanced, indicating that apoptosis does not have a direct negative effect on TCRV infection in vitro. Taken together, our data identify and characterize an important virus-host cell interaction of the prototypic, non-pathogenic arenavirus TCRV, which provides important insight into the growing field of arenavirus research aimed at better understanding the diversity in responses to different arenavirus infections and their functional consequences.

  18. New Worlds Observer Formation Control Design Based on the Dynamics of Relative Motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luquette, Richard J.

    2008-01-01

    The New Worlds Observer (NWO) mission is designed for the direct detection and characterization of extrasolar planets. The NWO mission concept employs a two spacecraft leader-follower formation on a trajectory around the Earth/Moon-Sun L(sub 2) Libration Point. The leader spacecraft is baselined as a 4 meter optical telescope. The follower, Starshade spacecraft, is designed to suppress light from a central body star permitting direct detection of a surrounding exoplanetary system. The current design requires a nominal leader-follower separation range of 72 Megameters. NWO poses many challenges including formation control. NWO cycles between three principal control modes during the nominal mission timeline: science (fine pointing), realignment and transition. This paper examines formation control strategies in the context of dynamics of relative motion for two spacecraft operating in the vicinity of the Earth/Moon-Sun L(sub 2)libration point. The paper presents an overview of the equations of relative motion followed by a discussion of each of the control modes. Discussion and analysis characterize control strategies for each of the mission control modes, including requirements, implementation challenges and project fuel budgets.

  19. Relative brain size, gut size, and evolution in New World monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartwig, Walter; Rosenberger, Alfred L; Norconk, Marilyn A; Owl, Marcus Young

    2011-12-01

    The dynamics of brain evolution in New World monkeys are poorly understood. New data on brain weight and body weight from 162 necropsied adult individuals, and a second series on body weight and gut size from 59 individuals, are compared with previously published reports based on smaller samples as well as large databases derived from museum records. We confirm elevated brain sizes for Cebus and Saimiri and also report that Cacajao and Chiropotes have relatively large brains. From more limited data we show that gut size and brain mass have a strongly inverse relationship at the low end of the relative brain size scale but a more diffuse interaction at the upper end, where platyrrhines with relatively high encephalization quotients may have either relatively undifferentiated guts or similar within-gut proportions to low-EQ species. Three of the four main platyrrhine clades exhibit a wide range of relative brain sizes, suggesting each may have differentiated while brains were relatively small and a multiplicity of forces acting to maintain or drive encephalization. Alouatta is a likely candidate for de-encephalization, although its "starting point" is difficult to establish. Factors that may have compelled parallel evolution of relatively large brains in cebids, atelids and pitheciids may involve large social group sizes as well as complex foraging strategies, with both aspects exaggerated in the hyper-encephalized Cebus. With diet playing an important role selecting for digestive strategies among the seed-eating pitheciins, comparable in ways to folivores, Chiropotes evolved a relatively larger brain in conjunction with a moderately large and differentiated gut.

  20. Brave new world: Myth and migration in recent Asian-Australian picture books

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenche Ommundsen

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available From Exodus to the American Dream, from Terra Nullius to the Yellow Peril to multicultural harmony, migration has provided a rich source of myth throughout human history. It engenders dreams, fears and memories in both migrant and resident populations; giving rise to hope for a new start and a bright future, feelings of exile and alienation, nostalgia for lost homelands, dreams of belonging and entitlement, fears of invasion, dispossession and cultural extinction. It has inspired artists and writers from the time of the Ancient Testament to the contemporary age of globalisation and mass migration and it has exercised the minds of politicians from Greek and Roman times to our era of detention centres and temporary visas. This reading of Asian-Australian picture books will focus on immigrants’ perception of the ‘new worlds’ of America and Australia. The Peasant Prince, a picture-book version of Li Cunxin’s best-selling autobiography Mao’s Last Dancer, sets up tensions between individual ambition and belonging, illustrated by contrasts between the Chinese story ‘The Frog in the Well’ and the Western fairy-tale of Cinderella, to which Li Cunxin’s own trajectory from poor peasant boy in a Chinese village to international ballet star is explicitly related. Shaun Tan’s The Lost Thing and The Arrival trace the journey from alienation to belonging by means of fantasy worlds encompassing both utopic and dystopic visions. By way of a conclusion, the paper considers the nature of myth as evoked and dramatised in these texts, contrasting the idea of myth as eternal truth with Roland Barthes’ insistence that myth is a mechanism which transforms history into nature.

  1. Volcanoes of the World: Reconfiguring a scientific database to meet new goals and expectations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venzke, Edward; Andrews, Ben; Cottrell, Elizabeth

    2015-04-01

    The Smithsonian Global Volcanism Program's (GVP) database of Holocene volcanoes and eruptions, Volcanoes of the World (VOTW), originated in 1971, and was largely populated with content from the IAVCEI Catalog of Volcanoes of Active Volcanoes and some independent datasets. Volcanic activity reported by Smithsonian's Bulletin of the Global Volcanism Network and USGS/SI Weekly Activity Reports (and their predecessors), published research, and other varied sources has expanded the database significantly over the years. Three editions of the VOTW were published in book form, creating a catalog with new ways to display data that included regional directories, a gazetteer, and a 10,000-year chronology of eruptions. The widespread dissemination of the data in electronic media since the first GVP website in 1995 has created new challenges and opportunities for this unique collection of information. To better meet current and future goals and expectations, we have recently transitioned VOTW into a SQL Server database. This process included significant schema changes to the previous relational database, data auditing, and content review. We replaced a disparate, confusing, and changeable volcano numbering system with unique and permanent volcano numbers. We reconfigured structures for recording eruption data to allow greater flexibility in describing the complexity of observed activity, adding in the ability to distinguish episodes within eruptions (in time and space) and events (including dates) rather than characteristics that take place during an episode. We have added a reference link field in multiple tables to enable attribution of sources at finer levels of detail. We now store and connect synonyms and feature names in a more consistent manner, which will allow for morphological features to be given unique numbers and linked to specific eruptions or samples; if the designated overall volcano name is also a morphological feature, it is then also listed and described as

  2. Contesting authority: China and the new landscape of power sector governance in the developing world

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannam, Phillip Matthew

    Two co-constructed trends threaten to complicate global efforts to manage climate change. Electric power in developing countries is becoming more coal-intensive, while the international institutions capable of assisting lower-carbon growth paths are having their authority challenged by an emergent set of institutions under China's leadership. In the last decade Chinese firms and state banks have become central players in power sector development across the developing world; China has been involved in over sixty percent of Africa's hydropower capacity and is the single largest exporter of coal power plants globally. Statistical and qualitative evidence suggests that China's growing role in these power markets has contributed to re-prioritization of the power sector in U.S. bilateral development assistance, complicated negotiation and implementation of coal power finance rules among OECD export credit agencies, and influenced where the World Bank chooses to build hydropower projects. The thesis establishes a framework for understanding responses to discord in development governance by drawing inductively on these contemporary cases. Competition between established and emerging actors increases with two variables: 1) conflicting ideological, commercial and diplomatic goals (difference in interests); and 2) the degree to which the emerging actor challenges rules and norms upheld by the established actor (contested authority). Competitive policy adjustment - one actor seeking to undermine or diminish the other's pursuit of its objectives - has been historically commonplace when an emerging actor challenged an established actor in the regime for development assistance. China's growing authority in global power sector assistance has prompted competitive policy adjustment among established donors while also enabling recipient countries to leverage donors and better direct their own development pathways. The thesis shows that although contested authority increases

  3. The Changing Strategic Context of Nuclear Weapons and Its Implications for the New Nuclear World Order

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    Ever since the nuclear bombing at Hiroshima and Nagasaki in 1945, nuclear weapons have become one of the defining elements in shaping the world strategic situation for better or worse. The end of the Cold War has led to dramatic changes in the world security landscape. The international

  4. Learning to Teach in the Figured World of Reform Mathematics: Negotiating New Models of Identity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Jasmine Y.; Singer-Gabella, Marcy

    2011-01-01

    Starting from the assertion that traditional and reform mathematics pedagogy constitute two distinct figured worlds of teaching and learning, the authors explore the initiation of prospective teachers into the figured world of reform mathematics pedagogy. To become successful teachers in reform-oriented classrooms, prospective teachers must learn…

  5. Configurational Entropy in Brane-world Models: A New Approach to Stability

    CERN Document Server

    Correa, R A C

    2015-01-01

    In this work we investigate the entropic information on thick brane-worlds scenarios and its consequences. The brane-world entropic information is studied for the sine-Gordon model is and hence the brane-world entropic information measure is shown an accurate way for providing the most suitable values for the bulk AdS curvature. Besides, the brane-world configurational entropy is employed to demonstrate a high organisational degree in the structure of the system configuration, for large values of a parameter of the sine-Gordon model but the one related to the AdS curvature. The Gleiser and Stamatopoulos procedure is finally applied in order to achieve a precise correlation between the energy of the system and the brane-world configurational entropy.

  6. Young New Zealanders and the Great War: Exploring the Impact and Legacy of the First World War, 1914-2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Jeanine

    2008-01-01

    Drawing on school histories, published adult recollections, oral interviews and children's letters, this article explores how the lives of young New Zealanders were affected by contemporary attitudes and activities during World War I in a country far removed from the actual theatre of war. Particular emphasis is given to school-related…

  7. The Times Higher Education Supplement and Quacquarelli Symonds (THES - QS) World University Rankings: New Developments in Ranking Methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sowter, Ben

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents key new developments in the THES - QS World University Rankings in 2007, related to enhancements to the "Peer Review", "Data Collection" and "Statistical Aggregation" utilised in this ranking as well as discussing the decision to utilise Full-Time Equivalent (FTE) figures for personnel statistics. Indicator correlation is also…

  8. Video News release: LHC sets new world record at 3.48 TeV energy - CERN, 19 march 2010

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Video Productions

    2010-01-01

    This morning, Friday 19 March at 5:23 AM, the beam energy of the LHCwas ramped to 3.5 TeV, a new world record and the highest energy for this year’s run. Now operators will prepare the machine to make high-energy collisions later this month.

  9. Five new species of Centorisoma Becker from China, with an updated key to world species (Diptera, Chloropidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiaoyan; Yang, Ding

    2014-06-19

    A review of the species of the genus Centorisoma Becker from China is provided. The following 5 species are described as new to science: C. convexum sp. nov., C. mediconvexum sp. nov., C. neimengguensis sp. nov., C. pentagonium sp. nov. and C. sexangulatum sp. nov. An updated key to the world species of genus Centorisoma is given.

  10. The Adventures of Miranda in the Brave New World: Learning in a Web 2.0 Millennium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, Cameron; Tynan, Belinda

    2007-01-01

    This paper looks at the implications of Web 2.0 technologies for university teaching and learning. The latest generation of undergraduates already live in a Web 2.0 world. They have new service expectations and are increasingly dissatisfied with teacher-centred pedagogies. To attract and retain these students, universities will need to rethink…

  11. Computational Scientific Inquiry with Virtual Worlds and Agent-Based Models: New Ways of Doing Science to Learn Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobson, Michael J.; Taylor, Charlotte E.; Richards, Deborah

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we propose computational scientific inquiry (CSI) as an innovative model for learning important scientific knowledge and new practices for "doing" science. This approach involves the use of a "game-like" virtual world for students to experience virtual biological fieldwork in conjunction with using an agent-based…

  12. Net clinical benefit of new oral anticoagulants (dabigatran, rivaroxaban, apixaban) versus no treatment in a 'real world' atrial fibrillation population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Banerjee, A; Lane, D A; Torp-Pedersen, C;

    2012-01-01

    of bleeding and stroke are both high, all three new drugs appear to have a greater net clinical benefit than warfarin. In the absence of head-to-head trials for these new OACs, our analysis may help inform decision making processes when all these new OACs become available to clinicians for stroke prevention...... in AF. Using 'real world' data, our modelling analysis has shown that when the risk of bleeding and stroke are both high, all three new drugs appear to have a greater net clinical benefit compared to warfarin....

  13. New Constraints on Brane-World Inflation from the CMB Power Spectrum

    CERN Document Server

    Gangopadhyay, Mayukh R

    2016-01-01

    We analyze the Randal Sundrum brane-world inflation scenario in the context of the latest CMB constraints from Planck. We summarize constraints on the most popular classes of models and explore some more realistic inflaton effective potentials. The constraint on standard inflationary parameters changes in the brane-world scenario. We find that in general the brane-world scenario increases the scalar-to-tensor ratio, thus making this paradigm less consistent with the Planck constraints. However, in the cases of axion monodromy and natural inflation, the additional shift of the spectral index to smaller values actually improves the concordance of these models with the Planck constraints.

  14. Multi-locus phylogenetic inference among New World Vultures (Aves: Cathartidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Jeff A; Brown, Joseph W; Fuchs, Jérôme; Mindell, David P

    2016-12-01

    New World Vultures are large-bodied carrion feeding birds in the family Cathartidae, currently consisting of seven species from five genera with geographic distributions in North and South America. No study to date has included all cathartid species in a single phylogenetic analysis. In this study, we investigated the phylogenetic relationships among all cathartid species using five nuclear (nuc; 4060bp) and two mitochondrial (mt; 2165bp) DNA loci with fossil calibrated gene tree (27 outgroup taxa) and coalescent-based species tree (2 outgroup taxa) analyses. We also included an additional four nuclear loci (2578bp) for the species tree analysis to explore changes in nodal support values. Although the stem lineage is inferred to have originated ∼69 million years ago (Ma; 74.5-64.9 credible interval), a more recent basal split within Cathartidae was recovered at ∼14Ma (17.1-11.1 credible interval). Two primary clades were identified: (1) Black Vulture (Coragyps atratus) together with the three Cathartes species (Lesser C. burrovianus and Greater C. melambrotus Yellow-headed Vultures, and Turkey Vulture C. aura), and (2) King Vulture (Sarcoramphus papa), California (Gymnogyps californianus) and Andean (Vultur gryphus) Condors. Support for taxon relationships within the two basal clades were inconsistent between analyses with the exception of Black Vulture sister to a monophyletic Cathartes clade. Increased support for a yellow-headed vulture clade was recovered in the species tree analysis using the four additional nuclear loci. Overall, these results are in agreement with cathartid life history (e.g. olfaction ability and behavior) and contrasting habitat affinities among sister taxa with overlapping geographic distributions. More research is needed using additional molecular loci to further resolve the phylogenetic relationships within the two basal cathartid clades, as speciation appeared to have occurred in a relatively short period of time.

  15. Settlement-Size Scaling among Prehistoric Hunter-Gatherer Settlement Systems in the New World.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W Randall Haas

    Full Text Available Settlement size predicts extreme variation in the rates and magnitudes of many social and ecological processes in human societies. Yet, the factors that drive human settlement-size variation remain poorly understood. Size variation among economically integrated settlements tends to be heavy tailed such that the smallest settlements are extremely common and the largest settlements extremely large and rare. The upper tail of this size distribution is often formalized mathematically as a power-law function. Explanations for this scaling structure in human settlement systems tend to emphasize complex socioeconomic processes including agriculture, manufacturing, and warfare-behaviors that tend to differentially nucleate and disperse populations hierarchically among settlements. But, the degree to which heavy-tailed settlement-size variation requires such complex behaviors remains unclear. By examining the settlement patterns of eight prehistoric New World hunter-gatherer settlement systems spanning three distinct environmental contexts, this analysis explores the degree to which heavy-tailed settlement-size scaling depends on the aforementioned socioeconomic complexities. Surprisingly, the analysis finds that power-law models offer plausible and parsimonious statistical descriptions of prehistoric hunter-gatherer settlement-size variation. This finding reveals that incipient forms of hierarchical settlement structure may have preceded socioeconomic complexity in human societies and points to a need for additional research to explicate how mobile foragers came to exhibit settlement patterns that are more commonly associated with hierarchical organization. We propose that hunter-gatherer mobility with preferential attachment to previously occupied locations may account for the observed structure in site-size variation.

  16. The Oldest Case of Decapitation in the New World (Lapa do Santo, East-Central Brazil)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strauss, André; Oliveira, Rodrigo Elias; Bernardo, Danilo V.; Salazar-García, Domingo C.; Talamo, Sahra; Jaouen, Klervia; Hubbe, Mark; Black, Sue; Wilkinson, Caroline; Richards, Michael Phillip; Araujo, Astolfo G. M.; Kipnis, Renato; Neves, Walter Alves

    2015-01-01

    We present here evidence for an early Holocene case of decapitation in the New World (Burial 26), found in the rock shelter of Lapa do Santo in 2007. Lapa do Santo is an archaeological site located in the Lagoa Santa karst in east-central Brazil with evidence of human occupation dating as far back as 11.7–12.7 cal kyBP (95.4% interval). An ultra-filtered AMS age determination on a fragment of the sphenoid provided an age range of 9.1–9.4 cal kyBP (95.4% interval) for Burial 26. The interment was composed of an articulated cranium, mandible and first six cervical vertebrae. Cut marks with a v-shaped profile were observed in the mandible and sixth cervical vertebra. The right hand was amputated and laid over the left side of the face with distal phalanges pointing to the chin and the left hand was amputated and laid over the right side of the face with distal phalanges pointing to the forehead. Strontium analysis comparing Burial 26’s isotopic signature to other specimens from Lapa do Santo suggests this was a local member of the group. Therefore, we suggest a ritualized decapitation instead of trophy-taking, testifying for the sophistication of mortuary rituals among hunter-gatherers in the Americas during the early Archaic period. In the apparent absence of wealth goods or elaborated architecture, Lapa do Santo’s inhabitants seemed to use the human body to express their cosmological principles regarding death. PMID:26397983

  17. Latitudinal diversity gradients in New World bats: are they a consequence of niche conservatism?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria João Ramos Pereira

    Full Text Available The increase in species diversity from the Poles to the Equator is a major biogeographic pattern, but the mechanisms underlying it remain obscure. Our aim is to contribute to their clarification by describing the latitudinal gradients in species richness and in evolutionary age of species of New World bats, and testing if those patterns may be explained by the niche conservatism hypothesis. Maps of species ranges were used to estimate species richness in a 100 x 100 km grid. Root distances in a molecular phylogeny were used as a proxy for the age of species, and the mean root distance of the species in each cell of the grid was estimated. Generalised additive models were used to relate latitude with both species richness and mean root distance. This was done for each of the three most specious bat families and for all Chiroptera combined. Species richness increases towards the Equator in the whole of the Chiroptera and in the Phyllostomidae and Molossidae, families that radiated in the tropics, but the opposite trend is observed in the Vespertilionidae, which has a presumed temperate origin. In the whole of the Chiroptera, and in the three main families, there were more basal species in the higher latitudes, and more derived species in tropical areas. In general, our results were not consistent with the predictions of niche conservatism. Tropical niche conservatism seems to keep bat clades of tropical origin from colonizing temperate zones, as they lack adaptations to survive cold winters, such as the capacity to hibernate. However, the lower diversity of Vespertilionidae in the Neotropics is better explained by competition with a diverse pre-existing community of bats than by niche conservatism.

  18. Latitudinal diversity gradients in New World bats: are they a consequence of niche conservatism?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos Pereira, Maria João; Palmeirim, Jorge M

    2013-01-01

    The increase in species diversity from the Poles to the Equator is a major biogeographic pattern, but the mechanisms underlying it remain obscure. Our aim is to contribute to their clarification by describing the latitudinal gradients in species richness and in evolutionary age of species of New World bats, and testing if those patterns may be explained by the niche conservatism hypothesis. Maps of species ranges were used to estimate species richness in a 100 x 100 km grid. Root distances in a molecular phylogeny were used as a proxy for the age of species, and the mean root distance of the species in each cell of the grid was estimated. Generalised additive models were used to relate latitude with both species richness and mean root distance. This was done for each of the three most specious bat families and for all Chiroptera combined. Species richness increases towards the Equator in the whole of the Chiroptera and in the Phyllostomidae and Molossidae, families that radiated in the tropics, but the opposite trend is observed in the Vespertilionidae, which has a presumed temperate origin. In the whole of the Chiroptera, and in the three main families, there were more basal species in the higher latitudes, and more derived species in tropical areas. In general, our results were not consistent with the predictions of niche conservatism. Tropical niche conservatism seems to keep bat clades of tropical origin from colonizing temperate zones, as they lack adaptations to survive cold winters, such as the capacity to hibernate. However, the lower diversity of Vespertilionidae in the Neotropics is better explained by competition with a diverse pre-existing community of bats than by niche conservatism.

  19. Settlement-Size Scaling among Prehistoric Hunter-Gatherer Settlement Systems in the New World.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haas, W Randall; Klink, Cynthia J; Maggard, Greg J; Aldenderfer, Mark S

    2015-01-01

    Settlement size predicts extreme variation in the rates and magnitudes of many social and ecological processes in human societies. Yet, the factors that drive human settlement-size variation remain poorly understood. Size variation among economically integrated settlements tends to be heavy tailed such that the smallest settlements are extremely common and the largest settlements extremely large and rare. The upper tail of this size distribution is often formalized mathematically as a power-law function. Explanations for this scaling structure in human settlement systems tend to emphasize complex socioeconomic processes including agriculture, manufacturing, and warfare-behaviors that tend to differentially nucleate and disperse populations hierarchically among settlements. But, the degree to which heavy-tailed settlement-size variation requires such complex behaviors remains unclear. By examining the settlement patterns of eight prehistoric New World hunter-gatherer settlement systems spanning three distinct environmental contexts, this analysis explores the degree to which heavy-tailed settlement-size scaling depends on the aforementioned socioeconomic complexities. Surprisingly, the analysis finds that power-law models offer plausible and parsimonious statistical descriptions of prehistoric hunter-gatherer settlement-size variation. This finding reveals that incipient forms of hierarchical settlement structure may have preceded socioeconomic complexity in human societies and points to a need for additional research to explicate how mobile foragers came to exhibit settlement patterns that are more commonly associated with hierarchical organization. We propose that hunter-gatherer mobility with preferential attachment to previously occupied locations may account for the observed structure in site-size variation.

  20. The eNutrition Academy: Supporting a New Generation of Nutritional Scientists around the World.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geissler, Catherine; Amuna, Paul; Kattelmann, Kendra K; Zotor, Francis B; Donovan, Sharon M

    2016-01-01

    Nutrition training and building capacity to provide a competent workforce to support national and regional efforts to combat malnutrition remain a major challenge in Africa and other developing regions of the world. The capacity to provide the necessary intellectual drive for nutrition research, policy, and practice in countries lacking in readiness for nutrition actions is imperative to improve the health of their people. To help address this need, the eNutrition Academy (eNA) was formed as a global partnership organization by the African Nutrition Society, the Federation of African Nutrition Societies, the Nutrition Society of the United Kingdom and Ireland, the ASN, and the International Union of Nutritional Sciences, supported by Cambridge University Press. The primary objective of this partnership is to provide an online learning platform that is free to access, enabling users to benefit from a wide range of learning materials from basic tools to more-advanced learning materials for teachers and researchers in developing countries. The goal of this article was to summarize the findings of a symposium held at the ASN Scientific Sessions and Annual Meeting at Experimental Biology 2015, which explored the themes of international capacity development, with a particular focus on the African continent, online learning, and the eNA e-learning platform. Given the vast human capacity present in Africa that is poised to create new solutions to address the public health needs of the continent, now is an opportune time to establish South-North and South-South partnerships to develop the next generation of African nutritional scientists.

  1. Degrees of sexual dimorphism in Cebus and other New World monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masterson, T J; Hartwig, W C

    1998-11-01

    Sexual dimorphism in primate species expresses the effects of phylogeny, life history, behavior, and ontogeny. The causes and implications of sexual dimorphism have been studied in several different primates using a variety of morphological databases such as body weight, canine length, and coat color and ornamentation. In addition to these different patterns of dimorphism, the degree to which a species is dimorphic results from a variety of possible causes. In this study we test the general hypothesis that a species highly dimorphic for one size-based index of dimorphism will be equally dimorphic (relative to other species) for other size-based indices. Specifically, the degree and pattern of sexual dimorphism in Cebus and several other New World monkey species is measured using craniometric data as a substitute for the troublesome range of variation in body weight estimates. In general, the rank ordering of species for dimorphism ratios differs considerably across neural vs. non-neural functional domains of the cranium. The relative degree of sexual dimorphism in different functional regions of the cranium is affected by the independent action of natural selection on those regions. Regions of the cranium upon which natural selection is presumed to have acted within a species show greater degrees of dimorphism than do the same regions in closely related taxa. Within Cebus, C. apella is consistently more dimorphic than other Cebus species for facial measurements, but not for neural or body weight measurements. The pattern in C. apella indicates no single best measurement of the degree of dimorphism in a species; rather, the relative degree of dimorphism applies only to the region being measured and may be enhanced by other selective pressures on morphology.

  2. Cortical inputs to the middle temporal visual area in New World owl monkeys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cerkevich CM

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Christina M Cerkevich,1 Christine E Collins,2 Jon H Kaas2 1Center for the Neural Basis of Cognition and Systems Neuroscience Institute, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Pittsburgh, PA, USA; 2Department of Psychology, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN, USA Abstract: We made eight retrograde tracer injections into the middle temporal visual area (MT of three New World owl monkeys (Aotus nancymaae. These injections were placed across the representation of the retina in MT to allow us to compare the locations of labeled cells in other areas in order to provide evidence for any retinotopic organization in those areas. Four regions projected to MT: 1 early visual areas, including V1, V2, V3, the dorsolateral visual area, and the dorsomedial visual area, provided topographically organized inputs to MT; 2 all areas in the MT complex (the middle temporal crescent, the middle superior temporal area, and the fundal areas of the superior temporal sulcus projected to MT. Somewhat variably across injections, neurons were labeled in other parts of the temporal lobe; 3 regions in the location of the medial visual area, the posterior parietal cortex, and the lateral sulcus provided other inputs to MT; 4 finally, projections from the frontal eye field, frontal visual field, and prefrontal cortex were also labeled by our injections. These results further establish the sources of input to MT, and provide direct evidence within and across cases for retinotopic patterns of projections from early visual areas to MT. Keywords: middle temporal area, visual cortex, parietal cortex

  3. Body size, extinction risk and knowledge bias in New World snakes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Vilela

    Full Text Available Extinction risk and body size have been found to be related in various vertebrate groups, with larger species being more at risk than smaller ones. We checked whether this was also the case for snakes by investigating extinction risk-body size relationships in the New World's Colubroidea species. We used the IUCN Red List risk categories to assign each species to one of two broad levels of threat (Threatened and Non-Threatened or to identify it as either Data Deficient or Not-Evaluated by the IUCN. We also included the year of description of each species in our analysis as this could affect the level of threat assigned to it (earlier described species had more time to gather information about them, which might have facilitated their evaluation. Also, species detectability could be a function of body size, with larger species tending to be described earlier, which could have an impact in extinction risk-body size relationships. We found a negative relationship between body size and description year, with large-bodied species being described earlier. Description year also varied among risk categories, with Non-Threatened species being described earlier than Threatened species and both species groups earlier than Data Deficient species. On average, Data Deficient species also presented smaller body sizes, while no size differences were detected between Threatened and Non-Threatened species. So it seems that smaller body sizes are related with species detectability, thus potentially affecting both when a species is described (smaller species tend to be described more recently as well as the amount of information gathered about it (Data Deficient species tend to be smaller. Our data also indicated that if Data Deficient species were to be categorized as Threatened in the future, snake body size and extinction risk would be negatively related, contrasting with the opposite pattern commonly observed in other vertebrate groups.

  4. Body Size, Extinction Risk and Knowledge Bias in New World Snakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilela, Bruno; Villalobos, Fabricio; Rodríguez, Miguel Ángel; Terribile, Levi Carina

    2014-01-01

    Extinction risk and body size have been found to be related in various vertebrate groups, with larger species being more at risk than smaller ones. We checked whether this was also the case for snakes by investigating extinction risk–body size relationships in the New World's Colubroidea species. We used the IUCN Red List risk categories to assign each species to one of two broad levels of threat (Threatened and Non-Threatened) or to identify it as either Data Deficient or Not-Evaluated by the IUCN. We also included the year of description of each species in our analysis as this could affect the level of threat assigned to it (earlier described species had more time to gather information about them, which might have facilitated their evaluation). Also, species detectability could be a function of body size, with larger species tending to be described earlier, which could have an impact in extinction risk–body size relationships. We found a negative relationship between body size and description year, with large-bodied species being described earlier. Description year also varied among risk categories, with Non-Threatened species being described earlier than Threatened species and both species groups earlier than Data Deficient species. On average, Data Deficient species also presented smaller body sizes, while no size differences were detected between Threatened and Non-Threatened species. So it seems that smaller body sizes are related with species detectability, thus potentially affecting both when a species is described (smaller species tend to be described more recently) as well as the amount of information gathered about it (Data Deficient species tend to be smaller). Our data also indicated that if Data Deficient species were to be categorized as Threatened in the future, snake body size and extinction risk would be negatively related, contrasting with the opposite pattern commonly observed in other vertebrate groups. PMID:25409293

  5. Patterns of MHC-G-Like and MHC-B Diversification in New World Monkeys.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan S Lugo

    Full Text Available The MHC class I (MHC-I region in New World monkeys (Platyrrhini has remained relatively understudied. To evaluate the diversification patterns and transcription behavior of MHC-I in Platyrrhini, we first analyzed public genomic sequences from the MHC-G-like subregion in Saimiri boliviensis, Ateles geoffroyi and Callicebus moloch, and from the MHC-B subregion in Saimiri boliviensis. While S. boliviensis showed multiple copies of both MHC-G-like (10 and -B (15 loci, A. geoffroyi and C. moloch had only three and four MHC-G-like genes, respectively, indicating that not all Platyrrhini species have expanded their MHC-I loci. We then sequenced MHC-G-like and -B cDNAs from nine Platyrrhini species, recovering two to five unique cDNAs per individual for both loci classes. In two Saguinus species, however, no MHC-B cDNAs were found. In phylogenetic trees, MHC-G-like cDNAs formed genus-specific clusters whereas the MHC-B cDNAs grouped by Platyrrhini families, suggesting a more rapid diversification of the former. Furthermore, cDNA sequencing in 12 capuchin monkeys showed that they transcribe at least four MHC-G-like and five MHC-B polymorphic genes, showing haplotypic diversity for gene copy number and signatures of positive natural selection at the peptide binding region. Finally, a quantitative index for MHC:KIR affinity was proposed and tested to predict putative interacting pairs. Altogether, our data indicate that i MHC-I genes has expanded differentially among Platyrrhini species, ii Callitrichinae (tamarins and marmosets MHC-B loci have limited or tissue-specific expression, iii MHC-G-like genes have diversified more rapidly than MHC-B genes, and iv the MHC-I diversity is generated mainly by genetic polymorphism and gene copy number variation, likely promoted by natural selection for ligand binding.

  6. Genetic diversity of Ovis aries populations near domestication centers and in the New World.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackburn, H D; Toishibekov, Y; Toishibekov, M; Welsh, C S; Spiller, S F; Brown, M; Paiva, S R

    2011-09-01

    Domestic sheep in Kazakhstan may provide an interesting source of genetic variability due to their proximity to the center of domestication and the Silk Route. Additionally, those breeds have never been compared to New World sheep populations. This report compares genetic diversity among five Kazakhstan (KZ) and 13 United States (US) sheep breeds (N = 442) using 25 microsatellite markers from the FAO panel. The KZ breeds had observed and expected measures of heterozygosity greater than 0.60 and an average number of alleles per locus of 7.8. In contrast, US sheep breeds had observed heterozygosity ranged from 0.37 to 0.62 and had an average number of alleles of 5.7. A Bayesian analysis indicated there were two primary populations (K = 2). Surprisingly, the US breeds were near evenly split between the two clusters, while all of the KZ breeds were placed in one of the two clusters. Pooling breeds within country of sample origin showed KZ and US populations to have similar levels of expected heterozygosity and the average number of alleles per locus. The results of breeds pooled within country suggest that there was no difference between countries for these diversity measures using this set of neutral markers. This finding suggests that populations' geographically isolated from centers of domestication can be more diverse than previously thought, and as a result, conservation strategies can be adjusted accordingly. Furthermore, these results suggest there may be limited need for countries to alter the protocols for trade and exchange of animal genetic resources that are in place today, since no one population has a unique set of private alleles.

  7. Molecular systematics of the new world screech-owls (Megascops: Aves, Strigidae): biogeographic and taxonomic implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dantas, Sidnei M; Weckstein, Jason D; Bates, John M; Krabbe, Niels K; Cadena, Carlos Daniel; Robbins, Mark B; Valderrama, Eugenio; Aleixo, Alexandre

    2016-01-01

    Megascops screech-owls are endemic to the New World and range from southern Canada to the southern cone of South America. The 22 currently recognized Megascops species occupy a wide range of habitats and elevations, from desert to humid montane forest, and from sea level to the Andean tree line. Species and subspecies diagnoses of Megascops are notoriously difficult due to subtle plumage differences among taxa with frequent plumage polymorphism. Using three mitochondrial and three nuclear genes we estimated a phylogeny for all but one Megascops species. Phylogenies were estimated with Maximum Likelihood and Bayesian Inference, and a Bayesian chronogram was reconstructed to assess the spatio-temporal context of Megascops diversification. Megascops was paraphyletic in the recovered tree topologies if the Puerto Rican endemic M. nudipes is included in the genus. However, the remaining taxa are monophyletic and form three major clades: (1) M. choliba, M. koepckeae, M. albogularis, M. clarkii, and M. trichopsis; (2) M. petersoni, M. marshalli, M. hoyi, M. ingens, and M. colombianus; and (3) M. asio, M. kennicottii, M. cooperi, M. barbarus, M. sanctaecatarinae, M. roboratus, M. watsonii, M. atricapilla, M. guatemalae, and M. vermiculatus. Megascops watsonii is paraphyletic with some individuals more closely related to M. atricapilla than to other members in that polytypic species. Also, allopatric populations of some other Megascops species were highly divergent, with levels of genetic differentiation greater than between some recognized species-pairs. Diversification within the genus is hypothesized to have taken place during the last 8 million years, with a likely origin in Central America. The genus later expanded over much of the Americas and then diversified via multiple dispersal events from the Andes into the Neotropical lowlands.

  8. Origins and genetic diversity of New World Creole cattle: inferences from mitochondrial and Y chromosome polymorphisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginja, C; Penedo, M C T; Melucci, L; Quiroz, J; Martínez López, O R; Revidatti, M A; Martínez-Martínez, A; Delgado, J V; Gama, L T

    2010-04-01

    The ancestry of New World cattle was investigated through the analysis of mitochondrial and Y chromosome variation in Creoles from Argentina, Brazil, Mexico, Paraguay and the United States of America. Breeds that influenced the Creoles, such as Iberian native, British and Zebu, were also studied. Creoles showed high mtDNA diversity (H = 0.984 +/- 0.003) with a total of 78 haplotypes, and the European T3 matriline was the most common (72.1%). The African T1a haplogroup was detected (14.6%), as well as the ancestral African-derived AA matriline (11.9%), which was absent in the Iberian breeds. Genetic proximity among Creoles, Iberian and Atlantic Islands breeds was inferred through their sharing of mtDNA haplotypes. Y-haplotype diversity in Creoles was high (H = 0.779 +/- 0.019), with several Y1, Y2 and Y3 haplotypes represented. Iberian patrilines in Creoles were more difficult to infer and were reflected by the presence of H3Y1 and H6Y2. Y-haplotypes confirmed crossbreeding with British cattle, mainly of Hereford with Pampa Chaqueño and Texas Longhorn. Male-mediated Bos indicus introgression into Creoles was found in all populations, except Argentino1 (herd book registered) and Pampa Chaqueño. The detection of the distinct H22Y3 patriline with the INRA189-90 allele in Caracú suggests introduction of bulls directly from West Africa. Further studies of Spanish and African breeds are necessary to elucidate the origins of Creole cattle, and determine the exact source of their African lineages.

  9. Brave New World: Data Intensive Science with SDSS and the VO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thakar, A. R.; Szalay, A. S.; O'Mullane, W.; Nieto-Santisteban, M.; Budavari, T.; Li, N.; Carliles, S.; Haridas, V.; Malik, T.; Gray, J.

    2004-12-01

    With the advent of digital archives and the VO, astronomy is quickly changing from a data-hungry to a data-intensive science. Local and specialized access to data will remain the most direct and efficient way to get data out of individual archives, especially if you know what you are looking for. However, the enormous sizes of the upcoming archives will preclude this type of access for most institutions, and will not allow researchers to tap the vast potential for discovery in cross-matching and comparing data between different archives. The VO makes this type of interoperability and distributed data access possible by adopting industry standards for data access (SQL) and data interchange (SOAP/XML) with platform independence (Web services). As a sneak preview of this brave new world where astronomers may need to become SQL warriors, we present a look at VO-enabled access to catalog data in the SDSS Catalog Archive Server (CAS): CasJobs - a workbench environment that allows arbitrarily complex SQL queries and your own personal database (MyDB) that you can share with collaborators; OpenSkyQuery - an IVOA (International Virtual Observatory Alliance) compliant federation of multiple archives (OpenSkyNodes) that currently links nearly 20 catalogs and allows cross-match queries (in ADQL - Astronomical Data Query Language) between them; Spectrum and Filter Profile Web services that provide access to an open database of spectra (registered users may add their own spectra); and VO-enabled Mirage - a Java visualizatiion tool developed at Bell Labs and enhanced at JHU that allows side-by-side comparison of SDSS catalog and FITS image data. Anticipating the next generation of Petabyte archives like LSST by the end of the decade, we are developing a parallel cross-match engine for all-sky cross-matches between large surveys, along with a 100-Terabyte data intensive science laboratory with high-speed parallel data access.

  10. Letter from the editor in chief. World Rabbit Science: Evolution 2008-2012 and new features for 2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan José Pascual

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available In the last meeting of the World Rabbit Science Association held in the setting of the 10th World Rabbit Congress (Sept 5, 2012 at Sharm El-Sheikh (Egypt, the Editor-in-chief of the World Rabbit Science presented the last news about the evolution of the journal in the last 4 years and some novelties for the next year that are worth to spread within the subscribers of the World Rabbit Science.Journal Citation Reports® has recently published the indexes for 2011 of the journals included in this source of citation data. As you know, World Rabbit Science is included in the category “Agriculture, Dairy and Animal Science” of the Journal Citation Reports® since 2007, with another 55 journals that also publish animal science knowledge. As it can be seen from the Table, the evolution of the Impact Factor (IF; average number of times articles from the journal published in the past two years have been cited in the JCR year of the World Rabbit Science has led to obtain a 5-years Impact Factor of 0.667, positioning the journal in the place 27 of 55 (being for the first time in the quartile Q2 of this category. The Editorial Board of the World Rabbit Science believes that this evolution shows up the availability and/or interest of the knowledge published in World Rabbit Science, which makes it an adequate alternative to bear in mind to disseminate your new knowledge in rabbit science.

  11. Successful use of camelid (alpaca) antivenom to treat a potentially lethal tiger snake (Notechis scutatus) envenomation in a dog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padula, Andrew M; Winkel, Kenneth D

    2016-05-01

    This report describes a confirmed clinical case of tiger snake (Notechis scutatus) envenomation in a domestic dog that was successfully treated with a novel polyvalent camelid (alpaca; Llama pacos) antivenom. Samples collected from the dog were assayed for tiger snake venom (TSV) using a highly sensitive and specific ELISA. The TSV concentration in serum and urine at initial presentation was 365 ng/mL and 11,640 ng/mL respectively. At the time of initial presentation whole blood collected from the dog did not clot and the Prothrombin Time was abnormally increased (>300 s). Serum was also visibly hemolysed. The dog was administered antihistamine, dexamethasone and 4000 Units (sufficient to neutralise 40 mg of TSV) of a novel polyvalent alpaca antivenom diluted in 0.9% NaCl. At 4 h post-antivenom treatment the dog's clinical condition had improved markedly with serum TSV concentrations below the limit of detection (improve by 4 h and had fully normalised by 16 h post-antivenom. Venom concentrations in both serum and urine remained undetectable at 16 h post-antivenom. The dog made a complete recovery, without complications, suggesting that the alpaca-based antivenom is both clinically safe and effective.

  12. A new mealybug in the genus Pseudococcus Westwood (Hemiptera: Coccomorpha: Pseudococcidae) from North America, with a key to species of Pseudococcus from the New World.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellenrieder, Natalia Von; Watson, Gillian

    2016-04-19

    A mealybug species that feeds on Agave spp., Pseudococcus variabilis sp. n. (Hemiptera: Coccomorpha: Pseudococcidae), is described from North America. Its entry into the United States was likely via the horticultural trade on its host plants in the genus Agave (Liliales: Agavaceae). Descriptions and illustrations of the adult female and male, diagnosis from congeners in the New World, and a molecular characterization based on COI are provided, as well as a key to adult females of all Pseudococcus species recorded from the New World.

  13. Implications of climate change for the reproductive capacity and survival of New World silversides (family Atherinopsidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strüssmann, C A; Conover, D O; Somoza, G M; Miranda, L A

    2010-11-01

    The New World silversides (family Atherinopsidae) are found in marine, estuarine and inland waters of North, Central and South America, where they are ecologically important as forage fishes and sometimes economically important for commercial and recreational fisheries. This report reviews the knowledge of the reproductive attributes of temperate and subtropical atherinopsids in relation to temperature and discusses the potential effects of climate change on their reproduction and adaptive responses. Their reproductive cycles are primarily entrained by photoperiod with high temperature acting as a limiting factor. They are generally multiple spawners which release successive batches of eggs in spring, but some species can spawn also in autumn and even summer when temperatures do not increase excessively. The decoupling of temperature patterns and photoperiod with further global warming and associated asymmetric thermal fluctuations could lead to spawning at times or temperatures that are unsuitable for larval development and growth. Many members of this family show temperature-dependent sex determination (TSD), where the phenotypic sex of an individual is determined partly or wholly by the temperature experienced during gonadal sex differentiation, and high-temperature induced germ cell degeneration and decreased fertility. The predicted short-term reproductive responses of atherinopsids to climate change therefore include acceleration, shortening or overall disruption of spawning activity, and also more subtle, but nonetheless equally population-threatening, dysfunctions such as highly skewed sex ratios and partial or total loss of fertility. In the case of species with TSD, asymmetric thermal fluctuations could also cause larvae to encounter temperatures lower than normal during early development and be feminized. Such dysfunctions have been documented already in natural populations but are confined so far to landlocked, inland water habitats, perhaps because

  14. The Brave New World of Buckytubes (George B. Pegram Lecture Series)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smalley, Richard

    2004-10-20

    Smalley discusses the basic science underlying the exotic chemical and physical properties, as well as the methods of production, purification, analysis, and assembly of buckytubes for solving real-world technological problems.

  15. The New Geographical Structures of the Capitalist World-Economy and the Role of the BRICS: a View from Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre de Freitas Barbosa

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an alternative theoretical framework in order to understand the new nature of the capitalist world-economy and its corresponding international division of labor. It studies the meaning of BRICS by examining the once-held belief that the world was divided by a center, semi-periphery and periphery; it analyses the newly established divisions of intra-South and intra-North. These countries operate under various forms of capitalism, thus creating new power relations that work collectively from a geopolitical standpoint. Despite weak economic ties, with the exception of China, leaders of the BRICS are attempting to promote a reform within multilateral organizations and the G-20. The objective of this paper is to shed light on such challenges to this new strategy facing these countries, particularly from the perspective of Brazil’s foreign policy.

  16. Promote Sound, Sustainable and Quality Development Speech at the World Economic Forum Annual Meeting of New Champions 2011

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Professor Klaus Schwab,Executive Chairman of the World Economic Forum,Ladies and Gentleman,I wish to extend warm congratulations on the opening of the Fifth Annual Meeting of the New Champions,or the Summer Davos,and a sincere welcome to you all.The Summer Davos has undergone five years of growth and established its principle of being oriented to the whole world,to the future,to innovation and to youths.Participants have had lively and dynamic exchanges at various forms of discussions,delivering to the world messages of hope,confidence and courage,particularly at the difficult times of the global financial crisis.The theme of this year's meeting-Mastering Quality Growth-represents people's shared desire for robust,sustainable and balanced economic growth,and I wish the meeting a great success.

  17. Climate change, economics and Buddhism. Part 2. New views and practices for sustainable world economies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daniels, Peter L. [Griffith School of Environment, Griffith University, Brisbane, 4111 (Australia)

    2010-03-15

    The evidence of impending and serious climate and other consequences of an expanding world economy based on fossil carbon energy continues to accumulate. This two-part paper examines the potential contribution of the world view and insights of Buddhism to this search. It presents both a conceptual and practical case that Buddhism can help shape and move towards an alternative and effective paradigmatic basis for sustainable economies - one capable of bringing about and maintaining genuine, high welfare levels across the world's societies. The first paper outlined a comprehensive analytical framework to identify the fundamental nature of anthropogenic climate change. Based on the integration of two of the most influential environmental analysis tools of recent decades (the DPSIR model and IPAT equation), the framework was then broadened to facilitate ideas from the Buddhist world view by injecting two key missing aspects - the interrelated role of (1) beliefs and values (on goals and behavior) and (2) the nature of well-being or human happiness. Finally, the principal linkages between this climate change analysis framework and Buddhism were explored. In this concluding paper, the systems framework is used to demonstrate how Buddhist and related world views can feed into appropriate and effective responses to the impending challenges of climate change. This is undertaken by systematically presenting a specific, if indicative, list of relevant strategies informed by the understanding of interconnectedness and other basic principles about the nature of reality and human well-being as proposed in Buddhism. (author)

  18. New World and Old World Alphaviruses Have Evolved to Exploit Different Components of Stress Granules, FXR and G3BP Proteins, for Assembly of Viral Replication Complexes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dal Young; Reynaud, Josephine M.; Rasalouskaya, Aliaksandra; Akhrymuk, Ivan; Mobley, James A.; Frolov, Ilya; Frolova, Elena I.

    2016-01-01

    The positive-strand RNA viruses initiate their amplification in the cell from a single genome delivered by virion. This single RNA molecule needs to become involved in replication process before it is recognized and degraded by cellular machinery. In this study, we show that distantly related New World and Old World alphaviruses have independently evolved to utilize different cellular stress granule-related proteins for assembly of complexes, which recruit viral genomic RNA and facilitate formation of viral replication complexes (vRCs). Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEEV) utilizes all members of the Fragile X syndrome (FXR) family, while chikungunya and Sindbis viruses exploit both members of the G3BP family. Despite being in different families, these proteins share common characteristics, which determine their role in alphavirus replication, namely, the abilities for RNA-binding and for self-assembly into large structures. Both FXR and G3BP proteins interact with virus-specific, repeating amino acid sequences located in the C-termini of hypervariable, intrinsically disordered domains (HVDs) of viral nonstructural protein nsP3. We demonstrate that these host factors orchestrate assembly of vRCs and play key roles in RNA and virus replication. Only knockout of all of the homologs results in either pronounced or complete inhibition of replication of different alphaviruses. The use of multiple homologous proteins with redundant functions mediates highly efficient recruitment of viral RNA into the replication process. This independently evolved acquisition of different families of cellular proteins by the disordered protein fragment to support alphavirus replication suggests that other RNA viruses may utilize a similar mechanism of host factor recruitment for vRC assembly. The use of different host factors by alphavirus species may be one of the important determinants of their pathogenesis. PMID:27509095

  19. Papain and its inhibitor E-64 reduce camelid semen viscosity without impairing sperm function and improve post-thaw motility rates

    OpenAIRE

    Kershaw, C.M.; Evans, G; Rodney, R.; Maxwell, W.M.C.

    2016-01-01

    In camelids, the development of assisted reproductive technologies is impaired by the viscous nature of the semen. The protease papain has shown promise in reducing viscosity, although its effect on sperm integrity is unknown. The present study determined the optimal papain concentration and exposure time to reduce seminal plasma viscosity and investigated the effect of papain and its inhibitor E-64 on sperm function and cryopreservation in alpacas. Papain (0.1 mg mL–1, 20 min, 37°C) eliminat...

  20. From theater to the world wide web--a new online era for surgical education.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Leary, D Peter

    2012-07-01

    Traditionally, surgical education has been confined to operating and lecture theaters. Access to the World Wide Web and services, such as YouTube and iTunes has expanded enormously. Each week throughout Ireland, nonconsultant hospital doctors work hard to create presentations for surgical teaching. Once presented, these valuable presentations are often never used again.

  1. Foreign Languages and Higher Education: New Structures for a Changed World

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modern Language Association, 2007

    2007-01-01

    The Modern Language Association (MLA) supports a broad, intellectually driven approach to teaching language and culture in higher education. To study the best ways of implementing this approach in today's world, the MLA Executive Council established an Ad Hoc Committee on Foreign Languages. The committee was charged with examining the current…

  2. The Digital Divide across All Citizens of the World: A New Concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Jeffrey

    2008-01-01

    This paper is concerned with the requirements for and implications of, moving from the confines of the conventional concept of the digital divide to one that reflects a world distribution of Internet users with different income levels, with particular reference to those users living in poverty. The first part of the note provides a simple,…

  3. The World Wide Web for Academic Purposes: Old Study Skills for New?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slaouti, Diane

    2002-01-01

    Argues for a need to explore critical information processing skills of the World Wide Web (WWW) as part of an English for academic purposes teaching and learning context. Recognizes the potential of the WWW to bring relevant and not so relevant authentic content to academic study in a way never before possible. (Author/VWL)

  4. A world from brave to new: Talcott Parsons and the war effort at Harvard University.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerhardt, U

    1999-01-01

    This article argues that for Parsons and some of his colleagues at Harvard, the Second World War and the post-war period provided a context in which their work contributed to the transformation from totalitarianism to democracy in Central Europe (especially Germany) and Japan. The various agendas of Parsons' work are shown, supplemented by that of three of his colleagues with whom he collaborated (Gordon W. Allport, Carl J. Friedrich, Clyde Kluckhohn). The immediate effect of this work, for Parsons, however, meant frustration rather than fame, and his eventual reputation, I maintain, came unexpectedly with the third of his three attempts in the immediate post-war period to sum up what he believed were crucial insights that the Second World War had yielded concerning the ways in which sociology could contribute to the analytical understanding of democracy. The significance of this work is that it was both political and scientific. Because of the world situation of the 1940s, when the Holocaust in Germany was the nadir of civilization, Parsons believed that social science could contribute to the cause of making the world safe for future democracy. In the 1940s, this future depended on brave citizens, or such might have been Parsons' worldview. Targets envisaged for the 1950s, then, were community and citizenship in the newly democratic societies such as (West) Germany, the land that defeated Nazism.

  5. The World Social Situation: Development Challenges at the Outset of a New Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estes, Richard J.

    2010-01-01

    World social development has arrived at a critical turning point. Economically advanced nations have made significant progress toward meeting the basic needs of their populations; however, the majority of developing countries have not. Problems of rapid population growth, failing economies, famine, environmental devastation, majority-minority…

  6. Mr. Yamamoto and Japanese Americans in New Jersey during World War II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaffer, Robert

    1998-01-01

    Relates the use of a period "Life" magazine article to teach students about the internment of Japanese-American citizens during World War II. Recounts how the article about local prejudice prompted students to critically examine the policy of internment. Provides excerpts from the article and subsequent letters to the editors. (DSK)

  7. New Era of Muslim Women in Malay World: The Contested Women's Advancement in Decision Making Bodies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erni Haryanti

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Malay world has been experiencing the conflicting and converging international influences of globalization and rapid Islamisation in many significant aspects of the countries. One of the issues is that the impact of the agenda of advancement of women‟s life to achieve gender equality promoted by international agencies. Among other women‟s improvement agenda is that woman in decision making bodies. On the other hand, the growing visible Islamic movement (and/or Islamic fundamentalism - Islamism which may significantly grow among Malay societies would unavoidably create different ideas, attitudes and practices compared to other Muslim world. This paper explores myriad aspects of women‟s empowerment transforming into decision making bodies in the nuances of an affirmative action a recommendation of series of international conference on women. Through finding similarities and differences between the two Muslim majority countries, the support toward Muslim women‟s empowerment in decision making bodies is formally acknowledged in state regulations. Although women of Southeast Asian region are culturally recognized to have a high status and well engagement with public sphere, in the implementation of women representing themselves in political sphere has a little difference. In term of discourses Indonesia has much flourished ideas and closer to the ideas of international agenda than that of Malaysia. In the overall Malay world would gradually show its openness, tolerance and positive adaptation as a part of world society, although it cannot avoidably be departed from international agenda of both carrying Islamic and non-Islamic values.

  8. From the Axial Age to the New Age: Religion as a Dynamic of World History.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, Carlton H.

    In order to broaden student understanding of past and contemporary situations, the world history survey course needs to consider religion as a vehicle through which history moves. The course proposal includes prehistory and paleolithic times to contemporary Islamic culture. The course is thematic and comparative in orientation, but moves through…

  9. World Libraries on the Information Superhighway: Preparing for the Challenges of the New Millennium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fletcher, Patricia Diamond, Ed.; Bertot, John Carlo, Ed.

    This book represents the thoughts and experiences of librarians and academics on the changing role of libraries in a global networked community. The first section of the book looks at the agendas for national libraries in a digital world. Issues covered include content and delivery, national policy and practice and strategies for success in a…

  10. The Development of Rocketry Capability in New Zealand—World Record Rocket and First of Its Kind Rocketry Course

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Buchanan

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The University of Canterbury has developed a rocket research group, UC Rocketry, which recently broke the world altitude record for an I-class motor (impulse of 320–640 Ns and has run a rocketry course for the first time in New Zealand. This paper discusses the development and results of the world record rocket “Milly” and details all the fundamental elements of the rocketry final year engineering course, including the manufacturing processes, wind tunnel testing, avionics, control and the final rocket launch of “Smokey”. The rockets Milly and Smokey are an example of the design, implementation and testing methodologies that have significantly contributed to research and graduates for New Zealand’s space program.

  11. The Evolving Ecological Universe: a Study in the Science and Human Implications of a New World Hypothesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goerner, Sally Jo.

    1992-01-01

    This study describes a broad cultural shift and a parallel scientific shift. Scientifically and culturally, Western civilization is moving toward a vision of a living, evolving, ecological universe and away from the Newtonian clockwork-machine universe. In Stephen Pepper's (1946) terms, the shift represents a change in dominant world hypothesis--that is, the dominant metaphor of how the world works. The bulk of the dissertation is a detailed exploration of the scientific shift because science's understanding of how the world works profoundly shapes beliefs in general. The exploration shows how a number of minirevolutions in physics and biology are related and how each supports an evolving ecological vision. The work in these different fields combines to produce a particularly important change in understanding--a vision of evolution as a single overall physical process from molecules to humankind. Ecological science (physics to biology) and the new view of evolution become possible because of a major conceptual shift in physics, the nonlinear revolution. The nonlinear revolution includes three major elements: chaos (modern nonlinear dynamics); self-organization theory (far -from-equilibrium thermodynamics); and the thermodynamics of evolution. Together these elements produce a physical understanding of an evolving, order-producing, universe --that is, a universe that evolves toward higher and higher levels of ordered complexity through interactive ecological dynamics. This very different physical picture of how the world works has important implications for human beliefs in general. A final section of the study explores the ecological shift's implications for humankind. It looks at ecological changes occurring outside the physical sciences (for example, in economics) and at how the radically changed physical sense of how the world works might affect other beliefs. For instance, the new physical view shows a remarkable ability to support and connect many

  12. New Worlds Collide: Science Fiction's Novela de la Selva in Gioconda Belli and Santiago Páez

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vaughn Anderson

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The science fiction form adopted by Santiago Páez, in "Uriel" (2006, and Giaconda Belli, in Waslala (1996, owes the rudiments of its literary structure to early colonial narratives of New World encounter. Such science fiction not only contains strong traces of what Mary Louise Pratt has famously called the “rhetoric of discovery,” but also employs tropes directly or indirectly inherited from colonial travel narratives. However, Páez and Belli associate this science fiction form with a legacy of United States neo-imperialism, in which colonial narratives have been invoked and repeated triumphantly in the construction of national imaginaries. In Central and South America, conversely, the novela de la selva—the other clear structural source for Páez and Belli, and a literary form equally indebted to colonial narratives of New World encounter—remains conscious of its enunciation as a postcolonial form critical of its colonial narrative sources. While the novela de la selva, then, shares a literary taproot with sci-fi narratives of futuristic exploration, Páez and Belli utilize the latter to renovate and reactivate the former’s critique of an imperialist legacy by exploiting tensions that arise between these two disparate literary forms whose central tropes so often coincide. I argue that by adapting the ecologically aware New World imaginary peculiar to the novela de la selva, in which positivist ambitions of national expansion are checked by a forest that nevertheless becomes part of a national imaginary, Páez and Belli fundamentally alter the New World imaginary that underwrites high science fiction narratives of exploration and expansion.

  13. Phylogeny and palaeoecology of Polyommatus blue butterflies show Beringia was a climate-regulated gateway to the New World.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vila, Roger; Bell, Charles D; Macniven, Richard; Goldman-Huertas, Benjamin; Ree, Richard H; Marshall, Charles R; Bálint, Zsolt; Johnson, Kurt; Benyamini, Dubi; Pierce, Naomi E

    2011-09-22

    Transcontinental dispersals by organisms usually represent improbable events that constitute a major challenge for biogeographers. By integrating molecular phylogeny, historical biogeography and palaeoecology, we test a bold hypothesis proposed by Vladimir Nabokov regarding the origin of Neotropical Polyommatus blue butterflies, and show that Beringia has served as a biological corridor for the dispersal of these insects from Asia into the New World. We present a novel method to estimate ancestral temperature tolerances using distribution range limits of extant organisms, and find that climatic conditions in Beringia acted as a decisive filter in determining which taxa crossed into the New World during five separate invasions over the past 11 Myr. Our results reveal a marked effect of the Miocene-Pleistocene global cooling, and demonstrate that palaeoclimatic conditions left a strong signal on the ecology of present-day taxa in the New World. The phylogenetic conservatism in thermal tolerances that we have identified may permit the reconstruction of the palaeoecology of ancestral organisms, especially mobile taxa that can easily escape from hostile environments rather than adapt to them.

  14. An anti-hapten camelid antibody reveals a cryptic binding site with significant energetic contributions from a nonhypervariable loop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fanning, Sean W.; Horn, James R. (NIU)

    2014-03-05

    Conventional anti-hapten antibodies typically bind low-molecular weight compounds (haptens) in the crevice between the variable heavy and light chains. Conversely, heavy chain-only camelid antibodies, which lack a light chain, must rely entirely on a single variable domain to recognize haptens. While several anti-hapten VHHs have been generated, little is known regarding the underlying structural and thermodynamic basis for hapten recognition. Here, an anti-methotrexate VHH (anti-MTX VHH) was generated using grafting methods whereby the three complementarity determining regions (CDRs) were inserted onto an existing VHH framework. Thermodynamic analysis of the anti-MTX VHH CDR1-3 Graft revealed a micromolar binding affinity, while the crystal structure of the complex revealed a somewhat surprising noncanonical binding site which involved MTX tunneling under the CDR1 loop. Due to the close proximity of MTX to CDR4, a nonhypervariable loop, the CDR4 loop sequence was subsequently introduced into the CDR1-3 graft, which resulted in a dramatic 1000-fold increase in the binding affinity. Crystal structure analysis of both the free and complex anti-MTX CDR1-4 graft revealed CDR4 plays a significant role in both intermolecular contacts and binding site conformation that appear to contribute toward high affinity binding. Additionally, the anti-MTX VHH possessed relatively high specificity for MTX over closely related compounds aminopterin and folate, demonstrating that VHH domains are capable of binding low-molecular weight ligands with high affinity and specificity, despite their reduced interface.

  15. One-step immunoassay for tetrabromobisphenol a using a camelid single domain antibody-alkaline phosphatase fusion protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jia; Majkova, Zuzana; Bever, Candace R S; Yang, Jun; Gee, Shirley J; Li, Ji; Xu, Ting; Hammock, Bruce D

    2015-01-01

    Tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA) is a ubiquitous brominated flame retardant, showing widespread environmental and human exposures. A variable domain of the heavy chain antibody (VHH), naturally occurring in camelids, approaches the lower size limit of functional antigen-binding entities. The ease of genetic manipulation makes such VHHs a superior choice to use as an immunoreagent. In this study, a highly selective anti-TBBPA VHH T3-15 fused with alkaline phosphatase (AP) from E. coli was expressed, showing both an integrated TBBPA-binding capacity and enzymatic activity. A one-step immunoassay based on the fusion protein T3-15-AP was developed for TBBPA in 5% dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO)/phosphate buffered saline (PBS, pH 7.4), with a half-maximum signal inhibition concentration (IC50) of 0.20 ng mL(-1). Compared to the parental VHH T3-15, T3-15-AP was able to bind to a wider variety of coating antigens and the assay sensitivity was slightly improved. Cross-reactivity of T3-15-AP with a set of important brominated analogues was negligible (<0.1%). Although T3-15-AP was susceptible to extreme heat (90 °C), much higher binding stability at ambient temperature was observed in the T3-15-AP-based assay for at least 70 days. A simple pretreatment method of diluting urine samples with DMSO was developed for a one-step assay. The recoveries of TBBPA from urine samples via this one-step assay ranged from 96.7% to 109.9% and correlated well with a high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectroscopy (HPLC-MS/MS) method. It is expected that the dimerized fusion protein, VHH-AP, will show promising applications in human exposure and environmental monitoring.

  16. Localization of orexin B and receptor 2 for orexins in testicular cytotypes of the camelid alpaca (Vicugna pacos).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liguori, G; Squillacioti, C; Assisi, L; Mirabella, N; Langella, E; Costagliola, A; Vittoria, A

    2017-02-08

    The orexins A (OxA) and B (OxB) are two hypothalamic peptides involved in many physiological functions of the mammalian body. They act through the binding of two G-coupled receptors named receptor 1 (OX1 ) and receptor 2 (OX2 ) for orexins. The first receptor is specific for OxA, while the second binds both the substances with equal affinity. The orexins and the relative receptors have been traced by means of different techniques also at the periphery of the body and particularly in the adrenals, and in gastrointestinal and genital organs. Aim of this work was to investigate the presence of OxB and OX2 by means of immunohistochemistry and Western blotting analysis in the testis of the South American camelid alpaca, a species primarily breed in Chile and Ecuador and recently diffused in Europe where the quality of its wool is particularly appreciated. OxB immunoreactivity (IR) was found in the tubular compartment of the testis where spermatogonia (resting), zygotene and pachytene spermatocytes, and spermatids clearly showed differently sized and shaped cytoplasmic positive structures. OX2 -IR was found both in the interstitial and tubular compartments of the testis and particularly in Leydig cells and round and elongated spermatids. Western blotting analysis of testis lysates showed the presence of a protein band whose molecular weight corresponded to that currently assigned to OX2 . Such findings easily translate the hypothesis that OxB and its receptor 2 play a functional role both in the interstitial and tubular compartments of the alpaca testis.

  17. Connecting the New World. Nets, mobility and progress in the Age of Alexander von Humboldt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moritz von Brescius

    2012-12-01

    Beschleunigung“ analytisch verbunden werden, da diese Faktoren eine zentrale Rolle für die „Verwandlung der Welt“ im 19. Jahrhundert spielten. Abstract This article explores the link between the profound technological transformations of the nineteenth century and the life and work of the Prussian scholar Alexander von Humboldt (1769-1859. It analyses how Humboldt sought to appropriate the revolutionary new communication and transportation technologies of the time in order to integrate the American continent into global networks of commercial, intellectual and material exchange. Recent scholarship on Humboldt’s expedition to the New World (1799-1804 has claimed that his descriptions of tropical landscapes opened up South America to a range of „transformative interventions“ (Pratt by European capitalists and investors. These studies, however, have not analysed the motivations underlying Humboldt’s support for such intrusions into nature. Furthermore, they have not explored the role that such projects played in shaping Humboldt’s understanding of the forces behind the progress of societies. To comprehend Humboldt’s approval for human interventions in America’s natural world, this study first explores the role that eighteenth-century theories of progress and the notion of geographical determinism played in shaping his conception of civilisational development. It will look at concrete examples of transformative interventions in the American hemisphere that were actively proposed by Humboldt and intended to overcome natural obstacles to human interaction. These were the use of steamships, electric telegraphy, railroads and large-scale canals that together enabled global trade and communication to occur at an unprecedented pace. All these contemporary innovations will be linked to the four motifs of nets, mobility, progress and acceleration, which were driving forces behind the „transformation of the world“ that took place in the course of the nineteenth century. Resumen

  18. Revision of the New World cycad weevils of the subtribe Allocorynina, with description of two new genera and three new subgenera (Coleoptera: Belidae: Oxycoryninae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'brien, Charles W; Tang, William

    2015-06-09

    The taxonomy of the weevils inhabiting male cycad cones in the New World is reviewed. All species belong in a single subtribe, Allocorynina, of the family Belidae, subfamily Oxycoryninae and tribe Oxycorynini and are known to develop only in cones of the cycad genera Dioon and Zamia. Most species of Rhopalotria Chevrolat develop in male cones of Zamia ranging from Mexico, Belize, the Caribbean (Cuba, Isle of Youth, Cayman Islands, Jamaica and the Bahamas) to southern Florida, and one species in those of Dioon spinulosum in Mexico. Rhopalotria consists of three previously described species, two previously described genus-group names (treated herein as subgenera) and four new species described herein: subgenus Allocorynus Sharp with R. calonjei n. sp., R. furfuracea n. sp., R. mollis (Sharp) and R. vovidesi n. sp., and the nominate subgenus Rhopalotria with R. dimidiata Chevrolat, R. meerowi n. sp. and R. slossoni (Schaeffer). The species of Parallocorynus Voss develop only in cones of Dioon in Mexico, and the genus consists of one previously described species, the nominate subgenus and three new subgenera and 11 new species described herein: subgenus Dysicorynus n. subg. with P. andrewsi n. sp. and P. sonorensis n. sp., subgenus Eocorynus n. subg. with P. chemnicki n. sp. and P. schiblii n. sp., subgenus Neocorynus n. subg. with P. iglesiasi n. sp. and P. inexpectatus n. sp., and the nominate subgenus Parallocorynus with P. bicolor (Voss), P. gregoryi n. sp., P. jonesi n. sp., P. norstogi n. sp., P. perezfarrerai n. sp. and P. salasae n. sp. Two new genera are described, Protocorynus with one new species in Honduras, P. bontai, and Notorhopalotria with four new species ranging from Costa Rica to Colombia, N. montgomeryensis, N. panamensis, N. platysoma and N. taylori. Keys to genera, subgenera and species are provided. All of these weevils are believed to be involved in pollination of their host cycads.

  19. Mini-ribozymes and freezing environment: a new scenario for the early RNA world

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Vlassov

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available The RNA World hypothesis states that the present-day life, which is based on DNA genomes and protein enzymes, was preceded by a simpler life form based primarily on RNA. During this era, the genetic information resided in the sequence of RNA molecules and the phenotype derived from the catalytic properties of RNA. Though it is a widely accepted scenario, a number of problems remain unsolved. One of the biggest questions is how complex RNAs could evolve, survive and replicate under typically assumed ''warm and wet'' conditions, taking into account that the RNA phosphodiester backbone is chemically unstable under these conditions. We suggest that prebiotic conditions associated with freezing could have been of key importance in the early RNA World, and discuss the role of primitive catalytic RNA in the evolution of RNA size and complexity.

  20. Animals in a bacterial world, a new imperative for the life sciences

    OpenAIRE

    McFall-Ngai, M.; Hadfield, M. G.; Bosch, T. C. G.; Carey, H. V.; Domazet-Loso, T.; Douglas, A.E; Dubilier, N; Eberl, G; Fukami, T.; Gilbert, S. F.; Hentschel, U.; King, N.; Kjelleberg, S.; Knoll, Andrew Herbert; Kremer, N.

    2013-01-01

    In the last two decades, the widespread application of genetic and genomic approaches has revealed a bacterial world astonishing in its ubiquity and diversity. This review examines how a growing knowledge of the vast range of animal–bacterial interactions, whether in shared ecosystems or intimate symbioses, is fundamentally altering our understanding of animal biology. Specifically, we highlight recent technological and intellectual advances that have changed our thinking about five questions...

  1. Africa and the New World Order-The Role of China in Africa's Regeneration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gina Caballero

    2008-01-01

    Sino-African relations, economic relation in particular, are developing steadily when the continent is trying to rejuvenate. During this process, China is not trying to overthrow the western order. It is more about how to reconcile China's scientific pragmatic foreign policy with western humanitarian interventionism. An inclusive world system will be better managed by striking a balance between Chinese pragmatism and U.S. idealism.

  2. A word from the DG: A new opening to the world

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    Having just returned from a visit to India and China I'm conscious of something that has changed greatly in the way CERN works over recent years, and is continuing rapidly to evolve. Today, CERN provides for collaboration not only among European states, but among states the world over. Joining CERN's 20 European member states are six observers and a further 35 countries that have signed cooperation agreements with us. Furthermore we have a number of memoranda of understanding with scientific agencies around the world. And among our user community, you will find representatives of 111 nationalities. There is no other organization in the world quite like it, where people of so many different cultures and backgrounds work harmoniously towards common goals. The LHC project has allowed CERN to take international collaboration in science beyond the regional model that it pioneered in the 1950s, blazing the trail for future global projects in science. Although over 90% funded by our Member States, the LHC is the f...

  3. Amphibious Shelter-Builder Oniscidea Species from the New World with Description of a New Subfamily, a New Genus and a New Species from Brazilian Cave (Isopoda, Synocheta, Styloniscidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    The new subfamily Iuiuniscinae, Styloniscidae, is erected for the new genus Iuiuniscus and the new species I. iuiuensis, which is described from cave of the State of Bahia, Northeastern Brazil. A special ecological character is shown here for the first time for a New World Oniscidea: the construction of mud shelters. An introduction addressing the systematics of Synocheta with emphasis on Styloniscidae Vandel, 1952 is provided, as well as general comments about the dependence of water in some Oniscidea and ecological traits of amphibious Synocheta. The problems referring to nomenclature, taxonomy and the interrelationships in Styloniscidae are discussed. PMID:25992909

  4. Molecular and morphological data support recognition of a new genus of New World direct-developing frog (Anura: Terrarana) from an under-sampled region of South America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinicke, Matthew P; Barrio-Amorós, César L; Hedges, S Blair

    2015-07-16

    We describe a new genus of New World direct-developing frog (Terrarana) from the northern Andes of Venezuela and adjacent Colombia. Tachiramantis gen. nov. includes three species formerly placed in the large genus Pristimantis. Molecular phylogenetic analysis of data from five nuclear and mitochondrial genes shows that Tachiramantis is not part of Pristimantis or any other named genus in its family (Craugastoridae or Strabomantidae). Morphological evidence further supports the distinctiveness of Tachiramantis, which has several aspects of skull morphology that are rare or absent in Pristimantis and synapomorphic for Tachiramantis, including frontoparietal-prootic fusion and degree of vomer development. The terminal phalanges, which narrow greatly before expanding at the tips, may represent an additional morphological synapomorphy. One species, T. prolixodiscus, also displays a fenestra between the posterior portions of the frontoparietals, a character state otherwise present in only 1 of 98 other sampled terraranan species. We use mapped ranges of most New World direct-developing frogs to show that Tachiramantis occurs in a geographic region that had been under-sampled in previous molecular studies of New World direct-developing frogs. Other under-sampled regions are identified in western Peru, Colombia, and northern Central America; these regions should provide fruitful target taxa for future phylogenetic studies.

  5. New Teaching Environments Near Real-World-Like Laboratories for Power Engineering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holbøll, Joachim; Østergaard, Jacob

    2014-01-01

    The Technical University of Denmark offers educations within power engineering at all levels: bachelor, master and PhD. Relevant bachelor programs use the CDIO educational framework, which allows the students to learn engineering fundaments in a context of conceiving, designing, implementing......, and operating real-world systems. The tool to be presented here is mainly establishment of teaching facilities at the Technical University of Denmark adjacent to the research facilities and where nearness to the ‘real world’ is essential and implemented by clearly visible research activities and by close...

  6. Development of Serologic Assays for the Diagnosis of New World Leishmaniasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-02-20

    4 ,- ..--- 1086 ANTHONY Er AL TABLE I thiocyanate (Litton-Bionetics, Charleston, South -’, . Parasite isolates Carolina ) and...J. Immunol., 131: 1616-1618. gens of Leishmania species identified by mon- 2 1. de Ibarra , A. A. L., Howard, J. G., and Snary, D., oclonal antibodies...World Trypanosomati ds -~Isolate Absorban~ce 1,405 nm) L. b. pamensi s. 0.345 -V OAAR --! 470) * L. in. inexic- ana 0-.413 (WRAiIR - 222B)I L. mn

  7. Animals in a bacterial world, a new imperative for the life sciences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McFall-Ngai, Margaret; Hadfield, Michael G; Bosch, Thomas C G; Carey, Hannah V; Domazet-Lošo, Tomislav; Douglas, Angela E; Dubilier, Nicole; Eberl, Gerard; Fukami, Tadashi; Gilbert, Scott F; Hentschel, Ute; King, Nicole; Kjelleberg, Staffan; Knoll, Andrew H; Kremer, Natacha; Mazmanian, Sarkis K; Metcalf, Jessica L; Nealson, Kenneth; Pierce, Naomi E; Rawls, John F; Reid, Ann; Ruby, Edward G; Rumpho, Mary; Sanders, Jon G; Tautz, Diethard; Wernegreen, Jennifer J

    2013-02-26

    In the last two decades, the widespread application of genetic and genomic approaches has revealed a bacterial world astonishing in its ubiquity and diversity. This review examines how a growing knowledge of the vast range of animal-bacterial interactions, whether in shared ecosystems or intimate symbioses, is fundamentally altering our understanding of animal biology. Specifically, we highlight recent technological and intellectual advances that have changed our thinking about five questions: how have bacteria facilitated the origin and evolution of animals; how do animals and bacteria affect each other's genomes; how does normal animal development depend on bacterial partners; how is homeostasis maintained between animals and their symbionts; and how can ecological approaches deepen our understanding of the multiple levels of animal-bacterial interaction. As answers to these fundamental questions emerge, all biologists will be challenged to broaden their appreciation of these interactions and to include investigations of the relationships between and among bacteria and their animal partners as we seek a better understanding of the natural world.

  8. A PERSONAL, DEBATABLE AND TIMELY VIEW ON WORLD ORDER: HENRY KISSINGER – HENRY KISSINGER – WORLD ORDER, PENGUIN PRESS, NEW YORK, 2014 - Book review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FLORIN BONCIU

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The concept of World Order had been much more present in the scientific debates and mass-media before 1990 when the world economy were more or less bipolar and the ideas of a dynamic balance of power and of spheres of influence were logically justified. After 1990 at the end of the Cold War a rather false perception became prevalent, particularly in the Western countries, projecting a unipolar world gradually witnessing a universalization of the Western style liberal democracy. This was epitomized in Francis Fukuyama’s book “The End of History and the Last Man”.

  9. A taxonomic revision of the new world species of Sirthenea (Heteroptera: Reduviidae: Peiratinae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Willemse, L.

    1985-01-01

    The American species of Sirthenea are revised and keys to the 12 species and seven subspecies are given. Four new species and two new subspecies are described viz., S. ater (Brazil: Minas Geraes), S. dubia (Panama; Paraguay: Caaguazu. Argentina: Misiones; Entre Rios), S. ferdinandi (Argentina: Salta

  10. Biology and systematics of the New World Phyllocnistis Zeller leafminers of the avocado genus Persea (Lepidoptera, Gracillariidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Donald R; Wagner, David L

    2011-05-11

    Four New World species of Phyllocnistis Zeller are described from serpentine mines in Persea (Family Lauraceae). Phyllocnistis hyperpersea,new species, mines the upper leaf surfaces of avocado, Persea americana Mill., and red bay, Persea borbonia (L.) Spreng. and ranges over much of the southeastern United States into Central America. Phyllocnistis subpersea,new species, mines the underside and occasionally upper sides of new leaves of Persea borbonia in southeastern United States. Phyllocnistis longipalpa, new species, known only from southern Florida also mines the undersides of new leaves of Persea borbonia. Phyllocnistis perseafolia,new species, mines both leaf surfaces and possibly fruits of Persea americana in Colombia, South America. As in all known species of Phyllocnistis, the early instars are subepidermal sapfeeders in young (not fully hardened) foliage, and the final instar is an extremely specialized, nonfeeding larval form, whose primary function is to spin the silken cocoon, at the mine terminus, prior to pupation. Early stages are illustrated and described for three of the species. The unusual morphology of the pupae, particularly the frontal process of the head, is shown to be one of the most useful morphological sources of diagnostic characters for species identification of Phyllocnistis. COI barcode sequence distances are provided for the four proposed species and a fifth, undescribed species from Costa Rica.

  11. Biology and systematics of the New World Phyllocnistis Zeller leafminers of the avocado genus Persea (Lepidoptera, Gracillariidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donald Davis

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Four New World species of Phyllocnistis Zeller are described from serpentine mines in Persea (Family Lauraceae. Phyllocnistis hyperpersea, new species, mines the upper leaf surfaces of avocado, Persea americana Mill., and red bay, Persea borbonia (L. Spreng. and ranges over much of the southeastern United States into Central America. Phyllocnistis subpersea, new species, mines the underside and occasionally upper sides of new leaves of Persea borbonia in southeastern United States. Phyllocnistis longipalpa, new species, known only from southern Florida also mines the undersides of new leaves of Persea borbonia. Phyllocnistis perseafolia, new species, mines both leaf surfaces and possibly fruits of Persea americana in Colombia, South America. As in all known species of Phyllocnistis, the early instars are subepidermal sapfeeders in young (not fully hardened foliage, and the final instar is an extremely specialized, nonfeeding larval form, whose primary function is to spin the silken cocoon, at the mine terminus, prior to pupation. Early stages are illustrated and described for three of the species. The unusual morphology of the pupae, particularly the frontal process of the head, is shown to be one of the most useful morphological sources of diagnostic characters for species identification of Phyllocnistis. COI barcode sequence distances are provided for the four proposed species and a fifth, undescribed species from Costa Rica.

  12. [Wetlands dominated by palms (Arecaceae), emphasis in those in the New World].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, Ronald L

    2013-09-01

    It is well known that most forests in humid tropical lowlands are species rich, and the popular view is that most species are represented by only a few individuals. Despite this common understanding of high richness and low species dominance, within humid tropical regions there are extensive forested ecosystems composed by only few species. These nearly monospecific forests usually occupy poorly drained soils and, except for the mangroves, are quite understudied. In this paper, I review the literature and my own field notes on more than three years studying the structure of palm swamps in Caribbean Costa Rica and Florida to describe some of the major vegetation associations in wetlands dominated by palm species in the Neotropical Region, although I also include some information about similar systems in the Old World Tropics. I mention the most abundant species that compose those palm dominated swamps and -whenever possible- describe forest structure, known distribution, and uses.

  13. Evolution, Systematics, and Phylogeography of Pleistocene Horses in the New World: A Molecular Perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weinstock, Jaco; Willerslev, Eske; Sher, A.

    2005-01-01

    The rich fossil record of horses has made them a classic example of evolutionary processes. However, while the overall picture of equid evolution is well known, the details are surprisingly poorly understood, especially for the later Pliocene and Pleistocene, c. 3 million to 0.01 million years (Ma......-legged" horses of North America. Using ancient DNA sequences, we show that, in contrast to current models based on morphology and a recent genetic study, Hippidion was phylogenetically close to the caballine (true) horses, with origins considerably more recent than the currently accepted date of c. 10 Ma....... Furthermore, we show that stilt-legged horses, commonly regarded as Old World migrants related to the hemionid asses of Asia, were in fact an endemic North American lineage. Finally, our data suggest that there were fewer horse species in late Pleistocene North America than have been named on morphological...

  14. Persistence of the mitochondrial lineage responsible for the Irish potato famine in extant New World Phytophthora infestans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martin, Michael David; Ho, Simon Y W; Wales, Nathan

    2014-01-01

    The plant pathogen Phytophthora infestans emerged in Europe in 1845, triggering the Irish potato famine and massive European potato crop losses that continued until effective fungicides were widely employed in the 20(th) century. Today the pathogen is ubiquitous, with more aggressive and virulent......)-century Europe, three from 1950s U.K. and 34 from modern populations across the New World. We use phylogenetic analyses to identify the HERB-1 lineage in modern populations from both Mexico and South America, and to demonstrate distinct mitochondrial haplotypes were present in 19(th)-century Europe...

  15. Online learning: the brave new world of massive open online courses and the role of the health librarian.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spring, Hannah

    2016-03-01

    In a wired, virtual and information rich society, MOOCs (Massive Open Online Courses) are leading us into a brave new world in which their key role is to support lifelong networked learning. This feature looks at the broad role of MOOCs and considers them within the context of health, and health librarianship. In particular, it provides examples of where health librarians have developed MOOCs and what opportunities there are in the future for health librarians to collaborate in the development and delivery of health MOOCs. H.S.

  16. Molecular phylogeny of grunts (Teleostei, Haemulidae, with an emphasis on the ecology, evolution, and speciation history of New World species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tavera José

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The fish family Haemulidae is divided in two subfamilies, Haemulinae and Plectorhynchinae (sweetlips, including approximately 17 genera and 145 species. The family has a broad geographic distribution that encompasses contrasting ecological habitats resulting in a unique potential for evolutionary hypotheses testing. In the present work we have examined the phylogenetic relationships of the family using selected representatives of additional Percomorpha based on Bayesian and Maximum likelihood methods by means of three mitochondrial genes. We also developed a phylogenetic hypothesis of the New World species based on five molecular markers (three mitochondrial and two nuclear as a framework to evaluate the evolutionary history, the ecological diversification and speciation patterns of this group. Results Mitochondrial genes and different reconstruction methods consistently recovered a monophyletic Haemulidae with the Sillaginidae as its sister clade (although with low support values. Previous studies proposed different relationships that were not recovered in this analysis. We also present a robust molecular phylogeny of Haemulinae based on the combined data of two nuclear and three mitochondrial genes. All topologies support the monophyly of both sub-families (Haemulinae, Plectorhinchinae. The genus Pomadasys was shown to be polyphyletic and Haemulon, Anisotremus, and Plectorhinchus were found to be paraphyletic. Four of seven presumed geminate pairs were indeed found to be sister species, however our data did not support a contemporaneous divergence. Analyses also revealed that differential use of habitat might have played an important role in the speciation dynamics of this group of fishes, in particular among New World species where extensive sample coverage was available. Conclusions This study provides a new hypothesis for the sister clade of Hamulidae and a robust phylogeny of the latter. The presence of para- and

  17. Creativity and Quantum Physics: a New World View Unifying Current Theories of Creativity and Pointing Toward New Research Methodologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, Kimberly Ann

    1990-01-01

    Divisions in definitions of creativity have centered primarily on the working definition of discontinuity and the inclusion of intrinsic features such as unconscious processing and intrinsic motivation and reinforcement. These differences generally result from Cohen's two world views underlying theories of creativity: Organismic, oriented toward holism; or mechanistic, oriented toward cause-effect reductionism. The quantum world view is proposed which theoretically and empirically unifies organismic and mechanistic elements of creativity. Based on Goswami's Idealistic Interpretation of quantum physics, the quantum view postulates the mind -brain as consisting of both classical and quantum structures and functions. The quantum domain accesses the transcendent order through coherent superpositions (a state of potentialities), while the classical domain performs the function of measuring apparatus through amplifying and recording the result of the collapse of the pure mental state. A theoretical experiment, based on the 1980 Marcel study of conscious and unconscious word-sense disambiguation, is conducted which compares the predictions of the quantum model with those of the 1975 Posner and Snyder Facilitation and Inhibition model. Each model agrees that while conscious access to information is limited, unconscious access is unlimited. However, each model differently defines the connection between these states: The Posner model postulates a central processing mechanism while the quantum model postulates a self-referential consciousness. Consequently, the two models predict differently. The strength of the quantum model lies in its ability to distinguish between classical and quantum definitions of discontinuity, as well as clarifying the function of consciousness, without added assumptions or ad-hoc analysis: Consciousness is an essential, valid feature of quantum mechanisms independent of the field of cognitive psychology. According to the quantum model, through a

  18. Our World Their World

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brisco, Nicole

    2011-01-01

    Build, create, make, blog, develop, organize, structure, perform. These are just a few verbs that illustrate the visual world. These words create images that allow students to respond to their environment. Visual culture studies recognize the predominance of visual forms of media, communication, and information in the postmodern world. This…

  19. UV radiation in the melanoma capital of the world: What makes New Zealand so different?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKenzie, Richard

    2017-02-01

    To better understand New Zealand's high rates of skin cancer, the UV climate of New Zealand is discussed in relation to other locations, and the factors contributing to geographical differences in UV are explored. Historical and projected future changes in UV are discussed in the context of what would have happened without implementation of the Montreal Protocol to protect the ozone layer. The effects of interactions due to future climate change are also discussed. Finally, the effects of our unique UV climate on human health are discussed briefly; along with changing public advice.

  20. Highlights : LHC sets new world record CERN Control Centre, 30 November 2009

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Video Productions; Marion Viguier

    2009-01-01

    Geneva, 30 November 2009. CERN1’s Large Hadron Collider has today become the world’s highest energy particle accelerator, having accelerated its twin beams of protons to an energy of 1.18 TeV in the early hours of the morning. This exceeds the previous world record of 0.98 TeV, which had been held by the US Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory’s Tevatron collider since 2001. It marks another important milestone on the road to first physics at the LHC in 2010. “We are still coming to terms with just how smoothly the LHC commissioning is going,” said CERN Director General Rolf Heuer. “It is fantastic. However, we are continuing to take it step by step, and there is still a lot to do before we start physics in 2010. I’m keeping my champagne on ice until then.” These developments come just 10 days after the LHC restart, demonstrating the excellent performance of the machine. First beams were injected into the LHC on Friday 20 November. Over the following days, the machine’s operators circulated...

  1. Alison Gill – "To See a World", an exhibition of new sculpture and works on paper

    CERN Multimedia

    2013-01-01

    Wednesday, 11 December 2013 from 4 p.m. to 5 p.m. in the Library, bldg. 52 1-052 "Sculpture stories and invisible things" How might the presence of an artist influence the CMS experiment? And how does the LHC change the artist and the work they make? Over the last two decades, I have worked with a wide range of media to create both sculpture and drawing. The interdisciplinary approach that I have taken has often involved engagement and dialogues with scientists. Through my art, I explore the stories we tell to make sense of things that seem beyond our conscious grasp, taking familiar objects and materials and re-purposing, casting or altering the meaning. Underlying themes have included folklore, beliefs and methods used in the pursuit of transcendence. Knots, Klein bottles and Möbius strips have also been used for their topological, emotive and metaphysical associations. I try to scrutinise the world around me to find hidden meanings and use humour to provoke thought, elicit c...

  2. New observational limits on dark radiation in brane-world cosmology

    CERN Document Server

    Sasankan, Nishanth; Mathews, Grant J; Kusakabe, Motohiko

    2016-01-01

    A dark radiation term arises as a correction to the energy momentum tensor in the simplest five-dimensional RS-II brane-world cosmology. In this paper we revisit the constraints on dark radiation based upon the newest results for light-element nuclear reaction rates, observed light-element abundances and the power spectrum of the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB). Adding the effect of dark radiation during big bang nucleosynthesis alters the Friedmann expansion rate causing the nuclear reactions to freeze out at a different temperature. This changes the final light element abundances at the end of BBN. Its influence on the CMB is to change the effective expansion rate at the surface of last scattering. We find that the BBN constraint reduces the the allowed range for dark radiation to between -12.1% and +6.2% of the photon background. Combining this result with fits to the CMB power spectrum constraint, the range decreases to -6.0% to +6.2%. Thus, we find, that the ratio of dark radiation to the background to...

  3. Medicalization, wish-fulfilling medicine, and disease mongering: toward a brave new world?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blasco-Fontecilla, H

    2014-03-01

    Western societies are characterized by a growing medicalization of life events, such as pregnancy, aging, or even death. Three concepts -medicalization, wish-fulfilling medicine, and disease mongering- are key in understanding the current practise of Medicine. Quite surprisingly, not a single study has addressed the relationship between all three of these concepts. The term medicalization expanded under the open-ended concept of health developed by the World Health Organization in 1946. One of the consequences of medicalization is the transition from patients to clients. Physicians are under increasing pressure to meet the insatiable demands of their clients. The term wish-fulfilling medicine refers to the increasing tendency of medicine to be used to fulfill personal wishes (i.e. enhanced work performance). The insatiable demand for healthcare is troublesome, particularly in Europe, where the welfare states are more and more under pressure. Finally, the term disease mongering refers to attempts by pharmaceutical companies to artificially enlarge their “markets” by convincing people that they suffer from some sickness and thus need medical treatment. Typical examples of disease mongering are social anxiety disorder, low bone mineral density, and premature ejaculation. Currently, some Public Health Services could be on the brink of collapse as they “navigate” between the scarce resources available and the users’ insatiable health demands. Therefore, it appears necessary to generate clear-cut Public Health Services Port-folios.

  4. Distinct Neural Activities in Premotor Cortex during Natural Vocal Behaviors in a New World Primate, the Common Marmoset (Callithrix jacchus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Sabyasachi; Zhao, Lingyun; Wang, Xiaoqin

    2016-11-30

    Although evidence from human studies has long indicated the crucial role of the frontal cortex in speech production, it has remained uncertain whether the frontal cortex in nonhuman primates plays a similar role in vocal communication. Previous studies of prefrontal and premotor cortices of macaque monkeys have found neural signals associated with cue- and reward-conditioned vocal production, but not with self-initiated or spontaneous vocalizations (Coudé et al., 2011; Hage and Nieder, 2013), which casts doubt on the role of the frontal cortex of the Old World monkeys in vocal communication. A recent study of marmoset frontal cortex observed modulated neural activities associated with self-initiated vocal production (Miller et al., 2015), but it did not delineate whether these neural activities were specifically attributed to vocal production or if they may result from other nonvocal motor activity such as orofacial motor movement. In the present study, we attempted to resolve these issues and examined single neuron activities in premotor cortex during natural vocal exchanges in the common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus), a highly vocal New World primate. Neural activation and suppression were observed both before and during self-initiated vocal production. Furthermore, by comparing neural activities between self-initiated vocal production and nonvocal orofacial motor movement, we identified a subpopulation of neurons in marmoset premotor cortex that was activated or suppressed by vocal production, but not by orofacial movement. These findings provide clear evidence of the premotor cortex's involvement in self-initiated vocal production in natural vocal behaviors of a New World primate.

  5. Grooming up the hierarchy: the exchange of grooming and rank-related benefits in a new world primate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiddi, Barbara; Aureli, Filippo; Schino, Gabriele

    2012-01-01

    Seyfarth's model assumes that female primates derive rank-related benefits from higher-ranking females in exchange for grooming. As a consequence, the model predicts females prefer high-ranking females as grooming partners and compete for the opportunity to groom them. Therefore, allogrooming is expected to be directed up the dominance hierarchy and to occur more often between females with adjacent ranks. Although data from Old World primates generally support the model, studies on the relation between grooming and dominance rank in the New World genus Cebus have found conflicting results, showing considerable variability across groups and species. In this study, we investigated the pattern of grooming in wild tufted capuchin females (Cebus apella nigritus) in Iguazú National Park, Argentina by testing both the assumption (i.e., that females gain rank-related return benefits from grooming) and predictions (i.e., that females direct grooming up the dominance hierarchy and the majority of grooming occurs between females with adjacent ranks) of Seyfarth's model. Study subjects were 9 adult females belonging to a single group. Results showed that grooming was given in return for tolerance during naturally occurring feeding, a benefit that higher-ranking females can more easily grant. Female grooming was directed up the hierarchy and was given more often to partners with similar rank. These findings provide supporting evidence for both the assumption and predictions of Seyfarth's model and represent, more generally, the first evidence of reciprocal behavioural interchanges driven by rank-related benefits in New World female primates.

  6. Dynamics and phylogenetic implications of MtDNA control region sequences in New World Jays (Aves: Corvidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saunders, M A; Edwards, S V

    2000-08-01

    To study the evolution of mtDNA and the intergeneric relationships of New World Jays (Aves: Corvidae), we sequenced the entire mitochondrial DNA control region (CR) from 21 species representing all genera of New World jays, an Old World jay, crows, and a magpie. Using maximum likelihood methods, we found that both the transition/transversion ratio (kappa) and among site rate variation (alpha) were higher in flanking domains I and II than in the conserved central domain and that the frequency of indels was highest in domain II. Estimates of kappa and alpha were much more influenced by the density of taxon sampling than by alternative optimal tree topologies. We implemented a successive approximation method incorporating these parameters into phylogenetic analysis. In addition we compared our study in detail to a previous study using cytochrome b and morphology to examine the effect of taxon sampling, evolutionary rates of genes, and combined data on tree resolution. We found that the particular weighting scheme used had no effect on tree topology and little effect on tree robustness. Taxon sampling had a significant effect on tree robustness but little effect on the topology of the best tree. The CR data set differed nonsignificantly from the tree derived from the cytochrome b/morphological data set primarily in the placement of the genus Gymnorhinus, which is near the base of the CR tree. However, contrary to conventional taxonomy, the CR data set suggested that blue and black jays (Cyanocorax sensu lato) might be paraphyletic and that the brown jay Psilorhinus (=Cyanocorax) morio is the sister group to magpie jays (Calocitta), a phylogenetic hypothesis that is likely as parsimonious with regard to nonmolecular characters as monophyly of Cyanocorax. The CR tree also suggests that the common ancestor of NWJs was likely a cooperative breeder. Consistent with recent systematic theory, our data suggest that DNA sequences with high substitution rates such as the CR may

  7. Business as Usual or Brave New World? A College President's Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keohane, Nannerl O.

    1986-01-01

    The Sloan Foundation's New Liberal Arts Program aims to make a fundamental transformation in the liberal arts curriculum, by infusing applied mathematics and technological literacy. The program is examined by the president of Wellesley College in the context of current philosophical and practical constraints in higher education. (MSE)

  8. Public Health Threat of New, Reemerging, and Neglected Zoonoses in the Industrialized World

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cutler, S.J.; Fooks, A.R.; Poel, van der W.H.M.

    2010-01-01

    Microbiologic infections acquired from animals, known as zoonoses, pose a risk to public health. An estimated 60% of emerging human pathogens are zoonotic. Of these pathogens, >71% have wildlife origins. These pathogens can switch hosts by acquiring new genetic combinations that have altered path

  9. New Technologies and the World Ahead: The Top 20 Plus 5

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    but of coding errors in the layers of the DNA system. Errors in these outer layers appear to be implicated in some birth defects, cancers , and...by the use of Atomic Magnetometer Sensors. This is a new magnetic sensor tech- nology that uses cesium vapor as a sensing element. These devices are

  10. A Vice-President from the Business World Brings a New Bottom Line to Penn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Werf, Martin

    1999-01-01

    The executive vice-president of the University of Pennsylvania is credited with making significant changes in both the administration and the campus, using cost-cutting and change strategies from his business experience. Outsourcing, training for employees who might be terminated, substantial savings and new revenue, and gentrification of…

  11. New Literacies: A Pedagogical Framework for Reading Virtual Worlds--A Journey into "Barbiegirls.com"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connelly, Jan

    2011-01-01

    As the tectonic plates of technology shift across human networks, dedicated and determined educators understand that the integration of digital mediated texts and the new literacies competencies they engender, amount to little without pedagogical ingenuity, innovative adaptation, and creative application. This article is a response to the rapidly…

  12. Microsoft Dynamics CRM 2011 New Features The Real-world Tutorial

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Jim

    2011-01-01

    This book is packed with practical steps and screenshots to make learning fun and addictive. You will learn to build a complete Airline Compensation Management system using Dynamics CRM 2011. If you want a focused book that gets you up-to-speed with the new features of Microsft Dynamics CRM 2011 then this is the perfect book for you.

  13. DRESSING THE NEW WORLD. A Marie Sklodowska-Curie Research Fellowship

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thepaut-Cabasset, Corinne

    2017-01-01

    “Dressing the New World” aims to understand in detail the trade mechanism of European products and fashion overseas. It will evaluate the impact of European commodities and fashionable goods in everyday life in the colonial system. In particular it will study textiles and fashionable items in the...

  14. Local plant names reveal that enslaved Africans recognized substantial parts of the New World flora

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Andel, T.; van ‘t Klooster, C. I. E. A.; Quiroz, D.; Towns, A.M.; Ruysschaert, S.; van den Berg, M.C.

    2014-01-01

    How did the forced migration of nearly 11 million enslaved Africans to the Americas influence their knowledge of plants? Vernacular plant names give insight into the process of species recognition, acquisition of new knowledge, and replacement of African species with American ones. This study traces

  15. THE WORLD OF EDUCATION AND THE BOARD OF EDUCATION, CITY OF NEW YORK. PROGRESS REPORT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mobilization for Youth, Inc., New York, NY.

    IN A REPORT ON THE CURRENT STATUS OF PROGRAMS BEING COOPERATIVELY DEVELOPED BY MOBILIZATION FOR YOUTH AND THE NEW YORK CITY BOARD OF EDUCATION, THE FOLLOWING ACTIVITIES ARE DESCRIBED--(1) INSERVICE EDUCATION COURSES FOR TEACHERS, (2) DEVELOPMENTS IN TEACHER TRAINING, (3) CURRICULUM PLANNING AND DEVELOPMENT, (4) CORRECTIVE READING PROGRAMS, (5) THE…

  16. Dynamic adaptive policy pathways: a new method for crafting robust decisions for a deeply uncertain world

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haasnoot, M.; Kwakkel, J.H.; Walker, W.E.; Maat, ter J.

    2013-01-01

    A new paradigm for planning under conditions of deep uncertainty has emerged in the literature. According to this paradigm, a planner should create a strategic vision of the future, commit to short-term actions, and establish a framework to guide future actions. A plan that embodies these ideas allo

  17. Corporate Governance and Social Media : A Brave New World for Board Directors

    OpenAIRE

    Chaher, Santiago; Spellman, James David

    2012-01-01

    Publication of secret diplomatic cables through Wikileaks shocked governments and provided a sudden wake-up call to all who thought they were safe from the new power of social media. Consequences went well beyond mere embarrassment; they helped spark the first 'Arab spring' uprising in Tunisia, and other forms of social media helped sustain popular dissent elsewhere in the Middle East and ...

  18. Supramolecular Chemistry in Microflow Fields: Toward a New Material World of Precise Kinetic Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Numata, Munenori

    2015-12-01

    Constructing new and versatile self-assembling systems in supramolecular chemistry is much like the development of new reactions or new catalysts in synthetic organic chemistry. As one such new technology, conventional supramolecular assembly systems have been combined with microflow techniques to control intermolecular or interpolymer interactions through precise regulation of a flowing self-assembly field. The potential of the microflow system has been explored by using various simple model compounds. Uniform solvent diffusion in the microflow leads to rapid activation of molecules in a nonequilibrium state and, thereby, enhanced interactions. All of these self-assembly processes begin from a temporally activated state and proceed in a uniform chemical environment, forming a synchronized cluster and resulting in effective conversion to supramolecules, with precise tuning of molecular (or polymer) interactions. This approach allows the synthesis of a variety of discrete microstructures (e.g., fibers, sheets) and unique supramolecules (e.g., hierarchical assemblies, capped fibers, polymer networks, supramolecules with time-delayed action) that have previously been inaccessible.

  19. The Brave New World of GEC Evaluation: The Experience of the Rhode Island Geriatric Education Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filinson, Rachel; Clark, Phillip G.; Evans, Joann; Padula, Cynthia; Willey, Cynthia

    2012-01-01

    In 2007, the Health Resources Services Administration introduced new mandates that raised the standards on program evaluation for Geriatric Education Centers. Described in this article are the primary and secondary evaluation efforts undertaken for one program within the Rhode Island Geriatric Education Center (RIGEC), the findings from these…

  20. The Stresses of a "Brave New World": Shyness and School Adjustment in Kindergarten

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coplan, Robert J.; Arbeau, Kimberley A.

    2008-01-01

    Shy children are wary in the face of new social situations and perceived social evaluation. In this regard, the transition to kindergarten may represent a particularly challenging task for shy children. In this review, we explore the kindergarten classroom as a particularly stressful context for shy children. We examine the adjustment difficulties…

  1. Selective Inhibitor of Nuclear Export (SINE) Compounds Alter New World Alphavirus Capsid Localization and Reduce Viral Replication in Mammalian Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundberg, Lindsay; Pinkham, Chelsea; de la Fuente, Cynthia; Brahms, Ashwini; Shafagati, Nazly; Wagstaff, Kylie M; Jans, David A; Tamir, Sharon; Kehn-Hall, Kylene

    2016-11-01

    The capsid structural protein of the New World alphavirus, Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEEV), interacts with the host nuclear transport proteins importin α/β1 and CRM1. Novel selective inhibitor of nuclear export (SINE) compounds, KPT-185, KPT-335 (verdinexor), and KPT-350, target the host's primary nuclear export protein, CRM1, in a manner similar to the archetypical inhibitor Leptomycin B. One major limitation of Leptomycin B is its irreversible binding to CRM1; which SINE compounds alleviate because they are slowly reversible. Chemically inhibiting CRM1 with these compounds enhanced capsid localization to the nucleus compared to the inactive compound KPT-301, as indicated by immunofluorescent confocal microscopy. Differences in extracellular versus intracellular viral RNA, as well as decreased capsid in cell free supernatants, indicated the inhibitors affected viral assembly, which led to a decrease in viral titers. The decrease in viral replication was confirmed using a luciferase-tagged virus and through plaque assays. SINE compounds had no effect on VEEV TC83_Cm, which encodes a mutated form of capsid that is unable to enter the nucleus. Serially passaging VEEV in the presence of KPT-185 resulted in mutations within the nuclear localization and nuclear export signals of capsid. Finally, SINE compound treatment also reduced the viral titers of the related eastern and western equine encephalitis viruses, suggesting that CRM1 maintains a common interaction with capsid proteins across the New World alphavirus genus.

  2. Pregnancy as protest in interwar British women's writing: an antecedent alternative to Aldous Huxley's Brave New World.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bigman, Fran

    2016-12-01

    Accounts that take Aldous Huxley's Brave New World (1932) as representative of interwar reproductive dystopia fail to recognise that the novel expresses both an interest and an anxiety about the possibility of new reproductive technologies to transform sex, gender, and the family that were widely shared by writers in different genres and perhaps expressed best by those likely to be most affected: women. This article explores three earlier works-Charlotte Haldane's Man's World (1926), Vera Brittain's Halcyon, or the Future of Monogamy (1929), and Naomi Mitchison's Comments on Birth Control (1930)-in which pregnancy, instead of figuring as illness or debility, becomes a form of resistance to the status quo. These works engage with biomedicine, however, rather than abjuring it. Through a reading of these works, this article argues that the intersection of medical humanities and science fiction (SF) can enrich both: medical humanities can push SF to go beyond the canon, and SF can challenge any characterisation of literature in the medical humanities as purely fantastical by demonstrating how it responds to the hopes and anxieties of a particular time.

  3. Selective degeneration of the parvocellular-projecting retinal ganglion cells in a New World monkey, Saimiri sciureus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, J J; Eskin, T A; Merigan, W H

    1989-10-16

    Selective degeneration of retinal ganglion cells projecting to parvocellular layers of the dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus (LGN) was observed in squirrel monkeys (Saimiri sciureus) exposed to a range of doses of acrylamide monomer. Similar acrylamide-induced neuronal loss has previously been reported in parvocellular-projecting ganglion cells of macaques, but no such selective degeneration has been found in acrylamide-dosed rats, squirrels, rabbits or cats. The extent of ganglion cell loss observed in the present study suggests that in the squirrel monkey, as in the macaque, a majority of ganglion cells project to parvocellular layers of the LGN. The locus of optic tract degeneration suggests that the squirrel monkey parvocellular pathway passes in dorsolateral optic tract, as does that of the macaque. Patterns of decreases in cytochrome oxidase activity confirm that, in both of these primates, geniculocortical pathways driven by these vulnerable neurons project to cortical layers 4A and 4C beta. These results suggest close parallels in the neuroanatomical projections and toxic vulnerability of the parvocellular-projecting pathway in New and Old World monkeys. They indicate that acrylamide intoxication can be used to selectively damage this pathway in order to study the functional roles of parallel visual pathways in both New and Old World monkeys.

  4. A new family of bizarre durophagous carnivorous marsupials from Miocene deposits in the Riversleigh World Heritage Area, northwestern Queensland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archer, M.; Hand, S. J.; Black, K. H.; Beck, R. M. D.; Arena, D. A.; Wilson, L. A. B.; Kealy, S.; Hung, T.-T.

    2016-05-01

    A new specimen of the bizarrely specialised Malleodectes mirabilis from middle Miocene deposits in the Riversleigh World Heritage Area provides the first and only information about the molar dentition of this strange group of extinct marsupials. Apart from striking autapomorphies such as the enormous P3, other dental features such as stylar cusp D being larger than B suggest it belongs in the Order Dasyuromorphia. Phylogenetic analysis of 62 craniodental characters places Malleodectes within Dasyuromorphia albeit with weak support and without indication of specific relationships to any of the three established families (Dasyuridae, Myrmecobiidae and Thylacinidae). Accordingly we have allocated Malleodectes to the new family, Malleodectidae. Some features suggest potential links to previously named dasyuromorphians from Riversleigh (e.g., Ganbulanyi) but these are too poorly known to test this possibility. Although the original interpretation of a steeply declining molar row in Malleodectes can be rejected, it continues to seem likely that malleodectids specialised on snails but probably also consumed a wider range of prey items including small vertebrates. Whatever their actual diet, malleodectids appear to have filled a niche in Australia’s rainforests that has not been occupied by any other mammal group anywhere in the world from the Miocene onwards.

  5. Fatal Systemic Toxoplasma gondii Infection in a Red Squirrel (Sciurus vulgaris), a Swinhoe's Striped Squirrel (Tamiops swinhoei) and a New World Porcupine (Erethizontidae sp.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fayyad, A; Kummerfeld, M; Davina, I; Wohlsein, P; Beineke, A; Baumgärtner, W; Puff, C

    2016-01-01

    Toxoplasmosis is a parasitic disease that affects man and animals worldwide. The primary hosts and major reservoir for Toxoplasma gondii are felids and the intermediate hosts are most warm-blooded animals including man. This report describes fatal toxoplasmosis in three different rodent species in Germany: a female red squirrel (Sciurus vulgaris) and a male Swinhoe's striped squirrel (Tamiops swinhoei), both kept as pets, and a female New World porcupine (Erethizontidae sp.) from a zoo. All three animals had multifocal necrotizing hepatitis. Additional findings included lymphohistiocytic and necrotizing myocarditis in the New World porcupine and the Swinhoe's striped squirrel, lymphohistiocytic encephalomyelitis in the New World porcupine and suppurative lymphadenitis in the red squirrel. Numerous tachyzoites were identified associated with the lesions. The diagnosis was confirmed by Toxoplasma. gondii immunohistochemistry and electron microscopy. This is the first report of toxoplasmosis in a New World porcupine and a Swinhoe's striped squirrel.

  6. Michele Renee Salzman, Marvina A. Sweeney & William Adler (eds., The Cambridge History of Religions in the Ancient World (2 vols. (New York: Cambridge University Press, 2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giorgio Baruchello

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Review of: Michele Renee Salzman, Marvina A. Sweeney & William Adler (eds., The Cambridge History of Religions in the Ancient World (2 vols. (New York: Cambridge University Press, 2013

  7. [Manpower migrations in the Arab world: the reverse of the New Economic Order].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halliday, F

    1985-01-01

    Population and petroleum, 2 essential factors in the development of the Arab world, are unequally distributed in the 18 Arab countries. The abstract possibility of mutually beneficial cooperation between the countries with large populations and no oil and those with oil but small populations is far from being realized; on the contrary, growing inequality and deterioration of human and productive resources can be observed in the Arab world. The apparent economic progress of the oil producing states is illusory, because it has permitted them to defer development of their own internal resources such as agriculture, industry, professional training and education in favor of greater dependence on the temporary palliative of petroleum revenues. In 1980, over 3 million Arabs had emigrated toward other Arab countries, where they were joined by approximately 1.8 million non-Arabs. 4 types of Arab migration have been important: movement from the countryside to cities within countries, movement of Arab migrants to non-Arab countries, movement from 1 Arab state to another because of political factors and especially to earn high wages in the oil producing states, and immigration of non-Arabs and especially Asians to Arab countries. 6 of the principal manpower importing countries, Saudi Arabia, Kuwait, Libya, United Arab Emirates, Bahrain, and Qatar, had total labor forces of about 5.2 million in 1985, of which only 41% were nationals. There have been 4 main consequences for the states importing manpower: 1) petroleum production is very capital intensive and creates few jobs; the jobs filled by migrants are mostly in construction and services funded by oil revenues 2) the expansion is temporary because petroleum is a nonrenewable resource; the manpower transfers will therefore not be permanent 3) the migrants represent a large proportion of the labor force and populations of the Gulf oil-producing states, and 4) the migrants are systematically excluded from the political and

  8. Alphacoronaviruses in New World bats: prevalence, persistence, phylogeny, and potential for interaction with humans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina Osborne

    Full Text Available Bats are reservoirs for many different coronaviruses (CoVs as well as many other important zoonotic viruses. We sampled feces and/or anal swabs of 1,044 insectivorous bats of 2 families and 17 species from 21 different locations within Colorado from 2007 to 2009. We detected alphacoronavirus RNA in bats of 4 species: big brown bats (Eptesicus fuscus, 10% prevalence; long-legged bats (Myotis volans, 8% prevalence; little brown bats (Myotis lucifugus, 3% prevalence; and western long-eared bats (Myotis evotis, 2% prevalence. Overall, juvenile bats were twice as likely to be positive for CoV RNA as adult bats. At two of the rural sampling sites, CoV RNAs were detected in big brown and long-legged bats during the three sequential summers of this study. CoV RNA was detected in big brown bats in all five of the urban maternity roosts sampled throughout each of the periods tested. Individually tagged big brown bats that were positive for CoV RNA and later sampled again all became CoV RNA negative. Nucleotide sequences in the RdRp gene fell into 3 main clusters, all distinct from those of Old World bats. Similar nucleotide sequences were found in amplicons from gene 1b and the spike gene in both a big-brown and a long-legged bat, indicating that a CoV may be capable of infecting bats of different genera. These data suggest that ongoing evolution of CoVs in bats creates the possibility of a continued threat for emergence into hosts of other species. Alphacoronavirus RNA was detected at a high prevalence in big brown bats in roosts in close proximity to human habitations (10% and known to have direct contact with people (19%, suggesting that significant potential opportunities exist for cross-species transmission of these viruses. Further CoV surveillance studies in bats throughout the Americas are warranted.

  9. Alphacoronaviruses in New World Bats: Prevalence, Persistence, Phylogeny, and Potential for Interaction with Humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osborne, Christina; Cryan, Paul M.; O'Shea, Thomas J.; Oko, Lauren M.; Ndaluka, Christina; Calisher, Charles H.; Berglund, Andrew D.; Klavetter, Mead L.; Holmes, Kathryn V.; Dominguez, Samuel R.; Montgomery, Joel Mark

    2011-01-01

    Bats are reservoirs for many different coronaviruses (CoVs) as well as many other important zoonotic viruses. We sampled feces and/or anal swabs of 1,044 insectivorous bats of 2 families and 17 species from 21 different locations within Colorado from 2007 to 2009. We detected alphacoronavirus RNA in bats of 4 species: big brown bats (Eptesicus fuscus), 10% prevalence; long-legged bats (Myotis volans), 8% prevalence; little brown bats (Myotis lucifugus), 3% prevalence; and western long-eared bats (Myotis evotis), 2% prevalence. Overall, juvenile bats were twice as likely to be positive for CoV RNA as adult bats. At two of the rural sampling sites, CoV RNAs were detected in big brown and long-legged bats during the three sequential summers of this study. CoV RNA was detected in big brown bats in all five of the urban maternity roosts sampled throughout each of the periods tested. Individually tagged big brown bats that were positive for CoV RNA and later sampled again all became CoV RNA negative. Nucleotide sequences in the RdRp gene fell into 3 main clusters, all distinct from those of Old World bats. Similar nucleotide sequences were found in amplicons from gene 1b and the spike gene in both a big-brown and a long-legged bat, indicating that a CoV may be capable of infecting bats of different genera. These data suggest that ongoing evolution of CoVs in bats creates the possibility of a continued threat for emergence into hosts of other species. Alphacoronavirus RNA was detected at a high prevalence in big brown bats in roosts in close proximity to human habitations (10%) and known to have direct contact with people (19%), suggesting that significant potential opportunities exist for cross-species transmission of these viruses. Further CoV surveillance studies in bats throughout the Americas are warranted.

  10. Taxonomic revision of the New World genus Callotillus Wolcott (Cleridae, Tillinae), with the description of the new genus Neocallotillus, and an illustrated key of identification to species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, Alan F.; Zolnerowich, Gregory

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The New World checkered beetle genus Callotillus Wolcott, 1911 is revised and the new genus Neocallotillus established. The subspecies Callotillus elegans vafer Wolcott is synonymized with the nominal subspecies, Callotillus elegans elegans (Erichson), which is transferred to, and designated as the type species of Neocallotillus gen. n. as Neocallotillus elegans (Erichson, 1847), comb. n. Two additional species are transferred from Callotillus to the new genus: Neocallotillus intricatus (Wolcott & Dybas, 1947), comb. n. and Neocallotillus crusoe (Wolcott, 1923), comb. n., the latter tentatively and based on Wolcott’s original description. Callotillus is now composed of two species: Callotillus eburneocinctus Wolcott, 1911 and Callotillus bahamensis Vaurie, 1952. All abovementioned species except Neocallotillus crusoe are diagnosed and redescribed. In the absence of reference material of Neocallotillus crusoe, Wolcott’s original description is transcribed. An illustrated key to species is provided. Characters of taxonomic relevance are illustrated and discussed. Updated distribution maps and locality data for all specimens examined are presented. PMID:27667955

  11. New world of 3-D printing offers "completely new ways of thinking": Q&A with author, engineer, and 3-D printing expert Hod Lipson.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipson, Hod

    2013-01-01

    With stories about everything from a three-?dimensional (3-D)-printed tracheal implant used in an infant to a 3-D-printed replacement for 75% of a man?s skull, a media firestorm is swirling around this seemingly new technology, but what exactly is 3-D printing? How is it being used today, and what is its true potential in the biomedical arena? Renowned robotics engineer Hod Lipson, coauthor of Fabricated: The New World of 3D Printing [1], and director of the Creative Machines Lab at Cornell University?s Sibley School of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering in Ithaca, New York, spent some time with IEEE Pulse in a wide-ranging conversation about the past, present, and future of 3-D printing and its implications for biomedical engineering.

  12. New World Vistas: Air and Space Power for the 21st Century, Materials Volume.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-06-01

    cyclodextrine nitrate, and HTREL, plus new oxidizers such as ADN that are currently available, and the developing area of high nitrogen compounds that have... encapsulation , bondline venting of off-gases, microthin injectors, microcombustion chambers, and solar absorbing heat exchangers. Figure 12.3 shows a...structures through molecular encapsulation need to be investigated, and this is where nanophased polymers of the nanoparticle type may play an

  13. Dynamic adaptive policy pathways: a new method for crafting robust decisions for a deeply uncertain world

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    A new paradigm for planning under conditions of deep uncertainty has emerged in the literature. According to this paradigm, a planner should create a strategic vision of the future, commit to short-term actions, and establish a framework to guide future actions. A plan that embodies these ideas allows for its dynamic adaptation over time to meet changing circumstances. We propose a method for decisionmaking under uncertain global and regional changes called ‘Dynamic Adaptive Policy Pathways’....

  14. Public Health Threat of New, Reemerging, and Neglected Zoonoses in the Industrialized World

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    Microbiologic infections acquired from animals, known as zoonoses, pose a risk to public health. An estimated 60% of emerging human pathogens are zoonotic. Of these pathogens, >71% have wildlife origins. These pathogens can switch hosts by acquiring new genetic combinations that have altered pathogenic potential or by changes in behavior or socioeconomic, environmental, or ecologic characteristics of the hosts. We discuss causal factors that influence the dynamics associated with emergence or...

  15. Brave new world: Myth and migration in recent Asian-Australian picture books

    OpenAIRE

    Wenche Ommundsen

    2009-01-01

    From Exodus to the American Dream, from Terra Nullius to the Yellow Peril to multicultural harmony, migration has provided a rich source of myth throughout human history. It engenders dreams, fears and memories in both migrant and resident populations; giving rise to hope for a new start and a bright future, feelings of exile and alienation, nostalgia for lost homelands, dreams of belonging and entitlement, fears of invasion, dispossession and cultural extinction. It has inspir...

  16. Mapping Commercial Web 2.0 Worlds: Towards a New Critical Ontogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenneth Werbin

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available At the 2007 International Communication Association Conference, Web 2.0 was highlighted as an emergent topic of research with a keynote panel entitled 'What's so Significant about Social Networking? Web 2.0 and its Critical Potentials'. One of the thought-provoking moments during the panel was the juxtaposition of two very different and at first, contradictory theoretical approaches to the relationships between Web 2.0 and user-generated content. While Henry Jenkins focused on the democratic potential of online participatory culture as enabling new modes of knowledge production, Titziana Terranova argued for a post-Marxist perspective on Web 2.0 as a site of cultural colonization and expansion of new forms of capitalization on culture, affect and knowledge. The juxtaposition of these two very different critical approaches did not simply rehash the old divide between cultural theory, particularly active audience theory, and post-Marxist critical theory; rather, this debate over Web 2.0 suggested new possibilities for the synthesis and continued development of both sets of critiques. In other words, the event reinforced our belief that corporate colonization arguments do not provide an entirely adequate model for understanding Web 2.0. After all, commercial Web 2.0 spaces such as Facebook, YouTube and MySpace are important sites of cultural exchange and political discussion, in part because they almost entirely rely on user-generated content to exist.

  17. Neotropical Hemerodromia Meigen (Diptera: Empididae), a world of discovery I: new generic record and new species from Brazilian Amazon Basin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Câmara, J T; Plant, A R; Rafael, J A

    2014-12-08

    Ten new species of Hemerodromia Meigen, 1822 are described and illustrated from the Brazilian state of Amazonas: H. amazonensis sp. nov., H. breviradia sp. nov., H. cercusdilatata sp. nov., H. collini sp. nov., H. epandriocurvialis sp. nov., H. jauensis sp. nov., H. lamellata sp. nov., H. longilamellata sp. nov., H. maturaca sp. nov., H. smithi sp. nov. This is the first record of the genus from the Brazilian Amazon Basin.

  18. Brave New Media World: Science Communication Voyages through the Global Seas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, C. L.; Reisewitz, A.

    2010-12-01

    By leveraging online tools, such as blogs, Twitter, Facebook, Google Earth, flickr, web-based discussion boards, and a bi-monthly electronic magazine for the non-scientist, Scripps Institution of Oceanography is taking science communications out of the static webpage to create interactive journeys that spark social dialogue and helped raise awareness of science-based research on global marine environmental issues. Several new initiatives are being chronicled through popular blogs and expedition web sites as researchers share interesting scientific facts and unusual findings in near real-time.

  19. Characterization of a New World Monopartite Begomovirus Causing Leaf Curl Disease of Tomato in Ecuador and Peru Reveals a New Direction in Geminivirus Evolution

    OpenAIRE

    Melgarejo, Tomas A.; Kon, Tatsuya; Rojas, Maria R.; Paz-Carrasco, Lenin; Zerbini, F. Murilo; Gilbertson, Robert L.

    2013-01-01

    All characterized whitefly-transmitted geminiviruses (begomoviruses) with origins in the New World (NW) have bipartite genomes composed of a DNA-A and DNA-B component. Recently, an NW begomovirus lacking a DNA-B component was associated with tomato leaf curl disease (ToLCD) in Peru, and it was named Tomato leaf deformation virus (ToLDeV). Here, we show that isolates of ToLDeV associated with ToLCD in Ecuador and Peru have a single, genetically diverse genomic DNA that is most closely related ...

  20. Spanish media in a new digital world: The great bonfire of the vanities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José María Álvarez Monzoncillo

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The mass media in Spain has carried out major adjustments in recent years in order to adapt to the Great Recession and to disruptive or ground-breaking technology such as Internet. This has underpinned the drop in advertising revenues and government subsidies, as well as a decline in sales and subscriptions. In the boom years, promises of Internet and easy access to global financial markets at interest rates below inflation encouraged media groups to design vertical and horizontal expansion strategies aimed at positioning themselves in the domestic market whilst expanding overseas: particularly in Latam and Europe. Moreover, consumers have been able to access contents more easily and cheaply via the Internet and using a broad range of devices. The poor economic situation of traditional media (caused, mainly, by their high financial gearing prevents them from successfully facing new challenges requiring them to change whilst new digital companies are managing to get by in spite of the highly precarious economic scenario.

  1. The Challenge for Arms Control Verification in the Post-New START World

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wuest, C R

    2012-05-24

    Nuclear weapon arms control treaty verification is a key aspect of any agreement between signatories to establish that the terms and conditions spelled out in the treaty are being met. Historically, arms control negotiations have focused more on the rules and protocols for reducing the numbers of warheads and delivery systems - sometimes resorting to complex and arcane procedures for counting forces - in an attempt to address perceived or real imbalances in a nation's strategic posture that could lead to instability. Verification procedures are generally defined in arms control treaties and supporting documents and tend to focus on technical means and measures designed to ensure that a country is following the terms of the treaty and that it is not liable to engage in deception or outright cheating in an attempt to circumvent the spirit and the letter of the agreement. As the Obama Administration implements the articles, terms, and conditions of the recently ratified and entered-into-force New START treaty, there are already efforts within and outside of government to move well below the specified New START levels of 1550 warheads, 700 deployed strategic delivery vehicles, and 800 deployed and nondeployed strategic launchers (Inter-Continental Ballistic Missile (ICBM) silos, Submarine-Launched Ballistic Missile (SLBM) tubes on submarines, and bombers). A number of articles and opinion pieces have appeared that advocate for significantly deeper cuts in the U.S. nuclear stockpile, with some suggesting that unilateral reductions on the part of the U.S. would help coax Russia and others to follow our lead. Papers and studies prepared for the U.S. Department of Defense and at the U.S. Air War College have also been published, suggesting that nuclear forces totaling no more than about 300 warheads would be sufficient to meet U.S. national security and deterrence needs. (Davis 2011, Schaub and Forsyth 2010) Recent articles by James M. Acton and others suggest that

  2. Glucose-6-Phosphate Dehydrogenase: Update and Analysis of New Mutations around the World

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Manzo, Saúl; Marcial-Quino, Jaime; Vanoye-Carlo, America; Serrano-Posada, Hugo; Ortega-Cuellar, Daniel; González-Valdez, Abigail; Castillo-Rodríguez, Rosa Angélica; Hernández-Ochoa, Beatriz; Sierra-Palacios, Edgar; Rodríguez-Bustamante, Eduardo; Arreguin-Espinosa, Roberto

    2016-01-01

    Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) is a key regulatory enzyme in the pentose phosphate pathway which produces nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) to maintain an adequate reducing environment in the cells and is especially important in red blood cells (RBC). Given its central role in the regulation of redox state, it is understandable that mutations in the gene encoding G6PD can cause deficiency of the protein activity leading to clinical manifestations such as neonatal jaundice and acute hemolytic anemia. Recently, an extensive review has been published about variants in the g6pd gene; recognizing 186 mutations. In this work, we review the state of the art in G6PD deficiency, describing 217 mutations in the g6pd gene; we also compile information about 31 new mutations, 16 that were not recognized and 15 more that have recently been reported. In order to get a better picture of the effects of new described mutations in g6pd gene, we locate the point mutations in the solved three-dimensional structure of the human G6PD protein. We found that class I mutations have the most deleterious effects on the structure and stability of the protein. PMID:27941691

  3. Glucose-6-Phosphate Dehydrogenase: Update and Analysis of New Mutations around the World

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saúl Gómez-Manzo

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD is a key regulatory enzyme in the pentose phosphate pathway which produces nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH to maintain an adequate reducing environment in the cells and is especially important in red blood cells (RBC. Given its central role in the regulation of redox state, it is understandable that mutations in the gene encoding G6PD can cause deficiency of the protein activity leading to clinical manifestations such as neonatal jaundice and acute hemolytic anemia. Recently, an extensive review has been published about variants in the g6pd gene; recognizing 186 mutations. In this work, we review the state of the art in G6PD deficiency, describing 217 mutations in the g6pd gene; we also compile information about 31 new mutations, 16 that were not recognized and 15 more that have recently been reported. In order to get a better picture of the effects of new described mutations in g6pd gene, we locate the point mutations in the solved three-dimensional structure of the human G6PD protein. We found that class I mutations have the most deleterious effects on the structure and stability of the protein.

  4. New worlds on the horizon: Earth-sized planets close to other stars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaidos, Eric; Haghighipour, Nader; Agol, Eric; Latham, David; Raymond, Sean; Rayner, John

    2007-10-12

    The search for habitable planets like Earth around other stars fulfills an ancient imperative to understand our origins and place in the cosmos. The past decade has seen the discovery of hundreds of planets, but nearly all are gas giants like Jupiter and Saturn. Recent advances in instrumentation and new missions are extending searches to planets the size of Earth but closer to their host stars. There are several possible ways such planets could form, and future observations will soon test those theories. Many of these planets we discover may be quite unlike Earth in their surface temperature and composition, but their study will nonetheless inform us about the process of planet formation and the frequency of Earth-like planets around other stars.

  5. Evolutionary Mechanics: new engineering principles for the emergence of flexibility in a dynamic and uncertain world

    CERN Document Server

    Whitacre, James M; Bender, Axel; Yao, Xin

    2011-01-01

    Engineered systems are designed to deftly operate under predetermined conditions yet are notoriously fragile when unexpected perturbations arise. In contrast, biological systems operate in a highly flexible manner; learn quickly adequate responses to novel conditions, and evolve new routines/traits to remain competitive under persistent environmental change. A recent theory on the origins of biological flexibility has proposed that degeneracy - the existence of multi-functional components with partially overlapping functions - is a primary determinant of the robustness and adaptability found in evolved systems. While degeneracy's contribution to biological flexibility is well documented, there has been little investigation of degeneracy design principles for achieving flexibility in systems engineering. Actually, the conditions that can lead to degeneracy are routinely eliminated in engineering design. With the planning of transportation vehicle fleets taken as a case study, this paper reports evidence that d...

  6. Conference Proceedings: World Wise 99 -- Conference on sustainable infrastructure: emerging technologies for the new millennium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-07-01

    Energy conservation and sustainable development through emerging technologies was the focus of this third biennial conference of the Manitoba Heavy Construction Association. Papers presented discussed a wide range of topics including a few pertaining to developments in the livestock industry in Manitoba, a substantial number of papers involving road and bridge construction and management, paving and concrete building products, aqueduct and trenchless sewer rehabilitation, and cathodic protection of water mains. The majority of the speakers discussed topics related to sustainable development and environmental protection such as stormceptor hydrology, chemical contamination in site remediation projects, optimization of wastewater stabilization ponds, recycling organic residuals and land rehabilitation, harnessing the energy of ocean waves, alternative energy sources, and the beneficial re-use of glass, rubber and geotextiles in road construction. Commercializing new technology was the subject of an extended panel discussion.

  7. Brave New Media World: A Science Communications Voyage to the Great Pacific Garbage Patch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reisewitz, A.; Clark, C. L.

    2009-12-01

    By leveraging online tools, such as blogs, Twitter, Facebook, Google Earth, flickr and web-based discussion boards, the Scripps Institution of Oceanography team recently took science communications out of the static webpage to create an interactive journey that sparked social dialogue and helped raise awareness of science-based research on global marine environmental problems. A crew of 16 researchers, volunteers and support staff, with assistance from the shore-based Scripps Oceanography communications team, took readers and viewers aboard Scripps’ research vessel New Horizon during the 20-day and more than 2,500-mile SEAPLEX expedition (Scripps Environmental Accumulation of Plastic Expedition). The journey to the North Pacific Ocean Gyre, aka “The Great Pacific Garbage Patch,” was chronicled through popular daily blogs and tweets as the researchers shared interesting scientific facts and unusual findings contained in the 100 oceanographic tow samples conducted in the water to collect data on the distribution of plastic near the gyre.

  8. Biodiversity and biosystematic research in a brave new 21st century information-technology world

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Anderson

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available A variety of challenges to biodiversity and biosystematics research are discussed. Despite escalating estimates of the biodiversity of the planet, resources being devoted to advance this knowledge have been in decline. Despite the proliferation of information technologies, the focus of knowledge has frequently shifted to making information readily available, rather than generating new information. The principles of authorial responsibility and of explicit documentation of knowledge are under siege. The shortfall of investment in training, research, and collections management (the ''taxonomic deficit'' has lead to a ''taxonomic impediment'' to ecological research, at a time when rates of extinction appear to be rising dramatically. The contents of present volume represent stepping-stones of biodiversity research – a discipline vital to the future of life on the planet.

  9. On simplicity and complexity in the brave new world of large-scale neuroscience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Peiran; Ganguli, Surya

    2015-06-01

    Technological advances have dramatically expanded our ability to probe multi-neuronal dynamics and connectivity in the brain. However, our ability to extract a simple conceptual understanding from complex data is increasingly hampered by the lack of theoretically principled data analytic procedures, as well as theoretical frameworks for how circuit connectivity and dynamics can conspire to generate emergent behavioral and cognitive functions. We review and outline potential avenues for progress, including new theories of high dimensional data analysis, the need to analyze complex artificial networks, and methods for analyzing entire spaces of circuit models, rather than one model at a time. Such interplay between experiments, data analysis and theory will be indispensable in catalyzing conceptual advances in the age of large-scale neuroscience.

  10. New Worlds on the Horizon: Earth-Sized Planets Close to Other Stars

    CERN Document Server

    Gaidos, Eric; Agol, Eric; Latham, David; Raymond, Sean; Rayner, John

    2007-01-01

    The search for habitable planets like Earth around other stars fulfils an ancient imperative to understand our origins and place in the cosmos. The past decade has seen the discovery of hundreds of planets, but nearly all are gas giants like Jupiter and Saturn. Recent advances in instrumentation and new missions are extending searches to planets the size of the Earth, but closer to their host stars. There are several possible ways such planets could form, and future observations will soon test those theories. Many of these planets we discover may be quite unlike Earth in their surface temperature and composition, but their study will nonetheless inform us about the process of planet formation and the frequency of Earth-like planets around other stars.

  11. The Wonderful World of Water: New Insights into Star Formation from the Herschel Space Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visser, Ruud

    2011-10-01

    Water is one of the most versatile tools in astrochemical studies of low-mass star formation. Its high abundance of ~10-4 in shocks and in hot gas (T>100 K) make water an excellent probe of the energetic feedback of a young star onto its environment. In addition, spectrally resolved observations provide important information on the kinematics and dynamics of protostars. In this talk we present highlights from water spectra observed with the Herschel Space Observatory toward a sample of 29 Class 0 and I protostars. The line profiles are very complex, showing broad emission from shocks, narrow absorption from the cold outer envelopes, and occasionally high-velocity "bullets." We interpret the spectra in the context of a new suite of evolutionary models, following changes in the chemical composition from pre-stellar cores to circumstellar disks.

  12. New Worlds on the Horizon: Earth-Sized Planets Close to Other Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaidos, Eric; Haghighipour, Nader; Agol, Eric; Latham, David; Raymond, Sean; Rayner, John

    2007-10-01

    The search for habitable planets like Earth around other stars fulfills an ancient imperative to understand our origins and place in the cosmos. The past decade has seen the discovery of hundreds of planets, but nearly all are gas giants like Jupiter and Saturn. Recent advances in instrumentation and new missions are extending searches to planets the size of Earth but closer to their host stars. There are several possible ways such planets could form, and future observations will soon test those theories. Many of these planets we discover may be quite unlike Earth in their surface temperature and composition, but their study will nonetheless inform us about the process of planet formation and the frequency of Earth-like planets around other stars.

  13. Taxonomic review of the New World spider genus Elaver O. Pickard-Cambridge, 1898 (Araneae, Clubionidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saturnino, Regiane; Bonaldo, Alexandre Bragio

    2015-11-23

    Elaver O. Pickard-Cambridge, 1898 is characterized and redescribed, including 49 species occurring from the United States to Argentina. Thirty seven previously known species are redescribed: Elaver achuca (Roddy, 1966) revalidated, E. balboae (Chickering, 1937), E. barroana (Chickering, 1937), E. calcarata (Kraus, 1955), E. carlota (Bryant, 1940), E. chisosa (Roddy, 1966), E. crinophora (Franganillo, 1934), E. crocota (O. Pickard-Cambridge, 1896), E. albicans (Franganillo, 1930) name restored, E. depuncta O. Pickard-Cambridge, 1898, E. elaver (Bryant, 1940), E. excepta (L. Koch, 1866), E. grandivulva (Mello-Leitão, 1930), E. hortoni (Chickering, 1937), E. implicata (Gertsch, 1941), E. juana (Bryant, 1940), E. kohlsi (Gertsch & Jellison, 1939), E. linguata (F.O. Pickard-Cambridge, 1900), E. madera (Roddy, 1966), E. mirabilis (O. Pickard-Cambridge, 1896) new. comb., E. mulaiki (Gertsch, 1935), E. multinotata (Chickering, 1937), E. orvillei (Chickering, 1937), E. placida O. Pickard-Cambridge, 1898, E. portoricensis (Petrunkevitch, 1930), E. quadrata (Kraus, 1955), E. richardi (Gertsch, 1941), E. sericea O. Pickard-Cambridge, 1898, E. sigillata (Petrunkevitch, 1925), E. simplex (O. Pickard-Cambridge, 1896), E. texana (Gertsch, 1933), E. tigrina O. Pickard-Cambridge, 1898 name restored, E. tricuspis (F.O. Pickard-Cambridge, 1900), E. tristani (Banks, 1909), E. tumivulva (Banks, 1909), E. valvula (F.O. Pickard-Cambridge, 1900) and E. wheeleri (Roewer, 1933). Ten new species are described: E. candelaria n. sp. and E. helenae n. sp. from Mexico; E. arawakan n. sp. from Haiti; E. lizae n. sp. from Costa Rica; E. darwichi n. sp. from Ecuador; E. juruti n. sp., E. tourinhoae n. sp. and E. vieirae n. sp. from Brazil; E. shinguito n. sp. from Peru and E. beni n. sp. from Bolivia. The female of E. hortoni is described for the first time. Lectotypes are designated for E. sigillata and its actual female is described for the first time. Four new synonyms are proposed: E. languida

  14. The Challenge for Arms Control Verification in the Post-New START World

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wuest, C R

    2012-05-24

    Nuclear weapon arms control treaty verification is a key aspect of any agreement between signatories to establish that the terms and conditions spelled out in the treaty are being met. Historically, arms control negotiations have focused more on the rules and protocols for reducing the numbers of warheads and delivery systems - sometimes resorting to complex and arcane procedures for counting forces - in an attempt to address perceived or real imbalances in a nation's strategic posture that could lead to instability. Verification procedures are generally defined in arms control treaties and supporting documents and tend to focus on technical means and measures designed to ensure that a country is following the terms of the treaty and that it is not liable to engage in deception or outright cheating in an attempt to circumvent the spirit and the letter of the agreement. As the Obama Administration implements the articles, terms, and conditions of the recently ratified and entered-into-force New START treaty, there are already efforts within and outside of government to move well below the specified New START levels of 1550 warheads, 700 deployed strategic delivery vehicles, and 800 deployed and nondeployed strategic launchers (Inter-Continental Ballistic Missile (ICBM) silos, Submarine-Launched Ballistic Missile (SLBM) tubes on submarines, and bombers). A number of articles and opinion pieces have appeared that advocate for significantly deeper cuts in the U.S. nuclear stockpile, with some suggesting that unilateral reductions on the part of the U.S. would help coax Russia and others to follow our lead. Papers and studies prepared for the U.S. Department of Defense and at the U.S. Air War College have also been published, suggesting that nuclear forces totaling no more than about 300 warheads would be sufficient to meet U.S. national security and deterrence needs. (Davis 2011, Schaub and Forsyth 2010) Recent articles by James M. Acton and others suggest that

  15. Military leadership with an operational effect in asymmetric operations - A new military leadership training concept in a new world

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barfod, Jakob Rømer

    2015-01-01

    . As tactics, doctrines, technologies and procedures had to be developed and changed, there was also a need for developing the approach to leadership. Suddenly the challenges in the operations were not only IEDs, ambushes, shootings and deprivation of families, but also leadership challenges in military staffs...... and units, which in many cases acted and commanded based on a mindset of linear and symmetric warfare with great emphasis on analysis of primarily cause and effect. On that basis, the Danish Defence around mid-2000 developed a new operational leadership concept with a changed and different leadership focus......, which should help deploying units at battalion level to counter the increased complexity of leadership in asymmetric operations. Much attention is in this concept given to the preparation of teams performing these missions. The teams consist of leaders and personnel from very different organizational...

  16. Comprehensive characterization of evolutionary conserved breakpoints in four New World Monkey karyotypes compared to Chlorocebus aethiops and Homo sapiens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Xiaobo; Supiwong, Weerayuth; Weise, Anja; Mrasek, Kristin; Kosyakova, Nadezda; Tanomtong, Alongkoad; Pinthong, Krit; Trifonov, Vladimir A; Cioffi, Marcelo de Bello; Grothmann, Pierre; Liehr, Thomas; Oliveira, Edivaldo H C de

    2015-11-01

    Comparative cytogenetic analysis in New World Monkeys (NWMs) using human multicolor banding (MCB) probe sets were not previously done. Here we report on an MCB based FISH-banding study complemented with selected locus-specific and heterochromatin specific probes in four NWMs and one Old World Monkey (OWM) species, i.e. in Alouatta caraya (ACA), Callithrix jacchus (CJA), Cebus apella (CAP), Saimiri sciureus (SSC), and Chlorocebus aethiops (CAE), respectively. 107 individual evolutionary conserved breakpoints (ECBs) among those species were identified and compared with those of other species in previous reports. Especially for chromosomal regions being syntenic to human chromosomes 6, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12 and 16 previously cryptic rearrangements could be observed. 50.4% (54/107) NWM-ECBs were colocalized with those of OWMs, 62.6% (62/99) NWM-ECBs were related with those of Hylobates lar (HLA) and 66.3% (71/107) NWM-ECBs corresponded with those known from other mammalians. Furthermore, human fragile sites were aligned with the ECBs found in the five studied species and interestingly 66.3% ECBs colocalized with those fragile sites (FS). Overall, this study presents detailed chromosomal maps of one OWM and four NWM species. This data will be helpful to further investigation on chromosome evolution in NWM and hominoids in general and is prerequisite for correct interpretation of future sequencing based genomic studies in those species.

  17. Z proteins of New World arenaviruses bind RIG-I and interfere with type I interferon induction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Lina; Briese, Thomas; Lipkin, W Ian

    2010-02-01

    The retinoic acid-inducible gene I product (RIG-I) is a cellular sensor of RNA virus infection that regulates the cellular beta interferon (IFN-beta) response. The nucleoproteins (NP) of arenaviruses are reported to antagonize the IFN response by inhibiting interferon regulatory factor 3 (IRF-3). Here, we demonstrate that the Z proteins of four New World (NW) arenaviruses, Guanarito virus (GTOV), Junin virus (JUNV), Machupo virus (MAVC), and Sabia virus (SABV), bind to RIG-I, resulting in downregulation of the IFN-beta response. We show that expression of the four NW arenavirus Z proteins inhibits IFN-beta mRNA induction in A549 cells in response to RNA bearing 5' phosphates (5'pppRNA). NW arenavirus Z proteins interact with RIG-I in coimmunoprecipitation studies and colocalize with RIG-I. Furthermore, expression of Z proteins interferes with the interaction between RIG-I and MAVS. Z expression also impedes the nuclear factor kappa light chain enhancer of activated B cells (NF-kappaB) and IRF-3 activation. Our results indicate that NW arenavirus Z proteins, but not Z protein of the Old World (OW) arenavirus lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV) or Lassa virus, bind to RIG-I and inhibit downstream activation of the RIG-I signaling pathway, preventing the transcriptional induction of IFN-beta.

  18. Neotropics provide insights into the emergence of New World monkeys: New dental evidence from the late Oligocene of Peruvian Amazonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marivaux, Laurent; Adnet, Sylvain; Altamirano-Sierra, Ali J; Boivin, Myriam; Pujos, François; Ramdarshan, Anusha; Salas-Gismondi, Rodolfo; Tejada-Lara, Julia V; Antoine, Pierre-Olivier

    2016-08-01

    Recent field efforts in Peruvian Amazonia (Contamana area, Loreto Department) have resulted in the discovery of a late Oligocene (ca. 26.5 Ma; Chambira Formation) fossil primate-bearing locality (CTA-61). In this paper, we analyze the primate material consisting of two isolated upper molars, the peculiar morphology of which allows us to describe a new medium-sized platyrrhine monkey: Canaanimico amazonensis gen. et sp. nov. In addition to the recent discovery of Perupithecus ucayaliensis, a primitive anthropoid taxon of African affinities from the alleged latest Eocene Santa Rosa locality (Peruvian Amazonia), the discovery of Canaanimico adds to the evidence that primates were well-established in the Amazonian Basin during the Paleogene. Our phylogenetic results based on dental evidence show that none of the early Miocene Patagonian taxa (Homunculus, Carlocebus, Soriacebus, Mazzonicebus, Dolichocebus, Tremacebus, and Chilecebus), the late Oligocene Bolivian Branisella, or the Peruvian Canaanimico, is nested within a crown platyrrhine clade. All these early taxa are closely related and considered here as stem Platyrrhini. Canaanimico is nested within the Patagonian Soriacebinae, and closely related to Soriacebus, thereby extending back the soriacebine lineage to 26.5 Ma. Given the limited dental evidence, it is difficult to assess if Canaanimico was engaged in a form of pitheciine-like seed predation as is observed in Soriacebus and Mazzonicebus, but dental microwear patterns recorded on one upper molar indicate that Canaanimico was possibly a fruit and hard-object eater. If Panamacebus, a recently discovered stem cebine from the early Miocene of Panama, indicates that the crown platyrrhine radiation was already well underway by the earliest Miocene, Canaanimico indicates in turn that the "homunculid" radiation (as a part of the stem radiation) was well underway by the late Oligocene. These new data suggest that the stem radiation likely occurred in the Neotropics

  19. New Delhi Metallo-beta-lactamase around the world: an eReview using Google Maps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berrazeg, M; Diene, Sm; Medjahed, L; Parola, P; Drissi, M; Raoult, D; Rolain, Jm

    2014-01-01

    Gram-negative carbapenem-resistant bacteria, in particular those producing New Delhi Metallo-betalactamase-1 (NDM-1), are a major global health problem. To inform the scientific and medical community in real time about worldwide dissemination of isolates of NDM-1-producing bacteria, we used the PubMed database to review all available publications from the first description in 2009 up to 31 December 2012, and created a regularly updated worldwide dissemination map using a web-based mapping application. We retrieved 33 reviews, and 136 case reports describing 950 isolates of NDM-1-producing bacteria. Klebsiella pneumoniae (n= 359) and Escherichia coli (n=268) were the most commonly reported bacteria producing NDM-1 enzyme. Several case reports of infections due to imported NDM-1 producing bacteria have been reported in a number of countries, including the United Kingdom, Italy, and Oman. In most cases (132/153, 86.3%), patients had connections with the Indian subcontinent or Balkan countries. Those infected were originally from these areas, had either spent time and/or been hospitalised there, or were potentially linked to other patients who had been hospitalised in these regions. By using Google Maps, we were able to trace spread of NDM-1-producing bacteria. We strongly encourage epidemiologists to use these types of interactive tools for surveillance purposes and use the information to prevent the spread and outbreaks of such bacteria.

  20. [Infection of New World primates with Junín virus. IV. Aotus trivirgatus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samoilovich, S R; Rondinone, S N; Laguens, R P; Colillas, O; Frigerio, M J; Weissenbacher, M C

    1983-01-01

    Owl monkeys (Aotus trivirgatus) were inoculated with XJ, a pathogenic strain of Junin virus, seeking new animal models for Argentine Hemorrhagic Fever. Nine monkeys were inoculated intramuscularly with 30 or 300,000 TCID50 of junin virus. Hematological and virological studies showed no alteration in blood elements such as red cell, reticular cell and platelets, up to 28 days after inoculation. Hemoglobin and hematocrit determinations also remained constant. However, significant neutropenia was seen at day 11 and minimal viremia was detected in some animals during the second and third week post-inoculation. No clinical or behavioral modifications were observed during the eighty-days observation period. Non-specific necropsy findings included pyelonephritis, pneumonitis, liver abscess and eosinophilic spleen infiltrate. All of these findings seem to be unrelated to Junin virus inoculation. No virus was present in organs of animals killed 29, 57 or 85 days post-inoculation. All nine owl monkeys developed serum neutralizing antibodies by day 22. It is concluded that the owl monkey suffers a subclinical infection when inoculated with Junin virus, similar to that seen in other primate species (Saimiri sciureus and Alouatta caraya).

  1. Persistence of the mitochondrial lineage responsible for the Irish potato famine in extant new world phytophthora infestans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Michael D; Ho, Simon Y W; Wales, Nathan; Ristaino, Jean B; Gilbert, M Thomas P

    2014-06-01

    The plant pathogen Phytophthora infestans emerged in Europe in 1845, triggering the Irish potato famine and massive European potato crop losses that continued until effective fungicides were widely employed in the 20th century. Today the pathogen is ubiquitous, with more aggressive and virulent strains surfacing in recent decades. Recently, complete P. infestans mitogenome sequences from 19th-century herbarium specimens were shown to belong to a unique lineage (HERB-1) predicted to be rare or extinct in modern times. We report 44 additional P. infestans mitogenomes: four from 19th-century Europe, three from 1950s UK, and 37 from modern populations across the New World. We use phylogenetic analyses to identify the HERB-1 lineage in modern populations from both Mexico and South America, and to demonstrate distinct mitochondrial haplotypes were present in 19th-century Europe, with this lineage initially diversifying 75 years before the first reports of potato late blight.

  2. Black Monday on stock markets throughout the world - a new phenomenon of collective panic disorder? A psychiatric approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sperling, Wolfgang; Bleich, Stefan; Reulbach, Udo

    2008-12-01

    Drastic losses on the stock markets within short periods have been the subject of numerous investigations in view of the fact that they are often irrational. Stock exchanges around the world suffered dramatic losses on Monday 21 January 2008, and again recently on Monday 17 March 2008. Regardless of cultural affiliation, public reporting of the global collapse in stock prices on Monday was striking in its almost unified mood of panic, anxiety and general fear of further partially arbitrary trading losses. These partly irrational mechanisms of an international financial crisis seem to fulfil several criteria of typical panic disorders according to classification systems like ICD-10 or DSM-IV. The new phenomenon affects international stock markets in the sense of a global panic disorder (GPD).

  3. Niche conservatism and dispersal limitation cause large-scale phylogenetic structure in the New World palm flora

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eiserhardt, Wolf L.; Svenning, J.-C.; Baker, William J.;

    phylogenetically conserved tolerances to temperature extremes and seasonality as well as dispersal limitation on evolutionary timescales. Niche dimensions that are phylogenetically conserved are not necessarily the ones that are thought to be most important for controlling contemporary species distributions (e...... similarity decays after speciation depends on the rates of niche evolution and dispersal. If dispersal is slow compared to the tempo of lineage diversification, distributions change little during clade diversification. Phylogenetic niche conservatism precludes distributional shifts in environmental space......, and to the degree that distributions are limited by the niche, also in geographic space. Using phylogenetic turnover methods, we simultaneously analysed the distributions of all New World palms (n=547) and inferred to which degree phylogenetic niche conservatism and dispersal limitation, respectively, caused...

  4. Records and Distribution of New World Phlebotomine Sand Flies (Psychodidae, Diptera), With Special Emphasis on Primary Types and Species Diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rueda, Leopoldo M; Foley, Desmond H; Pecor, David; Wolkoff, Matthew

    2015-01-01

    This article includes the records and distribution of Phlebotomine sand flies (Psychodidae, Diptera) in the New World based on the specimen collections housed in 2 repositories, the US National Museum of Natural History and the Museum of Entomology, Florida State Collection of Arthropods. Approximately 128 species have primary types housed in the 2 repositories, including holotypes (47 species, 3 subspecies), "types" (7 species), allotypes (52 species, 6 subspecies), lectotypes (4 species), paratypes (93 species, 10 subspecies), and neoallotype (1 species), mounted on slides, with a total of 1,107 type slides. For species diversity, collection data from 24 countries in the sand fly database were analyzed according to the number of species present, specimen records, decade of collections, and countries where collections were conducted.

  5. The Spanish royal philanthropic expedition to bring smallpox vaccination to the New World and Asia in the 19th century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franco-Paredes, Carlos; Lammoglia, Lorena; Santos-Preciado, José Ignacio

    2005-11-01

    The New World was ravaged by smallpox for several centuries after the Spanish conquest. Jenner's discovery of the smallpox vaccine made possible the prevention and control of smallpox epidemics. In response to a large outbreak of smallpox in the Spanish colonies, King Charles IV appointed Francisco Xavier de Balmis to lead an expedition that would introduce Jenner's vaccine to these colonies. During the journey, the vaccine was kept viable by passing it from arm to arm in orphaned children, who were brought along expressly for that purpose and remained under the care of the orphanage's director. This expedition was the first large scale mass vaccination of its kind. The historic legacy of this pioneering event in international health should be revisited in the current era of persistent inequalities in global health.

  6. Coccidia of New World passerine birds (Aves: Passeriformes): a review of Eimeria Schneider, 1875 and Isospora Schneider, 1881 (Apicomplexa: Eimeriidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berto, Bruno P; Flausino, Walter; McIntosh, Douglas; Teixeira-Filho, Walter L; Lopes, Carlos W G

    2011-11-01

    In the New World, the avian order Passeriformes comprises 47 families and 2,453 species, yet to date only 21 (45%) of the families and 58 (2%) of the species have been examined for coccidia, and from these only two species of Eimeria Schneider, 1875 and 81 species of Isospora Schneider, 1881 have been described. This review contributes to our understanding of the morphology and systematics of coccidian parasites of passeriforms, providing a scientific basis for the identification of sporulated oöcysts recovered from the faeces of passerine birds from North, Central and South America. To this end, the coccidia were organised and grouped according to the family of the host, following the widely recognised concept of family-specificity and the updated systematics of the class Aves. Details of 83 eimeriid species are presented along with an illustration and tabulated data.

  7. The imprint of Cenozoic migrations and evolutionary history on the biogeographic gradient of body size in New World mammals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales-Castilla, Ignacio; Olalla-Tárraga, Miguel Á; Purvis, Andy; Hawkins, Bradford A; Rodríguez, Miguel Á

    2012-08-01

    Ecology, evolution, and historical events all contribute to biogeographic patterns, but studies that integrate them are scarce. Here we focus on how biotic exchanges of mammals during the Late Cenozoic have contributed to current geographic body size patterns. We explore differences in the environmental correlates and phylogenetic patterning of body size between groups of mammals participating and not participating in past biotic exchanges. Both the association of body size with environmental predictors and its phylogenetic signal were stronger for groups that immigrated into North or South America than for indigenous groups. This pattern, which held when extinct clades were included in the analyses, can be interpreted on the basis of the length of time that clades have had to diversify and occupy niche space. Moreover, we identify a role for historical events, such as Cenozoic migrations, in configuring contemporary mammal body size patterns and illustrate where these influences have been strongest for New World mammals.

  8. The expanding role of the clinical haematologist in the new world of advanced therapy medicinal products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowdell, Mark W; Thomas, Amy

    2017-01-01

    Advanced therapy medicinal products (ATMPs) represent the current pinnacle of 'patient-specific medicines' and will change the nature of medicine in the near future. They fall into three categories; somatic cell-therapy products, gene therapy products and cells or tissues for regenerative medicine, which are termed 'tissue engineered' products. The term also incorporates 'combination products' where a human cell or tissue is combined with a medical device. Plainly, many of these new medicines share similarities with conventional haematological stem cell transplant products and donor lymphocyte infusions as well as solid organ grafts and yet ATMPs are regulated as medicines and their development has remained predominantly in academic settings and within specialist centres. However, with the advent of commercialisation of dendritic cell vaccines, chimeric antigen receptor (CAR)-T cells and genetically modified autologous haematopoietic stem cells to cure single gene-defects in β-thalassaemia and haemophilia, the widespread availability of these therapies needs to be accommodated. Uniquely to ATMPs, the patient or an allogeneic donor is regularly part of the manufacturing process. All of the examples given above require procurement of blood, bone marrow or an apheresate from a patient as a starting material for manufacture. This can only occur in a clinical facility licensed for the procurement of human cells for therapeutic use and this is likely to fall to haematology departments, either as stem cell transplant programmes or as blood transfusion departments, to provide under a contract with the company that will manufacture and supply the final medicine. The resource implications associated with this can impact on all haematology departments, not just stem cell transplant units, and should not be under-estimated.

  9. Evolutionary mechanics: new engineering principles for the emergence of flexibility in a dynamic and uncertain world.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitacre, James M; Rohlfshagen, Philipp; Bender, Axel; Yao, Xin

    2012-09-01

    Engineered systems are designed to deftly operate under predetermined conditions yet are notoriously fragile when unexpected perturbations arise. In contrast, biological systems operate in a highly flexible manner; learn quickly adequate responses to novel conditions, and evolve new routines and traits to remain competitive under persistent environmental change. A recent theory on the origins of biological flexibility has proposed that degeneracy-the existence of multi-functional components with partially overlapping functions-is a primary determinant of the robustness and adaptability found in evolved systems. While degeneracy's contribution to biological flexibility is well documented, there has been little investigation of degeneracy design principles for achieving flexibility in systems engineering. Actually, the conditions that can lead to degeneracy are routinely eliminated in engineering design. With the planning of transportation vehicle fleets taken as a case study, this article reports evidence that degeneracy improves the robustness and adaptability of a simulated fleet towards unpredicted changes in task requirements without incurring costs to fleet efficiency. We find that degeneracy supports faster rates of design adaptation and ultimately leads to better fleet designs. In investigating the limitations of degeneracy as a design principle, we consider decision-making difficulties that arise from degeneracy's influence on fleet complexity. While global decision-making becomes more challenging, we also find degeneracy accommodates rapid distributed decision-making leading to (near-optimal) robust system performance. Given the range of conditions where favorable short-term and long-term performance outcomes are observed, we propose that degeneracy may fundamentally alter the propensity for adaptation and is useful within different engineering and planning contexts.

  10. Benzylisoquinoline alkaloid metabolism: a century of discovery and a brave new world.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagel, Jillian M; Facchini, Peter J

    2013-05-01

    Benzylisoquinoline alkaloids (BIAs) are a structurally diverse group of plant specialized metabolites with a long history of investigation. Although the ecophysiological functions of most BIAs are unknown, the medicinal properties of many compounds have been exploited for centuries. These include the narcotic analgesics codeine and morphine, the antimicrobial agents sanguinarine and berberine, and the antitussive and anticancer drug noscapine. BIA biosynthesis involves a restricted number of enzyme types that catalyze landmark coupling reactions and subsequent functional group modifications. A pathogenesis-related (PR)10/Bet v1 'Pictet-Spenglerase', several O-methyl-, N-methyl- and O-acetyltransferases, cytochromes P450, FAD-dependent oxidases, non-heme dioxygenases and NADPH-dependent reductases have been implicated in the multistep pathways leading to structurally diverse alkaloids. A small number of plant species, including opium poppy (Papaver somniferum) and other members of the Ranunculales, have emerged as model systems to study BIA metabolism. The expansion of resources to include a wider range of plant species is creating an opportunity to investigate previously uncharacterized BIA pathways. Contemporary knowledge of BIA metabolism reflects over a century of research coupled with the development of key innovations such as radioactive tracing, enzyme isolation and molecular cloning, and functional genomics approaches such as virus-induced gene silencing. Recently, the emergence of transcriptomics, proteomics and metabolomics has expedited the discovery of new BIA biosynthetic genes. The growing repository of BIA biosynthetic genes is providing the parts required to apply emerging synthetic biology platforms to the development of production systems in microbes as an alternative to plants as a commecial source of valuable BIAs.

  11. Migratory New World blackbirds (icterids are more neophobic than closely related resident icterids.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Mettke-Hofmann

    Full Text Available Environments undergo short-term and long-term changes due to natural or human-induced events. Animals differ in their ability to cope with such changes which can be related to their ecology. Changes in the environment often elicit avoidance reactions (neophobia which protect animals from dangerous situations but can also inhibit exploration and familiarization with novel situations and thus, learning about new resources. Studies investigating the relationship between a species' ecology and its neophobia have so far been restricted to comparing only a few species and mainly in captivity. The current study investigated neophobia reactions to experimentally-induced changes in the natural environment of six closely-related blackbird species (Icteridae, including two species represented by two distinct populations. For analyses, neophobic reactions (difference in number of birds feeding and time spent feeding with and without novel objects were related to several measures of ecological plasticity and the migratory strategy (resident or migratory of the population. Phylogenetic relationships were incorporated into the analysis. The degree of neophobia was related to migratory strategy with migrants expressing much higher neophobia (fewer birds feeding and for a shorter time with objects present than residents. Furthermore, neophobia showed a relationship to diet breadth with fewer individuals of diet generalists than specialists returning when objects were present supporting the dangerous niche hypothesis. Residents may have evolved lower neophobia as costs of missing out on opportunities may be higher for residents than migrants as the former are restricted to a smaller area. Lower neophobia allows them approaching changes in the environment (e.g. novel objects quickly, thereby securing access to resources. Additionally, residents have a greater familiarity with similar situations in the area than migrants and the latter may, therefore, initially

  12. Visual motion integration by neurons in the middle temporal area of a New World monkey, the marmoset.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solomon, Selina S; Tailby, Chris; Gharaei, Saba; Camp, Aaron J; Bourne, James A; Solomon, Samuel G

    2011-12-01

    The middle temporal area (MT/V5) is an anatomically distinct region of primate visual cortex that is specialized for the processing of image motion. It is generally thought that some neurons in area MT are capable of signalling the motion of complex patterns, but this has only been established in the macaque monkey. We made extracellular recordings from single units in area MT of anaesthetized marmosets, a New World monkey. We show through quantitative analyses that some neurons (35 of 185; 19%) are capable of signalling pattern motion ('pattern cells'). Across several dimensions, the visual response of pattern cells in marmosets is indistinguishable from that of pattern cells in macaques. Other neurons respond to the motion of oriented contours in a pattern ('component cells') or show intermediate properties. In addition, we encountered a subset of neurons (22 of 185; 12%) insensitive to sinusoidal gratings but very responsive to plaids and other two-dimensional patterns and otherwise indistinguishable from pattern cells. We compared the response of each cell class to drifting gratings and dot fields. In pattern cells, directional selectivity was similar for gratings and dot fields; in component cells, directional selectivity was weaker for dot fields than gratings. Pattern cells were more likely to have stronger suppressive surrounds, prefer lower spatial frequencies and prefer higher speeds than component cells. We conclude that pattern motion sensitivity is a feature of some neurons in area MT of both New and Old World monkeys, suggesting that this functional property is an important stage in motion analysis and is likely to be conserved in humans.

  13. Rivaling the world's smallest reptiles: discovery of miniaturized and microendemic new species of leaf chameleons (Brookesia from northern Madagascar.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank Glaw

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: One clade of Malagasy leaf chameleons, the Brookesia minima group, is known to contain species that rank among the smallest amniotes in the world. We report on a previously unrecognized radiation of these miniaturized lizards comprising four new species described herein. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The newly discovered species appear to be restricted to single, mostly karstic, localities in extreme northern Madagascar: Brookesia confidens sp. n. from Ankarana, B. desperata sp. n. from Forêt d'Ambre, B. micra sp. n. from the islet Nosy Hara, and B. tristis sp. n. from Montagne des Français. Molecular phylogenetic analyses based on one mitochondrial and two nuclear genes of all nominal species in the B. minima group congruently support that the four new species, together with B. tuberculata from Montagne d'Ambre in northern Madagascar, form a strongly supported clade. This suggests that these species have diversified in geographical proximity in this small area. All species of the B. minima group, including the four newly described ones, are characterized by very deep genetic divergences of 18-32% in the ND2 gene and >6% in the 16S rRNA gene. Despite superficial similarities among all species of this group, their status as separate evolutionary lineages is also supported by moderate to strong differences in external morphology, and by clear differences in hemipenis structure. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: The newly discovered dwarf chameleon species represent striking cases of miniaturization and microendemism and suggest the possibility of a range size-body size relationship in Malagasy reptiles. The newly described Brookesia micra reaches a maximum snout-vent length in males of 16 mm, and its total length in both sexes is less than 30 mm, ranking it among the smallest amniote vertebrates in the world. With a distribution limited to a very small islet, this species may represent an extreme case of island dwarfism.

  14. The world goes modern: new globalized framings of the postwar era in the contemporary exhibitions After Year Zero and The World Goes Pop

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristian Handberg

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes the contemporary art historical focus on multiple modernities through two significant exhibitions: After Year Zero at Haus der Kulturen der Welt, Berlin 2013/Museum of Modern Art, Warsaw 2015 and The World Goes Pop, Tate Modern, London (2015. These different exhibitions are aimed at re-reading the post-1945 era in a global context, discussing how arts and culture responded to a global modernity. The article emphasizes the overlapping interests in this by academic art history and criticism as well as museal and curatorial efforts and discusses the idea of curatorial research in these different approaches.

  15. The world goes modern: new globalized framings of the postwar era in the contemporary exhibitions After Year Zero and The World Goes Pop

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Handberg, Kristian

    2016-01-01

    The article analyzes the contemporary art historical focus on multiple modernities through two significant exhibitions: After Year Zero at Haus der Kulturen der Welt, Berlin 2013/Museum of Modern Art, Warsaw 2015 and The World Goes Pop, Tate Modern, London (2015). These different exhibitions...... are aimed at re-reading the post-1945 era in a global context, discussing how arts and culture responded to a global modernity. The article emphasizes the overlapping interests in this by academic art history and criticism as well as museal and curatorial efforts and discusses the idea of curatorial...

  16. Illustrators of the New World. The Image in the Spanish Scientific Expeditions of the Enlightenment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Puig-Samper, Miguel Ángel

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In the Eighteenth Century, with the boom in the exploration of the Earth, most travellers and explorers had painters and illustrators at their sides who recorded their adventures, even their deaths, the exotic locations they visited, the aborigines, the landscapes or the strange creatures or plants that inhabited them. The presence of artists would increase in these types of exploration companies, sent by Spain, in order to recognise the natural resources and the imperial control of their territories. We take as a starting point Löfling’s expedition, in which naturalist artists seek to comply with the requirements of the Linnaean classification system then, looking at the case of Francisco Requena, who cartographically represented the territory and drew the activities of his own expedition members along the boundaries with the Portuguese empire. Likewise, we analyze expeditions known as “Botanical” to the different viceroyalties, which attempted to transmit the American nature idealized in a few “types” that were drawn and recorded to make the new species and the wealth of the Empire known, until finally arriving at the expedition of Malaspina, in which there is a step towards the depiction of the imperial landscape.

    En el siglo XVIII, con la explosión de la exploración de la Tierra, la mayoría de los viajeros y expedicionarios llevan a su lado a pintores y dibujantes que dejan constancia de sus aventuras, incluso de su muerte, de los lugares exóticos visitados, los aborígenes, el paisaje o las extrañas criaturas vegetales o animales que las habitan. La presencia de artistas irá incrementándose en este tipo de empresas de exploración enviadas por España para el reconocimiento de los recursos naturales y el control imperial de sus territorios. Tomamos como punto de partida la expedición de Löfling, en la que los dibujantes naturalistas buscan cumplir con los requisitos del sistema linneano de clasificación, pasando

  17. Reality Is Broken to Be Rebuilt: How a Gamer's Mindset Can Show Science Educators New Ways of Contribution to Science and World?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farhangi, Sanaz

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a review of Jane McGonigal's book, "Reality is broken" (Reality is broken: why games make us better and how they can change the world. Penguin Press, New York, 2011). As the book subtitle suggests it is a book about "why games make us better and how they can change the world", written by a specialist in computer game design. I…

  18. Molecular cloning of pituitary glycoprotein alpha-subunit and follicle stimulating hormone and chorionic gonadotropin beta-subunits from New World squirrel monkey and owl monkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scammell, Jonathan G; Funkhouser, Jane D; Moyer, Felricia S; Gibson, Susan V; Willis, Donna L

    2008-02-01

    The goal of this study was to characterize the gonadotropins expressed in pituitary glands of the New World squirrel monkey (Saimiri sp.) and owl monkey (Aotus sp.). The various subunits were amplified from total RNA from squirrel monkey and owl monkey pituitary glands by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and the deduced amino acid sequences compared to those of other species. Mature squirrel monkey and owl monkey glycoprotein hormone alpha-polypeptides (96 amino acids in length) were determined to be 80% homologous to the human sequence. The sequences of mature beta subunits of follicle stimulating hormone (FSHbeta) from squirrel monkey and owl monkey (111 amino acids in length) are 92% homologous to human FSHbeta. New World primate glycoprotein hormone alpha-polypeptides and FSHbeta subunits showed conservation of all cysteine residues and consensus N-linked glycosylation sites. Attempts to amplify the beta-subunit of luteinizing hormone from squirrel monkey and owl monkey pituitary glands were unsuccessful. Rather, the beta-subunit of chorionic gonadotropin (CG) was amplified from pituitaries of both New World primates. Squirrel monkey and owl monkey CGbeta are 143 and 144 amino acids in length and 77% homologous with human CGbeta. The greatest divergence is in the C terminus, where all four sites for O-linked glycosylation in human CGbeta, responsible for delayed metabolic clearance, are predicted to be absent in New World primate CGbetas. It is likely that CG secreted from pituitary of New World primates exhibits a relatively short half-life compared to human CG.

  19. Phylogeny and biogeography of the New World siskins and goldfinches: rapid, recent diversification in the Central Andes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beckman, Elizabeth J; Witt, Christopher C

    2015-06-01

    Time-calibrated molecular phylogenies can help us to understand the origins of the diverse and unique Andean avifauna. Previous studies have shown that the tempo of diversification differed between the Andes and adjacent lowland regions of South America. Andean taxa were found to have speciated more recently and to have avoided the decelerated diversification that is typical of Neotropical lowland clades. The South American siskins, a Pleistocene finch radiation, may typify this Andean pattern. We investigated the phylogenetic biogeography of all the New World siskins and goldfinches in new detail. To understand the specific role of the Andes in siskin diversification, we asked: (1) Was diversification faster in Andean siskin lineages relative to non-Andean ones? (2) Did siskin lineages move into and out of the Andes at different rates? We found that siskin lineages in the Andes had higher diversification rates and higher outward dispersal rates than siskin lineages outside the Andes. We conclude that páramo expansion and contraction in response to Pleistocene climatic cycles caused accelerated diversification and outward dispersal in Andean siskins. The younger average age of bird species in the Andes compared to lowland South America may be attributable to bursts of recent diversification in siskins and several other vagile, open-habitat clades.

  20. Connecting the Empire: New Research Perspectives on Infrastructures and the Environment in the (Post)Colonial World.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Straeten, Jonas; Hasenöhrl, Ute

    2017-03-01

    In the academic debate on infrastructures in the Global South, there is a broad consensus that (post)colonial legacies present a major challenge for a transition towards more inclusive, sustainable and adapted modes of providing services. Yet, relatively little is known about the emergence and evolution of infrastructures in former colonies. Until a decade ago, most historical studies followed Daniel Headrick's (1981) "tools of empire" thesis, painting-with broad brush strokes-a picture of infrastructures as instruments for advancing the colonial project of exploitation and subordination of non-European peoples and environments. This paper explores new research perspectives beyond this straightforward, 'diffusionist' perspective on technology transfer. In order to do so, it presents and discusses more recent studies which focus on interactive transfer processes as well as mechanisms of appropriation, and which increasingly combine approaches from imperial history, environmental history, and history of technology.There is much to gain from unpacking the changing motives and ideologies behind technology transfer; tracing the often contested and negotiated flows of ideas, technologies and knowledge within multilayered global networks; investigating the manifold ways in which infrastructures reflected and (re)produced colonial spaces and identities; critically reflecting on the utility of large (socio)technical systems (LTS) for the Global South; and approaching infrastructures in the (post)colonial world through entangled histories of technology and the environment. Following David Arnold's (2005) plea for a "more interactive, culturally-nuanced, multi-sited debate" on technology in the non-Western world, the paper offers fresh insights for a broader debate about how infrastructures work within specific parameters of time, place and culture.

  1. Diversification and reproductive isolation: cryptic species in the only New World high-duty cycle bat, Pteronotus parnellii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clare Elizabeth L

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Molecular techniques are increasingly employed to recognize the presence of cryptic species, even among commonly observed taxa. Previous studies have demonstrated that bats using high-duty cycle echolocation may be more likely to speciate quickly. Pteronotus parnellii is a widespread Neotropical bat and the only New World species to use high-duty cycle echolocation, a trait otherwise restricted to Old World taxa. Here we analyze morphological and acoustic variation and genetic divergence at the mitochondrial COI gene, the 7th intron region of the y-linked Dby gene and the nuclear recombination-activating gene 2, and provide extensive evidence that P. parnellii is actually a cryptic species complex. Results Central American populations form a single species while three additional species exist in northern South America: one in Venezuela, Trinidad and western Guyana and two occupying sympatric ranges in Guyana and Suriname. Reproductive isolation appears nearly complete (only one potential hybrid individual found. The complex likely arose within the last ~6 million years with all taxa diverging quickly within the last ~1-2 million years, following a pattern consistent with the geological history of Central and northern South America. Significant variation in cranial measures and forearm length exists between three of the four groups, although no individual morphological character can discriminate these in the field. Acoustic analysis reveals small differences (5–10 kHz in echolocation calls between allopatric cryptic taxa that are unlikely to provide access to different prey resources but are consistent with divergence by drift in allopatric species or through selection for social recognition. Conclusions This unique approach, considering morphological, acoustic and multi-locus genetic information inherited maternally, paternally and bi-parentally, provides strong support to conclusions about the cessation of gene flow and

  2. Major hematologic diseases in the developing world- new aspects of diagnosis and management of thalassemia, malarial anemia, and acute leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenberg, P L; Gordeuk, V; Issaragrisil, S; Siritanaratkul, N; Fucharoen, S; Ribeiro, R C

    2001-01-01

    The three presentations in this session encompass clinical, pathophysiological and therapeutic aspects of hematologic diseases which impact most heavily on developing world countries. Dr. Victor Gordeuk discusses new insights regarding the multi-faceted pathogenesis of anemia in the complicated malaria occurring in Africa. He describes recent investigations indicating the possible contribution of immune dysregulation to this serious complication and the implications of these findings for disease management. Dr. Surapol Issaragrisil and colleagues describe epidemiologic and clinical characteristics of the thalassemic syndromes. In addition to being considered a major health problem in Southeast Asia, the migration throughout the world of people from this region has caused the disease to have global impact. A unique thalassemia variant, Hb Ebeta-thalassemia, with distinctive clinical features, has particular relevance for this demographic issue. Special focus will be reported regarding recent prenatal molecular screening methods in Thailand which have proven useful for early disease detection and disease control strategies. Dr. Raul Ribeiro describes a clinical model for providing effective treatment for a complex malignancy (childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia) in countries with limited resources. With the multidisciplinary approach in Central American of the joint venture between St. Jude Children's Research Hospital International Outreach Program and indigenous health care personnel, major therapeutic advances for this disease have been achieved. Given the major demographic population shifts occurring worldwide, these illnesses also have important clinical implications globally. These contributions demonstrate that lessons learned within countries of disease prevalence aid our understanding and management of a number of disorders prominently seen in developed countries. They will show how effective partnerships between hematologists in more and less developed

  3. Identification and characterization of highly divergent simian foamy viruses in a wide range of new world primates from Brazil.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cláudia P Muniz

    Full Text Available Foamy viruses naturally infect a wide range of mammals, including Old World (OWP and New World primates (NWP, which are collectively called simian foamy viruses (SFV. While NWP species in Central and South America are highly diverse, only SFV from captive marmoset, spider monkey, and squirrel monkey have been genetically characterized and the molecular epidemiology of SFV infection in NWPs remains unknown. We tested a large collection of genomic DNA (n = 332 comprising 14 genera of NWP species for the presence of SFV polymerase (pol sequences using generic PCR primers. Further molecular characterization of positive samples was carried out by LTR-gag and larger pol sequence analysis. We identified novel SFVs infecting nine NWP genera. Prevalence rates varied between 14-30% in different species for which at least 10 specimens were tested. High SFV genetic diversity among NWP up to 50% in LTR-gag and 40% in pol was revealed by intragenus and intrafamilial comparisons. Two different SFV strains infecting two captive yellow-breasted capuchins did not group in species-specific lineages but rather clustered with SFVs from marmoset and spider monkeys, indicating independent cross-species transmission events. We describe the first SFV epidemiology study of NWP, and the first evidence of SFV infection in wild NWPs. We also document a wide distribution of distinct SFVs in 14 NWP genera, including two novel co-speciating SFVs in capuchins and howler monkeys, suggestive of an ancient evolutionary history in NWPs for at least 28 million years. A high SFV genetic diversity was seen among NWP, yet these viruses seem able to jump between NWP species and even genera. Our results raise concerns for the risk of zoonotic transmission of NWP SFV to humans as these primates are regularly hunted for food or kept as pets in forest regions of South America.

  4. Can old-world and new-world monkeys judge spatial above/below relations to be the same or different? Some of them, but not all of them.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Roger K R; Flemming, Timothy M; Hagmann, Carl Erick

    2016-02-01

    Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) with the aid of token training can achieve analogical reasoning, or the ability to understand relations-between-relations (e.g., Premack, 1976; Thompson, Oden, & Boysen, 1997). However, extraordinarily few numbers of old- and new-world monkeys have demonstrated this ability in variants of relational matching to sample tasks. Moreover, the rarity of replications leaves open the question of whether the results are normative for other captive colonies of the same species. In experiment one we attempted to replicate whether old world rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) might demonstrate the same level of proficiency on a spatial above/below relational matching task as reported for old world baboons (Papio papio). None of the rhesus monkeys attained above chance performances over 10,000 training trials. In experiment two we attempted to replicate results demonstrating that new-world capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella) match above/below relations. The capuchin monkeys performed above chance only in the absence of 'Clever Hans' controls for cuing of the correct choice by the experimenters. These failures to replicate previously reported results demonstrate that some, but definitely not all monkeys can judge the equivalence of abstract 'relations between relations' and warrant further investigations into the behavioral and cognitive characteristics that underlie these similarities and differences within population and between individuals of different primate species.

  5. Brave New Mobile World

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Maya; Reid

    2011-01-01

    An oral history of the mobile app boom in East Africa APPS are taking East Africa by storm.As mobile phone penetration rates increase,technologists and software developers in the region are scrambling to provide bigger and better services for an evergrowing consumer base. At the center of this flurry of activity is Nairobi,Kenya. But Dar Es Salaam in Tanzania and Uganda’s

  6. Brave new world?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, L

    1994-03-01

    Arguments in favour of embryo research Prevention of congenital defects. Reduction in number of miscarriages. Better understanding of infertility. Arguments against embryo research Morally unacceptable to take potential human life. The 14-day limit on research is arbitrary. Fears about the creation of 'superspecies' and 'designer babies'. Fear of embryo 'trade' in which embryos are bought and sold.

  7. Embracing a New World

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    KERRY; BROWN

    2010-01-01

    As Europe readies for deep financial cuts,the international community must also prepare People have been talking in Europe of an age of austerity since the end of 2008.The expectation of large cuts to government spending has been wide-spread. The question was just when the cuts would

  8. Bright new world

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kroó, Norbert; Rácz, Péter [Wigner Research Centre for Physics of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Institute for Solid State Physics and Optics, H-1525 Budapest, Pf. 49 (Hungary); Varró, Sándor [Wigner Research Centre for Physics of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Institute for Solid State Physics and Optics, H-1525 Budapest, Pf. 49 (Hungary); ELI-ALPS, ELI-Hu Nonprofit Kft., Dugonics tér 13, H-6720 Szeged (Hungary)

    2016-02-15

    Surface plasmons (SPOs) have been excited by intense femtosecond laser pulses on a gold film at room temperature and their near field has been analyzed by the intensity dependent response of an STM and by studying the spectra of multiplasmon emitted electrons. Around 80 GW/cm{sup 2} laser intensity, anomalies have been found in both cases, interpreted as the stepping in of electron pairing, transition to a diamagnetic state, and by anomalous Faraday rotation.

  9. The New World

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    诸立忠

    2005-01-01

    <正>In the eighteenth century young ladies in 1 were taught reading,writing, music and arithmetic. But their knowledge of history and 2 was very 3 . Once the French ambassador (大使)in Rome was giving a ball to which many important people were 4.The Italian Minister of Foreign Affairs came very late.A young lady, who was 5 acquainted (认识,了解)with him,saw him 6 the ballroom and asked why he was so 7. "You see,"said the Minister,"There has been 8 accident at the King’s Palace."

  10. Embracing a New World

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    KERRY BROWN

    2010-01-01

    @@ People have been talking in Europe of an age of auster-ity since the end of2008. The expectation of large cuts to governments pending has been wide-spread. The question was just when the cuts would start.

  11. Brave new worlds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boss, Alan

    2009-03-01

    Are we alone? There is perhaps no more important single scientific question. People have pondered this issue from the very dawn of sentience, wondering if other, similar, beings inhabited a distant mountain range or the other side of an ocean. The history of humanity is largely one of exploration and expansion, and while at first this was limited to the Earth's surface, in the last few decades only the power of our interplanetary rockets has kept us from exploring our wider environment. As the science-fiction author Ray Bradbury proclaimed when the Viking landers arrived on Mars in July 1976, "There is life on Mars, and it is us."

  12. Brave New World

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panettieri, Joseph C.

    2007-01-01

    Across the globe, progressive universities are embracing any number of MUVEs (multi-user virtual environments), 3D environments, and "immersive" virtual reality tools. And within the next few months, several universities are expected to test so-called "telepresence" videoconferencing systems from Cisco Systems and other leading technology…

  13. Designing Brave New Worlds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szekely, George

    1999-01-01

    Discusses the importance of designing settings for children that encourage hands-on creativity through play. Suggests the designs are art forms requiring a participatory art teaching style. Describes the technique and provides proven design ideas. (CMK)

  14. Brave New Mobile World

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Maya Reid

    2011-01-01

    APPS are taking East Africa by storm.As mobile phone penetration rates increase,technologisis and software developers in the provide bigger and better services for an evergrowing consumer base.At the center of this flurry of activity is Nairobi,Kenya.But Dar Es Salaam in Tanzania and Uganda's Kampala may not be far behind.

  15. A review of the mite subfamily Harpirhynchinae (Acariformes: Harpirhynchidae)--parasites of New World birds (Aves: Neognathae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bochkov, Andre V; OConnor, Barry M; Klompen, Hans

    2015-09-30

    Mites of the subfamily Harpirhynchinae (Acariformes: Cheyletoidea: Harpirhynchidae) associated with neognathous birds (Aves: Neognathae) in the New World are revised. In all, 68 species in 8 genera are recorded. Among them, 27 new species and 1 new genus are described as new for science: Harpyrhynchoides gallowayi Bochkov, OConnor and Klompen sp. nov. from Columba livia (Columbiformes: Columbidae) from Canada (Manitoba), H. zenaida Bochkov, OConnor and Klompen sp. nov. from Zenaida macroura (Columbiformes: Columbidae) from USA (Michigan), H. calidris Bochkov, OConnor and Klompen sp. nov. from Calidris minutilla (Charadriiformes: Scolopacidae) from USA (Kansas), H. actitis Bochkov, OConnor and Klompen sp. nov. from Actitis macularius (Charadriiformes: Scolopacidae) from Canada (British Columbia), H. charadrius Bochkov, OConnor and Klompen sp. nov. from Charadrius vociferus (Charadriiformes: Charadriidae) from USA (Texas), H. pluvialis Bochkov, OConnor and Klompen sp. nov. from Pluvialis dominica (Charadriiformes: Charadriidae) from USA (Ohio), H. bubulcus Bochkov, OConnor and Klompen sp. nov. from Bubulcus ibis (Pelecaniformes: Ardeidae) from USA (Florida), H. ixobrychus Bochkov, OConnor and Klompen sp. nov. from Ixobrychus exilis (Pelecaniformes: Ardeidae) from USA (Michigan), H. puffinus Mertins sp. nov. from Puffinus gravis (Procellariformes: Procellariidae) from USA (Florida), H. megascops Bochkov, OConnor and Klompen sp. nov. from Megascops asio (Strigiformes: Strigidae) from USA (Michigan), H. athene Bochkov, OConnor and Klompen sp. nov. from Athene canicularia (Strigiformes: Strigidae) from USA (Texas), H. coccyzus Bochkov, OConnor and Klompen sp. nov. from Coccyzus americanus (Cuculiformes: Cuculidae) from USA (Michigan), H. crotophaga Bochkov, OConnor and Klompen sp. nov. from Crotophaga ani (Cuculiformes: Cuculidae) from Suriname; Crassacarus Bochkov, OConnor and Klompen, gen. nov.: Crassacarus alexfaini Bochkov, OConnor and Klompen sp. nov. (type of genus

  16. Toxoplasmose em primatas neotropicais: estudo retrospectivo de sete casos Toxoplasmosis in New World primates: Retrospective study of seven cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata A. Casagrande

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A toxoplasmose é considerada uma doença parasitária fatal em primatas neotropicais. O objetivo deste trabalho foi descrever, através de um estudo retrospectivo, os casos de toxoplasmose em primatas neotropicais. No período de 1999-2009 foram realizados 86 exames anatomopatológicos em primatas e a toxoplasmose foi a enfermidade mais comum (7/86, relatando-se um caso em sagui-do-tufo-preto (Callithrix penicillata e seis em bugio-ruivo (Alouatta guariba. Dois animais foram encontrados mortos e cinco morreram em poucos dias. Os sinais clínicos mais frequentes foram apatia e anorexia (5/7, distensão abdominal (4/7 e febre (3/7. Na necropsia observou-se esplenomegalia (4/7, hemorragia do trato digestório, linfonodos e bexiga (4/7, pulmões avermelhados (3/7 e hepatomegalia (2/7. No exame histopatológico evidenciou-se hepatite (7/7, esplenite (3/7, miocardite (2/7, enterite (2/7, linfadenite (1/7 e sialite (1/7 necróticas e, pneumonia intersticial (4/7. Em fígado, pulmões, baço, coração, linfonodos e glândula salivar havia taquizoítos de Toxoplasma gondii que foram também detectados pelo exame de imuno-histoquímica anti-T. gondii em fígado, baço e pulmões (5/7. A toxoplasmose pode causar alta mortalidade em colônias de primatas neotropicais e representar mais uma ameaça à conversação dessas espécies em cativeiro. Sendo assim, medidas preventivas devem ser tomadas para evitar a contaminação desses animais.Toxoplasmosis is considered to be a fatal parasitic disease in New World primates. The objective of this report was to describe, through a retrospective study, the toxoplasmosis cases in New World primates. From 1999 to 2009 eighty-six anatomopathological exams was performed in primates and toxoplasmosis was the most common disease (7/86. One case occurred in Black-Tufted-Marmoset (Callithrix penicillata and six in Brown-Howler monkeys (Alouatta guariba. Two monkeys were found death and five died within few days. The most

  17. Cortical afferents of visual area MT in the Cebus monkey: possible homologies between New and Old World monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosa, M G; Soares, J G; Fiorani, M; Gattass, R

    1993-01-01

    Cortical projections to the middle temporal (MT) visual area were studied by injecting the retrogradely transported fluorescent tracer Fast Blue into MT in adult New World monkeys (Cebus apella). Injection sites were selected based on electrophysiological recordings, and covered eccentricities from 2-70 deg, in both the upper and lower visual fields. The position and laminar distribution of labeled cell bodies were correlated with myeloarchitectonic boundaries and displayed in flat reconstructions of the neocortex. Topographically organized projections were found to arise mainly from the primary, second, third, and fourth visual areas (V1, V2, V3, and V4). Coarsely topographic patterns were observed in transitional V4 (V4t), in the parieto-occipital and parieto-occipital medial areas (PO and POm), and in the temporal ventral posterior area (TVP). In addition, widespread or nontopographic label was found in visual areas of the superior temporal sulcus (medial superior temporal, MST, and fundus of superior temporal, FST), annectent gyrus (dorsointermediate area, DI; and dorsomedial area, DM), intraparietal sulcus (lateral intraparietal, LIP; posterior intraparietal, PIP; and ventral intraparietal, VIP), and in the frontal eye field (FEF). Label in PO, POm, and PIP was found only after injections in the representation of the peripheral visual field (> 10 deg), and label in V4 and FST was more extensive after injections in the central representation. The projections from V1 and V2 originated predominantly from neurons in supragranular layers, whereas those from V3, V4t, DM, DI, POm, and FEF consisted of intermixed patches with either supragranular or infragranular predominance. All of the other projections were predominantly infragranular. Invasion of area MST by the injection site led to the labeling of further pathways, including substantial projections from the dorsal prelunate area (DP) and from an ensemble of areas located along the medial wall of the hemisphere

  18. A review of the Central American and Caribbean species of the ant genus Eurhopalothrix Brown and Kempf, 1961 (Hymenoptera, Formicidae), with a key to New World species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longino, John T

    2013-01-01

    The ant genus Eurhopalothrix occurs throughout the Neotropics and Australasian tropics, where it is an inhabitant of forest leaf litter and soil. The New World species are reviewed, with an emphasis on the fauna of the MesoAmerican corridor and the Caribbean. Previously unappreciated characters of mandibular dentition and labrum shape vary dramatically among species and species groups. A total of 28 New World species are recognized, of which 14 are described as new. A key to workers of all New World species is provided. Eurhopalothrix procera is reported for the first time in the New World. The following new species are described: E. cimu Longino, sp. nov., E. circumcapillum Longino, sp. nov., E. guadeloupensis Longino, sp. nov., E. hunhau Longino, sp. nov., E. mabuya Longino, sp. nov., E. machaquila Longino, sp. nov., E. megalops Longino, sp. nov., E. ortizae Longino, sp. nov., E. oscillum Longino, sp. nov., E. semicapillum Longino, sp. nov., E. sepultura Longino, sp. nov., E. vulcan Longino, sp. nov., E. xibalba Longino, sp. nov., and E. zipacna Longino. sn. nov. Eurhopalothrix schmidti (Menozzi) is removed from synonymy with E. gravis (Mann).

  19. Globalization from a World-System Perspective: A New Phase in the CoreA New Destiny for Brazil and the Semiperiphery

    OpenAIRE

    Kathleen C. Schwartzman

    2015-01-01

    The study of globalization, prominent in all fields of social science, scarcely draws upon the insights generated by the world-systems theory. In this essay, I delineate five key dimensions on which a world-systems approach diverges from a world society approach. When linked together, these five stages offer support for a dependency perspective that was elaborated in the theoretical work underpinning the world-system paradigm. I use the case of Brazil to demonstrate how a consent model, deriv...

  20. Sustainability Assessment in Wine-Grape Growing in the New World: Economic, Environmental, and Social Indicators for Agricultural Businesses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina Santiago-Brown

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Indicators have been used in many sustainability assessment methods, however, disagreements over a common definition and scope for the sustainability concept have led to many distinct assessment methods, which are not often directly comparable. Before developing a sustainability assessment, it is essential to: define sustainability and specify the viewpoint of the assessor, the purpose of the assessment, and the context and time frame of the assessment. This article presents a short list of indicators and a method that can be readily adopted by any agricultural business or region to assess sustainability, making any organization, region or crop qualitatively comparable. These indicators were proposed by 83 top-level executives in 14 group interviews conducted using our adapted nominal group technique (ANGT. Executives were sourced from wine-grape growing organisations from New World wine-producing countries that also owned vineyards, and they considered everyday management practices of farms. These indicators, grouped within three categories (economic, environmental, and social were ranked by their importance. The method defines qualitative indicators that, in the context of distinct wine regions or crops should be quantified to maintain their relevance and usefulness.