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Sample records for camel camelus bactrianus

  1. Toxoplasma gondii infection in Bactrian camel (Camelus bactrianus) in China.

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    Wang, M; Wang, Y H; Meng, P; Ye, Q; Zhang, D L

    2013-02-18

    Camel is important to the economy of many countries. We report Toxoplasma gondii infection in Bactrian camels (Camelus bactrianus), first for this host. Antibodies to T. gondii were found in sera of 7 of 234 C. bactrianus from Qinghai Province, northwestern China. Sera were tested by a commercial indirect hemagglutination test at a cut-off of 1:64. Age or the gender of the camel did not significantly affect the seroprevalence. Results are of public health and economic importance because camel milk and meat are used for human consumption in many countries, including China. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Molecular diversity of methanogens in fecal samples from Bactrian camels (Camelus bactrianus) at two zoos.

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    Turnbull, Kathryn L; Smith, Rachel P; St-Pierre, Benoit; Wright, André-Denis G

    2012-08-01

    Animals are dependent on mutualistic microbial communities that reside in their gastrointestinal track for essential physiological functions such as nutrition and pathogen resistance. The composition of microbial communities in an animal is influenced by various factors, including species, diet and geographical location. In this preliminary study, the population structure of fecal methanogens in Bactrian camels (Camelus bactrianus) from two zoos was studied using separate 16S rRNA gene libraries for each zoo. While methanogen sequences belonging to the genus Methanobrevibacter were dominant in both libraries, they showed significant differences in diversity (p=0.05) and structure (pZoo library and seven OTUs were unique to the Potter Park Zoo library. These preliminary results highlight how methanogen population structures can vary greatly between animals of the same species maintained in captivity at different locations. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Multilocus phylogenetic analysis of Cryptosporidium andersoni (Apicomplexa) isolated from a bactrian camel (Camelus bactrianus) in China.

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    Wang, Rongjun; Zhang, Longxian; Ning, Changshen; Feng, Yaoyu; Jian, Fuchun; Xiao, Lihua; Lu, Biao; Ai, Weichang; Dong, Heping

    2008-04-01

    This is the first report of cryptosporidiosis in a bactrian camel (Camelus bactrianus) in China. Two Cryptosporidium isolates derived from the same bactrian camel (3-year-old) in November 2005 and April 2006 were characterized using sequence and phylogenetic analysis of the small-subunit rRNA (18S rRNA), 70-kDa heat shock protein (HSP70), actin and Cryptosporidium oocyst wall protein (COWP) genes. The sequences of the 18S rRNA and COWP were identical to all other Cryptosporidium andersoni isolates although minor differences were noticed between the isolates and the USA isolate at the actin locus (99.2% of similarity). The sequence of the HSP70 was identical to the Japanese C. andersoni isolate, with a minor difference from the Australian C. andersoni isolate (99.7% of similarity). Cross-transmission studies demonstrated that the C. andersoni isolates did not infect immunosuppressed or immunocompetent Kun-ming mice, severe combined immunodeficiency mice, and immunosuppressed or immunocompetent calves. Among the C. andersoni isolates reported so far, only isolates from Japan could infect SCID mice. Thus, the C. andersoni isolates from the bactrian camel were biologically similar to most bovine C. andersoni isolates characterized so far, but are different from bovine isolates from Japan.

  4. Camel calves as opportunistic milk thefts? The first description of allosuckling in domestic bactrian camel (Camelus bactrianus.

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    Karolína Brandlová

    Full Text Available Allosuckling is a situation when a female nurses a non-filial offspring. It was described in various ungulate species; however for camels this is the first description of this behaviour. The aim of the study was to assess the occurrence of allosuckling in captive camels (Camelus bactrianus and to test whether it can be explained as a 'milk-theft' (opportunistic behaviour of calves or alternatively as an altruistic behaviour of females. During 2005 and 2007, nine camel females and ten calves in four zoological gardens in the Czech Republic were observed. In total, 373 sucking bouts were recorded, from which 32 were non-filial (the calf sucked from the non-maternal female. Allosuckling regularly appeared in captive camel herds. As predicted for the milk-theft explanation, the non-filial calves sucked more often in the lateral position and even did not suck in the antiparallel position at all. The non-filial calves preferably joined the filial calf when sucking but in five cases (15.6% of non-filial sucking bouts the calves sucked from non-maternal dam without the presence of filial calf. We then expected the differences in terminations of sucking bouts by females but did not find any difference in sucking terminations for filial and non-filial calves. As the calves were getting older, the incidence of allosucking increased. This was probably because skills of the calf to outwit the non-maternal dam increased and/or the older calves might be more motivated for allosucking due to the weaning process. Finally, duration of a sucking bout was shorter with non-filial than filial calves. The results of the study support the hypothesis of 'milk theft', being mostly performed by calves behaving as opportunistic parasites, but we cannot reject certain level of altruism from the allonursing females or their increased degree of tolerance to non-filial calves.

  5. Camel calves as opportunistic milk thefts? The first description of allosuckling in domestic bactrian camel (Camelus bactrianus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandlová, Karolína; Bartoš, Luděk; Haberová, Tamara

    2013-01-01

    Allosuckling is a situation when a female nurses a non-filial offspring. It was described in various ungulate species; however for camels this is the first description of this behaviour. The aim of the study was to assess the occurrence of allosuckling in captive camels (Camelus bactrianus) and to test whether it can be explained as a 'milk-theft' (opportunistic behaviour of calves) or alternatively as an altruistic behaviour of females. During 2005 and 2007, nine camel females and ten calves in four zoological gardens in the Czech Republic were observed. In total, 373 sucking bouts were recorded, from which 32 were non-filial (the calf sucked from the non-maternal female). Allosuckling regularly appeared in captive camel herds. As predicted for the milk-theft explanation, the non-filial calves sucked more often in the lateral position and even did not suck in the antiparallel position at all. The non-filial calves preferably joined the filial calf when sucking but in five cases (15.6% of non-filial sucking bouts) the calves sucked from non-maternal dam without the presence of filial calf. We then expected the differences in terminations of sucking bouts by females but did not find any difference in sucking terminations for filial and non-filial calves. As the calves were getting older, the incidence of allosucking increased. This was probably because skills of the calf to outwit the non-maternal dam increased and/or the older calves might be more motivated for allosucking due to the weaning process. Finally, duration of a sucking bout was shorter with non-filial than filial calves. The results of the study support the hypothesis of 'milk theft', being mostly performed by calves behaving as opportunistic parasites, but we cannot reject certain level of altruism from the allonursing females or their increased degree of tolerance to non-filial calves.

  6. Levels and trends of PCDD/Fs and PCBs in camel milk (Camelus bactrianus and Camelus dromedarius) from Kazakhstan.

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    Konuspayeva, Gaukhar; Faye, Bernard; De Pauw, Edwin; Focant, Jean-François

    2011-10-01

    To date, despite the fact it represents a very important part of the national dairy production, no data are available concerning the concentrations of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs), and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in camel milk from the Republic of Kazakhstan. Selected PCDDs, PCDFs, and PCBs were measured in pools of milk from camels (n=15) located in various places of Kazakhstan (Almaty, Atyrau, Aralsk, Shymkent) and sampled at two different seasons for two different species (Camelus bactrianus and Camelus dromedarius). Non-dioxin-like (NDL-)PCB concentrations (6.3±2.7 ng g(-1) fat, median 5.1 ng g(-1) fat, range 0.6-17.4 ng g(-1) fat) were far below the maximum value of 40 ng g(-1) fat proposed by the EU. Dioxin-like (DL-)PCB concentrations (1.7±0.7 ng g(-1) fat, median 1.5 ng g(-1) fat, range 0.3-4.2 ng g(-1) fat) and the NDL-PCB to DL-PCB ratio (4.3) were similar to what is reported in EU for cow-based dairy products. PCB 52 and PCB 101 appeared to be proportionally more present in Kazakh camel milk samples (>60% of the sum of the 6 indicator NDL-PCBs) than in European cow milk samples (camel milk (>80% of the sum of the 12 DL-PCBs). PCB 105, PCB 118 and PCB 156 were the major congeners for DL-PCBs, accounting for 92% of the sum of concentrations of DL-PCBs (88% for Belgian cows). In terms of TEQ, PCB 126 and PCB 118 are the major contributors and represent, respectively, 80% and 14% of the DL-PCB TEQWHO05 concentrations. No significant interracial or geographical trends were observed for NDL- and DL-PCB profiles. However, concentrations of all DL-PCBs appeared to be significantly higher for samples collected in Atyrau region. 2,3,7,8-TCDD level (mean 0.08±0.07 pg g(-1) fat, median 0.08 pg g(-1) fat, range 0.00-0.18 pg g(-1) fat, 60%>LOQs) were very low for all samples and 2,3,4,7,8-PeCDF was the major contributor (27%) to the PCDD/F TEQWHO05. Considering the total TEQWHO05 (sum of DL-PCBs and PCDD

  7. A complete mitochondrial genome sequence of the wild two-humped camel (Camelus bactrianus ferus: an evolutionary history of camelidae

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    Meng He

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The family Camelidae that evolved in North America during the Eocene survived with two distinct tribes, Camelini and Lamini. To investigate the evolutionary relationship between them and to further understand the evolutionary history of this family, we determined the complete mitochondrial genome sequence of the wild two-humped camel (Camelus bactrianus ferus, the only wild survivor of the Old World camel. Results The mitochondrial genome sequence (16,680 bp from C. bactrianus ferus contains 13 protein-coding, two rRNA, and 22 tRNA genes as well as a typical control region; this basic structure is shared by all metazoan mitochondrial genomes. Its protein-coding region exhibits codon usage common to all mammals and possesses the three cryptic stop codons shared by all vertebrates. C. bactrianus ferus together with the rest of mammalian species do not share a triplet nucleotide insertion (GCC that encodes a proline residue found only in the nd1 gene of the New World camelid Lama pacos. This lineage-specific insertion in the L. pacos mtDNA occurred after the split between the Old and New World camelids suggests that it may have functional implication since a proline insertion in a protein backbone usually alters protein conformation significantly, and nd1 gene has not been seen as polymorphic as the rest of ND family genes among camelids. Our phylogenetic study based on complete mitochondrial genomes excluding the control region suggested that the divergence of the two tribes may occur in the early Miocene; it is much earlier than what was deduced from the fossil record (11 million years. An evolutionary history reconstructed for the family Camelidae based on cytb sequences suggested that the split of bactrian camel and dromedary may have occurred in North America before the tribe Camelini migrated from North America to Asia. Conclusion Molecular clock analysis of complete mitochondrial genomes from C. bactrianus ferus and L

  8. First cloned Bactrian camel (Camelus bactrianus calf produced by interspecies somatic cell nuclear transfer: A step towards preserving the critically endangered wild Bactrian camels.

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    Nisar Ahmad Wani

    Full Text Available Studies were conducted to explore the possibility of employing dromedary camel (Camelus dromedarius oocytes as recipient cytoplasts for the development of interspecies somatic cell nuclear transfer (iSCNT embryos using skin fibroblast cells of an adult Bactrian camel (Camelus bactrianus and Llama (Llama glama as donor nuclei. Also, the embryos reconstructed with Bactrian cells were transferred into the uterus of synchronized dromedary camel recipients to explore the possibility of using them as surrogate mothers. Serum-starved skin fibroblast cells were injected into the perivitelline space of enucleated mature oocytes, collected from super-stimulated dromedary camels, and fused using an Eppendorf electroporator. After activation with 5μM ionomycin and 6-dimethylaminopurine, they were cultured at 38.5°C in an atmosphere of 5% CO2, 5% O2, and 90% N2 in air. In experiment 1, Day 7 blastocysts were stained with Hoechst to count their cell numbers, while in experiment 2, they were transferred to synchronized dromedary recipients. A lower number (P < 0.05 of blastocysts were obtained from reconstructs utilizing fibroblast cells from Llama when compared with those reconstructed with dromedary and Bactrian fibroblast cells. However, no difference was observed in their cell numbers. In experiment 2, a higher (P < 0.05 proportion of blastocysts were obtained from the cleaved embryos reconstructed with Bactrian fibroblast cells when compared to those reconstructed with dromedary cells. Twenty-six Day 7 blastocysts reconstructed with Bactrian cells were transferred to 23 synchronized dromedary recipients with 5 pregnancies established on Day 30, however, only one of the pregnancies developed to term and a healthy calf weighing 33 kgs was born after completing 392 days of gestation. Unfortunately, the calf died on day 7 due to acute septicemia. In conclusion, the present study reports, for the first time, birth of a cloned Bactrian calf by iSCNT using

  9. Distribution of immunoglobulin G antibody secretory cells in small intestine of Bactrian camels (Camelus bactrianus)

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Wang-Dong; WANG, Wen-hui; Jia, Shuai

    2015-01-01

    Background To explore the morphological evidence of immunoglobulin G (IgG) participating in intestinal mucosal immunity, 8 healthy adult Bactrian camels used. First, IgG was successfully isolated from their serum and rabbit antibody against Bactrian camels IgG was prepared. The IgG antibody secretory cells (ASCs) in small intestine were particularly observed through immumohistochemical staining, then after were analyzed by statistical methods. Results The results showed that the IgG ASCs were...

  10. Chemical characterization of the oligosaccharides in Bactrian camel (Camelus bactrianus) milk and colostrum.

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    Fukuda, K; Yamamoto, A; Ganzorig, K; Khuukhenbaatar, J; Senda, A; Saito, T; Urashima, T

    2010-12-01

    Bactrian camel milk and colostrum are commonly used as foods in Mongolia, whose people believe that these products promote human health. It has been hypothesized that milk oligosaccharides are biologically significant components of human milk, acting as receptor analogs that inhibit the attachment of pathogenic microorganisms to the colonic mucosa, and as prebiotics, which stimulate the growth of bifidobacteria within the infant colon. To evaluate their biological significance, we studied the oligosaccharides present in samples of Bactrian camel milk and colostrum. Using (1)H-nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, we identified and characterized the following oligosaccharides of camel colostrum: Gal(β1-4)[Fuc(α1-3)]Glc (3-fucosyllactose), Gal(β1-3)Gal(β1-4)Glc (3'-galactosyllactose), Gal(β1-6)Gal(β1-4)Glc (6'-galactosyllactose), Neu5Ac(α2-3)Gal(β1-4)Glc (3'-sialyllactose), Neu5Ac(α2-6)Gal(β1-4)Glc (6'-sialyllactose), Neu5Ac(α2-3)Gal(β1-3)Gal(β1-4)Glc (sialyl-3'-galactosyllactose), Neu5Ac(α2-6)Gal(β1-4)GlcNAc(β1-3)Gal(β1-4)Glc (sialyllacto-N-tetraose c), Neu5Ac(α2-3)Gal(β1-3)[Gal(β1-4)GlcNAc(β1-6)]Gal(β1-4)Glc (sialyllacto-N-novopentaose a), Gal(β1-3)[Neu5Ac(α2-6)Gal(β1-4)GlcNAc(β1-6)]Gal(β1-4)Glc (sialyllacto-N-novopentaose b); and Neu5Ac(α2-6)Gal(β1-4)GlcNAc(β1-3)[Gal(β1-4)GlcNAc(β1-6)]Gal(β1-4)Glc (monosialyllacto-N-neohexaose). The oligosaccharides in the mature camel milk were characterized as 3'-galactosyllactose, Gal(β1-3)[Gal(β1-4)GlcNAc(β1-6)]Gal(β1-4)Glc (lacto-N-novopentaose I), and 3'-sialyllactose. Copyright © 2010 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. A comprehensive analysis of immunoglobulin heavy chain genes in the Bactrian camel (Camelus bactrianus

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    Zuoxiang LIANG,Tao WANG,Yi SUN,Wenlong YANG,Zhihong LIU,Jing FEI,Ying GUO,Qingwei MA,Qingjie PAN,Liming REN

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Heavy chain only antibodies (HCAbs represent a rare type of antibody that is devoid of light chains and the CH1 domain that have been reported in cartilaginous fish and camelids. By analyzing transcript data and genome sequences, we conducted a comprehensive analysis of Bactrian camel immunoglobulin heavy chain genes. Based on the transcript data, one μ gene, five γ genes, one α gene and one ε gene were found. Additionally, the variable region of HCAbs (VHH and the conventional antibodies (VH sequences associated with the γ3, γ1a/b and μ genes were amplified. Based on these genome sequences, seven DH, six JH, μ, γ2a, γ2c, α, and ε genes and a portion of a γ3 gene were observed. Different Kozak sequences within different VH families were found in our analysis, and the variability index differed between the VHH3 and VH3 families. Phylogenetic analysis of the constant regions of the camelid immunoglobulin genes indicates that these genes appeared before the evolutionary divergence of Bactrian camels and dromedaries.

  12. Bioinformatics and Phylogenetic Analysis of Mitochondrial COX3 Gene in Iranian Camelus Dromedaries and Camelus Bactrianus

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    Tooba Abbassi-Daloii

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Camels belong to the family of Camelidae, suborder of Tylopoda, order of artiodactyla and class of mammalians. The family Camelidae has two old world species, double-humped camel (CAMELUS BACTRIANUS and single-humped camel (CAMELUS DROMEDARIES and four new world (tribe Lamini species, guanaco (LAMA GUANICOE, llama (LAMA GLAMA, alpaca (LAMA PACOS and vicuna (LAMA VICUGNA or VICUGNA VICUGNA at present time. The single-humped camel inhabits Afro-Arabia, Ethiopia and west Central Asia while the double-humped inhabits eastern Central Asia and China. Camel has been historically and economically an important species worldwide especially in the Africa and Asia. Camel has unique characteristics enable it to adapt its desert environment. The total worldwide camel population at present estimated to be about 23 million in the world. Somalia and Sudan together hold approximately 50% of the whole camel population. In the last 40 years, the number of camels has increased by almost 45%. Iranian native species are considered as part of the national capital so their preservation is so important. Due to severe decrease in their population in some areas, more attention to conservation genetics perspective of these species is very important. The aim of this study was to bioinformatics and phylogenetic analysis of mitochondrial sequence of cytochrome c oxidase subunit 3 (COX3 in Iranian Camelus dromedaries and Camelus bactrianus. Materials and Methods For this purpose 10 blood samples were collected from each species (totally 20 samples. After DNA extraction, the fragment with 979 bp length from mitochondrial DNA was amplified using polymerase chain reaction. Sequencing was performed by automated Sanger methods then the obtained sequences were compared with sequences from other studies. The nucleotide sequences obtained were edited using the PHRED software (http://www.phrap.org /phredphrapconsed.html. After editing, basic local alignment search tool

  13. Effectiveness of a tris-based extender (SHOTOR diluent) for the preservation of Bactrian camel (Camelus bactrianus) semen.

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    Niasari-Naslaji, A; Mosaferi, S; Bahmani, N; Gharahdaghi, A A; Abarghani, A; Ghanbari, A; Gerami, A

    2006-08-01

    The development of a suitable semen extender is required to extend artificial breeding programs and to preserve the genetic potential of Bactrian camel. Experiments were conducted to provide the optimal osmolality and pH of tris-based extender and to compare that with available extenders for short-term preservation of Bactrian camel semen at 4 degrees C during 24 h. In experiments I and II, the effects of varying osmolalities (270, 300, 330, 360, and 390 mOsm/kg) and pHs (5.5, 6, 6.9, 7.5, 7.9, and 8.9) of tris-based extender on sperm viability were investigated. In experiment III, the efficiency of tris-based extender (SHOTOR diluent) in preserving Bactrian camel semen was compared with lactose (10%), sucrose (10%) and Green buffer. Viability parameters including progressive forward motility (PFM), plasma membrane integrity and the percentage of live spermatozoa were assessed. The data were analyzed using general linear model procedure. In the majority of assessments using tris-based extender, the viability of spermatozoa was superior at the osmolality of 330 mOsm/kg and pH of 6.9. PFM was significantly greater at the time of semen dilution in tris-based (65.5%) and Green buffer (60.5%) compared to that of lactose (31%) and sucrose (28%) extenders (P0.05). In conclusion, the utilization of a tris-based extender, having the osmolality of 330 mOsm/kg and pH of 6.9, favors the short-term preservation of the Bactrian camel spermatozoa under chilled condition.

  14. Localization of neonatal Fc receptor for IgG in aggregated lymphoid nodules area in abomasum of Bactrian camels (Camelus bactrianus of different ages

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    Wang-Dong Zhang

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The neonatal Fc receptor (FcRn plays a crucial role in transporting IgG and associated antigens across polarized epithelial barriers in mucosal immunity. However, it was not clear that FcRn expression in aggregated lymphoid nodules area (ALNA in abomasum, a unique and important mucosal immune structure discovered only in Bactrian camels. In the present study, 27 Alashan Bactrian camels were divided into the following five age groups: fetus (10–13 months of gestation, young (1–2 years, pubertal (3–5 years, middle-aged (6–16 years and old (17–20 years. The FcRn expressions were observed and analyzed in detail with histology, immunohistochemistry, micro-image analysis and statistical methods. Results The results showed that the FcRn was expressed in mucosal epithelial cells of ALNA from the fetus to the old group, although the expression level rapidly declined in old group; moreover, after the ALNA maturated, the FcRn expression level in the non-follicle-associated epithelium (non-FAE was significantly higher than that in FAE (P < 0.05. In addition, the FcRn was also expressed in the vessel endothelium, smooth muscle tissue, and macrophages and dendritic cells (DCs of secondary lymphoid follicles (sLFs. Conclusions It was demonstrated that FcRn was mainly expressed in non-FAE, the effector sites, although which was expressed in FAE, the inductive sites for mucosal immunity. And it was also expressed in DCs and macrophages in sLFs of all ages of Bactrian camels. The results provided a powerful evidence that IgG (including HCAb could participate in mucosal immune response and tolerance in ALNA of Bactrian camels through FcRn transmembrane transport.

  15. Impact of aging on distribution of IgA(+) and IgG(+) cells in aggregated lymphoid nodules area in abomasum of Bactrian camels (Camelus bactrianus).

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    Zhang, Wang-Dong; Zhang, Xue-Feng; Cheng, Cui-Cui; Jia, Shuai; Liu, Lei; Wang, Wen-Hui

    2017-10-06

    The aggregated lymphoid nodules area (ALNA) in the abomasum is a special organized lymphoid tissue discovered only in Bactrian camels at present. This study aimed to explore the impact of aging on distribution of IgA(+) and IgG(+) cells in ALNA in abomasum of Bactrian camels. Twenty-four Alashan Bactrian camels were divided into the following four age groups: young (1-2years), pubertal (3-5years), middle-aged (6-16years) and old (17-20years). IgA(+) and IgG(+) cells in the lamina propria of ALNA were observed and analyzed using immunohistochemical and statistical techniques. The results showed that, in ALNA, the distribution of IgA(+) and IgG(+) cells were diffuse, and only a few were in subepithelium dome (SED) and most of them in non-SED. Meanwhile, there were significantly more IgA(+) cells than IgG(+) cells in SED from the young to the middle aged group, but which reversed in old group (PIgG(+) cells populations in non-SED (PIgG(+) cells, but which were both significantly lower in old group than those in young group (PIgG(+) cells populations and impacted on the defense barriers formed by IgA and IgG, but had no impact on the scattered characteristics. In inductive sites, the aging dramatically declined their densities, and they should have close relationships with immune memory. These findings lay the foundation for further researching the mucosal immune disorder or decline caused by aging, and especially underscore the importance of researching the impact of aging on the relationship between IgA(+) and IgG(+) cells populations and the microbiota colonized in abomasum of Bactrian camels. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Pattern of tick infestation on one humped camels ( Camelus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The pattern of tick infestation in one humped camels (Camelus dromedarius) was assessed in Sokoto metropolitan abattoir, Sokoto State, Nigeria where an average of 10 to 15 camels were slaughtered per day on an open concrete slaughter slab. A total of 200 randomly selected camels made up of 124 males and 76 ...

  17. Genetic variability of camel ( Camelus dromedarius ) populations in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Camelus dromedarius) are poorly documented in Saudi Arabia. The present study was conducted to address some of these genetics using four Saudi Arabian camel populations namely; Magaheem (MG), Maghateer (MJ), Sofr (SO) and Shual (SH) ...

  18. Genetic variability of camel (Camelus dromedarius) populations in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2010

    2012-06-26

    Camelus dromedarius) are poorly documented in Saudi Arabia. The present study was conducted to address some of these genetics using four Saudi Arabian camel populations namely; Magaheem (MG), Maghateer (MJ), Sofr.

  19. A Cross-Sectional Study Of Mastitis In Camels ( Camelus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Camelus dromedarius) were examined in Somali Region, southeastern Ethiopia to study the prevalence and bacterial causes of mastitis between Nov. 2002 – April 2003. Out of the 137 lactating camels, 10.2% (14/137) were positive for clinical ...

  20. Gastrointestinal helminths of camels (Camelus dromedarius) in center of Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anvari-Tafti, M; Sazmand, A; Hekmatimoghaddam, S; Moobedi, I

    2013-03-01

    Camels are multipurpose animals in Iran. As parasitic diseases are the major cause of impaired meat and milk production in this animal, the present study aimed at determining gastrointestinal helminthic infections of Iranian camels in the center of the country. Gastrointestinal (GI) tract of 144 carcasses of one-humped camels (Camelus dromedarius) slaughtered in Yazd, Esfahan and Kerman provinces' abattoirs were examined for adult helminths. Camels were from both sexes and different ages. Recovered parasites were identified according to described keys by light microscope. Of 144 tested camels, 117 were infected with at least one helminth species (81.3%). A total of 28 worm species from 14 genera were identified in the digestive tract of infected animals, including 26 species of nematodes and two species of cestodes. The infection rates in stomach, small intestine, and caecum/large intestine were 86.3%, 91.5% and 11.1%, respectively. However, no worm was found in the oesophagus. The recovered worms with infection rates are discussed in this paper. In the present study, Haemonchus tataricus, Trichostrongylus hamatus and Trichuris infundibulus are reported from Iranian dromedaries for the first time. Regarding high prevalence of infection, using anthelminthic drugs seemed necessary to improve the health and productivity of camels. On the other hand, the high rate of zoonotic species indicated that camels have important role in maintaining and transmitting infection to humans.

  1. Brucellosis in camels ( Camelus dromedaries ) slaughtered in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... season recorded the highest prevalence of 15.07% among the seasons. Since brucellosis is a zoonotic disease, it is important to include camels in vaccination programs against the disease. Keywords: Sero-prevalence; brucellosis; Camels; Zoonotic; Brucella abortus; Nigeria Animal Production Research Advances Vol.

  2. Haemoparasites of camels (Camelus dromedarius) in Maiduguri ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Astudy was conducted to determine the prevalence and significance of haemoparasite of camels slaughtered in Maiduguri abattoir. Blood samples were colleced aseptcally from camels before slaughter noting age and sex of animals. The samples were processed for packed cell volume (PCV) and thin smear stained with ...

  3. Scrotal granulomatous aspergillosis in a dromedary camel (Camelus dromedarius)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scaglione, Frine Eleonora; Peano, Andrea; Piga, Sara

    2017-01-01

    Background This report describes a case of primary subcutaneous aspergillosis in a 7-year-old neutered male dromedary camel (Camelus dromedarius). Case presentation The animal developed a large nodular lesion in the right scrotum two years after surgical intervention for neutering. The mass had...... was not performed, but a panel of mono- and polyclonal antibodies specific for different fungal genera identified the hyphae as Aspergillus sp. Conclusions The occurrence of subcutaneous lesions is a rare manifestation of aspergillosis in animals, and this appears to be the first case reported in the dromedary...

  4. Trypanosomosis of The Dromedary Camel ( Camelus dromedarius ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    caught more arthropod vectors than similarly baited black/grey biconical and black/grey NITSE traps. From the foregoing, the results showed that mixed trypanosome infections occur commonly among camels in the arid zone of northeastern Nigeria. Secondly, haematophagus arthropods vectors may be involved in the ...

  5. Sequence and polymorphism analysis of the camel (#Camelus dromedarius#) myostatin gene

    OpenAIRE

    Muzzachi, Stefania; Oulmouden, Ahmad; Cherifi, Youcef; Yahyaoui, Mohamed Habib; Zayed, Mohamed; Burger, Pamela; Lacalandra, Giovanni Michele; Faye, Bernard; Ciani, Elena

    2015-01-01

    Myostatin (MSTN), a negative regulator of skeletal muscle development in mammals, represents a key target for genetic investigations in meat-producing animals, with mutations responsible for increased skeletal-muscle mass currently described in several livestock species. Dromedary camels play a major economic role as suppliers of meat for human consumption across several countries. Notwithstanding, a comprehensive characterization of the sequence variability at the Camelus dromedarius MSTN lo...

  6. Natural Dermatophilus congolensis infection in camels (Camelus dromedarius) from Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gitao, C G; Evans, J O; Atkins, D J

    1990-10-01

    Natural Dermatophilus congolensis infection is found in many species of livestock and wild animals. It is, however, rarely described in camels and there are no details of bacterial isolation. In an investigation of both arid and semi-arid areas in Kenya, an outbreak of dermatophilosis was observed in camel calves being reared on a commercial farm in a semi-arid area. Histopathology and bacterial isolation were used to diagnose the diseases. The potential impact of the disease in camels is discussed.

  7. Assessment Of Hygienic Quality Of Camel ( Camelus dromedarius ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    counts, mesophilic counts and yeast- mold counts. Eastern Nile scored significantly (P= 0.05) high coliform counts, E. coli counts and Staphylococcus spp. counts. Of the 112 camel milk samples E. coli, Staphylococcus spp. and yeast- mold were reported in 33 (29.5%), 46 (41%) and 32 (28.6%) camel milk samples, ...

  8. Characterization of partially purified catalase from camel ( Camelus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The liver of camel has high level of catalase (32,225 units/g tissue) as commercially used bovine liver catalase. For the establishment of the enzyme, the rate of catalase activity was linearly increased with increase of the catalase concentration and incubation time. The procedure of partial purification of catalase from camel ...

  9. One-Humped Camels (Camelus dromedaries Hard Ticks Infestation in Qeshm Island, Iran

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    Saeed Nazifi

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The economic importance of tick infestation on camels are important as they are important meat and milk producer animals in the less vegetation area of Iran and their health and production are greatly affected by the high tick infestation. In this investigation, tick infestations on camels (Camelus dromedarius were determined in Qeshm Island, Iran. A total number of 912 adult ticks (472 males and 440 females were collected and identified. Hyalomma dromedarii was the predominant tick specie and accounted for 61.9% of the adult ticks. Other hard ticks were H. anatolicum excavatum (22 %, H. asiaticum asiaticum (14.2 %, H. marginatum (1.9 %, H. impeltatum (0.4 % and Ripicephalus bursa (0.4 %. In conclusion, The provision of tick control programs in the Qeshm Island would seem a prerequisite for improving camel meat and milk production.

  10. Prevalence of cystic echinococcosis in camels (Camelus dromedarius) in Libya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahem, M M; Craig, P S

    1998-03-01

    In an abattoir study, 514 camels, slaughtered for meat production in different areas of northern Libya were examined for the presence of cystic echinococcosis (CE). In addition, 367 sheep and 184 goats were examined. The overall prevalence of infection with CE was 48% in camels, 15.8% in sheep and 3.8% in goats. The infection rate, number and size of cysts were significantly higher in older camels. In six city abattoirs across northern Libya, i.e. Zawia, Tripoli, El-Khumes, Mesurata, Sirt and Benghazi, the prevalence rate of infection in camels ranged from 38.7% to 55.2%, in comparison with sheep and goat rates which were between 0% and 37.9% and 0% and 8.2%, respectively. In camels, the lungs were the most frequently infected organs (85.4%) with liver cysts occurring at a significantly lower rate (33%). In contrast, the liver was the predominant infected site with prevalence values of 86% and 100% in sheep and goats, respectively. More than 90% of camel hydatid cysts were fertile. The possible role of camels in the transmission of CE in Libya is discussed.

  11. Ultrasonography of the lungs and pleura in healthy camels (Camelus dromedarius).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tharwat, Mohamed

    2013-09-01

    This study describes ultrasonography of the lungs and pleura in healthy camels (Camelus dromedarius). The different layers of the thoracic wall appeared as narrow bands of variable echogenicity. Reverberation artefacts appeared as lines of variable echogenicity that ran parallel to the pulmonary surface medial to the pleura. Because of its air content, the pulmonary parenchyma was not visualised in all camels. On the right side, the pulmonary surface was seen in the 5th through the 10th intercostal space (ICS). In addition, it was imaged in the 11th ICS in 20 camels and in the 4th ICS in three camels. The dimension of the ventral lung border was largest at the 4th ICS and smallest at the 11th ICS. The echogenic line on the surface of the lung, consisting of the costal and the parietal pleurae, was 1 to 4 mm thick. The left pulmonary surface and pleura were imaged with approximately the same frequencies as the right side. At this side, only the pulmonary surface and pleura were imaged in 15 camels in the 11th ICS. In conclusion, ultrasonography of the lungs and pleura provides information that can be used as a reference when examining camels suspected to have respiratory diseases.

  12. Effects of age on fatty acid composition of the hump and abdomen depot fats of the Arabian camel (Camelus dromedarius).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadim, I T; Mahgoub, O; Al-Maqbaly, R S; Annamalai, K; Al-Ajmi, D S

    2002-10-01

    This study aimed to quantify concentrations of fatty acids in the hump and abdomen fats of three different age groups of camel. Hump and abdomen fats were extracted from eight each of one-humped camels (Camelus dromedarius) of three age groups: group 1 (3 years old). The fatty acid methyl ester concentrations of these fats were determined by gas-liquid chromatography (GLC). The percentage of fat in the hump (H) and abdomen (A) fats was significantly (Pcamels.

  13. Cytologic analysis of synovial fluid in clinically normal tarsal joints of young camels (Camelus dromedarius).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Rukibat, R K; Bani Ismail, Z A; Al-Zghoul, M B

    2006-09-01

    Camels are important in the racing industry and for milk, meat, and hair production in the Middle East. Evaluation of synovial fluid is an important part of the assessment of musculoskeletal injuries in this species. Information in the literature regarding synovial fluid in camels is limited. The objective of this study was to determine the protein and cellular composition of synovial fluid from the tarsal joints of clinically normal, young camels (Camelus dromedarius). Thirty clinically healthy, male camels, aged 9 to 12 months, were used in the study. Synovial fluid samples were collected from the right and left tarsal joints. Samples were processed within 60 minutes after collection. Total nucleated cell counts (TNCC) were assessed using a hemacytometer. Total protein concentration was determined using a refractometer. Forty-six samples were analyzed. The TNCC (mean +/- SD) was 175.8 +/- 136.7 cells/microL (range 50-678 cells/microL). Differential cell percentages were obtained for lymphocytes (58.2 +/- 21.55%, range 15-90%), monocyte/macrophages (38.3 +/- 20.8%, range 10-85%), and neutrophils (3.5 +/- 5.1%, range 0-15%). Protein concentration was 2.1 +/- 0.6 g/dL (range 1-3 g/dL). Significant differences were not observed in any parameters between right and left tarsal joints. Synovial fluid reference values were established and may be useful in the clinical investigation of joint disease in young camels.

  14. Surgery of the Dulaa in the Camel (Camelus dromedarius

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    Ramadan O. Ramadan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study was carried out on 45 native adult dromedary camels suffering from disorders of the dulaa. Clinical signs were those of dysphagia and or dyspnoea. Twenty-four camels (53.33% were unable to inflate or extrude their dulaas. These signs were associated with pharyngeal swelling. Therefore the animals were examined radiographically. Fifteen (33.33% camels suffered from collapsed and persistent protrusion of the dulaas. Four (8.9% camels had previous episodes of dysfunction of the dulaa and the owner requested elective surgical excision. The remaining 2 (4.44% animals had previous excision by healers and developed granulation tissue. Surgical management was achieved after light sedation using xylazine (2% Rompun, Bayer supplemented with local infiltration analgesia or followed by induction of anaesthesia using ketamine hydrochloride (Ketamidore. The operations were carried out either through the oral cavity or following a pharyngostomy incision at the inter-mandibular region. In the latter instances, temporary tracheotomy was needed. The prevalent surgical affections were impaction with food material associated with ulcer or echymosis or abscesses. Less severe maladies were those of persistent protrusion accompanied with edema, haematoma, lacerations, small foci of abscesses and gangrene. The prognosis was favourable. The study included surgical anatomy, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI, as well as radiography of the dulaa in health and disease.

  15. Molecular study on Pasteurella multocida and Mannheimia granulomatis from Kenyan Camels (Camelus dromedarius).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gluecks, Ilona V; Bethe, Astrid; Younan, Mario; Ewers, Christa

    2017-08-22

    Outbreaks of a Haemorrhagic Septicaemia (HS) like disease causing large mortalities in camels (Camelus dromedarius) in Asia and in Africa have been reported since 1890. Yet the aetiology of this condition remains elusive. This study is the first to apply state of the art molecular methods to shed light on the nasopharyngeal carrier state of Pasteurellaceae in camels. The study focused on HS causing Pasteurella multocida capsular types B and E. Other Pasteurellaceae, implicated in common respiratory infections of animals, were also investigated. In 2007 and 2008, 388 nasopharyngeal swabs were collected at 12 locations in North Kenya from 246 clinically healthy camels in 81 herds that had been affected by HS-like disease. Swabs were used to cultivate bacteria on blood agar and to extract DNA for subsequent PCR analysis targeting P. multocida and Mannheimia-specific gene sequences. Forty-five samples were positive for P. multocida genes kmt and psl and for the P. multocida Haemorrhagic Septicaemia (HS) specific sequences KTSP61/KTT72 but lacked HS-associated capsular type B and E genes capB and capE. This indicates circulation of HS strains in camels that lack established capsular types. Sequence analysis of the partial 16S rRNA gene identified 17 nasal swab isolates as 99% identical with Mannheimia granulomatis, demonstrating a hitherto unrecognised active carrier state for M. granulomatis or a closely related Mannheimia sp. in camels. The findings of this study provide evidence for the presence of acapsular P. multocida or of hitherto unknown capsular types of P. multocida in camels, closely related to P. multocida strains causing HS in bovines. Further isolations and molecular studies of camelid P. multocida from healthy carriers and from HS-like disease in camels are necessary to provide conclusive answers. This paper is the first report on the isolation of M. granulomatis or a closely related new Mannheimia species from camelids.

  16. Trypanosomiasis of camels (Camelus dromedarius) in Algeria: First report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennoune, Omar; Adili, Nezar; Amri, Khaled; Bennecib, Lakhdar; Ayachi, Ammar

    2013-01-01

    Camel trypanosomosis is a life-threatening disease in the camel species and responsible for severe economic losses either in milk or meat productions. This study was carried out on the south-east area of Algeria on 100 camels of various ages and either sex from two herds. Microscopic examination of blood smears revealed higher levels of trypanosomosis caused by Trypanosoma evansi, an elongated parasite with a kinetoplast and a single nucleus located in its half-length and one flagellum with great heterogeneity. This first investigation reveals higher infection rate than those observed in other countries using blood smears, the trypanosomosis attack has reached an alarming level and the occurrence of trypanosomosis at this high level on blood smears is like "the tree that hides the forest" and make up a serious and potential danger both on animal and public health. Therefore, radical preventive and offensive drastic measures must be taken against this menacing disease at the critical points to prevent the economic losses and to avoid possible human transmission.

  17. Trypanosomiasis of camels (Camelus dromedarius) in Algeria: First report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennoune, Omar; Adili, Nezar; Amri, Khaled; Bennecib, Lakhdar; Ayachi, Ammar

    2013-01-01

    Camel trypanosomosis is a life-threatening disease in the camel species and responsible for severe economic losses either in milk or meat productions. This study was carried out on the south-east area of Algeria on 100 camels of various ages and either sex from two herds. Microscopic examination of blood smears revealed higher levels of trypanosomosis caused by Trypanosoma evansi, an elongated parasite with a kinetoplast and a single nucleus located in its half-length and one flagellum with great heterogeneity. This first investigation reveals higher infection rate than those observed in other countries using blood smears, the trypanosomosis attack has reached an alarming level and the occurrence of trypanosomosis at this high level on blood smears is like "the tree that hides the forest" and make up a serious and potential danger both on animal and public health. Therefore, radical preventive and offensive drastic measures must be taken against this menacing disease at the critical points to prevent the economic losses and to avoid possible human transmission. PMID:25568684

  18. Trypanosomiasis of camels (Camelus dromedarius in Algeria: First report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omar Bennoune

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Camel trypanosomosis is a life-threatening disease in the camel species and responsible for severe economic losses either in milk or meat productions. This study was carried out on the south-east area of Algeria on 100 camels of various ages and either sex from two herds. Microscopic examination of blood smears revealed higher levels of trypanosomosis caused by Trypanosoma evansi, an elongated parasite with a kinetoplast and a single nucleus located in its half-length and one flagellum with great heterogeneity. This first investigation reveals higher infection rate than those observed in other countries using blood smears, the trypanosomosis attack has reached an alarming level and the occurrence of trypanosomosis at this high level on blood smears is like "the tree that hides the forest" and make up a serious and potential danger both on animal and public health. Therefore, radical preventive and offensive drastic measures must be taken against this menacing disease at the critical points to prevent the economic losses and to avoid possible human transmission.

  19. Purification and characterization of camel (Camelus dromedarius) milk amylase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Fakharany, Esmail M; Serour, Ehab A; Abdelrahman, Aref M; Haroun, Bakry M; Redwan, El-Rashdy M

    2009-01-01

    Skimmed camel milk contains 59,900 U/L amylase, which is 39,363 times less than serum and plasma amylase. Camel milk beta-amylase was purified as a 61 KDa band using DEAE-Sepharose and Sephadex G-100 and yielded 561 U/mg. The optimum working pH, Km and temperature were 7.0, 13.6 mg/Lstarch, 30-40 degrees C, respectively. The enzyme has been shown higher affinity toward amylose and soluble starch than glycogen, amylopectin, dextrin, or pullulan. Magnesium chloride, CaCl(2) and NaCl activated the amylase, while EDTA and EGTA decreased its activity. While its activity was increased in the presence of Triton X-100 and Triton X-114. Phenylmethanesulfonyl fluoride did not show any effect on enzyme activity. However, the enzyme activity was inhibited by urea, SDS, DTNB, iodoacetamide, N-ethylmalimide, aprotinin, and trypsin inhibitor. It worked on starch to yield a maltose. Scanning electron microscope images demonstrated a nano-degrading ability on starch granules from various sources (potato, corn, cassava, and rice).

  20. Echocardiography of the normal camel (Camelus dromedaries heart: technique and cardiac dimensions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tharwat Mohamed

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Echocardiography and intra-cardiac dimensions have not previously been reported in adult camels despite its potential application for medical purpose. The aim of this study was to describe the results of a prospective study, aiming to report normal cardiac appearance and normal chamber dimensions in adult camels (Camelus dromedarius. Results On the right side, when the probe was placed in the 5th or 4th intercostal space (ICS, the caudal long-axis four-chamber view of the ventricles, atria, and the interventricular septum was obtained. Placing the probe slightly more cranially in the 4th ICS, the caudal long-axis four-chamber view and the caudal long-axis view of the left ventricular outflow tract (LVOT were imaged. In 7 camels, a hybrid view between a “four-chamber” and “LVOT view” was imaged from the same position. The short-axis view of the ventricles was obtained in the 4th ICS where the transducer was rotated between 0° and 25°. Placement of the transducer in the 3rd ICS allowed visualisation of the right ventricular outflow tract (RVOT. On the left side, when the probe was placed in the 5th or 4th ICS, a four-chamber view was obtained. The LVOT is imaged in the 4th ICS and the RVOT was seen from the 3rd ICS. Conclusions This study showed that it is possible to obtain good-quality echocardiograms in adult camels and provide normal cardiac dimensions. This study could be used as a reference for further studies concerning camels with cardiac diseases.

  1. Milk production and feeding behavior in the camel (Camelus dromedarius) during 4 watering regimens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bekele, T; Lundeheim, N; Dahlborn, K

    2011-03-01

    Camels survive and produce milk during recurrent prolonged hot and dry periods. The objective was to evaluate how different watering intervals affected milk production and feeding. Eight lactating camels (Camelus dromedarius) were recruited and subjected to 4 watering regimens in a Latin square design experiment performed at Haramaya University in Ethiopia. Each regimen lasted 16 d with 5 d of daily watering between periods: water was offered at 1,315 h once daily (W1); on d 4, 8, 12, and 16 (W4); on d 8 and 16 (W8); and on d 16 (W16). One camel became sick in the second period and its results were excluded. Camels were kept in a pen with minimal shade and a noon temperature of 30.9±0.1°C. They had free access to hay and were offered 2 kg of concentrates 3 times daily. At noon on d 1, 4, 8, 12, and 16, a blood sample was taken from the jugular vein before watering. All calves were kept together in a separate pen. Morning and afternoon calves stimulated milk let-down before the camels were hand-milked, after which the calves suckled, emptying the udder. Camels maintained the milk volume during water deprivation for about 1 wk, but they produced less milk during the second week during W16. Morning milk osmolality increased from 315±3 on d 1 to 333±3 mosm/kg on d 4 during W4 and from 321±3 on d 1 to 342±3 mosm/kg on d 8 during W8. After watering at 1315 h, milk osmolality decreased to 316±3 and 323±3 mosm/kg, respectively, the same afternoon and then increased during recurrent water deprivation to 338±3 (W4) and 347±3 mosm/kg (W8) on d 16, respectively. During W16, osmolality increased from 318±3 to 336±3 mosm/kg during the first 4 d of water deprivation, but during the remaining 12 d the further rise in osmolality was not higher compared with that on d 4. The change in milk osmolality was linearly correlated to plasma osmolality (r=0.8), but milk lactose content did not increase. Contrary to widespread belief, camels did not dilute their milk when

  2. Fatty acid composition of the meat and fat of the one-humped camel (camelus dromedarius).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rawdah, T N; Zamil El-Faer, M; Koreish, S A

    1994-01-01

    The fatty acid composition of lean raw meat taken from the hind leg of seven young (1-3 years of age) male one-humped camels (Camelus dromedarius) has been determined by capillary gas-liquid chromatography; fat samples taken from the hump of these seven camels were also analysed. The saturated fatty acids in the meat account for 51·5% of the total fatty acids, while the monosaturated and polyunsaturated chains constitute 29·9 and 18·6%, respectively. The major fatty acids in camel meat are palmitic (26·0%), oleic (18·9%) and linoleic (12·1%), with smaller amounts of other fatty acids, both normal and branched, that range in chain lengths from C(14) to C(22). The fatty acids of dromedary fat are dominated by saturated even-numbered chains with smaller amounts (5·4%) of odd-numbered normal and branched chains. The main fatty acid of the hump fat is palmitic (34·4%) followed by oleic (28·2%), myristic (10·3%) and stearic (10·0%). Copyright © 1994. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  3. Sarcocystis and Its Complications in Camels (Camelus dromedarius) of Eastern Provinces of Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valinezhad, Akbar; Ahmadi, Nasrollah

    2008-01-01

    The prevalence of Sarcocystis spp. was investigated by gross and histopathological examinations in 250 camels (Camelus dromedarius) slaughtered from 2002 to 2005 in the Mashhad Slaughterhouse, eastern Iran. Samples were taken from the diaphragm, heart, tongue, esophagus and masseter muscles for histopathological studies. No macroscopic sarcocysts were found in the samples at gross inspection. Sarcocysts were detected in 209 of 250 (83.6%) examined camels at histopathological level. The infection rate of the esophagus, heart, masseter muscles, diaphragm, and tongue was 58.8%, 48.0%, 46.8%, 41.6%, and 28.0%, respectively. There was no significant difference in the rate of infection between male (85.8%) and female (81.0%) camels. The tissue response to vital cysts was minimal; however, reaction to the degenerating cysts was severe and caused tissue damages resulting in hyperemia, hemorrhages, mononuclear cell infiltration, necrotic changes, and fibrosis. The wild and domestic carnivores especially dogs may be the final hosts of Sarcocystis spp. in this area. PMID:19127328

  4. Molecular Cloning and 3D Structure Modeling of APEX1, DNA Base Excision Repair Enzyme from the Camel, Camelus dromedarius

    OpenAIRE

    Dalia Fouad; Hesham Mahmoud Saeed; Farid Shokry Ataya; Ajamaluddin Malik

    2012-01-01

    The domesticated one-humped camel, Camelus dromedarius, is one of the most important animals in the Arabian Desert. It is exposed most of its life to both intrinsic and extrinsic genotoxic factors that are known to cause gross DNA alterations in many organisms. Ionic radiation and sunlight are known producers of Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS), one of the causes for DNA lesions. The damaged DNA is repaired by many enzymes, among of them Base Excision Repair enzymes, produci...

  5. Characterization of Asia 1 sdAb from camels bactrianus (C. bactrianus and conjugation with quantum dots for imaging FMDV in BHK-21 cells.

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    Shuanghui Yin

    Full Text Available Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD, caused by FMD virus (FMDV, is a highly contagious viral disease affecting cloven-hoofed animals. Camelids have a unique immunoglobulin profile, with the smallest functional heavy-chain antibodies (sdAb or VHH naturally devoid of light chains with antigen-binding capacity. We screened and characterized five sdAbs against FMDV by immunized library from C. bactrianus with Asia 1 virus-like particles (VLPs. Three of five recombinant sdAbs were stably expressed in E.coli, remained highly soluble, and were serotype-specific for VP1 protein of FMDV Asia 1 by ELISA. These failed to completely neutralize the Asia 1 virus. According to the KD value of binding affinity to three sdAbs, which ranged from 0.44 to 0.71 nm by SPR, sdAb-C6 was selected and conjugated with Zn/CdSe quantum dots (QDs to form a QDs-C6 probe, which was used to trace and image the subcellular location of FMDV in BHK-21 cells. The results show that FMD virions were observed from 3 h.p.i., and most of virions were distributed on one side of the nucleus in the cytoplasm. We demonstrate the utility of sdAbs as functionalized QDs are powerful tools for FMDV research.

  6. Biochemical analysis of serum and synovial fluid in clinically normal young camels (Camelus dromedarius

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    Raida Al-Rukibat

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine the reference range values of various biochemical components in serum and synovial fluid in clinically normal young camels (Camelus dromedarius. One-hundred serum samples and 100 synovial fluid samples were collected from clinically, radiographically and cytologically normal carpal, tarsal and fetlock joints. The concentration of blood urea nitrogen (BUN, creatinine, glucose, sodium, calcium, magnesium, chloride, phosphorus, albumin and the activities of creatine kinase, alanine aminotransfearse, aspartate aminotransferase, lactate dehydrogenase and alkaline phosphatase (ALP were determined using commercially available kits. The concentration and activities of all measured parameters were significantly lower in the synovial fluid than in the serum except for the ALP and phosphorus, which were similar in both serum and synovial fluids. No significant difference was found in any of the measured biochemical parameters in different joints except in ALP activity, which was higher in the tarsal joint in comparison with the carpal and fetlock joint and the BUN concentration, which was higher in the tarsal joint in comparison with the carpal joint. Baseline values for biochemical components of normal camel synovial fluid and their serum counterparts have been generated. Such data can be used in the clinical investigation of camel’s joint diseases.

  7. Special cutaneous vascular elements in one-humped camel (Camelus dromedarius

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    Mohammad Rashad Fath-Elbab

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate the histomorphological structure and functional significance of various special regulatory devices of the vascular terminal branches of the skin in one-humped camel (Camelus dromedarius. Materials and methods: Skin samples from different body parts (e.g., front, neck and shoulder, back, belly, chest, thigh, flank and tail of camel were used in this study. The samples were stained with Harris hematoxylin and trichrome stain. Semithin sections were also prepared from these samples. Results: The vascular elements demonstrated in the current study included- throttle arteries within the dermis on the level of the hair papillae, glomus bodies within the dermis on the level mid-length of the hair follicles, medium-sized arteries on the level of the secretory end-pieces of the epitrichial sweat glands, and tufts of spirally-oriented arterioles in the nearby of the hair follicles. Conclusions: These vascular elements are either designed to control blood pressure (Hemo-dynamic mechanism or patterned to control body temperature (Thermo-regulatory mechanism. [J Adv Vet Anim Res 2016; 3(2.000: 106-111

  8. An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for the epidemiological survey of Dermatophilus congolensis infection in camels (Camelus dromedarius).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gitao, C G

    1993-06-01

    The breeding of camels (Camelus dromedarius) is especially important in arid and semi-arid areas of Africa, where drought and famine frequently occur. A number of diseases which impair camel production have recently been described, including dermatophilosis (caused by Dermatophilus congolensis). However, it is not possible to determine the prevalence of infection from clinical cases alone. An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay has therefore been developed to determine the epidemiological prevalence of D. congolensis infection in sera of camels. Whole-cell antigen was used on microplates and the test serum was added. Horseradish peroxidase-conjugated sheep antibodies against heavy and light chains of camel immunoglobulin (Ig)G were then added, followed by substrate. The test was used to trace the antibody profile of twelve experimentally-infected camels. Peak antibody levels in serum occurred within twenty-one days following infection. It is planned to use this test to determine the epidemiological prevalence of D. congolensis infection in camels reared in a pastoral area of Kenya.

  9. Chronological and ultrastructural changes in camel (Camelus dromedarius) oocytes during in vitro maturation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kafi, M; Mesbah, F; Nili, H; Khalili, A

    2005-06-01

    Cumulus-oocyte complexes (COCs) were collected from non-pregnant camels at a local slaughterhouse by aspiration from antral follicles (2-6 mm). In Experiment I, camel COCs (n=304) were matured in vitro in Hams-F10, fixed at different time intervals (6, 12, 18, 24, 30, 36, 42, or 48 h) and stained with 1% aceto-orcein to assess nuclear changes in culture. A majority of the oocytes (81.5%) underwent germinal vesicle break down (GVBD) between 6 and 12h. Forty-eight percent of the oocytes were observed at the metaphase I (M I) stage by 18 h culture. The percentage of matured oocytes (M II stage) at 30 and 42 h were 66.5 and 71% respectively, which were significantly (ph (42.5%). In Experiment II, after different periods of culture (12, 24, 36, or 48 h), the COCs (n=26) were processed for transmission electron microscopy. Expansion of both the cumulus and corona radiate cells occurred between 12 and 24 h in the majority of oocytes concomitant with enlargement of the cumulus cell process endings (CCPEs) in the developed perivitelline space. After 12 h of culture disruption of the junctions between CCPEs and the oolemma was observed together with and breakdown of the GV. For 24-36 h of culture cortical granules had spread and aligned along the oolemma. Signs of degeneration in the cytoplasmic organelles of the oocytes were also observed from less than 36 h. After 48 h of culture, larger vesicles and lipid droplets had appeared in the central part of the oocytes and showed uneven distribution throughout the ooplasm. Predominantly non-penetrating CCPEs were also observed in four oocytes by 48 h. In conclusion, based on both light and electron microscopic evaluations, the optimal culture time for the development of competent Camelus dromedarius oocytes in vitro appears to be 30 h using Hams-F10 medium.

  10. GROSS AND MICROSCOPIC ANATOMY OF THYROID GLAND OF ONE-HUMPED CAMEL (CAMELUS DROMEDARIUS

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    R. KAUSAR AND R. U. SHAHID

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Tissue samples of thyroid glands of 16 healthy camels (Camelus dromedarius were investigated under two age groups i.e. group A (3-5 years and group B (6-10 years with equal number of animals, for their gross and microscopic anatomy. Gross studies revealed that thyroid glands were located near the first ring of trachea and had two lobes, connected by an isthmus. They were of reddish brown in colour. The values of weight, length and width of thyroid glands were 45.7 ± 0.35 and 50.65 ± 0.26 g, 36 ± 0.46 and 6.36 ± 0.33 cm, and 3.35 ± 0.29 and 3.53 ± 0.21 cm in groups A and B, respectively. The diameter of the glands averaged 0.97 ± 0.13 and 1.05 ± 0.14 cm in groups A and B, respectively. Histologically, thyroid gland consisted of a connective tissue capsule and trabeculae were found extending from the capsule into the substance of the gland, which divided it into lobules. Each lobule consisted of two sized follicles in variable numbers, the large and small. The large follicles were lined by low cuboidal epithelium, while the small follicles were lined by high cuboidal to columnar epithelium. The follicles had colloid material in their lumen, probably an apocrine secretion from the lining epithelial cells. The para follicular or C-cells were absent in thyroid glands of camel.

  11. Parasitic diseases of camels in Iran (1931-2017) - a literature review.

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    Sazmand, Alireza; Joachim, Anja

    2017-01-01

    Parasitic diseases of camels are major causes of impaired milk and meat production, decreases in performance or even death. Some camel parasites also represent a threat to human health. About 171,500 one-humped camels (Camelus dromedarius) and 100-300 two-humped camels (Camelus bactrianus) live in Iran. Knowledge of the biodiversity of their parasites is still limited. The present review covers all information about camel parasitic diseases in Iran published as dissertations and in both Iranian and international journals from 1931 to February 2017. Ten genera of Protozoa (Trypanosoma, Eimeria, Cryptosporidium, Toxoplasma, Neospora, Sarcocystis, Besnoitia, Theileria, Babesia and Balantidium), 48 helminth species detected in the digestive system, including three species of Trematoda, four species of Cestoda, and 41 species of Nematoda, as well as helminths from other organs - Echinococcus spp., Dictyocaulus filaria, Thelazia leesei, Dipetalonema evansi and Onchocerca fasciata - have so far been described in Iranian camels. Furthermore, 13 species of hard ticks, mange mites, the myiasis flies Cephalopina titillator and Wohlfahrtia magnifica, and immature stages of the Pentastomida Linguatula serrata have also been reported from camels of Iran. Camel parasitic diseases are a major issue in Iran in terms of economics and public health. The present review offers information for an integrated control programme against economically relevant parasites of camels. © A. Sazmand & A. Joachim, published by EDP Sciences, 2017.

  12. Parasitic diseases of camels in Iran (1931–2017 – a literature review

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    Sazmand Alireza

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Parasitic diseases of camels are major causes of impaired milk and meat production, decreases in performance or even death. Some camel parasites also represent a threat to human health. About 171,500 one-humped camels (Camelus dromedarius and 100–300 two-humped camels (Camelus bactrianus live in Iran. Knowledge of the biodiversity of their parasites is still limited. The present review covers all information about camel parasitic diseases in Iran published as dissertations and in both Iranian and international journals from 1931 to February 2017. Ten genera of Protozoa (Trypanosoma, Eimeria, Cryptosporidium, Toxoplasma, Neospora, Sarcocystis, Besnoitia, Theileria, Babesia and Balantidium, 48 helminth species detected in the digestive system, including three species of Trematoda, four species of Cestoda, and 41 species of Nematoda, as well as helminths from other organs – Echinococcus spp., Dictyocaulus filaria, Thelazia leesei, Dipetalonema evansi and Onchocerca fasciata – have so far been described in Iranian camels. Furthermore, 13 species of hard ticks, mange mites, the myiasis flies Cephalopina titillator and Wohlfahrtia magnifica, and immature stages of the Pentastomida Linguatula serrata have also been reported from camels of Iran. Camel parasitic diseases are a major issue in Iran in terms of economics and public health. The present review offers information for an integrated control programme against economically relevant parasites of camels.

  13. Parasitic diseases of camels in Iran (1931–2017) – a literature review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sazmand, Alireza; Joachim, Anja

    2017-01-01

    Parasitic diseases of camels are major causes of impaired milk and meat production, decreases in performance or even death. Some camel parasites also represent a threat to human health. About 171,500 one-humped camels (Camelus dromedarius) and 100–300 two-humped camels (Camelus bactrianus) live in Iran. Knowledge of the biodiversity of their parasites is still limited. The present review covers all information about camel parasitic diseases in Iran published as dissertations and in both Iranian and international journals from 1931 to February 2017. Ten genera of Protozoa (Trypanosoma, Eimeria, Cryptosporidium, Toxoplasma, Neospora, Sarcocystis, Besnoitia, Theileria, Babesia and Balantidium), 48 helminth species detected in the digestive system, including three species of Trematoda, four species of Cestoda, and 41 species of Nematoda, as well as helminths from other organs – Echinococcus spp., Dictyocaulus filaria, Thelazia leesei, Dipetalonema evansi and Onchocerca fasciata – have so far been described in Iranian camels. Furthermore, 13 species of hard ticks, mange mites, the myiasis flies Cephalopina titillator and Wohlfahrtia magnifica, and immature stages of the Pentastomida Linguatula serrata have also been reported from camels of Iran. Camel parasitic diseases are a major issue in Iran in terms of economics and public health. The present review offers information for an integrated control programme against economically relevant parasites of camels. PMID:28617666

  14. Yoghurt production from camel (Camelus dramedarius milk fortified with samphire molasses and different colloids

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    Nazan Kavas

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, yoghurt was produced from camel (Camelus dramedarius milk with whey protein isolate (3 % w/v and fortified with 3 % (w/v traditional samphire molasses (TSM (YTSM, 3 % (w/v TSM+0.1% (w/v κ-carrageenan (YTSMC or 3 % (w/v TSM+0.05 % (w/v xanthan gum (YTSMX. In yoghurt samples, physical-chemical properties, texture, color and sensory analysis were determined on the 1st, 5th, 10th and 14th days of storage, while total phenolics (TF levels were determined on the 14th, 24th, 32nd, 48th, 72nd, 120th, 240th and 336th hours of storage. In all samples during storage, hardness and viscosity increased along with the acidity increase, although the increases in YTSM and YTSMC were lower than in YTSMX. In YTSMX, in spite of the increase in acidity after the 1st day, serum separation was very low while viscosity and hardness values were higher compared to the other samples. YTSMX was found to be superior to the other samples in terms of physicochemical, textural, microbiological and sensory properties. Total phenolic contents and L*a*b* levels increased in all samples throughout storage, the highest values of which were in YTSMX. After the 5th day of the storage, Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus became the dominant microbial flora. After the 5th day of storage, Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus and Streptococcus thermophilus levels were highest in YTSMX.

  15. Gross Morphology and Localization of Adenohypophyseal Cells in Camel (Camelus dromedarius Using A New Combination of Stains

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    S. A. S. Jaspal, Z. U. Rahman* and A. M. Cheema

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Thirty normal camels (Camelus dromedarius were selected for gross morphological and modified staining of anterior pituitary. Camels were divided in three age groups viz 2-4, 5-10 and above 10 years. Pituitary weight, length, width and circumference were recorded before preservation and at midsegittal cutting. Pituitary weight increased significantly as these animals grew older. Male had heavier pituitary as compared to female. Higher pituitary weight was observed in old as compared to young camel. Sections (4m of camel pituitary gland were stained with “Phosphotungstic acid haematoxylin-Orange G-Acid fuchsin-Light green” combination of dyes. This combination of acidic and basic dyes showed affinity to their respective adenohypophyseal cells and proved a suitable combination for differentiation of adenohypophyseal cells and architectural pattern of pituitary gland. Use of Lugol’s Iodine and sodium thiosulphate solution caused mercury fixation which ultimately enhanced the staining of camel adenohypophysis. The whole pituitary presented a brilliant appearance of clarity, enabling cell counts to be performed easily, purely with reference to the colors of adenohypophyseal cell types. This method can be applied for differential staining of adenohypophysis and with good cytology results to the hypophysis of many mammals. The method also provides a sharp contrast between cellular and connective tissue components. With this staining technique, the quantitative and qualitative characteristics of different adenohypophyseal cell types at various functional and hormonal stages, under certain physiological and pathological conditions can also be studied.

  16. Cholesterol addition aids the cryopreservation of dromedary camel (Camelus dromedarius) spermatozoa.

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    Crichton, Elizabeth G; Pukazhenthi, Budhan S; Billah, M; Skidmore, Julian A

    2015-01-15

    The cryopreservation of dromedary camel (Camelus dromedarius) sperm has proved challenging with little success reported. The routine application of artificial insemination with frozen semen would assist the flow of valuable genetic material nationally and internationally. The current study sought to examine the effects of cholesterol (cholesterol-loaded cyclodextrin [CLC]) preloading on camel sperm cryosurvival. Ejaculates (n = 3 males; 3 ejaculates per male) were collected using an artificial vagina during the breeding season and extended in HEPES-buffered Tyrode's albumin lactate pyruvate (TALP) and allowed to liquefy in the presence of papain (0.1 mg/mL) before removal of the seminal plasma by centrifugation. Sperm pellets were resuspended (120 million/mL) in fresh TALP and incubated (15 minutes; 37 °C) with 0, 1.5, or 4.5 mg CLC/mL. Sperm suspensions were then centrifuged and reconstituted in INRA-96 containing 20% (v:v) egg yolk and 2.5% (v:v) methylformamide, loaded in 0.5-mL plastic straws, sealed, and cooled for 20 minutes at 4 °C. Straws were frozen over liquid nitrogen (4 cm above liquid; 15 minutes), plunged, and stored. Sperm motility, forward progressive status, and acrosomal integrity were recorded at 0 and 3 hours after thawing and compared with these same parameters before freezing. Aliquots also were stained with chlortetracycline hydrochloride to assess spontaneous sperm capacitation status before freezing and post-thaw. Pretreatment with CLC (1.5 and 4.5 mg/mL) enhanced cryosurvival. Post-thaw sperm motility was highest (P < 0.05) in 1.5 mg CLC/mL immediately after thawing (44%) and after 3 hours incubation at room temperature (34%). Highest post-thaw sperm progressive status was also achieved in the presence of 1.5 CLC. Greater proportions of spermatozoa retained acrosomal membrane integrity when cryopreserved in the presence of CLC, but there was no difference between 1.5 and 4.5 CLC. Although thawed spermatozoa underwent spontaneous

  17. Camel (Camelus dromedarius) and sheep (Ovis aries) meat as a source of dog infection with some coccidian parasites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilali, M; Nassar, A M; el-Ghaysh, A

    1992-06-01

    Experimental infection of dogs with camel (Camelus dromedarius) meat resulted in infection of the dogs with Isospora canis, Hammondia heydorni and Sarcocystis cameli. The dogs fed sheep (Ovis aries) meat passed oocysts of Isospora canis, Isospora ohioensis and sporocyts of Sarcocystis spp. Extraintestinal stages were detected in the intestinal lymph node of a rabbit killed 4 days following inoculation with Isospora ohioensis oocysts. Dogs fed the rabbit (killed 4 days after inoculation with I. ohioensis) passed I. ohioensis oocysts in their faeces 8 days post-infection.

  18. Composition, Quality and Health Aspects of the Dromedary (Camelus dromedarius and Bactrian (Camelus bacterianus Camel Meats: A Review

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    Isam T. Kadim

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The dromedary and bactrian camels are good sources of high quality protein especially in areas where the climate adversely affects the survival of other livestock. The camel has unique physiological characteristics, including a great tolerance to high and low temperatures, solar radiation, water scarcity, rough topography and poor vegetation. Camels are mostly produced under traditional systems on poor levels of nutrition and are mostly slaughtered at old ages after completing a career in work, racing or milk production. In general, camel carcasses contain about 57% muscle, 26% bone and 17% fat with fore-quarters (cranial to rib 13 significantly heavier than the hind halves. Camel lean meat contains about 78% water, 19% protein, 3% fat, and 1.2% ash with a small amount of intramuscular fat, which renders it a healthy food for growing human populations. The amino acid and mineral contents of camel meat are often higher than other meat animals, probably due to lower intramuscular fat levels. Camel meat has been processed into burgers, patties, sausages and shawarma to add value. Future research efforts need to focus on exploiting the potential of the camel as a source of meat through multidisciplinary research into efficient production systems and improved meat technology and marketing.

  19. Antihypertensive effect of fermented skim camel (Camelus dromedarius) milk on spontaneously hypertensive rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yahya, Mohammed A; Alhaj, Omar A; Al-Khalifah, Abdullrahman S

    2017-03-30

    Hypertension is one of the most common diseases in worldwide, thus prevention of hypertension is important in reducing the risks of cardiovascular disease. Milk contains bioactive peptides released during milk fermentation which lead to exhibit angiotensin I converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory. The aim of this study was to investigate the antihypertensive effect of fermented skim camel milk on rats and compared with unfermented skim camel milk as control. The antihypertensive effect of fermented skim camel milk on thirty six male spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) was carried out for (short-term) and (long-term) using different doses (80, 240 and 1200 mg/kg body weight). Angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) activity was also measured using ACE Kit. The blood pressure (systolic and diastolic) of spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) in short term administration (24 hours) of 1200 mg/kg body weight fermented skim camel milk decreased significantly (p camel milk for long-term (20 days) decreased and affected the heart rate (beats/min). The lowest record of systolic (41 mmHg) and diastolic blood pressure (19 mmHg) were at dose of 1200 mg/kg body weight of fermented skim camel milk at 15 days of administration. Likewise, ACE activity in plasma of SHR administered fermented skim camel milk decreased significantly (p camel milk by L. helveticus and S. thermophillus in SHR rats depends on the high dose of fermented skim camel milk in short and long-term. The ACE activity inhibitory was clear with fermented skim camel milk.

  20. Outbreaks of Dermatophilus congolensis infection in camels (Camelus dromedarius) from the Butana region in eastern Sudan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gitao, C G; Agab, H; Khalifalla, A J

    1998-12-01

    Natural Dermatophilus congolensis infection of camels has been reported in Kenya in semi-arid areas. Research is being conducted to discover how widespread the condition is in neighbouring countries with similar eco-climatic conditions. Severe skin infections of camels from the Butana region of Eastern Sudan were examined. The infections were first found in two herds of adult camels, of which 50%-75% of the animals were affected. In the other thirteen herds examined, camel calves were more likely to be infected (34%) than adults (8.9%), and lesions were more severe and involved most parts of the body. The lesions began as hair matting and later developed into hard crusts. The case fatality rate ranged from 10% to 30%. D. congolensis was isolated from the scabs. Camel dermatophilosis was found to be among the most serious problems faced by camel herders in the Butana region.

  1. Innocuity and immune response to Brucella melitensis Rev.1 vaccine in camels (Camelus dromedarius

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    A. Benkirane

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available A field trial was conducted in a camel brucellosis-free herd to evaluate antibody response to the Brucella melitensis Rev.1 vaccine in camels and assess shedding of the vaccine strain in milk. Twenty eight camels were divided into four groups according to their age and vaccination route. Groups A (n=3 and B (n=3 consisted of non-pregnant lactating female camels, vaccinated through subcutaneous and conjunctival routes, respectively. Groups C (n=10 consisted of 8-11 months old calves vaccinated through conjunctival route. The rest of the herd (n=12 composed of female and young camels were not vaccinated and were considered as the control group. Each animal from groups A, B and C was given the recommended dose of 2 x 109 colony forming units of Rev.1 vaccine irrespective of age or route of vaccination. Blood samples were collected from all the animals at the time of vaccination and at weekly, bi-weekly and monthly interval until 32 weeks post vaccination and from controls at weeks 8 and 24. The serological tests used were modified Rose Bengal Test, sero-agglutination test, and an indirect Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay. Milk samples were collected from all vaccinated female camels and tested for the presence of Rev.1 vaccine strain. Most vaccinated animals started to show an antibody response at week 2 and remained positive until week 16. By week 20 post-vaccination all animals in the three groups were tested negative for Brucella antibodies. Bacteriological analysis of milk samples did not allow any isolation of Brucella melitensis. All samples were found Brucella negative in PCR analysis. The results of this study indicate that the Rev.1 vaccine induces seroconversion in camels. Rev.1 vaccine strain is not excreted in the milk of camels. These findings are promising as to the safe use of the Rev.1 vaccine in camels.

  2. Comparison of effects of age and sex on serum protein electrophoretic pattern in one-humped camels (Camelus dromedarius in Semnan, Iran

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    M. Ahmadi-hamedani

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of age and sex on the concentration of total serum protein measured by the biuret method and protein fractions determined using cellulose acetate electrophoresis in apparently healthy camels (Camelus dromedarius. Blood samples were collected from 21 camels (12 males and 9 females. The camels were further divided into two groups: 12 young camels at the age of 3 months to 2 years and 9 adult camels at the age of 3-15 years. Cellulose acetate electrophoresis of serum proteins identified five protein fractions in adult camels as young camels, these five protein fractions include albumin, α1 and α2, β and γ-globulins. In adult camels, serum levels (g/l of total protein, albumin, α1-globulins, α2-globulins, β-globulins and γ-globulins were 80.9±3.10, 42.9±3.10, 1.3±0.22, 2.2±0.30, 11.8±0.30 and 22.6±0.20, respectively. However, in young camels, these levels (g/l were 66.8±2.90, 40.2±2.40, 1.0±0.14, 2.6±0.30, 10.6±0.80 and 12.3±1.20, respectively. The albumin/globulin (A/G ratio was 2.08±0.28 in adult camels and 3.77±0.53 in young ones. The mean serum concentrations of total protein and γ-globulins were significantly (P<0.05 higher and the A/G ratio was significantly lower in adult camels compared to young camels. The mean concentrations of γ-globulins were significantly higher and the A/G ratio was significantly (P<0.05 lower in females compared to male camels. The results of the present study indicate a significant effect of age and sex on the concentrations of some of the serum protein fractions in dromedary camels.

  3. Molecular Cloning, Characterization and Predicted Structure of a Putative Copper-Zinc SOD from the Camel, Camelus dromedarius

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    Ajamaluddin Malik

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Superoxide dismutase (SOD is the first line of defense against oxidative stress induced by endogenous and/or exogenous factors and thus helps in maintaining the cellular integrity. Its activity is related to many diseases; so, it is of importance to study the structure and expression of SOD gene in an animal naturally exposed most of its life to the direct sunlight as a cause of oxidative stress. Arabian camel (one humped camel, Camelus dromedarius is adapted to the widely varying desert climatic conditions that extremely changes during daily life in the Arabian Gulf. Studying the cSOD1 in C. dromedarius could help understand the impact of exposure to direct sunlight and desert life on the health status of such mammal. The full coding region of a putative CuZnSOD gene of C. dromedarius (cSOD1 was amplified by reverse transcription PCR and cloned for the first time (gene bank accession number for nucleotides and amino acids are JF758876 and AEF32527, respectively. The cDNA sequencing revealed an open reading frame of 459 nucleotides encoding a protein of 153 amino acids which is equal to the coding region of SOD1 gene and protein from many organisms. The calculated molecular weight and isoelectric point of cSOD1 was 15.7 kDa and 6.2, respectively. The level of expression of cSOD1 in different camel tissues (liver, kidney, spleen, lung and testis was examined using Real Time-PCR. The highest level of cSOD1 transcript was found in the camel liver (represented as 100% followed by testis (45%, kidney (13%, lung (11% and spleen (10%, using 18S ribosomal subunit as endogenous control. The deduced amino acid sequence exhibited high similarity with Cebus apella (90%, Sus scrofa (88%, Cavia porcellus (88%, Mus musculus (88%, Macaca mulatta (87%, Pan troglodytes (87%, Homo sapiens (87%, Canis familiaris (86%, Bos taurus (86%, Pongo abelii (85% and Equus caballus (82%. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that cSOD1 is grouped together with S. scrofa. The

  4. Survey of hydatidosis infection in slaughtered camel (Camelus dromedarius) in Tabriz area, Northwest Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirzaei, Mohammad; Rezaei, Hadi; Nematollahi, Ahmad; Ashrafihelan, Javad

    2016-06-01

    Hydatid Disease is the name given to the condition caused by the zoonotic tapeworm Echinococcus granulosus. The tapeworm spends most of its adult life in the intestine of its definitive host, namely canids and in particular the dog. The tapeworm eggs become voided in the canids' faeces and as a result of ingesting the eggs, infection passes to the intermediate host, commonly herbivores while grazing. However, humans can become accidentally infected and hydatid cysts may develop throughout the body. During April 2010-February 2014, a total 198 camels, which had been sent to the abattoir, the daily number of hydatid infected livers and lungs of camels slaughtered at Tabriz abattoir were recorded. To be sure about the validity of recorded data, observed data were collected daily. Approximately 29 (14.64 %) of camels were infected according to this survey. Age wise, the prevalence of infection in young animals (under the age of 5 years) was 4 (2.02 %), whereas in animals between 5 and 10 years and over, the prevalence of infection was 11 (5.55 %) and 14 (7.07 %) respectively. Sex wise, female animals had a higher prevalence with 17 (19.76 %) cases in camels, whereas in the males, there were 12 (10.71 %) cases in camels. There was a notable difference found in our study between male and female animals (P camels, and the liver had low infected in camels. The results of this study suggest that infection of camels with hydatid cyst is common in Tabriz, Iran and that this may constitute economic and health problems in the meat industry.

  5. Prevalence of tick infestation in dromedary camels (Camelus dromedarius) brought for slaughter in Mashhad abattoir, Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moshaverinia, Ali; Moghaddas, Elham

    2015-09-01

    This study was carried out to investigate the prevalence of tick infestation and identify tick species that parasitize dromedary camels. Since April 2012 through March 2013, a total of 400 camels that brought for slaughter in Mashhad abattoir were examined for tick infestation. Out of the total 400 camels examined, 237 were infested and annual prevalence of tick infestation 59.25 % (95 % CI 54-64) was calculated. The higher prevalence rates were found in the summer and spring, especially the summer that prevalence rate was the highest. A total of 1,122 ticks were collected from the infested camels and identified by stereomicroscopy. Hyalomma dromedarii was the predominant tick species and comprised 70.76 % of the collected ticks. The frequency of other species was as follows: H. excavatum (19.25 %), H. anatolicum (4.81 %), H. asiaticum (4.72 %), Rhipicephalus turanicus (0.17 %), H. detritum (0.09 %), H. impeltatum (0.09 %) and H. schulzei (0.09 %). Based on the results of present study, it is concluded that camels mostly harbor Hyalomma spp. The species of this genus are the most notorious ticks for transmission of human and animal diseases. Therefore, appropriate tick control measures need to be employed and pour-on method for acaricide application is suggested because this method is fast, easy and suitable for use by camel owners in deserts.

  6. Selenium and iodine status of two camel breeds (Camelus dromedaries raise under semi intensive system in Saudi Arabia

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    Mutassim M. Abdelrahman

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Selenium (Se and iodine (I are very important trace mineral for animals and human health. Selenium is an essential constituent of the antioxidant enzyme GSH-Px, while I as a thyroid hormone play a crucial role in regulating body metabolism. The aim of this study was to provide preliminary data on the Se and I status of two camel breeds (Majaheem and Maghateer: Camelus dromedaries raised under the semi intensive system in Saudi Arabia (SA. Ten Majaheem male camels and ten maghateer, age 1.5±0.5 yrs old, were slaughtered and blood and tissues (Liver, kidney and meat were collected. Blood serum samples were analyzed for Se, thyroxine (T4, triiodothyronine (T3, glucose, cholesterol, true protein and albumin. Tissues samples were wet digested and analyzed for Se level using Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer. Results showed a significant breed effect on serum and tissues Se with higher concentration of Majaheem compared with Maghateer breed. The same trend was found for glucose and total protein. Furthermore, serum Se was significantly correlated with liver Se (r2= 0.698; P<0.01, meat Se (r2= 0.453; P<0.05, T3 (r2= 0.527; P<0.05 and T4 (r2= 0.476; P<0.05. Thyroxine was significantly correlated to T3 (r2= 0.693; P<0.01. In conclusion, a highly significant breed effect was reported for Se metabolism. The highest Se concentration occurs in kidney followed by liver and meat.

  7. Effect of pregnancy and embryonic mortality on milk production in dromedary camels (Camelus dromedarius).

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    Nagy, P; Faigl, V; Reiczigel, J; Juhasz, J

    2015-02-01

    The main objective of the present study was to compare milk production in pregnant versus nonpregnant dromedary camels. In addition, we described the effect of embryonic mortality on lactation and measured serum progesterone levels until d 60 to 90 of gestation. Twenty-five multiparous camels were selected in midlactation for 2 studies in consecutive years. Camels were mated naturally when the size of the dominant follicle reached 1.2 to 1.5cm. Pregnancy was diagnosed by ultrasonography and progesterone determination. In the first experiment (Exp 1), 8 of 11 animals conceived at 284±21.5d postpartum. Three pregnant dromedaries were given PGF2α to induce luteolysis and pregnancy loss on d 62 and spontaneous embryonic loss was detected in 2 camels (on d 27 and 60). Animals were allotted to 3 groups retrospectively: nonpregnant camels (group 1, n=4), pregnant camels (group 2; n=3), and camels with embryonic loss after d 55 (group 3; n=4). In the second study (Exp 2), 14 dromedaries were mated during midlactation. Seven of them failed to conceive (group 1) and 7 became pregnant (group 2). No embryonic loss was detected in Exp 2. Turning points in milk production were identified by change point analysis. In nonpregnant dromedaries (group 1), milk decreased slowly over time without significant change point. In pregnant camels (group 2), a gradual decline until 4 wk after mating was followed by a sudden drop, and the change point model resulted in one breakpoint at d 28±7 and 35±3 of gestation in Exp 1 and Exp 2, respectively. In camels with embryonic mortality (group 3, Exp 1), milk yield started to decline similarly as in pregnant animals, but milk production increased gradually after embryonic loss and reached similar levels as in their nonpregnant herdmates. Change point analysis for group 3 resulted in 2 turning points at 30±4 and 48±4d after conception. Mean length of lactation was shorter by 230 (34.2%) and by 249d (37.6%) and mean total lactation production

  8. Genotyping of Brucella melitensis strains from dromedary camels (Camelus dromedarius) from the United Arab Emirates with multiple-locus variable-number tandem repeat analysis.

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    Gyuranecz, Miklós; Wernery, Ulli; Kreizinger, Zsuzsa; Juhász, Judit; Felde, Orsolya; Nagy, Péter

    2016-04-15

    Camel brucellosis is a widespread zoonotic disease in camel-rearing countries caused by Brucella melitensis and Brucella abortus. The aim of this study was the first genetic analysis of B. melitensis strains isolated from dromedary camels (Camelus dromedarius) using multiple-locus variable-number tandem repeat analysis (MLVA). MLVA 16 and its MLVA 8 and MLVA11 subsets were used to determine the genotypes of 15 B. melitensis isolates from dromedary camels (11 strains) and other host species (4 strains) from the United Arab Emirates and the results were then compared to B. melitensis MLVA genotypes from other parts of the world. Five, including two novel genotypes were identified with MLVA 8. MLVA 16 further discriminated these five genotypes to ten variants. The eleven camel isolates clustered into four main genetic groups within the East-Mediterranean and African clades and this clustering correlated with the geographic origin of the hosts (United Arab Emirates, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia and Sudan) and the date of their isolation. The camel strains were also genetically related to strains isolated from wild and domestic ruminants from their close habitat or from other parts of the world. Although limited number of strains were analysed, based on our data imported animals from foreign countries, local small ruminants and wildlife species are hypothesized to be the main sources of camel brucellosis in the United Arab Emirates. MLVA was successfully applied to determine the epidemiological links between the different camel B. melitensis infections in the United Arab Emirates and it can be a beneficial tool in future disease control programs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Toxoplasmosis in camels (Camelus dromedarius) of Borana zone, Oromia region, Ethiopia: seroprevalence and risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gebremedhin, Endrias Zewdu; Dima, Nura; Beyi, Ashenafi Feyisa; Dawo, Fufa; Feyissa, Negassa; Jorga, Edilu; Di Marco, Vincenzo; Vitale, Maria

    2016-12-01

    Toxoplasmosis is one of the most prevalent parasitic infections of medical and veterinary importance. A cross-sectional study was conducted from November 2013 to January 2014 to estimate the seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii infection in camels from four districts of Borana zone, Southern Oromia, Ethiopia. In addition, a questionnaire survey was administered to 124 pastoralists to identify possible risk factors and to assess the awareness level of pastoral communities about toxoplasmosis. A total of 396 serum samples were examined for anti-Toxoplasma IgG antibodies using the direct agglutination test (DAT). Fisher's exact test and logistic regression were used for data analysis. An overall seroprevalence of 8.33 % (95 % confidence interval [CI] 5.60 %, 11.07 %) at animal-level and 37.5 % (95 % CI: 20.1 %, 57.4 %) at herd-level was found. The seroprevalence was significantly high in Moyale district (23.07 %) followed by Yabello (7.20 %), Dirre (3.77 %), and Arero (0.0 %) districts (P camels of Moyale district (adjusted OR = 5.89, 95 % CI 2.15, 16.12; P = 0.001) than Dirre district, in camels of >8 years old (adjusted odds ratio [OR] = 4.95, 95 % CI 1.68, 14.55; P = 0.004) than camels of ≤4 years old. There was no significant association between herd-level seroprevalence of T. gondii infection and abortion history, herd size, and presence of domestic cats and wild felids (P > 0.05). The majority of interviewees were uneducated (82.25 %), and all had no knowledge of toxoplasmosis. All camel herders drink raw camel milk but consume cooked meat (90.32 %). Of the interviewees, 93.06 % are aware about soil-eating habit of camels and provide salt supplement for their camels. Majority of the respondents practice improper disposal of aborted materials (throw along the way) (88.70 %), and 73 % of the study participants do not wash their hands after handling aborted fetus. The results of the present study confirm relatively lower

  10. Regional and circadian variations of sweating rate and body surface temperature in camels (Camelus dromedarius).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdoun, Khalid A; Samara, Emad M; Okab, Aly B; Al-Haidary, Ahmed A

    2012-07-01

    It was the aim of this study to investigate the regional variations in surface temperature and sweating rate and to visualize body thermal windows responsible for the dissipation of excess body heat in dromedary camels. This study was conducted on five dromedary camels with mean body weight of 450 ± 20.5 kg and 2 years of age. Sweating rate, skin and body surface temperature showed significant (P surface temperature measured on seven regions of the camel body did not significantly differ. The variation in body surface temperature compared to the variation in skin temperature was higher in the hump compared to the axillary and flank regions, indicating the significance of camel's fur in protecting the skin from daily variation in ambient temperature. Infrared thermography revealed that flank and axillary regions had lower thermal gradients at higher ambient temperature (T(a) ) and higher thermal gradients at lower T(a) , which might indicate the working of flank and axillary regions as thermal windows dissipating heat during the night. Sweating rate showed moderate correlation to skin and body surface temperatures, which might indicate their working as potential thermal drivers of sweating in camels. © 2012 The Authors. Animal Science Journal © 2012 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  11. Subclinical anaplasmosis in camel (Camelus dromedarius) and its successful therapeutic management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudan, Vikrant; Sharma, R L; Borah, M K

    2014-06-01

    On the Indian sub continent, dromedarian camel -'the ship of the desert' is an important constituent of the socio economic life style of nomadic owners in the semi arid to arid ecosystems. The animal suffers from a few parasitic diseases viz. surra, coccidiosis, sarcocystis, gastro intestinal concurrent metazoan infections, mange, nasal bots and ticks infestations. However, anaplasmosis in camel has not been reported so far from the Indian subcontinent. Systematic investigations of a 7 year male Jaisalmeri camel, with a clinical history of dullness, progressive loss of condition and stamina revealed subclinical Anaplasma marginale infection. The animal had depressed haematological indices, dry and constipated bowels, pale and icteric conjunctiva suggestive of anaemia. The animal positively responded to the specific integrated therapy. Reexamination of the animal on day 21 post-therapy revealed depressed haematological indices restored to normal levels and the erythrocytes were free from the pathogen. Neglected attention, poor and/or underreporting of camel diseases vis-a-vis economic significance of the versatile animal has been discussed. This appears to be the pioneer documentation of anaplasmosis in camels from Indian subcontinent.

  12. SEQUENCING AND SEQUENCE ANALYSIS OF MYOSTATIN GENE IN THE EXON 1 OF THE CAMEL (CAMELUS DROMEDARIUS

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    M. G. SHAH, A. S. QURESHI1, M. REISSMANN2 AND H. J. SCHWARTZ3

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Myostatin, also called growth differentiation factor-8 (GDF-8, is a member of the mammalian growth transforming family (TGF-beta superfamily, which is expressed specifically in developing an adult skeletal muscle. Muscular hypertrophy allele (mh allele in the double muscle breeds involved mutation within the myostatin gene. Genomic DNA was isolated from the camel hair using NucleoSpin Tissue kit. Two animals of each of the six breeds namely, Marecha, Dhatti, Larri, Kohi, Sakrai and Cambelpuri were used for sequencing. For PCR amplification of the gene, a primer pair was designed from homolog regions of already published sequences of farm animals from GenBank. Results showed that camel myostatin possessed more than 90% homology with that of cattle, sheep and pig. Camel formed separate cluster from the pig in spite of having high homology (98% and showed 94% homology with cattle and sheep as reported in literature. Sequence analysis of the PCR amplified part of exon 1 (256 bp of the camel myostatin was identical among six camel breeds.

  13. The camel (Camelus dromedarius) as an intermediate host for Hammondia heydorni.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warrag, M; Hussein, H S

    1983-10-01

    Dogs fed raw camel meat containing two types of cysts shed unsporulated Hammondia heydorni oocysts and later sporulated Sarcocystis sporocysts in their feces, but were resistant to reinfection with the Hammondia cysts. Sporulated H. heydorni occysts did not induce an enteroepithelial cycle in dogs, but resulted in the formation of muscle cysts.

  14. Effect of season on contractile and metabolic properties of desert camel muscle (Camelus dromedarius).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelhadi, O M A; Babiker, S A; Picard, B; Jurie, C; Jailler, R; Hocquette, J F; Faye, B

    2012-01-01

    Thirty fattened one humped desert camels were used to examine the effect of season on contractile and metabolic properties of Longissimus thoracis (LT) muscle. Ten camels were slaughtered according to seasons of the year (winter, summer and autumn). Season significantly influenced muscle chemical composition, ultimate pH (pHu) and color. Activities of metabolic enzymes were higher during autumn season compared to summer and winter for phosphofructokinase (+64% compared to both seasons) and for isocitrate dehydrogenase (+35% and +145% in autumn vs. summer and winter, respectively). Quantification of muscle myosin heavy chain isoforms by SDS-PAGE electrophoresis showed only presence of type I and type IIa MyHC in camel muscle and indicated high proportion in winter for type I and in autumn for type IIa with respect to other seasons. Several correlations between different MyHC proportions and enzyme activities were reported. These findings indicated that muscle characteristics in camels are influenced by season. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Carbohydrases in camel (Camelus dromedarius) pancreas. Purification and characterization of glucoamylase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamed, Saleh A; Fahmy, Afaf S; Mohamed, Tarek M

    2005-01-01

    The present study analyzed the existence of carbohydrases in camel pancreas compared to some other ruminants. Disaccharidases (maltase, cellobiase, lactase, trehalase and sucrase), glucoamylase and alpha-amylase were detected in pancreas of camel, sheep, cow and buffalo. Enzyme levels in sheep were lower than in the other ruminants. The highest level was detected for alpha-amylase (EC 3.2.1.2). Moderate activity levels were detected for glucoamylase (EC 3.2.1.3) and maltase (EC 3.2.1.20), while other disaccharidases showed very low activity. The results suggested that, in addition to alpha-amylase, glucoamylase and maltase may be synthesized and secreted from pancreas to the small intestine in ruminants. Camel pancreatic glucoamylase was purified and characterized. The purification procedure included glycogen precipitation and chromatography on DEAE-Sepharose and Sepharose 6B. The molecular mass was 58 kDa for native and denatured enzyme using gel filtration and SDS-PAGE, respectively. The enzyme had a pH optimum at 5.5 and a Km of 10 mg starch/mL with more affinity toward potato soluble starch than the other carbohydrates. Glucoamylase had a temperature optimum at 50 degrees C with heat stability up to 30 degrees C. The effect of different cations and inhibitors was examined. The camel pancreatic glucoamylase may possess an essential thiol.

  16. One-Humped Camel (Camelus dromedarius Infestation withLinguatula serrata in Tabriz, Iran

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    HR Haddadzadeh

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available "n "nBackground: Linguatula serrata is one of well known members of Pentastomida which infects both human and animals. The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of L. serrata in mesenteric lymph nodes, livers and lungs of camels slaughtered in Tabriz area, Iran. "n "nMethods: Mesenteric lymph nodes (MLNs, livers and lungs of 140 one-humped camels slaughtered in Tabriz, north-west of Iran were investigated for nymphs of L. serrata from July 2007 to June 2008. The organs were examined macroscopically and then a tissue digestion method was also done for investigation of liver and lung of the camels that had infected MLN. The liver and lung samples were mostly taken from condemned and rejected part of organs. "n "nResults: The infection rate of L. serrata nymphs in MLNs, livers and lungs was 13.5%, 1.4% and 1.4% respectively. The number of isolated nymph in infected lymph nodes varied from 2 to 18 with a mean of 4.78. Only one nymph was isolated from each infected livers and lungs. The infection rate increased with age (p<0.05. No significant difference in different sex groups and seasons was observed (p>0.05. "n "nConclusion: Considering this fact that consumption of undercooked camel liver was not common in the studied area, the zoonotic importance of this infection should be concluded.

  17. Caudal epidural analgesia using lidocaine alone or in combination with ketamine in dromedary camels (Camelus dromedarius

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    Omid Azari

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available This study was performed to investigate the analgesic effect of lidocaine and a combination of lidocaine and ketamine following epidural administration in dromedary camels. Ten 12–18-month-old camels were randomly divided into two equal groups. In group L, the animals received 2% lidocaine (0.22 mg/kg and in group LK the animals received a mixture of 10% ketamine (1 mg/kg and 2% lidocaine (0.22 mg/kg administered into the first intercoccygeal (Co1–Co2 epidural space while standing. Onset time and duration of caudal analgesia, sedation level and ataxia were recorded after drug administration. Data were analysed by U Mann-Whitney tests and significance was taken as p < 0.05. The results showed that epidural lidocaine and co-administration of lidocaine and ketamine produced complete analgesia in the tail, anus and perineum. Epidural administration of the lidocaine-ketamine mixture resulted in mild to moderate sedation, whilst the animals that received epidural lidocaine alone were alert and nervous during the study. Ataxia was observed in all test subjects and was slightly more severe in camels that received the lidocaine-ketamine mixture. It was concluded that epidural administration of lidocaine plus ketamine resulted in longer caudal analgesia in standing conscious dromedary camels compared with the effect of administering lidocaine alone.

  18. The First Record of Linguatula serrata Infection of Two-Humped Camel (Camelus bactrinus In Iran

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    B Hajimohammadi

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available "nLinguatula serrata, is a cosmopolitan zoonotic parasite. Adult of L. serrrata parasitize the nasopharynx of canids. Con­suming raw glandular material of infected intermediate hosts (camel, sheep, cattle, goat, etc. can infect human. In Iran, two-humped camel is merely found in cold regions (Ardabil and East Azarbijan provinces and is in danger of extinc­tion. A seven-year-old two-humped male camel, due to car accident injury was sent to slaughterhouse of Tabriz, Iran. In meat inspection practice, the visceral organs were taken out. A small red nodule having a white center was observed at the surface of the left lobe of lung. To study more, the whole of the left lobe of lung was sent to the parasitology labora­tory. One nymph of L. serrata was separated from the specimen. This is the first report of infection with L. serrate of two-humped camel in Iran.

  19. The Suprachiasmatic Nucleus of the Dromedary Camel (Camelus dromedarius: Cytoarchitecture and Neurochemical Anatomy

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    Khalid El Allali

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available In mammals, biological rhythms are driven by a master circadian clock located in the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN of the hypothalamus. Recently, we have demonstrated that in the camel, the daily cycle of environmental temperature is able to entrain the master clock. This raises several questions about the structure and function of the SCN in this species. The current work is the first neuroanatomical investigation of the camel SCN. We carried out a cartography and cytoarchitectural study of the nucleus and then studied its cell types and chemical neuroanatomy. Relevant neuropeptides involved in the circadian system were investigated, including arginine-vasopressin (AVP, vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP, met-enkephalin (Met-Enk, neuropeptide Y (NPY, as well as oxytocin (OT. The neurotransmitter serotonin (5-HT and the enzymes tyrosine hydroxylase (TH and aromatic L-amino acid decarboxylase (AADC were also studied. The camel SCN is a large and elongated nucleus, extending rostrocaudally for 9.55 ± 0.10 mm. Based on histological and immunofluorescence findings, we subdivided the camel SCN into rostral/preoptic (rSCN, middle/main body (mSCN and caudal/retrochiasmatic (cSCN divisions. Among mammals, the rSCN is unusual and appears as an assembly of neurons that protrudes from the main mass of the hypothalamus. The mSCN exhibits the triangular shape described in rodents, while the cSCN is located in the retrochiasmatic area. As expected, VIP-immunoreactive (ir neurons were observed in the ventral part of mSCN. AVP-ir neurons were located in the rSCN and mSCN. Results also showed the presence of OT-ir and TH-ir neurons which seem to be a peculiarity of the camel SCN. OT-ir neurons were either scattered or gathered in one isolated cluster, while TH-ir neurons constituted two defined populations, dorsal parvicellular and ventral magnocellular neurons, respectively. TH colocalized with VIP in some rSCN neurons. Moreover, a high density of Met

  20. Effect of gender on quality and nutritive value of dromedary camel (Camelus dromedarius longissimus lumborum muscle

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    O.M.A. Abdelhadi

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to determine the effect of gender on nutritive value of dromedary camel longissimus lumborum (collagen content, amino acids and fatty acids. Fourteen longissimus lumborum (LL muscles (from 7 males and 7 females were collected from 2 to 3 year old camels. Animals were fattened by herders and slaughtered following commercial slaughterhouse procedures in Sudan. Samples were collected between the 1st and 5th lumbar vertebrae of the right carcass side. There was no effect of gender on intramuscular fat content, insoluble OH proline and total OH proline (μg/DM. Additionally no significant differences were found in amino acid composition between genders. However, muscles from female camels had significantly (P < 0.05 higher arginine content (1460 mg/100 g than males (1460 mg/100 g. The results showed no significant differences between genders for total saturated fatty acid (SFA, mono-unsaturated fatty acid (MUFA and polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA proportions in camel meat. In contrast significant differences were revealed for some specific MUFA and PUFA (18:1 delta 10–11 trans, × 1.51, (P = 0.05, CLA (trans 11, cis 9 18:2, × 1.33% (P = 0.11 and trans 10, cis 12 18:2, × 5.7, (P = 0.03 in female muscles. PUFA/SFA ratio was found closer to the recommended value for human nutrition (0.45. Also the n-6/n-3 ratio was lower than the recommended values for healthy human diets (4.0. Altogether, these results indicated high nutritive value of dromedary camel meat compared to meat from other farm animals.

  1. Alpha S1-casein polymorphisms in camel (Camelus dromedarius) and descriptions of biological active peptides and allergenic epitopes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erhardt, Georg; Shuiep, El Tahir Salih; Lisson, Maria; Weimann, Christina; Wang, Zhaoxin; El Zubeir, Ibtisam El Yas Mohamed; Pauciullo, Alfredo

    2016-06-01

    Milk samples of 193 camels (Camelus dromedarius) from different regions of Sudan were screened for casein variability by isoelectric focusing. Kappa-casein and beta-casein were monomorphic, whereas three protein patterns named αs1-casein A, C, and D were identified. The major allele A revealed frequencies of 0.79 (Lahaoi), 0.75 (Shanbali), 0.90 (Arabi Khali), and 0.88 (Arabi Gharbawi) in the different ecotypes. CSN1S1*C shows a single G > T nucleotide substitution in the exon 5, leading to a non-synonymous amino acid exchange (p.Glu30 > Asp30) in comparison to CSN1S1*A and D. At cDNA level, no further single nucleotide polymorphisms could be identified in CSN1S1* A, C, and D, whereas the variants CSN1S1*A and CSN1S1*C are characterized by missing of exon 18 compared to the already described CSN1S1*B, as consequence of DNA insertion of 11 bp at intron 17 which alter the pre-mRNA spliceosome machinery. A polymerase chain-restriction fragment length polymorphism method (PCR-RFLP) was established to type for G > T nucleotide substitution at genomic DNA level. The occurrence and differences of IgE-binding epitopes and bioactive peptides between αs1-casein A, C, and D after digestion were analyzed in silico. The amino acid substitutions and deletion affected the arising peptide pattern and thus modifications between IgE-binding epitopes and bioactive peptides of the variants were found. The allergenic potential of these different peptides will be investigated by microarray immunoassay using sera from milk-sensitized individuals, as it was already demonstrated for bovine αs1-casein variants.

  2. Proteomic Profiling Comparing the Effects of Different Heat Treatments on Camel (Camelus dromedarius) Milk Whey Proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benabdelkamel, Hicham; Masood, Afshan; Alanazi, Ibrahim O; Alzahrani, Dunia A; Alrabiah, Deema K; AlYahya, Sami A; Alfadda, Assim A

    2017-03-28

    Camel milk is consumed in the Middle East because of its high nutritional value. Traditional heating methods and the duration of heating affect the protein content and nutritional quality of the milk. We examined the denaturation of whey proteins in camel milk by assessing the effects of temperature on the whey protein profile at room temperature (RT), moderate heating at 63 °C, and at 98 °C, for 1 h. The qualitative and quantitative variations in the whey proteins before and after heat treatments were determined using quantitative 2D-difference in gel electrophoresis (DIGE)-mass spectrometry. Qualitative gel image analysis revealed a similar spot distribution between samples at RT and those heated at 63 °C, while the spot distribution between RT and samples heated at 98 °C differed. One hundred sixteen protein spots were determined to be significantly different (p milk samples. Eighty protein spots were decreased in common in both the heat-treated samples and an additional 25 spots were further decreased in the 98 °C sample. The proteins with decreased abundance included serum albumin, lactadherin, fibrinogen β and γ chain, lactotransferrin, active receptor type-2A, arginase-1, glutathione peroxidase-1 and, thiopurine S, etc. Eight protein spots were increased in common to both the samples when compared to RT and included α-lactalbumin, a glycosylation-dependent cell adhesion molecule. Whey proteins present in camel milk were less affected by heating at 63 °C than at 98 °C. This experimental study showed that denaturation increased significantly as the temperature increased from 63 to 98 °C.

  3. Proteomic Profiling Comparing the Effects of Different Heat Treatments on Camel (Camelus dromedarius) Milk Whey Proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benabdelkamel, Hicham; Masood, Afshan; Alanazi, Ibrahim O.; Alzahrani, Dunia A.; Alrabiah, Deema K.; AlYahya, Sami A.; Alfadda, Assim A.

    2017-01-01

    Camel milk is consumed in the Middle East because of its high nutritional value. Traditional heating methods and the duration of heating affect the protein content and nutritional quality of the milk. We examined the denaturation of whey proteins in camel milk by assessing the effects of temperature on the whey protein profile at room temperature (RT), moderate heating at 63 °C, and at 98 °C, for 1 h. The qualitative and quantitative variations in the whey proteins before and after heat treatments were determined using quantitative 2D-difference in gel electrophoresis (DIGE)-mass spectrometry. Qualitative gel image analysis revealed a similar spot distribution between samples at RT and those heated at 63 °C, while the spot distribution between RT and samples heated at 98 °C differed. One hundred sixteen protein spots were determined to be significantly different (p milk samples. Eighty protein spots were decreased in common in both the heat-treated samples and an additional 25 spots were further decreased in the 98 °C sample. The proteins with decreased abundance included serum albumin, lactadherin, fibrinogen β and γ chain, lactotransferrin, active receptor type-2A, arginase-1, glutathione peroxidase-1 and, thiopurine S, etc. Eight protein spots were increased in common to both the samples when compared to RT and included α-lactalbumin, a glycosylation-dependent cell adhesion molecule. Whey proteins present in camel milk were less affected by heating at 63 °C than at 98 °C. This experimental study showed that denaturation increased significantly as the temperature increased from 63 to 98 °C. PMID:28350354

  4. Milk production, raw milk quality and fertility of dromedary camels (Camelus Dromedarius) under intensive management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagy, Péter; Thomas, Sonia; Markó, Orsolya; Juhász, Jutka

    2013-03-01

    In many arid countries, dromedaries play an important role as a milk source in rural areas. However, the milk and meat production potential of this species is not well understood and documented. A large-scale camel dairy farm was established in 2006 in the United Arab Emirates. This study summarises the most important data on milk production, raw milk quality and reproductive efficiency collected on this farm during the first three years of operation. The average daily milk production, the mean length of lactation and the mean total milk production per lactation of 174 dromedaries were 6.0 ± 0.12 kg (± SEM), 586 ± 11.0 days (± SEM) and 3314 ± 98.5 kg (± SEM), respectively. The lactation curve reached its peak during the 4th month after parturition (mean ± SEM, 8.9 ± 0.04 kg), then it declined gradually, falling to 50% of the maximum by the 16th month postpartum (mean ± SEM, 4.3 ± 0.06 kg). Milking three times a day did not increase daily milk production compared to two times milking. Mean total viable bacterial count (TVC) and mean somatic cell count (SCC, ± SEM) of bulk raw camel milk were 4,403 ± 94 CFU/cm3 and 392,602 ± 5,999 cells/cm3 for a one-year period, respectively. There was a significant difference among months (P milk samples were 2.51 ± 0.03%, 2.60 ± 0.01%, 4.03 ± 0.03%, 9.98 ± 0.03% and 7.56 ± 0.03%, respectively. Lactation period, average daily milk production and morning vs. evening milking significantly influenced milk chemical composition. For the 470 camels in the breeding programme, end-of-season pregnancy rate and birth rate were 87.0% and 82.6%, respectively, after natural mating. We have demonstrated that sustainable milk production is possible from a traditional species, the dromedary camel, under an intensive management system.

  5. SINGLE NUCLEOTIDE POLYMORPHISM IN THE CODING REGION OF MYF5 GENE OF THE CAMEL (CAMELUS DROMEDARIUS)

    OpenAIRE

    M. G. SHAH, A. S. QURESHI1, M. REISSMANN2 AND H. J. SCHWARTZ3

    2007-01-01

    The myogenic factors (MYF) 5 and 6 are integral to the initiation and development of skeletal muscles and to the maintenance of their phenotypes. Thus, they are candidate genes for growth and meat quality-related traits. The MYF5 gene is expressed during proliferation of myoblasts and comprises 3 exons: 500, 76 and 191 bp long. Genomic DNA was isolated from the camel hair using NucleoSpin Tissue kit. Two animals of each of the six breeds namely, Marecha, Dhatti, Larri, Kohi, Sakrai and Cambel...

  6. Chemical composition, quality and histochemical characteristics of individual dromedary camel (Camelus dromedarius) muscles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadim, I T; Al-Karousi, A; Mahgoub, O; Al-Marzooqi, W; Khalaf, S K; Al-Maqbali, R S; Al-Sinani, S S H; Raiymbek, G

    2013-03-01

    This study characterized the chemical composition, quality and histological traits of six muscles from 10 dromedary carcasses. There were significant differences in moisture, fat, protein, mineral, saturated and unsaturated fatty acid contents between muscles. The longissimus thoracis (LT) had the highest cooking loss (33.5%) and triceps brachii (TB) the lowest (29.2%). The shear force value of semitendinosus (ST), semimembranosus (SM) and biceps femoris (BF) were significantly higher than infraspinatus (IS), TB and LT. The LT had significantly higher values for L*, a*, b* than ST. The SM had the lowest MFI (65.3), while IS had the highest value (75.8). The ST significantly had the highest and lowest proportions of Type I and Type IIA muscle fibers, respectively than other muscles. This study indicated that composition, quality, and histochemical parameters varied among camel muscles and the knowledge of this variation allows for better marketing and processing of camel meat. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. SINGLE NUCLEOTIDE POLYMORPHISM IN THE CODING REGION OF MYF5 GENE OF THE CAMEL (CAMELUS DROMEDARIUS

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    M. G. SHAH, A. S. QURESHI1, M. REISSMANN2 AND H. J. SCHWARTZ3

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available The myogenic factors (MYF 5 and 6 are integral to the initiation and development of skeletal muscles and to the maintenance of their phenotypes. Thus, they are candidate genes for growth and meat quality-related traits. The MYF5 gene is expressed during proliferation of myoblasts and comprises 3 exons: 500, 76 and 191 bp long. Genomic DNA was isolated from the camel hair using NucleoSpin Tissue kit. Two animals of each of the six breeds namely, Marecha, Dhatti, Larri, Kohi, Sakrai and Cambelpuri were used for sequencing. For PCR amplification of the gene, a primer pair was designed from homolog regions of already published sequences of farm animals from GenBank. Results showed that exon 1 comprising of 422 bp of the dromedary MYF5 gene was more homologous (94% to the cattle than the dog and human. However, phylogram showed that a small number of mutations had been experienced by dromedary camels at their MYF5 gene and was more near to human than other farm animals.

  8. Effect of season and gonadotropins on the superovulatory response in camel (Camelus dromedarius).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowshari, Manzoor A; Ali, Syed A

    2005-10-15

    The purpose of the present investigation was to study the extent to which season and the gonadotropin preparation interferes with the superovulatory response in the dromedary. Adult camels were treated for superovulation during the breeding (November to April) and non-breeding season (May to October). Animals were synchronized by daily i.m. injections of progesterone (125 mg/animal/day, Jurox, UK) for 10 to 14 days. Superovulation was induced by 400mg pFSH alone (Follitropin V, Vetrepharm, Canada) administered in eight descending doses at 12h intervals or a combination of PMSG (2000IU, Folligon, Intervet, The Netherlands), injected with last injection of progesterone and 400mg pFSH in eight descending doses. The follicular development was daily assessed by ultrasonography of the ovaries. The donors were classified as per their response to the superovulatory treatment into very good (>10 follicles), good (5-10 follicle), poor (2-4 follicles) or no response (1 or no follicle) on each ovary. Ovulation was induced by injecting 3000 IU hCG (Chorulon, Intervet) at the time of first mating. The donors were mated twice at an interval of 12h when all or most of the follicles reached to a size of about 1.0-1.7 cm. Camels were flushed non-surgically on Day 6 or 7 after the ovulation. The proportion of camels showing very good response during the breeding as well as non-breeding season was higher (PeCG was used compared with pFSH only. There was no difference (P>0.05) in the proportion of donors flushed successfully (embryos recovered) when treated either with a combination of pFSH and eCG or pFSH alone during the breeding and non-breeding season. The rate of recovery of ova/embryos and proportion of transferable embryos was higher (PeCG compared with pFSH only during the breeding as well as non-breeding season. The results may indicate that ova/embryo recovery rate of the dromedary is influenced by the gonadotropin preparation but is not appreciably affected by the season.

  9. Serum biochemistry parameters in the Omani racing Arabian camels (Camelus dromedarius

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasmin Elhag Eltahir

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Blood samples were collected from thirty, 2-year old female Arabian camels from the eastern region of Oman. Camels were managed in the traditional way in the Arabian Gulf region, primarily fed fresh alfalfa and barley grain. Blood was drawn into serum vaccutainers from jugular venipuncture. Serum samples were analyzed by spectrophotometric analysis using a CX7/CX7 serum chemistry analyzer (Synchron, Beckman. Means, standard deviations and minimum and maximum values were calculated using Excel spreadsheets on Microsoft Office 2007. The SAS (2000 package was used to produce coefficient of determination (R2 between the eight serum mineral values. The following mean values Å} standard deviation were recorded: glucose: 92.8Å}19.2 mg/dL; total protein (TP: 6.17 Å} 0.34 g/dL; albumin: 32.21 Å} 9.933 mg/dL; blood urea nitrogen (BUN: 15.48 Å} 4.49 mg/dL; creatinine: 1.64 Å} 0.238 mg/dL; uric acid: 0.28 Å} 0.041 mg/dL; total globulins (TG: 0.28 Å} 0.041 mg/dL; cholesterol: 40.52 Å} 13.225 mg/dL; total bilirubin: 0.34Å}0.124 mg/dL; alkaline phosphatase (ALP: 113.9Å}29.75 (IU/L; aspartate aminotransferase (AST: 88.8Å}70.03 (IU/L; alanine aminotransferase (ALT: 13.3Å}5.97 (IU/L; Gamma-Glutamyl Transpeptidase (GGT: 21.3Å}10.18 (IU/L; lactate dehydrogenase (LD; 419.9Å}160.38 (IU/L; Creatine kinase (CK: 46.3Å}16.2 (IU/L; sodium (Na: 144.5Å}5.80 mmol/L; potassium (K: 4.23Å}0.42 mmol/L; calcium (Ca: 9.63Å}0.43; phosphorus (P: 9.56?Å}0.76 mg/dL; iron (Fe: 107.8Å}25.54 μg/dl; copper (Cu: 72.5Å}8.08 μg/dl; chlorine (Cl: 113.0Å}4.52 mmol/L. Findings of the current study provide baseline values that may be used by clinicians for racing camels in Oman. There were some significant correlations especially between macro minerals (Na, Ca, K, and P that may be used to estimate their values with less cost by reducing the number of elements to be analyzed.

  10. Chemical composition and structural characteristics of Arabian camel (Camelus dromedarius) m. longissimus thoracis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Owaimer, A N; Suliman, G M; Sami, A S; Picard, B; Hocquette, J F

    2014-03-01

    Saudi Arabian camels of four breeds (6 animals per breed) were used to evaluate characteristics and quality of their meat. Chemical composition, fibre cross sectional area, collagen content, muscle metabolism, cooking loss, pH at 24 h post mortem, colour values (except redness) and shear force of Longissimus thoracis (LT) muscle did not differ between the breeds. Elevated pH values and short sarcomeres reduced overall tenderisation, with a difference between myofibril fragmentation index (P0.49), between the glycolytic activities (PFK and LDH) (r=0.61) and between Myosin Heavy Chain IIa and LDH activity. The intramuscular fat content was positively associated with redness and muscle oxidative metabolism, whereas shear force had a slight positive association with collagen content and muscle glycolytic metabolism and a negative association with muscle oxidative metabolism and muscle fibre area. © 2013.

  11. Effect of racing on the serum concentrations of cardiac troponin I and creatine kinase myocardial band in racing camels (Camelus dromedarius).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tharwat, Mohamed; Al-Sobayil, Fahd; Buczinski, Sébastien

    2013-06-01

    This study was designed to investigate the effect of racing on the serum concentrations of cardiac troponin I (cTnI) and creatine kinase myocardial (CK-MB) in healthy racing camels (Camelus dromedarius). Twenty-three racing camels scheduled for a 5 km race were investigated in this study. From each camel, 3 blood samples were collected: 24 h before racing (T0), within 2 h after the race (T1) and 24 h post-race (T2). Following the 5 km race, 91.3 % of the racing camels had increases in serum cTnI concentrations, while concentrations remained unchanged in 8.7 %. The cTnI concentration (median 0.06 ng/mL; range, 0.03-0.15 ng/mL) was significantly higher (P race values (median 0.04 ng/mL; range, 0.01-0.07 ng/mL). Twenty-four hours post-race, the cTnI concentrations had returned very nearly to their pre-race values (median 0.04 ng/mL; range, 0.00-0.09 ng/mL) and were not significantly different (P = 0.35) from the pre-race values. Following the 5 km race, increases in CK-MB mass were seen in 17.4 % of the camels, with no changes in 4.3 % and decreases in 78.3 %. The CK-MB mass (median 0.41 ng/mL; range, 0.19-0.60 ng/mL) did not differ significantly (P = 0.84) when compared to the pre-race values (median 0.42 ng/mL; range, 0.32-0.55 ng/mL). Twenty-four hours post-race, the CK-MB mass concentrations (median 0.41 ng/mL; range, 0.15-0.55 ng/mL) did not differ significantly (P > 0.05) compared to pre-race or immediate post-race values. Resting cTnI concentrations in the racing camels were initially low, but increased above the baseline level in most of the camels immediately after racing, and returned to pre-race values within the 24-h post-race period. CK-MB is a less sensitive biomarker for myocardial activity as compared with cTnI. These findings could be of importance when evaluating racing camels with suspected cardiac disease after recent hard exercise.

  12. Through the eye of an electrospray needle: mass spectrometric identification of the major peptides and proteins in the milk of the one-humped camel (Camelus dromedarius).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alhaider, Abdulqader; Abdelgader, Abdel Galil; Turjoman, Abdullah Arif; Newell, Keri; Hunsucker, Stephen W; Shan, Baozhen; Ma, Bin; Gibson, David S; Duncan, Mark W

    2013-07-01

    The milk of the one-humped camel (Camelus dromedarius) reportedly offers medicinal benefits, perhaps because of its unique bioactive components. Milk proteins were determined by (1) two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and peptide mass mapping and (2) liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) following one-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Over 200 proteins were identified: some known camel proteins including heavy-chain immunoglobulins and others exhibiting regions of exact homology with proteins from other species. Indigenous peptides were also identified following isolation and concentration by two strategies: (1) gel-eluted liquid fraction entrapment electrophoresis and (2) small-scale electrophoretic separation. Extracts were analyzed by LC-MS/MS and peptides identified by matching strategies, by de novo sequencing and by applying a sequence tag tool requiring similarity to the proposed sequence, but not an exact match. A plethora of protein cleavage products including some novel peptides were characterized. These studies demonstrate that camel milk is a rich source of peptides, some of which may serve as nutraceuticals. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  13. Milk Somatic Cell Counts and Some Hemato-Biochemical Changes in Sub-Clinical Mastitic Dromedary She-Camels (Camelus dromedarius

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    Farah Ali, Riaz Hussain, Abdul Qayyum, Shafia Tehseen Gul, Zahid Iqbal and Mohammad Farooque Hassan

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The dromedary camels are considered as the best livestock animals in arid, semiarid and desert areas and camel milk is known as the valuable food source in these areas. The present study was aimed to investigate milk somatic cell counts and some biochemical changes in milk due to sub-clinical mastitis in camels. For this purpose milk samples were collected from 33 lactating animals and examined for sub clinical mastitis using California Mastitis Test. The chi-square and frequency analysis did not show any significant association with age, lactation stage, parity and quarter involved. The results indicated significant (P<0.01 increase in milk electrical conductivity and milk pH while significantly lower values for milk proteins, lactose and fat contents were recorded. The results revealed that the total milk somatic cell and neutrophil counts were significantly increased while the lymphocytes and macrophages were decreased in infected animals. Moreover, milk enzymes; aspartate aminotransferase, lactate dehydrogenase, and alkaline phosphatase were significantly increased in mastitic animals as compared to the non-infected animals. The results indicated that milk electrical conductivity and some milk enzymes can be screened to investigate the sub-clinical mastitis in Camelus dromedaries.

  14. Physiological change in camel milk composition (Camelus dromedarius) 1. Effect of lactation stage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konuspayeva, Gaukhar; Faye, Bernard; Loiseau, Gérard; Narmuratova, Meiramkul; Ivashchenko, Anatoly; Meldebekova, Aliya; Davletov, Sydyk

    2010-03-01

    The change in the composition of camel milk in four dromedaries was studied by including the common measured parameters: protein, total fat, lactose, main minerals (calcium, phosphorus, and iron), and vitamin C. The fat matter varied from 4.34% to 7.81% with a slight decrease all along the lactation and a minimal value at the 14th week corresponding to the lactation peak. Those variations were less important for protein content (from 2.58% to 3.64%), but the minimal value was observed at the 14th week also. The lactose varied slightly around its mean of 3.46%. The vitamin C concentration varied from 48 to 256 mg/l with a tendency of increasing all along the lactation. Calcium and phosphorus concentrations were quite parallel and their ratio Ca/P was constant. The minimal values (1.43 g/l for calcium and 1.16 g/l for phosphorus) were observed at the beginning of the lactation. The iron concentrations varied around the mean of 1.73 mg/l.

  15. Serological evidence of natural exposure of camels (Camelus dromedaries to foot and mouth disease virus

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    M R Yousef

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The World Organization for Animal Health (OIE Code chapter on FMD includes camelids as being susceptible species to FMD similar to cattle, sheep, goats and pigs. A total of 376 field camel sera, collected from different regions of Riyadh and Al-Qassim Province in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, were screened for the presence of antibodies produced against 3ABC non-structural proteins (NSP of FMDV using a commercially available kit , PrioCHECK® FMDV NS. Sera that tested positive on NSP were screened for serotype-specific antibodies towards the seven serotypes of FMD virus using liquid phase blocking ELISA. Only 24 out of 376 (6.3% serum samples were positive for antibodies against NSP. All sera that tested positive on NSP and screened for antibodies against all the seven FMDV serotypes (O, A, C, Asia 1, SAT 1, SAT 2 and SAT 3 were found positive for antibodies against serotype O. This lower seroprevalence of (6.3% reveals that dromedaries appear however as being susceptible to infection with FMDV serotype O, but they are unlikely to play any significant role in the natural epidemiology of FMD. [Vet. World 2012; 5(4.000: 197-200

  16. Left Atrium of the Mature Dromedary Camel Heart (Camelus dromedaries: Microanatomy

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    Wael Ghonimi

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The current work was carried out on the left atrium of ten healthy mature camels. The specimens were collected and examined histologically after being fixed in 10% Neutral Buffered Formalin. The atrium was processed till paraffin sections obtained and stained. Microscopically, the left atrium is consisted of three major tunics; the internal endocardium, the middle myocardium, and the external epicardium. The endocardium is the inner layer of the atrial wall and consisting of the endothelial layer of simple squamous epithelium that lining the atrium, subendothelial layer of loose connective tissue supporting the endothelium and the subendocardial layer that connecting the endocardium with the myocardium. Myocardium is the middle layer of the atrium, forming the main mass of the atrial wall. It is sandwiched between an outer epicardium, that covers the atrium, and an inner endocardium, that lines the atrial chamber. It is mainly formed from bundles of the contractile cardiac myocytes; myocardiocytes that arranged in strands or branching columns. The left atrium is externally covered with the epicardium that is relatively thin in comparison with the myocardium and consisting of a subepicardial layer of highly vascularized loose connective tissue and the mesothelium of simple squamous epithelium.

  17. Purification and quantification of heavy-chain antibodies from the milk of bactrian camels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Hongqiang; Zhang, Min; Li, Yi; Yao, Jirimutu; Meng, He; Yu, Siriguleng

    2017-09-01

    Camel milk has a unique composition with naturally occurring heavy-chain antibodies (HCAbs), which exert rehabilitating potencies in infection and immunity. To characterize HCAb in camel milk, immunoglobulin G (IgG) was isolated from the milk of Camelus bactrianus by a combination of affinity chromatography and sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis to purify and size-fractionate protein A and protein G, which were further identified by Western blotting, and were quantified by bicinchoninic acid (BCA) and ELISA. The results indicated that IgG1 fraction contains molecules of 50 kDa heavy chains and 36 kDa light chains. The HCAbs (IgG2 and IgG3 fractions) devoid of light chains, contain heavy chains of 45 kDa and 43 kDa, respectively, the amounts of which were significantly higher than that of the IgG1 in the milk of bactrian camels. Above all, we revealed the considerable amounts of HCAbs in the milk of bactrian camels, and developed a novel method for their purification and quantification. These findings provide the basis for developing potential effects of camel milk and its interface with the dairy industry, as well as future investigations of HCAb and its roles in human health and diseases. © 2017 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  18. Serological, molecular detection and potential risk factors associated with camel brucellosis in Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatima, Sana; Khan, Iahtasham; Nasir, Amar; Younus, Muhammad; Saqib, Muhammad; Melzer, Falk; Neubauer, Heinrich; El-Adawy, Hosny

    2016-12-01

    Brucellosis is one of the most important zoonoses in developing countries and was considered the most widespread zoonosis in the world. Brucellosis was reported in camels and has been reported from all camel-keeping countries.The present study was performed in three districts (Jhang, Chiniot, and Bhakkar) of Punjab province of Pakistan. A total of 200 camel (Camelus bactrianus) sera were collected using random and multistage cluster sampling from different areas. Fifty samples were collected from one organized governmental farm. One hundred fifty samples were collected randomly from nomadic/pastoral production systems. All sera were tested with Rose Bengal plate agglutination test (RBPT) and confirmed by ELISA. Genomic DNA was extracted from all serum samples and tested by real-time PCR. Various potential risk factors (season, rearing with other animals, and abortion or orchitis history) recorded through questionnaires were statistically analyzed by Chi-square test.In total, 5 % of investigated sera were positive by RBPT. Only 2 % of the camel sera were CELISA positive. Brucella abortus DNA was detected in 1.5 % of the investigated animals. Season, rearing of camels with other ruminants, abortion, and orchitis history were found to be statistically significant (p brucellosis is a zoonotic disease in the Pakistani Punjab with various risk factors maintaining and perpetuating its spread. Therefore, there is a need for implementing control measures and raising public health awareness in prevention of brucellosis in Pakistan.

  19. An outbreak of a mixed infection of Dermatophilus congolensis and Microsporum gypseum in camels (Camelus dromedarius) in Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gitao, C G; Agab, H; Khalifalla, A J

    1998-12-01

    Although both Dermatophilus congolensis and Microsporum gypseum infections have been reported separately in camels, mixed infection involving both agents has not been reported to date. The authors describe a mixed infection of D. congolensis and M. gypseum in camels reared on a dairy farm in Saudi Arabia. A total of 131 out of 559 camels (23.4%) were affected. Forty-eight camels less than one year of age had discrete, circumscribed, crusty, hairless lesions, found in particular on the neck and forelegs. Eighty-three camels of varying ages had extensive hair matting with crusty, hairless lesions, especially on the flanks. Camel calves and young camels demonstrated a relatively greater amount of skin lesions. D. congolensis and M. gypseum were diagnosed by direct microscopy, isolation and histopathology.

  20. Slaughter practices and composition of Dromedary Camel (Camelus dromedarius meat in relation to age and body condition in Eastern Ethiopia

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    Ali Seid

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to monitor the camel slaughtering practices, and evaluate meat composition in relation to age and body condition of camels. Fifty-four male Issa type camels of three age groups: group 1 (6-10 years, group 2 (11-17 years and group 3 (? 18 years where each age group classified to three body condition groups (poor, medium and good were sampled from camels slaughtered at Dire Dawa abattoir. The camels were monitored for slaughtering practices and their meat compositions were investigated following standard procedures. The results showed that camels were slaughtered inhumanly violating many of the basic requirements of humane and halal (permitted slaughtering, including cruelly cutting Achilles tendon of hindlegs, severing the neck with more than one stroke, and sharpening knives and performing slaughtering in front of camels waiting for slaughter. Muscle, bone, and fat proportions were 54.9, 25.5, and 19.6%, respectively. Proportions of muscle (P

  1. In vitro production of Sudanese camel (Camelus dromedarius) embryos from epididymal spermatozoa and follicular oocytes of slaughtered animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelkhalek, A E; Gabr, Sh A; Khalil, W A; Shamiah, Sh M; Pan, L; Qin, G; Farouk, M H

    2017-03-28

    Application of assisted reproductive technology in camelidea, such as artificial insemination (AI) and embryo transfer, has been slow in comparison to that for other livestock species. In Egypt, there are few attempts to establish in vitro maturation (IVM) and fertilization (IVF) techniques in dromedary camel. The present study was carried out to produce Sudanese camel embryos using in vitro matured oocytes and epididymal spermatozoa. Dromedary camel ovaries were collected from abattoirs and then, the oocytes were aspirated from all the visible follicles on the ovarian surface (~2-8 mm in a diameter). Meanwhile, Fetal Dromedary Camel Serum (FDCS) was obtained from camel fetuses after slaughtering. Thereafter, only Cumulus Oocyte Complexes (COCs) were matured in vitro in the Tissue Culture Medium (TCM-199) complemented with 10% FDCS. Spermatozoa required for in vitro fertilization were collected from testes (epididymal cauda) of the slaughtered camel bulls. The results clearly showed that the maturation rate of oocytes at metaphase II was about 59.5% while the fertilization rate was around 70.4%. Intriguingly, the embryo rates determined were 13.1%, in 2-cell; 0.0%, in 4-cell; 34.7%, in 8-16% cell; 39.1%, in morula and 13.1% in a blastocyst stage. This study represented a successful in vitro production of Sudanese dromedary camel embryos from epididymal sperm cells and in vitro matured oocytes recovered from slaughtered camels.

  2. An assessment of the productivity for meat and the carcass yield of camels (Camelus dromedarius) and of the consumption of camel meat in the eastern region of Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurtu, M Y

    2004-01-01

    A survey on camel meat productivity and consumption was conducted in Jijiga and Harar towns in 1999. Almost all the camels slaughtered were adults, predominantly males. Measurements of height, hump girth and thoracic girth were used to estimate the live weight. All the measurements were significantly greater in the male than in the female camels. Average live and carcass weights were 400 and 211 kg, respectively. Males were significantly heavier (p meat, 12% fat and 20% bone for both males and females. The difference between the males and females was not significant for the ratio of meat and bones, except for fat, which was higher in the males. Camel meat is regarded as a high-quality food with medicinal value and as a least-cost source of meat. Camel meat is preferred to that of any other livestock by some people, particularly by the Somalis in Jijiga town. It is also more available, especially during the dry season when beef is in short supply. Hence, camel meat is a socially acceptable, economically viable and environmentally adaptable alternative source of meat, consumption of which should be encouraged.

  3. Reactivity of commercially available monoclonal antibodies to human CD antigens with peripheral blood leucocytes of dromedary camels (Camelus dromedarius

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    Jamal Hussen

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Monoclonal antibodies (mAbs to cell surface molecules have been proven as a key tool for phenotypic and functional characterization of the cellular immune response. One of the major difficulties in studying camel cellular immunity consists in the lack of mAbs that dtect their leukocyte differentiation antigens. In the present study two-parameter flow cytometry was used to screen existing commercially available mAbs to human leukocyte antigens and major histocompatibility molecules (MHC for their reactivity with camel leukocytes. The comparison of patterns of reactivity obtained after labelling human and camel leukocytes have shown that mAbs specific to human cluster of differentiation (CD 18, CD11a, CD11b and CD14 are predicted to be cross-reactive with homologous camel antigens.

  4. Isolation of tissue cysts of Toxoplasma, Isospora, Hammondia and Sarcocystis from camel (Camelus dromedarius) meat in Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilali, M; Fatani, A; al-Atiya, S

    1995-07-01

    Meat samples were collected from the oesophagus and tongue of 38 camels slaughtered at the main abattoir of Al-Ahsa city, Saudi Arabia. Five cats and three dogs, conventionally reared and coccidia-free, were caged individually in steel cages. Camel meat was pooled, minced and fed to four cats and two dogs. One cat and one dog were not fed meat and were kept as noninfected controls. Faecal samples from infected and control animals were examined daily for a period of 2 months after feeding the meat. Three cats fed camel meat passed in their faeces oocysts of Toxoplasma gondii, Isospora felis and Isospora rivolta. The fourth cat passed only T. gondii and I. felis oocysts. One of the dogs fed camel meat passed oocysts of Isospora canis, Hammondia heydorni and Sarcocystis cameli sporocysts. The second dog excreted only S. cameli sporocysts.

  5. KEFIRS MANUFACTURED FROM CAMEL (CAMELUS DRAMEDARIUS MILK AND COW MILK: COMPARISON OF SOME CHEMICAL AND MICROBIAL PROPERTIES

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    G. Kavas

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the production possibilities of kefir from fresh camel milk fermented with grain. The findings were then compared with kefir manufactured from cow’s milk. Cow’s milk was fermented with 2.5% grains. The 1% (v/w glucose enriched camel’s milk was fermented with 10% grains and left in an incubator at 25°C. Physical-chemical and sensorial analyses of the kefir sampleswere measured on day one (18 hours of storage and microbiological analyses were measured on days one, three and five. Some physical-chemical parameters were found to be higherin camel milk and its kefir than in cow milk and its kefir, some were found to be close and some were found to be lower. Addition of 1% glucose and 10% grains to the camel milk affected the titrationacidity and viscosity of kefir to significant levels. The kefir produced from camel milk was perceived as sourer, whereas its other properties were found to be close to those of cow milk. Thecholesterol levels of camel milk and its kefir were detected to be higher when compared to those of cow milk and its kefir, but the cholesterol level decreased in both examples after the productionof kefir. In terms of the composition of fatty acids, it was determined that SFA and the small, medium chain fatty acids ratio was low in camel milk and its kefir, but MUFA and the long chainfatty acids ratio was high. PUFA ratio was high in camel milk but low in its kefir. In microbiological analysis, yeast levels increased in kefir samples with the Lactobacillus ssp. strains, and theincrease in the number of yeasts was higher than in the cow milk kefir. In kefir samples, Lactobacillus ssp. strains increased on day one and three of storage, but diminished after day three.

  6. Comparative morphometric and glycohistochemical studies on the epididymal duct in the donkey (Equus asinus) and dromedary camel (Camelus dromedarius).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkafafy, Mohamed; Ebada, Safwat; Rashed, Reda; Attia, Hossam

    2012-09-01

    The present study was undertaken to compare morphometric and glycohistochemical differences in the epididymal duct of the donkey and the dromedary camel. Paraffin-embedded sections from the different regions of the duct (caput, corpus and cauda) of both species were stained conventionally for general histology and histomorphometry and also with fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC) conjugated lectins for glycohistochemical mapping. Morphometric data (means ± SE) showed that the luminal diameter was widest (1029.76 ± 15.04 μm) in the donkey cauda and narrowest (179.80 ± 3.27 μm) in the camel corpus. The thickness of the peritubular muscle coat had the highest (74.32 ± 1.85 μm) and the lowest (24.32 ± 0.74 μm) values in the donkey cauda and corpus respectively. The greatest (94.44 ± 2.08 μm) and the least (21.48 ± 0.66 μm) values of epithelial height were reported respectively in the camel caput and in the donkey cauda. The length of stereocilia of principal cells in the camel was greatest (21.88 ± 0.57 μm) and lowest (6.68 ± 0.28 μm) in the caput and cauda. Binding sites for only six out of eight lectins could be found. The distribution pattern of binding sites of different lectins showed significant variations in both a species-specific and also region-specific manner. Distinct labeling was found in the Golgi zone, apical cytoplasm and on stereocilia of principal cells in the camel (WGA and DBA) and donkey (DBA) caput region, while other lectins exhibited variable reactivity in the other regions in both species. The basal cells showed variable binding to most of the lectins, however, they displayed distinct binding to WGA and PSA throughout the duct in camel and donkey respectively. In conclusion, both morphometric and glycohistochemical findings displayed regional species-specific and potentially functional relevant characteristics. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  7. The antigenicity-allergenicity of camel milk proteins (camelus dromedarus) in BALB/c mice after oral sensitization

    OpenAIRE

    Dalal, R; Youcef, N; Mezemaze, F; D. Saidi; KHEROUA, O.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: When the breastfeeding is not possible or not wished, it is usually replaced by cow's milk or by some conventional cow’s milk-based infant formulas. However these proteins can involve at certain subjects pathological manifestations like the cow's milk allergy (CMA). The substitution of cow's milk by other treated milk, called "hypoallergenic", is currently the only alternative. The using of the camel milk, species taxonomically far away from the cow can be considered...

  8. Morphological studies on the seasonal changes in the epididymal duct of the one-humped camel (camelus dromedarius

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    Ahmed El-Zuhry Zayed

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The present work was carried out on 20 testes and epididymis of sexually mature camels to elucidate the gross anatomical, morphometerical, light microscopical and scanning electron microscopical features of the epididymis in different seasons. Anatomically, the epididymal duct of a camel consists of three parts head, body and tail. Histomorphologically, the epididymal duct is subdivided into initial, middle and terminal segments, of which the middle segment is further subdivided into proximal, intermediate and distal parts. There is a gradual decrease in the epithelial height of the epididymal duct from the initial to the terminal segments. This mechanically facilities passage of the sperms toward the terminal segment. High epithelium in the initial segment may indicate a more absorptive power of the epithelium in this segment. The seasonal reproductivety of the epididymal duct in the camel expressed by variations in the weight and volume of the epididymis, total diameter of the epididymal duct, epithelial height, length of the stereocilia, thickness of the muscular coat and cellular distributions in different segments. The spring months offer ideal circumstances for maximal reproductive activity in this species. The cellular components of the epididymal duct epithelium of the camel displays important morphological changes from season to another showing signs of increasing activity during spring in comparison to decreasing activity in other seasons. PAS positive granules are demonstrated in different segments of the epididymal duct and intraepithelial glands in different seasons. These granules are relatively more numerous in spring. The lamina propria surrounding the epididymal duct contains a layer of the elastic fibers which is very thick in winter, thick in spring and thin in other seasons. This increase in thickness of the elastic fibers predisposes for the increase in the total diameter of the epididymal duct in spring. It was conclude

  9. Relationship between udder morphology traits, alveolar and cisternal milk compartments and machine milking performances of dairy camels (Camelus dromedarius

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    M. Ayadi

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available A total of 22 dairy dromedary camels under intensive conditions in late lactation (275±24 days were used to study the relationship between external and internal udder morphology and machine milking performances. Measurements of udder and teat morphology were obtained immediately before milking and in duplicate. Individual milk yield, lag time and total milking time were recorded during milking, and milk samples were collected and analyzed for milk composition thereafter. Cisternal and alveolar milk volumes and composition were evaluated at 9 h milking interval. Results revealed that dairy camels had well developed udders and milk veins, with medium sized teats. On average, milk yield as well as milk fat and protein contents were 4.80±0.50 L d-1, 2.61±0.16% and 3.08±0.05%, respectively. The low fat values observed indicated incomplete milk letdown during machine milking. Lag time, and total milking time were 3.0±0.3, and 120.0±8.9s, on average, respectively. Positive correlations (p<0.05 were observed between milk yield and udder depth (r=0.37, distance between teats (r=0.57 and milk vein diameter (r=0.28, while a negative correlation was found with udder height (r=-0.25, p<0.05. Cisternal milk accounted for 11% of the total udder milk. Positive correlations were observed between total milk yield and volume of alveolar milk (r=0.98; p<0.001 as well as with volume of cisternal milk (r=0.63, p<0.05. Despite the low udder milk storage capacity observed in dairy camels, our study concluded that the evaluated dromedary sample had adequate udder morphology for machine milking. Finally, positive relationships were detected between milk yield and udder morphology traits of dairy camels.

  10. Feasibility of utilising an infrared-thermographic technique for early detection of subclinical mastitis in dairy camels (Camelus dromedarius).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samara, Emad M; Ayadi, Moez; Aljumaah, Riyadh S

    2014-02-01

    Despite the proven ability of infrared thermography (IRT) technology for early detection of subclinical mastitis in dairy cows/sheep/goats, studies on its diagnostic feasibility in dairy camels are lacking. Sixty-five lactating camels in mid lactation, machine milked twice-daily and managed under intensive conditions were screened to evaluate the feasibility of utilising IRT compared with other routine indicators in detecting subclinical mastitis. Immediately before the morning milking, a portable infrared camera was used to obtain thermograms in duplicate for the front and rear left quarters to determine the udder surface temperature (UST). Thereafter, milk samples from quarters were collected, and processed for California mastitis test (CMT) score and somatic cell count (SCC). In the present study, CMT score was used to define subclinical mastitis and the feasibility of IRT to detect subclinical mastitis was compared with CMT and SCC. According to CMT score, subclinical mastitic udders had an average UST of 1·42 °C greater (Psubclinical mastitis was defined according to CMT score, and were 35·70 °C, 0·89, 0·96 and 0·94, respectively, when categorised according to the obtained SCC threshold (SCC=432 000 cells/ml). In conclusion, IRT, as an indirect non-invasive screening method, was highly feasible for distinguishing subclinical mastitic udders in dairy camels, which is crucial to treat mastitis early and efficiently.

  11. Effects of age on composition and quality of muscle Longissimus thoracis of the Omani Arabian camel (Camelus dromedaries).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadim, I T; Mahgoub, O; Al-Marzooqi, W; Al-Zadjali, S; Annamalai, K; Mansour, M H

    2006-08-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effects of age on chemical composition and quality characteristics of the Arabian one-humped camel's meat. Samples of longissimus thoracis (between the 10th and the 13th rib of the left side) were randomly collected from 21 Omani intact male camels of three different age groups: group 1 (1-3 years), group 2 (3-5 years) and group 3 (6-8 years). Samples were chilled (1-3°C) for 48h. Moisture, crude protein, fat and ash were determined on freeze dried ground muscle. Mineral contents were determined using an Inductively coupled plasma emission spectrometer (ICP). Meat quality including ultimate muscle pH, Warner-Bratzler shear force, sarcomere length, myofibrillar fragmentation index, expressed juice, cooking loss percent, and colour L(∗), a(∗), b(∗) were measured using standard methods. The moisture, protein, fat and ash ranged from 64.4% to 76.7%; 18.6% to 25.0%, 1.1% to 10.5% and 1.0% to 1.4% on dry matter basis, respectively. The Ca, Mg, Na, K, P, Cad, Cr, Ni, Pb, Co, Mo, Be and V ranged from, 9.2 to 46.6, 24.7 to 57.3, 104.7 to 257.0, 471.4 to 1053.0, 249.9 to 584.0, 0.005 to 0.024, 0.020 to 0.410, 0.016 to 0.187, 0.010 to 0.299, 0.010 to 0.018, 0.050 to 0.470, 0.005 to 0.030 and 0.013 to 0.141mg/100g on dry matter basis, respectively. The percentage of protein decreased and that of fat increased with increasing camel age. The ultimate pH, shear force, sarcomere length, fragmentation index, expressed juice, cooking loss, lightness (L(∗)), redness (a(∗)) and yellowness (b(∗)) ranged from 5.46 to 6.64, 4.25 to 17.82, 0.96 to 2.50, 55.91 to 94.81,19.50 to 33.63, 13.18 to 29.88, 27.86 to 43.21, 10.46 to 22.81, and 4.63 to 10.11, respectively. Muscles of younger camels (group 1) had significantly (Pcamels (group 3), respectively. Values of middle age camels (group 2) camels were in-between. This study confirmed that camel meat is healthy and nutritious as it contains low fat as well as being a good source of

  12. KEFIRS MANUFACTURED FROM CAMEL (CAMELUS DRAMEDARIUS) MILK AND COW MILK: COMPARISON OF SOME CHEMICAL AND MICROBIAL PROPERTIES

    OpenAIRE

    G. Kavas

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the production possibilities of kefir from fresh camel milk fermented with grain. The findings were then compared with kefir manufactured from cow’s milk. Cow’s milk was fermented with 2.5% grains. The 1% (v/w) glucose enriched camel’s milk was fermented with 10% grains and left in an incubator at 25°C. Physical-chemical and sensorial analyses of the kefir sampleswere measured on day one (18 hours) of storage and microbiological analyses were measured on days one, three an...

  13. Ultrasonographic-guided retrieval of cumulus oocyte complexes after super-stimulation in dromedary camel (Camelus dromedarius).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wani, N A; Skidmore, J A

    2010-08-01

    In Experiment 1, studies were conducted to apply the transvaginal ultrasound guided ovum pick-up (OPU) technique in dromedary camels after their ovarian super-stimulation and in vivo oocyte maturation. In Experiment 2, the developmental potential of two commonly used oocyte types, i.e., in vivo matured oocytes collected by OPU and abattoir derived in vitro-matured oocytes was compared after their chemical activation. In Experiment 3, developmental competence of oocytes collected from super-stimulated camels by OPU, matured either in vivo or in vitro, was compared after their chemical activation. Mature female dromedary camels super-stimulated with a combination of eCG and pFSH were given an injection of 20 microg of the GnRH analogue, buserelin 24, 26, or 28 h before the scheduled OPU. For collection of cumulus oocyte complexes (COCs) the transducer was guided through the vulva into the cranial most portion of the vagina and 17-gauge, 55 cm single-lumen needle was placed in the needle guide of the ultrasound probe and advanced through the vaginal fornix and into the follicle. Follicular fluid was aspirated using a regulated vacuum pump into tubes containing embryo-flushing media. Aspirates were searched for COCs using a stereomicroscope, and they were then denuded of cumulus cells by hyaluronidase and repeated pipetting. The oocytes were classified as mature (with a visible polar body), immature (with no visible polar body), activated (with divided or fragmented ooplasm) and others (degenerated and abnormal). Overall an average of 12.12 +/- 7.9 COCs were aspirated per animal with an oocyte recovery rate from the aspirated follicles of about 77%. The majority (> 90%) of the collected COCs by OPU were with loose and expanded cumulus cells. The proportion of matured oocytes obtained at 28-29 h (91.2 +/- 4.1) and 26-27 h (82.1 +/- 3.4) were higher (P ultrasound guided transvaginal ovum pick-up from super-stimulated dromedary camels 26-28 h after GnRH administration

  14. (Camelus dromedarius) in Tripoli, Libya

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ibrahim Eldaghayes

    2018-01-02

    Jan 2, 2018 ... Serum protein electrophoretic pattern in one-humped camels (Camelus dromedarius) in Tripoli, Libya. Omran Abdoslam1,*, Mahmoud Bayt-Almal2, Abdullah Almghrbe2 and Omran Algriany3. 1Department of Pathology and Clinical Pathology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Tripoli, Tripoli,.

  15. Gross and microanatomical studies on the moderator bands (septomarginal trabecula in the heart of mature Dromedary camel (Camelus dromedarius

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wael Ghonimi

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The current work was carried out to investigate the gross and microanatomical features of moderator bands (septomarginal trabecula in camel heart. Ten hearts were collected from healthy mature dromedary camels. Anatomically, the moderator bands were present in both right and left ventricles. In right ventricle, the walls had one muscular moderator band which was extended from the interventricular septum to the opposite ventricular wall especially to the papillary muscle. In left ventricle, there were two bands; one extended from the interventricular septum to the papillary muscles, and the other one was present in various places especially in the apex running as a thin thread-like band across the left ventricular wall. Histological examination revealed that the moderator band consisted of two major layers; the central (core myocardium and the peripheral endocardium, acting as band capsule. The myocardium had two bundles; the contractile cardiac muscle bundles and the Purkinje fiber bundles. The endocardium consisted of three layers; the endothelial layer of simple squamous epithelium, the subendothelial layer of loose connective tissue and the subendocardial layer, connecting the endocardium with the myocardium.

  16. Role of Production Area, Seasonality and Age of Fermented Camel (Camelus Dromedarius Milk Gariss on Mineral Contents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Ismail Ahmed

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to study the differences between some minerals content of gariss samples collected from two different production areas in two different production systems (i.e. traditional system Kordofan area and semi-intensive system- which, the camels are kept in an open barn and graze around the farm. The lactating female camels are supplemented with concentrates in addition to good quality ration containing groundnut cake and Sorghum biocolor and water supply upon required in Kordofan and Khartoum provinces in Sudan at the different seasons (summer, autumn and winter and their gariss samples were collected. Sodium, potassium, calcium, magnesium and phosphorus of gariss samples collected in autumn season (Kordofan area, summer season (Khartoum area, and winter season (Khartoum and Kordofan areas were determined, after that the age of gariss was noted from farmers directly when the samples were collected. Four different ages of gariss which registered were (5-8 hrs, 12 hrs, 48 hrs and more than 48 hrs. Each fermentation time (age of gariss was used for analyzing mineral contents. The results showed that gariss prepared from different production locations and in different seasons in Kordofan and Khartoum production areas were statistically different in most of the mineral contents determined. To conclude, different feeding sources or different physiological status may affect camels’ milk and consequently their gariss product, also different age of gariss had affects the mineral content of milk.

  17. Slaughter practices and composition of Dromedary Camel (Camelus dromedarius) meat in relation to age and body condition in Eastern Ethiopia

    OpenAIRE

    Ali Seid; Mohammed Kurtu; Mengistu Urge

    2017-01-01

    This study was conducted to monitor the camel slaughtering practices, and evaluate meat composition in relation to age and body condition of camels. Fifty-four male Issa type camels of three age groups: group 1 (6-10 years), group 2 (11-17 years) and group 3 (? 18 years) where each age group classified to three body condition groups (poor, medium and good) were sampled from camels slaughtered at Dire Dawa abattoir. The camels were monitored for slaughtering practices and their meat compositio...

  18. A review of the growth, and of the carcass and meat quality characteristics of the one-humped camel (Camelus dromedaries).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadim, I T; Mahgoub, O; Purchas, R W

    2008-11-01

    The dromedary camel is a good source of meat especially in areas where the climate adversely affects the performance of other meat animals. This is because of its unique physiological characteristics, including a great tolerance to high temperatures, solar radiation, water scarcity, rough topography and poor vegetation. The average birth weight of camels is about 35kg, but it varies widely between regions, breeds and within the same breed. The meat producing ability of camels is limited by modest growth rates (500g/day). However, camels are mostly produced under traditional extensive systems on poor levels of nutrition and are mostly slaughtered at older ages after a career in work, racing or milk production. Camels reach live weights of about 650kg at 7-8 years of age, and produce carcass weights ranging from 125 to 400kg with dressing-out percentage values from 55% to 70%. Camel carcasses contain about 57% muscle, 26% bone and 17% fat with fore halves (cranial to rib 13) significantly heavier than the hind halves. Camel lean meat contains about 78% water, 19% protein, 3% fat, and 1.2% ash with a small amount of intramuscular fat, which renders it a healthy food for humans. Camel meat has been described as raspberry red to dark brown in colour and the fat of the camel meat is white. Camel meat is similar in taste and texture to beef. The amino acid and mineral contents of camel meat are often higher than beef, probably due to lower intramuscular fat levels. Recently, camel meat has been processed into burgers, patties, sausages and shawarma to add value. Future research efforts need to focus on exploiting the potential of the camel as a source of meat through multidisplinary research into efficient production systems, and improved meat technology and marketing.

  19. Molecular cloning and phylogenetic analysis of integrins alpha v beta 1 and alpha v beta 6 of one-humped camel (Camelus dromedarius)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Du, Junzheng; Larska, Magdalena Larska; Chang, Huiyun

    2010-01-01

    , and 787 amino acids, respectively. The dromedary camel integrin alpha v, beta 1, and beta 6 subunit shares common structural and functional elements with their counterparts from the other species. Phylogenetic trees showed that the dromedary camel alpha v, beta 1, and beta 6 were clustered...

  20. Evaluation of the breeding soundness of male camels (Camelus dromedarius) via clinical examination, semen analysis, ultrasonography and testicular biopsy: a summary of 80 clinical cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waheed, M M; Ghoneim, I M; Hassieb, M M; Alsumait, A A

    2014-10-01

    Male camel infertility is a heterogeneous disorder. A variety of factors may adversely affect sperm production and function and impair fertility. This study was designed to evaluate the sensitivity and specificity of ultrasonography and testicular biopsy in the evaluation of the breeding soundness of male dromedaries compared with results obtained by clinical examination and semen analysis. Eighty-four male dromedary camels (5-15 years old) were used in this study during the rutting season (November-May). Four sexually mature male camels were used as controls. These animals were apparently healthy and had histories of normal fertility. Eighty infertile male camels were subjected to an algorithmic approach based on information collected during careful examinations of the camels' breeding histories, clinical examinations, testicular evaluations, testicular ultrasonographies, the results of the semen analyses and testicular biopsies to diagnose the camels' infertilities. The differences in the semen parameters between the control and infertile male camels were highly significant (p semen analysis, can afford veterinarians the opportunity for more precise diagnosis and treatment of many dromedary infertility disorders. © 2014 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  1. Effect of low voltage electrical stimulation on biochemical and quality characteristics of Longissimus thoracis muscle from one-humped Camel (Camelus dromedaries).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadim, I T; Al-Hosni, Y; Mahgoub, O; Al-Marzooqi, W; Khalaf, S K; Al-Maqbaly, R S; Al-Sinawi, S S H; Al-Amri, I S

    2009-05-01

    The effects of electrical stimulation (90V) 20min post mortem on meat quality and muscle fibre types of four age group camels (1-3, 4-6, 7-9, 10-12 years) camels were assessed. Quality of the Longissimus thoracis at 1 and 7 days post mortem ageing was evaluated using shear force, pH, sarcomere length, myofibrillar fragmentation index, expressed juice, cooking loss and L(∗), a(∗), b(∗) colour values. Age of camel and electrical stimulation had a significant effect on meat quality of L. thoracis. Electrical stimulation resulted in a significantly (Pmeat was significantly (Pcamels had a significantly (Pcamels. The proportions of Type I, Type IIA and Type IIB were 25.0, 41.1 and 33.6%, respectively were found in camel meat. Muscle samples from 1-3 year camels had significantly (Pcamel samples. These results indicated that age and ES had a significant effect on camel meat quality.

  2. Influence of dietary chromium yeast supplementation on apparent trace elements metabolism in growing camel (Camelus dromedarius) reared under hot summer conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alhidary, Ibrahim A; Alsofi, M A; Abdoun, K A; Samara, E M; Okab, A B; Al-Haidary, A A

    2017-11-07

    This study aimed to evaluate the effect of dietary chromium (Cr) supplementation on the apparent metabolism of some trace elements in camel calves reared under hot summer conditions. The study was conducted on a total of 15 male camel calves (5-6 months old) reared under hot summer conditions for 12 weeks. The animals were housed individually under shelter and divided into three dietary treatment groups (diets supplemented with 0.0, 0.5, or 1.0 mg Cr/kg DM), five animals each. At the end of the study, a metabolic trial was conducted on all camels for the evaluation of trace elements metabolism. Cr excretion, absorption, and retention showed an increasing trend with the increasing level of dietary Cr supplementation. Dietary Cr supplementation at 0.5 mg Cr/kg DM to camel calves resulted in a significant (P < 0.05) increase in Cu and an increasing trend in Zn and Mn excretion via urine and feces. However, Fe retention increased significantly (P < 0.05) in camel calves fed on diet supplemented with Cr. Dietary Cr supplementation to camel calves resulted in an increasing trend of plasma Cr concentration, while plasma concentration of Cu and Zn tended to decrease and without any effect on plasma Fe concentration. The results of the present study suggests that care should be taken for the negative interaction of Cr with the utilization of other trace elements, in cases where Cr is supplemented to the diet as a feed additive to promote growth and immunity under hot climatic conditions.

  3. Reproduction in Camel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.V. Khanvilkar

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available The word camel is derived from the Greek word “kremal”. Camel is an important component of the desert ecosystem from time immemorial and is recognized as the “Ship of the desert”. Humans depend on this animal not just for meat, milk and hide but also as one of the most important mode of transport in the desert which has increased to 10,30,000 million according to FAO census, which is almost 6-8% of the total camel population of the world. The genus Camelus has two species, one humped camel found in Africa, Arabia, Iran, Afghanistan and India and two-humped camel found in Central Asia reaching up to Mongolia and Western part of China. Camels have 70 chromosomes. Camels do not have sweat glands and can tolerate heat up to 49 oC to 50oC during the day time and 30oC during night time. [Vet. World 2009; 2(2.000: 72-73

  4. Seroprevalence and risk factors for Coxiella burnetii, the causative agent of Q fever in the dromedary camel (Camelus dromedarius) population in Algeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benaissa, Mohammed H; Ansel, Samir; Mohamed-Cherif, Abdallah; Benfodil, Karima; Khelef, Djamel; Youngs, Curtis R; Kaidi, Rachid; Ait-Oudhia, Khatima

    2017-08-31

    Query (Q) fever is a globally distributed zoonotic disease caused by Coxiella burnetii, a bacterial agent for which ruminants are the most prevalent natural reservoir. Data regarding Q fever infection in camels in Algeria are limited. Therefore, a survey to detect seroprevalence of C. burnetii antibodies was conducted among healthy camel populations in a vast area in southeastern Algeria to determine distribution of the Q fever causative organism and to identify risk factors associated with infection. Between January and March 2016, blood samples were collected from 184 camels and serum samples were subsequently analysed using a commercial Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) kit. At the time of blood collection, a questionnaire investigating 13 potential predisposing factors associated with C. burnetii seropositivity was completed for every dromedary camel and herd. Results were analysed by a chi-square (χ2) test and multivariate logistic regression. The seroprevalence of C. burnetii at the animal level was 71.2% (95% CI: 65.2-78.3) and 85.3% (95% CI: 72.8-97.8) at the herd level. At the animal level, differences in seroprevalence were observed because of herd size, animal age, animal sex, presence of ticks and contact with other herds. A multivariable logistic regression model identified three main risk factors associated with individual seropositivity: (1) age class > 11 years (OR = 8.81, 95% CI: 2.55-30.41), (2) herd size > 50 head (OR = 4.46, 95% CI: 1.01-19.59) and (3) infestation with ticks (OR 2.2; 95% CI: 1.1-4.5). This study of seroprevalence of C. burnetii infection in camels in Algeria revealed a high seroprevalence of Q fever in camel populations in southeastern Algeria and provided strong evidence that Q fever represents an economic, public health and veterinary concern. Appropriate measures should be taken to prevent the spread of C. burnetii and to reduce the risk of Q fever in farm animals and humans in this agro-ecologically and

  5. Seroprevalence and risk factors for Coxiella burnetii, the causative agent of Q fever in the dromedary camel (Camelus dromedarius population in Algeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed H. Benaissa

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Query (Q fever is a globally distributed zoonotic disease caused by Coxiella burnetii, a bacterial agent for which ruminants are the most prevalent natural reservoir. Data regarding Q fever infection in camels in Algeria are limited. Therefore, a survey to detect seroprevalence of C. burnetii antibodies was conducted among healthy camel populations in a vast area in southeastern Algeria to determine distribution of the Q fever causative organism and to identify risk factors associated with infection. Between January and March 2016, blood samples were collected from 184 camels and serum samples were subsequently analysed using a commercial Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA kit. At the time of blood collection, a questionnaire investigating 13 potential predisposing factors associated with C. burnetii seropositivity was completed for every dromedary camel and herd. Results were analysed by a chi-square (χ2 test and multivariate logistic regression. The seroprevalence of C. burnetii at the animal level was 71.2% (95% CI: 65.2–78.3 and 85.3% (95% CI: 72.8–97.8 at the herd level. At the animal level, differences in seroprevalence were observed because of herd size, animal age, animal sex, presence of ticks and contact with other herds. A multivariable logistic regression model identified three main risk factors associated with individual seropositivity: (1 age class > 11 years (OR = 8.81, 95% CI: 2.55–30.41, (2 herd size > 50 head (OR = 4.46, 95% CI: 1.01–19.59 and (3 infestation with ticks (OR 2.2; 95% CI: 1.1–4.5. This study of seroprevalence of C. burnetii infection in camels in Algeria revealed a high seroprevalence of Q fever in camel populations in southeastern Algeria and provided strong evidence that Q fever represents an economic, public health and veterinary concern. Appropriate measures should be taken to prevent the spread of C. burnetii and to reduce the risk of Q fever in farm animals and humans in this agro

  6. Prevalence of camel tuberculosis and associated risk factors in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abubakar, U.B., Kudi, A.C., Abdulkadir, I.A. and Okaiyeto, S.O., 2014. Prevalence of tuberculosis in slaughtered camels (Camelus dromedaries) at Kano abattoir, Nige- ria based on lateral flow technology. J. Camel Pract. Res., 21(1), 41-45. Admasu, P., Berihun, W. and Niguse, A., 2014. Prevalence of bovine tuberculosis in.

  7. The CD markers of camel (Camelus dromedarius) milk cells during mastitis: the LPAM-1 expression is an indication of possible mucosal nature of the cellular trafficking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Ashqar, Roqaya A; Al-Mohammad Salem, Khadim M; Al Herz, Abdul Kareem M; Al-Haroon, Amal I; Alluwaimi, Ahmed M

    2015-04-01

    Studying the cellular populations of the camel mammary glands through the expression pattern of the CD markers and adhesion molecules is a mean to define whether the cellular trafficking pathway is peripheral or mucosal nature. Camel milk cells from 8 Gram-positive and 5 Gram-negative infected camels were examined with flow cytometry using cross-reacting antibodies like, anti-CD4(+), CD8(+), WC+1(+)γδ, CD62L, CD11a(+)/CD18, LPAM-1, CXCR2. The overall results indicated high flow cytometry output of most of the CD makers. The statistical analysis of the mean percentage of the expressed CD markers has shown that CD62L, CXCR-2, LPAM-1, CD11a/CD18, CD8(+), IL-6R and CD20(+) were expressed in significant differences in either type of the infection. The LPAM-1 expression has provided further support to the notion that the lymphocyte trafficking is of the mucosal nature. The mucosal origin of cellular trafficking has important implications on the vaccine design and therapeutical approaches to mastitis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Comparison of the effect of Sporobolus virginicus and Rhodes (Chloris gayana) hay diets on the absorption pattern of phenylbutazone in the camel (Camelus dromedarius).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel Hadi, A A; Wasfi, I A; Elghazali, M; Almahrami, A M; Barezaiq, I M; Alkatheeri, N A; Alhadrami, G A

    2005-01-01

    The effect of feeding Sporobolus and Rhodes hay on phenylbutazone (4 g) relative absorption was examined in six camels using a two-period, two-sequence, two-treatment crossover design. Serum concentration of the drug was measured by high performance liquid chromatography. The measured values (means+/-SD) for Rhodes and Sporobolus hay, respectively, were Cmax 35.59+/-22.36 and 36.55+/-18.99 microg/mL, Tmax 26+/-2.53 and 26.3+/-1.97 h and AUC0-72 h 1552+/-872.6 and 1621+/-903.6 microg h/mL. Broad plateau concentrations of phenylbutazone in serum were observed between 12 and 36 h. There was no significant difference in any parameter between the two feeding regimens. Multiple peaks in serum concentration-time curve were observed, regardless of the type of grass available to and the animals prior to drug administration. It was concluded that the phasic absorption of phenylbutazone was a particular feature of hay feeding in camels, and the Sporobolus hay can be fed to camels without any effect on the rate and extent of phenylbutazone absorption compared to Rhodes grass hay.

  9. Microbiological quality and somatic cell count in bulk milk of dromedary camels (Camelus dromedarius): descriptive statistics, correlations, and factors of variation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagy, P; Faye, B; Marko, O; Thomas, S; Wernery, U; Juhasz, J

    2013-09-01

    The objectives of the present study were to monitor the microbiological quality and somatic cell count (SCC) of bulk tank milk at the world's first large-scale camel dairy farm for a 2-yr period, to compare the results of 2 methods for the enumeration of SCC, to evaluate correlation among milk quality indicators, and to determine the effect of specific factors (year, season, stage of lactation, and level of production) on milk quality indicators. The study was conducted from January 2008 to January 2010. Total viable count (TVC), coliform count (CC), California Mastitis Test (CMT) score, and SCC were determined from daily bulk milk samples. Somatic cell count was measured by using a direct microscopic method and with an automatic cell counter. In addition, production parameters [total daily milk production (TDM, kg), number of milking camels (NMC), average milk per camel (AMC, kg)] and stage of lactation (average postpartum days, PPD) were recorded for each test day. A strong correlation (r=0.33) was found between the 2 methods for SCC enumeration; however, values derived using the microscopic method were higher. The geometric means of SCC and TVC were 394×10(3) cells/mL and 5,157 cfu/mL during the observation period, respectively. Somatic cell count was >500×10(3) cells/mL on 14.6% (106/725) and TVC was >10×10(3) cfu/mL on 4.0% (30/742) of the test days. Both milk quality indicators had a distinct seasonal pattern. For log SCC, the mean was lowest in summer and highest in autumn. The seasonal pattern of log TVC was slightly different, with the lowest values being recorded during the spring. The monthly mean TVC pattern showed a clear difference between years. Coliform count was <10 cfu/mL in most of the samples (709/742, 95.6%). A positive correlation was found between log SCC and log TVC (r=0.32), between log SCC and CMT score (r=0.26), and between log TVC and CC in yr 1 (r=0.30). All production parameters and stage of lactation showed strong seasonal

  10. Camel (Camelus dromedarius) immunoglobulin G, alpha-lactalbumin, serum albumin and lactoferrin in colostrum and milk during the early post partum period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Hatmi, Halima; Levieux, Annie; Levieux, Didier

    2006-08-01

    Colostrum and milk samples from twelve Tunisian camels were analysed for concentration of immunoglobulin G (IgG), alpha-lactalbumin (alpha-la), serum albumin (CSA) and lactoferrin throughout the first 14 milkings post partum (7 days of lactation) using single radial immunodiffusion assay. Concentrations (mg/ml, means+/-SD) at first milking were IgG, 100.7+/-60.4; alpha-la, 2.2+/-0.7; CSA, 8.5+/-3.6 and lactoferrin, 1.2+/-0.3. Large variations were recorded for IgG and CSA concentrations (11.8-211.1 mg/ml and 2.9-13.8 mg/ml respectively) Concentrations of IgG and CSA dropped abruptly in the subsequent milkings while alpha-la concentration increased until milking 5 and then decreased slowly. Lactoferrin dropped only from milking 7. Mean IgG concentrations were 3.6 and 2.5 mg/ml at milking 9 and 13 respectively. However, IgG concentration did not differ significantly, at the 1% level, from milkings 11 to 14. The contribution of CSA to the increase in whey proteins in early milks was greater than that described in the bovine and caprine species.

  11. Prenatal Development of the Kidney of One-Humped Camel ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study aimed at investigating the prenatal development of the kidney of the camel using standard histomorphometric methods. In the experiment, fifteen Camelus dromedarius foetuses obtained from Sokoto metropolitan abattoir at different gestational ages were used for the study. The fetuses were weighed and grouped ...

  12. Growth Changes in Selected Muscles of One-Humped Camel ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Growth Changes in Selected Muscles of One-Humped Camel (camelus Dromedarius). ML Sonfada, HD Kwari, AT Elsa, AA Tadros. Abstract. Nigerian Veterinary Journal, Vol. 32(3): 2011; 230 - 234. Full Text: EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT.

  13. Cytochrome b conservation between six camel breeds reared in Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Othman E. Othman

    2017-06-01

    It is concluded that cyto b sequence is highly conserved among all camel breeds reared in Egypt which belong to Camelus dromedaries in addition to the advantage of cyto b in differentiation between different livestock sources which enables it to widely use for the adulteration detection in mixed meat.

  14. The Therapeutic Effects of Camel Milk: A Systematic Review of Animal and Human Trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mihic, Tamara; Rainkie, Daniel; Wilby, Kyle John; Pawluk, Shane Ashley

    2016-10-01

    The clinical effectiveness and value of camel milk as a therapeutic agent is currently unclear. MEDLINE (1946 to March 2016), EMBASE (1974 to March 2016), and Google Scholar were searched using the following terms: milk, bodily secretions, camels, camelus, camelini, camelidae, dromedary, bactrian camel, body fluid, and bodily secretions. Articles identified were reviewed if the study was investigating the use of camel milk for the potential treatment of diseases affecting humans. Of 430 studies, 24 were included after assessment. Identified studies highlighted treatment with camel milk of diseases, including diabetes, autism, cancer, various infections, heavy metal toxicity, colitis, and alcohol-induced toxicity. Although most studies using both the human and animal model do show a clinical benefit with an intervention and camel milk, limitations of these studies must be taken into consideration before widespread use. Based on the evidence, camel milk should not replace standard therapies for any indication in humans. © The Author(s) 2016.

  15. PREVALENCE AND MOLECULAR IDENTIFICATION OF PIROPLASMIDS IN IRANIAN DROMEDARIES ( CAMELUS DROMEDARIUS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahrami, Somayeh; Tabandeh, Mohammad Reza; Tafreshi, Ali Reza Ganjali

    2017-12-01

    Camels ( Camelus dromedarius) are important, multipurpose local animals in Iran. Despite their importance, camelid parasitic diseases have not received adequate attention in the veterinary literature. The present study investigated the prevalence of, and molecularly identified, camel piroplasms in Iran. Blood samples from 248 camels from five different regions of Iran were screened for the presence of piroplasmid infection using an 18SrRNA polymerase chain reaction (PCR) sequencing method. Of the 248 samples, 16 were positive for piroplasms via PCR (6.45%). Ten PCR amplicons with expected sizes were sequenced for molecular characterization. Three camels were infected with Babesia caballi and seven with Theileria equi. Statistical analysis showed that age, sex, and location were not risk factors for infection with piroplasmids in camels.

  16. Light and transmission electron microscopy of immature camelus dromedarius oocyte.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nili, H; Mesbah, F; Kafi, M; Nasr Esfahani, M H

    2004-08-01

    In order to provide a consistent system for laboratory production of embryos, the characteristics of immature camel oocyte must first be described. The objective of this study was to define ultrastructural features of immature camel oocyte. Ovaries were obtained from camels at a local abattoir, and then transported to the laboratory within 2 h. Camelus cumulus oocyte complexes (COCs) were aspirated from 2-6 mm follicles using a 22-gauge needle. Excellent and good quality COCs were selected and prepared for transmission electron microscopy study using a cavity slide. The fine structure of camel oocyte is morphologically similar to that of other mammalian oocytes. However, some minor differences exist between COC of camel and other mammalian species. Different size and shape of membrane-bound vesicles, lipid droplet, mitochondria and cortical granules were distributed throughout the ooplasm. Discrete or in association with endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi complexes were observed in the periphery of the oocytes. The majority of the oocytes were in the germinal vesicle stage.

  17. Distribution patterns of the glucose transporters GLUT4 and GLUT1 in skeletal muscles of rats (Rattus norvegicus), pigs (Sus scrofa), cows (Bos taurus), adult goats, goat kids (Capra hircus), and camels (Camelus dromedarius).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duehlmeier, R; Sammet, K; Widdel, A; von Engelhardt, W; Wernery, U; Kinne, J; Sallmann, H-P

    2007-02-01

    Earlier studies demonstrated that forestomach herbivores are less insulin sensitive than monogastric omnivores. The present study was carried out to determine if different distribution patterns of the glucose transporters GLUT1 and GLUT4 may contribute to these different insulin sensitivities. Western blotting was used to measure GLUT1 and GLUT4 protein contents in oxidative (masseter, diaphragm) and glycolytic (longissimus lumborum, semitendinosus) skeletal muscle membranes of monogastric omnivores (rats and pigs), and of forestomach herbivores (cows, adult goats, goat kids, and camels). Muscles were characterized biochemically. Comparing red and white muscles, the isocitrate dehydrogenase (ICDH) activity was 1.5-15-times higher in oxidative muscles of all species, whereas lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activity was 1.4-4.4-times higher in glycolytic muscles except in adult goats. GLUT4 levels were 1.5-6.3-times higher in oxidative muscles. GLUT1 levels were 2.2-8.3-times higher in glycolytic muscles in forestomach herbivores but not in monogastric animals. We conclude that GLUT1 may be the predominant glucose transporter in glycolytic muscles of ruminating animals. The GLUT1 distribution patterns were identical in adult and pre-ruminant goats, indicating that GLUT1 expression among these muscles is determined genetically. The high blood glucose levels of camels cited in literature may be due to an "NIDDM-like" impaired GLUT4 activity in skeletal muscle.

  18. Proteomics of the milk fat globule membrane from Camelus dromedarius.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saadaoui, Besma; Henry, Céline; Khorchani, Touhami; Mars, Mohamed; Martin, Patrice; Cebo, Christelle

    2013-04-01

    Camel milk has been widely characterized with regards to casein and whey proteins. However, in camelids, almost nothing is known about the milk fat globule membrane (MFGM), the membrane surrounding fat globules in milk. The purpose of this study was thus to identify MFGM proteins from Camelus dromedarius milk. Major MFGM proteins (namely, fatty acid synthase, xanthine oxidase, butyrophilin, lactadherin, and adipophilin) already evidenced in cow milk were identified in camel milk using MS. In addition, a 1D-LC-MS/MS approach led us to identify 322 functional groups of proteins associated with the camel MFGM. Dromedary MFGM proteins were then classified into functional categories using DAVID (the Database for Annotation, Visualization, and Integrated Discovery) bioinformatics resources. More than 50% of MFGM proteins from camel milk were found to be integral membrane proteins (mostly belonging to the plasma membrane), or proteins associated to the membrane. Enriched GO terms associated with MFGM proteins from camel milk were protein transport (p-value = 1.73 × 10(-14)), translation (p-value = 1.08 × 10(-11)), lipid biosynthetic process (p-value = 6.72 × 10(-10)), hexose metabolic process (p-value = 1.89 × 10(-04)), and actin cytoskeleton organization (p-value = 2.72 × 10(-04)). These findings will help to contribute to a better characterization of camel milk. Identified MFGM proteins from camel milk may also provide new insight into lipid droplet formation in the mammary epithelial cell. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. (Camelus dromedarius) insulin

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-09-17

    Sep 17, 2008 ... Homo sapiens (Accession NM-000207). Cam-INS-F2 (5`-TTT GTG. AAC CAA CAC CTG TGC GGC TC-3`) and Cam-INS-R2 (5`-CGT. CTA GTT GCA GTA GTT CTC CAG CTG-3`) were utilized to amplify camel proinsulin cDNA (NT 73 to NT330 corresponding to codon 25 to codon 111). The amplified camel ...

  20. Differential Effects of Camel Milk on Insulin Receptor Signaling – Towards Understanding the Insulin-like Properties of Camel Milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulrasheed O Abdulrahman

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies on the Arabian camel (Camelus dromedarius showed beneficial effects of its milk reported in diverse models of human diseases including a substantial hypoglycemic activity. However, the cellular and molecular mechanisms involved in such effects remain completely unknown. In this study, we hypothesized that camel milk may act at the level of human insulin receptor (hIR and its related intracellular signaling pathways. Therefore, we examined the effect of camel milk on the activation of hIR transiently expressed in human embryonic kidney 293 (HEK293 cells using bioluminescence resonance energy transfer (BRET technology. BRET was used to assess, in live cells and real-time, the physical interaction between hIR and insulin receptor signaling proteins (IRS1 and the growth factor receptor-bound protein 2 (Grb2. Our data showed that camel milk did not promote any increase in the BRET signal between hIR and IRS1 or Grb2 in the absence of insulin stimulation. However, it significantly potentiated the maximal insulin-promoted BRET signal between hIR and Grb2 but not IRS1. Interestingly, camel milk appears to differentially impact the downstream signaling since it significantly activated ERK1/2 and potentiated the insulin-induced ERK1/2 but not Akt activation. These observations are to some extent consistent with the BRET data since ERK1/2 and Akt activation are known to reflect the engagement of Grb2 and IRS1 pathways, respectively. The preliminary fractionation of camel milk suggests the peptide/protein nature of the active component in camel milk. Together, our study demonstrates for the first time an allosteric effect of camel milk on insulin receptor conformation and activation with differential effects on its intracellular signaling. These findings should help to shed more light on the hypoglycemic activity of camel milk with potential therapeutic applications.

  1. Differential Effects of Camel Milk on Insulin Receptor Signaling - Toward Understanding the Insulin-Like Properties of Camel Milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdulrahman, Abdulrasheed O; Ismael, Mohammad A; Al-Hosaini, Khaled; Rame, Christelle; Al-Senaidy, Abdulrahman M; Dupont, Joëlle; Ayoub, Mohammed Akli

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies on the Arabian camel (Camelus dromedarius) showed beneficial effects of its milk reported in diverse models of human diseases, including a substantial hypoglycemic activity. However, the cellular and molecular mechanisms involved in such effects remain completely unknown. In this study, we hypothesized that camel milk may act at the level of human insulin receptor (hIR) and its related intracellular signaling pathways. Therefore, we examined the effect of camel milk on the activation of hIR transiently expressed in human embryonic kidney 293 (HEK293) cells using bioluminescence resonance energy transfer (BRET) technology. BRET was used to assess, in live cells and real-time, the physical interaction between hIR and insulin receptor signaling proteins (IRS1) and the growth factor receptor-bound protein 2 (Grb2). Our data showed that camel milk did not promote any increase in the BRET signal between hIR and IRS1 or Grb2 in the absence of insulin stimulation. However, it significantly potentiated the maximal insulin-promoted BRET signal between hIR and Grb2 but not IRS1. Interestingly, camel milk appears to differentially impact the downstream signaling since it significantly activated ERK1/2 and potentiated the insulin-induced ERK1/2 but not Akt activation. These observations are to some extent consistent with the BRET data since ERK1/2 and Akt activation are known to reflect the engagement of Grb2 and IRS1 pathways, respectively. The preliminary fractionation of camel milk suggests the peptide/protein nature of the active component in camel milk. Together, our study demonstrates for the first time an allosteric effect of camel milk on insulin receptor conformation and activation with differential effects on its intracellular signaling. These findings should help to shed more light on the hypoglycemic activity of camel milk with potential therapeutic applications.

  2. Differential Effects of Camel Milk on Insulin Receptor Signaling – Toward Understanding the Insulin-Like Properties of Camel Milk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdulrahman, Abdulrasheed O.; Ismael, Mohammad A.; Al-Hosaini, Khaled; Rame, Christelle; Al-Senaidy, Abdulrahman M.; Dupont, Joëlle; Ayoub, Mohammed Akli

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies on the Arabian camel (Camelus dromedarius) showed beneficial effects of its milk reported in diverse models of human diseases, including a substantial hypoglycemic activity. However, the cellular and molecular mechanisms involved in such effects remain completely unknown. In this study, we hypothesized that camel milk may act at the level of human insulin receptor (hIR) and its related intracellular signaling pathways. Therefore, we examined the effect of camel milk on the activation of hIR transiently expressed in human embryonic kidney 293 (HEK293) cells using bioluminescence resonance energy transfer (BRET) technology. BRET was used to assess, in live cells and real-time, the physical interaction between hIR and insulin receptor signaling proteins (IRS1) and the growth factor receptor-bound protein 2 (Grb2). Our data showed that camel milk did not promote any increase in the BRET signal between hIR and IRS1 or Grb2 in the absence of insulin stimulation. However, it significantly potentiated the maximal insulin-promoted BRET signal between hIR and Grb2 but not IRS1. Interestingly, camel milk appears to differentially impact the downstream signaling since it significantly activated ERK1/2 and potentiated the insulin-induced ERK1/2 but not Akt activation. These observations are to some extent consistent with the BRET data since ERK1/2 and Akt activation are known to reflect the engagement of Grb2 and IRS1 pathways, respectively. The preliminary fractionation of camel milk suggests the peptide/protein nature of the active component in camel milk. Together, our study demonstrates for the first time an allosteric effect of camel milk on insulin receptor conformation and activation with differential effects on its intracellular signaling. These findings should help to shed more light on the hypoglycemic activity of camel milk with potential therapeutic applications. PMID:26858689

  3. Variation of the platelet indices of dromedary camel ( Camelus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hematological parameters showed breed, age and intersex differences in mean corpuscular volume and mean corpuscular hemoglobin. Sex and agerelated differences were also found in red cell distribution width in addition to age-related differences in hematocrit and mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration. Platelet ...

  4. Characterization of partially purified catalase from camel (Camelus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prof.Dr. Saleh

    2012-05-17

    May 17, 2012 ... chromatography on diethylaminoethyl cellulose (DEAE)-Sepharose. One peak catalase activity was obtained from the ... rapid cleavage of hydrogen peroxide and small organic peroxides, but also by other cellular ... microbiologists to identify species of bacteria. (Brioukhanov et al., 2006). Although, there is ...

  5. Taxonomy Icon Data: wild Bactrian camel [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available odactyla Camelus_ferus_L.png Camelus_ferus_NL.png Camelus_ferus_S.png Camelus_ferus_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon....cgi?i=Camelus+ferus&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Camelus+f...erus&t=NL http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Camelus+ferus&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Camelus+ferus&t=NS ...

  6. Camel Production in Kazakhstan

    OpenAIRE

    今村, 薫

    2015-01-01

    This study aims to think about the modernization impact on camel breeding culture in the Sahara Desert and Central Asia. The camel has been an important animal for the desert people to get milk, meat, wool and working power. In the Sahara Desert, the Tuareg have lived with dromedary. The use for transportation is reduced; camel are now animals for tourism. While the Bactrian camel has been kept as working animal in Kazakhstan, the camel milk has recently come to highlighted as healthy drink; ...

  7. Taxonomy Icon Data: Arabian camel [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Camelus+dromedarius&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy..._icon/icon.cgi?i=Camelus+dromedarius&t=NL http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_ic...on/icon.cgi?i=Camelus+dromedarius&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Camelus+dromedarius&t=NS ...

  8. Want a Camel, Yes?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2004-01-01

    "Want a Camel, Yes?" takes us to the pyramids in Giza, Egypt. We are shown the interaction between camel drivers and tourists. Through price negotiations, conversations and interviews, we get an insight into how they imagine and understand each other and what they think constitute a good trip...

  9. The One-humped Camel in the Canary Islands: History and Present Status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilson, RT.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The one-humped camel (Camelus dromedarius L. is not indigenous to the Canary Islands but based on historical references was introduced at the very beginning of the fifteenth century. The camel thrived in the subtropical dry environment. A long period of isolation from other animals of the same species meant that the animals were virtually disease free. This made the Islands an ideal base for exporting camels to new areas such that camels from the Canaries went to Peru in the sixteenth century, to Brazil in the eighteenth century, Venezuela and Bolivia in the early part of the nineteenth century and Australia in 1840. Camels went to several Caribbean islands in the middle of the nineteenth century. More recently (late twentieth and early twenty-first centuries some animals were exported from the islands to mainland Europe, notably France, Spain and the Netherlands, and to South America. Camels have been used in military operations, as transport and draught animals in support of agriculture and have found a role in the tourist industry. In early 2013 there were some 1,300 camels distributed over four of the larger islands of the archipelago in herds varying in size from a single animal to herds of as many as 150 head: a large group of about 400 heads kept in a Safari Park on the island of Fuerteventura is considered as the national conservation herd. The "Canary" camel has recently been shown to be genetically distinct from most other populations and it has been proposed that it should be designated as a distinct breed.

  10. Reproduction in Camel

    OpenAIRE

    A. V. Khanvilkar; S. R. Samant and B. N. Ambore

    2009-01-01

    The word camel is derived from the Greek word “kremal”. Camel is an important component of the desert ecosystem from time immemorial and is recognized as the “Ship of the desert”. Humans depend on this animal not just for meat, milk and hide but also as one of the most important mode of transport in the desert which has increased to 10,30,000 million according to FAO census, which is almost 6-8% of the total camel population of the world. The genus Came...

  11. Investigation on papillomavirus infection in dromedary camels in Al-Ahsa, Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdelmalik Ibrahim Khalafalla

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available We investigated two outbreaks of papillomatosis between 2013 and 2015 in Al Ahsa region of eastern Saudi Arabia involving fourteen dromedary camels. The disease affected both young and adult animals and occurred in coincidence with demodectic mange infestation. Diagnosis was made based on gross and histopathological characteristics of the wart lesion and was confirmed by PCR. Rolling circle amplification followed by degenerate primer PCR and sequencing of the amplicons revealed the presence of both Camelus dromedarius papillomavirus types 1 and 2, previously identified in infected dromedaries in Sudan.

  12. Dromedary Camels and the Transmission of Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus (MERS-CoV).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemida, M G; Elmoslemany, A; Al-Hizab, F; Alnaeem, A; Almathen, F; Faye, B; Chu, D K W; Perera, R A P M; Peiris, M

    2017-04-01

    Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) is an existential threat to global public health. The virus has been repeatedly detected in dromedary camels (Camelus dromedarius). Adult animals in many countries in the Middle East as well as in North and East Africa showed high (>90%) seroprevalence to the virus. Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus isolated from dromedaries is genetically and phenotypically similar to viruses from humans. We summarize current understanding of the ecology of MERS-CoV in animals and transmission at the animal-human interface. We review aspects of husbandry, animal movements and trade and the use and consumption of camel dairy and meat products in the Middle East that may be relevant to the epidemiology of MERS. We also highlight the gaps in understanding the transmission of this virus in animals and from animals to humans. © 2015 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  13. Physical and kinematic properties of cryopreserved camel sperm after elimination of semen viscosity by different techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Bahrawy, Khalid; Rateb, Sherif; Khalifa, Marwa; Monaco, Davide; Lacalandra, Giovanni

    2017-12-01

    This investigation aimed to determine the influence of using different techniques for liquefaction of semen on post-thaw physical and dynamic characteristics of camel spermatozoa. A total of 144 ejaculates were collected from 3 adult camels, Camelus dromedarius, twice-weekly over 3 consecutive breeding seasons. A raw aliquot of each ejaculate was evaluated for physical and morphological properties, whereas the remaining portion was diluted (1:3) with glycerolated Tris lactose egg yolk extender, and was further subjected to one of the following liquefaction treatments: control (untreated), 5μl/ml α-amylase, 0.1mg/ml papain, 5u/ml bromelain, or 40-kHz nominal ultrasound frequency. The post-thaw objective assessment of cryopreserved spermatozoa, in all groups, was performed by a computer-assisted sperm analysis (CASA) system. The results revealed that all liquefaction treatments improved (P<0.05) post-thaw motility, viability and sperm motion criteria. However, an adverse effect (P<0.05) was observed in acrosome integrity, sperm cell membrane integrity and percent of normal sperm in all enzymatically-treated specimens compared to both control and ultrasound-treated semen. These results elucidate the efficiency of utilizing ultrasound technology for viscosity elimination of camel semen. In addition, developing enzymatic semen liquefaction techniques is imperious to benefit from when applying assisted reproductive technologies, particularly AI and IVF, in camels. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Camel and bovine chymosin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jesper Langholm; Mølgaard, Anne; Poulsen, Jens-Christian Navarro

    2013-01-01

    Bovine and camel chymosin are aspartic peptidases that are used industrially in cheese production. They cleave the Phe105-Met106 bond of the milk protein κ-casein, releasing its predominantly negatively charged C-terminus, which leads to the separation of the milk into curds and whey. Despite...... chymosin. Both enzymes possess local positively charged patches on their surface that can play a role in interactions with the overall negatively charged C-terminus of κ-casein. Camel chymosin contains two additional positive patches that favour interaction with the substrate. The improved electrostatic...... interactions arising from variation in the surface charges and the greater malleability both in domain movements and substrate binding contribute to the better milk-clotting activity of camel chymosin towards bovine milk....

  15. Camel enterprise integration cookbook

    CERN Document Server

    Cranton, Scott

    2013-01-01

    This book is written in a Cookbook style with short recipes showing developers how to effectively implement EIP without breaking everything in the process. It is concise and to the point, and it helps developers get their data flowing between different components without the need to read through page upon page of theory, while also enabling the reader to learn how to create exciting new projects.Camel Enterprise Integration Cookbook is intended for developers who have some familiarity with Apache Camel and who want a quick lookup reference to practical, proven tips on how to perform common tas

  16. First molecular evidence of Mus musculus bactrianus in Nepal inferred from the mitochondrial DNA cytochrome B gene sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adhikari, Pradeep; Han, Sang-Hyun; Kim, Yoo-Kyung; Kim, Tae-Wook; Thapa, Tej Bahadur; Subedi, Naresh; Adhikari, Prabhat; Oh, Hong-Shik

    2017-05-19

    To identify the house mice collected in Pokhara and Lumbini of Nepal at the subspecies level, morphological and molecular analyses were carried out. Morphologically, two populations collected in Pokhara and Lumbini were distinguished by fur colour, but there was no significant difference in external measurements (p > .05). The phylogenetic analysis results revealed that the haplotypes sequences of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) Cytochrome B (CytB) gene distinguished into two distinct clades on a phylogenetic tree representing two subspecies, Mus musculus bactrianus and M. m. castaneus in Pokhara and Lumbini, respectively. In Nepal, the subspecies M. m. bactrianus was not reported before this study. These findings concluded that at least two subspecies, M. m. bactrianus and M. m. castaneus currently exist in Nepal. We estimated that these two subspecies could have introduced together with human migration, while further study is required to understand their evolutionary history and current distribution.

  17. Camel in Sudan: future prospects

    OpenAIRE

    Faye, Bernard; Abdelhadi, Omer M.A.; Ahmed, Adam Ismail; Bakheit, Sallam Abdelfadeil

    2011-01-01

    According to FAO statistics, camel population in Sudan ranks the second in the world after Somalia with 4.5 millions heads. This population is quite important while the camel production appears, at least officially, very low. With a meat production of 49,880 tons and a milk production of 120,000 tons, camel production is far away from the potential. Even if these data did not cover the entire reality, it is obvious that camel production in Sudan is insufficiently valorized. Meat from young ca...

  18. Camel milk and milk products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreja Brezovečki

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Camel milk and camel milk products have always been highly esteemed playing even today an important role in the diet of the population in the rural areas of Africa, Asia and the Middle East, with scarce agricultural areas, high temperatures and small amount of precipitation. In aggravated environmental circumstances, camels may produce more milk than any other species, while their demand for food is very modest. A camel produces between 1000 and 2000 L of milk during the lactation period of 8 to 18 months, while the daily production of milk is between 3 and 10 L. The goal of the overview is to present the chemical composition of camel milk, and products made from camel milk. On average camel milk contains 81.4-87 % water, 10.4 % dry matter, 1.2-6.4 % milk fat, 2.15-4.90 % protein, 1.63-2.76 % casein, 0.65-0.80 % whey protein, 2.90-5.80 % lactose and 0.60-0.90 % ash. Variations in the contents of camel milk may be attributed to several factors such as analytical methods, geographical area, nutrition conditions, breed, lactation stage, age and number of calvings. Camel milk is becoming an increasingly interesting product in the world, not only for its good nutritive properties, but also for its interesting and tasteful products.

  19. A preliminary microbiological assessment of process hygiene of traditional outdoor camel slaughter in Sahrawi refugee camps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corrò, M; Saleh-Mohamed-Lamin, S; Jatri-Hamdi, S; Slut-Ahmed, B; Mohamed-Lejlifa, S; Di Lello, S; Rossi, D; Broglia, A; Vivas-Alegre, L

    2012-10-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the hygiene performance of a camel (Camelus dromedarius) slaughtering process as carried out with the traditional method in the Sahrawi refugee camps located in southwestern Algeria. The camel slaughtering process in this region differs significantly from that carried out in commercial abattoirs. Slaughtering is performed outdoors in desert areas, and dehiding of the carcass is approached via the dorsoventral route rather than the classic ventrodorsal route. Samples were taken from 10 camel carcasses from three different areas: the hide, the carcass meat immediately after dehiding, and the meat after final cutting. Enterobacteriaceae counts (EC) were enumerated employing conventional laboratory techniques. Carcass meat samples resulted in EC below the detection limit more frequently if the hide samples from the same carcass had also EC counts below the detection limit. Because of the low number of trials, the calculation of statistical significance of the results was not possible. Further experimental research is needed in order to validate the results presented in this study. The comparison of the microbiological hygiene performance between dorsal dehiding and traditional ventral dehiding of slaughtered animals could serve to validate the hypothesis of the potential positive impact of the dorsal dehiding method in carcass meat hygiene.

  20. Quantification of furosemide in camel plasma by high resolution mass spectrometry, application on pharmacokinetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasfi, Ibrahim A; Wajid, Sayed A; Agha, B A; Kamel, Asmaa M; Al Biriki, Nasreen A; Al Neaimi, Khaled M; Al Ali, Waleed A

    2017-06-01

    We developed and validated a high-resolution liquid chromatography mass spectrometry method for the quantification of furosemide in camel plasma which was used for a pharmacokinetic study in camels. Plasma samples were extracted by supported liquid extraction and furosemide and internal standard (furosemide-D5) were separated on a an Agilent Zorbax XDB C 18 column (50 × 2.1 mm i.d., 3.5 μm). Data was acquired in full-scan mode over a mass range of 200-400 Da in negative electrospray mode at a resolution of 70,000. Linear calibration curves were obtained over the concentration ranges of 1.0-10,000 ng/mL. The validated method was then successfully applied in evaluating the pharmacokinetics and metabolites of furosemide in six camels (Camelus dromedarus) and we were able to advice on a withdrawal time of furosemide treatment before racing. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  1. Daily rhythms of behavioral and hormonal patterns in male dromedary camels housed in boxes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lydiane Aubè

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Background Daily rhythmicity has been observed for a number of hormonal and behavioral variables in mammals. It can be entrained by several external factors, such as light-dark cycle and scheduled feeding. In dromedary camels, daily rhythmicity has been documented only for melatonin secretion and body temperature. In this study, the daily rhythmicity of behavioral repertoire, cortisol and testosterone levels was investigated in captive male camels. Methods Six clinically healthy male dromedary camels (Camelus dromedarius were used. The animals were housed in single boxes for 24 h daily and fed twice a day. Over a period of 48 h, behavioral observations were made and blood samples taken every two hours. The data were analyzed using diurnality index, conisor analysis and PROC mixed procedure. Results The diurnality index for rumination and lying down was close to 0 (respectively, 0.09 and 0.19, while the indices for stereotypy, standing, feeding and walking were close to 1 (respectively, 0.74, 0.84, 0.92 and 0.85. Cosinor analysis revealed daily rhythmicity for all behaviors and for cortisol levels (acrophase at 12:57 but not for testosterone. Rumination and lying down (inactive behaviors reached a peak during the scotophase, whereas feeding, walking and stereotypy (active behaviors reached a peak during the photophase around midday. Cortisol level and expression of stereotypies peaked before and after food distribution and were negatively correlated (r =  − 0.287, P = 0.005. Testosterone levels and expression of sexual behaviors were stimulated by the visual and olfactory contacts with the females and were positively correlated (r = 0.164, P = 0.040. Testosterone was also negatively correlated with cortisol (r =  − 0.297; P = 0.003. Discussion These preliminary results provided new knowledge about the daily rhythm of behaviors in camels housed in boxes, suggesting that camels exhibit diurnal behavior pattern in the maintenance

  2. An Investigation of Cellulose Digesting Bacteria in the Camel Feces Microbiome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Man, V.; Leung, F. C.

    2015-12-01

    Research Question: Is there a bacteria in camel feces that digests cellulose material and can be used for waste to energy projects? Fossil fuels are the current main resource of energy in the modern world. However, as the demand for fuel increases, biofuels have been proposed as an alternative energy source that is a more sustainable form of liquid fuel generation from living things or waste, commonly known as biofuels and ethanol. The Camelus dromedarius', also known as Arabian camel, diet consist of grass, grains, wheat and oats as well desert vegetation in their natural habitat. However, as the Arabian camel lacks the enzymes to degrade cellulose, it is hypothesized that cellulose digestion is performed by microbial symbionts in camel microbiota. Fecal samples were collected from the Camelus dromedarius in United Arab Emirates and diluted 10-7 times. The diluted sample was then streaked onto a Sodium Carboxymethyl Cellulose plate, and inoculated onto CMC and Azure-B plates. Afterwards, Congo Red was used for staining in order to identify clearance zones of single colonies that may potentially be used as a qualitative assays for cellulose digestion. Then the colonies undergo polymerase chain reaction amplification to produce amplified RNA fragments. The 16S ribosomal RNA gene is identified based on BLAST result using Sanger Sequencing. Amongst the three identified microbes: Bacillus, Staphylococcus and Escherichia coli, both Bacillus and Staphylococcus are cellulose-digesting microbes, and through the fermentation of lignocellulosic, biomasses can be converted into cellulosic ethanol (Biofuel). According to the Improvements in Life Cycle Energy Efficiency and Greenhouse Gas Emissions of Corn-Ethanol by Adam J. Liska, ""Ethanol reduces greenhouse gas emissions by 40-50% when compared directly to gasoline." The determination of bacterial communities that are capable of efficiently and effectively digesting cellulose materials requires that the bacteria be first

  3. Alkaline Phosphatases From Camel Small Intestine | Fahmy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... activity of camel intestinal IAP2 and IAP5 was studied. The camel intestinal alkaline phosphatase isoenzymes IAP2 and IAP5 were inhibited by EDTA and phenylalanine. Keywords: Camel; Small intestine; Alkaline phosphatase ; Purification; Characterization Egyptian Journal of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Vol.

  4. Characterization of the complete genomes of Camelus dromedarius papillomavirus types 1 and 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ure, A E; Elfadl, A K; Khalafalla, A I; Gameel, A A R; Dillner, J; Forslund, O

    2011-08-01

    Camel papillomatosis has been described previously, but the genome of the suspected papillomavirus (PV) has not been identified. An outbreak of papillomatosis occurred in a dromedary farm of 55 animals in Sudan during August 2009. The disease was only present in young animals aged about 3-7 months, of which 44 % (11/25) were affected with lesions, mainly on the lips and lower jaw. This study reports for the first time the complete genomes of Camelus dromedarius papillomavirus types 1 (CdPV1) and 2 (CdPV2), isolated from a cauliflower-like nodule and a round oval raised nodule, respectively. Pairwise comparisons of their L1 nucleotide sequences revealed 69.2 % identity, and phylogenetic analyses suggested that these two PV types are grouped within the genus Deltapapillomavirus. Both viruses were isolated from fibropapillomas, although no putative E5 proteins homologous to that of bovine papillomavirus type 1 were identified. The genetic information will be useful for evolutionary studies of the family Papillomaviridae, as well as for the development of diagnostic methods for surveillance of the disease in dromedaries.

  5. Balantidiasis in a dromedarian camel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tajik, Javad; Fard, Saeid R Nourollahi; paidar, Amin; Anousheh, Samaneh; Dehghani, Elahe

    2013-01-01

    A 3 years old male dromedarian camel was examined because of anorexia and diarrhea. The affected camel was depressed, tachycardic, eupnic, and had a body temperature of 38.8 °C. Mucous membranes were hyperemic and faeces was soft and mucous coated but of normal colour and odour. Faecal examination revealed a large number of Balantidium coli trophozoites and cysts (15 000/g) and no other parasite could be detected in faecal sample. Seven days after the onset of treatment using intramuscular antibiotic (ampicillin) and anti inflammatory agent (flunixin meglumine), the food consumption, clinical signs and faecal consistency were normal, and faecal examination revealed no parasite. Presence of no other pathogen in faecal samples, and concurrent disappearance of clinical signs and absence of the parasite in the faeces confirmed a diagnosis of balantidiasis. There are only two previous reports about the balantidiasis in camel and the current report is the first report of camel balantidiasis in Iran and supports the proposed role of camels as a reservoir host for Balantidium coli in Iran.

  6. Balantidiasis in a dromedarian camel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javad Tajik

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available A 3 years old male dromedarian camel was examined because of anorexia and diarrhea. The affected camel was depressed, tachycardic, eupnic, and had a body temperature of 38.8 °C. Mucous membranes were hyperemic and faeces was soft and mucous coated but of normal colour and odour. Faecal examination revealed a large number of Balantidium coli trophozoites and cysts (15 000/g and no other parasite could be detected in faecal sample. Seven days after the onset of treatment using intramuscular antibiotic (ampicillin and anti inflammatory agent (flunixin meglumine, the food consumption, clinical signs and faecal consistency were normal, and faecal examination revealed no parasite. Presence of no other pathogen in faecal samples, and concurrent disappearance of clinical signs and absence of the parasite in the faeces confirmed a diagnosis of balantidiasis. There are only two previous reports about the balantidiasis in camel and the current report is the first report of camel balantidiasis in Iran and supports the proposed role of camels as a reservoir host for Balantidium coli in Iran.

  7. Amino acids content and electrophoretic profile of camel milk casein from different camel breeds in Saudi Arabia

    OpenAIRE

    Salmen, Saleh H.; Abu-Tarboush, Hamza M.; Al-Saleh, Abdulrahman A.; Metwalli, Ali A.

    2011-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate amino acids content and the electrophoretic profile of camel milk casein from different camel breeds. Milk from three different camel breeds (Majaheim, Wadah and Safrah) as well as cow milk were used in this study.

  8. Liver abscesses in dromedary camels: Pathological characteristics ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    (41.1%), Corynebacterium spp. (17.9%) and Streptococcus spp. (13.3%) were the most frequently identified bacteria involved in liver abscesses of camels in the region. Further studies are required to assess the pathogenicity of bacterial isolates from camel livers. This is particularly important from a public health perspective ...

  9. Prevalence of gastrointestinal helminthes in dromedary camels ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... through general hygiene, routine deworming and provision of proper nutrition will help in alleviating the severe effects of helminthoses on camel health and productivity. Keywords: Gastrointestinal helminthes; dromedary camels; slaughterhouse; Nigeria Animal Production Research Advances Vol. 2 (3) 2006: pp. 164-167 ...

  10. Comments concerning Ostrich Struthio camelus populations in Kenya

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Received March 2010. Comments concerning Ostrich Struthio camelus populations in Kenya. The Ostrich Struthio camelusis currently regarded as comprising four subspecies largely confined to sub-Saharan Africa. This distribution is disrupted by a belt of miombo woodland in south-central Africa that effectively divides the.

  11. The genetic characterisation of Camelus dromedarius in southern ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ben

    South African Society for Animal Science. 152. Microsatellite markers reveal low genetic differentiation among southern. African Camelus dromedarius populations. M. Nolte. 1. , A. Kotzé. 2,3. *, F.H. van der Bank. 1# and J.P. Grobler. 4. 1 Department of Zoology, University of Johannesburg, P.O. Box 524, Auckland Park ...

  12. Utilization of metabolizable energy by ostrich (Struthio camelus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Utilization of metabolizable energy by ostrich (Struthio camelus) chicks at two different concentrations of dietary energy and crude fibre originating from lucerne 1. D. Swart·. Klein Karoo Agricultural Development Centre, P.O. Box 313, Oudtshoorn, 6620 Republic of South Africa. F.K. Siebrits. ARC: Irene Animal Production ...

  13. Instant Apache Camel messaging system

    CERN Document Server

    Sharapov, Evgeniy

    2013-01-01

    Get to grips with a new technology, understand what it is and what it can do for you, and then get to work with the most important features and tasks. A beginner's guide to Apache Camel that walks you through basic operations like installation and setup right through to developing simple applications.This book is a good starting point for Java developers who have to work on an application dealing with various systems and interfaces but who haven't yet started using Enterprise System Buses or Java Business Integration frameworks.

  14. Gastrointestinal helminths in migratory Camel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S G Rewatkar

    Full Text Available Survey of gastrointestinal helminth parasites in camel migrated from U.P., M.P., and Rajasthan at Nagpur region was carried out in early summer, 2008. Total 28 samples (12 males and 16 females were collected from different places of Nagpur region. They revealed parasites as Trichuris sp.(50%, Strongyloides sp.(32.14%, Trichostrongylus sp.(10.71%, Nematodirus sp.(10.71%, Haemonchus sp.(14.28%, Eurytrema sp.(21.42% ,Eimeria sp.(25%, Entamoeba sp.(17.85% and Balantidium sp.(7.14%.All were found positive for mixed helminthic infection. [Vet World 2009; 2(7.000: 258-258

  15. Selenium in Camel – A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernard Faye

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Requirements for trace minerals in camels, particularly selenium, are not well-known. Selenium supplementation using a pharmaceutical form or commercial mineral mixture is common practice in camels to address the cardiomyopathy often attributed to selenium deficiency. This supplementation is often empirical and based on estimated needs for cattle. Nowadays the use of selenium in animal foodstuffs is commonplace and further investigation of its metabolism (ingestion, dynamic of storage-destocking, excretion in camels is warranted. The present review aimed to synthesize all the experimental research (comparative selenium status in cow and camel, response to different levels of supplementation at different physiological stages, excretion maternal transfer, experimental toxicosis and field observations (deficiency, supplementation practices undertaken in camels. The results underline the particularity of the unique metabolic profile of the camel and lead to practical recommendations for supplementation in camels, highlighting its relative sensitivity to excess Se intake at lower levels than in cattle. The maximal tolerable dose is 8 mg and the recommended doses range from 2 to 4 mg.

  16. Camel milk for food allergies in children

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Shabo, Yosef; Barzel, Reuben; Margoulis, Mark; Yagil, Reuven

    2005-01-01

    .... To investigate the effect of camel milk in several children with severe food (mainly milk) allergies. We studied eight children with food allergies who did not benefit from conventional treatment...

  17. Purification of camel liver catalase by zinc chelate affinity chromatography and pH gradient elution: An enzyme with interesting properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chafik, Abdelbasset; Essamadi, Abdelkhalid; Çelik, Safinur Yildirim; Mavi, Ahmet

    2017-12-01

    Climate change and increasing temperatures are global concerns. Camel (Camelus dromedarius) lives most of its life under high environmental stress in the desert and represent ideal model for studying desert adaptation among mammals. Catalase plays a key role in protecting cells against oxidative stress. For the first time, catalase from camel liver was purified to homogeneity by zinc chelate affinity chromatography using pH gradient elution, a better separation was obtained. A purification fold of 201.81 with 1.17% yield and a high specific activity of 1132539.37U/mg were obtained. The native enzyme had a molecular weight of 268kDa and was composed of four subunits of equal size (65kDa). The enzyme showed optimal activity at a temperature of 45°C and pH 7.2. Thiol reagents, β-Mercaptoethanol and D,L-Dithiothreitol, inhibited the enzyme activity. The enzyme was inhibited by Al3+, Cd2+ and Mg2+, whereas Ca2+, Co2+ and Ni2+ stimulated the catalase activity. Reduced glutathione has no effect on catalase activity. The Km and Vmax of the enzyme for hydrogen peroxide were 37.31mM and 6185157U/mg, respectively. Sodium azide inhibited the enzyme noncompetitively with Ki value of 14.43μM, the IC50 was found to be 16.71μM. The properties of camel catalase were different comparing to those of mammalian species. Relatively higher molecular weight, higher optimum temperature, protection of reduced glutathione from hydrogen peroxide oxidation and higher affinity for hydrogen peroxide and sodium azide, these could be explained by the fact that camel is able to live in the intense environmental stress in the desert. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Characterization of recombinant camel chymosin reveals superior properties for the coagulation of bovine and camel milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kappeler, Stefan R; van den Brink, Hans J M; Rahbek-Nielsen, Henrik; Farah, Zakaria; Puhan, Zdenko; Hansen, Egon Bech; Johansen, Eric

    2006-04-07

    Enzymatic milk coagulation for cheese manufacturing involves the cleavage of the scissile bond in kappa-casein by an aspartic acid protease. Bovine chymosin is the preferred enzyme, combining a strong clotting activity with a low general proteolytic activity. In the present study, we report expression and enzymatic properties of recombinant camel chymosin expressed in Aspergillus niger. Camel chymosin was shown to have different characteristics than bovine chymosin. Camel chymosin exhibits a 70% higher clotting activity for bovine milk and has only 20% of the unspecific protease activity for bovine chymosin. This results in a sevenfold higher ratio of clotting to general proteolytic activity. The enzyme is more thermostable than bovine chymosin. Kinetic analysis showed that half-saturation is achieved with less than 50% of the substrate required for bovine chymosin and turnover rates are lower. While raw camel milk cannot be clotted with bovine chymosin, a high clotting activity was found with camel chymosin.

  19. Processing Challenges and Opportunities of Camel Dairy Products

    OpenAIRE

    Berhe, Tesfemariam; Eyassu SEIFU; Ipsen, Richard; Kurtu, Mohamed Y; Hansen, Egon Bech

    2017-01-01

    A review on the challenges and opportunities of processing camel milk into dairy products is provided with an objective of exploring the challenges of processing and assessing the opportunities for developing functional products from camel milk. The gross composition of camel milk is similar to bovine milk. Nonetheless, the relative composition, distribution, and the molecular structure of the milk components are reported to be different. Consequently, manufacturing of camel dairy products su...

  20. Camel Owners And Perception Towards Management Practices At Butanaarea Gaderif State Sudan

    OpenAIRE

    Amir .M. Osman; Mohammed Abdelkreim; S.M.A. Abukashawa; M. T. Ibrahim

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The current study was conducted at different locations in Butanaarea Gaderif state Sudan.60 questionnaires were used to collect information from camel owners .The study aims to assess perception of camel owners towards rangelands management practices .65 of camel owners rearing camels as life manner.The results revealed about 66 of the respondents are profession in camels rearing. On the other hand about 46 of camel owners adopted the nomadic system.Moreover 63 bred camel for mil...

  1. Prevalence of camel tuberculosis and associated risk factors in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A cross sectional abattoir based study was conducted from February 2014 to October, 2015 on camels slaughtered at Akaki municipality abattoir to determine the prevalence of Tuberculosis in camels and assess the association of risk factors with the prevalence of Tuberculosis in camels using single intra-dermal ...

  2. A survey on some dromedary camel diseases at Tumbool ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Large sector of population in the area depend on camel meat and frequently consume raw camel meat and liver. A Four-year retrospective study (2007–2010) of camel slaughtered at Tumbool slaughterhouse in Butana area, Gazira State, was carried out to determine the prevalence of diseases encountered in slaughtered ...

  3. Phenotypic Characterization of Camels and their Production System ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    production system and present condition and concentration of the Boren camels. Data were collected through the .... pastoral community the presence and absence of camel together with cattle are considered. In this regard, CARE ...... Breeding program and evaluation of semen characteristics of Camels in the Central Rift ...

  4. Foetal wastage in camels slaughtered at Sokoto municipal abattoir ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Slaughter of camels at the Sokoto municipal abattoir was evaluated over a five months period from March July, 2007 with the aim of determining foetal wastage due to the slaughter of pregnant camels. Out of the 1174 camels slaughtered during the study period, 592 (50.4%) were females. A total of 137 foetuses were ...

  5. Camel Mastitis, associated Bacterial Pathogens and its impact on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The present study was conducted between September 2006 and April 2007 with the aim of assessing the occurrence of camel mastitis and bacterial causes associated with it and evaluating Fat and Protein content of camel milk in Gewane district, Afar Regional State, Northeastern Ethiopia. Lactating camels which are ...

  6. Prevalence and etiology of mastitis in traditionally managed camels ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prevalence and causes of mastitis in traditionally managed camels in selected pastoral areas in eastern Ethiopia were assessed. The prevalence of camel mastitis was determined by the California mastitis test (CMT) and by clinical examinations of the udder and milk samples. A total of 642 udder quarters from 161 camels ...

  7. CAMEL REARING IN CHOLISTAN DESERT OF PAKISTAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. ALI, M. SHAFIQ CHAUDHRY1 AND U. FAROOQ

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available The camel is one of the typical and the best adopted animals of the desert, capable of enduring thirst and hunger for days and is the most patient of land animals. For desert nomads of Pakistani Cholistan, it is a beloved companion, a source of milk and meat, transport facility provider and a racing/dancing animal, thus, playing an important role in the socioeconomic uplift of the local community. Camels of Marrecha or Mahra breed are mainly used for riding and load carrying but may be trained for dancing or racing. Berella is another heavy and milch breed of camel famous for milk production and can produce upto 10-15 liters of milk per day. This breed is also suitable for draught purpose, though comparatively slow due to heavy body. The present paper also describes the traditional camel rearing system used by nomads of Cholistan desert. Some aspects of camel health, production, feeding, socio-economic values, marketing and some constraints and suggestions are also given so that the policy makers may consider them for the welfare of this animal.

  8. Identification and isolation of stimulator of interferon genes (STING): an innate immune sensory and adaptor gene from camelids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Premraj, A; Aleyas, A G; Nautiyal, B; Rasool, T J

    2013-10-01

    The mechanism by which type I interferon-mediated antiviral response is mounted by hosts against invading pathogen is an intriguing one. Of late, an endoplasmic reticulum transmembrane protein encoded by a gene called stimulator of interferon genes (STING) is implicated in the innate signalling pathways and has been identified and cloned in few mammalian species including human, mouse and pig. In this article, we report the identification of STING from three different species of a highly conserved family of mammals - the camelids. cDNAs encoding the STING of Old World camels - dromedary camel (Camelus dromedarius) and bactrian camel (Camelus bactrianus) and a New World camel - llama (Llama glama) were amplified using conserved primers and RACE. The complete STING cDNA of dromedary camel is 2171 bp long with a 706-bp 5' untranslated regions (UTR), an 1137-bp open reading frame (ORF) and a 328-bp 3' UTR. Sequence and phylogenetic analysis of the ORF of STING from these three camelids indicate high level of similarity among camelids and conservation of critical amino acid residues across different species. Quantitative real-time PCR analysis revealed high levels of STING mRNA expression in blood, spleen, lymph node and lung. The identification of camelid STING will help in better understanding of the role of this molecule in the innate immunity of the camelids and other mammals. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Economic Importance of Camel: A Unique Alternative under Crisis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Ahmad*, M. Yaqoob, N. Hashmi1, S. Ahmad2, M. A. Zaman3 and M. Tariq

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Increasing human population in the world has arisen the issue of food security. In order to combat with this issue, there is need to explore a new world of resources. Camel can serve the best useful addition to the food supply chain in terms of milk, meat and other products. Dromedary camel is found in Pakistan and its population is highest in Baluchistan (41%. In Pakistan, there are 21 breeds of camel. The main two types are riverine and mountainous. Camels are of vital socio-economic importance in the country as people use it for drawing water from wells, ploughing and leveling land, working mini-mills for oil extraction, grinding wheat, corn and other grains and for crushing sugarcane, and pulling carts for the transportation of goods as well as people. Well-fed camel can yield 10-15L milk per day. Camel milk can also be used for making yogurt, kurth, butter, ghee, rabbri and khoa. Meat, hides and hair are useful by-products of camel. Camel farming will be beneficial for farmers when proper marketing infrastructure is established. Also, standard procedures for the classification and identification of camel breeds for different purposes need more attention. Camel ranching schemes and collaborative research approach are need of the hour. These measures can lead us to utilize this novel animal as a natural resource for coping food demand of ever increasing population.

  10. Level of natural hepatotoxin (Indospicine) contamination in Australian camel meat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Eddie T T; Al Jassim, Rafat; D'Arcy, Bruce R; Fletcher, Mary T

    2016-10-01

    Camel meat production for human consumption and pet food manufacture accounts for a relatively small part of overall red meat production in Australia. Reliable statistical data for the Australian production and consumption of camel meat are not available; however, it is estimated that 300,000 feral camels roam within the desert of central Australia, with an annual usage of more than 3000 camels for human consumption, 2000 for pet food manufacture and a smaller number for live export. Despite a small Australian camel meat production level, the usage of camel meat for pet food has been restricted in recent years due to reports of serious liver disease and death in dogs consuming camel meat. This camel meat was found to contain residues of indospicine, a non-proteinogenic amino acid found in certain Indigofera spp., and associated with mild to severe liver disease in diverse animals after dietary exposure to this hepatotoxin. The extent of indospicine-contaminated Australian camel meat was previously unknown, and this study ascertains the prevalence of such residue in Australian camel meat. In this study, indospicine levels in ex situ (95 samples collected from an abattoir in Queensland) and in situ (197 samples collected from camels after field culling in central Australia) camel meat samples were quantitated using a validated ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS). The quantitation results showed 46.7% of the in situ- and 20.0% of the ex situ-collected camel meat samples were contaminated by indospicine (more than the limit of detection (LOD) of 0.05 mg kg(-1) fresh weight). The overall indospicine concentration was higher (p < 0.05) in the in situ-collected samples. Indospicine levels detected in the present study are considered to be low; however, a degree of caution must still be exercised, since the tolerable daily intake for indospicine is currently not available for risk estimation.

  11. Biological activity of camel milk casein following enzymatic digestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salami, Maryam; Moosavi-Movahedi, Ali Akbar; Moosavi-Movahedi, Faezeh; Ehsani, Mohammad Reza; Yousefi, Reza; Farhadi, Mohammad; Niasari-Naslaji, Amir; Saboury, Ali Akbar; Chobert, Jean-Marc; Haertlé, Thomas

    2011-11-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of enzymatic hydrolysis with digestive enzymes of camel whole casein and beta-casein (β-CN) on their antioxidant and Angiotensin Converting Enzyme (ACE)-inhibitory properties. Peptides in each hydrolysate were fractionated with ultra-filtration membranes. The antioxidant activity was determined using a Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) scale. After enzymatic hydrolysis, both antioxidant and ACE-inhibitory activities of camel whole casein and camel β-CN were enhanced. Camel whole casein and β-CN showed significant ACE-inhibitory activities after hydrolysis with pepsin alone and after pepsinolysis followed by trypsinolysis and chymotrypsinolysis. Camel β-CN showed high antioxidant activity after hydrolysis with chymotrypsin. The results of this study suggest that when camel milk is consumed and digested, the produced peptides start to act as natural antioxidants and ACE-inhibitors.

  12. Processing Challenges and Opportunities of Camel Dairy Products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berhe, Tesfemariam; Seifu, Eyassu; Ipsen, Richard

    2017-01-01

    to bovine milk. Nonetheless, the relative composition, distribution, and the molecular structure of the milk components are reported to be different. Consequently, manufacturing of camel dairy products such as cheese, yoghurt, or butter using the same technology as for dairy products from bovine milk can......A review on the challenges and opportunities of processing camel milk into dairy products is provided with an objective of exploring the challenges of processing and assessing the opportunities for developing functional products from camel milk. The gross composition of camel milk is similar...... result in processing difficulties and products of inferior quality. However, scientific evidence points to the possibility of transforming camel milk into products by optimization of the processing parameters. Additionally, camel milk has traditionally been used for its medicinal values and recent...

  13. Hypolipidemic and Antioxidant Activity of Camel Milk on Poloxamer ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hypolipidemic and Antioxidant Activity of Camel Milk on Poloxamer-Induced Hyperlipidemia in Rats. ... Results: Total cholesterol was significantly (p< 0.05) decreased in group treated with camel milk at 1000mg/kg (174.68 ±46.92 mg/dl), treatment with camel milk doses 250mg/kg(63.57±6.34mg/dl), 500mg/kg ...

  14. Pathology and molecular diagnosis of paratuberculosis of camels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alharbi, Khaled B; Al-Swailem, Abdulaziz; Al-Dubaib, Musaad A; Al-Yamani, Essam; Al-Naeem, Abdelmohsen; Shehata, Maher; Hashad, Mahmoud E; Albusadah, Khaled A; Mahmoud, Osama M

    2012-01-01

    Camels are the prime source of meat and milk in many desert regions of the world including Saudi Arabia. Paratuberculosis of camels, locally called Silag, is a serious and invariably fatal disease in the Arabian camel. Six camels were used in this study. Five camels with clinical paratuberculosis were used to study the pathology of the disease and confirm its aetiology. The sixth camel was clinically healthy and used as a control. The camels were examined clinically and bled for haematological and blood chemistry analysis. They were then humanely killed with a high intravenous dose of thiopental sodium (10 mg/kg) for pathological studies as well as obtaining tissues for microbiological and molecular studies. The clinical signs of the disease were emaciation, diarrhoea, alopecia, wry neck and pale mucous membranes. Laboratory diagnosis showed reduced haemoglobin concentration, low haematocrit and high activity of the serum enzyme alanine aminotransferase. Serum creatinine concentration was normal. These results indicated the infected camels were anaemic and the function of their livers was affected. Postmortem examination showed thickened and corrugated intestinal mucosa, enlarged granulomatous mesenteric lymph nodes, miliary and diffuse granulomas in the liver (in four camels), generalized lymph node granulomas (in one camel), splenic granuloma (in one camel) and mediastinal lymph node granuloma (in two camels). Histopathological examination showed diffuse infiltration of macrophages in all organs showing lesions. Ziehl-Neelsen staining of tissue scraping and tissue sections showed masses of acid fast bacilli, except for the spleen. Infection with Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis was confirmed by PCR by targeting the IS900 gene.

  15. The major histocompatibility complex in Old World camelids and low polymorphism of its class II genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plasil, Martin; Mohandesan, Elmira; Fitak, Robert R; Musilova, Petra; Kubickova, Svatava; Burger, Pamela A; Horin, Petr

    2016-03-01

    The Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC) is a genomic region containing genes with crucial roles in immune responses. MHC class I and class II genes encode antigen-presenting molecules expressed on the cell surface. To counteract the high variability of pathogens, the MHC evolved into a region of considerable heterogeneity in its organization, number and extent of polymorphism. Studies of MHCs in different model species contribute to our understanding of mechanisms of immunity, diseases and their evolution. Camels are economically important domestic animals and interesting biomodels. Three species of Old World camels have been recognized: the dromedary (Camelus dromedarius), Bactrian camel (Camelus bactrianus) and the wild camel (Camelus ferus). Despite their importance, little is known about the MHC genomic region, its organization and diversity in camels. The objectives of this study were to identify, map and characterize the MHC region of Old World camelids, with special attention to genetic variation at selected class MHC II loci. Physical mapping located the MHC region to the chromosome 20 in Camelus dromedarius. Cytogenetic and comparative analyses of whole genome sequences showed that the order of the three major sub-regions is "Centromere - Class II - Class III - Class I". DRA, DRB, DQA and DQB exon 2 sequences encoding the antigen binding site of the corresponding class II antigen presenting molecules showed high degree of sequence similarity and extensive allele sharing across the three species. Unexpectedly low extent of polymorphism with low numbers of alleles and haplotypes was observed in all species, despite different geographic origins of the camels analyzed. The DRA locus was found to be polymorphic, with three alleles shared by all three species. DRA and DQA sequences retrieved from ancient DNA samples of Camelus dromedarius suggested that additional polymorphism might exist. This study provided evidence that camels possess an MHC comparable to

  16. Factors influencing the gelation and rennetability of camel milk using camel chymosin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hailu, Yonas; Hansen, Egon Bech; Seifu, Eyassu

    2016-01-01

    The effects of temperature, pH, concentration of camel chymosin and addition of CaCl2 on the hydrolysis of κ-casein (κ-CN) and the coagulation kinetics of camel milk were investigated. The rate of κ-CN hydrolysis was higher at 40 °C than at 30 °C and with increasing addition of chymosin......H also reduced Tg. The gel firmness increased at 40 °C (58 Pa) compared with 30 °C (44 Pa) and effect of CaCl2 addition on the gelation properties of camel milk was found to be dependent on pH; a significant improvement was only found at pH 6.3....

  17. ANALISIS KINERJA DENGAN MENGGUNAKAN PENDEKATAN RASIO CAMEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sri Murdiati

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk menganalisis tingkat kesehatan bank dilihat dari kategori CAMEL. Metode penelitian yang digunakan adalah studi kasus di PD BPR BKK Banjarharjo.Dalam menguji hipotesis digunakan alat analisis CAMEL. Hasil penelitian ini yaitu modal pada 2008 sampai 2010 termasuk dalam kriteria sehat. ROA meningkat 2008 sampai 2010 dengan kriteria sehat bagi biaya operasional yang dikeluarkan oleh pendapatan operasional yang seimbang. Rasio Kas tahun 2008 sampai 2010 termasuk dalam kriteria sehat berarti bank memiliki kemampuan untuk mengelola asset yang digunakan untuk membayar kewajiban. LDR mengalami tren yang signifikan selama tahun 2008 sampai 2010 sehingga dana yang diterima bank untuk meningkatkan baik tabungan, deposito berjangka, modal inti, yang berarti kemampuan bank untuk meningkatkan penyaluran kredit, IRR menunjukan nilai positif dalam menghadapi resiko pasar.Pengembangan tingkat kesehatan pada tahun 2008 sampai 2010 untuk komponen Capital, Assets, Laba dan Likuiditas meningkat. The goal of this research is to analyze the healtiness of banks seen from CAMEL category. The research applied a case study in PD BPR BKK Banjarharjo. The hypotheses tested using CAMEL analysis tools. The result of the study is that the modal used 2008 until 2010 is consideredin a healthy criteria. The increasing ROA in 2008 until 2010 is considered healthy criteria for operational expenses incurred by the operating income. Such condition meant that the banks are able to manage the assets which are used to pay the obligations. The significant increasing of LDR over the years 2008 until 2010 makes the received funds by the bank to increase the savings deposits, time deposits and the core capital. As the recunts, the banks are able to increase credit disstribution. More over, the IRR showed a positive values in the face of market risks and the development of healthy levels in 2008 until 2010 for the components of Capital, Assets, Earnings and

  18. Camel-related pancreatico-duodenal injuries: A report of three ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Human pancreatico-duodenal injuries caused by camels are extremely rare. Objective: We report three patients who sustained camel-related pancreatico-duodenal injuries and review the literature on this topic. Results: A 32-year camel caregiver was kicked by a camel which then stepped on his abdomen ...

  19. Prevalence and etiology of mastitis in traditionally managed camels ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    There is extensive literature on bovine mastitis and to a lesser extent on ovine and caprine mastitis; however, little is known about mastitis in camels. There is limited information on the prevalence and causative agents of camel masti- tis in Ethiopia. The prevalence and causes of mastitis differ markedly due to geographical ...

  20. Detection of bovine viral diarrhea virus antibodies in camels ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was carried out to determine the seroprevalence of bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) antibodies in camels presented for slaughter at the Maiduguri abattoir using a BVDV specific indirect enzyme-linked-immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Ninety (90) serum samples collected from adult male and female camels were ...

  1. Antibacterial activity of papain hydrolysed camel whey and its fractions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abdel-Hamid, Mahmoud; Goda, Hanan A.; De Gobba, Cristian

    2016-01-01

    Camel whey (ON) was hydrolysed with papain from Carica papaya and fractionated by size exclusion chromatography (SEC). The antibacterial activity of the CW, camel whey hydrolysate (CWH) and the obtained SEC-fractions was assessed using the disc-diffusion method. The CWH exhibited significantly...

  2. Processing Challenges and Opportunities of Camel Dairy Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seifu, Eyassu; Ipsen, Richard; Kurtu, Mohamed Y.; Hansen, Egon Bech

    2017-01-01

    A review on the challenges and opportunities of processing camel milk into dairy products is provided with an objective of exploring the challenges of processing and assessing the opportunities for developing functional products from camel milk. The gross composition of camel milk is similar to bovine milk. Nonetheless, the relative composition, distribution, and the molecular structure of the milk components are reported to be different. Consequently, manufacturing of camel dairy products such as cheese, yoghurt, or butter using the same technology as for dairy products from bovine milk can result in processing difficulties and products of inferior quality. However, scientific evidence points to the possibility of transforming camel milk into products by optimization of the processing parameters. Additionally, camel milk has traditionally been used for its medicinal values and recent scientific studies confirm that it is a rich source of bioactive, antimicrobial, and antioxidant substances. The current literature concerning product design and functional potential of camel milk is fragmented in terms of time, place, and depth of the research. Therefore, it is essential to understand the fundamental features of camel milk and initiate detailed multidisciplinary research to fully explore and utilize its functional and technological properties. PMID:29109953

  3. Camel milk: a possible boon for type 1 diabetic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agrawal, R P; Tantia, P; Jain, S; Agrawal, R; Agrawal, V

    2013-11-03

    Poor nutrition in utero and in early life combined with over nutrition in later life may also play a role in epidemic of diabetes. The efficacy of camel milk consumption as an adjunct to routine diabetic management in type 1 diabetes is a approach showing new rays of hope to cope with this disorder by adding a food supplement with medicinal values. Research on the beneficial aspects of camel milk has been taking place in different corners of globe since last three decades. Continuous efforts to disclose the role of camel milk in diabetes has rendered it title of 'white gold'. Biochemical studies has revealed the components e.g. insulin like protein, lactoferrin, immunoglobulins are responsible for imparting camel milk the scientific weightage. In parallel, epidemiological surveys stating low prevalence of diabetes in communities consuming camel milk clearly indicate towards its hopeful role in maintaining hyperglycemia. This article shades light on camel milk production, composition, characteristics as well as it expresses positive effect of camel milk on blood glucose level, insulin dose, beta cell function. This review also compiles various epidemiological studies carried out to bring forth utility of camel milk suggesting it as a useful food supplement or alternative therapy for type 1 diabetic patients.

  4. Purification and characterization of camel liver L-asparaginase ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    L-asparaginase from camel liver was isolated and purified by heat denaturation followed by QAE-Sephadex A-50 column chromatography and SP-Sepharose column chromatography. The purified camel liver L-asparaginase had a molecular weight of 180 kDa (consistent with a homotetramer) and a pI value of 8.6.

  5. Prevalence of Hydatidosis in Camels Slaughtered in Sokoto Central ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Data on the prevalence of hydatid cyst in camels slaughtered at the metropolitan abattoir in Sokoto, Nigeria, were collected based on post-mortem inspection over a period of 2 months. Camels of different sexes (male and female) and age categories (puberty, < 3 years of age; and beyond the age of puberty, ≥ 3 years of ...

  6. Botanical composition of feed of camels and nutritive value of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Botanical composition of feed of camels and nutritive value of consumed plants in a arid rangeland of Niger. ... Bulletin of Animal Health and Production in Africa ... to assess the chemical composition and nutritional values of plants consumed by camels to see what is their input of energy and crude protein to the animals.

  7. Serological Evidence Of Rabies Virus Infection Of Slaughter Camels ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A survey of antibodies against rabies virus was carried out in camels imported for slaughter at Maiduguri municipal abattoir in Borno State, Nigeria. Out of the 256 camel sera tested, 18 (7%) had complement-fixing antibody against rabies virus antigen. Significant difference (P<0.05) in antibody prevalence was observed ...

  8. Camel slaughtering practices and meat production in Eastern Ethiopia

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In these slaughter houses, camels were slaughtered first by immobilizing the camel by cutting the hind leg at the Achilus tendon. Then the animal becomes immobile and guided to slaughtering floor to cut its throat. Subsequently, flying, evisceration and dressing undertaken. Then the meat was transported to butcher house.

  9. Competitive Elisa Rinderpest Virus Antibody in Slaughtered Camels ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Two hundred and twenty camel sera were tested for presence of RP and Pestes des petits ruminants (PPR) antibodies in a competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (c-ELISA). Of the sera tested, 20 (9.3%) were found to be positive for RP antibody. None of the sera tested positive for PPR antibody. Camels could ...

  10. Processing Challenges and Opportunities of Camel Dairy Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tesfemariam Berhe

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A review on the challenges and opportunities of processing camel milk into dairy products is provided with an objective of exploring the challenges of processing and assessing the opportunities for developing functional products from camel milk. The gross composition of camel milk is similar to bovine milk. Nonetheless, the relative composition, distribution, and the molecular structure of the milk components are reported to be different. Consequently, manufacturing of camel dairy products such as cheese, yoghurt, or butter using the same technology as for dairy products from bovine milk can result in processing difficulties and products of inferior quality. However, scientific evidence points to the possibility of transforming camel milk into products by optimization of the processing parameters. Additionally, camel milk has traditionally been used for its medicinal values and recent scientific studies confirm that it is a rich source of bioactive, antimicrobial, and antioxidant substances. The current literature concerning product design and functional potential of camel milk is fragmented in terms of time, place, and depth of the research. Therefore, it is essential to understand the fundamental features of camel milk and initiate detailed multidisciplinary research to fully explore and utilize its functional and technological properties.

  11. A review on camel brucellosis: a zoonosis sustained by ignorance and indifference

    OpenAIRE

    Sprague, Lisa D; Al-Dahouk, Sascha; Neubauer, Heinrich

    2012-01-01

    In many developing countries of Asia and Africa, camels are one of the most important sources of income for the nomadic population. With increasing urbanization, camel milk and meat have gained a wider market and commercialization and consumption of camel products are on the rise. Camel brucellosis can be encountered in all camel rearing countries with exception of Australia. High animal and herd prevalences have been reported from numerous countries, which not only pose a continuous risk for...

  12. Characterisation of lactic acid bacteria in spontaneously fermented camel milk and selection of strains for fermentation of camel milk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fugl, Angelina June Brandt; Berhe, Tesfemariam; Kiran, Anil

    2017-01-01

    The microbial communities in spontaneously fermented camel milk from Ethiopia were characterised through metagenomic 16S rRNA sequencing and lactic acid bacteria were isolated with the goal of selecting strains suitable as starter cultures. The fermented camel milk microbiota was dominated either...... by Lactobacillales or by Enterobacteriaceae, depending on incubation temperature and the provider of the milk. Strains of species with a potential use as starter cultures i.e., Lactococcus lactis, Lactobacillus plantarum, and Pediococcus acidilactici, were isolated. Fast acidifiers of camel milk have been isolated...... from the species of Lc. lactis, P. acidilactici, and Streptococcus infantarius. Gram-negative and potentially pathogenic microorganisms were frequent in spontaneously fermented camel milk, indicating the need for improved hygiene in Ethiopian camel farms. The profiled microbiota of spontaneously...

  13. Radionuclide transfer from feed to camel milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Masri, M S; Al-Hamwi, A; Amin, Y; Safieh, M B; Zarkawi, M; Soukouti, A; Dayyoub, R; Voigt, G; Fesenko, S

    2014-06-01

    The transfer of (137)Cs, (85)Sr, (131)I, (210)Po, (210)Pb and (238)U from feed to camel's milk was investigated in a pilot experiment with three lactating camels. For a period of 60 days, the animals were fed on spiked feed containing the studied radionuclides. They were subsequently returned to a contamination-free diet and monitored for another 90 days. The activity concentrations of (137)Cs, (85)Sr and (131)I in milk decreased with time and reached background levels after 20 days. Equilibrium transfer coefficients and biological half-lives were estimated and transfer coefficients were calculated as (8.1 ± 3.6) × 10(-4), (4.4 ± 1.6) × 10(-2), (7.8 ± 3.9) × 10(-4), (2.7 ± 3.5) × 10(-4), (1.8 ± 1.5) × 10(-4) and (7.0 ± 3.6) × 10(-3) d L(-1) for (85)Sr, (131)I, (137)Cs, (210)Po, (210)Pb and (238)U, respectively. The biological half-lives were estimated to be 6.4, 4.2, 8.9, and 53.3 days for (85)Sr, (131)I, (137)Cs, and (238)U, respectively. Estimates of the half-lives were based on a one component model: it was found that the half-life values measured for artificial radionuclides were slightly shorter than those for natural radionuclides. The data obtained in the study are the first published experimental data on radionuclide transfer to camel milk. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Production systems and reproductive performances of Camelus dromedarius in Somali regional state, eastern Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simenew Keskes

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Across-sectional questionnaire survey and focused group discussions were conducted to characterize camel production systems and to evaluate reproductive performances of camels at their natural pastoralist management systems of Somali region. A total of 100 households were included in the study during the period of October 2012 to March 2013. About 98% of Somali pastoralists preferred camels as their first choice over other livestock species and mainly kept in the society for milk and meat production. The camel management dominating in the study areas of Somali region is traditional nomadic. Camel is one of the most important livestock for Somali pastoralists’ livelihood as a source of milk, meat and draught power. Mature female camels were dominant (54.87% in the camel herd. The ratio of male to female camel was 1:13. Mean age at first calving and calving interval were 62.16±10.44 and 23.28±3.36 months respectively. Age at first calving and calving interval can be minimized to 57±5.52 and 21.84±4.8 months by proper husbandry and health care. The mean lactation length was 11.51±1.91 months. Diseases and predators were reported as the main causes of calf mortality. In the herd dynamic simulation calf mortality rate can be reduced at least to 7% only by preventing predators attack. Diseases (66%, lack of pasture (59% and security (47% were the main constraints in camel production of the study areas. For the better productivity of camels, the major constraints such as disease problems, lack of pasture and tribal conflicts should be mitigated. Proper husbandry and health services can play significant roles in the long term improvement of camel production and productivity of the region.  

  15. Purification and partial characterisation of camel milk xanthine oxidoreductase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baghiani, A; Harrison, R; Benboubetra, M

    2003-12-01

    Xanthine oxidoreductase (XOR) was purified in the presence of dithiothrietol from camel milk with yields of up to 22.2mg/l that were comparable to those obtained from bovine and human milk sources. On SDS-PAGE, the freshly purified camel milk XOR had a protein flavin (A280/A450) ratio of 5.3 +/- 0.4 and appeared homogenous with a single major band of approximately Mr 145.3 KDa. Surprisingly, in all the batches (n = 8) purified camel milk XOR showed no detectable activity towards xanthine or NADH. The molybdenum content of camel XOR was comparable to human and goat milk enzymes. After resulphuration, camel milk XOR gave a specific activity of 1.1 nmol/min/mg and 13.0 nmol/min/mg enzyme towards pterin (fluorimetric assay) and xanthine (spectrophotometric assay) respectively. This activity was markedly lower than that of human, bovine and goat enzymes obtained under the same conditions. These findings suggest that the molybdo-form of camel enzyme is totally under desulpho inactive form. It is possible that camel neonates are equipped with an enzymic system that reactivates XOR in their gut and consequently generates antibacterial reactive oxygen species.

  16. Ultrastructure features of camel cornea--collagen fibril and proteoglycans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almubrad, Turki; Akhtar, Saeed

    2012-01-01

      The uniform distribution of collagen fibrils and proteoglycans maintain the transparency of normal cornea. We describe the ultrastructural features of camel cornea including collagen fibrils and proteoglycans (PGs).   Camel corneas (of 6-, 8-, and 10-month-old animals) were fixed in 2.5% glutaraldehyde containing cuprolinic blue in sodium acetate buffer and processed for electron microscopy. The 'AnalySIS LS Professional' program was used to analyze the collagen fibril diameter.   The camel cornea consists of four layers: the epithelium (227 μm), stroma (388 μm), Descemet's membrane (DM), and endothelium. The epithelium constituted 36% of the camel cornea, whereas corneal stroma constituted 62% of the corneal thickness (629 μm). The PGs in the posterior stroma were significantly larger in number and size compared with the anterior and middle stroma. The collagen fibril diameter was 25 nm and interfibrillar spacing 40 nm. Fibrillar structures are present throughout the DM.   The structure of the camel cornea is very different from human and other animals. The unique structure of the cornea might be an adaptation to help the camel to survive in a hot and dry climate. The camel cornea may also be a good model to study the effect of hot and dry climates on the cornea. © 2011 American College of Veterinary Ophthalmologists.

  17. Comparison of the acidification activities of commercial starter cultures in camel and bovine milk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berhe, Tesfemariam; Ipsen, Richard; Seifu, Eyassu

    2018-01-01

    Camel milk has been reported to be difficult to ferment due to anti-microbial properties. The present study tested eight commercial starter cultures for their ability to grow in camel milk. All investigated cultures were able to acidify camel milk and reached a final pH at a level similar to what...... was achieved in bovine milk, but the speed of acidification was generally lower in camel milk. This could be due to inhibitory substances in camel milk or due to reduced availability of nutrients. Experiments using mixtures of camel and bovine milk or supplementation with casein hydrolysates allowed us...... to distinguish between these possibilities. High acidification rates were obtained in camel milk mixed with bovine milk or supplemented with casein hydrolysate. This demonstrates that the cultures are not inhibited by camel milk and we conclude that the growth rates of these cultures in pure camel milk...

  18. Evaluation of cis and trans fatty acid profiles in a Camel\\\\\\'s hump and meat consumed in Birjand and Nehbandan cities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyyed Javad Hosseini-Vashan

    2013-08-01

    Conclusion: Although there is no difference in the total amount of saturated and unsaturated fatty acids derived from the camel meat or hump in the two areas, the amount was less in the hump of the camel and also lower in Birjand. Therefore, it is probable that the camel's products in Birjand have a better quality regarding the incidence of atherosclerosis.

  19. Epidural analgesia in cattle, buffalo, and camels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zuhair Bani Ismail

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Epidural analgesia is commonly used in large animals. It is an easy, cheap, and effective technique used to prevent or control pain during surgeries involving the tail, anus, vulva, perineum, caudal udder, scrotum, and upper hind limbs. The objectives of this article were to comprehensively review and summarize all scientific data available in the literature on new techniques and drugs or drug combinations used for epidural anesthesia in cattle, camel, and buffalo. Only articles published between 2006 and 2016 were included in the review. The most common sites for epidural administration in cattle, camels, and buffalos were the sacrococcygeal intervertebral space (S5-Co1 and first intercoccygeal intervertebral space (Co1-Co2. The most frequently used drugs and dosages were lidocaine (0.22-0.5 mg/kg, bupivacaine (0.125 mg/kg, ropivacaine (0.11 mg/kg, xylazine (0.05 mg/kg, medetomidine (15 μg/kg, romifidine (30-50 μg/kg, ketamine (0.3-2.5 mg/kg, tramadol (1 mg/kg, and neostigmine (10 μg/kg, and the clinical applications, clinical effects, recommendations, and side effects were discussed.

  20. Moult of wing and tail-feathers in the Ostrich, Struthio camelus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brom, Tim G.; Dekker, René W.R.J.

    1990-01-01

    Structure and moult of wing and tail of a full-grown Ostrich, Struthio camelus, are described. In the wing, at least three feather generations could be recognized. The pattern of moult is more or less symmetrical in both wings and the sequence of feather replacement is not random. The tail consisted

  1. Anatomical description of the ostrich (Struthio camelus skeleton: case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Greice Borba Leite

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Ostrich (Struthio camelus is a bird characterized by its large size, it can achieve 2.8m in height and weight over 150kg. It has an Egyptian origin and then spread throughout Africa. Commercial breeding began about 150 years ago, with the domestication of native animals from South Africa, country which holds the first position in meat supply. Several musculoskeletal diseases were observed in fast-growing birds, such as ostrich. High body weight, associated to a developing bone structure, is indicated as the main cause of disorders of the locomotor system. In this study, an adult male specimen was used, from an ostrich production farm located at the town of Paranatama, Pernambuco, Brazil. After removing soft tissues, bone measurements were performed with caliper and tape measure, and each bone was photographed for documentation and described. This study aims to contribute to increase knowledge on the ostrich skeletal system, as well as provide a basis for muscle development, one of the main targets of commercial exploitation with regard to this species.

  2. Arteries of the adrenal glands in ostriches (Struthio camelus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelita das Graças de Oliveira Honorato

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The growth of rational ostrich breeding and their byproducts has attracted interest from researchers to increase the studies in this animal. Thus, basic research areas, such as morphology, become necessary to provide the applied areas with knowledge. Aiming to contribute to the knowledge on the vascular arrangements of the adrenal glands, 30 ostriches (Struthio camelus were used, four days old, who had their arterial components marked with a 50% stained aqueous solution of Neoprene Latex ¨ 450 ¨ and fixed in a 10% diluted solution of formaldehyde. The coelomic cavity was exposed for identifying these glands, which are paired organs that are covered by loose connective tissue, symmetrically arranged in the two antimeres, laterally to the descending aorta, caudally to the lungs, and cranio-medially to the cranial lobes of the kidneys. The arterial blood supply, in both antimeres, is derived from the right and left adrenal arteries, the right and left cranial renal artery branches, and the right branches of the descending aorta. Regardless of the origin, the number of branches going to the adrenal glands ranged from one to two and one to three respectively, in the left and right antimeres.

  3. A Real-Time PCR Method Targeting Camel Ingredient for Food Authentication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yajun; Yang, Yange; Wang, Bin; Liu, Mingchang; Han, Jianxun; Chen, Ying

    2015-01-01

    The special nutritious value of camel showed high potential for market exploitation. In this paper, a real-time PCR method targeting camel ingredient in camel meat and milk is reported as an approach to fight against adulteration. To understand the impact of processing procedures on the amplifiability of cytb gene, four kinds of processed camel meat were investigated, and the rate of DNA breakage was explored. The method was able to detect 5 fg/μL camel DNA and highly processed food containing 0.01% camel meat with a high confidence level.

  4. Structure and Function of Bovine and Camel Chymosin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jesper Langholm

    for this action is bovine chymosin from the calf's stomach, as it has a high activity towards the Phe105-Met106 bond, and a low activity towards other bonds in the milk proteins, as the latter can lead to loss of protein in the whey and release of peptides with a bitter taste. Chymosin was isolated from camel...... this difference through the study of the structures of bovine and camel chymosin, and preparation of catalytically inactive enzymes in complex with substrate. Their milk-clotting activities was determined using the traditional assay on skimmed milk, and a fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) assay...... with Val221 and Phe223 in camel chymosin. The latter would avoid electrostatic repulsion of the substrate's His residues and improve interaction with the hydrophobic substrate residues adjacent to the scissile bond. In summary, this work shows that the improved milk-clotting properties of camel chymosin...

  5. Swelling studies of camel and bovine corneal stroma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Turki Almubrad

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Turki Almubrad, Mohammad Faisal Jamal Khan, Saeed AkhtarCornea Research Chair, Department of Optometry, College of Applied Medical Sciences, King Saud University, Saudi ArabiaAbstract: In the present study we investigated the swelling characteristics of fresh camel and bovine cornea in sodium salt solutions. Swelling studies were carried out at 20 minutes, 14 hours, and 46 hours on five fresh camel and 5 five fresh bovine corneas. During the 20-minute hydration of fresh corneal stroma was investigated using sodium chloride (NaCl, sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3, sodium acetate (CH3COONa, sodium thiocyanate (NaSCN, and sodium floride (NaF at 2-minute time intervals. During a 46-hour time period, the hydration study was carried out using NaCl (150, 300 mM and NaF (150 mM at random intervals. The 14-hour study was carried out to assess the rehydration of corneal stroma after 6 hours of drying. During the 20-minute swelling studies in the first 2 minutes the rate of hydration in both camel and bovine corneas was high but gradually reduced in the 2–20-minute period. The rates and levels of hydration of camel and bovine cornea were not significantly different from each other in all the strengths of solutions. During the 46-hour swelling studies, the initial rate of hydration (0–2 hours of camel and bovine stroma, in all solutions was significantly higher (Z = 0.056 compared to hydration during later hours (2–46 hours. Camel stromal hydration (high in 150 mM NaCl was significantly higher compared to bovine stromal hydration in the same solution during the 10–24, and 24–46-hour time periods. Rehydration in camel stroma was significantly lower than bovine in 150 mM NaF. The 20-minute study showed that there was no selective affinity for particular ions in camel or bovine corneal stroma. Initial swelling in both corneal and bovine stroma is faster and more prominant compared to later swelling. The swelling in camel cornea is more prominant compared

  6. Camel milk: an alternative for cow's milk allergy in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehlayel, Mohammad S; Hazeima, Khalid Abu; Al-Mesaifri, Fatima; Bener, Abdulbari

    2011-01-01

    Treatment of cow's milk allergy (CMA) in children includes avoidance of cow's milk and providing a milk substitute. This study was designed to determine whether CMA children could safely consume camel's milk as an alternative, and skin-prick test (SPT) to camel's milk could be a reliable tool in selecting them. Between April 2007 and February 2010, children with confirmed CMA seen at the Allergy-Immunology Clinic, Hamad Medical Corp., were enrolled into this prospective cohort study. Subjects had a detailed history and medical examination, complete blood count with differential count, total serum IgE, and specific IgE test and SPT to cow's milk. Patients with positive SPT and an elevated cow's milk-specific IgE had negative SPT to camel's milk. Of 35 children (23 male and 12 female children) aged 4-126 months (median, 21 months), 23 patients (65.7%) presented with acute urticaria, 17 (48.6%) with atopic dermatitis, 9 (25.7%) with anaphylaxis, 8 (22.9%) with failure to thrive, and 5 (14.3%) with chronic vomiting. Twenty-eight patients (80%) had family history of allergy. Twenty-six patients (74.3%) were breast-fed for ≤18 months. Mean white blood cell count was 9860.5 cells/μL, absolute eosinophil count was 1219 cells/μL, IgE was 682 IU/mL, and cow's milk-specific IgE was 22.01 kU/L. Only 7 patients (20%) had positive SPT to camel's milk and 28 (80%) were negative to camel's milk. All patients with negative SPT took camel's milk without any reactions. In children with CMA, SPT is a reliable clinical test in ruling out reactivity to camel's milk so these children could safely take camel's milk as an alternative nutrient.

  7. Camel as a transboundary vector for emerging exotic Salmonella serovars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghoneim, Nahed H; Abdel-Moein, Khaled A; Zaher, Hala

    2017-05-01

    The current study was conducted to shed light on the role of imported camels as a transboundary vector for emerging exotic Salmonella serovars. Fecal samples were collected from 206 camels directly after slaughtering including 25 local camels and 181 imported ones as well as stool specimens were obtained from 50 slaughterhouse workers at the same abattoir. The obtained samples were cultured while Salmonella serovars were identified through Gram's stain films, biochemical tests and serotyping with antisera kit. Moreover, the obtained Salmonella serovars were examined by PCR for the presence of invA and stn genes. The overall prevalence of Salmonella serovars among the examined camels was 8.3%. Stn gene was detected in the vast majority of exotic strains (11/14) 78.6% including emerging serovars such as Salmonella Saintpaul, S. Chester, S. Typhimurium whereas only one isolate from local camels carried stn gene (1/3) 33.3%. On the other hand, none of the examined humans yielded positive result. Our findings highlight the potential role of imported camels as a transboundary vector for exotic emerging Salomenella serovars.

  8. A study on the productivity and diseases of camels in eastern Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tefera, M; Gebreah, F

    2001-07-01

    A study concerning performance traits of the Ethiopian camel indicated that, in the camel herds examined, there was one active bull camel for 25 females. The bull camel was 5 years old at puberty; it reached rutting vigour at the age of 9 years, the number of mountings per day was 8 during the breeding season, and the reproduction span was 10 years. The female camel reached puberty at 4 years of age; the age at first calving was 5 years, and the lactation period was one year; the calving interval was 2 years, the calving rate was 50%, and the reproduction span was 10-15 years. The survival rate of the newborn calves was 50%. The average milk yield was 2.5 L per day; the price of camel's milk was higher than that of cow's milk at US$0.5. Adult camels weighed around 500 kg; the dressing-out percentage was 52%. Mutton was preferred to camel meat, which came second in popularity, costing US$2/kg. Owing to their poor reproductive performance, camels are not efficient for producing meat. The camels worked for 16 h per day, covering 60 km. Animal health problems encountered were trypanosomosis, camel pox, camel pustular dermatitis, camel cephalopsis, dermatomycosis, mange mite, tick infestation and balantidiosis, most of which mainly affected the young animals.

  9. Assessment of Camel Meat Pollution with Trace Metals in Desert Area of Basra Province

    OpenAIRE

    Sarmad G. Mohammed; Hassan T. Abdulsahib; Ibrahim M. Jasim; Mushtak T. Jabbar

    2011-01-01

    Problem statement: This study investigates the possibility of the camel meat pollution in south of Basra province (Iraq). Trace elements concentrations (Mg, Fe, Pb and Hg) were determined from different tissues of camel (neck, shoulder, plate, leg and loin) from two location in Basra governorate, Safwan and Al-Zubair. Approach: The study focused on the assessment of camel meat pollution on these locations with toxic elements which may caused by soil, water and plants which camel feed on. Resu...

  10. ISOLATION AND IDENTIFICATION OF LACTIC ACID PRODUCING BACTERIA FROM CAMEL MILK

    OpenAIRE

    Toqeer Ahmad, Rashida Kanwal, Izhar Hussain Athar1, Najam Ayub

    2002-01-01

    Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) were isolated from camel milk by culturing the camel milk on specific media and pure culture was obtained by sub culturing. Purification of culture was confirmed by Gram's staining and identified by different bio-chemical tests. Camel milk contains lactic acid producing bacteria including Strpptococci such as S. cremoris and S. lactis and Lactobacilli such as L. acidophilus L. acidophilus grows more rapidly in camel milk than others as its growth is supported by cam...

  11. Traditional Camel Veterinary Treatment Among the Bedouins of Sultanate of Oman: A Case of Recurrent Miscarriages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Tigani ElMahi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In Oman, Bedouins have developed their own ways of providing medical care for their camels. This indigenous knowledge must have evolved sometime after the domestication of camels around 3000 BC. This paper documents a case of treating a female camel suffering from recurrent miscarriages in al Naffas at al Mudaibi area in the interior of Oman.

  12. Camel Owners And Perception Towards Management Practices At Butanaarea Gaderif State Sudan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir .M. Osman

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The current study was conducted at different locations in Butanaarea Gaderif state Sudan.60 questionnaires were used to collect information from camel owners .The study aims to assess perception of camel owners towards rangelands management practices .65 of camel owners rearing camels as life manner.The results revealed about 66 of the respondents are profession in camels rearing. On the other hand about 46 of camel owners adopted the nomadic system.Moreover 63 bred camel for milk and meat. The majority of camel owners kept breeding male camels from the same herd 90. the improvement methods of herd are based on three ways one of them is selection according to breeding history which practiced by 66.7 followed by productivity 25 and morphological features 8.3 . The improvement purposes focused on both milk meat about 78.3 .The concluded that most of the camels owner kept breeding male camels from the same herd. The priority of camel owners for improvement was a dual purpose meat and milk production.

  13. Camel cocktail sausage and its physicochemical and sensory quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soltanizadeh, Nafiseh; Kadivar, Mahdi; Keramat, Javad; Bahrami, Hooshang; Poorreza, Fatemeh

    2010-03-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the nutritional values of camel semitendinosus muscles with those of calves. Then, sausages were made from camel meat, beef and equal proportions of each and stored at 4 degrees C for 45 days. The composition, physicochemical characteristics, sensory properties, and microstructure of the samples were evaluated. The proximate composition of meat from the two species was significantly different. Beef contained a significantly higher amount of vitamin E, whereas camel meat had better profile of fatty acid and higher iron content. Camel meat had a higher pH but similar myofibrillar protein content as beef. Sausages made from 100% camel meat also had higher pH and cooking yield along with higher a* (redness) and lower L* (lightness) than the others. 2-Thiobarbitoric acid values among these treatments were significantly different. Samples containing 50% of each meat had a higher resistance to shear force; however, panelists could not detect any significant difference in tenderness of the samples.

  14. Seroprevalence of Brucella antibodies in camels in Katsina State, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salisu, U S; Kudi, C A; Bale, J O O; Babashani, M; Kaltungo, B Y; Saidu, S N A; Asambe, A; Baba, A Y

    2017-06-01

    A cross-sectional study was carried out to determine the status of Brucella infection in one-humped (Dromedary) camels in the North and Central senatorial districts of Katsina State, Nigeria. Nine hundred and eighty serum samples from live and slaughtered camels were tested. Modified Rose Bengal plate test (RBPT) and serum agglutination test (SAT) with ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid, (EDTA) were used as screening and standard tests, respectively. The prevalence of Brucella antibodies were 110 (11.2%) and 103 (10.5%) for RBPT and SAT, respectively. Of the 472 and 508 serum samples tested from the herds and abattoirs, respectively, 63 (13.3%) and 47 (9.3%) were positive by RBPT while 62 (13.1%) and 41 (8.1%) were positive by SAT, respectively. Based on the results, it was concluded that Brucella antibodies were present in camels in the study area. Poor management practices and mixing of camels with other species of livestock as well as unrestricted movement of camels were proposed to be the reasons for the prevalence of the disease in the study area. In view of the public health importance of the disease, it is recommended that there is the need to develop a strategic plan to decrease spread of brucellosis in the study area.

  15. Zygomycetes from herbivore dung in the ecological reserve of Dois Irmãos, Northeast Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Luiz Cabral Monteiro de Azevedo Santiago

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Thirty-eight taxa of Zygomycetes distributed in 15 genera were recorded from tapir (Tapirus terrestris, camel (Camelus bactrianus, horse (Equus caballus, deer (Cervus elaphus, agouti (Dasyprocta aguti, donkey (Equus asinus, llama (Llama glama and waterbuck (Kobus ellipsiprymnus dung collected at the Reserva Ecológica de Dois Irmãos located in Recife, State of Pernambuco, Northeast Brazil. The samples were collected on a monthly basis from June 2005 to May 2006, taken to the laboratory and incubated in moist chambers. Higher number of taxa was observed in the excrements of tapir, followed by deer and donkey. The highest number of species was detected for Mucor, followed by Pilobolus. Statistical analyses showed significant differences in richness of Zygomycetes taxa between the herbivore dung types. Differences of species composition, however, were weak. Seasonality influenced the Zygomycetes species composition but not its richness. Variations in taxa composition between ruminants and non-ruminants dung were non significant.

  16. Functional and technological properties of camel milk proteins: a review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hailu, Yonas; Hansen, Egon Bech; Seifu, Eyassu

    2016-01-01

    in relation to dairy processing. In addition to the technological properties, there are also implications for human nutrition and camel milk proteins are of interest for applications in infant foods, for food preservation and in functional foods. Proposed health benefits include inhibition of the angiotensin......This review summarises current knowledge on camel milk proteins, with focus on significant peculiarities in protein composition and molecular properties. Camel milk is traditionally consumed as a fresh or naturally fermented product. Within the last couple of years, an increasing quantity is being...... processed in dairy plants, and a number of consumer products have been marketed. A better understanding of the technological and functional properties, as required for product improvement, has been gained in the past years. Absence of the whey protein β-LG and a low proportion of к-casein cause differences...

  17. Production of camel-like antibodies in plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Buck, Sylvie; Virdi, Vikram; De Meyer, Thomas; De Wilde, Kirsten; Piron, Robin; Nolf, Jonah; Van Lerberge, Els; De Paepe, Annelies; Depicker, Ann

    2012-01-01

    Transgenic plants for the production of high-value recombinant complex and/or glycosylated proteins are a promising alternative for conventional systems, such as mammalian cells and bacteria. Many groups use plants as production platform for antibodies and antibody fragments. Here, we describe how bivalent camel-like antibodies can be produced in leaves and seeds. Camel-like antibodies are fusions of the antigen-binding domain of heavy chain camel antibodies (VHH) with an Fc fragment of choice. Transient expression in Nicotiana benthamiana leaves allows the production of VHH-Fc antibodies within a few days after the expression plasmid has been obtained. Generation of stable Arabidopsis thaliana transformants allows production of scalable amounts of VHH-Fc antibodies in seeds within a year. Further, we describe how the in planta-produced VHH-Fc antibodies can be quantified by Western blot analysis with Fc-specific antibodies.

  18. Evaluation of camel milk for selected processing related parameters and comparisons with cow and buffalo milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shyam P. Sagar

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Cow and buffalo milk and camel milk were analyzed and compared for processing related parameters. The average heat stability of cow, buffalo and camel milk samples analyzed was 1807.4 seconds, 1574.6 seconds and 133.6 seconds respectively at 140 °C. Thus, the heat stability of camel milk was significantly lower than the cow milk and buffalo milk. The average rennet coagulation time (RCT of cow, buffalo and camel milk was 310.6 seconds, 257.4 seconds and 604.2 seconds respectively. Thus, RCT of camel milk was significantly higher than the cow milk and buffalo milk. The camel, cow and buffalo milk samples showed negative alcohol stability. The rate of acidity was increased propositionally with time in camel milk with no curd formation and weaker body.

  19. A content analysis of Camel Snus advertisements in print media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timberlake, David S; Pechmann, Cornelia; Tran, Sarah Y; Au, Vanessa

    2011-06-01

    Researchers have questioned whether the R.J. Reynolds Tobacco Company is marketing Camel Snus as a product for nontobacco users, smokeless-tobacco users, or cigarette smokers. The objective of this study was to examine advertisements of Camel Snus in print media to determine the most likely audience of intent. A content analysis was conducted among Camel Snus advertisements printed in newspaper and consumer magazines between July 2007 and August 2010. The advertisements (n = 83 distinct; N = 458 total) were identified from a comprehensive search of a proprietary database maintained by TNS Media Intelligence. Results indicated that all advertisements, published between July 2007 and September 2009, were intended to promote a tobacco product for cigarette smokers. A shift in marketing strategy occurred from October 2009 to the present time with publication of the "Break Free" magazine advertisements, characterized by an ambiguous message that could conceivably appeal to any group, including nontobacco users (e.g., adolescents), smokeless-tobacco users, and/or cigarette smokers. However, an examination of the consumer magazines advertising Camel Snus indicated a demographically diverse readership in terms of gender, age, and education, suggesting that the advertisements are less likely to be intended for smokeless-tobacco users. These findings validate other reports and editorials, suggesting that Camel Snus was being marketed as a product for smokers at the time of the product's national debut. The recent shift to the "Break Free" marketing campaign may reflect an attempt to enhance the image of the Camel brand in order to attract a broader spectrum of consumers.

  20. Beneficial effect of camel milk in diabetic nephropathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agrawal, Rajendra Prasad; Dogra, Rutba; Mohta, Niranjana; Tiwari, Raksha; Singhal, Sushma; Sultania, Surender

    2009-08-01

    Diabetic nephropathy is originally microvascular in nature and is widely considered an important complication of diabetes. The present study was carried out to determine the efficacy of camel milk in controlling diabetic nephropathy. Twenty-four type-1 diabetic patients were randomly recruited from the outpatient diabetic clinic in PBM Hospital, Bikaner, India. All subjects gave their written consent before participation in the study. Patients with any acute metabolic complications were not included in the study. Eligible patients entered a run-in period of 1 month in which they were oriented to achieve the best possible glycemic control through standardized diet, standardized exercise regimen and insulin administration. During this period frequent monitoring of blood sugar was performed to maintain euglycemia. At the end of the run-in period, a base line evaluation was performed, then these patients were given camel milk in addition with usual care for six months. Urine microalbumin and blood sugar was measured twice a week before breakfast and dinner. There was a significant improvement in the microalbuminuria (119.48 +/- 1.68 to 22.52 +/- 2.68; p camel milk for 6 months. A significant reduction in the mean dose of insulin for obtaining glycemic control was achieved (41.61 +/- 3.08 to 28.32 +/- 2.66; p camel milk in controlling microalbuminuria levels in type-1 diabetic patients. It was observed that after adding camel milk to the usual regimen an improvement in microalbuminuria was reached (119.48 +/- 1.68 to 22.52 +/- 2.68; p camel milk. The mechanism behind this effect is still unknown.

  1. Genetically engineered Mengo virus vaccination of multiple captive wildlife species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Backues, K A; Hill, M; Palmenberg, A C; Miller, C; Soike, K F; Aguilar, R

    1999-04-01

    Encephalomyocarditis virus (EMCV), has caused the deaths of many species of animals in zoological parks and research institutions. The Audubon Park Zoo, (New Orleans, Louisiana, USA) attempted vaccination of several species with a killed EMCV vaccine with mixed results. This paper reports an attempt at vaccination against EMCV using a genetically engineered, live attenuated Mengo virus (vMC0) at the Audubon Park Zoo and Miami Metro Zoo, (Miami, Florida, USA) from December 1996 to June 1997. Several species of animals were vaccinated with vMC0, which is serologically indistinguishable from the field strain of EMCV. Serum samples were taken at the time of vaccination and again 21 days later, then submitted for serum neutralization titers against EMCV. The vaccinate species included red capped mangebey (Cercocebus torquatus), colobus (Colobus guereza), angolan colobus (Colobus angolensis), ruffed lemur (Lemur variegatus ruber and Lemur variegatus variegatus), back lemur (Lemur macaco), ring-tailed lemur (Lemur catta), siamang (Hylobates syndactylus), diana guenon (Cercopithicus diana), spider monkey (Ateles geoffroyi), common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus), talapoin monkey (Cercopithecus talapoin), Brazilian tapir (Tapirus terrestris), Baird's tapir (Tapirus bairdii), Malayan tapir (Tapirus indicus), dromedary camel (Camelus dromedarius), bactrian camel (Camelus bactrianus), gerenuk (Litocranius walleri), guanaco (Lama glama guanicoe), black duiker (Cephalophus niger), Vietnamese potbellied pig (Sus scrofa), babirusa (Babyrousa babyrussa), collard peccary (Tayass tajacu), and African crested porcupine (Hystrix africaeaustralis). The vaccine response was variable, with high virus neutralizing antibody titer responses in some primate species and mixed to poor responses for other species. No ill effects were seen with vaccination.

  2. Production systems and reproductive performances of Camelus dromedarius in Somali regional state, eastern Ethiopia

    OpenAIRE

    Simenew Keskes; Mohamed Ibrahim; Tesfaye Sisay Tessema; Berhan Tamir; Fekadu Regassa; Tesfu Kassa; Fufa Dawo

    2013-01-01

    Across-sectional questionnaire survey and focused group discussions were conducted to characterize camel production systems and to evaluate reproductive performances of camels at their natural pastoralist management systems of Somali region. A total of 100 households were included in the study during the period of October 2012 to March 2013. About 98% of Somali pastoralists preferred camels as their first choice over other livestock species and mainly kept in the society for milk and meat pro...

  3. ISOLATION AND IDENTIFICATION OF LACTIC ACID PRODUCING BACTERIA FROM CAMEL MILK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toqeer Ahmad, Rashida Kanwal, Izhar Hussain Athar1, Najam Ayub

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available Lactic acid bacteria (LAB were isolated from camel milk by culturing the camel milk on specific media and pure culture was obtained by sub culturing. Purification of culture was confirmed by Gram's staining and identified by different bio-chemical tests. Camel milk contains lactic acid producing bacteria including Strpptococci such as S. cremoris and S. lactis and Lactobacilli such as L. acidophilus L. acidophilus grows more rapidly in camel milk than others as its growth is supported by camel milk. A variety of food can be preserved by lactic acid fermentation, so starter culture was prepared from strains which were isolated from camel milk. Camel and buffalo's milk cheese was prepared by using starter culture. The strains isolated from camel milk were best for acid production and can coagulate the milk in less lime. Camel milk cheese was prepared and compared with buffalo's milk cheese. It is concluded that cheese can be prepared successfully from camel milk and better results can be obtained by coagulating milk with starter culture.

  4. Comparison of Three Techniques for Arthrocentesis of the Carpal Joint in Dromedary Camels: A Prospective Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adel M. Badawy

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this prospective study was to determine the appropriate approaches for arthrocentesis of the carpal joint in dromedary camels and to compare between these approaches with regard to their success rate, feasibility, accuracy and ease of performance. Twenty-two cadaveric camel forelimbs obtained from 11 camel cadavers, and 4 living camels (6 joints underwent arthrocentesis for therapeutic and diagnostic purposes, were used in this study. For studying gross anatomy of the suggested approaches, 4 forelimbs were used. For CT anatomy 3 forelimbs (one/each technique were scanned before and after injection of iodinated contrast medium. For in-vitro evaluation of the techniques 15 forelimbs were used (5/each technique. To test the ease of performance in the living camels, arthrocentesis of 6 joints in 4 camels was performed by a single operator while the animal sited in kneeling position (3 camels and standing position (one camel. Based on the results, there were three feasible approaches for arthrocentesis of carpal joint in camel, the dorso-medial, dorso-lateral, and the lateral approaches. The dorso-medial approach was easily performed and more accurate than the other approaches. The dorso-medial approach was successful with accuracy index of 100% after the first attempts, whilst the dorso-lateral and the lateral approaches have lower rates of success. The procedure was well tolerated in all camels.

  5. Multiple ovulation and embryo transfer (MOET in camels: An overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Binoy S. Vettical

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Unlike in other domestic animal species like cattle, reproductive biotechnologies like Artificial Insemination (AI and Embryo Transfer (ET are not well developed and thus are not being used as routine breeding procedures in camels. One of the important objectives of this manuscript is to focus on analyzing the present status of Multiple Ovulation and Embryo Transfer (MOET in camels and its future perspectives. Camels are induced ovulators, thus require hormonal treatment to induce ovulation and control the follicular cycles, which is the main reason why protocols used in other domestic animal species cannot be directly used in this species. The review suggests that the best method for super stimulation of ovaries in camels is use of a combination of Equine Chorionic Gonadotropin (eCG and Follicle Stimulating Hormone (FSH at any stage after elimination of dominant follicle if any or at the early stage of the follicular wave and ovulation of the developed multiple follicles can be achieved by mating donors. The review highlights that a better pregnancy rate is achieved with recipients who ovulate 24 h after the donor.

  6. Effect of Camel Milk's Supplementation on Serum Glucose Levels ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cases of diabetes are on the rise in almost every population and epidemiological studies suggest that without proper prevention and control measures, prevalence of the disease will continue to increase globally. The aim of the current study was to investigate the effect of camel milk supplementation on serum glucose, lipid ...

  7. Rift Valley Fever in Camels in Northern Burkina Faso | Boussini ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Recommendations for systematic RVF investigation in camels and others domestic ruminants were made in order to improve the animal productivity. Habitual consumption of raw milk and close contact with infected animals signify possible zoonotic importance of RVF in the studied area. A risk assessment of the disease ...

  8. Functional and technological properties of camel milk proteins: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hailu, Yonas; Hansen, Egon Bech; Seifu, Eyassu; Eshetu, Mitiku; Ipsen, Richard; Kappeler, Stefan

    2016-11-01

    This review summarises current knowledge on camel milk proteins, with focus on significant peculiarities in protein composition and molecular properties. Camel milk is traditionally consumed as a fresh or naturally fermented product. Within the last couple of years, an increasing quantity is being processed in dairy plants, and a number of consumer products have been marketed. A better understanding of the technological and functional properties, as required for product improvement, has been gained in the past years. Absence of the whey protein β-LG and a low proportion of к-casein cause differences in relation to dairy processing. In addition to the technological properties, there are also implications for human nutrition and camel milk proteins are of interest for applications in infant foods, for food preservation and in functional foods. Proposed health benefits include inhibition of the angiotensin converting enzyme, antimicrobial and antioxidant properties as well as an antidiabetogenic effect. Detailed investigations on foaming, gelation and solubility as well as technological consequences of processing should be investigated further for the improvement of camel milk utilisation in the near future.

  9. Physical Characteristics of Camel Muscle Compared with Three ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The experiment was conducted to examine the physical characteristics of Camel muscle compared with (Gudali, Keteku and White Fulani) cattle. Semimenbranosus muscles used were collected immediately after slaughter, trimmed off all surface fat, connective tissue and chilled for 24hours at 4°c. The meats used were ...

  10. Knowledge and practices of food hygiene and safety among camel ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The respondents showed low knowledge in answering questions regarding spoilage microorganisms and effective cleaning of containers. About 53% of women retailers used rejected/spoiled milk for household consumption. This could result in a high food safety risk. Therefore, training of actors along the camel milk value ...

  11. Prevalence of camel Trypanosomosis and its associated risk factors ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A cross-sectional study coupled with questionnaire survey was conducted to determine the prevalence of camel trypanosomosis and assess associated risk factors in Moyale district, Borena Zone, Oromia region, southern Ethiopia from November 2014 to April 2015. Blood samples were collected from randomly selected ...

  12. Investigation on papillomavirus infection in dromedary camels in Al ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We investigated two outbreaks of papillomatosis between 2013 and 2015 in Al Ahsa region of eastern Saudi Arabia involving fourteen dromedary camels. The disease affected both young and adult animals and occurred in coincidence with demodectic mange infestation. Diagnosis was made based on gross and ...

  13. Protective effect of camel milk as anti-diabetic supplement ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... alteration in fats and carbohydrates metabolism. Recently there are some scientific trends about the usage of camel milk (CM) in the treatment of diabetes and its associated alterations. CM contains vital active particles with insulin like action that cure diabetes and its complications but how these effects occur, still unclear.

  14. Lymph node hemangioma in one-humped camel | Aljameel | Open ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hemangioma is a benign tumor of blood and lymphatic vessels. It is common in skin, mucosa and soft tissues, and its occurrence in lymph nodes is extremely rare. A 10 year-old she-camel was slaughtered at Nyala slaughterhouse, South Darfur State, Sudan. Grossly, the carcass was emaciated. The left ventral superficial ...

  15. Biochemical changes occurring during fermentation of camel milk by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The biochemical changes in amino acids, water soluble vitamins, soluble sugars and organic acids occurring during fermentation (at 43°C for 6 h) of camel milk inoculated with Streptococcus thermophilus 37, Lactobacillus delbrueckii sub sp. bulgaricus CH2, Lactococcus lactis, Lactobacillus acidophilus and mixed yogurt ...

  16. Biochemical changes occurring during fermentation of camel milk by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hope&shola

    2010-10-25

    Oct 25, 2010 ... The biochemical changes in amino acids, water soluble vitamins, soluble sugars and organic acids occurring during fermentation (at 43°C for 6 h) of camel milk inoculated with Streptococcus thermophilus 37, Lactobacillus delbrueckii sub sp. bulgaricus CH2, Lactococcus lactis, Lactobacillus acidophilus ...

  17. Pesticide Residues in Beef and Camel Meat From Slaughterhouses ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    One hundred and fifty one beef (n=136) and camel (n=15) meat samples comprising mainly of adipose tissue were collected from animals slaughtered in 13 districts in Kenya for analysis of organophosphate and organochlorine pesticide residues. Gas chromatographic method (GLC) and ECD and FID was used for ...

  18. MERS coronavirus in dromedary camel herd, Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemida, Maged G; Chu, Daniel K W; Poon, Leo L M; Perera, Ranawaka A P M; Alhammadi, Mohammad A; Ng, Hoi-Yee; Siu, Lewis Y; Guan, Yi; Alnaeem, Abdelmohsen; Peiris, Malik

    2014-07-01

    A prospective study of a dromedary camel herd during the 2013-14 calving season showed Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus infection of calves and adults. Virus was isolated from the nose and feces but more frequently from the nose. Preexisting neutralizing antibody did not appear to protect against infection.

  19. Prevalence of Camel Trypanosomosis at Selected Districts of Bale ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Across-sectional study was conducted from November 2013 to March 2014 at selected districts of Bale zone, Oromia Regional States of Ethiopia to determine the prevalence of camel trypanosmosis and assess associated potential risk factors. Simple random sampling technique was used and the study animals were ...

  20. Analysis on the contributions of and constraints to camel production in Shinile and Jijiga zones, eastern Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eyassu Seifu

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Contributions of the dromedary camel and constraints to camel production in Jijiga and Shinile zones of eastern Ethiopia were assessed. A total of 73 households were interviewed on the significance of the dromedary camel and constraints associated to camel production in the area using a single-visit-multiple-subject diagnostic survey. All the households interviewed owned camels and milk production was the primary reason for keeping camels in the area. The major contributions rendered by dromedary camels in the study area were milk production and transportation, while the major constraints associated with camel production in the area were feed shortage and prevalence of disease. Camels in these areas feed mainly on poor-quality natural vegetation. Cactus and acacia were the dominant plant species consumed by camels in the area. Camels were not given supplementary feed except salt and/or mineral soil. Dromedary camels play an important role to the livelihood and survival of nomadic pastoralists in the study areas. Thus, development interventions aimed at improving the productivity of camels in the study areas should take into account the major socio-economic contributions of camels and the prevailing problems in the area.

  1. Arthroscopy of the fetlock joint of the dromedary camel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, M M; Abd-Elnaeim, M

    2012-01-01

    To describe a technique for arthroscopy of the fetlock joint of the dromedary camel, and the problems that could occur during and after arthroscopy. Seven animals (4 cadaveric limbs and 3 living camels) were used in this study. Two dorsal arthroscopic portals (lateral and medial) and one palmaro-lateral portal were used. Distension of the joint capsule was effected by injecting Ringer´s lactate solution into the joint cavity. Landmarks for the dorsal arthroscopic portals were located at the centre of the groove bounded by the lateral branch of the suspensory ligament and the large metacarpus at a point 1 cm proximal to the joint. The palmaro-lateral portal was located in a triangular area between the branch of the suspensory ligament, the large metacarpus, and the sesamoid bone, with insertion of the arthroscope in a 45° joint flexion angle. Arthroscopy of the fetlock joint via the dorso-lateral portal allowed examination of the distal end of the large metacarpus and the proximal end of the first phalanx of the fourth digit. Arthroscopy via a dorso-medial approach allowed examination of the distal end of the large metacarpus and the proximal end of the first phalanx and the distal end of the third digit. The palmaro-lateral portal allowed examination of the sesamoid bones, the synovial membrane, and the synovial villi. The main complications recorded during arthroscopy were iatrogenic articular surface injury as well as obstruction of vision with the synovial villi. This is the first work to describe the normal arthroscopy of the fetlock joint in the dromedary camel, the arthroscopic portals, and the complications that could occur during and after arthroscopy. Further studies are required for diagnosis of pathological changes in the fetlock joint of the dromedary camel and for arthroscopy of other joints in the dromedary camel.

  2. A review on camel brucellosis: a zoonosis sustained by ignorance and indifference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sprague, Lisa D; Al-Dahouk, Sascha; Neubauer, Heinrich

    2012-07-01

    In many developing countries of Asia and Africa, camels are one of the most important sources of income for the nomadic population. With increasing urbanization, camel milk and meat have gained a wider market and commercialization and consumption of camel products are on the rise. Camel brucellosis can be encountered in all camel rearing countries with exception of Australia. High animal and herd prevalences have been reported from numerous countries, which not only pose a continuous risk for human infection, but also increase the spread of infection through uncontrolled trade of clinically inconspicuous animals. This short review aims at providing an overview on diagnostic investigations, as well as the public health and economic impact of brucellosis in old world camels.

  3. A review on camel brucellosis: a zoonosis sustained by ignorance and indifference

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sprague, Lisa D; Al-Dahouk, Sascha; Neubauer, Heinrich

    2012-01-01

    In many developing countries of Asia and Africa, camels are one of the most important sources of income for the nomadic population. With increasing urbanization, camel milk and meat have gained a wider market and commercialization and consumption of camel products are on the rise. Camel brucellosis can be encountered in all camel rearing countries with exception of Australia. High animal and herd prevalences have been reported from numerous countries, which not only pose a continuous risk for human infection, but also increase the spread of infection through uncontrolled trade of clinically inconspicuous animals. This short review aims at providing an overview on diagnostic investigations, as well as the public health and economic impact of brucellosis in old world camels. PMID:23265371

  4. Study on mange mite of camel in Raya-Azebo district, northern Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nesibu Awo

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available A cross-sectional study was carried out to determine the prevalence and species of camel mange mite infestation in Raya-Azebo district, Northern part of Ethiopia. Accordingly, Three hundred and eighty-four camels were examined and mange mite infestation was detected on 64 of camels. Only Sarcoptes scabiei var. cameli was identified as the only mite species in all skin scraping samples collected from the suspected mange mite lesions. There was significant difference in the prevalence of mange mite infestation between male and female camels (p 0.05. The result indicated that camel mange mite infestation was a problem in northern part of Ethiopia, hence, further studies and strategic control measures are recommended to reduce the effect of mange mite infestation on camel husbandry.

  5. Human and Dromedary Camel Infection with Camelpox Virus in Eastern Sudan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalafalla, Abdelmalik I; Abdelazim, Fatima

    2017-04-01

    We provide evidence for the zoonotic nature of camelpox virus by reporting infections that involved dromedary camels and three camel herders in Showak area of eastern Sudan between September and December 2014. The skin lesions in the camel herders consisted of erythema, vesicles, and pustules that involved arms, hands, legs, back, and abdomen and resolved within less than 2 months with no human-to-human transmission. The diagnosis was achieved through molecular technique, virus isolation in cell culture, and partial genome sequencing.

  6. Evaluation of anticonvulsant and neuroprotective effects of camel milk in strychnine-induced seizure model

    OpenAIRE

    Humera Khatoon; Rahila Najam; Talat Mirza; Bushra Sikandar; Humera Ishaq; Humera Anser

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To discover the use of camel milk as an alternate medicine for the treatment and prevention of convulsions using strychnine-induced seizure model. Methods: Thirty animals were divided into three equal groups. Group I was on distilled water, Group II was on camel milk for 15 days prior to experiment and Group III was on reference drug diazepam. On the day of experiment, strychnine was administered in all treatment groups after distilled water, camel milk and diazepam ...

  7. The prevalence of Linguatula serrata nymphs in camels slaughtered in Mashhad slaughterhouse, Northeast, Iran

    OpenAIRE

    NOUROLLAHI FARD, Saeid R; Nima Ghalekhani; Reza Kheirandish; Saeid Fathi; Ehsan Norouzi Asl

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the prevalence of nymphal stages of L. serrata in mesenteric lymph nodes of camels slaughtered in Mashhad slaughterhouse, Northeast of Iran. Methods: For this purpose, mesenteric lymph nodes of 400 camels of different sex and age were examined. The lymph nodes were examined macroscopically and a digestion method was also applied for investigation of samples which was negative macroscopically. Results: The mesenteric lymph nodes of 73 camels out of 400 (18.25%) wer...

  8. Dromedaries (Camelus dromedarius) are of Low Susceptibility to Inoculation with Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus Serotype O

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alexandersen, Søren; Wernery, U.; Nagy, P.

    2008-01-01

    Two sheep and five dromedaries were inoculated with a highdose of a cattle-passaged type O strain of foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV). The sheep developed typical FMD. The inoculated camels, which were placed in contact with five further dromedaries and four sheep, showed no visible sign...... the contact-exposed camels and sheep and two of the inoculated camels were serologically negative for FMD when tested up to day 28. In contrast, the camel with viraemia became serologically positive front day 14, and the other two inoculated camels (which had been exposed to FMDV in an earlier experiment......) became serologically positive from day 10. The experiment suggested that dromedaries (1) are of low susceptibility to FMDV serotype O, (2) do not transmit infection, even by close contact, and (3) are Unlikely to play a significant epidemiological role in FMD....

  9. Evaluation of CAMEL - comprehensive areal model of earthquake-induced landslides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miles, S.B.; Keefer, D.K.

    2009-01-01

    A new comprehensive areal model of earthquake-induced landslides (CAMEL) has been developed to assist in planning decisions related to disaster risk reduction. CAMEL provides an integrated framework for modeling all types of earthquake-induced landslides using fuzzy logic systems and geographic information systems. CAMEL is designed to facilitate quantitative and qualitative representation of terrain conditions and knowledge about these conditions on the likely areal concentration of each landslide type. CAMEL has been empirically evaluated with respect to disrupted landslides (Category I) using a case study of the 1989 M = 6.9 Loma Prieta, CA earthquake. In this case, CAMEL performs best in comparison to disrupted slides and falls in soil. For disrupted rock fall and slides, CAMEL's performance was slightly poorer. The model predicted a low occurrence of rock avalanches, when none in fact occurred. A similar comparison with the Loma Prieta case study was also conducted using a simplified Newmark displacement model. The area under the curve method of evaluation was used in order to draw comparisons between both models, revealing improved performance with CAMEL. CAMEL should not however be viewed as a strict alternative to Newmark displacement models. CAMEL can be used to integrate Newmark displacements with other, previously incompatible, types of knowledge. ?? 2008 Elsevier B.V.

  10. Evaluation of camel milk for selected processing related parameters and comparisons with cow and buffalo milk

    OpenAIRE

    Sagar, Shyam P.; Mehta, Bhavbhuti M.; K. N. Wadhwani; Darji, V. B.; Aparnathi, K. D.

    2016-01-01

    Cow and buffalo milk and camel milk were analyzed and compared for processing related parameters. The average heat stability of cow, buffalo and camel milk samples analyzed was 1807.4 seconds, 1574.6 seconds and 133.6 seconds respectively at 140 °C. Thus, the heat stability of camel milk was significantly lower than the cow milk and buffalo milk. The average rennet coagulation time (RCT) of cow, buffalo and camel milk was 310.6 seconds, 257.4 seconds and 604.2 seconds respectively. Thus, RCT ...

  11. Effect of cooking temperatures on characteristics and microstructure of camel meat emulsion sausages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamed, Hussein Mh; Emara, Mohamed Mt; Nouman, Taha M

    2016-07-01

    The camel is an excellent source of high quality meat and camel meat might be a potential alternative for beef. This study aimed to manipulate the raw camel meat for the production of stable and acceptable emulsion sausage, as well as to study the effect of cooking at different core temperatures on the tenderness, sensory quality and microstructure of produced sausage. Increasing the cooking temperature of sausages resulted in reduction of the shear force values from 2.67 kgf after cooking at 85 °C to 1.57 kgf after cooking at 105 °C. The sensory scores of sausages have been improved by increasing the cooking core temperature of meat batter. The light and scanning electron microscope micrographs revealed solubilisation of the high quantity of connective tissue of camel meat. High emulsion stability values for the camel meat batter associated with high values of water-holding capacity for raw camel meat and meat batter have been recorded. Stable and acceptable camel meat emulsion can be developed from camel meat. Increasing the cooking core temperature of meat batter improved the quality of produced sausages. Therefore, camel meat emulsion sausages might be a potential alternative for beef particularly in Asian and African countries. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  12. Physico-chemical quality of Bactrian camel milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O Gansaikhan

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Present study was carried out to investigate the quality of camel milk. A wide variation was observed in the quality of raw camel milk. Specific gravity ranged between 1.014 and 1.017 (1.015±0.001, pH 6.53 and 6.77. Total solids, fat, protein, casein, lactose, ash and minerals contents ranged between 14.23 and 12.13, 5.56 and 8.29, 1.8 and 5.0, 1.8 and 3.2, 0.78 and 2.76, 2.9 and 4.12, 0.85 to 1.00 0.20 and 0.28 g per 100 g, respectively.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5564/mjc.v12i0.171 Mongolian Journal of Chemistry Vol.12 2011: 50-52

  13. Structure and Function of Bovine and Camel Chymosin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jesper Langholm

    The central step in cheese making is the separation of milk into curd and whey. This can be done enzymatically by hydrolysis of the Phe105-Met106 bond or nearby bonds in bovine κ-casein, which releases its hydrophilic C-terminal leading to coagulation of the milk. The preferred enzyme...... for this action is bovine chymosin from the calf's stomach, as it has a high activity towards the Phe105-Met106 bond, and a low activity towards other bonds in the milk proteins, as the latter can lead to loss of protein in the whey and release of peptides with a bitter taste. Chymosin was isolated from camel...... and characterised, and turned out to have an even higher activity and specificity towards the Phe105-Met106 bond than bovine chymosin. The sequences of bovine and camel chymosin are 85% identical, and yet they have significantly different cheese making properties. The aim of the project was to explain...

  14. The sejugal furrow in camel spiders and acariform mites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dunlop, Jason A.

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Camel spiders (Arachnida: Solifugae are one of the arachnid groups characterised by a prosomal dorsal shield composed of three distinct elements: the pro-, meso- and metapeltidium. These are associated respectively with prosomal appendages one to four, five, and six. What is less well known, although noted in the historical literature, is that the coxae of the 4th and 5th prosomal segments (i.e. walking legs 2 and 3 of camel spiders are also separated ventrally by a distinct membranous region, which is absent between the coxae of the other legs. We suggest that this essentially ventral division of the prosoma specifically between coxae 2 and 3 is homologous with the so-called sejugal furrow (the sejugal interval sensu van der Hammen. This division constitutes a fundamental part of the body plan in acariform mites (Arachnida: Acariformes. If homologous, this sejugal furrow could represent a further potential synapomorphy for (Solifugae + Acariformes; a relationship with increasing morphological and molecular support. Alternatively, outgroup comparison with sea spiders (Pycnogonida and certain early Palaeozoic fossils could imply that the sejugal furrow defines an older tagma, derived from a more basal grade of organisation. In this scenario the (still divided prosoma of acariform mites and camel spiders would be plesiomorphic. This interpretation challenges the textbook arachnid character of a peltidium (or ‘carapace’ covering an undivided prosoma.

  15. Proteomics of old world camelid (Camelus dromedarius: Better understanding the interplay between homeostasis and desert environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamad Warda

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Life is the interplay between structural–functional integrity of biological systems and the influence of the external environment. To understand this interplay, it is useful to examine an animal model that competes with harsh environment. The dromedary camel is the best model that thrives under severe environment with considerable durability. The current proteomic study on dromedary organs explains a number of cellular mysteries providing functional correlates to arid living. Proteome profiling of camel organs suggests a marked increased expression of various cytoskeleton proteins that promote intracellular trafficking and communication. The comparative overexpression of α-actinin of dromedary heart when compared with rat heart suggests an adaptive peculiarity to sustain hemoconcentration–hemodilution episodes associated with alternative drought-rehydration periods. Moreover, increased expression of the small heat shock protein, α B-crystallin facilitates protein folding and cellular regenerative capacity in dromedary heart. The observed unbalanced expression of different energy related dependent mitochondrial enzymes suggests the possibility of mitochondrial uncoupling in the heart in this species. The evidence of increased expression of H+-ATPase subunit in camel brain guarantees a rapidly usable energy supply. Interestingly, the guanidinoacetate methyltransferase in camel liver has a renovation effect on high energy phosphate with possible concomitant intercession of ion homeostasis. Surprisingly, both hump fat tissue and kidney proteomes share the altered physical distribution of proteins that favor cellular acidosis. Furthermore, the study suggests a vibrant nature for adipose tissue of camel hump by the up-regulation of vimentin in adipocytes, augmenting lipoprotein translocation, blood glucose trapping, and challenging external physical extra-stress. The results obtained provide new evidence of homeostasis in the arid habitat

  16. Hybridizing Old and New World camelids: Camelus dromedarius x Lama guanicoe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skidmore, J A; Billah, M; Binns, M; Short, R V; Allen, W R

    1999-01-01

    Thirty female dromedary camels were inseminated on a total of 50 occasions with 2-4 ml of fresh guanaco semen diluted with an equal volume of commercially available camel semen extender. Similarly, nine female guanacos were inseminated on 34 occasions with 4-6 ml of fresh, diluted camel semen. Only two of the dromedary females conceived; one aborted a female foetus on day 260 of gestation and the other gave birth to a stillborn female calf on day 365. Six conceptions occurred in the female guanacos. Two of these conceptuses, diagnosed by ultrasound, were resorbed between days 25 and 40 of gestation, one female foetus was aborted on day 291, another female foetus was aborted on day 302, and one female calf was stillborn on day 365 of gestation. The sixth foetus, a male, was born prematurely but alive after a 328-day gestation. It had a phenotypic appearance intermediate between that of a camel and a guanaco and its hybrid parentage was confirmed by the DNA fingerprinting of eight llama microsatellites. To our knowledge, this is the first viable hybrid ever to be produced between Old World and New World camelids, which have been reproductively isolated from one another for at least 11 million years. The preponderance of female hybrids is in accordance with Haldane's law. Histological examination of their ovaries revealed a failure of meiosis, with only an occasional abnormal oocyte surrounded by follicle cells. Although the diploid chromosone number of camels and guanacos is the same (2n = 74), sufficient genetic change has taken place to make the pairing of homologous chromosomes no longer possible. PMID:10331286

  17. Effect of gamma irradiation on microbial load and quality characteristics of minced camel meat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Bachir, M; Zeinou, R

    2009-05-01

    The effect of gamma irradiation on microbial load, chemical and sensory characteristics of camel meat has been evaluated. Camel meat was irradiated at doses of 0, 2, 4 and 6kGy of gamma irradiation. Irradiated and non-irradiated meat was kept in a refrigerator (1-4°C). General composition and sensory evaluation of camel meat was done two days after irradiation, whereas, microbiological and chemical analysis was done immediately after irradiation and throughout the storage periods. The results indicated that all doses of gamma irradiation reduced the total mesophilic aerobic plate counts (TPCs) and total coliforms of camel meat. Thus, the microbiological shelf-life of camel meat was significantly extended from less than 2weeks (control) to more than 6weeks (samples irradiated with 2, 4 or 6kGy). No significant differences in moisture, protein, fat, thiobarbituric acid (TBA) values, total acidity and fatty acids of camel meat were observed due to irradiation. There were slight effects of gamma irradiation in both total volatile basic nitrogen (VBN) and lipid oxidation values in camel meat. Sensory evaluation showed no significant differences between irradiated and non-irradiated camel meats.

  18. Potential Health Benefits and Metabolomics of Camel Milk by GC-MS and ICP-MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahamad, Syed Rizwan; Raish, Mohammad; Ahmad, Ajaz; Shakeel, Faiyaz

    2017-02-01

    None of the research reports reveals the metabolomics and elemental studies on camel milk. Recent studies showed that camel milk possesses anticancer and anti-inflammatory activity. Metabolomics and elemental studies were carried out in camel milk which showed us the pathways and composition that are responsible for the key biological role of camel milk. Camel milk was dissolved in methanol and chloroform fraction and then vortexed and centrifuged. Both the fractions were derivatized by N,O-bis-(trimethylsilyl)trifluoroacetamide (BSTFA) and TMCS after nitrogen purging and analyzed by GC-MS. Camel milk was also analyzed by ICP-MS after microwave digestion. We found that higher alkanes and fatty acids are present in the chloroform fraction and amino acids, sugars and fatty acid derivatives are present in aqueous fractions. All the heavy metals like As, Pb, Cd, Co, Cu, and Ni were in the safe limits in terms of maximum daily intake of these elements. Na, K, Mg, and Ca were also present in the safe limits in terms of maximum daily intake of these elements. These results suggested that the camel milk drinking is safe and there is no health hazard. The present data of GC-MS and ICP-MS correlate the activities related to camel milk.

  19. The dromedary camel; a review on the aspects of history, physical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The fast developing sport of camel racing has the potential of becoming an industry that will further enrich the economy and promote tourism in some Arab countries. The camel is also known to be susceptible to diseases like antrax, surra, helminthosis, salmonellosis, brucellosis, tuberculosis, pasturellosis, paratuberculosis, ...

  20. Seroprevalence of Chlamydia abortus in camel in the western region of Libya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rabia Elzlitne

    2016-06-01

    Conclusion: The present findings signify the C. abortus as a potential agent to cause abortion in Libyan camel (C. dromedarius. Besides, the persons who handle camels in Libya are at risk of infecting with C. abortus. [J Adv Vet Anim Res 2016; 3(2.000: 178-183

  1. Human Infection with MERS coronavirus after exposure to infected camels, Saudi Arabia, 2013

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Memish, Ziad A.; Cotten, Matthew; Meyer, Benjamin; Watson, Simon J.; Alsahafi, Abdullah J.; Al Rabeeah, Abdullah A.; Corman, Victor Max; Sieberg, Andrea; Makhdoom, Hatem Q.; Assiri, Abdullah; Al Masri, Malaki; Aldabbagh, Souhaib; Bosch, Berend Jan|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/273306049; Beer, Martin; Müller, Marcel A.; Kellam, Paul; Drosten, Christian

    2014-01-01

    We investigated a case of human infection with Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) after exposure to infected camels. Analysis of the whole human-derived virus and 15% of the camel-derived virus sequence yielded nucleotide polymorphism signatures suggestive of cross-species

  2. Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus infection in dromedary camels in Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alagaili, Abdulaziz N; Briese, Thomas; Mishra, Nischay; Kapoor, Vishal; Sameroff, Stephen C; Burbelo, Peter D; de Wit, Emmie; Munster, Vincent J; Hensley, Lisa E; Zalmout, Iyad S; Kapoor, Amit; Epstein, Jonathan H; Karesh, William B; Daszak, Peter; Mohammed, Osama B; Lipkin, W Ian

    2014-02-25

    The Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS) is proposed to be a zoonotic disease; however, the reservoir and mechanism for transmission of the causative agent, the MERS coronavirus, are unknown. Dromedary camels have been implicated through reports that some victims have been exposed to camels, camels in areas where the disease has emerged have antibodies to the virus, and viral sequences have been recovered from camels in association with outbreaks of the disease among humans. Nonetheless, whether camels mediate transmission to humans is unresolved. Here we provide evidence from a geographic and temporal survey of camels in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia that MERS coronaviruses have been circulating in camels since at least 1992, are distributed countrywide, and can be phylogenetically classified into clades that correlate with outbreaks of the disease among humans. We found no evidence of infection in domestic sheep or domestic goats. IMPORTANCE This study was undertaken to determine the historical and current prevalence of Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS) coronavirus infection in dromedary camels and other livestock in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, where the index case and the majority of cases of MERS have been reported.

  3. Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus in dromedary camels: An outbreak investigation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    B.L. Haagmans (Bart); S.H.S. Al Dhahiry (Said); C.B.E.M. Reusken (Chantal); V.S. Raj (Stalin); M. Galiano (Monica); R.H. Myers (Richard); G-J. Godeke (Gert-Jan); M. Jonges (Marcel); E. Farag (Elmoubasher); A. Diab (Ayman); H. Ghobashy (Hazem); F. Alhajri (Farhoud); M. Al-Thani (Mohamed); S.A. Al-Marri (Salih); H.E. Al Romaihi (Hamad); A. Al Khal (Abdullatif); A. Bermingham (Alison); A.D.M.E. Osterhaus (Albert); M.M. AlHajri (Mohd); M.P.G. Koopmans D.V.M. (Marion)

    2014-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) causes severe lower respiratory tract infection in people. Previous studies suggested dromedary camels were a reservoir for this virus. We tested for the presence of MERS-CoV in dromedary camels from a farm in Qatar

  4. Camel and bovine chymosin: the relationship between their structures and cheese-making properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Langholm Jensen, Jesper [University of Copenhagen, (Denmark); Chr. Hansen A/S, Bøge Allé 10-12, DK-2970 Hørsholm (Denmark); Mølgaard, Anne; Navarro Poulsen, Jens-Christian [University of Copenhagen, (Denmark); Harboe, Marianne Kirsten [Chr. Hansen A/S, Bøge Allé 10-12, DK-2970 Hørsholm (Denmark); Simonsen, Jens Bæk [University of Copenhagen, (Denmark); Lorentzen, Andrea Maria; Hjernø, Karin [University of Southern Denmark, (Denmark); Brink, Johannes M. van den; Qvist, Karsten Bruun [Chr. Hansen A/S, Bøge Allé 10-12, DK-2970 Hørsholm (Denmark); Larsen, Sine, E-mail: sine@chem.ku.dk [University of Copenhagen, (Denmark)

    2013-05-01

    Analysis of the crystal structures of the two milk-clotting enzymes bovine and camel chymosin has revealed that the better milk-clotting activity towards bovine milk of camel chymosin compared with bovine chymosin is related to variations in their surface charges and their substrate-binding clefts. Bovine and camel chymosin are aspartic peptidases that are used industrially in cheese production. They cleave the Phe105-Met106 bond of the milk protein κ-casein, releasing its predominantly negatively charged C-terminus, which leads to the separation of the milk into curds and whey. Despite having 85% sequence identity, camel chymosin shows a 70% higher milk-clotting activity than bovine chymosin towards bovine milk. The activities, structures, thermal stabilities and glycosylation patterns of bovine and camel chymosin obtained by fermentation in Aspergillus niger have been examined. Different variants of the enzymes were isolated by hydrophobic interaction chromatography and showed variations in their glycosylation, N-terminal sequences and activities. Glycosylation at Asn291 and the loss of the first three residues of camel chymosin significantly decreased its activity. Thermal differential scanning calorimetry revealed a slightly higher thermal stability of camel chymosin compared with bovine chymosin. The crystal structure of a doubly glycosylated variant of camel chymosin was determined at a resolution of 1.6 Å and the crystal structure of unglycosylated bovine chymosin was redetermined at a slightly higher resolution (1.8 Å) than previously determined structures. Camel and bovine chymosin share the same overall fold, except for the antiparallel central β-sheet that connects the N-terminal and C-terminal domains. In bovine chymosin the N-terminus forms one of the strands which is lacking in camel chymosin. This difference leads to an increase in the flexibility of the relative orientation of the two domains in the camel enzyme. Variations in the amino acids

  5. The prevalence of Linguatula serrata nymphs in camels slaughtered in Mashhad slaughterhouse, Northeast, Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fard, Saeid R. Nourollahi; Ghalekhani, Nima; Kheirandish, Reza; Fathi, Saeid; Asl, Ehsan Norouzi

    2012-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the prevalence of nymphal stages of L. serrata in mesenteric lymph nodes of camels slaughtered in Mashhad slaughterhouse, Northeast of Iran. Methods For this purpose, mesenteric lymph nodes of 400 camels of different sex and age were examined. The lymph nodes were examined macroscopically and a digestion method was also applied for investigation of samples which was negative macroscopically. Results The mesenteric lymph nodes of 73 camels out of 400 (18.25%) were infected by L. serrata nymphs. Conclusions Prevalence of L. serrata nymphs in males and females and different age was not significantly different (P>0.05), but difference was observed between the prevalence in different seasons (P< 0.05). The potential importance of these findings to human health is discussed. This is the first report of infection with L. serrate of camels in camels slaughtered at northeast of Iran. PMID:23569865

  6. Camel Milk as a Potential Therapy as an Antioxidant in Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laila Y. AL-Ayadhi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Extensive studies have demonstrated that oxidative stress plays a vital role in the pathology of several neurological diseases, including autism spectrum disorder (ASD; those studies proposed that GSH and antioxidant enzymes have a pathophysiological role in autism. Furthermore, camel milk has emerged to have potential therapeutic effects in autism. The aim of the current study was to evaluate the effect of camel milk consumption on oxidative stress biomarkers in autistic children, by measuring the plasma levels of glutathione, superoxide dismutase, and myeloperoxidase before and 2 weeks after camel milk consumption, using the ELISA technique. All measured parameters exhibited significant increase after camel milk consumption (. These findings suggest that camel milk could play an important role in decreasing oxidative stress by alteration of antioxidant enzymes and nonenzymatic antioxidant molecules levels, as well as the improvement of autistic behaviour as demonstrated by the improved Childhood Autism Rating Scale (CARS.

  7. The endogenous GABA bioactivity of camel, bovine, goat and human milks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limon, Agenor; Gallegos-Perez, Jose-Luis; Reyes-Ruiz, Jorge M; Aljohi, Mohammad A; Alshanqeeti, Ali S; Miledi, Ricardo

    2014-02-15

    GABA orally administered has several beneficial effects on health, including the regulation of hyperglycaemic states in humans. Those effects are similar to the effects reported for camel milk (CMk); however, it is not known whether compounds with GABAergic activity are present in milk from camels or other species. We determined CMk free-GABA concentration by LS/MS and its bioactivity on human GABA receptors. We found that camel and goat milks have significantly more bioavailable GABA than cow and human milks and are able to activate GABAρ receptors. The relationship between GABA and taurine concentrations suggests that whole camel milk may be more efficient to activate GABAρ1 receptors than goat milk. Because GABAρ receptors are normally found in enteroendocrine cells in the lumen of the digestive tract, these results suggest that GABA in camel and goat milk may participate in GABA-modulated functions of enteroendocrine cells in the GI lumen. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Camel milk-associated infection risk perception and knowledge in French Hajj pilgrims.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gautret, Philippe; Benkouiten, Samir; Gaillard, Catherine; Parola, Philippe; Brouqui, Philippe

    2013-06-01

    Cases of brucellosis have been recently reported in Hajj pilgrims following camel milk consumption. With the aim of evaluating French pilgrim's potential risk for raw camel milk-associated diseases, we conducted a knowledge, attitude, and practice study among 331 pilgrims departing to the 2011 Hajj. A proportion of 8.2% have drunk camel milk before, mostly in North Africa (62.9%) and Saudi Arabia (18.5%). A proportion of 13.9% declared they knew that drinking raw camel milk could cause diseases and 40.6% said that they would drink it if offered during the pilgrimage. Given that camel milk consumption in the Middle East is associated with several zoonotic infections in man, we recommend that Hajj pilgrims be cautioned against consuming unpasteurized dairy products.

  9. Influence of camel milk on the hepatitis C virus burden of infected patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Fakharany, Esmail Mohamad; El-Baky, Nawal Abd; Linjawi, Mustafa Hassan; Aljaddawi, Abdullah Abdelhafiz; Saleem, Tahya Hussein; Nassar, Ahmed Yassine; Osman, Ashraf; Redwan, Elrashdy Moustafa

    2017-01-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection represents a world health problem and no protective vaccine or effective drug currently exists. For economic reasons, many patients use traditional medicines to control the infection. In Egypt, camel milk is one of the traditional medicines widely consumed by patients infected with HCV. The present study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of camel milk in the treatment of patients infected with HCV. Whole camel milk from a local farm was administered to patients for 4 months (250 ml/day/patient). Patient sera were collected prior to and following camel milk drinking, and three markers were set-up for sera-evaluation. The three markers indicating the effect of camel milk on HCV infection were: Liver function assays [alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST)]; a viral load assay; and anti-HCV antibodies profile and isotyping against synthetic HCV epitopes. Camel milk demonstrated the ability to improve general fatigue, health and liver function (ALT and AST levels); ALT was reduced in ~88% of patients and AST was reduced in all patients subsequent to drinking camel milk for four months. The majority of patients responded positively to camel milk treatment; RNA viral load decreased in 13 out of the 17 patients (76.47%) and one patient exhibited undetected viremia following camel milk treatment. The anti-HCV antibodies profile and isotyping were significantly decreased (Pcamel milk. In conclusion, whole camel milk treatment demonstrated efficacy in vivo; the viral load in the majority of patient sera was reduced and the IgG isotype profile was converted to Th1 immunity. PMID:28413471

  10. Development and evaluation of a simple and effective real time PCR assay for mitochondrial quantification in racing camels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soman, Soja Saghar; Tinson, Alex

    2016-10-01

    Camel racing is a popular sport in the Middle East region, where the demand is high for racing camels with higher stamina and endurance. Devising a technique to measure oxidative capacity and endurance in camels should be useful. Mitochondria are highly specialized organelles involved in metabolism in all higher organisms for sustaining life and providing energy for physical functions. The ratio of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) to nuclear DNA (nDNA) is often used as an estimate for the metabolic status of the tissue. A greater quantity of mitochondria per unit of tissue translates into greater oxidative capacity and endurance. In this report, we describe a simple, sensitive and efficient real-time PCR assay for the quantification of blood mitochondria in racing camels. The primer sequences selected for the SYBR green-based PCR assay included mitochondrial D-loop region, mitochondrial ATP6ase gene and the nuclear β-actin gene. The assay was validated using two groups of camels comprising racing and dairy camels. The racing camels demonstrated a higher mtDNA/nDNA ratio compared with dairy camels based on the ΔΔCt values, with a higher variability among racing camels. The mean ΔΔCt values of adult and young racing camels did not vary considerably. The findings show that the present assay can be used as an evaluative tool for racing camels. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Could Dromedary Camels Develop Stereotypy? The First Description of Stereotypical Behaviour in Housed Male Dromedary Camels and How It Is Affected by Different Management Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padalino, Barbara; Aubé, Lydiane; Fatnassi, Meriem; Monaco, Davide; Khorchani, Touhami; Hammadi, Mohamed; Lacalandra, Giovanni Michele

    2014-01-01

    Dromedary camel husbandry has recently been evolving towards a semi-intensive system, due to the changes in use of the animal and the settlement of nomadic populations. Captivity could restrict its social activities, limiting the expression of various behavioural needs and causing the manifestation of stereotypy. The aims of this trial were, firstly, to identify and describe some stereotypical behaviours in captive male dromedary camels used for artificial insemination and, secondly, to study the effects on them of the following husbandry management systems: i) housing in single boxes for 24 hours (H24), ii) housing in single boxes for 23 hours with one hour free in the paddock (H23), and iii) housing in single boxes for 22 hours 30 min with 1 h of paddock time and 30 min exposure to a female camel herd (ExF). Every day, the camels were filmed in their single box in the morning for 30 minutes to record their behavioural activities and a focal animal sampling ethogram was filled in. In this study, male camels showed both oral and locomotor stereotypy most frequently when the bulls were reared in H24. Overall, this preliminary study is a starting point in the identification of stereotypies in male camels, reporting the positive effects of spending one hour outdoor and of social interaction with females. PMID:24586522

  12. Could dromedary camels develop stereotypy? The first description of stereotypical behaviour in housed male dromedary camels and how it is affected by different management systems.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Padalino

    Full Text Available Dromedary camel husbandry has recently been evolving towards a semi-intensive system, due to the changes in use of the animal and the settlement of nomadic populations. Captivity could restrict its social activities, limiting the expression of various behavioural needs and causing the manifestation of stereotypy. The aims of this trial were, firstly, to identify and describe some stereotypical behaviours in captive male dromedary camels used for artificial insemination and, secondly, to study the effects on them of the following husbandry management systems: i housing in single boxes for 24 hours (H24, ii housing in single boxes for 23 hours with one hour free in the paddock (H23, and iii housing in single boxes for 22 hours 30 min with 1 h of paddock time and 30 min exposure to a female camel herd (ExF. Every day, the camels were filmed in their single box in the morning for 30 minutes to record their behavioural activities and a focal animal sampling ethogram was filled in. In this study, male camels showed both oral and locomotor stereotypy most frequently when the bulls were reared in H24. Overall, this preliminary study is a starting point in the identification of stereotypies in male camels, reporting the positive effects of spending one hour outdoor and of social interaction with females.

  13. Could dromedary camels develop stereotypy? The first description of stereotypical behaviour in housed male dromedary camels and how it is affected by different management systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padalino, Barbara; Aubé, Lydiane; Fatnassi, Meriem; Monaco, Davide; Khorchani, Touhami; Hammadi, Mohamed; Lacalandra, Giovanni Michele

    2014-01-01

    Dromedary camel husbandry has recently been evolving towards a semi-intensive system, due to the changes in use of the animal and the settlement of nomadic populations. Captivity could restrict its social activities, limiting the expression of various behavioural needs and causing the manifestation of stereotypy. The aims of this trial were, firstly, to identify and describe some stereotypical behaviours in captive male dromedary camels used for artificial insemination and, secondly, to study the effects on them of the following husbandry management systems: i) housing in single boxes for 24 hours (H24), ii) housing in single boxes for 23 hours with one hour free in the paddock (H23), and iii) housing in single boxes for 22 hours 30 min with 1 h of paddock time and 30 min exposure to a female camel herd (ExF). Every day, the camels were filmed in their single box in the morning for 30 minutes to record their behavioural activities and a focal animal sampling ethogram was filled in. In this study, male camels showed both oral and locomotor stereotypy most frequently when the bulls were reared in H24. Overall, this preliminary study is a starting point in the identification of stereotypies in male camels, reporting the positive effects of spending one hour outdoor and of social interaction with females.

  14. Studies on the susceptibility of ostriches (Struthio camelus) to the Indonesian velogenic strain of Newcastle disease virus

    OpenAIRE

    Darminto; Sjamsul Bahri

    1998-01-01

    Susceptibility of ostriches (Struthio camelus) to the Indonesian velogenic strain of Newcastle disease virus (NDV) was evaluated by artificial infection . Twelve - 5 to 6 week old ostriches were divided into 3 groups each containing 4 birds . The first group was inoculated through respiratory system by dropping directly the virus solution into the nostrils, while the second group was inoculated through digestive system by dropping directly the virus solution into the oesophagus, with the dose...

  15. Towards a new reference test for surra in camels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Thao; Claes, Filip; Verloo, Didier; De Greve, Henri; Büscher, Philippe

    2009-07-01

    Current serological diagnosis of Trypanosoma evansi infection in camels is based on the native variable antigen type RoTat 1.2. The goal of this study was to develop a novel serological diagnostic test based on a nonvariable protein and freed from the use of rats or mice for its production. An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay using a recombinant extracellular domain of invariant surface glycoprotein 75 (ELISA/rISG75) was developed and tested on a collection of 184 camel sera. The results were compared to those obtained from three established antibody detection tests based on variable surface glycoprotein RoTat 1.2: an ELISA for T. evansi (ELISA/T. evansi), a card agglutination test for trypanosomiasis (CATT/T. evansi), and an immune trypanolysis (TL) assay. The ELISA/rISG75 and the ELISA/T. evansi showed a sensitivity of 94.6% (95% confidence interval [CI], 87.8 to 98.2%, at 19% positivity cutoff value) and 98.9% (95% CI, 94.1 to 99.8, at 12% positivity cutoff value), respectively. The ELISA/rISG75 had 100% specificity (CI, 95.9 to 100%), while the ELISA/T. evansi showed 98.9% specificity (CI, 95.9 to 100%). The ELISA/rISG75 demonstrated an almost perfect agreement with the TL assay, the CATT/T. evansi, and the ELISA/T. evansi, with kappa scores of at least 0.94. The ELISA/rISG75, having a performance comparable to that of the gold standard (the TL assay) and being independent of antigenic variation, may become a new reference test for surra in camels. It opens avenues for the diagnosis of T. evansi infections in other hosts as well as for the development of a pan-Trypanozoon test for detection of Trypanosoma brucei brucei, T. b. gambiense, T. b. rhodesiense, T. evansi, and T. equiperdum.

  16. Reference serum protein and lipoprotein fractions of ostriches (Struthio camelus in Turkey : research communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    U. Polat

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine for reference purposes the values of serum albumin, a1-globulin, a2-globulin, b-globulin, g-globulin, and a-lipoprotein (high density lipoprotein, pre-b-lipoprotein (very low density lipoprotein and b-lipoprotein (low density lipoprotein fractions of normal ostriches (Struthio camelus in Turkey. Five male and five female ostriches, 18 months old, were used. All the ostriches were fed on a diet that contained 15.14 % crude protein and 2 950 Kcal/kg of metabolizable energy. The serum protein and lipoprotein fractions were measured using agarose gel electrophoresis. The fractions were found to be 60.96 % albumin, 0.24% a1-globulin, 15.91 % a2-globulin, 13.34 % b-globulin, 9.55 % g-globulin, 53.77 % HDL, 0.60 % VLDL and 48.09 % LDL.

  17. Three-dimensional anatomy of the ostrich (Struthio camelus knee joint

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyle P. Chadwick

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The three-dimensional anatomy of the ostrich (Struthio camelus knee (femorotibial, femorofibular, and femoropatellar joint has scarcely been studied, and could elucidate certain mechanobiological properties of sesamoid bones. The adult ostrich is unique in that it has double patellae, while another similar ratite bird, the emu, has none. Understanding why these patellae form and what purpose they may serve is dually important for future studies on ratites as well as for understanding the mechanobiological characteristics of sesamoid bone development. For this purpose, we present a three-dimensional anatomical study of the ostrich knee joint, detailing osteology, ligaments and menisci, and myology. We have identified seven muscles which connect to the two patellae and compare our findings to past descriptions. These descriptions can be used to further study the biomechanical loading and implications of the double patella in the ostrich.

  18. Antioxidative and antimicrobial effects of garlic in ground camel meat

    OpenAIRE

    GHEISARI, Hamid R.; RANJBAR, Vahid R.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the antioxidative and antimicrobial effects of equivalent concentrations of garlic derivatives in ground camel meat during storage at 4 ± 1 °C. The addition of either garlic or butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA) (0.1 g/kg) significantly delayed lipid oxidation when compared with the control. The antioxidant activities of the various ingredients added followed the order of fresh garlic (FG), garlic powder (GP), BHA, and garlic oil (GO). After 14 days&ap...

  19. Proteomic profiling of camel and cow milk proteins under heat treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felfoul, Imène; Jardin, Julien; Gaucheron, Frédéric; Attia, Hamadi; Ayadi, M A

    2017-02-01

    Cow and camel milk proteins before and after heat treatment at 80°C for 60min were identified using LC/MS and LC-MS/MS following monodimensional electrophoresis. The database used for the identification of camel and cow proteins was set from http://www.uniprot.org/. The obtained results showed that, after heating, camel milk at 80°C for 60min, camel α-lactalbumin (α-la) and peptidoglycan recognition protein (PGRP) were not detected while camel serum albumin (CSA) was significantly diminished. When heating cow milk at 80°C for 60min, α-lactalbumin (α-la) and β-lactoglobulin (β-lg) were not significantly detected. Moreover, 19 protein bands from SDS-PAGE were analyzed and a total of 45 different proteins were identified by LC-MS/MS. Casein fractions were kept intact under a heat treatment of 80°C during 60min of both camel and cow milks. Camel and bovine whey proteins were affected by a heat treatment of 80°C for 60min. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Risk factors for MERS coronavirus infection in dromedary camels in Burkina Faso, Ethiopia, and Morocco, 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miguel, Eve; Chevalier, Véronique; Ayelet, Gelagay; Ben Bencheikh, Med Nadir; Boussini, Hiver; Chu, Daniel Kw; El Berbri, Ikhlass; Fassi-Fihri, Ouaffa; Faye, Bernard; Fekadu, Getnet; Grosbois, Vladimir; Ng, Bryan Cy; Perera, Ranawaka Apm; So, T Y; Traore, Amadou; Roger, François; Peiris, Malik

    2017-03-30

    Understanding Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) transmission in dromedary camels is important, as they consitute a source of zoonotic infection to humans. To identify risk factors for MERS-CoV infection in camels bred in diverse conditions in Burkina Faso, Ethiopia and Morocco, blood samples and nasal swabs were sampled in February-March 2015. A relatively high MERS-CoV RNA rate was detected in Ethiopia (up to 15.7%; 95% confidence interval (CI): 8.2-28.0), followed by Burkina Faso (up to 12.2%; 95% CI: 7-20.4) and Morocco (up to 7.6%; 95% CI: 1.9-26.1). The RNA detection rate was higher in camels bred for milk or meat than in camels for transport (p = 0.01) as well as in younger camels (p = 0.06). High seropositivity rates (up to 100%; 95% CI: 100-100 and 99.4%; 95% CI: 95.4-99.9) were found in Morocco and Ethiopia, followed by Burkina Faso (up to 84.6%; 95% CI: 77.2-89.9). Seropositivity rates were higher in large/medium herds (≥51 camels) than small herds (p = 0.061), in camels raised for meat or milk than for transport (p = 0.01), and in nomadic or sedentary herds than in herds with a mix of these lifestyles (p < 0.005). This article is copyright of The Authors, 2017.

  1. Evaluation of mineral content and heavy metals of dromedary camel milk in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahdieh MOSTAFIDI

    Full Text Available Abstract The aim of this study was to determine the amount of major mineral compounds and heavy metals of camel milk in Iran. For this purpose camel milk samples were collected from seven regions of Iran include Qazvin, Golestan, Semnan, Sistan-Baluchestan, Khuzestan, Bushehr and Tehran. The samples were analyzed using Inductively Coupled Plasma-Optical Emission Spectrometer (ICP-OES method. The results showed that among the mineral contents, iron and zinc of camel milk were greater than bovine milk. Based on the codex standard 193-2007 standards, the maximum acceptable limit for lead and cadmium is 20 µg/kg and 10 µg/kg, respectively. The results of this study showed that the measured amounts of lead, cadmium and nickel in all samples were less than the acceptable limit for bovine milk. Bovine milk and dairy products are a poor source of iron, while the obtained data revealed that camel milk is a major source of minerals, especially iron. The camel milk’s iron was 10 times more than bovine milk. However, variations in mineral content in camel milk could be due to feed, stage of lactation, milk collection time, drought conditions, environmental conditions and associated analytical methods. Camel milk recommended as a valuable source of food for the human.

  2. A review of large animal vehicle accidents with special focus on Arabian camels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullah Al Shimemeri

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Traffic accidents resulting from the collision of motor vehicles with wildlife occur worldwide. In the United States, Canada, Europe, the Middle East and Australia these collisions usually involve deer, moose, camels and kangaroos. Because these are large animals, the collisions are frequently associated with high morbidity and mortality rates. Camel-vehicle collisions in the Middle East—especially Saudi Arabia—have risen to such disturbing proportions that definitive action is necessary for mitigating the trend. Arabian camels, weighing up to 726 kg, form a crucial part of the socio-cultural experience in Saudi Arabia, where about half a million of them are found. Saudi Arabia presents a case of habitat fragmentation, especially in rural communities, where good road systems coexist with domesticated camels. This environment has made camel-vehicle collisions inevitable, and in 2004 alone two hundred such cases were reported. Injuries are directly related to the size of the camel, the speed of the vehicle, passengers' use or avoidance of seat belts, and the protective reflex movements taken to avoid collision. Cervical and dorsal spinal injuries, especially fractured discs, head and chest injuries, are the most commonly reported injuries, and the fatality rate is four times higher than for other causes of traffic accidents. Various mitigation measures are considered in the present work, including measures to improve driver's visibility; the construction of highway fencing; under- and over-passes allowing free movement of camels; the use of reflective warning signs, and awareness programs.

  3. Nutritional and Therapeutic Characteristics of Camel Milk in Children: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zibaee, Said; Hosseini, Syed Musa Al-Reza; Yousefi, Mahdi; Taghipour, Ali; Kiani, Mohammad Ali; Noras, Mohammad Reza

    2015-11-01

    Camel milk is the closest to a human mother's milk. Camel milk is different from other milks, however, having low sugar and cholesterol, high minerals (sodium, potassium, iron, copper, zinc and magnesium, and vitamin C). The milk is considered have medicinal characteristics as well. This systematic review is aimed at determining and reporting nutritional values and medicinal characteristics of camel milk in children. The search strategy of the current review is "(camel AND milk) AND (autism OR food allergy OR milk allergy OR children OR diarrhea." The search was conducted via PubMed, Scopus, and Google scholar. Also two Persian scientific databases (SID and Iranmedex) and international congresses were investigated. Full-text papers and abstracts on the topic of camel milk, evaluating nutritional value and medicinal properties, were included in this systematic review. Out of the 472 records found in the resources, 35 related studies were included in the final analysis. The result showed that camel milk is highly nutritious and is safe for consumption by children. It seems that many researchers did not follow a specific guideline for reporting and confirming the therapeutic properties of camel milk in children, but there is evidence denoting the importance, trials, and investigations of its usability and benefits. Camel milk as a supplemental treatment seems less invasive and costly than specialist care, medications, alternative treatments, and behavioral interventions. Based on our findings, camel milk is safer for children, effective in the treatment of autism, improves general well-being, promotes body natural defenses, is a good nutritional source, and can helps the daily nutritional needs of humans.

  4. Sarcoptic mange of camel in upper Egypt: Prevalence, risk assessment, and control measures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saber Kotb

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This study was designed to reveal out the prevalence of Sarcoptic mite infestation and the risk factors associated with occurrence of mange in one-humped camels (Camulus dromedarius at smallholder farms in Upper Egypt, and to develop an applicable therapeutical protocol for the Sarcoptic mange infested camels. A total of 660 one-humped camels were randomly selected from different villages of Assiut, Upper Egypt. The animals were undergone clinical and parasitological examinations. Skin scrapings revealed that Sarcoptes scabiei var. cameli mite was present in 6.06% (n=40/660 camels of the area. Statistical analysis of some ecological parameters showed that there was significant relationship (P<0.05 between mite infestation in camels and season, housing management, and use of acaricides. On the other hand, age and sex did not significantly affect the prevalence of the disease. Topical application of moxidectin at 0.5 mg/kg bwt or subcutaneous administration of doramectin at 200 μg/kg bwt, along with treatment of animal environment was found to be the best protocol for the eradication and prevention of Sarcoptic mange in camel. The findings of this study indicate that Sarcoptes scabiei var cameli is the preeminent agent of mange infestation in one-humped camel in Upper Egypt. Use of acaricides for the treatment of affected camels, along with spraying the animal environment by insecticides is a effective protocol not only for controlling mange in camels but also for prevention of re-infestation from the animal environment.

  5. CaMELS: In silico prediction of calmodulin binding proteins and their binding sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbasi, Wajid Arshad; Asif, Amina; Andleeb, Saiqa; Minhas, Fayyaz Ul Amir Afsar

    2017-09-01

    Due to Ca 2+ -dependent binding and the sequence diversity of Calmodulin (CaM) binding proteins, identifying CaM interactions and binding sites in the wet-lab is tedious and costly. Therefore, computational methods for this purpose are crucial to the design of such wet-lab experiments. We present an algorithm suite called CaMELS (CalModulin intEraction Learning System) for predicting proteins that interact with CaM as well as their binding sites using sequence information alone. CaMELS offers state of the art accuracy for both CaM interaction and binding site prediction and can aid biologists in studying CaM binding proteins. For CaM interaction prediction, CaMELS uses protein sequence features coupled with a large-margin classifier. CaMELS models the binding site prediction problem using multiple instance machine learning with a custom optimization algorithm which allows more effective learning over imprecisely annotated CaM-binding sites during training. CaMELS has been extensively benchmarked using a variety of data sets, mutagenic studies, proteome-wide Gene Ontology enrichment analyses and protein structures. Our experiments indicate that CaMELS outperforms simple motif-based search and other existing methods for interaction and binding site prediction. We have also found that the whole sequence of a protein, rather than just its binding site, is important for predicting its interaction with CaM. Using the machine learning model in CaMELS, we have identified important features of protein sequences for CaM interaction prediction as well as characteristic amino acid sub-sequences and their relative position for identifying CaM binding sites. Python code for training and evaluating CaMELS together with a webserver implementation is available at the URL: http://faculty.pieas.edu.pk/fayyaz/software.html#camels. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Molecular phylogeny of the Bactrian camel based on mitochondrial Cytochrome b gene sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ming, L; Yi, L; Guo, F C; Siriguleng, S; Jirimutu, J

    2016-09-19

    The Bactrian camel is an important domesticated animal providing milk, meat, and other products in desert countries. In this study, 111 individuals representing 11 domestic Bactrian camel breeds from China, Mongolia, Russia, and one wild Bactrian camel group from Mongolia were selected for the preparation of mitochondrial DNA. The 1140-bp fragments of the cytochrome b gene (Cytb) were amplified by polymerase chain reaction and sequenced directly. Sequences of the 92 domestic and 19 wild Bactrian camel samples were analyzed with DNASTAR, and a phylogenic tree was constructed using MEGA. The analysis revealed sixteen haplotypes among the samples that were divided into two haplogroups: a domestic haplogroup (H1-H13, H15, and H16) and a wild haplogroup (H14). Haplotype diversity values were from 0.356 in the HosZogdort, to 0.889 in the Sunit Bactrian camel breed. The Sunit breed displayed the highest nucleotide diversity value (0.00115), and the HosZogdort breed had the lowest value (0.00031). All domestic Bactrian camels formed a single monophyletic lineage that is the sister group to wild Bactrian camels, a finding consistent with a single domestication event and independent maternal inheritance since domestication. In addition, the most common mitochondrial haplotypes (H1, H3, and H4) were shared between Chinese, Mongolian, and Russian domestic Bactrian camels, which indicated that there was no distinguishing geographic structure among the domestic breeds from these three regions. These findings provide important insights into patterns of relatedness among Bactrian camels from the Chinese, Mongolian, and Russian regions.

  7. Influence of pH on retention of camel chymosin in curd

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Børsting, Mette Winther; Qvist, Karsten B.; Ardö, Ylva Margareta

    2014-01-01

    Retained coagulant in cheese initiates casein breakdown and influences cheese structure and flavour formation. This study investigated the influence of milk pH on retention of camel chymosin in curd and compared it with bovine chymosin. Milk at five different pH levels was coagulated with same...... coagulation activity. The retention of camel chymosin in curd was rather constant at ∼20% between pH 6.65 and 6.00, while it increased almost linear from 2 to 21% for bovine chymosin. The lower pH dependence for retention of camel chymosin than of bovine chymosin may be explained by a lower negative charge...

  8. Comparative milk and serum cholesterol content in dairy cow and camel

    OpenAIRE

    Faye, Bernard; Bengoumi, Mohammed; Al-Masaud, Ali; Konuspayeva, Gaukhar

    2015-01-01

    In order to compare cholesterol contents in cow and camel milk in similar farming conditions, milk and blood of seven cows and seven camels maintained at normal diet at the middle of lactation were sampled at morning and evening, then after two weeks of keeping them at low protein diet. The cholesterol content in camel milk (5.64 ± 3.18 mg/100 g, SD) was not significantly lower than in cow milk (8.51 ± 9.07 mg/100 g, SD). Fat contents in cow milk were higher. Cholesterol/fat ratios were simil...

  9. The prevalence of Linguatula serrata nymphs in camels slaughtered in Mashhad slaughterhouse, Northeast, Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fard, Saeid R Nourollahi; Ghalekhani, Nima; Kheirandish, Reza; Fathi, Saeid; Asl, Ehsan Norouzi

    2012-11-01

    To evaluate the prevalence of nymphal stages of L. serrata in mesenteric lymph nodes of camels slaughtered in Mashhad slaughterhouse, Northeast of Iran. For this purpose, mesenteric lymph nodes of 400 camels of different sex and age were examined. The lymph nodes were examined macroscopically and a digestion method was also applied for investigation of samples which was negative macroscopically. The mesenteric lymph nodes of 73 camels out of 400 (18.25%) were infected by L. serrata nymphs. Prevalence of L. serrata nymphs in males and females and different age was not significantly different (P>0.05), but difference was observed between the prevalence in different seasons (PIran.

  10. Study on the prevalence of blood parasites in camels of Zabol in 2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sh Ranjbar Bahadori

    2009-08-01

    30.09% of studied camels were infected by blood parasites with the greatest infection rate of 19.47% belonging Trypanosoma evansi and then infection rates of 6.20% by Theileria sp., 3.54% by bacteria sp. and 88% by blood microfilaria were also observed. Statistical analysis did not show significant relationship between infection to blood parasites and age and sex of the studied camels. With regard to presence of blood parasites in the camels of the region and the importance of arthropods in their transmission, apart from treatment of infected animals, arthropod control measures should also be conducted in other to control these infections.

  11. Preparation of goat and rabbit anti-camel immunoglobulin G whole molecule labeled with horseradish peroxidase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eman Hussein Abdel-Rahman

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: As the labeled anti-camel immunoglobulins (Igs with enzymes for enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA are unavailable in the Egyptian market, the present investigation was directed for developing local labeled anti-camel IgG with horseradish peroxidase (HRP to save hard curacy. Materials and Methods: For purification of camel IgG whole molecule, camel sera was preliminary precipitated with 50% saturated ammonium sulfate and dialyzed against 15 mM phosphate-buffered saline pH 7.2 then concentrated. This preparation was further purified by protein A sepharose affinity column chromatography. The purity of the eluted camel IgG was tested by sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresi. Anti-camel IgG was prepared by immunization of goats and rabbits separately, with purified camel IgG. The anti-camel IgG was purified by protein A sepharose affinity column chromatography. Whole molecule anti-camel IgG was conjugated with HRP using glutraldehyde based assay. Sensitivity and specificity of prepared conjugated secondary antibodies were detected using positive and negative camel serum samples reacted with different antigens in ELISA, respectively. The potency of prepared conjugated antibodies was evaluated compared with protein A HRP. The stability of the conjugate at −20°C during 1 year was assessed by ELISA. Results: The electrophoretic profile of camel IgG showed four bands of molecular weight 63, 52, 40 and 33 kDa. The recorded sensitivity and specificity of the product are 100%. Its potency is also 100% compared to 58-75% of commercial protein A HRP. The conjugates are stable for 1 year at −20°C as proved by ELISA. Conclusion: Collectively, this study introduces goat and rabbit anti-camel IgG whole molecules with simple, inexpensive method, with 100% sensitivity, 100% specificity and stability up to 1 year at −20°C. The important facet of the current study is saving hard curacy. Future investigations are necessary for

  12. Antioxidant activity of camel milk casein before and after in vitro simulated enzymatic digestion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeineb Jrad

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The effect of a successive in vitro hydrolysis by pepsin and pancreatin on the free radical scavenging activity of camel milk casein was investigated in order to assess the effect of gastro-intestinal digestion. Hydrolysis of camel casein was controlled by reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography. Anti-oxidant activity was measured by the 2,2’-azino-bis-(3-ethylbensothiazoline-6- sulfonic acid (ABTS method. The Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC values of camel casein and its hydrolysate were 1.6±0.12 μmol TE/mg protein and 0.25 μmol TE/μmol eq. NH2, respectively. After digestion, the scavenging activity of the casein peptides was more efficient than those reported in the literature regarding digestive hydrolysates of camel milk, colostrum and whey proteins.

  13. Behavioral Benefits of Camel Milk in Subjects with Autism Spectrum Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Ayadhi, Laila Y; Halepoto, Dost Muhammad; Al-Dress, Abdul M; Mitwali, Yasmine; Zainah, Rana

    2015-11-01

    To investigate the possible therapeutic effects of camel milk on behavioral characteristics as an interventional strategy in autistic children. Double-blind, Randomized Clinical Trial (RCT). Autism Research and Treatment Center, Al-Amodi Autism Research Chair, Department of Physiology, Faculty of Medicine, King Khalid University Hospital, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, from October 2012 to May 2013. Changes in behavioral characteristics in 65 (boys=60, girls=5) children with autism (aged from 2 to 12 years) were assessed. The behavioral symptoms were evaluated by Childhood Autism Rating Scale (CARS), Social Responsiveness Scale (SRS), and Autism Treatment Evaluation Checklist (ATEC) before and after the 2 weeks of camel milk therapy. Significant differences were detected on Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) by CARS, SRS and ATEC scales, following 2 weeks of camel milk consumption, but not in the placebo group. The present study demonstrates that camel milk could be very promising therapeutic intervention in ASD. Further wide scale studies are strongly recommended.

  14. Occurrence of Salmonella in ruminants and camel meat in Maiduguri, Nigeria and their antibiotic resistant pattern

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Zakaria Musa; Samson Amali Onyilokwu; Solomon Jauro; Comfort Yakubu; Jasini Athanda Musa

    2017-01-01

    ...: A total of 120 samples of fresh meat from cattle, sheep, goats and camels sampled from ten meat retailers in abattoir, markets and shops in the Maiduguri metropolis, using simple random sampling technique...

  15. Eosinophilic Meningitis in a Middle Aged Man After Consumption of Camel Meat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K Ummer

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available We report the case of a middle aged male who presented with headache and vomiting and later diagnosed to have eosinophilic meningitis as a complication after consumption of camel meat.

  16. STAPHYLOCOCCUS AUREUS ISOLATES FROM CAMELS DIFFER IN COAGULASE PRODUCTION, GENOTYPE AND METHICILLIN RESISTANCE GENE PROFILES

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ziad Jaradat; Akram Al Aboudi; Mahmoud Shatnawi; Qotaibah Ababneh

    2013-01-01

    .... The primary purpose of this research was to isolate S. aureus from camels' meat and nasal swabs and to characterize the isolates for coagulase production and the presence of methicillin gene using PCR-RFLP of coagulase gene...

  17. Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus in dromedary camels: an outbreak investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haagmans, Bart L; Al Dhahiry, Said H S; Reusken, Chantal B E M; Raj, V Stalin; Galiano, Monica; Myers, Richard; Godeke, Gert-Jan; Jonges, Marcel; Farag, Elmoubasher; Diab, Ayman; Ghobashy, Hazem; Alhajri, Farhoud; Al-Thani, Mohamed; Al-Marri, Salih A; Al Romaihi, Hamad E; Al Khal, Abdullatif; Bermingham, Alison; Osterhaus, Albert D M E; AlHajri, Mohd M; Koopmans, Marion P G

    2014-02-01

    Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) causes severe lower respiratory tract infection in people. Previous studies suggested dromedary camels were a reservoir for this virus. We tested for the presence of MERS-CoV in dromedary camels from a farm in Qatar linked to two human cases of the infection in October, 2013. We took nose swabs, rectal swabs, and blood samples from all camels on the Qatari farm. We tested swabs with RT-PCR, with amplification targeting the E gene (upE), nucleocapsid (N) gene, and open reading frame (ORF) 1a. PCR positive samples were tested by different MERS-CoV specific PCRs and obtained sequences were used for phylogentic analysis together with sequences from the linked human cases and other human cases. We tested serum samples from the camels for IgG immunofluorescence assay, protein microarray, and virus neutralisation assay. We obtained samples from 14 camels on Oct 17, 2013. We detected MERS-CoV in nose swabs from three camels by three independent RT-PCRs and sequencing. The nucleotide sequence of an ORF1a fragment (940 nucleotides) and a 4·2 kb concatenated fragment were very similar to the MERS-CoV from two human cases on the same farm and a MERS-CoV isolate from Hafr-Al-Batin. Eight additional camel nose swabs were positive on one or more RT-PCRs, but could not be confirmed by sequencing. All camels had MERS-CoV spike-binding antibodies that correlated well with the presence of neutralising antibodies to MERS-CoV. Our study provides virological confirmation of MERS-CoV in camels and suggests a recent outbreak affecting both human beings and camels. We cannot conclude whether the people on the farm were infected by the camels or vice versa, or if a third source was responsible. European Union projects EMPERIE (contract number 223498), ANTIGONE (contract number 278976), and the VIRGO consortium. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Effect of Camel Milk on Oxidative Stresses in Experimentally Induced Diabetic Rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esraa Tantawy

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Camel milk has an importance in the treatment of diabetes. It has been shown that the patients who drink camel milk daily, their need to insulin decrease. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the effect of camel milk in comparison with insulin treatment in experimentally-induced diabetes. This study was carried out on forty male New Zealand rabbits, divided into four groups with ten rabbits in each. The first group G1 was considered as control non-diabetic group and received only normal saline solution. The other animals were injected intravenously with alloxan for induction of diabetes mellitus and then divided into three groups' ten rabbits each as the follows: G2 considered as control diabetic and left untreated, G3 was considered as diabetic and treated with insulin, and G4 was considered as diabetic and received camel milk. At the end of the experiment (4 weeks, blood (whole blood & serum and tissue samples (liver, kidney and pancreas were collected from all the animals for analysis of: enzymatic SOD and catalase, non-enzymatic GSH antioxidant enzyme activities. Serum malondialdeyde, glucose, insulin and lipid profile also were analyzed. The results showed that the camel milk was effective in the treatment of diabetes in comparison to insulin treatment alone. In addition to its hypoglycemic effect, camel milk improved the diabetes-induced oxidative stress. The histopathological evaluations demonstrated that there was a regeneration in β cells and the islets of Langerhans among the pancreatic acini in rabbits receiving camel milk. Our findings suggested that the camel milk administration in case of insulin dependant diabetes mellitus might be recommended as an oral anti-diabetic remedy.

  19. A study of the anti-diabetic agents of camel milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malik, Ajamaluddin; Al-Senaidy, Abdulrahman; Skrzypczak-Jankun, Ewa; Jankun, Jerzy

    2012-09-01

    The number of people diagnosed with type 2 diabetes has risen steeply recently exhausting the ability of health care systems to deal with the epidemic. Seventy-five percent of people with diabetes live in low- and middle-income countries. The largest populations of diabetics are in China and India, with many of those people living in extreme poverty. Combined forces of governmental health care, charities and donation of pharmaceutical companies would not be able to cope with the financial demands needed for medicaments and treatments for these people. Therefore, it is worth looking into traditional folk remedies to find if there is any scientific merit to justify their claims for alleviating symptoms of diabetes. There is a traditional belief in the Middle East that regular consumption of camel milk helps in the prevention and control of diabetes. Recently, it has been reported that camel milk can have such properties. Literature review suggests the following possibilities: i) insulin in camel milk possesses special properties that makes absorption into circulation easier than insulin from other sources or cause resistance to proteolysis; ii) camel insulin is encapsulated in nanoparticles (lipid vesicles) that make possible its passage through the stomach and entry into the circulation; iii) some other elements of camel milk make it anti-diabetic. Sequence of camel insulin and its predicted digestion pattern do not suggest differentiability to overcome the mucosal barriers before been degraded and reaching the blood stream. However, we cannot exclude the possibility that insulin in camel milk is present in nanoparticles capable of transporting this hormone into the bloodstream. Although, much more probable is that camel milk contains 'insulin-like' small molecule substances that mimic insulin interaction with its receptor.

  20. Occurrence of Salmonella in ruminants and camel meat in Maiduguri, Nigeria and their antibiotic resistant pattern

    OpenAIRE

    Zakaria Musa; Samson Amali Onyilokwu; Solomon Jauro; Comfort Yakubu; Jasini Athanda Musa

    2017-01-01

    Objective: This study was conducted to determine the occurrence of Salmonella in various meat products (beef from cattle, chevon from goats, mutton from sheep and jaziir from camel), by screening the various selling points which includes; meat retailers in abattoir, markets and shops in Maiduguri and its environs. Materials and methods: A total of 120 samples of fresh meat from cattle, sheep, goats and camels sampled from ten meat retailers in abattoir, markets and shops in the Maiduguri ...

  1. Pengaruh Rasio CAMEL Terhadap Kinerja Keuangan Perbankan yang Terdaftar di Bursa Efek Indonesia (BEI)

    OpenAIRE

    Lestari, Tika

    2010-01-01

    This research aims to determine the influence of CAMEL ratios to the Financial Performance of banks listed on the Indonesia Stock Exchange. CAMEL ratios used in this study is the Capital Adequacy Ratio (CAR), Non-Performing Loan (NPL), Return On Assets (ROA), Return On Equity (ROE), Net Interest Margin (NIM), Operating Expenses (ROA), Loan to Deposit ratio (LDR) and Financial Performance is measured by Net Income Growth. This research is a kind of causal research, which examines the effect of...

  2. [Fractional and fatty-acid composition of the lipids of horse and camel meat].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orlov, V K; Servetnik-Chalaia, G K; Zagibaĭlova, N B

    1985-01-01

    The authors examined lipids of horse and camel meat and those obtained from the camel's hump. It was shown that the content of total lipids in camel meat ranges from 10.4 to 16.3 g/100 g product, that in horse meat from 5.9 to 16.5 g/100 g product. No differences are recorded in the fractional composition of lipids contained by both types of meat. The main part of lipids is constituted by triglycerides (91-92%). Horse meat lipids are marked by a high content of polyunsaturated fatty acids (15.8-18.4%) and by a high degree of unsaturation (72.8-78.4). Camel meat lipids, particularly those obtained from the camel's hump are characterized by a considerable content of saturated fatty acids (44% in camel meat and 60.2% in the hump). Hump lipids are poor in polyunsaturated fatty acids (1.1%). The losses of meat lipids on culinary treatment are within 24-44%.

  3. Human brucellosis outbreak acquired through camel milk ingestion in southern Israel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimol, Shalom Ben; Dukhan, Larissa; Belmaker, Ilana; Bardenstein, Svetlana; Sibirsky, David; Barrett, Chiya; Greenberg, David

    2012-08-01

    Human brucellosis is common in southern Israel among the semi-nomadic Bedouin, a population that consumes unpasteurized dairy products. Though camel milk ingestion is a known mechanism for brucellosis acquisition, only a few reports of sporadic cases have been published in the medical literature. To describe a local brucellosis outbreak in 15 extended Bedouin family members, following ingestion of infected camel milk. Data regarding patient's clinical manifestations, laboratory findings, treatment and outcome were collected from the hospital and the health fund clinics' computerized database. Camel's blood and milk were tested for Brucella serology and culture. Cases were defined by positive Rose Bengal test, symptoms correlating with brucellosis, and consumption of infected camel milk. Fifteen patients were diagnosed with acute brucellosis from March to June 2011. Sixty percent of cases had serum agglutination test titers of 1:160 or higher and 4/8 (50%) had positive blood culture for Brucella melitensis. Arthralgia and fever were the most consistent clinical manifestations. Blood and milk serology and milk culture taken from the female camel were positive for Brucella melitensis. The treating physicians must consider the possibility of infected camel milk ingestion as the mode of infection, both in sporadic cases and in outbreaks of brucellosis.

  4. Camel milk inhibits inflammatory angiogenesis via downregulation of proangiogenic and proinflammatory cytokines in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alhaider, Abdulqader A; Abdel Gader, Abdel Galil M; Almeshaal, Nawaf; Saraswati, Sarita

    2014-07-01

    Camel milk has traditionally been used to treat cancer, but this practice awaits scientific scrutiny, in particular its role in tumor angiogenesis, the key step involved in tumor growth and metastasis. We aimed to investigate the effects of camel milk on key components of inflammatory angiogenesis in sponge implant angiogenesis model. Polyester-polyurethane sponges, used as a framework for fibrovascular tissue growth, were implanted in Swiss albino mice and camel milk (25, 50 and 100 mg/kg/day) was administered for 14 days through installed cannula. The implants collected at day 14 post-implantation were processed for the assessment of hemoglobin (Hb), myeloperoxidase (MPO), N-acetylglucosaminidase (NAG), and collagen, which were used as indices for angiogenesis, neutrophil, and macrophage accumulation and extracellular matrix deposition, respectively. Relevant inflammatory, angiogenic, and fibrogenic cytokines were also determined. Camel milk treatment attenuated the main components of the fibrovascular tissue, wet weight, vascularization (Hb content), macrophage recruitment (NAG activity), collagen deposition and the levels of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, IL-17, tumor necrosis factor-α, and transforming growth factor-β. A regulatory function of camel milk on multiple parameters of the main components of inflammatory angiogenesis has been revealed, giving insight into the potential therapeutic benefit underlying the anti-cancer actions of camel milk. © 2013 APMIS. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Microsatellite markers reveal low genetic differentiation among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Camelus dromedarius) populations. Results from questionnaires on demography indicated that approximately 476 camels were extant in South Africa, Namibia and Botswana in 2003. We have sampled 234 camels for genetic analysis using a ...

  6. Gross anatomical and histomorphological observations on the terminal rectum and the cloaca in the Ostrich Struthio camelus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Warui, C.N.; Erlwanger, K.H.; Skadhauge, Erik

    2009-01-01

    In birds, the ability to void urine separate from faeces is unique to ostriches. To further explore this characteristic, the anatomy of the terminal rectum and cloaca of the Ostrich Struthio camelus was studied in four ostriches by gross anatomical dissection and light microscopy. The terminal...... that for birds is unique to ostriches....

  7. Evidence of a true pharyngeal tonsil in birds: a novel lymphoid organ in Dromaius novaehollandiae and Struthio camelus (Palaeognathae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Crole Martina R

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Tonsils are secondary lymphoid organs located in the naso- and oropharynx of most mammalian species. Most tonsils are characterised by crypts surrounded by dense lymphoid tissue. However, tonsils without crypts have also been recognised. Gut-associated lymphoid tissue (GALT, although not well-organised and lacking tonsillar crypts, is abundant in the avian oropharynx and has been referred to as the “pharyngeal tonsil”. In this context the pharyngeal folds present in the oropharynx of ratites have erroneously been named the pharyngeal tonsils. This study distinguishes between the different types and arrangements of lymphoid tissue in the pharyngeal region of D. novaehollandiae and S. camelus and demonstrates that both species possess a true pharyngeal tonsil which fits the classical definition of tonsils in mammals. Results The pharyngeal tonsil (Tonsilla pharyngea of D. novaehollandiae was located on the dorsal free surface of the pharyngeal folds and covered by a small caudo-lateral extension of the folds whereas in S. camelus the tonsil was similarly located on the dorsal surface of the pharyngeal folds but was positioned retropharyngeally and encapsulated by loose connective tissue. The pharyngeal tonsil in both species was composed of lymph nodules, inter-nodular lymphoid tissue, mucus glands, crypts and intervening connective tissue septa. In S. camelus a shallow tonsillar sinus was present. Aggregated lymph nodules and inter-nodular lymphoid tissue was associated with the mucus glands on the ventral surface of the pharyngeal folds in both species and represented the Lymphonoduli pharyngeales. Similar lymphoid tissue, but more densely packed and situated directly below the epithelium, was present on the dorsal, free surface of the pharyngeal folds and represented a small, non-follicular tonsil. Conclusions The follicular pharyngeal tonsils in D. novaehollandiae and S. camelus are distinct from the pharyngeal folds in

  8. Analysis and comparison of proteomic profiles of tear fluid from human, cow, sheep, and camel eyes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamsi, Farrukh A; Chen, Ziyan; Liang, Jingwen; Li, Kaijun; Al-Rajhi, Ali A; Chaudhry, Imtiaz A; Li, Mingtao; Wu, Kaili

    2011-11-25

    To investigate the tear proteome profiles of human, cow, sheep, and camel comparatively and to explore the difference of tear protein profiles among different species. Tears were collected from both eyes of 25 clinically healthy volunteers, 50 cows, 25 sheep, and 50 camels. Pooled tear protein samples were separated by SDS-PAGE and two-dimensional electrophoresis. Protein spots of differential expression were excised and subjected to in-gel digestion and identification by matrix assisted laser desorption/ionization-time-of-flight/time-of-flight mass spectrum analysis. Because of the incomplete genomic data of cow, sheep, and camel, a combined strategy of de novo sequencing and BLAST (Best Local Alignment Search Tool) homology searching was also used for protein identification. The differentially expressed proteins were validated by Western blot analysis. On comparison with human tears (182 ± 6 spots), 223 ± 8, 217 ± 11, and 241 ± 3 well-resolved protein spots were detected in triphenylmethane dye-stained gels of cow, sheep, and camel tears, respectively. Similar high-abundant proteins (lactoferrin, lysozyme, etc.) were found in all tear fluids. Tear lipocalins have been identified in cow and sheep tears. BLAST searching revealed a 21-kDa protein, identical with human vitelline membrane outer layer protein 1 (VMO1) homolog, in camel tears. The Western blot confirmed that VMO1 homolog was present in both camel and sheep tears but not in human and cow tears. The comparative proteomic analyses of tears from healthy humans, cows, sheep, and camels were first reported. Differential protein expression existed in the tear among species, offering useful information for further study on tear proteins and the related ocular diseases.

  9. Purification and Characterization of Glucose-6-Phosphate Dehydrogenase from Camel Liver

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmoud A. Ibrahim

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase from camel liver was purified to homogeneity by ammonium sulfate precipitation and a combination of DEAE-cellulose, Sephacryl S-300 gel filtration, and 2′, 5′ ADP Sepharose 4B affinity chromatography columns. The specific activity of camel liver G6PD is increased to 1.80438 units/mg proteins with 63-fold purification. It turned out to be homogenous on both native PAGE and 12% SDS PAGE, with a molecular weight of 64 kDa. The molecular weight of the native form of camel liver G6PD was determined to be 194 kDa by gel filtration indicating a trimeric protein. The Km value was found to be 0.081 mM of NADP+. Camel liver G6PD displayed its optimum activity at pH 7.8 with an isoelectric point (pI of pH 6.6–6.8. The divalent cations MgCl2, MnCl2, and CoCl2 act as activators; on the other hand, CaCl2 and NiCl2 act as moderate inhibitors, while FeCl2, CuCl2, and ZnCl2 are potent inhibitors of camel liver G6PD activity. NADPH inhibited camel liver G6PD competitively with Ki value of 0.035 mM. One binding site was deduced for NADPH on the enzyme molecule. This study presents a simple and reproducible purification procedure of G6PD from the camel liver.

  10. Camel milk ameliorates hyperglycaemia and oxidative damage in type-1 diabetic experimental rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meena, Sunita; Rajput, Yudhishthir S; Pandey, Amit K; Sharma, Rajan; Singh, Raghvendar

    2016-08-01

    This study was designed to assess anti-diabetic potential of goat, camel, cow and buffalo milk in streptozotocin (STZ) induced type 1 diabetic albino wistar rats. A total of 48 rats were taken for the study where one group was kept as non-diabetic control group (8 rats) while others (40 rats) were made diabetic by STZ (50 mg/kg of body weight) injection. Among diabetic rats, a control group (8 rats) was kept and referred as diabetic control whereas other four groups (8 rats each) of diabetic rats were fed on 50 ml of goat or camel or cow or buffalo milk for 4 weeks. All the rats (non-diabetic and diabetic) were maintained on standard diet for four weeks. STZ administration resulted in enhancement of glucose, total cholesterol, triglyceride, low density lipoprotein, HbA1c and reduction in high density lipoprotein in plasma and lowering of antioxidative enzymes (catalase, glutathione peroxidase and superoxide dismutase) activities in pancreas, kidney, liver and RBCs, coupled with enhanced levels of TBARS and protein carbonyls in pancreas, kidney, liver and plasma. OGTT carried out at the end of 4 week milk feeding indicated that all milks helped in early maintenance of glucose level. All milks reduced atherogenic index. In camel milk fed diabetic group, insulin concentration enhanced to level noted for non-diabetic control while goat, cow and buffalo milk failed to restore insulin level. HbA1c level was also restored only in camel milk fed diabetic group. The level of antioxidative enzymes (catalase, GPx and SOD) in pancreas enhanced in all milk fed groups. Camel milk and to a reasonable extent goat milk reduced formation of TBARS and PCs in tissues and blood. It can be concluded that camel milk ameliorates hyperglycaemia and oxidative damage in type-1 diabetic experimental rats. Further, only camel milk completely ameliorated oxidative damage in pancreas and normalised insulin level.

  11. Camelus dromedarius

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HP USER

    Department of Veterinary Pathology and Microbiology. 1Usmanu Danfodiyo University, Sokoto, Nigeria. 2Universiti Putra, Malaysia. 3Ahmadu Bello University ... water loss via the skin, lungs, kidneys, mammary glands and alimentary tract (Schalm et al.,1975). Pulmonary lesions have been reported to cause decreased.

  12. Investigation of the protein osteocalcin of Camelops hesternus: Sequence, structure and phylogenetic implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humpula, James F.; Ostrom, Peggy H.; Gandhi, Hasand; Strahler, John R.; Walker, Angela K.; Stafford, Thomas W.; Smith, James J.; Voorhies, Michael R.; George Corner, R.; Andrews, Phillip C.

    2007-12-01

    Ancient DNA sequences offer an extraordinary opportunity to unravel the evolutionary history of ancient organisms. Protein sequences offer another reservoir of genetic information that has recently become tractable through the application of mass spectrometric techniques. The extent to which ancient protein sequences resolve phylogenetic relationships, however, has not been explored. We determined the osteocalcin amino acid sequence from the bone of an extinct Camelid (21 ka, Camelops hesternus) excavated from Isleta Cave, New Mexico and three bones of extant camelids: bactrian camel ( Camelus bactrianus); dromedary camel ( Camelus dromedarius) and guanaco ( Llama guanacoe) for a diagenetic and phylogenetic assessment. There was no difference in sequence among the four taxa. Structural attributes observed in both modern and ancient osteocalcin include a post-translation modification, Hyp 9, deamidation of Gln 35 and Gln 39, and oxidation of Met 36. Carbamylation of the N-terminus in ancient osteocalcin may result in blockage and explain previous difficulties in sequencing ancient proteins via Edman degradation. A phylogenetic analysis using osteocalcin sequences of 25 vertebrate taxa was conducted to explore osteocalcin protein evolution and the utility of osteocalcin sequences for delineating phylogenetic relationships. The maximum likelihood tree closely reflected generally recognized taxonomic relationships. For example, maximum likelihood analysis recovered rodents, birds and, within hominins, the Homo-Pan-Gorilla trichotomy. Within Artiodactyla, character state analysis showed that a substitution of Pro 4 for His 4 defines the Capra-Ovis clade within Artiodactyla. Homoplasy in our analysis indicated that osteocalcin evolution is not a perfect indicator of species evolution. Limited sequence availability prevented assigning functional significance to sequence changes. Our preliminary analysis of osteocalcin evolution represents an initial step towards a

  13. Differential expression of the MERS-coronavirus receptor in the upper respiratory tract of humans and dromedary camels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Widagdo, W; Raj, V Stalin; Schipper, Debby; Kolijn, Kimberley; van Leenders, Geert J L H; Bosch, Berend J; Bensaid, Albert; Segalés, Joaquim; Baumgärtner, Wolfgang; Osterhaus, Albert D M E; Koopmans, Marion P; van den Brand, Judith M A; Haagmans, Bart L

    Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) is not efficiently transmitted between humans, but it is highly prevalent in dromedary camels. Here we report that the MERS-CoV receptor - dipeptidyl peptidase 4 (DPP4) - is expressed in the upper respiratory tract epithelium of camels but not

  14. Differential expression of the Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus receptor in the upper respiratory tracts of humans and dromedary camels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    W. Widagdo; V.S. Raj (Stalin); D. Schipper (Debby); K. Kolijn (Kimberley); G.J.H.L. Leenders (Geert); B.J. Bosch (Berend Jan); A. Bensaid (Albert); J. Segalés (Joaquim); W. Baumgärtner (Wolfgang); A.D.M.E. Osterhaus (Albert); M.P.G. Koopmans D.V.M. (Marion); J.M.A. van den Brand (Judith); B.L. Haagmans (Bart)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractMiddle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) is not efficiently transmitted between humans, but it is highly prevalent in dromedary camels. Here we report that the MERS-CoV receptor-dipeptidyl peptidase 4 (DPP4)-is expressed in the upper respiratory tract epithelium of camels

  15. BIOCHEMICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF LACTIC ACID PRODUCING BACTERIA AND PREPARATION OF CAMEL MILK CHEESE BY USING STARTER CULTURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Ahmed and R. Kanwal

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Lactic acid bacteria (LAB were isolated from camel milk by culturing the milk on specific media and pure culture was obtained by sub-culturing. Purification of culture was confirmed by Gram’s staining and identified by different biochemical tests. Camel milk contained lactic acid producing bacteria like Streptococci such as S. cremoris and S. lactis and Lactobacilli such as L. acidophilus. L. acidophilus grew more rapidly in camel milk than others as its growth was supported by camel milk. Ability of each strain was tested to convert lactose of milk into lactic acid. It was observed that 66% lactose was converted by S. lactis 20, whereas S. cremoris 22 and L. acidophilus 23 converted 56 and 74% lactose into lactic acid, respectively. Effect of freeze-drying was also recorded and the results showed that in all cases there was a slight decrease in the cell count before and after the freeze-drying. The decrease was approximately 0.47, 0.078 and 0.86% for S. lactis 20, S. cremoris 22 and L. acidophilus 23, respectively. Starter culture was prepared from strains isolated from camel milk. Camel and buffalo milk cheese was prepared by using starter culture. The strains isolated from camel milk were best for acid production and coagulated the milk in less time. It is concluded that cheese can be prepared successfully from camel milk and better results can be obtained by coagulating milk with starter culture.

  16. Comparison of fresh beef and camel meat proteolysis during cold storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soltanizadeh, Nafiseh; Kadivar, Mahdi; Keramat, Javad; Fazilati, Mohammad

    2008-11-01

    The objective of this research was to determine the difference in myofibrillar fragmentation of camel meat and beef during postmortem aging. Semitendinosus muscle was excised at slaughter and muscle pH was measured at 6, 12, 24, 48, and 72h postmortem. Myofibril fragmentation index was measured on 1, 3, 5, and 7 days postmortem. Also, myofibrils isolated from semitendinosus muscles of camel and cattle at 1, 3, 5 and 7 days postmortem storage were analyzed using sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS)-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Results showed that the camel semitendinosus muscle had significantly higher myofibril degradation values compared to that in beef which was supported by a difference in troponin-T degradation and appearance of a 30kDa band. Postmortem pH decline of camel meat was significantly slower than that of beef. This study demonstrated that the semitendinosus protease activity of camel meat was superior to that of beef, which may have been due to the difference in pH decline.

  17. Evaluation of anticonvulsant and neuroprotective effects of camel milk in strychnine-induced seizure model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Humera Khatoon

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To discover the use of camel milk as an alternate medicine for the treatment and prevention of convulsions using strychnine-induced seizure model. Methods: Thirty animals were divided into three equal groups. Group I was on distilled water, Group II was on camel milk for 15 days prior to experiment and Group III was on reference drug diazepam. On the day of experiment, strychnine was administered in all treatment groups after distilled water, camel milk and diazepam treatments respectively. Animals were observed for 30 min for latency of seizure onset, frequency of convulsions and duration of jerks. The mortality rate was also evaluated for each group. Results: Camel milk treatment showed significant seizure protection as observed by delayed seizure onset (P ≤ 0.001, decreased total duration of convulsions (P ≤ 0.001 and mortality rate (P ≤ 0.001 when compared with Group I. Conclusions: Anticonvulsant activity of camel milk could be due to potentiation of glycinergic and GABAergic activities both. Antioxidant activity can also amplify its antiepileptic activity. Further studies are required to confirm the exact mechanism of action.

  18. Cinnamomum verum improved the functional properties of bioyogurts made from camel and cow milks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.B. Shori

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The effects of Cinnamomum verum on the changes in antioxidant activities, proteolysis, total phenolic content and in vitro inhibition of α-amylase and α-glucosidase of bioyogurts prepared from cow- and camel-milks during 21 days of storage at 4 °C was investigated. The result shows that pH of cow-milk bioyogurt (cow-MY decreased more than camel-milk bioyogurt (camel-MY whereas, total titratable acidity increased to similar extent in both types of bioyogurts. The addition of C. verum in both type of bioyogurts enhanced the total phenolic content during the entire storage period. The antioxidant capacity of C. verum-bioyogurts was higher than plain-bioyogurts. Proteolysis was higher in camel-milk bioyogurt than cow-milk bioyogurt. The inhibition of α-amylase in fresh bioyogurts was stronger in camel-milk bioyogurt than cow-milk bioyogurt. The reverse was true for α-glucosidase. Conclusively, C. verum can enhance bioyogurt functional properties with potential therapeutic values for the diabetics.

  19. Protective action of camel milk in mice inoculated with Salmonella enterica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardoso, Roberto R De Almeida; Ponte, Marina; Leite, Vanuza

    2013-01-01

    In some countries people believe that camel milk can protect against various aggressors, whether due to infections, diabetes, or even autism. Little has been scientifically demonstrated regarding the veracity of these beliefs. To study the anti-infectious action of camel milk. Fifty mice were divided into 5 groups of 10 animals each: 3 control groups and 2 test groups. Except for one of the control groups, all groups were intraperitoneally inoculated with a strain of Salmonella enterica. The rations in the test groups were supplemented with camel milk or cow milk. A statistically significant survival was observed in the mice supplemented with camel milk. The death rate after Salmonella inoculation was only 40% in the study group, as compared to 100% in the control groups where the mice were not protected, and 80% in the group supplemented with cow milk and injected with Salmonella. Camel milk is an excellent nutrient and because of its specific properties, particularly its anti-infectious action, should be used to replace other milks.

  20. Comparative milk and serum cholesterol content in dairy cow and camel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernard Faye

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In order to compare cholesterol contents in cow and camel milk in similar farming conditions, milk and blood of seven cows and seven camels maintained at normal diet at the middle of lactation were sampled at morning and evening, then after two weeks of keeping them at low protein diet. The cholesterol content in camel milk (5.64 ± 3.18 mg/100 g, SD was not significantly lower than in cow milk (8.51 ± 9.07 mg/100 g, SD. Fat contents in cow milk were higher. Cholesterol/fat ratios were similar in the two species (camel: 225 ± 125 mg/100 g fat; cow: 211 ± 142 mg/100 g fat. The serum cholesterol concentration was significantly higher in cow (227.8 ± 60.5 mg/100 ml than in camel (106.4 ± 28.9 mg/100 ml. There was a significant difference between morning and evening milking in milk fat compositions and concentrations in cholesterol. Fat levels increased in cow after two-week low energy-protein diet.

  1. Qualitative analysis of Camel Snus' website message board--users' product perceptions, insights and online interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wackowski, Olivia Ann; Lewis, M Jane; Delnevo, Cristine D

    2011-03-01

    In 2006, RJ Reynolds began test-marketing Camel Snus, a new smokeless tobacco (SLT) product. Promotion included use of a brand website, a relatively new marketing channel used by tobacco companies, which allowed visitors to learn about the product and discuss it with others on the website's message board. Our study aimed to examine early experiences with and perceptions of Camel Snus as described by board contributors and also to consider the use and benefits of the message board for both consumers and the company. We conducted a qualitative analysis, coding each message in Atlas.Ti and analysing it for emerging themes and patterns. Messages were also coded for demographic information where evident, such as tobacco use status and geographical location. Descriptive data and illustrative quotes are presented. Board participants described being introduced to Camel Snus through free samples. Favourable evaluations were posted by current smokers who had never tried SLT before as well as current users of other SLT brands. Messages indicated both initiation of dual product use among smokers and product substitution. Participants used the board to advise each other on how to use the product, where to get more, suggest ways RJ Reynolds could improve the product and to encourage RJ Reynolds to release it nationally. Camel Snus has appeal for at least some smokers and SLT users. Camel Snus' website message board may have been a doubly beneficial marketing feature in both connecting product users and providing product feedback to the company during test-marketing.

  2. Camel molar tooth enamel response to gamma rays using EPR spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Faramawy, N A; El-Somany, I; Mansour, A; Maghraby, A M; Eissa, H; Wieser, A

    2017-10-12

    Tooth enamel samples from molar teeth of camel were prepared using a combined procedure of mechanical and chemical tooth treatment. Based on electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy, the dose response of tooth enamel samples was examined and compared to that of human enamel. The EPR dose response of the tooth enamel samples was obtained through irradiation to gamma doses from 1 Gy up to 100 kGy. It was found that the radiation-induced EPR signal increased linearly with gamma dose for all studied tooth enamel samples, up to about 15 kGy. At higher doses, the dose response curve leveled off. The results revealed that the location of the native signal of camel tooth enamel was similar to that of enamel from human molars at 2.00644, but different from that of enamel from cows and goats. In addition, the peak-to-peak width (ΔH pp) for human and camel molar teeth was similar. It was also found that the response of camel enamel to gamma radiation was 36% lower than that of human enamel. In conclusion, the results indicate the suitability of camel teeth for retrospective gamma dosimetry.

  3. Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus antibody reactors among camels in Dubai, United Arab Emirates, in 2005.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexandersen, S; Kobinger, G P; Soule, G; Wernery, U

    2014-04-01

    We tested, using a low starting dilution, sequential serum samples from dromedary camels, sheep and horses collected in Dubai from February/April to October of 2005 and from dromedary camels for export/import testing between Canada and USA in 2000-2001. Using a standard Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) neutralization test, serial sera from three sheep and three horses were all negative while sera from 9 of 11 dromedary camels from Dubai were positive for antibodies supported by similar results in a MERS-CoV recombinant partial spike protein antibody ELISA. The two negative Dubai camels were both dromedary calves and remained negative over the 5 months studied. The six dromedary samples from USA and Canada were negative in both tests. These results support the recent findings that infection with MERS-CoV or a closely related virus is not a new occurrence in camels in the Middle East. Therefore, interactions of MERS-CoV at the human-animal interface may have been ongoing for several, perhaps many, years and by inference, a widespread pandemic may be less likely unless significant evolution of the virus allow accelerated infection and spread potential in the human population. © Her Majesty the Queen in Right of Canada 2014 Reproduced with the permission of the Minister of Agriculture and Agri-food and Minister of Health.

  4. Botany and zoology in the late seventeenth-century Philippines: the work of Georg Josef Camel SJ (1661-1706).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes, Raquel A G

    2009-10-01

    Georg Josef Camel (1661-1706) went to the Spanish colony of the Philippine Islands as a Jesuit lay brother in 1687, and he remained there until his death. Throughout his time in the Philippines, Camel collected examples of the flora and fauna, which he drew and described in detail. This paper offers an overview of his life, his publications and the Camel manuscripts, drawings and specimens that are preserved among the Sloane Manuscripts in the British Library and in the Sloane Herbarium at the Natural History Museum, London. It also discusses Camel's links and exchanges with scientifically minded plant collectors and botanists in London, Madras and Batavia. Among those with whom Camel corresponded were John Ray, James Petiver, and the Dutch physician Willem Ten Rhijne.

  5. Anti-infectivity of camel polyclonal antibodies against hepatitis C virus in Huh7.5 hepatoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EL-Fakharany Esmail M

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Purpose To extend the study of the camel milk proteins which have antiviral activity against HCV, camel naïve polyclonal IgGs, α-lactalbumin were purified from camel milk and their anti-HCV effect was examined using PBMCs and Huh7.5 cell-lines. They were compared with the activity of human polyclonal IgGs and camel lactoferrin and casein. Material and methods Three types of experiments were performed on PBMCs and HuH7.5 cell. HCV was directly incubated with the purified proteins and then mixed with both cell types, or the proteins were incubated with the cells and then exposed to HCV, or the HCV pre-infected cells were treated with the proteins to inhibit intracellular replication. The proteins were added to cells or virus at different concentrations and time intervals. Results Pretreated PBMCs and Huh7.5 cells with milk proteins were not protected when exposed to HCV infection. The direct interaction between HCV and camel IgGs and camel lactoferrin (cLf led to a complete inhibition of HCV entry into cells, while casein, α-lactalbumin and human IgGs failed to inhibit HCV entry at any tested concentration. Camel IgGs showed ability to recognize HCV peptides with a significant titer (12 × 103 in comparison with human IgGs which failed to do it. Camel lactoferrin was capable of inhibiting the intracellular HCV replication at concentrations of 0.25-1.25 mg/ml. Conclusion Camel milk naïve polyclonal IgGs isolated from camel milk could inhibit the HCV infectivity and demonstrated strong signal against its synthetic peptides. Lactoferrin inhibit the HCV infectivity started from 0.25 mg/ml. However, α-lactalbumin, human IgGs and casein failed to demonstrate any activity against HCV infectivity.

  6. Anti-infectivity of camel polyclonal antibodies against hepatitis C virus in Huh7.5 hepatoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Fakharany, Esmail M; Abedelbaky, Nawal; Haroun, Bakry M; Sánchez, Lourdes; Redwan, Nezar A; Redwan, Elrashdy M

    2012-09-16

    To extend the study of the camel milk proteins which have antiviral activity against HCV, camel naïve polyclonal IgGs, α-lactalbumin were purified from camel milk and their anti-HCV effect was examined using PBMCs and Huh7.5 cell-lines. They were compared with the activity of human polyclonal IgGs and camel lactoferrin and casein. Three types of experiments were performed on PBMCs and HuH7.5 cell. HCV was directly incubated with the purified proteins and then mixed with both cell types, or the proteins were incubated with the cells and then exposed to HCV, or the HCV pre-infected cells were treated with the proteins to inhibit intracellular replication. The proteins were added to cells or virus at different concentrations and time intervals. Pretreated PBMCs and Huh7.5 cells with milk proteins were not protected when exposed to HCV infection. The direct interaction between HCV and camel IgGs and camel lactoferrin (cLf) led to a complete inhibition of HCV entry into cells, while casein, α-lactalbumin and human IgGs failed to inhibit HCV entry at any tested concentration. Camel IgGs showed ability to recognize HCV peptides with a significant titer (12 × 10(3)) in comparison with human IgGs which failed to do it. Camel lactoferrin was capable of inhibiting the intracellular HCV replication at concentrations of 0.25-1.25 mg/ml. Camel milk naïve polyclonal IgGs isolated from camel milk could inhibit the HCV infectivity and demonstrated strong signal against its synthetic peptides. Lactoferrin inhibit the HCV infectivity started from 0.25 mg/ml. However, α-lactalbumin, human IgGs and casein failed to demonstrate any activity against HCV infectivity.

  7. Trace elements and their distribution in protein fractions of camel milk in comparison to other commonly consumed milks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Awadi, F M; Srikumar, T S

    2001-08-01

    Studies on camels' milk, whether with respect to concentration or bioavailability of trace elements from this milk, are limited and warrant further investigation. The object of this study was to analyse the concentration and distribution of zinc, copper, selenium, manganese and iron in camel milk compared to those in human milk, cows' milk and infant formula under similar experimental conditions. Camels' milk and cows' milk were collected from local farms, human milk samples were obtained from healthy donors in Kuwait and infant formula was purchased locally. Milk fractionation was performed by ultra-centrifugation and gelcolumn chromatography. The concentration of trace elements was analysed by atomic absorption spectrometry and that of protein was determined spectrophotometrically. The concentration of manganese and iron in camels' milk was remarkably higher (7-20-fold and 4-10-fold, respectively) than in human milk, cows' milk and infant formula. The zinc content of camels' milk was higher than that of human milk but slightly lower than in cows' milk and infant formula. The concentration of copper in camels' milk was similar to that of cows' milk but lower than in human milk and infant formula. The selenium content of camels' milk was comparable to those of other types of milk, Approximately 50-80% of zinc, copper and manganese in camels' milk were associated with the casein fraction, similar to that of cows' milk, The majority of selenium and iron in camels' milk was in association with the low molecular weight fraction, It is recommended that camels' milk be considered as a potential source of manganese, selenium and iron, perhaps not only for infants, but also for other groups suspected of mild deficiency of these elements. Further investigations are required to confirm this proposal.

  8. Study of brucellosis in serum of camels in southeast of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Rafieipour

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out in the town of Qalegange, located in southeast of Iran, home of about 3816 camels. To study brucellosis in these animals, serological examinations including rose Bengal plat test (RBPT, MRT and 2ME were performed on 3502 camel’s serum samples. Positive results were obtained in 245 (7%, 163 (4.66% and 89 (7.92% camels thus tested, respectively. Twenty three percent of the positive camels were adult 2 years old, 36% three years old, 22% four years old, 17% five years old and the remaining 3 percent were six years old. In the infected herds, abortion rates associated with the disease ranged from 10 to 39 percent. Other ailments observed associated with brucellosis were retention of the placenta, fetal death and mummification, delayed maturity and infertility. Recommendations for brucellosis control were given, in order to increase the awareness of shepherds, by suggesting regular testing, slaughtering of infected animals and vaccinations.

  9. Comparison of the principal proteins in bovine, caprine, buffalo, equine and camel milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinz, Katharina; O'Connor, Paula M; Huppertz, Thom; Ross, R Paul; Kelly, Alan L

    2012-05-01

    Proteomic analysis of bovine, caprine, buffalo, equine and camel milk highlighted significant interspecies differences. Camel milk was found to be devoid of β-lactoglobulin, whereas β-lactoglobulin was the major whey protein in bovine, buffalo, caprine, and equine milk. Five different isoforms of κ-casein were found in camel milk, analogous to the micro-heterogeneity observed for bovine κ-casein. Several spots observed in 2D-electrophoretograms of milk of all species could tentatively be identified as polypeptides arising from the enzymatic hydrolysis of caseins. The understanding gained from the proteomic comparison of these milks may be of relevance both in terms of identifying sources of hypoallergenic alternatives to bovine milk and detection of adulteration of milk samples and products.

  10. Etoposide Incorporated into Camel Milk Phospholipids Liposomes Shows Increased Activity against Fibrosarcoma in a Mouse Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamzah M. Maswadeh

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Phospholipids were isolated from camel milk and identified by using high performance liquid chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS. Anticancer drug etoposide (ETP was entrapped in liposomes, prepared from camel milk phospholipids, to determine its activity against fibrosarcoma in a murine model. Fibrosarcoma was induced in mice by injecting benzopyrene (BAP and tumor-bearing mice were treated with various formulations of etoposide, including etoposide entrapped camel milk phospholipids liposomes (ETP-Cam-liposomes and etoposide-loaded DPPC-liposomes (ETP-DPPC-liposomes. The tumor-bearing mice treated with ETP-Cam-liposomes showed slow progression of tumors and increased survival compared to free ETP or ETP-DPPC-liposomes. These results suggest that ETP-Cam-liposomes may prove to be a better drug delivery system for anticancer drugs.

  11. Etoposide incorporated into camel milk phospholipids liposomes shows increased activity against fibrosarcoma in a mouse model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maswadeh, Hamzah M; Aljarbou, Ahmad N; Alorainy, Mohammed S; Alsharidah, Mansour S; Khan, Masood A

    2015-01-01

    Phospholipids were isolated from camel milk and identified by using high performance liquid chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS). Anticancer drug etoposide (ETP) was entrapped in liposomes, prepared from camel milk phospholipids, to determine its activity against fibrosarcoma in a murine model. Fibrosarcoma was induced in mice by injecting benzopyrene (BAP) and tumor-bearing mice were treated with various formulations of etoposide, including etoposide entrapped camel milk phospholipids liposomes (ETP-Cam-liposomes) and etoposide-loaded DPPC-liposomes (ETP-DPPC-liposomes). The tumor-bearing mice treated with ETP-Cam-liposomes showed slow progression of tumors and increased survival compared to free ETP or ETP-DPPC-liposomes. These results suggest that ETP-Cam-liposomes may prove to be a better drug delivery system for anticancer drugs.

  12. Etoposide Incorporated into Camel Milk Phospholipids Liposomes Shows Increased Activity against Fibrosarcoma in a Mouse Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maswadeh, Hamzah M.; Aljarbou, Ahmad N.; Alorainy, Mohammed S.; Alsharidah, Mansour S.; Khan, Masood A.

    2015-01-01

    Phospholipids were isolated from camel milk and identified by using high performance liquid chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS). Anticancer drug etoposide (ETP) was entrapped in liposomes, prepared from camel milk phospholipids, to determine its activity against fibrosarcoma in a murine model. Fibrosarcoma was induced in mice by injecting benzopyrene (BAP) and tumor-bearing mice were treated with various formulations of etoposide, including etoposide entrapped camel milk phospholipids liposomes (ETP-Cam-liposomes) and etoposide-loaded DPPC-liposomes (ETP-DPPC-liposomes). The tumor-bearing mice treated with ETP-Cam-liposomes showed slow progression of tumors and increased survival compared to free ETP or ETP-DPPC-liposomes. These results suggest that ETP-Cam-liposomes may prove to be a better drug delivery system for anticancer drugs. PMID:25821817

  13. Differences in the susceptibility of dromedary and Bactrian camels to foot-and-mouth disease virus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larska, M.; Wernery, U.; Kinne, J.

    2009-01-01

    as positive controls, displayed typical moderate clinical signs of FMD and developed viraemia and high antibody titres. The presence of the virus was also detected in probang and mouth-swab samples for several days after inoculation. In contrast, the inoculated dromedary camels were not susceptible to FMDV...... type A infection. None of them showed clinical signs of FMD or developed viraemia or specific anti-FMDV antibodies despite the high dose of virus inoculated. All the contact sheep and contact dromedaries that were kept together with the inoculated camels remained virus-negative and did not seroconvert...... when tested up to 28 days post-inoculation (p.i.). In comparison with the non-susceptible dromedaries, the two inoculated Bactrian camels showed moderate to severe clinical signs of FMD; however, the clinical signs of FMD appeared rather late, between 8 and 14 days p.i., compared to the inoculated...

  14. Camels Milk: Nutrition and Health Perspectives Iranian Traditional Medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyyd Musa al-Reza Hosseini

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Camel milk is the closest to human mother’s milk. In the references on Iranian traditional medicine, camel’s milk has been represented as the one having numerous nutritious and medical properties.Objectives: In this article, the nutritive and therapeutic effects of camel’s milk have been examined from the view point of Iranian traditional medicine.Materials and Methods: The present study is a qualitative one, which was carried out, based on certain criteria, through purposeful search of certain keywords in the written references of Iranian traditional medicine.Results: Numerous pharmacological functions and therapeutic effects of camel’s milk on patients suffering from liver, kidney, bladder, spleen, stomach and intestines, uterus, skin, lungs, and brain diseases have been mentioned. Camel’s milk seems to be an appropriate alternative/supplement to nourish infants and children.Conclusions: Animal resources, such as camel’s milk and its various products, have comprehensively been dealt with regarding their nutritive and therapeutic effects. Its compatibility with and similarity to mother’s milk have led to its application in pediatrics; thus, offering valid information to pediatricians on camel’s milk can further enhance the consumption of this natural product.

  15. Validation experiments on finite element models of an ostrich (Struthio camelus cranium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew R. Cuff

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The first finite element (FE validation of a complete avian cranium was performed on an extant palaeognath, the ostrich (Struthio camelus. Ex-vivo strains were collected from the cranial bone and rhamphotheca. These experimental strains were then compared to convergence tested, specimen-specific finite element (FE models. The FE models contained segmented cortical and trabecular bone, sutures and the keratinous rhamphotheca as identified from micro-CT scan data. Each of these individual materials was assigned isotropic material properties either from the literature or from nanoindentation, and the FE models compared to the ex-vivo results. The FE models generally replicate the location of peak strains and reflect the correct mode of deformation in the rostral region. The models are too stiff in regions of experimentally recorded high strain and too elastic in regions of low experimentally recorded low strain. The mode of deformation in the low strain neurocranial region is not replicated by the FE models, and although the models replicate strain orientations to within 10° in some regions, in most regions the correlation is not strong. Cranial sutures, as has previously been found in other taxa, are important for modifying both strain magnitude and strain patterns across the entire skull, but especially between opposing the sutural junctions. Experimentally, we find that the strains on the surface of the rhamphotheca are much lower than those found on nearby bone. The FE models produce much higher principal strains despite similar strain ratios across the entirety of the rhamphotheca. This study emphasises the importance of attempting to validate FE models, modelling sutures and rhamphothecae in birds, and shows that whilst location of peak strain and patterns of deformation can be modelled, replicating experimental data in digital models of avian crania remains problematic.

  16. Analysis of immunoglobulin transcripts in the ostrich Struthio camelus, a primitive avian species.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tian Huang

    Full Text Available Previous studies on the immunoglobulin (Ig genes in avian species are limited (mainly to galliformes and anseriformes but have revealed several interesting features, including the absence of the IgD and Igκ encoding genes, inversion of the IgA encoding gene and the use of gene conversion as the primary mechanism to generate an antibody repertoire. To better understand the Ig genes and their evolutionary development in birds, we analyzed the Ig genes in the ostrich (Struthio camelus, which is one of the most primitive birds. Similar to the chicken and duck, the ostrich expressed only three IgH chain isotypes (IgM, IgA and IgY and λ light chains. The IgM and IgY constant domains are similar to their counterparts described in other vertebrates. Although conventional IgM, IgA and IgY cDNAs were identified in the ostrich, we also detected a transcript encoding a short membrane-bound form of IgA (lacking the last two C(H exons that was undetectable at the protein level. No IgD or κ encoding genes were identified. The presence of a single leader peptide in the expressed heavy chain and light chain V regions indicates that gene conversion also plays a major role in the generation of antibody diversity in the ostrich. Because the ostrich is one of the most primitive living aves, this study suggests that the distinct features of the bird Ig genes appeared very early during the divergence of the avian species and are thus shared by most, if not all, avian species.

  17. Quality and safety of camel milk along the value chain in Eastern Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mulugojjam Adugna

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The safety of camel milk was assessed along the value chain in Erer, eastern Ethiopia. A total of 24 camel milk samples were aseptically collected from producers in Erer (n=12, and wholesalers and retailers (n=12 along the chain. Milk quality parameters were analyzed following standard procedures. The mean (±SD total bacteria (TBC, Enterobacteriaceae (EC, coliform (CC, spore-forming bacteria (SFBC and yeast and mould (YMC counts of the milk samples analyzed were 5.2 ± 1.90, 3.2 ± 2.30, 2.9 ± 2.27, 2.1 ± 2.41 and 2.7 ± 1.61 log10 cfu mL-1, respectively. The TBC, EC, CC and SFBC of milk samples obtained from retailers in the final marketing sites were significantly higher (P < 0.05 than those obtained from producers and wholesalers in Erer. Salmonella spp. was detected in milk samples collected from all sites. Other microorganisms isolated from camel milk samples include Staphylococcus aureus (16.2%, Entrobacter spp. (14.9%, Streptococcus spp. (13.5%,Escherichia coli (8.1%, Acinetobacter spp. (7.4%, Staphylococcus epidermidis (6.8%, Klebsiella spp. (6.1%, Bacillus spp. (5.4%, Corynebacterium spp. (5.4%, Micrococcus spp. (4.7%, Lactobacillus spp. (4.1%, Listeria spp. (4.1%, Pseudomonas spp. (2% and Shigella spp. (1.4% . The quality of camel milk produced in the study area was generally poor and microbial contamination of camel milk occurs along the value chain while it is transported from the production site to the market. This calls for strict hygienic measures along the entire value chain in order to improve the quality and safety of camel milk produced in the area evaluated.

  18. Pathology of camel tuberculosis and molecular characterization of its causative agents in pastoral regions of Ethiopia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gezahegne Mamo

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A cross sectional study was conducted on 906 apparently healthy camels slaughtered at Akaki and Metehara abattoirs to investigate the pathology of camel tuberculosis (TB and characterize its causative agents using postmortem examination, mycobacteriological culturing, and multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR, region of difference-4 (RD4-based PCR and spoligotyping. The prevalence of camel TB was 10.04% (91/906 on the basis of pathology and it was significantly higher in females (χ(2 = 4.789; P = 0.029. The tropism of TB lesions was significantly different among the lymph nodes (χ(2 = 22.697; P = 0.002 and lung lobes (χ(2 = 17.901; P = 0.006. Mycobacterial growth was observed in 34% (31/91 of camels with grossly suspicious TB lesions. Upon further molecular characterization using multiplex PCR, 68% (21/31 of the colonies showed a positive signal for the genus Mycobacterium, of which two were confirmed Mycobacterium bovis (M. bovis by RD4 deletion typing. Further characterization of the two M. bovis at strains level revealed that one of the strains was SB0133 while the other strain was new and had not been reported to the M. bovis database prior to this study. Hence, it has now been reported to the database, and designated as SB1953. In conclusion, the results of the present study have shown that the majority of camel TB lesions are caused by mycobacteria other than Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex. And hence further identification and characterization of these species would be useful towards the efforts made to control TB in camels.

  19. PROTECTIVE EFFECT OF CAMEL MILK AS ANTI-DIABETIC SUPPLEMENT: BIOCHEMICAL, MOLECULAR AND IMMUNOHISTOCHEMICAL STUDY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansour, Ahmed A; Nassan, Mohammed A; Saleh, Osama M; Soliman, Mohamed M

    2017-01-01

    Diabetes is a serious disease affects human health. Diabetes in advanced stages is accompanied by general weakness and alteration in fats and carbohydrates metabolism. Recently there are some scientific trends about the usage of camel milk (CM) in the treatment of diabetes and its associated alterations. CM contains vital active particles with insulin like action that cure diabetes and its complications but how these effects occur, still unclear. Seventy-five adult male rats of the albino type divided into five equal groups. Group 1 served as a negative control (C). Group 2 was supplemented with camel milk (CM). Diabetes was induced in the remaining groups (3, 4 and 5). Group 3 served as positive diabetic control (D). Group 4 served as diabetic and administered metformin (D+MET). Group 5 served as diabetes and supplemented with camel milk (D+CM). Camel milk was supplemented for two consecutive months. Serum glucose, leptin, insulin, liver, kidney, antioxidants, MDA and lipid profiles were assayed. Tissues from liver and adipose tissues were examined using RT-PCR analysis for the changes in mRNA expression of genes of carbohydrates and lipid metabolism. Pancreas and liver were used for immunohistochemical examination using specific antibodies. Camel milk supplementation ameliorated serum biochemical measurements that altered after diabetes induction. CM supplementation up-regulated mRNA expression of IRS-2, PK, and FASN genes, while down-regulated the expression of CPT-1 to control mRNA expression level. CM did not affect the expression of PEPCK gene. On the other hand, metformin failed to reduce the expression of CPT-1 compared to camel milk administered rats. Immunohistochemical findings revealed that CM administration restored the immunostaining reactivity of insulin and GLUT-4 in the pancreas of diabetic rats. CM administration is of medical importance and helps physicians in the treatment of diabetes mellitus.

  20. First report of the in vitro nematicidal effects of camel milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alimi, Dhouha; Hajaji, Soumaya; Rekik, Mourad; Abidi, Amel; Gharbi, Mohamed; Akkari, Hafidh

    2016-09-15

    Antipathogenic properties of camel milk have been investigated to substitute for drugs hence overcome drug resistance. The main objective of this present study was to investigate the anthelmintic activity of camel milk in relationship to its chemical composition. In vitro anthelmintic effects of camel milk against Haemonchus contortus from sheep were ascertained by egg hatching and worm motility inhibitions in comparison to milks from cow, ewe and goat as well as a reference drug albendazole. Chemical composition revealed that camel milk has higher contents of protective protein (lactoferrin) and vitamin C than other species' milk. It showed ovicidal activity at all tested concentrations and completely inhibited egg hatching at a concentration close to 100mg/mL (inhibitory concentration (IC50)=42.39mg/mL). Camel milk revealed in vitro activity against adult parasites in terms of the paralysis and/or death of the worms at different hours post treatment. After 8h of exposure, it induced 100% mortality at the highest tested concentration. There was 82.3% immobility of worms in albendazole 8h post-exposition. No such effects were seen with the other species' milks. Bioactive compounds such as lactoferrin and vitamin C may be involved in such an effect. To our knowledge, these results depict for the first time that camel milk possesses in vitro anthelmintic properties and further in vitro and in vivo trials against different parasite species and stages are required to make use of this milk for the control of gastrointestinal nematode parasites. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  1. [The influences of camel milk on the immune response of chronic hepatitis B patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saltanat, Heinayat; Li, Hui; Xu, Yan; Wang, Jie; Liu, Fang; Geng, Xin-hui

    2009-05-01

    To investigate the influences of camel milk on the immune response of the chronic hepatitis B patients and its possible mechanism. After drinking camel milk for one year, 44 chronic hepatitis B patients were observed and the HBV-DNA, hepatitis B virus markers, ALT, IL-4 and INF-gamma levels in serum were detected. 60 chronic hepatitis B patients without any interventions for 1 year were taken as control. The level of Th1-type cytokine IFN-gamma in camel milk drinking group was significantly higher than that in the non-drinking camel milk group (Pcamel milk drinking group was significantly lower than that in the non-drinking camel milk group (Pcamel milk drinking group were near to those in the normal control group. The HBV-DNA negative rate of the camel milk drinking group (90.91%) was significantly higher than that of the non-drinking group (3.23%) (Pcamel milk drinking group (54.55%) was also higher than that of the non-drinking group (1.61%)(Pcamel milk drinking group (100%)and 7 cases in the non-drinking group(11.29%) turned back to the normal level, there was a significant difference between the two group (PCamel milk regulates the expression of Th1/Th2-type cytokines, and corrects the imbalance of Th1/Th2 cytokine network, which could strengthen the cellular immune response, inhibit the replication of virus DNA, and promote the recovery of the chronic hepatitis B patients.

  2. Pathology of camel tuberculosis and molecular characterization of its causative agents in pastoral regions of Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mamo, Gezahegne; Bayleyegn, Gizachew; Sisay Tessema, Tesfaye; Legesse, Mengistu; Medhin, Girmay; Bjune, Gunnar; Abebe, Fekadu; Ameni, Gobena

    2011-01-24

    A cross sectional study was conducted on 906 apparently healthy camels slaughtered at Akaki and Metehara abattoirs to investigate the pathology of camel tuberculosis (TB) and characterize its causative agents using postmortem examination, mycobacteriological culturing, and multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR), region of difference-4 (RD4)-based PCR and spoligotyping. The prevalence of camel TB was 10.04% (91/906) on the basis of pathology and it was significantly higher in females (χ(2) = 4.789; P = 0.029). The tropism of TB lesions was significantly different among the lymph nodes (χ(2) = 22.697; P = 0.002) and lung lobes (χ(2) = 17.901; P = 0.006). Mycobacterial growth was observed in 34% (31/91) of camels with grossly suspicious TB lesions. Upon further molecular characterization using multiplex PCR, 68% (21/31) of the colonies showed a positive signal for the genus Mycobacterium, of which two were confirmed Mycobacterium bovis (M. bovis) by RD4 deletion typing. Further characterization of the two M. bovis at strains level revealed that one of the strains was SB0133 while the other strain was new and had not been reported to the M. bovis database prior to this study. Hence, it has now been reported to the database, and designated as SB1953. In conclusion, the results of the present study have shown that the majority of camel TB lesions are caused by mycobacteria other than Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex. And hence further identification and characterization of these species would be useful towards the efforts made to control TB in camels.

  3. Effects of Storage Time on Some Characteristics of Packed Camel Meat in Low Temperature

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammad Jouki; Naimeh Khazaei

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this research was to determine the effects storage time on chemical, physical and microbial characteristics camel meat. In this study longissiums muscles of camel meat were excised and stored at 4±1ºC. pH, DL, WHC, shear force values, microbial contamination and sensory Characteristics were determined. The study also indicated that time storage had no significant effect (p>0.05) on pH with samples stored at 4±1ºC. shear force increased over time but not significantly (p

  4. Ethnoveterinary of Sahrawi pastoralists of Western Sahara: camel diseases and remedies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volpato, Gabriele; Lamin Saleh, Saleh Mohamed; Di Nardo, Antonello

    2015-06-20

    Pastoral populations around the world hold complex and detailed ethnoveterinary knowledge, essential for the survival of their herds and securing their livelihood. In recent decades, several studies have given attention to local veterinary remedies and practices and their validation, and to the local conceptualization of livestock diseases. Despite this, relatively little has been reported on indigenous knowledge of camel diseases (e.g., aetiological factors, epidemiological patterns, symptoms, prevention and treatments). This paper focuses on the traditional knowledge of camel diseases and their treatments among Sahrawi nomads, detailing how this knowledge is powerfully reflected on pastoral adaptation strategies to the ecological system of Western Sahara. Between 2005 and 2010, freelisting exercise on camel diseases with 46 Sahrawi nomads and refugees, semi-structured interviews with 36 knowledgeable informants about camel diseases and associated treatments, and a voucher specimen collection of the plants and products cited were conducted in the territories administered by the Saharawi Arab Democratic Republic, Western Sahara. Analytical methods included standard ethnobiological, ethnobotanical and cultural consensus analyses. In total, 42 camel diseases were freelisted by informants, with four (i.e., mange, dermatomycosis, respiratory infections, and mastitis) found to be culturally highly salient. These four represent the most common veterinary conditions experienced by Sahrawi pastoralists. In addition, 42 plant species belonging to 22 botanical families (Hammada scoparia, Acacia tortilis, Zygophyllum gaetulum, Nucularia perrinii, and Panicum turgidum among the species most used) were listed as used in the treatment of these diseases, as well as about 30 remedies of animal (e.g., from camels, donkeys, and/or spiny-tailed lizards) and mineral origin, and of cauterizations. This study provides an overall picture of the most important camel diseases and remedies

  5. Camel Milk Is a Safer Choice than Goat Milk for Feeding Children with Cow Milk Allergy

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammad Ehlayel; Abdulbari Bener; Khalid Abu Hazeima; Fatima Al-Mesaifri

    2011-01-01

    Background. Various sources of mammalian milk have been tried in CMA. Objectives. To determine whether camel milk is safer than goat milk in CMA. Methods. Prospective study conducted at Hamad Medical Corporation between April 2007 and April 2010, on children with CMA. Each child had medical examination, CBC, total IgE, cow milk-specific IgE and SPT. CMA children were tested against fresh camel and goat milks. Results. Of 38 children (median age 21.5 months), 21 (55.3%) presented with urticari...

  6. Risk factors for MERS coronavirus infection in dromedary camels in Burkina Faso, Ethiopia, and Morocco, 2015

    OpenAIRE

    Miguel, Eve; Chevalier, Véronique; Ayelet, Gelagay; Ben Bencheikh, M.N.; Boussini, H.; Chu, D. K. W.; El Berbri, I.; Fassi Fihri, O.; Faye, Bernard; Fekadu, G.; Grosbois, Vladimir; Ng, B.C.; Perera, Ranawaka A. P. M.; So, T; Traoré, A.

    2017-01-01

    Understanding Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) transmission in dromedary camels is important, as they consitute a source of zoonotic infection to humans. To identify risk factors for MERS-CoV infection in camels bred in diverse conditions in Burkina Faso, Ethiopia and Morocco, blood samples and nasal swabs were sampled in February–March 2015. A relatively high MERS-CoV RNA rate was detected in Ethiopia (up to 15.7%; 95% confidence interval (CI): 8.2–28.0), followed by B...

  7. Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) in dromedary camels, Oman, 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowotny, N; Kolodziejek, J

    2014-04-24

    A countrywide survey in Oman revealed Middle Eastrespiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) nucleicacid in five of 76 dromedary camels. Camel-derivedMERS-CoV sequences (3,754 nucleotides assembled from partial sequences of the open reading frame (ORF)1a, spike, and ORF4b genes) from Oman and Qatar were slightly different from each other, but closely related to human MERS-CoV sequences from the same geographical areas, suggesting local zoonotic transmission. High viral loads in nasal and conjunctival swabs suggest possible transmission by the respiratory route.

  8. Too big to be noticed: cryptic invasion of Asian camel crickets in North American houses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epps, Mary Jane; Menninger, Holly L; LaSala, Nathan; Dunn, Robert R

    2014-01-01

    Despite the rapid expansion of the built environment, we know little about the biology of species living in human-constructed habitats. Camel crickets (Rhaphidophoridae) are commonly observed in North American houses and include a range of native taxa as well as the Asian Diestrammena asynamora (Adelung), a species occasionally reported from houses though considered to be established only in greenhouses. We launched a continental-scale citizen science campaign to better understand the relative distributions and frequency of native and nonnative camel crickets in human homes across North America. Participants contributed survey data about the presence or absence of camel crickets in homes, as well as photographs and specimens of camel crickets allowing us to identify the major genera and/or species in and around houses. Together, these data offer insight into the geographical distribution of camel crickets as a presence in homes, as well as the relative frequency and distribution of native and nonnative camel crickets encountered in houses. In so doing, we show that the exotic Diestrammena asynamora not only has become a common presence in eastern houses, but is found in these environments far more frequently than native camel crickets. Supplemental pitfall trapping along transects in 10 urban yards in Raleigh, NC revealed that D. asynamora can be extremely abundant locally around some homes, with as many as 52 individuals collected from pitfalls in a single yard over two days of sampling. The number of D. asynamora individuals present in a trap was negatively correlated with the trap's distance from a house, suggesting that these insects may be preferentially associated with houses but also are present outside. In addition, we report the establishment in the northeastern United States of a second exotic species, putatively Diestrammena japanica Blatchley, which was previously undocumented in the literature. Our results offer new insight into the relative frequency

  9. In vitro investigation of anticancer and ACE-inhibiting activity, α-amylase and α-glucosidase inhibition, and antioxidant activity of camel milk fermented with camel milk probiotic: A comparative study with fermented bovine milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayyash, Mutamed; Al-Nuaimi, Amna K; Al-Mahadin, Suheir; Liu, Shao-Quan

    2018-01-15

    This study aimed to investigate in vitro the health-promoting benefits (anticancer activity, α-amylase and α-glucosidase inhibition, angiotensin-converting-enzyme (ACE)-inhibition, antioxidant and proteolytic activity) of camel milk fermented with indigenous probiotic strains of Lactobacillus spp., compared with fermented bovine milk. The three camel milk probiotic strains Lb. reuteri-KX881777, Lb. plantarum-KX881772, Lb. plantarum-KX881779 and a control strain Lb. plantarum DSM2468 were employed to ferment camel and bovine milks separately. The proteolytic and antioxidant activity of water soluble extracts (WSEs) from all fermented camel milks were higher than those of fermented bovine milk. α-Amylase inhibition of WSEs were >34% in both milk types fermented with all strains during storage periods, except the WSE of camel milk fermented by Lp.K772. The highest ACE-inhibition of the WSE from camel milk fermented by Lr.K777 was >80%. The proliferations of Caco-2, MCF-7 and HELA cells were more inhibited when treated with the WSE of fermented camel milk. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Confirmed low prevalence of Listeria mastitis in she-camel milk delivers a safe, alternative milk for human consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osman, Kamelia M; Samir, Ahmed; Orabi, Ahmed; Zolnikov, Tara Rava

    2014-02-01

    She-camel milk is an alternative solution for people allergic to milk; unfortunately, potential harmful bacteria have not been tested in she-camel milk. Listeria monocytogenes is one harmful bacterium that causes adverse health effects if chronically or acutely ingested by humans. The purpose of this study was to estimate the prevalence, characterize the phenotypic, genetic characterization, virulence factors, and antibiopotential harmful bacteria resistance profile of Listeria isolated from the milk of she-camel. Udder milk samples were collected from 100 she-camels and screened for mastitis using the California mastitis test (46 healthy female camels, 24 subclinical mastitic animals and 30 clinical mastitic animals). Samples were then examined for the presence of pathogenic Listeria spp; if located, the isolation of Listeria was completed using the International Organization for Standards technique to test for pathogenicity. The isolates were subjected to PCR assay for virulence-associated genes. Listeria spp. were isolated from 4% of samples and only 1.0% was confirmed as L. monocytogenes. The results of this study provide evidence for the low prevalence of intramammary Listeria infection; additionally, this study concludes she-camel milk in healthy camels milked and harvested in proper hygienic conditions may be used as alternative milk for human consumption. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Human-Dromedary Camel Interactions and the Risk of Acquiring Zoonotic Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gossner, C; Danielson, N; Gervelmeyer, A; Berthe, F; Faye, B; Kaasik Aaslav, K; Adlhoch, C; Zeller, H; Penttinen, P; Coulombier, D

    2016-02-01

    Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) cases without documented contact with another human MERS-CoV case make up 61% (517/853) of all reported cases. These primary cases are of particular interest for understanding the source(s) and route(s) of transmission and for designing long-term disease control measures. Dromedary camels are the only animal species for which there is convincing evidence that it is a host species for MERS-CoV and hence a potential source of human infections. However, only a small proportion of the primary cases have reported contact with camels. Other possible sources and vehicles of infection include food-borne transmission through consumption of unpasteurized camel milk and raw meat, medicinal use of camel urine and zoonotic transmission from other species. There are critical knowledge gaps around this new disease which can only be closed through traditional field epidemiological investigations and studies designed to test hypothesis regarding sources of infection and risk factors for disease. Since the 1960s, there has been a radical change in dromedary camel farming practices in the Arabian Peninsula with an intensification of the production and a concentration of the production around cities. It is possible that the recent intensification of camel herding in the Arabian Peninsula has increased the virus' reproductive number and attack rate in camel herds while the 'urbanization' of camel herding increased the frequency of zoonotic 'spillover' infections from camels to humans. It is reasonable to assume, although difficult to measure, that the sensitivity of public health surveillance to detect previously unknown diseases is lower in East Africa than in Saudi Arabia and that sporadic human cases may have gone undetected there. © 2014 The Authors. Zoonoses and Public Health Published by Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  12. Anti-diabetic effect of camel milk in alloxan-induced diabetic dogs: a dose-response experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sboui, A; Khorchani, T; Djegham, M; Agrebi, A; Elhatmi, H; Belhadj, O

    2010-08-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of camel milk in alloxan-induced diabetic dogs and to follow this effect at three doses of milk. Firstly, three groups of dogs were used: two groups composed each of four diabetic dogs and receiving raw camel milk (treatment 1) or cow milk (treatment 2), and four healthy dogs getting raw camel milk (treatment 3) were used as control. Each animal was treated with 500 ml of milk daily. Secondly, we compared the effects of three amounts of camel milk: 100 ml, 250 ml and 500 ml to treat the diabetic dogs. After week 3, the dogs treated with camel milk showed a statistically significant decrease in blood glucose (from 10.88 +/- 0.55 to 6.22 +/- 0.5 mmol/l) and total protein concentrations (from 78.16 +/- 2.61 g/l to 63.63 +/- 4.43 g/l). For cholesterol levels, there was a decrease from week 2 (from 6.17 +/- 0.5 mmol/l to 4.79 +/- 0.5 mmol/l). There were no significant difference in blood glucose, cholesterol or total protein concentrations in dogs drinking 250 and 500 ml of camel milk. The dogs treated with 100 ml of camel milk did not show any significant decrease in blood glucose levels, and cholesterol and total protein concentrations. The investigation was not limited to the improvement in glycemic balance, lipids and proteins control in diabetic dogs getting camel milk, but we also noted a stability of this state after the dogs stopped to drink milk. This effect depended on the quantity of camel milk used to treat diabetic dogs.

  13. Histoanatomical study of the Sublingual Salivary Gland in the Camel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.a Ebrahimi

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available The heads of ten adult camels were used in this study. Following skin removal, the length, width and thickness of the gland was measured by ruler and caliper. Dye injection was used to distinguish the sublingual duct papilla and 1cm sections from the gland were removed and fixed to prepare histologic sections stained with H & E for microscopic studies. The long, ribbon like and lobulated monostomatic part of the gland is situated underneath the tongue alongside the hypoglossus muscle. This part of the gland begins from the mandibular symphysis and is continued caudally to near the root of the tongue. The average length, width and thickness of this part were 15.2±0.02, 2.2±0.03 and 0.5±0.05 cm respectively. The polystomatic part was observed as scattered and lobulated near the submucosa and in front of the monostomatic part with decreasing concentration caudally. The average size of these fragments was approximately 0.5±0.02 cm. The overall appearance of the gland was lobulated with a pink colour. The monostomatic part has a single duct entering the sublingual caruncle. The minute polystomatic ducts open into the depressions alongside the tongue inside the oral cavity. These ducts are numerous. Histologically, the gland is surrounded by a capsule of dense connective tissue. Trabcules from the capsule penetrate the gland and divide it into lobules. Loose connective tissue makes up the framework of the gland and there are tubulo-acinus glands in the spaces of this framework. Approximately 95% of the secretory cells of this gland consist of mucous secreting cells. Myoepithelial cells are seen on the external surface of the secretory cells and also alongside the connecting ducts.

  14. Fermented Camel Milk (Chal: Chemical, Microbial and Functional Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Salami

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine physicochemical, microbial properties and antioxidant activity of fermented camel milk (Chal and introduce it as a functional food. The protein content of the samples was determined using Kjeldahl method and total dry matter using oven drying method. The amount of fat content with Gerber method and pH was measured using a pH meter. Antioxidant activity was also determined using 2,2’-azino-bis-(3-ethylbensothiazoline-6- sulfonic acid (ABTS method. The mineral analysis was performed with atomic absorption spectroscopy and microbial count by pour plate method. Results revealed that fat, protein content and total solid determined 5.82±0.27%, 3.07±0.073%, and 12.24±0.16%, respectively. Acidity and pH determined 80±7 °D and 4.52±0.10, respectively. When a food has calcium by itself, this calcium is bonded with the protein of food, this calcium is more effective in our body than the calcium we add to food and they have not bonded any proteins. Adequate calcium consumption may support to decrease the risk of osteoporosis in life. Calcium ranged 103.29±3.87% and phosphorus 10.25±0.1% for Chal samples, respectively. The total counts were equal 6.54±0.19 log CFUmL -1; Coliform count was determined in the ranges of 2.34±0.23 logCFUmL -1 for Chal samples. The results showed that Chal was rich in antioxidant. The antioxidant inhibitory activity of Chal was obtained 45.38%. Diets rich in antioxidants, can inhibit LDL oxidation, influence the activities of immune-competent cells and inhibit the formation of cell-to-cell adhesion factors. Therefore, Chal is introduced as a traditional functional food.

  15. Studies of “emaciation ailment” in the Bactrian camel | Shen | African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We found that concentrations of copper (Cu) in soil and forage from affected and unaffected areas were similar, but the concentrations of sulfur (S) in soil and forage were significantly higher (P<0.01) in affected than in unaffected areas. Concentrations of Cu in blood, hair and liver from the affected camels were significantly ...

  16. A survey for piroplasmids in horses and Bactrian camels in North-Eastern Mongolia

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sloboda, M.; Jirků, Milan; Lukešová, D.; Qablan, M.; Batsukh, Z.; Fiala, Ivan; Horin, P.; Modrý, David; Lukeš, Julius

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 179, 1-3 (2011), 246-249 ISSN 0304-4017 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA523/09/1972 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60220518 Keywords : Piroplasmosis * Babesia * Theileria * Horse * Bactrian camel * Dog Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 2.579, year: 2011

  17. Mineral contents of extracellular fluids in camel and cattle in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Serum, urine, and rumen samples were obtained from the animals and analysed for calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, sodium, potassium, and copper. The results showed that the concentrations of all the minerals studied, except sodium, were higher in the ruminal fluid of camels compared to cattle. However, serum ...

  18. Open source marketing: Camel cigarette brand marketing in the "Web 2.0" world.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, B; Chapman, S

    2009-06-01

    The international trend towards comprehensive bans on tobacco advertising has seen the tobacco industry become increasingly innovative in its approach to marketing. Further fuelling this innovation is the rapid evolution and accessibility of web-based technology. The internet, as a relatively unregulated marketing environment, provides many opportunities for tobacco companies to pursue their promotional ambitions. In this paper, "open source marketing" is considered as a vehicle that has been appropriated by the tobacco industry, through a case study of efforts to design the packaging for the Camel Signature Blends range of cigarettes. Four sources are used to explore this case study including a marketing literature search, a web-based content search via the Google search engine, interviews with advertising trade informants and an analysis of the Camel brand website. RJ Reynolds (RJR) has proven to be particularly innovative in designing cigarette packaging. RJR engaged with thousands of consumers through their Camel brand website to design four new cigarette flavours and packages. While the Camel Signature Blends packaging designs were subsequently modified for the retail market due to problems arising with their cartoon-like imagery, important lessons arise on how the internet blurs the line between marketing and market research. Open source marketing has the potential to exploit advertising ban loopholes and stretch legal definitions in order to generate positive word of mouth about tobacco products. There are also lessons in the open source marketing movement for more effective tobacco control measures including interactive social marketing campaigns and requiring plain packaging of tobacco products.

  19. Proteomic analysis of cow, yak, buffalo, goat and camel milk whey proteins: quantitative differential expression patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yongxin; Bu, Dengpan; Zhao, Xiaowei; Sun, Peng; Wang, Jiaqi; Zhou, Lingyun

    2013-04-05

    To aid in unraveling diverse genetic and biological unknowns, a proteomic approach was used to analyze the whey proteome in cow, yak, buffalo, goat, and camel milk based on the isobaric tag for relative and absolute quantification (iTRAQ) techniques. This analysis is the first to produce proteomic data for the milk from the above-mentioned animal species: 211 proteins have been identified and 113 proteins have been categorized according to molecular function, cellular components, and biological processes based on gene ontology annotation. The results of principal component analysis showed significant differences in proteomic patterns among goat, camel, cow, buffalo, and yak milk. Furthermore, 177 differentially expressed proteins were submitted to advanced hierarchical clustering. The resulting clustering pattern included three major sample clusters: (1) cow, buffalo, and yak milk; (2) goat, cow, buffalo, and yak milk; and (3) camel milk. Certain proteins were chosen as characterization traits for a given species: whey acidic protein and quinone oxidoreductase for camel milk, biglycan for goat milk, uncharacterized protein (Accession Number: F1MK50 ) for yak milk, clusterin for buffalo milk, and primary amine oxidase for cow milk. These results help reveal the quantitative milk whey proteome pattern for analyzed species. This provides information for evaluating adulteration of specific specie milk and may provide potential directions for application of specific milk protein production based on physiological differences among animal species.

  20. Comparison of composition and whey protein fractions of human, camel, donkey, goat and cow milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Halima El-Hatmi

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to compare the physicochemical parameters of milk samples of five different species: cow, goat, donkey, camel and human. Also the analysis of whey protein profile in different milk samples was performed by anion-exchange fast protein liquid chromatography (FPLC while polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis was used to identify a single fraction. Camel milk was the most acid (pH 6.460±0.005 and the richest in total proteins (3.41±0.31 % and ash (0.750±0.102 %, whereas donkey milk had a neutral pH (7.03±0.02 and characterised by low proteins (1.12±0.40 % and fat (0.97±0.03 % content, being very close to human milk. Proteomic analysis of cow, goat, donkey, camel and human milk highlighted significant interspecies differences. Camel milk was similar to human milk in lacking of β-lactoglobulin and richness of α-lactalbumin. The knowledge gained from the proteomic comparison of the milk samples analysed within this study might be of relevance, both, in terms of identifying sources of hypoallergenic alternatives to bovine milk and detection of adulteration of milk samples and products.

  1. Camel milk inhibits murine hepatic carcinogenesis, initiated by diethylnitrosamine and promoted by phenobarbitone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hala M.F. El Miniawy

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out in order to investigate the possible inhibitory effect of camel milk (CM on induced hepatocarcinogenesis in rats. Twenty-eight male rats were assigned into 4 groups (7 rats per group. Group I served as control negative. Group II treated with camel milk. Group III was injected I/P with diethylnitrosamine (DENA (200 mg/kg as a single dose and after one week received 500 ppm phenobarbitone in drinking water. Group IV injected with DENA as group III and treated with camel milk. Estimation of AST, ALT, albumin, total protein and alpha fetoprotein (AFP in the serum of euthanized rats was performed. Histopathological examination and immunohistochemical staining of AFP and placental glutathione s transferase of the liver were carried out. Biochemical result at 38th week revealed an increase in serum AFP and a decrease in serum albumin on group III although no significance was detected. Histopathologically, the size of altered hepatic foci was smaller in the milk treated group (group IV. The number of mitotic figures observed in group IV was lower than group III. Hepatocellular carcinoma developed only in group III but not group IV. Immunohistochemical staining of AFP demonstrated an intense positive staining in group III and a weak positive staining in group IV. Similarly, the area percent of preneoplastic P-GST positive foci in liver was higher in group III than group IV. In conclusion, camel milk halted the progression of hepatocellular carcinoma.

  2. Raw Camel Milk Properties on Alloxan-Induced Diabetic Wistar Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kebir Nasr-Eddine

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Background and aims: Diabetes is one of the most frequent and serious chronic diseases in humans all over the world. The aim of our study was to evaluate the antidiabetic activity of camel milk on serum glucose and lipid profile of alloxan-induced diabetic rats.

  3. Beneficial anti-Parkinson effects of camel milk in Chlorpromazineinduced animal model: Behavioural and histopathological study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khatoon, Humera; Najam, Rahela; Mirza, Talat; Sikandar, Bushra

    2016-09-01

    Potential roles of natural products have been identified for preventing or treating various diseases. Our aim was to investigate the effectiveness of camel milk in an animal model of Parkinson's disease and compare it with standard treatment (levodopa + carbidopa combination). 40 Wistar albino rats weighing 200-250 gram were divided into four groups of 10 animals each. Group I was kept on water and served as normal control, group II served as negative control, treated with chlorpromazine (5mg/kg i.p.), group III was given camel milk (33ml/kg p.o) and group IV the standard combination of levodopa + carbidopa (100+10mg/kg) respectively, 30 minutes after chlorpromazine treatment. All animals were subjected to the drugs treatment for 30 days. Catalepsy was assessed by Bar test on day 21 and day 30 at 30, 60, 90 and 120 minutes interval. On 30th day animals were sacrificed and whole brains were examined for histopathological changes. The results revealed highly significant (pcamel milk on day 21 and 30 in comparison to chlorpromazine. When compared with standard therapy, the results showed that anti-Parkinson's activity of camel milk was significant (pcamel milk reveals intact architecture with mild degenerative changes than chlorpromazine and levodopa + carbidopa treated animals. In conclusion, camel milk possesses anti-Parkinson's activity. However, its long term efficacy and safety needs to be evaluated clinically.

  4. Detection of Helicobacter pylori in bovine, buffalo, camel, ovine, and caprine milk in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahimi, Ebrahim; Kheirabadi, Elahe Kazemi

    2012-05-01

    Helicobacter pylori infection in humans is one of the most common infections worldwide. However, the origin and transmission of this bacterium has not been clearly explained. One of the suggested theories is transmission via raw milk from animals to human beings. This study was conducted to determine the prevalence rate of H. pylori in bulk milk samples from dairy bovine, buffalo, camel, ovine, and caprine herds in Iran. In the present study, 447 bulk milk samples from 230 dairy bovine, buffalo, camel, ovine, and caprine herds were collected in four provinces and tested for H. pylori by cultural method and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for the detection of the ureC (glmM) gene. The animals whose milk samples collected for this study were clinically healthy. Using the cultural method, three of 447 milk samples (0.67%), including two sheep (2.2%) and one buffalo (1.6%) milk samples, were found to be contaminated with H. pylori. H. pylori ureC gene was detected in 56 (12.5%) of milk samples, including 19 cow (14.1%), 11 sheep (12.2%), nine goat (8.7%), two camel (3.6%), and 15 buffalo (23.4%) milk samples. Using PCR method, there were significant differences (pmilk samples collected from different species. The present study is the first report of the isolation of H. pylori from raw sheep and buffalo milk in Iran and the first demonstration of H. pylori DNA in camel and buffalo milk.

  5. Proteomic study on the stability of proteins in bovine, camel, and caprine milk sera after processing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, Lina; Boeren, Sjef; Smits, Marcel; Hooijdonk, van Toon; Vervoort, Jacques; Hettinga, Kasper

    2016-01-01

    Milk proteins have been shown to be very sensitive to processing. This study aims to investigate the changes of the bovine, camel, and caprine milk proteins after freezing, pasteurization (62 °C, 30 min), and spray drying by proteomic techniques, filter-aided sample preparation (FASP) and

  6. Coercive copopulation in two sexually cannibalistic camel-spider species (Arachnida: Solifugae)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hrusková-Martisová, M.; Pekár, S.; Bilde, T.

    2010-01-01

    Males can overcome female resistance to mating either by using luring behaviour or through sexual coercion. We studied mating behaviour in two sexually cannibalistic camel-spider species Galeodes caspius subfuscus (Galeodidae) and Gluvia dorsalis (Desiidae), to determine the presence of luring an...

  7. A traditional Sudanese fermented camel's milk product, Gariss, as a habitat of Streptococcus infantarius subsp. infantarius

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abdelgadir, Warda; Nielsen, Dennis Sandris; Hamad, Siddig

    2008-01-01

    Samples of the traditional Sudanese fermented camel's milk product Gariss representing 9 different regions in Sudan were microbiologically characterized using an integrated approach including phenotypic and genotypic methods. Lactic acid bacteria [log(CFU/g) = 7.76-8.66] and yeasts [log(CFU/g) = 6...

  8. Antibodies against MERS coronavirus in dromedary camels, United Arab Emirates, 2003 and 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Benjamin; Müller, Marcel A; Corman, Victor M; Reusken, Chantal B E M; Ritz, Daniel; Godeke, Gert-Jan; Lattwein, Erik; Kallies, Stephan; Siemens, Artem; van Beek, Janko; Drexler, Jan F; Muth, Doreen; Bosch, Berend-Jan; Wernery, Ulrich; Koopmans, Marion P G; Wernery, Renate; Drosten, Christian

    2014-04-01

    Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) has caused an ongoing outbreak of severe acute respiratory tract infection in humans in the Arabian Peninsula since 2012. Dromedary camels have been implicated as possible viral reservoirs. We used serologic assays to analyze 651 dromedary camel serum samples from the United Arab Emirates; 151 of 651 samples were obtained in 2003, well before onset of the current epidemic, and 500 serum samples were obtained in 2013. Recombinant spike protein-specific immunofluorescence and virus neutralization tests enabled clear discrimination between MERS-CoV and bovine CoV infections. Most (632/651, 97.1%) camels had antibodies against MERS-CoV. This result included all 151 serum samples obtained in 2003. Most (389/651, 59.8%) serum samples had MERS-CoV-neutralizing antibody titers >1,280. Dromedary camels from the United Arab Emirates were infected at high rates with MERS-CoV or a closely related, probably conspecific, virus long before the first human MERS cases.

  9. Proteolytic Activity in Reduced-Fat Cheddar Cheese Made with Lactic Acid Bacteria and Camel Chymosin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Børsting, Mette Winther

    are characterized by a more firm structure, higher risk of bitterness and lower flavor intensity. The bitterness can be reduced by replacing bovine chymosin (BC) in cheese production with camel chymosin (CC), which has a lower general proteolysis. A disadvantage of the lower proteolytic activity of CC could...

  10. Factors affecting yield and composition of camel milk kept under desert conditions of central Punjab, Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Sibtain; Yaqoob, Muhammad; Bilal, Muhammad Qamar; Khan, Muhammad Kasib; Muhammad, Ghulam; Yang, Li-Guo; Tariq, Muhammad

    2012-10-01

    This study was planned to study the herd composition, farming system, and reproductive traits and to evaluate the effect of season, stage of lactation and parity on milk production, and composition of camels kept under pastoral environment of central Punjab, Pakistan. Based on purposive sampling method, 50 herds belonging to small, medium, and large-sized herds were selected. From these herds, 1,137 she-camels were entered in this study and their composite milk samples were collected and analyzed through standard procedures to determine the milk yield and percentages of milk contents. The results showed that the male camels constituted a lesser percentage (p camels (56.92; 502/882). The mean daily milk yield was 8.17 ± 0.09 L and mean percentage of fat was 3.79 ± 0.13%, protein was 3.66 ± 0.07%, lactose was 5.15 ± 0.09%, ash was 0.81 ± 0.02%, acidity was 0.20 ± 0.01%, solids not fat (SNF) was 9.63 ± 0.15%, total solids was 13.42 ± 0.21, and moisture was 86.58 ± 0.43. Mean daily milk yield was significantly higher (p Milk fat and protein contents were the highest in hot dry summer, while lactose contents were higher during rainy season. The stage of lactation and parity confirmed to impinge significantly (p milk yield and composition in order to make camel rearing an economical proposition.

  11. Extended-spectrum beta-lactamase-producing Pseudomonas aeruginosa in camel in Egypt: potential human hazard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elhariri, Mahmoud; Hamza, Dalia; Elhelw, Rehab; Dorgham, Sohad M

    2017-03-31

    The rapid increase of extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL) producing bacteria are a potential health hazard. Development of antimicrobial resistance in animal pathogens has serious implications for human health, especially when such strains could be transmitted to human. In this study, the antimicrobial resistance due to ESBL producing Pseudomonas aeruginosa in the camel meat was investigated. In this study meat samples from 200 healthy camels at two major abattoirs in Egypt (Cairo and Giza) were collected. Following culture on cetrimide agar, suspected P. aeruginosa colonies were confirmed with a Vitek 2 system (bioMe´rieux). P. aeruginosa isolates were phenotypically identified as ESBL by double disk synergy test. Additionally antimicrobial susceptibility testing of ESBL producing P. aeruginosa isolates were done against 11 antimicrobial drugs and carried out by disk diffusion method. The ESBL genotypes were determined by polymerase chain reaction according to the presence of the bla PER-1, bla CTX-M, bla SHV, and bla TEM. Pseudomonas aeruginosa was isolated from 45 camel meat sample (22.5%). The total percentage of ESBL producing P. aeruginosa was 45% (21/45) from camel meat isolates. Antibiogram results revealed the highest resistance was for c, ceftriaxone and rifampicin followed by cefepime and aztreonam. The prevalence rates of β-lactamase genes were recorded (bla PER-1 28.5%, bla CTX-M 38%, bla SHV 33.3% and bla TEM 23.8%). This study illustrates the presence of high rates of ESBL-P. aeruginosa in camels that represents an increasing alarming for the risk of transmission to human and opens the door for current and future antibiotics therapy failure. Livestock associated ESBL-P. aeruginosa is a growing disaster, therefore, attention has to be fully given to livestock associated ESBL-bacteria which try to find its way to human beings.

  12. Stomoxys calcitrans as possible vector of Trypanosoma evansi among camels in an affected area of the Canary Islands, Spain

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    Noé Francisco Rodríguez

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Trypanosoma evansi was first identified in the Canary Islands in 1997, and is still present in a small area of the Archipelago. To date, the disease has exclusively affected camel herds, and has not been detected in any other animal hosts. However potential vectors of Trypanosoma evansi must be identified. Methods One Nzi trap was placed on a camel farm located in the infected area for a period of one year. Results Two thousand five hundred and five insects were trapped, of which Stomoxys calcitrans was the sole hematophagous vector captured. Conclusions Stomoxys calcitrans could be exclusively responsible for the transmission of Trypanosoma evansi among camels in the surveyed area, as other species do not seem to be infected by S. calcitrans in the presence of camels.

  13. Protective effects of camel milk against pathogenicity induced by Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus in Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soliman, Mohamed Mohamed; Hassan, Magdy Yassin; Mostafa, Salama Abdel-Hafiz; Ali, Hussein Abdel-Maksoud; Saleh, Osama Moseilhy

    2015-12-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the protective effects of camel milk on hepatic pathogenicity induced by experimental infection with Escherichia (E. coli) and Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) in Wistar rats. The rats were divided into six groups: The control and camel milk groups received water and camel milk, respectively; two groups received camel milk for 2 weeks prior to intraperitoneal injection of either E. coli or S. aureus; and two groups were injected intraperitoneally with E. coli and S. aureus, respectively. All animals were maintained under observation for 7 days prior to biochemical and gene expression analyses. The rats treated with camel milk alone exhibited no changes in expression levels of glutamic‑pyruvate transaminase (GPT) or glutamic‑oxaloacetic transaminase (GOT), compared with the water‑treated group. The E. coli‑ and S. aureus‑injected rats exhibited a significant increase in oxidative stress, and prior treatment with camel milk normalized the observed changes in the expression levels of GPT, GOT and malondialdehyde (MDA). Treatment with camel milk decreased the total bacterial count in liver tissue samples obtained from the rats injected with E. coli and S. aureus. Camel milk administration increased the expression levels of glutathione‑S‑transferase and superoxide dismutase, which were downregulated following E. coli and S. aureus injection. In addition, camel milk downregulated the increased expression of interleukin‑6 and apoptosis‑associated genes. Of note, administration of camel milk alone increased the expression levels of the B cell lymphoma 2‑associated X protein and survivin anti‑apoptotic genes, and supplementation prior to the injection of E. coli and S. aureus induced further upregulation, In conclusion, camel milk exerted protective effects against E. coli and S. aureus pathogenicity, by modulating the extent of lipid peroxidation, together with the antioxidant defense

  14. Husbandry, breeding practices, and production constraints of camel in the pastoral communities of Afar and Somali, Ethiopia

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    Yosef Tadesse

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this paper were to identify and describe husbandry practices, herd structure, owners’ trait preferences, breeding practices, and production constraints of camel in the two major camel rearing pastoral communities, viz. Afar and Somali, to generate baseline information that would help to plan possible breed improvement strategies and options for the different camel populations. The study sites were selected purposively while households from each of the sites randomly. Data were collected using formal questionnaires and focus group discussion. Results showed that average camel population per household was higher in Mille (28.06±2.27, Gode (27.51±2.02, and Moyale (24.07±2.13 districts. Female camel populations with age of >1 year contributes 78-83% of the total camel herd population in all the study districts. Higher number of female animals in the herd in the arid environment means providing continuous supply of milk and allows a rapid recovery of herd numbers after a disease outbreak or drought occurrence. This shows that pastoralists breeding objectives are in relation to the arid environment and female population in the herd. Most of the pastoral communities utilize a single breeding male camel per 40-50 female camels and this will affect productivity and heterogeneity of camel population. With regard to trait preference, all pastoral communities ranked milk yield as the first trait of choice, except Liben district in which adaptation trait was the primary preference. Growth trait ranked second in Mille, Gode, Liben, and Jijiga pastoral communities where as adaptation trait ranked second in Amibara and Shinille pastoral communities. The major camel production constraints were feed, diseases, and lack of water in that order and the major cause of the constraints was the recurrent drought occurred during the past 2-3 decades in the two regions. Therefore, in planning and implementation of the breeding strategies for small

  15. Behavior of Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Listeria monocytogenes during fermentation and storage of camel yogurt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Nabulsi, Anas A; Olaimat, Amin N; Osaili, Tareq M; Ayyash, Mutamed M; Abushelaibi, Aisha; Jaradat, Ziad W; Shaker, Reyad; Al-Taani, Mahmoud; Holley, Richard A

    2016-03-01

    In addition to its nutritional and therapeutic properties, camel milk has the ability to suppress the growth of a wide range of foodborne pathogens, but there is a lack of information regarding the behavior of these pathogens in products such as yogurt produced from camel milk. The objective of the current study was to investigate the behavior of Listeria monocytogenes and Escherichia coli O157:H7 during manufacture and storage of camel yogurt. Camel milk inoculated with L. monocytogenes and E. coli O157:H7 was fermented at 43° C for 5h using freeze-dried lactic acid bacteria (LAB) starter cultures (Streptococcus thermophilus and Lactobacillus bulgaricus) and stored at 4 or 10 °C for 14 d. Camel milk inoculated with L. monocytogenes and E. coli O157:H7 without starter culture was also prepared. During fermentation, the numbers of L. monocytogenes and E. coli O157:H7 increased 0.3 and 1.6 log cfu/mL, respectively, in the presence of LAB, and by 0.3 and 2.7 log cfu/mL in the absence of LAB. During storage at 4 or 10 °C, L. monocytogenes increased 0.8 to 1.2 log cfu/mL by 14 d in camel milk without LAB, but in the presence of LAB, the numbers of L. monocytogenes were reduced by 1.2 to 1.7 log cfu/mL by 14 d. Further, E. coli O157:H7 numbers in camel milk were reduced by 3.4 to 3.5 log cfu/mL in the absence of LAB, but E. coli O157:H7 was not detected (6.3 log cfu/mL reduction) by 7d in camel yogurt made with LAB and stored at either temperature. Although camel milk contains high concentrations of natural antimicrobials, L. monocytogenes was able to tolerate these compounds in camel yogurt stored at refrigerator temperatures. Therefore, appropriate care should be taken during production of yogurt from camel milk to minimize the potential for postprocess contamination by this and other foodborne pathogens. Copyright © 2016 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Bacteriological quality of raw camel milk along the market value chain in Fafen zone, Ethiopian Somali regional state.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abera, Tsegalem; Legesse, Yoseph; Mummed, Behar; Urga, Befekadu

    2016-05-26

    The camel is a multipurpose animal with a huge productive potential. Camel milk is a key food in arid and semi-arid areas of the African and Asian countries. The quality of milk is influenced by different bacteria present in milk. This study was conducted to evaluate total bacterial content in raw camel milk along the market chain in Fafen zone, Ethiopian Somali Regional State. One hundred twenty-six raw camel milk samples were collected from Gursum (47.1 %) and Babile (52.9 %) districts. The three sampling levels included were udder (14.7 %), milking bucket (29.4 %) and market (55.9 %). Milk samples were analyzed for total bacterial counts (TBC) and coliform counts (CC). Furthermore, major pathogens were isolated and identified. 108 (85.7 %) of raw camel milk samples demonstrated bacterial contamination. The overall mean TBC and CC of contaminated raw camel milk samples was 4.75 ± 0.17 and 4.03 ± 0.26 log CFU/ml, respectively. TBC increased from udder to market level and was higher in Gursum compared to Babile district (P camel milk samples were in the range considered unsafe for human utility. Staphylococcus spp. (89.8 %), Streptococcus spp. (53.7 %), E. coli (31.5 %), Salmonella spp. (17.6 %), Klebsiella spp. (5.6 %) and Enterobacter spp. (5.6 %) were the major bacterial microorganisms isolated. The majority of the bacterial isolates in this study showed high incidence in market as compared to production level. These results indicate a lack of compliance with good production practices and hygiene at milking, transportation and market of raw camel milk.

  17. A novel and innovative hair test to determine glucocorticoid levels in racing camels for use in assessment of doping, health and disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Iltaf; Haddow, Jody D; Ibrahim, Hiba A; Sheikh, Maryam V A; Alhemeiri, Fatima S A

    2017-10-09

    The aim of this project was to develop and validate a new test for the analysis of glucocorticoids in camel hair and to use the new test to analyse hair samples from a variety of camel breeds in sports and racing applications. These findings could be of importance when evaluating racing camels for suspected doping offenses or for injury and disease control. Camel hair samples were collected from 30 non-racing dromedary camels along with 3 racing camels in Al Ain, UAE and were decontaminated, pulverized, sonicated and extracted prior to analysis. A liquid chromatographic-mass spectrometric method was employed to determine the levels of glucocorticoids in the hair samples. The four drugs of interest, namely hydrocortisone, dexamethasone, flumethasone and methylprednisolone, and an internal standard were quantified in camel hair samples. All four of the glucocorticoids were detected in camel hair samples with concentrations ranging between 31-935 pg/mg for hydrocortisone, 8-59 pg/mg for dexamethasone, 0.7-1034 pg/mg for flumethasone and 5-66 pg/mg for methylprednisolone in non-racing camels. One of the racing camels displayed high concentrations of hydrocortisone (1130pg/mg), flumethasone (2576 pg/mg), methylprednisone (1156 pg/mg) and dexamethasone (29 pg/mg). The authors believe this is the first report of a test for corticosteroids in camel hair. The new test has been validated according to FDA guidelines. This new hair test could be useful for further studies in doping control, toxicological studies, pharmacological studies and other clinical applications in camel health, injury and disease. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  18. Review of present knowledge on machine milking and intensive milk production in dromedary camels and future challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagy, Peter; Juhasz, Judit

    2016-06-01

    The camel dairy industry has gone through major development in the last decade. The world's first large-scale camel dairy farm was established 10 years ago in Dubai, United Arab Emirates, and since then, several commercial and scientific projects have been started, and more studies have been published demonstrating increasing interest in camel milk. The aims of this paper are to summarize relevant published data on factors influencing milk production under intensive management, compare those with our own observations obtained from Emirates Industry for Camel Milk and Products (EICMP), and highlight areas of research that are indispensable for further development. As in other species, the most important factors influencing milk yield are genetic and individual variation, age, parity, stage of lactation, nutrition, management, season, photoperiod, etc. However, the precise role of the various factors has not been thoroughly studied in camels and based on our understanding of the basic physiological processes, endocrine control is minimal. In addition, machine milking of dromedaries is still at early stage and requires research for improvement of the technology and defining factors affecting and improving milk ejection. The role of environment (like photoperiod, nutrition) should also be investigated as there is significant annual variation both in milk quantity and quality that might influence the processing characteristics of raw camel milk. The large pool of animals and thoroughly recorded data at EICMP provide an excellent opportunity for increasing milk production and improving milk quality using various methods, like feeding, management, reproduction, selection, and breeding.

  19. Camel Milk: Potential Utility as an Adjunctive Therapy to Peg-IFN/RBV in HCV-4 Infected Patients in Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamed, Walid A; Schaalan, Mona F; El-Abhar, Hanan S

    2015-01-01

    The present prospective study aims to investigate the potential therapeutic effect and the underlying mechanisms of drinking camel milk for 60 days as an adjunctive therapy to the standard treatment PEG/RBV. Twenty-five hepatitis C virus (HCV)-infected Egyptian patients, with mild to moderate parenchymal affection to mild cirrhosis were enrolled in this study after proper history taking and clinical examination. Their biomarkers were evaluated before and after the addition of camel milk. The improving effect of camel milk was reflected on the marked inhibition of the serum levels of the proinflammatory markers, viz., tumor necrosis factor-α, monocyte chemotactic protein-1, hyaluronic acid, and TGF-β1, besides PCR, AST, ALT, GGT, bilirubin, prothrombin time, INR, and alpha-fetoprotein. In addition, camel milk elevated significantly (P camel milk on multiple parameters of inflammatory mediators, immunomodulators, antiapoptosis, and antioxidants, giving insight into the potential therapeutic benefit underlying the anti-HCV actions of camel milk. The limitations of the current study include the small sample size recruited and the failure to test it on cohorts with severe stages of hepatitis; like Child-Pugh stage C, and hepatocellular carcinoma.

  20. Metabolomic and elemental analysis of camel and bovine urine by GC–MS and ICP–MS

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    Syed Rizwan Ahamad

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies from the author’s laboratory indicated that camel urine possesses antiplatelet activity and anti-cancer activity which is not present in bovine urine. The objective of this study is to compare the volatile and elemental components of bovine and camel urine using GC–MS and ICP–MS analysis. We are interested to know the component that performs these biological activities. The freeze dried urine was dissolved in dichloromethane and then derivatization process followed by using BSTFA for GC–MS analysis. Thirty different compounds were analyzed by the derivatization process in full scan mode. For ICP–MS analysis twenty eight important elements were analyzed in both bovine and camel urine. The results of GC–MS and ICP–MS analysis showed marked difference in the urinary metabolites. GC–MS evaluation of camel urine finds a lot of products of metabolism like benzene propanoic acid derivatives, fatty acid derivatives, amino acid derivatives, sugars, prostaglandins and canavanine. Several research reports reveal the metabolomics studies on camel urine but none of them completely reported the pharmacology related metabolomics. The present data of GC–MS suggest and support the previous studies and activities related to camel urine.

  1. Metabolomic and elemental analysis of camel and bovine urine by GC-MS and ICP-MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahamad, Syed Rizwan; Alhaider, Abdul Qader; Raish, Mohammad; Shakeel, Faiyaz

    2017-01-01

    Recent studies from the author's laboratory indicated that camel urine possesses antiplatelet activity and anti-cancer activity which is not present in bovine urine. The objective of this study is to compare the volatile and elemental components of bovine and camel urine using GC-MS and ICP-MS analysis. We are interested to know the component that performs these biological activities. The freeze dried urine was dissolved in dichloromethane and then derivatization process followed by using BSTFA for GC-MS analysis. Thirty different compounds were analyzed by the derivatization process in full scan mode. For ICP-MS analysis twenty eight important elements were analyzed in both bovine and camel urine. The results of GC-MS and ICP-MS analysis showed marked difference in the urinary metabolites. GC-MS evaluation of camel urine finds a lot of products of metabolism like benzene propanoic acid derivatives, fatty acid derivatives, amino acid derivatives, sugars, prostaglandins and canavanine. Several research reports reveal the metabolomics studies on camel urine but none of them completely reported the pharmacology related metabolomics. The present data of GC-MS suggest and support the previous studies and activities related to camel urine.

  2. Expression and purification of a new recombinant camel hepcidin able to promote the degradation of the iron exporter ferroportin1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boumaiza, Mohamed; Jaouen, Maryse; Deschemin, Jean-Christophe; Ezzine, Aymen; Ben Khalaf, Noureddine; Vaulont, Sophie; Marzouki, Mohamed Nèjib; Sari, Marie Agnès

    2015-11-01

    Hepcidin, a 25-amino-acid and highly disulfide bonded antimicrobial peptide, is the central regulator of iron homeostasis. This hormone is expressed in response to iron and inflammation and interacts with ferroportin1 (FPN1), the only known iron exporter in vertebrates, inducing its internalization and degradation. Thus, the export of iron from cells to plasma will be significantly diminished. Thereby, hepcidin has become the target of intense research studies due to its profound biomedical significance. This study describes the functional expression of recombinant camel hepcidin in Escherichia coli. Biologically active recombinant camel hepcidin was obtained thanks to the production of a hepcidin-thioredoxin fusion protein (TRX-HepcD) and a purified camel hepcidin, with an extra methionine at the N-terminus, was obtained after enterokinase cleavage of the fusion protein. Presence of the four disulfide bridges was verified using MALDI-ToF spectrometry. The recombinant camel hepcidin was compared to related synthetic bioactive peptides, including human hepcidin, and was found equally able to promote ferroportin degradation of mouse macrophages. Furthermore, camel hepcidins exhibits a high capacity to inhibit the growth of Leishmania major promastigotes. These results proved that production of functional camel hepcidin can be achieved in E. coli, this is a major interest for the production of cysteine rich peptides or proteins that can be purified under their functional form without the need of a refolding process. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Absence of MERS-CoV antibodies in feral camels in Australia: Implications for the pathogen's origin and spread

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    Gary Crameri

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV infections continue to be a serious emerging disease problem internationally with well over 1000 cases and a major outbreak outside of the Middle East region. While the hypothesis that dromedary camels are the likely major source of MERS-CoV infection in humans is gaining acceptance, conjecture continues over the original natural reservoir host(s and specifically the role of bats in the emergence of the virus. Dromedary camels were imported to Australia, principally between 1880 and 1907 and have since become a large feral population inhabiting extensive parts of the continent. Here we report that during a focussed surveillance study, no serological evidence was found for the presence of MERS-CoV in the camels in the Australian population. This finding presents various hypotheses about the timing of the emergence and spread of MERS-CoV throughout populations of camels in Africa and Asia, which can be partially resolved by testing sera from camels from the original source region, which we have inferred was mainly northwestern Pakistan. In addition, we identify bat species which overlap (or neighbour the range of the Australian camel population with a higher likelihood of carrying CoVs of the same lineage as MERS-CoV. Both of these proposed follow-on studies are examples of “proactive surveillance”, a concept that has particular relevance to a One Health approach to emerging zoonotic diseases with a complex epidemiology and aetiology.

  4. Camel milk triggers apoptotic signaling pathways in human hepatoma HepG2 and breast cancer MCF7 cell lines through transcriptional mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korashy, Hesham M; Maayah, Zaid H; Abd-Allah, Adel R; El-Kadi, Ayman O S; Alhaider, Abdulqader A

    2012-01-01

    Few published studies have reported the use of crude camel milk in the treatment of stomach infections, tuberculosis and cancer. Yet, little research was conducted on the effect of camel milk on the apoptosis and oxidative stress associated with human cancer. The present study investigated the effect and the underlying mechanisms of camel milk on the proliferation of human cancer cells using an in vitro model of human hepatoma (HepG2) and human breast (MCF7) cancer cells. Our results showed that camel milk, but not bovine milk, significantly inhibited HepG2 and MCF7 cells proliferation through the activation of caspase-3 mRNA and activity levels, and the induction of death receptors in both cell lines. In addition, Camel milk enhanced the expression of oxidative stress markers, heme oxygenase-1 and reactive oxygen species production in both cells. Mechanistically, the increase in caspase-3 mRNA levels by camel milk was completely blocked by the transcriptional inhibitor, actinomycin D; implying that camel milk increased de novo RNA synthesis. Furthermore, Inhibition of the mitogen activated protein kinases differentially modulated the camel milk-induced caspase-3 mRNA levels. Taken together, camel milk inhibited HepG2 and MCF7 cells survival and proliferation through the activation of both the extrinsic and intrinsic apoptotic pathways.

  5. Camel Milk Triggers Apoptotic Signaling Pathways in Human Hepatoma HepG2 and Breast Cancer MCF7 Cell Lines through Transcriptional Mechanism

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    Hesham M. Korashy

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Few published studies have reported the use of crude camel milk in the treatment of stomach infections, tuberculosis and cancer. Yet, little research was conducted on the effect of camel milk on the apoptosis and oxidative stress associated with human cancer. The present study investigated the effect and the underlying mechanisms of camel milk on the proliferation of human cancer cells using an in vitro model of human hepatoma (HepG2 and human breast (MCF7 cancer cells. Our results showed that camel milk, but not bovine milk, significantly inhibited HepG2 and MCF7 cells proliferation through the activation of caspase-3 mRNA and activity levels, and the induction of death receptors in both cell lines. In addition, Camel milk enhanced the expression of oxidative stress markers, heme oxygenase-1 and reactive oxygen species production in both cells. Mechanistically, the increase in caspase-3 mRNA levels by camel milk was completely blocked by the transcriptional inhibitor, actinomycin D; implying that camel milk increased de novo RNA synthesis. Furthermore, Inhibition of the mitogen activated protein kinases differentially modulated the camel milk-induced caspase-3 mRNA levels. Taken together, camel milk inhibited HepG2 and MCF7 cells survival and proliferation through the activation of both the extrinsic and intrinsic apoptotic pathways.

  6. Trypanosoma vivax is the second leading cause of camel trypanosomosis in Sudan after Trypanosoma evansi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mossaad, Ehab; Salim, Bashir; Suganuma, Keisuke; Musinguzi, Peter; Hassan, Mohammed A; Elamin, E A; Mohammed, G E; Bakhiet, Amel O; Xuan, Xuenan; Satti, Rawan A; Inoue, Noboru

    2017-04-13

    This study was conducted in response to recurring reports from eastern Sudan of camel trypanosomosis that can no longer be treated by currently available trypanocidal drugs. One hundred and eighty-nine blood samples were obtained from camels in different herds and local markets in the western part of Sudan, and a cross-sectional study was carried out between December 2015 and February 2016 to identify the causative agents and possible circulating genotypes. The prevalence of trypanosomes detected using the conventional parasitological techniques of Giemsa-stained blood smears, wet blood smears and the microhematocrit centrifugation technique (MHCT) was 7% (13/189), 11% (21/189) and 19% (36/189), respectively. However, a multi-species KIN-PCR targeting the ITS region revealed that the prevalence of Trypanosoma evansi was 37% (70/189), while that of T. vivax was 25% (47/189). Consequently, we used a T. evansi-specific PCR (RoTat1.2 VSG gene) to analyse the KIN-PCR-positive samples and a T. vivax-specific PCR (Cathepsin L-like gene) to analyse all of the samples. The prevalence of T. evansi was 59% (41/70), while the prevalence of T. vivax was 31% (59/189). Mixed infections were detected in 18% (34/189) of the samples. These results were further confirmed by sequencing and a phylogenetic analysis of the complete internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region of T. evansi and the TviCatL gene of T. vivax. We conclude that T. vivax was newly introduced to the camel population and that T. evansi is no longer the single cause of camel trypanosomosis in Sudan. The presence of T. vivax in camels detected in this study is a challenge in the choice of diagnostic approaches, particularly serology, and PCRs. However, an analysis of drug resistance should be performed, and the genotypic variation should be verified. To our knowledge, this is the first molecular study on T. vivax and mixed-infection with T. vivax and T. evansi in Sudanese camels.

  7. Proteomic identification of camel seminal plasma: purification of β-nerve growth factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Sanjay; Sharma, Vinay Kumar; Singh, Sudhuman; Hariprasad, Guru Rao; Mal, Gorakh; Srinivasan, Alagiri; Yadav, Savita

    2013-01-30

    The camel seminal plasma contains a diverse array of components including lipids, carbohydrates, peptides, ions and proteins. These are essential for maintaining normal physiology of spermatozoa and are secreted mainly from the prostrate, epidydimis and bulbo-urethral glands of reproductive system. The protein profiles of camel seminal plasma were resolved by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2D-PAGE). The majority of the protein was found in acidic regions below pI 7.0 and the 19 brightly stained proteins were identified by MALDI-TOF/MS analysis. On the basis of proteomic profiles, β-nerve growth factor (β-NGF) was purified by ion-exchange and gel filtration chromatography and identified by SDS-PAGE and MALDI-TOF/MS analysis. It was further confirmed by western blotting experiments using rabbit anti-β-NGF primary antibody. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Coupling of the recoil mass spectrometer CAMEL to the {gamma}-ray spectrometer GASP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spolaore, P. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Legnaro (Italy). Lab. Nazionali di Legnaro; Ackermann, D. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Legnaro (Italy). Lab. Nazionali di Legnaro; Bednarczyk, P. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Legnaro (Italy). Lab. Nazionali di Legnaro; De Angelis, G. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Legnaro (Italy). Lab. Nazionali di Legnaro; Napoli, D. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Legnaro (Italy). Lab. Nazionali di Legnaro; Rossi Alvarez, C. [INFN, Sezione di Padova, Padova (Italy); Bazzacco, D. [INFN, Sezione di Padova, Padova (Italy); Burch, R. [INFN, Sezione di Padova, Padova (Italy); Mueller, L. [INFN, Sezione di Padova, Padova (Italy); Segato, G.F. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Padova, Padova (Italy); Scarlassara, F. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Padova, Padova (Italy)

    1995-05-15

    A project has been realized to link the CAMEL recoil mass spectrometer to the GASP {gamma}-spectrometer in order to perform high resolution and efficiency {gamma}-recoil coincidence measurements. To preserve high flexibility and autonomy in the operation of the two complex apparatus a rough factor two of reduction in the overall heavy ion transmission was accepted in designing the optics of the particle transport from the GASP center to the CAMEL focal plane. The coupled configuration has been tested with the fusion reaction {sup 58}Ni (E=212 MeV)+{sup 64}Ni, obtaining a mass resolution of 1/300 and efficiency between similar 11% and similar 15% for different evaporation products. (orig.).

  9. A Review of Observations Made on Select Parameters of the Camel Immune System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugene H. Johnson

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite the camel’s long historical interaction with man there is only a limited number of studies available pertaining to the immunobiology of this species. This is unfortunate as the camel has evolved into an animal capable of not only surviving under extreme environmental conditions but also into one that is relatively resistant to a great number of infectious diseases. Accordingly, it is of interest to understand the various components operative in the camel immune system, as a potential basis of manipulating the immune response of other domesticated animals to respond to disease-causing agents in a similarly effective fashion. Recent research endeavors on the complement and phagocytic system, as well as the unique antibody types found in camelids that have seen an explosion of interest in recent times have been reviewed and their potential use as diagnostic and therapeutic tools highlighted.

  10. Retardation of quality changes in camel meat sausages by phenolic compounds and phenolic extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maqsood, Sajid; Manheem, Kusaimah; Abushelaibi, Aisha; Kadim, Isam Tawfik

    2016-11-01

    Impact of tannic acid (TA), date seed extract (DSE), catechin (CT) and green tea extract (GTE) on lipid oxidation, microbial load and textural properties of camel meat sausages during 12 days of refrigerated storage was investigated. TA and CT showed higher activities in all antioxidative assays compared to DSE and GTE. Lipid oxidation and microbial growth was higher for control sausages when compared to other samples. TA and CT at a level of 200 mg/kg were more effective in retarding lipid oxidation and lowering microbial count (P camel meat sausages compared to phenolic extracts (GTE and DSE) over 12 days of storage at 4°C. © 2016 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  11. First description of milk flow traits in Tunisian dairy dromedary camels under an intensive farming system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atigui, Moufida; Hammadi, Mohamed; Barmat, Ahmed; Farhat, Mohamed; Khorchani, Touhami; Marnet, Pierre-Guy

    2014-05-01

    In order to evaluate milking ability in dromedary camels, 124 milk flow curves were registered during morning milking of 20 dairy Maghrebi dromedary camels. Animals were in lactations 1-8, were 6-19 years old and were 4-15 months of their current lactation. Milk flow curves were recorded using an electronic milk flow meter (Lactocorder®). Milk flow curves were classified in three typical patterns: type 1 represents curves with one high and short peak of milk flow; type 2 represents curves with a moderate mean milk flow rate during a large plateau phase; and type 3 represents curves with lower mean milk flow rate and a relatively longer milking duration. The ratio of the different milk flow patterns in the population evaluated was 40:38:22% for types 1, 2 and 3, respectively. The highest milk yield per milking, average and peak milk flow were observed in camels with type 1 curves (4·24 kg, 1·49 and 3·54 kg/min, respectively) followed by type 2 animals (3·30 kg, 1·12 and 2·12 kg/min, respectively) and lastly type 3 curves (2·34 kg, 0·65 and 1·23 kg/min, respectively). This study confirmed that a major proportion of dromedary camels have a suitable machine milking ability. Nevertheless, our results suggest that pre-stimulation and improving the milking process may improve milking efficiency and guarantee a more complete and rapid emptying of the udder.

  12. Technological Aptitude and Applications of Leuconostoc mesenteroides Bioactive Strains Isolated from Algerian Raw Camel Milk

    OpenAIRE

    Zineb Benmechernene; Hanane Fatma Chentouf; Bellil Yahia; Ghazi Fatima; Marcos Quintela-Baluja; Pilar Calo-Mata; Jorge Barros-Velázquez

    2013-01-01

    Two strains (B7 and Z8) of the Leuconostoc mesenteroides subspecies mesenteroides that were isolated from Algerian camel milk from an initial pool of 13 strains and demonstrated a high ability to inhibit the growth of Listeria spp. were selected and characterised at the phenotypic and genotypic levels. Probiotic profiling and inhibition spectra against food borne pathogens in mixed cultures were also investigated. The bacteriocin produced by L. mesenteroides strain B7 was identified as le...

  13. Prevalence of Clostridium difficile in raw beef, cow, sheep, goat, camel and buffalo meat in Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Rahimi, Ebrahim; Jalali, Mohammad; Weese, J Scott

    2014-01-01

    Background Clostridium difficile has been shown to be a nosocomial pathogen associated with diarrhoea and pseudomembranous colitis in hospitalised patients and the infection is believed to be acquired nosocomially. Recent studies have shown the occurrence of C. difficile in food animals which may act as a source of infection to humans.The aim of this study was to determine the occurrence of C. difficile in retail raw beef, cow, sheep, goat, camel and buffalo meat in Iran. Method From April to...

  14. ANP and BNP responses to dehydration in the one-humped camel and effects of blocking the renin-angiotensin system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adem, Abdu; Al Haj, Mahmoud; Benedict, Sheela; Yasin, Javed; Nagelkerke, Nicolas; Nyberg, Fred; Yandle, Tim G; Frampton, Chris M; Lewis, Lynley K; Nicholls, M Gary; Kazzam, Elsadig

    2013-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to investigate and compare the responses of atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) and B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) in the circulation of hydrated, dehydrated, and dehydrated losartan - treated camels; and to document the cardiac storage form of B-type natriuretic peptide in the camel heart. Eighteen male camels were used in the study: control or hydrated camels (n = 6), dehydrated camels (n = 6) and dehydrated losartan-treated camels (n = 6) which were dehydrated and received the angiotensin II (Ang II) AT-1 receptor blocker, losartan, at a dose of 5 mg/kg body weight intravenously for 20 days. Control animals were supplied with feed and water ad-libitum while both dehydrated and dehydrated-losartan treated groups were supplied with feed ad-libitum but no water for 20 days. Compared with time-matched controls, dehydrated camels exhibited a significant decrease in plasma levels of both ANP and BNP. Losartan-treated camels also exhibited a significant decline in ANP and BNP levels across 20 days of dehydration but the changes were not different from those seen with dehydration alone. Size exclusion high performance liquid chromatography of extracts of camel heart indicated that proB-type natriuretic peptide is the storage form of the peptide. We conclude first, that dehydration in the camel induces vigorous decrements in circulating levels of ANP and BNP; second, blockade of the renin-angiotensin system has little or no modulatory effect on the ANP and BNP responses to dehydration; third, proB-type natriuretic peptide is the storage form of this hormone in the heart of the one-humped camel.

  15. The function of the milk-clotting enzymes bovine and camel chymosin studied by a fluorescence resonance energy transfer assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Jesper Langholm; Jacobsen, Jonas; Moss, Marcia L; Rasmussen, Fred; Qvist, Karsten Bruun; Larsen, Sine; van den Brink, Johannes M

    2015-05-01

    Enzymatic coagulation of bovine milk can be divided in 2 steps: an enzymatic step, in which the Phe105-Met106 bond of the milk protein bovine κ-casein is cleaved, and an aggregation step. The aspartic peptidases bovine and camel chymosin (EC 3.4.23.4) are typically used to catalyze the enzymatic step. The most commonly used method to study chymosin activity is the relative milk-clotting activity test that measures the end point of the enzymatic and aggregation step. This method showed that camel chymosin has a 2-fold higher milk-clotting activity toward bovine milk than bovine chymosin. To enable a study of the enzymatic step independent of the aggregation step, a fluorescence resonance energy transfer assay has been developed using a peptide substrate derived from the 98-108 sequence of bovine κ-casein. This assay and Michaelis-Menten kinetics were employed to determine the enzymatic activity of camel and bovine chymosin under milk clotting-like conditions (pH 6.65, ionic strength 80 mM). The results obtained show that the catalytic efficiency of camel chymosin is 3-fold higher than bovine chymosin. The substrate affinity and catalytic activity of bovine and camel chymosin increase at lower pH (6.00 and 5.50). The glycosylation of bovine and camel chymosin did not affect binding of the fluorescence resonance energy transfer substrate, but doubly glycosylated camel chymosin seems to have slightly higher catalytic efficiency. In the characterization of the enzymes, the developed assay is easier and faster to use than the traditionally used relative milk-clotting activity test method. Copyright © 2015 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. In Vitro Apoptosis Triggering in the BT-474 Human Breast Cancer Cell Line by Lyophilised Camel's Milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasson, Sidgi S A A; Al-Busaidi, Juma Zaid; Al-Qarni, Zahra A M; Rajapakse, S; Al-Bahlani, Shadia; Idris, Mohamed Ahmed; Sallam, Talal A

    2015-01-01

    Breast cancer is a global health concern and is a major cause of death among women. In Oman, it is the most common cancer in women, with an incidence rate of 15.6 per 100,000 Omani females. Various anticancer remedies have been discovered from natural products in the past and the search is continuing for additional examples. Cytotoxic natural compounds may have a major role in cancer therapy either in potentiating the effect of chemotherapy or reducing its harmful effects. Recently, a few studies have reported advantages of using crude camel milk in treating some forms of cancer. However, no adequate data are available on the lyophilised camel's milk responsibility for triggering apoptosis and oxidative stress associated with human breast cancer. The present study aimed to address the role of the lyophilised camel's milk in inducing proliferation repression of BT-474 and HEp-2 cells compared with the non-cancer HCC1937 BL cell line. Lyophilized camel's milk fundamentally repressed BT-474 cells growth and proliferation through the initiation of either the intrinsic and extrinsic apoptotic pathways as indicated by both caspase-3 mRNA and its action level, and induction of death receptors in BT-474 but not the HEp-2 cell line. In addition, lyophilised camel's milk enhanced the expression of oxidative stress markers, heme-oxygenase-1 and reactive oxygen species production in BT-474 cells. Increase in caspase-3 mRNA levels by the lyophilised camel's milk was completely prevented by the actinomycin D, a transcriptional inhibitor. This suggests that lyophilized camel's milk increased newly synthesized RNA. Interestingly,it significantly (pcamel's milk might instigate apoptosis through initiation of an alternative apoptotic pathway.

  17. The role of Nucularia perrinii Batt. (Chenopodiaceae) in the camel-based Sahrawi social-ecological system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volpato, Gabriele; Di Nardo, Antonello

    2017-02-08

    Pastoral social-ecological systems (SESs) are adaptive and complex systems rooted in the extensive exploitation of forage plants for livestock-based livelihoods and culture. There are species and relations that are foundational to the existence of these SESs. Nucularia perrinii Batt. (Chenopodiaceae) is an endemic halophyte plant of central and western Sahara seldom cited in the scientific literature. The objective of this study was to investigate the role of this plant in the SES of the Sahrawi camel nomads of Western Sahara. The data analyzed were collected in the Sahrawi refugee camps of Algeria and in Western Sahara between 2006 and 2010. Fieldwork included semi-structured (n = 38) and retrospective (n = 12) interviews with Sahrawi refugees, nomads, and camel owners about N. perrinii and associated topics (e.g. distribution, importance for camels, camel diseases, associated grazing practices, other forage plants, etc.). Askaf, as the Sahrawi call the plant, is crucial to camels' survival, providing salts and water even during dry spells. It holds a pivotal role in the Sahrawi culture, defining the geographical boundaries of the Sahrawi SES and relating the grazing territory with the taste it gives to camel milk, which support the inclusion of askaf as a main element of Sahrawi cultural identity. We argue that N. perrinii ties the ecology of the western Sahara desert with camel husbandry and associated livelihoods, and further with the culture and worldview of the Sahrawi nomads. We stress the keystone role that some forage plants may have in extensive pastoral SESs worldwide.

  18. ANALISIS TINGKAT KESEHATAN PT. BANK BRISYARIAH PERIODE 2011-2014 DENGAN MENGGUNAKAN METODE CAMEL

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    Ari Kristin Prasetyoningrum

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The rapid development of banking as well as high levels of complexity influence the performance and increase the risk of a bank. Therefore, it is important for banks to maintain the trust because of activities related to public confidence. This study aims to determine the health level of PT. Bank BRISyariah in 2011-2014 by using CAMEL. This research used quantitative descriptive analysis aims to analyze the soundness of PT. Bank BRISyariah in 2011-2014 using the CAMEL factors include capital, asset quality, management, earnings and liquidity. Data used in this study a BRISyariah Annual Report 2011 to 2014 taken from www.brisyariah.co.id. and Quarterly Financial Report Bank BRISyariah published by Bank Indonesia was taken from www.bi.go.id. Based on the analysis of the Bank’s soundness BRISyariah using CAMEL ratio in 2011-2014 can be said that in general PT. Bank BRISyariah in conditions HEALTHY, the the first rank in the CAR, PPAP, ROA, NPM, and CR; The second rank in the KAP; BOPO ranked third; and LDR in the fourth.

  19. Microbial and sensory characteristics of camel meat during refrigerated storage as affected by gamma irradiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fallah, Aziz A; Tajik, Hossein; Rohani, Seyed Mehdi Razavi; Rahnama, Mohammad

    2008-03-15

    The present study was undertaken to assess the microbiological profile of fresh camel meat and the possibility of improving microbial quality and extending the refrigerated storage life of meat by using low-dose gamma irradiation. Camel meat samples were subjected to 0 (control), 1.5 and 3 kGy doses and stored at 3 +/- 1 degrees C. the microbial and sensory attributes were evaluated. Exposure to 1.5 kGy dose significantly reduced the initial counts of Aerobic Plate Counts (APCs), psychrophilic bacteria, Lactic Acid Bacteria (LAB), molds and yeasts, Staphylococcus aureus, Listeria monocytogenes and Enterococci. Moreover, Pseudomonas, coliforms and Escherichia coli were below the detection levels. Irradiation at 3 kGy significantly reduced the initial counts of APCs LAB and Enterococci by 99.5, 93.5 and 93.9%, respectively. Pseudomonas, coliforms, S. aureus, L. monocytogenes and E. coli were not found at dose of 3 kGy during entire storage period, also psychrophilic bacteria and molds and yeasts were below the detection levels during 6 days of storage. This study shows that irradiation had no significant effects on the sensory attributes of camel meat. Refrigerated shelf-life of the meat irradiated at 1.5 and 3 kGy were 15 and 21 days, respectively, compared to 7 days for non-irradiated controls.

  20. Hepatotoxicosis in dogs consuming a diet of camel meat contaminated with indospicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    FitzGerald, L M; Fletcher, M T; Paul, A E H; Mansfield, C S; O'Hara, A J

    2011-03-01

    Four dogs presented with clinical signs of severe hepatic disease after consuming a commercial camel meat diet. Laboratory investigation revealed evidence of severe liver disease, including markedly increased serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) activity and total bilirubin concentration, and prolonged clotting times. Two dogs deteriorated despite supportive therapy and were euthanased. Histologically, both livers appeared similar, with the main lesion being extensive periacinar necrosis and haemorrhage. Indospicine, a toxic amino acid of plant origin, was detected in the serum and/or plasma from all four dogs, as well as in tissues of a dog that was necropsied and in a sample of the camel meat fed to this animal. Serum biochemistry tests using blood samples collected from 15 additional dogs identified as having eaten the diet detected indospicine was in the serum of 14 and 3 had increased ALT activity. One of the latter dogs subsequently developed clinical signs of severe liver disease and was euthanased. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first published report of the detection of indospicine residues in camel meat and the occurrence of severe, sometimes fatal, liver disease in dogs that consumed this contaminated meat. © 2011 The Authors. Australian Veterinary Journal © 2011 Australian Veterinary Association.

  1. Factors influencing the prevalence of subclinical mastitis in lactating dromedary camels in Riyadh Region, Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aljumaah, Riyadh S; Almutairi, Faris F; Ayadi, Moez; Alshaikh, Mohammad A; Aljumaah, Ali M; Hussein, Mansour F

    2011-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of subclinical mastitis in camels in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia and the factors influencing its incidence. A total of 740 quarter milk samples were collected from 47 camel herds belonging to Majahim, Maghatir, Shu'l, and Sufer breeds. California mastitis test (CMT) was used as a screening test for subclinical mastitis. Samples giving negative or trace CMT scores (0) were assigned to healthy quarters, while those giving positive scores of 1+ to 3+ were assigned to subclinically affected quarters. Logistic regression was used to assess the association of breed, parity, and stage of lactation with the prevalence of subclinical mastitis. Milk fat, protein, lactose, solid nonfat percentages and Na, Ca, and K concentrations were compared in CMT-positive versus healthy quarters. One third (33%) of tested quarters had subclinical mastitis based on CMT. The estimated probability of subclinical mastitis with the combined effects of breed, parity, and stage of lactation ranged from 15.8% to 54.6%. The risk of subclinical mastitis increased significantly with parity and with the early stage of lactation. The Shu'l breed had significantly higher prevalence of subclinical mastitis than other breeds. Significant decreases in protein, lactose, and solid nonfat, Ca and K concentrations and increase in Na concentrations were associated with subclinical mastitis. In conclusion, subclinical mastitis is prevalent in Saudi camels, and its incidence is influenced by breed, parity, and stage of lactation.

  2. TINGKAT EFISIENSI BPRS DI INDONESIA: PERBANDINGAN METODE SFA DENGAN DEA DAN HUBUNGANNYA DENGAN CAMEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syafaat Muhari

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The magnitude of the potential banking market-micro made many banks and other financial institutions makeprofits in the segment of small and micro finance as a market for rural banks (BPR, especially Islamic ruralbanks (BPRS. Thus, the BPRS efficiency was required to survive amid the competitions. This study usedparametric stochastic frontier approach (SFA and the method of data envelopment analysis (DEA to analyzethe level of efficiency of BPRS operation during the period of 2nd Quarter June 2011–1st Quarter March2013. The level of Bank efficiency could be integrated with the performance of banks which was adopted fromCentral Bank (BI criterias, namely CAMEL (Capital, Asset Quality, Management, Earnings and liquidity.Based on the Spearman correlation, the results of this study indicated that the level of efficiency of BPRS usingthe SFA method had no real relationship with CAMEL, while the level of efficiency of BPRS using the DEAmethod had a real and weak relationship with CAMEL. Another result in this study showed that the level ofefficiency using SFA method was statistically higher than the level of efficiency using DEA method.

  3. Genomic Data from Extinct North American Camelops Revise Camel Evolutionary History.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heintzman, Peter D; Zazula, Grant D; Cahill, James A; Reyes, Alberto V; MacPhee, Ross D E; Shapiro, Beth

    2015-09-01

    Recent advances in paleogenomic technologies have enabled an increasingly detailed understanding of the evolutionary relationships of now-extinct mammalian taxa. However, a number of enigmatic Quaternary species have never been characterized with molecular data, often because available fossils are rare or are found in environments that are not optimal for DNA preservation. Here, we analyze paleogenomic data extracted from bones attributed to the late Pleistocene western camel, Camelops cf. hesternus, a species that was distributed across central and western North America until its extinction approximately 13,000 years ago. Despite a modal sequence length of only around 35 base pairs, we reconstructed high-coverage complete mitochondrial genomes and low-coverage partial nuclear genomes for each specimen. We find that Camelops is sister to African and Asian bactrian and dromedary camels, to the exclusion of South American camelids (llamas, guanacos, alpacas, and vicuñas). These results contradict previous morphology-based phylogenetic models for Camelops, which suggest instead a closer relationship between Camelops and the South American camelids. The molecular data imply a Late Miocene divergence of the Camelops clade from lineages that separately gave rise to the extant camels of Eurasia. Our results demonstrate the increasing capacity of modern paleogenomic methods to resolve evolutionary relationships among distantly related lineages. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  4. CAMELS-based Determinants for the Credit Rating of Turkish Deposit Banks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serhat Yuksel

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper demonstrates the relationship between CAMELS ratios and credit ratings of deposit banks in Turkey. Annual data was used for the period between 2004 and 2014 in this study. Moreover, 20 deposit banks of Turkey were analyzed and 21 different ratios of CAMELS components were used. In addition to that, credit ratings of these banks were provided from Moody’s corporation or annual activity reports of the banks. After that, we created multi nominal logistic regression analysis in order to illustrate the relationship. The major finding in this study is that three components (Asset Quality, Management Quality, and Sensitivity to Market Risk of CAMELS have effects on credit ratings whereas the ratios related to Capital Adequacy and Earnings are not effective. As a result, it was recommended that Turkish deposit banks should concentrate on the percentage of fixed assets and interest income to have a better rating. Moreover, having high market share with respect to total assets and lower interest expense are also other important points for this purpose. On the other hand, Turkish deposit banks should control the proportion of financial assets and increase the amount of FX liquid assets to prevent credit ratings to decrease. Additionally, market share of banks for loans should not reach at high level for this objective.

  5. Thermo-alkaline Treatment as a Practical Degradation Strategy To Reduce Indospicine Contamination in Camel Meat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Eddie T T; Yong, Ken W L; Wong, Siew-Hoon; D'Arcy, Bruce R; Al Jassim, Rafat; De Voss, James J; Fletcher, Mary T

    2016-11-09

    Ingestion of indospicine-contaminated camel and horse meat has caused fatal liver injury to dogs in Australia, and it is currently not known if such contaminated meat may pose a human health risk upon dietary exposure. To date, indospicine-related research has tended to focus on analytical aspects, with little information on post-harvest management of indospicine-contaminated meat. In this study, indospicine degradation was investigated in both aqueous solution and also contaminated meat, under a range of conditions. Aqueous solutions of indospicine and indospicine-contaminated camel meat were microwaved (180 °C) or autoclaved (121 °C) with the addition of food-grade additives [0.05% (v/v) acetic acid or 0.05% (w/v) sodium bicarbonate] for 0, 15, 30, and 60 min. An aqueous sodium bicarbonate solution demonstrated the greatest efficacy in degrading indospicine, with complete degradation after 15 min of heating in a microwave or autoclave; concomitant formation of indospicine degradation products, namely, 2-aminopimelamic and 2-aminopimelic acids, was observed. Similar treatment of indospicine-contaminated camel meat with aqueous sodium bicarbonate resulted in 50% degradation after 15 min of heating in an autoclave and 100% degradation after 15 min of heating in a microwave. The results suggest that thermo-alkaline aqueous treatment has potential as a pragmatic post-harvest handling technique in reducing indospicine levels in indospicine-contaminated meat.

  6. The differentiation of camel breeds based on meat measurements using discriminant analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Atiyat, Raed Mahmoud; Suliman, Gamal; AlSuhaibani, Entissar; El-Waziry, Ahmad; Al-Owaimer, Abdullah; Basmaeil, Saeid

    2016-06-01

    The meat productivity of camel in the tropics is still under investigation for identification of better meat breed or type. Therefore, four one-humped Saudi Arabian (SA) camel breeds, Majaheem, Maghateer, Hamrah, and Safrah were experimented in order to differentiate them from each other based on meat measurements. The measurements were biometrical meat traits measured on six intact males from each breed. The results showed higher values of the Majaheem breed than that obtained for the other breeds except few cases such dressing percentage and rib-eye area. In differentiation analysis, the most discriminating meat variables were myofibrillar protein index, meat color components (L* and a*, b*), and cooking loss. Consequently, the Safrah and the Majaheem breeds presented the largest dissimilarity as evidenced by their multivariate means. The canonical discriminant analysis allowed an additional understanding of the differentiation between breeds. Furthermore, two large clusters, one formed by Hamrah and Maghateer in one group along with Safrah. These classifications may assign each breed into one cluster considering they are better as meat producers. The Majaheem was clustered alone in another cluster that might be a result of being better as milk producers. Nevertheless, the productivity type of the camel breeds of SA needs further morphology and genetic descriptions.

  7. Prevalence of some mastitis causes in dromedary camels in Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.A. Al-Juboori1

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The present study was designed to determine the prevalence of different types of mastitis in camels in U.A.E. and to identify the causative microorganisms and their sensitivity to different antimicrobial agents. From 162 lactating she-camels, 630 milk samples were collected from different cities in Abu Dhabi Emirate/UAE. The overall prevalence of mastitis was 18.52% (7.94% on quarter basis, the prevalence of clinical and sub clinical mastitis was found to be 24.70% and 11.67% on animal basis, respectively; it being 9.70% and 5.86% on quarter basis, respectively. The hind quarters were more frequently affected than the fore quarters. Bacteriological examination of milk samples revealed that Staphylococcus was the chief etiological agents both in clinical and sub clinical mastitis (41.67% in camels, followed by Streptococcus spp. (21.67%, Enterobacter spp. (15.00%, C. pyogenes (10.00%, Micrococcus spp. (5.00%, Pasteurells spp. (5.00% and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (1.66%. Most of the Staphylococcus spp., Streptococcus spp. and C. pyogenes strains were sensitive to carbenicillin, gentamycin, kanamycin, and erythromycin, but resistant to colistin and sulphamethoxazole. Other pathogens like Enterobacter, Micrococcus, Pasteurella spp. and Ps. aeuroginosa isolates showed variable sensitivities to the antimicrobials.

  8. Outbreaks of brucellosis related to the consumption of unpasteurized camel milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcell, Humberto G; Garcia, Elias G; Pueyo, Pedro V; Martín, Isis R; Arias, Ariadna V; Alfonso Serrano, Ramon N

    2016-01-01

    Brucellosis is the most frequent zoonosis reported in Qatar, mainly related to exposure to infected camels. An outbreak of human brucellosis in 14 members of a family living in a rural area in Qatar is reported herein. Clinical, epidemiological and laboratory results from all 14 patients with Brucella and 12 non-confirmed family members were collected from files. All patients reported fever for a maximum of 14 days, associated with arthralgia (6 patients), weakness (4 patients), headache (4 patients), diarrhea (2 patients) and abdominal pain (2 patients). The median age of the patients was 10 years and that of non-cases was 16 years, with a predominance of males (92.9%). Elevated levels of transaminases were observed in patients. A mixed infection caused by Brucella abortus and Brucella melitensis was identified by blood culture and serology. The source of the infection was the milk of an infected camel. The outbreak of brucellosis melitensis/abortus related to the consumption of camel milk constitutes a gap in the prevention and control of the potential sources of brucellosis in animal farms. Proper control and education of the population are required. Copyright © 2015 King Saud Bin Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Comparison of visual and electronic devices for individual identification of dromedary camels under different farming conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caja, G; Díaz-Medina, E; Salama, A A K; Salama, O A E; El-Shafie, M H; El-Metwaly, H A; Ayadi, M; Aljumaah, R S; Alshaikh, M A; Yahyahoui, M H; Seddik, M M; Hammadi, M; Khorchani, T; Amann, O; Cabrera, S

    2016-08-01

    The camel industry uses traditional (i.e., iron brands and ear tags) and modern (i.e., microchips) identification (ID) systems without having performance results of reference. Previously iron-branded ( = 45; 1 yr) and microchipped ( = 59; 7 yr) camels showed problems of healing (8.6% of brands) and reading (only 42.9% of brands and 69.5% of microchips were readable), which made their use inadvisable. With the aim of proposing suitable ID systems for different farming conditions, an on-field study was performed using a total of 528 dromedaries at 4 different locations (Egypt, = 83; Spain, = 304; Saudi Arabia, = 90; and Tunisia, = 51). The ID devices tested were visual (button ear tags, 28.5 mm diameter, = 178; double flag ear tags, 50 by 15 mm, = 83; both made of polyurethane) and electronic (ear tags, = 90, and rumen boluses, = 555). Electronic ear tags were polyurethane-loop type (75 by 9 mm) with a container in which a 22-mm transponder of full-duplex technology was lodged. Electronic boluses of 7 types, varying in dimensions (50 to 76 mm length, 11 to 21 mm width, and 12.7 to 82.1 g weight) and specific gravity (SG; 1.49 to 3.86) and each of them containing a 31-mm transponder of half-duplex technology, were all administered to the dromedaries at the beginning of the study. When a low-SG bolus was lost, a high-SG bolus was readministered. Readability rates of each ID system were evaluated during 1 to 3 yr, according to device and location, and yearly values were estimated for comparison. On a yearly basis, visual ear tag readability was not fully satisfactory; it was lower for rectangular ear tags (66.3%) than for button ear tags (80.9%). Yearly readability of electronic ear tags was 93.7%. Bolus readability dramatically varied according to their SG; the SG 3.0 boluses were efficiently retained (99.6 to 100%) at all locations. In conclusion, according to the expected long lifespan of camels, low ID performances were observed for iron brands, injectable

  10. Effect of Farming System on Camels Calving Interval in Western Sudan

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    Sallam Abdelfadeil Bakheit

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Eighteen (18 lactating she-camels and two mature male for mating were used to determine the effect of Management System on camel calving interval, The camels were maintained under semi-intensive (N = 9 and Traditional management system (N = 9 in North Kordofan State, western Sudan. The experimental females in each group kept together with the bull during 18 months. Blood samples were collected from jugular vein since 4-months post-partum and continue 14 successive months at monthly interval. The serum samples were separated and stored at -20°C and were analysed for progesterone concentration using progesterone specific radio immuno assay (RIA kits. The results indicated that under semi-intensive system 77.8% of females had been pregnant in 5th - 8th month post-partum and the calving interval varying between 17 to 20 months. Under traditional system and during the experimental period 44.5% of females were pregnant in the 11th – 16th month and the calving interval varying between 23 to 28 months. The ratios of pregnant vs non-pregnant during experimental period in semi-intensive and traditional were 88.9% vs 11.1% and 44.5% vs 55.5%, respectively. Beside the behavioural signs progesterone level consider a good indicator for pregnancy in camels. In pregnant females Progesterone concentration increased significantly during early months. The range of Progesterone concentration varied between 1.10 – 5.76 ng/ml and 0.67 – 2.53 ng/ml in semi-intensive and traditional system, respectively. Our results allow quantifying this impact. With a supplemented diet including 2 Kg of concentrates and 5 kg of roughages per day, the fertility rate will be improved of 67%. It would be possible to expect more than two fold young camels in a year by supplemented 5 kg of concentrates. We conclude that under semi-intensive management dietary supplement during post-partum and early lactation period improves reproductive parameters for instance shortened calving

  11. Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) RNA and neutralising antibodies in milk collected according to local customs from dromedary camels, Qatar, April 2014

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reusken, C B; Farag, E A; Jonges, M; Godeke, G J; El-Sayed, A M; Pas, S D; Raj, V S; Mohran, K A; Moussa, H A; Ghobashy, H; Alhajri, F; Ibrahim, A K; Bosch, B J|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/273306049; Pasha, S K; Al-Romaihi, H E; Al-Thani, M; Al-Marri, S A; AlHajri, M M; Haagmans, B L; Koopmans, M P

    2014-01-01

    Antibodies to Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) were detected in serum and milk collected according to local customs from 33 camels in Qatar, April 2014. At one location, evidence for active virus shedding in nasal secretions and/or faeces was observed for 7/12 camels; viral

  12. CAMEL vs. discriminante, un análisis de riesgo al sistema financiero venezolano CAMEL vs discriminant, a risk analysis to the Venezuelan financial system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús Yoel Crespo

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available  El artículo presentan las calificaciones de riesgo de las instituciones pertenecientes al sistema financiero venezolano al cierre del primer semestre del año 2010, obtenidas mediante la aplicación de dos metodologías: la primera conocida como CAMEL y la segunda a través de una técnica estadística denominada análisis discriminante, esta última permitirá clasificar a las instituciones financieras en categorías de riesgo, formar un perfil que muestre las característica más representativa de las categoría y cuantificar la probabilidad de pertenecer a una calificación. La investigación pretende establecer si un modelo es mejor que el otro, sino demostrar que se puede complementar el análisis netamente descriptivo con el análisis multivariante, aplicándolo en un área del saber que ha sido poco explotada en Venezuela, permitiendo informar a la colectividad en general, las técnicas estadísticas empleadas en materia de riesgo. AbstractThis paper presents the credit ratings of the institutions belonging to the Venezuelan financial system at the end of the first half of 2010, obtained by applying two methods: the first known as CAMEL and the second through a statistical technique called analysis discriminant, the latter will qualify for financial institutions in risk categories, form a profile that shows the most representative feature of the category and quantify the probability of belonging to a rating. This research does not establish whether one model is better than the other, but show that you can supplement purely descriptive analysis multivariate analysis, applied to an area of knowledge that has been little exploited in Venezuela, allowing to inform the public at large , the statistical techniques used in risk.This paper presents the credit ratings of the institutions belonging to the Venezuelanfinancial system at the end of the first half of 2010, obtained by applying two methods:the first known as CAMEL and the second

  13. Improving the physico-chemical and sensory characteristics of camel meat burger patties using ginger extract and papain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Naeem, Heba H S; Mohamed, Hussein M H

    2016-08-01

    The objective of the current study was to include tenderizing agents in the formulation of camel meat burger patties to improve the physico-chemical and sensory characteristics of the product. Camel meat burger patties were processed with addition of ginger extract (7%), papain (0.01%) and mixture of ginger extract (5%) and papain (0.005%) in addition to control. Addition of ginger, papain and their mixture resulted in significant (Pcamel burger patties can improve their physico-chemical and sensory properties. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Subclinical mastitis in dairy camels in Algeria: Comparison of screening tests

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    Leyla HADEF

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to determine a threshold values and to assess the effectiveness of four indirect tests for the diagnosis of subclinical mastitis in dairy camels comparing with bacteriological culture. One hundred fifty three milk samples from 17 lactating camels were subjected to bacteriological culture, where 84 milk samples were positive, 47 were negative and 22 samples were considered as contaminated. A total of 131 milk samples were screened by pH, electrical conductivity (EC, California mastitis test (CMT and somatic cell count (SCC. The good combination of sensitivity and specificity were obtained with a threshold of 6.55, 7.2 mS/cm, score trace was considered as CMT (+ and 240 000 cells/ml for the four tests, respectively. The sensitivity of the SCC, pH, EC and CMT was 72.61, 66.66, 47.61 and 39.28 %; the specificity 70.21, 38.02, 59.57 and 72.34 %; percentage accuracy 71.75, 51.14, 51.90 and 51.14 %; and positive predictive value 81.33, 47.61, 67.79 and 71.73 %, respectively. The SCC was significantly correlated with bacteriological culture (r = 0.415, p < 0.05. Kappa value of SCC was higher than that of other tests (SCC > CMT > EC > pH. In conclusion, the results suggest that the SCC was the most accurate, reliable, diagnostic method compared to other tests used in this study after cultural isolation for the detection of subclinical mastitis in dairy camel under field conditions.

  15. Rabies Outbreaks and Vaccination in Domestic Camels and Cattle in Northwest China.

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    Ye Liu

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In contrast to many countries where rabies has been well controlled in humans and livestock, even in wildlife, rabies is still endemic in almost regions of China. In Northwest China, rabies transmitted by stray dogs and wild foxes has caused heavy economic losses to local herdsmen, as well as causing numbers of human cases. In this study, as part of an investigation of ways to prevent rabies epidemics in livestock, we report an analysis of domestic cattle and camel rabies cases in Ningxia Hui (NHAR and Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region (IMAR and the immune efficacy of canine inactivated rabies vaccines in these animals. We found that rabies viruses from these animals are closely related to dog-hosted China I and fox-associated China III lineages, respectively, indicating that the infections originated from two different sources (dogs and wild foxes. As well as the previously reported Arctic and Arctic-related China IV lineage in IMAR, at least three separate phylogenetic groups of rabies virus consistently exist and spread throughout Northwest China. Since there is no licensed oral vaccine for wild foxes and no inactivated vaccine for large livestock, local canine inactivated vaccine products were used for emergency immunization of beef and milk cattle and bactrian (two-humped camels in local farms. Compared with a single injection with one (low-efficacy or three doses (high-cost, a single injection of a double dose of canine vaccine provided low-price and convenience for local veterinarians while inducing levels of virus neutralizing antibodies indicative of protection against rabies for at least 1 year in the cattle and camels. However, licensed vaccines for wildlife and large domestic animals are still needed in China.

  16. Rabies Outbreaks and Vaccination in Domestic Camels and Cattle in Northwest China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Hai-Ning; Zhang, Fei; Wang, Yu-Mei; Ma, Long; Li, Nan; Hu, Rong-Liang

    2016-01-01

    In contrast to many countries where rabies has been well controlled in humans and livestock, even in wildlife, rabies is still endemic in almost regions of China. In Northwest China, rabies transmitted by stray dogs and wild foxes has caused heavy economic losses to local herdsmen, as well as causing numbers of human cases. In this study, as part of an investigation of ways to prevent rabies epidemics in livestock, we report an analysis of domestic cattle and camel rabies cases in Ningxia Hui (NHAR) and Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region (IMAR) and the immune efficacy of canine inactivated rabies vaccines in these animals. We found that rabies viruses from these animals are closely related to dog-hosted China I and fox-associated China III lineages, respectively, indicating that the infections originated from two different sources (dogs and wild foxes). As well as the previously reported Arctic and Arctic-related China IV lineage in IMAR, at least three separate phylogenetic groups of rabies virus consistently exist and spread throughout Northwest China. Since there is no licensed oral vaccine for wild foxes and no inactivated vaccine for large livestock, local canine inactivated vaccine products were used for emergency immunization of beef and milk cattle and bactrian (two-humped) camels in local farms. Compared with a single injection with one (low-efficacy) or three doses (high-cost), a single injection of a double dose of canine vaccine provided low-price and convenience for local veterinarians while inducing levels of virus neutralizing antibodies indicative of protection against rabies for at least 1 year in the cattle and camels. However, licensed vaccines for wildlife and large domestic animals are still needed in China. PMID:27583559

  17. Occurrence of Salmonella in ruminants and camel meat in Maiduguri, Nigeria and their antibiotic resistant pattern

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    Zakaria Musa

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This study was conducted to determine the occurrence of Salmonella in various meat products (beef from cattle, chevon from goats, mutton from sheep and jaziir from camel, by screening the various selling points which includes; meat retailers in abattoir, markets and shops in Maiduguri and its environs. Materials and methods: A total of 120 samples of fresh meat from cattle, sheep, goats and camels sampled from ten meat retailers in abattoir, markets and shops in the Maiduguri metropolis, using simple random sampling technique. All samples were processed and examined according to standard bacteriological protocols. Results: Percentage occurrence of Salmonella species had the highest value of 15 (50.1% from the market, found in sheep, while the lowest occurrence of Salmonella species was associated with 3(10.0% in goats sampled from shop meat.. Antibiotic susceptibility pattern of Salmonella species from cattle meat revealed high resistant to Erythromycin (52%. In sheep, the higher percentage of resistance occurred against Ampicillin (33.3% and less resistant to Amoxicillin (4% was obtained. The isolates from camel meat recorded 25% resistant against Ampicillin, Gentamycin and 12.5% to Streptomycin. A total of 28.4% of the isolates were resistant to Ampicillin, Gentamycin and 23.1% to Ofloxacin. Conclusion: The study has shown that Salmonella species are present in fresh meat sold in abattoir, retail markets and shops. We recommend strict hygienic measures in places where fresh meat are sold in Maiduguri metropolis, Nigeria to ensure consumers right to have safe food. [J Adv Vet Anim Res 2017; 4(3.000: 227-233

  18. The Twelfth Camel in the Judicial Power: a analysis from the Theory of Social Systems Autopoietic

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    Pedro Ernesto Neubarth Jung

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses the behavior of Collegiate Judicial Bodies in the presence of an external element, the legal subsystem – the "Twelfth Camel". This analysis examines how the legal subsystem deals with the introduction of an external element in its operation, through Luhmann’s systemic observation. Thus, to accomplish this particular purpose, qualitative research methods previously applied in this study are used in addition to practical elements, such as the analysis of a particular case study, supported by bibliographic references. This is how solutions to the problem presented have been sought

  19. Genetic differences between Tunisian camel and sheep strains of the cestode Echinococcus granulosus revealed by SSCP

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    Oudni-M’rad M.

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Ovine and dromedary Echinococcus granulosus isolates from Tunisia were identified as G1 and G6 strains based on polymorphism of the mitochondrial cytochrome C oxydase CO1. Single strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP was used in order to examine the genetic variation within and between Tunisian G1 and G6 strains and to estimate the extent of selfing. The dromedary isolates are genetically distinct from sheep isolates (high value of genetic variation between populations: Fst = 0.46. No significant deficiency in heterozygotes was found in sheep isolates, whereas heterozygote deficiency (suggesting selfing was found in a limited number of camel isolates.

  20. Divergent Anticancer Activity of Free and Formulated Camel Milk α-Lactalbumin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uversky, Vladimir N; El-Fakharany, Esmail M; Abu-Serie, Marwa M; Almehdar, Hussein A; Redwan, Elrashdy M

    2017-10-21

    Alpha-lactalbumin (α-LA), a small milk calcium-binding globular protein, is known to possess noticeable anticancer activity, which is determined by the ability of this protein to form complexes with oleic acid (OA). To date, in addition to human and bovine α-LA, the ability to form such anti-tumor complexes with OA was described for goat and camel α-LA. Although the mechanisms of the anticancer activity of human and bovine α-LA are already well-studied, little is currently known about the anticancer action of this camel protein. The goal of this study was to fill this gap and to analyze the anticancer and pro-apoptotic activities of camel α-LA in its free form (α-cLA) and as an OA-containing complex (OA-α-cLA) using four human cancer cell lines, including Caco-2 colon cancer cells, PC-3 prostate cancer cells, HepG-2 hepatoma cells, and MCF-7 breast cancer cells as targets. The anti-tumor activities of OA-α-cLA and α-cLA were analyzed using MTT test, annexin/PI staining, cell cycle analysis, nuclear staining, and tyrosine kinase (TK) inhibition methods. We show here that the OA-α-cLA complex does not affect normal cells but has noticeable anti-cancer activity, especially against MCF-7 cells, thus boosting the anticancer activity of α-cLA and improving the selectivity of OA. The OA-α-cLA complex mediated cancer cell death via selective induction of apoptosis and cell-cycle arrest at lower IC50 than that of free α-cLA by more than two folds. However, OA induced apoptosis at higher extent than OA-α-cLA and α-cLA. OA also caused unselective apoptosis-dependent cell death in both normal and cancer cells to a similar degree. The apoptosis and cell-cycle arresting effect of OA-α-cLA may be attributed to the TK inhibition activity of OA. Therefore, OA-α-cLA serves as efficient anticancer complex with two functional components, α-cLA and OA, possessing different activities. This study declared the effectiveness of OA-α-cLA complex as a promising entity

  1. Evaluation of the Sedative Effects of Diazepam, Midazolam, and Xylazine After Intranasal Administration in Juvenile Ostriches ( Struthio camelus ).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araghi, Mostafa; Azizi, Saeed; Vesal, Nasser; Dalir-Naghade, Bahram

    2016-09-01

    The sedative effects of diazepam, midazolam, and xylazine after intranasal administration were evaluated in 72 (36 male and 36 female) juvenile healthy ostriches ( Struthio camelus ), weighing 50-61 kg and aged 4-5 months. The birds were randomly divided into 3 groups (n = 24), then each group was further subdivided to 4 subgroups (n = 6). For each drug, 4 different doses were chosen and the total calculated dose was equally administered into either naris of the individual bird. The appropriate dose of each drug to produce standing chemical restraint or sternal recumbency was evaluated based on the onset time, the duration of maximum effect, and the duration of sedation. Midazolam showed significantly shorter onset time (2.9 ± 1.2 minutes) compared with xylazine (4.4 ± 1 minute) and diazepam (4.3 ± 0.4 minutes). Longer duration of sedation was also achieved with midazolam compared with xylazine and diazepam. Moderate sedation was achieved with diazepam (0.8 mg/kg), midazolam (0.4 mg/kg), and xylazine (2 mg/kg) for standing chemical restraint, with the maximum duration effects of 7.0 ± 1.4, 17.7 ± 4.1, and 9.2 ± 2.5 minutes, respectively. Deep sedation was also achieved with midazolam (0.8 mg/kg) and xylazine (4 mg/kg), with sternal recumbency duration of 21.7 ± 4.9 and 13.5 ± 2.6 minutes, respectively. The results of the present study show that intranasal administration can be an effective route for delivery of sedatives in juvenile ostriches. Intranasal midazolam and xylazine could be suggested for standing chemical restraint or inducing sternal recumbency in juvenile ostriches.

  2. Poblaciones bacterianas utilizadoras de hidrógeno presentes en el tracto gastrointestinal del avestruz (Struthio camelus Var. Domesticus

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    J. M. Miramontes-Carrillo

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Tres grupos de bacterias compiten por hidrógeno en diferentes ecosistemas anaerobios, y junto con CO 2 , producen metano, sulfuro dehidrógeno y acetato. Estas reacciones representan ganancia de energía al animal. Motivo por el cual, el presente trabajo pretende evaluar la presencia y tamaño de poblaciones de bacterias utilizadoras de hidrógeno en el tracto gastrointestinaldel avestruz. Para ello se utilizaron medios AC11 para acetogénicas, Potgate para sulfato-reductoras y Fosfato buffer para metanogénicas. Las poblaciones se determinaron por el método del número más probable (NMP. El diseño fue completamente al azar, con arreglo factorial, A = porciones del tracto digestivo y B = microorganismo. El NMP, de acetogénicas y metanogénicas fue cero. Las bacterias sulfato-reductoras están presentes en todo el tracto gastrointestinal. Las poblaciones fueron 544.00; 532.00; 157.20; 155.32 y 76.48 x 10/ 6 para el intestino grueso, ciegos, intestino delgado, proventrículo y ventrículo, respectivamente. Los resultados confirman presencia y predominio de las sulfato-reductoras en todas las porciones del tracto gastrointestinal del Struthio camelus. La producción de AGV en el tracto gastrointestinal del avestruz, es producto del metabolismo y reutilización del hidrógeno por bacterias sulfato-reductoras.

  3. Studies on the susceptibility of ostriches (Struthio camelus to the Indonesian velogenic strain of Newcastle disease virus

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    Darminto

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available Susceptibility of ostriches (Struthio camelus to the Indonesian velogenic strain of Newcastle disease virus (NDV was evaluated by artificial infection . Twelve - 5 to 6 week old ostriches were divided into 3 groups each containing 4 birds . The first group was inoculated through respiratory system by dropping directly the virus solution into the nostrils, while the second group was inoculated through digestive system by dropping directly the virus solution into the oesophagus, with the dose of infection 106ELDSo (50%-embryo lethal dose per bird . Meanwhile, the third group was treated as uninfected control . All infected birds developed antibody responses, but only two inoculated birds from the first group and two inoculated birds from the second group developed clinical signs of Newcastle disease (ND, with no specific pathological alterations . Infected birds, either sicks or healthy, excreted the challenge viruses through the respiratory system and still be detected up to the end of this experiment, ie . 15 days post-inoculation . The challenge viruses can be re-isolated from the brain, trachea, lungs, heart, liver, spleen, kidneys, small intestine, cecal-tonsil, and proventriculus of the infected birds . This study concludes that: (1 the ostriches are susceptible to the infection of the Indonesian velogenic strain ofNDV; (2 all infected birds developed immune responses, but only half of them develops el jtigi aj i disease ; (3 the infected birds excreted the challenge viruses for a considerable long time which may play role as the Mginiseti.ce ofinfectron the other healthy ostriches ; and (4 the challenge viruses can be re-isolated from various organs of the birds . .

  4. Characteristics of the somatic hypermutation in the Camelus dromedarius T cell receptor gamma (TRG) and delta (TRD) variable domains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciccarese, Salvatrice; Vaccarelli, Giovanna; Lefranc, Marie-Paule; Tasco, Gianluca; Consiglio, Arianna; Casadio, Rita; Linguiti, Giovanna; Antonacci, Rachele

    2014-10-01

    In previous reports, we had shown in Camelus dromedarius that diversity in T cell receptor gamma (TRG) and delta (TRD) variable domains can be generated by somatic hypermutation (SHM). In the present paper, we further the previous finding by analyzing 85 unique spleen cDNA sequences encoding a total of 331 mutations from a single animal, and comparing the properties of the mutation profiles of dromedary TRG and TRD variable domains. The transition preference and the significant mutation frequency in the AID motifs (dgyw/wrch and wa/tw) demonstrate a strong dependence of the enzymes mediating SHM in TRG and TRD genes of dromedary similar to that of immunoglobulin genes in mammals. Overall, results reveal no asymmetry in the motifs targeting, i.e. mutations are equally distributed among g:c and a:t base pairs and replacement mutations are favored at the AID motifs, whereas neutral mutations appear to be more prone to accumulate in bases outside of the motifs. A detailed analysis of clonal lineages in TRG and TRD cDNA sequences also suggests that clonal expansion of mutated productive rearrangements may be crucial in shaping the somatic diversification in the dromedary. This is confirmed by the fact that our structural models, computed by adopting a comparative procedure, are consistent with the possibility that, irrespective of where (in the CDR-IMGT or in FR-IMGT) the diversity was generated by mutations, both clonal expansion and selection seem to be strictly related to an enhanced structural stability of the γδ subunits. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. The foaming properties of camel and bovine whey: The impact of pH and heat treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lajnaf, Roua; Picart-Palmade, Laetitia; Cases, Eliane; Attia, Hamadi; Marchesseau, Sylvie; Ayadi, M A

    2018-02-01

    The effect of heat treatment (70°C or 90°C for 30min) on the foaming and interfacial properties of acid and sweet whey obtained from bovine and camel fresh milk was examined. The maximum foamability and foam stability were observed for acid whey when compared to sweet whey for both milks, with higher values for the camel whey. This behavior for acid whey was explained by the proximity of the pI of whey protein (4.9-5.2), where proteins were found to carry the lowest negative charge as confirmed by the zeta potential measurements. Interfacial properties of acid camel whey and acid bovine whey were preserved at air water interface even after a heat treatment at 90°C. These results confirmed the pronounced foaming and interfacial properties of acid camel whey, even if acid and sweet bovine whey exhibited the highest viscoelastic modulus after heating. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Effects of electrical stimulation on histochemical muscle fiber staining, quality, and composition of camel and cattle Longissimus thoracis muscles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadim, I T; Mahgoub, O; Al-Marzooqi, W; Khalaf, S K; Mansour, M H; Al-Sinani, S S H; Al-Amri, I S

    2009-01-01

    The effects of electrical stimulation on muscle fiber type, meat quality, and composition of Longissimus thoracis muscles from one-humped camels and Dofari Omani cattle of a comparable age range were investigated. A low-voltage electrical stimulation with 90 V, 14 Hz (pulse of 7.5-millisecond duration every 70 milliseconds) 20 min postmortem was applied. Samples from the left muscle were collected from 20 (2 to 3 y) camels and 24 cattle (1 to 3 y). For chemical composition, muscle samples were dried in a freeze dryer, and then ground to determine moisture, protein, fat, and ash. Macro- and micro-minerals were determined using an Inductively Coupled Plasma Emission Spectrometer. Quality characteristics of the meat were evaluated using shear force value, pH, sarcomere, myofibrillar fragmentation index, expressed juice, cooking loss percent, and CIE L*, a*, b* color values. Electrical stimulation resulted in a significantly (P camels had significantly (P meat from both species. This indicates that meat quality of local camel and cattle can be improved by electrical stimulation and consequently improves their acceptability to consumers and better marketability.

  7. Foaming and adsorption behavior of bovine and camel proteins mixed layers at the air/water interface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lajnaf, Roua; Picart-Palmade, Laetitia; Attia, Hamadi; Marchesseau, Sylvie; Ayadi, M A

    2017-03-01

    The aim of this work was to examine foaming and interfacial behavior of three milk protein mixtures, bovine α-lactalbumin-β-casein (M1), camel α-lactalbumin-β-casein (M2) and β-lactoglobulin-β-casein (M3), alone and in binary mixtures, at the air/water interface in order to better understand the foaming properties of bovine and camel milks. Different mixture ratios (100:0; 75:25; 50:50; 25:75; 0:100) were used during foaming tests and interfacial protein interactions were studied with a pendant drop tensiometer. Experimental results evidenced that the greatest foam was obtained with a higher β-casein amount in all camel and bovine mixtures. Good correlation was observed with the adsorption and the interfacial rheological properties of camel and bovine protein mixtures. The proteins adsorbed layers are mainly affected by the presence of β-casein molecules, which are probably the most abundant protein at interface and the most efficient in reducing the interfacial properties. In contrast of, the globular proteins, α-lactalbumin and β-lactoglobulin that are involved in the protein layer composition, but could not compact well at the interface to ensure foams creation and stabilization because of their rigid molecular structure. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Camel milk and bee honey regulate profibrotic cytokine gene transcripts in liver cirrhosis induced by carbon tetrachloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadek, Kadry; Beltagy, Doha; Saleh, Ebeed; Abouelkhair, Reham

    2016-05-30

    The lack of studies regarding the mechanism of the protective effects of camel milk and bee honey against hepatotoxic compounds led us to perform this study. Thirty-six male rats were divided into two main groups. The first group (n = 9) comprised control non-cirrhotic rats. The rats of the second group (n = 27) were administered carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) by intraperitoneal injection to induce liver cirrhosis. The cirrhotic rats were then divided into three equal subgroups, each comprising nine animals, as follows: (i) cirrhotic rats, (ii) cirrhotic rats treated with camel milk, and (iii) cirrhotic rats treated with camel milk and bee honey. The present findings revealed that CCl4 elevated the activities of liver enzymes, blood glucose levels, non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA) in the serum and glycogen content in the liver. On the other hand, CCl4 significantly decreased phosphorylase activity in the liver tissue and significantly increased carbohydrate intolerance and insulin resistance index (HOMA-IR). Moreover, CCl4 induced a significant increase in oxidative stress, along with increased expression of the profibrotic cytokine genes TNF-α and TGF-β. However, camel milk either alone or in combination with bee honey ameliorated these toxic actions. The antioxidant properties of these protective agents and their effects of downregulating certain procirrhotic cytokine gene transcripts underlie this protection.

  9. Incidence of Listeria species in bovine, ovine, caprine, camel and water buffalo milk using cultural method and the PCR assay

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    Ebrahim Rahimi

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To determine the prevalence rate of Listeria species in bovine, ovine, caprine, camel and water buffalo milk in Iran. Methods: From September 2010 to December 2011 a total of 260 bulk milk samples including 85 bovine, 37 camel, 34 water buffalo, 56 ovine and 48 caprine bulk milk samples were collected from commercial dairy herds, in Fars and Khuzestan provinces, Iran and were evaluated for the presence of Listeria species using cultural method and the PCR assay. Results: Using cultural method, 19 samples (7.3% were positive for Listeria spp. The highest prevalence of Listeria was found in raw water buffalo milk (11.8%, followed by raw bovine milk (10.6%, raw ovine milk (7.1%, and raw caprine milk (4.2% samples. All 37 camel milk samples from 20 camel breeding farms were negative for Listeria spp. The overall prevalence of Listeria was 7.3%, in which Listeria innocua was the most recovered species (4.2%; the remaining isolates were Listeria monocytogenes (1.9%, Listeria ivanovii (0.08% and Listeria seeligari (0.04%. The PCR assay could identify 8 Listeria-contaminated milk samples that were negative using the cultural method. Conclusions: The results presented in this study indicate the potential risk of infection with Listeria in people consuming raw and unpasteurized milk.

  10. Influence of Sodium Bisulfite and Lithium Bromide Solutions on the Shape Fixation of Camel Guard Hairs in Slenderization Process

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    Xueliang Xiao

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Outstanding performance of natural camel hair has attracted much attention on the effective use of such specialty fiber to apparel textiles. In this paper, sodium bisulfide (SB and lithium bromide (LB solutions were used to process the camel guard hair before its slenderization. It is found that camel guard hair processed by SB solution shows the highest breaking elongation (~140% due to the breakage of disulfide bonds (reflected by Raman spectra. LB ions result in the disruption of hair crystalline phase with slight benefit to the slenderization (determined by X-ray diffraction and differential scanning calorimetry. IR spectra indicate that hydrogen bonds of camel guard hair act as fixation switch in the programmed tensile test. It is discovered that guard hair reveals the best water-induced shape memory with 90% of stretching shape recovery, whereas the value remained to be 70% and 60% for hair processed by LB and SB solutions after breaking partial crystalline phase and disulfide cross-links separately (polymer net-points. The poorer shape memory of processed guard hair benefits its slenderization for more stable fixation of stretched length.

  11. Proteome Changes in biceps femoris Muscle of Iranian
One-Humped Camel and Their Effect on Meat Quality Traits

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammad-Javad Varidi; Mehdi Varidi; Younes Zahedi

    2016-01-01

    In this study physicochemical and quality traits of biceps femoris and longissimus thoracis muscles of male and female Iranian one-humped camel were determined during 14 days of refrigeration storage. Analysis of variance of the results showed that only shear force and temperature were affected by the gender (p

  12. Determination of hepatotoxic indospicine in Australian camel meat by ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Eddie T T; Fletcher, Mary T; Yong, Ken W L; D'Arcy, Bruce R; Al Jassim, Rafat

    2014-02-26

    Indospicine is a hepatotoxic amino acid found in Indigofera plant spp. and is unusual in that it is not incorporated into protein but accumulates as the free amino acid in the tissues (including muscle) of animals consuming these plants. Dogs are particularly sensitive to indospicine, and secondary poisoning of dogs has occurred from the ingestion of indospicine-contaminated horse meat and more recently camel meat. In central Australia, feral camels are known to consume native Indigofera species, but the prevalence of indospicine residues in their tissues has not previously been investigated. In this study, a method was developed and validated with the use of ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) to determine the level of indospicine in camel meat samples using isotopically labeled indospicine as an internal standard. UPLC-MS/MS analysis showed that the method is reproducible, with high recovery efficiency and a quantitation limit of 0.1 mg/kg. Camel meat samples from the Simpson Desert were largely contaminated (≈50%) by indospicine with levels up to 3.73 mg/kg (fresh weight) determined. However, the majority of samples (95%) contained less than 1 mg/kg indospicine.

  13. AHP 35: Tibetans, Camels, Yurts, and Singing to the Salt Goddesses: An A do Elder Reflects on Local Culture

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    Wenchangjia ཁ་བ་རྣམ་རྒྱལ། (Kawa Namgyal, Kha ba rnam rgyal

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Historical camel herding and use in Mang ra (Guinan County, Mtsho lho (Hainan Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture, Mtsho sngon (Qinghai Province, China is described through the recollections of Rin chen skyid (1919-2011 and other lifelong residents of the area. Yurts and salt collecting and culture are also described. Three maps and four photographs provide additional information.

  14. Camel Milk Beneficial Effects on Treating Gentamicin Induced Alterations in Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Asmari, Abdulrahman K.; Abbasmanthiri, R.; Al-Elewi, Abdulrahman M.; Al-Omani, Saud; Al-Asmary, Saeed; Al-Asmari, Sarah A.

    2014-01-01

    The potential effect of camel milk (CM) against gentamicin (GM) induced biochemical changes in the rat serum was evaluated. Four groups of six albino rats were used for control, CM fed, injected with GM(i.p.), and then fed and injected with GM. The results showed that the administration of GM significantly altered the levels of aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activity in rat serum. CM restored these parameters to almost their normal range in group IV. Additionally, the present study showed that injection of rats with gentamicin caused an increase in malondialdehyde (MDA) and myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity while the antioxidant enzymes like superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione s-transferase (GST) activity decreased significantly (P ≤ 0.05). Administration of CM significantly (P ≤ 0.05) inhibited the formation of MDA and activity of MPO and upregulated the antioxidant enzymes (SOD and GST) activity. The overall findings of this study demonstrated that pretreatment with CM gave protection against GM induced hepatic damage possibly by inhibiting oxidative stress and inflammation, and hence camel milk can be identified as a new therapeutic agent. PMID:25544839

  15. Camel Milk Beneficial Effects on Treating Gentamicin Induced Alterations in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulrahman K. Al-Asmari

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The potential effect of camel milk (CM against gentamicin (GM induced biochemical changes in the rat serum was evaluated. Four groups of six albino rats were used for control, CM fed, injected with GM(i.p., and then fed and injected with GM. The results showed that the administration of GM significantly altered the levels of aspartate aminotransferase (AST, alanine aminotransferase (ALT, alkaline phosphatase (ALP, and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH activity in rat serum. CM restored these parameters to almost their normal range in group IV. Additionally, the present study showed that injection of rats with gentamicin caused an increase in malondialdehyde (MDA and myeloperoxidase (MPO activity while the antioxidant enzymes like superoxide dismutase (SOD and glutathione s-transferase (GST activity decreased significantly (P≤0.05. Administration of CM significantly (P≤0.05 inhibited the formation of MDA and activity of MPO and upregulated the antioxidant enzymes (SOD and GST activity. The overall findings of this study demonstrated that pretreatment with CM gave protection against GM induced hepatic damage possibly by inhibiting oxidative stress and inflammation, and hence camel milk can be identified as a new therapeutic agent.

  16. Some Comparative Anatomical and Histological Studies on the Laryngeal Cartilages of Buffaloes, Camels and Donkeys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eman A. Eshra

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Comparative studies concerned the upper air ways of domestic animals are few. So this study was carried out to compare between the larynx of buffaloes, camels and donkeys. The present investigation was carried out on 39 larynxes, 13 larynxes (7 males, 6 females of each species. Ten heads from each species were used for gross anatomical study; the remained three heads were used for the histological study. Results revealed that, the laryngeal cartilages of the three species were consisted of three single cartilages; the thyroid, the cricoid and the epiglottis, and two paired cartilages; the arytenoid and the corniculate. The cuneiform cartilages were paired cartilages present only in the larynx of the donkey. Thyroid, arytenoid and cricoid cartilages were of hyaline type, while the epiglottis, cuniform and corniculate cartilages and the vocal process of the arytenoid cartilage were of elastic type. The laryngeal epithelium of aditus laryngis, greater part of epiglottis and vocal folds was lined by non-keratinized stratified squamous epithelium. The remained parts of laryngeal epithelium from base of epiglottis and entire parts caudal to vocal folds were lined by pseudostratified columnar ciliated epithelium with goblet cells. The laryngeal glands of lamina propria were of mixed types in buffaloes and donkeys but in camels it was pure mucous glands. This study will fill a gap in the field of comparative anatomy and help other clinical investigation applied on these animals.

  17. Application of nanocompostie chitosan and carboxymethyl cellulose films containing natural preservative compounds in minced camel's meat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khezrian, Ali; Shahbazi, Yasser

    2018-01-01

    In the present study, novel films based on nanomontmorillonite-chitosan (MMT-Ch) and nanomontmorillonite-carboxymethyl cellulose (MMT-CMC) incorporated with different concentrations of Ziziphora clinopodioides essential oil (ZEO; 0.5, 1 and 2%) alone and in combination with Ficus carica extract (FCH; 1%) were investigated as active packaging materials for minced camel's meat to increase the shelf life (microbial, chemical and sensory properties) and inhibit the growth of Listeria monocytogenes and Escherichia coli O157:H7 during storage at refrigerated condition. Final microbial populations of meat samples packed in CMC-MMT+ZEO 2%+FCH 1% and Ch-MMT+ZEO 2%+FCH 1% were decreased approximately 1-4 log CFU/g compared to control (P<0.05). Packed meats with nanocomposite films tended to retard the increases in total volatile base nitrogen (TVB-N), pH, peroxide value (PV), protein carbonyl content and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS). Sensory attributes (odor, color and overall acceptability) were significantly enhanced in treated meat samples (P<0.05). The results indicated that CMC-MMT+ZEO 2%+FCH 1% and Ch-MMT+ZEO 2%+FCH 1% films could be considered as promising packaging materials for minced camel's meat. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Short communication: Viability of culture organisms in honey-enriched acidophilus-bifidus-thermophilus (ABT)-type fermented camel milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varga, L; Süle, J; Nagy, P

    2014-11-01

    The aim of this research was to monitor the survival during refrigerated storage of Lactobacillus acidophilus LA-5 (A), Bifidobacterium animalis ssp. lactis BB-12 (B), and Streptococcus thermophilus CHCC 742/2130 (T) in cultured dairy foods made from camel and, for comparison, cow milks supplemented with black locust (Robinia pseudoacacia L.) honey and fermented by an acidophilus-bifidus-thermophilus (ABT)-type culture. Two liters of dromedary camel milk and 2 L of cow milk were heated to 90 °C and held for 10 min, then cooled to 40 °C. One half of both types of milk was fortified with black locust honey at the rate of 5.0% (wt/vol), whereas the other half was devoid of honey and served as a control. The camel and cow milks with and without honey were subsequently inoculated with ABT-5 culture and were fermented at 37 °C until a pH value of 4.6 was reached. Thereafter, the probiotic fermented milks were cooled to 15 °C in ice water and were each separated into 18 fractions that were transferred in sterile, tightly capped centrifuge tubes. After 24 h of cooling at 8 °C (d 0), the samples were stored at refrigeration temperature (4 °C). Three tubes of all 4 products (i.e., fermented camel and cow milks with and without honey) were taken at each sampling time (i.e., following 0, 7, 14, 21, 28, and 35 d of storage), and the counts of characteristic microorganisms and those of certain spoilage microbes (yeasts, molds, coliforms, Escherichia coli) were enumerated. The entire experimental program was repeated twice. The results showed that addition of black locust honey at 5% to heat-treated camel and cow milks did not influence the growth and survival of starter streptococci during production and subsequent refrigerated storage of fermented ABT milks. In contrast, honey improved retention of viability of B. animalis ssp. lactis BB-12 in the camel milk-based product during storage at 4 °C up to 5 wk. No spoilage organisms were detected in any of the samples tested

  19. Seroprevalence of Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP) and evaluation of risk factors in camels of the Sultanate of Oman.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, Muhammad Hammad; Saqib, Muhammad; Al-Maawali, Mahir Gharib; Al-Makhladi, Salim; Al-Zadjali, Mohammed Somar; Al-Sidairi, Talal; Asubaihi, Saud; Al-Rawahi, Abdulmajeed; Mansoor, Muhammad Khalid

    2015-02-01

    Johne's disease (JD) is a World Animal Health Organization (OIE)-listed disease of ruminants including camels with serious economic impacts worldwide. A cross-sectional serological survey involving multistage simple random sampling was conducted to investigate the prevalence of JD in camels of Oman. In total, 2255 camels (254 males and 2001 females) and different ages from 553 geographically marked holdings were bled for serum. The samples were analyzed by a commercial indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) with protein 'G' as conjugate (LSI VET Ruminant Serum Paratuberculosis Advanced, France). Results indicated a widespread herd and individual level seroprevalence, respectively of 9.2 % (95 % CI = 0.7-50) and 2.6 % (95 % CI = 2.0-3.4) in Oman. Differences (p  0.05) seroprevalence was observed in females (2.8 %), and their odds for testing positive were 3.69 (95 % confidence interval (CI) = 0.90-15.23) times higher as compared to males (0.8 %). Seropositivity increased with the age of camels, and the highest prevalence (4.4 %) was observed in camels of more than 10 years of age (p = 0.03). Large and medium size herds (odds ratio (OR) = 1.77, 95 % CI = 0.96-3.24) where camels were kept as single species (OR = 1.54, 95 % CI = 0.84-2.84) and confined (OR = 1.93, 95 % CI = 1.05-3.54) were found more likely to test positive. This is the first record of seroprevalence of JD among the camels in the country which highlights their potential as an important host of the disease. The results advocate that a comprehensive control program based upon further risk analysis and molecular study should be devised in Oman.

  20. Study of Lactic Acid Bacteria Community From Raw Milk of Iranian One Humped Camel and Evaluation of Their Probiotic Properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davati, Nafiseh; Tabatabaee Yazdi, Farideh; Zibaee, Saeed; Shahidi, Fakhri; Edalatian, Mohammad Reza

    2015-05-01

    Camel milk is amongst valuable food sources in Iran. On the other hand, due to the presence of probiotic bacteria and bacteriocin producers in camel milk, probiotic bacteria can be isolated and identified from this food product. The objectives of the present research were the isolation and molecular identification of lactic acid bacteria from camel milk and evaluation of their probiotic properties. A total of ten samples of camel milk were collected from the Golestan province of Iran under aseptic conditions. Bacteria were isolated by culturing the samples on selective medium. Isolates were identified by amplification of the 16S rDNA and Internal Transcribed Spacer (ITS) region between the 16S and 23S rRNA genes by Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) and were then screened and grouped by the Amplified Ribosomal DNA Restriction Analysis (ARDRA) method. To evaluate probiotic properties, representative isolates of different ARDRA profiles were analyzed. The antimicrobial activity of Lactic Acid Bacteria (LAB) against Pediococcus pentosaceus, Escherichia coli and Bacillus cereus was examined by the agar diffusion assay. Acid and bile tolerance of isolates were evaluated. A total of 64 isolates were analyzed based on biochemical tests and morphological characteristics. The most frequently isolated LAB was Enterococci. Weissella, Leuconostoc, Lactobacilli and Pediococci were less frequently found. Based on restriction analysis of the ITS, the isolates were grouped into nine different ARDRA patterns that were identified by ribosomal DNA sequencing as P. pentosaceus, Enterococcus faecium strain Y-2, E. faecium strain JZ1-1, E. faecium strain E6, E. durans, E. lactis, Leuconostoc mesenteroides, Lactobacillus casei and Weissella cibaria. The results showed that antimicrobial activity of the tested isolates was remarkable and P. pentosaceus showed the most antibacterial activity. In addition, E. durans, E. lactis, L. casei and P. pentosaceus were selected as probiotic bacteria

  1. Molecular cloning and characterization of a putative OGG_N domain ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Molecular cloning and characterization of a putative OGG_N domain from the camel, Camelus dromedarius. Farid Shokry Ataya, Mohammad Saud Alanazi, Dalia Fouad, Hehsam Mahmoud Saeed, Mohammad Bazzi ...

  2. Serological Survey of Antibodies against Brucella Organisms in One ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Serological Survey of Antibodies against Brucella Organisms in One Humped Camel (Camelus dromedarius) Herds in the Lake Chad Area of Borno State, North Eastern Nigeria. MA Sadiq, I Ajogi, JOO Bale, FB Mosimabale, AN Tijjani, AA Kaikabo ...

  3. Correlation between acid, TBA, peroxide and iodine values, catalase and glutathione peroxidase activities of chicken, cattle and camel meat during refrigerated storage

    OpenAIRE

    Hamid Reza Gheisari

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was correlation determination between fat putrefaction indices and antioxidative enzymes in chicken, cattle and camel meat during refrigerated storage. Longissimus dorsi muscle of three Iranian dromedary one humped camel and three Holstein cattle and breast muscle of three broiler breeder chicken were obtained from the carcasses 3 days postmortem. The samples were ground and stored at 4 °C for 0, 2, or 4 days. Peroxide, TBA, acid and iodine values, catalase and ...

  4. Correlation between acid, TBA, peroxide and iodine values, catalase and glutathione peroxidase activities of chicken, cattle and camel meat during refrigerated storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Reza Gheisari

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was correlation determination between fat putrefaction indices and antioxidative enzymes in chicken, cattle and camel meat during refrigerated storage. Longissimus dorsi muscle of three Iranian dromedary one humped camel and three Holstein cattle and breast muscle of three broiler breeder chicken were obtained from the carcasses 3 days postmortem. The samples were ground and stored at 4 °C for 0, 2, or 4 days. Peroxide, TBA, acid and iodine values, catalase and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px activities of the muscles were performed in each storage time. Catalase and GSH-Px activities were much higher in camel than in chicken and cattle and higher in cattle than in chicken. TBA value was lower in chicken than in camel. Camel had higher acid value than cattle. Chicken showed the highest and camel had the lowest iodine values. Catalase and GSH-Px activities and iodine values were quite stable during refrigerated storage. Acid values increased significantly over storage days in cattle. During the 4-day storage period, TBA and peroxide values increased. GSH-Px activity showed negative correlation with acid and TBA values in chicken and cattle. Acid value (for chicken and cattle and peroxide value (for 3 animal species showed positive correlation with TBA content. Iodine value had positive correlation with catalase activity in cattle and negative correlation with peroxide and TBA values in camel. In conclusion, our results indicate that peroxide and TBA values can be used as lipid quality indices in chicken, cattle and camel meat during 4 day storage in refrigerator. [Vet. World 2011; 4(4.000: 153-157

  5. Monitoring tobacco-specific N-nitrosamines and nicotine in novel Marlboro and Camel smokeless tobacco products: findings from Round 1 of the New Product Watch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stepanov, Irina; Biener, Lois; Knezevich, Aleksandar; Nyman, Amy L; Bliss, Robin; Jensen, Joni; Hecht, Stephen S; Hatsukami, Dorothy K

    2012-03-01

    Information on chemical composition of the new oral "spitless" smokeless tobacco products is scarce, and it is not clear whether there is some variability as a function of purchase place or time due to either unintended or intended manufacturing variations or other conditions. We analyzed tobacco-specific N-nitrosamines (TSNA) and nicotine in Marlboro Snus, Camel Snus, and dissolvable Camel products Orbs, Sticks, and Strips that were purchased in various regions of the country during the summer of 2010. A total of 117 samples were received from different states representing six regions of the country. Levels of unprotonated nicotine in Marlboro Snus and Camel Snus varied significantly by regions, with the differences between the highest and the lowest average regional levels being relatively small in Marlboro Snus (∼1.3-fold) and large in Camel Snus (∼3-fold). Some regional variations in TSNA levels were also observed. Overall, Camel Snus had significantly higher TSNA levels than Marlboro Snus, and Camel Strips had the lowest TSNA levels among all novel products analyzed here. The amount of unprotonated nicotine in the dissolvable Camel products was comparable to the levels found in Marlboro Snus. Our study demonstrates some regional variations in the levels of nicotine and TSNA in Marlboro and Camel novel smokeless tobacco products. Continued monitoring of this category of products is needed as the existing products are being test marketed and modified, and new products are being introduced. This information is particularly important given its relevance to Food and Drug Administration regulation of tobacco products.

  6. Cross-sectional surveillance of Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) in dromedary camels and other mammals in Egypt, August 2015 to January 2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Mohamed; El-Shesheny, Rabeh; Kandeil, Ahmed; Shehata, Mahmoud; Elsokary, Basma; Gomaa, Mokhtar; Hassan, Naglaa; El Sayed, Ahmed; El-Taweel, Ahmed; Sobhy, Heba; Fasina, Folorunso Oludayo; Dauphin, Gwenaelle; El Masry, Ihab; Wolde, Abebe Wossene; Daszak, Peter; Miller, Maureen; VonDobschuetz, Sophie; Morzaria, Subhash; Lubroth, Juan; Makonnen, Yilma Jobre

    2017-03-16

    A cross-sectional study was conducted in Egypt to determine the prevalence of Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) in imported and resident camels and bats, as well as to assess possible transmission of the virus to domestic ruminants and equines. A total of 1,031 sera, 1,078 nasal swabs, 13 rectal swabs, and 38 milk samples were collected from 1,078 camels in different types of sites. In addition, 145 domestic animals and 109 bats were sampled. Overall, of 1,031 serologically-tested camels, 871 (84.5%) had MERS-CoV neutralising antibodies. Seroprevalence was significantly higher in imported (614/692; 88.7%) than resident camels (257/339; 5.8%) (p < 0.05). Camels from Sudan (543/594; 91.4%) had a higher seroprevalence than those from East Africa (71/98; 72.4%) (p < 0.05). Sampling site and age were also associated with MERS-CoV seroprevalence (p < 0.05). All tested samples from domestic animals and bats were negative for MERS-CoV antibodies except one sheep sample which showed a 1:640 titre. Of 1,078 camels, 41 (3.8%) were positive for MERS-CoV genetic material. Sequences obtained were not found to cluster with clade A or B MERS-CoV sequences and were genetically diverse. The presence of neutralising antibodies in one sheep apparently in contact with seropositive camels calls for further studies on domestic animals in contact with camels. This article is copyright of The Authors, 2017.

  7. Comparative effect of organic and inorganic selenium supplementation on selenium status in camel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Faye

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Selenium deficiency is widely described in livestock from the Arabian Peninsula, notably in the camel, and selenium supplementation is based on cattle or horse requirements, usually with sodium selenite product. In order to test the effect of organic Se supplementation vs inorganic Se, 24 pregnant camels were subjected to 3 treatment groups starting one month before delivery (control without Se, non-organic bolus, organic Se. Blood, milk and feces samples were collected from one month before delivery to 3 months of lactation. At delivery, the organic group had a significant higher Se concentration (P < 0.01 in serum (8.21 ± 1.38 μg/100 mL and in colostrum (7.27 ± 2.89 μg/100 mL than in inorganic group (3.90 ± 0.68 and 3.72 ± 0.71, respectively and than in control group (5.45 ± 2.38 and 2.70 ± 0.66, respectively. In calf serum, the Se concentration was significantly higher (P < 0.001 in the two supplemented groups (6.32 ± 2.81 and 5.99 ± 3.31 μg/100 mL in organic and inorganic groups, respectively than in control (3.42 ± 1.41 μg/100 mL. The Se in mother serum decreased after parturition but was highly correlated to Se serum in calf and to Se fecal excretion. Se in milk was lower than in colostrum in all groups (P < 0.01. Treatments had no significant effect on somatic cell count. This study revealed that organic supplementation in camel appeared more efficient.

  8. Effects of heating and calcium and phosphate mineral supplementation on the physical properties of rennet-induced coagulation of camel and cow milk gels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamal, Mohammad; Foukani, Mohammed; Karoui, Romdhane

    2017-05-01

    The physical properties of rennet-induced coagulation of preheated camel and cow milk gels (50 and 70 °C for 10 min) enriched with calcium chloride (CaCl2) and hydrogen phosphate dihydrate (Na2HPO42H2O) were evaluated using the dynamic low amplitude oscillatory shear analysis. The storage modulus (G') and loss modulus (G") of camel milk gels showed significant (P gels. The preheating of camel milk at 50 °C affected negatively the gelation properties, while the preheating at 70 °C prevented the formation of rennet-induced milk gels. No effect was observed on the gelation properties of cow milk gels. The CaCl2 added at 10 and 20 mM to preheated camel and cow milk reduced significantly (P gel firmness. In contrast, Na2HPO42H2O added at 10 and 20 mM induced the formation of weak gels for preheated camel and cow milk at 50 °C, and even no gelation for preheated camel milk at 70 °C.

  9. First report of an outbreak of the oriental eye-fluke, Philophthalmus gralli (Mathis & Leger 1910, in commercially reared ostriches (Struthio camelus in Zimbabwe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Mukaratirwa

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available A total of 17 commercially reared ostriches (Struthio camelus from Msengi farm, Chinhoyi, Zimbabwe, observed with swollen eyes, severe conjunctivitis and constant lacrimation accompanied by a purulent exudate, were restrained for further clinical examination. Some of the birds were semi-blind with severe loss of body condition. When examined, tiny organisms were observed attached to the nictitating membranes and the conjuctival sacs of both eyes. The organisms were identified as Philophthalmus gralli, the "oriental eye-fluke" and Melanoides tuberculata, a prosobranch snail, was confirmed as the intermediate host through natural and experimental infection. To the best of our knowledge this is the first record of the oriental eye-fluke infection in birds in Zimbabwe and Africa and extends its known geographical range.

  10. Camel milk as an adjuvant therapy for the treatment of type 1 diabetes: verification of a traditional ethnomedical practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamad, Ragaa Hosny; Zekry, Zekry Khalid; Al-Mehdar, Hussain A; Salama, Omar; El-Shaieb, Siad Ebrahim; El-Basmy, Amany A; Al-said, Mohamad Gamil Abdel Monem; Sharawy, Sabry Mohamed

    2009-04-01

    There is a traditional belief in the Middle East that regular consumption of camel milk may aid in prevention and control of diabetes. The aim of this work was to evaluate the efficacy of camel milk as an adjuvant therapy in young type 1 diabetics. This 16-week randomized study enrolled 54 type 1 diabetic patients (average age 20 years) selected from those attending the outpatient diabetes clinic of the Menofia University Hospital, affiliated with Egypt's National Cancer Institute. Subjects were randomly divided into two groups of 27 patients: one received usual management (diet, exercise, and insulin), whereas the other received 500 mL of camel milk daily in addition to standard management. A control group of 10 healthy subjects was also assessed. The following parameters were evaluated at baseline and at 4 and 16 weeks: hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c), human C-peptide, lipid profile, serum insulin, anti-insulin antibodies, creatinine clearance, albumin in 24-hour urine, body mass index, and Diabetes Quality of Life score. The following parameters were significantly different between the usual-management group versus the camel milk group after 16 weeks: fasting blood sugar (227.2 +/- 17.7 vs. 98.9 +/- 16.2 mg/dL), HbA1c (9.59 +/- 2.05[%] vs. 7.16 +/- 1.84[%]), serum anti-insulin antibodies (26.20 +/- 7.69 vs. 20.92 +/- 5.45 microU/mL), urinary albumin excretion (25.17 +/- 5.43 vs. 14.54 +/- 5.62 mg/dL/24 hours), daily insulin dose (48.1 +/- 6.95 vs. 23 +/- 4.05 units), and body mass index (18.43 +/- 3.59 vs. 24.3 +/- 2.95 kg/m(2)). Most notably, C-peptide levels were markedly higher in the camel milk group (0.28 +/- 0.6 vs. 2.30 +/- 0.51 pmol/mL). These results suggest that, as an adjunct to standard management, daily ingestion of camel milk can aid metabolic control in young type 1 diabetics, at least in part by boosting endogenous insulin secretion.

  11. Molecular characterization of Echinococcus granulosus s.l. cysts from cattle, camels, goats and pigs in Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tigre, Worku; Deresa, Benti; Haile, Adane; Gabriël, Sarah; Victor, Bjorn; Pelt, Jani Van; Devleesschauwer, Brecht; Vercruysse, Jozef; Dorny, Pierre

    2016-01-15

    Cystic Echinococcosis (CE) caused by Echinococcus granulosus sensu lato (s.l.) is a neglected helminth zoonosis affecting humans and various animal species. Human CE has been reported in almost all countries of sub-Saharan Africa but its prevalence and public health impact are subject to large geographical variations. The reasons for these differences are not well understood; among other factors, occurrence of different species/genotypes of E. granulosus s.l. has been suggested. CE is very common in all livestock species in Ethiopia; human CE is poorly documented in the country. The aim of this study was to assess the fertility and molecularly characterize hydatid cysts collected from cattle, camels, goats and pigs from different parts of the country. From the 137 samples characterized by PCR-RFLP and sequencing, 115 (83.9%) were identified as E. granulosus s.s. (G1, common sheep strain), 6 (4.4%) as Echinococcus ortleppi (G5, cattle strain) and 16 (11.7%) as Echinococcus intermedius (G6/7, camel strain). In cattle, E. granulosus s.s. and E. ortleppi were found; in camels and goats, E. granulosus s.s. and E. intermedius; two cysts found in pigs were identified as E. granulosus s.s. and E. ortleppi, respectively. All cysts recovered from goats and pigs were sterile, while fertility was 34% and 50% in cysts from cattle and camels, respectively. In cattle, 31% of E. granulosus s.s. cysts were fertile, showing the importance of cattle in the transmission of the "sheep strain". Next to E. granulosus s.s., E. intermedius (camel strain) was the predominant species: 34.4% of the cysts collected from camels and 62.5% from goats were identified as E. intermedius. These animals originated from the drier Central, Eastern and Southern parts of the country. For the first time, we showed the presence of CE in pigs in Ethiopia. The presence of these strains and especially the fact that the zoonotic E. granulosus s.s. and E. intermedius are dominant, make CE an important public

  12. A comparative analysis on ranking insurance firms using RBC and CAMELS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Houshmand Neghabi

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Ranking insurance firms plays an important role on choosing the most appropriate company for receiving appropriate services especially long term insurances such as life insurances. The proposed model of this paper uses two well-known methods of CAMELS and RBC to rank 18 active private and governmental insurance firms in Iran over the period of 2009-2011. The results of Spearman test imply that there is no meaningful difference between these two methods for year 2010 and year 2011 and according to Freedman test, there is not meaningful difference between these two methods in any three years of 2009, 2010 and 2011. In summary, we can conclude that the results of both methods could be used in practice.

  13. Microstructural and mechanical properties of camel longissimus dorsi muscle during roasting, braising and microwave heating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yarmand, M S; Nikmaram, P; Djomeh, Z Emam; Homayouni, A

    2013-10-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the effects of various heating methods, including roasting, braising and microwave heating, on mechanical properties and microstructure of longissimus dorsi (LD) muscle of the camel. Shear value and compression force increased during microwave heating more than roasting and braising. Results obtained from scanning electron microscopy (SEM) showed more damage from roasting than in either braising or microwave heating. Granulation and fragmentation were clear in muscle fibers after roasting. The perimysium membrane of connective tissue was damaged during braising, while roasting left the perimysium membrane largely intact. The mechanical properties and microstructure of muscle can be affected by changes in water content during cooking. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Prediction of default probability in banking industry using CAMELS index: A case study of Iranian banks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Khodaei Valahzaghard

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the relationship between CAMELS index and default probability among 20 Iranian banks. The proposed study gathers the necessary information from their financial statements over the period 2005-2011. The study uses logistic regression along with Pearson correlation analysis to consider the relationship between default probability and six independent variables including capital adequacy, asset quality, management quality, earning quality, liquidity quality and sensitivity of market risk. The results indicate that there were no meaningful relationship between default probability and three independent variables including capital adequacy, asset quality and sensitivity of market risk. However, the results of our statistical tests support such relationship between default probability and three other variables including management quality, earning quality and liquidity quality.

  15. Proteolytic Activity in Reduced-Fat Cheddar Cheese Made with Lactic Acid Bacteria and Camel Chymosin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Børsting, Mette Winther

    are characterized by a more firm structure, higher risk of bitterness and lower flavor intensity. The bitterness can be reduced by replacing bovine chymosin (BC) in cheese production with camel chymosin (CC), which has a lower general proteolysis. A disadvantage of the lower proteolytic activity of CC could...... for their ability to influence proteolysis and structure during cheese ripening. In an attempt to improve the screening methods and contribute to the development of a new classification system of Latcococcus lactic strains, the peptide profile formed by selected strains after growth in milk was analyzed...... to the reference cheeses. Lc. lactis strains which were previously defined as group d based on their cleavage specificity towards αS1-CN (f1-23), could be subdivided into three groups. This grouping was seen both in the variation of CEP amino acid sequences, and in the identified peptides after hydrolysis in milk...

  16. TRANSVERSE VAGINAL SEPTUM: A CONGENITAL MALFORMATION AND ITS MANAGEMENT IN A FEMALE DROMEDARY CAMEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. I. Qureshi, M. Iqbal, A. Wahab, R. Yass and M. Naif

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available A seven year old female dromedary camel was examined for the complaint of inability to breed due to problem during penile intromission. Vaginoscopy, using equine tube vaginoscope, revealed the presence of a tissue flap cranial to the urethral opening, buldging caudally and separating the cranial and caudal parts of vagina. Digital palpation was also performed and the condition was diagnosed as transverse vaginal septum. For treatment, the vaginal septum was grasped with an Allis tissue forceps and a circular piece was severed from the center with the Metzenbaum scissors. The remaining portion of septum was then carefully trimmed. About 28 days after surgery, the animal showed heat signs and was mated. On ultrasonographic examination three months, post mating the animal was found pregnant.

  17. Analyzing Financial Performance of Commercial Banks in India: Application of CAMEL Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prof. Dr. Mohi-ud-Din Sangmi

    Full Text Available Sound financial health of a bank is the guarantee not only to its depositors but is equally significant for the shareholders, employees and whole economy as well. As a sequel to this maxim, efforts have been made from time to time, to measure the financial position of each bank and manage it efficiently and effectively. In this paper, an effort has been made to evaluate the financial performance of the two major banks operating in northern India .This evaluation has been done by using CAMEL Parameters, the latest model of financial analysis. Through this model, it is highlighted that the position of the banks under study is sound and satisfactory so far as their capital adequacy, asset quality, Management capability and liquidity is concerned.

  18. Optimization of the cryopreservation of dromedary camel semen: Cryoprotectants and their concentration and equilibration times.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malo, Clara; Crichton, Elizabeth G; Skidmore, Julian A

    2017-02-01

    Research into an optimal cryoprotectant, its concentration and equilibration time underlies the successful cryopreservation of dromedary camel spermatozoa. This study assessed the cryo-efficiency of different cryoprotectants, their concentration and equilibration time and any interactions. In experiment 1, semen samples (n = 4 males; 2 ejaculates/male) were frozen using Green Buffer containing one of four cryoprotectants (3% glycerol, ethylene glycol, methyl formamide, dimethyl sulfoxide) and using 4 equilibration times (10 min, 0.5, 1 and 2 h). Glycerol and ethylene glycol provided the best motility recovery rates and different equilibration times were not significant for any cryoprotectant nor were any interactions noted. However different equilibration times were pertinent for improved kinematic parameters BCF and VSL. In experiment 2, glycerol and ethylene glycol were evaluated at 4 concentrations (1.5, 3, 6, 9%) with 0.5 h equilibration (n = 4 males, 3 ejaculates/male). Sperm motility recoveries, kinematics and acrosome status were assessed. Higher values for LIN and STR were found with ethylene glycol. At 0 and 1 h post thaw 3 and 6% of either cryoprotectant resulted in better motility values than 1.5%. Acrosome integrity was compromised at 9% cryoprotectant. There were interactions between cryoprotectant and concentration in total motility at 0 and 1 h. For glycerol, total motility recoveries were best at 3-9%; for ethylene glycol 1.5-6% were best at 0 h and 3-6% at 1 h. In conclusion, 3-6% glycerol or ethylene glycol offered the best cryoprotection for camel sperm while different equilibration times were not critical. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  19. Effect of diet supplementation on growth and reproduction in camels under arid range conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdouli H.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Eighteen pregnant dromedary females (Camelus dromedarius were used to determine the effect of concentrate supplement on growth and reproductive performances in peri-partum period. The females were divided into supplemented (n = 9; S and unsupplemented (n = 9; C experimental groups. All animals grazed, with one mature male, 7 to 8 hours per day on salty pasture rangelands. During night, they were kept in pen, where each female of group S received 4 kg per day of concentrate supplement during the last 3 months of gestation and 5 kg per day during the first 3 months post-partum. During the last 90 days of gestation daily body weight gain (DBG was at least tenfold more important in group S than in group C (775 g vs. 72 g respectively. Supplementation affected birth weight of offspring (30.3 kg vs. 23.4 kg and its DBG (806 g vs. 430 g in group S and group C respectively. During the post-partum period, females in group S gained in weight (116 g per day whereas females in group C lost more than 200 g per day. The mean post-partum interval to the first heat and the percentage of females in heat were 29.5 day and 44.4/ vs. 41.2 day and 71.4/ for the C and S groups, respectively. We conclude that under range conditions, dietary supplementation of dromedary during late pregnancy stage and post-partum period improves productive and reproductive parameters.

  20. A note on the influence of heat treatment, salting and smoking on the acceptability of camel meat products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zegeye, A

    1999-12-01

    The present study was conducted to assess the effect of selected processing operations on the acceptability of camel meat products in Dire Dawa, eastern Ethiopia. A total of eight camel meat products were prepared at two levels of salting, smoking, frying and cooking. They were evaluated by a sensory panel using a preference test. The results showed that the fully fried samples were not significantly different in preference to the smoked (2.5% salt, 3 h smoking) samples and were more acceptable than the partly fried samples. Nevertheless, the smoked (2.5% salt, 3 h smoking) samples were preferred over the others. The fully cooked and the salted (3% salt) products were also acceptable.

  1. Bioprospecting of Leuconostoc mesenteroides strains isolated from Algerian raw camel and goat milk for technological properties useful as adjunct starters

    OpenAIRE

    ZAROUR, K.; BENMECHERNENE, Z.; HADADJI, M.; MOUSSA-BOUDJEMAA, B.; HENNI, D.; Kihal, M.

    2012-01-01

    Leuconostoc species are lactic acid bacteria widely used in milk fermentation. Based on morphological, physiological and biochemical analysis, 18 strains of Leuconostoc mesenteroides were isolated and identified from 10 samples of goat's milk and camel's milk. Strains were identified as follows 09 strains of L. mesenteroides subsp. mesenteroides and 09 strains of L. mesenteroides subsp. dextranicum The results of technological tests of the strains showed that strains produced dextran, car...

  2. Effectiveness of human, camel, bovine and sheep lactoferrin on the hepatitis C virus cellular infectivity: comparison study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Purpose The prevalence of HCV infection has increased during recent years and the incidence reach 3% of the world's population, and in some countries like Egypt, may around 20%. The developments of effective and preventive agents are critical to control the current public health burden imposed by HCV infection. Lactoferrin in general and camel lactoferrin specifically has been shown to have a compatitive anti-viral activity against hepatitis C virus (HCV). The purpose of this study was to examine and compare the anti-infectivity of native human, camel, bovine and sheep lactoferrin on continuous of HCV infection in HepG2 cells. Material and methods Used Lfs were purified by Mono S 5/50 GL column and Superdex 200 5/150 column. The purified Lfs were evaluated in two ways; 1. the pre-infected cells were treated with the Lfs to inhibit intracellular replication at different concentrations and time intervals, 2. Lfs were directly incubated with the virus molecules then used to cells infection. The antiviral activity of the Lfs were determined using three techniques; 1. RT-nested PCR, 2. Real-time PCR and 3. Flowcytometric. Results Human, camel, bovine and sheep lactoferrin could prevent the HCV entry into HepG2 cells by direct interaction with the virus instead of causing significant changes in the target cells. They were also able to inhibit virus amplification in HCV infected HepG2 cells. The highest anti-infectivity was demonstrated by the camel lactoferrin. Conclusion cLf has inhibitory effect on HCV (genotype 4a) higher than human, bovine and sheep lactoferrin. PMID:23782993

  3. Gastroprotective and Ulcer Healing Effects of Camel Milk and Urine in HCl/EtOH, Non-steroidal Anti-inflammatory Drugs (Indomethacin), and Water-Restraint Stress-induced Ulcer in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Zijuan; Chang, Xiaoman; Pan, Qing; Gu, Kebin; Okechukwu, Patrick Nwabueze

    2017-01-01

    Camel milk has been reportedly used to treat dropsy, jaundice, tuberculosis, and diabetes while camel urine is used to treat diarrhea and cancer. However, there is no scientific evidence on the antiulcer activity of camel milk and urine. Thus, the present is designed to investigate the gastroprotective and ulcer healing effect of camel milk and urine on experimentally induced gastric ulcer models in rats. The gastroprotective effect was investigated in HCl/EtOH, water-restraint stress (WRS) and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (indomethacin)-induced ulcer models while ulcer healing activity was investigated in indomethacin-induced ulcer model. Cimetidine (100 mg/kg) was used as a standard antiulcer drug. Acute toxicity study done up to a dosage of 10 ml/kg of camel milk and urine showed no signs of toxicity and mortality among the rats, indicating the present dosage of 5 ml/kg is safe to be administered to the rats. In the HCl/EtOH model, oral administration of cimetidine (100 mg/kg), camel urine (5 ml/kg), and camel milk (5 ml/kg) significantly (P ulcer inhibition of 100% while camel milk showed an inhibition of 50%. Similarly, in the indomethacin-induced ulcer model, cimetidine, camel milk, and urine showed an ulcer inhibition of 100, 33.3, and 66.7%, respectively. In addition, camel milk and urine also showed a significant (P ulcer healing effect of 100% in indomethacin-induced ulcer model, with no ulcers observed as compared to that of cimetidine, which offers a healing effect of 60.5%. The antiulcer activity of camel milk and urine may be attributed to its cytoprotective mechanism and antioxidant properties. Acute toxicity findings revealed the dosage of 10 ml/kg of camel milk and urine seems no toxic and indicating the dosage of 5 ml/kg is safe to be administered to the ratsOral administration of cimetidine (100 mg/kg), camel urine (5 ml/kg), and camel milk (5 ml/kg) significantly inhibited gastric lesions by 83.7, 60.5 and 100% in the HCl

  4. Study on camel IgG purification: a new approach to prepare Naja Naja Oxiana antivenom as passive immunization for therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khamehchian, Sedigheh; Zolfagharian, Hossein; Dounighi, Naser Mohammadpour; Tebianian, Majid; Madani, Rasool

    2014-01-01

    A combined process of ammonium sulfate precipitation (salting out) and ion-exchange chromatography on DEAE-Sepharose CL-6B was used to prepare camel antivenom (IgG) against Naja Naja Oxiana for therapy. In the ammonium sulfate precipitation, the best condition for fractionation of IgG from the other proteins in camel serum was 55% precipitate. The camel IgG presented as 2 bands with molecular masses of 250 and 100 kDa, the latter corresponding to heavy chain IgG, on 10% gel electrophoresis. A trace amount of non-IgG proteins was not isolated and remained in this precipitate. Therefore in order to effectively separate albumin and the other nonspecific proteins from the IgG, the 25% precipitate of ammonium sulfate precipitation of serum was subjected to DEAE-Sepharose CL-6B column chromatography. A peak of antibody (IgG) could be obtained by elution with sodium phosphate buffer. In this stage, 2 bands of molecular masses of 150 and 75 kDa were observed on 7% gel electrophoresis. A comparative study was performed between camel IgG and conventional horse F(ab) 2 antivenoms in term of potency (serum neutralization test and ELISA). Our results showed that the potency of camel antivenom was 4-fold higher than that of horse. It is suggested the combined ammonium sulfate precipitation and ion-exchange chromatography process effectively removed residual proteins in the final camel IgG preparation and can be a suitable method for large-scale refinement of therapeutic camel antivenoms.

  5. Influence of stimulation by electroejaculation on myocardial function, acid-base and electrolyte status, and hematobiochemical profiles in male dromedary camels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tharwat, M; Ali, A; Al-Sobayil, F; Derar, R; Al-Hawas, A

    2014-10-01

    This study was carried out to evaluate the effect of electroejaculation (EEJ) on myocardial function, acid-base balance, and hematobiochemical profiles in male dromedary camels. Twenty sexually mature, apparently healthy male camels were assigned to EEJ. Parallel, eight naturally mated male camels were enrolled as a control group. Three blood samples were collected from each camel: just before (T0), directly after (T1), and 24 hours after (T2) EEJ or natural mating. The serum concentrations of the cardiac biomarker troponin I (cTnI), blood gas parameters, and hematobiochemical profiles were determined. Nineteen camels were ejaculated by the end of the second circuit and one by the end of the first circuit. In both groups, the mean heart and respiratory rates had increased significantly immediately after the procedure, but returned to normal values 24 hours after the procedure. The mean serum concentration of cTnI had increased significantly in all camels after EEJ, but not in controls. However, at 24 hours post-EEJ, the serum concentration of cTnI did not differ significantly compared with baseline values. The blood pH and base excess had decreased, and the PCO2 and lactic acid had increased after EEJ. The EEJ provoked decreases in hematocrit and mean corpuscular volume. In the control group, the base excess, HCO3(-), TCO2, anion gap, and lactic acid increased slightly after mating but did not reach a significant level compared with premating values. It is concluded that EEJ in camels results in a reversible myocardial injury, changes in the acid-base status, and increase the lactic acid concentration. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Permanent Genetic Resources added to Molecular Ecology Resources Database 1 June 2010 - 31 July 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andris, Malvina; Aradottir, Gudbjorg I; Arnau, G; Audzijonyte, Asta; Bess, Emilie C; Bonadonna, Francesco; Bourdel, G; Bried, Joël; Bugbee, Gregory J; Burger, P A; Chair, H; Charruau, P C; Ciampi, A Y; Costet, L; Debarro, Paul J; Delatte, H; Dubois, Marie-Pierre; Eldridge, Mark D B; England, Phillip R; Enkhbileg, D; Fartek, B; Gardner, Michael G; Gray, Karen-Ann; Gunasekera, Rasanthi M; Hanley, Steven J; Havil, Nathan; Hereward, James P; Hirase, Shotaro; Hong, Yan; Jarne, Philippe; Jianfei, Qi; Johnson, Rebecca N; Kanno, Manami; Kijima, Akihiro; Kim, Hyun C; Kim, Kwan S; Kim, Woo-Jin; Larue, Elizabeth; Lee, Jang W; Lee, Jeong-Ho; Li, Chunhong; Liao, Minghui; Lo, Nathan; Lowe, Andrew J; Malausa, Thibaut; Malé, Pierre-Jean G; Marko, Michelle D; Martin, Jean-François; Messing, Russell; Miller, Karen J; Min, Byeong-Wha; Myeong, Jeong-In; Nibouche, S; Noack, Ann E; Noh, Jae K; Orivel, Jérôme; Park, Choul-Ji; Petro, D; Prapayotin-Riveros, Kittipath; Quilichini, Angélique; Reynaud, B; Riginos, Cynthia; Risterucci, A M; Rose, Harley A; Sampaio, I; Silbermayr, K; Silva, M B; Tero, N; Thum, Ryan A; Vinson, C C; Vorsino, Adam; Vossbrinck, Charles R; Walzer, C; White, Jason C; Wieczorek, Ania; Wright, Mark

    2010-11-01

    This article documents the addition of 205 microsatellite marker loci to the Molecular Ecology Resources Database. Loci were developed for the following species: Bagassa guianensis, Bulweria bulwerii, Camelus bactrianus, Chaenogobius annularis, Creontiades dilutus, Diachasmimorpha tryoni, Dioscorea alata, Euhrychiopsis lecontei, Gmelina arborea, Haliotis discus hannai, Hirtella physophora, Melanaphis sacchari, Munida isos, Thaumastocoris peregrinus and Tuberolachnus salignus. These loci were cross-tested on the following species: Halobaena caerulea, Procellaria aequinoctialis, Oceanodroma monteiroi, Camelus ferus, Creontiades pacificus, Dioscorea rotundata, Dioscorea praehensilis, Dioscorea abyssinica, Dioscorea nummularia, Dioscorea transversa, Dioscorea esculenta, Dioscorea pentaphylla, Dioscorea trifida, Hirtella bicornis, Hirtella glandulosa, Licania alba, Licania canescens, Licania membranaceae, Couepia guianensis and 7 undescribed Thaumastocoris species. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  7. The Cytotoxic Effect of Small and Large Molecules of PMF Fraction Extracted from Camel Urine on Cancer Cells

    KAUST Repository

    Khorshid, Faten

    2015-01-10

    Aim of the work: Animal urine, including that of camels, has long been used for the therapeutic management of human ailments. In this study, we sought to characterize the cytotoxic properties of newly derived purified fractions from previously described camel urine extract (PMF) on various cancer cell lines. Methodology: Two new size dissimilar fractions of PMF (large and small) were obtained by fractionalizing PMF using 3kD and 50kD membrane filters. A SRB cytotoxicity assay of the PMF fractions was performed on cancer cell lines (A549, HCT116, HepG2, MCF-7, U251 and Hela) as well as normal cell lines (human fibroblast cell line and Vero). Results: This study showed that the newly derived and more purified fraction of PMF (new PMF) possesses effective and selective anti-cancer properties against several types of cancer cell lines. Conclusion: This study, as well as previous ones, suggests that camel urine extracts (old and new PMF) may provide newer therapeutic alternatives to clinically manage cancer patients. However, further studies are needed to verify these positive preliminary results.

  8. Responses to dehydration in the one-humped camel and effects of blocking the renin-angiotensin system.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmoud Alhaj Ali

    Full Text Available Our objectives were to compare the levels of circulating electrolytes, hormones, and renal function during 20 days of dehydration in camels versus the level in non-dehydrated camels and to record the effect of blocking angiotensin II AT1 receptors with losartan during dehydration. Dehydration induced significant increments in serum sodium, creatinine, urea, a substantial fall in body weight, and a doubling in plasma arginine vasopressin (AVP levels. Plasma aldosterone, however, was unaltered compared with time-matched controls. Losartan significantly enhanced the effect of dehydration to reduce body weight and increase serum levels of creatinine and urea, whilst also impairing the rise in plasma AVP and reducing aldosterone levels. We conclude that dehydration in the camel induces substantial increments in serum sodium, creatinine, urea and AVP levels; that aldosterone levels are altered little by dehydration; that blockade of angiotensin II type 1 receptors enhances the dehydration-induced fall in body weight and increase in serum creatinine and urea levels whilst reducing aldosterone and attenuating the rise in plasma AVP.

  9. An orthopoxvirus-based vaccine reduces virus excretion after MERS-CoV infection in dromedary camels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haagmans, Bart L; van den Brand, Judith M A; Raj, V Stalin; Volz, Asisa; Wohlsein, Peter; Smits, Saskia L; Schipper, Debby; Bestebroer, Theo M; Okba, Nisreen; Fux, Robert; Bensaid, Albert; Solanes Foz, David; Kuiken, Thijs; Baumgärtner, Wolfgang; Segalés, Joaquim; Sutter, Gerd; Osterhaus, Albert D M E

    2016-01-01

    Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) infections have led to an ongoing outbreak in humans, which was fueled by multiple zoonotic MERS-CoV introductions from dromedary camels. In addition to the implementation of hygiene measures to limit further camel-to-human and human-to-human transmissions, vaccine-mediated reduction of MERS-CoV spread from the animal reservoir may be envisaged. Here we show that a modified vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA) vaccine expressing the MERS-CoV spike protein confers mucosal immunity in dromedary camels. Compared with results for control animals, we observed a significant reduction of excreted infectious virus and viral RNA transcripts in vaccinated animals upon MERS-CoV challenge. Protection correlated with the presence of serum neutralizing antibodies to MERS-CoV. Induction of MVA-specific antibodies that cross-neutralize camelpox virus would also provide protection against camelpox. Copyright © 2016, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  10. The socio-economic impact of important camel diseases as perceived by a pastoralist community in Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mochabo, M O K; Kitala, P M; Gathura, P B; Ogara, W O; Eregae, E M; Kaitho, T D; Catley, A

    2006-12-01

    This paper presents the results of a study conducted in a pastoral community in Kenya using participatory appraisal approaches. The objective of the study was to assess the socio-economic impact of camel trypanosomosis (surra) according to the perceptions of the pastoralists. Four livestock grazing units were conveniently selected and in each of them, three groups of key informants comprising five to eight persons were selected for the participatory exercises. Five camel diseases were listed in order of importance according to their severity and frequency of occurrence including trypanosomosis, mange, non-specific diarrhoea, tick infestations and haemorrhagic septicaemia. The losses listed as incurred due to the five diseases were: losses in milk, meat, blood, fats and hides, dowry payments, and depreciation in sale of animals, losses due to infertility and abortions, and losses due to the cost of treatment. There was good agreement (P camel plays a central role in the lives of Turkana pastoralists and that surra has a devastating social and economic impact. There is a need for veterinary and policy decision-makers to focus more attention on the control of surra in this arid and semi-arid area of Kenya.

  11. Field Investigation on the Prevalence of Trypanosomiasis in Camels in Relation to Sex, Age, Breed and Herd Size

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Bhutto, J. A. Gadahi, G. Shah1, P. Dewani2 and A.G. Arijo

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Blood samples were collected from 240 camels (183 male and 57 female of four breeds from six districts of Sindh. An overall infection was determined as 11.25%. Species of Trypanosoma was identified as Trypanosoma evansi. District wise infection was found to be 2.5, 7.5, 12.5, 15.00, 22.5 and 7.5% in Hyderabad, Mirpur Khas, Umerkot, Badin, Thatta and Larkana, respectively. A higher infection was found in females (15.79% as compared to males (9.84%. Highest (14.96% infection was noted in age group >7 years, followed by 8.57 and 4.65% in 3 to 7 years and less than to 3 years old camels, respectively. Four breeds of camels were surveyed and the highest infection rate was found in Sakrai breed (21.82%, followed by 16.67, 6.15 and 5.95% in Kharai, Sindhi and Dhati breeds respectively. When herd size was considered, infection rate was 1.67, 6.67, 15.00 and 21.67% in herds possessing 1 to 5, 6 to 10, 11 to 20 and more than 20 animals, respectively.

  12. Ethnoveterinary treatments by dromedary camel herders in the Suleiman Mountainous Region in Pakistan: an observation and questionnaire study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Younas Muhammad

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Suleiman mountainous region is an important cradle of animal domestication and the habitat of many indigenous livestock breeds. The dromedary camel is a highly appreciated and valued animal and represents an important genetic resource. Camel herders, living in remote areas, have developed their own ways to treat diseases in camels, based on a long time of experience. Methods Information about the diseases and the ethnoveterinary practices performed was collected from a total of 90 herders and healers by interviews and participant observations. Results The respondents classified the diseased in major and minor fractions. Clinical signs were given in detail. Mange followed by trypanosomosis and orf were considered the most prevalent diseases, and also caused the greatest economic losses. Orf was regarded the most complex disease. The season was considered to have great influence on the occurrence of the diseases. A variety of different treatments were described, such as medicinal plants, cauterization, odorant/fly repellents, pesticides, larvicides, cold drink, yogurt and supportive therapy (hot food, hot drink. Conclusions There is paramount need to document and validate the indigenous knowledge about animal agriculture in general and ethnoveterinary practices in particular. This knowledge is rapidly disappearing and represents a cultural heritage as well as a valuable resource for attaining food security and sovereignty.

  13. Variabilité de la concentration en urée dans le lait de chamelle au Kazakhstan

    OpenAIRE

    Faye, Bernard; Konuspayeva, Gaukhar; Loiseau, Gérard

    2010-01-01

    International audience; Urea is a part of non-protein nitrogen in milk. The variability of its concentration was never reported in camel milk. The present communication aimed to give some reference values on urea content in camel milk and to explore some interpretable variation factors. In 102 milk samples collected in Kazakhstan, at four seasons of the year, in four distant regions and in different species (Camelius dromedaries, Camelius bactrianus and their hybrids), urea was determined in ...

  14. Musculoskeletal modelling of an ostrich (Struthio camelus pelvic limb: influence of limb orientation on muscular capacity during locomotion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John R. Hutchinson

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available We developed a three-dimensional, biomechanical computer model of the 36 major pelvic limb muscle groups in an ostrich (Struthio camelus to investigate muscle function in this, the largest of extant birds and model organism for many studies of locomotor mechanics, body size, anatomy and evolution. Combined with experimental data, we use this model to test two main hypotheses. We first query whether ostriches use limb orientations (joint angles that optimize the moment-generating capacities of their muscles during walking or running. Next, we test whether ostriches use limb orientations at mid-stance that keep their extensor muscles near maximal, and flexor muscles near minimal, moment arms. Our two hypotheses relate to the control priorities that a large bipedal animal might evolve under biomechanical constraints to achieve more effective static weight support. We find that ostriches do not use limb orientations to optimize the moment-generating capacities or moment arms of their muscles. We infer that dynamic properties of muscles or tendons might be better candidates for locomotor optimization. Regardless, general principles explaining why species choose particular joint orientations during locomotion are lacking, raising the question of whether such general principles exist or if clades evolve different patterns (e.g., weighting of muscle force–length or force–velocity properties in selecting postures. This leaves theoretical studies of muscle moment arms estimated for extinct animals at an impasse until studies of extant taxa answer these questions. Finally, we compare our model’s results against those of two prior studies of ostrich limb muscle moment arms, finding general agreement for many muscles. Some flexor and extensor muscles exhibit self-stabilization patterns (posture-dependent switches between flexor/extensor action that ostriches may use to coordinate their locomotion. However, some conspicuous areas of disagreement in our

  15. Survival of Bifidobacterium bifidum in cow- and camel-milk yogurts enriched with Cinnamomum verum and Allium sativum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amal Bakr Shori

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The effects of Allium sativum and Cinnamomum verum water extracts on the survival of Bifidobacterium bifidum during 21 days of refrigerated storage and after simulated gastrointestinal digestion (SGD were investigated. Two types of yogurt (cow- and camel-milk yogurts were prepared in the presence of A. sativum or C. verum. The viable cell counts (VCC of B. bifidum in fresh A. sativum- or C. verum-cow milk yogurt (1 day were higher (8.1 × 109 cfu/ml and 6.6 × 109 cfu/ml, respectively; p < 0.05 than plain-yogurt (1.9 × 109 cfu/ml. In contrast, B. bifidum VCC in fresh plain-camel milk yogurt was 1.99 × 109 cfu/ml whereas the presence of A. sativum or C. verum in yogurt increased (p < 0.05 VCC to 19.61 × 109 cfu/ml and 25.55 × 109 cfu/ml, respectively. The VCC of B. bifidum in both herbal-yogurts decreased (p < 0.05 during refrigerated storage for both types of yogurt. The VCC of B. bifidum was ∼1.3 × 109 cfu/ml in all fresh cow milk yogurts after 1 h gastric digestion. Intestinal digestion (1 h increased VCC of B. bifidum in all fresh yogurts but not in 7 day old yogurts (plain- and A. sativum-yogurts. However, prolonged digestion to another 1 h in intestine reduced (p < 0.05 VCC of B. bifidum in all fresh and storage yogurts. In contrast, all fresh camel milk yogurts showed VCC of B. bifidum ⩽1 × 109 cfu/ml after SGD. Seven day old A. sativum – camel milk yogurt showed the lowest survival of B. bifidum after gastric digestion compared to plain- and C. verum-yogurt. The VCC reduced (p < 0.05 in all camel milk-yogurts after 2 h intestinal digestion.

  16. Short communication: survival of the characteristic microbiota in probiotic fermented camel, cow, goat, and sheep milks during refrigerated storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varga, L; Süle, J; Nagy, P

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to monitor the viability during storage of Lactobacillus acidophilus LA-5 (A), Bifidobacterium animalis ssp. lactis BB-12 (B), and Streptococcus thermophilus CHCC 742/2130 (T) in probiotic cultured dairy foods made from pasteurized camel, cow, goat, and sheep milks fermented by an ABT-type culture. The products manufactured were stored at 4°C for 42d. Microbiological analyses were performed at weekly intervals. Streptococcus thermophilus CHCC 742/2130 was the most numerous culture component in all 4 products both at the beginning and at the end of storage. The viable counts of streptococci showed no significant decline in fermented camel milk throughout the entire storage period. The initial numbers of Lb. acidophilus LA-5 were over 2 orders of magnitude lower than those of Strep. thermophilus CHCC 742/2130. With the progress of time, a slow and constant decrease was observed in lactobacilli counts; however, the final viability percentages of this organism did not differ significantly in the probiotic fermented milks tested. The cultured dairy foods made from cow, sheep, and goat milks had comparable B. animalis ssp. lactis BB-12 counts on d 0, exceeding by approximately 0.5 log10 cycle those in the camel milk-based product. No significant losses occurred in viability of bifidobacteria in fermented camel, cow, and sheep milks during 6wk of refrigerated storage. In conclusion, all 4 varieties of milk proved to be suitable raw materials for the manufacture of ABT-type fermented dairy products that were microbiologically safe and beneficial for human consumption. It was suggested that milk from small ruminants be increasingly used to produce probiotic fermented dairy foods. The development of camel milk-based probiotic cultured milks appears to be even more promising because new markets could thus be conquered. It must be emphasized, however, that further microbiological and sensory studies, technology development activities, and

  17. Secondary-volatiles linked metallic iron in eucrites: The dual-origin metals of Camel Donga

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren, Paul H.; Isa, Junko; Ebihara, Mitsuru; Yamaguchi, Akira; Baecker, Bastian

    2017-04-01

    The unique occurrence of abundant ( 1 vol%) near-pure-Fe metal in the Camel Donga eucrite is more complicated than previously believed. In addition to that component of groundmass metal, scattered within the meteorite are discrete nodules of much higher kamacite abundance. We have studied the petrology and composition of two of these nodules in the form of samples we call CD2 and CD3. The nodules are ovoids 11 (CD2) to 15 (CD3) mm across, with metal, or inferred preweathering metal, abundances of 12-17 vol% (CD2 is unfortunately quite weathered). The CD3 nodule also includes at its center a 5 mm ovoid clumping (6 vol%) of F-apatite. Both nodules are fine-grained, so the high Fe metal and apatite contents are clearly not flukes of inadequate sampling. The metals within the nodules are distinctly Ni-rich (0.3-0.6 wt%) compared to the pure-Fe (Ni generally 0.01 wt%) groundmass metals. Bulk analyses of three pieces of the CD2 nodule show that trace siderophile elements Ir, Os, and Co are commensurately enriched; Au is enriched to a lesser degree. The siderophile evidence shows the nodules did not form by in situ reduction of pyroxene FeO. Moreover, the nodules do not show features such as silica-phase enrichment or pyroxene with reduced FeO (as constrained by FeO/MgO and especially FeO/MnO) predicted by the in situ reduction model. The oxide minerals, even in groundmass samples well away from the nodules, also show little evidence of reduction. Although the nodule boundaries are generally sharp, groundmass-metal Ni content is anti-correlated with distance from the CD3 nodule. We infer that the nodules represent materials that originated within impactors into the Camel Donga portion of the eucrite crust, but probably were profoundly altered during later metamorphism/metasomatism. Origin of the pure-Fe groundmass metal remains enigmatic. In situ reduction probably played an important role, and association in the same meteorite of the Fe-nodules is probably significant

  18. Effect of camel milk on glycemic control and insulin requirement in patients with type 1 diabetes: 2-years randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agrawal, R P; Jain, S; Shah, S; Chopra, A; Agarwal, V

    2011-09-01

    Hypoglycemic effect of camel milk supplementation in experimental rat model and significant reduction in doses of insulin in type 1 diabetic patients have been observed in our previous studies. This long-term study was undertaken to assess the efficacy, safety and acceptability of camel milk as an adjunct to insulin therapy in type 1 diabetics. In this 2-year randomized clinical, parallel design study, 24 type 1 diabetics were enrolled and divided into two groups. Group I (n=12) received usual care, that is, diet, exercise and insulin and Group II (n=12) received 500 ml camel milk in addition to the usual care. Insulin requirement was titrated weekly by blood glucose estimation. Results were analyzed by using the regression technique. In camel milk group, there was decrease in mean blood glucose (118.58±19-93.16±17.06 mg/dl), hemoglobin A1c levels (7.81±1.39-5.44±0.81%) and insulin doses (32.50±9.99-17.50±12.09 U/day, Pcamel milk, insulin requirement in 3 subjects reduced to zero. There was nonsignificant change in plasma insulin and anti-insulin antibodies in both the groups. It may be stated that camel milk is safe and efficacious in improving long-term glycemic control, with a significant reduction in the doses of insulin in type 1 diabetic patients.

  19. Prevalence of Clostridium difficile in raw beef, cow, sheep, goat, camel and buffalo meat in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahimi, Ebrahim; Jalali, Mohammad; Weese, J Scott

    2014-02-05

    Clostridium difficile has been shown to be a nosocomial pathogen associated with diarrhoea and pseudomembranous colitis in hospitalised patients and the infection is believed to be acquired nosocomially. Recent studies have shown the occurrence of C. difficile in food animals which may act as a source of infection to humans.The aim of this study was to determine the occurrence of C. difficile in retail raw beef, cow, sheep, goat, camel and buffalo meat in Iran. From April to October 2012, a total of 660 raw meat samples from beef, cow, sheep, goat, camel and buffalo were purchased from 49 butcheries in Isfahan and Khuzestan provinces, Iran, and were evaluated for the presence of C. difficile using a method including selective enrichment in C. difficile broth, subsequent alcohol shock-treatment and plating onto C. difficile selective medium. C. difficile isolates were tested for the presence of toxin genes and were typed using PCR ribotyping. In this study, 13 of 660 meat samples (2%) were contaminated with C. difficile. The highest prevalence of C. difficile was found in buffalo meat (9%), followed by goat meat (3.3%), beef meat (1.7%), cow (0.94%) and sheep meat (0.9%). Seven of the 13C. difficile strains (53.9%) were positive for tcdA, tcdB and cdtB toxin genes and were classified as ribotype 078. Four strains (30.8%) were positive tcdA, and tcdB, and one strain (7.7%) was possessed only tcdB. The remaining isolate was non-toxigenic. Susceptibilities of 13C. difficile isolates were determined for 11 antimicrobial drugs using the disk diffusion assay. Resistance to clindamycin, gentamycin, and nalidixic acid was the most common finding. To our knowledge, the present study is the first report of the isolation of C. difficile from raw buffalo meat. This study indicates the potential importance of food, including buffalo meat, as a source of transmission of C. difficile to humans.

  20. Sistemática, taxonomía y domesticación de alpacas y llamas: nueva evidencia cromosómica y molecular Systematics, taxonomy and domestication of alpaca and llama: new chromosomal and molecular evidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JUAN C MARÍN

    2007-06-01

    the vicuña (Vicugna vicugna, and two domestic, the alpaca (Lama pacos and the llama (Lama glama. However, the origin of the domestic species has been a matter of debate. In the present study, variations in chromosome G banding patterns and in two mitochondrial gene sequences have been used to study the origin and classification of the llama and alpaca.-Similar patterns in chromosome G band structure were observed in all four Lamini species, and these in turn were similar to the bands described for camels, Camelus bactrianus. However, fine and consistent differences were found in the short arms of chromosome 1, separating camels, guanacos and llamas from vicuñas and alpacas. This pattern was consistent even in a hybrid guanaco x alpaca. Equivalent relationship showed the complete cytochrome b gene sequences, and the minimum expansion tree of the partial control region sequence, grouping guanaco with llama and vicuña with alpaca. Phylogenetic analyses showed V. vicugna and L. guanicoe as monophyletic groups. Analysis of both gene sequences revealed two clades within vicuña, concordant with the two described subspecies, but the results for guanaco did not confirm existence of the four previously proposed subspecies. The combined analysis of chromosomal and molecular variation showed close genetic similarity between alpacas and vicuñas, as well as between llamas and guanacos. Although directional hybridization was revealed, our results strongly support the hypothesis that the llama would have derived from L. guanicoe and the alpaca from V. vicugna, supporting reciassification as V. pacos